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Sample records for rhodium 89

  1. EVIDENCE FOR CO DISSOCIATION ON RHODIUM SURFACES

    SciTech Connect

    Castner, D.G.; Dubois, L.H.; Sexton, B.A.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1980-06-01

    Carbon monoxide adsorbs molecularly on rhodium surfaces at 300K, but if the rhodium samples are heated in the presence of carbon monoxide, there is evidence for carbon-oxygen bond breaking at step and/or defect sites. The effects of step and defect site density, subsurface oxygen concentration, and oxygen dissolution into the rhodium lattice on CO dissociation are discussed.

  2. Rhodium Nanoparticles for Ultraviolet Plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Anne; Zhang, Xiao; Alcaraz de La Osa, Rodrigo; Sanz, Juan; Fernandez, Francisco; Moreno, Fernando; Finkelstein, Gleb; Liu, Jie; Everitt, Henry

    We introduce the non-oxidizing catalytic noble metal rhodium for ultraviolet (UV) plasmonics. 8 nm tripod-shaped planar Rh nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by a modified polyol reduction chemistry. They have a calculated local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) near 330 nm. To illustrate the UV plasmonic performance of Rh, p-aminothiophenol (PATP) was attached to the Rh NPs and enhanced Raman and fluorescence were observed upon UV illumination. The PATP Raman spectra produced by UV and visible excitation were respectively in and out of resonance with the Rh NP LSPR. This clearly revealed resonant spectral enhancement in the UV and accelerated photo-damage produced by intense local fields concentrated near the plasmonic Rh NPs. Simultaneously, surface enhanced fluorescence increased during 13 minutes of resonant UV illumination, providing direct evidence of charge transfer from the Rh NPs. The combined local field enhancement and charge transfer demonstrate essential steps toward plasmonically-enhanced ultraviolet photocatalysis. Due to its high chemical stability and strong plasmonic effect, Rh nanoparticles could find wide applications in UV plasmonics.

  3. Rhodium(i), rhodium(iii) and iridium(iii) carbaporphyrins.

    PubMed

    Adiraju, Venkata A K; Ferrence, Gregory M; Lash, Timothy D

    2016-09-21

    Treatment of a benzocarbaporphyrin with [Rh(CO)2Cl]2 in refluxing dichloromethane gave a rhodium(i) dicarbonyl complex, and further reaction in refluxing pyridine afforded an organometallic rhodium(iii) derivative. The carbaporphyrin also reacted with [Ir(COD)Cl]2 and pyridine in refluxing p-xylene to generate a related iridium(iii) compound. These novel metalated porphyrinoids retained strongly diatropic characteristics and were fully characterized by XRD. PMID:27529466

  4. Superconductivity in zirconium-rhodium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zegler, S. T.

    1969-01-01

    Metallographic studies and transition temperature measurements were made with isothermally annealed and water-quenched zirconium-rhodium alloys. The results clarify both the solid-state phase relations at the Zr-rich end of the Zr-Rh alloy system and the influence upon the superconducting transition temperature of structure and composition.

  5. 103Rh NMR spectroscopy and its application to rhodium chemistry.

    PubMed

    Ernsting, Jan Meine; Gaemers, Sander; Elsevier, Cornelis J

    2004-09-01

    Rhodium is used for a number of large processes that rely on homogeneous rhodium-catalyzed reactions, for instance rhodium-catalyzed hydroformylation of alkenes, carbonylation of methanol to acetic acid and hydrodesulfurization of thiophene derivatives (in crude oil). Many laboratory applications in organometallic chemistry and catalysis involve organorhodium chemistry and a wealth of rhodium coordination compounds is known. For these and other areas, 103Rh NMR spectroscopy appears to be a very useful analytical tool. In this review, most of the literature concerning 103Rh NMR spectroscopy published from 1989 up to and including 2003 has been covered. After an introduction to several experimental methods for the detection of the insensitive 103Rh nucleus, a discussion of factors affecting the transition metal chemical shift is given. Computational aspects and calculations of chemical shifts are also briefly addressed. Next, the application of 103Rh NMR in coordination and organometallic chemistry is elaborated in more detail by highlighting recent developments in measurement and interpretation of 103Rh NMR data, in relation to rhodium-assisted reactions and homogeneous catalysis. The dependence of the 103Rh chemical shift on the ligands at rhodium in the first coordination sphere, on the complex geometry, oxidation state, temperature, solvent and concentration is treated. Several classes of compounds and special cases such as chiral rhodium compounds are reviewed. Finally, a section on scalar coupling to rhodium is provided. PMID:15307053

  6. Cyclopentadiene-mediated hydride transfer from rhodium complexes.

    PubMed

    Pitman, C L; Finster, O N L; Miller, A J M

    2016-07-12

    Attempts to generate a proposed rhodium hydride catalytic intermediate instead resulted in isolation of (Cp*H)Rh(bpy)Cl (1), a pentamethylcyclopentadiene complex, formed by C-H bond-forming reductive elimination from the fleeting rhodium hydride. The hydride transfer ability of diene 1 was explored through thermochemistry and hydride transfer reactions, including the reduction of NAD(+). PMID:26949917

  7. Contrast and dose with molybdenum, molybdenum-rhodium, and rhodium-rhodium target-filter combinations in mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Gingold, E.L.; Wu, Xizeng; Barnes, G.T.

    1997-03-01

    Molybdenum target-molybdenum filter (Mo-Mo) source assemblies are commonly used for screen-film mammography and produce spectra rich in bremsstrahlung between 15 and 20 keV, and molybdenum characteristic x-rays (K{sub {alpha}} = 17.5 keV and K{sub {beta}} = 19.6 keV) that are, optimal for imaging a large segment of patients. With the normal variability of breast size and tissue composition that occurs in the population, Mo-Mo spectra are not always optimal, however. Particularly for thick, fibroglandular breast tissue, higher energy spectra are required, and are achieved to a limited degree by operating Mo-Mo tubes at higher tube potentials. At these higher tube potentials (28-31 kVp), the spectrum exiting the breast has a large contribution from bremsstrahlung of more than 23 keV. Most of the lower energy photons, including the molybdenum characteristic x-rays, are absorbed and result in a higher average tissue dose than is necessary. Incident spectra with x-ray energies in the 20-23 keV range are preferable. Such spectra have been realized with higher atomic number materials, such as rhodium (Rh), used for the anode or k-edge filter. The higher K-absorption edge of rhodium allows transmission of bremsstrahlung in the 20-23.2 keV range, and at a given kilovoltage the Rh-Rh combination results in a more penetrating beam than either Mo-Mo or Mo-Rh (molybdenum x-ray tube anode with rhodium K-edge filter) because of the difference in energy between the rhodium and molybdenum characteristic x-rays. The greater penetrating power of these spectra results in decreased entrance skin exposure and average glandular dose to the breast than with the conventional Mo-Mo spectra. However, associated with this can be a reduction in subject contrast in the mammogram. The objective of this study was to compare the contrast and dose produced with the three source assemblies as a function of x-ray tube potential, breast thickness, and breast parenchymal composition.

  8. Rhodium oxides in unusual oxidation states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisner, Barbara Alice

    Mixed valence RhIII/RhIV oxides have been proposed as a promising class of candidate compounds for superconductivity. Unfortunately, it is difficult to stabilize rhodates with a formal oxidation state approaching RhIV, as other techniques used for the synthesis of rhodium. oxides favor the most commonly observed formal oxidation state, RhIII. One technique which has been used to stabilize metal oxides in high formal oxidation states is crystallization from molten hydroxides. This thesis explores the use of molten hydroxides to enhance the reactivity of rhodium oxides in order to synthesize rhodates with high formal oxidation states. K0.5RhO2, Rb0.2RhO2, and CsxRhO2 were synthesized from pure alkali metal hydroxides. All crystallized with a previously unobserved polytype in the alkali metal rhodate system. Due to the low activity of dissolved oxygen species in LiOH and NaOH, LiRhO2 and NaRhO2 cannot be crystallized. The formal oxidation state of rhodium in AxRhO2 (A = K, Rb, Cs) is a function of the alkali metal hydroxide used to synthesize these oxides. These materials exhibit remarkable stability for layered metal oxides containing the heavier alkali metals, but all phases are susceptible to intercalation by water. The synthesis, structural characterization, magnetic susceptibility, and reactivity of these oxides are reported. Sr2RhO4 and a new rhodate were crystallized from a KOH-Sr(OH)2 flux. The synthesis and characterization of these materials is reported. Efforts to substitute platinum for rhodium in Sr 2RhO4 are also discussed. Mixed alkali metal-alkaline earth metal hydroxide fluxes were used to crystallize LiSr3RhO6, and NaSr3RhO 6. The synthesis of LiSr3RhO6 and NaSr3RhO 6 represents the first example of the stabilization of a rhodium oxide with a formal oxidation state approaching RhV. X-ray diffraction, electron beam microprobe analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, potentiometric titrations, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and magnetic susceptibility

  9. Strontium-89 Chloride

    MedlinePlus

    ... ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.Strontium-89 chloride is in a class of drugs known as radioisotopes. It delivers radiation to cancer sites and ultimately decreases bone pain. The length of treatment depends on the ...

  10. Chemical Posttranslational Modification with Designed Rhodium(II) Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Martin, S C; Minus, M B; Ball, Z T

    2016-01-01

    Natural enzymes use molecular recognition to perform exquisitely selective transformations on nucleic acids, proteins, and natural products. Rhodium(II) catalysts mimic this selectivity, using molecular recognition to allow selective modification of proteins with a variety of functionalized diazo reagents. The rhodium catalysts and the diazo reactivity have been successfully applied to a variety of protein folds, the chemistry succeeds in complex environments such as cell lysate, and a simple protein blot method accurately assesses modification efficiency. The studies with rhodium catalysts provide a new tool to study and probe protein-binding events, as well as a new synthetic approach to protein conjugates for medical, biochemical, or materials applications. PMID:27586326

  11. Structural properties of small rhodium clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Soon, Yee Yeen; Yoon, Tiem Leong; Lim, Thong Leng

    2015-04-24

    We report a systematic study of the structural properties of rhodium clusters at the atomistic level. A novel global-minimum search algorithm, known as parallel tempering multicanonical basin hopping plus genetic algorithm (PTMBHGA), is used to obtain the geometrical structures with lowest minima at the semi-empirical level where Gupta potential is used to describe the atomic interaction among the rhodium atoms. These structures are then re-optimized at the density functional theory (DFT) level with exchange-correlation energy approximated by Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The structures are optimized for different spin multiplicities. The ones with lowest energies will be taken as ground-state structures. In most cases, we observe only minor changes in the geometry and bond length of the clusters as a result of DFT-level re-optimization. Only in some limited cases, the initial geometries obtained from the PTMBHGA are modified by the re-optimization. The variation of structural properties, such as ground-state geometry, symmetry and binding energy, with respect to the cluster size is studied and agreed well with other results available in the literature.

  12. Low gravity containerless processing of immiscible gold rhodium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, J. Barry

    1986-01-01

    Under normal one-g conditions immiscible alloys segregate extensively during solidification due to sedementation of the more dense of the immiscible liquid phases. However, under low-g conditions it should be possible to form a dispersion of the two immiscible liquids and maintain this dispersed structure during solidification. Immiscible (hypermonotectic) gold-rhodium alloys were processed in the Marshall Space Flight Center 105 meter drop tube in order to investigate the influence of low gravity, containerless solidification on their microstructure. Hypermonotectic alloys composed of 65 atomic % rhodium exhibited a tendency for the gold rich liquid to wet the outer surface of the containerless processed samples. This tendency led to extensive segregation in several cases. However, well dispersed microstructures consisting of 2 to 3 micron diameter rhodium-rich spheres in a gold-rich matrix were produced in 23.4 atomic % rhodium alloys. This is one of the best dispersions obtained in research on immiscible alloy-systems to data.

  13. Rhodium-Catalyzed Enantioselective Arylation of Aliphatic Imines.

    PubMed

    Kato, Naoya; Shirai, Tomohiko; Yamamoto, Yasunori

    2016-06-01

    Chiral rhodium(I)-catalyzed highly enantioselective arylation of aliphatic N-sulfonyl aldimines with arylboronic acids has been developed. This transformation is achieved by the use of a rhodium/bis(phosphoramidite) catalyst to give enantiomerically enriched α-branched amines (up to 99 % ee). In addition, this system enables efficient synthesis of (+)-NPS R-568 and Cinacalcet which are calcimimetic agents. PMID:27119262

  14. Strontium-89 Chloride

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor if you have or have ever had bone marrow disease, blood disorders, or kidney disease.you should know that strontium-89 chloride may interfere with the normal menstrual cycle (period) in women and may stop sperm production in men. However, ...

  15. Aberration corrected STEM of iron rhodium nanoislands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaren, M. J.; Hage, F. S.; Loving, M.; Ramasse, Q. M.; Lewis, L. H.; Marrows, C. H.; Brydson, R. M. D.

    2014-06-01

    Iron-rhodium (FeRh) nanoislands of equiatomic composition have been analysed using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) electron energy loss spec-troscopy(EELS) and high angle annular dark field (HAADF) techniques. Previous magne-tometry results have lead to a hypothesis that at room temperature the core of the islands are antiferromagnetic while the shell has a small ferromagnetic signal. The causes of this effect are most likely to be a difference in composition at the edges or a strain on the island that stretches the lattice and forces the ferromagnetic transition. The results find, at the film-substrate interface, an iron-rich layer ~ 5 Å thick that could play a key role in affecting the magnetostructural transition around the interfacial region and account for the room temperature ferromagnetism.

  16. General Route to Cyclobutadiene Rhodium Complexes.

    PubMed

    Perekalin, Dmitry S; Shvydkiy, Nikita V; Nelyubina, Yulia V; Kudinov, Alexander R

    2015-11-01

    Cyclobutadiene rhodium complexes bear high potential for applications in organometallic synthesis and catalysis. We have found that the cyclobutadiene complexes with substitutionally labile p-xylene ligands [(C4 R4 )Rh(p-xylene)](+) can be synthesized in one step from the commercially available bis(ethylene) complex [{(C2 H4 )2 RhCl}2 ], p-xylene, and internal alkynes. The replacement of p-xylene by various ligands provides a general access to other [(C4 R4 )Rh] compounds, such as [(C4 R4 )RhCl]x , [(C4 R4 )RhL3 ](+) , [(C4 R4 )Rh(C5 H5 )], and [(C4 R4 )Rh(arene)](+) . Complex [(C4 Et4 )Rh(p-xylene)](+) also catalyzes an unusual cycloisomerization of a 1,11-dien-6-yne into a bicyclic diene. PMID:26387565

  17. Light induced catalytic intramolecular hydrofunctionalization of allylphenols mediated by porphyrin rhodium(iii) complexes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Wang, Zikuan; Fu, Xuefeng

    2016-09-14

    Catalytic intramolecular hydrofunctionalization of allylphenols to heterocyclic compounds mediated by rhodium(iii) porphyrin complexes was described. The Wacker-type intermediate β-heterocyclic alkyl rhodium complex was independently synthesized and crystallized. PMID:27482840

  18. STS-89 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the STS-89 crew insignia, the link between the United States and Russia is symbolically represented by the Space Shuttle Endeavour and Russia's Mir Space Station orbiting above the Bering Strait between Siberia and Alaska. The success of the joint United States-Russian missions is depicted by the Space Shuttle and Mir colored by the rising sun in the background. A shadowed representation of the International Space Station (ISS) rising with the sun represents the future program for which the Shuttle-Mir missions are prototypes. The inside rim of the insignia describes the outline of the number eight representing STS-89 as the eighth Shuttle/Mir docking mission. The nine stars represent the nine joint missions to be flown of the program and when combined with the number eight in the rim, reflect the mission number. The nine stars also symbolize the children of the crew members who will be the future beneficiaries of the joint development work of the space programs of the two countries. Along the rim are the crew members' names with David A. Wolf's name on the left and Andrew S. W. Thomas' name on the right, the returning and upgoing cosmonaut guest researcher crew members. In between and at the bottom is the name of Salizan S. Sharipov, payload specialist representing Russian Space Agency (RSA), in Cyrillic alphabet. The other crew members are Terrence W. Wilcutt, commander; Joe F. Edwards, Jr., pilot; and mission specialists Michael P. Anderson, Bonnie J. Dunbar, and James F. Reilly. The red, white and blue of the rim reflect the colors of the American and Russian flags which are also represented in the rim on either side of the joined spacecraft.

  19. Size control of rhodium particles of silica-supported catalysts using water-in-oil microemulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishida, Masahiro; Hanaoka, Toshiaki; Kim, Won Young; Nagata, Hideo; Wakabayashi, Katsuhiko

    1997-11-01

    Effects of components of water-in-oil microemulsions on rhodium particle sizes of silica-supported rhodium catalysts were investigated in the catalyst preparation method using microemulsion. In the case of the microemulsion of polyoxyethylene(23)dodecyl ether/ n-alcohols/RhCl 3 aq., the rhodium particle size increased from 3.4 to 5.0 nm as the specific permittivity of the organic solvent increased. The chain length of hydrophilic group of polyoxyethylene- p-nonylphenyl ether ( n = 5 to 15) employed as surfactants had an effect on the rhodium particle size where the rhodium size ranged between 2.0 and 3.6 nm. The rhodium particle size was 1.5 nm in the case of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfocuccinate and this value was found to be the smallest. These results could be interpreted in terms of the adsorption of the surfactant on rhodium-hydrazine particle surface.

  20. Superconductivity and magnetism of complex rhodium borides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhanov, G. S.; Lachenkov, S. A.; Khlybov, E. P.; Dankin, D. G.; Kulikova, L. F.

    2013-05-01

    A number of complex rhodium borides with an LuRu4B4-type structure is synthesized; these are DyRh4B4 (samples HP) with T c ≈ 4.5 K, DyRh3.8Ru0.2B4 (samples AM) with T c ≈ 4.5 K, Dy0.8Er0.2Rh3.8Ru0.2B4 (samples AM) with T c ≈ 6.3 K, and HoRh3.8Ru0.2B4 (samples AM) with T c ≈ 6.0 K. The temperature dependence of upper critical field B c2( T) for all the samples under study exhibits an anomalous behavior. In all cases, the curve B c2( T) demonstrates a point of inflection, after which the curve deviates from the classical parabolic law abruptly upward for DyRh4B4 and DyRh3.8Ru0.2B4 (the 1st group of compounds) and downward for the Dy0.8Er0.2Rh3.8Ru0.2B4 and HoRh3.8Ru0.2B4 compounds (the 2nd group). These compounds are found to be characterized by of the following phase transitions: paramagnet → ferrimagnet → superconductor (retained ferrimagnetism) → antiferromagnet (retained superconductivity). The latter transition to the antiferromagnetic state occurs only in the compounds of the 1st group. It is found that, for the DyRh3.8Ru0.2B4 compound, no traditional Meissner effect is observed but the so-called Volleben effect (paramagnetic Meissner effect) takes place.

  1. In vitro permeation of platinum and rhodium through Caucasian skin.

    PubMed

    Franken, A; Eloff, F C; Du Plessis, J; Badenhorst, C J; Jordaan, A; Du Plessis, J L

    2014-12-01

    During platinum group metals (PGMs) refining the possibility exists for dermal exposure to PGM salts. The dermal route has been questioned as an alternative route of exposure that could contribute to employee sensitisation, even though literature has been focused on respiratory exposure. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro permeation of platinum and rhodium through intact Caucasian skin. A donor solution of 0.3mg/ml of metal, K2PtCl4 and RhCl3 respectively, was applied to the vertical Franz diffusion cells with full thickness abdominal skin. The receptor solution was removed at various intervals during the 24h experiment, and analysed with high resolution ICP-MS. Skin was digested and analysed by ICP-OES. Results indicated cumulative permeation with prolonged exposure, with a significantly higher mass of platinum permeating after 24h when compared to rhodium. The mass of platinum retained inside the skin and the flux of platinum across the skin was significantly higher than that of rhodium. Permeated and skin retained platinum and rhodium may therefore contribute to sensitisation and indicates a health risk associated with dermal exposure in the workplace. PMID:25084315

  2. Electronic and magnetic properties of small rhodium clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Soon, Yee Yeen; Yoon, Tiem Leong; Lim, Thong Leng

    2015-04-24

    We report a theoretical study of the electronic and magnetic properties of rhodium-atomic clusters. The lowest energy structures at the semi-empirical level of rhodium clusters are first obtained from a novel global-minimum search algorithm, known as PTMBHGA, where Gupta potential is used to describe the atomic interaction among the rhodium atoms. The structures are then re-optimized at the density functional theory (DFT) level with exchange-correlation energy approximated by Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof generalized gradient approximation. For the purpose of calculating the magnetic moment of a given cluster, we calculate the optimized structure as a function of the spin multiplicity within the DFT framework. The resultant magnetic moments with the lowest energies so obtained allow us to work out the magnetic moment as a function of cluster size. Rhodium atomic clusters are found to display a unique variation in the magnetic moment as the cluster size varies. However, Rh{sub 4} and Rh{sub 6} are found to be nonmagnetic. Electronic structures of the magnetic ground-state structures are also investigated within the DFT framework. The results are compared against those based on different theoretical approaches available in the literature.

  3. Ring Expansion and Rearrangements of Rhodium(II) Azavinyl Carbenes

    PubMed Central

    Selander, Nicklas; Worrell, Brady T.

    2013-01-01

    An efficient, regioselective and convergent method for the ring expansion and rearrangement of 1-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles under rhodium(II)-catalyzed conditions is described. These denitrogenative reactions form substituted enaminone and olefin-based products, which in the former case can be further functionalized to unique products rendering the sulfonyl triazole traceless. PMID:23161725

  4. Discovery of rubidium, strontium, molybdenum, and rhodium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, A.M.; Thoennessen, M.

    2012-07-15

    Currently, 31 rubidium, 35 strontium, 35 molybdenum, and 38 rhodium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is described here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  5. Internal stresses and structure of electrolytic films of ruthenium, rhodium, and palladium

    SciTech Connect

    Medyanik, V.N.

    1986-01-01

    Films of ruthenium, rhodium, and palladium are used as targets in nuclear physics experiments in the form of metal foils. The authors investigate how the current density and the concentration of metal in the electrolyte influence the internal stresses, the grain size, and the texture of electrolytic films of ruthenium, rhodium, and palladium. The grain size of rhodium and palladium films increases with the current density, but for ruthenium there is no exact relationship. The increase in grain size in films of rhodium and palladium leads to a reduction in the internal stresses.

  6. Rhodium catalysed hydroformylation of alkenes using highly fluorophilic phosphines.

    PubMed

    Adams, Dave J; Bennett, James A; Cole-Hamilton, David J; Hope, Eric G; Hopewell, Jonathan; Kight, Jo; Pogorzelec, Peter; Stuart, Alison M

    2005-12-21

    Highly fluorophilic phosphines incorporating at least one aromatic ring containing two directly attached perfluoroalkyl groups have been synthesised, their partition coefficients (organic phase : fluorous phase) measured and their electronic properties probed using (1)J(PtP) data for their trans-[PtCl(2)L(2)] complexes. These phosphines have been used as modifying ligands for the rhodium catalysed hydroformylation of 1-octene in perfluorocarbon solvents. Catalyst activity, regioselectivity and the levels of rhodium leaching to the product phase vary with the substitution patterns of the modifying ligands that do not correlate with the electronic properties or partition coefficients of these ligands, but can be interpreted in terms of differences in the resting states of the catalysts. PMID:16311639

  7. Preparation and reactivity of macrocyclic rhodium(III) alkyl complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Carraher, Jack M.; Ellern, Arkady; Bakac, Andreja

    2013-09-21

    Macrocyclic rhodium(II) complexes LRh(H2O)(2+) (L = L-1 = cyclam and L-2 = meso-Me-6-cyclam) react with alkyl hydroperoxides RC(CH3)(2)OOH to generate the corresponding rhodium(III) alkyls L(H2O)RhR2+ (R = CH3, C2H5, PhCH2). Methyl and benzyl complexes can also be prepared by bimolecular group transfer from alkyl cobaloximes (dmgH)(2)(H2O) CoR and (dmgBF(2))(2)(H2O) CoR (R = CH3, PhCH2) to LRh(H2O)(2+). The new complexes were characterized by solution NMR and by crystal structure analysis. They exhibit great stability in aqueous solution at room temperature, but undergo efficient Rh-C bond cleavage upon photolysis. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Plasmonics in the UV range with Rhodium nanocubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Gutiérrez, Y.; Li, P.; Barreda, Á. I.; Watson, A. M.; Alcaraz de la Osa, R.; Finkelstein, G.; González, F.; Ortiz, D.; Saiz, J. M.; Sanz, J. M.; Everitt, H. O.; Liu, J.; Moreno, F.

    2016-04-01

    Plasmonics in the UV-range constitutes a new challenge due to the increasing demand to detect, identify and destroy biological toxins, enhance biological imaging, and characterize semiconductor devices at the nanometer scale. Silver and aluminum have an efficient plasmonic performance in the near UV region, but oxidation reduces its performance in this range. Recent studies point out rhodium as one of the most promising metals for this purpose: it has a good plasmonic response in the UV and, as gold in the visible, it presents a low tendency to oxidation. Moreover, its easy fabrication through chemical means and its potential for photocatalytic applications, makes this material very attractive for building plasmonic tools in the UV. In this work, we will show an overview of our recent collaborative research with rhodium nanocubes (NC) for Plasmonics in the UV.

  9. Hydrodesulfurization Properties of Rhodium Phosphide: Comparison with Rhodium Metal and Sulfide Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, John R.; Bowker, Richard H.; Gaudette, Amy F.; Smith, Mica C.; Moak, Cameron E.; Nam, Charles Y.; Pratum, Thomas K.; Bussell, Mark E.

    2010-12-15

    Silica-supported rhodium phosphide (Rh2P/SiO2) catalysts were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), 31P solid-state NMR spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and chemisorption measurements. XRD and TEM analysis of a 5 wt.% Rh2P/SiO2 catalyst confirmed the presence of well-dispersed Rh2P crystallites on the silica support having an average crystallite size of 10 nm. NMR spectroscopy showed unsupported and silica-supported Rh2P to be metallic and XPS spectroscopy yielded a surface composition of Rh1.94P1.00 that is similar to that expected from the bulk stoichiometry. The 5 wt.% Rh2P/SiO2 catalyst exhibited a higher dibenzothiophene (DBT) hydrodesulfurization (HDS) activity than did Rh/SiO2 and sulfided Rh/SiO2 catalysts having a similar Rh loading and was also more active than a commercial NiAMo/Al2O3 catalyst. The Rh2P/SiO2 catalyst showed excellent stability over a 100 h DBT HDS activity measurement and was more S tolerant than the Rh/SiO2 catalyst. The Rh2P/SiO2 catalyst strongly favored the hydrogenation pathway for DBT HDS, while the Rh/SiO2 and sulfided Rh/SiO2 catalysts favored the direct desulfurization pathway.

  10. Arylation of rhodium(II) azavinyl carbenes with boronic acids.

    PubMed

    Selander, Nicklas; Worrell, Brady T; Chuprakov, Stepan; Velaparthi, Subash; Fokin, Valery V

    2012-09-12

    A highly efficient and stereoselective arylation of in situ-generated azavinyl carbenes affording 2,2-diaryl enamines at ambient temperatures has been developed. These transition-metal carbenes are directly produced from readily available and stable 1-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles in the presence of a rhodium carboxylate catalyst. In several cases, the enamines generated in this reaction can be cyclized into substituted indoles employing copper catalysis. PMID:22913576

  11. Rhodium(II)-catalyzed enantioselective synthesis of troponoids.

    PubMed

    Murarka, Sandip; Jia, Zhi-Jun; Merten, Christian; Daniliuc, Constantin-G; Antonchick, Andrey P; Waldmann, Herbert

    2015-06-22

    We report a rhodium(II)-catalyzed highly enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between the carbonyl moiety of tropone and carbonyl ylides to afford troponoids in good to high yields with excellent enantioselectivity. We demonstrate that α-diazoketone-derived carbonyl ylides, in contrast to carbonyl ylides derived from diazodiketoesters, undergo [6+3] cycloaddition reactions with tropone to yield the corresponding bridged heterocycles with excellent stereoselectivity. PMID:25959033

  12. Rhodium-Catalyzed Enantioselective Hydroamination of Alkynes with Indolines

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qing-An; Chen, Zhiwei; Dong, Vy M.

    2016-01-01

    The hydroamination of internal alkynes via tandem rhodium-catalysis gives branched N-allylic indolines with high regio- and enantioselectivity. An acid-switch provides access to the linear isomer in preference to the branched isomer by an isomerization mechanism. Mechanistic studies suggest formation of an allene intermediate, which undergoes hydroamination to generate allylic amines instead of the enamine or imine products typically observed in alkyne hydroaminations. PMID:26107923

  13. Antitumor effect and toxicity of free rhodium (II) citrate and rhodium (II) citrate-loaded maghemite nanoparticles in mice bearing breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Magnetic fluids containing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles represent an attractive platform as nanocarriers in chemotherapy. Recently, we developed a formulation of maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate, which resulted in in vitro cytotoxicity enhanced up to 4.6 times when compared to free rhodium (II) citrate formulation on breast carcinoma cells. In this work, we evaluate the antitumor activity and toxicity induced by these formulations in Balb/c mice bearing orthotopic 4T1 breast carcinoma. Methods Mice were evaluated with regard to the treatments’ toxicity through analyses of hemogram, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, iron, and creatinine; DNA fragmentation and cell cycle of bone marrow cells; and liver, kidney and lung histology. In addition, the antitumor activity of rhodium (II) citrate and maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate was verified by tumor volume reduction, histology and immunohistochemistry. Results Regarding the treatments’ toxicity, no experimental groups had alterations in levels of serum ALT or creatinine, and this suggestion was corroborated by the histopathologic examination of liver and kidney of mice. Moreover, DNA fragmentation frequency of bone marrow cells was lower than 15% in all experimental groups. On the other hand, the complexes rhodium (II) citrate-functionalized maghemite and free rhodium (II) citrate led to a marked growth inhibition of tumor and decrease in CD31 and Ki-67 staining. Conclusions In summary, we demonstrated that both rhodium (II) citrate and maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate formulations exhibited antitumor effects against 4T1 metastatic breast cancer cell line following intratumoral administration. This antitumor effect was followed by inhibition of both cell proliferation and microvascularization and by tumor tissue injury characterized as necrosis and fibrosis. Remarkably, this is the first published report

  14. Methanol as a reaction medium and reagent in substrate reactions of rhodium porphyrins.

    PubMed

    Li, Shan; Sarkar, Sounak; Wayland, Bradford B

    2009-09-01

    Methanol solutions of rhodium(III) tetra(p-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrin [(TSPP)Rh(III)] have a hydrogen ion dependent equilibrium between bis-methanol, monomethoxy monomethanol, and bis-methoxy complexes. Reactions of dihydrogen (D(2)) with solutions of [(TSPP)Rh(III)] complexes in methanol produce equilibrium distributions of a rhodium hydride [(TSPP)Rh(III)-D(CD(3)OD)](-4) and rhodium(I) complex [(TSPP)Rh(I)(CD(3)OD)](-5). The rhodium hydride complex in methanol functions as a weak acid with an acid dissociation constant of 1.1(0.1) x 10(-9) at 298 K. Patterns of rhodium hydride substrate reactions in methanol are illustrated by addition with ethene, acetaldehyde, and carbon monoxide to form rhodium alkyl, alpha-hydroxyethyl, and formyl complexes, respectively. The free energy change for the addition reaction of [(TSPP)Rh(III)-D(CD(3)OD)](-4) with CO in methanol to produce a formyl complex (DeltaG(o)(298K) = -4.7(0.1) kcal mol(-1)) is remarkably close to DeltaG(o)(298K) values for analogous reactions in water and benzene. Addition reactions of the rhodium hydride ([(TSPP)Rh(III)-D(CD(3)OD)](-4)) with vinyl olefins invariably yield the anti-Markovnikov product which places the rhodium porphyrin on the less hindered terminal primary carbon center. Addition of the rhodium-methoxide unit in [(TSPP)Rh(III)-OCD(3)(CD(3)OD)](-4) with olefins to form beta-methoxyalkyl complexes places rhodium on the terminal carbon for alkene hydrocarbons and vinyl acetate, but vinyl olefins that have pi-electron withdrawing substituents have a thermodynamic preference for placing rhodium on the interior carbon where negative charge is better accommodated. Equilibrium thermodynamic values for addition of the Rh-OCD(3) unit to olefins in methanol are evaluated and compared with values for Rh-OH addition to olefins in water. PMID:19642648

  15. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 89

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Balraj

    2013-01-15

    The evaluated experimental data are presented for 14 known nuclides of mass 89 (Ge, As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh). New data on high–spin excitations are available for {sup 89}Kr, {sup 89}Rb, {sup 89}Sr, {sup 89}Tc and {sup 89}Ru, including a superdeformed structure in {sup 89}Tc. Fluorescence studies in {sup 89}Y have revealed a large number of new levels in 7–11 MeV range. New two–neutron transfer data are available for {sup 89}Zr. New direct and precise measurement of atomic masses of {sup 89}Se, {sup 89}Br, 89{sup K}r, {sup 89}Rb, {sup 89}Mo and {sup 89}Tc have greatly improved the Q value landscape in this mass region. This work supersedes previous A=89 evaluation published in 1998Si31, and also the older ones 1989Si20, 1975Ko21, and M.W. Johns et al., Nuclear Data Tables A 8, 373 (1970). In spite of extensive experimental work on the isobaric nuclei of this mass chain several deficiencies remain. The identification of {sup 89}Rh isotope remains unconfirmed. The half–lives of ground states of {sup 89}Ge, {sup 89}As and {sup 89}Rh have not been measured, only the lower limits are estimated from time–of–flight in a reaction and experimental arrangement, where produced and identified. The decay schemes of {sup 89}Ge, {sup 89}As, {sup 89}Se, {sup 89}Ru and {sup 89}Rh are not known, and those for {sup 89}Tc and {sup 89}Mo are incomplete. High–lying (neutron unbound) levels in {sup 89}Kr, expected to be populated in the decay of {sup 89}Br, have not been investigated. The spins and parities for levels in {sup 89}Kr are largely unassigned, while for {sup 89}Tc and {sup 89}Ru, only few low–spin excitations are established. For {sup 89}Rb, little information is available for high–spin structures. Detailed gamma–ray data are available for {sup 88}Sr(n,γ){sup 89}Sr reaction, but most of these γ rays remain unassigned in a level scheme. Excited state data are nonexistent for {sup 89}Ge, {sup 89}As, {sup 89}Se, {sup 89}Br and {sup

  16. Rhodium coated mirrors deposited by magnetron sputtering for fusion applications.

    PubMed

    Marot, L; De Temmerman, G; Oelhafen, P; Covarel, G; Litnovsky, A

    2007-10-01

    Metallic mirrors will be essential components of all optical spectroscopy and imaging systems for ITER plasma diagnostics. Any change in the mirror performance, in particular, its reflectivity, due to erosion of the surface by charge exchange neutrals or deposition of impurities will influence the quality and reliability of the detected signals. Due to its high reflectivity in the visible wavelength range and its low sputtering yield, rhodium appears as an attractive material for first mirrors in ITER. However, the very high price of the raw material calls for using it in the form of a film deposited onto metallic substrates. The development of a reliable technique for the preparation of high reflectivity rhodium films is therefore of the highest importance. Rhodium layers with thicknesses of up to 2 microm were produced on different substrates of interest (Mo, stainless steel, Cu) by magnetron sputtering. Produced films exhibit a low roughness and crystallite size of about 10 nm with a dense columnar structure. No impurities were detected on the surface after deposition. Scratch tests demonstrate that adhesion properties increase with substrate hardness. Detailed optical characterizations of Rh-coated mirrors as well as results of erosion tests performed both under laboratory conditions and in the TEXTOR tokamak are presented in this paper. PMID:17979419

  17. Rhodium coated mirrors deposited by magnetron sputtering for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Marot, L.; De Temmerman, G.; Oelhafen, P.; Covarel, G.; Litnovsky, A.

    2007-10-15

    Metallic mirrors will be essential components of all optical spectroscopy and imaging systems for ITER plasma diagnostics. Any change in the mirror performance, in particular, its reflectivity, due to erosion of the surface by charge exchange neutrals or deposition of impurities will influence the quality and reliability of the detected signals. Due to its high reflectivity in the visible wavelength range and its low sputtering yield, rhodium appears as an attractive material for first mirrors in ITER. However, the very high price of the raw material calls for using it in the form of a film deposited onto metallic substrates. The development of a reliable technique for the preparation of high reflectivity rhodium films is therefore of the highest importance. Rhodium layers with thicknesses of up to 2 {mu}m were produced on different substrates of interest (Mo, stainless steel, Cu) by magnetron sputtering. Produced films exhibit a low roughness and crystallite size of about 10 nm with a dense columnar structure. No impurities were detected on the surface after deposition. Scratch tests demonstrate that adhesion properties increase with substrate hardness. Detailed optical characterizations of Rh-coated mirrors as well as results of erosion tests performed both under laboratory conditions and in the TEXTOR tokamak are presented in this paper.

  18. Asymmetric ligand-exchange reaction of biphenol derivatives and chiral bis(oxazolinyl)phenyl-rhodium complex.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hiroko; Ito, Jun-ichi; Kikuchi, Makoto; Nishiyama, Hisao

    2008-09-01

    Chiral bis(oxazolinyl)phenyl-rhodium acetate complex can enantioselectively capture 1,1'-binaphthol derivatives by ligand-exchange reaction. The structure of the bis(oxazolinyl)phenyl-rhodium biphenol and binaphthol complexes were confirmed by X-ray analysis. PMID:18496824

  19. A nine-atom rhodium-aluminum oxide cluster oxidizes five carbon monoxide molecules.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Na; Zhang, Hua-Min; Yuan, Zhen; He, Sheng-Gui

    2016-01-01

    Noble metals can promote the direct participation of lattice oxygen of very stable oxide materials such as aluminum oxide, to oxidize reactant molecules, while the fundamental mechanism of noble metal catalysis is elusive. Here we report that a single atom of rhodium, a powerful noble metal catalyst, can promote the transfer of five oxygen atoms to oxidize carbon monoxide from a nine-atom rhodium-aluminum oxide cluster. This is a sharp improvement in the field of cluster science where the transfer of at most two oxygen atoms from a doped cluster is more commonly observed. Rhodium functions not only as the preferred trapping site to anchor and oxidize carbon monoxide by the oxygen atoms in direct connection with rhodium but also the primarily oxidative centre to accumulate the large amounts of electrons and the polarity of rhodium is ultimately transformed from positive to negative. PMID:27094921

  20. Annual Report, 1988-89.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Instructional Technology.

    This report summarizes the activities of the South Carolina Office of Instructional Technology during the 1988-89 school year. Objectives relating to planning, fiscal management, administration, computers, evaluation, dissemination, and reporting for the office's Annual Management Plan are outlined. An advisory system designed to facilitate…

  1. 10 CFR 52.89 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 52.89 Section 52.89 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.89...

  2. 10 CFR 52.89 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 52.89 Section 52.89 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.89...

  3. 10 CFR 52.89 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 52.89 Section 52.89 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.89...

  4. 10 CFR 52.89 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 52.89 Section 52.89 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.89...

  5. 10 CFR 52.89 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 52.89 Section 52.89 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.89...

  6. Oxygen Reduction Mechanism of Monometallic Rhodium Hydride Complexes.

    PubMed

    Halbach, Robert L; Teets, Thomas S; Nocera, Daniel G

    2015-08-01

    The reduction of O2 to H2O mediated by a series of electronically varied rhodium hydride complexes of the form cis,trans-Rh(III)Cl2H(CNAd)(P(4-X-C6H4)3)2 (2) (CNAd = 1-adamantylisocyanide; X = F (2a), Cl (2b), Me (2c), OMe (2d)) was examined through synthetic and kinetic studies. Rhodium(III) hydride 2 reacts with O2 to afford H2O with concomitant generation of trans-Rh(III)Cl3(CNAd)(P(4-X-C6H4)3)2 (3). Kinetic studies of the reaction of the hydride complex 2 with O2 in the presence of HCl revealed a two-term rate law consistent with an HX reductive elimination (HXRE) mechanism, where O2 binds to a rhodium(I) metal center and generates an η(2)-peroxo complex intermediate, trans-Rh(III)Cl(CNAd)(η(2)-O2)(P(4-X-C6H4)3)2 (4), and a hydrogen-atom abstraction (HAA) mechanism, which entails the direct reaction of O2 with the hydride. Experimental data reveal that the rate of reduction of O2 to H2O is enhanced by electron-withdrawing phosphine ligands. Complex 4 was independently prepared by the addition of O2 to trans-Rh(I)Cl(CNAd)(P(4-X-C6H4)3)2 (1). The reactivity of 4 toward HCl reveals that such peroxo complexes are plausible intermediates in the reduction of O2 to H2O. These results show that the given series of electronically varied rhodium(III) hydride complexes facilitate the reduction of O2 to H2O according to a two-term rate law comprising HXRE and HAA pathways and that the relative rates of these two pathways, which can occur simultaneously and competitively, can be systematically modulated by variation of the electronic properties of the ancillary ligand set. PMID:26168057

  7. Molecular recognition in protein modification with rhodium metallopeptides

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Zachary T.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical manipulation of natural, unengineered proteins is a daunting challenge which tests the limits of reaction design. By combining transition-metal or other catalysts with molecular recognition ideas, it is possible to achieve site-selective protein reactivity without the need for engineered recognition sequences or reactive sites. Some recent examples in this area have used ruthenium photocatalysis, pyridine organocatalysis, and rhodium(II) metallocarbene catalysis, indicating that the fundamental ideas provide opportunities for using diverse reactivity on complex protein substrates and in complex cell-like environments. PMID:25588960

  8. Atomic-absorption determination of rhodium in chromite concentrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schnepfe, M.M.; Grimaldi, F.S.

    1969-01-01

    Rhodium is determined in chromite concentrates by atomic absorption after concentration either by co-precipitation with tellurium formed by the reduction of tellurite with tin(II) chloride or by fire assay into a gold bead. Interelement interferences in the atomic-absorption determination are removed by buffering the solutions with lanthanum sulphate (lanthanum concentration 1%). Substantial amounts of Ag, Al, Au, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ho, Hg, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Te, Ti, V, Y, Zn and platinum metals can be tolerated. A lower limit of approximately 0.07 ppm Rh can be determined in a 3-g sample. ?? 1969.

  9. The solubility of hydrogen in rhodium, ruthenium, iridium and nickel.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclellan, R. B.; Oates, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    The temperature variation of the solubility of hydrogen in rhodium, ruthenium, iridium, and nickel in equilibrium with H2 gas at 1 atm pressure has been measured by a technique involving saturating the solvent metal with hydrogen, quenching, and analyzing in resultant solid solutions. The solubilities determined are small (atom fraction of H is in the range from 0.0005 to 0.00001, and the results are consistent with the simple quasi-regular model for dilute interstitial solid solutions. The relative partial enthalpy and excess entropy of the dissolved hydrogen atoms have been calculated from the solubility data and compared with well-known correlations between these quantities.

  10. Rhodium Complex with Ethylene Ligands Supported on Highly Dehydroxylated MgO: Synthesis, Characterization, and Reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Bhirud,V.; Ehresmann, J.; Kletnieks, P.; Haw, J.; Gates, B.

    2006-01-01

    Mononuclear rhodium complexes with reactive olefin ligands, supported on MgO powder, were synthesized by chemisorption of Rh(C2H4)2(C5H7O2) and characterized by infrared (IR), {sup 13}C MAS NMR, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopies. IR spectra show that the precursor adsorbed on MgO with dissociation of acetylacetonate ligand from rhodium, with the ethylene ligands remaining bound to the rhodium, as confirmed by the NMR spectra. EXAFS spectra give no evidence of Rh-Rh contributions, indicating that site-isolated mononuclear rhodium species formed on the support. The EXAFS data also show that the mononuclear complex was bonded to the support by two Rh-O bonds, at a distance of 2.18 Angstroms, which is typical of group 8 metals bonded to oxide supports. This is the first simple and nearly uniform supported mononuclear rhodium-olefin complex, and it appears to be a close analogue of molecular catalysts for olefin hydrogenation in solution. Correspondingly, the ethylene ligands bonded to rhodium in the supported complex were observed to react with H{sub 2} to form ethane, and the supported complex was catalytically active for the ethylene hydrogenation at 298 K. The ethylene ligands also underwent facile exchange with C{sub 2}D{sub 4}, and exposure of the sample to carbon monoxide led to the formation of rhodium gem dicarbonyls.

  11. Degradation of nonmodified and rhodium modified aluminide coating deposited on CMSX 4 superalloy.

    PubMed

    Zagula-Yavorska, Maryana; Wierzbińska, Małgorzata; Gancarczyk, Kamil; Sieniawski, Jan

    2016-07-01

    The Ni-base superalloy CMSX 4 used in the turbine blades of aircraft engines was coated with rhodium layer (0.5-μm thick). Next coated CMSX 4 superalloy was aluminized by the CVD method. The rhodium modified aluminide coating and nonmodified aluminide coating were oxidized at 1100°C at the air atmosphere. The rhodium modified aluminide coating showed about twice better oxidation resistance than the nonmodified one. The spallation equal 62% of the total area was observed on the surface of the nonmodified coating whereas only 36% spallation area was observed on the surface of the rhodium modified aluminide coating after the oxidation test. The oxide layer formed on the surface of the nonmodified coating was composed of nonprotective (Ni,Cr)Al2 O4 and (Ni,Cr)O phases. Aluminium in the coating reacts with oxygen, forming a protective α-Al2 O3 oxide on the surface of the rhodium modified aluminide coating. When the oxide cracks and spalls due to oxidation, additional aluminium from the coating diffuses to the surface to form the oxide. The presence of protective Al2 O3 oxide on the surface of the rhodium modified aluminide coating slows coating degradation. Therefore, rhodium modified aluminide coating has better oxidation resistance than the nonmodified one. PMID:27018853

  12. Determination of rhodium: Since the origins until today Atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bosch Ojeda, C; Sánchez Rojas, F

    2006-02-28

    Rhodium is present at about 0.001ppm in the earths crust. Rhodium metal is known for its stability in corrosive environments, physical beauty and unique physical and chemical properties. Recent interest in the medical and industrial significance of platinum and to a lesser extent palladium and rhodium has been accompanied by an increasing interest in their determination at low levels. Platinum group elements (PGEs: Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru, Ir and Os) play a decisive role in the performance of catalytic converters, world-wide applied in vehicles and in some household utensils, to reduce the emission of gaseous pollutants, such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons. Since then, approximately 73% of the world production of rhodium is consumed in the production of autocatalyst. However, the hot exhaust gases flowing through the converter cause abrasion of these units, leading to the emission of these elements to the environment. The concentration level of rhodium (also platinum and palladium) is still very low in the nature; accordingly, their determination in environmental samples specially appears to be a challenging task for analytical chemists. In recent years, the development of analytical methods for the determination of rhodium has increased. The aim of the present review is to evaluate the utility of atomic absorption spectrometry, applied for the quantification of rhodium in different materials, such as environmental, biological, metallurgical and geological samples. PMID:18970480

  13. Diverting Hydrogenations with Wilkinson's Catalyst towards Highly Reactive Rhodium(I) Species.

    PubMed

    Perea-Buceta, Jesus E; Fernández, Israel; Heikkinen, Sami; Axenov, Kirill; King, Alistair W T; Niemi, Teemu; Nieger, Martin; Leskelä, Markku; Repo, Timo

    2015-11-23

    The addition of Barton's base has a dramatic effect on the classic rhodium(III)-mediated hydrogenations promoted by Wilkinson's catalyst. Following the initial oxidative addition, a barrierless reductive elimination of HCl from the traditional rhodium(III) intermediates instantly produces a rhodium(I) monohydride species, which is remarkably reactive in the hydrogenation of several internal alkynes and functionalized trisubstituted alkenes. The direct formation of this species is unprecedented upon addition of molecular hydrogen and its catalytic potential has been hitherto barely explored. PMID:26437764

  14. Asymmetric dual catalysis via fragmentation of a single rhodium precursor complex.

    PubMed

    Song, Liangliang; Gong, Lei; Meggers, Eric

    2016-06-01

    A strategy for dual transition metal catalysis and organocatalysis is reported via the in situ disintegration of a single rhodium complex. The hereby generated chiral Lewis acid and l-β-phenylalanine synergistically catalyze the Michael addition of α,α-disubstituted aldehydes to α,β-unsaturated 2-acyl imidazoles under the formation of vicinal quaternary/tertiary stereocenters. Conveniently, the chiral-at-metal rhodium catalyst can be synthesized in just two steps starting from rhodium trichloride without the need for any chromatography. PMID:27231188

  15. Preparation and reactivity of macrocyclic rhodium(III) alkyl complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Carraher, Jack M.; Ellern, Arkady; Bakac, Andreja

    2013-09-21

    We found that the macrocyclic rhodium(II) complexes LRh(H2O)2+ (L = L1 = cyclam and L2 = meso-Me-6-cyclam) react with alkyl hydroperoxides RC(CH3)2OOH to generate the corresponding rhodium(III) alkyls L(H2O)RhR2+ (R = CH3, C2H5, PhCH2). Methyl and benzyl complexes can also be prepared by bimolecular group transfer from alkyl cobaloximes (dmgH)2(H2O) CoR and (dmgBF2)2(H2O) CoR (R = CH3, PhCH2) to LRh(H2O)2+. Moreover, the new complexes were characterized by solution NMR and by crystal structure analysis. They exhibit great stability in aqueous solution at room temperature, but undergo efficient Rh-C bond cleavage upon photolysis.

  16. Production of 89Sr in solution reactor.

    PubMed

    Chuvilin, D Yu; Khvostionov, V E; Markovskij, D V; Pavshook, V A; Ponomarev-Stepnoy, N N; Udovenko, A N; Shatrov, A V; Vereschagin, Yu I; Rice, J; Tome, L A

    2007-10-01

    The new method for medical (89)Sr production in a reactor with solution fuel is proposed which is characterized by simplicity, high production efficiency and low buildup of radioactive waste. The main advantages of the new technology were validated by numerous experiments. The proposed new technology selectively extracts (89)Sr from a fuel of solution reactor and precludes penetration of (90)Sr into the final product. This method is based on the presence of gaseous radionuclide (89)Kr (T(1/2)=190.7s) in the decay chain (89)Se-->(89)Br-->(89)Kr-->(89)Rb-->(89)Sr. The performed experiments on taking the gas probes from internal volume of the solution 20 kW mini-reactor "Argus" have confirmed that the mechanism for (89)Sr delivery to the sorption volume of the reactor experimental loop is based on transport of gaseous (89)Sr predecessor-radionuclide (89)Kr. According to the measurements of radioactive impurities in a final (89)SrCl(2) solution, the filtration of the gas flow with cermet filters followed by cleaning of (89)Sr chloride solution in chromatographic columns with DOWEX-50 x 8 or Sr-Resin ensures reception of (89)Sr fully meeting the requirements for medical application. The experimental estimations have shown that the proposed new technology is multiply more productive than the traditional industrial methods of (89)Sr reception. PMID:17611114

  17. A Rhodium Catalyst Superior to Iridium Congeners for Enantioselective Radical Amination Activated by Visible Light.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaodong; Harms, Klaus; Marsch, Michael; Meggers, Eric

    2016-06-27

    A bis-cyclometalated rhodium(III) complex catalyzes a visible-light-activated enantioselective α-amination of 2-acyl imidazoles with up to 99 % yield and 98 % ee. The rhodium catalyst is ascribed a dual function as a chiral Lewis acid and, simultaneously, as a light-activated smart initiator of a radical-chain process through intermediate aminyl radicals. Notably, related iridium-based photoredox catalysts reported before were unsuccessful in this enantioselective radical C-N bond formation. The surprising preference for rhodium over iridium is attributed to much faster ligand-exchange kinetics of the rhodium complexes involved in the catalytic cycle, which is crucial to keep pace with the highly reactive and thus short-lived nitrogen-centered radical intermediate. PMID:27145893

  18. Rhodium complex immobilized on graphene oxide as an efficient and recyclable catalyst for hydrogenation of cyclohexene.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qingshan; Chen, Dafa; Li, Yang; Zhang, Guoliang; Zhang, Fengbao; Fan, Xiaobin

    2013-02-01

    Rhodium complexes can be homogeneously immobilized on functionalized graphene oxide through coordination interaction. The obtained catalyst can be readily recycled and shows enhanced activity in the catalytic hydrogenation of cyclohexene. PMID:23238302

  19. Rhodium-Catalyzed Asymmetric [2 + 2 + 2] Cycloaddition of 1,6-Enynes with Cyclopropylideneacetamides.

    PubMed

    Yoshizaki, Soichi; Nakamura, Yu; Masutomi, Koji; Yoshida, Tomoka; Noguchi, Keiichi; Shibata, Yu; Tanaka, Ken

    2016-02-01

    It has been established that a cationic rhodium(I)/H8-BINAP complex catalyzes the asymmetric [2 + 2 + 2] cycloaddition of 1,6-enynes with cyclopropylideneacetamides to produce spirocyclohexenes in excellent enantioselectivity with retaining cyclopropane rings. PMID:26756430

  20. Chloride-Bridged Dinuclear Rhodium(III) Complexes Bearing Chiral Diphosphine Ligands: Catalyst Precursors for Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Simple Olefins.

    PubMed

    Kita, Yusuke; Hida, Shoji; Higashihara, Kenya; Jena, Himanshu Sekhar; Higashida, Kosuke; Mashima, Kazushi

    2016-07-11

    Efficient rhodium(III) catalysts were developed for asymmetric hydrogenation of simple olefins. A new series of chloride-bridged dinuclear rhodium(III) complexes 1 were synthesized from the rhodium(I) precursor [RhCl(cod)]2 , chiral diphosphine ligands, and hydrochloric acid. Complexes from the series acted as efficient catalysts for asymmetric hydrogenation of (E)-prop-1-ene-1,2-diyldibenzene and its derivatives without any directing groups, in sharp contrast to widely used rhodium(I) catalytic systems that require a directing group for high enantioselectivity. The catalytic system was applied to asymmetric hydrogenation of allylic alcohols, alkenylboranes, and unsaturated cyclic sulfones. Control experiments support the superiority of dinuclear rhodium(III) complexes 1 over typical rhodium(I) catalytic systems. PMID:27088539

  1. Diversity synthesis using the complimentary reactivity of rhodium(II)- and palladium(II)-catalyzed reactions.

    PubMed

    Ni, Aiwu; France, Jessica E; Davies, Huw M L

    2006-07-21

    Rhodium(II)-catalyzed reactions of aryldiazoacetates can be conducted in the presence of iodide, triflate, organoboron, and organostannane functionality, resulting in the formation of a variety of cyclopropanes or C-H insertion products with high stereoselectivity. The combination of the rhodium(II)-catalyzed reaction with a subsequent palladium(II)-catalyzed Suzuki coupling offers a novel strategy for diversity synthesis. PMID:16839138

  2. Rhodium-Catalyzed Regioselective C7-Functionalization of N-Pivaloylindoles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lanting; Zhang, Chao; He, Yupeng; Tan, Lushi; Ma, Dawei

    2016-01-01

    An efficient rhodium-catalyzed method for direct C-H functionalization at the C7 position of a wide range of indoles has been developed. Good to excellent yields of alkenylation products were observed with acrylates, styrenes, and vinyl phenyl sulfones, whereas the saturated alkylation products were obtained in good yield with α,β-unsaturated ketones. Both the N-pivaloyl directing group and the rhodium catalyst proved to be crucial for high regioselectivity and conversion. PMID:26510833

  3. Rhodium(II)-Catalyzed Isomerization of Cyclopropenylmethyl Esters into (Acyloxymethylene)cyclopropanes.

    PubMed

    Archambeau, Alexis; Nguyen, Dinh-Vu; Meyer, Christophe; Cossy, Janine

    2016-04-18

    In the presence of a rhodium(II) catalyst, 3,3-disubstituted cyclopropenylmethyl esters that possess an electron-rich or neutral aromatic group undergo isomerization into (acyloxymethylene)cyclopropanes. This transformation, which proceeds with inversion of configuration at the stereogenic center, complements the previously disclosed rearrangement reactions of cyclopropenylmethyl esters. The products arising from this new rhodium-catalyzed rearrangement contain an enol ester group that can be subsequently functionalized to access stereodefined arylcyclopropanes. PMID:26990014

  4. Rhodium-Catalyzed Ketone Methylation Using Methanol Under Mild Conditions: Formation of α-Branched Products**

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Louis K M; Poole, Darren L; Shen, Di; Healy, Mark P; Donohoe, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    The rhodium-catalyzed methylation of ketones has been accomplished using methanol as the methylating agent and the hydrogen-borrowing method. The sequence is notable for the relatively low temperatures that are required and for the ability of the reaction system to form α-branched products with ease. Doubly alkylated ketones can be prepared from methyl ketones and two different alcohols by using a sequential one-pot iridium- and rhodium-catalyzed process. PMID:24288297

  5. Calculated mammographic spectra confirmed with attenuation curves for molybdenum, rhodium, and tungsten targets.

    PubMed

    Blough, M M; Waggener, R G; Payne, W H; Terry, J A

    1998-09-01

    A model for calculating mammographic spectra independent of measured data and fitting parameters is presented. This model is based on first principles. Spectra were calculated using various target and filter combinations such as molybdenum/molybdenum, molybdenum/rhodium, rhodium/rhodium, and tungsten/aluminum. Once the spectra were calculated, attenuation curves were calculated and compared to measured attenuation curves. The attenuation curves were calculated and measured using aluminum alloy 1100 or high purity aluminum filtration. Percent differences were computed between the measured and calculated attenuation curves resulting in an average of 5.21% difference for tungsten/aluminum, 2.26% for molybdenum/molybdenum, 3.35% for rhodium/rhodium, and 3.18% for molybdenum/rhodium. Calculated spectra were also compared to measured spectra from the Food and Drug Administration [Fewell and Shuping, Handbook of Mammographic X-ray Spectra (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1979)] and a comparison will also be presented. PMID:9775364

  6. Search for multiple chiral doublets in rhodium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, J.; Sagawa, H.; Zhang, S. Q.; Yao, J. M.; Zhang, Y.; Meng, J.

    2008-02-15

    The deformation in rhodium isotopes is investigated using adiabatic and configuration-fixed constrained triaxial relativistic mean field (RMF) approaches. The triaxial deformations are found in the ground states of {sup 102,104,106,108,110}Rh, which is consistent with triaxial Skyrme Hartree-Fock calculations. Several minima with triaxial deformation in {sup 104,106,108,110}Rh are obtained by the configuration-fixed constrained calculations. The corresponding configurations are characterized by the quantum numbers |nljm> obtained by transforming wave functions from a Cartesian basis to a spherical basis. The possible existence of multiple chiral doublets (M{chi}D) is demonstrated in {sup 104,106,108,110}Rh isotopes, based on different particle-hole configurations and triaxial deformations.

  7. Rhodium Oxide Cluster Ions Studied by Thermal Desorption Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mafuné, Fumitaka; Takenouchi, Masato; Miyajima, Ken; Kudoh, Satoshi

    2016-01-28

    Gas-phase rhodium oxide clusters, RhnOm(+), were investigated by measuring the rate constants of oxidation and thermal desorption spectrometry. RhnOm(+) was suggested to be categorized into different states as m/n ≤ 1, 1 < m/n ≤ 1.5, and 1.5 < m/n in terms of energy and kinetics. For m/n ≤ 1, the O atoms readily adsorbed on the cluster with a large binding energy until RhO was formed. Under the O2-rich environment, oxidation proceeded until Rh2O3 was formed with a moderate binding energy. In addition, O2 molecules attached weakly to the cluster, and Rh2O3 formed RhnOm(+) (1.5 < m/n). The energetics and geometries of Rh6Om(+) (m = 6-12) were obtained using density functional theory calculations and were found to be consistent with the experimental results. PMID:26730616

  8. Capsule-controlled selectivity of a rhodium hydroformylation catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocokić, Vladica; Kalkan, Ayfer; Lutz, Martin; Spek, Anthony L.; Gryko, Daniel T.; Reek, Joost N. H.

    2013-10-01

    Chemical processes proceed much faster and more selectively in the presence of appropriate catalysts, and as such the field of catalysis is of key importance for the chemical industry, especially in light of sustainable chemistry. Enzymes, the natural catalysts, are generally orders of magnitude more selective than synthetic catalysts and a major difference is that they take advantage of well-defined cavities around the active site to steer the selectivity of a reaction via the second coordination sphere. Here we demonstrate that such a strategy also applies for a rhodium catalyst; when used in the hydroformylation of internal alkenes, the selectivity of the product formed is steered solely by changing the cavity surrounding the metal complex. Detailed studies reveal that the origin of the capsule-controlled selectivity is the capsule reorganization energy, that is, the high energy required to accommodate the hydride migration transition state, which leads to the minor product.

  9. Enantioselective Rhodium-Catalyzed Atom-Economical Macrolactonization.

    PubMed

    Ganss, Stephanie; Breit, Bernhard

    2016-08-01

    A highly attractive route toward macrolactones, which form the cyclic scaffold of a multitude of diverse natural compounds, is described. Although many chemical approaches to this structural motif have been explored, an asymmetric variant of the cyclization is unprecedented. Herein we present an enantioselective macrolactonization through an intramolecular atom-economical rhodium-catalyzed coupling of ω-allenyl-substituted carboxylic acids. The use of a modified diop ligand, chiral DTBM-diop, led to high enantioselectivity (up to 93 % ee). The reaction tolerated a large variety of functionalities, including α,β-unsaturated carboxylic acids and depsipeptides, and provided the desired macrocycles with very high enantio- and diastereoselectivity. PMID:27383766

  10. Catalytic Degradation of Sulfur Hexafluoride by Rhodium Complexes.

    PubMed

    Zámostná, Lada; Braun, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    The development of a safe and efficient method for the degradation of SF6 is of current environmental interest, because SF6 is one of the most potent greenhouse gases. SF6 is thermally and chemically extremely inert, and therefore, it has been used in various industrial applications. However, this inertness results in a major challenge for its depletion. We report on a process for a catalytic degradation of SF6 in the homogeneous phase by using rhodium complexes as precatalysts. The SF6 activation reactions feature mild reaction conditions, low catalyst loadings, and a high selectivity. The employment of phosphines and hydrosilanes for scavenging the sulfur and fluorine atoms of the SF6 molecule allows the selective transformation of SF6 into nongaseous and nontoxic compounds. PMID:26190201

  11. The regioselective hydroformylation of vinylsilanes. A remarkable difference in the selectivity and reactivity of cobalt, rhodium, and iridium catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Crudden, C.M.; Alper, H.

    1994-06-03

    Rhodium, iridium, and cobalt complexes were evaluated as catalysts for hydroformylation of vinylsilanes. Regioselectivities, product structures, and reaction yields were widely variable for these catalysts.

  12. 40 CFR 89.206 - Trading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading. 89.206 Section 89.206... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 89.206 Trading. (a) Requirements for Tier 1 engines rated at or above 37 kW. (1) A...

  13. 7 CFR 993.89 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Effective time. 993.89 Section 993.89 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 993.89 Effective time. The provisions of this subpart, as well as any amendments to this subpart, shall become effective at such time as the...

  14. STS-89 Endeavour in Vehicle Assembly Building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The orbiter Endeavour awaits further processing in the transfer aisle of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). It had been undergoing preparations for the STS-89 mission in Orbiter Processing Facility Bay rocket booster stack slated for use on the STS-89 mission. The STS-89 launch is targeted for Jan. 20, 1998.

  15. 25 CFR 700.89 - Relocation contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Relocation contract. 700.89 Section 700.89 Indians THE... Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.89 Relocation contract. The Relocation Contract is that contract signed by the head of household in which he/she agrees to purchase an existing house or...

  16. 25 CFR 700.89 - Relocation contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Relocation contract. 700.89 Section 700.89 Indians THE... Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.89 Relocation contract. The Relocation Contract is that contract signed by the head of household in which he/she agrees to purchase an existing house or...

  17. 7 CFR 1779.89 - Mergers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Mergers. 1779.89 Section 1779.89 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.89 Mergers. (a) General. The Agency may... in specific loan note agreements; and (3) All property can be legally transferred to the...

  18. 40 CFR 89.405 - Recorded information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recorded information. 89.405 Section 89.405 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 89.405 Recorded information. (a)...

  19. 29 CFR 1960.89 - Organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Organization. 1960.89 Section 1960.89 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED... Field Federal Safety and Health Councils § 1960.89 Organization. (a) Field council officers...

  20. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  1. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  2. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  3. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  4. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  5. 7 CFR 956.89 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance. 956.89 Section 956.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Miscellaneous Provisions § 956.89 Compliance....

  6. 40 CFR 89.116 - Engine families.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine families. 89.116 Section 89.116... Provisions § 89.116 Engine families. (a) A manufacturer's product line is divided into engine families that... life periods. (b) The following characteristics distinguish engine families: (1) Fuel; (2)...

  7. 40 CFR 89.116 - Engine families.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine families. 89.116 Section 89.116... Provisions § 89.116 Engine families. (a) A manufacturer's product line is divided into engine families that... life periods. (b) The following characteristics distinguish engine families: (1) Fuel; (2)...

  8. 40 CFR 89.116 - Engine families.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine families. 89.116 Section 89.116... Provisions § 89.116 Engine families. (a) A manufacturer's product line is divided into engine families that... life periods. (b) The following characteristics distinguish engine families: (1) Fuel; (2)...

  9. 40 CFR 89.116 - Engine families.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine families. 89.116 Section 89.116... Provisions § 89.116 Engine families. (a) A manufacturer's product line is divided into engine families that... life periods. (b) The following characteristics distinguish engine families: (1) Fuel; (2)...

  10. 40 CFR 89.116 - Engine families.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine families. 89.116 Section 89.116... Provisions § 89.116 Engine families. (a) A manufacturer's product line is divided into engine families that... life periods. (b) The following characteristics distinguish engine families: (1) Fuel; (2)...

  11. 20 CFR 632.89 - Performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Performance standards. 632.89 Section 632.89... EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Program Design and Management § 632.89 Performance standards. The Department of Labor shall establish performance standards for all Native American grantees (section...

  12. 32 CFR 552.89 - Activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Activities. 552.89 Section 552.89 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.89 Activities....

  13. 32 CFR 552.89 - Activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Activities. 552.89 Section 552.89 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.89 Activities....

  14. 32 CFR 552.89 - Activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Activities. 552.89 Section 552.89 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.89 Activities....

  15. 32 CFR 552.89 - Activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Activities. 552.89 Section 552.89 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.89 Activities....

  16. 32 CFR 552.89 - Activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Activities. 552.89 Section 552.89 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.89 Activities....

  17. 7 CFR 993.89 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective time. 993.89 Section 993.89 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 993.89 Effective time. The provisions of this subpart, as well as any amendments to this subpart, shall become effective at such time as the...

  18. 7 CFR 993.89 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Effective time. 993.89 Section 993.89 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 993.89 Effective time. The provisions of this subpart, as well as any amendments to this subpart, shall become effective at such time as the...

  19. 40 CFR 89.507 - Sample selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sample selection. 89.507 Section 89.507 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing § 89.507 Sample selection. (a)...

  20. 7 CFR 160.89 - Medicinal preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Medicinal preparations. 160.89 Section 160.89... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Sales and Shipments § 160.89 Medicinal preparations. A compound or mixture containing spirits of turpentine or rosin, or both, with other drugs, when sold for medicinal purposes,...

  1. 7 CFR 160.89 - Medicinal preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Medicinal preparations. 160.89 Section 160.89... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Sales and Shipments § 160.89 Medicinal preparations. A compound or mixture containing spirits of turpentine or rosin, or both, with other drugs, when sold for medicinal purposes,...

  2. 45 CFR 89.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 89.2 Section 89.2 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATIONAL INTEGRITY OF ENTITIES IMPLEMENTING PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES UNDER THE LEADERSHIP ACT § 89.2 Definitions. For the purposes of this...

  3. 45 CFR 89.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 89.2 Section 89.2 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATIONAL INTEGRITY OF ENTITIES IMPLEMENTING PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES UNDER THE LEADERSHIP ACT § 89.2 Definitions. For the purposes of this...

  4. 45 CFR 89.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 89.2 Section 89.2 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATIONAL INTEGRITY OF ENTITIES IMPLEMENTING PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES UNDER THE LEADERSHIP ACT § 89.2 Definitions. For the purposes of this...

  5. 45 CFR 89.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions. 89.2 Section 89.2 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATIONAL INTEGRITY OF ENTITIES IMPLEMENTING PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES UNDER THE LEADERSHIP ACT § 89.2 Definitions. For the purposes of this...

  6. 45 CFR 89.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 89.2 Section 89.2 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATIONAL INTEGRITY OF ENTITIES IMPLEMENTING PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES UNDER THE LEADERSHIP ACT § 89.2 Definitions. For the purposes of this...

  7. 40 CFR 745.89 - Firm certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Firm certification. 745.89 Section 745.89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Residential Property Renovation § 745.89 Firm certification. (a)...

  8. 9 CFR 89.5 - Feeding pens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding pens. 89.5 Section 89.5... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.5 Feeding pens. (a) Stock pens and other enclosures for feeding, watering, and... pens are located. (b) Care should be taken to protect livestock unloaded en route at a point...

  9. 47 CFR 101.89 - Negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Negotiations. 101.89 Section 101.89 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Applications and Licenses Policies Governing Fixed Service Relocation from the 18.58-19.30 Ghz Band § 101.89 Negotiations. (a)...

  10. 40 CFR 89.507 - Sample selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample selection. 89.507 Section 89... Auditing § 89.507 Sample selection. (a) Engines comprising a test sample will be selected at the location... cannot be selected in the manner specified in the test order, an alternative selection procedure may...

  11. 40 CFR 89.1003 - Prohibited acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibited acts. 89.1003 Section 89.1003 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES General Enforcement Provisions and Prohibited Acts § 89.1003...

  12. 40 CFR 89.1003 - Prohibited acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Prohibited acts. 89.1003 Section 89.1003 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES General Enforcement Provisions and Prohibited Acts § 89.1003...

  13. 40 CFR 89.1003 - Prohibited acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibited acts. 89.1003 Section 89.1003 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES General Enforcement Provisions and Prohibited Acts § 89.1003...

  14. 47 CFR 101.89 - Negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Negotiations. 101.89 Section 101.89 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Applications and Licenses Policies Governing Fixed Service Relocation from the 18.58-19.30 Ghz Band § 101.89 Negotiations. (a)...

  15. 40 CFR 89.106 - Prohibited controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibited controls. 89.106 Section 89...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 89.106 Prohibited controls. (a) An engine may not be equipped with an...

  16. 40 CFR 89.106 - Prohibited controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Prohibited controls. 89.106 Section 89...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 89.106 Prohibited controls. (a) An engine may not be equipped with an...

  17. 40 CFR 89.106 - Prohibited controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibited controls. 89.106 Section 89...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 89.106 Prohibited controls. (a) An engine may not be equipped with an...

  18. 14 CFR 151.89 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Roads. 151.89 Section 151.89 Aeronautics... AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.89 Roads. (a) Federal-aid Airport Program funds may not be used to resolve highway problems. Only those airport entrance roads that are...

  19. 14 CFR 151.89 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Roads. 151.89 Section 151.89 Aeronautics... AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.89 Roads. (a) Federal-aid Airport Program funds may not be used to resolve highway problems. Only those airport entrance roads that are...

  20. 14 CFR 151.89 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Roads. 151.89 Section 151.89 Aeronautics... AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.89 Roads. (a) Federal-aid Airport Program funds may not be used to resolve highway problems. Only those airport entrance roads that are...

  1. 14 CFR 151.89 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Roads. 151.89 Section 151.89 Aeronautics... AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.89 Roads. (a) Federal-aid Airport Program funds may not be used to resolve highway problems. Only those airport entrance roads that are...

  2. 40 CFR 89.601 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability. 89.601 Section 89.601 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Importation of Nonconforming Nonroad Engines § 89.601 Applicability....

  3. 14 CFR 33.89 - Operation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operation test. 33.89 Section 33.89... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.89 Operation test. (a) The operation test must include testing found necessary by the Administrator to demonstrate— (1) Starting,...

  4. 14 CFR 33.89 - Operation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Operation test. 33.89 Section 33.89 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.89 Operation test. (a) The...

  5. 7 CFR 956.89 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compliance. 956.89 Section 956.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Miscellaneous Provisions § 956.89 Compliance....

  6. 7 CFR 956.89 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Compliance. 956.89 Section 956.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Miscellaneous Provisions § 956.89 Compliance....

  7. 7 CFR 956.89 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Compliance. 956.89 Section 956.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Miscellaneous Provisions § 956.89 Compliance....

  8. 7 CFR 956.89 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Compliance. 956.89 Section 956.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Miscellaneous Provisions § 956.89 Compliance....

  9. 40 CFR 89.902 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definitions. 89.902 Section 89.902 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exemption Provisions § 89.902...

  10. 40 CFR 89.4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 89.4 Section 89.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES General § 89.4...

  11. 40 CFR 89.4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 89.4 Section 89.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES General § 89.4...

  12. 36 CFR 9.89 - Appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Appeals. 9.89 Section 9.89 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program § 9.89 Appeals. Written appeals made within 30 days...

  13. 36 CFR 9.89 - Appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appeals. 9.89 Section 9.89 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program § 9.89 Appeals. Written appeals made within 30 days...

  14. 21 CFR 1250.89 - Swimming pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Swimming pools. 1250.89 Section 1250.89 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.89 Swimming pools. (a) Fill and draw swimming pools shall not be installed or used. (b) Swimming pools of the recirculation type shall...

  15. 14 CFR 151.89 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Roads. 151.89 Section 151.89 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.89 Roads. (a) Federal-aid Airport Program...

  16. 40 CFR 89.207 - Credit calculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Credit calculation. 89.207 Section 89... Trading Provisions § 89.207 Credit calculation. (a) Requirements for calculating NO X credits from Tier 1... be used in the credit generation calculation described in paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section. If...

  17. 31 CFR 306.89 - Public officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Public officers. 306.89 Section 306.89..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING U.S. SECURITIES Assignments in Behalf of Private or Public Organizations § 306.89 Public officers. Securities registered...

  18. 40 CFR 89.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability. 89.1 Section 89.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES General § 89.1 Applicability. (a) This part applies for all...

  19. 40 CFR 89.106 - Prohibited controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited controls. 89.106 Section 89...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 89.106 Prohibited controls. (a) An engine may not be equipped with an...

  20. 40 CFR 89.106 - Prohibited controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibited controls. 89.106 Section 89...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 89.106 Prohibited controls. (a) An engine may not be equipped with an...

  1. 42 CFR 84.89 - Weight requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weight requirement. 84.89 Section 84.89 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.89 Weight requirement. (a)...

  2. 40 CFR 146.89 - Mechanical integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mechanical integrity. 146.89 Section 146.89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM: CRITERIA AND STANDARDS Criteria and Standards Applicable to Class VI Wells § 146.89 Mechanical integrity....

  3. 14 CFR 33.89 - Operation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Operation test. 33.89 Section 33.89... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.89 Operation test. (a) The operation test must include testing found necessary by the Administrator to demonstrate— (1) Starting,...

  4. 14 CFR 33.89 - Operation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Operation test. 33.89 Section 33.89... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.89 Operation test. (a) The operation test must include testing found necessary by the Administrator to demonstrate— (1) Starting,...

  5. 40 CFR 89.119 - Emission tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission tests. 89.119 Section 89.119... Provisions § 89.119 Emission tests. (a) Manufacturer testing. (1) Upon completion of service accumulation, the manufacturer must test each test engine using the specified test procedures, except as provided...

  6. 7 CFR 993.89 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Effective time. 993.89 Section 993.89 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 993.89 Effective time. The provisions of this subpart, as well as any amendments to this subpart, shall become effective at such time as the...

  7. 7 CFR 993.89 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Effective time. 993.89 Section 993.89 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 993.89 Effective time. The provisions of this subpart, as well as any amendments to this subpart, shall become effective at such time as the...

  8. 40 CFR 89.701 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 89.701 Section 89.701 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Recall Regulations § 89.701...

  9. 40 CFR 89.702 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Definitions. 89.702 Section 89.702 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Recall Regulations § 89.702...

  10. 40 CFR 89.701 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability. 89.701 Section 89.701 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Recall Regulations § 89.701...

  11. 40 CFR 89.702 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definitions. 89.702 Section 89.702 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Recall Regulations § 89.702...

  12. 40 CFR 89.701 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability. 89.701 Section 89.701 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Recall Regulations § 89.701...

  13. 40 CFR 89.702 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 89.702 Section 89.702 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Recall Regulations § 89.702...

  14. 40 CFR 89.701 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability. 89.701 Section 89.701 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Recall Regulations § 89.701...

  15. 40 CFR 89.702 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definitions. 89.702 Section 89.702 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Recall Regulations § 89.702...

  16. 40 CFR 89.702 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definitions. 89.702 Section 89.702 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Recall Regulations § 89.702...

  17. 40 CFR 89.701 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Applicability. 89.701 Section 89.701 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Recall Regulations § 89.701...

  18. 40 CFR 89.107 - Defeat devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Defeat devices. 89.107 Section 89.107... Provisions § 89.107 Defeat devices. (a) An engine may not be equipped with a defeat device. (b) For purposes of this section, “defeat device” means any device, system, or element of design which...

  19. 40 CFR 179.89 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Motions. 179.89 Section 179.89... PUBLIC HEARING Hearing Procedures § 179.89 Motions. A motion, unless made in the course of a preliminary... by § 179.80 and include a draft order. A response may be filed within 10 days of service of a...

  20. 40 CFR 179.89 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Motions. 179.89 Section 179.89... PUBLIC HEARING Hearing Procedures § 179.89 Motions. A motion, unless made in the course of a preliminary... by § 179.80 and include a draft order. A response may be filed within 10 days of service of a...

  1. 40 CFR 179.89 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Motions. 179.89 Section 179.89... PUBLIC HEARING Hearing Procedures § 179.89 Motions. A motion, unless made in the course of a preliminary... by § 179.80 and include a draft order. A response may be filed within 10 days of service of a...

  2. 40 CFR 179.89 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motions. 179.89 Section 179.89... PUBLIC HEARING Hearing Procedures § 179.89 Motions. A motion, unless made in the course of a preliminary... by § 179.80 and include a draft order. A response may be filed within 10 days of service of a...

  3. 40 CFR 179.89 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Motions. 179.89 Section 179.89... PUBLIC HEARING Hearing Procedures § 179.89 Motions. A motion, unless made in the course of a preliminary... by § 179.80 and include a draft order. A response may be filed within 10 days of service of a...

  4. 29 CFR 1960.89 - Organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Organization. 1960.89 Section 1960.89 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED... Field Federal Safety and Health Councils § 1960.89 Organization. (a) Field council officers...

  5. Structure and transport behavior of In-filled cobalt rhodium antimonide skutterudites

    SciTech Connect

    Eilertsen, James; Berthelot, Romain; Sleight, Arthur W.; Subramanian, M.A.

    2012-06-15

    The effect of indium icosahedral void-site filling on the transport properties of cobalt and rhodium antimonide solid solutions is investigated. Co{sub 4-x}Rh{sub x}Sb{sub 12} and indium-filled In{sub 0.1}Co{sub 4-x}Rh{sub x}Sb{sub 12} solid solutions were synthesized. Partial rhodium substitution produces a distinct clustering-induced lattice strain that is partly relieved upon indium substitution into the skutterudite icosahedral void-sites. Indium lowers the thermal conductivity of all samples near room temperature. A distinct increase in thermal conductivity is observed in all indium-filled rhodium substituted samples at elevated temperatures and is attributed to bipolar thermal conductivity. In addition, the indium-filled samples were subjected to a 6-day heat treatment at 673 K. Void-site filled indium was found to be metastable at this temperature, and was found to partially precipitate during the 6-day heat treatment; thereby presenting concerns over the long-term stability of thermoelectric devices based on indium-filled skutterudites. - Graphical Abstract: Strain in the cobalt rhodium skutterudite solid solutions decreases upon indium filling. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unfilled and indium-filled cobalt and rhodium skutterudite solid solutions were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Indium filling stabilizes the cobalt and rhodium skutterudite solid solutions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermoelectric properties of all compositions are reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermal conductivity of rhodium-rich compositions is strongly affected by indium filling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Void-site filled indium was found to be metastable.

  6. Rhodium mediated bond activation: from synthesis to catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Hung-An

    2012-01-01

    Recently, our lab has developed monoanionic tridentate ligand, ToR, showing the corresponding coordination chemistry and catalyst reactivity of magnesium, zirconium, zinc and iridium complexes. This thesis details synthetic chemistry, structural study and catalytic reactivity of the ToR-supported rhodium compounds. Tl[ToR] has been proved to be a superior ligand transfer agent for synthesizing rhodium complexes. The salt metathesis route of Tl[ToM] with [Rh(μ-Cl)(CO)]2 and [Rh(μ- Cl)(COE)]2 gives ToMRh(CO)2 (2.2) and ToMRhH(β3-C8H13) (3.1) respectively while Tl[ToM] with [Rh(μ-Cl)(CO)]2 affords ToPRh(CO)2 (2.3). 2.2 reacts with both strong and weak electrophiles, resulting in the oxazoline N-attacked and the metal center-attacked compounds correspondingly. Using one of the metal center-attacked electrophiles, 2.3 was demonstrated to give high diastereoselectivity. Parallel to COE allylic C-H activation complex 3.1, the propene and allylbenzene allylic C-H activation products have also been synthesized. The subsequent functionalization attempts have been examined by treating with Brønsted acids, Lewis acids, electrophiles, nucleophiles, 1,3-dipolar reagents and reagents containing multiple bonds able to be inserted. Various related complexes have been obtained under these conditions, in which one of the azide insertion compounds reductively eliminates to give an allylic functionalization product stoichiometrically. 3.1 reacts with various primary alcohols to give the decarbonylation dihydride complex ToMRh(H)2CO (4.1). 4.1 shows catalytic reactivity for primary alcohol decarbonylation under a photolytic condition. Meanwhile, 2.2 has been found to be more reactive than 4.1 for catalytic alcohol decarbonylation under the same condition. Various complexes and primary

  7. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy as a probe of rhodium-ligand interaction in ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men, Shuang; Lovelock, Kevin R. J.; Licence, Peter

    2016-02-01

    We use X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to identify the interaction between the rhodium atom and phosphine ligands in six 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids ([C8C1Im][X]). The formation of a mono-phosphine rhodium complex based upon addition of triphenylphosphine (PPh3) is confirmed by XPS in all ionic liquids studied herein. Due to the electron donation effect of the ligand, the rhodium atom becomes more negatively charged and thus exhibits a lower measured binding energy. The influence of the anion basicity on the formation of different types of rhodium complexes is also investigated. By introducing a biphosphine ligand, a chelated diphosphine rhodium complex is formed in ionic liquids with more basic anions and verified by both XPS and Infrared Spectroscopy (IR). The measured Rh 3d binding energies are correlated to the reaction selectivity of a hydroformylation reaction which inspires a method to design a metal catalyst to control the chemical reaction towards desired products in the future.

  8. Branching Out: Rhodium-Catalyzed Allylation with Alkynes and Allenes.

    PubMed

    Koschker, Philipp; Breit, Bernhard

    2016-08-16

    We present a new and efficient strategy for the atom-economic transformation of both alkynes and allenes to allylic functionalized structures via a Rh-catalyzed isomerization/addition reaction which has been developed in our working group. Our methodology thus grants access to an important structural class valued in modern organic chemistry for both its versatility for further functionalization and the potential for asymmetric synthesis with the construction of a new stereogenic center. This new methodology, inspired by mechanistic investigations by Werner in the late 1980s and based on preliminary work by Yamamoto and Trost, offers an attractive alternative to other established methods for allylic functionalization such as allylic substitution or allylic oxidation. The main advantage of our methodology consists of the inherent atom economy in comparison to allylic oxidation or substitution, which both produce stoichiometric amounts of waste and, in case of the substitution reaction, require prefunctionalization of the starting material. Starting out with the discovery of a highly branched-selective coupling reaction of carboxylic acids with terminal alkynes using a Rh(I)/DPEphos complex as the catalyst system, over the past 5 years we were able to continuously expand upon this chemistry, introducing various (pro)nucleophiles for the selective C-O, C-S, C-N, and C-C functionalization of both alkynes and the double-bond isomeric allenes by choosing the appropriate rhodium/bidentate phosphine catalyst. Thus, valuable compounds such as branched allylic ethers, sulfones, amines, or γ,δ-unsaturated ketones were successfully synthesized in high yields and with a broad substrate scope. Beyond the branched selectivity inherent to rhodium, many of the presented methodologies display additional degrees of selectivity in regard to regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselective transformations, with one example even proceeding via a dynamic kinetic resolution. Many advances

  9. Monodisperse Platinum and Rhodium Nanoparticles as Model Heterogeneous Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Grass, Michael Edward

    2008-09-01

    Model heterogeneous catalysts have been synthesized and studied to better understand how the surface structure of noble metal nanoparticles affects catalytic performance. In this project, monodisperse rhodium and platinum nanoparticles of controlled size and shape have been synthesized by solution phase polyol reduction, stabilized by polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Model catalysts have been developed using these nanoparticles by two methods: synthesis of mesoporous silica (SBA-15) in the presence of nanoparticles (nanoparticle encapsulation, NE) to form a composite of metal nanoparticles supported on SBA-15 and by deposition of the particles onto a silicon wafer using Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) monolayer deposition. The particle shapes were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution TEM (HRTEM) and the sizes were determined by TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and in the case of NE samples, room temperature H2 and CO adsorption isotherms. Catalytic studies were carried out in homebuilt gas-phase reactors. For the nanoparticles supported on SBA-15, the catalysts are in powder form and were studied using the homebuilt systems as plug-flow reactors. In the case of nanoparticles deposited on silicon wafers, the same systems were operated as batch reactors. This dissertation has focused on the synthesis, characterization, and reaction studies of model noble metal heterogeneous catalysts. Careful control of particle size and shape has been accomplished though solution phase synthesis of Pt and Rh nanoparticles in order to elucidate further structure-reactivity relationships in noble metal catalysis.

  10. In situ dynamic study of hydrogen oxidation on rhodium.

    PubMed

    Visart de Bacarmé, T; Bär, T; Kruse, N

    2001-10-01

    The reaction of hydrogen/oxygen gas mixtures with rhodium single crystals was studied using video-FIM (Field Ion Microscopy) at temperatures between 350 and 550 K and up to 2 x 10(-2) Pa total pressure. Imaging at 500 K in a hydrogen rich gas mixture (H2:O2 = 9) revealed considerable morphological changes of the (0 0 1)-oriented field emitter tip, i.e. the growth of low-index at the expense of high-index planes and strong crystal coarsening. Decreasing the hydrogen partial pressure led to chemical and structural changes of the Rh sample. Starting on the [1 1 0] planes a surface oxide formed, which spread anisotropically across the surface until it finally covered the whole visible surface area. The transformation was reversible upon increasing the hydrogen pressure back to its initial value. However, a hysteresis behavior was observed, i.e. a larger hydrogen partial pressure was found to be necessary to re-establish the initial patterns of a reactive Oad/Had layer. By varying the temperature from 400 to 500 K a phase diagram was established for the Oad/Had system. Increasing the electric field proved to shift the phase diagram towards higher H2 pressures. At 550K self-sustained kinetic oscillations with a cycle time of approximately 40s could be observed. PMID:11770755

  11. Binuclear Rhodium(II) Complexes With Selective Antibacterial Activity.

    PubMed

    Bień, M; Lachowicz, T M; Rybka, A; Pruchnik, F P; Trynda, L

    1997-01-01

    Binuclear rhodium(II) complexes [Rh(2)Cl(2)(mu-OOCR)(2)(N-N)(2)] {R = H, Me; N-N = 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen)} and [Rh(2)(mu-OOCR)(2)(N-N)(2)(H(2)O)(2)](RCOO)(2) (R = Me, Et;) have been synthesized and their structure and properties have been studied by electronic, IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Antibacterial activity of these complexes against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus has been investigated. The most active antibacterial agents against E. coli were [Rh(2)Cl(2)(mu-OOCR)(2)(N-N)(2)] and [Rh(2)(mu-OOCR)(2)(N-N)(2)(H(2)O)(2)](RCOO)(2) {R = H and Me} which were considerably more active than the appropriate nitrogen ligands. The complexes show low activity against S. aureus. The activity of the complexes [Rh(2)(OOCR)(2)(N-N)(2)(H(2)O)(2)](OOCR)(2) against E. coli decreases in the series: R=H congruent withCH(3)>C(2)H(5)>C(3)H(7) congruent withC(4)H(9). The reverse order was found in the case of S. aureus. PMID:18475773

  12. Microstructure and oxidation behaviour investigation of rhodium modified aluminide coating deposited on CMSX 4 superalloy.

    PubMed

    Zagula-Yavorska, Maryana; Morgiel, Jerzy; Romanowska, Jolanta; Sieniawski, Jan

    2016-03-01

    The CMSX 4 superalloy was coated with rhodium 0.5-μm thick layer and next aluminized by the CVD method. The coating consisted of two layers: the additive and the interdiffusion one. The outward diffusion of nickel from the substrate turned out to be a coating growth dominating factor. The additive layer consists of the β-NiAl phase, whereas the interdiffusion layer consists of the β-NiAl phase with precipitates of σ and μ phases. Rhodium has dissolved in the coating up to the same level in the matrix and in the precipitates. The oxidation test proved that the rhodium modified aluminide coating showed about twice better oxidation resistance than the nonmodified one. PMID:26892917

  13. Complexes of ruthenium and rhodium with aliphatic amines in the catalysis of hydrogenation of unsaturated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Turisbekova, K.K.; Shuikina, L.P.; Parenago, O.P.; Frolov, V.F.

    1989-02-01

    The authors synthesized new catalysts highly active in the hydrogenations of unsaturated hydrocarbons, based on complexes of ruthenium and rhodium with higher aliphatic amines, which are soluble in aromatic solvents. The complexes acquired catalytic activity in hydrogenation as a result of their treatment with diisobutyl aluminum hydride. Olefins (1-hexene, cyclopentene, cyclohexene) or dienes (isoprene) were used as the unsaturated compounds. For the ruthenium based catalysts, the highest activity was observed during the hydrogenation of 1-hexene. For the rhodium-based catalysts, the activity in the hydrogenation of olefins and dienes was approximately the same. In the case of the rhodium complex catalysts, the hydrogenation of 1-hexene was accompanied by a side-reaction consisting in isomerization into olefins with inner double bonds.

  14. A solid-state NMR investigation of the structure of mesoporous silica nanoparticle supported rhodium catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, Jennifer; Huang, Yulin; Natella, Michael; Cai, Yang; Lin, Victor S.-Y.; Pruski, Marek

    2009-01-04

    A detailed study of the chemical structure of mesoporous silica catalysts containing rhodium ligands and nanoparticles (RhP-MSN) was carried out by multi-dimensional solid-state NMR techniques. The degree of functionalization of the rhodium-phosphinosilyl complex to the surface of the RhP-MSN channels was determined by {sup 29}Si NMR experiments. The structural assignments of the rhodium-phosphinosilyl complex were unambiguously determined by employing the novel, indirectly detected heteronuclear correlation ({sup 13}C-{sup 1}H and {sup 31}P-{sup 1}H idHETCOR) techniques, which indicated that oxidation of the attached phosphinosilyl groups and detachment of Rh was enhanced upon syngas conversion.

  15. Rh2(CF3CONH)4: The First Biological Assays of a Rhodium (II) Amidate

    PubMed Central

    Zyngier, Szulim Ber; de Souza, Aparecido Ribeiro; Najjar, Renato

    1997-01-01

    The rhodium (II) complexes Rh2(tfa)4.2(tfac) and Rh2(tfacam)4 (tfacam = CF3CONH-,tfa = CF3COO-,tfac = CF3CONH2) were synthesized and characterized by microanalysis and electronic and vibrational spectroscopies. Rh2(tfacam)4 was tested both in vitro (U937 and K562 human leukemia cells and Ehrlich ascitic tumor cells) and in vivo for cytostatic activity and lethal dose determination, respectively. This is the first rhodium tetra-amidate to have its biological activity evaluated. The LD50 value for Rh2(tfacam)4 is of the same order as that of cisplatin, and it was verified that the rhodium complex usually needs lower doses than cisplatin to promote the same inhibitory effects. PMID:18475814

  16. Geometric effects on the mechanical strengths of strong nanocrystalline rhodium sub-micron structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, Ting Y.; Jahed, Zeinab; Evans, R. D.; Burek, Michael J.

    2015-06-01

    Sub-micron scale nanocrystalline rhodium pillars were fabricated by electron beam lithography and electroplating techniques. The fabricated specimens included solid core pillars and columnar structure with more complex cross-sectional geometries, including x-shaped and annulus shaped. Among these specimens, two groups of sub-micron scale annulus structures with sidewall thicknesses of 250 and 205 nm were fabricated. All of the structures have outer diameters of ~1 μm and consist of average grain size smaller than 22 nm. Uniaxial compression results reveal these rhodium pillars are very strong with true flow stresses exceeding 5 GPa and are not sensitive to the sample cross-sectional geometries.

  17. Probing the structures of gas-phase rhodium cluster cations by far-infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, D. J.; Gruene, P.; Haertelt, M.; Meijer, G.; Fielicke, A.; Hamilton, S. M.; Hopkins, W. S.; Mackenzie, S. R.; Neville, S. P.; Walsh, T. R.

    2010-12-07

    The geometric structures of small cationic rhodium clusters Rh{sub n}{sup +} (n = 6-12) are investigated by comparison of experimental far-infrared multiple photon dissociation spectra with spectra calculated using density functional theory. The clusters are found to favor structures based on octahedral and tetrahedral motifs for most of the sizes considered, in contrast to previous theoretical predictions that rhodium clusters should favor cubic motifs. Our findings highlight the need for further development of theoretical and computational methods to treat these high-spin transition metal clusters.

  18. Rhodium-catalyzed C-C coupling reactions via double C-H activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai-Shuai; Qin, Liu; Dong, Lin

    2016-05-18

    Various rhodium-catalyzed double C-H activations are reviewed. These powerful strategies have been developed to construct C-C bonds, which might be widely embedded in complex aza-fused heterocycles, polycyclic skeletons and heterocyclic scaffolds. In particular, rhodium(iii) catalysis shows good selectivity and reactivity to functionalize the C-H bond, generating reactive organometallic intermediates in most of the coupling reactions. Generally, intermolecular, intramolecular and multi-component coupling reactions via double C-H activations with or without heteroatom-assisted chelation are discussed in this review. PMID:27099126

  19. Asymmetric Synthesis of Hydrocarbazoles Catalyzed by an Octahedral Chiral-at-Rhodium Lewis Acid.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong; Song, Liangliang; Gong, Lei; Meggers, Eric

    2015-12-01

    A bis-cyclometalated chiral-at-metal rhodium complex catalyzes the Diels-Alder reaction between N-Boc-protected 3-vinylindoles (Boc = tert-butyloxycarbonyl) and β-carboxylic ester-substituted α,β-unsaturated 2-acyl imidazoles with good-to-excellent regioselectivity (up to 99:1) and excellent diastereoselectivity (>50:1 d.r.) as well as enantioselectivity (92-99% ee) under optimized conditions. The rhodium catalyst serves as a chiral Lewis acid to activate the 2-acyl imidazole dienophile by two-point binding and overrules the preferred regioselectivity of the uncatalyzed reaction. PMID:26344422

  20. Chiral Phosphate in Rhodium-Catalyzed Asymmetric [2+2+2] Cycloaddition: Ligand, Counterion, or Both?

    PubMed

    Barbazanges, Marion; Caytan, Elsa; Lesage, Denis; Aubert, Corinne; Fensterbank, Louis; Gandon, Vincent; Ollivier, Cyril

    2016-06-13

    Investigations based on NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and DFT calculations shed light on the metallic species generated in the rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric [2+2+2] cycloaddition reaction between diynes and isocyanates with the chiral phosphate TRIP. The catalytic mixture comprising [{Rh(cod)Cl}2 ], 1,4-diphenylphosphinobutane (dppb), and Ag(S)-TRIP actually gives rise to two species, both having an effect on the stereoselectivity. One is a rhodium(I) complex in which TRIP is a weakly coordinating counterion, whereas the other is a bimetallic Rh/Ag complex in which TRIP is a strongly coordinating X-type ligand. PMID:27167983

  1. Rhodium-Catalyzed Geminal Oxyfluorination and Oxytrifluoro-Methylation of Diazocarbonyl Compounds.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Weiming; Eriksson, Lars; Szabó, Kálmán J

    2016-07-11

    A new reaction for the rhodium-catalyzed geminal-difunctionalization-based fluorination is presented. The substrates are aromatic and aliphatic diazocarbonyl compounds. As the fluorine source a stable and easily accessible benziodoxole reagent was used. A variety of alcohol, phenol, and carboxylic acid reagents were employed to introduce the second functionality. The reaction was extended to trifluoromethylation using a benziodoxolon reagent. The fluorination and trifluoromethylation reactions probably proceed by a rhodium-containing onium ylide type intermediate, which is trapped by either the F or CF3 electrophiles. PMID:27219856

  2. Tandem rhodium catalysis:Exploiting sulfoxides for asymmetric transition-metal catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Kou, K. G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Sulfoxides are uncommon substrates for transition-metal catalysis due to their propensity to inhibit catalyst turnover. In a collaborative effort with Ken Houk, we developed the first dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR) of allylic sulfoxides using asymmetric rhodium-catalyzed hydrogenation. Detailed mechanistic analysis of this transformation using both experimental and theoretical methods revealed rhodium to be a tandem catalyst that promoted both hydrogenation of the alkene and racemization of the allylic sulfoxide. Using a combination of deuterium labelling and DFT studies, a novel mode of allylic sulfoxide racemization via a Rh(III)-π-allyl intermediate was identified. PMID:25940066

  3. Reductive Coupling of Diynes at Rhodium Gives Fluorescent Rhodacyclopentadienes or Phosphorescent Rhodium 2,2'-Biphenyl Complexes.

    PubMed

    Sieck, Carolin; Tay, Meng Guan; Thibault, Marie-Hélène; Edkins, Robert M; Costuas, Karine; Halet, Jean-François; Batsanov, Andrei S; Haehnel, Martin; Edkins, Katharina; Lorbach, Andreas; Steffen, Andreas; Marder, Todd B

    2016-07-18

    Reactions of [Rh(κ(2) -O,O-acac)(PMe3 )2 ] (acac=acetylacetonato) and α,ω-bis(arylbutadiynyl)alkanes afford two isomeric types of MC4 metallacycles with very different photophysical properties. As a result of a [2+2] reductive coupling at Rh, 2,5-bis(arylethynyl)rhodacyclopentadienes (A) are formed, which display intense fluorescence (Φ=0.07-0.54, τ=0.2-2.5 ns) despite the presence of the heavy metal atom. Rhodium biphenyl complexes (B), which show exceptionally long-lived (hundreds of μs) phosphorescence (Φ=0.01-0.33) at room temperature in solution, have been isolated as a second isomer originating from an unusual [4+2] cycloaddition reaction and a subsequent β-H-shift. We attribute the different photophysical properties of isomers A and B to a higher excited state density and a less stabilized T1 state in the biphenyl complexes B, allowing for more efficient intersystem crossing S1 →Tn and T1 →S0 . Control of the isomer distribution is achieved by modification of the bis- (diyne) linker length, providing a fundamentally new route to access photoactive metal biphenyl compounds. PMID:27355689

  4. 7 CFR 966.89 - Derogation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derogation. 966.89 Section 966.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  5. 36 CFR 251.89 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Time extensions. 251.89... Appeal of Decisions Relating to Occupancy and Use of National Forest System Lands § 251.89 Time extensions. (a) Filing of notice of appeal. Time for filing a notice of appeal is not extendable. (b)...

  6. 40 CFR 89.501 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Applicability. 89.501 Section 89.501 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing §...

  7. 40 CFR 89.507 - Sample selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Sample selection. 89.507 Section 89.507 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing §...

  8. 40 CFR 89.501 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability. 89.501 Section 89.501 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing §...

  9. 40 CFR 89.502 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definitions. 89.502 Section 89.502 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing §...

  10. 40 CFR 89.502 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definitions. 89.502 Section 89.502 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing §...

  11. 40 CFR 89.502 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definitions. 89.502 Section 89.502 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing §...

  12. 40 CFR 89.502 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Definitions. 89.502 Section 89.502 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing §...

  13. 40 CFR 89.501 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability. 89.501 Section 89.501 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing §...

  14. 40 CFR 89.501 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability. 89.501 Section 89.501 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing §...

  15. 40 CFR 141.89 - Analytical methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.89 Analytical methods. (a... 136 of this title. This need only be accomplished if the laboratory will be processing source...

  16. 40 CFR 745.89 - Firm certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Firm certification. 745.89 Section 745.89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Residential Property...

  17. 40 CFR 745.89 - Firm certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Firm certification. 745.89 Section 745.89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Residential Property...

  18. 40 CFR 745.89 - Firm certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Firm certification. 745.89 Section 745.89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Residential Property...

  19. 40 CFR 745.89 - Firm certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Firm certification. 745.89 Section 745.89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Residential Property...

  20. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  1. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  2. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  3. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  4. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  5. 33 CFR 401.89 - Transit refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transit refused. 401.89 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.89 Transit refused. (a) An officer may refuse to allow a vessel to transit when, (1) The vessel is not equipped in accordance with §§ 401.5...

  6. 33 CFR 401.89 - Transit refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transit refused. 401.89 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.89 Transit refused. (a) An officer may refuse to allow a vessel to transit when, (1) The vessel is not equipped in accordance with §§ 401.5...

  7. 33 CFR 401.89 - Transit refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transit refused. 401.89 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.89 Transit refused. (a) An officer may refuse to allow a vessel to transit when, (1) The vessel is not equipped in accordance with §§ 401.5...

  8. 20 CFR 632.89 - Performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Program Design and Management § 632.89 Performance standards. The Department of Labor shall establish performance standards for all Native American grantees (section 401(h)(1... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Performance standards. 632.89 Section...

  9. 44 CFR 5.89 - Waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Waiver. 5.89 Section 5.89 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION Subpoenas or Other Legal Demands for Testimony or...

  10. 40 CFR 89.202 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 89.202 Section 89.202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and...

  11. 40 CFR 89.402 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... part, the definitions in 40 CFR part 86, subparts A, D, I, and N, apply to this subpart. ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 89.402 Section 89.402 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL...

  12. 40 CFR 89.1002 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 89.1002 Section 89.1002 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES General Enforcement Provisions...

  13. 40 CFR 89.802 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 89.802 Section 89.802 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Defect Reporting...

  14. 40 CFR 89.103 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 89.103 Section 89.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and...

  15. 40 CFR 89.302 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... defined in this part, the definitions in 40 CFR part 86, subparts A, D, I, and N, apply to this subpart. ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 89.302 Section 89.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL...

  16. 20 CFR 632.89 - Performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Performance standards. 632.89 Section 632.89 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN... of Labor shall establish performance standards for all Native American grantees (section...

  17. 36 CFR 251.89 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Time extensions. 251.89... Appeal of Decisions Relating to Occupancy and Use of National Forest System Lands § 251.89 Time extensions. (a) Filing of notice of appeal. Time for filing a notice of appeal is not extendable. (b)...

  18. 40 CFR 89.503 - Test orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test orders. 89.503 Section 89.503... Test orders. (a) A test order addressed to the manufacturer is required for any testing under this subpart. (b) The test order is signed by the Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation or his or...

  19. 42 CFR 32.89 - Discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discharge. 32.89 Section 32.89 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR... Discharge. Patients with Hansen's disease will be discharged when, in the opinion of the medical staff...

  20. 42 CFR 32.89 - Discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discharge. 32.89 Section 32.89 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR... Discharge. Patients with Hansen's disease will be discharged when, in the opinion of the medical staff...

  1. 42 CFR 32.89 - Discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discharge. 32.89 Section 32.89 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR... Discharge. Patients with Hansen's disease will be discharged when, in the opinion of the medical staff...

  2. 42 CFR 32.89 - Discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discharge. 32.89 Section 32.89 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR... Discharge. Patients with Hansen's disease will be discharged when, in the opinion of the medical staff...

  3. 9 CFR 89.5 - Feeding pens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Feeding pens. 89.5 Section 89.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS STATEMENT OF POLICY UNDER...

  4. 40 CFR 89.909 - Export exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Export exemptions. 89.909 Section 89....909 Export exemptions. (a) A new nonroad engine intended solely for export, and so labeled or tagged..., 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460. New nonroad engines exported to such countries...

  5. 7 CFR 981.89 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agents. 981.89 Section 981.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order...

  6. 7 CFR 981.89 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agents. 981.89 Section 981.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order...

  7. 7 CFR 981.89 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agents. 981.89 Section 981.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order...

  8. 7 CFR 981.89 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agents. 981.89 Section 981.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order...

  9. 7 CFR 981.89 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agents. 981.89 Section 981.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order...

  10. 40 CFR 89.327 - Charge cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Charge cooling. 89.327 Section 89.327....327 Charge cooling. For engines with an air-to-air intercooler (or any other low temperature charge... and the temperature of the charge air shall be monitored and recorded....

  11. 40 CFR 89.327 - Charge cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Charge cooling. 89.327 Section 89.327....327 Charge cooling. For engines with an air-to-air intercooler (or any other low temperature charge... and the temperature of the charge air shall be monitored and recorded....

  12. 49 CFR 89.39 - Administrative charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Referral of Debts to IRS for Tax Refund Offset § 89.39 Administrative charges. In accordance with 4 CFR 102.13, all administrative charges incurred in connection with the referral of the debt to the IRS shall... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administrative charges. 89.39 Section...

  13. 49 CFR 89.39 - Administrative charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Referral of Debts to IRS for Tax Refund Offset § 89.39 Administrative charges. In accordance with 4 CFR 102.13, all administrative charges incurred in connection with the referral of the debt to the IRS shall... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative charges. 89.39 Section...

  14. 40 CFR 89.901 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability. 89.901 Section 89.901 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exemption Provisions §...

  15. 40 CFR 89.514 - Hearing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hearing procedures. 89.514 Section 89.514 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective...

  16. 40 CFR 89.907 - Display exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Display exemption. 89.907 Section 89.907 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exemption Provisions §...

  17. 40 CFR 89.514 - Hearing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hearing procedures. 89.514 Section 89.514 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective...

  18. 40 CFR 89.905 - Testing exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Testing exemption. 89.905 Section 89.905 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exemption Provisions §...

  19. 40 CFR 89.907 - Display exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Display exemption. 89.907 Section 89.907 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exemption Provisions §...

  20. 40 CFR 89.901 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 89.901 Section 89.901 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exemption Provisions §...

  1. 40 CFR 89.909 - Export exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Export exemptions. 89.909 Section 89.909 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exemption Provisions §...

  2. 47 CFR 80.89 - Unauthorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Unauthorized transmissions. 80.89 Section 80.89... transmissions. Stations must not: (a) Engage in superfluous radio-communication. (b) Use telephony on 243 MHz... transmission of distress, alarm, urgency, or safety signals or messages, or to test transmissions. (e)...

  3. 47 CFR 80.89 - Unauthorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unauthorized transmissions. 80.89 Section 80.89... transmissions. Stations must not: (a) Engage in superfluous radio-communication. (b) Use telephony on 243 MHz... transmission of distress, alarm, urgency, or safety signals or messages, or to test transmissions. (e)...

  4. 47 CFR 80.89 - Unauthorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Unauthorized transmissions. 80.89 Section 80.89... transmissions. Stations must not: (a) Engage in superfluous radio-communication. (b) Use telephony on 243 MHz... transmission of distress, alarm, urgency, or safety signals or messages, or to test transmissions. (e)...

  5. 47 CFR 80.89 - Unauthorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Unauthorized transmissions. 80.89 Section 80.89... transmissions. Stations must not: (a) Engage in superfluous radio-communication. (b) Use telephony on 243 MHz... transmission of distress, alarm, urgency, or safety signals or messages, or to test transmissions. (e)...

  6. 47 CFR 80.89 - Unauthorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Unauthorized transmissions. 80.89 Section 80.89... transmissions. Stations must not: (a) Engage in superfluous radio-communication. (b) Use telephony on 243 MHz... transmission of distress, alarm, urgency, or safety signals or messages, or to test transmissions. (e)...

  7. 40 CFR 89.902 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... piece of equipment employed from year to year in the ordinary course of business for product development... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exemption Provisions § 89.902 Definitions... an exemption granted under § 89.1004(b) for the purpose of exporting new nonroad engines....

  8. 31 CFR 306.89 - Public officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public officers. 306.89 Section 306..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING U.S. SECURITIES Assignments in Behalf of Private or Public Organizations § 306.89 Public officers. Securities registered...

  9. 40 CFR 89.503 - Test orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test orders. 89.503 Section 89.503... Test orders. (a) A test order addressed to the manufacturer is required for any testing under this subpart. (b) The test order is signed by the Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation or his or...

  10. 40 CFR 89.508 - Test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test procedures. 89.508 Section 89.508... Test procedures. (a)(1) For nonroad engines subject to the provisions of this subpart, the prescribed test procedures are the nonroad engine 8-mode test procedure as described in subpart E of this...

  11. 40 CFR 141.89 - Analytical methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical methods. 141.89 Section 141...) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.89 Analytical methods. (a... shall be conducted with the methods in § 141.23(k)(1). (1) Analyses for alkalinity,...

  12. 36 CFR 251.89 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Time extensions. 251.89... Appeal of Decisions Relating to Occupancy and Use of National Forest System Lands § 251.89 Time extensions. (a) Filing of notice of appeal. Time for filing a notice of appeal is not extendable. (b)...

  13. 40 CFR 89.501 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 89.501 Section 89.501 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing §...

  14. 40 CFR 89.502 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 89.502 Section 89.502 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing §...

  15. 12 CFR 238.89 - Board action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Board action. 238.89 Section 238.89 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION LL) Prohibited Service at Savings and Loan...

  16. 12 CFR 238.89 - Board action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Board action. 238.89 Section 238.89 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION LL) Prohibited Service at Savings and Loan...

  17. 12 CFR 238.89 - Board action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Board action. 238.89 Section 238.89 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION LL) Prohibited Service at Savings and Loan...

  18. 40 CFR 89.503 - Test orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Test orders. 89.503 Section 89.503... Test orders. (a) A test order addressed to the manufacturer is required for any testing under this subpart. (b) The test order is signed by the Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation or his or...

  19. Azido[1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene](pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)rhodium(III) hexafluorophosphate.

    PubMed

    Han, Won Seok; Lee, Soon W

    2004-04-01

    In the title compound, azido-2kappaN-bis[micro-(1eta(5):2kappaP)-diphenylphosphinocyclopentadienyl][2(eta(5))-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl]iron(III)rhodium(III) hexafluorophosphate, [[Rh(C(10)H(15))(N(3))][Fe(micro-C(17)H(14)P)(2)

  20. Direct C-H alkylation and indole formation of anilines with diazo compounds under rhodium catalysis.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Neeraj Kumar; Choi, Miji; Jo, Hyeim; Oh, Yongguk; Sharma, Satyasheel; Han, Sang Hoon; Jeong, Taejoo; Han, Sangil; Lee, Seok-Yong; Kim, In Su

    2015-12-18

    The rhodium(III)-catalyzed direct functionalization of aniline C-H bonds with α-diazo compounds is described. These transformations provide a facile construction of ortho-alkylated anilines with diazo malonates or highly substituted indoles with diazo acetoacetates. PMID:26458276

  1. Trifluoromethylallylation of Heterocyclic C-H Bonds with Allylic Carbonates under Rhodium Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Miji; Park, Jihye; Sharma, Satyasheel; Jo, Hyeim; Han, Sangil; Jeon, Mijin; Mishra, Neeraj Kumar; Han, Sang Hoon; Lee, Jong Suk; Kim, In Su

    2016-06-01

    The rhodium(III)-catalyzed γ-trifluoromethylallylation of various heterocyclic C-H bonds with CF3-substituted allylic carbonates is described. These reactions provide direct access to linear CF3-containing allyl frameworks with complete trans-selectivity via C-H bond activation followed by a formal SN-type reaction pathway. PMID:27187625

  2. Rhodium dihydride (RhH[subscript 2]) with high volumetric hydrogen density

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Bing; Ding, Yang; Kim, Duck Young; Ahuja, Rajeev; Zou, Guangtian; Mao, Ho-Kwang

    2012-03-14

    Materials with very high hydrogen density have attracted considerable interest due to a range of motivations, including the search for chemically precompressed metallic hydrogen and hydrogen storage applications. Using high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction technique and theoretical calculations, we have discovered a new rhodium dihydride (RhH{sub 2}) with high volumetric hydrogen density (163.7 g/L). Compressing rhodium in fluid hydrogen at ambient temperature, the fcc rhodium metal absorbs hydrogen and expands unit-cell volume by two discrete steps to form NaCl-typed fcc rhodium monohydride at 4 GPa and fluorite-typed fcc RhH{sub 2} at 8 GPa. RhH{sub 2} is the first dihydride discovered in the platinum group metals under high pressure. Our low-temperature experiments show that RhH{sub 2} is recoverable after releasing pressure cryogenically to 1 bar and is capable of retaining hydrogen up to 150 K for minutes and 77 K for an indefinite length of time.

  3. Rhodium-Catalyzed ipso-Borylation of Alkylthioarenes via C-S Bond Cleavage.

    PubMed

    Uetake, Yuta; Niwa, Takashi; Hosoya, Takamitsu

    2016-06-01

    Rhodium-catalyzed transformation of alkyl aryl sulfides into arylboronic acid pinacol esters via C-S bond cleavage is reported. In combination with transition-metal-catalyzed sulfanyl group-guided regioselective C-H borylation reactions of alkylthioarenes, this method allows the synthesis of a diverse range of multisubstituted arenes. PMID:27210907

  4. Rhodium(i)-catalysed intermolecular alkyne insertion into (2-pyridylmethylene)cyclobutenes.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Takanori; Matsumoto, Takeshi

    2016-06-14

    Cyclobutenes with 2-pyridylmethylene groups at the 3 position underwent an intermolecular alkyne insertion reaction in the presence of a rhodium(i) catalyst at 170 °C to afford substituted benzenes. Among the different 2-pyridylmethylene groups examined, 3-methyl-2-pyridyl derivatives showed superior activity and readily coupled with various alkynes, including sterically demanding, heteroaromatic and terminal alkynes. PMID:27193826

  5. Cross-Coupling of Acrylamides and Maleimides under Rhodium Catalysis: Controlled Olefin Migration.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Satyasheel; Han, Sang Hoon; Oh, Yongguk; Mishra, Neeraj Kumar; Lee, Suk Hun; Oh, Joa Sub; Kim, In Su

    2016-06-01

    The rhodium(III)-catalyzed direct cross-coupling reaction of electron-deficient acrylamides with maleimides is described. This protocol displays broad functional group tolerance and high efficiency, which offers a new opportunity to access highly substituted succinimides. Dependent on the substituent positions of acrylamides and reaction conditions, olefin migrated products were obtained with high regio- and stereoselectivity. PMID:27182717

  6. Synthesis of 1H-Indazoles from Imidates and Nitrosobenzenes via Synergistic Rhodium/Copper Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Li, Xingwei

    2016-05-01

    Nitrosobenzenes have been used as a convenient aminating reagent for the efficient synthesis of 1H-indazoles via rhodium and copper catalyzed C-H activation and C-N/N-N coupling. The reaction occurred under redox-neutral conditions with high efficiency and functional group tolerance. Moreover, a rhodacyclic imidate complex has been identified as a key intermediate. PMID:27082502

  7. Toward the Synthesis of Nuphar Sesquiterpene Thioalkaloids: Stereodivergent Rhodium-Catalyzed Synthesis of the Thiolane Subunit.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Herrmann, Aaron T; Zakarian, Armen

    2015-08-01

    A stereodivergent approach to the central thiolane subunit of Nuphar sesquiterpene thioalkaloids has been developed. This approach features a rhodium-catalyzed Stevens-type rearrangement in conjunction with an enzyme resolution reaction. Further elaboration into a polycyclic ring system via alcohol oxidation and ring-closing metathesis is also described. PMID:26147579

  8. Chemo- and Regioselective Rhodium(I)-Catalyzed [2+2+2] Cycloaddition of Allenynes with Alkynes.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Shigeo; Kawaguchi, Yasuaki; Okamoto, Yuta; Mukai, Chisato

    2016-08-16

    A highly chemo- and regioselective partially intramolecular rhodium(I)-catalyzed [2+2+2] cycloaddition of allenynes with alkynes is described. A range of diverse polysubstituted benzene derivatives could be synthesized in good to excellent yields, in which the allenynes served as synthetic equivalent to the diynes. A high regioselectivity could be observed when allenynes were treated with unsymmetrical alkynes. PMID:27436356

  9. Rhodium dihydride (RhH2) with high volumetric hydrogen density

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Ding, Yang; Kim, Duck Young; Ahuja, Rajeev; Zou, Guangtian; Mao, Ho-Kwang

    2011-01-01

    Materials with very high hydrogen density have attracted considerable interest due to a range of motivations, including the search for chemically precompressed metallic hydrogen and hydrogen storage applications. Using high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction technique and theoretical calculations, we have discovered a new rhodium dihydride (RhH2) with high volumetric hydrogen density (163.7 g/L). Compressing rhodium in fluid hydrogen at ambient temperature, the fcc rhodium metal absorbs hydrogen and expands unit-cell volume by two discrete steps to form NaCl-typed fcc rhodium monohydride at 4 GPa and fluorite-typed fcc RhH2 at 8 GPa. RhH2 is the first dihydride discovered in the platinum group metals under high pressure. Our low-temperature experiments show that RhH2 is recoverable after releasing pressure cryogenically to 1 bar and is capable of retaining hydrogen up to 150 K for minutes and 77 K for an indefinite length of time. PMID:22039219

  10. A Rhodium Nanoparticle-Lewis Acidic Ionic Liquid Catalyst for the Chemoselective Reduction of Heteroarenes.

    PubMed

    Karakulina, Alena; Gopakumar, Aswin; Akçok, İsmail; Roulier, Bastien L; LaGrange, Thomas; Katsyuba, Sergey A; Das, Shoubhik; Dyson, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    We describe a catalytic system composed of rhodium nanoparticles immobilized in a Lewis acidic ionic liquid. The combined system catalyzes the hydrogenation of quinolines, pyridines, benzofurans, and furan to access the corresponding heterocycles, important molecules present in fine chemicals, agrochemicals, and pharmaceuticals. The catalyst is highly selective, acting only on the heteroaromatic ring, and not interfering with other reducible functional groups. PMID:26577114

  11. Synthesis of C60H2 by rhodium-catalyzed hydrogenation of C60

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, L.; Evans, T. P.; Bada, J. L.; Miller, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Reduction of C60 with rhodium(0) on alumina and hydrogen in deuterated benzene (C6D6) at ambient temperature and pressure yields a mixture of hydrogenated compounds; C60H2 has been characterized as the major product in 14% yield based on 1H NMR.

  12. Synthesis of Chiral β-Amino Nitroalkanes via Rhodium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Li, Pan; Zhou, Ming; Zhao, Qingyang; Wu, Weilong; Hu, Xinquan; Dong, Xiu-Qin; Zhang, Xumu

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetric hydrogenation of β-amino nitroolefins has been successfully achieved by rhodium/bis(phosphine)-thiourea L1 with excellent enantioselectivities and yields (up to 96% ee, 96% yield, >99% conversion, TON up to 1000) under mild conditions. Chiral β-amino nitroalkane products and their derivatives are versatile intermediates in organic synthesis. PMID:26652759

  13. Mild and Site-Selective Allylation of Enol Carbamates with Allylic Carbonates under Rhodium Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Satyasheel; Han, Sang Hoon; Oh, Yongguk; Mishra, Neeraj Kumar; Han, Sangil; Kwak, Jong Hwan; Lee, Seok-Yong; Jung, Young Hoon; Kim, In Su

    2016-03-18

    The rhodium(III)-catalyzed mild and site-selective C-H allylation of enol carbamates with 4-vinyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-one and allylic carbonates affords allylic alcohols and terminal allylated products, respectively. The assistance of the carbamoyl directing group provides a straightforward preparation of biologically and synthetically important allylated enol carbamates. PMID:26906724

  14. High-temperature, long-term drift of platinum-rhodium thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szaniszlo, A. J.

    1970-01-01

    Contamination of thermocouples is minimized by use of pure alumina insulators and a controlled low-impurity-level high-vacuum environment. Average thermal electromotive force change for platinum-rhodium thermocouples was -2.8 deg K after 3700 hours exposure to a mean temperature of 1530 deg K.

  15. Rhodium Nanoparticle Shape Dependence in the Reduction of NO by CO

    SciTech Connect

    Renzas, J.R.; Zhang, Y.; Huang, W.; Somorjai, G.A.

    2009-07-13

    The shape dependence of the catalytic reduction of NO by CO on Rhodium nanopolyhedra and nanocubes was studied from 230-270 C. The nanocubes are found to exhibit higher turnover frequency and lower activation energy than the nanopolyhedra. These trends are compared to previous studies on Rh single crystals.

  16. Ligand Fluorination to Optimize Preferential Oxidation (PROX) of Carbon Monoxide by Water-Soluble Rhodium Porphyrins

    PubMed Central

    Biffinger, Justin C.; Uppaluri, ShriHarsha; Sun, Haoran

    2011-01-01

    Catalytic, low temperature preferential oxidation (PROX) of carbon monoxide by aqueous [5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)-2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octafluoroporphyrinato]rhodium(III) tetrasodium salt, (1[Rh(III)]) and [5,10,15,20-tetrakis(3-sulfonato-2,6-difluorophenyl)-2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octafluoroporphyrinato]rhodium(III) tetrasodium salt, (2[Rh(III)]) is reported. The PROX reaction occurs at ambient temperature in buffered (4 ≤ pH ≤ 13) aqueous solutions. Fluorination on the porphyrin periphery is shown to increase the CO PROX reaction rate, shift the metal centered redox potentials, and acidify ligated water molecules. Most importantly, β-fluorination increases the acidity of the rhodium hydride complex (pKa = 2.2 ± 0.2 for 2[Rh-D]); the dramatically increased acidity of the Rh(III) hydride complex precludes proton reduction and hydrogen activation near neutral pH, thereby permitting oxidation of CO to be unaffected by the presence of H2. This new fluorinated water-soluble rhodium porphyrin-based homogenous catalyst system permits preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide in hydrogen gas streams at 308 °K using dioxygen or a sacrificial electron acceptor (indigo carmine) as the terminal oxidant. PMID:21949596

  17. Determination of phenolic compounds using spectral and color transitions of rhodium nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gatselou, Vasiliki; Christodouleas, Dionysios C; Kouloumpis, Antonios; Gournis, Dimitrios; Giokas, Dimosthenis L

    2016-08-17

    This work reports a new approach for the determination of phenolic compounds based on their interaction with citrate-capped rhodium nanoparticles. Phenolic compounds (i.e., catechins, gallates, cinnamates, and dihydroxybenzoic acids) were found to cause changes in the size and localized surface plasmon resonance of rhodium nanoparticles, and therefore, give rise to analyte-specific spectral and color transitions in the rhodium nanoparticle suspensions. Upon reaction with phenolic compounds (mainly dithydroxybenzoate derivatives, and trihydroxybenzoate derivatives), new absorbance peaks at 350 nm and 450 nm were observed. Upon reaction with trihydroxybenzoate derivatives, however, an additional absorbance peak at 580 nm was observed facilitating the speciation of phenolic compounds in the sample. Both absorbance peaks at 450 nm and 580 nm increased with increasing concentration of phenolic compounds over a linear range of 0-500 μM. Detection limits at the mid-micromolar levels were achieved, depending on the phenolic compound involved, and with satisfactory reproducibility (<7.3%). On the basis of these findings, two rhodium nanoparticles-based assays for the determination of the total phenolic content and total catechin content were developed and applied in tea samples. The obtained results correlated favorably with commonly used methods (i.e., Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum complexation assay). Not the least, the finding that rhodium nanoparticles can react with analytes and exhibit unique localized surface plasmon resonance bands in the visible region, can open new opportunities for developing new optical and sensing analytical applications. PMID:27286772

  18. Preparation, characterization and crystal structures of two amine-oxime rhodium complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Lynde-Kernell, T.; Schlemper, E.O.

    1988-01-01

    Two amine-oxime complexes of rhodium(III) have been synthesized and structurally characterized as model compounds for a study of potential radiopharmaceuticals. Dichlorobis (2-acetylpyridineoxime)-rhodium(III) crystallizes in space group Pnma with a = 13.462(4), b = 12.496(2), c = 9.661(2)A, Z = 4, D/sub x/ = 1.819(2)g/cm/sup 3/. The chloro ligands are trans (av Rh-Cl = 2.337(2)A) in the octahedral Rh(III) complex. The oxime oxygens are involved in a short intramolecular hydrogen bond (O---O = 2.446(4)A) with the hydrogen atom as well as the rhodium and two chlorine atoms on the mirror. Dichloro-(4,4'-(1,2-ethanediyldiimino)bis(4-methyl-2-pentanone-dioxime))rhodium (III) crystallizes in space group P2/sub 1/2/sub 1/2/sub 1/ with a = 14.435(3), b = 7.638(9), c = 16.596(3)A, Z = 4, D/sub x/ = 1.667(2)g/cm/sup 3/. The trans dichoro octahedral complex (av Rh downward arrow not identical to = 2.341(11)A) has cis amine nitrogens (av Rh-N = 2.079(3)A) and one cis oxime nitrogens (av Rh-N = 2.030(3)A). The oxime oxygen atoms are involved in a short intramolecular hydrogen bond (O---O = 2.423(3)A). Synthesis and proton magnetic resonance results are included, along with a comparison with other rhodium(III) amine-oxime complex structures.

  19. 7 CFR 301.89-4 - Planting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Karnal Bunt § 301.89-4 Planting. Any wheat, durum wheat, or triticale that originates within a regulated area must be tested and found free from bunted...

  20. 7 CFR 301.89-4 - Planting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Karnal Bunt § 301.89-4 Planting. Any wheat, durum wheat, or triticale that originates within a regulated area must be tested and found free from bunted...

  1. 7 CFR 301.89-4 - Planting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Karnal Bunt § 301.89-4 Planting. Any wheat, durum wheat, or triticale that originates within a regulated area must be tested and found free from bunted...

  2. 7 CFR 301.89-4 - Planting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Karnal Bunt § 301.89-4 Planting. Any wheat, durum wheat, or triticale that originates within a regulated area must be tested and found free from bunted...

  3. 49 CFR 230.89 - Reverse gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Reversing Gear § 230.89 Reverse gear. (a) General provisions. Reverse gear, reverse levers, and quadrants shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Reverse lever latch shall be...

  4. 49 CFR 230.89 - Reverse gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Reversing Gear § 230.89 Reverse gear. (a) General provisions. Reverse gear, reverse levers, and quadrants shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Reverse lever latch shall be...

  5. 49 CFR 230.89 - Reverse gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Reversing Gear § 230.89 Reverse gear. (a) General provisions. Reverse gear, reverse levers, and quadrants shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Reverse lever latch shall be...

  6. 42 CFR 32.89 - Discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PERSONS WITH HANSEN'S DISEASE AND OTHER PERSONS IN EMERGENCIES Persons with Hansen's Disease § 32.89 Discharge. Patients with Hansen's disease will be discharged when, in the opinion of the medical staff...

  7. 40 CFR 89.503 - Test orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing § 89.503... Selective Enforcement Auditing (SEA) test orders than an annual limit determined to be the larger of...

  8. 49 CFR 230.89 - Reverse gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Reversing Gear § 230.89 Reverse gear. (a) General provisions. Reverse gear, reverse levers, and quadrants shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Reverse lever latch shall be...

  9. 7 CFR 301.89-4 - Planting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Karnal Bunt § 301.89-4 Planting. Any wheat, durum wheat, or triticale that originates within a regulated area must be tested and found free from bunted...

  10. 40 CFR 89.503 - Test orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing § 89.503... Selective Enforcement Auditing (SEA) test orders than an annual limit determined to be the larger of...

  11. 40 CFR 89.6 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at US EPA, OAR, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave... 19428-2959. Document number and name 40 CFR part 89 reference ASTM D86-97: “Standard Test Method for... Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, PA 15096-0001. Document number and name 40 CFR part 89 reference SAE J244 June...

  12. 40 CFR 89.6 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at US EPA, OAR, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave... 19428-2959. Document number and name 40 CFR part 89 reference ASTM D86-97: “Standard Test Method for... Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, PA 15096-0001. Document number and name 40 CFR part 89 reference SAE J244 June...

  13. Graphs for Isotopes of 89-Ac (Actinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides a graphic representation of nucleon separation energies and residual interaction parameters for isotopes of the chemical element 89-Ac (Actinium, atomic number Z = 89).

  14. Burnup of rhodium SPND in VVER-1000: Method for determination of linear energy release by SPND readings

    SciTech Connect

    Kurchenkov, A. Yu.

    2011-12-15

    A method for determination of linear energy release of a VVER fuel assembly near a rhodium self-powered neutron detector (SPND) is described. The dependence of SPND burnup on the charge passing through it is specified.

  15. Promoting Effect of CeO2 in the Electrocatalytic Activity of Rhodium for Ethanol Electro-Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    He, Q.; Mukerjee, S; Shyam, B; Ramaker, D; Parres-Esclapex, D; Illan-Gomez, M; Bueno-Lopez, A

    2009-01-01

    The promoting effect of ceria in the electrocatalytic activity of rhodium for ethanol electro-oxidation in alkali media has been studied. Rh/C, CeO2/C and RhCeO2/C catalysts were synthesized and characterized by TEM, XRD, XPS, TG-MS, H2-TPR and XAS. The electrocatalytic activity was studied by Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry. The onset potential of oxidation on RhCeO2/C was shifted negatively as compared to that on Rh/C, despite ceria itself does not show any electrocatalytic activity. The promoting effect of ceria has been attributed to the improved rhodium dispersion, and differences in the oxidation state of rhodium between Rh/C and RhCeO2/C were not found. The carbon support reduces rhodium species to Rh0, and also partially reduces ceria, during the samples preparation, and the surface of the carbon support is oxidised.

  16. Double hydrophosphination of alkynes promoted by rhodium: the key role of an N-heterocyclic carbene ligand.

    PubMed

    Di Giuseppe, Andrea; De Luca, Roberto; Castarlenas, Ricardo; Pérez-Torrente, Jesús J; Crucianelli, Marcello; Oro, Luis A

    2016-04-25

    The regioselective double hydrophosphination of alkynes mediated by rhodium catalysts is presented. The distinctive stereoelectronic properties of the NHC ligand prevent the catalyst deactivation by diphosphine coordination thereby allowing for the closing of a productive catalytic cycle. PMID:27022648

  17. Preparation of alumina-supported ceria. II. Measurement of ceria surface area after impregnation with platinum or rhodium

    SciTech Connect

    Rogemond, E.; Frety, R.; Perrichon, V.; Primet, M. |

    1997-07-01

    The surface area of cerium oxide was evaluated in an aluminium oxide supported catalyst. The catalyst were impregnated with rhodium chlorides and platinum chlorides. The adsorption of carbon dioxide is discussed.

  18. Rhodium- and iridium-catalyzed dehydrogenative cyclization through double C-H bond cleavages to produce fluorene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Masaki; Hirano, Koji; Satoh, Tetsuya; Shibata, Yu; Tanaka, Ken; Miura, Masahiro

    2013-02-15

    The rhodium-catalyzed cyclization of a series of 2,2-diarylalkanoic acids in the presence of copper acetate as an oxidant smoothly proceeded through double C-H bond cleavages and subsequent decarboxylation to produce the corresponding fluorene derivatives. The direct cyclization of triarylmethanols also took place efficiently by using an iridium catalyst in place of the rhodium, while the hydroxy function was still intact. PMID:23360206

  19. Rhodium-catalyzed pyridannulation of indoles with diazoenals: a direct approach to pyrido[1,2-a]indoles.

    PubMed

    Dawande, Sudam Ganpat; Lad, Bapurao Sudam; Prajapati, Sunitkumar; Katukojvala, Sreenivas

    2016-06-28

    A novel rhodium catalyzed pyridannulation of 3-substituted indoles with diazoenals furnished privileged pyrido[1,2-a]indoles. The reaction is proposed to involve a [4 + 2]-annulation of the diacceptor rhodium enalcarbenoid via C-2 functionalization of the indole. The utility of the methodology was demonstrated with a short synthesis of the tetrahydropyrido[1,2-a]indole core, present in a large number of biologically important polycyclic indole alkaloids. PMID:26964882

  20. Ion exchange equilibria in simultaneous extraction of platinum(II, IV) and rhodium(III) from hydrochloric solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mel'nikov, A. M.; Kononova, O. N.; Pavlenko, N. I.; Krylov, A. S.

    2012-06-01

    Regularities of sorption extraction of platinum(II, IV) and rhodium(III) by anion exchangers of various physical and chemical structure in the presence of hydrochloric media were studied. It is established that AM-2B, Purolite A 500, and Purolite S 985 ionites adsorb complex anions of platinum metals employing mixed mechanism. A high affinity of the studied anionites for the studied complex anions of platinum and rhodium is established.

  1. Enantioselective Synthesis of Spiroindenes by Enol-Directed Rhodium(III)-Catalyzed C–H Functionalization and Spiroannulation

    PubMed Central

    Reddy Chidipudi, Suresh; Burns, David J; Khan, Imtiaz; Lam, Hon Wai

    2015-01-01

    Chiral cyclopentadienyl rhodium complexes promote highly enantioselective enol-directed C(sp2)-H functionalization and oxidative annulation with alkynes to give spiroindenes containing all-carbon quaternary stereocenters. High selectivity between two possible directing groups, as well as control of the direction of rotation in the isomerization of an O-bound rhodium enolate into the C-bound isomer, appear to be critical for high enantiomeric excesses. PMID:26404643

  2. Enantioselective Synthesis of Spiroindenes by Enol-Directed Rhodium(III)-Catalyzed C-H Functionalization and Spiroannulation.

    PubMed

    Reddy Chidipudi, Suresh; Burns, David J; Khan, Imtiaz; Lam, Hon Wai

    2015-11-16

    Chiral cyclopentadienyl rhodium complexes promote highly enantioselective enol-directed C(sp(2))-H functionalization and oxidative annulation with alkynes to give spiroindenes containing all-carbon quaternary stereocenters. High selectivity between two possible directing groups, as well as control of the direction of rotation in the isomerization of an O-bound rhodium enolate into the C-bound isomer, appear to be critical for high enantiomeric excesses. PMID:26404643

  3. Selective catalytic reduction system and process for treating NOx emissions using a palladium and rhodium or ruthenium catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A.; Knapke, Michael J.

    2011-07-12

    A process for the catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in a gas stream (29) in the presence of H.sub.2 is provided. The process comprises contacting the gas stream with a catalyst system (38) comprising zirconia-silica washcoat particles (41), a pre-sulfated zirconia binder (44), and a catalyst combination (40) comprising palladium and at least one of rhodium, ruthenium, or a mixture of ruthenium and rhodium.

  4. Rhodium(III)-catalyzed C-C coupling of 7-azaindoles with vinyl acetates and allyl acetates.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai-Shuai; Wang, Cheng-Qi; Lin, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Dong, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The behaviour of electron-rich alkenes with 7-azaindoles in rhodium(III)-catalyzed C-H activation is investigated. Various substituted vinyl acetates and allyl acetates as coupling partners reacted smoothly providing a wide variety of 7-azaindole derivatives, and the selectivity of the coupling reaction is alkene-dependent. In addition, the approaches of rhodium(III)-catalyzed dehydrogenative Heck-type reaction (DHR) and carbonylation reaction were quite novel and simple. PMID:26553424

  5. Time-Resolved Structural Characterization of Formation and Break-up of Rhodium Clusters Supported in Highly Dealuminated Y Zeolite

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Ann J.; Gates, Bruce C.

    2009-06-12

    Mononuclear rhodium complexes incorporating two ethylene ligands and anchored to dealuminated zeolite Y by two Rh-O bonds were characterized by transient extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and infrared (IR) spectroscopy as they were converted in the presence of H{sub 2}. EXAFS spectra indicate reduction of the rhodium in the complex at 298 K to form rhodium clusters less than 3 {angstrom} in average diameter. Contacting of the resultant clusters with C{sub 2}H{sub 4} led to their oxidative fragmentation, and the process was reversible. When the H{sub 2} treatment was carried out at a higher temperature (373 K), larger clusters formed. The reduction and oxidation of the rhodium were confirmed by X-ray absorption near edge spectra. During the ethylene treatments, ethyl groups formed on the rhodium, as indicated by IR spectra; treatment in H{sub 2} led to hydrogenation of these groups to form ethane, and the ethyl groups are inferred to be intermediates in the catalytic hydrogenation of ethylene. Ethylene in the gas phase helps to stabilize rhodium in the form of mononuclear complexes on the zeolite during catalysis, hindering the cluster formation.

  6. Rhodium and copper-catalyzed asymmetric conjugate addition of alkenyl nucleophiles.

    PubMed

    Müller, Daniel; Alexakis, Alexandre

    2012-12-25

    Since the initial reports in the mid-90s, metal catalyzed asymmetric conjugate addition (ACA) reactions evolved as an important tool for the synthetic chemist. Most of the research efforts have been done in the field of rhodium and copper catalyzed ACA reactions employing aryl and alkyl nucleophiles. Despite the great synthetic value of the double bond, the addition of alkenyl nucleophiles remains insufficiently explored. In this account, an overview of the developments in the field of rhodium and copper catalyzed ACA reactions with organometallic alkenyl reagents (B, Mg, Al, Si, Zr, Sn) will be provided. The account is intended to give a comprehensive overview of all the existing methods. However, in many cases only selected examples are displayed in order to facilitate comparison of different ligands and methodologies. PMID:23096501

  7. Enantioselective rhodium/ruthenium photoredox catalysis en route to chiral 1,2-aminoalcohols.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiajia; Harms, Klaus; Meggers, Eric

    2016-08-01

    A rhodium-based chiral Lewis acid catalyst combined with [Ru(bpy)3](PF6)2 as a photoredox sensitizer allows for the visible-light-activated redox coupling of α-silylamines with 2-acyl imidazoles to afford, after desilylation, 1,2-amino-alcohols in yields of 69-88% and with high enantioselectivity (54-99% ee). The reaction is proposed to proceed via an electron exchange between the α-silylamine (electron donor) and the rhodium-chelated 2-acyl imidazole (electron acceptor), followed by a stereocontrolled radical-radical reaction. Substrate scope and control experiments reveal that the trimethylsilyl group plays a crucial role in this reductive umpolung of the carbonyl group. PMID:27462824

  8. 40 CFR 89.1003 - Prohibited acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Administrator: THIS ENGINE COMPLIES WITH U.S. EPA NONROAD EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR ENGINES UNDER 40 CFR 89.1003... of design installed on or in a nonroad engine, vehicle or equipment in compliance with regulations... remove or render inoperative such a device or element of design after the sale and delivery to...

  9. 40 CFR 89.405 - Recorded information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufacturer need not record the information specified in this paragraph for each test if the information, with... horsepower and torque speeds. (6) Engine displacement. (7) Governed speed. (8) Idle rpm. (9) Fuel consumption...) Test number. (3) Intermediate speed and rated speed as defined in § 89.2 and maximum observed...

  10. 40 CFR 89.405 - Recorded information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacturer need not record the information specified in this paragraph for each test if the information, with... horsepower and torque speeds. (6) Engine displacement. (7) Governed speed. (8) Idle rpm. (9) Fuel consumption...) Test number. (3) Intermediate speed and rated speed as defined in § 89.2 and maximum observed...

  11. 40 CFR 89.405 - Recorded information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacturer need not record the information specified in this paragraph for each test if the information, with... horsepower and torque speeds. (6) Engine displacement. (7) Governed speed. (8) Idle rpm. (9) Fuel consumption...) Test number. (3) Intermediate speed and rated speed as defined in § 89.2 and maximum observed...

  12. 40 CFR 89.405 - Recorded information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 89.405 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... at maximum power and torque. (10) Maximum air flow. (11) Air inlet restriction. (12) Exhaust pipe... span traces for each range used. (5) Air temperature after and pressure drop across the charge...

  13. 14 CFR 61.89 - General limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Student Pilots § 61.89 General limitations. (a... a business; (5) On an international flight, except that a student pilot may make solo...

  14. 14 CFR 61.89 - General limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Student Pilots § 61.89 General limitations. (a... a business; (5) On an international flight, except that a student pilot may make solo...

  15. 14 CFR 61.89 - General limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Student Pilots § 61.89 General limitations. (a... a business; (5) On an international flight, except that a student pilot may make solo...

  16. 14 CFR 61.89 - General limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Student Pilots § 61.89 General limitations. (a... a business; (5) On an international flight, except that a student pilot may make solo...

  17. 14 CFR 61.89 - General limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Student Pilots § 61.89 General limitations. (a... a business; (5) On an international flight, except that a student pilot may make solo...

  18. 40 CFR 89.1003 - Prohibited acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Administrator: THIS ENGINE COMPLIES WITH U.S. EPA NONROAD EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR ENGINES UNDER 40 CFR 89.1003..., into commerce, of any new nonroad engine manufactured after the applicable effective date under this part, or any nonroad vehicle or equipment containing such engine, unless such engine is covered by...

  19. 40 CFR 89.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Provisions § 89.312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of all calibration gases must not be exceeded. The...) (Contamination ≤ 31 ppm C, ≤ 400 ppm CO) (4) Purified synthetic air (Contamination ≤ 1 ppm C, ≤ 1 ppm CO, ≤ 400... having the following chemical compositions shall be available: (i) C3H8 and purified synthetic air ;...

  20. 40 CFR 89.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Provisions § 89.312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of all calibration gases must not be exceeded. The...) (Contamination ≤ 31 ppm C, ≤ 400 ppm CO) (4) Purified synthetic air (Contamination ≤ 1 ppm C, ≤ 1 ppm CO, ≤ 400... having the following chemical compositions shall be available: (i) C3H8 and purified synthetic air ;...

  1. 47 CFR 101.89 - Negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Applications and Licenses Policies Governing Fixed Service Relocation from the 18.58-19.30 Ghz Band § 101.89 Negotiations. (a) The negotiation is triggered by the fixed-satellite service...

  2. 47 CFR 101.89 - Negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Applications and Licenses Policies Governing Fixed Service Relocation from the 18.58-19.30 Ghz Band § 101.89 Negotiations. (a) The negotiation is triggered by the fixed-satellite service...

  3. 9 CFR 89.4 - Watering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... LAW § 89.4 Watering. Livestock should be furnished an ample supply of potable water. Water treated... other objectionable matter should not be used. Troughs and other receptacles should be clean. In cold weather, the water should be free from ice....

  4. 9 CFR 89.4 - Watering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... LAW § 89.4 Watering. Livestock should be furnished an ample supply of potable water. Water treated... other objectionable matter should not be used. Troughs and other receptacles should be clean. In cold weather, the water should be free from ice....

  5. 40 CFR 89.1007 - Warranty provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., and equipped so as to conform at the time of sale with applicable regulations under section 213 of the... with applicable regulations for its warranty period (as determined under § 89.104). (b) In the case of... under this part is responsible for the proper maintenance of the engine. Proper maintenance...

  6. 40 CFR 89.1007 - Warranty provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and equipped so as to conform at the time of sale with applicable regulations under section 213 of the... with applicable regulations for its warranty period (as determined under § 89.104). (b) In the case of... under this part is responsible for the proper maintenance of the engine. Proper maintenance...

  7. 40 CFR 89.1007 - Warranty provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., and equipped so as to conform at the time of sale with applicable regulations under section 213 of the... with applicable regulations for its warranty period (as determined under § 89.104). (b) In the case of... under this part is responsible for the proper maintenance of the engine. Proper maintenance...

  8. AGU: 89 Years of Dynamic Leadership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-10-01

    In its 89 years, AGU has matured and expanded through the dedicated administrative direction of three able leaders-John A. Fleming, Waldo E. Smith, and A. F. Spilhaus, Jr.-each with a vision of a strong scientific organization that serves individuals as they extend the knowledge and understanding of the Earth, the planets, and their space environments.

  9. City FLEX 89: Meeting the Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfano, Kathy

    Information is provided on San Diego City College's Flex 89 Program, a 3-day staff development effort offered for the college's administrators, full-time and adjunct faculty, and classified staff. The packet includes the flyer sent to all participants, the Flex Catalog and registration form, an example of an enrollment confirmation, the program…

  10. 10 CFR 1040.89-7 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... enforcement as described in § 1040.89-10 and 10 CFR part 1040, subpart H, § 1040.111. ... Civil Rights and Diversity, will review complaints that are unresolved after mediation or are reopened... Rights and Diversity. (4) The settlement shall not affect the operation of any other enforcement...

  11. 10 CFR 1040.89-7 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... enforcement as described in § 1040.89-10 and 10 CFR part 1040, subpart H, § 1040.111. ... Civil Rights and Diversity, will review complaints that are unresolved after mediation or are reopened... Rights and Diversity. (4) The settlement shall not affect the operation of any other enforcement...

  12. 10 CFR 1040.89-7 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... enforcement as described in § 1040.89-10 and 10 CFR part 1040, subpart H, § 1040.111. ... Civil Rights and Diversity, will review complaints that are unresolved after mediation or are reopened... Rights and Diversity. (4) The settlement shall not affect the operation of any other enforcement...

  13. 10 CFR 1040.89-7 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... enforcement as described in § 1040.89-10 and 10 CFR part 1040, subpart H, § 1040.111. ... Civil Rights and Diversity, will review complaints that are unresolved after mediation or are reopened... Rights and Diversity. (4) The settlement shall not affect the operation of any other enforcement...

  14. 10 CFR 1040.89-7 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... enforcement as described in § 1040.89-10 and 10 CFR part 1040, subpart H, § 1040.111. ... Civil Rights and Diversity, will review complaints that are unresolved after mediation or are reopened... Rights and Diversity. (4) The settlement shall not affect the operation of any other enforcement...

  15. Asymmetric Hydroformylation of Heterocyclic Olefins Mediated by Supramolecularly Regulated Rhodium-Bisphosphite Complexes.

    PubMed

    Rovira, Laura; Vaquero, Mónica; Vidal-Ferran, Anton

    2015-10-16

    Rhodium complexes derived from conformationally transformable α,ω-bisphosphite ligands combined with a suitable alkali metal BArF salt as a regulation agent (RA) provide high regio- and enantioselectivities in the asymmetric hydroformylation (AHF) of three heterocyclic olefins. The outcome of the AHF could be exquisitely regulated by choosing the appropriate RA with an increase in the ee, the reversal of the regioselectivity, or the complete suppression of one byproduct. PMID:26355601

  16. Asymmetric Induction at Remote Quaternary Centers of Cyclohexadienones by Rhodium-Catalyzed Conjugate Hydrosilylation.

    PubMed

    Naganawa, Yuki; Kawagishi, Mayu; Ito, Jun-Ichi; Nishiyama, Hisao

    2016-06-01

    The enantioselective desymmetrizing conjugate hydrosilylation of prochiral differently γ,γ-disubstituted cyclohexadienone derivatives 2 to furnish the corresponding cyclohexenones 4 with a remote chiral all-carbon quaternary center at the γ position is described. Chiral rhodium-bis(oxazolinyl)phenyl complexes 1 were effective catalysts for this transformation. This catalytic system was extended to the asymmetric transformation of spirocarbocyclic cyclohexadienones 5 to give the corresponding products 6 with high enantiomeric ratios. PMID:27100774

  17. Rhodium-Catalyzed Cross-Cyclotrimerization and Dimerization of Allenes with Alkynes.

    PubMed

    Sakashita, Kazuki; Shibata, Yu; Tanaka, Ken

    2016-06-01

    It has been established that a cationic rhodium(I)/binap complex catalyzes the cross-cyclotrimerization of two molecules of a monosubstituted allene with one molecule of a functionalized alkyne to give 3,6-dialkylidenecyclohex-1-enes. In contrast, the reactions involving di- or trisubstituted allenes and/or unfunctionalized alkynes afforded cross-dimerization products, substituted dendralenes, through β-hydrogen elimination from the corresponding rhodacycles. PMID:27110668

  18. Rhodium-catalyzed anti-Markovnikov addition of secondary amines to arylacetylenes at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kazunori; Kochi, Takuya; Kakiuchi, Fumitoshi

    2011-08-01

    An efficient method for synthesis of E-enamines by the anti-Markovnikov addition of secondary amines to terminal alkynes is described. The reaction of a variety of aryl- and heteroarylacetylenes proceeded at room temperature using a combination of a 8-quinolinolato rhodium complex and P(p-MeOC(6)H(4))(3) as a catalyst. The products were obtained as enamines by simple bulb-to-bulb distillation. PMID:21699251

  19. Examining Rhodium Catalyst complexes for Use with Conducting Polymers Designed for Fuel Cells in Preparing Biosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Carpio, M.M.; Kerr, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Biosensing devices are important because they can detect, record, and transmit information regarding the presence of, or physiological changes in, different chemical or biological materials in the environment. The goal of this research is to prepare a biosensing device that is effective, quick, and low cost. This is done by examining which chemicals will work best when placed in a biosensor. The first study involved experimenting on a rhodium catalyst complexed with ligands such as bipyridine and imidazole. The rhodium catalyst is important because it is reduced from RhIII to RhI, forms a hydride by reaction with water and releases the hydride to react with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to selectively produce 1,4-NADH, the reduced form of NAD+. The second study looked at different types of ketones and enzymes for the enzyme-substrate reaction converting a ketone into an alcohol. Preliminary results showed that the rhodium complexed with bipyridine was able to carry out all the reactions, while the rhodium complexed with imidazole was not able to produce and release hydrides. In addition, the most effective ketone to use is benzylacetone with the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase from baker’s yeast. Future work includes experimenting with bis-imidazole, which mimics the structure of bipyridine to see if it has the capability to reduce and if the reduction rate is comparable to the bipyridine complex. Once all testing is completed, the fastest catalysts will be combined with polymer membranes designed for fuel cells to prepare biosensing devices that can be used in a variety of applications including ones in the medical and environmental fields.

  20. Cyclization of Alkyne-Azide with Isonitrile/CO via Self-Relay Rhodium Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Xiao, Fan; Huang, Baoliang; Hu, Jincheng; Fu, Bin; Zhang, Zhenhua

    2016-03-01

    A self-relay rhodium(I)-catalyzed cyclization of alkyne-azides with two σ-donor/π-acceptor ligands (isonitriles and CO) to form sequentially multiple-fused heterocycle systems via tandem nitrene transformation and aza-Pauson-Khand cyclization has been developed. In this approach, an intriguing chemoselective insertion process of isonitriles superior to CO was observed. This reaction provides an alternative strategy to synthesize functionalized pyrrolo[2,3-b]indole scaffolds. PMID:26907671

  1. Synergistic Rhodium/Copper Catalysis: Synthesis of 1,3-Enynes and N-Aryl Enaminones.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan-Nan; Huang, Lei-Rong; Hao, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Tian-Shu; Li, Guigen; Tu, Shu-Jiang; Jiang, Bo

    2016-03-18

    Synergistic rhodium/copper catalysis enables new three-component coupling reactions of terminal alkynes and α-diazoketones and/or arylamines, allowing dediazotized carbene C-H insertion for the synthesis of functionalized 1,3-enynes and N-aryl enaminones with high stereoselectivity. The synthetic utility of these transformations results in subsequent C-C or/and C-N bond-forming reactions to effectively build up functional molecules with potential significance. PMID:26987884

  2. Pyridazine N-Oxides as Precursors of Metallocarbenes: Rhodium-Catalyzed Transannulation with Pyrroles.

    PubMed

    Kanchupalli, Vinaykumar; Joseph, Desna; Katukojvala, Sreenivas

    2015-12-01

    Pyridazine N-oxides are used for the first time as precursors of metallocarbenes. These nitrogen-rich heterocycles led to the discovery of a novel acceptor and donor-acceptor enalcarbenoids. The synthetic utility of these metallocarbenes was demonstrated in the rhodium-catalyzed denitrogenative transannulation of pyridazine N-oxides with pyrroles to the valuable alkyl, 7-aryl, and 7-styryl indoles. The transannulation strategy was applied to the synthesis of a potent anticancer agent. PMID:26588048

  3. Electronic states and potential energy surfaces of rhodium carbide (RhC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Hang; Liao, Muzhen; Balasubramanian, K.

    1997-12-01

    Potential energy curves and spectroscopic constants of 23 electronic states of the rhodium carbide (RhC) have been studied using the complete-active-space multi-configuration self-consistent field (CASMCSCF) followed by first-order configuration interaction (FOCI) calculations. Multi-reference singles + doubles configuration interaction (MRSDCI) were used to determine the properties of low-lying electronic states. The nature of chemical bond formation in different states is discussed in terms of their wave function and Mulliken populations.

  4. Particle size, precursor, and support effects in the hydrogenolysis of alkanes over supported rhodium catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Coq, B.; Dutartre, R.; Figueras, F.; Tazi, T. )

    1990-04-01

    A series of Rh catalysts of widely varying dispersion has been prepared using {gamma}-alumina as support and Rh acetylacetonate (Rh(acac){sub 3}) as precursor. The hydrogenolyses of n-hexane (nH), methylcyclopentane (MCP), and 2,2,3,3-tetramethylbutane (TeMB) were investigated as model reactions. Clear dependence of turnover frequency on Rh particle size is observed for nH and MCP hydrogenolysis, but only slight changes of selectivities occur with these alkanes. By contrast, large modifications of both specific activity and selectivity appear when TeMB is reacted. TeMB hydrogenolysis is thus a reliable tool for studying modifications of the surface structure of rhodium particles. This probe was used to investigate the effects of precursor and support on rhodium catalysts. The effect of chlorine is appreciable and shifts the selectivity of TeMB hydrogenolysis toward that of large particles. This is attributed to a different morphology of the rhodium particles. When the effect of dispersion of the metal is taken into account, no support effect is observed when SiO{sub 2} or ZrO{sub 2} is used as support. The different properties of rhodium on MgO can also be attributed to a different morphology of the particles. For Rh/TiO{sub 2} prepared from RhCl{sub 3} {center dot} 3H{sub 2}O, the catalytic properties are similar to those of Rh/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} of moderate dispersion whatever temperature is used for reduction. Rh/TiO{sub 2} prepared from Rh(acac){sub 3} and reduced at 573 and 773 K simulates the catalytic properties of particles smaller than indeed observed. This effect can be interpreted by a partial coverage of the Rh surface by TiO{sub x} species (SMSI). This SMSI effect disappears upon reduction at 873 K.

  5. Recovery of rhodium with a novel soft donor ligand using solvent extraction techniques in chloride media.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Shalina C; Powell, Ashton S; Barnes, Charles L; Wherland, Scot; Benny, Paul D

    2016-02-28

    Rhodium remains a high value platinum group metal that has key applications in electronics, catalysts, and batteries. To provide a useful tool for Rh isolation, a novel tridentate ligand utilizing soft N and S donors was designed to specifically extract Rh. The synthesis, complexation kinetics, and liquid-liquid extraction studies were performed to explore the overall process and recovery of Rh from chloride media. PMID:26837642

  6. Mild partial deoxygenation of esters catalyzed by an oxazolinylborate-coordinated rhodium silylene

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xu, Songchen; Boschen, Jeffery S.; Biswas, Abhranil; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Pruski, Marek; Windus, Theresa L.; Sadow, Aaron D.

    2015-08-17

    An electrophilic, coordinatively unsaturated rhodium complex supported by borate-linked oxazoline, oxazoline-coordinated silylene, and N-heterocyclic carbene donors [{κ³-N,Si,C-PhB(OxMe²)(OxMe²SiHPh)ImMes}Rh(H)CO][HB(C₆F₅)₃] (2, OxMe² = 4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazoline; ImMes = 1-mesitylimidazole) is synthesized from the neutral rhodium silyl {PhB(OxMe²)₂ImMes}RhH(SiH2Ph)CO (1) and B(C6F5)3. The unusual oxazoline-coordinated silylene structure in 2 is proposed to form by rearrangement of an unobserved isomeric cationic rhodium silylene species [{PhB(OxMe²)₂ImMes}RhH(SiHPh)CO][HB(C₆F₅)₃] generated by H abstraction. Complex 2 catalyzes reductions of organic carbonyl compounds with silanes to give hydrosilylation products or deoxygenation products. The pathway to these reactions is primarily influenced by the degree of substitution of the organosilane. Reactions with primary silanes give deoxygenationmore » of esters to ethers, amides to amines, and ketones and aldehydes to hydrocarbons, whereas tertiary silanes react to give 1,2-hydrosilylation of the carbonyl functionality. In contrast, the strong Lewis acid B(C₆F₅)₃ catalyzes the complete deoxygenation of carbonyl compounds to hydrocarbons with PhSiH₃ as the reducing agent.« less

  7. Mild partial deoxygenation of esters catalyzed by an oxazolinylborate-coordinated rhodium silylene.

    PubMed

    Xu, Songchen; Boschen, Jeffery S; Biswas, Abhranil; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Pruski, Marek; Windus, Theresa L; Sadow, Aaron D

    2015-09-28

    An electrophilic, coordinatively unsaturated rhodium complex supported by borate-linked oxazoline, oxazoline-coordinated silylene, and N-heterocyclic carbene donors [{κ(3)-N,Si,C-PhB(Ox(Me2))(Ox(Me2)SiHPh)Im(Mes)}Rh(H)CO][HB(C6F5)3] (, Ox(Me2) = 4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazoline; Im(Mes) = 1-mesitylimidazole) is synthesized from the neutral rhodium silyl {PhB(Ox(Me2))2Im(Mes)}RhH(SiH2Ph)CO () and B(C6F5)3. The unusual oxazoline-coordinated silylene structure in is proposed to form by rearrangement of an unobserved isomeric cationic rhodium silylene species [{PhB(Ox(Me2))2Im(Mes)}RhH(SiHPh)CO][HB(C6F5)3] generated by H abstraction. Complex catalyzes reductions of organic carbonyl compounds with silanes to give hydrosilylation products or deoxygenation products. The pathway to these reactions is primarily influenced by the degree of substitution of the organosilane. Reactions with primary silanes give deoxygenation of esters to ethers, amides to amines, and ketones and aldehydes to hydrocarbons, whereas tertiary silanes react to give 1,2-hydrosilylation of the carbonyl functionality. In contrast, the strong Lewis acid B(C6F5)3 catalyzes the complete deoxygenation of carbonyl compounds to hydrocarbons with PhSiH3 as the reducing agent. PMID:26278517

  8. Stereoselective hydrogenation of olefins using rhodium-substituted carbonic anhydrase--a new reductase.

    PubMed

    Jing, Qing; Okrasa, Krzysztof; Kazlauskas, Romas J

    2009-01-01

    One useful synthetic reaction missing from nature's toolbox is the direct hydrogenation of substrates using hydrogen. Instead nature uses cofactors like NADH to reduce organic substrates, which adds complexity and cost to these reductions. To create an enzyme that can directly reduce organic substrates with hydrogen, researchers have combined metal hydrogenation catalysts with proteins. One approach is an indirect link where a ligand is linked to a protein and the metal binds to the ligand. Another approach is direct linking of the metal to protein, but nonspecific binding of the metal limits this approach. Herein, we report a direct hydrogenation of olefins catalyzed by rhodium(I) bound to carbonic anhydrase (CA-[Rh]). We minimized nonspecific binding of rhodium by replacing histidine residues on the protein surface using site-directed mutagenesis or by chemically modifying the histidine residues. Hydrogenation catalyzed by CA-[Rh] is slightly slower than for uncomplexed rhodium(I), but the protein environment induces stereoselectivity favoring cis- over trans-stilbene by about 20:1. This enzyme is the first cofactor-independent reductase that reduces organic molecules using hydrogen. This catalyst is a good starting point to create variants with tailored reactivity and selectivity. This strategy to insert transition metals in the active site of metalloenzymes opens opportunities to a wider range of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. PMID:19115310

  9. Activity of rhodium-catalyzed hydroformylation: added insight and predictions from theory.

    PubMed

    Sparta, Manuel; Børve, Knut J; Jensen, Vidar R

    2007-07-11

    We have performed a density functional theory investigation of hydroformylation of ethylene for monosubstituted rhodium-carbonyl catalysts, HRh(CO)3L, where the modifying ligand, L, is a phosphite (L = P(OMe)3, P(OPh)3, or P(OCH2CF3)3), a phosphine (L = PMe3, PEt3, PiPr3, or PPh3), or a N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) based on the tetrahydropyrimidine, imidazol, or tetrazol ring, respectively. The study follows the Heck and Breslow mechanism. Excellent correspondence between our calculations and existing experimental information is found, and the present results constitute the first example of a realistic quantum chemical description of the catalytic cycle of hydroformylation using ligand-modified rhodium carbonyl catalysts. This description explains the mechanistic and kinetic basis of the contemporary understanding of this class of reaction and offers unprecedented insight into the electronic and steric factors governing catalytic activity. The insight has been turned into structure-activity relationships and used as guidelines when also subjecting to calculation phosphite and NHC complexes that have yet to be reported experimentally. The latter calculations illustrate that it is possible to increase the electron-withdrawing capacity of both phosphite and NHC ligands compared to contemporary ligands through directed substitution. Rhodium complexes of such very electron-withdrawing ligands are predicted to be more active than contemporary catalysts for hydroformylation. PMID:17555314

  10. Infrared-induced reactivity of N2O on small gas-phase rhodium clusters.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Suzanne M; Hopkins, W Scott; Harding, Dan J; Walsh, Tiffany R; Haertelt, Marko; Kerpal, Christian; Gruene, Philipp; Meijer, Gerard; Fielicke, André; Mackenzie, Stuart R

    2011-03-31

    Far- and mid-infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy has been employed to study both the structure and surface reactivity of isolated cationic rhodium clusters with surface-adsorbed nitrous oxide, Rh(n)N(2)O(+) (n = 4-8). Comparison of experimental spectra recorded using the argon atom tagging method with those calculated using density functional theory (DFT) reveals that the nitrous oxide is molecularly bound on the rhodium cluster via the terminal N-atom. Binding is thought to occur exclusively on atop sites with the rhodium clusters adopting close-packed structures. In related, but conceptually different experiments, infrared pumping of the vibrational modes corresponding with the normal modes of the adsorbed N(2)O has been observed to result in the decomposition of the N(2)O moiety and the production of oxide clusters. This cluster surface chemistry is observed for all cluster sizes studied except for n = 5. Plausible N(2)O decomposition mechanisms are given based on DFT calculations using exchange-correlation functionals. Similar experiments pumping the Rh-O stretch in Rh(n)ON(2)O(+) complexes, on which the same chemistry is observed, confirm the thermal nature of this reaction. PMID:21391545

  11. All-Carbon [3+3] Oxidative Annulations of 1,3-Enynes by Rhodium(III)-Catalyzed C-H Functionalization and 1,4-Migration.

    PubMed

    Burns, David J; Best, Daniel; Wieczysty, Martin D; Lam, Hon Wai

    2015-08-17

    1,3-Enynes containing allylic hydrogens cis to the alkyne function as three-carbon components in rhodium(III)-catalyzed, all-carbon [3+3] oxidative annulations to produce spirodialins. The proposed mechanism of these reactions involves the alkenyl-to-allyl 1,4-rhodium(III) migration. PMID:26224377

  12. All-Carbon [3+3] Oxidative Annulations of 1,3-Enynes by Rhodium(III)-Catalyzed C–H Functionalization and 1,4-Migration**

    PubMed Central

    Burns, David J; Best, Daniel; Wieczysty, Martin D; Lam, Hon Wai

    2015-01-01

    1,3-Enynes containing allylic hydrogens cis to the alkyne function as three-carbon components in rhodium(III)-catalyzed, all-carbon [3+3] oxidative annulations to produce spirodialins. The proposed mechanism of these reactions involves the alkenyl-to-allyl 1,4-rhodium(III) migration. PMID:26224377

  13. ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) 89

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, T.D.; Appleton, B.R.; Jefferson, J.W.; Merriman, J.R.; Mynatt, F.R.; Richmond, C.R.; Rosenthal, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    This is the inaugural issues of an annual publication about the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Here you will find a brief overview of ORNL, a sampling of our recent research achievements, and a glimpse of the directions we want to take over the next 15 years. A major purpose of ornl 89 is to provide the staff with a sketch of the character and dynamics of the Laboratory.

  14. Influence of particle size and support on the catalytic properties of rhodium for hydrogenolysis of hexanes and methylcyclopentane

    SciTech Connect

    Del Angel, G.; Coq, B.; Dutartre, R.; Figueras, F.

    1984-05-01

    The catalytic properties of rhodium for the hydrogenolysis of C/sub 6/ hydrocarbons have been investigated. Rhodium preferentially cleaves bisecondary and primary-secondary carbon-carbon bonds. Primary-tertiary C-C bonds react much more slowly. Methylcyclopentane (MCP) is converted to methyl-2-pentane, methyl-3-pentane, and n-hexane at temperatures lower than 503 K. The selectivity to n-hexane is low (10%) but measurable on well-dispersed Rh/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts and decreases when the dispersion decreases. Rh/SiO/sub 2/ catalysts have a low selectivity for the formation of n-hexane whatever the dispersion. The specific activity for MCP conversion changes as a function of the dispersion of rhodium and of the support: small rhodium particles are more active than large particles when the support is silica, but the reverse is true on alumina. These changes of activity are consistent with the results reported for C/sub 2/H/sub 6/ hydrogenolysis on Rh/SiO/sub 2/ and for C/sub 5/H/sub 10/ conversion on Rh/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. The variations of the catalytic properties for hydrogenolysis may be interpreted as due to the modification of the structure of the small rhodium particles observed on silica.

  15. Determination of rhodium in metallic alloy and water samples using cloud point extraction coupled with spectrophotometric technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassem, Mohammed A.; Amin, Alaa S.

    2015-02-01

    A new method to estimate rhodium in different samples at trace levels had been developed. Rhodium was complexed with 5-(4‧-nitro-2‧,6‧-dichlorophenylazo)-6-hydroxypyrimidine-2,4-dione (NDPHPD) as a complexing agent in an aqueous medium and concentrated by using Triton X-114 as a surfactant. The investigated rhodium complex was preconcentrated with cloud point extraction process using the nonionic surfactant Triton X-114 to extract rhodium complex from aqueous solutions at pH 4.75. After the phase separation at 50 °C, the surfactant-rich phase was heated again at 100 °C to remove water after decantation and the remaining phase was dissolved using 0.5 mL of acetonitrile. Under optimum conditions, the calibration curve was linear for the concentration range of 0.5-75 ng mL-1 and the detection limit was 0.15 ng mL-1 of the original solution. The enhancement factor of 500 was achieved for 250 mL samples containing the analyte and relative standard deviations were ⩽1.50%. The method was found to be highly selective, fairly sensitive, simple, rapid and economical and safely applied for rhodium determination in different complex materials such as synthetic mixture of alloys and environmental water samples.

  16. Spectroscopic and electron microscopic investigation of iron oxides formed in a highly alkaline medium in the presence of rhodium ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krehula, Stjepko; Musić, Svetozar

    2010-07-01

    The effect of the presence of rhodium ions on the formation of iron oxides in a highly alkaline precipitation system was investigated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), 57Fe Mössbauer and FT-IR spectroscopies, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Acicular α-FeOOH particles precipitated in a highly alkaline medium with the addition of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) were used as reference material. Characterization of α-FeOOH samples formed in the presence of rhodium ions showed a somewhat smaller mean crystallite size, increased unit-cell dimensions, a reduced average hyperfine magnetic field and a slight shift in the position of IR absorption bands in comparison with the reference α-FeOOH sample. By additional heating of the precipitation system, α-FeOOH precipitated in the presence of rhodium ions transformed to α-Fe 2O 3 crystals in the form of hexagonal bipyramids via a dissolution-recrystallization process. Metallic rhodium nanoparticles were formed simultaneously by the reduction of Rh 3+ ions in the presence of the products of TMAH thermal decomposition (trimethylamine and methanol). These rhodium nanoparticles acted as a catalyst for the reductive dissolution of α-Fe 2O 3 particles and the formation of Fe 3O 4 crystals in the form of octahedrons.

  17. The structures of the crystalline phase and columnar mesophase of rhodium (II) heptanoate and of its binary mixture with copper (II) heptanoate probed by EXAFS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inb-Elhaj, M.; Guillon, D.; Skoulios, A.; Maldivi, P.; Giroud-Godquin, A. M.; Marchon, J.-C.

    1992-12-01

    EXAFS was used to investigate the local structure of the polar spines of rhodium (II) soaps in the columnar liquid crystalline state. It was also used to ascertain the degree of blending of the cores in binary mixtures of rhodium (II) and copper (II) soaps. For the pure rhodium soaps, the columns are shown to result from the stacking of binuclear metal-metal bonded dirhodium tetracarboxylate units bonded to one another by apical ligation of the metal atom of each complex with one of the oxygen atoms of the adjacent molecule. Mixtures of rhodium (II) and copper (II) soaps give a hexagonal columnar mesophase in which pure rhodium and pure copper columns are randomly distributed.

  18. 25 CFR 89.41 - Exceptions to policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exceptions to policy. 89.41 Section 89.41 Indians BUREAU... Payment of Tribal Attorney Fees with Appropriated Funds § 89.41 Exceptions to policy. The Assistant... § 89.43 may, in his/her discretion, authorize the direct or indirect expenditure of appropriated...

  19. Octene hydroformylation by using rhodium complexes tethered onto selectively functionalized mesoporous silica and in-situ high pressure IR study

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Ki-Chang; Baek, Ji Yeon; Bae, Jung A.; Yim, Jin-Heong; Ko, Young Soo; Kim, Do Heui; Park, Young-Kwon; Jeon, Jong Ki

    2011-04-30

    SBA-15-based heterogeneous catalysts were applied to 1-octene hydroformylation. The turn over frequency over SBA-15/γ-aminopropylmethyldimethoxysilane(AEAPMDMS)/Rh catalyst with triphenylphosphine (TPP) ligand prepared by conventional post grafting method was higher than that of the homogeneous catalyst, (Rh(CH3COO)2)2 with TPP. The SBA-15/AEAPMDMS/Rh catalyst can be easily recycled without rhodium loss. The molar ratio of linear to branched nonyl aldehydes was remarkably enhanced over the heterogeneous catalysts. The selectively functionalized rhodium catalyst (SBA-15/Ph2Si(OEt)2/AEAPMDMS/Rh), in which rhodium was selectively tethered intra-pore of SBA-15, was beneficial for improving the selectivity to linear aldehyde. In situ high pressure FT-IR analysis suggested HRh(CO)2(PPh3)2 and HRh(CO)(PPh3)3 to be active species over the SBA-15/AEAPMDMS/Rh catalyst with TPP.

  20. A rhodium/silicon co-electrocatalyst design concept to surpass platinum hydrogen evolution activity at high overpotentials.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lili; Lin, Haiping; Li, Youyong; Liao, Fan; Lifshitz, Yeshayahu; Sheng, Minqi; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Shao, Mingwang

    2016-01-01

    Currently, platinum-based electrocatalysts show the best performance for hydrogen evolution. All hydrogen evolution reaction catalysts should however obey Sabatier's principle, that is, the adsorption energy of hydrogen to the catalyst surface should be neither too high nor too low to balance between hydrogen adsorption and desorption. To overcome the limitation of this principle, here we choose a composite (rhodium/silicon nanowire) catalyst, in which hydrogen adsorption occurs on rhodium with a large adsorption energy while hydrogen evolution occurs on silicon with a small adsorption energy. We show that the composite is stable with better hydrogen evolution activity than rhodium nanoparticles and even exceeding those of commercial platinum/carbon at high overpotentials. The results reveal that silicon plays a key role in the electrocatalysis. This work may thus open the door for the design and fabrication of electrocatalysts for high-efficiency electric energy to hydrogen energy conversion. PMID:27447292

  1. A rhodium/silicon co-electrocatalyst design concept to surpass platinum hydrogen evolution activity at high overpotentials

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lili; Lin, Haiping; Li, Youyong; Liao, Fan; Lifshitz, Yeshayahu; Sheng, Minqi; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Shao, Mingwang

    2016-01-01

    Currently, platinum-based electrocatalysts show the best performance for hydrogen evolution. All hydrogen evolution reaction catalysts should however obey Sabatier's principle, that is, the adsorption energy of hydrogen to the catalyst surface should be neither too high nor too low to balance between hydrogen adsorption and desorption. To overcome the limitation of this principle, here we choose a composite (rhodium/silicon nanowire) catalyst, in which hydrogen adsorption occurs on rhodium with a large adsorption energy while hydrogen evolution occurs on silicon with a small adsorption energy. We show that the composite is stable with better hydrogen evolution activity than rhodium nanoparticles and even exceeding those of commercial platinum/carbon at high overpotentials. The results reveal that silicon plays a key role in the electrocatalysis. This work may thus open the door for the design and fabrication of electrocatalysts for high-efficiency electric energy to hydrogen energy conversion. PMID:27447292

  2. Base-Free Conditions for Rhodium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Arylation To Produce Stereochemically Labile α-Aryl Ketones.

    PubMed

    Dou, Xiaowei; Lu, Yixin; Hayashi, Tamio

    2016-06-01

    The asymmetric arylation of 2,2-dialkyl cyclopent-4-ene-1,3-diones with aryl boronic acids was found to be efficiently catalyzed by a chiral diene-rhodium μ-chloro dimer, [{RhCl((R)-diene*)}2 ], in the absence of bases in toluene/H2 O to give 2,2-dialkyl 4-aryl cyclopentane-1,3-diones in high yields with high enantioselectivity. Such compounds can not be obtained with high enantiomeric purity under the standard basic conditions used for rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric arylation because the α-aryl ketone products undergo racemization under the basic conditions. PMID:27100902

  3. Enantioselective Rhodium(I) Donor Carbenoid-Mediated Cascade Triggered by a Base-Free Decomposition of Arylsulfonyl Hydrazones.

    PubMed

    Torres, Òscar; Parella, Teodor; Solà, Miquel; Roglans, Anna; Pla-Quintana, Anna

    2015-11-01

    The reaction of diyne arylsulfonyl hydrazone substrates under rhodium(I)/BINAP catalysis gives access to sulfonated azacyclic frameworks in a highly enantioselective manner. This new cascade process considerably increases the molecular complexity by generating two C-C bonds, one C-S bond, and one C-H bond. Theoretical calculations, competitive experiments, and deuterium labeling have jointly been used to propose a mechanism that accounts for the reaction. The mechanism involves the formation of vinyl rhodium carbenoids, hydride migratory insertion, and intermolecular stereoselective nucleophilic attack. The last two steps are the key to the stereoselectivity of the process. PMID:26397988

  4. Mild partial deoxygenation of esters catalyzed by an oxazolinylborate-coordinated rhodium silylene

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Songchen; Boschen, Jeffery S.; Biswas, Abhranil; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Pruski, Marek; Windus, Theresa L.; Sadow, Aaron D.

    2015-08-17

    An electrophilic, coordinatively unsaturated rhodium complex supported by borate-linked oxazoline, oxazoline-coordinated silylene, and N-heterocyclic carbene donors [{κ³-N,Si,C-PhB(OxMe²)(OxMe²SiHPh)ImMes}Rh(H)CO][HB(C₆F₅)₃] (2, OxMe² = 4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazoline; ImMes = 1-mesitylimidazole) is synthesized from the neutral rhodium silyl {PhB(OxMe²)₂ImMes}RhH(SiH2Ph)CO (1) and B(C6F5)3. The unusual oxazoline-coordinated silylene structure in 2 is proposed to form by rearrangement of an unobserved isomeric cationic rhodium silylene species [{PhB(OxMe²)₂ImMes}RhH(SiHPh)CO][HB(C₆F₅)₃] generated by H abstraction. Complex 2 catalyzes reductions of organic carbonyl compounds with silanes to give hydrosilylation products or deoxygenation products. The pathway to these reactions is primarily influenced by the degree of substitution of the organosilane. Reactions with primary silanes give deoxygenation of esters to ethers, amides to amines, and ketones and aldehydes to hydrocarbons, whereas tertiary silanes react to give 1,2-hydrosilylation of the carbonyl functionality. In contrast, the strong Lewis acid B(C₆F₅)₃ catalyzes the complete deoxygenation of carbonyl compounds to hydrocarbons with PhSiH₃ as the reducing agent.

  5. Intrinsic Selectivity and Structure Sensitivity of Rhodium Catalysts for C(2+) Oxygenate Production.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nuoya; Medford, Andrew J; Liu, Xinyan; Studt, Felix; Bligaard, Thomas; Bent, Stacey F; Nørskov, Jens K

    2016-03-23

    Synthesis gas (CO + H2) conversion is a promising route to converting coal, natural gas, or biomass into synthetic liquid fuels. Rhodium has long been studied as it is the only elemental catalyst that has demonstrated selectivity to ethanol and other C2+ oxygenates. However, the fundamentals of syngas conversion over rhodium are still debated. In this work a microkinetic model is developed for conversion of CO and H2 into methane, ethanol, and acetaldehyde on the Rh (211) and (111) surfaces, chosen to describe steps and close-packed facets on catalyst particles. The model is based on DFT calculations using the BEEF-vdW functional. The mean-field kinetic model includes lateral adsorbate-adsorbate interactions, and the BEEF-vdW error estimation ensemble is used to propagate error from the DFT calculations to the predicted rates. The model shows the Rh(211) surface to be ∼6 orders of magnitude more active than the Rh(111) surface, but highly selective toward methane, while the Rh(111) surface is intrinsically selective toward acetaldehyde. A variety of Rh/SiO2 catalysts are synthesized, tested for catalytic oxygenate production, and characterized using TEM. The experimental results indicate that the Rh(111) surface is intrinsically selective toward acetaldehyde, and a strong inverse correlation between catalytic activity and oxygenate selectivity is observed. Furthermore, iron impurities are shown to play a key role in modulating the selectivity of Rh/SiO2 catalysts toward ethanol. The experimental observations are consistent with the structure-sensitivity predicted from theory. This work provides an improved atomic-scale understanding and new insight into the mechanism, active site, and intrinsic selectivity of syngas conversion over rhodium catalysts and may also guide rational design of alloy catalysts made from more abundant elements. PMID:26958997

  6. IN VIVO BIODISTRIBUTION AND ACCUMULATION OF 89Zr IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    Abou, D.S.; Ku, T.; Smith-Jones, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The present investigation focuses on the chemical and biological fate of 89Zr in mice. Electrophoreses of 89Zr solvated or chelated in different conditions are here presented. The biological fate of mice injected with [89Zr]Zr-oxalate, [89Zr]Zr-chloride, [89Zr]Zr-phosphate, [89Zr]Zr-desferrioxamine and [89Zr]Zr-citrate is studied with the biodistribution, the clearances and PET images. A special focus is also given regarding the quality of 89Zr bone accumulation. Methods Electrophoreses were carried out on chromatography paper and read by gamma counting. Then, the solutions were intravenously injected in mice, imaged at different time points and sacrificed. The bones, the epiphysis and the marrow substance were separated and evaluated with gamma counts. Results The clearances of [89Zr]Zr-chloride and [89Zr]Zr-oxalate reached 20% of ID after 6 days whereas [89Zr]Zr-phosphate was only 5% of ID. [89Zr]Zr-citrate and [89Zr]Zr-DFO were noticeably excreted after the first day p.i.. [89Zr]Zr-chloride and [89Zr]Zr-oxalate resulted in a respective bone uptake of ~15% ID/g and~20% ID/g at 8 h p.i. with minor losses after 6 days. [89Zr]Zr-citrate bone uptake was also observed, but [89Zr]Zr-phosphate was absorbed in high amounts in the liver and the spleen. The marrow cells were insignificantly radioactive in comparison to the calcified tissues. Conclusion Despite the complexity of Zr coordination, the electrophoretic analyses provided detailed evidences of Zr charges either as salts or as complexes. This study also shows that weakly chelated, 89Zr is a bone seeker and has a strong affinity for phosphate. PMID:21718943

  7. Rhodium-Catalyzed C6-Selective C-H Borylation of 2-Pyridones.

    PubMed

    Miura, Wataru; Hirano, Koji; Miura, Masahiro

    2016-08-01

    A pyridine-directed, rhodium-catalyzed C6-selective C-H borylation of 2-pyridones with bis(pinacolato)diboron (pinB-Bpin) has been developed. The reaction proceeds smoothly under relatively mild conditions, and the corresponding C6-borylated 2-pyridones are obtained with perfect site selectivity. Subsequent palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling is followed by the removal of the pyridine directing group to form the C6-arylated NH-pyridone in an acceptable overall yield. PMID:27420925

  8. Rhodium-Catalyzed Enantioselective Cycloisomerization to Cyclohexenes Bearing Quaternary Carbon Centers.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Woo; Chen, Zhiwei; Dong, Vy M

    2016-03-16

    We report a Rh-catalyzed enantioselective cycloisomerization of α,ω-heptadienes to afford cyclohexenes bearing quaternary carbon centers. Rhodium(I) and a new SDP ligand promote chemoselective formation of a cyclohex-3-enecarbaldehyde motif that is inaccessible by the Diels-Alder cycloaddition. Various α,α-bisallylaldehydes rearrange to generate six-membered rings by a mechanism triggered by aldehyde C-H bond activation. Mechanistic studies suggest a pathway involving regioselective carbometalation and endocyclic β-hydride elimination. PMID:26953640

  9. Ionic Liquids as Solvents for Rhodium and Platinum Catalysts Used in Hydrosilylation Reaction.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Witold; Kukawka, Rafal; Maciejewski, Hieronim; Smiglak, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    A group of imidazolium and pyridinium based ionic liquids has been synthetized, and their ability to dissolve and activate the catalysts used in hydrosilylation reaction of 1-octane and 1,1,1,3,5,5,5-heptamethyltrisiloxane was investigated. An organometallic catalyst as well as inorganic complexes of platinum and rhodium dissolved in ionic liquids were used, forming liquid solutions not miscible with the substrates or with the products of the reaction. The results show that application of such a simple biphasic catalytic system enables reuse of ionic liquid phase with catalysts in multiple reaction cycles reducing the costs and decreasing the amount of catalyst needed per mole of product. PMID:27563869

  10. AMTEC cell testing, optimization of rhodium/tungsten electrodes, and tests of other components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Roger M.; Ryan, Margaret A.; Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara; Underwood, Mark L.; O'Connor, Dennis; Kikkert, Stan

    1991-01-01

    Electrodes, current collectors, ceramic to metal braze seals, and metallic components exposed to the high 'hot side' temperatures and sodium liquid and vapor environment have been tested and evaluated in laboratory cells running for hundreds of hours at 1100-1200 K. Rhodium/tungsten electrodes have been selected as the optimum electrodes based on performance parameters and durability. Current collectors have been evaluated under simulated and actual operating conditions. The microscopic effects of metal migration between electrode and current collector alloys as well as their thermal and electrical properties determined the suitability of current collector and lead materials. Braze seals suitable for long term application to AMTEC devices are being developed.

  11. Rhodium-Catalyzed Stitching Reaction: Convergent Synthesis of Quinoidal Fused Oligosiloles.

    PubMed

    Shintani, Ryo; Iino, Ryo; Nozaki, Kyoko

    2016-03-23

    Quinoidal fused oligosiloles, a new family of silicon-bridged π-conjugated compounds, have been synthesized for the first time based on a new synthetic strategy, a stitching reaction. Multiple carbon-carbon bonds can be formed consecutively between two oligo(silylene-ethynylene)s under rhodium catalysis in a stitching manner, and up to five siloles have been fused in a quinoidal form. Physical properties of these oligosiloles have also been investigated to find a unique trend in their LUMO levels, which become higher with longer π-conjugation. PMID:26961329

  12. Enantioselective Access to Spirocyclic Sultams by Chiral Cp(x) -Rhodium(III)-Catalyzed Annulations.

    PubMed

    Pham, Manh V; Cramer, Nicolai

    2016-02-12

    Chiral spirocyclic sultams are a valuable compound class in organic and medicinal chemistry. A rapid entry to this structural motif involves a [3+2] annulation of an N-sulfonyl ketimine and an alkyne. Although the directing-group properties of the imino group for C-H activation have been exploited, the developments of related asymmetric variants have remained very challenging. The use of rhodium(III) complexes equipped with a suitable atropchiral cyclopentadienyl ligand, in conjunction with a carboxylic acid additive, enables an enantioselective and high yielding access to such spirocyclic sultams. PMID:26836575

  13. Hydrolysis of Letrozole catalyzed by macrocyclic Rhodium (I) Schiff-base complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, P. Muralidhar; Shanker, K.; Srinivas, V.; Krishna, E. Ravi; Rohini, R.; Srikanth, G.; Hu, Anren; Ravinder, V.

    2015-03-01

    Ten mononuclear Rhodium (I) complexes were synthesized by macrocyclic ligands having N4 and N2O2 donor sites. Square planar geometry is assigned based on the analytical and spectral properties for all complexes. Rh(I) complexes were investigated as catalysts in hydrolysis of Nitrile group containing pharmaceutical drug Letrozole. A comparative study showed that all the complexes are efficient in the catalysis. The percent yields of all the catalytic reaction products viz. drug impurities were determined by spectrophotometric procedures and characterized by spectral studies.

  14. Stereoselective 1,3-Insertions of Rhodium(II) Azavinyl Carbenes

    PubMed Central

    Chuprakov, Stepan; Worrell, Brady T.; Selander, Nicklas; Sit, Rakesh K.; Fokin, Valery V.

    2014-01-01

    Rhodium(II) azavinyl carbenes, conveniently generated from 1-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles, undergo a facile, mild and convergent formal 1,3-insertion into N–H and O–H bonds of primary and secondary amides, various alcohols, and carboxylic acids to afford a wide range of vicinally bis-functionalized Z-olefins with perfect regio- and stereoselectively. Utilizing the distinctive functionality installed through these reactions, a number of subsequent rearrangements and cyclizations expand the repertoire of valuable organic building blocks constructed by reactions of transition metal carbene complexes, including α-allenyl ketones and amino-substituted heterocycles. PMID:24295389

  15. Rhodium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Cycloisomerization and Parallel Kinetic Resolution of Racemic Oxabicycles.

    PubMed

    Loh, Charles C J; Schmid, Matthias; Webster, Robert; Yen, Andy; Yazdi, Shabnam K; Franke, Patrick T; Lautens, Mark

    2016-08-16

    While desymmetrizations by intermolecular asymmetric ring-opening reactions of oxabicyclic alkenes with various nucleophiles have been reported over the past two decades, the demonstration of an intramolecular variant is unknown. Reported herein is the first rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric cycloisomerization of meso-oxabicyclic alkenes tethered to bridgehead nucleophiles, thus providing access to tricyclic scaffolds through a myriad of enantioselective C-O, C-N, and C-C bond formations. Moreover, we also demonstrate a unique parallel kinetic resolution, whereby racemic oxabicycles bearing two different bridgehead nucleophiles can be resolved enantioselectively. PMID:27416818

  16. Synthesis of Sulfoximine Carbamates by Rhodium-Catalyzed Nitrene Transfer of Carbamates to Sulfoxides.

    PubMed

    Zenzola, Marina; Doran, Robert; Luisi, Renzo; Bull, James A

    2015-06-19

    Sulfoximines are of considerable interest for incorporation into medicinal compounds. A convenient synthesis of N-protected sulfoximines is achieved, under mild conditions, by rhodium-catalyzed transfer of carbamates to sulfoxides. The first examples of 4-membered thietane-oximines are prepared. Sulfoximines bearing Boc and Cbz groups are stable to further cross coupling reactions, and readily deprotected. This method may facilitate the preparation of NH-sulfoximines providing improved (global) deprotection strategies, which is illustrated in the synthesis of methionine sulfoxide (MSO). PMID:25989821

  17. Access to Cyclic Amino Boronates via Rhodium-Catalyzed Functionalization of Alkyl MIDA Boronates.

    PubMed

    St Denis, Jeffrey D; Lee, C Frank; Yudin, Andrei K

    2015-12-01

    Herein, we describe the rhodium-catalyzed C-H amination reaction of 1,2-boryl sulfamate esters derived from amphoteric α-boryl aldehydes. Depending on the substitution pattern of the boryl sulfamate ester, a diverse range of five- or six-membered ring heterocycles are accessible using this transformation. The highly chemoselective nature of the C-H functionalization reaction preserves the alkyl boronate functional group, which enables the synthesis of B-C-N and B-C-C-N motifs that are present in a number of hydrolase inhibitors. PMID:26588176

  18. Mechanistic Studies and Expansion of the Substrate Scope of Direct Enantioselective Alkynylation of α-Ketiminoesters Catalyzed by Adaptable (Phebox)Rhodium(III) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Morisaki, Kazuhiro; Sawa, Masanao; Yonesaki, Ryohei; Morimoto, Hiroyuki; Mashima, Kazushi; Ohshima, Takashi

    2016-05-18

    Mechanistic studies and expansion of the substrate scope of direct enantioselective alkynylation of α-ketiminoesters catalyzed by adaptable (phebox)rhodium(III) complexes are described. The mechanistic studies revealed that less acidic alkyne rather than more acidic acetic acid acted as a proton source in the catalytic cycle, and the generation of more active (acetato-κ(2)O,O')(alkynyl)(phebox)rhodium(III) complexes from the starting (diacetato)rhodium(III) complexes limited the overall reactivity of the reaction. These findings, as well as facile exchange of the alkynyl ligand on the (alkynyl)rhodium(III) complexes led us to use (acetato-κ(2)O,O')(trimethylsilylethynyl)(phebox)rhodium(III) complexes as a general precatalyst for various (alkynyl)rhodium(III) complexes. Use of the (trimethylsilylethynyl)rhodium(III) complexes as precatalysts enhanced the catalytic performance of the reactions with an α-ketiminoester derived from ethyl trifluoropyruvate at a catalyst loading as low as 0.5 mol % and expanded the substrate scope to unprecedented α-ketiminophosphonate and cyclic N-sulfonyl α-ketiminoesters. PMID:27092817

  19. Light-induced reduction of rhodium(III) and palladium(II) on titanium dioxide dispersions and the selective photochemical separation and recovery of gold(III), platinum(IV), and rhodium(III) in chloride media

    SciTech Connect

    Borgarello, E.; Serpone, N.; Emo, G.; Harris, R.; Pelizzetti, E.; Minero, C.

    1986-12-03

    Irradiation of aqueous TiO/sub 2/ dispersions containing palladium(II) or rhodium(III) chloride salts with AM1 simulated sunlight leads to the photoreduction of these metals, which are deposited on the semiconductor particle surface. Oxygen is detrimental to the photoreduction of rhodium(III) but not the photoreduction of palladium(II). However, in both cases the reduction process is most efficient if the solution contains CH/sub 3/OH, which acts to scavenge valence band holes of the illuminated TiO/sub 2/ semiconductor. The selective photoreduction and recovery of precious metals from a dilute solution (as might be found in industrial wastes) have been investigated for a mixture of gold(III), platinum(IV), and rhodium(III) chloride salts as a function of various parameters (pH, presence or absence of O/sub 2/, presence or absence of a hole scavenger, and the concentration of the semiconductor). At pH 0, gold is easily separated from platinum and rhodium. The rate of photoreduction of gold(III) on TiO/sub 2/ is nearly independent of the concentration of the semiconductor, under the experimental conditions employed; the limiting rate is 2.7 x 10/sup -7/ M s/sup -1/. The potential utility of this selective photochemical technique is discussed.

  20. A facile one-step synthesis of polymer supported rhodium nanoparticles in organic medium and their catalytic performance in the dehydrogenation of ammonia-borane.

    PubMed

    Karahan, Senem; Zahmakıran, Mehmet; Özkar, Saim

    2012-01-28

    A new type of supported rhodium nanoparticles were reproducibly prepared from N(2)H(4)BH(3) reduction of [Rh(μ-Cl)(1,5-cod)](2) without using any solid support and pre-treatment technique. Their characterization shows the formation of well dispersed rhodium(0) nanoparticles within the framework of a polyaminoborane based polymeric support. These new rhodium(0) nanoparticles were found to be the most active supported catalyst in the catalytic dehydrogenation of ammonia-borane in water at room temperature. PMID:22158916

  1. Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticle-Stabilized and Manganese-Modified Rhodium Nanoparticles as Catalysts for Highly Selective Synthesis of Ethanol and Acetaldehyde from Syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yulin; Deng, Weihua; Guo, Enruo; Chung, Po-Wen; Chen, Senniang; Trewyn, Brian; Brown, Robert; Lin, Victor

    2012-03-30

    Well-defined and monodispersed rhodium nanoparticles as small as approximately 2 nm were encapsulated in situ and stabilized in a mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) framework during the synthesis of the mesoporous material. Although both the activity and selectivity of MSN-encapsulated rhodium nanoparticles in CO hydrogenation could be improved by the addition of manganese oxide as expected, the carbon selectivity for C2 oxygenates (including ethanol and acetaldehyde) was unprecedentedly high at 74.5 % with a very small amount of methanol produced if rhodium nanoparticles were modified by manganese oxide with very close interaction.

  2. C-Propargylation Overrides O-Propargylation in Reactions of Propargyl Chloride with Primary Alcohols: Rhodium-Catalyzed Transfer Hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Tao; Woo, Sang Kook; Krische, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    The canonical SN 2 behavior displayed by alcohols and activated alkyl halides in basic media (O-alkylation) is superseded by a pathway leading to carbinol C-alkylation under the conditions of rhodium-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation. Racemic and asymmetric propargylations are described. PMID:27321353

  3. Expanding the family of bis-cyclometalated chiral-at-metal rhodium(iii) catalysts with a benzothiazole derivative.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiajia; Shen, Xiaodong; Harms, Klaus; Meggers, Eric

    2016-05-28

    Synthetic access to previously elusive single enantiomers of an octahedral chiral-at-metal rhodium(iii) complex containing two cyclometalated 2-phenylbenzothiazoles and two acetonitrile ligands is reported. The complex is a superior chiral Lewis acid catalyst compared to its benzoxazole congener which can be rationalized with a higher steric congestion around the coordination sites. PMID:27143346

  4. Catalytic, Enantioselective Addition of Alkyl Radicals to Alkenes via Visible-Light-Activated Photoredox Catalysis with a Chiral Rhodium Complex.

    PubMed

    Huo, Haohua; Harms, Klaus; Meggers, Eric

    2016-06-01

    An efficient enantioselective addition of alkyl radicals, oxidatively generated from organotrifluoroborates, to acceptor-substituted alkenes is catalyzed by a bis-cyclometalated rhodium catalyst (4 mol %) under photoredox conditions. The practical method provides yields up to 97% with excellent enantioselectivities up to 99% ee and can be classified as a redox neutral, electron-transfer-catalyzed reaction. PMID:27218134

  5. The role of macrocyclic compounds in the extraction and possible separation of platinum and rhodium from chloride solutions.

    PubMed

    Jyothi, Rajesh Kumar; Lee, Jin-Young

    2016-01-01

    Macrocyclic compounds (crown ethers), specifically 18-crown-6 (18-C-6), benzo-15-crown-5 (B-15-C-5), di-benzo-18-crown-6 (DB-18-C-6) and di-cyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DC-18C-6), are used as extractants as well as synergists with amine-group extractants. Platinum and rhodium belong to platinum-group metals (PGMs) and have very similar ionic radii and similar properties. The separation of PGMs is most useful for the preparation of functional materials. Macrocyclic compounds are tested for platinum and rhodium separation and are found to achieve marginal separation. Amines (used as extractants) are paired with macrocyclic compounds (used as synergists), and the separation factor between platinum and rhodium is increased with synergistic enhancement from a chloride solution. The present study discusses extraction chemistry, separation factors and the synergy between platinum and rhodium from chloride solutions. To ensure accurate data, the aqueous samples in this study are analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). PMID:27283394

  6. RHODIUM CATALYZED CONJUGATED ADDITION OF UNSATURATED CARBONYL COMPOUNDS BY TRIPHENYLBISMUTH IN AQUEOUS MEDIA AND UNDER AN AIR ATMOSPHERE. (R822668)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    In the presence of a rhodium catalyst, small alpha, Greek,small beta, Greek-unsaturated est...

  7. Selective Synthesis of Isoquinolines by Rhodium(III)-Catalyzed C-H/N-H Functionalization with α-Substituted Ketones.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Zhang, Zhao; Tang, Mengyao; Zhang, Xiaolei; Jin, Jian

    2016-08-01

    A rhodium(III)-catalyzed C-H/N-H bond functionalization for the synthesis of 1-aminoisoquinolines from aryl amidines and α-MsO/TsO/Cl ketones was achieved under mild reaction conditions. Thus, this approach provides a practical method for the site-selective synthesis of various synthetically valuable isoquinolines with wide functional group tolerance. PMID:27441726

  8. Direct Synthesis of 5-Aryl Barbituric Acids by Rhodium(II)-Catalyzed Reactions of Arenes with Diazo Compounds**

    PubMed Central

    Best, Daniel; Burns, David J; Lam, Hon Wai

    2015-01-01

    A commercially available rhodium(II) complex catalyzes the direct arylation of 5-diazobarbituric acids with arenes, allowing straightforward access to 5-aryl barbituric acids. Free N—H groups are tolerated on the barbituric acid, with no complications arising from N—H insertion processes. This method was applied to the concise synthesis of a potent matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor. PMID:25959544

  9. The role of macrocyclic compounds in the extraction and possible separation of platinum and rhodium from chloride solutions

    PubMed Central

    Jyothi, Rajesh Kumar; Lee, Jin-Young

    2016-01-01

    Macrocyclic compounds (crown ethers), specifically 18-crown-6 (18-C-6), benzo-15-crown-5 (B-15-C-5), di-benzo-18-crown-6 (DB-18-C-6) and di-cyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DC-18C-6), are used as extractants as well as synergists with amine-group extractants. Platinum and rhodium belong to platinum-group metals (PGMs) and have very similar ionic radii and similar properties. The separation of PGMs is most useful for the preparation of functional materials. Macrocyclic compounds are tested for platinum and rhodium separation and are found to achieve marginal separation. Amines (used as extractants) are paired with macrocyclic compounds (used as synergists), and the separation factor between platinum and rhodium is increased with synergistic enhancement from a chloride solution. The present study discusses extraction chemistry, separation factors and the synergy between platinum and rhodium from chloride solutions. To ensure accurate data, the aqueous samples in this study are analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). PMID:27283394

  10. Gold vs Rhodium Catalysis: Tuning Reactivity through Catalyst Control in the C-H Alkynylation of Isoquinolones.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Aslam C; Shinde, Dinesh R; Patil, Nitin T

    2016-03-01

    A site-selective C-4/C-8 alkynylation of isoquinolones catalyzed by gold and rhodium complexes is reported. A broad range of synthetically useful functional groups (-F, -Cl, -Br, -CF3, -OMe, alkyl, etc.) were tolerated, providing an efficient and robust protocol for the synthesis either C-4- or C-8-alkynylated isoquinolones. PMID:26886569

  11. Rhodium(III)-catalyzed C-H activation/annulation with vinyl esters as an acetylene equivalent.

    PubMed

    Webb, Nicola J; Marsden, Stephen P; Raw, Steven A

    2014-09-19

    The behavior of electron-rich alkenes in rhodium-catalyzed C-H activation/annulation reactions is investigated. Vinyl acetate emerges as a convenient acetylene equivalent, facilitating the synthesis of sixteen 3,4-unsubstituted isoquinolones, as well as select heteroaryl-fused pyridones. The complementary regiochemical preferences of enol ethers versus enol esters/enamides is discussed. PMID:25165993

  12. The role of macrocyclic compounds in the extraction and possible separation of platinum and rhodium from chloride solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jyothi, Rajesh Kumar; Lee, Jin-Young

    2016-06-01

    Macrocyclic compounds (crown ethers), specifically 18-crown-6 (18-C-6), benzo-15-crown-5 (B-15-C-5), di-benzo-18-crown-6 (DB-18-C-6) and di-cyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DC-18C-6), are used as extractants as well as synergists with amine-group extractants. Platinum and rhodium belong to platinum-group metals (PGMs) and have very similar ionic radii and similar properties. The separation of PGMs is most useful for the preparation of functional materials. Macrocyclic compounds are tested for platinum and rhodium separation and are found to achieve marginal separation. Amines (used as extractants) are paired with macrocyclic compounds (used as synergists), and the separation factor between platinum and rhodium is increased with synergistic enhancement from a chloride solution. The present study discusses extraction chemistry, separation factors and the synergy between platinum and rhodium from chloride solutions. To ensure accurate data, the aqueous samples in this study are analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES).

  13. Tracking the shape-dependent sintering of platinum-rhodium model catalysts under operando conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejral, Uta; Müller, Patrick; Balmes, Olivier; Pontoni, Diego; Stierle, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Nanoparticle sintering during catalytic reactions is a major cause for catalyst deactivation. Understanding its atomic-scale processes and finding strategies to reduce it is of paramount scientific and economic interest. Here, we report on the composition-dependent three-dimensional restructuring of epitaxial platinum-rhodium alloy nanoparticles on alumina during carbon monoxide oxidation at 550 K and near-atmospheric pressures employing in situ high-energy grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, online mass spectrometry and a combinatorial sample design. For platinum-rich particles our results disclose a dramatic reaction-induced height increase, accompanied by a corresponding reduction of the total particle surface coverage. We find this restructuring to be progressively reduced for particles with increasing rhodium composition. We explain our observations by a carbon monoxide oxidation promoted non-classical Ostwald ripening process during which smaller particles are destabilized by the heat of reaction. Its driving force lies in the initial particle shape which features for platinum-rich particles a kinetically stabilized, low aspect ratio.

  14. Reversibility of hydrogen chemisorption on a ceria-supported rhodium catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Bernal, S.; Calvino, J.J.; Cifredo, G.A.; Izquierdo, J.M. Rodriguez ); Perrichon, V.; Laachir, A. )

    1992-09-01

    Cerium dioxide is an important component of the so-called three-way catalysts. This work reports on some new aspects of the chemistry of hydrogen-ceria systems. It is shown that, at room temperature, in the presence of highly dispersed rhodium, ceria chemisorbs large amounts of hydrogen. As deduced from magnetic measurements carried out in situ, this spillover process leads to the reduction of ceria to an extent of 21% of the total amount of cerium ions present in the sample, which is roughly equivalent to the complete surface reduction of the oxide. It is found that over a highly hydroxylated sample the reduction of ceria induced by the spillover process is partly reversible even at 295 K. If the sample is pumped off at 773 K, the initial oxidation state of ceria is almost completely recovered. Both the rate and extent of hydrogen chemisorption on ceria were found to be sensitive to the specific pretreatment applied to the catalyst. Over bare ceria, hydrogen chemisorption at 298 K was negligible, temperatures as high as 473 K being necessary to activate the process. In contrast to the rhodium-containing catalyst, over pure ceria the desorption of hydrogen leads to a much larger extent to water formation, thus revealing a deeper irreversible reduction of the oxide.

  15. Ion flotation of rhodium(III) and palladium(II) with anionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    He, X C

    1991-03-01

    The ion flotation of rhodium(III) and palladium(II) with some anionic surfactants has been investigated. Two flotation procedures are proposed for the separation of some platinum metals, based on differences in the kinetic properties of the chloro-complexes of rhodium(III), palladium(II) and platinum(IV). The first involves the selective flotation of Rh(H(2)O)(3+)(6) from PdCl(2-)(4) and PtCl(2-)(6) in dilute hydrochloric acid with sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS). After precipitation of the hydroxide and redissolution in dilute acid, the Rh(III) is converted into Rh(H(2)O)(3+)(6), Pd(II) and Pt(IV) remaining as PdCl(2-)(4) and PtCl(2-)(6) respectively, and separation is achieved by floating the Rh(H(2)O)(3+)(6) with SDBS. The second is for separation of Pd(II). Prior to flotation, the solution of PdCl(2-)(4) and PtCl(2-)(6) is heated with ammonium acetate to convert PdCl(2-)(4) into Pd(NH(3))(2+)(4). The chloro-complex of Pt(IV) is unaffected. The complex cation, Pd(NH(3))(2+)(4), is then selectively floated with SDBS. The procedures are fast, simple and do not require expensive reagents and apparatus. PMID:18965147

  16. Rhodium-catalysed syn-carboamination of alkenes via a transient directing group.

    PubMed

    Piou, Tiffany; Rovis, Tomislav

    2015-11-01

    Alkenes are the most ubiquitous prochiral functional groups--those that can be converted from achiral to chiral in a single step--that are accessible to synthetic chemists. For this reason, difunctionalization reactions of alkenes (whereby two functional groups are added to the same double bond) are particularly important, as they can be used to produce highly complex molecular architectures. Stereoselective oxidation reactions, including dihydroxylation, aminohydroxylation and halogenation, are well established methods for functionalizing alkenes. However, the intermolecular incorporation of both carbon- and nitrogen-based functionalities stereoselectively across an alkene has not been reported. Here we describe the rhodium-catalysed carboamination of alkenes at the same (syn) face of a double bond, initiated by a carbon-hydrogen activation event that uses enoxyphthalimides as the source of both the carbon and the nitrogen functionalities. The reaction methodology allows for the intermolecular, stereospecific formation of one carbon-carbon and one carbon-nitrogen bond across an alkene, which is, to our knowledge, unprecedented. The reaction design involves the in situ generation of a bidentate directing group and the use of a new cyclopentadienyl ligand to control the reactivity of rhodium. The results provide a new way of synthesizing functionalized alkenes, and should lead to the convergent and stereoselective assembly of amine-containing acyclic molecules. PMID:26503048

  17. Tracking the shape-dependent sintering of platinum-rhodium model catalysts under operando conditions.

    PubMed

    Hejral, Uta; Müller, Patrick; Balmes, Olivier; Pontoni, Diego; Stierle, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticle sintering during catalytic reactions is a major cause for catalyst deactivation. Understanding its atomic-scale processes and finding strategies to reduce it is of paramount scientific and economic interest. Here, we report on the composition-dependent three-dimensional restructuring of epitaxial platinum-rhodium alloy nanoparticles on alumina during carbon monoxide oxidation at 550 K and near-atmospheric pressures employing in situ high-energy grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, online mass spectrometry and a combinatorial sample design. For platinum-rich particles our results disclose a dramatic reaction-induced height increase, accompanied by a corresponding reduction of the total particle surface coverage. We find this restructuring to be progressively reduced for particles with increasing rhodium composition. We explain our observations by a carbon monoxide oxidation promoted non-classical Ostwald ripening process during which smaller particles are destabilized by the heat of reaction. Its driving force lies in the initial particle shape which features for platinum-rich particles a kinetically stabilized, low aspect ratio. PMID:26957204

  18. Tracking the shape-dependent sintering of platinum–rhodium model catalysts under operando conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hejral, Uta; Müller, Patrick; Balmes, Olivier; Pontoni, Diego; Stierle, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticle sintering during catalytic reactions is a major cause for catalyst deactivation. Understanding its atomic-scale processes and finding strategies to reduce it is of paramount scientific and economic interest. Here, we report on the composition-dependent three-dimensional restructuring of epitaxial platinum–rhodium alloy nanoparticles on alumina during carbon monoxide oxidation at 550 K and near-atmospheric pressures employing in situ high-energy grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, online mass spectrometry and a combinatorial sample design. For platinum-rich particles our results disclose a dramatic reaction-induced height increase, accompanied by a corresponding reduction of the total particle surface coverage. We find this restructuring to be progressively reduced for particles with increasing rhodium composition. We explain our observations by a carbon monoxide oxidation promoted non-classical Ostwald ripening process during which smaller particles are destabilized by the heat of reaction. Its driving force lies in the initial particle shape which features for platinum-rich particles a kinetically stabilized, low aspect ratio. PMID:26957204

  19. Characterization of acetylacetonato carbonyl diphenyl-2-pyridylphosphine rhodium(I): Comparison with other carbonyl complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purcell, Walter; Conradie, Jeanet; Chiweshe, Trevor T.; Venter, Johan A.; Visser, Hendrik G.; Coetzee, Michael P.

    2013-04-01

    Different rhodium(I)/(III) diphenyl-2-pyridylphosphine complexes were isolated and successfully characterized. The [Rh(acac)(CO)(DPP)] (DPP = diphenyl-2-pyridylphosphine) complex crystallizes in the P1¯ space group with four molecules per unit cell. The results clearly show that the differences between the two independent molecules are mainly centered around the orientation of the pyridyl ring within the two square planer molecules. The results also indicate that the phosphine ligands act as monodentate ligands in both molecules, with Rh-P and Rh-CO bond distances of 2.243(1); 2.235(1) and 1.791(4); 1.776(4) Å respectively. A comparison of the ν(CO) stretching frequencies of a relatively large number of rhodium complexes indicated little overlap between the ν(CO) of different types of complexes (e.g. Rh(I) vs Rh(III)) and relatively small standard deviations within each type of complex. DFT calculations were used to determine the preferred pyridyl ring orientation. These calculations indicated that at least 12 areas of minimum energy, which exists as broad, low energy wells, are theoretically suitable for DPP group orientation within this kind of structure.

  20. Correlation between the Stereochemistry and Bioactivity in Octahedral Rhodium Prolinato Complexes.

    PubMed

    Rajaratnam, Rajathees; Martin, Elisabeth K; Dörr, Markus; Harms, Klaus; Casini, Angela; Meggers, Eric

    2015-08-17

    Controlling the relative and absolute configuration of octahedral metal complexes constitutes a key challenge that needs to be overcome in order to fully exploit the structural properties of octahedral metal complexes for applications in the fields of catalysis, materials sciences, and life sciences. Herein, we describe the application of a proline-based chiral tridentate ligand to decisively control the coordination mode of an octahedral rhodium(III) complex. We demonstrate the mirror-like relationship of synthesized enantiomers and differences between diastereomers. Further, we demonstrate, using the established pyridocarbazole pharmacophore ligand as part of the organometallic complexes, the importance of the relative and absolute stereochemistry at the metal toward chiral environments like protein kinases. Protein kinase profiling and inhibition data confirm that the proline-based enantiopure rhodium(III) complexes, despite having all of the same constitution, differ strongly in their selectivity properties despite their unmistakably mutual origin. Moreover, two exemplary compounds have been shown to induce different toxic effects in an ex vivo rat liver model. PMID:26251218

  1. 49 CFR 89.13 - Documentary evidence of compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Documentary evidence of compromise. 89.13 Section 89.13 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION ACT General § 89.13 Documentary evidence of compromise. A compromise of any claim is not final...

  2. 49 CFR 89.13 - Documentary evidence of compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Documentary evidence of compromise. 89.13 Section 89.13 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION ACT General § 89.13 Documentary evidence of compromise. A compromise of any claim is not final...

  3. 40 CFR 89.315 - Analyzer bench checks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analyzer bench checks. 89.315 Section 89.315 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.315 Analyzer bench checks....

  4. 18 CFR 401.89 - Action by the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Action by the Commission. 401.89 Section 401.89 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Administrative and Other Hearings § 401.89 Action by...

  5. 40 CFR 89.210 - Maintenance of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maintenance of records. 89.210 Section 89.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 89.210 Maintenance...

  6. 40 CFR 89.404 - Test procedure overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test procedure overview. 89.404 Section 89.404 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 89.404 Test procedure overview....

  7. 40 CFR 89.414 - Air flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air flow measurement specifications. 89.414 Section 89.414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Emission Test Procedures § 89.414 Air flow measurement specifications. (a) The air flow measurement...

  8. 40 CFR 89.311 - Analyzer calibration frequency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analyzer calibration frequency. 89.311 Section 89.311 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Equipment Provisions § 89.311 Analyzer calibration frequency. (a) Prior to initial use and after...

  9. 40 CFR 89.311 - Analyzer calibration frequency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Analyzer calibration frequency. 89.311 Section 89.311 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Equipment Provisions § 89.311 Analyzer calibration frequency. (a) Prior to initial use and after...

  10. 40 CFR 89.311 - Analyzer calibration frequency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Analyzer calibration frequency. 89.311 Section 89.311 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Equipment Provisions § 89.311 Analyzer calibration frequency. (a) Prior to initial use and after...

  11. 25 CFR 89.31 - Negotiation of contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Negotiation of contract. 89.31 Section 89.31 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT ATTORNEY CONTRACTS WITH INDIAN TRIBES Five Civilized Tribes § 89.31 Negotiation of contract. That person or governing entity...

  12. 25 CFR 89.31 - Negotiation of contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Negotiation of contract. 89.31 Section 89.31 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT ATTORNEY CONTRACTS WITH INDIAN TRIBES Five Civilized Tribes § 89.31 Negotiation of contract. That person or governing entity...

  13. 40 CFR 89.311 - Analyzer calibration frequency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Analyzer calibration frequency. 89.311 Section 89.311 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Equipment Provisions § 89.311 Analyzer calibration frequency. (a) Prior to initial use and after...

  14. 10 CFR 1040.89-4 - Compliance reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Compliance reviews. 1040.89-4 Section 1040.89-4 Energy... Enforcement Procedures § 1040.89-4 Compliance reviews. (a) DOE may conduct preaward and postaward compliance reviews of recipients as prescribed in this part or use other similar procedures that will permit it...

  15. 40 CFR 89.404 - Test procedure overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test procedure overview. 89.404 Section 89.404 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 89.404 Test procedure overview....

  16. 45 CFR 89.3 - Organizational integrity of recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Organizational integrity of recipients. 89.3 Section 89.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATIONAL INTEGRITY OF ENTITIES IMPLEMENTING PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES UNDER THE LEADERSHIP ACT § 89.3...

  17. 45 CFR 89.3 - Organizational integrity of recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Organizational integrity of recipients. 89.3 Section 89.3 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATIONAL INTEGRITY OF ENTITIES IMPLEMENTING PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES UNDER THE LEADERSHIP ACT § 89.3...

  18. 45 CFR 89.3 - Organizational integrity of recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Organizational integrity of recipients. 89.3 Section 89.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATIONAL INTEGRITY OF ENTITIES IMPLEMENTING PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES UNDER THE LEADERSHIP ACT § 89.3...

  19. 45 CFR 89.3 - Organizational integrity of recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Organizational integrity of recipients. 89.3 Section 89.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATIONAL INTEGRITY OF ENTITIES IMPLEMENTING PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES UNDER THE LEADERSHIP ACT § 89.3...

  20. 45 CFR 89.3 - Organizational integrity of recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Organizational integrity of recipients. 89.3 Section 89.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATIONAL INTEGRITY OF ENTITIES IMPLEMENTING PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES UNDER THE LEADERSHIP ACT § 89.3...

  1. 40 CFR 89.504 - Testing by the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing by the Administrator. 89.504... Enforcement Auditing § 89.504 Testing by the Administrator. (a) The Administrator may require by test order... requirements of § 89.507 and submitted to the Administrator at the place designated for the purpose...

  2. 29 CFR 102.89 - Initiation of proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initiation of proceedings. 102.89 Section 102.89 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Procedure To Hear and Determine Disputes Under Section 10(k) of the Act § 102.89 Initiation of proceedings. Whenever...

  3. 29 CFR 102.89 - Initiation of proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Initiation of proceedings. 102.89 Section 102.89 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Procedure To Hear and Determine Disputes Under Section 10(k) of the Act § 102.89 Initiation of proceedings. Whenever...

  4. 49 CFR 229.89 - Jumpers; cable connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Jumpers; cable connections. 229.89 Section 229.89....89 Jumpers; cable connections. (a) Jumpers and cable connections between locomotives shall be so...) Cable and jumper connections between locomotive may not have any of the following conditions: (1)...

  5. 49 CFR 229.89 - Jumpers; cable connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Jumpers; cable connections. 229.89 Section 229.89....89 Jumpers; cable connections. (a) Jumpers and cable connections between locomotives shall be so...) Cable and jumper connections between locomotive may not have any of the following conditions: (1)...

  6. 49 CFR 229.89 - Jumpers; cable connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Jumpers; cable connections. 229.89 Section 229.89....89 Jumpers; cable connections. (a) Jumpers and cable connections between locomotives shall be so...) Cable and jumper connections between locomotive may not have any of the following conditions: (1)...

  7. 25 CFR 89.34 - Tentative form of contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tentative form of contract. 89.34 Section 89.34 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT ATTORNEY CONTRACTS WITH INDIAN TRIBES Five Civilized Tribes § 89.34 Tentative form of contract. The principal officer of any one of...

  8. 49 CFR 8.9 - Information Security Review Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Information Security Review Committee. 8.9 Section 8.9 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation CLASSIFIED INFORMATION: CLASSIFICATION/DECLASSIFICATION/ACCESS Classification/Declassification of Information § 8.9 Information Security Review Committee. (a) There is hereby established...

  9. 40 CFR 89.910 - Granting of exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Granting of exemptions. 89.910 Section 89.910 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exemption Provisions § 89.910 Granting of exemptions. (a) If...

  10. 40 CFR 89.910 - Granting of exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Granting of exemptions. 89.910 Section 89.910 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exemption Provisions § 89.910 Granting of exemptions. (a) If...

  11. 10 CFR 1040.89-3 - Information requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Information requirements. 1040.89-3 Section 1040.89-3... ACTIVITIES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age-Age Discrimination Act of 1975, as Amended Responsibilities of Doe Recipients § 1040.89-3 Information requirements. Each recipient shall: (a) Upon request...

  12. 10 CFR 1040.89-3 - Information requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Information requirements. 1040.89-3 Section 1040.89-3... ACTIVITIES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age-Age Discrimination Act of 1975, as Amended Responsibilities of Doe Recipients § 1040.89-3 Information requirements. Each recipient shall: (a) Upon request...

  13. 10 CFR 1040.89-3 - Information requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Information requirements. 1040.89-3 Section 1040.89-3... ACTIVITIES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age-Age Discrimination Act of 1975, as Amended Responsibilities of Doe Recipients § 1040.89-3 Information requirements. Each recipient shall: (a) Upon request...

  14. 10 CFR 1040.89-3 - Information requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Information requirements. 1040.89-3 Section 1040.89-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age-Age Discrimination Act of 1975, as Amended Responsibilities of Doe Recipients § 1040.89-3...

  15. 49 CFR 229.89 - Jumpers; cable connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Jumpers; cable connections. 229.89 Section 229.89 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Electrical System § 229.89 Jumpers; cable connections....

  16. 40 CFR 262.89 - OECD waste lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false OECD waste lists. 262.89 Section 262.89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste for Recovery Within the OECD § 262.89 OECD waste...

  17. 40 CFR 89.306 - Dynamometer specifications and calibration weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... calibration weights. 89.306 Section 89.306 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.306 Dynamometer specifications and calibration weights. (a...) Dynamometer calibration weights. A minimum of six calibration weights for each range used are required....

  18. 40 CFR 89.306 - Dynamometer specifications and calibration weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... calibration weights. 89.306 Section 89.306 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.306 Dynamometer specifications and calibration weights. (a...) Dynamometer calibration weights. A minimum of six calibration weights for each range used are required....

  19. 40 CFR 89.404 - Test procedure overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test procedure overview. 89.404 Section 89.404 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 89.404 Test procedure overview....

  20. 40 CFR 89.404 - Test procedure overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Test procedure overview. 89.404 Section 89.404 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 89.404 Test procedure overview....

  1. 40 CFR 89.504 - Testing by the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Testing by the Administrator. 89.504... Enforcement Auditing § 89.504 Testing by the Administrator. (a) The Administrator may require by test order... requirements of § 89.507 and submitted to the Administrator at the place designated for the purpose...

  2. 40 CFR 89.504 - Testing by the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Testing by the Administrator. 89.504... Enforcement Auditing § 89.504 Testing by the Administrator. (a) The Administrator may require by test order... requirements of § 89.507 and submitted to the Administrator at the place designated for the purpose...

  3. 40 CFR 89.504 - Testing by the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Testing by the Administrator. 89.504... Enforcement Auditing § 89.504 Testing by the Administrator. (a) The Administrator may require by test order... requirements of § 89.507 and submitted to the Administrator at the place designated for the purpose...

  4. 40 CFR 89.504 - Testing by the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Testing by the Administrator. 89.504... Enforcement Auditing § 89.504 Testing by the Administrator. (a) The Administrator may require by test order... requirements of § 89.507 and submitted to the Administrator at the place designated for the purpose...

  5. 47 CFR 8.9 - Other laws and considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other laws and considerations. 8.9 Section 8.9 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.9 Other laws and... Internet access service may have to address the needs of emergency communications or law...

  6. 47 CFR 8.9 - Other laws and considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other laws and considerations. 8.9 Section 8.9 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.9 Other laws and... Internet access service may have to address the needs of emergency communications or law...

  7. 40 CFR 89.915 - Staged-assembly exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Staged-assembly exemption. 89.915 Section 89.915 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Provisions § 89.915 Staged-assembly exemption. You may ask us to provide a temporary exemption to allow...

  8. 40 CFR 89.315 - Analyzer bench checks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Analyzer bench checks. 89.315 Section 89.315 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.315 Analyzer bench checks....

  9. 7 CFR 301.89-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.89-2 Section 301.89-2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Karnal Bunt § 301.89-2 Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles:...

  10. 10 CFR Section 140.89 - Criminal penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criminal penalties. 140.89 Section 140.89 Energy NUCLEAR....89 Criminal penalties. (a) Section 223 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, provides for criminal sanctions for willful violation of, attempted violation of, or conspiracy to violate,...

  11. 40 CFR 89.317 - NOX converter check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX converter check. 89.317 Section 89... Provisions § 89.317 NOX converter check. (a) Prior to its introduction into service, and monthly thereafter... of the NOX generator to the sample inlet of the oxides of nitrogen analyzer which has been set to...

  12. 40 CFR 89.317 - NOX converter check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NOX converter check. 89.317 Section 89... Provisions § 89.317 NOX converter check. (a) Prior to its introduction into service, and monthly thereafter... of the NOX generator to the sample inlet of the oxides of nitrogen analyzer which has been set to...

  13. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Amount of feed. 89.1 Section 89.1 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS STATEMENT OF POLICY UNDER THE TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed....

  14. 40 CFR 89.414 - Air flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air flow measurement specifications. 89.414 Section 89.414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Emission Test Procedures § 89.414 Air flow measurement specifications. (a) The air flow measurement...

  15. 10 CFR Section 140.89 - Criminal penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criminal penalties. 140.89 Section 140.89 Energy NUCLEAR....89 Criminal penalties. (a) Section 223 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, provides for criminal sanctions for willful violation of, attempted violation of, or conspiracy to violate,...

  16. 10 CFR Section 140.89 - Criminal penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criminal penalties. 140.89 Section 140.89 Energy NUCLEAR....89 Criminal penalties. (a) Section 223 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, provides for criminal sanctions for willful violation of, attempted violation of, or conspiracy to violate,...

  17. 10 CFR Section 140.89 - Criminal penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criminal penalties. 140.89 Section 140.89 Energy NUCLEAR....89 Criminal penalties. (a) Section 223 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, provides for criminal sanctions for willful violation of, attempted violation of, or conspiracy to violate,...

  18. 10 CFR Section 140.89 - Criminal penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criminal penalties. 140.89 Section 140.89 Energy NUCLEAR....89 Criminal penalties. (a) Section 223 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, provides for criminal sanctions for willful violation of, attempted violation of, or conspiracy to violate,...

  19. 28 CFR 8.9 - Disposition of forfeited property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposition of forfeited property. 8.9 Section 8.9 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FBI FORFEITURE AUTHORITY FOR CERTAIN STATUTES § 8.9 Disposition of forfeited property. (a) If the laws of a state in which an article of...

  20. 28 CFR 8.9 - Disposition of forfeited property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposition of forfeited property. 8.9 Section 8.9 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FBI FORFEITURE AUTHORITY FOR CERTAIN STATUTES § 8.9 Disposition of forfeited property. (a) If the laws of a state in which an article of...

  1. 28 CFR 8.9 - Disposition of forfeited property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposition of forfeited property. 8.9 Section 8.9 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FBI FORFEITURE AUTHORITY FOR CERTAIN STATUTES § 8.9 Disposition of forfeited property. (a) If the laws of a state in which an article of...

  2. 38 CFR 8.9 - Application and medical evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Application and medical evidence. 8.9 Section 8.9 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Reinstatement § 8.9 Application and medical evidence. The applicant...

  3. 38 CFR 8.9 - Application and medical evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application and medical evidence. 8.9 Section 8.9 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Reinstatement § 8.9 Application and medical evidence. The applicant...

  4. 38 CFR 8.9 - Application and medical evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Application and medical evidence. 8.9 Section 8.9 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Reinstatement § 8.9 Application and medical evidence. The applicant...

  5. 38 CFR 8.9 - Application and medical evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application and medical evidence. 8.9 Section 8.9 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Reinstatement § 8.9 Application and medical evidence. The applicant...

  6. 36 CFR 223.89 - Relation to other bidders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relation to other bidders. 223.89 Section 223.89 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE....89 Relation to other bidders. Any bidder or applicant for a sale may be required to furnish...

  7. 49 CFR 89.43 - Review within the Department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review within the Department. 89.43 Section 89.43... Referral of Debts to IRS for Tax Refund Offset § 89.43 Review within the Department. (a) Notification by... of the information to the address provided in the notice. (2) State in the request the...

  8. 7 CFR 3201.89 - Animal cleaning products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal cleaning products. 3201.89 Section 3201.89... Designated Items § 3201.89 Animal cleaning products. (a) Definition. Products designed to clean, condition, or remove substances from animal hair or other parts of an animal. (b) Minimum biobased content....

  9. 7 CFR 3201.89 - Animal cleaning products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal cleaning products. 3201.89 Section 3201.89... Designated Items § 3201.89 Animal cleaning products. (a) Definition. Products designed to clean, condition, or remove substances from animal hair or other parts of an animal. (b) Minimum biobased content....

  10. 10 CFR 76.89 - Criticality accident requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criticality accident requirements. 76.89 Section 76.89 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.89 Criticality accident requirements. (a) The Corporation must maintain and operate a criticality monitoring and audible alarm system meeting...

  11. 10 CFR 76.89 - Criticality accident requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criticality accident requirements. 76.89 Section 76.89 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.89 Criticality accident requirements. (a) The Corporation must maintain and operate a criticality monitoring and audible alarm system meeting...

  12. 10 CFR 76.89 - Criticality accident requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criticality accident requirements. 76.89 Section 76.89 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.89 Criticality accident requirements. (a) The Corporation must maintain and operate a criticality monitoring and audible alarm system meeting...

  13. 10 CFR 76.89 - Criticality accident requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criticality accident requirements. 76.89 Section 76.89 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.89 Criticality accident requirements. (a) The Corporation must maintain and operate a criticality monitoring and audible alarm system meeting...

  14. 10 CFR 76.89 - Criticality accident requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criticality accident requirements. 76.89 Section 76.89 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.89 Criticality accident requirements. (a) The Corporation must maintain and operate a criticality monitoring and audible alarm system meeting...

  15. 49 CFR 89.13 - Documentary evidence of compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Documentary evidence of compromise. 89.13 Section 89.13 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION ACT General § 89.13 Documentary evidence of compromise. A compromise of any claim is not final...

  16. 49 CFR 89.13 - Documentary evidence of compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Documentary evidence of compromise. 89.13 Section 89.13 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION ACT General § 89.13 Documentary evidence of compromise. A compromise of any claim is not final...

  17. 49 CFR 89.13 - Documentary evidence of compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Documentary evidence of compromise. 89.13 Section 89.13 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION ACT General § 89.13 Documentary evidence of compromise. A compromise of any claim is not final...

  18. 36 CFR 7.89 - New River Gorge National River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New River Gorge National River. 7.89 Section 7.89 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.89 New River Gorge National River....

  19. 40 CFR 89.317 - NOX converter check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false NOX converter check. 89.317 Section 89...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.317 NOX converter check. (a) Prior to its introduction into service, and monthly...

  20. 10 CFR 1040.89-9 - Compliance procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Enforcement Procedures § 1040.89-9 Compliance procedure. (a) DOE may enforce the Act and these regulations through procedures precribed in subpart H of DOE regulation 10 CFR part 1040—Nondiscrimination in... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance procedure. 1040.89-9 Section 1040.89-9...

  1. 10 CFR 1040.89-3 - Information requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information requirements. 1040.89-3 Section 1040.89-3... ACTIVITIES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age-Age Discrimination Act of 1975, as Amended Responsibilities of Doe Recipients § 1040.89-3 Information requirements. Each recipient shall: (a) Upon request...

  2. 7 CFR 301.89-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.89-2 Section 301.89-2... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Karnal Bunt § 301.89-2 Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) Conveyances, including trucks, railroad cars, and...

  3. 7 CFR 301.89-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.89-2 Section 301.89-2... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Karnal Bunt § 301.89-2 Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) Conveyances, including trucks, railroad cars, and...

  4. 40 CFR 89.912 - Treatment of confidential information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Treatment of confidential information. 89.912 Section 89.912 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Exemption Provisions § 89.912 Treatment of confidential information. The provisions for treatment...

  5. 40 CFR 89.516 - Treatment of confidential information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Treatment of confidential information. 89.516 Section 89.516 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Selective Enforcement Auditing § 89.516 Treatment of confidential information. The provisions for...

  6. 40 CFR 89.908 - National security exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false National security exemption. 89.908 Section 89.908 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exemption Provisions § 89.908 National security exemption....

  7. 40 CFR 89.908 - National security exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... further information. (4) The statement “THIS ENGINE HAS AN EXEMPTION FOR NATIONAL SECURITY UNDER 40 CFR 89... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National security exemption. 89.908... Provisions § 89.908 National security exemption. (a)(1) Any nonroad engine, otherwise subject to this...

  8. 16 CFR 1.89 - Effect on prior actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Effect on prior actions. 1.89 Section 1.89 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Procedures for Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 § 1.89 Effect...

  9. 16 CFR 1.89 - Effect on prior actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Effect on prior actions. 1.89 Section 1.89 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Procedures for Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 § 1.89 Effect...

  10. 7 CFR 301.89-3 - Regulated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Regulated areas. 301.89-3 Section 301.89-3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Karnal Bunt § 301.89-3 Regulated areas. (a) The Administrator will regulate each State or...

  11. 7 CFR 301.89-12 - Cleaning, disinfection, and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cleaning, disinfection, and disposal. 301.89-12 Section 301.89-12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Karnal Bunt § 301.89-12 Cleaning, disinfection, and disposal....

  12. 40 CFR 89.407 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine dynamometer test run. 89.407 Section 89.407 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 89.407 Engine dynamometer...

  13. 40 CFR 89.407 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine dynamometer test run. 89.407 Section 89.407 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 89.407 Engine...

  14. 40 CFR 89.407 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine dynamometer test run. 89.407 Section 89.407 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 89.407 Engine...

  15. 40 CFR 89.407 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine dynamometer test run. 89.407 Section 89.407 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 89.407 Engine...

  16. Reactions of Highly Uniform Zeolite H-Supported Rhodium Complexes: Transient Characterization by Infrared and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect

    Ogino, I.; Gates, B

    2010-01-01

    A zeolite H-{beta}-supported mononuclear rhodium diethene complex (Rh(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}{l_brace}O{sub 2}Al{r_brace}, where the braces indicate a part of the zeolite) was formed by the reaction of Rh(acac)({eta}{sub 2}-C{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2} (acac = acetylacetonate, C{sub 5}H{sub 7}O{sub 2}{sup -}) with the zeolite. Transient characterization of the sample by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and infrared (IR) spectroscopies (combined with mass spectrometry of the effluent gas) while the sample was in contact with flowing CO indicates a simple stoichiometric conversion of the supported metal complex into another species, identified by the spectra as the zeolite-supported rhodium gem-dicarbonyl (Rh(CO){sub 2}{l_brace}O{sub 2}Al{r_brace}). The sharpness of the v{sub CO} bands in the IR spectrum indicates a high degree of uniformity of the supported rhodium gem-dicarbonyl, and isosbestic points in the XANES spectra as the transformation was occurring imply that the rhodium diethene complex was also highly uniform. Spectra similarly show that treatment of the supported rhodium gem-dicarbonyl with flowing C{sub 2}H{sub 4} resulted in another stoichiometrically simple transformation, giving a species suggested to be Rh(C{sub 2}H{sub 4})(CO){sub 2}{l_brace}O{sub 2}Al{r_brace}. The intermediate was ultimately transformed when the sample was purged with helium into another highly uniform supported species, inferred on the basis of IR spectra to be Rh(C{sub 2}H{sub 4})(CO){l_brace}O{sub 2}Al{r_brace}. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectra characterizing the supported rhodium diethene complex and the species formed from it show how the Rh-O bond distance at the Rh-support interface varied in response to the changes in the ligands bonded to the rhodium.

  17. Adsorptive separation of rhodium(III) using Fe(III)-templated oxine type of chemically modified chitosan

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, M.S.; Inoue, Katsutoshi; Yoshizuka, Kazuharu; Ishibashi, Hideaki

    1998-03-01

    The oxine type of chemically modified chitosan was prepared by the template crosslinking method using Fe(III) as a template ion. Batchwise adsorption of rhodium(III) on this chemically modified chitosan was examined from chloride media in the absence and presence of a large amount of tin(II). It was observed that the Fe(III)-templated oxine type of chemically modified chitosan shows better performance for rhodium adsorption than that of the original chitosan. When Sn(II) is absent from the solution, Rh(III) is hardly adsorbed on the modified chitosan and the order of selectivity of the adsorption of Rh(III), Pt(IV), and Cu(II) was found to be Pt(IV) > Cu(II) {approx} Rh(III). On the other hand, adsorption of rhodium is significantly increased in the presence of Sn(II) and the selectivity order of the adsorption was drastically changed to Rh(III) > Pt(IV) {much_gt} Cu(II), which ensures selective separation of Rh(III) from their mixture. Adsorption of Rh(III) increases with an increase in the concentration of Sn(II) in the aqueous solution, and maximum adsorption is achieved at a molar ratio, [Sn]/[Rh], of >6. The adsorption of Rh(III) decreases at a high concentration of hydrochloric acid. The maximum adsorption capacity was evaluated to be 0.92 mol/kg-dry adsorbent. Stripping tests of rhodium from the loaded chemically modified chitosan were carried out using different kinds of stripping agents containing some oxidizing agent. The maximum stripping of rhodium under these experimental conditions was found to be 72.5% by a single contact with 0.5 M HCl + 8 M HNO{sub 3}.

  18. MERCURY-NITRITE-RHODIUM-RUTHENIUM INTERACTIONS IN NOBLE METAL CATALYZED HYDROGEN GENERATION FROM FORMIC ACID DURING NUCLEAR WASTE PROCESSING AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - 136C

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Lambert, D.; Newell, J; Stone, M.

    2009-09-02

    Chemical pre-treatment of radioactive waste at the Savannah River Site is performed to prepare the waste for vitrification into a stable waste glass form. During pre-treatment, compounds in the waste become catalytically active. Mercury, rhodium, and palladium become active for nitrite destruction by formic acid, while rhodium and ruthenium become active for catalytic conversion of formic acid into hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Nitrite ion is present during the maximum activity of rhodium, but is consumed prior to the activation of ruthenium. Catalytic hydrogen generation during pre-treatment can exceed radiolytic hydrogen generation by several orders of magnitude. Palladium and mercury impact the maximum catalytic hydrogen generation rates of rhodium and ruthenium by altering the kinetics of nitrite ion decomposition. New data are presented that illustrate the interactions of these various species.

  19. Synthesis of α-amino ketones from terminal alkynes via rhodium-catalyzed denitrogenative hydration of N-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles.

    PubMed

    Miura, Tomoya; Biyajima, Tsuneaki; Fujii, Tetsuji; Murakami, Masahiro

    2012-01-11

    N-Sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles react with water in the presence of a rhodium catalyst to produce α-amino ketones in high yield. An intermediary α-imino rhodium(II) carbenoid undergoes insertion into the O-H bond of water. This transformation formally achieves 1,2-aminohydroxylation of terminal alkynes in a regioselective fashion when combined with the copper(I)-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition with N-sulfonyl azides. PMID:22129424

  20. Theoretical study of the rhodium dimer interaction with the hydrogen molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, S.; Cruz, A.; Cuan, A.

    1995-12-31

    The C{sub 2v} potential energy surfaces for the end-on and side-on approaches of H{sub 2} to the rhodium dimer were studied through self-consistent-field (SCF) and multiconfigurational SCF calculations, followed by extensive variational plus second-order multireference Moller-Plesset perturbational configuration interaction (CIPSI) calculations. Relativistic effective core potentials were used to replace the core electrons of the rhodium atoms. Together with the Rh{sub 2}-H{sub 2} interaction, the spectroscopic constants for the {sup 5}{summation}{sub g}{sup +}, {sup 1}{summation}{sub g}{sup +}, {sup 3}II{sub {mu}}, and {sup 1}II{sub {mu}} states of Rh{sub 2} are reported. It was found that the potential energy curves of the parallel and the perpendicular Rh{sub 2}({sup 5}{summation}{sub g}) interaction with H{sub 2} show that the rhodium dimer has the ability to capture and break the H{sub 2} molecule. The parallel interaction presents a soft potential barrier of 7.8 kcal/mol, energy necessary to surmount before the capture and breaking of the H-H bond. In the perpendicular interaction, Rh{sub 2} captures and breaks spontaneously H{sub 2}. The potential energy curve of the parallel Rh{sub 2}({sup 1}{summation}{sub g}) + H{sub 2} interaction shows that Rh{sub 2} also captures and breaks spontaneously the H{sub 2}, with a very deep well of 92.7 kcal/mol, while in the perpendicular approach, Rh{sub 2} has to surmount again a soft barrier of 5.2 kcal/mol to capture and break the H{sub 2} molecule. Finally, the energy curves of the parallel Rh{sub 2}({sup 1,3}II{sub {mu}}) + H{sub 2} interactions present capture and breaking with very small barriers. The perpendicular interactions capture and scisse the hydrogen molecule spontaneously. 35 refs., 6 tabs.