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Sample records for rhythmic movement disorder

  1. Effectiveness of rhythmic movement therapy for disordered eating behaviors and obesity.

    PubMed

    Malkina-Pykh, Irina G

    2012-11-01

    The aims of the present study were: a) to examine associations between pre-treatment BMI, body dissatisfaction, perfectionism, alexithymia, and restraint, emotional and external eating behaviour in obese patients; b) to analyze the impact of the pre-treatment measures in psychological variables on the outcome of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) program; c) to test the effectiveness of rhythmic movement therapy (RMT) in the treatment of disordered eating behaviors and obesity with the CBT non-responders. At the first stage of treatment a total of 104 patients (32 males and 72 females, mean age was 37.6 +/- 6.7 years) self-referred or referred by professionals to CBT weight management program were selected at random. At the second stage 58 obese CBT-non-responders were randomly divided among the continuing CBT individual treatment group and RMT group. Control group was included. Results revealed that: a) significant associations existed between pre-treatment BMI, external eating and two dimensions of perfectionism, as well as between emotional and external eating and all dimensions of perfectionism, alexithymia and body image dissatisfaction; b) pre-treatment means of psychological variables significantly impacted the CBT program outcome; c). the efficacy of RMT approach for weight reduction as well as for the improvement of psychological status for CBT-non-responders was confirmed. PMID:23156940

  2. Auditory rhythmic cueing in movement rehabilitation: findings and possible mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Rebecca S.

    2014-01-01

    Moving to music is intuitive and spontaneous, and music is widely used to support movement, most commonly during exercise. Auditory cues are increasingly also used in the rehabilitation of disordered movement, by aligning actions to sounds such as a metronome or music. Here, the effect of rhythmic auditory cueing on movement is discussed and representative findings of cued movement rehabilitation are considered for several movement disorders, specifically post-stroke motor impairment, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. There are multiple explanations for the efficacy of cued movement practice. Potentially relevant, non-mutually exclusive mechanisms include the acceleration of learning; qualitatively different motor learning owing to an auditory context; effects of increased temporal skills through rhythmic practices and motivational aspects of musical rhythm. Further considerations of rehabilitation paradigm efficacy focus on specific movement disorders, intervention methods and complexity of the auditory cues. Although clinical interventions using rhythmic auditory cueing do not show consistently positive results, it is argued that internal mechanisms of temporal prediction and tracking are crucial, and further research may inform rehabilitation practice to increase intervention efficacy. PMID:25385780

  3. Auditory rhythmic cueing in movement rehabilitation: findings and possible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Rebecca S

    2014-12-19

    Moving to music is intuitive and spontaneous, and music is widely used to support movement, most commonly during exercise. Auditory cues are increasingly also used in the rehabilitation of disordered movement, by aligning actions to sounds such as a metronome or music. Here, the effect of rhythmic auditory cueing on movement is discussed and representative findings of cued movement rehabilitation are considered for several movement disorders, specifically post-stroke motor impairment, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. There are multiple explanations for the efficacy of cued movement practice. Potentially relevant, non-mutually exclusive mechanisms include the acceleration of learning; qualitatively different motor learning owing to an auditory context; effects of increased temporal skills through rhythmic practices and motivational aspects of musical rhythm. Further considerations of rehabilitation paradigm efficacy focus on specific movement disorders, intervention methods and complexity of the auditory cues. Although clinical interventions using rhythmic auditory cueing do not show consistently positive results, it is argued that internal mechanisms of temporal prediction and tracking are crucial, and further research may inform rehabilitation practice to increase intervention efficacy. PMID:25385780

  4. Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t want them to. If you have a movement disorder, you experience these kinds of impaired movement. Dyskinesia ... movement and is a common symptom of many movement disorders. Tremors are a type of dyskinesia. Nerve diseases ...

  5. Biological clockwork underlying adaptive rhythmic movements

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Tetsuya; Chen, Jun; Friesen, W. Otto

    2014-01-01

    Owing to the complexity of neuronal circuits, precise mathematical descriptions of brain functions remain an elusive ambition. A more modest focus of many neuroscientists, central pattern generators, are more tractable neuronal circuits specialized to generate rhythmic movements, including locomotion. The relative simplicity and well-defined motor functions of these circuits provide an opportunity for uncovering fundamental principles of neuronal information processing. Here we present the culmination of mathematical analysis that captures the adaptive behaviors emerging from interactions between a central pattern generator, the body, and the physical environment during locomotion. The biologically realistic model describes the undulatory motions of swimming leeches with quantitative accuracy and, without further parameter tuning, predicts the sweeping changes in oscillation patterns of leeches undulating in air or swimming in high-viscosity fluid. The study demonstrates that central pattern generators are capable of adapting oscillations to the environment through sensory feedback, but without guidance from the brain. PMID:24395788

  6. Biological clockwork underlying adaptive rhythmic movements.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Tetsuya; Chen, Jun; Friesen, W Otto

    2014-01-21

    Owing to the complexity of neuronal circuits, precise mathematical descriptions of brain functions remain an elusive ambition. A more modest focus of many neuroscientists, central pattern generators, are more tractable neuronal circuits specialized to generate rhythmic movements, including locomotion. The relative simplicity and well-defined motor functions of these circuits provide an opportunity for uncovering fundamental principles of neuronal information processing. Here we present the culmination of mathematical analysis that captures the adaptive behaviors emerging from interactions between a central pattern generator, the body, and the physical environment during locomotion. The biologically realistic model describes the undulatory motions of swimming leeches with quantitative accuracy and, without further parameter tuning, predicts the sweeping changes in oscillation patterns of leeches undulating in air or swimming in high-viscosity fluid. The study demonstrates that central pattern generators are capable of adapting oscillations to the environment through sensory feedback, but without guidance from the brain. PMID:24395788

  7. The ecology of entrainment: Foundations of coordinated rhythmic movement

    PubMed Central

    Phillips-Silver, Jessica; Aktipis, C. Athena; Bryant, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    Entrainment has been studied in a variety of contexts including music perception, dance, verbal communication and motor coordination more generally. Here we seek to provide a unifying framework that incorporates the key aspects of entrainment as it has been studied in these varying domains. We propose that there are a number of types of entrainment that build upon pre-existing adaptations that allow organisms to perceive stimuli as rhythmic, to produce periodic stimuli, and to integrate the two using sensory feedback. We suggest that social entrainment is a special case of spatiotemporal coordination where the rhythmic signal originates from another individual. We use this framework to understand the function and evolutionary basis for coordinated rhythmic movement and to explore questions about the nature of entrainment in music and dance. The framework of entrainment presented here has a number of implications for the vocal learning hypothesis and other proposals for the evolution of coordinated rhythmic behavior across an array of species. PMID:21776183

  8. Rhythmic arm movements are less affected than discrete ones after a stroke.

    PubMed

    Leconte, Patricia; Orban de Xivry, Jean-Jacques; Stoquart, Gaëtan; Lejeune, Thierry; Ronsse, Renaud

    2016-06-01

    Recent reports indicate that rhythmic and discrete upper-limb movements are two different motor primitives which recruit, at least partially, distinct neural circuitries. In particular, rhythmic movements recruit a smaller cortical network than discrete movements. The goal of this paper is to compare the levels of disability in performing rhythmic and discrete movements after a stroke. More precisely, we tested the hypothesis that rhythmic movements should be less affected than discrete ones, because they recruit neural circuitries that are less likely to be damaged by the stroke. Eleven stroke patients and eleven age-matched control subjects performed discrete and rhythmic movements using an end-effector robot (REAplan). The rhythmic movement condition was performed with and without visual targets to further decrease cortical recruitment. Movement kinematics was analyzed through specific metrics, capturing the degree of smoothness and harmonicity. We reported three main observations: (1) the movement smoothness of the paretic arm was more severely degraded for discrete movements than rhythmic movements; (2) most of the patients performed rhythmic movements with a lower harmonicity than controls; and (3) visually guided rhythmic movements were more altered than non-visually guided rhythmic movements. These results suggest a hierarchy in the levels of impairment: Discrete movements are more affected than rhythmic ones, which are more affected if they are visually guided. These results are a new illustration that discrete and rhythmic movements are two fundamental primitives in upper-limb movements. Moreover, this hierarchy of impairment opens new post-stroke rehabilitation perspectives. PMID:26749181

  9. Movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Stoessl, A Jon; Mckeown, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders can be hypokinetic (e.g., parkinsonism), hyperkinetic, or dystonic in nature and commonly arise from altered function in nuclei of the basal ganglia or their connections. As obvious structural changes are often limited, standard imaging plays less of a role than in other neurologic disorders. However, structural imaging is indicated where clinical presentation is atypical, particularly if the disorder is abrupt in onset or remains strictly unilateral. More recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may allow for differentiation between Parkinson's disease and atypical forms of parkinsonism. Functional imaging can assess regional cerebral blood flow (functional MRI (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)), cerebral glucose metabolism (PET), neurochemical and neuroreceptor status (PET and SPECT), and pathologic processes such as inflammation or abnormal protein deposition (PET) (Table 49.1). Cerebral blood flow can be assessed at rest, during the performance of motor or cognitive tasks, or in response to a variety of stimuli. In appropriate situations, the correct imaging modality and/or combination of modalities can be used to detect early disease or even preclinical disease, and to monitor disease progression and the effects of disease-modifying interventions. Various approaches are reviewed here. PMID:27430452

  10. Automatic recognition and scoring of olympic rhythmic gymnastic movements.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Pereira, M Pino; Gómez-Conde, Iván; Escalona, Merly; Olivieri, David N

    2014-04-01

    We describe a conceptually simple algorithm for assigning judgement scores to rhythmic gymnastic movements, which could improve scoring objectivity and reduce judgemental bias during competitions. Our method, implemented as a real-time computer vision software, takes a video shot or a live performance video stream as input and extracts detailed velocity field information from body movements, transforming them into specialized spatio-temporal image templates. The collection of such images over time, when projected into a velocity covariance eigenspace, trace out unique but similar trajectories for a particular gymnastic movement type. By comparing separate executions of the same atomic gymnastic routine, our method assigns a quality judgement score that is related to the distance between the respective spatio-temporal trajectories. For several standard gymnastic movements, the method accurately assigns scores that are comparable to those assigned by expert judges. We also describe our rhythmic gymnastic video shot database, which we have made freely available to the human movement research community. The database can be obtained at http://www.milegroup.net/apps/gymdb/. PMID:24502991

  11. Eye Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  12. Different corticospinal control between discrete and rhythmic movement of the ankle

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Yumeno; Jono, Yasutomo; Hatanaka, Ryota; Nomura, Yoshifumi; Tani, Keisuke; Chujo, Yuta; Hiraoka, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated differences in corticospinal and spinal control between discrete and rhythmic ankle movements. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the tibialis anterior and soleus muscles and soleus H-reflex were elicited in the middle of the plantar flexion phase during discrete ankle movement or in the initial or later cycles of rhythmic ankle movement. The H-reflex was evoked at an intensity eliciting a small M-wave and MEPs were elicited at an intensity of 1.2 times the motor threshold of the soleus MEPs. Only trials in which background EMG level, ankle angle, and ankle velocity were similar among the movement conditions were included for data analysis. In addition, only trials with a similar M-wave were included for data analysis in the experiment evoking H-reflexes. Results showed that H reflex and MEP amplitudes in the soleus muscle during discrete movement were not significantly different from those during rhythmic movement. MEP amplitude in the tibialis anterior muscle during the later cycles of rhythmic movement was significantly larger than that during the initial cycle of the rhythmic movement or during discrete movement. Higher corticospinal excitability in the tibialis anterior muscle during the later cycles of rhythmic movement may reflect changes in corticospinal control from the initial cycle to the later cycles of rhythmic movement. PMID:25126066

  13. On voluntary rhythmic leg movement behaviour and control during pedalling.

    PubMed

    Hansen, E A

    2015-06-01

    The overall purpose of the present dissertation was to contribute to the understanding of voluntary human rhythmic leg movement behaviour and control. This was achieved by applying pedalling as a movement model and exposing healthy and recreationally active individuals as well as trained cyclists to for example cardiopulmonary and mechanical loading, fatiguing exercise, and heavy strength training. As a part of the background, the effect of pedalling frequency on diverse relevant biomechanical, physiological, and psychophysiological variables as well as on performance was initially explored. Freely chosen pedalling frequency is considerably higher than the energetically optimal pedalling frequency. This has been shown by others and was confirmed in the present work. As a result, pedal force is relatively low while rates of VO2 and energy turnover are relatively high during freely chosen pedalling as compared to a condition where a lower and more efficient pedalling frequency is imposed. The freely chosen pedalling frequency was in the present work, and by others, found to most likely be less advantageous than the lower energetically optimal pedalling frequency with respect to performance during intensive cycling following prolonged submaximal cycling. This stimulates the motivation to understand the behaviour and control of the freely chosen pedalling frequency during cycling. Freely chosen pedalling frequency was in the present work shown to be highly individual. In addition, the pedalling frequency was shown to be steady in a longitudinal perspective across 12 weeks. Further, it was shown to be unaffected by both fatiguing hip extension exercise and hip flexion exercise as well as by increased loading on the cardiopulmonary system at constant mechanical loading, and vice versa. Based on this, the freely chosen pedalling frequency is considered to be characterised as a highly individual, steady, and robust innate voluntary motor rhythm under primary influence of

  14. Context-Dependent Neural Activation: Internally and Externally Guided Rhythmic Lower Limb Movement in Individuals With and Without Neurodegenerative Disease.

    PubMed

    Hackney, Madeleine E; Lee, Ho Lim; Battisto, Jessica; Crosson, Bruce; McGregor, Keith M

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that has received considerable attention in allopathic medicine over the past decades. However, it is clear that, to date, pharmacological and surgical interventions do not fully address symptoms of PD and patients' quality of life. As both an alternative therapy and as an adjuvant to conventional approaches, several types of rhythmic movement (e.g., movement strategies, dance, tandem biking, and Tai Chi) have shown improvements to motor symptoms, lower limb control, and postural stability in people with PD (1-6). However, while these programs are increasing in number, still little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying motor improvements attained with such interventions. Studying limb motor control under task-specific contexts can help determine the mechanisms of rehabilitation effectiveness. Both internally guided (IG) and externally guided (EG) movement strategies have evidence to support their use in rehabilitative programs. However, there appears to be a degree of differentiation in the neural substrates involved in IG vs. EG designs. Because of the potential task-specific benefits of rhythmic training within a rehabilitative context, this report will consider the use of IG and EG movement strategies, and observations produced by functional magnetic resonance imaging and other imaging techniques. This review will present findings from lower limb imaging studies, under IG and EG conditions for populations with and without movement disorders. We will discuss how these studies might inform movement disorders rehabilitation (in the form of rhythmic, music-based movement training) and highlight research gaps. We believe better understanding of lower limb neural activity with respect to PD impairment during rhythmic IG and EG movement will facilitate the development of novel and effective therapeutic approaches to mobility limitations and postural instability. PMID:26696952

  15. Context-Dependent Neural Activation: Internally and Externally Guided Rhythmic Lower Limb Movement in Individuals With and Without Neurodegenerative Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hackney, Madeleine E.; Lee, Ho Lim; Battisto, Jessica; Crosson, Bruce; McGregor, Keith M.

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that has received considerable attention in allopathic medicine over the past decades. However, it is clear that, to date, pharmacological and surgical interventions do not fully address symptoms of PD and patients’ quality of life. As both an alternative therapy and as an adjuvant to conventional approaches, several types of rhythmic movement (e.g., movement strategies, dance, tandem biking, and Tai Chi) have shown improvements to motor symptoms, lower limb control, and postural stability in people with PD (1–6). However, while these programs are increasing in number, still little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying motor improvements attained with such interventions. Studying limb motor control under task-specific contexts can help determine the mechanisms of rehabilitation effectiveness. Both internally guided (IG) and externally guided (EG) movement strategies have evidence to support their use in rehabilitative programs. However, there appears to be a degree of differentiation in the neural substrates involved in IG vs. EG designs. Because of the potential task-specific benefits of rhythmic training within a rehabilitative context, this report will consider the use of IG and EG movement strategies, and observations produced by functional magnetic resonance imaging and other imaging techniques. This review will present findings from lower limb imaging studies, under IG and EG conditions for populations with and without movement disorders. We will discuss how these studies might inform movement disorders rehabilitation (in the form of rhythmic, music-based movement training) and highlight research gaps. We believe better understanding of lower limb neural activity with respect to PD impairment during rhythmic IG and EG movement will facilitate the development of novel and effective therapeutic approaches to mobility limitations and postural instability. PMID:26696952

  16. A Computational Model for Rhythmic and Discrete Movements in Uni- and Bimanual Coordination

    PubMed Central

    Ronsse, Renaud; Sternad, Dagmar; Lefèvre, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Current research on discrete and rhythmic movements differs in both experimental procedures and theory, despite the ubiquitous overlap between discrete and rhythmic components in everyday behaviors. Models of rhythmic movements usually use oscillatory systems mimicking central pattern generators (CPGs). In contrast, models of discrete movements often employ optimization principles, thereby reflecting the higher-level cortical resources involved in the generation of such movements. This letter proposes a unified model for the generation of both rhythmic and discrete movements. We show that a physiologically motivated model of a CPG can not only generate simple rhythmic movements with only a small set of parameters, but can also produce discrete movements if the CPG is fed with an exponentially decaying phasic input. We further show that a particular coupling between two of these units can reproduce main findings on in-phase and antiphase stability. Finally, we propose an integrated model of combined rhythmic and discrete movements for the two hands. These movement classes are sequentially addressed in this letter with increasing model complexity. The model variations are discussed in relation to the degree of recruitment of the higher-level cortical resources, necessary for such movements. PMID:19018700

  17. Psychogenic Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Morgante, Francesca; Edwards, Mark J.; Espay, Alberto J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of Review This review describes the main clinical features of psychogenic (functional) movement disorders and reports recent advances in diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment. Recent Findings The terminology and definition of patients with psychogenic movement disorders remain subjects of controversy; the term “functional” has been used more frequently in the literature in recent years regarding the neurobiological substrate underpinning these disorders. Correct diagnosis of psychogenic movement disorders should rely not on the exclusion of organic disorders or the sole presence of psychological factors but on the observation or elicitation of clinical features related to the specific movement disorder (ie, a positive or inclusionary rather than exclusionary diagnosis). Sudden onset, spontaneous remissions, and variability over time or during clinical examination are useful “red flags” suggestive of a psychogenic movement disorder. Imaging studies have demonstrated impaired connectivity between limbic and motor areas involved in movement programming and hypoactivity of a brain region that compares expected data with actual sensory data occurring during voluntary movement. Treatment of psychogenic movement disorders begins with ensuring the patient’s acceptance of the diagnosis during the initial debriefing and includes nonpharmacologic (cognitive-behavioral therapy, physiotherapy) and pharmacologic options. Summary Psychogenic movement disorders represent a challenging disorder for neurologists to diagnose and treat. Recent advances have increased understanding of the neurobiological mechanism of psychogenic movement disorders. Treatment with cognitive strategies and physical rehabilitation can benefit some patients. As short duration of disease correlates with better prognosis, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment are critical. PMID:24092294

  18. Rhythm, movement, and autism: using rhythmic rehabilitation research as a model for autism

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Michelle W.; LaGasse, A. Blythe

    2013-01-01

    Recently, there has been increased focus on movement and sensory abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This has come from research demonstrating cortical and cerebellar differences in autism, with suggestion of early cerebellar dysfunction. As evidence for an extended profile of ASD grows, there are vast implications for treatment and therapy for individuals with autism. Persons with autism are often provided behavioral or cognitive strategies for navigating their environment; however, these strategies do not consider differences in motor functioning. One accommodation that has not yet been explored in the literature is the use of auditory rhythmic cueing to improve motor functioning in ASD. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the potential impact of auditory rhythmic cueing for motor functioning in persons with ASD. To this effect, we review research on rhythm in motor rehabilitation, draw parallels to motor dysfunction in ASD, and propose a rationale for how rhythmic input can improve sensorimotor functioning, thereby allowing individuals with autism to demonstrate their full cognitive, behavioral, social, and communicative potential. PMID:23543915

  19. Rhythm, movement, and autism: using rhythmic rehabilitation research as a model for autism.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Michelle W; Lagasse, A Blythe

    2013-01-01

    Recently, there has been increased focus on movement and sensory abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This has come from research demonstrating cortical and cerebellar differences in autism, with suggestion of early cerebellar dysfunction. As evidence for an extended profile of ASD grows, there are vast implications for treatment and therapy for individuals with autism. Persons with autism are often provided behavioral or cognitive strategies for navigating their environment; however, these strategies do not consider differences in motor functioning. One accommodation that has not yet been explored in the literature is the use of auditory rhythmic cueing to improve motor functioning in ASD. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the potential impact of auditory rhythmic cueing for motor functioning in persons with ASD. To this effect, we review research on rhythm in motor rehabilitation, draw parallels to motor dysfunction in ASD, and propose a rationale for how rhythmic input can improve sensorimotor functioning, thereby allowing individuals with autism to demonstrate their full cognitive, behavioral, social, and communicative potential. PMID:23543915

  20. Movement Sonification: Effects on Motor Learning beyond Rhythmic Adjustments.

    PubMed

    Effenberg, Alfred O; Fehse, Ursula; Schmitz, Gerd; Krueger, Bjoern; Mechling, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    motor skill (technique acquisition of indoor rowing). One group was treated with visual information and two groups with audiovisual information (sonification vs. natural sounds). For all three groups learning became evident and remained stable. Participants treated with additional movement sonification showed better performance compared to both other groups. Results indicate that movement sonification enhances motor learning of a complex gross motor skill-even exceeding usually expected acoustic rhythmic effects on motor learning. PMID:27303255

  1. Movement Sonification: Effects on Motor Learning beyond Rhythmic Adjustments

    PubMed Central

    Effenberg, Alfred O.; Fehse, Ursula; Schmitz, Gerd; Krueger, Bjoern; Mechling, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    motor skill (technique acquisition of indoor rowing). One group was treated with visual information and two groups with audiovisual information (sonification vs. natural sounds). For all three groups learning became evident and remained stable. Participants treated with additional movement sonification showed better performance compared to both other groups. Results indicate that movement sonification enhances motor learning of a complex gross motor skill—even exceeding usually expected acoustic rhythmic effects on motor learning. PMID:27303255

  2. A little elastic for a better performance: kinesiotaping of the motor effector modulates neural mechanisms for rhythmic movements

    PubMed Central

    Bravi, Riccardo; Quarta, Eros; Cohen, Erez J.; Gottard, Anna; Minciacchi, Diego

    2014-01-01

    A rhythmic motor performance is brought about by an integration of timing information with movements. Investigations on the millisecond time scale distinguish two forms of time control, event-based timing and emergent timing. While event-based timing asserts the existence of a central internal timekeeper for the control of repetitive movements, the emergent timing perspective claims that timing emerges from dynamic control of nontemporal movements parameters. We have recently demonstrated that the precision of an isochronous performance, defined as performance of repeated movements having a uniform duration, was insensible to auditory stimuli of various characteristics (Bravi et al., 2014). Such finding has led us to investigate whether the application of an elastic therapeutic tape (Kinesio® Tex taping; KTT) used for treating athletic injuries and a variety of physical disorders, is able to reduce the timing variability of repetitive rhythmic movement. Young healthy subjects, tested with and without KTT, have participated in sessions in which sets of repeated isochronous wrist's flexion-extensions (IWFEs) were performed under various auditory conditions and during their recall. Kinematics was recorded and temporal parameters were extracted and analyzed. Our results show that the application of KTT decreases the variability of rhythmic movements by a 2-fold effect: on the one hand KTT provides extra proprioceptive information activating cutaneous mechanoreceptors, on the other KTT biases toward the emergent timing thus modulating the processes for rhythmic movements. Therefore, KTT appears able to render movements less audio dependent by relieving, at least partially, the central structures from time control and making available more resources for an augmented performance. PMID:25309355

  3. Electrophysiological analysis of rhythmic jaw movements in the freely moving mouse.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masayuki; Masuda, Yuji; Fujimoto, Yoshiyuki; Matsuya, Tokuzo; Yamamura, Kensuke; Yamada, Yoshiaki; Maeda, Norihiko; Morimoto, Toshifumi

    2002-03-01

    Although rhythmic jaw movement in feeding has been studied in mammals, such as rats, rabbits and monkeys, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying it are not well understood. Transgenic and gene-targeting technologies enable direct control of the genetic makeup of the mouse, and have led to the development of a new category of reagents that have the potential to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of neural networks. The present study attempts to characterize rhythmic jaw movements in the mouse and to demonstrate its relevance to rhythmic jaw movements found in higher mammals using newly developed jaw-tracking systems and electromyograms of the masticatory muscles. The masticatory sequence of the mouse during feeding was classified into two stages, incision and chewing. Small and rapid (8 Hz) open-close jaw movements were observed during incision, while large and slow (5 Hz) open-close jaw movements were observed during chewing. Integrated electromyograms of the masseteric and digastric muscles were larger during chewing than those observed during incision. Licking behavior was associated with regular (8 Hz), small open-close jaw movements with smaller masseteric activity than those observed during mastication. Grooming showed variable patterns of jaw movement and electromyograms depending on the grooming site. These results suggest that there are neuronal mechanisms producing different frequencies of rhythmic jaw movements in the mouse, and we conclude that the mouse is useful for understanding rhythmic jaw movements in higher mammals. PMID:11897265

  4. Separate representations of dynamics in rhythmic and discrete movements: evidence from motor learning.

    PubMed

    Howard, Ian S; Ingram, James N; Wolpert, Daniel M

    2011-04-01

    Rhythmic and discrete arm movements occur ubiquitously in everyday life, and there is a debate as to whether these two classes of movements arise from the same or different underlying neural mechanisms. Here we examine interference in a motor-learning paradigm to test whether rhythmic and discrete movements employ at least partially separate neural representations. Subjects were required to make circular movements of their right hand while they were exposed to a velocity-dependent force field that perturbed the circularity of the movement path. The direction of the force-field perturbation reversed at the end of each block of 20 revolutions. When subjects made only rhythmic or only discrete circular movements, interference was observed when switching between the two opposing force fields. However, when subjects alternated between blocks of rhythmic and discrete movements, such that each was uniquely associated with one of the perturbation directions, interference was significantly reduced. Only in this case did subjects learn to corepresent the two opposing perturbations, suggesting that different neural resources were employed for the two movement types. Our results provide further evidence that rhythmic and discrete movements employ at least partially separate control mechanisms in the motor system. PMID:21273324

  5. [Sleep related movement disorders].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-06-01

    Sleep related movement disorders (SRMD) are characterized by simple, stereotyped movements occur during sleep, with the exception of restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS has the following essential features; an urge to move the legs usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensation in the legs, improvement of symptoms after movement (non-stereotypical movements, such as walking and stretching, to reduce symptoms), and symptoms occur or worsen during periods of rest and in the evening and night. However, RLS is closely associated with periodic limb movement, which shows typical stererotyped limb movements. In the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd edition, sleep disturbances or daytime symptoms are prerequiste for a diagnosis of SRMD. We here review diagnosis and treatment of SRMD. PMID:26065126

  6. Human cervical spinal cord circuitry activated by tonic input can generate rhythmic arm movements.

    PubMed

    Solopova, I A; Selionov, V A; Zhvansky, D S; Gurfinkel, V S; Ivanenko, Y

    2016-02-01

    The coordination between arms and legs during human locomotion shares many features with that in quadrupeds, yet there is limited evidence for the central pattern generator for the upper limbs in humans. Here we investigated whether different types of tonic stimulation, previously used for eliciting stepping-like leg movements, may evoke nonvoluntary rhythmic arm movements. Twenty healthy subjects participated in this study. The subject was lying on the side, the trunk was fixed, and all four limbs were suspended in a gravity neutral position, allowing unrestricted low-friction limb movements in the horizontal plane. The results showed that peripheral sensory stimulation (continuous muscle vibration) and central tonic activation (postcontraction state of neuronal networks following a long-lasting isometric voluntary effort, Kohnstamm phenomenon) could evoke nonvoluntary rhythmic arm movements in most subjects. In ∼40% of subjects, tonic stimulation elicited nonvoluntary rhythmic arm movements together with rhythmic movements of suspended legs. The fact that not all participants exhibited nonvoluntary limb oscillations may reflect interindividual differences in responsiveness of spinal pattern generation circuitry to its activation. The occurrence and the characteristics of induced movements highlight the rhythmogenesis capacity of cervical neuronal circuitries, complementing the growing body of work on the quadrupedal nature of human gait. PMID:26683072

  7. Paroxysmal movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Waln, Olga; Jankovic, Joseph

    2015-02-01

    Paroxysmal dyskinesias represent a group of episodic abnormal involuntary movements manifested by recurrent attacks of dystonia, chorea, athetosis, or a combination of these disorders. Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia, paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia, paroxysmal exertion-induced dyskinesia, and paroxysmal hypnogenic dyskinesia are distinguished clinically by precipitating factors, duration and frequency of attacks, and response to medication. Primary paroxysmal dyskinesias are usually autosomal dominant genetic conditions. Secondary paroxysmal dyskinesias can be the symptoms of different neurologic and medical disorders. This review summarizes the updates on etiology, pathophysiology, genetics, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, and treatment of paroxysmal dyskinesias and other episodic movement disorders. PMID:25432727

  8. Autoimmune movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Mckeon, Andrew; Vincent, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune movement disorders encapsulate a large and diverse group of neurologic disorders occurring either in isolation or accompanying more diffuse autoimmune encephalitic illnesses. The full range of movement phenomena has been described and, as they often occur in adults, many of the presentations can mimic neurodegenerative disorders, such as Huntington disease. Disorders may be ataxic, hypokinetic (parkinsonism), or hyperkinetic (myoclonus, chorea, tics, and other dyskinetic disorders). The autoantibody targets are diverse and include neuronal surface proteins such as leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and glycine receptors, as well as antibodies (such as intracellular antigens) that are markers of a central nervous system process mediated by CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. However, there are two conditions, stiff-person syndrome (also known as stiff-man syndrome) and progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM), that are always autoimmune movement disorders. In some instances (such as Purkinje cell cytoplasmic antibody-1 (PCA-1) autoimmunity), antibodies detected in serum and cerebrospinal fluid can be indicative of a paraneoplastic cause, and may direct the cancer search. In other instances (such as 65kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) autoimmunity), a paraneoplastic cause is very unlikely, and early treatment with immunotherapy may promote improvement or recovery. Here we describe the different types of movement disorder and the clinical features and antibodies associated with them, and discuss treatment. PMID:27112684

  9. Psychostimulants and Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Asser, Andres; Taba, Pille

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulants are a diverse group of substances with their main psychomotor effects resembling those of amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, or cathinone. Due to their potential as drugs of abuse, recreational use of most of these substances is illegal since 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. In recent years, new psychoactive substances have emerged mainly as synthetic cathinones with new molecules frequently complementing the list. Psychostimulant related movement disorders are a known entity often seen in emergency rooms around the world. These admissions are becoming more frequent as are fatalities associated with drug abuse. Still the legal constraints of the novel synthetic molecules are bypassed. At the same time, chronic and permanent movement disorders are much less frequently encountered. These disorders frequently manifest as a combination of movement disorders. The more common symptoms include agitation, tremor, hyperkinetic and stereotypical movements, cognitive impairment, and also hyperthermia and cardiovascular dysfunction. The pathophysiological mechanisms behind the clinical manifestations have been researched for decades. The common denominator is the monoaminergic signaling. Dopamine has received the most attention but further research has demonstrated involvement of other pathways. Common mechanisms linking psychostimulant use and several movement disorders exist. PMID:25941511

  10. Involuntary rhythmic leg movements time-locked with the respiratory cycle.

    PubMed

    Leal, A J; Calado, E

    2001-11-01

    Involuntary rhythmic leg movements in childhood is an uncommon condition, the generators of which remain unknown. We report on a male 3 years of age with distinct features providing important clues concerning the location of one of these generators. At the age of 7 months, the previously healthy young male started with low frequency, rhythmic, and continuous (both during wakefulness and sleep) flexion/extension movements of the lower limbs. Movements interfered significantly with gait acquisition, and, despite normal cognitive development, he was able to walk only at age 2 years, 4 months. The neurologic examination revealed the absence of automatic stepping in the neonatal period, but was otherwise normal. A polygraphic electroencephalogram/electromyogram (EEG/EMG) recording, at the age of 2 years, 9 months, revealed rhythmic and synchronous legs with EMG activity at 0.5 Hz. A more complete polygraphic recording at the age of 3 years, 10 months, showed a lower frequency (0.35 Hz) for the movements, which were time-locked with the respiratory cycle. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed an increased T(2) signal in the upper medulla-lower pons regions. The generator of the rhythmic legs movements is postulated to be the respiratory center, connecting with the reticulospinal projecting neurons through an aberrant pathway. PMID:11744317

  11. [Movement disorders is psychiatric diseases].

    PubMed

    Hidasi, Zoltan; Salacz, Pal; Csibri, Eva

    2014-12-01

    Movement disorders are common in psychiatry. The movement disorder can either be the symptom of a psychiatric disorder, can share a common aetiological factor with it, or can be the consequence of psychopharmacological therapy. Most common features include tic, stereotypy, compulsion, akathisia, dyskinesias, tremor, hypokinesia and disturbances of posture and gait. We discuss characteristics and clinical importance of these features. Movement disorders are frequently present in mood disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, catatonia, Tourette-disorder and psychogenic movement disorder, leading to differential-diagnostic and therapeutical difficulties in everyday practice. Movement disorders due to psychopharmacotherapy can be classified as early-onset, late-onset and tardive. Frequent psychiatric comorbidity is found in primary movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, Wilson's disease, Huntington's disease, diffuse Lewy-body disorder. Complex neuropsychiatric approach is effective concerning overlapping clinical features and spectrums of disorders in terms of movement disorders and psychiatric diseases. PMID:25577484

  12. Processing Rhythmic Pattern during Chinese Sentence Reading: An Eye Movement Study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yingyi; Duan, Yunyan; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Prosodic constraints play a fundamental role during both spoken sentence comprehension and silent reading. In Chinese, the rhythmic pattern of the verb-object (V-O) combination has been found to rapidly affect the semantic access/integration process during sentence reading (Luo and Zhou, 2010). Rhythmic pattern refers to the combination of words with different syllabic lengths, with certain combinations disallowed (e.g., [2 + 1]; numbers standing for the number of syllables of the verb and the noun respectively) and certain combinations preferred (e.g., [1 + 1] or [2 + 2]). This constraint extends to the situation in which the combination is used to modify other words. A V-O phrase could modify a noun by simply preceding it, forming a V-O-N compound; when the verb is disyllabic, however, the word order has to be O-V-N and the object is preferred to be disyllabic. In this study, we investigated how the reader processes the rhythmic pattern and word order information by recording the reader's eye-movements. We created four types of sentences by crossing rhythmic pattern and word order in compounding. The compound, embedding a disyllabic verb, could be in the correct O-V-N or the incorrect V-O-N order; the object could be disyllabic or monosyllabic. We found that the reader spent more time and made more regressions on and after the compounds when either type of anomaly was detected during the first pass reading. However, during re-reading (after all the words in the sentence have been viewed), less regressive eye movements were found for the anomalous rhythmic pattern, relative to the correct pattern; moreover, only the abnormal rhythmic pattern, not the violated word order, influenced the regressive eye movements. These results suggest that while the processing of rhythmic pattern and word order information occurs rapidly during the initial reading of the sentence, the process of recovering from the rhythmic pattern anomaly may ease the reanalysis processing at the

  13. Processing Rhythmic Pattern during Chinese Sentence Reading: An Eye Movement Study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yingyi; Duan, Yunyan; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Prosodic constraints play a fundamental role during both spoken sentence comprehension and silent reading. In Chinese, the rhythmic pattern of the verb-object (V-O) combination has been found to rapidly affect the semantic access/integration process during sentence reading (Luo and Zhou, 2010). Rhythmic pattern refers to the combination of words with different syllabic lengths, with certain combinations disallowed (e.g., [2 + 1]; numbers standing for the number of syllables of the verb and the noun respectively) and certain combinations preferred (e.g., [1 + 1] or [2 + 2]). This constraint extends to the situation in which the combination is used to modify other words. A V-O phrase could modify a noun by simply preceding it, forming a V-O-N compound; when the verb is disyllabic, however, the word order has to be O-V-N and the object is preferred to be disyllabic. In this study, we investigated how the reader processes the rhythmic pattern and word order information by recording the reader's eye-movements. We created four types of sentences by crossing rhythmic pattern and word order in compounding. The compound, embedding a disyllabic verb, could be in the correct O-V-N or the incorrect V-O-N order; the object could be disyllabic or monosyllabic. We found that the reader spent more time and made more regressions on and after the compounds when either type of anomaly was detected during the first pass reading. However, during re-reading (after all the words in the sentence have been viewed), less regressive eye movements were found for the anomalous rhythmic pattern, relative to the correct pattern; moreover, only the abnormal rhythmic pattern, not the violated word order, influenced the regressive eye movements. These results suggest that while the processing of rhythmic pattern and word order information occurs rapidly during the initial reading of the sentence, the process of recovering from the rhythmic pattern anomaly may ease the reanalysis processing at the

  14. Hearing What the Body Feels: Auditory Encoding of Rhythmic Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips-Silver, Jessica; Trainor, Laurel J.

    2007-01-01

    Phillips-Silver and Trainor (Phillips-Silver, J., Trainor, L.J., (2005). Feeling the beat: movement influences infants' rhythm perception. "Science", 308, 1430) demonstrated an early cross-modal interaction between body movement and auditory encoding of musical rhythm in infants. Here we show that the way adults move their bodies to music…

  15. The impact of the perception of rhythmic music on self-paced oscillatory movements.

    PubMed

    Peckel, Mathieu; Pozzo, Thierry; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by theories of perception-action coupling and embodied music cognition, we investigated how rhythmic music perception impacts self-paced oscillatory movements. In a pilot study, we examined the kinematic parameters of self-paced oscillatory movements, walking and finger tapping using optical motion capture. In accordance with biomechanical constraints accounts of motion, we found that movements followed a hierarchical organization depending on the proximal/distal characteristic of the limb used. Based on these findings, we were interested in knowing how and when the perception of rhythmic music could resonate with the motor system in the context of these constrained oscillatory movements. In order to test this, we conducted an experiment where participants performed four different effector-specific movements (lower leg, whole arm and forearm oscillation and finger tapping) while rhythmic music was playing in the background. Musical stimuli consisted of computer-generated MIDI musical pieces with a 4/4 metrical structure. The musical tempo of each song increased from 60 BPM to 120 BPM by 6 BPM increments. A specific tempo was maintained for 20 s before a 2 s transition to the higher tempo. The task of the participant was to maintain a comfortable pace for the four movements (self-paced) while not paying attention to the music. No instruction on whether to synchronize with the music was given. Results showed that participants were distinctively influenced by the background music depending on the movement used with the tapping task being consistently the most influenced. Furthermore, eight strategies put in place by participants to cope with the task were unveiled. Despite not instructed to do so, participants also occasionally synchronized with music. Results are discussed in terms of the link between perception and action (i.e., motor/perceptual resonance). In general, our results give support to the notion that rhythmic music is processed in a motoric

  16. The impact of the perception of rhythmic music on self-paced oscillatory movements

    PubMed Central

    Peckel, Mathieu; Pozzo, Thierry; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by theories of perception-action coupling and embodied music cognition, we investigated how rhythmic music perception impacts self-paced oscillatory movements. In a pilot study, we examined the kinematic parameters of self-paced oscillatory movements, walking and finger tapping using optical motion capture. In accordance with biomechanical constraints accounts of motion, we found that movements followed a hierarchical organization depending on the proximal/distal characteristic of the limb used. Based on these findings, we were interested in knowing how and when the perception of rhythmic music could resonate with the motor system in the context of these constrained oscillatory movements. In order to test this, we conducted an experiment where participants performed four different effector-specific movements (lower leg, whole arm and forearm oscillation and finger tapping) while rhythmic music was playing in the background. Musical stimuli consisted of computer-generated MIDI musical pieces with a 4/4 metrical structure. The musical tempo of each song increased from 60 BPM to 120 BPM by 6 BPM increments. A specific tempo was maintained for 20 s before a 2 s transition to the higher tempo. The task of the participant was to maintain a comfortable pace for the four movements (self-paced) while not paying attention to the music. No instruction on whether to synchronize with the music was given. Results showed that participants were distinctively influenced by the background music depending on the movement used with the tapping task being consistently the most influenced. Furthermore, eight strategies put in place by participants to cope with the task were unveiled. Despite not instructed to do so, participants also occasionally synchronized with music. Results are discussed in terms of the link between perception and action (i.e., motor/perceptual resonance). In general, our results give support to the notion that rhythmic music is processed in a motoric

  17. Motor Performance and Rhythmic Perception of Children with Intellectual and Developmental Disability and Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartasidou, Lefkothea; Varsamis, Panagiotis; Sampsonidou, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Professionals who work with children presenting intellectual and developmental disability (IDD) and developmental coordination disorder (DCD) are concerned with their motor development and their rhythmic perception. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between a motor performance test and a music rhythmic test that measures…

  18. Orofacial Movement Disorders.

    PubMed

    Clark, Glenn T; Ram, Saravanan

    2016-08-01

    Orofacial movement disorders (OMDs) include dystonia, dyskinesia, drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions, and bruxism. The definition, epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, and management are detailed. OMDs are often disabling and affect patients' overall quality of life with pain, difficulty chewing food, speech difficulty, drooling, and social embarrassment. Management involves medications, botulinum toxin injections, and peripheral or central surgery. Botulinum toxin injections are the most effective management, often used in conjunction with medications. Surgery is the last resort for patients who fail to respond to medications or develop resistance to botulinum toxin type A. PMID:27475514

  19. Anatomical Pathways Involved in Generating and Sensing Rhythmic Whisker Movements

    PubMed Central

    Bosman, Laurens W. J.; Houweling, Arthur R.; Owens, Cullen B.; Tanke, Nouk; Shevchouk, Olesya T.; Rahmati, Negah; Teunissen, Wouter H. T.; Ju, Chiheng; Gong, Wei; Koekkoek, Sebastiaan K. E.; De Zeeuw, Chris I.

    2011-01-01

    The rodent whisker system is widely used as a model system for investigating sensorimotor integration, neural mechanisms of complex cognitive tasks, neural development, and robotics. The whisker pathways to the barrel cortex have received considerable attention. However, many subcortical structures are paramount to the whisker system. They contribute to important processes, like filtering out salient features, integration with other senses, and adaptation of the whisker system to the general behavioral state of the animal. We present here an overview of the brain regions and their connections involved in the whisker system. We do not only describe the anatomy and functional roles of the cerebral cortex, but also those of subcortical structures like the striatum, superior colliculus, cerebellum, pontomedullary reticular formation, zona incerta, and anterior pretectal nucleus as well as those of level setting systems like the cholinergic, histaminergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic pathways. We conclude by discussing how these brain regions may affect each other and how they together may control the precise timing of whisker movements and coordinate whisker perception. PMID:22065951

  20. Physiological modules for generating discrete and rhythmic movements: action identification by a dynamic recurrent neural network

    PubMed Central

    Bengoetxea, Ana; Leurs, Françoise; Hoellinger, Thomas; Cebolla, Ana M.; Dan, Bernard; McIntyre, Joseph; Cheron, Guy

    2014-01-01

    In this study we employed a dynamic recurrent neural network (DRNN) in a novel fashion to reveal characteristics of control modules underlying the generation of muscle activations when drawing figures with the outstretched arm. We asked healthy human subjects to perform four different figure-eight movements in each of two workspaces (frontal plane and sagittal plane). We then trained a DRNN to predict the movement of the wrist from information in the EMG signals from seven different muscles. We trained different instances of the same network on a single movement direction, on all four movement directions in a single movement plane, or on all eight possible movement patterns and looked at the ability of the DRNN to generalize and predict movements for trials that were not included in the training set. Within a single movement plane, a DRNN trained on one movement direction was not able to predict movements of the hand for trials in the other three directions, but a DRNN trained simultaneously on all four movement directions could generalize across movement directions within the same plane. Similarly, the DRNN was able to reproduce the kinematics of the hand for both movement planes, but only if it was trained on examples performed in each one. As we will discuss, these results indicate that there are important dynamical constraints on the mapping of EMG to hand movement that depend on both the time sequence of the movement and on the anatomical constraints of the musculoskeletal system. In a second step, we injected EMG signals constructed from different synergies derived by the PCA in order to identify the mechanical significance of each of these components. From these results, one can surmise that discrete-rhythmic movements may be constructed from three different fundamental modules, one regulating the co-activation of all muscles over the time span of the movement and two others elliciting patterns of reciprocal activation operating in orthogonal directions

  1. Functional (psychogenic) movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Czarnecki, Kathrin; Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review This review provides an overview of recent developments in diagnosis, pathophysiology, neuroimaging and management of functional (psychogenic) movement disorders (FMD) and highlights the current controversy on classification of somatoform disorders in the new DSM-5. Recent findings There has been increasing interest in recent years to study the underlying pathophysiology of FMDs, which has resulted in a broadened disease model, taking neurobiologic and psychosocial factors equally into account. In this context, the term “psychogenic” has been replaced by “functional” movement disorders by many authors in the field to express the changing focus towards a multifactorial disease model. The need for establishing a positive diagnosis of FMD as opposed to providing a diagnosis of exclusion is increasingly recognized and reflected by the introduction of “laboratory-supported” diagnostic criteria of FMD. Important advances have been made through behavioral, electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies although the fundamental etiology of FMD remains poorly understood. Of particular interest have been several reports on abnormal sensorimotor features and cortical inhibition in both organic and functional dystonia, highlighting possible shared traits of both conditions. In terms of treatment, recent studies have reported benefit from both psychiatric and physical therapy based interventions. Summary Increasing efforts have been made towards better understanding and treatment of FMD, and the disease model has been broadened to include neurobiologic and psychosocial factors. Laboratory-based diagnostic criteria have been established for many FMDs to support the clinical diagnosis. To determine the most effective management strategies for FMD, a closer collaboration between neurologists and psychiatrists and intensified research efforts with prospective treatment trials are needed. PMID:22610460

  2. Facial Muscle Coordination in Monkeys During Rhythmic Facial Expressions and Ingestive Movements

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Stephen V.; Lanzilotto, Marco; Ghazanfar, Asif A.

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary hypotheses regarding the origins of communication signals generally, and primate orofacial communication signals in particular, suggest that these signals derive by ritualization of noncommunicative behaviors, notably including ingestive behaviors such as chewing and nursing. These theories are appealing in part because of the prominent periodicities in both types of behavior. Despite their intuitive appeal, however, there are little or no data with which to evaluate these theories because the coordination of muscles innervated by the facial nucleus has not been carefully compared between communicative and ingestive movements. Such data are especially crucial for reconciling neurophysiological assumptions regarding facial motor control in communication and ingestion. We here address this gap by contrasting the coordination of facial muscles during different types of rhythmic orofacial behavior in macaque monkeys, finding that the perioral muscles innervated by the facial nucleus are rhythmically coordinated during lipsmacks and that this coordination appears distinct from that observed during ingestion. PMID:22553017

  3. Neural regulation of rhythmic arm and leg movement is conserved across human locomotor tasks.

    PubMed

    Zehr, E Paul; Balter, Jaclyn E; Ferris, Daniel P; Hundza, Sandra R; Loadman, Pamela M; Stoloff, Rebecca H

    2007-07-01

    It has been proposed that different forms of rhythmic human limb movement have a common central neural control ('common core hypothesis'), just as in other animals. We compared the modulation patterns of background EMG and cutaneous reflexes during walking, arm and leg cycling, and arm-assisted recumbent stepping. We hypothesized that patterns of EMG and reflex modulation during cycling and stepping (deduced from mathematical principal components analysis) would be comparable to those during walking because they rely on similar neural substrates. Differences between the tasks were assessed by evoking cutaneous reflexes via stimulation of nerves in the foot and hand in separate trials. The EMG was recorded from flexor and extensor muscles of the arms and legs. Angular positions of the hip, knee and elbow joints were also recorded. Factor analysis revealed that across the three tasks, four principal components explained more than 93% of the variance in the background EMG and middle-latency reflex amplitude. Phase modulation of reflex amplitude was observed in most muscles across all tasks, suggesting activity in similar control networks. Significant correlations between EMG level and reflex amplitude were frequently observed only during static voluntary muscle activation and not during rhythmic movement. Results from a control experiment showed that strong correlation between EMG and reflex amplitudes was observed during discrete, voluntary leg extension but not during walking. There were task-dependent differences in reflex modulation between the three tasks which probably arise owing to specific constraints during each task. Overall, the results show strong correlation across tasks and support common neural patterning as the regulator of arm and leg movement during various rhythmic human movements. PMID:17463036

  4. Physiological modules for generating discrete and rhythmic movements: component analysis of EMG signals

    PubMed Central

    Bengoetxea, Ana; Leurs, Françoise; Hoellinger, Thomas; Cebolla, Ana Maria; Dan, Bernard; Cheron, Guy; McIntyre, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    A central question in Neuroscience is that of how the nervous system generates the spatiotemporal commands needed to realize complex gestures, such as handwriting. A key postulate is that the central nervous system (CNS) builds up complex movements from a set of simpler motor primitives or control modules. In this study we examined the control modules underlying the generation of muscle activations when performing different types of movement: discrete, point-to-point movements in eight different directions and continuous figure-eight movements in both the normal, upright orientation and rotated 90°. To test for the effects of biomechanical constraints, movements were performed in the frontal-parallel or sagittal planes, corresponding to two different nominal flexion/abduction postures of the shoulder. In all cases we measured limb kinematics and surface electromyographic activity (EMG) signals for seven different muscles acting around the shoulder. We first performed principal component analysis (PCA) of the EMG signals on a movement-by-movement basis. We found a surprisingly consistent pattern of muscle groupings across movement types and movement planes, although we could detect systematic differences between the PCs derived from movements performed in each shoulder posture and between the principal components associated with the different orientations of the figure. Unexpectedly we found no systematic differences between the figure eights and the point-to-point movements. The first three principal components could be associated with a general co-contraction of all seven muscles plus two patterns of reciprocal activation. From these results, we surmise that both “discrete-rhythmic movements” such as the figure eight, and discrete point-to-point movement may be constructed from three different fundamental modules, one regulating the impedance of the limb over the time span of the movement and two others operating to generate movement, one aligned with the

  5. Cranial functional (psychogenic) movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Kaski, Diego; Bronstein, Adolfo M; Edwards, Mark J; Stone, Jon

    2015-12-01

    Functional (psychogenic) neurological symptoms are frequently encountered in neurological practice. Cranial movement disorders--affecting the eyes, face, jaw, tongue, or palate--are an under-recognised feature of patients with functional symptoms. They can present in isolation or in the context of other functional symptoms; in particular, for functional eye movements, positive clinical signs such as convergence spasms can be triggered by the clinical examination. Although the specialty of functional neurological disorders has expanded, appreciation of cranial functional movement disorders is still insufficient. Identification of the positive features of cranial functional movement disorders such as convergence and unilateral platysmal spasm might lend diagnostic weight to a suspected functional neurological disorder. Understanding of the differential diagnosis, which is broad and includes many organic causes (eg, stroke), is essential to make an early and accurate diagnosis to prevent complications and initiate appropriate management. Increased understanding of these disorders is also crucial to drive clinical trials and studies of individually tailored therapies. PMID:26581970

  6. Stereotypic movement disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... include repetitive and purposeless picking, hand wringing, head tics, or lip-biting. Long-term stimulant use may ... disorders Obsessive compulsive disorder Tourette syndrome or other tic disorder

  7. Neuromechanical considerations for incorporating rhythmic arm movement in the rehabilitation of walking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimstra, Marc D.; Thomas, Evan; Stoloff, Rebecca H.; Ferris, Daniel P.; Zehr, E. Paul

    2009-06-01

    We have extensively used arm cycling to study the neural control of rhythmic movements such as arm swing during walking. Recently rhythmic movement of the arms has also been shown to enhance and shape muscle activity in the legs. However, restricted information is available concerning the conditions necessary to maximally alter lumbar spinal cord excitability. Knowledge on the neuromechanics of a task can assist in the determination of the type, level, and timing of neural signals, yet arm swing during walking and arm cycling have not received a detailed neuromechanical comparison. The purpose of this research was to provide a combined neural and mechanical measurement approach that could be used to assist in the determination of the necessary and sufficient conditions for arm movement to assist in lower limb rehabilitation after stroke and spinal cord injury. Subjects performed three rhythmic arm movement tasks: (1) cycling (cycle); (2) swinging while standing (swing); and (3) swinging while treadmill walking (walk). We hypothesized that any difference in neural control between tasks (i.e., pattern of muscle activity) would reflect changes in the mechanical constraints unique to each task. Three-dimensional kinematics were collected simultaneously with force measurement at the hand and electromyography from the arms and trunk. All data were appropriately segmented to allow a comparison between and across conditions and were normalized and averaged to 100% movement cycle based on shoulder excursion. Separate mathematical principal components analysis of kinematic and neural variables was performed to determine common task features and muscle synergies. The results highlight important neural and mechanical features that distinguish differences between tasks. For example, there are considerable differences in the anatomical positions of the arms during each task, which relate to the moments experienced about the elbow and shoulder. Also, there are differences between

  8. Central resetting of neuromuscular steady states may underlie rhythmical arm movements.

    PubMed

    Ustinova, Ksenia I; Feldman, Anatol G; Levin, Mindy F

    2006-09-01

    Changing the steady-state configuration of the body or its segments may be an important function of central pattern generators for locomotion and other rhythmical movements. Thereby, muscle activation, forces, and movement may emerge following a natural tendency of the neuromuscular system to achieve the current steady-state configuration. To verify that transitions between different steady states occur during rhythmical movements, we asked standing subjects to swing one or both arms synchronously or reciprocally at approximately 0.8 Hz from the shoulder joints. In randomly selected cycles, one arm was transiently arrested by an electromagnetic device. Swinging resumed after some delay and phase resetting. During bilateral swinging, the nonperturbed arm often stopped before resuming swinging at a position that was close to either the extreme forward or the extreme backward arm position observed before the perturbation. Oscillations usually resumed when both arms arrived at similar extreme positions when a synchronous bilateral pattern was initially produced or at the opposite positions if the initial pattern was reciprocal. Results suggest that a central generator controls both arms as a coherent unit by producing transitions between its steady state (equilibrium) positions. By controlling these positions, the system may define the spatial boundaries of movement. At these positions, the system may halt the oscillations, resume them at a new phase (as observed in the present study), or initiate a new motor action. Our findings are relevant to locomotion and suggest that walking may also be generated by transitions between several equilibrium configurations of the body, possibly accomplished by modulation and gating of proprioceptive reflexes. PMID:16707712

  9. Monkeys time their pauses of movement and not their movement-kinematics during a synchronization-continuation rhythmic task.

    PubMed

    Donnet, Sophie; Bartolo, Ramon; Fernandes, José Maria; Cunha, João Paulo Silva; Prado, Luis; Merchant, Hugo

    2014-05-01

    A critical question in tapping behavior is to understand whether the temporal control is exerted on the duration and trajectory of the downward-upward hand movement or on the pause between hand movements. In the present study, we determined the duration of both the movement execution and pauses of monkeys performing a synchronization-continuation task (SCT), using the speed profile of their tapping behavior. We found a linear increase in the variance of pause-duration as a function of interval, while the variance of the motor implementation was relatively constant across intervals. In fact, 96% of the variability of the duration of a complete tapping cycle (pause + movement) was due to the variability of the pause duration. In addition, we performed a Bayesian model selection to determine the effect of interval duration (450-1,000 ms), serial-order (1-6 produced intervals), task phase (sensory cued or internally driven), and marker modality (auditory or visual) on the duration of the movement-pause and tapping movement. The results showed that the most important parameter used to successfully perform the SCT was the control of the pause duration. We also found that the kinematics of the tapping movements was concordant with a stereotyped ballistic control of the hand pressing the push-button. The present findings support the idea that monkeys used an explicit timing strategy to perform the SCT, where a dedicated timing mechanism controlled the duration of the pauses of movement, while also triggered the execution of fixed movements across each interval of the rhythmic sequence. PMID:24572098

  10. Impaired movement timing in neurological disorders: rehabilitation and treatment strategies

    PubMed Central

    Hove, Michael J.; Keller, Peter E.

    2014-01-01

    Timing abnormalities have been reported in many neurological disorders, including Parkinson’s disease (PD). In PD, motor-timing impairments are especially debilitating in gait. Despite impaired audiomotor synchronization, PD patients’ gait improves when they walk with an auditory metronome or with music. Building on that research, we make recommendations for optimizing sensory cues to improve the efficacy of rhythmic cuing in gait rehabilitation. Adaptive rhythmic metronomes (that synchronize with the patient’s walking) might be especially effective. In a recent study we showed that adaptive metronomes synchronized consistently with Parkinson patients’ footsteps without requiring attention; this improved stability and reinstated healthy gait dynamics. Other strategies could help optimize sensory cues for gait rehabilitation. Groove music strongly engages the motor system and induces movement; bass-frequency tones are associated with movement and provide strong timing cues. Thus, groove and bass-frequency pulses could deliver potent rhythmic cues. These strategies capitalize on the close neural connections between auditory and motor networks; and auditory cues are typically preferred. However, moving visual cues greatly improve visuomotor synchronization and could warrant examination in gait rehabilitation. Together, a treatment approach that employs groove, auditory, bass-frequency, and adaptive (GABA) cues could help optimize rhythmic sensory cues for treating motor and timing deficits. PMID:25773624

  11. Impaired movement timing in neurological disorders: rehabilitation and treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Hove, Michael J; Keller, Peter E

    2015-03-01

    Timing abnormalities have been reported in many neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). In PD, motor-timing impairments are especially debilitating in gait. Despite impaired audiomotor synchronization, PD patients' gait improves when they walk with an auditory metronome or with music. Building on that research, we make recommendations for optimizing sensory cues to improve the efficacy of rhythmic cuing in gait rehabilitation. Adaptive rhythmic metronomes (that synchronize with the patient's walking) might be especially effective. In a recent study we showed that adaptive metronomes synchronized consistently with PD patients' footsteps without requiring attention; this improved stability and reinstated healthy gait dynamics. Other strategies could help optimize sensory cues for gait rehabilitation. Groove music strongly engages the motor system and induces movement; bass-frequency tones are associated with movement and provide strong timing cues. Thus, groove and bass-frequency pulses could deliver potent rhythmic cues. These strategies capitalize on the close neural connections between auditory and motor networks; and auditory cues are typically preferred. However, moving visual cues greatly improve visuomotor synchronization and could warrant examination in gait rehabilitation. Together, a treatment approach that employs groove, auditory, bass-frequency, and adaptive (GABA) cues could help optimize rhythmic sensory cues for treating motor and timing deficits. PMID:25773624

  12. Neural control of rhythmic, cyclical human arm movement: task dependency, nerve specificity and phase modulation of cutaneous reflexes

    PubMed Central

    Zehr, E Paul; Kido, Aiko

    2001-01-01

    The organization and pattern of cutaneous reflex modulation during rhythmic cyclical movements of the human upper limbs has received much less attention than that afforded the lower limb. Our working hypothesis is that control mechanisms underlying the modulation of cutaneous reflex amplitude during rhythmic arm movement are similar to those that control reflex modulation in the leg. Thus, we hypothesized that cutaneous reflexes would show task dependency and nerve specificity in the upper limb during rhythmic cyclical arm movement as has been demonstrated in the human lower limb. EMG was recorded from 10 muscles crossing the human shoulder, elbow and wrist joints while bilateral whole arm rhythmic cyclical movements were performed on a custom-made, hydraulic apparatus. Cutaneous reflexes were evoked with trains (5× 1.0 ms pulses at 300 Hz) of electrical stimulation delivered at non-noxious intensities (∼2× threshold for radiating parasthesia) to the superficial radial, median and ulnar nerves innervating the hand. Cutaneous reflexes were typically modulated with the movement cycle (i.e. phase dependency was observed). There was evidence for nerve specificity of cutaneous reflexes during rhythmic movement of the upper limbs. Task-dependent modulation was also seen as cutaneous reflexes were of larger amplitude or inhibitory (reflex reversal) during arm cycling as compared to static contraction. While there are some differences in the patterns of cutaneous reflex modulation seen between the arms and legs, it is concluded that cutaneous reflexes are modulated similarly in the upper and lower limbs implicating similar motor control mechanisms. PMID:11744775

  13. Rhythmic Bimanual Coordination Is Impaired in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isenhower, Robert W.; Marsh, Kerry L.; Richardson, Michael J.; Helt, Molly; Schmidt, R. C.; Fein, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Impairments in motor coordination are a common behavioral manifestation of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We, therefore, used a drumming methodology to examine rhythmic bimanual coordination in children diagnosed with ASD (M = 47.3 months) and age-matched typically developing (TD) children (M = 42.6 months). Both groups were instructed to drum on…

  14. A coupled-oscillator model with a conservation law for the rhythmic amoeboid movements of plasmodial slime molds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tero, A.; Kobayashi, R.; Nakagaki, T.

    2005-06-01

    Experiments on the fusion and partial separation of plasmodia of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum are described, concentrating on the spatio-temporal phase patterns of rhythmic amoeboid movement. On the basis of these experimental results we introduce a new model of coupled oscillators with one conserved quantity. Simulations using the model equations reproduce the experimental results well.

  15. Psychopathology and Psychogenic Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kranick, Sarah; Ekanayake, Vindhya; Martinez, Valeria; Ameli, Rezvan; Hallett, Mark; Voon, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Psychogenic movement disorder is defined as abnormal movements unrelated to a medical cause and presumed related to underlying psychological factors. Although psychological factors are of both clinical and pathophysiological relevance, very few studies to date have systematically assessed their role in psychogenic movement disorder. We sought to assess the role of previous life stress using validated quantitative measures in patients with psychogenic movement disorder compared with age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers as well as a convenience sample of patients with focal hand dystonia. Sixty-four patients with psychogenic movement disorder (72% female; mean age, 45.2 years [standard deviation, 15.2 years]), 38 healthy volunteers (74% female; mean age, 49 years [standard deviation, 13.7 years]), and 39 patients with focal hand dystonia (37% female; mean age, 48.7 years [standard deviation, 11.7 years]) were evaluated using a standardized psychological interview as well as validated quantitative scales to assess trauma and previous stressors, depression, anxiety, and personality traits. Patients with psychogenic movement disorder reported higher rates of childhood trauma, specifically greater emotional abuse and physical neglect, greater fear associated with traumatic events, and a greater number of traumatic episodes compared with healthy volunteers and patients with focal hand dystonia controlled for depressive symptoms and sex (Bonferroni corrected P < .005). There were no differences in categorical psychiatric diagnoses or scores on childhood physical or sexual abuse subscales, personality traits, or the dissociative experience scale. Our findings highlight a biopsychosocial approach toward the pathophysiology of psychogenic movement disorder, although the association with psychological issues is much less prominent than expected compared with the nonepileptic seizure population. A careful psychological assessment is indicated to optimize therapeutic

  16. Sensory aspects of movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Neepa; Jankovic, Joseph; Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders, which include disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, dystonia, Tourette’s syndrome, restless legs syndrome, and akathisia, have traditionally been considered to be disorders of impaired motor control resulting predominantly from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. This notion has been revised largely because of increasing recognition of associated behavioural, psychiatric, autonomic, and other non-motor symptoms. The sensory aspects of movement disorders include intrinsic sensory abnormalities and the effects of external sensory input on the underlying motor abnormality. The basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and their connections, coupled with altered sensory input, seem to play a key part in abnormal sensorimotor integration. However, more investigation into the phenomenology and physiological basis of sensory abnormalities, and about the role of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and related structures in somatosensory processing, and its effect on motor control, is needed. PMID:24331796

  17. Movement disorder emergencies in childhood.

    PubMed

    Kirkham, F J; Haywood, P; Kashyape, P; Borbone, J; Lording, A; Pryde, K; Cox, M; Keslake, J; Smith, M; Cuthbertson, L; Murugan, V; Mackie, S; Thomas, N H; Whitney, A; Forrest, K M; Parker, A; Forsyth, R; Kipps, C M

    2011-09-01

    The literature on paediatric acute-onset movement disorders is scattered. In a prospective cohort of 52 children (21 male; age range 2mo-15y), the commonest were chorea, dystonia, tremor, myoclonus, and Parkinsonism in descending order of frequency. In this series of mainly previously well children with cryptogenic acute movement disorders, three groups were recognised: (1) Psychogenic disorders (n = 12), typically >10 years of age, more likely to be female and to have tremor and myoclonus (2) Inflammatory or autoimmune disorders (n = 22), including N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis, opsoclonus-myoclonus, Sydenham chorea, systemic lupus erythematosus, acute necrotizing encephalopathy (which may be autosomal dominant), and other encephalitides and (3) Non-inflammatory disorders (n = 18), including drug-induced movement disorder, post-pump chorea, metabolic, e.g. glutaric aciduria, and vascular disease, e.g. moyamoya. Other important non-inflammatory movement disorders, typically seen in symptomatic children with underlying aetiologies such as trauma, severe cerebral palsy, epileptic encephalopathy, Down syndrome and Rett syndrome, include dystonic posturing secondary to gastro-oesophageal reflux (Sandifer syndrome) and Paroxysmal Autonomic Instability with Dystonia (PAID) or autonomic 'storming'. Status dystonicus may present in children with known extrapyramidal disorders, such as cerebral palsy or during changes in management e.g. introduction or withdrawal of neuroleptic drugs or failure of intrathecal baclofen infusion; the main risk in terms of mortality is renal failure from rhabdomyolysis. Although the evidence base is weak, as many of the inflammatory/autoimmune conditions are treatable with steroids, immunoglobulin, plasmapheresis, or cyclophosphamide, it is important to make an early diagnosis where possible. Outcome in survivors is variable. Using illustrative case histories, this review draws attention to the practical difficulties in

  18. Music, clicks, and their imaginations favor differently the event-based timing component for rhythmic movements.

    PubMed

    Bravi, Riccardo; Quarta, Eros; Del Tongo, Claudia; Carbonaro, Nicola; Tognetti, Alessandro; Minciacchi, Diego

    2015-06-01

    The involvement or noninvolvement of a clock-like neural process, an effector-independent representation of the time intervals to produce, is described as the essential difference between event-based and emergent timing. In a previous work (Bravi et al. in Exp Brain Res 232:1663-1675, 2014a. doi: 10.1007/s00221-014-3845-9 ), we studied repetitive isochronous wrist's flexion-extensions (IWFEs), performed while minimizing visual and tactile information, to clarify whether non-temporal and temporal characteristics of paced auditory stimuli affect the precision and accuracy of the rhythmic motor performance. Here, with the inclusion of new recordings, we expand the examination of the dataset described in our previous study to investigate whether simple and complex paced auditory stimuli (clicks and music) and their imaginations influence in a different way the timing mechanisms for repetitive IWFEs. Sets of IWFEs were analyzed by the windowed (lag one) autocorrelation-wγ(1), a statistical method recently introduced for the distinction between event-based and emergent timing. Our findings provide evidence that paced auditory information and its imagination favor the engagement of a clock-like neural process, and specifically that music, unlike clicks, lacks the power to elicit event-based timing, not counteracting the natural shift of wγ(1) toward positive values as frequency of movements increase. PMID:25837726

  19. Rhythmic alternating patterns of brain activity distinguish rapid eye movement sleep from other states of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Chow, Ho Ming; Horovitz, Silvina G; Carr, Walter S; Picchioni, Dante; Coddington, Nate; Fukunaga, Masaki; Xu, Yisheng; Balkin, Thomas J; Duyn, Jeff H; Braun, Allen R

    2013-06-18

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep constitutes a distinct "third state" of consciousness, during which levels of brain activity are commensurate with wakefulness, but conscious awareness is radically transformed. To characterize the temporal and spatial features of this paradoxical state, we examined functional interactions between brain regions using fMRI resting-state connectivity methods. Supporting the view that the functional integrity of the default mode network (DMN) reflects "level of consciousness," we observed functional uncoupling of the DMN during deep sleep and recoupling during REM sleep (similar to wakefulness). However, unlike either deep sleep or wakefulness, REM was characterized by a more widespread, temporally dynamic interaction between two major brain systems: unimodal sensorimotor areas and the higher-order association cortices (including the DMN), which normally regulate their activity. During REM, these two systems become anticorrelated and fluctuate rhythmically, in reciprocally alternating multisecond epochs with a frequency ranging from 0.1 to 0.01 Hz. This unique spatiotemporal pattern suggests a model for REM sleep that may be consistent with its role in dream formation and memory consolidation. PMID:23733938

  20. [Movement disorders in David Copperfield].

    PubMed

    Garćia Ruiz, P J; Gulliksen, L L

    1999-01-01

    Charles Dickens' novels are a source of vivid neurological descriptions. Besides Pickwickian syndrome, many other neurological descriptions can be found in Dickens' novels. David Copperfield contains several characters with movement disorders including generalized dystonia (Mr. Uriah Heep), restless legs syndrome (the waiter), cervical dystonia (Mr. Sharp) and spasmodic dysphonia (Mr. Creakle). These neurological descriptions an probably based on the observation of actual patients. PMID:10570623

  1. [Effect of rhythmic photic interference on the working electroencephalogram and efficiency of human movements].

    PubMed

    Petrenko, E T; Ermukhametova, L A

    1986-01-01

    The effect of rhythmic light flashes on the space-time pattern of brain biopotentials during motor functions and biomechanical efficiency of man's actions was investigated. As the motor model we used the ability to maintain equilibrium when standing on the toes of one foot. Electroencephalography (EEG) from 12 neocortical areas and oscillations of the body mass center (stabilography) were recorded in 20 men who performed the exercise under normal conditions and during light flashes of 12 Hz. The resultant EEG and stabilograms were exposed to correlations-spectral and coherent analysis with the aid of an EC-1035 computer. Light flashes induced a change in the EEG peaks and flicker fusion frequency, a significant increase (by 23-108%, P less than 0.05) of the density of biopotentials corresponding to the light stimulation frequency, and a redistribution of the number of high intercentral correlations between neocortical motor centers. When the light flashes were presented, 75-85% test subjects showed a 0.19-0.26 increase in the biopotential coherence of the premotor, motor and sensomotor areas. They also exhibited a significant decrease in the body stability (P less than 0.01) and an increase in the stabilographic amplitude and frequency (P less than 0.01). It is suggested that the decline of biomechanical efficiency is associated with the disorders of the space-time integration between neocortical centers involved in the motor control system that are responsible for the execution of motor acts. PMID:3951173

  2. Disturbed motor control of rhythmic movement at 2 h and delayed after maximal eccentric actions.

    PubMed

    Bottas, Reijo; Miettunen, Kari; Komi, Paavo V; Linnamo, Vesa

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of exercise-induced muscle damage on elbow rhythmic movement (RM) performance and neural activity pattern and to investigate whether this influence is joint angle specific. Ten males performed an exercise of 50 maximal eccentric elbow flexions in isokinetic machine with duty cycle of 1:15. Maximal dynamic and isometric force tests (90 degrees , 110 degrees and 130 degrees elbow angle) and both active and passive stretch reflex tests of elbow flexors were applied to the elbow joint. The intentional RM was performed in the horizontal plane at elbow angles; 60-120 degrees (SA-RM), 80-140 degrees (MA-RM) and 100-160 degrees (LA-RM). All measurements together with the determination of muscle soreness, swelling, passive stiffness, serum creatine kinase were conducted before, immediately and 2h as well as 2 days, 4 days, 6 days and 8 days post-exercise. Repeated maximal eccentric actions modified the RM trajectory symmetry acutely (SA-RM) and delayed (SA/MA/LA-RM) until the entire follow up of 8 days. Acutely lowered MA-RM peak velocity together with reduced activity of biceps brachii (BB) at every RM range, reflected a poorer acceleration and deceleration capacity of elbow flexors. A large acute drop of BB EMG burst amplitude together with parallel decrease in BB active stretch reflex amplitude, especially 2h post-exercise, suggested an inhibitory effect originating most likely from groups III/IV mechano-nociceptors. PMID:20064728

  3. Origins and violations of the 2/3 power law in rhythmic three-dimensional arm movements.

    PubMed

    Schaal, S; Sternad, D

    2001-01-01

    The 2/3 power law, the nonlinear relationship between tangential velocity and radius of curvature of the end-effector trajectory, is thought to be a fundamental constraint of the central nervous system in the formation of rhythmic endpoint trajectories. However, studies on the 2/3 power law have been confined largely to planar drawing patterns of relatively small size. With the hypothesis that this strategy overlooks nonlinear effects that are constitutive in movement generation, the present experiments tested the validity of the power law in elliptical patterns that were not confined to a planar surface and which were performed by the unconstrained 7-degrees of freedom (DOF) arm, with significant variations in pattern size and workspace orientation. Data were recorded from five human subjects where the seven joint angles and the endpoint trajectories were analyzed. Additionally, an anthropomorphic 7-DOF robot arm served as a "control subject" whose endpoint trajectories were generated on the basis of the human joint angle data, modeled as simple harmonic oscillations. Analyses of the endpoint trajectories demonstrate that the power law is systematically violated with increasing pattern size, in both exponent and the goodness of fit. The origins of these violations can be explained analytically based on smooth, rhythmic trajectory formation and the kinematic structure of the human arm. We conclude that, in unconstrained rhythmic movements, the power law seems to be a by-product of a movement system that favors smooth trajectories, and that it is unlikely to serve as a primary movement-generating principle. Our data rather suggest that subjects employed smooth oscillatory pattern generators in joint space to realize the required movement patterns. PMID:11204414

  4. Paraneoplastic disorders of eye movements

    PubMed Central

    Wray, Shirley H.; Dalmau, Josep; Chen, Athena; King, Susan; Leigh, R. John

    2011-01-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes affecting the brainstem and cerebellum are reported to cause a variety of abnormalities of eye movements. Recent studies have begun to account for the mechanisms underlying several syndromes, characterized by opsoclonus, slow, or dysmetric saccades, as well as downbeat nystagmus. We provide evidence that upbeat nystagmus in a patient with pancreatic cancer reflected a cerebellar-induced imbalance of otolithic pathways: she showed marked retropulsion, and her nystagmus was dependent on head position, being absent when supine, and suppressed with convergence. In addition to anti-Hu antibodies, we demonstrated antibodies to a novel neuronal cell surface antigen. Taken with other recent studies, our findings suggest that paraneoplastic syndromes arise due to antibodies against surface neuronal antigens, including receptors and channels. Abnormal eye movements in paraneoplastic syndromes offer insights into the pathogenesis of these disorders and the opportunity to test potential therapies, such as new drugs with effects on neuronal channels. PMID:21951005

  5. Paradoxic vocal fold movement disorder.

    PubMed

    Matrka, Laura

    2014-02-01

    Paradoxical Vocal Fold Movement Disorder (PVFMD) is a cause of dyspnea that can mimic or occur alongside asthma or other pulmonary disease. Treatment with Laryngeal Control Therapy is very effective once the entity is properly diagnosed and contributing comorbidities are managed appropriately. In understanding the etiology of PVFMD, focus has broadened beyond psychiatric factors alone to include the spectrum of laryngeal irritants (laryngopharyngeal reflux, allergic and sinus disease, sicca, and possibly obstructive sleep apnea). The following is a discussion of the history, terminology, epidemiology, diagnosis, comorbid conditions, and treatment of this entity. PMID:24286687

  6. The Relationship between Reduplicated Babble Onset and Laterality Biases in Infant Rhythmic Arm Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iverson, Jana M.; Hall, Amanda J.; Nickel, Lindsay; Wozniak, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined changes in rhythmic arm shaking and laterality biases in infants observed longitudinally at three points: just prior to, at, and just following reduplicated babble onset. Infants (ranging in age from 4 to 9 months at babble onset) were videotaped at home as they played with two visually identical audible and silent rattles…

  7. The Relationship between Reduplicated Babble Onset and Laterality Biases in Infant Rhythmic Arm Movements

    PubMed Central

    Iverson, Jana M.; Hall, Amanda J.; Nickel, Lindsay; Wozniak, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined changes in rhythmic arm shaking and laterality biases in infants observed longitudinally at three points: just prior to, at, and just following reduplicated babble onset. Infants (ranging in age from 4 to 9 months at babble onset) were videotaped at home as they played with two visually identical audible and silent rattles presented at midline for 1.5 min each. Rate of rattle shaking increased sharply from the pre-babble to babble onset session; but there was no indication that this increase was specific to the right arm. This finding suggests that the link between babble onset and increased rhythmic arm activity may not be the product of language-specific mechanisms, but is rather part of a broader developmental process that is also perceptual and motor. PMID:17196644

  8. Eye Movement Disorders in Dyslexia. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Festinger, Leon; And Others

    Eye movements of 18 male and seven female dyslexic children and 10 normal children were evaluated to determine if eye movement disorders may be the cause of some of the symptoms associated with dyslexia. Data on eye movements were collected while Ss moved their eyes from one fixation point to another in a nonreading situation. Errors in vertical…

  9. Review of the possible relationship and hypothetical links between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the simple sleep related movement disorders, parasomnias, hypersomnias, and circadian rhythm disorders.

    PubMed

    Walters, Arthur S; Silvestri, Rosalia; Zucconi, Marco; Chandrashekariah, Ranju; Konofal, Eric

    2008-12-15

    Recent evidence has been accumulating that the sleep of individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not only disrupted in a nonspecific way but that ADHD has an increased association with simple sleep related movement disorders such as restless legs syndrome/periodic limb movements in sleep (RLS/PLMS), rhythmic movement disorder (body rocking and head banging), and parasomnias, such as disorders of partial arousal (sleep walking, sleep terrors, and confusional arousals). In addition increased associations have been reported between ADHD and hypersomnias such as narcolepsy and sleep apnea as well as circadian rhythm disorders, such as delayed sleep phase syndrome. These relationships are reviewed and the implications for such associations are explored. Patients with sleep disorders should be queried about the symptoms of ADHD and vice versa. PMID:19110891

  10. Molecular imaging of movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lizarraga, Karlo J; Gorgulho, Alessandra; Chen, Wei; De Salles, Antonio A

    2016-01-01

    caudal-to-rostral direction. Uptake declines prior to symptom presentation and progresses from contralateral to the most symptomatic side to bilateral, correlating with symptom severity. In progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy (MSA), striatal activity is symmetrically and diffusely decreased. The caudal-to-rostral pattern is lost in PSP, but could be present in MSA. In corticobasal degeneration (CBD), there is asymmetric, diffuse reduction of striatal activity, contralateral to the most symptomatic side. Additionally, there is hypometabolism in contralateral parieto-occipital and frontal cortices in PD; bilateral putamen and cerebellum in MSA; caudate, thalamus, midbrain, mesial frontal and prefrontal cortices in PSP; and contralateral cortices in CBD. Finally, cardiac sympathetic SPECT signal is decreased in PD. The capacity of molecular imaging to provide in vivo time courses of gene expression, protein synthesis, receptor and transporter binding, could facilitate the development and evaluation of novel medical, surgical and genetic therapies in movement disorders. PMID:27029029

  11. Molecular imaging of movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Lizarraga, Karlo J; Gorgulho, Alessandra; Chen, Wei; De Salles, Antonio A

    2016-03-28

    -to-rostral direction. Uptake declines prior to symptom presentation and progresses from contralateral to the most symptomatic side to bilateral, correlating with symptom severity. In progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy (MSA), striatal activity is symmetrically and diffusely decreased. The caudal-to-rostral pattern is lost in PSP, but could be present in MSA. In corticobasal degeneration (CBD), there is asymmetric, diffuse reduction of striatal activity, contralateral to the most symptomatic side. Additionally, there is hypometabolism in contralateral parieto-occipital and frontal cortices in PD; bilateral putamen and cerebellum in MSA; caudate, thalamus, midbrain, mesial frontal and prefrontal cortices in PSP; and contralateral cortices in CBD. Finally, cardiac sympathetic SPECT signal is decreased in PD. The capacity of molecular imaging to provide in vivo time courses of gene expression, protein synthesis, receptor and transporter binding, could facilitate the development and evaluation of novel medical, surgical and genetic therapies in movement disorders. PMID:27029029

  12. Rapidly detecting disorder in rhythmic biological signals: A spectral entropy measure to identify cardiac arrhythmias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniczenko, Phillip P. A.; Lee, Chiu Fan; Jones, Nick S.

    2009-01-01

    We consider the use of a running measure of power spectrum disorder to distinguish between the normal sinus rhythm of the heart and two forms of cardiac arrhythmia: atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. This spectral entropy measure is motivated by characteristic differences in the power spectra of beat timings during the three rhythms. We plot patient data derived from ten-beat windows on a “disorder map” and identify rhythm-defining ranges in the level and variance of spectral entropy values. Employing the spectral entropy within an automatic arrhythmia detection algorithm enables the classification of periods of atrial fibrillation from the time series of patients’ beats. When the algorithm is set to identify abnormal rhythms within 6s , it agrees with 85.7% of the annotations of professional rhythm assessors; for a response time of 30s , this becomes 89.5%, and with 60s , it is 90.3%. The algorithm provides a rapid way to detect atrial fibrillation, demonstrating usable response times as low as 6s . Measures of disorder in the frequency domain have practical significance in a range of biological signals: the techniques described in this paper have potential application for the rapid identification of disorder in other rhythmic signals.

  13. Spectrum of movement disorders in encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Misra, U K; Kalita, J

    2010-12-01

    To study the frequency and type of movement disorders and correlate these with MRI findings and outcome. Consecutive patients having encephalitis with movement disorders were included. The encephalitides were categorized into Japanese encephalitis (JE), herpes simplex, dengue, mumps, measles and nonspecific, depending on respective ELISA or CSF PCR. The movement disorders were recorded and severity was graded into mild, moderate, severe and markedly severe. Cranial MRI was done on a 1.5 T scanner acquiring T1, T2 and FLAIR sequence, and the location of MRI changes was noted. Outcome was defined at 6 months on the basis of functional status into complete, partial or poor. The type and severity of movement disorders and their relation to outcome was evaluated. Seventy-four out of 209 encephalitis patients had movement disorders; 67.6% of the patients had JE, 51.2% nonspecific and 11.3% dengue encephalitis. Their median age was 19 years and 16 were females. Parkinsonian features were present in 36, dystonia in six and both in 32 patients. The severity of movement disorders ranged between 2 and 4 (scale: none = 0, mild = 1, moderate = 2, severe = 3, markedly severe = 4). Movement disorders were common in males (P = 0.0001), and more frequent in JE (P = 0.03) and those having substantia nigra involvement on MRI (P = 0.03). Dystonia was associated with worse outcome than parkinsonian features only (P = 0.01). Movement disorders are common and severe in JE and are related to typical anatomical involvement. PMID:20640577

  14. Movement disorders secondary to craniocerebral trauma.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Joachim K

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades it has been recognized that traumatic brain injury may result in various movement disorders. In survivors of severe head injury, post-traumatic movement disorders were reported in about 20%, and they persisted in about 10% of patients. The most frequent persisting movement disorder in this population is kinetic cerebellar outflow tremor in about 9%, followed by dystonia in about 4%. While tremor is associated most frequently with cerebellar or mesencephalic lesions, patients with dystonia frequently have basal ganglia or thalamic lesions. Moderate or mild traumatic brain injury only rarely causes persistent post-traumatic movement disorders. It appears that the frequency of post-traumatic movement disorders overall has been declining which most likely is secondary to improved treatment of brain injury. In patients with disabling post-traumatic movement disorders which are refractory to medical treatment, stereotactic neurosurgery can provide long-lasting benefit. While in the past the primary option for severe kinetic tremor was thalamotomy and for dystonia thalamotomy or pallidotomy, today deep brain stimulation has become the preferred treatment. Parkinsonism is a rare consequence of single head injury, but repeated head injury such as seen in boxing can result in chronic encephalopathy with parkinsonian features. While there is still controversy whether or not head injury is a risk factor for the development of Parkinson's disease, recent studies indicate that genetic susceptibility might be relevant. PMID:25701902

  15. Video recording in movement disorders: practical issues.

    PubMed

    Duker, Andrew P

    2013-10-01

    Video recording can provide a valuable and unique record of the physical examinations of patients with a movement disorder, capturing nuances of movement and supplementing the written medical record. In addition, video is an indispensable tool for education and research in movement disorders. Digital file recording and storage has largely replaced analog tape recording, increasing the ease of editing and storing video records. Practical issues to consider include hardware and software configurations, video format, the security and longevity of file storage, patient consent, and video protocols. PMID:24092296

  16. Virtual Reality as a Tool for Evaluation of Repetitive Rhythmic Movements in the Elderly and Parkinson's Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Pablo; Robles-García, Verónica; Sanmartín, Gabriel; Flores, Julian; Cudeiro, Javier

    2012-01-01

    This work presents an immersive Virtual Reality (VR) system to evaluate, and potentially treat, the alterations in rhythmic hand movements seen in Parkinson's disease (PD) and the elderly (EC), by comparison with healthy young controls (YC). The system integrates the subjects into a VR environment by means of a Head Mounted Display, such that subjects perceive themselves in a virtual world consisting of a table within a room. In this experiment, subjects are presented in 1st person perspective, so that the avatar reproduces finger tapping movements performed by the subjects. The task, known as the finger tapping test (FT), was performed by all three subject groups, PD, EC and YC. FT was carried out by each subject on two different days (sessions), one week apart. In each FT session all subjects performed FT in the real world (FTREAL) and in the VR (FTVR); each mode was repeated three times in randomized order. During FT both the tapping frequency and the coefficient of variation of inter-tap interval were registered. FTVR was a valid test to detect differences in rhythm formation between the three groups. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and mean difference between days for FTVR (for each group) showed reliable results. Finally, the analysis of ICC and mean difference between FTVR vs FTREAL, for each variable and group, also showed high reliability. This shows that FT evaluation in VR environments is valid as real world alternative, as VR evaluation did not distort movement execution and detects alteration in rhythm formation. These results support the use of VR as a promising tool to study alterations and the control of movement in different subject groups in unusual environments, such as during fMRI or other imaging studies. PMID:22279559

  17. High post-movement parietal low-beta power during rhythmic tapping facilitates performance in a stop task

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Petra; Tan, Huiling; Pogosyan, Alek; Brown, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Voluntary movements are followed by a post-movement electroencephalography (EEG) beta rebound, which increases with practice and confidence in a task. We hypothesized that greater beta modulation reflects less load on cognitive resources and may thus be associated with faster reactions to new stimuli. EEG was recorded in 17 healthy subjects during rhythmically paced index finger tapping. In a STOP condition, participants had to interrupt the upcoming tap in response to an auditory cue, which was timed such that stopping was successful only in ~ 50% of all trials. In a second condition, participants carried on tapping twice after the stop signal (CONTINUE condition). Thus the conditions were distinct in whether abrupt stopping was required as a second task. Modulation of 12–20 Hz power over motor and parietal areas developed with time on each trial and more so in the CONTINUE condition. Reduced modulation in the STOP condition went along with reduced negative mean asynchronies suggesting less confident anticipation of the timing of the next tap. Yet participants were more likely to stop when beta modulation prior to the stop cue was more pronounced. In the STOP condition, expectancy of the stop signal may have increased cognitive load during movement execution given that the task might have to be stopped abruptly. However, within this condition, stopping ability was increased if the preceding tap was followed by a relatively larger beta increase. Significant, albeit weak, correlations confirmed that increased post-movement beta power was associated with faster reactions to new stimuli, consistent with reduced cognitive load. PMID:27364852

  18. Kinematic analysis of basic rhythmic movements of hip-hop dance: motion characteristics common to expert dancers.

    PubMed

    Sato, Nahoko; Nunome, Hiroyuki; Ikegami, Yasuo

    2015-02-01

    In hip-hop dance contests, a procedure for evaluating performances has not been clearly defined, and objective criteria for evaluation are necessary. It is assumed that most hip-hop dance techniques have common motion characteristics by which judges determine the dancer's skill level. This study aimed to extract motion characteristics that may be linked to higher evaluations by judges. Ten expert and 12 nonexpert dancers performed basic rhythmic movements at a rate of 100 beats per minute. Their movements were captured using a motion capture system, and eight judges evaluated the performances. Four kinematic parameters, including the amplitude of the body motions and the phase delay, which indicates the phase difference between two joint angles, were calculated. The two groups showed no significant differences in terms of the amplitudes of the body motions. In contrast, the phase delay between the head motion and the other body parts' motions of expert dancers who received higher scores from the judges, which was approximately a quarter cycle, produced a loop-shaped motion of the head. It is suggested that this slight phase delay was related to the judges' evaluations and that these findings may help in constructing an objective evaluation system. PMID:25102329

  19. Lithium and rubidium: effects on the rhythmic swimming movement of jellyfish (Aurelia aurita).

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, C; Smith, D F

    1979-09-15

    The effects of adding LiCl, RbCl, KCl or NaCl to sea water at concentrations up to 30 mmoles/1 on the frequency of contraction of jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) suggest that studies on phylogenetically low animals with relatively simple nervous systems may be of use to determine mechanisms of action of lithium and rudidium on movements. PMID:488270

  20. Saccadic eye movement applications for psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Juliana; Velasques, Bruna; Teixeira, Silmar; Basile, Luis F; Salles, José Inácio; Nardi, Antonio Egídio; Budde, Henning; Cagy, Mauricio; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Objective The study presented here analyzed the patterns of relationship between oculomotor performance and psychopathology, focusing on depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and anxiety disorder. Methods Scientific articles published from 1967 to 2013 in the PubMed/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Cochrane, and SciELO databases were reviewed. Results Saccadic eye movement appears to be heavily involved in psychiatric diseases covered in this review via a direct mechanism. The changes seen in the execution of eye movement tasks in patients with psychopathologies of various studies confirm that eye movement is associated with the cognitive and motor system. Conclusion Saccadic eye movement changes appear to be heavily involved in the psychiatric disorders covered in this review and may be considered a possible marker of some disorders. The few existing studies that approach the topic demonstrate a need to improve the experimental paradigms, as well as the methods of analysis. Most of them report behavioral variables (latency/reaction time), though electrophysiological measures are absent. PMID:24072973

  1. Playing-related musculoskeletal disorders among icelandic music students: differences between students playing classical vs rhythmic music.

    PubMed

    Arnason, Kári; Arnason, Arni; Briem, Kristín

    2014-06-01

    Most research studies investigating the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders affecting musicians and music students have focused on classical music, while less is known about their prevalence in other music genres. The purpose of this study was to document cumulative and point prevalence of playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMD) among music students in Iceland and, specifically, to identify differences between those studying classical vs rhythmic music. We hypothesized that students of classical music would report more frequent and more severe musculoskeletal disorders than students involved in rhythmic music, as classical instruments and composition typically require more demanding, sustained postures during practice and performance. A total of 74 students from two classical music schools (schools A and B) and 1 rhythmic school (school C) participated in the study by answering a questionnaire assessing PRMDs. The results showed that 62% of participants had, at some point in their musical career, suffered a PRMD. The cumulative prevalence was highest in music school A (71.4%) and lowest in music school C (38.9%). A statistically significant difference was identified between the cumulative prevalence of PRMD from schools A and B combined compared to music school C (p=0.019). Over 40% of participants reported a "current PRMD," and a significant difference was identified between the three schools (p=0.011), with the highest point prevalence being registered in music school A (66.6%) and the lowest in music school C (22.2%). The prevalence of PRMDs among Icelandic music students was high. The difference found between students who play classical vs rhythmic music may be explained by different demands of the instruments and composition on playing posture. PMID:24925174

  2. An Update on Psychogenic Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ellenstein, Aviva; Kranick, Sarah M.; Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Psychogenic movement disorders (PMD) and other conversion disorders (CD) with apparent neurological signs (neurologic CD) plague patients and perplex physicians. Due to a lack of objective evidence of underlying brain lesions, CD were largely abandoned by neurologists and remained poorly understood psychiatric diagnoses throughout most of the 20th century. Modern neuroscience now supports increasingly comprehensive biological models for these complex disorders, definitively establishing their place in both neurology and psychiatry. Indeed although it is often clinically useful to distinguish a movement disorder as either “organic” or “psychogenic,” this dichotomy is difficult to defend scientifically. Here we describe the neuroimaging and neurophysiologic evidence for dysfunctional neural networks in PMD, explain the diagnostic potential of clinical neurophysiologic testing, discuss the promising if increasingly complex role of neuropsychiatric genetics, and review current treatment strategies. PMID:21559795

  3. Movement disorders in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    McMahon, William M; Filloux, Francis M; Ashworth, James C; Jensen, Jenise

    2002-11-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS), Sydenham chorea, and drug-induced dyskinesias are prototypical movement disorders affecting children. Underlying involvement of basal ganglia has been apparent for several decades, but new neuroimaging studies are adding detail to this mechanism. Genetic studies of TS and tardive dyskinesia may further reveal the underlying pathophysiology. Most provocative is the new conceptual model of poststreptococcal autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder. Although unproven, substantial support for this model comes from immunologic, family, neuroimaging, and treatment studies. PMID:12616683

  4. Phase coupling between rhythmic slow activity and gamma characterizes mesiotemporal rapid-eye-movement sleep in humans.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Z; Weiss, B; Szucs, A; Eross, L; Rásonyi, G; Halász, P

    2009-09-29

    In the human sleep literature there is much controversy regarding the existence and the characteristics of hippocampal rhythmic slow activity (RSA). Generally the human RSA is believed to occur in short bursts of theta activity. An earlier study, however, reported mesiotemporal RSA during rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep that instead of theta fell in the delta frequency band. We conjectured that if this RSA activity is indeed a human analogue of the animal hippocampal theta then characteristics associated with the animal theta should also be reflected in the human recordings. Here our aim was to examine possible phase coupling between mesiotemporal RSA and gamma activity during REM sleep. The study relied on nine epilepsy surgery candidates implanted with foramen ovale electrodes. Positive half-waves of the 1.5-3 Hz RSA were identified by an automatic algorithm during REM sleep. High-frequency activity was assessed for 11 consecutive 20 Hz-wide frequency bands between 20 and 240 Hz. Increase in high frequency activity was phase coupled with RSA in most frequency bands and patients. Such a phase coupling closely resembles that seen between theta and gamma in rodents. We consider this commonality to be an additional reason for regarding delta rather than theta as the human analogue of RSA in animals. PMID:19555738

  5. Nomenclature of genetic movement disorders: Recommendations of the international Parkinson and movement disorder society task force.

    PubMed

    Marras, Connie; Lang, Anthony; van de Warrenburg, Bart P; Sue, Carolyn M; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Bertram, Lars; Mercimek-Mahmutoglu, Saadet; Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius; Warner, Thomas T; Durr, Alexandra; Assmann, Birgit; Lohmann, Katja; Kostic, Vladimir; Klein, Christine

    2016-04-01

    The system of assigning locus symbols to specify chromosomal regions that are associated with a familial disorder has a number of problems when used as a reference list of genetically determined disorders,including (I) erroneously assigned loci, (II) duplicated loci, (III) missing symbols or loci, (IV) unconfirmed loci and genes, (V) a combination of causative genes and risk factor genes in the same list, and (VI) discordance between phenotype and list assignment. In this article, we report on the recommendations of the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society Task Force for Nomenclature of Genetic Movement Disorders and present a system for naming genetically determined movement disorders that addresses these problems. We demonstrate how the system would be applied to currently known genetically determined parkinsonism, dystonia, dominantly inherited ataxia, spastic paraparesis, chorea, paroxysmal movement disorders, neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, and primary familial brain calcifications. This system provides a resource for clinicians and researchers that, unlike the previous system, can be considered an accurate and criterion-based list of confirmed genetically determined movement disorders at the time it was last updated. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:27079681

  6. Gravity influence on rhythmic plant movements - circumnutations. A study using the EMCS hardware on the ISS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnsson, Anders; Gees Bokn Solheim, Bjarte; Iversen, Tor-Henning

    The European Modular Cultivation System, installed in the Destiny unit of the International Space Station, ISS, is now functioning and allows automatic long term biological experiments. We have endeavoured to study growth movements of Arabidopsis thaliana in a 75 days long experiment using the hardware. The experiment has a seed-to-seed study as the overall goal, but unforeseen technical problems allowed only concentrating on the other main goal, viz. a study of possible oscillatory movements of the plant parts in weightlessness. Seeds were planted in Plant Cultivation Chambers (PCCs) with Experimental Containers (ECs) that allowed them to germinate when imbibed. Roots developed in a zeolite medium. White plus red light was provided by LED arrays and a 16:8 LD regime was chosen. Automatic humidity control in the air as well as in the medium was provided to guarantee optimal growth. The ECs were mounted on two identical rotors, allowing centrifugation in the interval 0g to 2g. Images of the ECs were taken by programmed cameras that viewed the ECs via mirrors. Sampling procedures were nominally activated every sixth min. Due to technical difficulties and power off periods for the EMCS planned experimental sequences had to be abandoned at several occasions. However, the experiment allowed acceleration pulses between 0g and approximately 1g to be given to plants throughout their development, a novel feature which is possible to use in system analysis in long term experiments. The circumnutations in Arabidopsis thaliana (wild type) have been studied on Earth and are intriguingly complicated. Under 1 g (on the Earth) the hypocotyls show a multitude of frequencies and the existence of two simultaneous oscillators generating complicated movements has been proposed (Johnsson et al. 1999). Darwin (1881) proposed an endogenous nature of the circumnutations while gravity's possible influence has been emphasized by others researchers (review by Johnsson 1997, Mugnai et al. 2007

  7. Functional (psychogenic) movement disorders - Clinical presentations.

    PubMed

    Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Functional or psychogenic movement disorders are common and disabling, and sometime difficult to diagnose. The history and physical exam can give positive features that will support the diagnosis, which should not be based solely on exclusion. Some clues in the history are sudden onset, intermittent time course, variability of manifestation over time, childhood trauma, history of other somatic symptom and secondary gain. Anxiety and depression are common, but not necessarily more than the general population. On examination, distraction and suggestibility may be present. There are specific signs that should be looked for with different types of movements. For example, with tremor, change in frequency over time and entrainment are common features. With myoclonus, the movements might be complex in type with long latencies to stimulus induced jerks. Gait disorders show good balance despite claims to the contrary. Functional dystonia still remains a challenging diagnosis in many circumstances, although fixed dystonia is one sign more likely to be functional. PMID:26365778

  8. Alterations of eye movement control in neurodegenerative movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Gorges, Martin; Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Kassubek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the fovea centralis, the most central part of the retina and the area of the highest visual accuracy, requires humans to shift their gaze rapidly (saccades) to bring some object of interest within the visual field onto the fovea. In addition, humans are equipped with the ability to rotate the eye ball continuously in a highly predicting manner (smooth pursuit) to hold a moving target steadily upon the retina. The functional deficits in neurodegenerative movement disorders (e.g., Parkinsonian syndromes) involve the basal ganglia that are critical in all aspects of movement control. Moreover, neocortical structures, the cerebellum, and the midbrain may become affected by the pathological process. A broad spectrum of eye movement alterations may result, comprising smooth pursuit disturbance (e.g., interrupting saccades), saccadic dysfunction (e.g., hypometric saccades), and abnormal attempted fixation (e.g., pathological nystagmus and square wave jerks). On clinical grounds, videooculography is a sensitive noninvasive in vivo technique to classify oculomotion function alterations. Eye movements are a valuable window into the integrity of central nervous system structures and their changes in defined neurodegenerative conditions, that is, the oculomotor nuclei in the brainstem together with their directly activating supranuclear centers and the basal ganglia as well as cortical areas of higher cognitive control of attention. PMID:24955249

  9. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy and Movement Disorders: Update.

    PubMed

    Tarazi, Apameh; Tator, Charles H; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela

    2016-05-01

    Association of repetitive brain trauma with progressive neurological deterioration has been described since the 1920s. Punch drunk syndrome and dementia pugilistica (DP) were introduced first to explain symptoms in boxers, and more recently, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) has been used to describe a neurodegenerative disease in athletes and military personal with a history of multiple concussions. Although there are many similarities between DP and CTE, a number of key differences are apparent especially when comparing movement impairments. The aim of this review is to compare clinical and pathological aspects of DP and CTE with a focus on disorders of movement. PMID:27021775

  10. Parasomnias and movement disorders of sleep.

    PubMed

    Avidan, Alon Y

    2009-09-01

    Neurologists are often enlisted to help diagnose, evaluate, and manage a spectrum of abnormal spells during the night ranging from parasomnias to motor disturbance that span the sleep-wake cycle. Parasomnias are undesirable emotional or physical events that accompany sleep. These events typically occur during entry into sleep from wakefulness, or during arousals from sleep, and are often augmented by the sleep state. Some parasomnias, such as the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder may be extremely undesirable, while others such as somniloquy are often of little concern. The parasomnias include a spectrum of abnormal emotions, movements, behaviors, sensory perceptions, dream mentation, and autonomic activity. Basic physiologic drives, such as sex, hunger, and aggression, may manifest as sleep-related eating, sleep-related sexual behaviors, and sleep-related violence. Parasomnias have a very bizarre nature, but are readily explainable, diagnosable, and treatable. They are hypothesized to be due to changes in brain organization across multiple states of being, and are particularly apt to occur during the incomplete transition or oscillation from one sleep state to another. Parasomnias are often explained on the basis that wakefulness and sleep are not mutually exclusive states, and abnormal intrusion of wakefulness into non-REM (NREM) sleep produces arousal disorders, and intrusion of wakefulness into REM sleep produces REM sleep parasomnias and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Restless legs syndrome (RLS) and periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD), two closely related conditions that often result in disturbed sleep onset and sleep maintenance, are also reviewed in this article. Although the mechanisms that underlie idiopathic RLS or PLMD are not fully understood, there is currently substantial evidence that dopaminergic dysfunction is likely involved in both conditions. The discussion will conclude with the "other parasomnias" and sleep

  11. Movement Disorders Following Cerebrovascular Lesions: Etiology, Treatment Options and Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Do-Young

    2016-01-01

    Post-stroke movement disorders are uncommon, but comprise an important part of secondary movement disorders. These exert variable and heterogeneous clinical courses according to the stroke lesion and its temporal relationships. Moreover, the predominant stroke symptoms hinder a proper diagnosis in clinical practice. This article describes the etiology, treatment options and prognosis of post-stroke movement disorders. PMID:27240807

  12. Could transient hypoxia be associated with rhythmic masticatory muscle activity in sleep bruxism in the absence of sleep-disordered breathing? A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Dumais, I E; Lavigne, G J; Carra, M C; Rompré, P H; Huynh, N T

    2015-11-01

    Sleep bruxism (SB) is a repetitive jaw-muscle activity characterised by clenching or grinding of the teeth during sleep. Sleep bruxism activity is characterised by rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA). Many but not all RMMA episodes are associated with sleep arousal. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether transient oxygen saturation level change can be temporally associated with genesis of RMMA/SB. Sleep laboratory or home recordings data from 22 SB (tooth grinding history in the absence of reported sleep-disordered breathing) and healthy subjects were analysed. A total of 143 RMMA/SB episodes were classified in four categories: (i) no arousal + no body movement; (ii) arousal + no body movement; (iii) no arousal + body movement; (iv) arousal + body movement. Blood oxygen levels (SaO2 ) were assessed from finger oximetry signal at the baseline (before RMMA), and during RMMA. Significant variation in SaO2 over time (P = 0·001) was found after RMMA onset (+7 to +9 s). No difference between categories (P = 0·91) and no interaction between categories and SaO2 variation over time (P = 0·10) were observed. SaO2 of six of 22 subjects (27%) remained equal or slight increase after the RMMA/SB onset (+8 s) compared to baseline; 10 subjects (45%) slightly decreased (drop 0·01-1%) and the remaining (27%) decreased between 1% and 2%. These preliminary findings suggest that a subgroup of SB subjects had (i) a minor transient hypoxia potentially associated with the onset of RMMA episodes, and this (ii) independently of concomitant sleep arousal or body movements. PMID:26139077

  13. Attention samples stimuli rhythmically.

    PubMed

    Landau, Ayelet Nina; Fries, Pascal

    2012-06-01

    Overt exploration or sampling behaviors, such as whisking, sniffing, and saccadic eye movements, are often characterized by a rhythm. In addition, the electrophysiologically recorded theta or alpha phase predicts global detection performance. These two observations raise the intriguing possibility that covert selective attention samples from multiple stimuli rhythmically. To investigate this possibility, we measured change detection performance on two simultaneously presented stimuli, after resetting attention to one of them. After a reset flash at one stimulus location, detection performance fluctuated rhythmically. When the flash was presented in the right visual field, a 4 Hz rhythm was directly visible in the time courses of behavioral performance at both stimulus locations, and the two rhythms were in antiphase. A left visual field flash exerted only partial reset on performance and induced rhythmic fluctuation at higher frequencies (6-10 Hz). These findings show that selective attention samples multiple stimuli rhythmically, and they position spatial attention within the family of exploration behaviors. PMID:22633805

  14. Stable phase-shift despite quasi-rhythmic movements: a CPG-driven dynamic model of active tactile exploration in an insect

    PubMed Central

    Harischandra, Nalin; Krause, André F.; Dürr, Volker

    2015-01-01

    An essential component of autonomous and flexible behavior in animals is active exploration of the environment, allowing for perception-guided planning and control of actions. An important sensory system involved is active touch. Here, we introduce a general modeling framework of Central Pattern Generators (CPGs) for movement generation in active tactile exploration behavior. The CPG consists of two network levels: (i) phase-coupled Hopf oscillators for rhythm generation, and (ii) pattern formation networks for capturing the frequency and phase characteristics of individual joint oscillations. The model captured the natural, quasi-rhythmic joint kinematics as observed in coordinated antennal movements of walking stick insects. Moreover, it successfully produced tactile exploration behavior on a three-dimensional skeletal model of the insect antennal system with physically realistic parameters. The effect of proprioceptor ablations could be simulated by changing the amplitude and offset parameters of the joint oscillators, only. As in the animal, the movement of both antennal joints was coupled with a stable phase difference, despite the quasi-rhythmicity of the joint angle time courses. We found that the phase-lead of the distal scape-pedicel (SP) joint relative to the proximal head-scape (HS) joint was essential for producing the natural tactile exploration behavior and, thus, for tactile efficiency. For realistic movement patterns, the phase-lead could vary within a limited range of 10–30° only. Tests with artificial movement patterns strongly suggest that this phase sensitivity is not a matter of the frequency composition of the natural movement pattern. Based on our modeling results, we propose that a constant phase difference is coded into the CPG of the antennal motor system and that proprioceptors are acting locally to regulate the joint movement amplitude. PMID:26347644

  15. Electrophysiological evaluation of psychogenic movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Kamble, Nitish L; Pal, Pramod Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Psychogenic movement disorders (PMD) include a group of neurological symptoms which cannot be explained by any organic syndrome. The diagnosis of PMD is challenging for both neurologist and psychiatrist. Electrophysiological examination is a useful tool to evaluate and support a diagnosis PMD. It includes a set of tests which are chosen appropriate to the clinical setting that provides objective criteria for the diagnosis of PMD. The various tests available include accelerometry, surface electromyography, electroencephalography, jerk locked back averaging and pre-movement potentials, somatosensory evoked potentials, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) etc. Electrophysiologically psychogenic tremors display features of variability, entrainability, coactivation, distractibility and increase in the amplitude and frequency on mass loading. Movement related cortical potentials such as Bereitschaftspotential is seen in psychogenic myoclonus. Presence of triphasic contraction of muscles and absence of co-contraction suggests psychogenic myoclonus. Latency of C-reflex is longer in psychogenic myoclonus as compared to organic myoclonus. The role of TMS to differentiate psychogenic from organic dystonia is still not clear. In conclusion, electrophysiological tests are most useful for tremor, followed by jerks and least for dystonia. In patients with long-standing PMD or those with mixed pathology, electrophysiological tests may not be very useful. PMID:26403429

  16. Periodic Limb Movement Disorder (PLMD) and Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smoking Obesity Many people with narcolepsy or rapid eye movement (REM) behavior disorder move their legs periodically during ... brain activity, heart rate, breathing, muscle activity, and eye movements are monitored while people sleep. People may also ...

  17. Clinical and scientific perspectives on movement disorders: Stanley Fahn's contributions.

    PubMed

    Jankovic, Joseph; Bressman, Susan; Dauer, William; Kang, Un Jung

    2015-12-01

    Dr. Stanley Fahn, the H. Houston Merritt Professor of Neurology and Director Emeritus of the Center for Parkinson's Disease and Other Movement Disorders at Columbia University, one of the founders of the field of movement disorders, was the first president of the Movement Disorders Society (subsequently renamed as the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society). Together with his friend and colleague, Professor David Marsden, he also served as the first co-editor of the journal Movement Disorders. By emphasizing phenomenology as the key element in differentiating various hypokinetic and hyperkinetic movement disorders, Dr. Fahn drew attention to the clinical history and the power of observation in the diagnosis of movement disorders. Dr. Fahn had major influence on the development of classifications and assessments of various movement disorders and in organizing various research groups such as the Parkinson Study Group. As the founder and president of the World Parkinson Coalition and an organizer of the initial three World Parkinson Congresses, he has demonstrated his long-standing commitment to the cause of including patients as partners. The primary goal and objective of this invited review is to highlight some of Dr. Fahn's most impactful scientific and clinical contributions to the understanding and treatment of Parkinson's disease, dystonia, and other movement disorders. PMID:26477883

  18. Movement Disorders Following Cerebrovascular Lesion in the Basal Ganglia Circuit.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinse

    2016-05-01

    Movement disorders are primarily associated with the basal ganglia and the thalamus; therefore, movement disorders are more frequently manifest after stroke compared with neurological injuries associated with other structures of the brain. Overall clinical features, such as types of movement disorder, the time of onset and prognosis, are similar with movement disorders after stroke in other structures. Dystonia and chorea are commonly occurring post-stroke movement disorders in basal ganglia circuit, and these disorders rarely present with tremor. Rarer movement disorders, including tic, restless leg syndrome, and blepharospasm, can also develop following a stroke. Although the precise mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of these conditions have not been fully characterized, disruptions in the crosstalk between the inhibitory and excitatory circuits resulting from vascular insult are proposed to be the underlying cause. The GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)ergic and dopaminergic systems play key roles in post-stroke movement disorders. This review summarizes movement disorders induced by basal ganglia and thalamic stroke according to the anatomical regions in which they manifest. PMID:27240808

  19. Movement Disorders Following Cerebrovascular Lesion in the Basal Ganglia Circuit

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jinse

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders are primarily associated with the basal ganglia and the thalamus; therefore, movement disorders are more frequently manifest after stroke compared with neurological injuries associated with other structures of the brain. Overall clinical features, such as types of movement disorder, the time of onset and prognosis, are similar with movement disorders after stroke in other structures. Dystonia and chorea are commonly occurring post-stroke movement disorders in basal ganglia circuit, and these disorders rarely present with tremor. Rarer movement disorders, including tic, restless leg syndrome, and blepharospasm, can also develop following a stroke. Although the precise mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of these conditions have not been fully characterized, disruptions in the crosstalk between the inhibitory and excitatory circuits resulting from vascular insult are proposed to be the underlying cause. The GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)ergic and dopaminergic systems play key roles in post-stroke movement disorders. This review summarizes movement disorders induced by basal ganglia and thalamic stroke according to the anatomical regions in which they manifest. PMID:27240808

  20. Rhythmic Gymnastics: A Challenge with Balls and Ropes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, John P.

    Rhythmic gymnastics is an outgrowth of rhythmic and dance gymnastics and promotes good posture, strength, flexibility, balance, and coordination, along with appreciation of music and movement together. The current status of rhythmic gymnastics and its historical development are briefly discussed. Descriptions are given of rhythmic gymnastic…

  1. Application of next generation sequencing technology in Mendelian movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yumin; Pan, Xuya; Xue, Dan; Li, Yuwei; Zhang, Xueying; Kuang, Biao; Zheng, Jiabo; Deng, Hao; Li, Xiaoling; Xiong, Wei; Zeng, Zhaoyang; Li, Guiyuan

    2016-02-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) has developed very rapidly in the last decade. Compared with Sanger sequencing, NGS has the advantages of high sensitivity and high throughput. Movement disorders are a common type of neurological disease. Although traditional linkage analysis has become a standard method to identify the pathogenic genes in diseases, it is getting difficult to find new pathogenic genes in rare Mendelian disorders, such as movement disorders, due to a lack of appropriate families with high penetrance or enough affected individuals. Thus, NGS is an ideal approach to identify the causal alleles for inherited disorders. NGS is used to identify genes in several diseases and new mutant sites in Mendelian movement disorders. This article reviewed the recent progress in NGS and the use of NGS in Mendelian movement disorders from genome sequencing and transcriptome sequencing. A perspective on how NGS could be employed in rare Mendelian disorders is also provided. PMID:26932219

  2. Impairment in Movement Skills of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Dido; Charman, Tony; Pickles, Andrew; Chandler, Susie; Loucas, Tom; Simonoff, Emily; Baird, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    Aim: We undertook this study to explore the degree of impairment in movement skills in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and a wide IQ range. Method: Movement skills were measured using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC) in a large, well defined, population-derived group of children (n=101: 89 males,12 females; mean…

  3. Substances of abuse and movement disorders: complex interactions and comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Deik, Andres; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel; Luciano, Marta San

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between movement disorders and substance abuse which we previously reviewed are updated. We examine these relationships bidirectionally with focus on drugs of abuse which cause movement disorders, as well as primary movement disorders that are associated with use and abuse of alcohol and dopaminergic medications. First, we review the movement disorders that may develop from the acute use or withdrawal of frequent drugs of abuse, including alcohol, cocaine, heroin, amphetamine and methcathinone. We then comment on the interaction between alcoholism and alcohol-responsive movement disorders, such as essential tremor and myoclonus-dystonia. Lastly, we discuss the potential for abuse of antiparkinsonian dopaminergic agents in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). PMID:23030352

  4. Movement disorders of probable infectious origin

    PubMed Central

    Jhunjhunwala, Ketan; Netravathi, M.; Pal, Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Movement disorders (MDs) associated with infections remains an important debilitating disorder in the Asian countries. Objectives: The objective of the following study is to report the clinical and imaging profile of a large cohort of patients with MDs probably associated with infection. Materials and Methods: This was a chart review of 35 patients (F:M-15:20) presenting with MD in the Neurology services of National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, India. The demographic profile, type of infection, time from infection to MD, phenomenology of MD and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were reviewed. Results: The mean age at presentation was 22.6 ± 13.3 years, (5-60), age of onset of MD was 15.7 ± 15 years, and duration of symptoms was 6.9 ± 8.1 years (42 days to 32 years). The mean latency of onset of MD after the infection was 5.9 ± 4.2 weeks. The phenomenology of MD were: (1) Pure dystonia-28.6%, (2) dystonia with choreoathetosis-22.9%, (3) Parkinsonism-14.6%, (4) pure tremor, hemiballismus, myoclonus and chorea-2.9% each, and (5) mixed MD-22.9%. Most often the MD was generalized (60%), followed by right upper limb (31.4%) and left upper limb (8.6%). A viral encephalitic type of neuroinfection was the most common infection (85.7%), which was associated with MD. Abnormalities of brain MRI, seen in 79.2%, included signal changes in (1) thalamus-52.0%, (2) putamen and subcortical white matter-16% each, (3) pons-12%, (4) striatopallidum, striatum and grey matter-8% each, and (5) caudate, cerebellum, lentiform nucleus, midbrain and subthalamic nucleus-4.0% each. Conclusions: MDs associated with infection were the most often post-encephalitic. Dystonia was the most common MD, and thalamus was the most common anatomical site involved. PMID:25221398

  5. Delineation of the movement disorders associated with FOXG1 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Papandreou, Apostolos; Schneider, Ruth B.; Augustine, Erika F.; Ng, Joanne; Mankad, Kshitij; Meyer, Esther; McTague, Amy; Ngoh, Adeline; Hemingway, Cheryl; Robinson, Robert; Varadkar, Sophia M.; Kinali, Maria; Salpietro, Vincenzo; O'Driscoll, Margaret C.; Basheer, S. Nigel; Webster, Richard I.; Mohammad, Shekeeb S.; Pula, Shpresa; McGowan, Marian; Trump, Natalie; Jenkins, Lucy; Elmslie, Frances; Scott, Richard H.; Hurst, Jane A.; Perez-Duenas, Belen; Paciorkowski, Alexander R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The primary objective of this research was to characterize the movement disorders associated with FOXG1 mutations. Methods: We identified patients with FOXG1 mutations who were referred to either a tertiary movement disorder clinic or tertiary epilepsy service and retrospectively reviewed medical records, clinical investigations, neuroimaging, and available video footage. We administered a telephone-based questionnaire regarding the functional impact of the movement disorders and perceived efficacy of treatment to the caregivers of one cohort of participants. Results: We identified 28 patients with FOXG1 mutations, of whom 6 had previously unreported mutations. A wide variety of movement disorders were identified, with dystonia, choreoathetosis, and orolingual/facial dyskinesias most commonly present. Ninety-three percent of patients had a mixed movement disorder phenotype. In contrast to the phenotype classically described with FOXG1 mutations, 4 patients with missense mutations had a milder phenotype, with independent ambulation, spoken language, and normocephaly. Hyperkinetic involuntary movements were a major clinical feature in these patients. Of the symptomatic treatments targeted to control abnormal involuntary movements, most did not emerge as clearly beneficial, although 4 patients had a caregiver-reported response to levodopa. Conclusions: Abnormal involuntary movements are a major feature of FOXG1 mutations. Our study delineates the spectrum of movement disorders and confirms an expanding clinical phenotype. Symptomatic treatment may be considered for severe or disabling cases, although further research regarding potential treatment strategies is necessary. PMID:27029630

  6. Deep brain stimulation for movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Larson, Paul S

    2014-07-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an implanted electrical device that modulates specific targets in the brain resulting in symptomatic improvement in a particular neurologic disease, most commonly a movement disorder. It is preferred over previously used lesioning procedures due to its reversibility, adjustability, and ability to be used bilaterally with a good safety profile. Risks of DBS include intracranial bleeding, infection, malposition, and hardware issues, such migration, disconnection, or malfunction, but the risk of each of these complications is low--generally ≤ 5% at experienced, large-volume centers. It has been used widely in essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, and dystonia when medical treatment becomes ineffective, intolerable owing to side effects, or causes motor complications. Brain targets implanted include the thalamus (most commonly for essential tremor), subthalamic nucleus (most commonly for Parkinson's disease), and globus pallidus (Parkinson's disease and dystonia), although new targets are currently being explored. Future developments include brain electrodes that can steer current directionally and systems capable of "closed loop" stimulation, with systems that can record and interpret regional brain activity and modify stimulation parameters in a clinically meaningful way. New, image-guided implantation techniques may have advantages over traditional DBS surgery. PMID:24833244

  7. Genetics Home Reference: congenital mirror movement disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... throughout life, without other associated signs and symptoms. Intelligence and lifespan are not affected. People with congenital ... movement. Normally, signals from each half of the brain control movements on the opposite side of the ...

  8. Movement Disorders Following Cerebrovascular Lesions in Cerebellar Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Cerebellar circuitry is important to controlling and modifying motor activity. It conducts the coordination and correction of errors in muscle contractions during active movements. Therefore, cerebrovascular lesions of the cerebellum or its pathways can cause diverse movement disorders, such as action tremor, Holmes’ tremor, palatal tremor, asterixis, and dystonia. The pathophysiology of abnormal movements after stroke remains poorly understood. However, due to the current advances in functional neuroimaging, it has recently been described as changes in functional brain networks. This review describes the clinical features and pathophysiological mechanisms in different types of movement disorders following cerebrovascular lesions in the cerebellar circuits. PMID:27240809

  9. Movement Disorders Following Cerebrovascular Lesions in Cerebellar Circuits.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seong-Min

    2016-05-01

    Cerebellar circuitry is important to controlling and modifying motor activity. It conducts the coordination and correction of errors in muscle contractions during active movements. Therefore, cerebrovascular lesions of the cerebellum or its pathways can cause diverse movement disorders, such as action tremor, Holmes' tremor, palatal tremor, asterixis, and dystonia. The pathophysiology of abnormal movements after stroke remains poorly understood. However, due to the current advances in functional neuroimaging, it has recently been described as changes in functional brain networks. This review describes the clinical features and pathophysiological mechanisms in different types of movement disorders following cerebrovascular lesions in the cerebellar circuits. PMID:27240809

  10. Movement Disorders: A Brief Guide in Medication Management.

    PubMed

    Julius, Anthony; Longfellow, Katelan

    2016-07-01

    Movement disorders can be challenging to manage and often use a specific set of medications. Because it is a complex and broad field within neurology, many providers are unfamiliar with the classes of medications. This paper details medications used for specific conditions, explains why these medications are helpful, and shares pearls and pitfalls related to each agent, focusing on parameters such as dose titration, side effect profiles, and specific drug-drug interactions and challenges. We focus on the most commonly encountered movement disorders, including essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, and restless leg syndrome. PMID:27235613

  11. Charles Dickens: the man, medicine, and movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Schoffer, Kerrie L; O'Sullivan, John D

    2006-11-01

    Nineteenth-century Victorian novelists played an important role in developing our understanding of medicine and illness. With the eye of an expert clinician, Charles Dickens provided several detailed accounts of movement disorders in his literary works, many of which predated medical descriptions. His gift for eloquence, imagery, and precision attest not only to the importance of careful clinical observation, but also provide an insightful and entertaining perspective on movement disorders for modern students of neuroscience. PMID:17015015

  12. A rare paroxysmal movement disorder: mixed type of paroxysmal dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Sen, Aysu; Atakli, Dilek; Guresci, Bahar; Arpaci, Baki

    2014-11-30

    Paroxysmal dyskinesias are rare, heterogeneous group of disorders characterised by recurrent attacks of involuntary movements. The four classic categories of paroxysmal dyskinesias are kinesigenic, nonkinesigenic, exercise-induced and hypnogenic. There are some patients that do not fit in these four groups of paroxysmal dyskinesia and are termed as "mixed type". We describe a 13-year-old girl who had features of both paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia and paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia that was misdiagnosed as refractory epilepsy. She improved substantially with a combination of carbamazepine and clonazepame. It is important to recognize the clinical presentation of paroxysmal dyskinesias and distinguish these movement disorders from other disorders, such as psychogenic disorders and epilepsia, for deciding the treatment and prognosis of the patients. This case highlights the importance of the recognition of a rare paroxysmal movement disorders. PMID:25720246

  13. Immune-mediated extrapyramidal movement disorders, including Sydenham chorea.

    PubMed

    Dale, Russell C

    2013-01-01

    Immune-mediated extrapyramidal movement disorders typically occur in previously healthy children. Immune-mediated movement disorders may occur as a postinfectious, paraneoplastic, or idiopathic process. Sydenham chorea (SC) is the classical poststreptococcal movement and psychiatric disorder, and may be associated with other features of rheumatic fever. The outcome is typically good, although residual chorea, psychiatric disturbance, and relapses are possible. Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) is a syndrome of streptococcal-induced tics and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Although a number of investigators have reported an association between streptococcal infection and neuropsychiatric syndromes, the PANDAS hypothesis is controversial. Encephalitis lethargica is an encephalitic illness with parkinsonism, dyskinesias, and psychiatric disturbance as dominant features. The exact disease mechanism is not understood, although an autoimmune process is suspected. NMDA-R encephalitis is a new entity characterized by encephalitis with dramatic psychiatric disturbance, dyskinesias, cognitive alteration, and seizures. Patients have autoantibodies against the NMDA-R that appear to be pathogenic: immune therapies appear warranted to minimize disability. Movement disorders are also described associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome. The differential diagnosis and investigation approach of acute-onset movement disorders are also discussed. PMID:23622334

  14. Movement Interference in Autism-Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowen, E.; Stanley, J.; Miall, R. C.

    2008-01-01

    Movement interference occurs when concurrently observing and executing incompatible actions and is believed to be due to co-activation of conflicting populations of mirror neurons. It has also been suggested that mirror neurons contribute towards the imitation of observed actions. However, the exact neural substrate of imitation may depend on task…

  15. Movement disorders in multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating diseases.

    PubMed

    Mehanna, Raja; Jankovic, Joseph

    2013-05-15

    Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system characterized by dissemination of the lesions in time and space. While tremor is frequently seen in patients with multiple sclerosis, other movement disorders such as parkinsonism, dystonia, chorea, ballism, paroxysmal dystonia, paroxysmal chorea, myoclonus, tourettism, restless leg syndrome and hemifacial spasm are less frequently reported. In this systematic review of the literature, we describe the different movement disorders reported in patients with multiple sclerosis and attempt to characterize their relation with the underlying demyelinating process. We also summarize the reports of movement disorders described in other demyelinating diseases such as neuromyelitis optica, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and central pontine myelinolysis. PMID:23522528

  16. Rhythmic engagement with music in infancy

    PubMed Central

    Zentner, Marcel; Eerola, Tuomas

    2010-01-01

    Humans have a unique ability to coordinate their motor movements to an external auditory stimulus, as in music-induced foot tapping or dancing. This behavior currently engages the attention of scholars across a number of disciplines. However, very little is known about its earliest manifestations. The aim of the current research was to examine whether preverbal infants engage in rhythmic behavior to music. To this end, we carried out two experiments in which we tested 120 infants (aged 5–24 months). Infants were exposed to various excerpts of musical and rhythmic stimuli, including isochronous drumbeats. Control stimuli consisted of adult- and infant-directed speech. Infants’ rhythmic movements were assessed by multiple methods involving manual coding from video excerpts and innovative 3D motion-capture technology. The results show that (i) infants engage in significantly more rhythmic movement to music and other rhythmically regular sounds than to speech; (ii) infants exhibit tempo flexibility to some extent (e.g., faster auditory tempo is associated with faster movement tempo); and (iii) the degree of rhythmic coordination with music is positively related to displays of positive affect. The findings are suggestive of a predisposition for rhythmic movement in response to music and other metrically regular sounds. PMID:20231438

  17. Rhythmic engagement with music in infancy.

    PubMed

    Zentner, Marcel; Eerola, Tuomas

    2010-03-30

    Humans have a unique ability to coordinate their motor movements to an external auditory stimulus, as in music-induced foot tapping or dancing. This behavior currently engages the attention of scholars across a number of disciplines. However, very little is known about its earliest manifestations. The aim of the current research was to examine whether preverbal infants engage in rhythmic behavior to music. To this end, we carried out two experiments in which we tested 120 infants (aged 5-24 months). Infants were exposed to various excerpts of musical and rhythmic stimuli, including isochronous drumbeats. Control stimuli consisted of adult- and infant-directed speech. Infants' rhythmic movements were assessed by multiple methods involving manual coding from video excerpts and innovative 3D motion-capture technology. The results show that (i) infants engage in significantly more rhythmic movement to music and other rhythmically regular sounds than to speech; (ii) infants exhibit tempo flexibility to some extent (e.g., faster auditory tempo is associated with faster movement tempo); and (iii) the degree of rhythmic coordination with music is positively related to displays of positive affect. The findings are suggestive of a predisposition for rhythmic movement in response to music and other metrically regular sounds. PMID:20231438

  18. Nonspeech Oral Movements and Oral Motor Disorders: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Speech and other oral functions such as swallowing have been compared and contrasted with oral behaviors variously labeled quasispeech, paraspeech, speechlike, and nonspeech, all of which overlap to some degree in neural control, muscles deployed, and movements performed. Efforts to understand the relationships among these behaviors are hindered by the lack of explicit and widely accepted definitions. This review article offers definitions and taxonomies for nonspeech oral movements and for diverse speaking tasks, both overt and covert. Method Review of the literature included searches of Medline, Google Scholar, HighWire Press, and various online sources. Search terms pertained to speech, quasispeech, paraspeech, speechlike, and nonspeech oral movements. Searches also were carried out for associated terms in oral biology, craniofacial physiology, and motor control. Results and Conclusions Nonspeech movements have a broad spectrum of clinical applications, including developmental speech and language disorders, motor speech disorders, feeding and swallowing difficulties, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, trismus, and tardive stereotypies. The role and benefit of nonspeech oral movements are controversial in many oral motor disorders. It is argued that the clinical value of these movements can be elucidated through careful definitions and task descriptions such as those proposed in this review article. PMID:26126128

  19. The Management of Osteoarthritis in Movement Disorders: A Case Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Stafford, Giles H.; Howard, Robin S.; Lavelle, Jonathon

    2013-01-01

    Background A 37-year-old female with a hyperkinetic movement disorder due to chorea–acanthocytosis developed severe painful degenerative arthritis of her left knee as a consequence of repetitive involuntary flexion and extension dystonic and ballistic movements. Case Report Despite profound limitation in her mobility a total knee replacement was successfully undertaken. Discussion The case emphasizes that patients with progressive neurodegenerative disorders may derive relief or resolution of pain by joint replacement even if mobility does not improve following surgery. A multidisciplinary approach to care is essential. PMID:23858393

  20. Neurobiological foundations of neurologic music therapy: rhythmic entrainment and the motor system

    PubMed Central

    Thaut, Michael H.; McIntosh, Gerald C.; Hoemberg, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Entrainment is defined by a temporal locking process in which one system’s motion or signal frequency entrains the frequency of another system. This process is a universal phenomenon that can be observed in physical (e.g., pendulum clocks) and biological systems (e.g., fire flies). However, entrainment can also be observed between human sensory and motor systems. The function of rhythmic entrainment in rehabilitative training and learning was established for the first time by Thaut and colleagues in several research studies in the early 1990s. It was shown that the inherent periodicity of auditory rhythmic patterns could entrain movement patterns in patients with movement disorders (see for a review: Thaut et al., 1999). Physiological, kinematic, and behavioral movement analysis showed very quickly that entrainment cues not only changed the timing of movement but also improved spatial and force parameters. Mathematical models have shown that anticipatory rhythmic templates as critical time constraints can result in the complete specification of the dynamics of a movement over the entire movement cycle, thereby optimizing motor planning and execution. Furthermore, temporal rhythmic entrainment has been successfully extended into applications in cognitive rehabilitation and speech and language rehabilitation, and thus become one of the major neurological mechanisms linking music and rhythm to brain rehabilitation. These findings provided a scientific basis for the development of neurologic music therapy. PMID:25774137

  1. Neurobiological foundations of neurologic music therapy: rhythmic entrainment and the motor system.

    PubMed

    Thaut, Michael H; McIntosh, Gerald C; Hoemberg, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Entrainment is defined by a temporal locking process in which one system's motion or signal frequency entrains the frequency of another system. This process is a universal phenomenon that can be observed in physical (e.g., pendulum clocks) and biological systems (e.g., fire flies). However, entrainment can also be observed between human sensory and motor systems. The function of rhythmic entrainment in rehabilitative training and learning was established for the first time by Thaut and colleagues in several research studies in the early 1990s. It was shown that the inherent periodicity of auditory rhythmic patterns could entrain movement patterns in patients with movement disorders (see for a review: Thaut et al., 1999). Physiological, kinematic, and behavioral movement analysis showed very quickly that entrainment cues not only changed the timing of movement but also improved spatial and force parameters. Mathematical models have shown that anticipatory rhythmic templates as critical time constraints can result in the complete specification of the dynamics of a movement over the entire movement cycle, thereby optimizing motor planning and execution. Furthermore, temporal rhythmic entrainment has been successfully extended into applications in cognitive rehabilitation and speech and language rehabilitation, and thus become one of the major neurological mechanisms linking music and rhythm to brain rehabilitation. These findings provided a scientific basis for the development of neurologic music therapy. PMID:25774137

  2. Recognizing Uncommon Presentations of Psychogenic (Functional) Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Baizabal-Carvallo, José Fidel; Fekete, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background Psychogenic or functional movement disorders (PMDs) pose a challenge in clinical diagnosis. There are several clues, including sudden onset, incongruous symptoms, distractibility, suggestibility, entrainment of symptoms, and lack of response to otherwise effective pharmacological therapies, that help identify the most common psychogenic movements such as tremor, dystonia, and myoclonus. Methods In this manuscript, we review the frequency, distinct clinical features, functional imaging, and neurophysiological tests that can help in the diagnosis of uncommon presentations of PMDs, such as psychogenic parkinsonism, tics, and chorea; facial, palatal, and ocular movements are also reviewed. In addition, we discuss PMDs at the extremes of age and mass psychogenic illness. Results Psychogenic parkinsonism (PP) is observed in less than 10% of the case series about PMDs, with a female–male ratio of roughly 1:1. Lack of amplitude decrement in repetitive movements and of cogwheel rigidity help to differentiate PP from true parkinsonism. Dopamine transporter imaging with photon emission tomography can also help in the diagnostic process. Psychogenic movements resembling tics are reported in about 5% of PMD patients. Lack of transient suppressibility of abnormal movements helps to differentiate them from organic tics. Psychogenic facial movements can present with hemifacial spasm, blepharospasm, and other movements. Some patients with essential palatal tremor have been shown to be psychogenic. Convergence ocular spasm has demonstrated a high specificity for psychogenic movements. PMDs can also present in the context of mass psychogenic illness or at the extremes of age. Discussion Clinical features and ancillary studies are helpful in the diagnosis of patients with uncommon presentations of psychogenic movement disorders. PMID:25667816

  3. Oscillations in sensorimotor cortex in movement disorders: an electrocorticography study

    PubMed Central

    Crowell, Andrea L.; Ryapolova-Webb, Elena S.; Ostrem, Jill L.; Galifianakis, Nicholas B.; Shimamoto, Shoichi; Lim, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    Movement disorders of basal ganglia origin may arise from abnormalities in synchronized oscillatory activity in a network that includes the basal ganglia, thalamus and motor cortices. In humans, much has been learned from the study of basal ganglia local field potentials recorded from temporarily externalized deep brain stimulator electrodes. These studies have led to the theory that Parkinson's disease has characteristic alterations in the beta frequency band (13–30 Hz) in the basal ganglia–thalamocortical network. However, different disorders have rarely been compared using recordings in the same structure under the same behavioural conditions, limiting straightforward assessment of current hypotheses. To address this, we utilized subdural electrocorticography to study cortical oscillations in the three most common movement disorders: Parkinson's disease, primary dystonia and essential tremor. We recorded local field potentials from the arm area of primary motor and sensory cortices in 31 subjects using strip electrodes placed temporarily during routine surgery for deep brain stimulator placement. We show that: (i) primary motor cortex broadband gamma power is increased in Parkinson's disease compared with the other conditions, both at rest and during a movement task; (ii) primary motor cortex high beta (20–30 Hz) power is increased in Parkinson's disease during the ‘stop’ phase of a movement task; (iii) the alpha–beta peaks in the motor and sensory cortical power spectra occur at higher frequencies in Parkinson's disease than in the other two disorders; and (iv) patients with dystonia have impaired movement-related beta band desynchronization in primary motor and sensory cortices. The findings support the emerging hypothesis that disease states reflect abnormalities in synchronized oscillatory activity. This is the first study of sensorimotor cortex local field potentials in the three most common movement disorders. PMID:22252995

  4. Impaired Awareness of Movement Disorders in Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amanzio, Martina; Monteverdi, Silvia; Giordano, Alessandra; Soliveri, Paola; Filippi, Paola; Geminiani, Giuliano

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study analyzed the presence of awareness of movement disorders (dyskinesias and hypokinesias) in 25 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and motor fluctuations (dyskinesias, wearing off, on-off fluctuations). Of the few studies that have dealt with this topic, none have analyzed the differences in the awareness of motor deficits…

  5. Identifying the genetic components underlying the pathophysiology of movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ezquerra, Mario; Compta, Yaroslau; Marti, Maria J

    2011-01-01

    Movement disorders are a heterogeneous group of neurological conditions, few of which have been classically described as bona fide hereditary illnesses (Huntington’s chorea, for instance). Most are considered to be either sporadic or to feature varying degrees of familial aggregation (parkinsonism and dystonia). In the late twentieth century, Mendelian monogenic mutations were found for movement disorders with a clear and consistent family history. Although important, these findings apply only to very rare forms of movement disorders. Already in the twenty-first century, and taking advantage of the modern developments in genetics and molecular biology, growing attention is being paid to the complex genetics of movement disorders. The search for risk genetic variants (polymorphisms) in large cohorts and the identification of different risk variants across different populations and ethnic groups are under way, with the most relevant findings to date corresponding to recent genome wide association studies in Parkinson’s disease. These new approaches focusing on risk variants may enable the design of screening tests for early or even preclinical disease, and the identification of likely therapeutic targets. PMID:23776369

  6. Eccentric head positions reveal disorders of conjugate eye movement.

    PubMed Central

    Gresty, M

    1977-01-01

    The effect of head position on conjugate horizontal gaze was studied in healthy adults, in patients with multiple sclerosis without eye movement signs, and in patients with downbeat nystagmus indicative of low brain stem lesions. Displacements of gaze from primary position to 30 degrees left and right were recorded using the electro-oculogram, with the head in the primary position, and turned voluntarily to the left and right (in yaw). The quality of eye movements was noted and peak velocities of saccades were measured. The head turning test trebled the incidence of abnormal eye movements found in the multiple sclerosis patients and increased it by tenfold in the patients with downbeat nystagmus. Disorders of eye movement were also found in approximately 20--30% of healthy subjects tested. Weakness of abduction was the most common eye movement defect and appeared to be posterior internuclear ophthalmoplegia. A hypothesis is made which unifies the theoretical explanations of anterior and posterior internuclear ophthalmoplegia. The most likely cause of the disorders of eye movement observed is vertebrobasilar ischaemia induced by stretching and compression of the vertebral arteries during eccentric head posture. Images PMID:591979

  7. Review of rapid eye movement behavior sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Abad, Vivien C; Guilleminault, Christian

    2004-03-01

    The spectrum of rapid eye movement behavior disorders (RBD) spans various age groups, with the greatest prevalence in elderly men. Major diagnostic features include harmful or potentially harmful sleep behaviors that disrupt sleep continuity and dream enactment during rapid eye movement sleep. In RBD patients, the polysomnogram during rapid eye movement sleep demonstrates excessive augmentation of chin electromyogram or excessive chin or limb phasic electromyogram twitching. RBD may be associated with various neurodegenerative disorders, such as multiple system atrophy, Parkinson's disease, and dementia with Lewy bodies. Other co-morbid conditions may include narcolepsy, agrypnia excitata, sleepwalking, and sleep terrors. RBD is hypothesized to be caused by primary dysfunction of the pedunculo-pontine nucleus or other key brainstem structures associated with basal ganglia pathology or, alternatively, from abnormal afferent signals in the basal ganglia leading to dysfunction in the midbrain extrapyramidal area/ pedunculo-pontine nucleus regions. PMID:14984689

  8. Episodic movement disorders: from phenotype to genotype and back.

    PubMed

    Brockmann, Knut

    2013-10-01

    Episodic dyskinetic movement disorders are a heterogeneous group of rare conditions. Paroxysmal dyskinesias constitute the core of this group and usually exhibit normal interepisodic neurologic findings. Contrariwise, episodic dyskinesias occur as a particular feature of complex chronic neurologic disorders. Conjunction of accurate phenotyping with up-to-date methods of molecular genetics recently provided remarkable new insights concerning the genetic causes of episodic dyskinesia. The identification of heterozygous mutations in the PRRT2 gene in paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia as well as in benign familial infantile seizures linked episodic movement disorders with epilepsy. Alternating hemiplegia of childhood, the prototype of a chronic multisystem disease with episodic dyskinesia as a clinical hallmark, was recently found to be caused by heterozygous de novo mutations in the ATP1A3 gene. The clinical spectra of PRRT2 as well as of ATP1A3 mutations are still expanding. This review summarizes new genetic findings and clinical aspects in episodic dyskinesias. PMID:23963607

  9. Repetitive Arm Movements During Sleep: A Polysomnographic Assessment.

    PubMed

    Torabi-Nami, Mohammad; Mehrabi, Samrad; Derman, Sabri

    2016-07-01

    Sleep-related movement disorders should be differentiated from parasomnias, sleep-associated behavioral disorders, and epilepsy. Polysomnography (PSG) is the gold standard in evaluating such disorders. Periodic leg movement disorder during sleep (PLMS), hypnic jerks, bruxism, rhythmic movement disorder, restless legs syndrome, and nocturnal leg cramps have broadly been discussed in the literature. However, periodic arm movement disorder in sleep (PAMS) is a less-appreciated entity perhaps because arm surface electromyography is not an integral part of the standard polysomnography. Results from our PSG study in a case suspected for PAMS prompted us to herewith discuss this problem. PMID:27563420

  10. Repetitive Arm Movements During Sleep: A Polysomnographic Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Torabi-Nami, Mohammad; Mehrabi, Samrad; Derman, Sabri

    2016-01-01

    Sleep-related movement disorders should be differentiated from parasomnias, sleep-associated behavioral disorders, and epilepsy. Polysomnography (PSG) is the gold standard in evaluating such disorders. Periodic leg movement disorder during sleep (PLMS), hypnic jerks, bruxism, rhythmic movement disorder, restless legs syndrome, and nocturnal leg cramps have broadly been discussed in the literature. However, periodic arm movement disorder in sleep (PAMS) is a less-appreciated entity perhaps because arm surface electromyography is not an integral part of the standard polysomnography. Results from our PSG study in a case suspected for PAMS prompted us to herewith discuss this problem. PMID:27563420

  11. Spotlight on Movement Disorders: What optogenetics has to offer

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Mark A.; Calakos, Nicole; Yin, Henry H.

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating the neuronal mechanisms underlying movement disorders is a major challenge due to the intricacy of the relevant neural circuits, which are characterized by diverse cell types and complex connectivity. A major limitation of traditional techniques, such as electrical stimulation or lesions, is that individual elements of a neural circuit cannot be selectively manipulated. Moreover, available treatments are largely based on trial and error rather than a detailed understanding of the circuit mechanisms. Gaps in our knowledge of the circuit mechanisms for movement disorders, as well as mechanisms underlying known treatments such as deep brain stimulation, make it difficult to design new and improved treatment options. In this perspective, we discuss how optogenetics, which allows researchers to use light to manipulate neuronal activity, can contribute to the understanding and treatment of movement disorders. We outline the advantages and limitations of optogenetics and discuss examples of studies that have used this tool to clarify the role of the basal ganglia circuitry in movement. PMID:25777796

  12. Increased sexual arousal in patients with movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Teive, Hélio A G; Moro, Adriana; Moscovich, Mariana; Munhoz, Renato P

    2016-04-01

    Increased of sexual arousal (ISA) has been described in different neurological diseases. The purpose of this study was present a case series of ISA in patients with movement disorders. Method Fifteen patients with different forms of movement disorders (Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Tourette´s syndrome, spinocerebellar ataxia type 3), were evaluated in the Movement Disorders Unit of the Federal University of Paraná. Results Among Parkinson's disease patients there were seven cases with different forms of ISA due to dopaminergic agonist use, levodopa abuse, and deep brain stimulation (DBS). In the group with hyperkinetic disorders, two patients with Huntington's disease, two with Tourette's syndrome, and four with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 presented with ISA. Conclusions ISA in this group of patients had different etiologies, predominantly related to dopaminergic treatment or DBS in Parkinson's disease, part of the background clinical picture in Huntington's disease and Tourette's syndrome, and probably associated with cultural aspects in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3. PMID:27097003

  13. Movement-related event-related desynchronization in neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Leocani, Letizia; Comi, Giancarlo

    2006-01-01

    The analysis of event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS) provides information on the dynamics of cortical activation during cognitive and motor tasks and has been applied in a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. In this chapter, we focus on studies concerning movement-related activity, which showed changes in amount, topography, or time course in relation to not only involvement of the motor system--such as Parkinson's disease (PD), dystonia, and stroke affecting the sensorimotor (SM) pathways--but also physiological aging, degenerative dementia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and fatigue associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). In these disorders, the extent of abnormality in the pattern of ERD/ERS is related to the severity of the underlying pathology. Moreover in MS, a correlation with the severity of brain tissue has been found. While there is consistency in changes related to ipokinetic disorders, mainly consisting of delayed appearance of ERD to movement preparation, changes occurring in other brain disorders need to be replicated or raise doubts on the specificity of changes across different diseases. Further studies are needed in order to validate the usefulness of this methodology in the assessment of the single patient for diagnosis and monitoring of the natural course of the disease and of treatment efficacy. PMID:17071242

  14. Neurosyphilis presenting as a new onset lateralized movement disorder.

    PubMed

    Pfender, Nikolai; Linnebank, Michael; Sommerauer, Michael; Tarnutzer, Alexander A

    2015-10-01

    We report a unique and illustrative case of a 52-year-old man with neurosyphilis presenting as subacute hemichorea, and discuss a vascular, metabolic or inflammatory origin. A broad range of neurological findings may be linked to neurosyphilis, potentially complicating its diagnosis. We propose that new onset lateralized movement disorders may constitute the initial clinical presentations of neurosyphilis, and provide evidence for striatal hypermetabolism pointing to direct inflammatory, syphilitic changes as the underlying pathophysiological mechanism. Neurosyphilis is no longer a common disorder, but the prevalence of syphilis is rising again in Western countries and its past reputation as the great imitator should not be forgotten. PMID:26055956

  15. The representation of movement disorders in fictional literature.

    PubMed

    Voss, Hendrik

    2012-10-01

    This review considers novels, plays and poems dealing with movement disorders in order to show the relevance in the literary context. The motifs are arranged and compared following a modern neurological nosology according to Parkinson syndromes, dystonia, myoclonus, tics, hemifacial spasm, Tourette syndrome, Huntington's disease and hyperekplexia. There is considerable variety in how movement disorders are depicted and how much influence they have on the plot structures. Their usage ranges from a brief reference in order to accentuate aspects of a character's personality or social position, such as in Shakespeare, Dickens, Tolstoy or Galdós; to truly constituting one of the plot's main themes as, for example, with the representation of Lewy body disease in Franzen's The Corrections and Huntington's disease in Vonnegut's Galápagos, Sawyer's Frameshift or McEwan's Saturday. The symbolic connotation of the disease is of major importance, as is its social and psychological impact. Some 20th century authors transfer rhythm patterns of specific movement disorders into the textual structure, including, among others, Beckett. PMID:22752692

  16. The therapeutic potential of cannabinoids for movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Kluger, Benzi; Triolo, Piera; Jones, Wallace; Jankovic, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    There is growing interest in the therapeutic potential of marijuana (cannabis) and cannabinoid-based chemicals within the medical community and, particularly, for neurological conditions. This interest is driven both by changes in the legal status of cannabis in many areas and increasing research into the roles of endocannabinoids within the central nervous system and their potential as symptomatic and/or neuroprotective therapies. We review basic science as well as preclinical and clinical studies on the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids specifically as it relates to movement disorders. The pharmacology of cannabis is complex, with over 60 neuroactive chemicals identified to date. The endocannabinoid system modulates neurotransmission involved in motor function, particularly within the basal ganglia. Preclinical research in animal models of several movement disorders have shown variable evidence for symptomatic benefits, but more consistently suggest potential neuroprotective effects in several animal models of Parkinson's (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD). Clinical observations and clinical trials of cannabinoid-based therapies suggests a possible benefit of cannabinoids for tics and probably no benefit for tremor in multiple sclerosis or dyskinesias or motor symptoms in PD. Data are insufficient to draw conclusions regarding HD, dystonia, or ataxia and nonexistent for myoclonus or RLS. Despite the widespread publicity about the medical benefits of cannabinoids, further preclinical and clinical research is needed to better characterize the pharmacological, physiological, and therapeutic effects of this class of drugs in movement disorders. PMID:25649017

  17. The Therapeutic Potential of Cannabinoids for Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kluger, Benzi; Triolo, Piera; Jones, Wallace; Jankovic, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in the therapeutic potential of marijuana (cannabis) and cannabinoid-based chemicals within the medical community and particularly for neurologic conditions. This interest is driven both by changes in the legal status of cannabis in many areas and increasing research into the roles of endocannabinoids within the central nervous system and their potential as symptomatic and/or neuroprotective therapies. We review basic science, preclinical and clinical studies on the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids specifically as it relates to movement disorders. Results The pharmacology of cannabis is complex with over 60 neuroactive chemicals identified to date. The endocannabinoid system modulates neurotransmission involved in motor function, particularly within the basal ganglia. Preclinical research in animal models of several movement disorders have shown variable evidence for symptomatic benefits but more consistently suggest potential neuroprotective effects in several animal models of Parkinson’s (PD) and Huntington’s disease (HD). Clinical observations and clinical trials of cannabinoid-based therapies suggests a possible benefit of cannabinoids for tics and probably no benefit for tremor in multiple sclerosis or dyskinesias or motor symptoms in PD. Data are insufficient to draw conclusions regarding HD, dystonia or ataxia and nonexistent for myoclonus or restless legs syndrome. Conclusions Despite the widespread publicity about the medical benefits of cannabinoids, further preclinical and clinical research is needed to better characterize the pharmacological, physiological and therapeutic effects of this class of drugs in movement disorders. PMID:25649017

  18. Cognitive and Psychiatric Phenotypes of Movement Disorders in Children: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Pazi, Hilla; Jaworowski, Solomon; Shalev, Ruth S

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The cognitive and psychiatric aspects of adult movement disorders are well established, but specific behavioural profiles for paediatric movement disorders have not been delineated. Knowledge of non-motor phenotypes may guide treatment and determine which symptoms are suggestive of a specific movement disorder and which indicate medication…

  19. Rhythmic Engagement with Music in Early Childhood: A Replication and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilari, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate and extend previous findings on spontaneous movement and rhythmic engagement with music in infancy. Using the identical stimuli and procedures from the original study, I investigated spontaneous rhythmic movements in response to music, infant-directed speech, and contrasting rhythmic patterns in 30…

  20. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and rapid eye movement sleep without atonia in narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Jennum, Poul; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2013-08-01

    Narcolepsy is a rare disabling hypersomnia disorder that may include cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) periods, but also disrupted nighttime sleep by nocturnal awakenings, and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). RBD is characterized by dream-enacting behavior and impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep (REM sleep without atonia, RSWA). RBD is commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinsonisms, but is also reported in narcolepsy in up to 60% of patients. RBD in patients with narcolepsy is, however, a distinct phenotype with respect to other RBD patients and characterized also by absence of gender predominance, elementary rather than complex movements, less violent behavior and earlier age at onset of motor events, and strong association to narcolepsy with cataplexy/hypocretin deficiency. Patients with narcolepsy often present dissociated sleep features including RSWA, increased density of phasic chin EMG and frequent shift from REM to NREM sleep, with or without associated clinical RBD. Most patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy lack the hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Tonic and phasic motor activities in REM sleep and dream-enacting behavior are mostly reported in presence of cataplexy. Narcolepsy without cataplexy is a condition rarely associated with hypocretin deficiency. We proposed that hypocretin neurons are centrally involved in motor control during wakefulness and sleep in humans, and that hypocretin deficiency causes a functional defect in the motor control involved in the development of cataplexy during wakefulness and RBD/RSWA/phasic motor activity during REM sleep. PMID:23219054

  1. Parkinsonism—Evaluation and Treatment of Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bard, Gregory

    1964-01-01

    Patients with movement disorders from parkinsonism were treated with thalamotomy performed by stereotactic surgical procedure. In order to determine with any degree of objectivity the results of these lesions, an accelerometer was used to record hand tremor and various mechanical tests were carried out that included self-care activities to evaluate impairment of function. On the basis of these tests, patients were selected for surgical operation, their condition before and after operation was evaluated, and a program for their rehabilitation was drafted. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:14201236

  2. The role of DAT-SPECT in movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Kägi, G; Bhatia, K P; Tolosa, E

    2010-01-01

    Dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging is a sensitive method to detect presynaptic dopamine neuronal dysfunction, which is a hallmark of neurodegenerative parkinsonism. DAT imaging can therefore assist the differentiation between conditions with and without presynaptic dopaminergic deficit. Diagnosis of Parkinson disease or tremor disorders can be achieved with high degrees of accuracy in cases with full expression of classical clinical features; however, diagnosis can be difficult, since there is a substantial clinical overlap especially in monosymptomatic tremor (dystonic tremor, essential tremor, Parkinson tremor). The use of DAT-SPECT can prove or excludes with high sensitivity nigrostriatal dysfunction in those cases and facilitates early and accurate diagnosis. Furthermore, a normal DAT-SPECT is helpful in supporting a diagnosis of drug-induced-, psychogenic- and vascular parkinsonism by excluding underlying true nigrostriatal dysfunction. This review addresses the value of DAT-SPECT and its impact on diagnostic accuracy in movement disorders presenting with tremor and/or parkinsonism. PMID:20019219

  3. Critical reappraisal of DBS targeting for movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Guzzi, Giusy; Della Torre, Attilio; Chirchiglia, Domenico; Volpentesta, Giorgio; Lavano, Angelo

    2016-06-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is used as a surgical treatment of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia and essential tremor. Fundamental understanding of DBS effects on the pathological neural circuitry remains insufficient. In 2002 DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the globus pallidus internus (GPi) was approved for use in patients with PD. Next year, DBS of Gpi and STN for dystonia received a Humanitarian Device exemption from the FDA. The commonly targets for DBS are subthalamic nucleus (STN) or globus pallidus internus (GPi) for Parkinson's disease, Gpi for dystonia and ventro-intermediate (VIM) nucleus of the thalamus for essential tremor. However, VIM DBS cannot sufficiently improve akinesia and rigidity. Pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is currently investigated as potential target to improve gait and posture. It is determined that DBS sometimes influences not only motor functions but also the cognitive and affective functions of patients. In this article we review the present state of DBS for movement disorders, appropriate indications, practical effects and stimulation-induced adverse events established in previous studies. We discuss target selection and the effect of DBS on motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, dystonia and essential tremor. PMID:27015393

  4. Impaired visual size-discrimination in children with movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Gori, Monica; Tinelli, Francesca; Sandini, Giulio; Cioni, Giovanni; Burr, David

    2012-07-01

    Multisensory integration of spatial information occurs late in childhood, at around eight years (Gori, Del Viva, Sandini, & Burr, 2008). For younger children, the haptic system dominates size discrimination and vision dominates orientation discrimination: the dominance may reflect sensory calibration, and could have direct consequences on children born with specific sensory disabilities. Here we measure thresholds for visual discrimination of orientation and size in children with movement disorders of upper limbs. Visual orientation discrimination was very similar to the age-matched typical children, but visual size discrimination thresholds were far worse, in all eight individuals with early-onset movement disorder. This surprising and counterintuitive result is readily explained by the cross-sensory calibration hypothesis: when the haptic sense is unavailable for manipulation, it cannot be readily used to estimate size, and hence to calibrate the visual experience of size: visual discrimination is subsequently impaired. This complements a previous study showing that non-sighted children have reduced acuity for haptic orientation, but not haptic size, discriminations (Gori, Sandini, Martinoli, & Burr, 2010). Together these studies show that when either vision or haptic manipulation is impaired, the impairment also impacts on complementary sensory systems that are calibrated by that one. PMID:22569216

  5. Non-Parkinson movement disorders: Five new things.

    PubMed

    Ledoux, Mark S

    2013-02-01

    SOLUTIONS TO THE MAJOR RIDDLES IN MOVEMENT DISORDERS ARE APPEARING AT A BREATHTAKING PACE: 1) loss-of-function mutations in PRRT2, which encodes a cell surface protein expressed in neurons, have been found in many patients with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesias; 2) mutations in CIZ1, which encodes a protein involved in cell-cycle control at the G1-S checkpoint, have been identified in a small percentage of patients with cervical dystonia; and 3) finally, after many years of genetics and identification of more than 25 disease-associated genes, cellular studies related to the pathobiology of hereditary spastic paraplegia are converging on defects in modeling the endoplasmic reticulum and membrane trafficking. On the treatment front, the distinctive syndromes of faciobrachial dystonic seizures with anti-LRI1 antibodies and anti-N-methyl-d-aspartic acid encephalitis with orobuccolingual dyskinesias are becoming increasingly recognized by clinicians as imminently treatable conditions. Also on the treatment front, the first phase I trial of MRI-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound for essential tremor has been completed and intraoperative MRI is currently being used to place electrodes in the brains of patients with medically intractable dystonia. Definitive etiologies and efficacious treatments for non-Parkinson disease movement disorders are no longer wishful thinking. PMID:23634381

  6. Eye Movement Measurement in Diagnostic Assessment of Disorders of Consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Windsor Kwan-Chun; Perez Velazquez, Jose Luis; Cusimano, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    We review the literature to appraise the evidence supporting or disputing the use of eye movement measurement in disorders of consciousness (DOC) with low levels of arousal or awareness, such as minimally conscious state (MCS), vegetative state (VS), and coma for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. We will focus on the effectiveness of each technique in the diagnostic classification of these patients and the gradual trend in research from manual to computerized tracking methods. New tools have become available at clinicians’ disposal to assess eye movements with high spatial and temporal fidelity. The close relationship between eye movement generation and organic dysfunction in the brain allows these tools to be applied to the assessment of severe DOC as a unique supplementary toolset. We posit that eye tracking can improve clinical diagnostic precision for DOC, a key component of assessment that often dictates the course of clinical care in DOC patients. We see the emergence of long-term eye-tracking studies with seamless integration of technology in the future to improve the performance of clinical assessment in DOC. PMID:25120529

  7. Neural basis of rhythmic timing networks in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Thaut, Michael H

    2003-11-01

    The study of rhythmicity provides insights into the understanding of temporal coding of music and temporal information processing in the human brain. Auditory rhythms rapidly entrain motor responses into stable steady synchronization states below and above conscious perception thresholds. Studying the neural dynamics of entrainment by measuring brain wave responses (MEG) we found nonlinear scaling of M100 amplitudes generated in primary auditory cortex relative to changes in the period of the rhythmic interval during subliminal and supraliminal tempo modulations. In recent brain imaging studies we have described the neural networks involved in motor synchronization to auditory rhythm. Activated regions include primary sensorimotor and cingulate areas, bilateral opercular premotor areas, bilateral SII, ventral prefrontal cortex, and, subcortically, anterior insula, putamen, and thalamus. Within the cerebellum, vermal regions and anterior hemispheres ipsilateral to the movement became significantly activated. Tracking temporal modulations additionally activated predominantly right prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and intraparietal regions as well as posterior cerebellar hemispheres. Furthermore, strong evidence exists for the substantial benefits of rhythmic stimuli in rehabilitation training with motor disorders. PMID:14681157

  8. Morbidities in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    PubMed

    Jennum, Poul; Mayer, Geert; Ju, Yo-El; Postuma, Ron

    2013-08-01

    Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD, RBD without any obvious comorbid major neurological disease), is strongly associated with numerous comorbid conditions. The most prominent is that with neurodegenerative disorders, especially synuclein-mediated disorders, above all Parkinson disease (PD). Idiopathic RBD is an important risk factor for the development of synucleinopathies. Comorbidity studies suggest that iRBD is associated with a number of other potential pre-motor manifestations of synucleinopathies such as, cognitive and olfactory impairment, reduced autonomic function, neuropsychiatric manifestations and sleep complaints. Furthermore, patients with PD and RBD may have worse prognosis in terms of impaired cognitive function and overall morbidity/mortality; in dementia, the presence of RBD is strongly associated with clinical hallmarks and pathological findings of dementia with Lewy bodies. These findings underline the progressive disease process, suggesting involvement of more brain regions in patients with a more advanced disease stage. RBD is also associated with narcolepsy, and it is likely that RBD associated with narcolepsy is a distinct subtype associated with different comorbidities. RBD is also associated with antidepressant medications, autoimmune conditions, and, in rare cases, brainstem lesions. PMID:23375425

  9. Morbidities in Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behaviour Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jennum, Poul; Mayer, Geert; Yo-El, Ju; Postuma, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Sleep Behaviour Disorder (iRBD, RBD without any obvious comorbid major neurological disease), is strongly associated with numerous comorbid conditions. The most prominent is that with neurodegenerative disorders, especially synuclein-mediated disorders, above all Parkinson Disease (PD). Idiopathic RBD is an important risk factor for the development of synucleinopathies. Comorbidity studies suggest that iRBD is associated with a number of other potential pre-motor manifestations of synucleinopathies such as, cognitive and olfactory impairment, reduced autonomic function, neuropsychiatric manifestations and sleep complaints. Furthermore, patients with PD and RBD may have worse prognosis in terms of impaired cognitive function and overall morbidity/mortality; in dementia, the presence of RBD is strongly associated with clinical hallmarks and pathological findings of dementia with Lewy bodies. These findings underline the progressive disease process, suggesting involvement of more brain regions in patients with a more advanced disease stage. RBD is also associated with narcolepsy, and it is likely that RBD associated with narcolepsy is a distinct subtype associated with different comorbidities. RBD is also associated with antidepressant medications, autoimmune conditions, and, in rare cases, brainstem lesions. PMID:23375425

  10. GBA mutations are associated with Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gan-Or, Ziv; Mirelman, Anat; Postuma, Ronald B; Arnulf, Isabelle; Bar-Shira, Anat; Dauvilliers, Yves; Desautels, Alex; Gagnon, Jean-François; Leblond, Claire S; Frauscher, Birgit; Alcalay, Roy N; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel; Bressman, Susan B; Marder, Karen; Monaca, Christelle; Högl, Birgit; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Dion, Patrick A; Montplaisir, Jacques Y; Giladi, Nir; Rouleau, Guy A

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and GBA mutations are both associated with Parkinson's disease. The GBA gene was sequenced in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder patients (n = 265), and compared to controls (n = 2240). Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder questionnaire was performed in an independent Parkinson's disease cohort (n = 120). GBA mutations carriers had an OR of 6.24 (10.2% in patients vs. 1.8% in controls, P < 0.0001) for rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, and among Parkinson's disease patients, the OR for mutation carriers to have probable rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder was 3.13 (P = 0.039). These results demonstrate that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is associated with GBA mutations, and that combining genetic and prodromal data may assist in identifying individuals susceptible to Parkinson's disease. PMID:26401515

  11. Ictal SPECT in patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Geert; Bitterlich, Marion; Kuwert, Torsten; Ritt, Philipp; Stefan, Hermann

    2015-05-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is a rapid eye movement parasomnia clinically characterized by acting out dreams due to disinhibition of muscle tone in rapid eye movement sleep. Up to 80-90% of the patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder develop neurodegenerative disorders within 10-15 years after symptom onset. The disorder is reported in 45-60% of all narcoleptic patients. Whether rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is also a predictor for neurodegeneration in narcolepsy is not known. Although the pathophysiology causing the disinhibition of muscle tone in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder has been studied extensively in animals, little is known about the mechanisms in humans. Most of the human data are from imaging or post-mortem studies. Recent studies show altered functional connectivity between substantia nigra and striatum in patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. We were interested to study which regions are activated in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder during actual episodes by performing ictal single photon emission tomography. We studied one patient with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, one with Parkinson's disease and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, and two patients with narcolepsy and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. All patients underwent extended video polysomnography. The tracer was injected after at least 10 s of consecutive rapid eye movement sleep and 10 s of disinhibited muscle tone accompanied by movements registered by an experienced sleep technician. Ictal single photon emission tomography displayed the same activation in the bilateral premotor areas, the interhemispheric cleft, the periaqueductal area, the dorsal and ventral pons and the anterior lobe of the cerebellum in all patients. Our study shows that in patients with Parkinson's disease and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder-in contrast to wakefulness

  12. [Deep brain stimulation for movement disorders: indications, results and complications].

    PubMed

    Fleury, Vanessa; Vingerhoets, François; Horvath, Judit; Pollak, Pierre; Burkhard, Pierre

    2015-04-29

    Movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD), essential tremor (ET) and dystonia can benefit from deep brain stimulation (DBS). DBS is considered when symptoms are disabling despite optimal medical therapy. Contraindications include dementia, uncontrolled psychiatric disease and/or comorbid conditions with potential for evolution. Targets are the subthalamic nucleus for PD, the ventral intermediate nucleus for ET and the globus pallidus internus for dystonia. The beneficial effet of DBS has been well documented for symptom control. Optimal target localization of the electrodes reduces the occurrence of side-effects. Stimulation-induced adverse effects can usually be abolished by turning the stimulation off, changing the active contact or other stimulation parameters. PMID:26062221

  13. [Parkinson Disease With Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yang; Zhang, Wei

    2015-06-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by lack of muscle atonia during REM sleep and enactment of dream content. RBD is associated with Parkinson disease (PD) and has high incidence in PD patients. PD patient with RBD mainly presents rigid type, has longer disease duration, more severe motor and non-motor symptoms and poorer activity of daily living and life quality. The pathophysiological mechanisms of RBD may be related to dysfunctions of pontine tegmentum, locus coeruleus/sub-locus coeruleus complex and related projections. The diagnosis of RBD depends on clinical histories and video-polysomnography (v-PSG). Besides treatment for PD, protective measures have to be taken for patients and their sleep partners. If abnormal behaviors during sleep cause distress and danger,patients should be given drug therapy. PMID:26521483

  14. Diagnosis and treatment of impulse control disorders in patients with movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mestre, Tiago A.; Strafella, Antonio P.; Thomsen, Teri; Voon, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Impulse control disorders are a psychiatric condition characterized by the failure to resist an impulsive act or behavior that may be harmful to self or others. In movement disorders, impulse control disorders are associated with dopaminergic treatment, notably dopamine agonists (DAs). Impulse control disorders have been studied extensively in Parkinson’s disease, but are also recognized in restless leg syndrome and atypical Parkinsonian syndromes. Epidemiological studies suggest younger age, male sex, greater novelty seeking, impulsivity, depression and premorbid impulse control disorders as the most consistent risk factors. Such patients may warrant special monitoring after starting treatment with a DA. Various individual screening tools are available for people without Parkinson’s disease. The Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson’s Disease has been developed specifically for Parkinson’s disease. The best treatment for impulse control disorders is prevention. However, after the development of impulse control disorders, the mainstay intervention is to reduce or discontinue the offending anti-Parkinsonian medication. In refractory cases, other pharmacological interventions are available, including neuroleptics, antiepileptics, amantadine, antiandrogens, lithium and opioid antagonists. Unfortunately, their use is only supported by case reports, small case series or open-label clinical studies. Prospective, controlled studies are warranted. Ongoing investigations include naltrexone and nicotine. PMID:23634190

  15. Hyperhomocysteinemia in movement disorders: Current evidence and hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Zoccolella, Stefano; Martino, Davide; Defazio, Giovanni; Lamberti, Paolo; Livrea, Paolo

    2006-07-01

    Elevated plasma levels of homocysteine (Hcy) are a risk factor for systemic vascular diseases, stroke and vascular dementia. In recent years, increasing Hcy levels have been detected in neurological disorders that are not vascular in origin including Alzheimer's Disease and movement disorders (MD) such as idiopathic Parkinson's Disease (PD), Huntington's Disease (HD) and primary dystonia. Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) in PD results from L-Dopa administration and its O-methylation dependent from catechol-O-methyltransferase and may be implicated in the development of motor complications and non-motor symptoms, such as dementia. In a recent study, HHcy has been evidenced in HD patients, compared to controls. Because mutated Huntington protein influences Hcy metabolism by modulating cystathionine-beta-synthase activity, Hcy could represent a biological marker of neurodegeneration and could explain the leading role of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases as causes of death in HD. Finally, several cases of homocystinuria associated with dystonia, and some recent reports of elevated Hcy in patients with primary adult onset dystonia have been published. Increased Hcy plasma levels may have important implications in patients affected by these basal ganglia disturbances, by exerting neurotoxic effects, contributing to neurotransmitter imbalance in motor circuits, and increasing the risk for vascular insults and cognitive dysfunctions. PMID:16842141

  16. Construction of standardized Arabic questionnaires for screening neurological disorders (dementia, stroke, epilepsy, movement disorders, muscle and neuromuscular junction disorders)

    PubMed Central

    El Tallawy, Hamdy N; Farghaly, Wafaa MA; Rageh, Tarek A; Saleh, Ahmed O; Mestekawy, Taha AH; Darwish, Manal MM; Abd El Hamed, Mohamed A; Ali, Anwar M; Mahmoud, Doaa M

    2016-01-01

    A screening questionnaire is an important tool for early diagnosis of neurological disorders, and for epidemiological research. This screening instrument must be both feasible and valid. It must be accepted by the community and must be sensitive enough. So, the aim of this study was to prepare different Arabic screening questionnaires for screening different neurological disorders. This study was carried out in three stages. During the first stage, construction of separate questionnaires designed for screening the five major neurological disorders: cerebrovascular stroke, dementias, epilepsy, movement disorders, and muscle and neuromuscular disorders were done. Validation of the screening questionnaires was carried out in the second stage. Finally, questionnaire preparation was done in the third stage. Questions with the accepted sensitivity and specificity in each questionnaire formed the refined separate questionnaires. PMID:27621635

  17. Construction of standardized Arabic questionnaires for screening neurological disorders (dementia, stroke, epilepsy, movement disorders, muscle and neuromuscular junction disorders).

    PubMed

    El Tallawy, Hamdy N; Farghaly, Wafaa Ma; Rageh, Tarek A; Saleh, Ahmed O; Mestekawy, Taha Ah; Darwish, Manal Mm; Abd El Hamed, Mohamed A; Ali, Anwar M; Mahmoud, Doaa M

    2016-01-01

    A screening questionnaire is an important tool for early diagnosis of neurological disorders, and for epidemiological research. This screening instrument must be both feasible and valid. It must be accepted by the community and must be sensitive enough. So, the aim of this study was to prepare different Arabic screening questionnaires for screening different neurological disorders. This study was carried out in three stages. During the first stage, construction of separate questionnaires designed for screening the five major neurological disorders: cerebrovascular stroke, dementias, epilepsy, movement disorders, and muscle and neuromuscular disorders were done. Validation of the screening questionnaires was carried out in the second stage. Finally, questionnaire preparation was done in the third stage. Questions with the accepted sensitivity and specificity in each questionnaire formed the refined separate questionnaires. PMID:27621635

  18. Dyskinetic Movement Disorder among Adults with Mental Retardation: Phenomenology and Co-occurrence with Stereotypy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodfish, James W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The occurrence of dyskinetic movement disorder and its co-occurrence with stereotypic behavior among adults with mental retardation were studied in 98 adults with mental retardation. Results indicated that stereotypic movement disorder was associated with increased dyskinesia scores and that dyskinesia and stereotypy may be related by common…

  19. Increased Risk of Dementia Among Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chun-Chieh; Chou, Chung-Hsing; Fan, Yu-Ming; Yin, Jiu-Haw; Chung, Chi-Hsiang; Chien, Wu-Chien; Sung, Yueh-Feng; Tsai, Chia-Kuang; Lin, Guan-Yu; Lin, Yu-Kai; Lee, Jiunn-Tay

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sleep-related movement disorders (SRMD) are sleep disorders. As poor sleep quality is associated with cognitive impairment, we hypothesized that SRMD patients were exposed to a great risk for developing dementia. The present study was aimed to retrospectively examine the association of SRMD and dementia risk. A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted using the data obtained from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID) in Taiwan. The study cohort enrolled 604 patients with SRMD who were initially diagnosed and 2416 patients who were randomly selected and age/gender matched with the study group. SRMD, dementia, and other confounding factors were defined according to International Classification of Diseases Clinical Modification Codes. Cox proportional-hazards regressions were employed to examine adjusted hazard ratios (HR) after adjusting with confounding factors. Our data revealed that patients with SRMD had a 3.952 times (95% CI = 1.124–4.767) higher risk to develop all-cause dementia compared with individuals without SRMD. The results showed that SRMD patients aged 45 to 64 exhibited highest risk of developing all-cause dementia (HR: 5.320, 95% CI = 1.770–5.991), followed by patients age ≥65 (HR: 4.123, 95% CI = 2.066–6.972) and <45 (HR: 3.170, 95% CI = 1.050–4.128), respectively. Females with SRMD were at greater risk to develop all-cause dementia (HR: 4.372, 95% CI = 1.175–5.624). The impact of SRMD on dementia risk was progressively increased by various follow-up time intervals (<1 year, 1–2 years, and ≥2 years). The results suggest that SRMD is linked to an increased risk for dementia with gender-dependent and time-dependent characteristics. PMID:26705224

  20. Insulinoma Masquerading as Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Kawasaki, Akiko; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Sato, Masatoshi; Shimizu, Tetsuo; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Insulinoma is a rare endocrine tumor that can cause a wide variety of symptoms, including abnormal nocturnal behavior. We report on 3 patients with insulinoma who presented with abnormal nocturnal behavior and injury during sleep, which simulated rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD). In case 1, the fasting glucose level was 15 mg/dL, and insulin levels were elevated (15 μU/mL). In case 3, when the patient was transferred to the hospital because of a disturbance of consciousness, hypoglycemia (29 mg/dL) was detected. In contrast, in case 2, fasting glucose sampling did not indicate hypoglycemia, but continuous glucose monitoring revealed nocturnal hypoglycemia. The time from initial symptoms to a diagnosis of insulinoma ranged from 7 months to 2 years. All 3 patients had previously received anticonvulsant drugs for suspected epilepsy, but the medications were ineffective. Polysomnography showed no evidence of REM sleep without atonia in any of the 3 patients. No patient remembered any events that occurred during sleep. When a patient manifests abnormal behavior during the night and early morning, glucose monitoring should be performed, especially during the night and early morning. Clinicians should be aware that although insulinomas are rare, they can mimic parasomnias, such as RBD. PMID:26107678

  1. Neuro-ophthalmology of eye-movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, S R

    1999-12-01

    Magnetic resonance and functional brain imaging continue to expand their roles in complementing the clinical examination to localize the causes of eye-movement disorders. A retrospective review from county-based clinical practices emphasized generally benign causes of third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerve palsies in children, but a study from a tertiary referral center found a high incidence of neoplasms causing sixth-nerve palsies in children. A prospective study found that 38% of diabetic patients with third-nerve palsies had anisocoria up to 2.5 mm. An initial attempt to develop an evidence-based practice pathway for the evaluation of ocular motor nerve palsies has been developed for isolated sixth-nerve palsies in adults. In an important study of Graves hyperthyroidism, treatment with radioactive iodine was more likely than methimazole therapy alone to be associated with the appearance or worsening of ophthalmopathy. The clinical worsening of eye findings could be prevented by concurrent administration of corticosteroids for 3 months. Smoking is still a major controllable risk factor for thyroid ophthalmopathy. PMID:10662245

  2. Increased Prevalence of Intermittent Rhythmic Delta or Theta Activity (IRDA/IRTA) in the Electroencephalograms (EEGs) of Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Fleck, Max; Bartels, Susanne; Altenmüller, Dirk-Matthias; Riedel, Andreas; Bubl, Emanuel; Matthies, Swantje; Feige, Bernd; Perlov, Evgeniy; Endres, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: An increased prevalence of pathological electroencephalography (EEG) signals has been reported in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). In an elaborative case description of such a patient with intermittent rhythmic delta and theta activity (IRDA/IRTA), the BPD symptoms where linked to the frequency of the IRDAs/IRTAs and vanished with the IRDAs/IRTAs following anticonvulsive therapy. This observation raised a question regarding the prevalence of such EEG abnormalities in BPD patients. The aim of this retrospective study was to identify the frequency of EEG abnormalities in a carefully analyzed psychiatric collective. Following earlier reports, we hypothesized an increased prevalence of EEG abnormalities in BPD patients. Participants and Methods: We recruited 96 consecutive patients with BPD from the archive of a university clinic for psychiatry and psychotherapy, and compared the prevalence of EEG abnormalities to those of 76 healthy controls subjects. The EEGs were rated by three different blinded clinicians, including a consultant specializing in epilepsy from the local epilepsy center. Results: We found a significant increase in the prevalence of IRDAs and IRTAs in BPD patients (14.6%) compared to the control subjects (3.9%; p = 0.020). Discussion: In this blinded retrospective case-control study, we were able to confirm an increased prevalence of pathological EEG findings (IRDAs/IRTAs only) in BPD patients. The major limitation of this study is that the control group was not matched on age and gender. Therefore, the results should be regarded as preliminary findings of an open uncontrolled, retrospective study. Future research performing prospective, controlled studies is needed to verify our findings and answer the question of whether such EEG findings might predict a positive response to anticonvulsive pharmacological treatment. PMID:26941624

  3. Pioneers of movement disorders: Georges Gilles de la Tourette.

    PubMed

    Krämer, H; Daniels, C

    2004-06-01

    Georges Albert Edouard Brutus Gilles de la Tourette (1857-1904), a French neurologist and pupil of Jean Martin Charcot at the Salpêtrière hospital in Paris, has gained common recognition through his description of the 'Maladie des Tics'. This complex neuropsychiatric disorder, later known as the 'Tourette's syndrome', nowadays is accepted as a specific entity of movement disorders. Gilles had started working under Charcot (1825-1893), the first physician to occupy a designated chair of neurology of neuropsychiatric history, in 1884. Then the Salpêtrière hospital was a centre of intensive research with an emphasis on hysteria and hypnosis. Tourette took an interest in hysteria, but also dedicated himself to various other neuropsychiatric disorders and to neuropathology. He published scientific works on epilepsia, neurasthenia and syphilitic myelitis. Although he devoted much time to his neuropsychiatric research and the publication of articles in medical journals, his career did not make significant progress, despite Charcot's unrestricted support. One reason was, that he disregarded questions, answers and problems, which were outside his interest fields. Hence, he was accused for having acquired an extremely filtered and one-sided knowledge. Also, his alienated and critical behaviour, which had not helped him to find many friends over the years, prevented him from professional promotion. In 1893 an assassination attempt on Gilles de la Tourette raised considerable public interest: Gilles was shot in his appartement in the Rue de l'Université 39 by a young woman, who had been his patient in the Salpêtrière and who claimed that she had been hypnotized without her agreement and thereby had lost her mental health. However, the patient was diagnosed with a disease nowadays called paranoid schizophrenia and therefore hypnosis was not attributed to any part of the disease. Due to episodes of melancholia and phases of delusions of grandeur and megalomania Gilles de

  4. Genetic Control of a Central Pattern Generator: Rhythmic Oromotor Movement in Mice Is Controlled by a Major Locus near Atp1a2

    PubMed Central

    Boughter, John D.; Mulligan, Megan K.; St. John, Steven J.; Tokita, Kenichi; Lu, Lu; Heck, Detlef H.; Williams, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Fluid licking in mice is a rhythmic behavior that is controlled by a central pattern generator (CPG) located in a complex of brainstem nuclei. C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) strains differ significantly in water-restricted licking, with a highly heritable difference in rates (h2≥0.62) and a corresponding 20% difference in interlick interval (mean ± SEM = 116.3±1 vs 95.4±1.1 ms). We systematically quantified motor output in these strains, their F1 hybrids, and a set of 64 BXD progeny strains. The mean primary interlick interval (MPI) varied continuously among progeny strains. We detected a significant quantitative trait locus (QTL) for a CPG controlling lick rate on Chr 1 (Lick1), and a suggestive locus on Chr 10 (Lick10). Linkage was verified by testing of B6.D2-1D congenic stock in which a segment of Chr 1 of the D2 strain was introgressed onto the B6 parent. The Lick1 interval on distal Chr 1 contains several strong candidate genes. One of these is a sodium/potassium pump subunit (Atp1a2) with widespread expression in astrocytes, as well as in a restricted population of neurons. Both this subunit and the entire Na+/K+-ATPase molecule have been implicated in rhythmogenesis for respiration and locomotion. Sequence variants in or near Apt1a2 strongly modulate expression of the cognate mRNA in multiple brain regions. This gene region has recently been sequenced exhaustively and we have cataloged over 300 non-coding and synonymous mutations segregating among BXD strains, one or more of which is likely to contribute to differences in central pattern generator tempo. PMID:22675444

  5. Technological Advances In The Surgical Treatment Of Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Robert E.; McDougal, Margaret E.

    2013-01-01

    Technological innovations have driven the advancement of the surgical treatment of movement disorders, from the invention of the stereotactic frame to the adaptation of deep brain stimulation (DBS). Along these lines, this review will describe recent advances in getting neuromodulation modalities, including DBS, to the target; and in the delivery of therapy at the target. Recent radiological advances are altering the way that DBS leads are targeted and inserted, by refining the ability to visualize the subcortical targets using high-field strength MRI and other innovations such as diffusion tensor imaging, and the development of novel targeting devices enabling purely anatomical implantations without the need for neurophysiological monitoring. New portable CT scanners also are facilitating lead implantation without monitoring as well as improving radiological verification of DBS lead location. Advances in neurophysiological mapping include efforts to develop automatic target verification algorithms, and probabilistic maps to guide target selection. The delivery of therapy at the target is being improved by the development of the next generation of internal pulse generators (IPGs). These include constant current devices that mitigate the variability introduced by impedance changes of the stimulated tissue, and in the near future, devices that deliver novel stimulation patterns with improved efficiency. Closed-loop adaptive IPGs are being tested, which may tailor stimulation to ongoing changes in the nervous system reflected in Œbiomarkers1 continuously recorded by the devices. Finer grained DBS leads, in conjunction with new IPGs and advanced programming tools, may offer improved outcomes via Œcurrent steering1 algorithms. Finally, even thermocoagulation - essentially replaced by DBS - is being advanced by new Œminimally-invasive1 approaches that may improve this therapy for selected patients in whom it may be preferred. Functional neurosurgery has a history of

  6. Uncommon Applications of Deep Brain Stimulation in Hyperkinetic Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kara M.; Spindler, Meredith A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In addition to the established indications of tremor and dystonia, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been utilized less commonly for several hyperkinetic movement disorders, including medication-refractory myoclonus, ballism, chorea, and Gilles de la Tourette (GTS) and tardive syndromes. Given the lack of adequate controlled trials, it is difficult to translate published reports into clinical use. We summarize the literature, draw conclusions regarding efficacy when possible, and highlight concerns and areas for future study. Methods A Pubmed search was performed for English-language articles between January 1980 and June 2014. Studies were selected if they focused primarily on DBS to treat the conditions of focus. Results We identified 49 cases of DBS for myoclonus-dystonia, 21 for Huntington's disease, 15 for choreacanthocytosis, 129 for GTS, and 73 for tardive syndromes. Bilateral globus pallidus interna (GPi) DBS was the most frequently utilized procedure for all conditions except GTS, in which medial thalamic DBS was more common. While the majority of cases demonstrate some improvement, there are also reports of no improvement or even worsening of symptoms in each condition. The few studies including functional or quality of life outcomes suggest benefit. A limited number of studies included blinded on/off testing. There have been two double-blind controlled trials performed in GTS and a single prospective double-blind, uncontrolled trial in tardive syndromes. Patient characteristics, surgical target, stimulation parameters, and duration of follow-up varied among studies. Discussion Despite these extensive limitations, the literature overall supports the efficacy of DBS in these conditions, in particular GTS and tardive syndromes. For other conditions, the preliminary evidence from small studies is promising and encourages further study. PMID:25713746

  7. The scoring of movements in sleep.

    PubMed

    Walters, Arthur S; Lavigne, Gilles; Hening, Wayne; Picchietti, Daniel L; Allen, Richard P; Chokroverty, Sudhansu; Kushida, Clete A; Bliwise, Donald L; Mahowald, Mark W; Schenck, Carlos H; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2007-03-15

    The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2) has separated sleep-related movement disorders into simple, repetitive movement disorders (such as periodic limb movements in sleep [PLMS], sleep bruxism, and rhythmic movement disorder) and parasomnias (such as REM sleep behavior disorder and disorders of partial arousal, e.g., sleep walking, confusional arousals, night terrors). Many of the parasomnias are characterized by complex behaviors in sleep that appear purposeful, goal directed and voluntary but are outside the conscious awareness of the individual and therefore inappropriate. All of the sleep-related movement disorders described here have specific polysomnographic findings. For the purposes of developing and/or revising specifications and polysomnographic scoring rules, the AASM Scoring Manual Task Force on Movements in Sleep reviewed background literature and executed evidence grading of 81 relevant articles obtained by a literature search of published articles between 1966 and 2004. Subsequent evidence grading identified limited evidence for reliability and/or validity for polysomnographic scoring criteria for periodic limb movements in sleep, REM sleep behavior disorder, and sleep bruxism. Published scoring criteria for rhythmic movement disorder, excessive fragmentary myoclonus, and hypnagogic foot tremor/alternating leg muscle activation were empirical and based on descriptive studies. The literature review disclosed no published evidence defining clinical consequences of excessive fragmentary myoclonus or hypnagogic foot tremor/alternating leg muscle activation. Because of limited or absent evidence for reliability and/or validity, a standardized RAND/UCLA consensus process was employed for recommendation of specific rules for the scoring of sleep-associated movements. PMID:17557425

  8. Stereotypy and Motor Control: Differences in the Postural Stability Dynamics of Persons with Stereotyped and Dyskinetic Movement Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodfish, James W.; Parker, Dawn E.; Lewis, Mark H.; Sprague, Robert L.; Newell, Karl M.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined whether dynamic measures of postural stability differentiated stereotyped movement disorder from dyskinetic movement disorder in a severely mentally retarded population. Participants (N=20) with either stereotypy or dyskinesia movement disorders and a control group were given a goal-oriented postural stability task. Both groups…

  9. A feasibility study of conducting the Montreal Cognitive Assessment remotely in individuals with movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Abdolahi, Amir; Bull, Michael T; Darwin, Kristin C; Venkataraman, Venayak; Grana, Matthew J; Dorsey, E Ray; Biglan, Kevin M

    2016-06-01

    Remote assessments of individuals with a neurological disease via telemedicine have the potential to reduce some of the burdens associated with clinical care and research participation. We aim to evaluate the feasibility of conducting the Montreal Cognitive Assessment remotely in individuals with movement disorders. A pilot study derived from two telemedicine trials was conducted. In total, 17 individuals with movement disorders (8 with Parkinson disease and 9 with Huntington disease) had Montreal Cognitive Assessment examinations evaluated in-person and remotely via web-based video conferencing to primarily determine feasibility and potential barriers in its remote administration. Administering the Montreal Cognitive Assessment remotely in a sample of movement disorder patients with mild cognitive impairment is feasible, with only minor common complications associated with technology, including delayed sound and corrupted imaging for participants with low connection speeds. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment has the potential to be used in remote assessments of patients and research participants with movement disorders. PMID:25391849

  10. Chronic posttraumatic movement disorder alleviated by insertion of meso-diencephalic deep brain stimulating electrode.

    PubMed

    Hooper, J; Simpson, P; Whittle, I R

    2001-10-01

    Incapacitating and drug-resistant posttraumatic movement disorders have successfully been treated by stereotactic thalamotomy. We describe the case of a young man with a posttraumatic hemiballismoid type movement disorder of the left arm, persistent for 2 years, who was selected for treatment with a thalamic deep brain stimulator. However, placement of the stimulating electrode tip at the junction of the zona incerta and subthalamic regions caused abolition of the movement disorder, and the pulse generator was not required. Reassessment over a 44-month period using multiple clinical and functional tests has confirmed continued benefit. This case adds to the reports of alleviation of movement disorders following either stereotactic thalamic mapping or placement of stimulating electrodes without macroscopic thalamic lesioning. PMID:11708550

  11. Movement disorders in astrocytomas of the basal ganglia and the thalamus.

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, J K; Nobbe, F; Wakhloo, A K; Mohadjer, M; Vach, W; Mundinger, F

    1992-01-01

    In a series of 225 patients with astrocytomas (grades I-IV) of the basal ganglia and the thalamus, 20 had a movement disorder. In all patients the histological diagnosis was verified by stereotactic biopsy. Tremor was observed in twelve patients, dystonia in eight, chorea in three, and chorea/ballismus and myoclonus in one. The tumour involved the thalamus in 16 patients. Corticospinal tract dysfunction was evident in 70% of the patients with movement disorders and in 73% of those without. Demographic, clinical, histological and neuroradiological data of the patients with a movement disorder were compared with the data of patients without. CT data yielded no differences with respect to the involvement of anatomical structures. Movement disorders were significantly associated with low-grade astrocytomas. Images PMID:1479396

  12. Dance-Like Movements in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Bavle, Amar; Kumar, Kottur; Sharath, Vishwaraj

    2016-01-01

    The presentation of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is sometimes unusual and can mimic other disorders. There are a number of rare and varied manifestations of this disorder, reported in literature. The case reported here, presented with a hitherto unreported symptom; a dance-like compulsion in a case of OCD. This symptom is notable for the influence of cultural environment, on the content of symptom manifestation, in a psychiatric disorder. When one symptom in a disorder presents itself very prominently, the other symptoms, which are less prominent become masked; and need to be elicited by detailed assessment. PMID:27114632

  13. Dance-Like Movements in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bavle, Amar; Kumar, Kottur; Sharath, Vishwaraj

    2016-01-01

    The presentation of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is sometimes unusual and can mimic other disorders. There are a number of rare and varied manifestations of this disorder, reported in literature. The case reported here, presented with a hitherto unreported symptom; a dance-like compulsion in a case of OCD. This symptom is notable for the influence of cultural environment, on the content of symptom manifestation, in a psychiatric disorder. When one symptom in a disorder presents itself very prominently, the other symptoms, which are less prominent become masked; and need to be elicited by detailed assessment. PMID:27114632

  14. A possible post-streptococcal movement disorder with chorea and tics.

    PubMed

    Kerbeshian, J; Burd, L; Pettit, R

    1990-07-01

    A 14-year-old girl developed a movement disorder after a streptococcal infection. In the acute phase of the illness she exhibited simple and complex motor tics and chorea, but all abnormal movements ceased over the following eight months, without recurrence. This case raises questions about the relationship between tics, chorea and auto-immune reactivity. PMID:2391015

  15. Body Movements of Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) during Computer Video Game Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrace-DiZinno, Anna Marie; Douglas, Graham; Houghton, Stephen; Lawrence, Vivienne; West, John; Whiting, Ken

    2001-01-01

    Describes a study that recorded the type and severity of body movements of 79 boys with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) and 67 non-ADHD boys while playing a computer video game. Results of multivariate analysis of variance showed no statistically significant differences in body movements between ADHD and non-ADHD boys. (Author/LRW)

  16. Fundamental Movement Skills and Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Peer Comparisons and Stimulant Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, William J.; Reid, Greg; Grizenko, Natalie; Mbekou, Valentin; Ter-Stepanian, Marina; Joober, Ridha

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the fundamental movement skills of 22 children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), from 6 to 12 years of age, to gender- and age-matched peers without ADHD and assess the effects of stimulant medication on the movement skill performance of the children with ADHD. Repeated measures analyses…

  17. Use of Botulinum Neurotoxin for the Treatment of Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... spasmodic dysphonia, or ABSD). Does BoNT control motor tics? Tics associated with Tourette syndrome are relatively brief, intermittent movements (also known as motor tics) or sounds (also known as vocal or phonic ...

  18. Patterns of cortical thinning in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    PubMed

    Rahayel, Shady; Montplaisir, Jacques; Monchi, Oury; Bedetti, Christophe; Postuma, Ronald B; Brambati, Simona; Carrier, Julie; Joubert, Sven; Latreille, Véronique; Jubault, Thomas; Gagnon, Jean-François

    2015-04-15

    Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is a parasomnia that is a risk factor for dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease. Brain function impairments have been identified in this disorder, mainly in the frontal and posterior cortical regions. However, the anatomical support for these dysfunctions remains poorly understood. We investigated gray matter thickness, gray matter volume, and white matter integrity in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. Twenty-four patients with polysomnography-confirmed idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and 42 healthy individuals underwent a 3-tesla structural and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging examination using corticometry, voxel-based morphometry, and diffusion tensor imaging. In the patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, decreased cortical thickness was observed in the frontal cortex, the lingual gyrus, and the fusiform gyrus. Gray matter volume was reduced in the superior frontal sulcus only. Patients showed no increased gray matter thickness or volume. Diffusion tensor imaging analyses revealed no significant white matter differences between groups. Using corticometry in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, several new cortical regions with gray matter alterations were identified, similar to those reported in dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease. These findings provide some anatomical support for previously identified brain function impairments in this disorder. PMID:24676967

  19. Consistent abnormalities in metabolic network activity in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ping; Yu, Huan; Peng, Shichun; Dauvilliers, Yves; Wang, Jian; Ge, Jingjie; Zhang, Huiwei; Eidelberg, David

    2014-01-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder has been evaluated using Parkinson’s disease-related metabolic network. It is unknown whether this disorder is itself associated with a unique metabolic network. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography was performed in 21 patients (age 65.0 ± 5.6 years) with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and 21 age/gender-matched healthy control subjects (age 62.5 ± 7.5 years) to identify a disease-related pattern and examine its evolution in 21 hemi-parkinsonian patients (age 62.6 ± 5.0 years) and 16 moderate parkinsonian patients (age 56.9 ± 12.2 years). We identified a rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder-related metabolic network characterized by increased activity in pons, thalamus, medial frontal and sensorimotor areas, hippocampus, supramarginal and inferior temporal gyri, and posterior cerebellum, with decreased activity in occipital and superior temporal regions. Compared to the healthy control subjects, network expressions were elevated (P < 0.0001) in the patients with this disorder and in the parkinsonian cohorts but decreased with disease progression. Parkinson’s disease-related network activity was also elevated (P < 0.0001) in the patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder but lower than in the hemi-parkinsonian cohort. Abnormal metabolic networks may provide markers of idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder to identify those at higher risk to develop neurodegenerative parkinsonism. PMID:25338949

  20. Rhythmic Meter Munchies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Ashley

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an activity which allows students to construct various rhythm patterns in 2/4, 3/4, and 4/4 meter by using M&Ms and pretzels as an extrinsic motivation. Rhythmic notation is a foundation for learning music concepts. Engaging students in representative modules helps them to learn and recognize note values and…

  1. Movement towards transdiagnostic psychotherapeutic practices for the affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Gros, Daniel F; Allan, Nicholas P; Szafranski, Derek D

    2016-08-01

    Evidence-based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) practices were first developed in the 1960s. Over the decades, refinements and alternative symptom foci resulted in the development of several CBT protocols/manuals for each of the many disorders, especially in the affective disorders. Although shown to be effective in highly trained providers, the proliferation of CBT protocols also has shown to demonstrate challenges in dissemination and implementation efforts due to the sheer number of CBT protocols and their related training requirements (eg, 6 months per protocol) and their related cost (eg, over US$2000 each; lost days/hours at work). To address these concerns, newer transdiagnostic CBT protocols have been developed to reduce the number of disorder-specific CBT protocols needed to treat patients with affective disorders. Transdiagnostic treatments are based on the notion that various disorder-specific CBT protocols contain important but overlapping treatment components that can be distilled into a single treatment and therefore address the symptoms and comorbidities across all of the disorders at once. 3 examples of transdiagnostic treatments include group CBT of anxiety, unified protocol for transdiagnostic treatment for emotional disorders and transdiagnostic behaviour therapy. Each transdiagnostic protocol is designed for a different set of disorders, contains a varied amount of CBT treatment components and is tested in different types of samples. However, together, these 3 transdiagnostic psychotherapies represent the future of CBT practice. PMID:27356982

  2. Isolated mediotegmental lesion causing narcolepsy and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder: a case evidencing a common pathway in narcolepsy and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, J; Hess, C W; Bassetti, C

    2007-01-01

    Narcolepsy is usually an idiopathic disorder, often with a genetic predisposition. Symptomatic cases have been described repeatedly, often as a consequence of hypothalamic lesions. Conversely, REM (rapid eye movement) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is usually a secondary disorder, often due to degenerative brain stem disorders or narcolepsy. The case of a hitherto healthy man is presented, who simultaneously developed narcolepsy and RBD as the result of an acute focal inflammatory lesion in the dorsomedial pontine tegmentum in the presence of normal cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin‐1 levels and in the absence of human lymphocyte antigen haplotypes typically associated with narcolepsy and RBD (DQB1*0602, DQB1*05). This first observation of symptomatic narcolepsy with RBD underlines the importance of the mediotegmental pontine area in the pathophysiology of both disorders, even in the absence of a detectable hypocretin deficiency and a genetic predisposition. PMID:17369596

  3. Post-traumatic shoulder movement disorders: A challenging differential diagnosis between organic and functional.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sanjay; Nahab, Fatta; Aldred, Jason; Nutt, John; Hallett, Mark

    2014-06-01

    Peripheral trauma may be a trigger for the development of various movement disorders though the pathophysiology remains controversial and some of these patients have a functional (psychogenic) disorder. We report 3 cases of shoulder movement disorders following trauma to the shoulder region. Physiology was done in all the patients to extend the physical examination. Two patients had history of recurrent shoulder dislocation and were diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. One patient had shoulder injury following repeated falls while performing as a cheerleader. In two patients there were some clinical features suggesting a functional etiology, but physiological studies in all three failed to produce objective evidence of a functional nature. Shoulder movement following trauma is uncommon. Diagnosis in such cases is challenging considering the complex pathophysiology. The movements can be associated with prolonged pain and handicap, and once established they appear resistant to treatment. PMID:25197686

  4. Post-traumatic shoulder movement disorders: A challenging differential diagnosis between organic and functional

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sanjay; Nahab, Fatta; Aldred, Jason; Nutt, John; Hallett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral trauma may be a trigger for the development of various movement disorders though the pathophysiology remains controversial and some of these patients have a functional (psychogenic) disorder. We report 3 cases of shoulder movement disorders following trauma to the shoulder region. Physiology was done in all the patients to extend the physical examination. Two patients had history of recurrent shoulder dislocation and were diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. One patient had shoulder injury following repeated falls while performing as a cheerleader. In two patients there were some clinical features suggesting a functional etiology, but physiological studies in all three failed to produce objective evidence of a functional nature. Shoulder movement following trauma is uncommon. Diagnosis in such cases is challenging considering the complex pathophysiology. The movements can be associated with prolonged pain and handicap, and once established they appear resistant to treatment. PMID:25197686

  5. Movement Disorders and Other Motor Abnormalities in Adults With 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Boot, Erik; Butcher, Nancy J; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse AMJ; Lang, Anthony E; Marras, Connie; Pondal, Margarita; Andrade, Danielle M; Fung, Wai Lun Alan; Bassett, Anne S

    2015-01-01

    Movement abnormalities are frequently reported in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), but knowledge in this area is scarce in the increasing adult population. We report on five individuals illustrative of movement disorders and other motor abnormalities in adults with 22q11.2DS. In addition to an increased susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders, seizures, and early-onset Parkinson disease, the underlying brain dysfunction associated with 22q11.2DS may give rise to an increased vulnerability to multiple movement abnormalities, including those influenced by medications. Movement abnormalities may also be secondary to treatable endocrine diseases and congenital musculoskeletal abnormalities. We propose that movement abnormalities may be common in adults with 22q11.2DS and discuss the implications and challenges important to clinical practice. PMID:25684639

  6. Transitions between discrete and rhythmic primitives in a unimanual task

    PubMed Central

    Sternad, Dagmar; Marino, Hamal; Charles, Steven K.; Duarte, Marcos; Dipietro, Laura; Hogan, Neville

    2013-01-01

    Given the vast complexity of human actions and interactions with objects, we proposed that control of sensorimotor behavior may utilize dynamic primitives. However, greater computational simplicity may come at the cost of reduced versatility. Evidence for primitives may be garnered by revealing such limitations. This study tested subjects performing a sequence of progressively faster discrete movements in order to “stress” the system. We hypothesized that the increasing pace would elicit a transition to rhythmic movements, assumed to be computationally and neurally more efficient. Abrupt transitions between the two types of movements would support the hypothesis that rhythmic and discrete movements are distinct primitives. Ten subjects performed planar point-to-point arm movements paced by a metronome: starting at 2 s, the metronome intervals decreased by 36 ms per cycle to 200 ms, stayed at 200 ms for several cycles, then increased by similar increments. Instructions emphasized to insert explicit stops between each movement with a duration that equaled the movement time. The experiment was performed with eyes open and closed, and with short and long metronome sounds, the latter explicitly specifying the dwell duration. Results showed that subjects matched instructed movement times but did not preserve the dwell times. Rather, they progressively reduced dwell time to zero, transitioning to continuous rhythmic movements before movement times reached their minimum. The acceleration profiles showed an abrupt change between discrete and rhythmic profiles. The loss of dwell time occurred earlier with long auditory specification, when subjects also showed evidence of predictive control. While evidence for hysteresis was weak, taken together, the results clearly indicated a transition between discrete and rhythmic movements, supporting the proposal that representation is based on primitives rather than on veridical internal models. PMID:23888139

  7. Fixing the Mirrors: A Feasibility Study of the Effects of Dance Movement Therapy on Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Sabine C.; Mehl, Laura; Sobanski, Esther; Sieber, Maik; Fuchs, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    From the 1970s on, case studies reported the effectiveness of therapeutic mirroring in movement with children with autism spectrum disorder. In this feasibility study, we tested a dance movement therapy intervention based on mirroring in movement in a population of 31 young adults with autism spectrum disorder (mainly high-functioning and…

  8. Benign and periodic movement disorders in 2 children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Purpura, Giulia; Bozza, Margherita; Bargagna, Stefania

    2014-10-01

    Children with Down syndrome show hypotonia and ligamentous laxity that are associated with motor development delay. Neurologic disorders are common in children with Down syndrome; however, in literature the presence of periodic movement disorders has not yet been described. We report 2 different types of periodic movement disorders in 2 infants with Down syndrome. In the first case, we described an 8-month-old girl with involuntary head nodding and absence of any other neurologic or ophthalmologic abnormalities. In the second case, we described a 6-month-old boy with abnormal but painless head rotation and inclination, alternating from side to side. Episodes of head tilting were often associated with a state of general uneasiness. Neurologic examination between attacks was normal. The aim of this paper is to provide practical information on recognition and management of movement disorders in Down syndrome. PMID:24309245

  9. What's the role of topiramate in the management of patients with hyperkinetic movement disorders?

    PubMed

    Siniscalchi, Antonio; Gallelli, Luca; Giofrè, Chiara; De Sarro, Giovambattista

    2012-01-01

    Topiramate (TPM) is an O-alkyl sulfamate derivative of the naturally occurring monosaccharide D-fructose with an epileptic activity. However, it has been suggested that, in addition to its use in epilepsy, TPM could also be used in the treatment of neurological disorders, psychiatric conditions and hyperkinetic movement disorders. The clinical applications of TPM in hyperkinetic movement disorders is consistent with the multiple pharmacodynamic mechanisms e.g., the modulation of both γ-aminobutyric acidergic or glutamatergic neurotransmission and the modulation of voltage-gated ion channels or intracellular signalling pathways. The purpose of the present review is to describe the mechanisms of action of TPM and its clinical efficacy in patients with hyperkinetic movement disorders. PMID:22580517

  10. Answering Hard Questions: "Wh"-Movement across Dialects and Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Villiers, Jill; Roeper, Thomas; Bland-Stewart, Linda; Pearson, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    A large-scale study of complex "wh"-questions with 1,000 subjects aged 4-9 years is reported. The subjects' dialects were Mainstream American English or African American English, and approximately one-third were language impaired. The study examined when children permit long distance "wh"-movement, and when they respect a variety of syntactic…

  11. More Than Ataxia: Hyperkinetic Movement Disorders in Childhood Autosomal Recessive Ataxia Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Toni S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The autosomal recessive ataxias are a heterogeneous group of disorders that are characterized by complex neurological features in addition to progressive ataxia. Hyperkinetic movement disorders occur in a significant proportion of patients, and may sometimes be the presenting motor symptom. Presentations with involuntary movements rather than ataxia are diagnostically challenging, and are likely under-recognized. Methods A PubMed literature search was performed in October 2015 utilizing pairwise combinations of disease-related terms (autosomal recessive ataxia, ataxia–telangiectasia, ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 1 (AOA1), ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2), Friedreich ataxia, ataxia with vitamin E deficiency), and symptom-related terms (movement disorder, dystonia, chorea, choreoathetosis, myoclonus). Results Involuntary movements occur in the majority of patients with ataxia–telangiectasia and AOA1, and less frequently in patients with AOA2, Friedreich ataxia, and ataxia with vitamin E deficiency. Clinical presentations with an isolated hyperkinetic movement disorder in the absence of ataxia include dystonia or dystonia with myoclonus with predominant upper limb and cervical involvement (ataxia–telangiectasia, ataxia with vitamin E deficiency), and generalized chorea (ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 1, ataxia-telangiectasia). Discussion An awareness of atypical presentations facilitates early and accurate diagnosis in these challenging cases. Recognition of involuntary movements is important not only for diagnosis, but also because of the potential for effective targeted symptomatic treatment. PMID:27536460

  12. Disrupted rapid eye movement sleep predicts poor declarative memory performance in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Lipinska, Malgorzata; Timol, Ridwana; Kaminer, Debra; Thomas, Kevin G F

    2014-06-01

    Successful memory consolidation during sleep depends on healthy slow-wave and rapid eye movement sleep, and on successful transition across sleep stages. In post-traumatic stress disorder, sleep is disrupted and memory is impaired, but relations between these two variables in the psychiatric condition remain unexplored. We examined whether disrupted sleep, and consequent disrupted memory consolidation, is a mechanism underlying declarative memory deficits in post-traumatic stress disorder. We recruited three matched groups of participants: post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 16); trauma-exposed non-post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 15); and healthy control (n = 14). They completed memory tasks before and after 8 h of sleep. We measured sleep variables using sleep-adapted electroencephalography. Post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed participants experienced significantly less sleep efficiency and rapid eye movement sleep percentage, and experienced more awakenings and wake percentage in the second half of the night than did participants in the other two groups. After sleep, post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed participants retained significantly less information on a declarative memory task than controls. Rapid eye movement percentage, wake percentage and sleep efficiency correlated with retention of information over the night. Furthermore, lower rapid eye movement percentage predicted poorer retention in post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed individuals. Our results suggest that declarative memory consolidation is disrupted during sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder. These data are consistent with theories suggesting that sleep benefits memory consolidation via predictable neurobiological mechanisms, and that rapid eye movement disruption is more than a symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:24467663

  13. [Motor disorders in neurodevelopmental disorders. Tics and stereotypies].

    PubMed

    Eirís-Puñal, Jesús

    2014-02-24

    Tics are repetitive, sharp, rapid, non-rhythmic movements or utterances that are the result of sudden, abrupt and involuntary muscular contractions. Stereotypies are repetitive, apparently impulsive, rhythmic, purposeless movements that follow an individual repertoire that is specific to each individual and that occur under a variable time pattern, which may be either transient or persistent. Both are included in the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5), among the neurodevelopmental disorders, and together with coordination development disorder go to make up the group of motor disorders. For tics, the categories of 'Tourette's disorder', 'chronic motor or vocal tic disorder' and 'unspecified tic disorder' have been maintained, whereas the category 'transient tics' has disappeared and 'provisional tic disorder' and 'other specified tic disorders' have been incorporated. Within stereotypic movement disorder, the DSM-5 replaces 'non-functional' by 'apparently purposeless'; the thresholds of the need for medical care are withdrawn and replaced with the manual's standard involvement criterion; mental retardation is no longer mentioned and emphasis is placed on the severity of the stereotypic movement; and a criterion concerning the onset of symptoms and specifiers of the existence or not of self-injurious behaviours have been added, together with the association with genetic or general medical diseases or extrinsic factors. Moreover, a categorisation depending on severity has also been included. PMID:25252672

  14. The coeruleus/subcoeruleus complex in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder.

    PubMed

    Ehrminger, Mickael; Latimier, Alice; Pyatigorskaya, Nadya; Garcia-Lorenzo, Daniel; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Vidailhet, Marie; Lehericy, Stéphane; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2016-04-01

    SEE BOEVE ET AL DOI101093/BRAIN/AWW030 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is characterized by nocturnal violence, increased muscle tone during rapid eye movement sleep and the lack of any other neurological disease. However, idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder can precede parkinsonism and dementia by several years. Using 3 T magnetic resonance imaging and neuromelanin-sensitive sequences, we previously found that the signal intensity was reduced in the locus coeruleus/subcoeruleus area of patients with Parkinson's disease and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. Here, we studied the integrity of the locus coeruleus/subcoeruleus complex with neuromelanin-sensitive imaging in 21 patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and compared the results with those from 21 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers. All subjects underwent a clinical examination, motor, cognitive, autonomous, psychological, olfactory and colour vision tests, and rapid eye movement sleep characterization using video-polysomnography and 3 T magnetic resonance imaging. The patients more frequently had preclinical markers of alpha-synucleinopathies, including constipation, olfactory deficits, orthostatic hypotension, and subtle motor impairment. Using neuromelanin-sensitive imaging, reduced signal intensity was identified in the locus coeruleus/subcoeruleus complex of the patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour. The mean sensitivity of the visual analyses of the signal performed by neuroradiologists who were blind to the clinical diagnoses was 82.5%, and the specificity was 81% for the identification of idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour. The results confirm that this complex is affected in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour (to the same degree as it is affected in Parkinson's disease). Neuromelanin-sensitive imaging provides an early

  15. Post-streptococcal 'complex' movement disorders: unusual concurrence of psychogenic and organic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Squintani, Giovanna; Tinazzi, Michele; Gambarin, Mattia; Bravi, Elena; Moretto, Giuseppe; Buttiglione, Maura; Defazio, Giovanni; Martino, Davide

    2010-01-15

    Post-streptococcal neuropsychiatric disorders encompass a broad spectrum of movement disorders, including tics, stereotypies, dystonia and tremor. We report the case of a 15-year-old boy who presented with a relapsing-remitting combination of psychogenic and organic movement disorders. Both relapses occurred after an episode of streptococcal pharyngitis and consisted in motor and phonic tics, an atypical gait disorder, and severe worsening of a pre-existing psychogenic tremor of the right hand. After each relapse, both psychogenic and 'organic' symptoms concomitantly remitted after the administration of an association of oral steroids and antibiotics. The peculiarity of this case consists in the coexistence of psychogenic and organic symptoms subsequent to streptococcal infection, and broadens the clinical spectrum of post-streptococcal neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:19896680

  16. Deep Brain Stimulation for Movement Disorders of Basal Ganglia Origin: Restoring Function or Functionality?

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Thomas; DeLong, Mahlon R

    2016-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is highly effective for both hypo- and hyperkinetic movement disorders of basal ganglia origin. The clinical use of DBS is, in part, empiric, based on the experience with prior surgical ablative therapies for these disorders, and, in part, driven by scientific discoveries made decades ago. In this review, we consider anatomical and functional concepts of the basal ganglia relevant to our understanding of DBS mechanisms, as well as our current understanding of the pathophysiology of two of the most commonly DBS-treated conditions, Parkinson's disease and dystonia. Finally, we discuss the proposed mechanism(s) of action of DBS in restoring function in patients with movement disorders. The signs and symptoms of the various disorders appear to result from signature disordered activity in the basal ganglia output, which disrupts the activity in thalamocortical and brainstem networks. The available evidence suggests that the effects of DBS are strongly dependent on targeting sensorimotor portions of specific nodes of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical motor circuit, that is, the subthalamic nucleus and the internal segment of the globus pallidus. There is little evidence to suggest that DBS in patients with movement disorders restores normal basal ganglia functions (e.g., their role in movement or reinforcement learning). Instead, it appears that high-frequency DBS replaces the abnormal basal ganglia output with a more tolerable pattern, which helps to restore the functionality of downstream networks. PMID:26956115

  17. Coherence analysis for movement disorder motion captured by six degree-of-freedom inertial sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teskey, Wesley J. E.; Elhabiby, Mohamed; El-Sheimy, Naser; MacIntosh, Brian

    2012-06-01

    The use of inertial sensors (accelerometer and gyroscopes) for evaluation of movement disorder motion, including essential tremor (ET) and Parkinson's disease (PD), is becoming prevalent. This paper uses a novel combination of six degree-of-freedom motion analysis and coherence based processing methodologies to uncover differences in the signature of motion for the ET and PD movement disorders. This is the first analysis of such motions utilizing the novel methodology outlined, and it displays a distinct motion profile differentiating between these two groups. Such an analysis can be used to assist medical professionals in diagnosing movement disorders given a currently high error rate of diagnosis. As well, the Kalman smoothing analysis performed in this paper can be quite useful for any application when tracking of human motion is required. Another contribution of the work is the use of wavelets in zero phase lag filtering, which helped in preparing the data for analysis by removing unwanted frequencies without introducing distortions into the data.

  18. Effectiveness of an Inpatient Movement Disorders Program for Patients with Atypical Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Hohler, Anna D.; Tsao, Jyeming M.; Katz, Douglas I.; DiPiero, T. Joy; Hehl, Christina L.; Leonard, Alissa; Allen, Valerie; Gardner, Maura; Phenix, Heidi; Saint-Hilaire, Marie; Ellis, Terry

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigated the effectiveness of an inpatient movement disorders program for patients with atypical parkinsonism, who typically respond poorly to pharmacologic intervention and are challenging to rehabilitate as outpatients. Ninety-one patients with atypical parkinsonism participated in an inpatient movement disorders program. Patients received physical, occupational, and speech therapy for 3 hours/day, 5 to 7 days/week, and pharmacologic adjustments based on daily observation and data. Differences between admission and discharge scores were analyzed for the functional independence measure (FIM), timed up and go test (TUG), two-minute walk test (TMW), Berg balance scale (BBS) and finger tapping test (FT), and all showed significant improvement on discharge (P > .001). Clinically significant improvements in total FIM score were evident in 74% of the patients. Results were similar for ten patients whose medications were not adjusted. Patients with atypical parkinsonism benefit from an inpatient interdisciplinary movement disorders program to improve functional status. PMID:22135763

  19. Effectiveness of an inpatient movement disorders program for patients with atypical parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Hohler, Anna D; Tsao, Jyeming M; Katz, Douglas I; Dipiero, T Joy; Hehl, Christina L; Leonard, Alissa; Allen, Valerie; Gardner, Maura; Phenix, Heidi; Saint-Hilaire, Marie; Ellis, Terry

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigated the effectiveness of an inpatient movement disorders program for patients with atypical parkinsonism, who typically respond poorly to pharmacologic intervention and are challenging to rehabilitate as outpatients. Ninety-one patients with atypical parkinsonism participated in an inpatient movement disorders program. Patients received physical, occupational, and speech therapy for 3 hours/day, 5 to 7 days/week, and pharmacologic adjustments based on daily observation and data. Differences between admission and discharge scores were analyzed for the functional independence measure (FIM), timed up and go test (TUG), two-minute walk test (TMW), Berg balance scale (BBS) and finger tapping test (FT), and all showed significant improvement on discharge (P > .001). Clinically significant improvements in total FIM score were evident in 74% of the patients. Results were similar for ten patients whose medications were not adjusted. Patients with atypical parkinsonism benefit from an inpatient interdisciplinary movement disorders program to improve functional status. PMID:22135763

  20. Are Movement Disorders and Sensorimotor Injuries Pathologic Synergies? When Normal Multi-Joint Movement Synergies Become Pathologic

    PubMed Central

    Santello, Marco; Lang, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    The intact nervous system has an exquisite ability to modulate the activity of multiple muscles acting at one or more joints to produce an enormous range of actions. Seemingly simple tasks, such as reaching for an object or walking, in fact rely on very complex spatial and temporal patterns of muscle activations. Neurological disorders such as stroke and focal dystonia affect the ability to coordinate multi-joint movements. This article reviews the state of the art of research of muscle synergies in the intact and damaged nervous system, their implications for recovery and rehabilitation, and proposes avenues for research aimed at restoring the nervous system’s ability to control movement. PMID:25610391

  1. Experimental treatment of antipsychotic-induced movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shireen, Erum

    2016-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are extensively prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia and other related psychiatric disorders. These drugs produced their action by blocking dopamine (DA) receptors, and these receptors are widely present throughout the brain. Therefore, extended antipsychotic use also leads to severe extrapyramidal side effects. The short-term effects include parkinsonism and the later appearing tardive dyskinesia. Currently available treatments for these disorders are mostly symptomatic and insufficient, and are often linked with a number of detrimental side effects. Antipsychotic-drug-induced tardive dyskinesia prompted researchers to explore novel drugs with fewer undesirable extrapyramidal side effects. Preclinical studies suggest a role of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin)-1A and 2A/2C receptors in the modulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission and motivating a search for better therapeutic strategies for schizophrenia and related disorders. In addition, adjunctive treatment with antioxidants such as vitamin E, red rice bran oil, and curcumin in the early phases of illness may prevent additional oxidative injury, and thus improve and prevent further possible worsening of related neurological and behavioral deficits in schizophrenia. This review explains the role of serotonergic receptors and oxidative stress, with the aim of providing principles for prospect development of compounds to improve therapeutic effects of antischizophrenic drugs. PMID:27540314

  2. Experimental treatment of antipsychotic-induced movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Shireen, Erum

    2016-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are extensively prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia and other related psychiatric disorders. These drugs produced their action by blocking dopamine (DA) receptors, and these receptors are widely present throughout the brain. Therefore, extended antipsychotic use also leads to severe extrapyramidal side effects. The short-term effects include parkinsonism and the later appearing tardive dyskinesia. Currently available treatments for these disorders are mostly symptomatic and insufficient, and are often linked with a number of detrimental side effects. Antipsychotic-drug-induced tardive dyskinesia prompted researchers to explore novel drugs with fewer undesirable extrapyramidal side effects. Preclinical studies suggest a role of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin)-1A and 2A/2C receptors in the modulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission and motivating a search for better therapeutic strategies for schizophrenia and related disorders. In addition, adjunctive treatment with antioxidants such as vitamin E, red rice bran oil, and curcumin in the early phases of illness may prevent additional oxidative injury, and thus improve and prevent further possible worsening of related neurological and behavioral deficits in schizophrenia. This review explains the role of serotonergic receptors and oxidative stress, with the aim of providing principles for prospect development of compounds to improve therapeutic effects of antischizophrenic drugs. PMID:27540314

  3. Closed-loop Brain-Machine-Body Interfaces for Noninvasive Rehabilitation of Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Broccard, Frédéric D.; Mullen, Tim; Chi, Yu Mike; Peterson, David; Iversen, John R.; Arnold, Mike; Kreutz-Delgado, Kenneth; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Makeig, Scott; Poizner, Howard; Sejnowski, Terrence; Cauwenberghs, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Traditional approaches for neurological rehabilitation of patients affected with movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), dystonia, and essential tremor (ET) consist mainly of oral medication, physical therapy, and botulinum toxin injections. Recently, the more invasive method of deep brain stimulation (DBS) showed significant improvement of the physical symptoms associated with these disorders. In the past several years, the adoption of feedback control theory helped DBS protocols to take into account the progressive and dynamic nature of these neurological movement disorders that had largely been ignored so far. As a result, a more efficient and effective management of PD cardinal symptoms has emerged. In this paper, we review closed-loop systems for rehabilitation of movement disorders, focusing on PD, for which several invasive and noninvasive methods have been developed during the last decade, reducing the complications and side effects associated with traditional rehabilitation approaches and paving the way for tailored individual therapeutics. We then present a novel, transformative, noninvasive closed-loop framework based on force neurofeedback and discuss several future developments of closed-loop systems that might bring us closer to individualized solutions for neurological rehabilitation of movement disorders. PMID:24833254

  4. Diagnostic performance of the “Huffing and Puffing” sign in psychogenic (functional) movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Laub, Holly N.; Dwivedi, Alok K.; Revilla, Fredy J.; Duker, Andrew P.; Pecina-Jacob, Cara; Espay, Alberto J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the diagnostic value of effort-associated behaviors (“huffing and puffing” spectrum) in patients with psychogenic movement disorders. Methods Three blinded clinicians rated presence, severity, and duration of effort-associated features during standing and walking tasks on edited videos of 131 patients with psychogenic gait disorders and 37 patients with organic gait disorders. Results Huffing, grunting, grimacing, and breath holding were the most common effort-associated behaviors in patients with psychogenic gait disorders, with a combined prevalence of 44% and disproportionate to the severity of gait impairment compared to organic gait disorders. The presence of “huffing and puffing”-type behaviors yielded a relatively low sensitivity but high specificity for the diagnosis of psychogenic movement disorders, increasing the odds of diagnosis 13-fold (95%, CI: 4.2–43.8) compared to organic gait disorders. Conclusions Demonstration of effort-associated behaviors during standing and walking strongly supports the psychogenic nature of disorders when gait is involved. PMID:25961068

  5. Motor disorder and the timing of repetitive movements.

    PubMed

    Wing, A M; Keele, S; Margolin, D I

    1984-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the timing of regular repetitive movements. The two-process model of Wing and Kristofferson attributes variability in self-paced interresponse intervals to imprecision in a timekeeper and to temporal noise in the execution of motor responses triggered by the timekeeper. Assuming independence of timekeeper intervals and motor delays, the variance of each may be estimated from interresponse-interval statistics. Comparison of changes in timing performance associated with alterations in motor-system functioning offer the possibility of a new approach to investigation of this model. Illustrative data are presented from a case study of a patient with Parkinson's disease whose lesions affecting the dopaminergic pathways of the basal ganglia have given rise to asymmetric symptoms, including differences in timing performance of the two hands. Analysis of interresponse-interval variability according to the two-process model indicates that the elevated variability of the side more greatly affected by parkinsonism is attributable to the timekeeper intervals rather than the motor delays. PMID:6588784

  6. Group rhythmic synchrony and attention in children

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Alexander K.; Minces, Victor; McLoughlin, Grainne; Chiba, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Synchrony, or the coordinated processing of time, is an often-overlooked yet critical context for human interaction. This study tests the relationship between the ability to synchronize rhythmically in a group setting with the ability to attend in 102 elementary schoolchildren. Impairments in temporal processing have frequently been shown to exist in clinical populations with learning disorders, particularly those with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Based on this evidence, we hypothesized that the ability to synchronize rhythmically in a group setting—an instance of the type of temporal processing necessary for successful interaction and learning—would be correlated with the ability to attend across the continuum of the population. A music class is an ideal setting for the study of interpersonal timing. In order to measure synchrony in this context, we constructed instruments that allowed the recording and measurement of individual rhythmic performance. The SWAN teacher questionnaire was used as a measurement of attentional behavior. We find that the ability to synchronize with others in a group music class can predict a child's attentional behavior. PMID:24032021

  7. Stability and Composition of Functional Synergies for Speech Movements in Children with Developmental Speech Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terband, H.; Maassen, B.; van Lieshout, P.; Nijland, L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the consistency and composition of functional synergies for speech movements in children with developmental speech disorders. Kinematic data were collected on the reiterated productions of syllables spa(/spa[image omitted]/) and paas(/pa[image omitted]s/) by 10 6- to 9-year-olds with developmental speech…

  8. Arm and Hand Movement in Children Suspected of Having Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braddock, Barbara A.; Hilton, Jane C.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe arm and hand movement in children suspected of having autism spectrum disorder (ASD; age range 29-43 months). A videotaped retrospective review of five children with symptoms of ASD during "Communication Temptation Tasks" was completed at two time points (pre-testing and 6 weeks later). Categories of…

  9. What Do Repetitive and Stereotyped Movements Mean for Infant Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damiano, Cara R.; Nahmias, Allison; Hogan-Brown, Abigail L.; Stone, Wendy L.

    2013-01-01

    Repetitive and stereotyped movements (RSMs) in infancy are associated with later diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet this relationship has not been fully explored in high-risk populations. The current study investigated how RSMs involving object and body use are related to diagnostic outcomes in infant siblings of children with ASD…

  10. Using Constraints to Design Developmentally Appropriate Movement Activities for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Michelle; Breslin, Casey M.; Getchell, Nancy; Liu, Ting

    2012-01-01

    Some of the characteristics and behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), such as difficulty with social interactions and sensory integration, make physical education instruction difficult. Children with ASD also encounter movement difficulties, such as motor-planning and anticipatory deficits. One way to enhance the ability of…

  11. Eye-Movement Patterns Are Associated with Communicative Competence in Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Brock, Jon; Cragg, Lucy; Einav, Shiri; Griffiths, Helen; Nation, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Background: Investigations using eye-tracking have reported reduced fixations to salient social cues such as eyes when participants with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) view social scenes. However, these studies have not distinguished different cognitive phenotypes. Methods: The eye-movements of 28 teenagers with ASD and 18 typically developing…

  12. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in adults younger than 50 years of age.

    PubMed

    Ju, Yo-El S

    2013-08-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) occurring prior to age 50 is termed early-onset RBD. Early-onset RBD comprises a substantial minority of cases, and demonstrates the differences in demographics, comorbidities, and clinical considerations from previously described typical RBD with onset >50years. The world literature on RBD is reviewed with specific focus on features that distinguish early-onset RBD, including more gender parity, increased proportion of idiopathic cases, increased proportion of cases associated with narcolepsy, parasomnia overlap disorder, antidepressants, and possibly autoimmune disorders, and clinical presentation. PMID:23347910

  13. Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on movement: movable art, relocating families, human rights, and trains and cars. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books, additional resources and activities (PEN)

  14. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder in Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration: Improvement with Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Thiago Cardoso; Fernandes do Prado, Lucila Bizari; do Prado, Gilmar Fernandes; Povoas Barsottini, Orlando Graziani; Pedroso, José Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To report two female patients with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) related to breast cancer that presented with rapid eye movement-sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and improved sleep symptoms with immunotherapy. Methods: The two patients were evaluated through clinical scale and polysomnography before and after therapy with intravenous immunoglobulin. Results: RBD was successfully treated with immunotherapy in both patients. Score on the RBD screening questionnaire dropped from 10 to 1 or 0, allied with the normalization of polysomnographic findings. Conclusions: A marked improvement in RBD after immunotherapy in PCD raises the hypothesis that secondary RBD may be an immune-mediated sleep disorder. Citation: Vale TC, do Prado LB, do Prado GF, Barsottini OG, Pedroso JL. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration: improvement with immunotherapy. SLEEP 2016;39(1):117–120. PMID:26414894

  15. The connection between rhythmicity and brain function.

    PubMed

    Thaut, M H; Kenyon, G P; Schauer, M L; McIntosh, G C

    1999-01-01

    Although rhythm and music are not entirely synonymous terms, rhythm constitutes one of the most essential structural and organizational elements of music. When considering the effect of music on human adaptation, the profound effect of rhythm on the motor system strongly suggests that the time structure of music is the essential element relating music specifically to motor behavior. Why the motor system appears so sensitive to auditory priming and timing stimulation can only be partially answered so far. The high-performance function of the auditory system regarding processing of time information makes good functional sense within the constraints of auditory sensory processing. Thus, the motor system sensitivity to auditory entrainment may simply be an evolutionary useful function of taking advantage of the specific and unique aspects of auditory information processing for enhanced control and organization of motor behavior; e.g, in the time domain. Unlike processes in the motor system, many other physiological processes cannot be effectively entrained by external sensory stimuli. For example, there is probably a very good protective reason why other cyclical physiological processes (e.g., autonomic processes such as heart rate) have only very limited entrainment capacity to external rhythmic cues. Some of the basic auditory-motor arousal connections may also have their basis in adaptive evolutionary processes related to survival behavior; e.g., in fight or flight reactions. Much of the "why" in auditory-motor interactions, however, remains unknown heuristically. In the absence of this knowledge, great care should be taken to not compensate for this lack of understanding of specific cause and effect processes by assigning anthropomorphic descriptions to the behavior of biological and physical systems. The unraveling of the perceptual, physiological, and neuroanatomical basis of the interaction between rhythm and movement has been, and continues to be, a fascinating

  16. Effects of Kindermusik Training on Infants' Rhythmic Enculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerry, David W.; Faux, Ashley L.; Trainor, Laurel J.

    2010-01-01

    Phillips-Silver and Trainor (2005) demonstrated a link between movement and the metrical interpretation of rhythm patterns in 7-month-old infants. Infants bounced on every second beat of a rhythmic pattern with no auditory accents later preferred to listen to an accented version of the pattern with accents every second beat (duple or march meter),…

  17. Thoughts on selected movement disorder terminology and a plea for clarity.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ruth H

    2013-01-01

    Description of the phenomenology of movement disorders requires precise and accurate terminology. Many of the terms that have been widely used in the literature are imprecise and open to interpretation. An examination of these terms and the assumptions implicit in their usage is important to improve communication and hence the definition, diagnosis, and treatment of movement disorders. I recommend that the term dyskinesia should be used primarily in the settings of Parkinson's disease and tardive dyskinesia, in which its clinical implications are relatively clear; it should not be used in other situations where a precise description could more usefully facilitate diagnosis and treatment. In general dyskinesia should be used in the singular form. Extrapyramidal is based upon obsolete anatomical concepts, is uninformative, and should be discarded. The term abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) is similarly vague and uninformative, although is unlikely to be eliminated from the psychiatric literature. Movement disorder neurologists as teachers, clinicians, article reviewers, and journal editors have the responsibility to educate our colleagues regarding appropriate usage and the importance of employing correct descriptors. PMID:24396709

  18. Thoughts on Selected Movement Disorder Terminology and a Plea for Clarity

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Ruth H.

    2013-01-01

    Description of the phenomenology of movement disorders requires precise and accurate terminology. Many of the terms that have been widely used in the literature are imprecise and open to interpretation. An examination of these terms and the assumptions implicit in their usage is important to improve communication and hence the definition, diagnosis, and treatment of movement disorders. I recommend that the term dyskinesia should be used primarily in the settings of Parkinson's disease and tardive dyskinesia, in which its clinical implications are relatively clear; it should not be used in other situations where a precise description could more usefully facilitate diagnosis and treatment. In general dyskinesia should be used in the singular form. Extrapyramidal is based upon obsolete anatomical concepts, is uninformative, and should be discarded. The term abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) is similarly vague and uninformative, although is unlikely to be eliminated from the psychiatric literature. Movement disorder neurologists as teachers, clinicians, article reviewers, and journal editors have the responsibility to educate our colleagues regarding appropriate usage and the importance of employing correct descriptors. PMID:24396709

  19. Moving Forward: Advances in the Treatment of Movement Disorders with Deep Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Schiefer, Terry K.; Matsumoto, Joseph Y.; Lee, Kendall H.

    2011-01-01

    The modern era of stereotactic and functional neurosurgery has ushered in state of the art technologies for the treatment of movement disorders, particularly Parkinson’s disease (PD), tremor, and dystonia. After years of experience with various surgical therapies, the eventual shortcomings of both medical and surgical treatments, and several serendipitous discoveries, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has risen to the forefront as a highly effective, safe, and reversible treatment for these conditions. Idiopathic advanced PD can be treated with thalamic, globus pallidus internus (GPi), or subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS. Thalamic DBS primarily relieves tremor while GPi and STN DBS alleviate a wide range of Parkinsonian symptoms. Thalamic DBS is also used in the treatment of other types of tremor, particularly essential tremor, with excellent results. Both primary and various types of secondary dystonia can be treated very effectively with GPi DBS. The variety of anatomical targets for these movement disorders is indicative of the network-level dysfunction mediating these movement disturbances. Despite an increasing understanding of the clinical benefits of DBS, little is known about how DBS can create such wide sweeping neuromodulatory effects. The key to improving this therapeutic modality and discovering new ways to treat these and other neurologic conditions lies in better understanding the intricacies of DBS. Here we review the history and pertinent clinical data for DBS treatment of PD, tremor, and dystonia. While multiple regions of the brain have been targeted for DBS in the treatment of these movement disorders, this review article focuses on those that are most commonly used in current clinical practice. Our search criteria for PubMed included combinations of the following terms: DBS, neuromodulation, movement disorders, PD, tremor, dystonia, and history. Dates were not restricted. PMID:22084629

  20. Autoimmunity against dopamine receptors in neuropsychiatric and movement disorders: a review of Sydenham chorea and beyond.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, M W; Cox, C J

    2016-01-01

    Antineuronal autoantibodies are associated with the involuntary movement disorder Sydenham chorea (SC) and paediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) which are characterized by the acute onset of tics and/or obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). In SC and PANDAS, autoantibodies signal human neuronal cells and activate calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Animal models immunized with group A streptococcal antigens demonstrate autoantibodies against dopamine receptors and concomitantly altered behaviours. Human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) derived from SC target and signal the dopamine D2L (long) receptor (D2R). Antibodies against D2R were elevated over normal levels in SC and acute-onset PANDAS with small choreiform movements, but were not elevated over normal levels in PANDAS-like chronic tics and OCD. The expression of human SC-derived anti-D2R autoantibody V gene in B cells and serum of transgenic mice demonstrated that the human autoantibody targets dopaminergic neurones in the basal ganglia and other types of neurones in the cortex. Here, we review current evidence supporting the hypothesis that antineuronal antibodies, specifically against dopamine receptors, follow streptococcal exposures and may target dopamine receptors and alter central dopamine pathways leading to movement and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26454143

  1. Current Role of fMRI in diagnosis of movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of functional magnetic resonance techniques for the purpose of brain mapping serves as a valuable tool for understanding both normal physiology and the dysfunction taking place in disorders of the brain. This article provides an overview of fMRI methods and their applications in the study of neurological movement disorders. We then review the current neuroimaging literature regarding Parkinsonisms, Dystonia, Essential Tremor, and Huntington’s disease, including discussion of current methodological limitations and future directions for this exciting field. PMID:19959022

  2. Topiramate-induced periodic limb movement disorder in a patient affected by focal epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Romigi, Andrea; Vitrani, Giuseppe; D'Aniello, Alfredo; Di Gennaro, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    Periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) is characterized by pathological periodic limb movements during sleep, insomnia and/or diurnal sleepiness, and the absence of another primary sleep disorder. We report a patient with complex partial seizures who developed PLMD while taking topiramate (TPM). He had no evidence of metabolic and/or other conditions inducing PLMD. He also had fragmented sleep and disruptive PLMS on polysomnography, and PLMS subsided with change of antiepileptic drug. Topiramate may modulate the dopaminergic pathway by inhibition of glutamate release, thereby inducing PLMD as observed in our patient. Although a single case does not allow any generalization, PLMD should be considered in patients complaining of insomnia and treated with TPM. PMID:25667887

  3. Chorea and related movement disorders of paraneoplastic origin: the PNS EuroNetwork experience.

    PubMed

    Vigliani, Maria Claudia; Honnorat, Jerome; Antoine, Jean-Christophe; Vitaliani, Roberta; Giometto, Bruno; Psimaras, Dimitri; Franchino, Federica; Rossi, Carlotta; Graus, Francesc

    2011-11-01

    Chorea and other movement disorders are rarely described as paraneoplastic. The aim of this study was to describe 13 patients with paraneoplastic chorea and dystonia collected by the members of the paraneoplastic neurological syndrome (PNS) EuroNetwork and to review 29 cases from the literature. We analyzed neurological symptoms, severity of the neurological syndrome, delay in neurological diagnosis, associated cancer, oncological and neurological treatments received, and outcome. Eleven (1.2%) out of 913 patients with PNS were identified in the EuroNetwork register. Two more patients not included in the register were added. The overall population consisted of 13 patients with a median age of 75 years (range 49-82 years). In most patients, the movement disorder was classical choreoathetosis with symmetric involvement of the trunk, neck, and limbs. A minority of patients presented unilateral chorea, dystonia, and orobuccal dyskinesia. Associated symptoms, as polyneuropathy, encephalitis, psychiatric disturbances, or visual defects, were often present. The movement disorder usually had a subacute course. The most frequently associated cancer was small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Lymphoma, bowel, or kidney cancers were also reported. CV2/CRMP5 was the most frequently associated antibody, followed by Hu. Hyperintense lesions of the basal ganglia on T2-weighted images were seldom observed. Response to cancer therapy was observed in a minority of patients, but survival was short (17 months). As in other neurological diseases, movement disorders should also be suspected as paraneoplastic when they develop subacutely in older patients (usually over 50) and often in the presence of other ancillary neurological symptoms. PMID:21559939

  4. Complex movement disorders at disease onset in childhood narcolepsy with cataplexy.

    PubMed

    Plazzi, Giuseppe; Pizza, Fabio; Palaia, Vincenzo; Franceschini, Christian; Poli, Francesca; Moghadam, Keivan K; Cortelli, Pietro; Nobili, Lino; Bruni, Oliviero; Dauvilliers, Yves; Lin, Ling; Edwards, Mark J; Mignot, Emmanuel; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2011-12-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is characterized by daytime sleepiness, cataplexy (sudden loss of bilateral muscle tone triggered by emotions), sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations and disturbed nocturnal sleep. Narcolepsy with cataplexy is most often associated with human leucocyte antigen-DQB1*0602 and is caused by the loss of hypocretin-producing neurons in the hypothalamus of likely autoimmune aetiology. Noting that children with narcolepsy often display complex abnormal motor behaviours close to disease onset that do not meet the classical definition of cataplexy, we systematically analysed motor features in 39 children with narcolepsy with cataplexy in comparison with 25 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. We found that patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy displayed a complex array of 'negative' (hypotonia) and 'active' (ranging from perioral movements to dyskinetic-dystonic movements or stereotypies) motor disturbances. 'Active' and 'negative' motor scores correlated positively with the presence of hypotonic features at neurological examination and negatively with disease duration, whereas 'negative' motor scores also correlated negatively with age at disease onset. These observations suggest that paediatric narcolepsy with cataplexy often co-occurs with a complex movement disorder at disease onset, a phenomenon that may vanish later in the course of the disease. Further studies are warranted to assess clinical course and whether the associated movement disorder is also caused by hypocretin deficiency or by additional neurochemical abnormalities. PMID:21930661

  5. Deep brain stimulation for movement disorders: update on recent discoveries and outlook on future developments.

    PubMed

    Mahlknecht, Philipp; Limousin, Patricia; Foltynie, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Modern deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a routine therapy for patients with movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, generalized or segmental dystonia and for multiple forms of tremor. Growing numbers of publications also report beneficial effects in other movement disorders such as Tourette's syndrome, various forms of chorea and DBS is even being studied for Parkinson's-related dementia. While exerting remarkable effects on many motor symptoms, DBS does not restore normal neurophysiology and therefore may also have undesirable side effects including speech and gait deterioration. Furthermore, its efficacy might be compromised in the long term, due to progression of the underlying disease. Various programming strategies have been studied to try and address these issues, e.g., the use of low-frequency rather than high-frequency stimulation or the targeting of alternative brain structures such as the pedunculopontine nucleus. In addition, further technical developments will soon provide clinicians with an expanded choice of hardware such as segmented electrodes allowing for a steering of the current to optimize beneficial effects and reduce side effects as well as the possibility of adaptive stimulation systems based on closed-loop concepts with or without accompanying advances in programming and imaging software. In the present article, we will provide an update on the most recent achievements and discoveries relevant to the application of DBS in the treatment of movement disorder patients and give an outlook on future clinical and technical developments. PMID:26037016

  6. Transcranial sonography (TCS) of brain parenchyma in movement disorders: quality standards, diagnostic applications and novel technologies.

    PubMed

    Walter, U; Školoudík, D

    2014-08-01

    Transcranial B-mode sonography (TCS) of brain parenchyma is being increasingly used as a diagnostic tool in movement disorders. Compared to other neuroimaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography, TCS can be performed today with portable machines and has the advantages of noninvasiveness and high resistance to movement artifacts. In distinct brain disorders TCS detects abnormalities that cannot be visualized or can only be visualized with significant effort with other imaging methods. In the field of movement disorders, TCS has been established mainly as a tool for the early and differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. The postoperative position control of deep brain stimulation electrodes, especially in the subthalamic nucleus, can reliably and safely be performed with TCS.  The present update review summarizes the current methodological standards and defines quality criteria of adequate TCS imaging and assessment of diagnostically relevant deep brain structures such as substantia nigra, brainstem raphe, basal ganglia and ventricles. Finally, an overview is given on recent technological advances including TCS-MRI fusion imaging and upcoming technologies of digitized image analysis aiming at a more investigator-independent assessment of deep brain structures on TCS. PMID:24764215

  7. Transcranial sonography in movement disorders: an interesting tool for diagnostic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sanzaro, E; Iemolo, F

    2016-03-01

    Transcranial sonography has become an important tool for the diagnosis of various movement disorders. In most patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease, a markedly hyperechogenic substantia nigra (SN) was detected on at least one side. We have highlighted the sonographic features that might help the differential diagnosis of PD and other movement disorders. Our investigation involved 30 patients (age 45-85 years) with idiopathic Parkinson disease, 2 multiple system atrophy, 3 progressive supranuclear palsy and 2 patients with restless legs syndrome. In accordance with several previous studies, we detected hyperechogenicity of the SN by TCS in 90 % of patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease. Subjects with a marked severity disease had a larger extent of the hyperechogenic SN signal. All progressive supranuclear palsy patients had an enlarged third ventricle and, in two cases, we observed the presence of hyperechoic areas in the lentiform nucleus. This last ultrasonographic feature was also seen in our patients with multiple system atrophy. TCS abnormalities of the SN, midbrain raphe and basal ganglia are characteristics of several movement and affective disorders. These features are less easily detected by other techniques, such as CT and MRI, which enable the exclusion of structural lesions, such as tumours and multi-infarct disease, because the physical principle differs from other imaging methods. PMID:26650802

  8. [Therapeutic effects of the Feldenkrais method "awareness through movement" in patients with eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Laumer, U; Bauer, M; Fichter, M; Milz, H

    1997-05-01

    Based on the movement-pedagogical concept of Feldenkrais and the findings-of disturbed body perception by eating disordered patients this research aimed at studying the therapeutical effects of the Feldenkrais Method "Awareness through Movement" with eating disorder patients, 15 eating disordered patients treated at the Roseneck hospital for behavioural medicine rated-by means of a questionnaire consisting of scales of the Body Cathexis Scale (BCS), the Body Parts Satisfaction Scale (BPSS), the questionnaire for body perception (Fragebogen zum Körpererleben; FKE), the Emotion inventory (Emotionalitätsinventar; EMI-B), the Anorexia-Nervosa-Inventory for Self-rating (ANIS) and the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI)-various aspects of their eating disorder before and after participating in a nine hour course of the Feldenkrais Method. The data of these patients were compared to those of the members of a control group, also consisting of 15 eating disordered patients who did not participate in a Feldenkrais course. The participants of the Feldenkrais-course showed increasing contentment with regard to problematic zones of their body and their own health as well as concerning acceptance and familiarity with their own body. Other results were a more spontaneous, open and self-confident behaviour, the decrease of feelings of helplessness and decrease of the wish to return to the security of the early childhood, which indicates the development of felt sense of self, self-confidence and a general process of maturation of the whole personality. The outcome points to the therapeutical effectiveness of the Feldenkrais Method with eating-disorder patients within a multimodal treatment program. PMID:9265198

  9. Dystonia and Paroxysmal Dyskinesias: Under-Recognized Movement Disorders in Domestic Animals? A Comparison with Human Dystonia/Paroxysmal Dyskinesias

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Angelika; Hamann, Melanie; Wissel, Jörg; Volk, Holger A.

    2015-01-01

    Dystonia is defined as a neurological syndrome characterized by involuntary sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing twisting, often repetitive movements, and postures. Paroxysmal dyskinesias are episodic movement disorders encompassing dystonia, chorea, athetosis, and ballism in conscious individuals. Several decades of research have enhanced the understanding of the etiology of human dystonia and dyskinesias that are associated with dystonia, but the pathophysiology remains largely unknown. The spontaneous occurrence of hereditary dystonia and paroxysmal dyskinesia is well documented in rodents used as animal models in basic dystonia research. Several hyperkinetic movement disorders, described in dogs, horses and cattle, show similarities to these human movement disorders. Although dystonia is regarded as the third most common movement disorder in humans, it is often misdiagnosed because of the heterogeneity of etiology and clinical presentation. Since these conditions are poorly known in veterinary practice, their prevalence may be underestimated in veterinary medicine. In order to attract attention to these movement disorders, i.e., dystonia and paroxysmal dyskinesias associated with dystonia, and to enhance interest in translational research, this review gives a brief overview of the current literature regarding dystonia/paroxysmal dyskinesia in humans and summarizes similar hereditary movement disorders reported in domestic animals. PMID:26664992

  10. Detection of mental imagery and attempted movements in patients with disorders of consciousness using EEG

    PubMed Central

    Horki, Petar; Bauernfeind, Günther; Klobassa, Daniela S.; Pokorny, Christoph; Pichler, Gerald; Schippinger, Walter; Müller-Putz, Gernot R.

    2014-01-01

    Further development of an EEG based communication device for patients with disorders of consciousness (DoC) could benefit from addressing the following gaps in knowledge—first, an evaluation of different types of motor imagery; second, an evaluation of passive feet movement as a mean of an initial classifier setup; and third, rapid delivery of biased feedback. To that end we investigated whether complex and/or familiar mental imagery, passive, and attempted feet movement can be reliably detected in patients with DoC using EEG recordings, aiming to provide them with a means of communication. Six patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS) took part in this study. The patients were verbally instructed to perform different mental imagery tasks (sport, navigation), as well as attempted feet movements, to induce distinctive event-related (de)synchronization (ERD/S) patterns in the EEG. Offline classification accuracies above chance level were reached in all three tasks (i.e., attempted feet, sport, and navigation), with motor tasks yielding significant (p < 0.05) results more often than navigation (sport: 10 out of 18 sessions; attempted feet: 7 out of 14 sessions; navigation: 4 out of 12 sessions). The passive feet movements, evaluated in one patient, yielded mixed results: whereas time-frequency analysis revealed task-related EEG changes over neurophysiological plausible cortical areas, the classification results were not significant enough (p < 0.05) to setup an initial classifier for the detection of attempted movements. Concluding, the results presented in this study are consistent with the current state of the art in similar studies, to which we contributed by comparing different types of mental tasks, notably complex motor imagery and attempted feet movements, within patients. Furthermore, we explored new venues, such as an evaluation of passive feet movement as a mean of an initial classifier setup, and rapid delivery of biased feedback. PMID:25566029

  11. Behavioral Sleep Medicine Interventions for Restless Legs Syndrome and Periodic Limb Movement Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pigeon, Wilfred R.; Yurcheshen, Michael

    2009-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) and Periodic Limb Movement Disorder (PLMD) are sleep disorders that are commonly seen in clinical practice. The standard treatment recommendations for these disorders are pharmacologic; most recently both conditions are most typically managed with pramipexole or ropinerole, which are FDA approved for the treatment of RLS. A mix of behavioral suggestions is included in treatment algorithms for providers as well as in patient education materials. While these suggestions have considerable merit, they are typically not delivered as an intervention, but instead provided as a series of helpful tips. There is emerging evidence for providing such suggestions as a more active and comprehensive intervention as part of a cognitive-behavioral package as well as for exercise therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia to be delivered as active treatments for RLS and/or PLMD. PMID:20161553

  12. Origins of Balance Disorders during a Daily Living Movement in Obese: Can Biomechanical Factors Explain Everything?

    PubMed Central

    Mignardot, Jean-Baptiste; Olivier, Isabelle; Promayon, Emmanuel; Nougier, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Obese people suffer from postural deficits and are more subject to falls than their lean counterpart. To improve prevention and post-fall rehabilitation programs, it seems important to better understand the posturo-kinetic disorders in daily life situations by determining the contribution of some key factors, mainly morphological characteristics and physical activity level, in the apparition of these disorders. Twelve severe android obese and eight healthy non obese adults performed a reaching task mobilizing the whole body. To further determine the origin of the postural and motor behavior differences, non obese individuals also performed an experimental session with additional constraints which simulated some of the obese morphological characteristics. Impact of the sedentary lifestyle was also studied by dissociation of the obese in two subgroups: physically « active » and physically « inactive ». Movement kinetics and kinematics were characterized with an optoelectronic system synchronized to a force platform. The mechanical equilibrium pattern was evaluated through the displacements of the Centre of Mass (CoM) and the centre of foot pressure within the Base of Support (BoS). Results showed that obesity decreased movement speed (≈−23%, p<0.01), strongly increased CoM displacement (≈+30%, p<0.05) and induced an important spatio-temporal desynchronization (≈+40%, p<0.05) of the focal and postural components of the movement during the transition between the descending and ascending movements. The role of some morphological characteristics and of physical activity on obese patients' postural control disorder is discussed and set back in the more general context of overall factors contributing to postural deficits with obesity. PMID:23560097

  13. Effects of rhythmic stimulus presentation on oscillatory brain activity: the physiology of cueing in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    te Woerd, Erik S; Oostenveld, Robert; Bloem, Bastiaan R; de Lange, Floris P; Praamstra, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The basal ganglia play an important role in beat perception and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are impaired in perception of beat-based rhythms. Rhythmic cues are nonetheless beneficial in gait rehabilitation, raising the question how rhythm improves movement in PD. We addressed this question with magnetoencephalography recordings during a choice response task with rhythmic and non-rhythmic modes of stimulus presentation. Analyses focused on (i) entrainment of slow oscillations, (ii) the depth of beta power modulation, and (iii) whether a gain in modulation depth of beta power, due to rhythmicity, is of predictive or reactive nature. The results show weaker phase synchronisation of slow oscillations and a relative shift from predictive to reactive movement-related beta suppression in PD. Nonetheless, rhythmic stimulus presentation increased beta modulation depth to the same extent in patients and controls. Critically, this gain selectively increased the predictive and not reactive movement-related beta power suppression. Operation of a predictive mechanism, induced by rhythmic stimulation, was corroborated by a sensory gating effect in the sensorimotor cortex. The predictive mode of cue utilisation points to facilitation of basal ganglia-premotor interactions, contrasting with the popular view that rhythmic stimulation confers a special advantage in PD, based on recruitment of alternative pathways. PMID:26509117

  14. DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION OF HYPERKINETIC MOVEMENTS IN CHILDHOOD

    PubMed Central

    Sanger, Terence D.; Chen, Daofen; Fehlings, Darcy L.; Hallett, Mark; Lang, Anthony E.; Mink, Jonathan W.; Singer, Harvey; Alter, Katharine; Ben-Pazi, Hilla; Butler, Erin; Chen, Robert; Collins, Abigail; Dayanidhi, Sudarshan; Forssberg, Hans; Fowler, Eileen; Gilbert, Donald L.; Gorman, Sharon L.; Gormley, Mark E.; Jinnah, H. A.; Kornblau, Barbara; Krosschell, Kristin; Lehman, Rebecca K.; MacKinnon, Colum; Malanga, C. J.; Mesterman, Ronit; Michaels, Margaret Barry; Pearson, Toni S.; Rose, Jessica; Russman, Barry; Sternad, Dagmar; Swoboda, Kathy; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Hyperkinetic movements are unwanted or excess movements that are frequently seen in children with neurologic disorders. They are an important clinical finding with significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. However, the lack of agreement on standard terminology and definitions interferes with clinical treatment and research. We describe definitions of dystonia, chorea, athetosis, myoclonus, tremor, tics, and stereotypies that arose from a consensus meeting in June 2008 of specialists from different clinical and basic science fields. Dystonia is a movement disorder in which involuntary sustained or intermittent muscle contractions cause twisting and repetitive movements, abnormal postures, or both. Chorea is an ongoing random-appearing sequence of one or more discrete involuntary movements or movement fragments. Athetosis is a slow, continuous, involuntary writhing movement that prevents maintenance of a stable posture. Myoclonus is a sequence of repeated, often non-rhythmic, brief shock-like jerks due to sudden involuntary contraction or relaxation of one or more muscles. Tremor is a rhythmic back-and-forth or oscillating involuntary movement about a joint axis. Tics are repeated, individually recognizable, intermittent movements or movement fragments that are almost always briefly suppressible and are usually associated with awareness of an urge to perform the movement. Stereotypies are repetitive, simple movements that can be voluntarily suppressed. We provide recommended techniques for clinical examination and suggestions for differentiating between the different types of hyperkinetic movements, noting that there may be overlap between conditions. These definitions and the diagnostic recommendations are intended to be reliable and useful for clinical practice, communication between clinicians and researchers, and for the design of quantitative tests that will guide and assess the outcome of future clinical trials. PMID:20589866

  15. Investigating rapid eye movement sleep without atonia in Parkinson's disease using the rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder screening questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Bolitho, Samuel J; Naismith, Sharon L; Terpening, Zoe; Grunstein, Ron R; Melehan, Kerri; Yee, Brendon J; Coeytaux, Alessandra; Gilat, Moran; Lewis, Simon J G

    2014-05-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is frequently observed in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Accurate diagnosis is essential for managing this condition. Furthermore, the emergence of idiopathic RBD in later life can represent a premotor feature, heralding the development of PD. Reliable, accurate methods for identifying RBD may offer a window for early intervention. This study sought to identify whether the RBD screening questionnaire (RBDSQ) and three questionnaires focused on dream enactment were able to correctly identify patients with REM without atonia (RWA), the neurophysiological hallmark of RBD. Forty-six patients with PD underwent neurological and sleep assessment in addition to completing the RBDSQ, the RBD single question (RBD1Q), and the Mayo Sleep Questionnaire (MSQ). The REM atonia index was derived for all participants as an objective measure of RWA. Patients identified to be RBD positive on the RBDSQ did not show increased RWA on polysomnography (80% sensitivity and 55% specificity). However, patients positive for RBD on questionnaires specific to dream enactment correctly identified higher degrees of RWA and improved the diagnostic accuracy of these questionnaires. This study suggests that the RBDSQ does not accurately identify RWA, essential for diagnosing RBD in PD. Furthermore, the results suggest that self-report measures of RBD need to focus questions on dream enactment behavior to better identify RWA and RBD. Further studies are needed to develop accurate determination and quantification of RWA in RBD to improve management of patients with PD in the future. PMID:24619826

  16. The Effectiveness of Transcranial Brain Stimulation in Improving Clinical Signs of Hyperkinetic Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Obeso, Ignacio; Cerasa, Antonio; Quattrone, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a safe and painless method for stimulating cortical neurons. In neurological realm, rTMS has prevalently been applied to understand pathophysiological mechanisms underlying movement disorders. However, this tool has also the potential to be translated into a clinically applicable therapeutic use. Several available studies supported this hypothesis, but differences in protocols, clinical enrollment, and variability of rTMS effects across individuals complicate better understanding of efficient clinical protocols. The aim of this present review is to discuss to what extent the evidence provided by the therapeutic use of rTMS may be generalized. In particular, we attempted to define optimal cortical regions and stimulation protocols that have been demonstrated to maximize the effectiveness seen in the actual literature for the three most prevalent hyperkinetic movement disorders: Parkinson's disease (PD) with levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LIDs), essential tremor (ET) and dystonia. A total of 28 rTMS studies met our search criteria. Despite clinical and methodological differences, overall these studies demonstrated that therapeutic applications of rTMS to “normalize” pathologically decreased or increased levels of cortical activity have given moderate progress in patient's quality of life. Moreover, the present literature suggests that altered pathophysiology in hyperkinetic movement disorders establishes motor, premotor or cerebellar structures as candidate regions to reset cortico-subcortical pathways back to normal. Although rTMS has the potential to become a powerful tool for ameliorating the clinical outcome of hyperkinetic neurological patients, until now there is not a clear consensus on optimal protocols for these motor disorders. Well-controlled multicenter randomized clinical trials with high numbers of patients are urgently required. PMID:26778947

  17. Human movement stochastic variability leads to diagnostic biomarkers In Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di; Torres, Elizabeth B.; Jose, Jorge V.

    2015-03-01

    ASD is a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders. The high heterogeneity of the symptoms associated with the disorder impedes efficient diagnoses based on human observations. Recent advances with high-resolution MEM wearable sensors enable accurate movement measurements that may escape the naked eye. It calls for objective metrics to extract physiological relevant information from the rapidly accumulating data. In this talk we'll discuss the statistical analysis of movement data continuously collected with high-resolution sensors at 240Hz. We calculated statistical properties of speed fluctuations within the millisecond time range that closely correlate with the subjects' cognitive abilities. We computed the periodicity and synchronicity of the speed fluctuations' from their power spectrum and ensemble averaged two-point cross-correlation function. We built a two-parameter phase space from the temporal statistical analyses of the nearest neighbor fluctuations that provided a quantitative biomarker for ASD and adult normal subjects and further classified ASD severity. We also found age related developmental statistical signatures and potential ASD parental links in our movement dynamical studies. Our results may have direct clinical applications.

  18. Cognitive perspective-taking during scene perception in autism spectrum disorder: evidence from eye movements.

    PubMed

    Au-Yeung, Sheena K; Kaakinen, Johanna K; Benson, Valerie

    2014-02-01

    The present study examined how eye movements during scene viewing are modulated by adopting psychological perspectives in both adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and typically developing adults. In the current study, participants viewed house scenes with either non-perspective-taking (look for valuable items/features of the house that need fixing) or perspective-taking instructions (imagine that you are a burglar/repairman) while their eye movements were recorded. The eye movement measures revealed that for the "look for the valuable items" and burglar perspective task, the ASD group showed typical relevance effects (the preference to look at schema-relevant compared with schema-irrelevant targets) in their eye movements. However, we found subtle processing differences between the groups that were related to initial orienting to and processing of schema-relevant items for the "look for the features that need fixing" and the repairman perspective-taking task. There was an absence of a relevance effect for the ASD group for the repairman perspective and its non-perspective-taking equivalent instruction showing that the identification of items relevant to those schemas was more difficult for the ASD group. The present findings suggest that resolving ambiguity may be a defining feature of complex information processing deficits in ASD. PMID:24265216

  19. The wrong end of the telescope: neuromuscular mimics of movement disorders (and vice versa).

    PubMed

    Bloem, B R; Voermans, N C; Aerts, M B; Bhatia, K P; van Engelen, B G M; van de Warrenburg, B P

    2016-08-01

    The rapid advances in modern neurology have led to increased specialisation in clinical practice. Being an expert in a neurology subspecialty offers advantages for diagnosing and managing specific disorders. However, specialisation also risks tunnel vision: interpreting symptoms and signs within one's own framework of reference, while ignoring differential diagnostic options from other subspecialties. This is particularly relevant when the patient's presentation potentially belongs to different neurological subspecialties. We illustrate this challenge by highlighting a series of clinical features that partially overlap between two common subspecialties: movement disorders and neuromuscular disorders. An overlap in clinical presentation is not rare, and includes, for example, involuntary eyelid closure (which could be active eye closure due to blepharospasm, or ptosis due to weakness). Other overlapping features include abnormal postures, involuntary movements and gait changes. We describe two of these overlapping features in more detail and emphasise the possible consequences of 'looking through the wrong end of the telescope' in such patients, as this may lead to a wrong differential diagnosis, unnecessary investigations and a delayed treatment start. PMID:26965497

  20. Characterization of Movement Disorder Phenomenology in Genetically Proven, Familial Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gasca-Salas, Carmen; Masellis, Mario; Khoo, Edwin; Shah, Binit B.; Fisman, David; Lang, Anthony E.; Kleiner-Fisman, Galit

    2016-01-01

    Background Mutations in granulin (PGRN) and tau (MAPT), and hexanucleotide repeat expansions near the C9orf72 genes are the most prevalent genetic causes of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Although behavior, language and movement presentations are common, the relationship between genetic subgroup and movement disorder phenomenology is unclear. Objective We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature characterizing the spectrum and prevalence of movement disorders in genetic frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Methods Electronic databases were searched using terms related to frontotemporal lobar degeneration and movement disorders. Articles were included when cases had a proven genetic cause. Study-specific prevalence estimates for clinical features were transformed using Freeman-Tukey arcsine transformation, allowing for pooled estimates of prevalence to be generated using random-effects models. Results The mean age at onset was earlier in those with MAPT mutations compared to PGRN (p<0.001) and C9orf72 (p = 0.024). 66.5% of subjects had an initial non-movement presentation that was most likely a behavioral syndrome (35.7%). At any point during the disease, parkinsonism was the most common movement syndrome reported in 79.8% followed by progressive supranuclear palsy (PSPS) and corticobasal (CBS) syndromes in 12.2% and 10.7%, respectively. The prevalence of movement disorder as initial presentation was higher in MAPT subjects (35.8%) compared to PGRN subjects (10.1). In those with a non-movement presentation, language disorder was more common in PGRN subjects (18.7%) compared to MAPT subjects (5.4%). Summary This represents the first systematic review and meta-analysis of the occurrence of movement disorder phenomenology in genetic frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Standardized prospective collection of clinical information in conjunction with genetic characterization will be crucial for accurate clinico-genetic correlation. PMID:27100392

  1. Proprioceptive Rehabilitation of Upper Limb Dysfunction in Movement Disorders: A Clinical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Trompetto, Carlo; Mori, Laura; Pelosin, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    Movement disorders (MDs) are frequently associated with sensory abnormalities. In particular, proprioceptive deficits have been largely documented in both hypokinetic (Parkinson’s disease) and hyperkinetic conditions (dystonia), suggesting a possible role in their pathophysiology. Proprioceptive feedback is a fundamental component of sensorimotor integration allowing effective planning and execution of voluntary movements. Rehabilitation has become an essential element in the management of patients with MDs, and there is a strong rationale to include proprioceptive training in rehabilitation protocols focused on mobility problems of the upper limbs. Proprioceptive training is aimed at improving the integration of proprioceptive signals using “task-intrinsic” or “augmented feedback.” This perspective article reviews the available evidence on the effects of proprioceptive stimulation in improving upper limb mobility in patients with MDs and highlights the emerging innovative approaches targeted to maximizing the benefits of exercise by means of enhanced proprioception. PMID:25505402

  2. Genetic deficiency of the mitochondrial protein PGAM5 causes a Parkinson’s-like movement disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wei; Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar S.; Springer, Danielle A.; Allen, Michele D.; Zheng, Lixin; Chao, Brittany; Zhang, Yan; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.; Lenardo, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Mitophagy is a specialized form of autophagy that selectively disposes of dysfunctional mitochondria. Delineating the molecular regulation of mitophagy is of great importance because defects in this process lead to a variety of mitochondrial diseases. Here we report that mice deficient for the mitochondrial protein, phosphoglycerate mutase family member 5 (PGAM5), displayed a Parkinson’s-like movement phenotype. We determined biochemically that PGAM5 is required for the stabilization of the mitophagy-inducing protein PINK1 on damaged mitochondria. Loss of PGAM5 disables PINK1-mediated mitophagy in vitro and leads to dopaminergic neurodegeneration and mild dopamine loss in vivo. Our data indicate that PGAM5 is a regulator of mitophagy essential for mitochondrial turnover and serves a cytoprotective function in dopaminergic neurons in vivo. Moreover, PGAM5 may provide a molecular link to study mitochondrial homeostasis and the pathogenesis of a movement disorder similar to Parkinson’s disease. PMID:25222142

  3. Drug repositioning for treatment of movement disorders: from serendipity to rational discovery strategies.

    PubMed

    Bolgár, Bence; Arany, Ádám; Temesi, Gergely; Balogh, Balázs; Antal, Péter; Mátyus, Péter

    2013-01-01

    Movement disorders are a heterogeneous group of both common and rare neurological conditions characterized by abnormalities of motor functions and movement patterns. This work overviews recent successes and ongoing studies of repositioning relating to this disease group, which underscores the challenge of integrating the voluminous and heterogeneous findings required for making suitable drug repositioning decisions. In silico drug repositioning methods hold the promise of automated fusion of heterogeneous information sources, but the controllable, flexible and transparent incorporation of the expertise of medicinal chemists throughout the repositioning process remains an open challenge. In support of a more systematic approach toward repositioning, we summarize the application of a computational repurposing method based on statistically rooted knowledge fusion. To foster the spread of this technique, we provide a step-by-step guide to the complete workflow, together with a case study in Parkinson's disease. PMID:24059461

  4. Smooth-pursuit eye movement and saccadic intrusions in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Pallanti, S; Grecu, L M; Gangemi, P F; Massi, S; Parigi, A; Arnetoli, G; Quercioli, L; Zaccara, G

    1996-12-01

    Although several reports agree that smooth-pursuit eye movement (SPEM) is abnormal in some obsessive-compulsive disordered (OCD) patients, differences between treatments and lack of accuracy in control selection make the results controversial. Although reduced gain seems the most accepted abnormality, the characteristics of saccadic disruption of smooth pursuit are as yet unspecified. SPEMs in 21 OCD patients (DSM-III-R) and 21 healthy subjects recruited from the community were studied through a multiple target velocity task . The two groups were individually matched on age, gender, and level of education. None of the subjects had a history of substance dependence apart from the smokers who refrained from smoking in the 2 hours prior to the test. A significantly lower SPEM gain and increased number and frequency of anticipatory saccades (ASs) was found in OCD patients as compared with control subjects. No relationship emerged between eye movement abnormalities and clinical variables explored. PMID:8931920

  5. Genetic deficiency of the mitochondrial protein PGAM5 causes a Parkinson's-like movement disorder.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei; Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar S; Springer, Danielle A; Allen, Michele D; Zheng, Lixin; Chao, Brittany; Zhang, Yan; Dawson, Valina L; Dawson, Ted M; Lenardo, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Mitophagy is a specialized form of autophagy that selectively disposes of dysfunctional mitochondria. Delineating the molecular regulation of mitophagy is of great importance because defects in this process lead to a variety of mitochondrial diseases. Here we report that mice deficient for the mitochondrial protein, phosphoglycerate mutase family member 5 (PGAM5), displayed a Parkinson's-like movement phenotype. We determined biochemically that PGAM5 is required for the stabilization of the mitophagy-inducing protein PINK1 on damaged mitochondria. Loss of PGAM5 disables PINK1-mediated mitophagy in vitro and leads to dopaminergic neurodegeneration and mild dopamine loss in vivo. Our data indicate that PGAM5 is a regulator of mitophagy essential for mitochondrial turnover and serves a cytoprotective function in dopaminergic neurons in vivo. Moreover, PGAM5 may provide a molecular link to study mitochondrial homeostasis and the pathogenesis of a movement disorder similar to Parkinson's disease. PMID:25222142

  6. Paroxysmal non-kinesigenic dyskinesia, post-streptococcal syndromes and psychogenic movement disorders: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Peila, Elena; Mortara, Paolo; Cicerale, Alessandro; Pinessi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 15-year-old boy presenting with sudden attacks of hyperkinetic movements of the limbs, trunk and neck. Clinical features were suggestive of paroxysmal non-kinesigenic dyskinesia, but the elevated antistreptolysin O antibody titre and history of recurrent upper airways infection led us to consider a post-streptococcal syndrome as a possible diagnosis. The patient started therapy with benzathine penicillin, sodium valproate and clonazepam without any significant improvement. A successive psychiatric assessment revealed the presence of a psychogenic movement disorder. Psychodynamic psychotherapy and individual counselling were started with progressive improvement of psychological symptoms and gradual resolution of hyperkinetic episodes, without any recurrence recorded during the follow-up (10 months). PMID:25795754

  7. Preladenant, a selective A(2A) receptor antagonist, is active in primate models of movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Robert A; Bedard, Paul J; Varty, Geoffrey B; Kazdoba, Tatiana M; Di Paolo, Therese; Grzelak, Michael E; Pond, Annamarie J; Hadjtahar, Abdallah; Belanger, Nancy; Gregoire, Laurent; Dare, Aurelie; Neustadt, Bernard R; Stamford, Andrew W; Hunter, John C

    2010-10-01

    Parkinson's Disease (PD) and Extrapyramidal Syndrome (EPS) are movement disorders that result from degeneration of the dopaminergic input to the striatum and chronic inhibition of striatal dopamine D(2) receptors by antipsychotics, respectively. Adenosine A(2A) receptors are selectively localized in the basal ganglia, primarily in the striatopallidal ("indirect") pathway, where they appear to operate in concert with D(2) receptors and have been suggested to drive striatopallidal output balance. In cases of dopaminergic hypofunction, A(2A) receptor activation contributes to the overdrive of the indirect pathway. A(2A) receptor antagonists, therefore, have the potential to restore this inhibitor imbalance. Consequently, A(2A) receptor antagonists have therapeutic potential in diseases of dopaminergic hypofunction such as PD and EPS. Targeting the A(2A) receptor may also be a way to avoid the issues associated with direct dopamine agonists. Recently, preladenant was identified as a potent and highly selective A(2A) receptor antagonist, and has produced a significant improvement in motor function in rodent models of PD. Here we investigate the effects of preladenant in two primate movement disorder models. In MPTP-treated cynomolgus monkeys, preladenant (1 or 3 mg/kg; PO) improved motor ability and did not evoke any dopaminergic-mediated dyskinetic or motor complications. In Cebus apella monkeys with a history of chronic haloperidol treatment, preladenant (0.3-3.0 mg/kg; PO) delayed the onset of EPS symptoms evoked by an acute haloperidol challenge. Collectively, these data support the use of preladenant for the treatment of PD and antipsychotic-induced movement disorders. PMID:20655910

  8. The distinct movement disorder in anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis may be related to Status Dissociatus: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Stamelou, Maria; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Lugaresi, Elio; Edwards, Mark J; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2012-09-15

    The majority of patients with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor encephalitis (NMDAE) present a characteristic movement disorder, which consists of complex bilateral stereotyped movements of the arms, with perioral and eye movements, and less frequently involvement of the legs. We have observed striking similarities in the characteristics of the abnormal movements observed in NMDAE and those described in Status Dissociatus, which is characterized by a complete breakdown of state-determining boundaries (wakefulness, REM and NREM sleep) and can result from pathophysiologically diverse disorders (e.g. fatal familial insomnia, delirium tremens, Morvan's syndrome). Here, we suggest that the state of paradoxical responsiveness in which NMDAE patients present these stereotyped movements may be that of Status Dissociatus and discuss the clinical similarities and pathophysiological explanations that support such a suggestion. This hypothesis explains why patients that seem to be unconscious have a movement disorder that is not epileptic and may have management implications, since many patients with NMDAE-related movement disorder are treated with anticonvulsants that may not be indicated. PMID:22700398

  9. Galvanic vestibular stimulation: a novel modulatory countermeasure for vestibular-associated movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Rizzo-Sierra, Carlos V; Gonzalez-Castaño, Alexander; Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E

    2014-01-01

    Motion sickness or kinetosis is the result of the abnormal neural output originated by visual, proprioceptive and vestibular mismatch, which reverses once the dysfunctional sensory information becomes coherent. The space adaptation syndrome or space sickness relates to motion sickness; it is considered to be due to yaw, pith, and roll coordinates mismatch. Several behavioural and pharmacological measures have been proposed to control these vestibular-associated movement disorders with no success. Galvanic vestibular stimulation has the potential of up-regulating disturbed sensory-motor mismatch originated by kinetosis and space sickness by modulating the GABA-related ion channels neural transmission in the inner ear. It improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the afferent proprioceptive volleys, which would ultimately modulate the motor output restoring the disordered gait, balance and human locomotion due to kinetosis, as well as the spatial disorientation generated by gravity transition. PMID:24637984

  10. Effects of discontinuing anticholinergic treatment on movement disorders, cognition and psychopathology in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Beauclair, Linda; Annable, Lawrence; Bélanger, Marie-Claire; Kolivakis, Theodore T.; Margolese, Howard C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Physicians have prescribed anticholinergic agents such as benztropine, procyclidine, biperiden and trihexyphenidyl for treatment and prophylaxis of antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) for decades. Anticholinergic agents can however worsen tardive dyskinesia and cause many adverse effects, including cognitive impairment. Previous studies of anticholinergic discontinuation in patients with schizophrenia receiving antipsychotics have yielded a wide range of EPS relapse rates. Improvement in cognition after anticholinergic withdrawal was observed in some studies. Objective: This study evaluated the effect of anticholinergic discontinuation on movement disorders, cognition and general psychopathology after a 4-week taper in 20 outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder treated with antipsychotics. Results: Eighteen of twenty patients successfully discontinued their anticholinergic medication; two did not because of akathisia. Repeated measures analysis of variance did not show a significant effect of anticholinergic discontinuation on total Extrapyramidal Symptoms Rating Scale score or on the Parkinsonism, Akathisia, Dystonia or Tardive Dyskinesia subscales. However, significant improvement was found on the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia composite z score at weeks 6, 8 and 12 compared with baseline. Significant improvements were seen on the motor and the symbol-coding tasks. No significant effects were observed on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impression – Severity and Clinical Global Impression – Improvement scales. Conclusion: In this 12-week study of anticholinergic discontinuation in 20 outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, gradual decrease and discontinuation of anticholinergics led to a positive effect on cognition. There were no adverse consequences on general psychopathology and no significant differences for 18 of 20 subjects on movement disorders

  11. Autism as a developmental disorder in intentional movement and affective engagement

    PubMed Central

    Trevarthen, Colwyn; Delafield-Butt, Jonathan T.

    2013-01-01

    We review evidence that autistic spectrum disorders have their origin in early prenatal failure of development in systems that program timing, serial coordination and prospective control of movements, and that regulate affective evaluations of experiences. There are effects in early infancy, before medical diagnosis, especially in motor sequencing, selective or exploratory attention, affective expression and intersubjective engagement with parents. These are followed by retardation of cognitive development and language learning in the second or third year, which lead to a diagnosis of ASD. The early signs relate to abnormalities that have been found in brain stem systems and cerebellum in the embryo or early fetal stage, before the cerebral neocortex is functional, and they have clear consequences in infancy when neocortical systems are intensively elaborated. We propose, with evidence of the disturbances of posture, locomotion and prospective motor control in children with autism, as well as of their facial expression of interest and affect, and attention to other persons' expressions, that examination of the psychobiology of motor affective disorders, rather than later developing cognitive or linguistic ones, may facilitate early diagnosis. Research in this area may also explain how intense interaction, imitation or “expressive art” therapies, which respond intimately with motor activities, are effective at later stages. Exceptional talents of some autistic people may be acquired compensations for basic problems with expectant self-regulations of movement, attention and emotion. PMID:23882192

  12. Autism as a developmental disorder in intentional movement and affective engagement.

    PubMed

    Trevarthen, Colwyn; Delafield-Butt, Jonathan T

    2013-01-01

    We review evidence that autistic spectrum disorders have their origin in early prenatal failure of development in systems that program timing, serial coordination and prospective control of movements, and that regulate affective evaluations of experiences. There are effects in early infancy, before medical diagnosis, especially in motor sequencing, selective or exploratory attention, affective expression and intersubjective engagement with parents. These are followed by retardation of cognitive development and language learning in the second or third year, which lead to a diagnosis of ASD. The early signs relate to abnormalities that have been found in brain stem systems and cerebellum in the embryo or early fetal stage, before the cerebral neocortex is functional, and they have clear consequences in infancy when neocortical systems are intensively elaborated. We propose, with evidence of the disturbances of posture, locomotion and prospective motor control in children with autism, as well as of their facial expression of interest and affect, and attention to other persons' expressions, that examination of the psychobiology of motor affective disorders, rather than later developing cognitive or linguistic ones, may facilitate early diagnosis. Research in this area may also explain how intense interaction, imitation or "expressive art" therapies, which respond intimately with motor activities, are effective at later stages. Exceptional talents of some autistic people may be acquired compensations for basic problems with expectant self-regulations of movement, attention and emotion. PMID:23882192

  13. Early Controversies over Athetosis: I. Clinical Features, Differentiation from other Movement Disorders, Associated Conditions, and Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Lanska, Douglas J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Since the description of athetosis in 1871 by American neurologist William Alexander Hammond (1828–1900) the disorder has been a source of controversy, as were many aspects of Hammond’s career. Methods Primary sources have been used to review controversies in the 50-year period since the initial description of athetosis, in particular those concerning clinical features, differentiation from other movement disorders, associated conditions, and pathology. Controversies concerning treatment will be addressed in a subsequent article. Results Hammond struggled to establish athetosis as a distinct clinical–pathological entity, and had successfully predicted the striatal pathology in his initial case (albeit somewhat serendipitously). Athetosis was, nevertheless, considered by many neurologists to be a form of post-hemiplegic chorea or part of a continuum between chorea and dystonia. European neurologists, and particularly the French, initially ignored or discounted the concept. Additional controversies arose over whether the movements persisted during sleep, whether athetosis was, or could be, associated with imbecility or insanity, and how it should be treated. Discussion Some controversies concerning athetosis served to identify areas where knowledge was insufficient to make accurate statements, despite prior self-assured or even dogmatic statements to the contrary. Other controversies illustrated established prejudices, even if these biases were often only apparent with the greater detachment of hindsight. PMID:23450262

  14. Autoantibodies in movement and psychiatric disorders: updated concepts in detection methods, pathogenicity, and CNS entry.

    PubMed

    Sinmaz, Nese; Amatoury, Mazen; Merheb, Vera; Ramanathan, Sudarshini; Dale, Russell C; Brilot, Fabienne

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, autoantibodies to proteins or receptors expressed on the surface of neurons have been detected in movement and psychiatric disorders. These autoantibodies can assist in better recognition of clinical syndromes and offer novel treatment opportunities via immunotherapies, potentially leading to improved patient outcome. In this review, we describe several autoimmune syndromes associated with movement and psychiatric disorders, including anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis, basal ganglia encephalitis, Sydenham chorea, and autoantibody-associated psychosis and schizophrenia. However, rather than focusing on clinical aspects of these diseases, as they have been reviewed in detail elsewhere, we mainly focus on the scientific aspects of the different methodologies for detecting antibodies, with an emphasis on the current gold standard in the field, the cell-based assay, and on issues related to the use of live versus permeabilized cells. We also reflect on the implications associated with the choice of patient serum and cerebrospinal fluid for antibody testing, on the mechanism of antibody entry into the central nervous system through the blood-brain barrier, and the essential issue of antibody pathogenicity. PMID:26083906

  15. Ancient descriptions of movement disorders: Cathedral el Burgo de Osma (Soria, Spain).

    PubMed

    Garcia Ruiz, Pedro J; Ruiz Ezquerro, Juan J; Garcia Torres, Araceli; Fanjul, Samira

    2006-06-01

    El Burgo de Osma (Soria, Spain) offers one of the best preserved medieval structures in Spain. The interior of the building conserves abundant samples of Romanesque art, and the tomb in polychromatic stone of the founder, San Pedro de Osma. We have classified those pieces of art that could represent descriptions of movement disorders. In the main façade of the Cathedral, several statues representing prophets can be seen one of them is clearly different to the rest. This statue represents a man with abnormal cervical posture characterized by right rotation, head tilt and elevation of right shoulder. The tomb includes several statues representing fragments of the life of San Pedro de Osma. Some of these figures show movement disorders. First, a woman with a baby in her arms who has marked head tilt to the left. Second a peasant without hands, perhaps amputated, this man has a head tilt to the right. We suggest that in the latter case ergotism can explain both manifestations: peripheral vascular disease leading to amputation, and cervical dystonia.Finally, a statue of polychromatic wood represents a priest with stooped posture, half open mouth, staring expression and a very notorious anterocollis. The author probably depicted a man with parkinsonism. PMID:16511653

  16. CLPB Mutations Cause 3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria, Progressive Brain Atrophy, Intellectual Disability, Congenital Neutropenia, Cataracts, Movement Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wortmann, Saskia B.; Ziętkiewicz, Szymon; Kousi, Maria; Szklarczyk, Radek; Haack, Tobias B.; Gersting, Søren W.; Muntau, Ania C.; Rakovic, Aleksandar; Renkema, G. Herma; Rodenburg, Richard J.; Strom, Tim M.; Meitinger, Thomas; Rubio-Gozalbo, M. Estela; Chrusciel, Elzbieta; Distelmaier, Felix; Golzio, Christelle; Jansen, Joop H.; van Karnebeek, Clara; Lillquist, Yolanda; Lücke, Thomas; Õunap, Katrin; Zordania, Riina; Yaplito-Lee, Joy; van Bokhoven, Hans; Spelbrink, Johannes N.; Vaz, Frédéric M.; Pras-Raves, Mia; Ploski, Rafal; Pronicka, Ewa; Klein, Christine; Willemsen, Michel A.A.P.; de Brouwer, Arjan P.M.; Prokisch, Holger; Katsanis, Nicholas; Wevers, Ron A.

    2015-01-01

    We studied a group of individuals with elevated urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid, neutropenia that can develop into leukemia, a neurological phenotype ranging from nonprogressive intellectual disability to a prenatal encephalopathy with progressive brain atrophy, movement disorder, cataracts, and early death. Exome sequencing of two unrelated individuals and subsequent Sanger sequencing of 16 individuals with an overlapping phenotype identified a total of 14 rare, predicted deleterious alleles in CLPB in 14 individuals from 9 unrelated families. CLPB encodes caseinolytic peptidase B homolog ClpB, a member of the AAA+ protein family. To evaluate the relevance of CLPB in the pathogenesis of this syndrome, we developed a zebrafish model and an in vitro assay to measure ATPase activity. Suppression of clpb in zebrafish embryos induced a central nervous system phenotype that was consistent with cerebellar and cerebral atrophy that could be rescued by wild-type, but not mutant, human CLPB mRNA. Consistent with these data, the loss-of-function effect of one of the identified variants (c.1222A>G [p.Arg408Gly]) was supported further by in vitro evidence with the mutant peptides abolishing ATPase function. Additionally, we show that CLPB interacts biochemically with ATP2A2, known to be involved in apoptotic processes in severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) 3 (Kostmann disease [caused by HAX1 mutations]). Taken together, mutations in CLPB define a syndrome with intellectual disability, congenital neutropenia, progressive brain atrophy, movement disorder, cataracts, and 3-methylglutaconic aciduria. PMID:25597510

  17. Validation of the Turkish Version of the Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Tarı Cömert, Itır; Pelin, Zerrin; Arıcak, Tolga; Yapan, Saadet

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of a Turkish version of the rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder questionnaire (the RBDSQ-T) for identifying patients with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and to ensure that this tool can be applied in Turkish language. Three groups were enrolled to validate the RBDSQ-T: 78 healthy controls, 17 patients previously diagnosed with RBD, and 28 patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Based on a cut-off score of five, the RBDSQ-T was able to discriminate RBD patients from healthy controls with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 87%. Accordingly, 63% of patients were correctly diagnosed using the RBDSQ-T. Similarly, with a cut-off score of five, the RBDSQ-T was able to discriminate RBD from OSAS with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 64%. Assessment of test-retest reliability and internal consistency reliability using Kuder-Richardson 20 analysis revealed a test-retest correlation coefficient of 0.95 and a Kuder-Richardson 20 value of 0.82. The findings demonstrate that the RBDSQ-T is a valid and reliable tool. PMID:27340339

  18. Behavioral and movement disorders induced by local inhibitory dysfunction in primate striatum.

    PubMed

    Worbe, Yulia; Baup, Nicolas; Grabli, David; Chaigneau, Marion; Mounayar, Stéphanie; McCairn, Kevin; Féger, Jean; Tremblay, Léon

    2009-08-01

    The current model of basal ganglia organization postulates their functional division into sensorimotor, associative, and limbic territories, implicated, respectively, in motor, cognitive, and motivational aspects of behavior. Based on this model, we previously demonstrated, in the external segment of globus pallidus of monkeys, that the same neuronal dysfunction induced dyskinesia or abnormal behavior depending on the functional territory. To extend these findings, we performed bicuculline microinjections into the different functional territories of the striatum in 6 monkeys. Abnormal movements were observed after microinjections into the posterior putamen, corresponding to the sensorimotor territory, and into the dorsal part of the anterior striatum, corresponding to the associative functional territory. Within the ventral striatum, referred to as the limbic functional territory, we identified 3 subregions corresponding to different types of abnormal behaviors. Simultaneous neuronal recordings performed close to the microinjection sites confirmed that bicuculline produced a focal increase of neuronal activity surrounded by a zone with neuronal hypoactivity. This study provides new evidence for the involvement of specific striatal regions in movement as well as in a large spectrum of behavioral disorders and suggests that local inhibitory dysfunction could be a pathological mechanism of various neurological and psychiatric disorders. PMID:19068490

  19. Evidence for Multiple Rhythmic Skills

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Rhythms, or patterns in time, play a vital role in both speech and music. Proficiency in a number of rhythm skills has been linked to language ability, suggesting that certain rhythmic processes in music and language rely on overlapping resources. However, a lack of understanding about how rhythm skills relate to each other has impeded progress in understanding how language relies on rhythm processing. In particular, it is unknown whether all rhythm skills are linked together, forming a single broad rhythmic competence, or whether there are multiple dissociable rhythm skills. We hypothesized that beat tapping and rhythm memory/sequencing form two separate clusters of rhythm skills. This hypothesis was tested with a battery of two beat tapping and two rhythm memory tests. Here we show that tapping to a metronome and the ability to adjust to a changing tempo while tapping to a metronome are related skills. The ability to remember rhythms and to drum along to repeating rhythmic sequences are also related. However, we found no relationship between beat tapping skills and rhythm memory skills. Thus, beat tapping and rhythm memory are dissociable rhythmic aptitudes. This discovery may inform future research disambiguating how distinct rhythm competencies track with specific language functions. PMID:26376489

  20. Evidence for Multiple Rhythmic Skills.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Rhythms, or patterns in time, play a vital role in both speech and music. Proficiency in a number of rhythm skills has been linked to language ability, suggesting that certain rhythmic processes in music and language rely on overlapping resources. However, a lack of understanding about how rhythm skills relate to each other has impeded progress in understanding how language relies on rhythm processing. In particular, it is unknown whether all rhythm skills are linked together, forming a single broad rhythmic competence, or whether there are multiple dissociable rhythm skills. We hypothesized that beat tapping and rhythm memory/sequencing form two separate clusters of rhythm skills. This hypothesis was tested with a battery of two beat tapping and two rhythm memory tests. Here we show that tapping to a metronome and the ability to adjust to a changing tempo while tapping to a metronome are related skills. The ability to remember rhythms and to drum along to repeating rhythmic sequences are also related. However, we found no relationship between beat tapping skills and rhythm memory skills. Thus, beat tapping and rhythm memory are dissociable rhythmic aptitudes. This discovery may inform future research disambiguating how distinct rhythm competencies track with specific language functions. PMID:26376489

  1. Eye movements reveal sexually dimorphic deficits in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Paolozza, Angelina; Munn, Rebecca; Munoz, Douglas P.; Reynolds, James N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We examined the accuracy and characteristics of saccadic eye movements in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) compared with typically developing control children. Previous studies have found that children with FASD produce saccades that are quantifiably different from controls. Additionally, animal studies have found sex-based differences for behavioral effects after prenatal alcohol exposure. Therefore, we hypothesized that eye movement measures will show sexually dimorphic results. Methods: Children (aged 5–18 years) with FASD (n = 71) and typically developing controls (n = 113) performed a visually-guided saccade task. Saccade metrics and behavior were analyzed for sex and group differences. Results: Female control participants had greater amplitude saccades than control males or females with FASD. Accuracy was significantly poorer in the FASD group, especially in males, which introduced significantly greater variability in the data. Therefore, we conducted additional analyses including only those trials in which the first saccade successfully reached the target within a ± 1° window. In this restricted amplitude dataset, the females with FASD made saccades with significantly lower velocity and longer duration, whereas the males with FASD did not differ from the control group. Additionally, the mean and peak deceleration were selectively decreased in the females with FASD. Conclusions: These data support the hypothesis that children with FASD exhibit specific deficits in eye movement control and sensory-motor integration associated with cerebellar and/or brain stem circuits. Moreover, prenatal alcohol exposure may have a sexually dimorphic impact on eye movement metrics, with males and females exhibiting differential patterns of deficit. PMID:25814922

  2. Evolution of central pattern generators and rhythmic behaviours.

    PubMed

    Katz, Paul S

    2016-01-01

    Comparisons of rhythmic movements and the central pattern generators (CPGs) that control them uncover principles about the evolution of behaviour and neural circuits. Over the course of evolutionary history, gradual evolution of behaviours and their neural circuitry within any lineage of animals has been a predominant occurrence. Small changes in gene regulation can lead to divergence of circuit organization and corresponding changes in behaviour. However, some behavioural divergence has resulted from large-scale rewiring of the neural network. Divergence of CPG circuits has also occurred without a corresponding change in behaviour. When analogous rhythmic behaviours have evolved independently, it has generally been with different neural mechanisms. Repeated evolution of particular rhythmic behaviours has occurred within some lineages due to parallel evolution or latent CPGs. Particular motor pattern generating mechanisms have also evolved independently in separate lineages. The evolution of CPGs and rhythmic behaviours shows that although most behaviours and neural circuits are highly conserved, the nature of the behaviour does not dictate the neural mechanism and that the presence of homologous neural components does not determine the behaviour. This suggests that although behaviour is generated by neural circuits, natural selection can act separately on these two levels of biological organization. PMID:26598733

  3. Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder: diagnosis, management, and the need for neuroprotective interventions.

    PubMed

    Iranzo, Alex; Santamaria, Joan; Tolosa, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (IRBD) manifests as unpleasant dreams and vigorous behaviours during REM sleep that can result in injuries. Patients with IRBD have no known neurological diseases or motor or cognitive complaints; however, this sleep disorder is not harmless. In most cases, IRBD is the prelude of the synucleinopathies Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, or, less frequently, multiple system atrophy. Patients can show abnormalities that are characteristic of the synucleinopathies, and longitudinal follow-up shows that most patients develop parkinsonism and cognitive impairments with time. Thus, diagnosis of IRBD needs to be accurate and involves informing the patient of the risk of developing a neurodegenerative disease. It is extraordinary for a sleep disorder to precede the full expression of a neurodegenerative disease, which renders IRBD of particular interest in studies of the prodromal stage of the synucleinopathies, and in the development of neuroprotective interventions to stop or slow neurodegenerative deterioration before motor and cognitive symptomatology emerges. Such therapeutics do not currently exist, and thus represent an unmet need in IRBD. PMID:26971662

  4. Three patients with cancer who developed rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder.

    PubMed

    Shinno, Hideto; Kamei, Masahito; Maegawa, Tadahiro; Satake, Akira; Inami, Yasushi; Horiguchi, Jun; Nakamura, Yu

    2010-09-01

    This article discusses the clinical significance of differentiating parasomnia, such as rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD), from delirium in patients with advanced cancer. We describe three patients with advanced cancer who presented with aberrant behavior at night. All three patients developed violent behaviors when they were administered opioids and/or chemotherapy. Polysomnography (PSG) showed REM sleep with tonic electromyography. Previous treatment with neuroleptics had failed to improve their problematic behaviors. Diagnosis was made using criteria for REM behavior disorder of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 2nd edition, and PSG. Clonazepam (0.5 mg/day) was administered orally once at night. After treatment with clonazepam, aberrant and violent behaviors were improved. It should be noted that it is not rare for patients with advanced cancer to present with parasomnia, such as RBD, although organic brain syndrome, such as delirium, is more prevalent. Therefore, it is necessary to provide adequate assessment and treatment of aberrant behaviors in cancer patients. PMID:20541904

  5. Clinical and neuroimaging correlation of movement disorders in multiple sclerosis: case series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Potulska-Chromik, Anna; Rudzinska, Monika; Nojszewska, Monika; Podlecka-Piętowska, Aleksandra; Szczudlik, Andrzej; Zakrzewska-Pniewska, Beata; Gołębiowski, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, in which movement disorders (MD) have been reported very rarely. Anatomopathological studies of MS indicate two main processes: inflammation and neurodegeneration. The occurrence of the movement disorders symptoms in MS revises the question of aetiology of these two diseases. During the 10 years of observation in our out-patient clinic and MS units we examined about 2500 patients with clinically definite MS diagnosed according to the revised McDonald's criteria. Only in 10 cases we found coexistence of MS and MD signs. Below we present rare cases of patients with coexistence of MS and chorea, pseudoathetosis, dystonia and parkinsonism. Searching for the strategic focal lesion in our case series showed demyelinating plaques placed in the thalamus most often. Detailed analysis of the clinical, pharmacological and neuroimaging correlations may help to explain the character of movement disorders in MS. PMID:24729346

  6. Fixing the mirrors: a feasibility study of the effects of dance movement therapy on young adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Koch, Sabine C; Mehl, Laura; Sobanski, Esther; Sieber, Maik; Fuchs, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    From the 1970s on, case studies reported the effectiveness of therapeutic mirroring in movement with children with autism spectrum disorder. In this feasibility study, we tested a dance movement therapy intervention based on mirroring in movement in a population of 31 young adults with autism spectrum disorder (mainly high-functioning and Asperger's syndrome) with the aim to increase body awareness, social skills, self-other distinction, empathy, and well-being. We employed a manualized dance movement therapy intervention implemented in hourly sessions once a week for 7 weeks. The treatment group (n = 16) and the no-intervention control group (n = 15) were matched by sex, age, and symptom severity. Participants did not participate in any other therapies for the duration of the study. After the treatment, participants in the intervention group reported improved well-being, improved body awareness, improved self-other distinction, and increased social skills. The dance movement therapy-based mirroring approach seemed to address more primary developmental aspects of autism than the presently prevailing theory-of-mind approach. Results suggest that dance movement therapy can be an effective and feasible therapy approach for autism spectrum disorder, while future randomized control trials with bigger samples are needed. PMID:24566716

  7. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in a patient with brainstem lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Jianhua, Chen; Xiuqin, Liu; Quancai, Cui; Heyang, Sun; Yan, Huang

    2013-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is common in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. RBD occurring in a patient with brainstem lymphoma has not yet been reported. A 30-year-old man had an eleven-month history of violent motor and vocal behavior during sleep. Brain magnetic resonance imaging disclosed hypointensity T1 and hyperintensity T2 signals in the pontomesencephalic junction and at the upper/mid pons level. A stereotactic biopsy demonstrated the presence of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. On polysomnography, there was enhanced submental and limb electromyographic tone and increased muscular activity during REM sleep. Chemotherapy diminished the dream-enacting behaviors. This case provides evidence that treatment aimed at the primary disease can partially improve the frequency of RBD. PMID:23448775

  8. Condylar movements of temporomandibular disorder patients with intermittent lock: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Taihiko; Komatsu, Kosetsu; Okada, Kazuki; Matsuki, Takamitsu; Gotouda, Akihito

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify which direction of the condylar path is advantageous for releasing TMJ intermittent lock. The subjects were ten patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and intermittent lock caused by anterior displacement of disks without obvious medial or lateral displacement. The patients could not open their mouths fully in habitual opening but could open fully in an intentional winding opening with reduction of the anteriorly displaced disks (winding opening). The two kinds of movement at the kinematic condylar point were measured in each subject and compared. The length of the condylar path in winding opening was significantly larger than that in habitual opening. The affected side condyle of winding opening traced medio-inferior paths in the early part of the condylar translation in comparison with habitual opening. From the viewpoint of the condylar path, the medio-inferior direction of condylar translation is thought to be advantageous for releasing intermittent lock. PMID:17304918

  9. Path Planning Method for UUV Homing and Docking in Movement Disorders Environment

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zheping; Deng, Chao; Chi, Dongnan; Hou, Shuping

    2014-01-01

    Path planning method for unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV) homing and docking in movement disorders environment is proposed in this paper. Firstly, cost function is proposed for path planning. Then, a novel particle swarm optimization (NPSO) is proposed and applied to find the waypoint with minimum value of cost function. Then, a strategy for UUV enters into the mother vessel with a fixed angle being proposed. Finally, the test function is introduced to analyze the performance of NPSO and compare with basic particle swarm optimization (BPSO), inertia weight particle swarm optimization (LWPSO, EPSO), and time-varying acceleration coefficient (TVAC). It has turned out that, for unimodal functions, NPSO performed better searching accuracy and stability than other algorithms, and, for multimodal functions, the performance of NPSO is similar to TVAC. Then, the simulation of UUV path planning is presented, and it showed that, with the strategy proposed in this paper, UUV can dodge obstacles and threats, and search for the efficiency path. PMID:25054169

  10. Path planning method for UUV homing and docking in movement disorders environment.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zheping; Deng, Chao; Chi, Dongnan; Chen, Tao; Hou, Shuping

    2014-01-01

    Path planning method for unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV) homing and docking in movement disorders environment is proposed in this paper. Firstly, cost function is proposed for path planning. Then, a novel particle swarm optimization (NPSO) is proposed and applied to find the waypoint with minimum value of cost function. Then, a strategy for UUV enters into the mother vessel with a fixed angle being proposed. Finally, the test function is introduced to analyze the performance of NPSO and compare with basic particle swarm optimization (BPSO), inertia weight particle swarm optimization (LWPSO, EPSO), and time-varying acceleration coefficient (TVAC). It has turned out that, for unimodal functions, NPSO performed better searching accuracy and stability than other algorithms, and, for multimodal functions, the performance of NPSO is similar to TVAC. Then, the simulation of UUV path planning is presented, and it showed that, with the strategy proposed in this paper, UUV can dodge obstacles and threats, and search for the efficiency path. PMID:25054169

  11. What do repetitive and stereotyped movements mean for infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders?

    PubMed

    Damiano, Cara R; Nahmias, Allison; Hogan-Brown, Abigail L; Stone, Wendy L

    2013-06-01

    Repetitive and stereotyped movements (RSMs) in infancy are associated with later diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet this relationship has not been fully explored in high-risk populations. The current study investigated how RSMs involving object and body use are related to diagnostic outcomes in infant siblings of children with ASD (Sibs-ASD) and typically developing children (Sibs-TD). The rate and number of different types of RSMs were measured at an average of 15 months with follow-up diagnostic evaluations approximately 18 months later. While Sibs-ASD displayed higher rates of RSMs relative to Sibs-TD, rates did not differ according to diagnostic outcome in Sibs-ASD. However preliminary evidence suggests that qualitative differences in RSM type warrant further investigation as early diagnostic markers. PMID:23080207

  12. ED-27CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND LONG-TERM OUTCOME IN MOVEMENT DISORDER IN CHILDHOOD THALAMIC TUMORS

    PubMed Central

    Sadighi, Zsila; Zabrowski, Jennifer; Broniscer, Alberto; Gajjar, Amar; Khan, Raja

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical observations of children with thalamic tumors and secondary movement disorders (MD) suggest correlation between anatomical location and treatment modalities to severity of MD. METHODS: We conducted an IRB approved retrospective review of patients ≤ 18 years old with thalamic tumors and MD at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital from 1996-2013. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was reviewed and thalamic nuclei involved with tumor and/or surgical site were documented. MD severity was rated with Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS); Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS), which scores 0 (absent) to 6 (extremely severe); and Clinical Global Impression of Severity for dystonia and dyskinesia (CGI-S), which scores 0 (absent) to 8 (extremely severe). RESULTS: We reviewed 83 patients with thalamic with 9 confirmed MD by neurological evaluation. Median age at tumor diagnosis was 7 years old (3 months-11 years), median age at MD onset was 7 years old (18 months-11 years). Types of MD found were postural tremor (7), ballismus (4), myoclonus (1), and athetosis (4). Median time to last follow-up was 3 years. 8 patients had onset of MD median of 1.5 months (0-4 months) time after surgical intervention. Initial median KPS was 80 (60-90) and at last follow-up was 80 (50-90). Initial median ESRS was 5 (3-8) and at last follow-up was 5 (0-5). Initial median CGI-S was 5 (3-6) and at last follow-up was 4 (0-6). Based on these severity scales, 2 patients showed no change, 1 patient worsened, 1 patient completely resolved, and 4 patients had improvement regardless of initial extent of surgery or number of nuclei involved. CONCLUSION: This retrospective analysis compares thalamic tumor anatomical locations and treatment intervention with respect to movement disorder clinical characteristics and outcomes. Extent of location and surgical intervention did not correlate to severity and will be included in final presentation.

  13. Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder symptomatic of a brain stem cavernoma.

    PubMed

    Felix, Sandra; Thobois, Stephane; Peter-Derex, Laure

    2016-04-01

    A 75-year-old man complained of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), difficulty falling asleep and nocturnal agitation during sleep. Restless legs syndrome (RLS) was diagnosed and treated. Because of persistent EDS, snoring and nycturia, a nocturnal polysomnography (PSG) was performed. PSG showed high sleep fragmentation related to a moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Continuous positive airway pressure treatment (CPAP) was proposed. Because of the persistence of abnormal nocturnal behaviours, characterized by screaming, punching and falling out of bed, a video-PSG with CPAP treatment was performed. The recording showed typical chin electromyography (EMG) activity increase associated with violent movements during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, suggesting REM sleep behaviour disorders (RBD). Clinical neurological examination found no parkinsonian syndrome, no dysautonomic sign and no neurological focal sign. Dopamine transporter imaging [123I-FP-CIT single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)] did not find any presynaptic dopaminergic pathways degeneration. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a vascular lesion suggestive of cavernoma located in the pons. The present case illustrates the complexity of sleep disturbance diagnosis with a possible entanglement of aetiologies responsible for nocturnal agitation, and confirms that an isolated pons cavernoma should be considered among the rare causes of RBD. PMID:26780965

  14. Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in women with Parkinson's disease is an underdiagnosed entity.

    PubMed

    Mahale, Rohan R; Yadav, Ravi; Pal, Pramod Kr

    2016-06-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is common in Parkinson's disease (PD). Little information exists about RBD in women with PD. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical expression of RBD in women with PD and note any differences in women with PD with and without RBD. One hundred fifty-six patients with PD were recruited. There were 37 women with PD and probable RBD was diagnosed using the RBD Screening Questionnaire. Other scales included Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale, Epworth Sleep Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Probable RBD was diagnosed in 10 women with PD (27%). Most often (70%) RBD occurred after the onset of parkinsonian symptoms. Women with probable RBD were older, had shorter duration of PD symptoms, lower tremor score, and higher axial signs score. They had insomnia (80% versus non-probable RBD patients 44%, p=0.019), and poor sleep quality with excessive daytime sleepiness. Anxiety and depression were common in women with probable RBD. Episodes were brief and confined to vocalization and simple limb movements. No injury to self or bed partners was noted. Women with PD have fewer fights and less aggressive dream enacting behaviour than men, but suffer from significant disturbed sleep, and levels of anxiety and depression. PMID:26765761

  15. Motor control of rhythmic dance from a dynamical systems perspective: a review.

    PubMed

    Miura, Akito; Fujii, Shinya; Yamamoto, Yuji; Kudo, Kazutoshi

    2015-03-01

    While dancers and dance educators express great interest in motor control as it relates to rhythmic dance, the subject remains largely uninvestigated. In order to advance our understanding of motor control, a theoretical framework called the dynamical systems approach (DSA) has been used. The DSA was originally developed to describe mathematically the principle of synchronization patterns in nature and their change over time. In recent decades, researchers studying human motor control have attempted to describe the synchronization of rhythmic movement using a DSA. More recently, this approach has been applied specifically to rhythmic dance movements. A series of studies that used the DSA revealed that when people synchronize rhythmic movement of a body part 1. with a different body part, 2. with other people's movement, or 3. with an auditory beat with some phase differences, unintentional and autonomous entrainment to a specific synchronization pattern occurs. However, through practice dancers are able to overcome such entrainment and dance freely. These findings provide practical suggestions for effective ways of training in dance education. The DSA can potentially be an effective tool for furthering our understanding of the motor control utilized in rhythmic dance. PMID:25741780

  16. Why do people google movement disorders? An infodemiological study of information seeking behaviors.

    PubMed

    Brigo, Francesco; Erro, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Millions of people worldwide everyday search Google or Wikipedia to look for health-related information. Aim of this study was to evaluate and interpret web search queries for terms related to movement disorders (MD) in English-speaking countries and their changes over time. We analyzed information regarding the volume of online searches in Google and Wikipedia for the most common MD and their treatments. We determined the highest search volume peaks to identify possible relation with online news headlines. The volume of searches for some queries related to MD entered in Google enormously increased over time. Most queries were related to definition, subtypes, symptoms and treatment (mostly to adverse effects, or alternatively, to possible alternative treatments). The highest peaks of MD search queries were temporally related to news about celebrities suffering from MD, to specific mass-media events or to news concerning pharmaceutic companies or scientific discoveries on MD. An increasing number of people use Google and Wikipedia to look for terms related to MD to obtain information on definitions, causes and symptoms, possibly to aid initial self-diagnosis. MD information demand and the actual prevalence of different MDs do not travel together: web search volume may mirrors patients' fears and worries about some particular disorders perceived as more serious than others, or may be driven by release of news about celebrities suffering from MD, "breaking news" or specific mass-media events regarding MD. PMID:26846327

  17. Neurophysiological basis of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: informing future drug development.

    PubMed

    Jennum, Poul; Christensen, Julie Ae; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2016-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by a history of recurrent nocturnal dream enactment behavior and loss of skeletal muscle atonia and increased phasic muscle activity during REM sleep: REM sleep without atonia. RBD and associated comorbidities have recently been identified as one of the most specific and potentially sensitive risk factors for later development of any of the alpha-synucleinopathies: Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and other atypical parkinsonian syndromes. Several other sleep-related abnormalities have recently been identified in patients with RBD/Parkinson's disease who experience abnormalities in sleep electroencephalographic frequencies, sleep-wake transitions, wake and sleep stability, occurrence and morphology of sleep spindles, and electrooculography measures. These findings suggest a gradual involvement of the brainstem and other structures, which is in line with the gradual involvement known in these disorders. We propose that these findings may help identify biomarkers of individuals at high risk of subsequent conversion to parkinsonism. PMID:27186147

  18. Development of scales for assessment of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD).

    PubMed

    Lam, Siu-Ping; Li, Shirley Xin; Zhang, Jihui; Wing, Yun-Kwok

    2013-08-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by an absence of normal skeletal muscle atonia during REM sleep and clinical features of disturbing dreams and dream enacting behaviors. Hence, the common sequelae are sleep-related injury and violence to both patients and bed-partners. Although polysomnographic evidence of REM sleep without atonia, is regarded as a gold standard for the confirmation of RBD diagnosis, polysomnography is both time and resource consuming. In order to facilitate early detection and clinical management, developing a convenient and suitable screening tool to identify individuals at risk of RBD would enable physicians to prioritize those who may require timely assessment and clinical intervention. In addition, the longitudinal course of RBD and its prognostic implication in predicting neurodegenerative disorders may suggest a potential therapeutic window for early preventive management of underlying progress of neurodegeneration. The availability of suitable RBD scales may facilitate timely assessment, accurate diagnosis and monitoring of disease progress of RBD. The present paper summarized recent research on the development of screening tools of RBD, their psychometric properties, and the applications of these questionnaires. PMID:23146747

  19. Neurophysiological basis of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: informing future drug development

    PubMed Central

    Jennum, Poul; Christensen, Julie AE; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2016-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by a history of recurrent nocturnal dream enactment behavior and loss of skeletal muscle atonia and increased phasic muscle activity during REM sleep: REM sleep without atonia. RBD and associated comorbidities have recently been identified as one of the most specific and potentially sensitive risk factors for later development of any of the alpha-synucleinopathies: Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and other atypical parkinsonian syndromes. Several other sleep-related abnormalities have recently been identified in patients with RBD/Parkinson’s disease who experience abnormalities in sleep electroencephalographic frequencies, sleep–wake transitions, wake and sleep stability, occurrence and morphology of sleep spindles, and electrooculography measures. These findings suggest a gradual involvement of the brainstem and other structures, which is in line with the gradual involvement known in these disorders. We propose that these findings may help identify biomarkers of individuals at high risk of subsequent conversion to parkinsonism. PMID:27186147

  20. The risk of musculoskeletal disorders for workers due to repetitive movements during tomato harvesting.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, M; Colantoni, A; Massantini, R; Monarca, D

    2010-04-01

    Tomatoes are the most common crop in Italy. The production cycle requires operations in the field and factory that can cause musculoskeletal disorders due to the repetitive movements of the upper limbs of the workers employed in the sorting phase. This research aims to evaluate these risks using the OCRA (occupational repetitive actions) index method This method is based firstly on the calculation of a maximum number of recommended actions, related to the way the operation is performed, and secondly on a comparison of the number of actions effectively carried out by the upper limb with the recommended calculated value. The results of the risk evaluation for workers who manually sort tomatoes during harvest showed a risk for the workers, with an exposure index greater than 20; the OCRA index defines an index higher than 3.5 as unacceptable. The present trend of replacing manual sorting onboard a vehicle with optical sorters seems to be appropriate to reduce the risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) and is supported from both a financial point of view and as a quality control measure. PMID:20503810

  1. Dissociation predicts treatment response in eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hwallip; Kim, Daeho; Park, Yong Chon

    2016-01-01

    Using clinical data from a specialized trauma clinic, this study investigated pretreatment clinical factors predicting response to eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) among adult patients diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Participants were evaluated using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale before treatment and were reassessed using the CAPS after treatment and at 6-month follow-up. A total of 69 patients underwent an average of 4 sessions of EMDR, and 60 (87%) completed the posttreatment evaluation, including 8 participants who terminated treatment prematurely. Intent-to-treat analysis revealed that 39 (65%) of the 60 patients were classified as responders and 21 (35%) as nonresponders when response was defined as more than a 30% decrease in total CAPS score. The nonresponders had higher levels of dissociation (depersonalization and derealization) and numbing symptoms, but other PTSD symptoms, such as avoidance, hyperarousal, and intrusion, were not significantly different. The number of psychiatric comorbidities was also associated with treatment nonresponse. The final logistic regression model yielded 2 significant variables: dissociation (p < .001) and more than 2 comorbidities compared to none (p < .05). These results indicate that complex symptom patterns in PTSD may predict treatment response and support the inclusion of the dissociative subtype of PTSD in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. PMID:26156867

  2. Macroscopic Neural Oscillation during Skilled Reaching Movements in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Chun Kee

    2016-01-01

    The neural mechanism of skilled movements, such as reaching, has been considered to differ from that of rhythmic movement such as locomotion. It is generally thought that skilled movements are consciously controlled by the brain, while rhythmic movements are usually controlled autonomously by the spinal cord and brain stem. However, several studies in recent decades have suggested that neural networks in the spinal cord may also be involved in the generation of skilled movements. Moreover, a recent study revealed that neural activities in the motor cortex exhibit rhythmic oscillations corresponding to movement frequency during reaching movements as rhythmic movements. However, whether the oscillations are generated in the spinal cord or the cortical circuit in the motor cortex causes the oscillations is unclear. If the spinal cord is involved in the skilled movements, then similar rhythmic oscillations with time delays should be found in macroscopic neural activity. We measured whole-brain MEG signals during reaching. The MEG signals were analyzed using a dynamical analysis method. We found that rhythmic oscillations with time delays occur in all subjects during reaching movements. The results suggest that the corticospinal system is involved in the generation and control of the skilled movements as rhythmic movements. PMID:27524996

  3. Macroscopic Neural Oscillation during Skilled Reaching Movements in Humans.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Hong Gi; Kim, June Sic; Chung, Chun Kee

    2016-01-01

    The neural mechanism of skilled movements, such as reaching, has been considered to differ from that of rhythmic movement such as locomotion. It is generally thought that skilled movements are consciously controlled by the brain, while rhythmic movements are usually controlled autonomously by the spinal cord and brain stem. However, several studies in recent decades have suggested that neural networks in the spinal cord may also be involved in the generation of skilled movements. Moreover, a recent study revealed that neural activities in the motor cortex exhibit rhythmic oscillations corresponding to movement frequency during reaching movements as rhythmic movements. However, whether the oscillations are generated in the spinal cord or the cortical circuit in the motor cortex causes the oscillations is unclear. If the spinal cord is involved in the skilled movements, then similar rhythmic oscillations with time delays should be found in macroscopic neural activity. We measured whole-brain MEG signals during reaching. The MEG signals were analyzed using a dynamical analysis method. We found that rhythmic oscillations with time delays occur in all subjects during reaching movements. The results suggest that the corticospinal system is involved in the generation and control of the skilled movements as rhythmic movements. PMID:27524996

  4. Just a scary dream? A brief review of sleep terrors, nightmares, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    PubMed

    Haupt, Mark; Sheldon, Stephen H; Loghmanee, Darius

    2013-10-01

    The clinical spectrum of sleep disorders in children is broad, ranging from primary snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome to complex sleep-related behaviors and movement disorders. Although snoring and OSA typically receive significant attention and discussion, other biologically based sleep disorders are as common, if not more common, in children. A general pediatrician is frequently presented with the complaint of sleep talking, sleep walking, or abnormal movements during sleep. Even more alarming is the presentation of the child suddenly and explosively screaming during sleep. Such complaints fall under the category of parasomnias. Exclusive to sleep and wake-to-sleep transitions, these parasomnias include arousals with abnormal motor, behavioral, autonomic, or sensory symptoms. Parasomnias can be noticeably dissimilar in clinical manifestations, but most share biologic characteristics. Three parasomnias associated with loud vocalizations associated with sleep that can present to general practitioners include sleep terrors, nightmares, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Although usually benign, these sleep disorders can be disruptive and even potentially dangerous to the patient and can often be threatening to quality of life. In this article, we describe the clinical features of some of these disorders and how to differentiate between their alarming presentations. PMID:24126984

  5. Sleep disturbances in Parkinson's disease with emphasis on rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    PubMed

    Barber, Anthony; Dashtipour, Khashayar

    2012-08-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). These disturbances can primarily affect the patient's quality of life and may worsen the symptoms of PD. Among the multiple sleep disturbances in PD patients, there has been a marked growing interest in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD). This is likely due to the fact that RBD has been proven to precede the motor symptoms of PD by many years. The aim of this article is to examine the sleep disturbances found in PD, with special attention to RBD as a premotor symptom of PD, as well as to assess its proposed related pathophysiology. MEDLINE (1966-March 2010), American Academy of Sleep Medicine's, The International Classification of Sleep Disorders, and current textbooks of sleep medicine were searched for relevant information. Search terms: RBD, sleep disturbances, Parkinson's disease, and pre-motor were used. Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), sleep attack, insomnia, restless leg syndrome (RLS), sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), and RBD are sleep disturbances commonly found in the literature related to PD. Sleep benefit has been proven to lessen PD motor symptoms. RBD has been described as a premotor symptom of PD in several prospective, retrospective, and cross-sectional studies. Sleep disturbances in PD can result secondarily to natural disease progression, as a side effect of the medications used in PD, or in result of pre-clinical pathology. Treatment of sleep disturbances in PD patients is crucial, as what is termed as, "sleep benefit effect" has been shown to improve the symptoms of PD. PMID:22463496

  6. NMDA-induced rhythmical activity in XII nerve of isolated CNS from newborn rats.

    PubMed

    Katakura, N; Jia, L; Nakamura, Y

    1995-03-01

    We tried to induce rhythmical oro-facial motor activities in an isolated brain stem-spinal cord preparation from newborn rats. Neural activities were monitored from the hypoglossal nerve (XII N) and the ventral roots of the cervical cord. Bath application of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) as well as glutamate induced rhythmical burst activity in XII N distinct from and much faster than respiratory rhythm. This NMDA-induced rhythmical activity was blocked by simultaneous application of 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (AP5). The results demonstrate that NMDA receptor activation can induce rhythmical XII N activity different from respiration in an isolated mammalian CNS. This preparation will be useful for the investigation of neural mechanisms underlying the central generation of food ingestive movements. PMID:7605909

  7. Individual Differences in Rhythmic Cortical Entrainment Correlate with Predictive Behavior in Sensorimotor Synchronization.

    PubMed

    Nozaradan, Sylvie; Peretz, Isabelle; Keller, Peter E

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims at characterizing the mechanisms that allow humans to entrain the mind and body to incoming rhythmic sensory inputs in real time. We addressed this unresolved issue by examining the relationship between covert neural processes and overt behavior in the context of musical rhythm. We measured temporal prediction abilities, sensorimotor synchronization accuracy and neural entrainment to auditory rhythms as captured using an EEG frequency-tagging approach. Importantly, movement synchronization accuracy with a rhythmic beat could be explained by the amplitude of neural activity selectively locked with the beat period when listening to the rhythmic inputs. Furthermore, stronger endogenous neural entrainment at the beat frequency was associated with superior temporal prediction abilities. Together, these results reveal a direct link between cortical and behavioral measures of rhythmic entrainment, thus providing evidence that frequency-tagged brain activity has functional relevance for beat perception and synchronization. PMID:26847160

  8. Individual Differences in Rhythmic Cortical Entrainment Correlate with Predictive Behavior in Sensorimotor Synchronization

    PubMed Central

    Nozaradan, Sylvie; Peretz, Isabelle; Keller, Peter E.

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims at characterizing the mechanisms that allow humans to entrain the mind and body to incoming rhythmic sensory inputs in real time. We addressed this unresolved issue by examining the relationship between covert neural processes and overt behavior in the context of musical rhythm. We measured temporal prediction abilities, sensorimotor synchronization accuracy and neural entrainment to auditory rhythms as captured using an EEG frequency-tagging approach. Importantly, movement synchronization accuracy with a rhythmic beat could be explained by the amplitude of neural activity selectively locked with the beat period when listening to the rhythmic inputs. Furthermore, stronger endogenous neural entrainment at the beat frequency was associated with superior temporal prediction abilities. Together, these results reveal a direct link between cortical and behavioral measures of rhythmic entrainment, thus providing evidence that frequency-tagged brain activity has functional relevance for beat perception and synchronization. PMID:26847160

  9. The Role of Vision for Online Control of Manual Aiming Movements in Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazebrook, Cheryl M.; Gonzalez, David; Hansen, Steve; Elliott, Digby

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies suggest motor skills are not entirely spared in individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous reports demonstrated that young adults with ASD were able to land accurately on a target despite increased temporal and spatial variability during their movement. This study explored how a group of adolescents and young…

  10. Reliability and Responsiveness of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children--Second Edition Test in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Su, Jui-Hsing; Su, Chwen-Yng

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To examine the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and responsiveness of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children--Second Edition (MABC-2) Test for children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Method: One hundred and forty-four Taiwanese children with DCD aged 6 to 12 years (87 males, 57 females) were tested on…

  11. Low Dimensional Temporal Organization of Spontaneous Eye Blinks in Adults with Developmental Disabilities and Stereotyped Movement Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Mei-Hua; Bodfish, James W.; Lewis, Mark H.; Newell, Karl M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the mean rate and time-dependent sequential organization of spontaneous eye blinks in adults with intellectual and developmental disability (IDD) and individuals from this group who were additionally categorized with stereotypic movement disorder (IDD + SMD). The mean blink rate was lower in the IDD + SMD group than the IDD…

  12. Movement disorder symptoms associated with Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) in two manganese (Mn)-exposed communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objectives: The UPDRS is a commonly used neurological measurement to assess the presence and severity of parkinsonian symptoms. It has also been used to assess symptoms associated with Mn exposure. Objectives: to determine 1) if movement disorder symptoms were associated with UP...

  13. Impaired Recognition of Emotions from Body Movements Is Associated with Elevated Motion Coherence Thresholds in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Anthony P.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has confirmed that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have difficulties in recognizing emotions from body movements. Difficulties in perceiving coherent motion are also common in ASD. Yet it is unknown whether these two impairments are related. Thirteen adults with ASD and 16 age- and IQ-matched typically developing…

  14. Effects of rhythmic stimulus presentation on oscillatory brain activity: the physiology of cueing in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    te Woerd, Erik S.; Oostenveld, Robert; Bloem, Bastiaan R.; de Lange, Floris P.; Praamstra, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The basal ganglia play an important role in beat perception and patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) are impaired in perception of beat-based rhythms. Rhythmic cues are nonetheless beneficial in gait rehabilitation, raising the question how rhythm improves movement in PD. We addressed this question with magnetoencephalography recordings during a choice response task with rhythmic and non-rhythmic modes of stimulus presentation. Analyses focused on (i) entrainment of slow oscillations, (ii) the depth of beta power modulation, and (iii) whether a gain in modulation depth of beta power, due to rhythmicity, is of predictive or reactive nature. The results show weaker phase synchronisation of slow oscillations and a relative shift from predictive to reactive movement-related beta suppression in PD. Nonetheless, rhythmic stimulus presentation increased beta modulation depth to the same extent in patients and controls. Critically, this gain selectively increased the predictive and not reactive movement-related beta power suppression. Operation of a predictive mechanism, induced by rhythmic stimulation, was corroborated by a sensory gating effect in the sensorimotor cortex. The predictive mode of cue utilisation points to facilitation of basal ganglia-premotor interactions, contrasting with the popular view that rhythmic stimulation confers a special advantage in PD, based on recruitment of alternative pathways. PMID:26509117

  15. Audio-Visual Stimulation in Conjunction with Functional Electrical Stimulation to Address Upper Limb and Lower Limb Movement Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepesh; Verma, Sunny; Bhattacharya, Sutapa; Lahiri, Uttama

    2016-06-13

    Neurological disorders often manifest themselves in the form of movement deficit on the part of the patient. Conventional rehabilitation often used to address these deficits, though powerful are often monotonous in nature. Adequate audio-visual stimulation can prove to be motivational. In the research presented here we indicate the applicability of audio-visual stimulation to rehabilitation exercises to address at least some of the movement deficits for upper and lower limbs. Added to the audio-visual stimulation, we also use Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES). In our presented research we also show the applicability of FES in conjunction with audio-visual stimulation delivered through VR-based platform for grasping skills of patients with movement disorder. PMID:27478568

  16. Audio-Visual Stimulation in Conjunction with Functional Electrical Stimulation to Address Upper Limb and Lower Limb Movement Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepesh; Verma, Sunny; Bhattacharya, Sutapa; Lahiri, Uttama

    2016-01-01

    Neurological disorders often manifest themselves in the form of movement deficit on the part of the patient. Conventional rehabilitation often used to address these deficits, though powerful are often monotonous in nature. Adequate audio-visual stimulation can prove to be motivational. In the research presented here we indicate the applicability of audio-visual stimulation to rehabilitation exercises to address at least some of the movement deficits for upper and lower limbs. Added to the audio-visual stimulation, we also use Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES). In our presented research we also show the applicability of FES in conjunction with audio-visual stimulation delivered through VR-based platform for grasping skills of patients with movement disorder. PMID:27478568

  17. Jactatio corporis nocturna and dissociative disorder: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pelin, Zerrin; Karataş, Semra; Kesebir, Sermin

    2012-01-01

    Jactatio corporis nocturna is a type of parasomnia. Rhythmic body movements during sleep are commonly observed in infancy and early childhood, and spontaneous resolution is expected after the age of 4 years. Rarely, the body movements persist until adulthood. Rhythmic body movements characteristically occur during the wake-sleep transition period, rather than during other sleep stages. Some psychiatric diseases can co-occur with sleep-related movement disorders. A relationship between parasomnias and dissociative disorders has been recently reported. Herein we present a 33-year-old male with nocturnal repetitive rolling body movements and daytime fatigue. The patient also had loss of memory of some important events (such as the day his daughter underwent surgery), and reported that he sometimes confused reality with dreams had fantasies during which he experienced his spirit rising above to watch his body and fantasy. Detailed neuropsychological assessment showed that the patient also had a dissociative disorder. Video-polysomnographic recordings showed repetitive, rolling body movements that occurred only during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. PMID:22648876

  18. [On the Relationship between EMDR and Eye Movements - An Analysis of the Current State of Neurobiological Research].

    PubMed

    Strenge, Hans

    2016-08-01

    EMDR is an effective treatment for people diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder. The traditional technique of EMDR combines the activation of distressing reminders with guided rhythmic eye movements. The present article reviews the current state of research on the neurobiological correlates of the eye movements occurring during EMDR. The distinction between saccades and smooth pursuit eye movements allows for detailed analyses of ocular motor connections with cerebral networks of attention, memory and emotion. Possible consequences for research and clinical practice with EMDR are discussed. PMID:27485927

  19. Oral and Hand Movement Speeds are Associated with Expressive Language Ability in Children with Speech Sound Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Beate

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that children with speech sound disorder have generalized slowed motor speeds. It evaluated associations among oral and hand motor speeds and measures of speech (articulation and phonology) and language (receptive vocabulary, sentence comprehension, sentence imitation), in 11 children with moderate to severe SSD and 11 controls. Syllable durations from a syllable repetition task served as an estimate of maximal oral movement speed. In two imitation tasks, nonwords and clapped rhythms, unstressed vowel durations and quarter-note clap intervals served as estimates of oral and hand movement speed, respectively. Syllable durations were significantly correlated with vowel durations and hand clap intervals. Sentence imitation was correlated with all three timed movement measures. Clustering on syllable repetition durations produced three clusters that also differed in sentence imitation scores. Results are consistent with limited movement speeds across motor systems and SSD subtypes defined by motor speeds as a corollary of expressive language abilities. PMID:22411590

  20. The sensitivity and specificity of F-DOPA PET in a movement disorder clinic

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Nevein; Kusmirek, Joanna; Struck, Aaron F; Floberg, John M; Perlman, Scott B; Gallagher, Catherine; Hall, Lance T

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Early PD may present a diagnostic challenge with broad differential diagnoses that are not associated with nigral degeneration or striatal dopamine deficiency. Therefore, the early clinical diagnosis alone may not be accurate and this reinforces the importance of functional imaging targeting the pathophysiology of the disease process. 18F-DOPA L-6-[18F] fluoro-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalnine (18F-DOPA) is a positron emission tomography (PET) agent that measures the uptake of dopamine precursors for assessment of presynaptic dopaminergic integrity and has been shown to accurately reflect the monoaminergic disturbances in PD. In this study, we aim to illustrate our local experience to determine the accuracy of 18F-DOPA PET for diagnosis of PD. We studied a total of 27 patients. A retrospective analysis was carried out for all patients that underwent 18F-DOPA PET brain scan for motor symptoms suspicious for PD between 2001-2008. Both qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses of the scans were performed. The patient’s medical records were then assessed for length of follow-up, response to levodopa, clinical course of illness, and laterality of symptoms at time of 18F-DOPA PET. The eventual diagnosis by the referring neurologist, movement disorder specialist, was used as the reference standard for further analysis. Of the 28 scans, we found that one was a false negative, 20 were true positives, and 7 were true negatives. The resultant values are Sensitivity 95.4% (95% CI: 100%-75.3%), Specificity 100% (95% CI: 100%-59.0%), PPV 100% (95% CI 100%-80.7%), and NPV 87.5% (95% CI: 99.5%-50.5%). PMID:27069770

  1. Neural correlates of cerebellar-mediated timing during finger tapping in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    du Plessis, Lindie; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Molteno, Christopher D.; Robertson, Frances C.; Peterson, Bradley S.; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Meintjes, Ernesta M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Classical eyeblink conditioning (EBC), an elemental form of learning, is among the most sensitive indicators of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. The cerebellum plays a key role in maintaining timed movements with millisecond accuracy required for EBC. Functional MRI (fMRI) was used to identify cerebellar regions that mediate timing in healthy controls and the degree to which these areas are also recruited in children with prenatal alcohol exposure. Experimental design fMRI data were acquired during an auditory rhythmic/non-rhythmic finger tapping task. We present results for 17 children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or partial FAS, 17 heavily exposed (HE) nonsyndromal children and 16 non- or minimally exposed controls. Principal observations Controls showed greater cerebellar blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activation in right crus I, vermis IV–VI, and right lobule VI during rhythmic than non-rhythmic finger tapping. The alcohol-exposed children showed smaller activation increases during rhythmic tapping in right crus I than the control children and the most severely affected children with either FAS or PFAS showed smaller increases in vermis IV–V. Higher levels of maternal alcohol intake per occasion during pregnancy were associated with reduced activation increases during rhythmic tapping in all four regions associated with rhythmic tapping in controls. Conclusions The four cerebellar areas activated by the controls more during rhythmic than non-rhythmic tapping have been implicated in the production of timed responses in several previous studies. These data provide evidence linking binge-like drinking during pregnancy to poorer function in cerebellar regions involved in timing and somatosensory processing needed for complex tasks requiring precise timing. PMID:25844307

  2. Insulinoma Masquerading as Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder: Case Series and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Kawasaki, Akiko; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Sato, Masatoshi; Shimizu, Tetsuo; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-06-01

    Insulinoma is a rare endocrine tumor that can cause a wide variety of symptoms, including abnormal nocturnal behavior. We report on 3 patients with insulinoma who presented with abnormal nocturnal behavior and injury during sleep, which simulated rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD). In case 1, the fasting glucose level was 15  mg/dL, and insulin levels were elevated (15  μU/mL). In case 3, when the patient was transferred to the hospital because of a disturbance of consciousness, hypoglycemia (29  mg/dL) was detected. In contrast, in case 2, fasting glucose sampling did not indicate hypoglycemia, but continuous glucose monitoring revealed nocturnal hypoglycemia. The time from initial symptoms to a diagnosis of insulinoma ranged from 7 months to 2 years. All 3 patients had previously received anticonvulsant drugs for suspected epilepsy, but the medications were ineffective. Polysomnography showed no evidence of REM sleep without atonia in any of the 3 patients. No patient remembered any events that occurred during sleep. When a patient manifests abnormal behavior during the night and early morning, glucose monitoring should be performed, especially during the night and early morning. Clinicians should be aware that although insulinomas are rare, they can mimic parasomnias, such as RBD. PMID:26107678

  3. Genetics of movement disorders in the next-generation sequencing era.

    PubMed

    Olgiati, Simone; Quadri, Marialuisa; Bonifati, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    Several innovative and extremely powerful methods for sequencing nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), collectively known as next-generation sequencing technologies, have become available in the past few years. The application of these technologies is rapidly changing the landscape of both medical genetic research and clinical practice: the pace of discovery of novel disease-causing or disease-predisposing genes is markedly accelerating; the phenotypic spectra associated with previously known genes is expanding; and novel tools for rapid, cheap, and comprehensive genetic testing are entering the clinical practice. As with every technological revolution, next-generation sequencing also comes with new challenges concerning the storage, the analysis, and crucially, the interpretation of the large amounts of generated data. The current possibility to sequence entire human exomes (the coding part of the genome) or entire genomes at affordable costs has brought the era of personalized medicine closer than ever, also raising new legal and ethical issues. In this article, we summarize the essential technological aspects of next-generation sequencing and discuss their applications in the field of movement disorders. We review the different strategies for gene finding enabled by these technologies (including project designs, filtering approaches, and bioinformatic tools) and we then discuss their applications in clinical practice. PMID:26899883

  4. Structural Brain Alterations Associated with Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Boucetta, Soufiane; Salimi, Ali; Dadar, Mahsa; Jones, Barbara E.; Collins, D. Louis; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh

    2016-01-01

    Characterized by dream-enactment motor manifestations arising from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is frequently encountered in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Yet the specific neurostructural changes associated with RBD in PD patients remain to be revealed by neuroimaging. Here we identified such neurostructural alterations by comparing large samples of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in 69 PD patients with probable RBD, 240 patients without RBD and 138 healthy controls, using deformation-based morphometry (p < 0.05 corrected for multiple comparisons). All data were extracted from the Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative. PD patients with probable RBD showed smaller volumes than patients without RBD and than healthy controls in the pontomesencephalic tegmentum, medullary reticular formation, hypothalamus, thalamus, putamen, amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex. These results demonstrate that RBD is associated with a prominent loss of volume in the pontomesencephalic tegmentum, where cholinergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons are located and implicated in the promotion of REM sleep and muscle atonia. It is additionally associated with more widespread atrophy in other subcortical and cortical regions whose loss also likely contributes to the altered regulation of sleep-wake states and motor activity underlying RBD in PD patients. PMID:27245317

  5. Structural Brain Alterations Associated with Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Boucetta, Soufiane; Salimi, Ali; Dadar, Mahsa; Jones, Barbara E; Collins, D Louis; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh

    2016-01-01

    Characterized by dream-enactment motor manifestations arising from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is frequently encountered in Parkinson's disease (PD). Yet the specific neurostructural changes associated with RBD in PD patients remain to be revealed by neuroimaging. Here we identified such neurostructural alterations by comparing large samples of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in 69 PD patients with probable RBD, 240 patients without RBD and 138 healthy controls, using deformation-based morphometry (p < 0.05 corrected for multiple comparisons). All data were extracted from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative. PD patients with probable RBD showed smaller volumes than patients without RBD and than healthy controls in the pontomesencephalic tegmentum, medullary reticular formation, hypothalamus, thalamus, putamen, amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex. These results demonstrate that RBD is associated with a prominent loss of volume in the pontomesencephalic tegmentum, where cholinergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons are located and implicated in the promotion of REM sleep and muscle atonia. It is additionally associated with more widespread atrophy in other subcortical and cortical regions whose loss also likely contributes to the altered regulation of sleep-wake states and motor activity underlying RBD in PD patients. PMID:27245317

  6. Teaching Rhythmic Gymnastics: A Developmentally Appropriate Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Heather C.

    This book is designed to guide teachers through the process of creating a developmentally appropriate rhythmic gymnastics program for children age 5-11. Rhythmic gymnastics programs develop fitness, inspire creativity, and allow all children to work at their own level. The book features 10 chapters in two parts. Part 1, "Getting Started on a…

  7. Rhythmic cognition in humans and animals: distinguishing meter and pulse perception

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines a cognitive and comparative perspective on human rhythmic cognition that emphasizes a key distinction between pulse perception and meter perception. Pulse perception involves the extraction of a regular pulse or “tactus” from a stream of events. Meter perception involves grouping of events into hierarchical trees with differing levels of “strength”, or perceptual prominence. I argue that metrically-structured rhythms are required to either perform or move appropriately to music (e.g., to dance). Rhythms, from this metrical perspective, constitute “trees in time.” Rhythmic syntax represents a neglected form of musical syntax, and warrants more thorough neuroscientific investigation. The recent literature on animal entrainment clearly demonstrates the capacity to extract the pulse from rhythmic music, and to entrain periodic movements to this pulse, in several parrot species and a California sea lion, and a more limited ability to do so in one chimpanzee. However, the ability of these or other species to infer hierarchical rhythmic trees remains, for the most part, unexplored (with some apparent negative results from macaques). The results from this animal comparative research, combined with new methods to explore rhythmic cognition neurally, provide exciting new routes for understanding not just rhythmic cognition, but hierarchical cognition more generally, from a biological and neural perspective. PMID:24198765

  8. Inhibition, Not Excitation, Drives Rhythmic Whisking.

    PubMed

    Deschênes, Martin; Takatoh, Jun; Kurnikova, Anastasia; Moore, Jeffrey D; Demers, Maxime; Elbaz, Michael; Furuta, Takahiro; Wang, Fan; Kleinfeld, David

    2016-04-20

    Sniffing and whisking typify the exploratory behavior of rodents. These actions involve separate oscillators in the medulla, located respectively in the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC) and the vibrissa-related region of the intermediate reticular formation (vIRt). We examine how these oscillators synergize to control sniffing and whisking. We find that the vIRt contains glycinergic/GABAergic cells that rhythmically inhibit vibrissa facial motoneurons. As a basis for the entrainment of whisking by breathing, but not vice versa, we provide evidence for unidirectional connections from the preBötC to the vIRt. The preBötC further contributes to the control of the mystacial pad. Lastly, we show that bilateral synchrony of whisking relies on the respiratory rhythm, consistent with commissural connections between preBötC cells. These data yield a putative circuit in which the preBötC acts as a master clock for the synchronization of vibrissa, pad, and snout movements, as well as for the bilateral synchronization of whisking. PMID:27041498

  9. Long-Term Follow-up Investigation of Isolated Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Without Atonia Without Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Stefani, Ambra; Gabelia, David; Högl, Birgit; Mitterling, Thomas; Mahlknecht, Philipp; Stockner, Heike; Poewe, Werner; Frauscher, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a harbinger of synuclein-mediated neurodegenerative diseases. It is unknown if this also applies to isolated REM sleep without atonia (RWA). We performed a long-term follow-up investigation of subjects with isolated RWA. Methods: Participants were recruited from 50 subjects with isolated RWA who were identified at the sleep laboratory of the Department of Neurology at the Medical University of Innsbruck between 2003 and 2005. Eligible subjects underwent follow-up clinical examination, polysomnography, and assessment of neurodegenerative biomarkers (cognitive impairment, finger speed deficit, impaired color vision, olfactory dysfunction, orthostatic hypotension, and substantia nigra hyperechogenicity). Results: After a mean of 8.6 ± 0.9 y, 1 of 14 participating subjects (7.3%) progressed to RBD. Ten of 14 RWA subjects (71.4%) were positive for at least one neurodegenerative biomarker. Substantia nigra hyperechogenicity and presence of mild cognitive impairment were both present in 4 of 14 subjects with isolated RWA. Electromyographic activity measures increased significantly from baseline to follow-up polysomnography (“any” mentalis and both anterior tibialis muscles: 32.5 ± 9.4 versus 52.2 ± 16.6%; p = 0.004). Conclusion: This study provides first evidence that isolated RWA is an early biomarker of synuclein-mediated neurodegeneration. These results will have to be replicated in larger studies with longer observational periods. If confirmed, these disease findings have implications for defining at-risk cohorts for Parkinson disease. Citation: Stefani A, Gabelia D, Högl B, Mitterling T, Mahlknecht P, Stockner H, Poewe W, Frauscher B. Long-term follow-up investigation of isolated rapid eye movement sleep without atonia without rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: a pilot study. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(11):1273–1279. PMID:26156949

  10. Late-Onset Mania in a Patient with Movement Disorder and Basal Ganglia Calcifications: A Challenge for Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Roiter, Beatrice; Pigato, Giorgio; Perugi, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Age of onset can have a significant impact on clinical course and pathophysiological mechanism of bipolar disorder. Late-onset bipolar episodes are more likely linked to medical illnesses and so are frequently classified as “secondary” forms of mood disorder. We discuss the case of a patient who at the age of 58 presented his first delusional-manic episode. He also had mild frontal and occipital cortical atrophy, white matter posterior ischemic lesions, and small basal ganglia calcifications. Seven years later, he presented a second manic episode with new emergent hyperkinetic choreiform symptoms. Taking into account movement disturbances, the presence of basal ganglia calcification, and worsening of cortical atrophy, we performed a differential diagnosis between Fahr disease, Fahr's syndrome, calcifications due to ageing, supersensitivity psychosis, and dementia. Valproate, quetiapine, and tetrabenazine were sequentially administered and yielded a good therapeutic response as regards manic and movement symptoms. Relationship between medications and course of specific symptoms was observed. PMID:27213069

  11. Gender Differences in Musical Aptitude, Rhythmic Ability and Motor Performance in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollatou, Elisana; Karadimou, Konstantina; Gerodimos, Vasilios

    2005-01-01

    Most of the preschool curricula involve integrated movement activities that combine music, rhythm and locomotor skills. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether there are any differences between boys and girls at the age of five concerning their musical aptitude, rhythmic ability and performance in gross motor skills. Ninety-five…

  12. Modern Rhythmic Gymnastics. A Supplement to the K-12 Physical Education Curriculum Guide. Curriculum Support Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Heather; Plumton, Diane

    This resource package has been designed to assist the instructor in using modern rhythmic gymnastics (MRG) to support the objectives cited in the "K-12 Physical Education Curriculum Guide," developed by the Manitoba Department of Education. MRG is based on scientific principles of movement, and makes use of small, hand-held apparatus such as…

  13. Relating Spontaneously Reported Extrapyramidal Adverse Events to Movement Disorder Rating Scales

    PubMed Central

    Karayal, Onur N.; Kolluri, Sheela; Vanderburg, Douglas; Kemmler, Georg; Fleischhacker, W. Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Background: While antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) and akathisia remain important concerns in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, the relationship between movement disorder rating scales and spontaneously reported EPS-related adverse events (EPS-AEs) remains unexplored. Methods: Data from four randomized, placebo- and haloperidol-controlled ziprasidone trials were analyzed to examine the relationship between spontaneously reported EPS-AEs with the Simpson Angus Scale (SAS) and Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale (BARS). Categorical summaries were created for each treatment group to show the frequencies of subjects with EPS-AEs in each of the SAS and BARS categories at weeks 1, 3, and 6, and agreement between ratings was quantified by means of weighted kappa (κ). Results: In general, we found greater frequencies of EPS-AEs with increasing severity of the SAS and BARS scores. The EPS-AEs reported with a “none” SAS score ranged from 0 to 22.2%, with a “mild” SAS score from 3.3 to 29.0%, and with a “moderate” SAS score from 0 to 100%. No subjects in any treatment group reported “severe” SAS scores or corresponding EPS-AEs. Agreement between SAS scores and EPS-AEs was poor for ziprasidone and placebo (κ < 0.2) and only slightly better for haloperidol. The EPS-AEs reported with “non questionable” BARS scores ranged from 1.9 to 9.8%, with “mild moderate” BARS scores from 12.8 to 54.6%, and with “marked severe” scores from 0 to 100%. Agreement was modest for ziprasidone and placebo (κ < 0.4) and moderate for haloperidol (κ < 0.6). Conclusions: These findings may reflect either underreporting of AEs by investigators and subjects or erroneous rating scale evaluations. PMID:26116494

  14. Electroencephalogram slowing predicts neurodegeneration in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Brazète, Jessica; Gagnon, Jean-François; Postuma, Ronald B; Bertrand, Josie-Anne; Petit, Dominique; Montplaisir, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    A large proportion of patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) develop a synucleinopathy, mostly Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. Therefore, identifying markers of neurodegeneration in iRBD could have major implications. We aimed to assess the usefulness of electroencephalography (EEG) spectral analysis performed during wakefulness for predicting the development of a neurodegenerative disease in iRBD. Fifty-four iRBD patients, 28 of whom developed Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy, or dementia with Lewy bodies (mean follow-up: 3.5 years), and 30 healthy controls underwent at baseline a resting-state waking EEG recording, neurological exam, and neuropsychological assessment. Absolute and relative spectral powers were analyzed for 5 frequency bands in frontal, central, parietal, temporal, and occipital regions. The slow-to-fast [(δ + θ)/(β1 + β2)] power ratio for each of the 5 cortical regions and the dominant occipital frequency were calculated as an index of cortical slowing. Patients who developed disease showed higher absolute delta and theta power in all 5 cortical regions compared to disease-free patients and controls. The slow-to-fast power ratio was higher in all regions in patients who developed disease than in the 2 other groups. Moreover, patients who developed disease had a slower dominant occipital frequency compared to controls. The only significant difference observed between disease-free iRBD patients and controls was higher absolute delta power in frontal and occipital regions in iRBD patients. Specific EEG abnormalities were identified during wakefulness in iRBD patients who later developed a synucleinopathy. EEG slowing is a promising marker of neurodegeneration in iRBD patients. PMID:26545633

  15. Non-parametric bootstrapping method for measuring the temporal discrimination threshold for movement disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, John S.; Molloy, Anna; Williams, Laura; Kimmich, Okka; Quinlivan, Brendan; O'Riordan, Sean; Hutchinson, Michael; Reilly, Richard B.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Recent studies have proposed that the temporal discrimination threshold (TDT), the shortest detectable time period between two stimuli, is a possible endophenotype for adult onset idiopathic isolated focal dystonia (AOIFD). Patients with AOIFD, the third most common movement disorder, and their first-degree relatives have been shown to have abnormal visual and tactile TDTs. For this reason it is important to fully characterize each participant’s data. To date the TDT has only been reported as a single value. Approach. Here, we fit individual participant data with a cumulative Gaussian to extract the mean and standard deviation of the distribution. The mean represents the point of subjective equality (PSE), the inter-stimulus interval at which participants are equally likely to respond that two stimuli are one stimulus (synchronous) or two different stimuli (asynchronous). The standard deviation represents the just noticeable difference (JND) which is how sensitive participants are to changes in temporal asynchrony around the PSE. We extended this method by submitting the data to a non-parametric bootstrapped analysis to get 95% confidence intervals on individual participant data. Main results. Both the JND and PSE correlate with the TDT value but are independent of each other. Hence this suggests that they represent different facets of the TDT. Furthermore, we divided groups by age and compared the TDT, PSE, and JND values. The analysis revealed a statistical difference for the PSE which was only trending for the TDT. Significance. The analysis method will enable deeper analysis of the TDT to leverage subtle differences within and between control and patient groups, not apparent in the standard TDT measure.

  16. Movement Disorders in Non-Wilsonian Hepatic Cirrhotic Patients: The Subgroup Analysis of Various Phenotypes and Associated Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Methawasin, Kulthida; Chonmaitree, Piyanant; Wongjitrat, Chatchawan; Rattanamongkolgul, Suthee; Asawavichienjinda, Thanin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this subgroup analysis was to identify the risk factors associated with the development of various movement disorder phenotypes. Methods Eighty-three non-Wilsonian cirrhotic patients with abnormal movements were allocated into the following groups: intention tremor, bradykinesia, Parkinsonism, and abnormal ocular movements. These movement types were considered the primary outcomes as there was a sufficient sample size. Researchers took into consideration the gender, etiologies of cirrhosis, cirrhosis-related complications, hepatic encephalopathy, medical illness, and some neurological deficits as potential factors associated with these movement disorders. Results The male gender (p = 0.002) and alcoholic cirrhosis (p = 0.005) were significant factors for the prevalence of intention tremors. In bradykinesia, hepatic encephalopathy was highly statistically significant (p < 0.001), and females more commonly developed bradykinesia (p = 0.04). The Parkinsonism features in this study were confounded by hyperlipidemia (p = 0.04) and motor or sensory deficits (p = 0.02). Jerky pursuits and a horizontal nystagmus were detected. Jerky pursuits were significantly related to hepatic encephalopathy (p = 0.003) and bradykinesia, but there were no factors associated with the prevalence of nystagmus other than an intention tremor. Conclusions The association of alcoholic cirrhosis with the development of intention tremor indicates that the persistent cerebellar malfunction in cirrhotic patients is due to alcohol toxicity. The slowness of finger tapping and jerky pursuit eye movements are significantly associated with hepatic encephalopathy. Thus, further studies are needed to evaluate the diagnostic value of these two signs for an early detection of mild hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:27020458

  17. High-speed video gait analysis reveals early and characteristic locomotor phenotypes in mouse models of neurodegenerative movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Preisig, Daniel F; Kulic, Luka; Krüger, Maik; Wirth, Fabian; McAfoose, Jordan; Späni, Claudia; Gantenbein, Pascal; Derungs, Rebecca; Nitsch, Roger M; Welt, Tobias

    2016-09-15

    Neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system frequently affect the locomotor system resulting in impaired movement and gait. In this study we performed a whole-body high-speed video gait analysis in three different mouse lines of neurodegenerative movement disorders to investigate the motor phenotype. Based on precise computerized motion tracking of all relevant joints and the tail, a custom-developed algorithm generated individual and comprehensive locomotor profiles consisting of 164 spatial and temporal parameters. Gait changes observed in the three models corresponded closely to the classical clinical symptoms described in these disorders: Muscle atrophy due to motor neuron loss in SOD1 G93A transgenic mice led to gait characterized by changes in hind-limb movement and positioning. In contrast, locomotion in huntingtin N171-82Q mice modeling Huntington's disease with basal ganglia damage was defined by hyperkinetic limb movements and rigidity of the trunk. Harlequin mutant mice modeling cerebellar degeneration showed gait instability and extensive changes in limb positioning. Moreover, model specific gait parameters were identified and were shown to be more sensitive than conventional motor tests. Altogether, this technique provides new opportunities to decipher underlying disease mechanisms and test novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:27233823

  18. An Integrative Neurocircuit Perspective on Psychogenic Non-Epileptic Seizures and Functional Movement Disorders: Neural Functional Unawareness

    PubMed Central

    Perez, DL; Dworetzky, BA; Dickerson, BC; Leung, L; Cohn, R; Baslet, G; Silbersweig, DA

    2014-01-01

    Functional Neurological Disorder (conversion disorder) is a neurobehavioral condition frequently encountered by neurologists. Psychogenic Non-Epileptic Seizure (PNES) and Functional Movement Disorder (FMD) patients present to epileptologists and movement disorder specialists respectively, yet neurologists lack a neurobiological perspective through which to understand these enigmatic groups. Observational research studies suggest that PNES and FMD may represent variants of similar (or the same) conditions given that both groups exhibit a female predominance, have increased prevalence of mood-anxiety disorders, frequently endorse prior abuse, and share phenotypic characteristics. In this perspective article, neuroimaging studies in PNES and FMD are reviewed, and discussed using studies of emotional dysregulation, dissociation and psychological trauma in the context of motor control. Convergent neuroimaging findings implicate alterations in brain circuits mediating emotional expression, regulation and awareness (anterior cingulate and ventromedial prefrontal cortices, insula, amygdala, vermis), cognitive control and motor inhibition (dorsal anterior cingulate, dorsolateral prefrontal, inferior frontal cortices), self-referential processing and perceptual awareness (posterior parietal cortex, temporoparietal junction), and motor planning and coordination (supplementary motor area, cerebellum). Striatal-thalamic components of prefrontal-parietal networks may also play a role in pathophysiology. Aberrant medial prefrontal and amygdalar neuroplastic changes mediated by chronic stress may facilitate the development of functional neurological symptoms in a subset of patients. Improved biological understanding of PNES and FMD will likely reduce stigma and aid the identification of neuroimaging biomarkers guiding treatment development, selection and prognosis. Additional research should investigate neurocircuit abnormalities within and across functional neurological disorder

  19. Impact of nutrients on circadian rhythmicity

    PubMed Central

    Oosterman, Johanneke E.; Kalsbeek, Andries; la Fleur, Susanne E.

    2014-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the mammalian hypothalamus functions as an endogenous pacemaker that generates and maintains circadian rhythms throughout the body. Next to this central clock, peripheral oscillators exist in almost all mammalian tissues. Whereas the SCN is mainly entrained to the environment by light, peripheral clocks are entrained by various factors, of which feeding/fasting is the most important. Desynchronization between the central and peripheral clocks by, for instance, altered timing of food intake can lead to uncoupling of peripheral clocks from the central pacemaker and is, in humans, related to the development of metabolic disorders, including obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Diets high in fat or sugar have been shown to alter circadian clock function. This review discusses the recent findings concerning the influence of nutrients, in particular fatty acids and glucose, on behavioral and molecular circadian rhythms and will summarize critical studies describing putative mechanisms by which these nutrients are able to alter normal circadian rhythmicity, in the SCN, in non-SCN brain areas, as well as in peripheral organs. As the effects of fat and sugar on the clock could be through alterations in energy status, the role of specific nutrient sensors will be outlined, as well as the molecular studies linking these components to metabolism. Understanding the impact of specific macronutrients on the circadian clock will allow for guidance toward the composition and timing of meals optimal for physiological health, as well as putative therapeutic targets to regulate the molecular clock. PMID:25519730

  20. No Cases of PANDAS on Follow-Up of Patients Referred to a Pediatric Movement Disorders Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Kilbertus, Sarah; Brannan, Renee; Sell, Erick; Doja, Asif

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS) remains a controversial diagnosis and it is unclear how frequently it is encountered in clinical practice. Our study aimed to determine how many children with acute-onset tics and/or Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder (OCD) met criteria for PANDAS. Materials and methods: A retrospective review was performed on 39 children who presented to a movement disorders clinic with acute-onset tics or OCD from 2005 to 2012. Results: Out of 284 patients seen over the course of 7 years, only 39 had acute-onset tics and/or OCD symptoms. None of the 39 children who presented to us acutely met full criteria for PANDAS. Thirty-eight percent had no association between their symptoms and group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection, while 54% had prior inconclusive laboratory testing done and no exacerbations during the course of the study. Only 8% of patients had an acute exacerbation after their initial visit; however, testing for GAHBS in these patients was negative Discussion: Our results support the notion that PANDAS, if it exists, is an exceedingly rare diagnosis encountered in a pediatric movement disorder clinic. While none of our patients met criteria for PANDAS, two with acute-onset OCD would have met criteria for pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) indicating that PANS may be a more appropriate diagnosis. PMID:25309889

  1. The reach-to-grasp movement in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed Central

    Mari, Morena; Castiello, Umberto; Marks, Deborah; Marraffa, Catherine; Prior, Margot

    2003-01-01

    Autism is associated with a wide and complex array of neurobehavioural symptoms. Examination of the motor system offers a particularly appealing method for studying autism by providing information about this syndrome that is relatively immune to experimental influence. In this article, we considered the relationship between possible movement disturbance and symptoms of autism and introduced an experimental model that may be useful for rehabilitation and diagnostic purposes: the reach-to-grasp movement. Research is reviewed that characterizes kinematically the reach-to-grasp movement in children with autism compared with age-matched 'controls'. Unlike the age-matched children, autistic children showed differences in movement planning and execution, supporting the view that movement disturbances may play a part in the phenomenon of autism. PMID:12639336

  2. Potential of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Tracy M; Lee, Christopher W; Drummond, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) continues to attract both empirical and clinical interest due to its complex symptom profile and the underlying processes involved. Recently, research attention has been focused on the types of memory processes involved in PTSD and hypothesized neurobiological processes. Complicating this exploration, and the treatment of PTSD, are underlying comorbid disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and substance use disorders. Treatment of PTSD has undergone further reviews with the introduction of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). EMDR has been empirically demonstrated to be as efficacious as other specific PTSD treatments, such as trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy. There is emerging evidence that there are different processes underlying these two types of trauma treatment and some evidence that EMDR might have an efficiency advantage. Current research and understanding regarding the processes of EMDR and the future direction of EMDR is presented. PMID:25302027

  3. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Symptoms Correlate with Domains of Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin-Ru; Chen, Jing; Yang, Zi-Jiao; Zhang, Hui-Jun; Fu, Yun-Ting; Shen, Yun; He, Pei-Cheng; Mao, Cheng-Jie; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) may be a risk factor for cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, little is known regarding the relation between the severity of RBD and the different domains of cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was: (1) to investigate the domains of cognitive impairment in patients with PD and RBD, and (2) to explore risk factors for PD-mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) and the relationship between RBD severity and impairment in different cognitive domains in PD. Methods: The participants were grouped as follows: PD without RBD (PD-RBD; n = 42), PD with RBD (PD + RBD; n = 32), idiopathic RBD (iRBD; n = 15), and healthy controls (HCs; n = 36). All participants completed a battery of neuropsychological assessment of attention and working memory, executive function, language, memory, and visuospatial function. The information of basic demographics, diseases and medication history, and motor and nonmotor manifestations was obtained and compared between PD-RBD and PD + RBD groups. Particular attention was paid to the severity of RBD assessed by the RBD Questionnaire-Hong Kong (RBDQ-HK) and the RBD Screening Questionnaire (RBDSQ), then we further examined associations between the severity of RBD symptoms and cognitive levels via correlation analysis. Results: Compared to PD-RBD subjects, PD + RBD patients were more likely to have olfactory dysfunction and their Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores were higher (P < 0.05). During neuropsychological testing, PD + RBD patients performed worse than PD-RBD patients, including delayed memory function, especially. The MCI rates were 33%, 63%, 33%, and 8% for PD-RBD, PD + RBD, iRBD, and HC groups, respectively. RBD was an important factor for the PD-MCI variance (odds ratio = 5.204, P = 0.018). During correlation analysis, higher RBDSQ and RBDQ-HK scores were significantly associated with poorer performance on the Trail Making Test-B (errors

  4. The evolution of locomotor rhythmicity in tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Ross, Callum F; Blob, Richard W; Carrier, David R; Daley, Monica A; Deban, Stephen M; Demes, Brigitte; Gripper, Janaya L; Iriarte-Diaz, Jose; Kilbourne, Brandon M; Landberg, Tobias; Polk, John D; Schilling, Nadja; Vanhooydonck, Bieke

    2013-04-01

    Differences in rhythmicity (relative variance in cycle period) among mammal, fish, and lizard feeding systems have been hypothesized to be associated with differences in their sensorimotor control systems. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether the locomotion of tachymetabolic tetrapods (birds and mammals) is more rhythmic than that of bradymetabolic tetrapods (lizards, alligators, turtles, salamanders). Species averages of intraindividual coefficients of variation in cycle period were compared while controlling for gait and substrate. Variance in locomotor cycle periods is significantly lower in tachymetabolic than in bradymetabolic animals for datasets that include treadmill locomotion, non-treadmill locomotion, or both. When phylogenetic relationships are taken into account the pooled analyses remain significant, whereas the non-treadmill and the treadmill analyses become nonsignificant. The co-occurrence of relatively high rhythmicity in both feeding and locomotor systems of tachymetabolic tetrapods suggests that the anatomical substrate of rhythmicity is in the motor control system, not in the musculoskeletal components. PMID:23550769

  5. Things that go bump in the night: diagnosing sleep-related movement disorders without a sleep laboratory.

    PubMed

    Reading, P

    2014-01-01

    It is common for general physicians to experience diagnostic doubt and trepidation whenever faced with patients who exhibit abnormal nocturnal behaviours or excessive movements at night. There is also a perception that expensive and often poorly available overnight tests are usually required for diagnostic precision. In fact, the majority of conditions, whether they be parasomnias or, more rarely, nocturnal seizures, can be reliably diagnosed from a directed history, if available. Although the evidence base for treating parasomnias and sleep-related movement disorders remains minimal, accurate recognition is important for a variety of reasons. This review covers the diagnostic features of the full range of parasomnias and movement disorders that might present to a multidisciplinary adult sleep clinic. Throughout, it will be argued that the recognition of key or salient features obtained from a good history is the most important diagnostic tool. Indeed, when diagnostic doubt remains after a thorough sleep history, it is relatively rare for detailed tests to add much in the way of useful information. PMID:24995451

  6. Assessment of Mandibular Movements in 10 to 15 Year-old Patients With and Without Temporomandibular Disorders.

    PubMed

    Cortese, Silvina G; Biondi, Ana M; Fridman, Diana E; Guitelman, Ingrid; Farah, Catalina L

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to establish reference values for mandibular movements in 10- to 15-year-olds without dysfunction and compare these values to those in patients of the same age with tempromandibular disorders (TMD) and those found previously in a group of children younger than 11 years old without TMD. Children of both genders who visited the Department of Comprehensive Pediatric Dentistry at Buenos Aires University in 2013 and whose parents or guardians provided consent were evaluated using TMD/RDC by standardized pediatric dentists (Kappa 0.88). Three groups were formed according to diagnostic summary: Group C, without TMD; Group Ia, with myofascial pain, and Group Ib, pain with limited mouth opening. The following variables were analyzed: age, gender and mandibular movements. The sample included 169 patients aged 12.5±1.76 years, of whom 62.36% did not have TMD (C) while 37.27% were diagnosed with muscle disorder (29.58% Ia and 7.69% Ib). For Group C, the following values (in mm) were recorded: maximal unassisted opening: 48.28±6.14; right lateral movement 8.78±2.50; left lateral movement: 9.60±2.64; protrusion: 4.94±2.58 and overbite: 2.98 ± 2.5, with no variation associated to sex, but with differences in the values recorded for all movements compared to those obtained for mixed dentition (p=0.0001). Analysis of mean values for mandibular movements in all 3 groups only revealed differences for maximal unassisted opening (p= 0.0317). With relation to gender, TMD was more frequent in females, with significant differences between Groups C and Ia (p=0.019). In males without dysfunction, average maximal opening was 48.28±6.14mm, with lower values in patients with TMD. Mandibular movements in pediatric patients without TMD showed significant differences according to dentition type and age. PMID:27095624

  7. Enhancing the Speech and Language Development of Communicatively Disordered Children through Music and Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Katherine

    The paper examines the suprasegmental aspects of speech and focuses on the benefits of music and movement to facilitate language development in handicapped children. The paper discusses the current thinking of suprasegmental functions of intonation, stress, and rhythm as the foundation for the organization of speech communication. Strategies for…

  8. Movement Disorders in a Twins Pair: A Casual Expression or Genetic Determination?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gennaro, Leonarda; Russo, Luigi; Losito, Luciana; Zaccaria, Alessia; De Rinaldis, Marta; Trabacca, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    A twin study is an excellent means of assessing the contribution of heritability to motor behaviour. We present a movement video-analysis of a monozygotic twins pair with a motor repertoire which is almost totally constituted by persistent and subcontinuous motor stereotypies. Purpose: The specific aim of this study is to verify the heritable…

  9. Sleep-related movement disorder symptoms in SHR are attenuated by physical exercise and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Frank, Miriam Kannebley; de Mello, Marco Tulio; Lee, Kil Sun; Daubian-Nosé, Paulo; Tufik, Sergio; Esteves, Andrea Maculano

    2016-02-01

    The relationship between hypertension and sleep-related movement disorders has been hypothesized for humans, but the causes and mechanisms have not been elucidated. We investigated whether an alteration in blood pressure (BP) induced by physical exercise and/or an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (enalapril) could affect locomotor activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats, with emphasis on the dopaminergic system. We used SHR and normotensive Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups for each strain: control, physical exercise, enalapril and physical exercise+enalapril. Physical exercise was performed on a treadmill, and enalapril was administered by gavage, both for 8weeks. During this period, locomotor activity was evaluated in an open field test, and BP was evaluated by tail plethysmography. Dopaminergic receptors, dopamine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase levels at the striatum were evaluated by Western blotting. The control group of spontaneously hypertensive rats showed higher BP, increased activity in the open field test and lower levels of D2 receptors and tyrosine hydroxylase compared with all other groups throughout the experimental period. In general, physical exercise and enalapril attenuated these alterations. This study suggested the existence of comorbidity between hypertension and sleep-related movement disorders in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Physical exercise and enalapril conferred protection for both hypertension and the observed behavioral changes. In addition, these treatments led to changes in dopaminergic signaling in the striatal region (i.e., D2 receptor, TH and DAT). PMID:26650246

  10. Selective Chromatid Segregation Mechanism Invoked For the Human Congenital Mirror Hand Movement Disorder Development by RAD51 Mutations: A Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Klar, Amar J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The vertebrate body plan externally is largely symmetrical across the midline but internal organs develop asymmetrically. The biological basis of asymmetric organ development has been investigated extensively for years, although the proposed mechanisms remain controversial. By comparison, the biological origin of external organs symmetry has not been extensively investigated. Bimanual hand control is one such external organs symmetry allowing independent motor control movements of both hands to a person. This gap in our knowledge is illustrated by the recent reports of heterozygous rad51 mutations causing mysterious symptoms of congenital mirror hand movement disorder (MM) in humans with 50% penetrance by an unknown mechanism. The analysis of mutations that vary symmetry or asymmetry could be exploited to decipher the mechanisms of laterality development. Here I present a hypothesis for explaining 50% penetrance of the rad51 mutation. The MM's origin is explained with the Somatic Strand-specific Imprinting and selective sister chromatid Segregation (SSIS) hypothesis proposed originally as the mechanism of asymmetric cell division to promote visceral organs body plan laterality development in vertebrates. By hypothesis, random sister chromatid segregation in mitosis occurs for a specific chromosome due to rad51/RAD51 constitution causing MM disorder development in 50% of subjects. PMID:25210500

  11. Elevated PEM (Phasic Electromyographic Metric) Rates Identify Rapid Eye Movement Behavior Disorder Patients on Nights Without Behavioral Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Bliwise, Donald L.; Rye, David B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the validity of the phasic electromyographic metric (PEM) to differentiate patients with a history suggestive of rapid eye movement behavior disorder (REMBD) on laboratory nights without overt dream-enactment behavior. Methods: PEM was quantified as the % of 2.5-sec intervals with phasic muscle activity of 100-msec duration with an amplitude of at least 4 times background activity in 11 patients and 31 elderly controls. Data were derived from both REM and NREM sleep from 5 muscle groups (mentalis, left/right anterior tibialis, left/right brachioradialis). Results: Relative to controls, REMBD patients had significantly higher levels of PEM activity in all recordings. The largest differences occurred during REM sleep for the mentalis and brachioradialis channels. Similar results were obtained by limiting quantification of PEM to the final REM period of the night and could be accomplished by individuals with no previous familiarity with polysomnography. Discussion: PEM may be a useful metric to characterize the REM related phasic muscle activity on patients with a history of REMBD, even when no overt dream-enactment behaviors are detected on a laboratory night. Citation: Bliwise DL; Rye DB. Elevated PEM (phasic electromyographic metric) rates identify rapid eye movement behavior disorder patients on nights without behavioral abnormalities. SLEEP 2008;31(6):853–857. PMID:18548830

  12. Selective chromatid segregation mechanism invoked for the human congenital mirror hand movement disorder development by RAD51 mutations: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Klar, Amar J S

    2014-01-01

    The vertebrate body plan externally is largely symmetrical across the midline but internal organs develop asymmetrically. The biological basis of asymmetric organ development has been investigated extensively for years, although the proposed mechanisms remain controversial. By comparison, the biological origin of external organs symmetry has not been extensively investigated. Bimanual hand control is one such external organs symmetry allowing independent motor control movements of both hands to a person. This gap in our knowledge is illustrated by the recent reports of heterozygous rad51 mutations causing mysterious symptoms of congenital mirror hand movement disorder (MM) in humans with 50% penetrance by an unknown mechanism. The analysis of mutations that vary symmetry or asymmetry could be exploited to decipher the mechanisms of laterality development. Here I present a hypothesis for explaining 50% penetrance of the rad51 mutation. The MM's origin is explained with the Somatic Strand-specific Imprinting and selective sister chromatid Segregation (SSIS) hypothesis proposed originally as the mechanism of asymmetric cell division to promote visceral organs body plan laterality development in vertebrates. By hypothesis, random sister chromatid segregation in mitosis occurs for a specific chromosome due to rad51/RAD51 constitution causing MM disorder development in 50% of subjects. PMID:25210500

  13. A simple and inexpensive test-rig for evaluating the performance of motion sensors used in movement disorders research.

    PubMed

    Perera, Thushara; Yohanandan, Shivanthan A C; McDermott, Hugh J

    2016-03-01

    Since the advent of electromyogram recording, precise measures of tremor and gait have been used to study movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease. Now, a wide range of accelerometers and other motion-tracking technologies exist to better inform researchers and clinicians, yet such systems are rarely tested for accuracy or suitability before use. Our inexpensive test-rig can produce sinusoidal displacements using a simple cantilever system driven by a subwoofer. Controlled sinusoids were generated using computer software, and the displacement amplitudes of the test-rig were verified with fiducial marker tracking. To illustrate the use of the test-rig, we evaluated an accelerometer and an electromagnetic motion tracker. Accelerometry recordings were accurate to within ±0.09 g of actual peak-to-peak amplitude with a frequency response close to unity gain between 1 and 20 Hz. The electromagnetic sensor underestimated peak displacement by 2.68 mm, which was largely due to a diminishing gain with increasing frequency. Both sensors had low distortion. Overall sensitivity was limited by noise for the accelerometer and quantisation resolution for the electromagnetic sensor. Our simple and low-cost test-rig can be used to bench-test sensors used in movement disorders research. It was able to produce reliable sinusoidal displacements and worked across the 1- to 20-Hz frequency range. PMID:26018757

  14. Can physical exercise have a protective effect in an animal model of sleep-related movement disorder?

    PubMed

    Esteves, Andrea M; Lopes, Cleide; Frank, Miriam K; Arida, Ricardo M; Frussa-Filho, Roberto; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether physical exercise (PE) has a protective effect in an experimental animal model of sleep-related movement disorder (A11 dopaminergic nuclei lesions with 6-OHDA). Rats were divided into four groups (Control PE-CTRL/PE, SHAM/PE, A11 lesion/NPE, A11 lesion/PE). Two experiments were performed: (1) the rats underwent PE before (2 weeks) and after (4 weeks) the A11 lesion; and (2) the rats underwent PE only after (4 weeks) the A11 lesion. Electrode insertion surgery was performed and sleep analyses were conducted over a period of 24h (baseline and after PE) and analyzed in 6 blocks of 4h. The results demonstrated that the A11 lesion produced an increased percentage of wakefulness in the final block of the dark period (3-7am) and a significant enhancement of the number of limb movements (LM) throughout the day. Four weeks of PE was important for reducing the number of LMs in the A11 lesion group in the rats that performed PE before and after the A11 lesion. However, in the analysis of the protective effect of PE on LM, the results showed that the number of LMs was lower at baseline in the group that had performed 2 weeks of PE prior to the A11 lesion than in the group that had not previously performed PE. In conclusion, these findings consistently demonstrate that non-pharmacological manipulations had a beneficial effect on the symptoms of sleep-related movement disorder. PMID:26923163

  15. Effects of Kindermusik training on infants' rhythmic enculturation.

    PubMed

    Gerry, David W; Faux, Ashley L; Trainor, Laurel J

    2010-05-01

    Phillips-Silver and Trainor (2005) demonstrated a link between movement and the metrical interpretation of rhythm patterns in 7-month-old infants. Infants bounced on every second beat of a rhythmic pattern with no auditory accents later preferred to listen to an accented version of the pattern with accents every second beat (duple or march meter), whereas infants bounced on every third beat of the same rhythmic pattern preferred to listen to a version with accents every third beat (triple or waltz meter). The present study compared infants participating in Kindermusik classes with infants not participating in music classes. In Kindermusik classes infants receive enriched experience moving to music. Following Western musical norms, the majority of the music samples in the classes are in duple meter. During the preference test, Kindermusik infants listened longer overall, indicating heightened interest in musical rhythms. Both groups listened longer to the accented version that matched how they had been bounced, but only the Kindermusik group showed a stronger preference in the case of duple bouncing than in the case of triple bouncing. We conclude that musical classes for infants can accelerate the development of culture-specific metrical perception. PMID:20443974

  16. Rhythmic oscillations of visual contrast sensitivity synchronized with action.

    PubMed

    Tomassini, Alice; Spinelli, Donatella; Jacono, Marco; Sandini, Giulio; Morrone, Maria Concetta

    2015-05-01

    It is well known that the motor and the sensory systems structure sensory data collection and cooperate to achieve an efficient integration and exchange of information. Increasing evidence suggests that both motor and sensory functions are regulated by rhythmic processes reflecting alternating states of neuronal excitability, and these may be involved in mediating sensory-motor interactions. Here we show an oscillatory fluctuation in early visual processing time locked with the execution of voluntary action, and, crucially, even for visual stimuli irrelevant to the motor task. Human participants were asked to perform a reaching movement toward a display and judge the orientation of a Gabor patch, near contrast threshold, briefly presented at random times before and during the reaching movement. When the data are temporally aligned to the onset of movement, visual contrast sensitivity oscillates with periodicity within the theta band. Importantly, the oscillations emerge during the motor planning stage, ∼500 ms before movement onset. We suggest that brain oscillatory dynamics may mediate an automatic coupling between early motor planning and early visual processing, possibly instrumental in linking and closing up the visual-motor control loop. PMID:25948254

  17. Rhythmic Oscillations of Visual Contrast Sensitivity Synchronized with Action

    PubMed Central

    Tomassini, Alice; Spinelli, Donatella; Jacono, Marco; Sandini, Giulio; Morrone, Maria Concetta

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that the motor and the sensory systems structure sensory data collection and cooperate to achieve an efficient integration and exchange of information. Increasing evidence suggests that both motor and sensory functions are regulated by rhythmic processes reflecting alternating states of neuronal excitability, and these may be involved in mediating sensory-motor interactions. Here we show an oscillatory fluctuation in early visual processing time locked with the execution of voluntary action, and, crucially, even for visual stimuli irrelevant to the motor task. Human participants were asked to perform a reaching movement toward a display and judge the orientation of a Gabor patch, near contrast threshold, briefly presented at random times before and during the reaching movement. When the data are temporally aligned to the onset of movement, visual contrast sensitivity oscillates with periodicity within the theta band. Importantly, the oscillations emerge during the motor planning stage, ~500 ms before movement onset. We suggest that brain oscillatory dynamics may mediate an automatic coupling between early motor planning and early visual processing, possibly instrumental in linking and closing up the visual-motor control loop. PMID:25948254

  18. [Role of rhythmicity in infant development].

    PubMed

    Ciccone, A

    2015-09-01

    This article deals with rhythm in the experiences of infants, focusing in particular on the function of rhythmicity in the baby's sense of being and its continuity. Infants are inevitably subjected to experiences of discontinuity. These experiences are necessary to development, but they expose the child to chaotic experiences when a basic rhythmicity is not ensured. The rhythmicity of childcare experiences gives the illusion of permanence and enables anticipation. This nourishes the basic feeling of security and supports the development of thought. Interactive and intersubjective exchanges must be rhythmic and must be in keeping with the rhythm of the baby, who needs to withdraw regularly from the interaction to internalize the experience of the exchange. Without this retreat, the interaction is over-stimulating and prevents internalization. Object presence/ absence must also be rhythmic, to enable the infant to keep the object alive inside him/ herself. Observation of babies has demonstrated their ability to manage experiences of discontinuity: they are able to sustain a continuous link via their gaze, look for clues indicating the presence of a lost object, search for support in sensations, and fabricate rhythmicity to remain open to the self and the world. The author gives some examples of infant observations that provide evidence of these capacities. One observation shows how a baby defends itself against a discontinuity by actively maintaining a link via his/her gaze. Another example shows an infant holding on to "hard sensations" in order to stay away from "soft" ones, which represent the fragility of the separation experience. This example pertains to a seven-month-old's prelanguage and "prosodic tonicity". The author takes this opportunity to propose the notion of "psychic bisensuality" to describe these two sensation poles, which must be harmoniously articulated to guarantee an inner sense of security. Such repairs of discontinuity are only possible if the

  19. Effects of task complexity on rhythmic reproduction performance in adults.

    PubMed

    Iannarilli, Flora; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Iosa, Marco; Pesce, Caterina; Capranica, Laura

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of task complexity on the capability to reproduce rhythmic patterns. Sedentary musically illiterate individuals (age: 34.8±4.2 yrs; M±SD) were administered a rhythmic test including three rhythmic patterns to be reproduced by means of finger-tapping, foot-tapping and walking. For the quantification of subjects' ability in the reproduction of rhythmic patterns, qualitative and quantitative parameters were submitted to analysis. A stereophotogrammetric system was used to reconstruct and evaluate individual performances. The findings indicated a good internal stability of the rhythmic reproduction, suggesting that the present experimental design is suitable to discriminate the participants' rhythmic ability. Qualitative aspects of rhythmic reproduction (i.e., speed of execution and temporal ratios between events) varied as a function of the perceptual-motor requirements of the rhythmic reproduction task, with larger reproduction deviations in the walking task. PMID:23452943

  20. Eye-Movements Reveal Attention to Social Information in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher-Watson, S.; Leekam, S. R.; Benson, V.; Frank, M. C.; Findlay, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition in which children show reduced attention to social aspects of the environment. However in adults with ASD, evidence for social attentional deficits is equivocal. One problem is that many paradigms present social information in an unrealistic, isolated way. This study presented adults…

  1. Movement Coordination in Ball Catching: Comparison between Boys with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Przysucha, Eryk P.; Maraj, Brian K. V.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation examined the catching coordination of 12 boys (M age = 9.9 years, SD = 0.8) with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD; M age = 10.5 years, SD = 0.8), under different task constraints. Participants attempted a total of 60 catches in central and lateral locations, under blocked and randomized conditions. No effect…

  2. Guanidinoacetate Methyltransferase (GAMT) Deficiency: Late Onset of Movement Disorder and Preserved Expressive Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, Declan J.; Ryan, Stephanie; Salomons, Gajja; Jakobs, Cornelis; Monavari, Ahmad; King, Mary D.

    2009-01-01

    Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency is a disorder of creatine biosynthesis, characterized by early-onset learning disability and epilepsy in most affected children. Severe expressive language delay is a constant feature even in the mildest clinical phenotypes. We report the clinical, biochemical, imaging, and treatment data of two…

  3. ERPs and Eye Movements Reflect Atypical Visual Perception in Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemner, Chantal; van Engeland, Herman

    2006-01-01

    Many studies of eye tracking or event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in subjects with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) have yielded inconsistent results on attentional processing. However, recent studies have indicated that there are specific abnormalities in early processing that are probably related to perception. ERP amplitudes in…

  4. Machine learning classification of medication adherence in patients with movement disorders using non-wearable sensors.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Conrad S; Behoora, Ishan; Nembhard, Harriet Black; Lewis, Mechelle; Sterling, Nicholas W; Huang, Xuemei

    2015-11-01

    Medication non-adherence is a major concern in the healthcare industry and has led to increases in health risks and medical costs. For many neurological diseases, adherence to medication regimens can be assessed by observing movement patterns. However, physician observations are typically assessed based on visual inspection of movement and are limited to clinical testing procedures. Consequently, medication adherence is difficult to measure when patients are away from the clinical setting. The authors propose a data mining driven methodology that uses low cost, non-wearable multimodal sensors to model and predict patients' adherence to medication protocols, based on variations in their gait. The authors conduct a study involving Parkinson's disease patients that are "on" and "off" their medication in order to determine the statistical validity of the methodology. The data acquired can then be used to quantify patients' adherence while away from the clinic. Accordingly, this data-driven system may allow for early warnings regarding patient safety. Using whole-body movement data readings from the patients, the authors were able to discriminate between PD patients on and off medication, with accuracies greater than 97% for some patients using an individually customized model and accuracies of 78% for a generalized model containing multiple patient gait data. The proposed methodology and study demonstrate the potential and effectiveness of using low cost, non-wearable hardware and data mining models to monitor medication adherence outside of the traditional healthcare facility. These innovations may allow for cost effective, remote monitoring of treatment of neurological diseases. PMID:26406881

  5. Short Interval Leaf Movements of Cotton 12

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Charles S.

    1975-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Lankart plants exhibited three different types of independent short interval leaf movements which were superimposed on the circadian movements. The different types were termed SIRV (short interval rhythmical vertical), SIHM (short interval horizontal movements), and SHAKE (short stroked SIRV). The 36-minute period SIRV movements occurred at higher moisture levels. The 176-minute period SIHM occurred at lower moisture levels and ceased as the stress increased. The SHAKE movements were initiated with further stresses. The SLEEP (circadian, diurnal) movements ceased with further stress. The last to cease just prior to permanent wilting were the SHAKE movements. PMID:16659123

  6. Patients suffering from nonspecific work-related upper extremity disorders exhibit insufficient movement strategies.

    PubMed

    Bloemsaat, Jules G; Ruijgrok, Joop M; Van Galen, Gerard P

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate whether patients experiencing nonspecific complaints of the forearm caused by sustained use of the personal computer exhibit deviant movement strategies as compared to healthy participants. Patients (N=10) and controls (N=24) performed a graphical aiming task combined with an auditory memory task. Force production (pen pressure), kinematic- and performance variables were recorded. During a trial, the control group gradually increased pen pressure from the stationary phases to the dynamic phase. The patients increased their pen pressure much more abruptly and to such a degree that the final pressure during real-time movement far exceeded that of the controls. Memory load led to a greater increase of pen pressure from the stationary phase to the dynamic phase in the patient group. Patients further displayed longer reaction times. The results are discussed within the framework of our recent theory on the role of neuromotor noise in the regulation of task performance under conditions of stress. PMID:14734239

  7. Effect of Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation on Controlling Stepping Cadence of Individuals with Mental Retardation and Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varsamis, Panagiotis; Staikopoulos, Konstantinos; Kartasidou, Lefkothea

    2012-01-01

    One of the purposes of Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation (RAS) is to improve the control of dysfunctional movement patterns. This study aimed to extend the line of research by focussing on secondary students with mental retardation and cerebral palsy. According to the study's assumption, cadence can be controlled through a stable and low signal…

  8. Harmonic and rhythmic influences on musical expectancy.

    PubMed

    Schmuckler, M A; Boltz, M G

    1994-09-01

    The effects of harmony and rhythm on expectancy formation were studied in two experiments. In both studies, we generated musical passages consisting of a melodic line accompanied by four harmonic (chord) events. These sequences varied in their harmonic content, the rhythmic periodicity of the three context chords prior to the final chord, and the ending time of the final chord itself. In Experiment 1, listeners provided ratings for how well the final chord in a chord sequence fit their expectations for what was to come next; analyses revealed subtle changes in ratings as a function of both harmonic and rhythmic variation. Experiment 2 extended these results; listeners made a speeded reaction time judgment on whether the final chord of a sequence belonged with its set of context chords. Analysis of the reaction time data suggested that harmonic and rhythmic variation also influenced the speed of musical processing. These results are interpreted with reference to current models of music cognition, and they highlight the need for rhythmical weighting factors within the psychological representation of tonal/pitch information. PMID:7971131

  9. Encoding and Retrieval During Bimanual Rhythmic Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shockley, Kevin; Turvey, Michael T.

    2005-01-01

    In 2 experiments, bimanual 1:1 rhythmic coordination was performed concurrently with encoding or retrieval of word lists. Effects of divided attention (DA) on coordination were indexed by changes in mean relative phase and recurrence measures of shared activity between the 2 limbs. Effects of DA on memory were indexed by deficits in recall…

  10. Entrainment and the cranial rhythmic impulse.

    PubMed

    McPartland, J M; Mein, E A

    1997-01-01

    Entrainment is the integration or harmonization of oscillators. All organisms pulsate with myriad electrical and mechanical rhythms. Many of these rhythms emanate from synchronized pulsating cells (eg, pacemaker cells, cortical neurons). The cranial rhythmic impulse is an oscillation recognized by many bodywork practitioners, but the functional origin of this impulse remains uncertain. We propose that the cranial rhythmic impulse is the palpable perception of entrainment, a harmonic frequency that incorporates the rhythms of multiple biological oscillators. It is derived primarily from signals between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Entrainment also arises between organisms. The harmonizing of coupled oscillators into a single, dominant frequency is called frequency-selective entrainment. We propose that this phenomenon is the modus operandi of practitioners who use the cranial rhythmic impulse in craniosacral treatment. Dominant entrainment is enhanced by "centering," a technique practiced by many healers, for example, practitioners of Chinese, Tibetan, and Ayurvedic medicine. We explore the connections between centering, the cranial rhythmic impulse, and craniosacral treatment. PMID:8997803

  11. AUTOMATIVE QUANTIFICATION OF RAT DUODENAL RHYTHMIC CONTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pacemaker activity of longitudinal muscle, as reflected by in vitro rhythmic contractions of the adult male rat's duodenum, has been examined in terms of intercontraction intervals that were collected using a microprocessor-based system. For each duodenal segment studied, 512...

  12. An Update on the Rhythmic Arts Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuduri, Eddie

    2008-01-01

    The Rhythmic Arts Project (TRAP) is touching the lives of typical children and adults with various disabilities all over the world and now has programs in two Bulgarian orphanages, day programs in Australia, and, most recently, in the general hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa. TRAP is also currently approaching facilities in more than 20…

  13. Calculating rhythmicity of infant breathing using wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macey, Katherine E.; Page, Wyatt H.; Harper, Ronald M.; Macey, Paul M.; Ford, Rodney P. K.

    2000-12-01

    Breathing signals are one set of physiological data that may provide information regarding the mechanisms that cause SIDS. Isolated breathing pauses have been implicated in fatal events. Other features of interest include slow amplitude modulation of the breathing signal, a phenomenon whose origin is unclear, and periodic breathing. The latter describes a repetitive series of apnea, and may be considered an extreme manifestation of amplitude modulation with successive cessations of breathing. Rhythmicity is defined to assess the impact of amplitude modulation on breathing signals and describes the extent to which frequency components remain constant for the duration of the signal. The wavelet transform was used to identify sections of constant frequency components within signals. Rhythmicity can be evaluated for all the frequency components in a signal, for individual frequencies. The rhythmicity of eight breathing epochs from sleeping infants at high and low risk for SIDS was calculated. Initial results show breathing from infants at high risk for SIDS exhibits greater rhythmicity of modulating frequencies than breathing from low risk infants.

  14. Evaluation of pain, jaw movements, and psychosocial factors in elderly individuals with temporomandibular disorder under laser phototherapy.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jeniffer Holley; Marques, Márcia Martins; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida; Moreira, Maria Stella Nunes Araújo; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil; Mesquita-Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have been carried out on the application of laser phototherapy (LPT) for treating painful temporomandibular disorder (TMD) in elderly population that is growing worldwide. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pain, jaw movements, and psychosocial factors in ten elderly patients with painful TMD before and after LPT. All patients were evaluated before and after LPT by using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for temporomandibular disorders (RDC/TMD) axes I and II. For pain assessment, a visual analogue scale (VAS) was used. The LPT was carried out with an GaAlAs diode laser (780 nm; spot size 0.04 cm(2)) in punctual and contact mode. Two settings of irradiations were applied as follows: in patients presenting myofascial pain, 10 mW, 5 J/cm(2), 20 s, 0.2 J per application point; and in patients with joint TMD, 70 mW, 105 J/cm(2), 60 s on five points, 4.2 J per point. Two sessions of LPT were carried out per week over four consecutive weeks, in the total of eight sessions. Data was statistically analyzed (p < 0.05). Significant pain reduction was found in all patients. There were increase in maximum mouth opening without pain and reduction in muscle pain during right and left lateral excursion. A significant reduction in chronic pain severity (p = 0.02) and significant improvements in depression (p = 0.038) and nonspecific physical symptoms with pain (p = 0.0167) were observed. The present findings indicate that LPT is able to promote pain relief and improvement of jaw movements in elderly patients with TMD, with a positive effect on psychosocial aspects. PMID:24366293

  15. Improvement of mood and sleep alterations in posttraumatic stress disorder patients by eye movement desensitization and reprocessing

    PubMed Central

    Raboni, Mara R.; Alonso, Fabiana F. D.; Tufik, Sergio; Suchecki, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients exhibit depressive and anxiety symptoms, in addition to nightmares, which interfere with sleep continuity. Pharmacologic treatment of these sleep problems improves PTSD symptoms, but very few studies have used psychotherapeutic interventions to treat PTSD and examined their effects on sleep quality. Therefore, in the present study, we sought to investigate the effects of Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing therapy on indices of mood, anxiety, subjective, and objective sleep. The sample was composed of 11 healthy controls and 13 PTSD patients that were victims of assault and/or kidnapping. All participants were assessed before, and 1 day after, the end of treatment for depressive and anxiety profile, general well-being and subjective sleep by filling out specific questionnaires. In addition, objective sleep patterns were evaluated by polysomnographic recording. Healthy volunteers were submitted to the therapy for three weekly sessions, whereas PTSD patients underwent five sessions, on average. Before treatment, PTSD patients exhibited high levels of anxiety and depression, poor quality of life and poor sleep, assessed both subjectively and objectively; the latter was reflected by increased time of waking after sleep onset. After completion of treatment, patients exhibited improvement in depression and anxiety symptoms, and in quality of life; with indices that were no longer different from control volunteers. Moreover, these patients showed more consolidated sleep, with reduction of time spent awake after sleep onset. In conclusion, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing was an effective treatment of PTSD patients and improved the associated sleep and psychological symptoms. PMID:24959123

  16. Improvement of mood and sleep alterations in posttraumatic stress disorder patients by eye movement desensitization and reprocessing.

    PubMed

    Raboni, Mara R; Alonso, Fabiana F D; Tufik, Sergio; Suchecki, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients exhibit depressive and anxiety symptoms, in addition to nightmares, which interfere with sleep continuity. Pharmacologic treatment of these sleep problems improves PTSD symptoms, but very few studies have used psychotherapeutic interventions to treat PTSD and examined their effects on sleep quality. Therefore, in the present study, we sought to investigate the effects of Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing therapy on indices of mood, anxiety, subjective, and objective sleep. The sample was composed of 11 healthy controls and 13 PTSD patients that were victims of assault and/or kidnapping. All participants were assessed before, and 1 day after, the end of treatment for depressive and anxiety profile, general well-being and subjective sleep by filling out specific questionnaires. In addition, objective sleep patterns were evaluated by polysomnographic recording. Healthy volunteers were submitted to the therapy for three weekly sessions, whereas PTSD patients underwent five sessions, on average. Before treatment, PTSD patients exhibited high levels of anxiety and depression, poor quality of life and poor sleep, assessed both subjectively and objectively; the latter was reflected by increased time of waking after sleep onset. After completion of treatment, patients exhibited improvement in depression and anxiety symptoms, and in quality of life; with indices that were no longer different from control volunteers. Moreover, these patients showed more consolidated sleep, with reduction of time spent awake after sleep onset. In conclusion, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing was an effective treatment of PTSD patients and improved the associated sleep and psychological symptoms. PMID:24959123

  17. Constraint-induced movement therapy: a method for harnessing neuroplasticity to treat motor disorders.

    PubMed

    Uswatte, Gitendra; Taub, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Constraint-Induced Movement therapy or CI therapy is an approach to physical rehabilitation elaborated from basic neuroscience and behavioral research with primates. The application of the CI therapy protocol to humans began with the upper extremity after stroke and was then modified and extended to cerebral palsy in young children, traumatic brain injury, and multiple sclerosis. A form of CI therapy was developed for the lower extremities and has been used effectively after stroke, spinal cord injury, fractured hip, multiple sclerosis, and cerebral palsy. Adaptations of the CI therapy paradigm have also been developed for aphasia, focal hand dystonia in musicians, and phantom limb pain. Human and animal studies using a variety of methods provide evidence that CI therapy produces marked neuroplastic changes in the structure and function of the CNS. Moreover, these changes appear to be important for the intervention's therapeutic effect. PMID:24309263

  18. An automated form of video image analysis applied to classification of movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Chang, R; Guan, L; Burne, J A

    Video image analysis is able to provide quantitative data on postural and movement abnormalities and thus has an important application in neurological diagnosis and management. The conventional techniques require patients to be videotaped while wearing markers in a highly structured laboratory environment. This restricts the utility of video in routine clinical practise. We have begun development of intelligent software which aims to provide a more flexible system able to quantify human posture and movement directly from whole-body images without markers and in an unstructured environment. The steps involved are to extract complete human profiles from video frames, to fit skeletal frameworks to the profiles and derive joint angles and swing distances. By this means a given posture is reduced to a set of basic parameters that can provide input to a neural network classifier. To test the system's performance we videotaped patients with dopa-responsive Parkinsonism and age-matched normals during several gait cycles, to yield 61 patient and 49 normal postures. These postures were reduced to their basic parameters and fed to the neural network classifier in various combinations. The optimal parameter sets (consisting of both swing distances and joint angles) yielded successful classification of normals and patients with an accuracy above 90%. This result demonstrated the feasibility of the approach. The technique has the potential to guide clinicians on the relative sensitivity of specific postural/gait features in diagnosis. Future studies will aim to improve the robustness of the system in providing accurate parameter estimates from subjects wearing a range of clothing, and to further improve discrimination by incorporating more stages of the gait cycle into the analysis. PMID:10661762

  19. Rhythmic chewing with oral jaws in teleost fishes: a comparison with amniotes.

    PubMed

    Gintof, Chris; Konow, Nicolai; Ross, Callum F; Sanford, Christopher P J

    2010-06-01

    Intra-oral prey processing (chewing) using the mandibular jaws occurs more extensively among teleost fishes than previously documented. The lack of muscle spindles, gamma-motoneurons and periodontal afferents in fishes makes them useful for testing hypotheses regarding the relationship between these sensorimotor components and rhythmic chewing in vertebrates. Electromyography (EMG) data from the adductor mandibulae (AM) were used to quantify variation in chew cycle duration in the bowfin Amia, three osteoglossomorphs (bony-tongues), four salmonids and one esocid (pike). All species chewed prey using their oral jaw in repetitive trains of between 3 and 30 consecutive chews, a pattern that resembles cyclic chewing in amniote vertebrates. Variance in rhythmicity was compared within and between lineages using coefficients of variation and Levene's test for homogeneity of variance. These comparisons revealed that some teleosts exhibit degrees of rhythmicity that are comparable to mammalian mastication and higher than in lepidosaurs. Moreover, chew cycle durations in fishes, as in mammals, scale positively with mandible length. Chewing among basal teleosts may be rhythmic because it is stereotyped and inflexible, the result of patterned interactions between sensory feedback and a central pattern generator, because the lack of a fleshy tongue renders jaw-tongue coordination unnecessary and/or because stereotyped opening and closing movements are important for controlling fluid flow in the oral cavity. PMID:20472774

  20. Rhythmic Manipulation of Objects with Complex Dynamics: Predictability over Chaos

    PubMed Central

    Nasseroleslami, Bahman; Hasson, Christopher J.; Sternad, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    The study of object manipulation has been largely confined to discrete tasks, where accuracy, mechanical effort, or smoothness were examined to explain subjects' preferred movements. This study investigated a rhythmic manipulation task, which involved continuous interaction with a nonlinear object that led to unpredictable object behavior. Using a simplified virtual version of the task of carrying a cup of coffee, we studied how this unpredictable object behavior affected the selected strategies. The experiment was conducted in a virtual set-up, where subjects moved a cup with a ball inside, modeled by cart-and-pendulum dynamics. Inverse dynamics calculations of the system showed that performing the task with different amplitudes and relative phases required different force profiles and rendered the object's dynamics with different degrees of predictability (quantified by Mutual Information between the applied force and the cup kinematics and its sensitivity). Subjects (n = 8) oscillated the virtual cup between two targets via a robotic manipulandum, paced by a metronome at 1 Hz for 50 trials, each lasting 45 s. They were free to choose their movement amplitude and relative phase between the ball and cup. Experimental results showed that subjects increased their movement amplitudes, which rendered the interactions with the object more predictable and with lower sensitivity to the execution variables. These solutions were associated with higher average exerted force and lower object smoothness, contradicting common expectations from studies on discrete object manipulation and unrestrained movements. Instead, the findings showed that humans selected strategies with higher predictability of interaction dynamics. This finding expressed that humans seek movement strategies where force and kinematics synchronize to repeatable patterns that may require less sensorimotor information processing. PMID:25340581

  1. Interference Effects in Bimanual Coordination Are Independent of Movement Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvin, Sarah; Huys, Raoul; Jirsa, Viktor K.

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneously executed limb movements interfere with each other. Whereas the interference between discrete movements is examined mostly from a cognitive perspective, that between rhythmic movements is studied mainly from a dynamical systems perspective. As the tools and concepts developed by both communities are limited in their applicability to…

  2. Natural history of canine paroxysmal movement disorders in Labrador retrievers and Jack Russell terriers.

    PubMed

    Lowrie, Mark; Garosi, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    Delineation of the typical disease progression in canine paroxysmal dyskinesia (PD) may assist in evaluating therapeutic agents during clinical trials. Our objective was to establish the natural disease course in a group of dogs diagnosed with PD that received no medication. Fifty-nine dogs (36 Labradors, 23 JRTs) with clinically confirmed PD and a follow-up of ≥3 years were retrospectively reviewed. Dogs with PD had a young onset, were triggered by startle or sudden movements, and had a male bias (75%) with the majority being entire sample population. Twenty-one dogs (36%) had at least one event comprising cluster episodes. Episode duration and frequency varied dramatically, even within an individual. Median follow-up was 7 years. No concurrent disease was identified in any dog that was investigated. The natural history was self-limiting with 32% entering remission and an improvement in 75%. Episodes reduced in terms of frequency and duration in Labradors and JRTs respectively. Remission was lower in dogs with cluster episodes than those without. These findings suggest that the diagnostic yield of advanced neuroimaging techniques in dogs with video footage and historical data supporting PD, without neurological deficits, is low. The presence of cluster episodes is of predictive value for the prognosis of canine PD. Future research should be cautious in reporting treatment response for PD without first considering the spontaneous remission rate and improvements in untreated dogs documented in this study. PMID:27240912

  3. Movement coordination in ball catching: comparison between boys with and without developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Przysucha, Eryk P; Maraj, Brian K V

    2010-06-01

    This investigation examined the catching coordination of 12 boys (M age = 9.9 years, SD = .8) with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD; M age = 10.5 years, SD = .8), under different task constraints. Participants attempted a total of 60 catches in central and lateral locations, under blocked and randomized conditions. No effect of randomization was found for the number of balls caught, but a significant Group x Location interaction effect (p < .0001) showed that typically developing boys had nearly perfect scores. Boys with DCD caught more balls in central (73%) than lateral trials (47%). During the latter grasping and positional errors were also evident. Due to pronounced functional difficulties in the lateral trials, and coinciding differences in the arm and leg actions, it was concluded that intersegmental coordination constituted the organizational limits for boys with DCD. PMID:20527300

  4. An Examination of Movement Kinematics in Young People with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder: Further Evidence for a Motor Planning Deficit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinehart, Nicole J.; Bellgrove, Mark A.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Brereton, Avril V.; Howells-Rankin, Debra; Bradshaw, John L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines upper-body movement kinematics in individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger's disorder (AD). In general, the results indicate that HFA is more consistently associated with impaired motoric preparation/initiation than AD. The data further suggest that this quantitative difference in motor impairment is not…

  5. Correlation between the gross motor performance measurement and pediatric balance scale with respect to movement disorder in children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Ahn, So-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To determine whether the Gross Motor Performance Measurement is useful in predicting the future score of the Pediatric Balance Scale, this study examined the correlation between the 2 measurement tools with respect to movement disorder in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 38 study subjects with cerebral palsy were divided into 3 groups (spastic, dyskinetic, and ataxic) by means of systematic proportional stratified sampling in accordance with the characteristics of their movement disorders. [Results] The spastic Pediatric Balance Scale had an intermediate level of positive correlation with dissociated movement (r=0.411), alignment (r=0.518), and weight shift (r=0.461). The dyskinetic Pediatric Balance Scale had a strong positive correlation with dissociated movement (r=0.905), coordination (r=0.882), alignment (r=0.930), and stability (r=0.924). The ataxic Pediatric Balance Scale had an intermediate level of positive correlation with the overall Gross Motor Performance Measurement (r=0.636), and a strong positive correlation with dissociated movement (r=0.866), coordination (r=0.871) and stability (r=0.984). [Conclusion] Gross Motor Performance Measurement is important in evaluating the quality of movement, and can be considered an excellent supplementary tool in predicting functional balance.

  6. Movement - unpredictable or jerky

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy (chorea gravidarum) Stroke Systemic lupus erythematosus Tardive dyskinesia (a condition that can be caused by medicines ... uncontrolled); Hyperkinetic movements References Jankovic J, Lang AE. Movement disorders. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta ...

  7. Practical Skills of Rhythmic Gymnastics Judges

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Villarino, Maria A.; Bobo-Arce, Marta; Sierra-Palmeiro, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the practical skills of rhythmic gymnastics judges and to identify how their degree and experience influence the assessment of these skills. Sixty one rhythmic gymnastics judges participated in the study. A questionnaire was used for data collection. This tool was composed of 28 questions and divided into six categories: identification, experience, initial training, continuing education, skills and training needs. The results suggest that the most valued skills are those related to the sport’s technical parameters and the ability to adapt to any level of competition with self-confidence and self-assuredness. Significant differences were found regarding the variables for: the ability to communicate (p = 0.002) and for the ability to observe, identify and register performance (p = 0.005). The results showed that experience was not a decisive factor in assessing skills. This study thus presents evidence that rhythmic gymnastics judges must implement and optimise a set of skills that contribute to the effectiveness of the assessment process. These findings might help in the design of programs and training models that contribute to effective professional development. PMID:24511360

  8. Practical skills of rhythmic gymnastics judges.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Villarino, Maria A; Bobo-Arce, Marta; Sierra-Palmeiro, Elena

    2013-12-18

    The aim of this study was to analyze the practical skills of rhythmic gymnastics judges and to identify how their degree and experience influence the assessment of these skills. Sixty one rhythmic gymnastics judges participated in the study. A questionnaire was used for data collection. This tool was composed of 28 questions and divided into six categories: identification, experience, initial training, continuing education, skills and training needs. The results suggest that the most valued skills are those related to the sport's technical parameters and the ability to adapt to any level of competition with self-confidence and self-assuredness. Significant differences were found regarding the variables for: the ability to communicate (p = 0.002) and for the ability to observe, identify and register performance (p = 0.005). The results showed that experience was not a decisive factor in assessing skills. This study thus presents evidence that rhythmic gymnastics judges must implement and optimise a set of skills that contribute to the effectiveness of the assessment process. These findings might help in the design of programs and training models that contribute to effective professional development. PMID:24511360

  9. Prevalence and timeline of nonmotor symptoms in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Mardones, Carolina; Iranzo, Alex; Vilas, Dolores; Serradell, Mónica; Gaig, Carles; Santamaría, Joan; Tolosa, Eduardo

    2015-06-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) patients may experience nonmotor symptoms (NMS) before Parkinsonism onset. Patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (IRBD) eventually develop PD and may represent premotor PD. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and perceived timeline of NMS in IRBD through validated scales and questionnaires used in PD research. In 44 IRBD patients and 40 matched controls, overall NMS evaluation was assessed by NMS questionnaire for Parkinson disease, olfaction by University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test, dysautonomia by scales for outcomes in Parkinson's disease-autonomic, constipation by Rome III criteria, depression by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, cognitive impairment by Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) and hypersomnia by Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Patients were asked to report the perceived time of onset of hyposmia, constipation, and depression. Hyposmia (52.3 vs. 20.0 %, p = 0.002) and constipation (56.8 vs. 20.0 %, p = 0.001) were more frequent in patients than in controls. Patients reported more memory problems and showed a trend toward lower score in MoCA. Depression and hypersomnia were not more frequent in patients. The first symptom perceived was RBD in 38.6 % patients, hyposmia in 15.9 %, constipation in 11.4 %, and depression in 6.8 %. The temporal course of the NMS studied was heterogeneous. The three most common presentations were RBD followed by hyposmia; hyposmia followed by RBD; and hyposmia followed by RBD and constipation occurring at the same time span. IRBD patients frequently exhibit NMS that occur in premotor PD, particularly hyposmia and constipation. In IRBD, the perceived timeline of NMS is highly variable. This variability may suggest that pathological changes occurring in IRBD subjects are also heterogeneous and not restricted to the structures that regulate REM sleep. PMID:25929658

  10. The Role of Fear of Movement in Subacute Whiplash-Associated Disorders Grades I and II

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, James P.; Theodore, Brian R.; Dansie, Elizabeth J.; Wilson, Hilary D.; Turk, Dennis C.

    2013-01-01

    Fear and avoidance of activity may play a role in fostering disability in whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). This study examined the role of fear following WAD and assessed the effectiveness of three treatments targeting fear. People still symptomatic from WAD Grade I–II injuries approximately 3 months previously (n = 191) completed questionnaires (e.g., Neck Disability Index [NDI]) and were randomized to one of the treatments: (1) informational booklet (IB) describing WAD and the importance of resuming activities; (2) IB + didactic discussions (DD) with clinicians reinforcing the booklet; and (3) IB + imaginal and direct exposure desensitization (ET) to feared activities. DD and ET participants received three 2-hour treatment sessions. Absolute improvements in NDI were in predicted direction (ET = 14.7, DD = 11.9, IB = 9.9). ETs reported significantly less post-treatment pain severity, compared to the IB (M = 1.5 vs. 2.3, p < 0.001, d = 0.6) and DD (M = 1.5 vs. 2.0, p = 0.039, d = 0.6) groups. Reduction in fear was the most important predictor of improvement in NDI (β = 0.30, p < 0.001), followed by reductions in pain (β = 0.20, p = 0.003) and depression (β = 0.18, p = 0.004). The mediational analysis confirmed that fear reduction significantly mediated the effect of treatment group on outcome. Results highlight the importance of fear in individuals with subacute WAD, and suggest the importance of addressing fear, via exposure therapy and/or educational interventions, to improve function. PMID:23318127

  11. Human olfactory bulb neural stem cells mitigate movement disorders in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Marei, Hany E S; Lashen, Samah; Farag, Amany; Althani, Asmaa; Afifi, Nahla; A, Abd-Elmaksoud; Rezk, Shaymaa; Pallini, Roberto; Casalbore, Patrizia; Cenciarelli, Carlo

    2015-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurological disorder characterized by the loss of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Neural stem cells (NSCs) are multipotent stem cells that are capable of differentiating into different neuronal and glial elements. The production of DA neurons from NSCs could potentially alleviate behavioral deficits in Parkinsonian patients; timely intervention with NSCs might provide a therapeutic strategy for PD. We have isolated and generated highly enriched cultures of neural stem/progenitor cells from the human olfactory bulb (OB). If NSCs can be obtained from OB, it would alleviate ethical concerns associated with the use of embryonic tissue, and provide an easily accessible cell source that would preclude the need for invasive brain surgery. Following isolation and culture, olfactory bulb neural stem cells (OBNSCs) were genetically engineered to express hNGF and GFP. The hNFG-GFP-OBNSCs were transplanted into the striatum of 6-hydroxydopamin (6-OHDA) Parkinsonian rats. The grafted cells survived in the lesion environment for more than eight weeks after implantation with no tumor formation. The grafted cells differentiated in vivo into oligodendrocyte-like (25 ± 2.88%), neuron-like (52.63 ± 4.16%), and astrocyte -like (22.36 ± 1.56%) lineages, which we differentiated based on morphological and immunohistochemical criteria. Transplanted rats exhibited a significant partial correction in stepping and placing in non-pharmacological behavioral tests, pole and rotarod tests. Taken together, our data encourage further investigations of the possible use of OBNSCs as a promising cell-based therapeutic strategy for Parkinson's disease. PMID:25536543

  12. The Clinical Phenotype of Idiopathic Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder at Presentation: A Study in 203 Consecutive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Arcos, Ana; Iranzo, Alex; Serradell, Mónica; Gaig, Carles; Santamaria, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinical phenotype of idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (IRBD) at presentation in a sleep center. Methods: Clinical history review of 203 consecutive patients with IRBD identified between 1990 and 2014. IRBD was diagnosed by clinical history plus video-polysomnographic demonstration of REM sleep with increased electromyographic activity linked to abnormal behaviors. Results: Patients were 80% men with median age at IRBD diagnosis of 68 y (range, 50–85 y). In addition to the already known clinical picture of IRBD, other important features were apparent: 44% of the patients were not aware of their dream-enactment behaviors and 70% reported good sleep quality. In most of these cases bed partners were essential to convince patients to seek medical help. In 11% IRBD was elicited only after specific questioning when patients consulted for other reasons. Seven percent did not recall unpleasant dreams. Leaving the bed occurred occasionally in 24% of subjects in whom dementia with Lewy bodies often developed eventually. For the correct diagnosis of IRBD, video-polysomnography had to be repeated in 16% because of insufficient REM sleep or electromyographic artifacts from coexistent apneas. Some subjects with comorbid obstructive sleep apnea reported partial improvement of RBD symptoms following continuous positive airway pressure therapy. Lack of therapy with clonazepam resulted in an increased risk of sleep related injuries. Synucleinopathy was frequently diagnosed, even in patients with mild severity or uncommon IRBD presentations (e.g., patients who reported sleeping well, onset triggered by a life event, nocturnal ambulation) indicating that the development of a neurodegenerative disease is independent of the clinical presentation of IRBD. Conclusions: We report the largest IRBD cohort observed in a single center to date and highlight frequent features that were not reported or not sufficiently emphasized in previous

  13. The Enhanced Musical Rhythmic Perception in Second Language Learners.

    PubMed

    Roncaglia-Denissen, M Paula; Roor, Drikus A; Chen, Ao; Sadakata, Makiko

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that mastering languages with distinct rather than similar rhythmic properties enhances musical rhythmic perception. This study investigates whether learning a second language (L2) contributes to enhanced musical rhythmic perception in general, regardless of first and second languages rhythmic properties. Additionally, we investigated whether this perceptual enhancement could be alternatively explained by exposure to musical rhythmic complexity, such as the use of compound meter in Turkish music. Finally, it investigates if an enhancement of musical rhythmic perception could be observed among L2 learners whose first language relies heavily on pitch information, as is the case with tonal languages. Therefore, we tested Turkish, Dutch and Mandarin L2 learners of English and Turkish monolinguals on their musical rhythmic perception. Participants' phonological and working memory capacities, melodic aptitude, years of formal musical training and daily exposure to music were assessed to account for cultural and individual differences which could impact their rhythmic ability. Our results suggest that mastering a L2 rather than exposure to musical rhythmic complexity could explain individuals' enhanced musical rhythmic perception. An even stronger enhancement of musical rhythmic perception was observed for L2 learners whose first and second languages differ regarding their rhythmic properties, as enhanced performance of Turkish in comparison with Dutch L2 learners of English seem to suggest. Such a stronger enhancement of rhythmic perception seems to be found even among L2 learners whose first language relies heavily on pitch information, as the performance of Mandarin L2 learners of English indicates. Our findings provide further support for a cognitive transfer between the language and music domain. PMID:27375469

  14. The Enhanced Musical Rhythmic Perception in Second Language Learners

    PubMed Central

    Roncaglia-Denissen, M. Paula; Roor, Drikus A.; Chen, Ao; Sadakata, Makiko

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that mastering languages with distinct rather than similar rhythmic properties enhances musical rhythmic perception. This study investigates whether learning a second language (L2) contributes to enhanced musical rhythmic perception in general, regardless of first and second languages rhythmic properties. Additionally, we investigated whether this perceptual enhancement could be alternatively explained by exposure to musical rhythmic complexity, such as the use of compound meter in Turkish music. Finally, it investigates if an enhancement of musical rhythmic perception could be observed among L2 learners whose first language relies heavily on pitch information, as is the case with tonal languages. Therefore, we tested Turkish, Dutch and Mandarin L2 learners of English and Turkish monolinguals on their musical rhythmic perception. Participants’ phonological and working memory capacities, melodic aptitude, years of formal musical training and daily exposure to music were assessed to account for cultural and individual differences which could impact their rhythmic ability. Our results suggest that mastering a L2 rather than exposure to musical rhythmic complexity could explain individuals’ enhanced musical rhythmic perception. An even stronger enhancement of musical rhythmic perception was observed for L2 learners whose first and second languages differ regarding their rhythmic properties, as enhanced performance of Turkish in comparison with Dutch L2 learners of English seem to suggest. Such a stronger enhancement of rhythmic perception seems to be found even among L2 learners whose first language relies heavily on pitch information, as the performance of Mandarin L2 learners of English indicates. Our findings provide further support for a cognitive transfer between the language and music domain. PMID:27375469

  15. Prognostic and Symptomatic Aspects of Rapid Eye Movement Sleep in a Mouse Model of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Polta, Stephanie Anna; Fenzl, Thomas; Jakubcakova, Vladimira; Kimura, Mayumi; Yassouridis, Alexander; Wotjak, Carsten Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Not every individual develops Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) after the exposure to a potentially traumatic event. Therefore, the identification of pre-existing risk factors and early diagnostic biomarkers is of high medical relevance. However, no objective biomarker has yet progressed into clinical practice. Sleep disturbances represent commonly reported complaints in PTSD patients. In particular, changes in rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) properties are frequently observed in PTSD patients. Here, we examined in a mouse model of PTSD whether (1) mice developed REMS alterations after trauma and (2) whether REMS architecture before and/or shortly after trauma predicted the development of PTSD-like symptoms. We monitored sleep-wake behavior via combined electroencephalogram/electromyogram recordings immediately before (24 h pre), immediately after (0–48 h post) and 2 months after exposure to an electric foot shock in male C57BL/6N mice (n = 15). PTSD-like symptoms, including hyperarousal, contextual, and generalized fear, were assessed 1 month post-trauma. Shocked mice showed early onset and sustained elevation of REMS compared to non-shocked controls. In addition, REMS architecture before trauma was correlated with the intensity of acoustic startle responses, but not contextual fear, 1 month after trauma. Our data suggest REMS as prognostic (pre-trauma) and symptomatic (post-trauma) marker of PTSD-like symptoms in mice. Translated to the situation in humans, REMS may constitute a viable, objective, and non-invasive biomarker in PTSD and other trauma-related psychiatric disorders, which could guide pharmacological interventions in humans at high risk. PMID:23750131

  16. Rhythmic arm cycling differentially modulates stretch and H-reflex amplitudes in soleus muscle.

    PubMed

    Palomino, Andres F; Hundza, Sandra R; Zehr, E Paul

    2011-10-01

    During rhythmic arm cycling, soleus H-reflex amplitudes are reduced by modulation of group Ia presynaptic inhibition. This suppression of reflex amplitude is graded to the frequency of arm cycling with a threshold of 0.8 Hz. Despite the data on modulation of the soleus H-reflex amplitude induced by rhythmic arm cycling, comparatively little is known about the modulation of stretch reflexes due to remote limb movement. Therefore, the present study was intended to explore the effect of arm cycling on stretch and H-reflex amplitudes in the soleus muscle. In so doing, additional information on the mechanism of action during rhythmic arm cycling would be revealed. Although both reflexes share the same afferent pathway, we hypothesized that stretch reflex amplitudes would be less suppressed by arm cycling because they are less inhibited by presynaptic inhibition. Failure to reject this hypothesis would add additional strength to the argument that Ia presynaptic inhibition is the mechanism modulating soleus H-reflex amplitude during rhythmic arm cycling. Participants were seated in a customized chair with feet strapped to footplates. Three motor tasks were performed: static control trials and arm cycling at 1 and 2 Hz. Soleus H-reflexes were evoked using single 1 ms pulses of electrical stimulation delivered to the tibial nerve at the popliteal fossa. A constant M-wave and ~6% MVC activation of soleus were maintained across conditions. Stretch reflexes were evoked using a single sinusoidal pulse at 100 Hz given by a vibratory shaker placed over the triceps surae tendon and controlled by a custom-written LabView program. Results demonstrated that rhythmic arm cycling that was effective for conditioning soleus H-reflexes did not show a suppressive effect on the amplitude of the soleus stretch reflex. We suggest this indicates that stretch reflexes are less sensitive to conditioning by rhythmic arm movement, as compared to H-reflexes, due to the relative insensitivity to

  17. Practical Guidance on How to Handle Levodopa/Carbidopa Intestinal Gel Therapy of Advanced PD in a Movement Disorder Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Stephen Wørlich; Clausen, Jesper; Gregerslund, Mie Manon

    2012-01-01

    Continuous dopaminergic delivery is recognized for the capacity to ameliorate symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD). In advanced PD the short comings of orally administered Levodopa/Carbidopa include fluctuations resulting in unstable effect and dyskinesia. Levodopa/Carbidopa intestinal gel, LCIG, (Duodopa®, Abbott Laboratories) is delivered continuously through a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy with the inner tube placed in the duodenum by means of a device (CADD legacy Duodopa pump (CE 0473)). The therapy implies continuous dopaminergic delivery directly to the duodenum and is therefore unaffected by gastric emptying and represents a major adjuvant in the treatment of advanced PD with significant improvement in motor and non-motor symptoms. The aim of this paper is to suggest the prerequisites for a LCIG clinic and propose a feasible set-up and lean organization of a movement disorder clinic. Secondly, the paper proposes practical handling of patients in LCIG treatment for advanced PD based on experience and initiation of LCIG treatment and follow-up in forty patients. PMID:22848335

  18. A neural network-based design of an on-off adaptive control for Deep Brain Stimulation in movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Pitamber; Basu, Ishita; Graupe, Daniel; Tuninetti, Daniela; Slavin, Konstantin V

    2012-01-01

    The current Food and Drug Administration approved system for the treatment of tremor disorders through Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) of the area of the brain that controls movement, operates open-loop. It does not automatically adapt to the instantaneous patient's needs or to the progression of the disease. This paper demonstrates an adaptive closed-loop controlled DBS that, after switching off stimulation, tracks few physiological signals to predict the reappearance of tremor before the patient experiences discomfort, at which point it instructs the DBS controller to switch on stimulation again. The core of the proposed approach is a Neural Network (NN) which effectively extracts tremor predictive information from non-invasively recorded surface-electromyogram(sEMG) and accelerometer signals measured at the symptomatic extremities. A simple feed-forward back-propagation NN architecture is shown to successfully predict tremor in 31 out of 33 trials in two Parkinson's Disease patients with an overall accuracy of 75.8% and sensitivity of 92.3%. This work therefore shows that closed-loop DBS control is feasible in the near future and that it can be achieved without modifications of the electrodes implanted in the brain, i.e., is backward compatible with approved DBS systems. PMID:23366839

  19. Interactions of visual hallucinations, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease: A review.

    PubMed

    Lenka, Abhishek; Hegde, Shantala; Jhunjhunwala, Ketan Ramakant; Pal, Pramod Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease may develop various non-motor symptoms during the course of the illness. Visual hallucinations (VH) and cognitive impairment (CI) are two common non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Studies have reported association of both VH and CI with presence of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Presence of visual hallucinations and cognitive impairment has been described as risk factors for emergence of each other. There is marked overlap in the risk factors for development of RBD, VH and CI in patients with PD. Results of clinical and epidemiological studies as well as studies based on neuroimaging, electrophysiology especially transcranial magnetic stimulation and neuropsycholgical evaluations in PD patients have suggested presence of certain common neurobiological process leading to emergence of RBD, VH and CI. Structural neuroimaging studies using voxel-based morphometry have often reported grey matter atrophy of hippocampus and parahippocampal cortices in PD patients with RBD, VH and CI. Cholinergic dysfunction is common in PD patients with RBD, VH and CI. This review explores the complex interactions of RBD, VH and CI in patients with PD and their potential implications. PMID:26639978

  20. GLUT1 deficiency syndrome as a cause of encephalopathy that includes cognitive disability, treatment-resistant infantile epilepsy and a complex movement disorder

    PubMed Central

    Graham, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1) deficiency syndrome is caused by heterozygous mutations in the SLC2A1 gene, resulting in impaired glucose transport into the brain. It is characterized by a low glucose concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (hypoglycorrhachia) in the absence of hypoglycemia, in combination with low to normal lactate in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It often results in treatment-resistant infantile epilepsy with progressive developmental disabilities and a complex movement disorder. Recognizing GLUT1 deficiency syndrome is important, since initiation of a ketogenic diet can reduce the frequency of seizures and the severity of the movement disorder. There can be a considerable delay in diagnosing GLUT1 deficiency syndrome, and this point is illustrated by the natural history of this disorder in a 21-year-old woman with severe, progressive neurological disabilities. Her encephalopathy consisted of treatment-resistant seizures, a complex movement disorder, progressive intellectual disability, and deceleration of her head growth after late infancy. Focused evaluation at age 21 revealed GLUT1 deficiency caused by a novel heterozygous missence mutation in exon 7 (c.938C > A; p.Ser313Try) in SLC2A1 as the cause for her disabilities. PMID:22212417

  1. The Movement Disorder Society Evidence-Based Medicine Review Update: Treatments for the Non-Motor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Seppi, Klaus; Weintraub, Daniel; Coelho, Miguel; Perez-Lloret, Santiago; Fox, Susan H.; Katzenschlager, Regina; Hametner, Eva-Maria; Poewe, Werner; Rascol, Olivier; Goetz, Christopher G.; Sampaio, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The Movement Disorder Society (MDS) Task Force on Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) Review of Treatments for Parkinson's Disease (PD) was first published in 2002 and was updated in 2005 to cover clinical trial data up to January 2004 with the focus on motor symptoms of PD. In this revised version the MDS task force decided it was necessary to extend the review to non-motor symptoms. The objective of this work was to update previous EBM reviews on treatments for PD with a focus on non-motor symptoms. Level-I (randomized controlled trial, RCT) reports of pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions for the non-motor symptoms of PD, published as full articles in English between January 2002 and December 2010 were reviewed. Criteria for inclusion and ranking followed the original program outline and adhered to EBM methodology. For efficacy conclusions, treatments were designated: efficacious, likely efficacious, unlikely efficacious, non-efficacious, or insufficient evidence. Safety data were catalogued and reviewed. Based on the combined efficacy and safety assessment, Implications for clinical practice were determined using the following designations: clinically useful, possibly useful, investigational, unlikely useful, and not useful. Fifty-four new studies qualified for efficacy review while several other studies covered safety issues. Updated and new efficacy conclusions were made for all indications. The treatments that are efficacious for the management of the different non-motor symptoms are as follows: pramipexole for the treatment of depressive symptoms, clozapine for the treatment of psychosis, rivastigmine for the treatment of dementia, and botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) and BTX-B as well as glycopyrrolate for the treatment of sialorrhea. The practical implications for these treatments, except for glycopyrrolate, are that they are clinically useful. Since there is insufficient evidence of glycopyrrolate for the treatment of sialorrhea exceeding 1 week, the

  2. FXTAS is rare among Portuguese patients with movement disorders: FMR1 premutations may be associated with a wider spectrum of phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder caused by expansions of 55-200 CGG repeats in the 5'UTR of the FMR1 gene. These FMR1 premutation expansions have relatively high frequency in the general population. To estimate the frequency of FMR1 premutations among Portuguese males with non-familial, late-onset movement disorders of unknown etiology, we assessed CGG repeat size in males with disease onset after the age of 50 and negative or unknown family history for late-onset movement disorders, who were sent for SCA, HD, or PD genetic testing at a reference laboratory. The selected patients had a primary clinical diagnosis based on one of the following cardinal features of FXTAS: ataxia, tremor, or cognitive decline. A total of 86 subjects were genotyped for the CGG repeat in the FMR1 gene. We detected one patient with an expansion in the premutation range. The frequency of FMR1 premutations was 1.9% (1/54) in our group of patients with ataxia as the primary clinical feature, and 1.2% (1/86) in the larger movement disorders group. In the family of the FXTAS case, premutation-transmitting females presented a history of psychiatric symptoms, suggesting that, given the wide phenotypical expression of the premutation in females, neuropsychiatric surveillance is necessary. In conclusion, genetic testing for FXTAS should be made available to patients with adult-onset movement disorders to enable adequate genetic counseling to family members. PMID:21639881

  3. Aberrant development of post-movement beta rebound in adolescents and young adults with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Vakhtin, Andrei A.; Kodituwakku, Piyadasa W.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Tesche, Claudia D.

    2015-01-01

    Dependent on maternal (e.g. genetic, age) and exposure (frequency, quantity, and timing) variables, the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing fetus are known to vary widely, producing a broad range of morphological anomalies and neurocognitive deficits in offspring, referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Maternal drinking during pregnancy remains a leading risk factor for the development of intellectual disabilities in the US. While few functional findings exist today that shed light on the mechanisms responsible for the observed impairments in individuals with FASD, animal models consistently report deleterious effects of early alcohol exposure on GABA-ergic inhibitory pathways. The post-motor beta rebound (PMBR), a transient increase of 15–30 Hz beta power in the motor cortex that follows the termination of movement, has been implicated as a neural signature of GABA-ergic inhibitory activity. Further, PMBR has been shown to be a reliable predictor of age in adolescents. The present study sought to investigate any differences in the development of PMBR between FASD and control groups. Beta event-related de-synchronization (ERD) and movement-related gamma synchronization (MRGS), although not clearly linked to brain maturation, were also examined. Twenty-two participants with FASD and 22 age and sex-matched controls (12–22 years old) underwent magnetoencephalography scans while performing an auditory oddball task, which required a button press in response to select target stimuli. The data surrounding the button presses were localized to the participants' motor cortices, and the time courses from the locations of the maximally evoked PMBR were subjected to wavelet analyses. The subsequent analysis of PMBR, ERD, and MRGS revealed a significant interaction between group and age in their effects on PMBR. While age had a significant effect on PMBR in the controls, no simple effects of age were detected in the FASD group. The FASD

  4. Assessment of association of D3 dopamine receptor MscI polymorphism with schizophrenia: Analysis of symptom ratings, family history, age at onset, and movement disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Gaitonde, E.J.; Mollon, J.D.; McKenna, P.J.

    1996-09-20

    Several studies have reported an association between schizophrenia and homozygosity for the MscI restriction site in exon 1 of the D3 dopamine receptor gene, but other studies have failed to find this association. Recent reports have suggested that the association is most salient in male patients with a family history of schizophrenia. We examined this restriction site in a group of schizophrenic patients (n = 84) and in normal controls (n = 77). Patients were subdivided according to demographic and clinical features, particular attention being paid to movement disorders. No significant difference in allelic or genotypic distribution was seen between the two groups. No association was seen between homozygosity and a positive family history, age at onset of illness, clinical subtype, negative symptom score, or movement disorder scores. 33 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Distinguishing rhythmic from non-rhythmic brain activity during rest in healthy neurocognitive aging

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, Jeremy B.; Bottomley, Monica; Kang, Pardeep; Dixon, Roger A.

    2015-01-01

    Rhythmic brain activity at low frequencies (<12 Hz) during rest are thought to increase in neurodegenerative disease, but findings in healthy neurocognitive aging are mixed. Here we address two reasons conventional spectral analyses may have led to inconsistent results. First, spectral-power measures are compared to a baseline condition; when resting activity is the signal of interest, it is unclear what the baseline should be. Second, conventional methods do not clearly differentiate power due to rhythmic versus non-rhythmic activity. The Better OSCillation detection method (BOSC; [10], [65]) avoids these problems by using the signal’s own spectral characteristics as a reference to detect elevations in power lasting a few cycles. We recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) signal during rest, alternating eyes open and closed, in healthy younger (18–25 years) and older (60–74 years) participants. Topographic plots suggested the conventional and BOSC analyses measured different sources of activity, particularly at frequencies, like delta (1–4 Hz), at which rhythms are sporadic (but topographies were more similar in the 8–12 Hz alpha band). There was little theta-band activity meeting the BOSC method’s criteria, suggesting prior findings of theta power in healthy aging may reflect non-rhythmic signal. In contrast, delta oscillations were present at higher levels than theta in both age groups. In sum, applying strict and standardized criteria for rhythmicity, slow rhythms appear present in the resting brain at delta and alpha, but not theta frequencies, and appear unchanged in healthy aging. PMID:25769279

  6. Treatment of essential tremor: a systematic review of evidence and recommendations from the Italian Movement Disorders Association.

    PubMed

    Zappia, Mario; Albanese, Alberto; Bruno, Elisa; Colosimo, Carlo; Filippini, Graziella; Martinelli, Paolo; Nicoletti, Alessandra; Quattrocchi, Graziella; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Berardelli, Alfredo; Allegra, Roberta; Aniello, Maria Stella; Elia, Antonio E; Martino, Davide; Murgia, Daniela; Picillo, Marina; Squintani, Giovanna

    2013-03-01

    Essential tremor (ET) is one of the most common movement disorders of adults, characterized by postural and kinetic tremor. It often causes embarrassment and more rarely serious disability, requiring treatment. To assess the current state of knowledge on ET therapy and produce recommendations based on the analysis of evidence the authors reviewed the literature regarding pharmacologic and surgical therapies, providing a quality assessment of the studies and the strength of recommendations for each treatment. A committee of experts selected clinical-based questions to guide the search. A systematic literature review was performed to identify all the studies conducted on patients with ET published until September 2010. Articles were classified according to GRADE evidence profile, a system for grading the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendation based on the quality of the studies. The quality of evidence was often rated as "low" or "very low" for the studies analyzed. Propranolol, long-acting propranolol, primidone, and topiramate are recommended as first-line therapy, with restrictions for their side effects. Arotinolol, sotalol, ICI 118.551 and LI 32.468 (experimental drugs), zonisamide, gabapentin, alprazolam, clozapine, and olanzapine are recommended as a second-line treatment. Botulinum toxin type A and thalamic deep-brain stimulation are recommended for refractory ET. The results highlight the need of well-designed direct comparison trials aimed at evaluating relative effectiveness and safety of the drugs currently used in clinical practice. Furthermore, additional controlled clinical trials are required to define other possible treatment strategies for ameliorating the management of ET. PMID:22886006

  7. Stereotypic movement disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Motor stereotypies ... Harris KM, Mahone EM, Singer HS. Nonautistic motor stereotypies: clinical features and longitudinal follow-up. Pediatr Neurol .2008;38:267-272. Singer HS. Motor stereotypies. Semin Pediatr Neurol . 2009;16:77- ...

  8. Overview of Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Coma (Video) Cerebral Angiography: Catheter Insertion (News) Human Brains Aren't Distinctly Male or Female, Study Says ... recover. Am I Correct? More Videos News HealthDay Human Brains Aren't Distinctly Male or Female, Study Says ...

  9. Robotics and neuroscience: a rhythmic interaction.

    PubMed

    Ronsse, Renaud; Lefèvre, Philippe; Sepulchre, Rodolphe

    2008-05-01

    At the crossing between motor control neuroscience and robotics system theory, the paper presents a rhythmic experiment that is amenable both to handy laboratory implementation and simple mathematical modeling. The experiment is based on an impact juggling task, requiring the coordination of two upper-limb effectors and some phase-locking with the trajectories of one or several juggled objects. We describe the experiment, its implementation and the mathematical model used for the analysis. Our underlying research focuses on the role of sensory feedback in rhythmic tasks. In a robotic implementation of our experiment, we study the minimum feedback that is required to achieve robust control. A limited source of feedback, measuring only the impact times, is shown to give promising results. A second field of investigation concerns the human behavior in the same impact juggling task. We study how a variation of the tempo induces a transition between two distinct control strategies with different sensory feedback requirements. Analogies and differences between the robotic and human behaviors are obviously of high relevance in such a flexible setup. PMID:18490135

  10. Multisensory vocal communication in primates and the evolution of rhythmic speech

    PubMed Central

    Ghazanfar, Asif A.

    2013-01-01

    The integration of the visual and auditory modalities during human speech perception is the default mode of speech processing. That is, visual speech perception is not a capacity that is “piggybacked” on to auditory-only speech perception. Visual information from the mouth and other parts of the face is used by all perceivers to enhance auditory speech. This integration is ubiquitous and automatic and is similar across all individuals across all cultures. The two modalities seem to be integrated even at the earliest stages of human cognitive development. If multisensory speech is the default mode of perception, then this should be reflected in the evolution of vocal communication. The purpose of this review is to describe the data that reveal that human speech is not uniquely multisensory. In fact, the default mode of communication is multisensory in nonhuman primates as well but perhaps emerging with a different developmental trajectory. Speech production, however, exhibits a unique bimodal rhythmic structure in that both the acoustic output and the movements of the mouth are rhythmic and tightly correlated. This structure is absent in most monkey vocalizations. One hypothesis is that the bimodal speech rhythm may have evolved through the rhythmic facial expressions of ancestral primates, as indicated by mounting comparative evidence focusing on the lip-smacking gesture. PMID:24222931

  11. NIR spectroscopic measurement of local muscle metabolism during rhythmic, sustained, and intermittent handgrip exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beekvelt, Mireille C. P.; Orbon, Karin; van Engelen, Baziel G. M.; Wevers, Ron A.; Colier, Willy N. J. M.

    2003-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate local muscle oxygen consumption (mVO2) during various protocols of isometric handgrip exercise. mVO2was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during sustained, rhythmic, and intermittent isometric handgrip exercise. Whereas rhythmic handgrip exercise has the advantage that local muscle metabolism can be measured over the full range from low- to high-intensity work, the advantage of sustained handgrip exercise is that it is less prone to movement artifacts. Intermittent isometric handgrip exercise enables calculation of mVO2 at short time intervals providing information about the time response of local oxygen consumption in relation to the onset of exercise. Ten healthy subjects participated in this study. The different protocols were performed on separate days and in random order. mVO2 during rhythmic exercise was significantly higher than that during sustained exercise at all work intensities tested (P <= 0.05). However, the highest oxygen consumption value for the three exercise protocols was measured during the steady state of intermittent exercise (P <= 0.05). These results show that the measurement of task-specific muscle metabolism during exercise can be measured noninvasively and with relative ease by near-infrared spectroscopy.

  12. Connecting Phrasal and Rhythmic Events: Evidence from Second Language Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nava, Emily Anne

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the relation between prosodic events at the phrasal level and component events at the rhythmic level. The overarching hypothesis is that the interaction among component rhythmic events gives rise to prosodic patterns at the phrasal level, while at the same time being constrained by the latter, and that in the case of…

  13. Rhythmic Characteristics of Improvisational Drumming among Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitcomb, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    A call-and-response drumming activity was carried out to determine the rhythmic characteristics of improvised patterns created by preschool children. Specific goals of the study were to: (1) determine the durations, start and stop times, and rhythmic patterns of improvised responses to a simple given call using drums; (2) determine the presence or…

  14. Young Children Being Rhythmically Playful: Creating "Musike" Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcock, Sophie

    2008-01-01

    This article explores young children's rhythmic, musical, aesthetic and playful creative communication in an early childhood education centre. Young children's communication is musically rhythmic and social. The data, presented as "events", formed part of an ethnographic-inspired study conducted by the researcher as a participant observer.…

  15. The Impact of Rhythmic Entrainment on a Person with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Tracy Jo; Myles, Brenda Smith; Carlson, Judith K.

    1998-01-01

    A study investigated the impact of rhythmic entrainment on an 11-year-old girl with autism who engaged in head jerking and screaming. Rhythmic entrainment intervention was more effective when she exhibited behavior that resulted from a moderate level of stress and less effective when stressors were more severe. (CR)

  16. Mathematics, Music, and Movement: Exploring Concepts and Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shilling, Wynne A.

    2002-01-01

    Explores connections between mathematics, music, and movement in early childhood curriculum. Presents music activities in which mathematical concepts are embedded; focuses on activities providing experiences with time-based relationships and rhythmic patterns. Asserts that integrating movement and mathematics into music activities provides a way…

  17. State-related differences in the level of psychomotor activity in patients with bipolar disorder - Continuous heart rate and movement monitoring.

    PubMed

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Brage, Søren; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2016-03-30

    Measuring changes in psychomotor activity is a potential tool in the monitoring of the course of affective states in bipolar disorder. Previous studies have been cross-sectional and only some have used objective measures. The aim was to investigate state-related differences in objectively-measured psychomotor activity in bipolar disorder. During a 12 weeks study, repeated measurements of heart rate and movement monitoring over several days were collected during different affective states from 19 outpatients with bipolar disorder. Outcomes included activity energy expenditure (AEE) and trunk acceleration (ACC). Symptoms were clinically assessed using Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). Compared to patients in a euthymic state, patients in a manic state had significantly higher AEE. Compared to patients in a depressive state, patients in a manic state had significantly higher ACC and AEE. There was a significant diurnal variation in ACC and AEE between affective states. Finally, there was a significant correlation between the severity of manic symptoms and ACC and AEE, respectively. This first study measuring psychomotor activity during different affective states using a combined heart rate and movement sensor supports that psychomotor activity is a core symptom in bipolar disorder that is altered during affective states. PMID:26832835

  18. Cerebellar Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Problems with the cerebellum include Cancer Genetic disorders Ataxias - failure of muscle control in the arms and legs that result in movement disorders Degeneration - disorders caused by brain cells decreasing in ...

  19. Non-equilibrium thermodynamical description of rhythmic motion patterns of active systems: a canonical-dissipative approach.

    PubMed

    Dotov, D G; Kim, S; Frank, T D

    2015-02-01

    We derive explicit expressions for the non-equilibrium thermodynamical variables of a canonical-dissipative limit cycle oscillator describing rhythmic motion patterns of active systems. These variables are statistical entropy, non-equilibrium internal energy, and non-equilibrium free energy. In particular, the expression for the non-equilibrium free energy is derived as a function of a suitable control parameter. The control parameter determines the Hopf bifurcation point of the deterministic active system and describes the effective pumping of the oscillator. In analogy to the equilibrium free energy of the Landau theory, it is shown that the non-equilibrium free energy decays as a function of the control parameter. In doing so, a similarity between certain equilibrium and non-equilibrium phase transitions is pointed out. Data from an experiment on human rhythmic movements is presented. Estimates for pumping intensity as well as the thermodynamical variables are reported. It is shown that in the experiment the non-equilibrium free energy decayed when pumping intensity was increased, which is consistent with the theory. Moreover, pumping intensities close to zero could be observed at relatively slow intended rhythmic movements. In view of the Hopf bifurcation underlying the limit cycle oscillator model, this observation suggests that the intended limit cycle movements were actually more similar to trajectories of a randomly perturbed stable focus. PMID:25619737

  20. Glial Cell Regulation of Rhythmic Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, F. Rob; Ng, Fanny S.; Sengupta, Sukanya; You, Samantha; Huang, Yanmei

    2015-01-01

    Brain glial cells, in particular astrocytes and microglia, secrete signaling molecules that regulate glia–glia or glia–neuron communication and synaptic activity. While much is known about roles of glial cells in nervous system development, we are only beginning to understand the physiological functions of such cells in the adult brain. Studies in vertebrate and invertebrate models, in particular mice and Drosophila, have revealed roles of glia–neuron communication in the modulation of complex behavior. This chapter emphasizes recent evidence from studies of rodents and Drosophila that highlight the importance of glial cells and similarities or differences in the neural circuits regulating circadian rhythms and sleep in the two models. The chapter discusses cellular, molecular, and genetic approaches that have been useful in these models for understanding how glia–neuron communication contributes to the regulation of rhythmic behavior. PMID:25707272

  1. Rhythmicity, recurrence, and recovery of flagellar beating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Kirsty; Goldstein, Raymond

    2015-03-01

    The eukaryotic flagellum beats with apparently unfailing periodicity, yet responds rapidly to stimuli. Like the human heartbeat, flagellar oscillations are now known to be noisy. Using the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we explore three aspects of nonuniform flagellar beating. We report the existence of rhythmicity, waveform noise peaking at transitions between power and recovery strokes, and fluctuations of interbeat intervals that are correlated and even recurrent, with memory extending to hundreds of beats. These features are altered qualitatively by physiological perturbations. Further, we quantify the recovery of periodic breaststroke beating from transient hydrodynamic forcing. These results will help constrain microscopic theories on the origins and regulation of flagellar beating. Financial support is acknowledged from the EPSRC, ERC Advanced Investigator Grant No. 247333, and a Senior Investigator Award from the Wellcome Trust.

  2. Situational influences on rhythmicity in speech, music, and their interaction

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Brain processes underlying the production and perception of rhythm indicate considerable flexibility in how physical signals are interpreted. This paper explores how that flexibility might play out in rhythmicity in speech and music. There is much in common across the two domains, but there are also significant differences. Interpretations are explored that reconcile some of the differences, particularly with respect to how functional properties modify the rhythmicity of speech, within limits imposed by its structural constraints. Functional and structural differences mean that music is typically more rhythmic than speech, and that speech will be more rhythmic when the emotions are more strongly engaged, or intended to be engaged. The influence of rhythmicity on attention is acknowledged, and it is suggested that local increases in rhythmicity occur at times when attention is required to coordinate joint action, whether in talking or music-making. Evidence is presented which suggests that while these short phases of heightened rhythmical behaviour are crucial to the success of transitions in communicative interaction, their modality is immaterial: they all function to enhance precise temporal prediction and hence tightly coordinated joint action. PMID:25385776

  3. Contactless mapping of rhythmical phenomena in tissue perfusion using PPGI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huelsbusch, Markus; Blazek, Vladimir

    2002-04-01

    This paper presents the experimental setup and preliminary results of a near infrared CCD camera based Photoplethysmography Imaging (PPGI) system, which has been shown to be suitable for contactless and spatially resolved assessment of rhythmical blood volume changes in the skin. To visualize the complex rhythmical patterns in the dermal perfusion the Wavelet Transform is utilized. It is able to jointly assess time and frequency behavior of signals and thus allows to analyze instationary oscillations and variabilities in the different human rhythmics. The presented system is expected to provide new insights into the functional sequences of physiological tissue perfusion as well as of the perfusion status in ulcer formation and wound healing.

  4. A common neural element receiving rhythmic arm and leg activity as assessed by reflex modulation in arm muscles.

    PubMed

    Sasada, Syusaku; Tazoe, Toshiki; Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Futatsubashi, Genki; Ohtsuka, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Shinya; Zehr, E Paul; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi

    2016-04-01

    Neural interactions between regulatory systems for rhythmic arm and leg movements are an intriguing issue in locomotor neuroscience. Amplitudes of early latency cutaneous reflexes (ELCRs) in stationary arm muscles are modulated during rhythmic leg or arm cycling but not during limb positioning or voluntary contraction. This suggests that interneurons mediating ELCRs to arm muscles integrate outputs from neural systems controlling rhythmic limb movements. Alternatively, outputs could be integrated at the motoneuron and/or supraspinal levels. We examined whether a separate effect on the ELCR pathways and cortico-motoneuronal excitability during arm and leg cycling is integrated by neural elements common to the lumbo-sacral and cervical spinal cord. The subjects performed bilateral leg cycling (LEG), contralateral arm cycling (ARM), and simultaneous contralateral arm and bilateral leg cycling (A&L), while ELCRs in the wrist flexor and shoulder flexor muscles were evoked by superficial radial (SR) nerve stimulation. ELCR amplitudes were facilitated by cycling tasks and were larger during A&L than during ARM and LEG. A low stimulus intensity during ARM or LEG generated a larger ELCR during A&L than the sum of ELCRs during ARM and LEG. We confirmed this nonlinear increase in single motor unit firing probability following SR nerve stimulation during A&L. Furthermore, motor-evoked potentials following transcranial magnetic and electrical stimulation did not show nonlinear potentiation during A&L. These findings suggest the existence of a common neural element of the ELCR reflex pathway that is active only during rhythmic arm and leg movement and receives convergent input from contralateral arms and legs. PMID:26961103

  5. Loss of dorsolateral nigral hyperintensity on 3.0 tesla susceptibility-weighted imaging in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    PubMed

    De Marzi, Roberto; Seppi, Klaus; Högl, Birgit; Müller, Christoph; Scherfler, Christoph; Stefani, Ambra; Iranzo, Alex; Tolosa, Eduardo; Santamarìa, Joan; Gizewski, Elke; Schocke, Michael; Skalla, Elisabeth; Kremser, Christian; Poewe, Werner

    2016-06-01

    We assessed loss of dorsolateral nigral hyperintensity (DNH) on high-field susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), a novel magnetic resonance imaging marker for Parkinson's disease (PD), in 15 subjects with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) and compared findings to 42 healthy controls (HCs) and 104 PD patients. We found loss of DNH in at least two thirds of iRBD subjects, which approaches the rate observed in PD and is in contrast to findings in HCs. We propose that absence of DNH on high-field SWI could identify prodromal degenerative parkinsonism in iRBD. Ann Neurol 2016;79:1026-1030. PMID:27016314

  6. Self-generated sounds of locomotion and ventilation and the evolution of human rhythmic abilities.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Matz

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that the basic building blocks of music mimic sounds of moving humans, and because the brain was primed to exploit such sounds, they eventually became incorporated in human culture. However, that raises further questions. Why do genetically close, culturally well-developed apes lack musical abilities? Did our switch to bipedalism influence the origins of music? Four hypotheses are raised: (1) Human locomotion and ventilation can mask critical sounds in the environment. (2) Synchronization of locomotion reduces that problem. (3) Predictable sounds of locomotion may stimulate the evolution of synchronized behavior. (4) Bipedal gait and the associated sounds of locomotion influenced the evolution of human rhythmic abilities. Theoretical models and research data suggest that noise of locomotion and ventilation may mask critical auditory information. People often synchronize steps subconsciously. Human locomotion is likely to produce more predictable sounds than those of non-human primates. Predictable locomotion sounds may have improved our capacity of entrainment to external rhythms and to feel the beat in music. A sense of rhythm could aid the brain in distinguishing among sounds arising from discrete sources and also help individuals to synchronize their movements with one another. Synchronization of group movement may improve perception by providing periods of relative silence and by facilitating auditory processing. The adaptive value of such skills to early ancestors may have been keener detection of prey or stalkers and enhanced communication. Bipedal walking may have influenced the development of entrainment in humans and thereby the evolution of rhythmic abilities. PMID:23990063

  7. Effects of Gravity on Insect Circadian Rhythmicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoban-Higgins, Tana M.

    2000-01-01

    Circadian rhythms - endogenous daily rhythmic fluctuations in virtually all characteristics of life - are generated and coordinated by the circadian timing system (CTS). The CTS is synchronized to the external 24-hour day by time cues such as the light/dark cycle. In an environment without time cues, the length of an animal's day is determined by the period of its internal pacemaker (tau) and the animal is said to be free-running. All life on earth evolved under the solar day; the CTS exists as an adaptation that allows organisms to anticipate and to prepare for rhythmic environmental fluctuations. All life on earth also evolved under the force of earth's gravitational environment. While it is therefore not surprising that changes in the lighting environment affect the CTS, it is surprising that changes in the gravitational environment would do so. However, recent data from one of our laboratories using the brn-3.1 knockout mouse revealed that this model, which lacks the sensory receptor hair cells within the neurovestibular system, does not respond to exposure to a hyperdynamic environment in the same fashion as normal mice. The brn-3.1 mice did not show the expected suppression of circadian rhythmicity shown by control mice exposed to 2G. Exposure to altered ambient force environments affects the amplitude, mean and timing of circadian rhythms in species from unicellular organisms to man. In addition, there is a circadian influence on the homeostatic response to acute 2G acceleration and pulses of 2G can act as a time cue, synchronizing the CTS. This is of significance because maintenance of internal and external temporal coordination is critical for normal physiological and psychological function. Typically, during adaptation to an increased gravitational environment (+G), an initial acute reaction is followed by adaptation and, eventually, a new steady state (14-16), which can take weeks to months to establish. Until the development of space stations, exposure

  8. Rhythmic Behavior in the Hierarchy of Responses of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zern, David; Taylor, Amie Lou

    1973-01-01

    Data shows that the nursery school child will resort to rhythmic behavior more often in a situation with significant environmental constraints''; such behavior has an analgesic or a general soothing influence.'' (Author/SP)

  9. Circadian rhythmicity as a predictor of weight-loss effectiveness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some of the major challenges associated with successful dietary weight management include the identification of individuals not responsive to specific interventions. The aim was to investigate the potential relationship between weight loss and circadian rhythmicity, using wrist temperature and actim...

  10. Difficulty leading interpersonal coordination: towards an embodied signature of social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Varlet, Manuel; Marin, Ludovic; Capdevielle, Delphine; Del-Monte, Jonathan; Schmidt, R C; Salesse, Robin N; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Bardy, Benoît G; Raffard, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Defined by a persistent fear of embarrassment or negative evaluation while engaged in social interaction or public performance, social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most common psychiatric syndromes. Previous research has made a considerable effort to better understand and assess this mental disorder. However, little attention has been paid to social motor behavior of patients with SAD despite its crucial importance in daily social interactions. Previous research has shown that the coordination of arm, head or postural movements of interacting people can reflect their mental states or feelings such as social connectedness and social motives, suggesting that interpersonal movement coordination may be impaired in patients suffering from SAD. The current study was specifically aimed at determining whether SAD affects the dynamics of social motor coordination. We compared the unintentional and intentional rhythmic coordination of a SAD group (19 patients paired with control participants) with the rhythmic coordination of a control group (19 control pairs) in an interpersonal pendulum coordination task. The results demonstrated that unintentional social motor coordination was preserved with SAD while intentional coordination was impaired. More specifically, intentional coordination became impaired when patients with SAD had to lead the coordination as indicated by poorer (i.e., more variable) coordination. These differences between intentional and unintentional coordination as well as between follower and leader roles reveal an impaired coordination dynamics that is specific to SAD, and thus, opens promising research directions to better understand, assess and treat this mental disorder. PMID:24567707

  11. Cortical Spectral Activity and Connectivity during Active and Viewed Arm and Leg Movement

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Julia E.; Huang, Helen J.; Snyder, Kristine L.; Ferris, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Active and viewed limb movement activate many similar neural pathways, however, to date most comparison studies have focused on subjects making small, discrete movements of the hands and feet. The purpose of this study was to determine if high-density electroencephalography (EEG) could detect differences in cortical activity and connectivity during active and viewed rhythmic arm and leg movements in humans. Our primary hypothesis was that we would detect similar but weaker electrocortical spectral fluctuations and effective connectivity fluctuations during viewed limb exercise compared to active limb exercise due to the similarities in neural recruitment. A secondary hypothesis was that we would record stronger cortical spectral fluctuations for arm exercise compared to leg exercise, because rhythmic arm exercise would be more dependent on supraspinal control than rhythmic leg exercise. We recorded EEG data while ten young healthy subjects exercised on a recumbent stepper with: (1) both arms and legs, (2) just legs, and (3) just arms. Subjects also viewed video playback of themselves or another individual performing the same exercises. We performed independent component analysis, dipole fitting, spectral analysis, and effective connectivity analysis on the data. Cortical areas comprising the premotor and supplementary motor cortex, the anterior cingulate, the posterior cingulate, and the parietal cortex exhibited significant spectral fluctuations during rhythmic limb exercise. These fluctuations tended to be greater for the arms exercise conditions than for the legs only exercise condition, which suggests that human rhythmic arm movements are under stronger cortical control than rhythmic leg movements. We did not find consistent spectral fluctuations in these areas during the viewed conditions, but effective connectivity fluctuated at harmonics of the exercise frequency during both active and viewed rhythmic limb exercise. The right premotor and supplementary motor

  12. Comparative study between two animal models of extrapyramidal movement disorders: prevention and reversion by pecan nut shell aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Trevizol, Fabiola; Benvegnú, Dalila M; Barcelos, Raquel C S; Pase, Camila S; Segat, Hecson J; Dias, Verônica Tironi; Dolci, Geisa S; Boufleur, Nardeli; Reckziegel, Patrícia; Bürger, Marilise E

    2011-08-01

    Acute reserpine and subchronic haloperidol are animal models of extrapyramidal disorders often used to study parkinsonism, akinesia and tardive dyskinesia. In humans, these usually irreversible and disabling extrapyramidal disorders are developed by typical antipsychotic treatment, whose pathophysiology has been related to oxidative damages development. So far, there is no treatment to prevent these problems of the psychiatric clinic, and therefore further studies are needed. Here we used the animal models of extrapyramidal disorders cited above, which were performed in two distinct experiments: orofacial dyskinesia (OD)/catalepsy induced by acute reserpine and subchronic haloperidol after (experiment 1) and before (experiment 2) oral treatment with pecan shell aqueous extract (AE), a natural and promissory antioxidant. When administered previously (exp.1), the AE prevented OD and catalepsy induced by both reserpine and haloperidol. When reserpine and haloperidol were administered before the extract (exp.2), the animals developed OD and catalepsy all the same. However, the orofacial parameter (but not catalepsy) in both animal models was reversed after 7 and 14 days of AE treatment. These results indicate that, acute reserpine and subchronic haloperidol administrations induced similar motor disorders, although through different mechanisms, and therefore are important animal models to study the physiopathology of extrapyramidal disorders. Comparatively, the pecan shell AE was able to both prevent and reverse OD but only to prevent catalepsy. These results reinforce the role of oxidative stress and validate the two animal models used here. Our findings also favor the idea of prevention of extrapyramidal disorders, rather than their reversal. PMID:21356248

  13. Congenital mirror movements.

    PubMed Central

    Schott, G D; Wyke, M A

    1981-01-01

    In this report are described seven patients assessed clinically and neuropsychologically in whom mirror movements affecting predominantly the hands occurred as a congenital disorder. These mirror movements, representing a specific type of abnormal synkinesia, may arise as a hereditary condition, in the presence of a recognisable underlying neurological abnormality, and sporadically, and the seven patients provide more or less satisfactory examples of each of these three groups. Despite the apparent uniformity of the disorder, the heterogeneity and variability may be marked, examples in some of our patients including the pronounced increase in tone that developed with arm movement, and the capacity for modulation of the associated movement by alteration of neck position and bio-feedback. Various possible mechanisms are considered; these include impaired cerebral inhibition of unwanted movements, and functioning of abnormal motor pathways. Emphasis has been placed on the putative role of the direct, crossed corticomotoneurone pathways and on the unilateral and bilateral cerebral events that precede movement. PMID:7288446

  14. Oral and Hand Movement Speeds Are Associated with Expressive Language Ability in Children with Speech Sound Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Beate

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that children with speech sound disorder have generalized slowed motor speeds. It evaluated associations among oral and hand motor speeds and measures of speech (articulation and phonology) and language (receptive vocabulary, sentence comprehension, sentence imitation), in 11 children with moderate to severe SSD…

  15. SKILL DEVELOPMENT THROUGH GAMES AND RHYTHMIC ACTIVITIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NAGEL, CHARLES; MOORE, FREDRICKA

    A DISCUSSION OF THE OVERALL OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, THE PURPOSES OF DEVELOPING MOVEMENT SKILLS IN GAMES AND RHYTHMS, AND THE ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION COMPRISES THE INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER OF THIS TEXTBOOK FOR BEGINNING PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS. SUCCEEDING CHAPTERS ARE CONCERNED WITH FIVE…

  16. The formation of rhythmic categories and metric priming.

    PubMed

    Desain, Peter; Honing, Henkjan

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments on categorical rhythm perception are reported, the object of which was to investigate how listeners perceive discrete rhythmic categories while listening to rhythms performed on a continuous time scale. This is studied by considering the space of all temporal patterns (all possible rhythms made up of three intervals) and how they, in perception, are partitioned into categories, ie where the boundaries of these categories are located. This process of categorisation is formalised as the mapping from the continuous space of a series of time intervals to a discrete, symbolic domain of integer-ratio sequences. The methodological framework uses concepts from mathematics and psychology (eg convexity and entropy) that allow precise characterisations of the empirical results. In the first experiment, twenty-nine participants performed an identification task with 66 rhythmic stimuli (a systematic sampling of the performance space). The results show that listeners do not just perceive the time intervals between onsets of sounds as placed in a homogeneous continuum. Instead, they can reliably identify rhythmic categories, as a chronotopic time clumping map reveals. In a second experiment, the effect of metric priming was studied by presenting the same stimuli but preceded with a duple or triple metre subdivision. It is shown that presenting patterns in the context of a metre has a large effect on rhythmic categorisation: the presence of a specific musical metre primes the perception of specific rhythmic patterns. PMID:12729384

  17. First-Time Mothers' Use of Music and Movement with Their Young Infants: The Impact of a Teaching Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlismas, Wendy; Bowes, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    Examined impact of a 5-week music/movement program involving relaxation, kinesics, singing, visual contact, and tactile stimulation on first-time mothers' use of music and movement with their infants. Found that the program extended mothers' use of relaxation to music and rhythmical movement with their infants but not the use of song and massage…

  18. Changes in gait patterns with rhythmic auditory stimulation in adults with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Ji; Kwak, Eunmi Emily; Park, Eun Sook; Lee, Don Shin; Kim, Ki Jung; Song, Joo Eun; Cho, Sung-Rae

    2011-01-01

    The objective is to evaluate the changes in gait patterns with rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Fourteen CP with bilateral spasticity participated in this study. A repeated-measures analysis of gait was performed in the presence and absence of RAS. Thirty healthy controls were also recruited. Each subject walked 10 m at their comfortable walking speed. Temporospatial data and kinematic parameters of gait were analyzed without RAS and with RAS. RAS was provided using a combination of a metronome beat set to the individual's cadence and rhythmic cueing from a live keyboard playing. Kinematic parameters, gait deviation index (GDI) as a measure of overall gait pathology, and asymmetry of temporospatial data were assessed. Gait analysis revealed that anterior tilt of pelvis and hip flexion during a gait cycle was significantly changed with RAS (p < 0.05), whereas there were no statistical differences in knee, ankle, and foot kinematic parameters. Additionally, the GDI exhibited a modest, but a statistically significant, improvement with RAS (p < 0.05). Based on ambulatory status, household ambulators showed that side-to-side asymmetry of step length as well as the GDI was significantly attenuated with RAS (p < 0.05). Walking with RAS resulted in kinematic changes of the pelvic and hip movement in spastic CP. Especially, the application of RAS immediately ameliorated overall gait pathology as well as temporospatial asymmetry in household ambulators. Therefore, RAS may be one of the therapeutic tools for gait training in adults with CP. PMID:22142756

  19. Distractibility during infants' examining and repetitive rhythmic activity.

    PubMed

    Doolittle, E J; Ruff, H A

    1998-05-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the role of examining and repetitive rhythmic activity in infants' exploration of novel objects. Sixteen 8-month-old infants played with novel toys as auditory-visual slide distractors occurred on one side at random intervals. The results showed that examining, but not repetitive activities, declined with exposure to the objects. They also showed that infants had different patterns of distractibility during examining and repetitive rhythmic activities. The infants were slower to turn to the distractor if they were examining the toy than if they were engaged in other activity, but the probability of a response did not differ. In contrast, when engaged in repetitive rhythmic activity, infants were less likely to respond to the distractor than when engaged in other activities, including examining; the speed with which they responded, however, did not differ. The results suggest that, during these two activities, the mechanisms for resisting distraction are quite different. PMID:9589216

  20. Simple neural substrate predicts complex rhythmic structure in duetting birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amador, Ana; Trevisan, M. A.; Mindlin, G. B.

    2005-09-01

    Horneros (Furnarius Rufus) are South American birds well known for their oven-looking nests and their ability to sing in couples. Previous work has analyzed the rhythmic organization of the duets, unveiling a mathematical structure behind the songs. In this work we analyze in detail an extended database of duets. The rhythms of the songs are compatible with the dynamics presented by a wide class of dynamical systems: forced excitable systems. Compatible with this nonlinear rule, we build a biologically inspired model for how the neural and the anatomical elements may interact to produce the observed rhythmic patterns. This model allows us to synthesize songs presenting the acoustic and rhythmic features observed in real songs. We also make testable predictions in order to support our hypothesis.

  1. Simple neural substrate predicts complex rhythmic structure in duetting birds.

    PubMed

    Amador, Ana; Trevisan, M A; Mindlin, G B

    2005-09-01

    Horneros (Furnarius Rufus) are South American birds well known for their oven-looking nests and their ability to sing in couples. Previous work has analyzed the rhythmic organization of the duets, unveiling a mathematical structure behind the songs. In this work we analyze in detail an extended database of duets. The rhythms of the songs are compatible with the dynamics presented by a wide class of dynamical systems: forced excitable systems. Compatible with this nonlinear rule, we build a biologically inspired model for how the neural and the anatomical elements may interact to produce the observed rhythmic patterns. This model allows us to synthesize songs presenting the acoustic and rhythmic features observed in real songs. We also make testable predictions in order to support our hypothesis. PMID:16241480

  2. Predictive coding of music--brain responses to rhythmic incongruity.

    PubMed

    Vuust, Peter; Ostergaard, Leif; Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Bailey, Christopher; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    During the last decades, models of music processing in the brain have mainly discussed the specificity of brain modules involved in processing different musical components. We argue that predictive coding offers an explanatory framework for functional integration in musical processing. Further, we provide empirical evidence for such a network in the analysis of event-related MEG-components to rhythmic incongruence in the context of strong metric anticipation. This is seen in a mismatch negativity (MMNm) and a subsequent P3am component, which have the properties of an error term and a subsequent evaluation in a predictive coding framework. There were both quantitative and qualitative differences in the evoked responses in expert jazz musicians compared with rhythmically unskilled non-musicians. We propose that these differences trace a functional adaptation and/or a genetic pre-disposition in experts which allows for a more precise rhythmic prediction. PMID:19054506

  3. Convergence in Reflex Pathways from Multiple Cutaneous Nerves Innervating the Foot Depends upon the Number of Rhythmically Active Limbs during Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Mezzarane, Rinaldo A.; Hundza, Sandra R.; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi; Zehr, E. Paul

    2014-01-01

    Neural output from the locomotor system for each arm and leg influences the spinal motoneuronal pools directly and indirectly through interneuronal (IN) reflex networks. While well documented in other species, less is known about the functions and features of convergence in common IN reflex system from cutaneous afferents innervating different foot regions during remote arm and leg movement in humans. The purpose of the present study was to use spatial facilitation to examine possible convergence in common reflex pathways during rhythmic locomotor limb movements. Cutaneous reflexes were evoked in ipsilateral tibialis anterior muscle by stimulating (in random order) the sural nerve (SUR), the distal tibial nerve (TIB), and combined simultaneous stimulation of both nerves (TIB&SUR). Reflexes were evoked while participants performed rhythmic stepping and arm swinging movement with both arms and the leg contralateral to stimulation (ARM&LEG), with just arm movement (ARM) and with just contralateral leg movement (LEG). Stimulation intensities were just below threshold for evoking early latency (<80 ms to peak) reflexes. For each stimulus condition, rectified EMG signals were averaged while participants held static contractions in the stationary (stimulated) leg. During ARM&LEG movement, amplitudes of cutaneous reflexes evoked by combined TIB&SUR stimulation were significantly larger than simple mathematical summation of the amplitudes evoked by SUR or TIB alone. Interestingly, this extra facilitation seen during combined nerve stimulation was significantly reduced when performing ARM or LEG compared to ARM&LEG. We conclude that locomotor rhythmic limb movement induces excitation of common IN reflex pathways from cutaneous afferents innervating different foot regions. Importantly, activity in this pathway is most facilitated during ARM&LEG movement. These results suggest that transmission in IN reflex pathways is weighted according to the number of limbs directly engaged

  4. Synthesis of high-complexity rhythmic signals for closed-loop electrical neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Zalay, Osbert C; Bardakjian, Berj L

    2013-06-01

    We propose an approach to synthesizing high-complexity rhythmic signals for closed-loop electrical neuromodulation using cognitive rhythm generator (CRG) networks, wherein the CRG is a hybrid oscillator comprised of (1) a bank of neuronal modes, (2) a ring device (clock), and (3) a static output nonlinearity (mapper). Networks of coupled CRGs have been previously implemented to simulate the electrical activity of biological neural networks, including in silico models of epilepsy, producing outputs of similar waveform and complexity to the biological system. This has enabled CRG network models to be used as platforms for testing seizure control strategies. Presently, we take the application one step further, envisioning therapeutic CRG networks as rhythmic signal generators creating neuromimetic signals for stimulation purposes, motivated by recent research indicating that stimulus complexity and waveform characteristics influence neuromodulation efficacy. To demonstrate this concept, an epileptiform CRG network generating spontaneous seizure-like events (SLEs) was coupled to a therapeutic CRG network, forming a closed-loop neuromodulation system. SLEs are associated with low-complexity dynamics and high phase coherence in the network. The tuned therapeutic network generated a high-complexity, multi-banded rhythmic stimulation signal with prominent theta and gamma-frequency power that suppressed SLEs and increased dynamic complexity in the epileptiform network, as measured by a relative increase in the maximum Lyapunov exponent and decrease in phase coherence. CRG-based neuromodulation outperformed both low and high-frequency periodic pulse stimulation, suggesting that neuromodulation using complex, biomimetic signals may provide an improvement over conventional electrical stimulation techniques for treating neurological disorders such as epilepsy. PMID:23501170

  5. Differences between the sexes in technical mastery of rhythmic gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Bozanic, Ana; Miletic, Durdica

    2011-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine possible differences between the sexes in specific rhythmic gymnastics techniques, and to examine the influence of various aspects of technique on rhythmic composition performance. Seventy-five students aged 21 ± 2 years (45 males, 30 female) undertook four test sessions to determine: coefficients of asymmetry, stability, versatility, and the two rhythmic compositions (without apparatus and with rope). An independent-sample t-test revealed sex-based differences in technique acquisition: stability for ball (P < 0.05; effect size = 0.65) and club (P < 0.05; effect size = 0.79) performance and rhythmic composition without apparatus (P < 0.05; effect size = 0.66). Multiple regression analysis revealed that the variables for assessing stability (beta = 0.44; P < 0.05) and versatility (beta = 0.61; P < 0.05) explained 61% of the variance in the rhythmic composition performance of females, and the variables for assessing asymmetry (beta = -0.38; P < 0.05), versatility (beta = 0.32; P < 0.05), and stability (beta = 0.29; P < 0.05) explained 52% of the variance in the rhythmic composition performance of males. The results suggest that female students dominate in body skill technique, while male students have the advantage with apparatus. There was a lack of an expressive aesthetic component in performance for males. The need for ambidexterity should be considered in the planning of training programmes. PMID:21259154

  6. Three-Dimensional Kinematic Analysis of Prehension Movements in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: New Insights on Motor Impairment.

    PubMed

    Campione, Giovanna Cristina; Piazza, Caterina; Villa, Laura; Molteni, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    The study was aimed at better clarifying whether action execution impairment in autism depends mainly on disruptions either in feedforward mechanisms or in feedback-based control processes supporting motor execution. To this purpose, we analyzed prehension movement kinematics in 4- and 5-year-old children with autism and in peers with typical development. Statistical analysis showed that the kinematics of the grasp component was spared in autism, whereas early kinematics of the reach component was atypical. We discussed this evidence as suggesting impairment in the feedforward processes involved in action execution, whereas impairment in feedback-based control processes remained unclear. We proposed that certain motor abilities are available in autism, and children may use them differently as a function of motor context complexity. PMID:26861718

  7. A prolonged rhythmic midtemporal discharge in a child without seizures.

    PubMed

    Fawaz, Ahmad; Nasreddine, Wassim; Bustros, Stephanie; Kayed, Deeb Maxwell; Beydoun, Ahmad

    2015-04-01

    Rhythmic midtemporal discharge (RMTD) is one of the benign epileptiform variants, typically consisting of runs of 4-Hz to 7-Hz activity, lasting up to 10 seconds and maximal over the midtemporal area. We report a child who, during an admission for diagnostic closed-circuit television (CCTV) and electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring, was found to have prolonged rhythmic monomorphic discharges, alternating over both midtemporal areas, with one of the discharges lasting up to 82 minutes. An analysis of the dominant frequency, during the longest discharge, showed that it was monomorphic throughout. On the basis of various features of these discharges, we concluded that they represented RMTD of unusual duration. PMID:24864322

  8. Rhythmic Effects of Syntax Processing in Music and Language.

    PubMed

    Jung, Harim; Sontag, Samuel; Park, YeBin S; Loui, Psyche

    2015-01-01

    Music and language are human cognitive and neural functions that share many structural similarities. Past theories posit a sharing of neural resources between syntax processing in music and language (Patel, 2003), and a dynamic attention network that governs general temporal processing (Large and Jones, 1999). Both make predictions about music and language processing over time. Experiment 1 of this study investigates the relationship between rhythmic expectancy and musical and linguistic syntax in a reading time paradigm. Stimuli (adapted from Slevc et al., 2009) were sentences broken down into segments; each sentence segment was paired with a musical chord and presented at a fixed inter-onset interval. Linguistic syntax violations appeared in a garden-path design. During the critical region of the garden-path sentence, i.e., the particular segment in which the syntactic unexpectedness was processed, expectancy violations for language, music, and rhythm were each independently manipulated: musical expectation was manipulated by presenting out-of-key chords and rhythmic expectancy was manipulated by perturbing the fixed inter-onset interval such that the sentence segments and musical chords appeared either early or late. Reading times were recorded for each sentence segment and compared for linguistic, musical, and rhythmic expectancy. Results showed main effects of rhythmic expectancy and linguistic syntax expectancy on reading time. There was also an effect of rhythm on the interaction between musical and linguistic syntax: effects of violations in musical and linguistic syntax showed significant interaction only during rhythmically expected trials. To test the effects of our experimental design on rhythmic and linguistic expectancies, independently of musical syntax, Experiment 2 used the same experimental paradigm, but the musical factor was eliminated-linguistic stimuli were simply presented silently, and rhythmic expectancy was manipulated at the critical

  9. Rhythmic Effects of Syntax Processing in Music and Language

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Harim; Sontag, Samuel; Park, YeBin S.; Loui, Psyche

    2015-01-01

    Music and language are human cognitive and neural functions that share many structural similarities. Past theories posit a sharing of neural resources between syntax processing in music and language (Patel, 2003), and a dynamic attention network that governs general temporal processing (Large and Jones, 1999). Both make predictions about music and language processing over time. Experiment 1 of this study investigates the relationship between rhythmic expectancy and musical and linguistic syntax in a reading time paradigm. Stimuli (adapted from Slevc et al., 2009) were sentences broken down into segments; each sentence segment was paired with a musical chord and presented at a fixed inter-onset interval. Linguistic syntax violations appeared in a garden-path design. During the critical region of the garden-path sentence, i.e., the particular segment in which the syntactic unexpectedness was processed, expectancy violations for language, music, and rhythm were each independently manipulated: musical expectation was manipulated by presenting out-of-key chords and rhythmic expectancy was manipulated by perturbing the fixed inter-onset interval such that the sentence segments and musical chords appeared either early or late. Reading times were recorded for each sentence segment and compared for linguistic, musical, and rhythmic expectancy. Results showed main effects of rhythmic expectancy and linguistic syntax expectancy on reading time. There was also an effect of rhythm on the interaction between musical and linguistic syntax: effects of violations in musical and linguistic syntax showed significant interaction only during rhythmically expected trials. To test the effects of our experimental design on rhythmic and linguistic expectancies, independently of musical syntax, Experiment 2 used the same experimental paradigm, but the musical factor was eliminated—linguistic stimuli were simply presented silently, and rhythmic expectancy was manipulated at the critical

  10. Treating Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing the Efficacy of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing and Relaxation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Carletto, Sara; Borghi, Martina; Bertino, Gabriella; Oliva, Francesco; Cavallo, Marco; Hofmann, Arne; Zennaro, Alessandro; Malucchi, Simona; Ostacoli, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating autoimmune disease that imposes a significant emotional burden with heavy psychosocial consequences. Several studies have investigated the association between MS and mental disorders such as depression and anxiety, and recently researchers have focused also on Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). This is the first study that investigates the usefulness of proposing a treatment for PTSD to patients with MS. Methods: A randomized controlled trial with patients with MS diagnosed with PTSD comparing Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR; n = 20) and Relaxation Therapy (RT; n = 22). The primary outcome measure was the proportion of participants that no longer meet PTSD diagnosis as measured with Clinician Administered PTSD Scale 6-months after the treatment. Results: The majority of patients were able to overcome their PTSD diagnosis after only 10 therapy sessions. EMDR treatment appears to be more effective than RT in reducing the proportion of patients with MS suffering from PTSD. Both treatments are effective in reducing PTSD severity, anxiety and depression symptoms, and to improve Quality of Life. Conclusion: Although our results can only be considered preliminary, this study suggests that it is essential that PTSD symptoms are detected and that brief and cost-effective interventions to reduce PTSD and associated psychological symptoms are offered to patients, in order to help them to reduce the psychological burden associated with their neurological condition. Trial registration: NCT01743664, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01743664 PMID:27148134

  11. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing versus cognitive-behavioral therapy for adult posttraumatic stress disorder: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling; Zhang, Guiqing; Hu, Min; Liang, Xia

    2015-06-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a relatively common mental disorder, with an estimated lifetime prevalence of ∼5.7%. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are the most often studied and most effective psychotherapies for PTSD. However, evidence is inadequate to conclude which treatment is superior. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to confirm the effectiveness of EMDR compared to CBT for adult PTSD. We searched Medline, PubMed, Ebsco, Proquest, and Cochrane (1989-2013) to identify relevant randomized control trials comparing EMDR and CBT for PTSD. We included 11 studies (N = 424). Although all the studies had methodological limitations, meta-analyses for total PTSD scores revealed that EMDR was slightly superior to CBT. Cumulative meta-analysis confirmed this and a meta-analysis for subscale scores of PTSD symptoms indicated that EMDR was better for decreased intrusion and arousal severity compared to CBT. Avoidance was not significantly different between groups. EMDR may be more suitable than CBT for PTSD patients with prominent intrusion or arousal symptoms. However, the limited number and poor quality of the original studies included suggest caution when drawing final conclusions. PMID:25974059

  12. Pharmacologically Induced/Exacerbated Restless Legs Syndrome, Periodic Limb Movements of Sleep, and REM Behavior Disorder/REM Sleep Without Atonia: Literature Review, Qualitative Scoring, and Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hoque, Romy; Chesson, Andrew L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Pharmacologically induced/exacerbated restless legs syndrome (RLS), periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS), and REM behavior disorder/REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) are increasingly recognized in clinical sleep medicine. A scoring system to evaluate the literature was created and implemented. The aim was to identify the evidence with the least amount of confound, allowing for more reliable determinations of iatrogenic etiology. Methods: Points were provided for the following criteria: manuscript type (abstract, peer-reviewed paper); population size studied (large retrospective study, small case series, case report); explicitly stated dosage timing; identification of peak symptoms related to time of medication administration (i.e., medication was ingested in the evening or at bedtime); initiation of a treatment plan; symptoms subsided or ceased with decreased dosage or drug discontinuation (for RLS articles only); negative personal history for RLS prior to use of the medication; exclusion of tobacco/alcohol/excessive caffeine use; exclusion of sleep disordered breathing by polysomnography (PSG); and PSG documentation of presence or absence of PLMS. For RLS and PLMS articles were also given points for the following criteria: each 2003 National Institutes of Health (NIH) RLS criteria met; exclusion of low serum ferritin; and exclusion of peripheral neuropathy by neurological examination. Results: Thirty-two articles on drug-induced RLS, 6 articles on drug-induced PLMS, and 15 articles on drug-induced RBD/RSWA were analyzed. Conclusion: Based on scores ≥ 10 and trials of medication reduction/cessation, the strongest evidence available for drug induced RLS are for the following drugs: escitalopram; fluoxetine; L-dopa/carbidopa and pergolide; L-thyroxine; mianserin; mirtazapine; olanzapine; and tramadol. Since none of the PLMS articles assessed PLMI in trials of medication reduction/cessation, the strongest evidence based on scores ≥ 10 are for the

  13. Social disorder and diagnostic order: the US Mental Hygiene Movement, the Midtown Manhattan study and the development of psychiatric epidemiology in the 20th century

    PubMed Central

    March, Dana; Oppenheimer, Gerald M

    2014-01-01

    Recent scholarship regarding psychiatric epidemiology has focused on shifting notions of mental disorders. In psychiatric epidemiology in the last decades of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century, mental disorders have been perceived and treated largely as discrete categories denoting an individual’s mental functioning as either pathological or normal. In the USA, this grew partly out of evolving modern epidemiological work responding to the State’s commitment to measure the national social and economic burdens of psychiatric disorders and subsequently to determine the need for mental health services and to survey these needs over time. Notably absent in these decades have been environmentally oriented approaches to cultivating normal, healthy mental states, approaches initially present after World War II. We focus here on a set of community studies conducted in the 1950s, particularly the Midtown Manhattan study, which grew out of a holistic conception of mental health that depended on social context and had a strong historical affiliation with: the Mental Hygiene Movement and the philosophy of its founder, Adolf Meyer; the epidemiological formation of field studies and population surveys beginning early in the 20th century, often with a health policy agenda; the recognition of increasing chronic disease in the USA; and the radical change in orientation within psychiatry around World War II. We place the Midtown Manhattan study in historical context—a complex narrative of social institutions, professional formation and scientific norms in psychiatry and epidemiology, and social welfare theory that begins during the Progressive era (1890-1920) in the USA. PMID:25031047

  14. Factors influencing performance of competitive and amateur rhythmic gymnastics--gender differences.

    PubMed

    Di Cagno, Alessandra; Baldari, Carlo; Battaglia, Claudia; Monteiro, Maria Dolores; Pappalardo, Alessandra; Piazza, Marina; Guidetti, Laura

    2009-05-01

    During last decade, male athletes were involved in official rhythmic gymnastics (RG) competitions. Aim of this study was to examine anthropometric characteristics and motor skills of male rhythmic gymnasts to identify guidelines in talent identification, selection and development training plans. Twenty-four gymnasts (age range 22+/-4 years), 12 male athletes and 12 female athletes, underwent two testing sessions: the previous session to assess anthropometric measures, and the second one to evaluate jumping ability using Optojump. Three vertical jumps: squat jump (SJ), counter-movement jump (CMJ), hopping test (HT) and three different technical jumps (Split Leap with stretched legs (SL); Cossack with 180 degrees of rotation (CK); Jeté with turn (JWT)) were evaluated. Male gymnasts had significant higher values in each anthropometric measure than females (p<0.01) except for sitting height/stature ratio, sitting height and fat mass (no significant differences). Female athletes were selected for their lowest fat mass. Height and ground contact time of technical leaps, squat jump and counter-movement jump, were significantly higher in male athletes than females. Height of hopping test (evaluating stiffness), and of difference between CMJ and squat jump (evaluating elastic properties of muscles) were no different between genders. Ground contact time of hopping test was significantly correlated (p<0.05) with ground contact time of technical leaps. Results of the present study suggest that similar anthropometric characteristics have to be researched for both gymnasts' gender. Reactivity and elastic muscle properties of the legs have to be research both in male and female athletes. PMID:18356108

  15. Content congruency and its interplay with temporal synchrony modulate integration between rhythmic audiovisual streams

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yi-Huang

    2014-01-01

    Both lower-level stimulus factors (e.g., temporal proximity) and higher-level cognitive factors (e.g., content congruency) are known to influence multisensory integration. The former can direct attention in a converging manner, and the latter can indicate whether information from the two modalities belongs together. The present research investigated whether and how these two factors interacted in the perception of rhythmic, audiovisual (AV) streams derived from a human movement scenario. Congruency here was based on sensorimotor correspondence pertaining to rhythm perception. Participants attended to bimodal stimuli consisting of a humanlike figure moving regularly to a sequence of auditory beat, and detected a possible auditory temporal deviant. The figure moved either downwards (congruently) or upwards (incongruently) to the downbeat, while in both situations the movement was either synchronous with the beat, or lagging behind it. Greater cross-modal binding was expected to hinder deviant detection. Results revealed poorer detection for congruent than for incongruent streams, suggesting stronger integration in the former. False alarms increased in asynchronous stimuli only for congruent streams, indicating greater tendency for deviant report due to visual capture of asynchronous auditory events. In addition, a greater increase in perceived synchrony was associated with a greater reduction in false alarms for congruent streams, while the pattern was reversed for incongruent ones. These results demonstrate that content congruency as a top-down factor not only promotes integration, but also modulates bottom-up effects of synchrony. Results are also discussed regarding how theories of integration and attentional entrainment may be combined in the context of rhythmic multisensory stimuli. PMID:25538576

  16. Rehabilitation of aphasia: application of melodic-rhythmic therapy to Italian language.

    PubMed

    Cortese, Maria Daniela; Riganello, Francesco; Arcuri, Francesco; Pignataro, Luigina Maria; Buglione, Iolanda

    2015-01-01

    Aphasia is a complex disorder, frequent after stroke (with an incidence of 38%), with a detailed pathophysiological characterization. Effective approaches are crucial for devising an efficient rehabilitative strategy, in order to address the everyday life and professional disability. Several rehabilitative procedures are based on psycholinguistic, cognitive, psychosocial or pragmatic approaches, including amongst those with a neurobehavioral approach the Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT). Van Eeckhout's adaptation of MIT to French language (Melodic-Rhythmic Therapy: MRT) has implemented the training strategy by adding a rhythmic structure reproducing French prosody. The purpose of this study was to adapt MRT rehabilitation procedures to Italian language and to verify its efficacy in a group of six chronic patients (five males) with severe non-fluent aphasia and without specific aphasic treatments during the previous 9 months. The patients were treated 4 days a week for 16 weeks, with sessions of 30-40 min. They were assessed 6 months after the end of the treatment (follow-up). The patients showed a significant improvement at the Aachener Aphasie Test (AAT) in different fields of spontaneous speech, with superimposable results at the follow-up. Albeit preliminary, these findings support the use of MRT in the rehabilitation after stroke. Specifically, MRT seems to benefit from its stronger structure than the available stimulation-facilitation procedures and allows a better quantification of the rehabilitation efficacy. PMID:26441615

  17. Rehabilitation of aphasia: application of melodic-rhythmic therapy to Italian language

    PubMed Central

    Cortese, Maria Daniela; Riganello, Francesco; Arcuri, Francesco; Pignataro, Luigina Maria; Buglione, Iolanda

    2015-01-01

    Aphasia is a complex disorder, frequent after stroke (with an incidence of 38%), with a detailed pathophysiological characterization. Effective approaches are crucial for devising an efficient rehabilitative strategy, in order to address the everyday life and professional disability. Several rehabilitative procedures are based on psycholinguistic, cognitive, psychosocial or pragmatic approaches, including amongst those with a neurobehavioral approach the Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT). Van Eeckhout’s adaptation of MIT to French language (Melodic-Rhythmic Therapy: MRT) has implemented the training strategy by adding a rhythmic structure reproducing French prosody. The purpose of this study was to adapt MRT rehabilitation procedures to Italian language and to verify its efficacy in a group of six chronic patients (five males) with severe non-fluent aphasia and without specific aphasic treatments during the previous 9 months. The patients were treated 4 days a week for 16 weeks, with sessions of 30–40 min. They were assessed 6 months after the end of the treatment (follow-up). The patients showed a significant improvement at the Aachener Aphasie Test (AAT) in different fields of spontaneous speech, with superimposable results at the follow-up. Albeit preliminary, these findings support the use of MRT in the rehabilitation after stroke. Specifically, MRT seems to benefit from its stronger structure than the available stimulation-facilitation procedures and allows a better quantification of the rehabilitation efficacy. PMID:26441615

  18. Perceptual Tests of Rhythmic Similarity: I. Mora Rhythm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murty, Lalita; Otake, Takashi; Cutler, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Listeners rely on native-language rhythm in segmenting speech; in different languages, stress-, syllable- or mora-based rhythm is exploited. The rhythmic similarity hypothesis holds that where two languages have similar rhythm, listeners of each language should segment their own and the other language similarly. Such similarity in listening was…

  19. On the origin of rhythmic layering in layered gabbros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Zhang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Rhythmic layering of silicates (plagioclase, pyroxene and olivine), ilmenite and magnitite is a common feature in mafic-ultramafic intrusions. The origin of rhythmic layering has been hotly debated in the literatures. Proposed mechanisms include gravity differentiation, double-diffusive convection, oscillatory crystallization of magma, repeated injection and supplement of magma, etc. Here we provide detailed FTIR and EBSD studies on the water content and deformation microstructure of gabbros from the Panzhihua intrusion and experimentally deformed synthetic gabrros and magnetite aggregates with a volume ratio of 6:4. The FTIR analyses revealed a significant amount of hydroxyls in both clinopyroxene (411-775 ppm) and plagioclase (328-716 ppm), suggesting a high water content mantle plume source. The EBSD analyses show similar fabrics in constitutent minerals of natural and experimental specimens: a weak clinopyroxene fabric of (100) parallel to foliation and [001] parallel to lineation; a strong plagioclase fabric of (010) parallel to foliation and [100] parallel to lineation, a weak ilmenite fabric of (001) parallel to foliation and [hk0] parallel to lieantion; and a near random magnitite fabric. There is an obvious rhythmic layering in sheared gabrros and magnetite aggregates similar to natural observations. Our results revealed strong layer-parallel shearing deformation during the formation of the Panxi layered intructions. There is a significant strength contrast between gabbro and Fe-Ti oxides. We propose that the formation of the rhythmic layering in mafic-ultramafic intrusions is caused mainly by rheological stratification of Fe-Ti oxides and gabbros.

  20. The Acoustic Reality of the Kachruvian Circles: A Rhythmic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Ee Ling

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates whether the rhythmic properties of varieties of English found in each of the concentric circles of Kachru's model can, in any way, be elucidated by the "Three Circles" model. A measurement and comparison of the rhythm of three varieties of English: British English (from the Inner Circle), Singapore English (from the Outer…

  1. Perceptual Tests of Rhythmic Similarity: II. Syllable Rhythm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jeesun; Davis, Chris; Cutler, Anne

    2008-01-01

    To segment continuous speech into its component words, listeners make use of language rhythm; because rhythm differs across languages, so do the segmentation procedures which listeners use. For each of stress-, syllable-and mora-based rhythmic structure, perceptual experiments have led to the discovery of corresponding segmentation procedures. In…

  2. Cross-Linguistic Comparison of Rhythmic and Phonotactic Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stojanovic, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Literature on speech rhythm has been focused on three major questions: whether languages have rhythms that can be classified into a small number of types, what the criteria are for the membership in each class, and whether the perceived rhythmic similarity between languages can be quantified based on properties found in the speech signal. Claims…

  3. Attentional Loads Associated with Interlimb Interactions Underlying Rhythmic Bimanual Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridderikhoff, Arne; Peper, C. E.; Beek, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of rhythmic bimanual coordination under dual-task conditions revealed (1) a dependence of secondary task performance on the stability of coordinative tasks, in that secondary task performance was better during in-phase than antiphase coordination, and (2) a shift in the mean relative phasing between the limbs compared to single-task…

  4. Rhythmic Priming Enhances the Phonological Processing of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cason, Nia; Schon, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    While natural speech does not possess the same degree of temporal regularity found in music, there is recent evidence to suggest that temporal regularity enhances speech processing. The aim of this experiment was to examine whether speech processing would be enhanced by the prior presentation of a rhythmical prime. We recorded electrophysiological…

  5. Use of video observation and motor imagery on jumping performance in national rhythmic gymnastics athletes.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Claudia; D'Artibale, Emanuele; Fiorilli, Giovanni; Piazza, Marina; Tsopani, Despina; Giombini, Arrigo; Calcagno, Giuseppe; di Cagno, Alessandra

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a mental training protocol could improve gymnastic jumping performance. Seventy-two rhythmic gymnasts were randomly divided into an experimental and control group. At baseline, experimental group completed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire Revised (MIQ-R) to assess the gymnast ability to generate movement imagery. A repeated measures design was used to compare two different types of training aimed at improving jumping performance: (a) video observation and PETTLEP mental training associated with physical practice, for the experimental group, and (b) physical practice alone for the control group. Before and after six weeks of training, their jumping performance was measured using the Hopping Test (HT), Drop Jump (DJ), and Counter Movement Jump (CMJ). Results revealed differences between jumping parameters F(1,71)=11.957; p<.01, and between groups F(1,71)=10.620; p<.01. In the experimental group there were significant correlations between imagery ability and the post-training Flight Time of the HT, r(34)=-.295, p<.05 and the DJ, r(34)=-.297, p<.05. The application of the protocol described herein was shown to improve jumping performance, thereby preserving the elite athlete's energy for other tasks. PMID:25457420

  6. Neural Microstates Govern Perception of Auditory Input without Rhythmic Structure.

    PubMed

    Henry, Molly J; Herrmann, Björn; Obleser, Jonas

    2016-01-20

    Human perception fluctuates with the phase of neural oscillations in the presence of environmental rhythmic structure by which neural oscillations become entrained. However, in the absence of predictability afforded by rhythmic structure, we hypothesize that the neural dynamical states associated with optimal psychophysical performance are more complex than what has been described previously for rhythmic stimuli. The current electroencephalography study characterized the brain dynamics associated with optimal detection of gaps embedded in narrow-band acoustic noise stimuli lacking low-frequency rhythmic structure. Optimal gap detection was associated with three spectrotemporally distinct delta-governed neural microstates. Individual microstates were characterized by unique instantaneous combinations of neural phase in the delta, theta, and alpha frequency bands. Critically, gap detection was not predictable from local fluctuations in stimulus acoustics. The current results suggest that, in the absence of rhythmic structure to entrain neural oscillations, good performance hinges on complex neural states that vary from moment to moment. Significance statement: Our ability to hear faint sounds fluctuates together with slow brain activity that synchronizes with environmental rhythms. However, it is so far not known how brain activity at different time scales might interact to influence perception when there is no rhythm with which brain activity can synchronize. Here, we used electroencephalography to measure brain activity while participants listened for short silences that interrupted ongoing noise. We examined brain activity in three different frequency bands: delta, theta, and alpha. Participants' ability to detect gaps depended on different numbers of frequency bands--sometimes one, sometimes two, and sometimes three--at different times. Changes in the number of frequency bands that predict perception are a hallmark of a complex neural system. PMID:26791216

  7. Response inhibition deficits in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Relationship between diffusion tensor imaging of the corpus callosum and eye movement control

    PubMed Central

    Paolozza, Angelina; Treit, Sarah; Beaulieu, Christian; Reynolds, James N.

    2014-01-01

    Response inhibition is the ability to suppress irrelevant impulses to enable goal-directed behavior. The underlying neural mechanisms of inhibition deficits are not clearly understood, but may be related to white matter connectivity, which can be assessed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between response inhibition during the performance of saccadic eye movement tasks and DTI measures of the corpus callosum in children with or without Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Participants included 43 children with an FASD diagnosis (12.3 ± 3.1 years old) and 35 typically developing children (12.5 ± 3.0 years old) both aged 7–18, assessed at three sites across Canada. Response inhibition was measured by direction errors in an antisaccade task and timing errors in a delayed memory-guided saccade task. Manual deterministic tractography was used to delineate six regions of the corpus callosum and calculate fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), parallel diffusivity, and perpendicular diffusivity. Group differences in saccade measures were assessed using t-tests, followed by partial correlations between eye movement inhibition scores and corpus callosum FA and MD, controlling for age. Children with FASD made more saccade direction errors and more timing errors, which indicates a deficit in response inhibition. The only group difference in DTI metrics was significantly higher MD of the splenium in FASD compared to controls. Notably, direction errors in the antisaccade task were correlated negatively to FA and positively to MD of the splenium in the control, but not the FASD group, which suggests that alterations in connectivity between the two hemispheres of the brain may contribute to inhibition deficits in children with FASD. PMID:24967159

  8. Steady-State Movement Related Potentials for Brain Computer Interfacing

    PubMed Central

    Nazarpour, Kianoush; Praamstra, Peter; Miall, R. Chris; Sanei, Saeid

    2012-01-01

    An approach for brain computer interfacing (BCI) by analysis of steady-state movement related potentials (ssMRP) produced during rhythmic finger movements is proposed in this paper. The neurological background of ssMRPs is briefly reviewed. Averaged ssMRPs represented the development of a lateralized rhythmic potential and the energy of the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals at the finger tapping frequency can be used for single trial ssMRP classification. The proposed ssMRP-based BCI approach is tested using the classic Fisher’s linear discriminant (FLD) classifier. Moreover, the influence of the current source density transform on the performance of BCI system is investigated. The averaged correct classification rates (CCR) as well as averaged information transfer rates (ITR) for different sliding time windows are reported. Reliable single trial classification rates of 88%-100% accuracy are achievable at relatively high ITRs. Furthermore, we have been able to achieve CCRs of up to 93% in classification of the sMRPs recorded during imagined rhythmic finger movements. The merit of this approach is in the application of rhythmic cues for BCI, the relatively simple recording setup, and straightforward computations which make the real-time implementations plausible. PMID:19403356

  9. [Thresholds of continuously approaching sound sources with rhythmic structures typical for biologically significant signals].

    PubMed

    Andreeva, I G; Gvozdeva, A P

    2015-01-01

    Localization of biologically significant moving rhythmic sources with different pulse/pause ratio has been practically not investigated. The issue of the perception thresholds of continuously approaching sound sources is addressed in the present study. The illusion of approaching sound courses was created by noise pulse sequences linearly increasing in amplitude and emitted by a loudspeaker placed at the level of the subject's head, 1.1 m away, under free field conditions. The sequences were formed by short (5 and 10 ms) or long (70 and 100 ms) pulses. The continuous movement thresholds were evaluated by the pauses between noise pulses varying from 10 to 150 ms. For the short pulse sequences the thresholds were 49 and 41 ms, while for the long ones they decreased to 21 and 16 ms, respectively. A progressive decay of the continuous movement perception threshold in pausing between noise pulses with increasing width over the whole pulse-width range studied was observed. The thresholds for the short noise pulse sequences were 54 and 51 ms did not differ significantly, while for the long noise pulse sequences they were almost twice as long, 91 and 115 ms. For the structures representing the short (up to 10 ms) pulse sequences, the thresholds were highly variable in magnitude that is indicative of a probabilistic evaluation of movement in case of insufficient information. For the long (tens of ms) pulse sequences, the threshold evaluation was stabilized. The continuous movement thresholds and the effective masking time for sound pulse sequences coincided suggesting critical role of non-simultaneous masking for the evaluation of movement continuity. PMID:25859603

  10. The relevance of rhythmical alternation in language processing: an ERP study on English compounds.

    PubMed

    Henrich, Karen; Alter, Kai; Wiese, Richard; Domahs, Ulrike

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates the influence of rhythmic expectancies on language processing. It is assumed that language rhythm involves an alternation of strong and weak beats within a linguistic domain. Hence, in some contexts rhythmically induced stress shifts occur in order to comply with the Rhythm Rule. In English, this rule operates to prevent clashes of stressed adjacent syllables or lapses of adjacent unstressed syllables. While previous studies investigated effects on speech production and perception, this study focuses on brain responses to structures either obeying or deviating from this rule. Event-related potentials show that rhythmic regularity is relevant for language processing: rhythmic deviations evoked different ERP components reflecting the deviance from rhythmic expectancies. An N400 effect found for shifted items reflects higher costs in lexical processing due to stress deviation. The overall results disentangle lexical and rhythmical influences on language processing and complement the findings of previous studies on rhythmical processing. PMID:25113242

  11. Effects of gait training with rhythmic auditory stimulation on gait ability in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Song, Gui-bin; Ryu, Hyo Jeong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the gait abilities and motor recovery abilities in stroke patients following overground gait training with or without rhythmic auditory stimulation. [Subjects and Methods] Forty patients with hemiplegia resulting from stroke were divided into a rhythmic auditory stimulation gait training group (n=20) and a gait training group (n=20). The rhythmic auditory simulation gait group and gait training group both performed gait training. Rhythmic auditory stimulation was added during gait training in the rhythmic auditory stimulation gait training group. The gait training was performed in 30 minute sessions, five times a week, for a total four weeks. [Results] Gate ability significantly improved in both groups, and the rhythmic auditory stimulation gait training group showed more significant increases in cadence, step length, and Dynamic Gait Index. [Conclusion] The results of this study showed that gait training with rhythmic auditory stimulation was more effective at improving gait ability. PMID:27313339

  12. Biallelic Mutations in PDE10A Lead to Loss of Striatal PDE10A and a Hyperkinetic Movement Disorder with Onset in Infancy.

    PubMed

    Diggle, Christine P; Sukoff Rizzo, Stacey J; Popiolek, Michael; Hinttala, Reetta; Schülke, Jan-Philip; Kurian, Manju A; Carr, Ian M; Markham, Alexander F; Bonthron, David T; Watson, Christopher; Sharif, Saghira Malik; Reinhart, Veronica; James, Larry C; Vanase-Frawley, Michelle A; Charych, Erik; Allen, Melanie; Harms, John; Schmidt, Christopher J; Ng, Joanne; Pysden, Karen; Strick, Christine; Vieira, Päivi; Mankinen, Katariina; Kokkonen, Hannaleena; Kallioinen, Matti; Sormunen, Raija; Rinne, Juha O; Johansson, Jarkko; Alakurtti, Kati; Huilaja, Laura; Hurskainen, Tiina; Tasanen, Kaisa; Anttila, Eija; Marques, Tiago Reis; Howes, Oliver; Politis, Marius; Fahiminiya, Somayyeh; Nguyen, Khanh Q; Majewski, Jacek; Uusimaa, Johanna; Sheridan, Eamonn; Brandon, Nicholas J

    2016-04-01

    Deficits in the basal ganglia pathways modulating cortical motor activity underlie both Parkinson disease (PD) and Huntington disease (HD). Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is enriched in the striatum, and animal data suggest that it is a key regulator of this circuitry. Here, we report on germline PDE10A mutations in eight individuals from two families affected by a hyperkinetic movement disorder due to homozygous mutations c.320A>G (p.Tyr107Cys) and c.346G>C (p.Ala116Pro). Both mutations lead to a reduction in PDE10A levels in recombinant cellular systems, and critically, positron-emission-tomography (PET) studies with a specific PDE10A ligand confirmed that the p.Tyr107Cys variant also reduced striatal PDE10A levels in one of the affected individuals. A knock-in mouse model carrying the homologous p.Tyr97Cys variant had decreased striatal PDE10A and also displayed motor abnormalities. Striatal preparations from this animal had an impaired capacity to degrade cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and a blunted pharmacological response to PDE10A inhibitors. These observations highlight the critical role of PDE10A in motor control across species. PMID:27058446

  13. Interdisziplinärer Arbeitskreis Bewegungsstörungen (IAB): an interdisciplinary working group for promoting multimodal therapy of movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Adib Saberi, Fereshte; Dressler, Dirk

    2013-04-01

    Increasing complexity of therapeutic strategies for movement disorders (MD) requires multimodal therapies involving various health care professionals and physicians. Coordinating all professions involved is difficult. An interdisciplinary working group (Interdisziplinärer Arbeitskreis Bewegungsstörungen, IAB) serves to promote and improve multimodal therapies of MD. IAB was started 6 years ago in Hamburg, Germany as an interdisciplinary special interest group with about 25 physiotherapists, occupational therapists, speech therapists, nurse specialists, physicians and invited guests regularly meeting each quarter. IAB expanded and now also includes a webpage with data bases, a special interest group for Parkinson assistants, a meeting arm for organising meetings accredited by continuous medical education authorities and a publication arm for production of educational materials including a communication form and a communication calendar developed by IAB. Recently, IAB acquired a video production enterprise producing educational MD videos. In the meantime, two more IAB groups were founded in other regions of Germany. IAB's stability over more than 6 years and its expansion into more regions and other tasks documents the demand for promotion of multimodal therapies for MD. PMID:23224693

  14. Sleep and wake in rhythmic versus arrhythmic chronotypes of a microphthalmic species of African mole rat (Fukomys mechowii).

    PubMed

    Bhagwandin, Adhil; Gravett, Nadine; Lyamin, Oleg I; Oosthuizen, Maria K; Bennett, Nigel C; Siegel, Jerome M; Manger, Paul R

    2011-01-01

    The giant Zambian mole rat (Fukomys mechowii) is a subterranean Afrotropical rodent noted for its regressed visual system and unusual patterns of circadian rhythmicity--within this species some individuals exhibit distinct regular circadian patterns of locomotor activity while others have arrhythmic circadian patterns. The current study was aimed at understanding whether differences in circadian chronotypes in this species affect the patterns and proportions of the different phases of the sleep-wake cycle. Physiological parameters of sleep (electroencephalogram and electromyogram) and behaviour (video recording) were recorded continuously for 72 h from 6 mole rats (3 rhythmic and 3 arrhythmic) using a telemetric system and a low-light CCTV camera connected to a DVD recorder. The results indicate that the arrhythmic individuals spend more time in waking with a longer average duration of a waking episode, less time in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) with a shorter average duration of an NREM episode though a greater NREM sleep intensity, and similar sleep cycle lengths. The time spent in rapid eye movement (REM) and the average duration of an REM episode were similar between the chronotypes. PMID:21952092

  15. Non-monotonicity on a spatio-temporally defined cyclic task: evidence of two movement types?

    PubMed Central

    Levy-Tzedek, S.; Song, D.; Hogan, N.; Poizner, H.

    2010-01-01

    We tested 23 healthy participants who performed rhythmic horizontal movements of the elbow. The required amplitude and frequency ranges of the movements were specified to the participants using a closed shape on a phase-plane display, showing angular velocity versus angular position, such that participants had to continuously control both the speed and the displacement of their forearm. We found that the combined accuracy in velocity and position throughout the movement was not a monotonic function of movement speed. Our findings suggest that specific combinations of required movement frequency and amplitude give rise to two distinct types of movements: one of a more rhythmic nature, and the other of a more discrete nature. PMID:20169338

  16. Molecular bases of circadian rhythmicity in renal physiology and pathology.

    PubMed

    Bonny, Olivier; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Gumz, Michelle L; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi

    2013-10-01

    The physiological processes that maintain body homeostasis oscillate during the day. Diurnal changes characterize kidney functions, comprising regulation of hydro-electrolytic and acid-base balance, reabsorption of small solutes and hormone production. Renal physiology is characterized by 24-h periodicity and contributes to circadian variability of blood pressure levels, related as well to nychthemeral changes of sodium sensitivity, physical activity, vascular tone, autonomic function and neurotransmitter release from sympathetic innervations. The circadian rhythmicity of body physiology is driven by central and peripheral biological clockworks and entrained by the geophysical light/dark cycle. Chronodisruption, defined as the mismatch between environmental-social cues and physiological-behavioral patterns, causes internal desynchronization of periodic functions, leading to pathophysiological mechanisms underlying degenerative, immune related, metabolic and neoplastic diseases. In this review we will address the genetic, molecular and anatomical elements that hardwire circadian rhythmicity in renal physiology and subtend disarray of time-dependent changes in renal pathology. PMID:23901050

  17. Molecular bases of circadian rhythmicity in renal physiology and pathology

    PubMed Central

    Bonny, Olivier; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Gumz, Michelle L.; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi

    2013-01-01

    The physiological processes that maintain body homeostasis oscillate during the day. Diurnal changes characterize kidney functions, comprising regulation of hydro-electrolytic and acid-base balance, reabsorption of small solutes and hormone production. Renal physiology is characterized by 24-h periodicity and contributes to circadian variability of blood pressure levels, related as well to nychthemeral changes of sodium sensitivity, physical activity, vascular tone, autonomic function and neurotransmitter release from sympathetic innervations. The circadian rhythmicity of body physiology is driven by central and peripheral biological clockworks and entrained by the geophysical light/dark cycle. Chronodisruption, defined as the mismatch between environmental–social cues and physiological–behavioral patterns, causes internal desynchronization of periodic functions, leading to pathophysiological mechanisms underlying degenerative, immune related, metabolic and neoplastic diseases. In this review we will address the genetic, molecular and anatomical elements that hardwire circadian rhythmicity in renal physiology and subtend disarray of time–dependent changes in renal pathology. PMID:23901050

  18. Corticospinal Modulations during Bimanual Movement with Different Relative Phases

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Yoshifumi; Jono, Yasutomo; Tani, Keisuke; Chujo, Yuta; Hiraoka, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate corticospinal modulation of bimanual (BM) movement with different relative phases (RPs). The participants rhythmically abducted and adducted the right index finger (unimanual (UM) movement) or both index fingers (BM movement) with a cyclic duration of 1 s. The RP of BM movement, defined as the time difference between one hand movement and the other hand movement, was 0°, 90°, or 180°. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the right flexor dorsal interosseous muscle elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were obtained during UM or BM movement. Corticospinal excitability in the first dorsal interosseous muscle during BM movement with 90° RP was higher than that during UM movement or BM movement with 0° or 180° RP. The correlation between muscle activity level and corticospinal excitability during BM movement with 90° RP was smaller than that during UM movement or BM movement with 0° or 180° RP. The higher corticospinal excitability during BM movement with 90° RP may be caused by the greater effort expended to execute a difficult task, the involvement of interhemispheric interaction, a motor binding process, or task acquisition. The lower dependency of corticospinal excitability on the muscle activity level during BM movement with 90° RP may reflect the minor corticospinal contribution to BM movement with an RP that is not in the attractor state. PMID:27014026

  19. Rhythmic Midtemporal Discharge in a Youth During Light Sleep.

    PubMed

    Beiske, Kornelia Katalin; Kostov, Konstantin Hrisimirov; Kostov, Hrisimir

    2016-03-01

    Rhythmic midtemporal discharge (RMTD) is a rare, benign EEG pattern that may have epileptic morphology. Recognizing variations of RMTD is important in order to avoid over- or misinterpretation of EEG findings, which may lead to inappropriate treatment and negative consequences for the patient in question. We present a case report of RTMDs during light sleep where initial erroneous description necessitated repeat EEGs and additional diagnostic exams and led to the postponement of obtaining a drivers licence for this young patient. PMID:27180505

  20. Rhythmic modulation of visual contrast discrimination triggered by action.

    PubMed

    Benedetto, Alessandro; Spinelli, Donatella; Morrone, M Concetta

    2016-05-25

    Recent evidence suggests that ongoing brain oscillations may be instrumental in binding and integrating multisensory signals. In this experiment, we investigated the temporal dynamics of visual-motor integration processes. We show that action modulates sensitivity to visual contrast discrimination in a rhythmic fashion at frequencies of about 5 Hz (in the theta range), for up to 1 s after execution of action. To understand the origin of the oscillations, we measured oscillations in contrast sensitivity at different levels of luminance, which is known to affect the endogenous brain rhythms, boosting the power of alpha-frequencies. We found that the frequency of oscillation in sensitivity increased at low luminance, probably reflecting the shift in mean endogenous brain rhythm towards higher frequencies. Importantly, both at high and at low luminance, contrast discrimination showed a rhythmic motor-induced suppression effect, with the suppression occurring earlier at low luminance. We suggest that oscillations play a key role in sensory-motor integration, and that the motor-induced suppression may reflect the first manifestation of a rhythmic oscillation. PMID:27226468

  1. Auditory evoked responses to rhythmic sound pulses in dolphins.

    PubMed

    Popov, V V; Supin, A Y

    1998-10-01

    The ability of auditory evoked potentials to follow sound pulse (click or pip) rate was studied in bottlenosed dolphins. Sound pulses were presented in 20-ms rhythmic trains separated by 80-ms pauses. Rhythmic click or pip trains evoked a quasi-sustained response consisting of a sequence of auditory brainstem responses. This was designated as the rate-following response. Rate following response peak-to-peak amplitude dependence on sound pulse rate was almost flat up to 200 s-1, then displayed a few peaks and valleys superimposed on a low-pass filtering function with a cut-off frequency of 1700 s-1 at a 0.1-amplitude level. Peaks and valleys of the function corresponded to the pattern of the single auditory brain stem response spectrum; the low-pass cut-off frequency was below the auditory brain stem response spectrum bandwidth. Rate-following response frequency composition (magnitudes of the fundamental and harmonics) corresponded to the auditory brain stem response frequency spectrum except for lower fundamental magnitudes at frequencies above 1700 Hz. These regularities were similar for both click and pip trains. The rate-following response to steady-state rhythmic stimulation was similar to the rate-following response evoked by short trains except for a slight amplitude decrease with the rate increase above 10 s-1. The latter effect is attributed to a long-term rate-dependent adaptation in conditions of the steady-state pulse stimulation. PMID:9809455

  2. Somatotype of top-level serbian rhythmic gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Purenović-Ivanović, Tijana; Popović, Ružena

    2014-03-27

    Body size and build influence performance in many sports, especially in those belonging to the group of female aesthetic sports (rhythmic gymnastics, artistic gymnastics, and figure skating). These sports pose high specific demands upon the functional, energy, motor and psychological capacities of athletes, but also upon the size, body build and composition of the performers, particularly of the top-level female athletes. The study of the top athletes (rhythmic gymnasts, in this case) may provide valuable information on the morphological requirements for achieving success in this sport. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to analyze the somatotype of 40 Serbian top-level rhythmic gymnasts, aged 13.04±2.79, and to form the five age group categories. The anthropometric variables included body height, body mass, the selected diameters, girths and skinfolds, and the Heath-Carter anthropometric somatotype. All of the anthropometric data were collected according to International Biological Programme, and then processed in the Somatotype 1.2. The applied analysis of variance indicated an increase in endomorphic component with age. The obtained results show that the balanced ectomorph is a dominant somatotype, being similar for all of the athletes that took part in the research (3.54-3.24-4.5). These results are in line with the ones obtained in previous studies. PMID:25031686

  3. Somatotype of Top-Level Serbian Rhythmic Gymnasts

    PubMed Central

    Purenović-Ivanović, Tijana; Popović, Ružena

    2014-01-01

    Body size and build influence performance in many sports, especially in those belonging to the group of female aesthetic sports (rhythmic gymnastics, artistic gymnastics, and figure skating). These sports pose high specific demands upon the functional, energy, motor and psychological capacities of athletes, but also upon the size, body build and composition of the performers, particularly of the top-level female athletes. The study of the top athletes (rhythmic gymnasts, in this case) may provide valuable information on the morphological requirements for achieving success in this sport. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to analyze the somatotype of 40 Serbian top-level rhythmic gymnasts, aged 13.04±2.79, and to form the five age group categories. The anthropometric variables included body height, body mass, the selected diameters, girths and skinfolds, and the Heath-Carter anthropometric somatotype. All of the anthropometric data were collected according to International Biological Programme, and then processed in the Somatotype 1.2. The applied analysis of variance indicated an increase in endomorphic component with age. The obtained results show that the balanced ectomorph is a dominant somatotype, being similar for all of the athletes that took part in the research (3.54-3.24-4.5). These results are in line with the ones obtained in previous studies. PMID:25031686

  4. ACE and AGTR1 polymorphisms in elite rhythmic gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Di Cagno, Alessandra; Sapere, Nadia; Piazza, Marina; Aquino, Giovanna; Iuliano, Enzo; Intrieri, Mariano; Calcagno, Giuseppe

    2013-02-01

    In the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene, Alu deletion, in intron 16, is associated with higher concentrations of ACE serum activity and this may be associated with elite sprint and power performance. The Alu insertion is associated with lower ACE levels and this could lead to endurance performance. Moreover, recent studies have identified a single-nucleotide polymorphism of the angiotensin type 1 receptor gene AGTR1, which seems to be related to ACE activity. The aim of this study was to examine the involvement of the ACE and the AGTR1 gene polymorphisms in 28 Italian elite rhythmic gymnasts (age range 21 ± 7.6 years), and compare them to 23 middle level rhythmic gymnasts (age range 17 ± 10.9 years). The ACE D allele was significantly more frequent in elite athletes than in the control population (χ(2)=4.07, p=0.04). Comparisons between the middle level and elite athletes revealed significant differences (p<0.0001) for the ACE DD genotype (OR=6.48, 95% confidence interval=1.48-28.34), which was more frequent in elite athletes. There were no significant differences in the AGTR1 A/C genotype or allele distributions between the middle level and elite athletes. In conclusion, the ACE D allele genotype could be a contributing factor to high-performance rhythmic gymnastics that should be considered in athlete development and could help to identify which skills should be trained for talent promotion. PMID:23145508

  5. Rhythmic auditory stimulation in gait training for Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Thaut, M H; McIntosh, G C; Rice, R R; Miller, R A; Rathbun, J; Brault, J M

    1996-03-01

    Rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) was used as a pacemaker during a 3-week home-based gait-training program for Parkinson's disease (PD) patients (n = 15). Electromyogram (EMG) patterns and stride parameters were assessed before and after the test without RAS to evaluate changes in gait patterns. Data were compared with those of two control groups (n = 11), who either did not participate in any gait training or who participated in an internally self-paced training program. RAS consisted of audiotapes with metronome-pulse patterns embedded into the on/off beat structure of rhythmically accentuated instrumental music. Patients who trained with RAS significantly (p < 0.05) improved their gait velocity by 25%, stride length by 12%, and step cadence by 10% more than self-paced subjects who improved their velocity by 7% and no-training subjects whose velocity decreased by 7%. In the RAS-group, timing of EMG patterns changed significantly (p < 0.05) in the anterior tibialis and vastus lateralis muscles. Evidence for rhythmic entrainment of gait patterns was shown by the ability of the RAS group to reproduce the speed of the last training tape within a 2% margin of error without RAS. PMID:8684391

  6. Bowel Movement

    MedlinePlus

    A bowel movement is the last stop in the movement of food through your digestive tract. Your stool passes out ... rectum and anus. Another name for stool is feces. It is made of what is left after ...

  7. Official Japanese Version of the Movement Disorder Society-Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale: validation against the original English version

    PubMed Central

    Kashihara, Kenichi; Kondo, Tomoyoshi; Mizuno, Yoshikuni; Kikuchi, Seiji; Kuno, Sadako; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Hattori, Nobutaka; Mochizuki, Hideki; Mori, Hideo; Murata, Miho; Nomoto, Masahiro; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Takeda, Atsushi; Tsuboi, Yoshio; Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Yamanmoto, Mitsutoshi; Yokochi, Fusako; Yoshii, Fumihito; Stebbins, Glenn T.; Tilley, Barbara C.; Luo, Sheng; Wang, Lu; LaPelle, Nancy R.; Goetz, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Movement Disorder Society (MDS)-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease (PD) Rating Scale (UPDRS) (MDS-UPDRS) has been developed and is now available in English. Part of the overall program includes the establishment of official non-English translations of the MDS-UPDRS. We present the process for completing the official Japanese translation of the MDS-UPDRS with clinimetric testing results. Methods In this trial, the MDS-UPDRS was translated into Japanese, underwent cognitive pre-testing, and the translation was modified after taking the results into account. The final translation was approved as Official Working Draft of the MDS-UPDRS Japanese version and tested in 365 native-Japanese-speaking patients with PD. Confirmatory analyses were used to determine whether the factor structure for the English-language MDS-UPDRS could be confirmed in data collected using the Official Working Draft of the Japanese translation. As a secondary analysis, we used exploratory factor analyses to examine the underlying factor structure without the constraint of a pre-specified factor organization. Results Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that Comparative Fit Index for all Parts of the MDS-UPDRS exceeded the minimal standard of 0.90 relative to the English version and therefore Japanese translation met the pre-specified criterion to be designated called an OFFICIAL MDS TRANSLATION. Secondary analyses revealed some differences between the English-language MDS-UPDRS and the Japanese translation, however, these differences were considered to be within an acceptable range. Conclusions The Japanese version of the MDS-UPDRS met the criterion as an Official MDS Translation and is now available for use (www.movementdisorders.org). PMID:25328906

  8. Phonetic Measures of Reduced Tongue Movement Correlate with Negative Symptom Severity in Hospitalized Patients with First-Episode Schizophrenia-Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Covington, Michael A.; Lunden, S.L. Anya; Cristofaro, Sarah L.; Wan, Claire Ramsay; Bailey, C. Thomas; Broussard, Beth; Fogarty, Robert; Johnson, Stephanie; Zhang, Shayi; Compton, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Aprosody, or flattened speech intonation, is a recognized negative symptom of schizophrenia, though it has rarely been studied from a linguistic/phonological perspective. To bring the latest advances in computational linguistics to the phenomenology of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, a clinical first-episode psychosis research team joined with a phonetics/computational linguistics team to conduct a preliminary, proof-of-concept study. Methods Video recordings from a semi-structured clinical research interview were available from 47 first-episode psychosis patients. Audio tracks of the video recordings were extracted, and after review of quality, 25 recordings were available for phonetic analysis. These files were de-noised and a trained phonologist extracted a 1-minute sample of each patient’s speech. WaveSurfer 1.8.5 was used to create, from each speech sample, a file of formant values (F0, F1, F2, where F0 is the fundamental frequency and F1 and F2 are resonance bands indicating the moment-by-moment shape of the oral cavity). Variability in these phonetic indices was correlated with severity of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative symptom scores using Pearson correlations. Results A measure of variability of tongue front-to-back position—the standard deviation of F2—was statistically significantly correlated with the severity of negative symptoms (r=−0.446, p=0.03). Conclusion This study demonstrates a statistically significant and meaningful correlation between negative symptom severity and phonetically measured reductions in tongue movements during speech in a sample of first-episode patients just initiating treatment. Further studies of negative symptoms, applying computational linguistics methods, are warranted. PMID:23102940

  9. Recessive TRAPPC11 Mutations Cause a Disease Spectrum of Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy and Myopathy with Movement Disorder and Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Bögershausen, Nina; Shahrzad, Nassim; Chong, Jessica X.; von Kleist-Retzow, Jürgen-Christoph; Stanga, Daniela; Li, Yun; Bernier, Francois P.; Loucks, Catrina M.; Wirth, Radu; Puffenberger, Eric G.; Hegele, Robert A.; Schreml, Julia; Lapointe, Gabriel; Keupp, Katharina; Brett, Christopher L.; Anderson, Rebecca; Hahn, Andreas; Innes, A. Micheil; Suchowersky, Oksana; Mets, Marilyn B.; Nürnberg, Gudrun; McLeod, D. Ross; Thiele, Holger; Waggoner, Darrel; Altmüller, Janine; Boycott, Kym M.; Schoser, Benedikt; Nürnberg, Peter; Ober, Carole; Heller, Raoul; Parboosingh, Jillian S.; Wollnik, Bernd; Sacher, Michael; Lamont, Ryan E.

    2013-01-01

    Myopathies are a clinically and etiologically heterogeneous group of disorders that can range from limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) to syndromic forms with associated features including intellectual disability. Here, we report the identification of mutations in transport protein particle complex 11 (TRAPPC11) in three individuals of a consanguineous Syrian family presenting with LGMD and in five individuals of Hutterite descent presenting with myopathy, infantile hyperkinetic movements, ataxia, and intellectual disability. By using a combination of whole-exome or genome sequencing with homozygosity mapping, we identified the homozygous c.2938G>A (p.Gly980Arg) missense mutation within the gryzun domain of TRAPPC11 in the Syrian LGMD family and the homozygous c.1287+5G>A splice-site mutation resulting in a 58 amino acid in-frame deletion (p.Ala372_Ser429del) in the foie gras domain of TRAPPC11 in the Hutterite families. TRAPPC11 encodes a component of the multiprotein TRAPP complex involved in membrane trafficking. We demonstrate that both mutations impair the binding ability of TRAPPC11 to other TRAPP complex components and disrupt the Golgi apparatus architecture. Marker trafficking experiments for the p.Ala372_Ser429del deletion indicated normal ER-to-Golgi trafficking but dramatically delayed exit from the Golgi to the cell surface. Moreover, we observed alterations of the lysosomal membrane glycoproteins lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1) and LAMP2 as a consequence of TRAPPC11 dysfunction supporting a defect in the transport of secretory proteins as the underlying pathomechanism. PMID:23830518

  10. Recessive TRAPPC11 mutations cause a disease spectrum of limb girdle muscular dystrophy and myopathy with movement disorder and intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Bögershausen, Nina; Shahrzad, Nassim; Chong, Jessica X; von Kleist-Retzow, Jürgen-Christoph; Stanga, Daniela; Li, Yun; Bernier, Francois P; Loucks, Catrina M; Wirth, Radu; Puffenberger, Eric G; Hegele, Robert A; Schreml, Julia; Lapointe, Gabriel; Keupp, Katharina; Brett, Christopher L; Anderson, Rebecca; Hahn, Andreas; Innes, A Micheil; Suchowersky, Oksana; Mets, Marilyn B; Nürnberg, Gudrun; McLeod, D Ross; Thiele, Holger; Waggoner, Darrel; Altmüller, Janine; Boycott, Kym M; Schoser, Benedikt; Nürnberg, Peter; Ober, Carole; Heller, Raoul; Parboosingh, Jillian S; Wollnik, Bernd; Sacher, Michael; Lamont, Ryan E

    2013-07-11

    Myopathies are a clinically and etiologically heterogeneous group of disorders that can range from limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) to syndromic forms with associated features including intellectual disability. Here, we report the identification of mutations in transport protein particle complex 11 (TRAPPC11) in three individuals of a consanguineous Syrian family presenting with LGMD and in five individuals of Hutterite descent presenting with myopathy, infantile hyperkinetic movements, ataxia, and intellectual disability. By using a combination of whole-exome or genome sequencing with homozygosity mapping, we identified the homozygous c.2938G>A (p.Gly980Arg) missense mutation within the gryzun domain of TRAPPC11 in the Syrian LGMD family and the homozygous c.1287+5G>A splice-site mutation resulting in a 58 amino acid in-frame deletion (p.Ala372_Ser429del) in the foie gras domain of TRAPPC11 in the Hutterite families. TRAPPC11 encodes a component of the multiprotein TRAPP complex involved in membrane trafficking. We demonstrate that both mutations impair the binding ability of TRAPPC11 to other TRAPP complex components and disrupt the Golgi apparatus architecture. Marker trafficking experiments for the p.Ala372_Ser429del deletion indicated normal ER-to-Golgi trafficking but dramatically delayed exit from the Golgi to the cell surface. Moreover, we observed alterations of the lysosomal membrane glycoproteins lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1) and LAMP2 as a consequence of TRAPPC11 dysfunction supporting a defect in the transport of secretory proteins as the underlying pathomechanism. PMID:23830518

  11. Slow oscillating transcranial direct current stimulation during non-rapid eye movement sleep improves behavioral inhibition in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Munz, Manuel T.; Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Thielking, Frederieke; Mölle, Matthias; Göder, Robert; Baving, Lioba

    2015-01-01

    Background: Behavioral inhibition, which is a later-developing executive function (EF) and anatomically located in prefrontal areas, is impaired in attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). While optimal EFs have been shown to depend on efficient sleep in healthy subjects, the impact of sleep problems, frequently reported in ADHD, remains elusive. Findings of macroscopic sleep changes in ADHD are inconsistent, but there is emerging evidence for distinct microscopic changes with a focus on prefrontal cortical regions and non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) slow-wave sleep. Recently, slow oscillations (SO) during non-REM sleep were found to be less functional and, as such, may be involved in sleep-dependent memory impairments in ADHD. Objective:By augmenting slow-wave power through bilateral, slow oscillating transcranial direct current stimulation (so-tDCS, frequency = 0.75 Hz) during non-REM sleep, we aimed to improve daytime behavioral inhibition in children with ADHD. Methods: Fourteen boys (10–14 years) diagnosed with ADHD were included. In a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design, patients received so-tDCS either in the first or in the second experimental sleep night. Inhibition control was assessed with a visuomotor go/no-go task. Intrinsic alertness was assessed with a simple stimulus response task. To control for visuomotor performance, motor memory was assessed with a finger sequence tapping task. Results: SO-power was enhanced during early non-REM sleep, accompanied by slowed reaction times and decreased standard deviations of reaction times, in the go/no-go task after so-tDCS. In contrast, intrinsic alertness, and motor memory performance were not improved by so-tDCS. Conclusion: Since behavioral inhibition but not intrinsic alertness or motor memory was improved by so-tDCS, our results suggest that lateral prefrontal slow oscillations during sleep might play a specific role for executive functioning in ADHD. PMID:26321911

  12. Healthy Movements: Your Body's Mechanics

    MedlinePlus

    ... devised improved treatments for movement disorders such as cerebral palsy and Parkinson’s disease. Joints are a common source ... which patients could benefit from surgery. People with cerebral palsy, Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis could also benefit ...

  13. Analysis of Circadian Leaf Movements.

    PubMed

    Müller, Niels A; Jiménez-Gómez, José M

    2016-01-01

    The circadian clock is a molecular timekeeper that controls a wide variety of biological processes. In plants, clock outputs range from the molecular level, with rhythmic gene expression and metabolite content, to physiological processes such as stomatal conductance or leaf movements. Any of these outputs can be used as markers to monitor the state of the circadian clock. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, much of the current knowledge about the clock has been gained from time course experiments profiling expression of endogenous genes or reporter constructs regulated by the circadian clock. Since these methods require labor-intensive sample preparation or transformation, monitoring leaf movements is an interesting alternative, especially in non-model species and for natural variation studies. Technological improvements both in digital photography and image analysis allow cheap and easy monitoring of circadian leaf movements. In this chapter we present a protocol that uses an autonomous point and shoot camera and free software to monitor circadian leaf movements in tomato. PMID:26867616

  14. Non-linear dynamics of human locomotion: effects of rhythmic auditory cueing on local dynamic stability

    PubMed Central

    Terrier, Philippe; Dériaz, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    It has been observed that times series of gait parameters [stride length (SL), stride time (ST), and stride speed (SS)], exhibit long-term persistence and fractal-like properties. Synchronizing steps with rhythmic auditory stimuli modifies the persistent fluctuation pattern to anti-persistence. Another non-linear method estimates the degree of resilience of gait control to small perturbations, i.e., the local dynamic stability (LDS). The method makes use of the maximal Lyapunov exponent, which estimates how fast a non-linear system embedded in a reconstructed state space (attractor) diverges after an infinitesimal perturbation. We propose to use an instrumented treadmill to simultaneously measure basic gait parameters (time series of SL, ST, and SS from which the statistical persistence among consecutive strides can be assessed), and the trajectory of the center of pressure (from which the LDS can be estimated). In 20 healthy participants, the response to rhythmic auditory cueing (RAC) of LDS and of statistical persistence [assessed with detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA)] was compared. By analyzing the divergence curves, we observed that long-term LDS (computed as the reverse of the average logarithmic rate of divergence between the 4th and the 10th strides downstream from nearest neighbors in the reconstructed attractor) was strongly enhanced (relative change +73%). That is likely the indication of a more dampened dynamics. The change in short-term LDS (divergence over one step) was smaller (+3%). DFA results (scaling exponents) confirmed an anti-persistent pattern in ST, SL, and SS. Long-term LDS (but not short-term LDS) and scaling exponents exhibited a significant correlation between them (r = 0.7). Both phenomena probably result from the more conscious/voluntary gait control that is required by RAC. We suggest that LDS and statistical persistence should be used to evaluate the efficiency of cueing therapy in patients with neurological gait disorders. PMID

  15. Path integral learning of multidimensional movement trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, João; Santos, Cristina; Costa, Lino

    2013-10-01

    This paper explores the use of Path Integral Methods, particularly several variants of the recent Path Integral Policy Improvement (PI2) algorithm in multidimensional movement parametrized policy learning. We rely on Dynamic Movement Primitives (DMPs) to codify discrete and rhythmic trajectories, and apply the PI2-CMA and PIBB methods in the learning of optimal policy parameters, according to different cost functions that inherently encode movement objectives. Additionally we merge both of these variants and propose the PIBB-CMA algorithm, comparing all of them with the vanilla version of PI2. From the obtained results we conclude that PIBB-CMA surpasses all other methods in terms of convergence speed and iterative final cost, which leads to an increased interest in its application to more complex robotic problems.

  16. Rhythmic Cluster Generation in Strongly Driven Colloidal Dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wensink, H. H.; Löwen, H.

    2006-07-01

    We study the response of a nematic colloidal dispersion of rods to a driven probe particle which is dragged with high speed through the dispersion perpendicular to the nematic director. In front of the dragged particle, clusters of rods are generated which rhythmically grow and dissolve by rotational motion. We find evidence for a mesoscopic cluster-cluster correlation length, independent of the imposed drag speed. Our results are based on nonequilibrium Brownian dynamics computer simulations and in line with a dynamical scaling theory.

  17. Forearm training attenuates sympathetic responses to prolonged rhythmic forearm exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinoway, L.; Shenberger, J.; Leaman, G.; Zelis, R.; Gray, K.; Baily, R.; Leuenberger, U.

    1996-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that nonfatiguing rhythmic forearm exercise at 25% maximal voluntary contraction (12 2-s contractions/min) evokes sympathoexcitation without significant engagement of metabolite-sensitive muscle afferents (B.A. Batman, J.C. Hardy, U.A. Leuenberger, M.B. Smith, Q.X. Yang and L.I. Sinoway. J. Appl. Physiol. 76: 1077-1081, 1994). This is in contrast to the sympathetic nervous system responses observed during fatiguing static forearm exercise where metabolite-sensitive afferents are the key determinants of sympathetic activation. In this report we examined whether forearm exercise training would attenuate sympathetic nervous system responses to rhythmic forearm exercise. We measured heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), muscle sympathetic nerve activity (microneurography), plasma norepinephrine (NE), and NE spillover and clearance (tritiated NE kinetics) during nonfatiguing rhythmic forearm exercise before and after a 4-wk unilateral forearm training paradigm. Training had no effect on forearm mass, maximal voluntary contraction, or heart rate but did attenuate the increase in MAP (increase in MAP: from 15.2 +/- 1.8 before training to 11.4 +/- 1.4 mmHg after training; P < 0.017), muscle sympathetic nerve activity (increase in bursts: from 10.8 +/- 1.4 before training to 6.2 +/- 1.1 bursts/min after training; P < 0.030), and the NE spillover (increases in arterial spillover: from 1.3 +/- 0.2 before training to 0.6 +/- 0.2 nmol.min-1.m-2 after training, P < 0.014; increase in venous spillover: from 2.0 +/- 0.6 before training to 1.0 +/- 0.5 nmol.min-1.m-2 after training, P < 0.037) seen in response to exercise performed by the trained forearm. Thus forearm training reduces sympathetic responses during a nonfatiguing rhythmic handgrip paradigm that does not engage muscle metaboreceptors. We speculate that this effect is due to a conditioning-induced reduction in mechanically sensitive muscle afferent discharge.

  18. Effect of rhythmic attention on the segregation of interleaved melodies.

    PubMed

    Devergie, Aymeric; Grimault, Nicolas; Tillmann, Barbara; Berthommier, Frédéric

    2010-07-01

    As previously suggested, attention may increase segregation via enhancement and suppression sensory mechanisms. To test this hypothesis, we proposed an interleaved melody paradigm with two rhythm conditions applied to familiar target melodies and unfamiliar distractor melodies sharing pitch and timbre properties. When rhythms of both target and distractor were irregular, target melodies were identified above chance level. A sensory enhancement mechanism guided by listeners' knowledge may have helped to extract targets from the interleaved sequence. When the distractor was rhythmically regular, performance was increased, suggesting that the distractor may have been suppressed by a sensory suppression mechanism. PMID:20649182

  19. Does visual information influence infants' movement to music?

    PubMed

    Morgan, Gin; Killough, Cynthia M; Thompson, Laura A

    2013-03-01

    Humans are often exposed to music beginning at birth (or even before birth), yet the study of the development of musical abilities during infancy has only recently gained momentum. The goals of the present study were to determine whether young infants (ages four to seven months) spontaneously moved rhythmically in the presence of music, and whether the presence of visual information in addition to music would increase or decrease infants' movement. While nearly all infants moved in the presence of music, very few infants demonstrated rhythmic movement. Results revealed that, when visual information was present, and particularly when infants appeared to show focused attention toward the visual information, infants moved less than when only auditory information was present. The latter result is in agreement with most studies of sensory dominance in adults in which visual stimuli are dominant over auditory stimuli. PMID:24277976

  20. Does visual information influence infants’ movement to music?

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Gin; Killough, Cynthia M.; Thompson, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    Humans are often exposed to music beginning at birth (or even before birth), yet the study of the development of musical abilities during infancy has only recently gained momentum. The goals of the present study were to determine whether young infants (ages four to seven months) spontaneously moved rhythmically in the presence of music, and whether the presence of visual information in addition to music would increase or decrease infants’ movement. While nearly all infants moved in the presence of music, very few infants demonstrated rhythmic movement. Results revealed that, when visual information was present, and particularly when infants appeared to show focused attention toward the visual information, infants moved less than when only auditory information was present. The latter result is in agreement with most studies of sensory dominance in adults in which visual stimuli are dominant over auditory stimuli. PMID:24277976

  1. Independent Causal Contributions of Alpha- and Beta-Band Oscillations during Movement Selection

    PubMed Central

    Stolk, Arjen; Marshall, Tom R.; Esterer, Sophie; Sharp, Poppy; Dijkerman, H. Chris; de Lange, Floris P.; Toni, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    To select a movement, specific neuronal populations controlling particular features of that movement need to be activated, whereas other populations are downregulated. The selective (dis)inhibition of cortical sensorimotor populations is governed by rhythmic neural activity in the alpha (8–12 Hz) and beta (15–25 Hz) frequency range. However, it is unclear whether and how these rhythms contribute independently to motor behavior. Building on a recent dissociation of the sensorimotor alpha- and beta-band rhythms, we test the hypothesis that the beta-band rhythm governs the disinhibition of task-relevant neuronal populations, whereas the alpha-band rhythm suppresses neurons that may interfere with task performance. Cortical alpha- and beta-band rhythms were manipulated with transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) while human participants selected how to grasp an object. Stimulation was applied at either 10 or 20 Hz and was imposed on the sensorimotor cortex contralaterally or ipsilaterally to the grasping hand. In line with task-induced changes in endogenous spectral power, the effect of the tACS intervention depended on the frequency and site of stimulation. Whereas tACS stimulation generally increased movement selection times, 10 Hz stimulation led to relatively faster selection times when applied to the hemisphere ipsilateral to the grasping hand, compared with other stimulation conditions. These effects occurred selectively when multiple movements were considered. These observations functionally differentiate the causal contribution of alpha- and beta-band oscillations to movement selection. The findings suggest that sensorimotor beta-band rhythms disinhibit task-relevant populations, whereas alpha-band rhythms inhibit neuronal populations that could interfere with movement selection. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study shows dissociable effects of 10 Hz and 20 Hz tACS on the duration of movement selection. These observations have two elements of

  2. Occurrence and origin of rhythmic sedimentary rocks on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Kevin W.; Aharonson, Oded

    2014-06-01

    Sedimentary rocks preserved on the surface of Mars represent a natural archive of past climate conditions. Although the details of their formation often remain poorly constrained, the recent detection of rhythmic bedding patterns in the Arabia Terra region suggests the influence of orbital variations on sedimentary deposition. Here we detail a number of new sites which exhibit quasiperiodic stratigraphic variations, demonstrating their occurrence throughout the equatorial region of the planet. We characterize these recorded signals as well as the local geomorphic context and structural attributes. Two cyclic units are identified within Gale crater, the landing site of the Mars Science Laboratory mission, enabling estimation of possible formation timescales for the geologic units that may be studied in situ by the rover. We find a general lack of fluvial features in connection with rhythmic geologic units, contrasting these sites with the aperiodic deltaic stratigraphy found at Eberswalde crater. Possible formation scenarios and their climatic implications are discussed for the diverse set of quasiperiodic sedimentary units. We propose multiple depositional pathways for recording cyclic climate changes, including repeated evaporitic precipitation from groundwater discharge in topographic lows as well as largely anhydrous accumulation of atmospheric dust for deposits outside of confined basins. The preservation of orbital signals in sediments distributed across a wide range of geographic settings suggests a pervasive influence on Martian climate conditions through time.

  3. Age effects in discrimination of intervals within rhythmic tone sequences.

    PubMed

    Fitzgibbons, Peter J; Gordon-Salant, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study measured listener sensitivity to increments of a target inter-onset interval (IOI) embedded within tone sequences that featured different rhythmic patterns. The sequences consisted of six 50-ms 1000-Hz tone bursts separated by silent intervals that were adjusted to create different timing patterns. Control sequences were isochronous, with all tonal IOIs fixed at either 200 or 400 ms, while other patterns featured combinations of the two IOIs arranged to create different sequential tonal groupings. Duration difference limens in milliseconds for increments of a single sequence IOI were measured adaptively by adjusting the duration of an inter-tone silent interval. Specific target IOIs within sequences differed across discrimination conditions. Listeners included younger normal-hearing adults and groups of older adults with and without hearing loss. Discrimination performance measured for each of the older groups of listeners was observed to be equivalent, with each group exhibiting significantly poorer discrimination performance than the younger listeners in each sequence condition. Additionally, the specific influence of variable rhythmic grouping on temporal sensitivity was found to be greatest among older listeners. PMID:25618068

  4. Rhythmic coordination of hippocampal neurons during associative memory processing

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, Lara M; Rueckemann, Jon W; Riviere, Pamela D; Keefe, Katherine R; Porter, Blake S; Heimbuch, Ian S; Budlong, Carl H; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal oscillations are dynamic, with unique oscillatory frequencies present during different behavioral states. To examine the extent to which these oscillations reflect neuron engagement in distinct local circuit processes that are important for memory, we recorded single cell and local field potential activity from the CA1 region of the hippocampus as rats performed a context-guided odor-reward association task. We found that theta (4–12 Hz), beta (15–35 Hz), low gamma (35–55 Hz), and high gamma (65–90 Hz) frequencies exhibited dynamic amplitude profiles as rats sampled odor cues. Interneurons and principal cells exhibited unique engagement in each of the four rhythmic circuits in a manner that related to successful performance of the task. Moreover, principal cells coherent to each rhythm differentially represented task dimensions. These results demonstrate that distinct processing states arise from the engagement of rhythmically identifiable circuits, which have unique roles in organizing task-relevant processing in the hippocampus. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09849.001 PMID:26751780

  5. Melatonin is rhythmic in newborn seals exposed to continuous light.

    PubMed

    Aarseth, J J; Van't Hof, T J; Stokkan, K-A

    2003-02-01

    We have investigated the effect of continuous light and darkness on plasma levels of melatonin in relation to the extremely large and active pineal gland typically found in newborn seals. Plasma levels of melatonin in captive newborn harp (Phoca groenlandica) and hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) were generally extremely high, with peak concentrations ranging from 0.8 ng/ml to 62.3 ng/ml. Moreover, plasma melatonin showed a similar, pronounced rhythmicity, both outdoors under natural light conditions (hooded seal only) and indoors under either 30 h of continuous light (490 lux) or 30 h of darkness (0 lux). In all animals, the melatonin rhythm was closely associated with the outdoor light-dark cycle. We suggest that the melatonin rhythmicity in newborn seals is mainly under circadian control and that it originates by maternal influence in the foetus. Daytime plasma concentrations of melatonin were also measured in foetal hooded seals and their mothers. The foetal melatonin level was similar to daytime levels in newborns and was about five times higher than in their mothers, which indicates a significant flow of foetal melatonin to the mother. We speculate that the large pineal gland and high melatonin levels in the newborn seals are temporary consequences of a foetal strategy to affect the maternal blood supply during diving. PMID:12592441

  6. Effect of rhythmic photostimulation on monkeys with hyperkinesis of post-encephalitic genesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilov, I. V.; Kudrayatseva, N. N.

    1979-01-01

    In hyperkinetic monkeys a response opposite to that of healthy monkeys was observed during rhythmic photostimulation (frequency 3, 9, 18, 20, and 25/sec), i.e., the hyperkinesis disappeared. The significance of rhythmic excitatory cycles for interconnections between different brain structures is discussed.

  7. Dietary Habits and Physical Self-Concept of Elite Rhythmic Gymnasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boros, Szilvia

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To identify main differences in nutrient patterns, food preferences and physical self-concept between the world's elite rhythmic gymnasts and untrained controls. Material and methods: A group of elite rhythmic gymnasts (n = 103) aged 15-21 years volunteered to participate in the study during the 2003 World Championships in Rhythmic…

  8. Strength Recovery Following Rhythmic or Sustained Exercise as a Function of Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Jay T.

    The relative rates of strength recovery subsequent to bouts of rhythmic or sustained isometric exercise were investigated. The 72 undergraduates who served as subjects were tested seven times within the framework of a repeated measures design. Each testing session involved two bouts of either rhythmic or sustained isometric exercise separated by a…

  9. Movement in Steady Beat: Learning on the Move, Ages 3-7. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weikart, Phyllis S.

    The ability to feel and maintain steady, rhythmic beat is important for children to develop in early childhood and will assist them in mastering concepts in language and literacy, mathematics, and other content areas as well as increase body coordination and related physical abilities. Designed as an activity supplement to High Scope movement and…

  10. Identification of rhythmic subsystems in the circadian cycle of crassulacean acid metabolism under thermoperiodic perturbations.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Andreas; Hinderlich, Sven; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten; Kaiser, Friedemann; Lüttge, Ulrich

    2003-05-01

    Leaves of the Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant Kalanchoë daigremontiana Hamet et Perrier de la Bâthie show overt circadian rhythms in net CO2 uptake, leaf conductance to water and intercellular CO2 concentration, which are entrained by periodic temperature cycles. To probe their sensitivity to thermoperiodic perturbations, intact leaves were exposed to continuous light intensity and temperature cycles with a period of 16 h, applying a set of different baseline temperatures and thermodriver amplitudes. All three overt rhythms were analyzed with respect to their frequency spectra and their phase relations with the thermodriver. For most stimulation protocols, stomatal conductance and net CO2 change were fully or partially entrained by the temperature pulses, while the internal CO2 concentration remained dominated by oscillations in the circadian range. Prolonged time series recorded for up to 22 d in continuous light underline the robustness of these circadian oscillations. This suggests that the overt circadian rhythm of net CO2 uptake in CAM results from the interaction of two coupled original systems: (i) an endogenous cycle of CO2 fixation in the mesophyll, showing very robust periodic activity, and (ii) stomatal movements that respond to environmental stimuli independently of rhythmic processes in the mesophyll, and thus modulate the gas exchange amplitude. PMID:12817468

  11. Mixed control for perception and action: timing and error correction in rhythmic ball-bouncing.

    PubMed

    Siegler, I A; Bazile, C; Warren, W H

    2013-05-01

    The task of bouncing a ball on a racket was adopted as a model system for investigating the behavioral dynamics of rhythmic movement, specifically how perceptual information modulates the dynamics of action. Two experiments, with sixteen participants each, were carried out to definitively answer the following questions: How are passive stability and active stabilization combined to produce stable behavior? What informational quantities are used to actively regulate the two main components of the action-the timing of racket oscillation and the correction of errors in bounce height? We used a virtual ball-bouncing setup to simultaneously perturb gravity (g) and ball launch velocity (v b) at impact. In Experiment 1, we tested the control of racket timing by varying the ball's upward half-period t up while holding its peak height h p constant. Conversely, in Experiment 2, we tested error correction by varying h p while holding t up constant. Participants adopted a mixed control mode in which information in the ball's trajectory is used to actively stabilize behavior on a cycle-by-cycle basis, in order to keep the system within or near the passively stable region. The results reveal how these adjustments are visually controlled: the period of racket oscillation is modulated by the half-period of the ball's upward flight, and the change in racket velocity from the previous impact (via a change in racket amplitude) is governed by the error to the target. PMID:23515627

  12. A repertoire of rhythmic bursting produced by hypoglossal motoneurons in physiological and pathological conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cifra, Alessandra; Nani, Francesca; Sharifullina, Elina; Nistri, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    The brainstem nucleus hypoglossus contains motoneurons that provide the exclusive motor nerve supply to the tongue. In addition to voluntary tongue movements, tongue muscles rhythmically contract during a wide range of physiological activities, such as respiration, swallowing, chewing and sucking. Hypoglossal motoneurons are destroyed early in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease often associated with a deficit in the transport system of the neurotransmitter glutamate. The present study shows how periodic electrical discharges of motoneurons are mainly produced by a neuronal network that drives them into bursting mode via glutamatergic excitatory synapses. Burst activity is, however, modulated by the intrinsic properties of motoneurons that collectively synchronize their discharges via gap junctions to create ‘group bursters’. When glial uptake of glutamate is blocked, a distinct form of pathological bursting spontaneously emerges and leads to motoneuron death. Conversely, H2O2-induced oxidative stress strongly increases motoneuron excitability without eliciting bursting. Riluzole (the only drug currently licensed for the treatment of ALS) suppresses bursting of hypoglossal motoneurons caused by blockage of glutamate uptake and limits motoneuron death. These findings highlight how different patterns of electrical oscillations of brainstem motoneurons underpin not only certain physiological activities, but also motoneuron death induced by glutamate transporter impairment. PMID:19651651

  13. Biomechanics of the vibrissa motor plant in rat: rhythmic whisking consists of triphasic neuromuscular activity.

    PubMed

    Hill, Dan N; Bermejo, Roberto; Zeigler, H Philip; Kleinfeld, David

    2008-03-26

    The biomechanics of a motor plant constrain the behavioral strategies that an animal has available to extract information from its environment. We used the rat vibrissa system as a model for active sensing and determined the pattern of muscle activity that drives rhythmic exploratory whisking. Our approach made use of electromyography to measure the activation of all relevant muscles in both head-fixed and unrestrained rats and two-dimensional imaging to monitor the position of the vibrissae in head-fixed rats. Our essential finding is that the periodic motion of the vibrissae and mystacial pad during whisking results from three phases of muscle activity. First, the vibrissae are thrust forward as the rostral extrinsic muscle, musculus (m.) nasalis, contracts to pull the pad and initiate protraction. Second, late in protraction, the intrinsic muscles pivot the vibrissae farther forward. Third, retraction involves the cessation of m. nasalis and intrinsic muscle activity and the contraction of the caudal extrinsic muscles m. nasolabialis and m. maxillolabialis to pull the pad and the vibrissae backward. We developed a biomechanical model of the whisking motor plant that incorporates the measured muscular mechanics along with movement vectors observed from direct muscle stimulation in anesthetized rats. The results of simulations of the model quantify how the combination of extrinsic and intrinsic muscle activity leads to an enhanced range of vibrissa motion than would be available from the intrinsic muscles alone. PMID:18367610

  14. Early olfactory-induced rhythmic limb activity in the newborn rat.

    PubMed

    Fady, J C; Jamon, M; Clarac, F

    1998-06-15

    Locomotor-like rhythmic movements without postural constraints were elicited in newborn rats aged from a few hours to five days, using an olfactory stimulus provided by bedding materials. The rats were held in a sling with the front and the hind legs hanging on each side. The step frequency increased between postnatal days 0 and 4 (P0-P4); the step period was around 1 s at P0 and decreased during the following days. This decrease was larger in the forelimbs (650 ms at P4) than in the hindlimbs (750 ms at P4) and was mainly due to a decrease in stance duration. Both ipsilateral and contralateral legs moved in an alternating pattern. Analysis of the regulation of this pattern when a 1:1 or a 1:2 inter-leg coordination (with double steps) occurred showed that both anterior and posterior locomotion pattern generators were coupled very early. Results are discussed in relation to the locomotor activities studied at this early stage of life in other behavioral situations (swimming and air stepping), and in relation to fictive locomotion induced in vitro. PMID:9693789

  15. Effect of rhythmic auditory stimulation on gait performance in children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Eunmi Emily

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation (RAS) for children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) in a clinical setting in order to determine its effectiveness in gait training for ambulation. RAS has been shown to improve gait performance in patients with significant gait deficits. All 25 participants (6 to 20 years old) had spastic CP and were ambulatory, but needed to stabilize and gain more coordinated movement. Participants were placed in three groups: the control group, the therapist-guided training (TGT) group, and the self-guided training (SGT) group. The TGT group showed a statistically significant difference in stride length, velocity, and symmetry. The analysis of the results in SGT group suggests that the self-guided training might not be as effective as therapist-guided depending on motivation level. The results of this study support three conclusions: (a) RAS does influence gait performance of people with CP; (b) individual characteristics, such as cognitive functioning, support of parents, and physical ability play an important role in designing a training application, the effectiveness of RAS, and expected benefits from the training; and (c) velocity and stride length can be improved by enhancing balance, trajectory, and kinematic stability without increasing cadence. PMID:17645385

  16. Mechanisms underlying rhythmic locomotion: body–fluid interaction in undulatory swimming

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J.; Friesen, W. O.; Iwasaki, T.

    2011-01-01

    Swimming of fish and other animals results from interactions of rhythmic body movements with the surrounding fluid. This paper develops a model for the body–fluid interaction in undulatory swimming of leeches, where the body is represented by a chain of rigid links and the hydrodynamic force model is based on resistive and reactive force theories. The drag and added-mass coefficients for the fluid force model were determined from experimental data of kinematic variables during intact swimming, measured through video recording and image processing. Parameter optimizations to minimize errors in simulated model behaviors revealed that the resistive force is dominant, and a simple static function of relative velocity captures the essence of hydrodynamic forces acting on the body. The model thus developed, together with the experimental kinematic data, allows us to investigate temporal and spatial (along the body) distributions of muscle actuation, body curvature, hydrodynamic thrust and drag, muscle power supply and energy dissipation into the fluid. We have found that: (1) thrust is generated continuously along the body with increasing magnitude toward the tail, (2) drag is nearly constant along the body, (3) muscle actuation waves travel two or three times faster than the body curvature waves and (4) energy for swimming is supplied primarily by the mid-body muscles, transmitted through the body in the form of elastic energy, and dissipated into the water near the tail. PMID:21270304

  17. Uncovering beat deafness: detecting rhythm disorders with synchronized finger tapping and perceptual timing tasks.

    PubMed

    Dalla Bella, Simone; Sowiński, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    A set of behavioral tasks for assessing perceptual and sensorimotor timing abilities in the general population (i.e., non-musicians) is presented here with the goal of uncovering rhythm disorders, such as beat deafness. Beat deafness is characterized by poor performance in perceiving durations in auditory rhythmic patterns or poor synchronization of movement with auditory rhythms (e.g., with musical beats). These tasks include the synchronization of finger tapping to the beat of simple and complex auditory stimuli and the detection of rhythmic irregularities (anisochrony detection task) embedded in the same stimuli. These tests, which are easy to administer, include an assessment of both perceptual and sensorimotor timing abilities under different conditions (e.g., beat rates and types of auditory material) and are based on the same auditory stimuli, ranging from a simple metronome to a complex musical excerpt. The analysis of synchronized tapping data is performed with circular statistics, which provide reliable measures of synchronization accuracy (e.g., the difference between the timing of the taps and the timing of the pacing stimuli) and consistency. Circular statistics on tapping data are particularly well-suited for detecting individual differences in the general population. Synchronized tapping and anisochrony detection are sensitive measures for identifying profiles of rhythm disorders and have been used with success to uncover cases of poor synchronization with spared perceptual timing. This systematic assessment of perceptual and sensorimotor timing can be extended to populations of patients with brain damage, neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Parkinson's disease), and developmental disorders (e.g., Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder). PMID:25867797

  18. Rhythmical Photic Stimulation at Alpha Frequencies Produces Antidepressant-Like Effects in a Mouse Model of Depression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shinheun; Kim, Sangwoo; Khalid, Arshi; Jeong, Yong; Jeong, Bumseok; Lee, Soon-Tae; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Chu, Kon; Lee, Sang Kun; Jeon, Daejong

    2016-01-01

    Current therapies for depression consist primarily of pharmacological agents, including antidepressants, and/or psychiatric counseling, such as psychotherapy. However, light therapy has recently begun to be considered as an effective tool for the treatment of the neuropsychiatric behaviors and symptoms of a variety of brain disorders or diseases, including depression. One methodology employed in light therapy involves flickering photic stimulation within a specific frequency range. The present study investigated whether flickering and flashing photic stimulation with light emitting diodes (LEDs) could improve depression-like behaviors in a corticosterone (CORT)-induced mouse model of depression. Additionally, the effects of the flickering and flashing lights on depressive behavior were compared with those of fluoxetine. Rhythmical flickering photic stimulation at alpha frequencies from 9-11 Hz clearly improved performance on behavioral tasks assessing anxiety, locomotor activity, social interaction, and despair. In contrast, fluoxetine treatment did not strongly improve behavioral performance during the same period compared with flickering photic stimulation. The present findings demonstrated that LED-derived flickering photic stimulation more rapidly improved behavioral outcomes in a CORT-induced mouse model of depression compared with fluoxetine. Thus, the present study suggests that rhythmical photic stimulation at alpha frequencies may aid in the improvement of the quality of life of patients with depression. PMID:26727023

  19. Rhythmical Photic Stimulation at Alpha Frequencies Produces Antidepressant-Like Effects in a Mouse Model of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shinheun; Kim, Sangwoo; Khalid, Arshi; Jeong, Yong; Jeong, Bumseok; Lee, Soon-Tae; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Chu, Kon; Lee, Sang Kun; Jeon, Daejong

    2016-01-01

    Current therapies for depression consist primarily of pharmacological agents, including antidepressants, and/or psychiatric counseling, such as psychotherapy. However, light therapy has recently begun to be considered as an effective tool for the treatment of the neuropsychiatric behaviors and symptoms of a variety of brain disorders or diseases, including depression. One methodology employed in light therapy involves flickering photic stimulation within a specific frequency range. The present study investigated whether flickering and flashing photic stimulation with light emitting diodes (LEDs) could improve depression-like behaviors in a corticosterone (CORT)-induced mouse model of depression. Additionally, the effects of the flickering and flashing lights on depressive behavior were compared with those of fluoxetine. Rhythmical flickering photic stimulation at alpha frequencies from 9–11 Hz clearly improved performance on behavioral tasks assessing anxiety, locomotor activity, social interaction, and despair. In contrast, fluoxetine treatment did not strongly improve behavioral performance during the same period compared with flickering photic stimulation. The present findings demonstrated that LED-derived flickering photic stimulation more rapidly improved behavioral outcomes in a CORT-induced mouse model of depression compared with fluoxetine. Thus, the present study suggests that rhythmical photic stimulation at alpha frequencies may aid in the improvement of the quality of life of patients with depression. PMID:26727023

  20. HIV Tat protein affects circadian rhythmicity by interfering with the circadian system

    PubMed Central

    Wang, T; Jiang, Z; Hou, W; Li, Z; Cheng, S; Green, LA; Wang, Y; Wen, X; Cai, L; Clauss, M; Wang, Z

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Sleep disorders are common in patients with HIV/AIDS, and can lead to poor quality of life. Although many studies have investigated the aetiology of these disorders, it is still unclear whether impaired sleep quality is associated with HIV itself, social problems, or side effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Moreover, despite its known neurological associations, little is known about the role of the trans-activator of transcription (Tat) protein in sleep disorders in patients with HIV/AIDS. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the sleep quality of patients with HIV/AIDS affected by an altered circadian rhythm correlates with cerebrospinal HIV Tat protein concentration. Methods Ninety-six patients with HIV/AIDS between 20 and 69 years old completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Their circadian rhythm parameters of blood pressure, Tat concentration in cerebrospinal fluid, melatonin concentration, CD4 cell count and HIV RNA viral load in serum were measured. Results The circadian amplitude of systolic blood pressure and the score for sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) were negatively correlated with HIV Tat protein concentration, while the melatonin value was positively correlated with Tat protein concentration. Conclusions The HIV Tat protein affects circadian rhythmicity by interfering with the circadian system in patients with HIV/AIDS and further increases the melatonin excretion value. A Tat protein-related high melatonin value may counteract HIV-related poor sleep quality during the progression of HIV infection. This study provides the first clinical evidence offering an explanation for why sleep quality did not show an association with progression of HIV infection in previous studies. PMID:24750691