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Sample records for ri beam production

  1. Production of drip-line nuclei at RIKEN RI Beam Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Atsumi

    2014-09-01

    Production cross-sections and secondary-beam yields of very neutron rich nuclei near neutron drip-line at 200--250 MeV/u have been investigated at RIKEN RI Beam Factory (RIBF). RIBF is the next generation RI beam facility, which can produce a variety of exotic nuclei with high intensity. The measurement of production yields of 19B, 22C, which are located on the neutron drip-line, and neighboring isotopes was made on the occasion of the Coulomb and nuclear breakup experiments of these halo nuclei at SAMURAI (Superconducting Analyzer for MUlti-particle from RAdioIsotope beams) facility at RIBF. We used 345 MeV/u 48Ca beam as primary beam, which impinged on 30 mm-thick Be target, to obtain secondary beams by projectile fragmentation. The projectile fragments were then separated through Superconducting RI beam separator BigRIPS, and were identified by measuring time of flight (TOF), energy loss (ΔE), and magnetic rigidity (Bρ) by the standard detectors at 2nd stage of BigRIPS. We thus obtained production cross-sections and yields of carbon and boron isotopes. The production cross-sections and yields extracted were compared with the simulation code LISE using EPAX. We discuss these results and comparisons in this poster presentation.

  2. Cryogenic gas target system for intense RI beam productions in nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Wakabayashi, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Hayakawa, S.; Kurihara, Y.; Amadio, G.; Fujikawa, H.; Kubono, S.; Binh, D. N.; He, J. J.; Kim, A.

    2008-05-21

    A cryogenic gas target system was newly developed to produce intense RI beams at the low-energy in-flight radio-isotope beam separator (CRIB) of the University of Tokyo. The main features of the cryogenic gas target system are the direct cooling of the target cell by a liquid N{sub 2} finger and the circulation of the target gas that goes through the liquid N{sub 2} tank. Hydrogen gas was cooled down to 85-90 K by liquid nitrogen and used as a secondary beam production target which has a thickness of 2.3 mg/cm{sup 2} at the gas pressure of 760 Torr. Intense RI beams, such as a {sup 7}Be beam of 2x10{sup 8} particles per second, were successfully produced using the target.

  3. A gas circulation and purification system for gas-cell-based low-energy RI-beam production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonoda, T.; Tsubota, T.; Wada, M.; Katayama, I.; Kojima, T. M.; Reponen, M.

    2016-06-01

    A gas circulation and purification system was developed at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory that can be used for gas-cell-based low-energy RI-beam production. A high-flow-rate gas cell filled with one atmosphere of buffer gas (argon or helium) is used for the deceleration and thermalization of high-energy RI-beams. The exhausted buffer gas is efficiently collected using a compact dry pump and returned to the gas cell with a recovery efficiency of >97%. The buffer gas is efficiently purified using two gas purifiers as well as collision cleaning, which eliminates impurities in the gas. An impurity level of one part per billion is achieved with this method.

  4. A gas circulation and purification system for gas-cell-based low-energy RI-beam production.

    PubMed

    Sonoda, T; Tsubota, T; Wada, M; Katayama, I; Kojima, T M; Reponen, M

    2016-06-01

    A gas circulation and purification system was developed at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory that can be used for gas-cell-based low-energy RI-beam production. A high-flow-rate gas cell filled with one atmosphere of buffer gas (argon or helium) is used for the deceleration and thermalization of high-energy RI-beams. The exhausted buffer gas is efficiently collected using a compact dry pump and returned to the gas cell with a recovery efficiency of >97%. The buffer gas is efficiently purified using two gas purifiers as well as collision cleaning, which eliminates impurities in the gas. An impurity level of one part per billion is achieved with this method. PMID:27370494

  5. Riken RI Beam Factory, Harvest Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    En'yo, H.

    2015-06-01

    At RIKEN RI Beam Factory (RIBF), having all the experimental facilities in place, the uranium-beam intensity recorded 25pnA in 2014. With use of this powerful beam many experiments are begin performed by variety of researchers from all over the world, producing a lot of new data which were just a dream in several years ago. Recent status of RIKEN RI Beam Factory (RIBF) is presented with future prospects in science and an accelerator plan.

  6. Study on astrophysical reactions using low-energy RI beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hidetoshi

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, low-energy RI beams can be produced in a good intensity and they have been used for studying many astrophysical reactions. One of the facilities producing low-energy RI beams is CRIB (CNS Radio-Isotope Beam separator) [1,2], an RI-beam separator of Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo. Taking CRIB as an example, recent improvements on the RI-beam production and experimental results on astrophysical studies are presented. Several experimental approaches have been taken for the studies on astrophysical reactions.The feature of each method are discussed based on real measurements performed at CRIB. One is the direct method, applied for measurements of reactions such as (α,p) [3]. Another is the measurement of proton/alpha resonance scattering using the thick target method in inverse kinematics, by which we can obtain information on the resonances relevant in astrophysical reactions [4,5]. A recent fruitful result was from a measurement of proton resonance scattering using a ^7Be beam [5]. The energy level structure of ^8B, revealed by the experiment, is especially of interest as it is related with the ^7Be(p,γ) ^8B reaction, responsible for the production of ^8B neutrinos in the sun. We successfully determined parameters of resonances in ^8B below 6.7 MeV, which may affect the ^7Be(p,γ)^8B reaction rate at the solar temparature. Indirect methods, such as ANC and the Trojan Horse Method, were also used in some of the measurements.[4pt] [1] S. Kubono et al., Eur. Phys. J. A13 (2002) 217.[0pt] [2] Y. Yanagisawa et al., Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res., Sect. A 539 (2005) 74.[0pt] [3] M. Notani et al., Nucl. Phys. A 764 (2004) 113c.[0pt] [4] T. Teranishi et al., Phys. Lett. B 650 (2007) 129.[0pt] [5] H. Yamaguchi et al., Phys. Lett. B 672 (2009) 230.

  7. Spin-Isospin responses via charge exchange reactions of RI beams at SHARAQ

    SciTech Connect

    Shimoura, Susumu

    2012-11-12

    Nuclear spectroscopy via direct reactions of RI beams is discussed focusing on characteristics of charge-exchange reactions of RI beams. Recent experiments using the SHARAQ spectrometer at the RIBF are presented, where isovector spin monopole and spin-non-flip monopole responses are studied by charge exchange reaction of RI beams. Some experimental plans and perspectives are also presented.

  8. A universal slow RI-beam facility at RIKEN RIBF

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, M.; Ishida, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Lioubimov, V.; Kambara, T.; Kanai, Y.; Kojima, T. M.; Nakai, Y.; Okada, K.; Takamine, A.; Yamazaki, Y.; Shiba, S.; Yoshida, A.; Kubo, T.; Ohtani, S.; Noda, K.; Katayama, I.; Varentsov, V.; Wollnik, H.; Schuessler, H. A.

    2006-11-02

    A next-generation slow radioactive nuclear ion beam facility (SLOWRI) which provides slow, high-purity and small emittance ion beams of all elements has been proposed as one of the pricipal experimental facilities at the RIKEN RI-beam factory (RIBF). High energy radioactive ion beams from the projectile fragment separator BigRIPS are thermalized in a large gas catcher cell. The thermal ions in the gas cell are guided and extracted to vacuum by a combination of DC electric fields and inhomogeneous rf fields in the cell (rf ion guide). In the R and D works at the present RIKEN facility, an overall efficiency of {approx_equal} 5% for {approx_equal} 100A MeV 8Li ion beam from the present projectile fragment separator RIPS was achieved and the dependence of the efficiency on the beam intensity was investigated. A first spectroscopy experiment at the prototype SLOWI was performed on Be isotopes.

  9. Nuclear Astrophysical studies using low-energy RI beams at CRIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Hayakawa, S.; Binh, D. N.; Kahl, D.; Kurihara, Y.; Kubono, S.; Teranishi, T.; He, J. J.; Kwon, Y. K.; Nishimura, S.; Togano, Y.; Iwasa, N.; Niikura, M.; Khiem, L. H.

    2009-05-01

    CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator) is a low-energy RI beam separator at the Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) of the University of Tokyo, used for various studies covering nuclear-astrophysical topics. An application of the RI beam at CRIB for the astrophysical studies is a new measurement of the proton resonance scattering on 7Be. The measurement was performed up to the excitation energy of 6.8 MeV, ans the excitation function above 3.5 MeV was successfully measured for the first time, providing important information about the reaction rate of 7Be(p,γ)8B, which is the key reaction in the solar 8B neutrino production. A preliminary result of the 7Be+p experiment is presented.

  10. Nuclear Astrophysical studies using low-energy RI beams at CRIB

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, H.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Hayakawa, S.; Binh, D. N.; Kahl, D.; Kurihara, Y.; Kubono, S.; Niikura, M.; Teranishi, T.; He, J. J.; Kwon, Y. K.; Nishimura, S.; Togano, Y.; Iwasa, N.; Khiem, L. H.

    2009-05-04

    CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator) is a low-energy RI beam separator at the Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) of the University of Tokyo, used for various studies covering nuclear-astrophysical topics. An application of the RI beam at CRIB for the astrophysical studies is a new measurement of the proton resonance scattering on {sup 7}Be. The measurement was performed up to the excitation energy of 6.8 MeV, ans the excitation function above 3.5 MeV was successfully measured for the first time, providing important information about the reaction rate of {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B, which is the key reaction in the solar {sup 8}B neutrino production. A preliminary result of the {sup 7}Be+p experiment is presented.

  11. Studying astrophysical reactions with low-energy RI beams at CRIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D.; Hayakawa, S.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Hashimoto, T.; Cherubini, S.; Gulino, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Rapisarda, G. G.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Romano, S.; Kubono, S.; Iwasa, N.; Teranishi, T.; Kawabata, T.; Kwon, Y. K.; Binh, D. N.; Khiem, L. H.; Duy, N. N.; Kato, S.; Komatsubara, T.; Coc, A.; De Sereville, N.; Hammache, F.; Kiss, G.; Bishop, S.

    2016-05-01

    Studies on nuclear astrophysics, nuclear structure, and other interests have been performed using the radioactive-isotope (RI) beams at the low-energy RI beam separator CRIB, operated by Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), the University of Tokyo. A typical measurement performed at CRIB is the elastic resonant scattering with the inverse kinematics. One recent experiment was on the α resonant scattering with 7Li and 7Be beams. This study is related to the astrophysical 7Li/7Be(α,γ) reactions, important at hot p-p chain and νp-process in supernovae. There have also been measurements based on other experimental methods. The first THM measurement using an RI beam has been performed at CRIB, to study the 18F(p, α)15O reaction at astrophysical energies via the three body reaction 2H(18F, α15O)n. The 18F(p, α) 15O reaction rate is crucial to understand the 511-keV γ-ray production in nova explosion phenomena, and we successfully evaluated the reaction cross section at novae temperature and below experimentally for the first time.

  12. Experimental studies using a low-energy RI beam separator at CNS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teranishi, T.; Kubono, S.; Shimoura, S.; Notani, M.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Michimasa, S.; Ue, K.; Iwasaki, H.; Kurokawa, M.; Satou, Y.; Morikawa, T.; Saito, A.; Baba, H.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, C. S.; Fülöp, Zs.; Kato, S.

    2003-05-01

    Radioactive-ion (RI) beams of 10C, 14O, 12N and 11C with energies low 10 A MeV were produced by using a low-energy in-flight RI beam separator newly constructed by CNS, University of Tokyo. Using the 12N and 11C beams, some resonance states were identified in the proton elastic scattering 12N+p and 11C+p, respectively.

  13. Nuclear Astrophysics and Structure Studies Using Low-energy RI Beams at CRIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Hashimoto, T.; Hayakawa, S.; Binh, D. N.; Kahl, D.; Kubono, S.

    2010-05-01

    CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator) is a low-energy RI beam separator at the Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) of the University of Tokyo. Using the RI beams at CRIB, Many measurements on proton and alpha resonance scatterings, (α,p) reactions, and others were peformed in recent years, mainly for studying astrophysical reactions and exotic nuclear structure. Among them, the results on the 7Be+p and 7Li+α resonance scatterings are presented.

  14. Nuclear clusters studied with alpha resonant scatterings using RI beams at CRIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D.; Nakao, T.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Hashimoto, T.; Hayakawa, S.; Kawabata, T.; Teranishi, T.; Kwon, Y. K.; Binh, D. N.; Khiem, L. H.; Duy, N. N.; Kubono, S.; Suhara, T.; Kanada-En'yo, Y.; Moon, J. Y.; Kim, A.; Iwasa, N.; Lee, P. S.; Chae, K. Y.; Cha, S. M.; Gwak, M. S.; Kim, D. H.; Milman, E.

    2014-12-01

    Alpha resonant scattering is a simple and promising method to study α-cluster structure in nuclei. It has several good features which enable us to perform measurements with short-lived and relatively low-intense RI beams. Several measurements on alpha resonant scattering have been carried out at CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator), which is a low-energy RI beam separator at Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) of the University of Tokyo. Recent α resonant scattering studies at CRIB, using 7Li, 7Be and 10Be beams with a helium gas target, are discussed.

  15. Alpha-induced reaction studies using low-energy RI beams at CRIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D.; Hu, J.; Kubono, S.; Hayakawa, S.; Hashimoto, T.

    2012-11-01

    CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator) is a low-energy RI beam separator at the Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) of the University of Tokyo. Studies on proton and alpha resonance scatterings, (α, p) reactions, and other types of measurements (β-decay lifetimes etc.) have been performed using RI beams at CRIB, motivated by interests on astrophysical reactions and exotic nuclear structure. Among the studies at CRIB, the measurement of 7Li+α/7Be+α resonant scatterings are presented.

  16. Alpha-induced reaction studies using low-energy RI beams at CRIB

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D.; Hu, J.; Kubono, S.; Hayakawa, S.; Hashimoto, T.

    2012-11-12

    CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator) is a low-energy RI beam separator at the Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) of the University of Tokyo. Studies on proton and alpha resonance scatterings, ({alpha}, p) reactions, and other types of measurements ({beta}-decay lifetimes etc.) have been performed using RI beams at CRIB, motivated by interests on astrophysical reactions and exotic nuclear structure. Among the studies at CRIB, the measurement of {sup 7}Li+{alpha}/{sup 7}Be+{alpha} resonant scatterings are presented.

  17. Construction of the SCRIT electron scattering facility at the RIKEN RI Beam Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakasugi, M.; Ohnishi, T.; Wang, S.; Miyashita, Y.; Adachi, T.; Amagai, T.; Enokizono, A.; Enomoto, A.; Haraguchi, Y.; Hara, M.; Hori, T.; Ichikawa, S.; Kikuchi, T.; Kitazawa, R.; Koizumi, K.; Kurita, K.; Miyamoto, T.; Ogawara, R.; Shimakura, Y.; Takehara, H.; Tamae, T.; Tamaki, S.; Togasaki, M.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yanagi, K.; Suda, T.

    2013-12-01

    The SCRIT electron scattering facility, aiming at electron scattering off short-lived unstable nuclei, has been constructed at the RIKEN RI Beam Factory. This facility consists of a racetrack microtron (RTM), an electron storage ring (SR2) equipped with the SCRIT system, and a low-energy RI separator (ERIS). SCRIT (self-confining radioactive isotope ion targeting) is a novel technique to form internal targets in an electron storage ring. Experiments for evaluating performance of the SCRIT system have been carried out using the stable 133Cs1+ beam and the 132Xe1+ beam supplied from ERIS. Target ions were successfully trapped in the SCRIT system with 90% efficiency at a 250 mA electron beam current, and luminosity exceeding 1026/(cm2 s) was maintained for more than 1 s. Electrons elastically scattered from the target ions were successfully measured. Applicability of the SCRIT system to electron scattering for unstable nuclei has been established in experiments.

  18. Restoration of RI-beams from a projectile fragment separator by Laser Ionization gas Catcher-PALIS-

    SciTech Connect

    Sonoda, T.; Takamine, A.; Schury, P.; Yamazaki, Y.; Wada, M.; Okada, K.; Yoshida, A.; Kubo, T.; Matsuo, Y.; Furukawa, T.; Wakui, T.; Shinozuka, T.; Iimura, H.; Katayama, I.; Ohtani, S.; Wollnik, H.; Schuessler, H. A.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Van Duppen, P.; Huyse, M.

    2009-03-17

    A fragment separator at heavy ion accelerator facilities is a versatile instrument to provide wide variety of radioactive isotope (RI) beams. However, more than 99.99% of precious RI-ions are simply dumped in the slits or elsewhere in the fragment separator. A novel concept to restore such RI-ions for parasitic slow RI-beams is proposed. Installation of a laser ionization gas catcher in the vicinity of the first or second focal point of the fragment separator enables to collect dead isotopes in the slits. The design concept and expected performance are discussed.

  19. SUPERCONDUCTING RING CYCLOTRON FOR RIKEN RI BEAM FACTORY IN JAPAN

    SciTech Connect

    Okuno, H.; Dantsuka, T.; Yamada, K.; Kase, M.; Maie, T.; Kamigaito, O.

    2010-04-09

    Since 1997, RIKEN Nishina Center has been constructing the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory (RIBF) and succeeded in beam commissioning of its accelerator complex at the end of 2006. The world's first superconducting ring cyclotron (SRC) is the final booster in the RIBF accelerator complex which is able to accelerate all-element heavy ions to a speed of about 70% of the velocity of light. The ring cyclotron consists of 6 major superconducting sector magnets with a maximum field of 3.8 T. The total stored energy is 235 MJ, and its overall sizes are 19 m diameter, 8 m height and 8,300 tons. The magnet system assembly was completed in August 2005, and successfully reached the maximum field in November 2005. The first beam was extracted at the end of 2006 and the first uranium beam was extracted in March 2007. However operation of the helium refrigerator was not satisfactory although the commissioning of SRC was successful. Operation was stopped every two month due to degradation of its cooling power. In February 2008 the reason of the degradation was revealed to be oil contamination. Operation of the cryogenic system was restarted from August 2008 after hard task to clean up the helium refrigerator and to add oil separators to the compressor. After restoration long-term steady operation to keep the magnet superconducting continued for about 8 months with no sign of degradation of cooling capacity.

  20. Nuclear Astrophysics Programs with Low-Energy RI Beams at CRIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubono, S.; Binh, Dam N.; Hayakawa, S.; Hashimoto, T.; Kahl, D. M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Teranishi, T.; Iwasa, N.; Komatsubara, T.; Kato, S.; Khiem, Le H.

    2010-04-01

    Nuclear astrophysics activities with CNS RI beam separator (CRIB) are reported together with the present status of the CRIB facility which is supported by the AVF upgrade project for the total development of the low-energy RIB facility. The activities include direct and indirect measurements of stellar reactions especially relevant to explosive burning processes such as nova and supernovae. Some recent results are discussed together with a scope of the facility.

  1. Nuclear Astrophysics Programs with Low-Energy RI Beams at CRIB

    SciTech Connect

    Kubono, S.; Binh, Dam N.; Hayakawa, S.; Hashimoto, T.; Kahl, D. M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Teranishi, T.; Iwasa, N.; Komatsubara, T.; Kato, S.; Khiem, Le H.

    2010-04-30

    Nuclear astrophysics activities with CNS RI beam separator (CRIB) are reported together with the present status of the CRIB facility which is supported by the AVF upgrade project for the total development of the low-energy RIB facility. The activities include direct and indirect measurements of stellar reactions especially relevant to explosive burning processes such as nova and supernovae. Some recent results are discussed together with a scope of the facility.

  2. Experimental Approach to High-Temperature Stellar Reactions with Low-Energy RI Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubono, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Amadio, G.; Hayakawa, S.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Kurihara, Y.; He, J. J.; Saito, A.; Fujikawa, H.; Khiem, Le Hong; Niikura, M.; Teranishi, T.; Nishimura, S.; Kato, S.; Lee, C. S.; Kwon, Y. K.; Hahn, I. S.; Kim, A.

    2008-04-01

    The experimental efforts for the stellar reactions under high-temperature and high densities have been made as the major program using the RI beams from the CNS low-energy in-flight RI beam separator (CRIB) of University of Tokyo, in order to understand the evolution of the universe as well as various stellar phenomena. Specifically, two subjects of hydrogen burning are discussed here. One is a reaction study of the pp-chain and the second is of the explosive hydrogen burning, the rp-process. Some s-wave resonances have been identified by the thick target method in the crucial reaction processes in the hydrogen burning. The resonant scattering with the thick target method also succeeded in identifying inelastic resonant scattering, giving proton widths for the first excited state of the target nucleus. This provides very efficiently the reaction rate estimate for the process under high-temperature equilibrium condition. Possibilities of the CRIB facility in near future are also briefly discussed.

  3. Mass Measurement with Rare-RI Rin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Akira

    2014-09-01

    Mass measurement with Rare-RI Ring in RIKEN RI Beam Factory (RIBF) will be presented. The main purpose of Rare-RI Ring is to measure the mass for very neutron-rich nuclei, the production rate of which is very small (rare RI) and the life-time of which is predicted to be very short (less than 10 ms). In Rare-RI Ring, mass measurements will be performed based on isochronous mass spectrometry. There are two innovative apparatus in Rare-RI Ring: individual injection, which can realize the injection of 200 A MeV rare RI one-by-one, and a cyclotron-like storage ring, which allows high isochronous magnetic fields with large angular and momentum acceptances (~1%). By these apparatus, we will achieve a 10-6 mass resolution, and will be able to access rare RI, the production rate of which is down to 1 event/day/pnA in RIBF. Construction of Rare-RI Ring has started from the 2012 fiscal year. Construction of the storage ring itself was almost completed. In this fiscal year, we succeeded to store alphas from 241Am source and to check the production of isochronous fields in the storage ring. In this talk, present status of Rare-RI Ring and the possible mass measurement there will be presented.

  4. Performance of ion surfing rf-carpets for RI beam gas catcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Fumiya; Ito, Yuta; Katayama, Ichirou; Schury, Peter; Sonoda, Tetsu; Wada, Michiharu; Wollnik, Hermann

    2014-09-01

    High-energy RI beams produced in-flight by fragmentation or fission are used in ion trap-based precision experiments after being stopped in a gas catcher. The stopped ions can be extracted from the gas catcher as a low energy ion beam. In order to transport and extract ions quickly and efficiently, an rf-carpet (RFC) method utilizing a dc potential gradient has been the standard technique. However, such a method is restricted by the transport time to longer half-life isotopes due to the maximum dc gradient that can be supported before electric discharges occur in the gas catcher. To avoid that limitation, a hybrid technique wherein the dc gradient is replaced by a traveling potential wave was proposed, called ``ion surfing''. Recently, we have demonstrated ion extraction using a circular RFC under low and intermediate pressures. For the first time we demonstrated the ion extraction using an rf-carpet in high-pressure He gas. An efficiency of nearly 100% was obtained at 200 mbar He gas pressure for K+ ions.

  5. First test experiment to produce the slowed-down RI beam with the momentum-compression mode at RIBF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumikama, T.; Ahn, D. S.; Fukuda, N.; Inabe, N.; Kubo, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Takeda, H.; Aoi, N.; Beaumel, D.; Hasegawa, K.; Ideguchi, E.; Imai, N.; Kobayashi, T.; Matsushita, M.; Michimasa, S.; Otsu, H.; Shimoura, S.; Teranishi, T.

    2016-06-01

    The 82Ge beam has been produced by the in-flight fission reaction of the 238U primary beam with 345 MeV/u at the RIKEN RI beam factory, and slowed down to about 15 MeV/u using the energy degraders. The momentum-compression mode was applied to the second stage of the BigRIPS separator to reduce the momentum spread. The energy was successfully reduced down to 13 ± 2.5 MeV/u as expected. The focus was not optimized at the end of the second stage, therefore the beam size was larger than the expectation. The transmission of the second stage was half of the simulated value mainly due to out of focus. The two-stage separation worked very well for the slowed-down beam with the momentum-compression mode.

  6. Low-energy RI beam technology and nuclear clusters in the explosive pp-chain breakout process

    SciTech Connect

    Kubono, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D. M.; Ohshiro, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Yamazaki, N.; Teranishi, T.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Kase, M.; Hayakawa, S.; Kwon, Y. K.; Hashimoto, T.; Fukuda, Y.; He, J. J.; Goto, A.; Muto, H.

    2014-05-09

    The lecture includes two parts: One is a discussion on the technology for developing RIB beam facility based on the in-flight method and relevant experimental technology. The second part is a discussion on experimental efforts for studying the breakout process from the pp-chain region based on recent works with low energy RI beams. The discussion of the second part specifically covers the problem of the vp-process in type II supernovae in terms of alpha cluster nature for the reactions.

  7. Universal Slow RI-Beam Facility at RIKEN RIBF for Laser Spectroscopy of Short-Lived Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, M.; Takamine, A.; Okada, K.; Sonoda, T.; Schury, P.; Kanai, Y.; Kojima, T. M.; Lioubimov, V.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yoshida, A.; Kubo, T.; Iimura, H.; Katayama, I.; Ohtani, S.; Wollnik, H.; Schuessler, H. A.

    2009-03-17

    A universal slow RI-beam facility (SLOWRI) for precision atomic spectroscopy is being built at the RIKEN RI-beam factory. The facility will provide a wide variety of low-energy nuclear ions of all elements produced by projectile fragmentation of high-energy heavy-ion beams and thermalized by an RF-carpet ion guide. At prototype SLOWRI, radioactive Be isotope ions produced at 1 GeV were decelerated and cooled in an ion trap down to 1 {mu}eV by employing laser cooling. The ground state hyperfine structures of {sup 7}Be{sup +} and {sup 11}Be{sup +} were measured accurately by laser microwave double resonance spectroscopy. Measurements of the S{sub 1/2}{yields}P{sub 1/2}, P{sub 3/2} transition frequencies of {sup 7,9,10,11}Be{sup +} ions are also in progress aiming at the study of the nuclear charge radii. Other possible experiment at SLOWRI, such as mass spectroscopy, are also discussed.

  8. Notch signaling enhances FcεRI-mediated cytokine production by mast cells through direct and indirect mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Nobuhiro; Nishiyama, Chiharu; Yagita, Hideo; Hara, Mutsuko; Motomura, Yasutaka; Kubo, Masato; Okumura, Ko; Ogawa, Hideoki

    2015-05-01

    Th2-type cytokines and TNF-α secreted by activated mast cells upon cross-linking of FcεRI contribute to the development and maintenance of Th2 immunity to parasites and allergens. We have previously shown that cytokine secretion by mouse mast cells is enhanced by signaling through Notch receptors. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which Notch signaling enhances mast cell cytokine production induced by FcεRI cross-linking. FcεRI-mediated production of cytokines, particularly IL-4, was significantly enhanced in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells by priming with Notch ligands. Western blot analysis showed that Notch signaling augmented and prolonged FcεRI-mediated phosphorylation of MAPKs, mainly JNK and p38 MAPK, through suppression of the expression of SHIP-1, a master negative regulator of FcεRI signaling, resulting in the enhanced production of multiple cytokines. The enhancing effect of Notch ligand priming on multiple cytokine production was abolished by knockdown of Notch2, but not Notch1, and FcεRI-mediated production of multiple cytokines was enhanced by retroviral transduction with the intracellular domain of Notch2. However, only IL-4 production was enhanced by both Notch1 and Notch2. The enhancing effect of Notch signaling on IL-4 production was lost in bone marrow-derived mast cells from mice lacking conserved noncoding sequence 2, which is located at the distal 3' element of the Il4 gene locus and contains Notch effector RBP-J binding sites. These results indicate that Notch2 signaling indirectly enhances the FcεRI-mediated production of multiple cytokines, and both Notch1 and Notch2 signaling directly enhances IL-4 production through the noncoding sequence 2 enhancer of the Il4 gene. PMID:25821223

  9. Recent progress of in-flight separators and rare isotope beam production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Toshiyuki

    2016-06-01

    New-generation in-flight separators are being developed worldwide, including the Super-FRS separator at the GSI Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), the ARIS separator at the Michigan State University (MSU) Facility for Rare Isotopes Beams (FRIB), and the BigRIPS separator at the RIKEN RI Beam Factory (RIBF), each of which is aimed at expanding the frontiers of rare isotope (RI) production and advancing experimental studies on exotic nuclei far from stability. Here, the recent progress of in-flight separators is reviewed, focusing on the advanced features of these three representative separators. The RI beam production that we have conducted using the BigRIPS separator at RIKEN RIBF is also outlined.

  10. SIM.RI(I)-K3 comparison of calibration coefficients at radiotherapy level for orthovoltage x-ray beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, M.; McCaffrey, J.; Shen, H.; Saraví, M.; Stefanic, A.; Montaño Ortiz, G.; Carlos, M.; da Silva, C.; Álvarez, J.; Tovar, V.

    2015-01-01

    Air-kerma calibration coefficients were compared at the radiotherapy level for orthovoltage x ray beams in the SIM.RI(I)-K3 comparison for members of the Sistema Interamericano de Metrología (SIM). Five SIM laboratories participated in the comparison: NIST, NRC, ININ, CNEA and LNMRI, the NIST being the pilot laboratory. Results from the comparison are linked to the BIPM.RI(I)-K3 key comparison reference value through the NIST-BIPM comparison made in 2003 and will meet requirements of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA) to support several CMCs (calibration and measurement capability claims) of the participants. The comparison began in October of 2007 and the measurements were completed in September 2008. The results reveal the degree to which the participating calibration facility can demonstrate proficiency in transferring air-kerma calibrations under the conditions of the said facility at the time of the measurements. The evaluation of the degrees of equivalence was performed as described in the comparison protocol. The comparison of the calibration coefficients for the four chambers is based on the average ratios of the calibration coefficients measured at the NIST and at each participating laboratory. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  11. Status of Beam Line Detectors for the BigRIPS Fragment Separator at RIKEN RI Beam Factory: Issues on High Rates and Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Yuki; Fukuda, Naoki; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Kameda, Daisuke; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Yohei; Ahn, DeukSoon; Murai, Daichi; Inabe, Naohito; Shimaoka, Takehiro; Tsubota, Masakatsu; Kaneko, Junichi H.; Chayahara, Akiyoshi; Umezawa, Hitoshi; Shikata, Shinichi; Kumagai, Hidekazu; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Sato, Hiromi; Yoshida, Koichi; Kubo, Toshiyuki

    A multiple sampling ionization chamber (MUSIC) and parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPACs) were installed within the superconducting in-flight separator, named BigRIPS, at the RIKEN Nishina Center for particle identification of RI beams. The MUSIC detector showed negligible charge collection inefficiency from recombination of electrons and ions, up to a 99-kcps incidence rate for high-energy heavy ions. For the PPAC detectors, the electrical discharge durability for incident heavy ions was improved by changing the electrode material. Finally, we designed a single crystal diamond detector, which is under development for TOF measurements of high-energy heavy ions, that has a very fast response time (pulse width <1 ns).

  12. Low-energy nuclear reaction studies with RI beams in nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubono, S.; Teranishi, T.; Kato, S.

    2003-07-01

    After a brief discussion on the recent development in nuclear astrophysics, two reaction studies of typical astrophysical reactions at low energies where nuclear reactions play the main contributions to the nucleosynthesis in the universe, are discussed. One is the proton capture reaction, 11C(p, γ)12N, studied by the direct method using a 11C beam produced with a new low-energy RIB separator CRIB at CNS, Japan. The second one is the 13C(α, n)16O rearrangement reaction, which is believed to be the main neutron source for the s-process at low temperatures, investigated by an indirect method using the direct α-transfer reaction 13C(6Li, d)17O. Detailed investigations are suggested on the nuclear reactions relevant.

  13. Design study on the beam line for radioisotope production at KOMAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyeok-Jung

    2015-10-01

    A beam line for radioisotope (RI) production was designed for the 100-MeV proton linear accelerator at Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC). The specifications of the beam line are such that the energy is 100 MeV and the average current is 0.6 mA for a target size of 100 mm in diameter. The system consists of a beam transport system including a magnet, a vacuum system, beam diagnostics, power supplies and a control system. The key components of the system are the high-field 45 bending magnet, the beam scanning system and beam window. In this paper, the design of the beam line and its key components are presented.

  14. Cyclotrons for the production of radioactive beams

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the characteristics and design choices for modern cyclotrons. Cyclotrons can be used in 3 areas in the radioactive beam field: the production of high energy heavy ion beams for use in fragmentation, the spallation of targets with high energy protons, and the acceleration of radioactive beams from low energy to the MeV/u range. 16 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Radioactive beam production at the Bevalac

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, J.R.; Feinberg, B.; Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.F.; McMahan, M.A.; Tanihata, I.

    1989-10-01

    At the Bevalac radioactive beams are routinely produced by the fragmentation process. The effectiveness of this process with respect to the secondary beam's emittance, intensity and energy spread depends critically on the nuclear reaction kinematics and the magnitude of the incident beam energy. When this beam energy significantly exceeds the energies of the nuclear reaction process, many of the qualities of the incident beam can be passed on to the secondary beam. Factors affecting secondary beam quality are discussed along with techniques for isolating and purifying a specific reaction product. The on-going radioactive beam program at the Bevalac is used as an example with applications, present performance and plans for the future. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Weak-coupling structure of proton resonant states in 23Al studied with RI beam at CNS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J. J.; Kubono, S.; Teranishi, T.; Notani, M.; Michimasa, S.; Baba, H.; Nishimura, S.; Nishimura, M.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Hokoiwa, N.; Kibe, M.; Gono, Y.; Moon, J. Y.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, C. S.; Iwasaki, H.; Kato, S.

    2006-07-01

    Proton resonances in 23Al have been investigated for the first time by the resonant elastic and inelastic scattering of 22Mg+p by using a 4.38 MeV/nucleon 22Mg beam bombarding a thick Hydrogen target. The low-energy 22Mg beam was separated by the CNS radioactive ion beam separator (CRIB). A new resonant state due to elastic scattering was observed at Ex = 3.00 MeV with a Jπ = (3/2+) assignment. Other three excited states due to resonant inelastic scattering at 3.14, 3.26 and 3.95 MeV were identified and all mainly decay to the first excited state in 22Mg by the proton emissions. The newly observed 3.95-MeV state probably has a spin-parity of Jπ = (7/2+). The resonant properties were determined from an R-matrix analysis of the excitation functions. The weak-coupling structure in 23Al is discussed in conjunction with a shell-model calculation.

  17. Acidic environment augments FcεRI-mediated production of IL-6 and IL-13 in mast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kamide, Yosuke; Ishizuka, Tamotsu; Tobo, Masayuki; Tsurumaki, Hiroaki; Aoki, Haruka; Mogi, Chihiro; Nakakura, Takashi; Yatomi, Masakiyo; Ono, Akihiro; Koga, Yasuhiko; Sato, Koichi; Hisada, Takeshi; Dobashi, Kunio; Yamada, Masanobu; Okajima, Fumikazu

    2015-08-28

    Although blood pH is maintained in a narrow range of around pH 7.4 in living organisms, inflammatory loci are characterized by acidic conditions. Mast cells tend to reside close to the surface of the body in areas such as the mucosa and skin where they may be exposed to exogenous acids, and they play an important role in immune responses. However, little is known about the effects of extracellular acidification on the functions of mast cell. Here, we found that extracellular acidification increased the dinitrophenyl-conjugated human serum albumin (DNP-HSA)-induced production of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-13 in MC/9 cells or bone marrow-derived mouse mast cells sensitized with anti-DNP IgE. Extracellular acidification also inhibited migration of MC/9 cells toward DNP-HSA. In addition, acidic pH stimulated antigen-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein kinase B (Akt). These findings suggest that extracellular acidification augmented antigen/IgE-induced and FcεRI-mediated production of IL-6 and IL-13 in mast cells, and that this was associated with the enhancement of p38 MAPK and Akt activation. - Highlights: • Antigen-induced IL-6 and IL-13 production was augmented by acidic pH in mast cells. • Acidic pH-induced actions were associated with activation of p38 MAPK and Akt. • Inhibition of p38 MAPK and Akt attenuated cytokine responses to acidic pH. • Acidic pH effects are not attributable to actions of known proton-sensing GPCRs.

  18. Measurement of 21Na(α,p)24Mg stellar reaction using a 21Na RI-beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binh, D. N.; Kubono, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Hayakawa, S.; Hashimoto, T.; Kahl, D.; Teranishi, T.; Iwasa, N.; Kato, S.; Khiem, L. H.; Tho, N. T.; Wakabayashi, Y.

    2012-11-01

    We performed an experiment of the 21Na(αp)24Mg reaction for the first time by a direct measurement with a thick target method. The studied energy was covered for high temperature conditions in X-ray bursts and core-collapse supernovae. The 21Na(αp)24Mg reaction could make a branch of the extended αp-process and could be important to understand the production of 22Na during the hydrogen explosion at high temperature, like in X-ray bursts, and the 44Ti production from core-collapse supernovae.

  19. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K6 of the standards for absorbed dose to water of the ARPANSA, Australia and the BIPM in accelerator photon beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, S.; Burns, D. T.; Roger, P.; Harty, P. D.; Ramanathan, G.; Lye, J. E.; Wright, T.; Butler, D. J.; Cole, A.; Oliver, C.; Webb, D. V.

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of the dosimetry for accelerator photon beams was carried out between the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) and the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) in September and October 2012. The comparison was based on the determination of absorbed dose to water for three radiation qualities at the ARPANSA. Following receipt of the provisional comparison results, the ARPANSA decided to verify the geometry of the jacket and calorimeter core. This resulted in a change in the conversion factors applied by the ARPANSA to convert from absorbed dose to graphite to absorbed dose to water which was implemented after the comparison. The results for the revised standard, reported as a ratio of the ARPANSA and the BIPM evaluations, are 0.9965 at 6 MV, 0.9924 at 10 MV and 0.9932 at 18 MV, with a combined standard uncertainty of 5.5 parts in 103, 6.0 parts in 103 and 5.9 parts in 103, respectively. This result is the fifth in the on-going BIPM.RI(I)-K6 series of comparisons, and the first to be based solely on graphite calorimetry. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  20. Production of Epithermal Neutron Beams for BNCT

    SciTech Connect

    Colangelo, P.; Colonna, N.; Santorelli, P.; Variale, V.; Paticchio, V.; Maggipinto, G.

    1999-12-31

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, a promising modality for the treatment of malignant tumors, relies on the use of neutron beams of suitable energy and intensity. For deep-seated tumors, simulations indicate that the optimal neutron energy is in the epithermal region, and in particular between 1 and 10 keV. Therapeutic neutron beams of high spectral purity could be produced with low-energy accelerators, through a suitable neutron producing reaction. In this talk we present an overview of some recently investigated reactions for the production of intense epithermal neutron beams for BNCT, and their potential use towards the setup of an hospital-based BNCT facility.

  1. Energy Production Demonstrator for Megawatt Proton Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Pronskikh, Vitaly S.; Mokhov, Nikolai V.; Novitski, Igor; Tyutyunnikov, Sergey I.

    2014-07-16

    A preliminary study of the Energy Production Demonstrator (EPD) concept - a solid heavy metal target irradiated by GeV-range intense proton beams and producing more energy than consuming - is carried out. Neutron production, fission, energy deposition, energy gain, testing volume and helium production are simulated with the MARS15 code for tungsten, thorium, and natural uranium targets in the proton energy range 0.5 to 120 GeV. This study shows that the proton energy range of 2 to 4 GeV is optimal for both a natU EPD and the tungsten-based testing station that would be the most suitable for proton accelerator facilities. Conservative estimates, not including breeding and fission of plutonium, based on the simulations suggest that the proton beam current of 1 mA will be sufficient to produce 1 GW of thermal output power with the natU EPD while supplying < 8% of that power to operate the accelerator. The thermal analysis shows that the concept considered has a problem due to a possible core meltdown; however, a number of approaches (a beam rastering, in first place) are suggested to mitigate the issue. The efficiency of the considered EPD as a Materials Test Station (MTS) is also evaluated in this study.

  2. Production of slow-positron beams with an electron linac

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, R.H.; Alvarez, R.A.; Stanek, M.

    1982-03-26

    Intense, pulsed beams of low-energy positrons have been produced by a high-energy beam from an electron linac. The production efficiency for low-energy positrons has been determined for electrons with 60 to 120 MeV energy, low-energy positron beams from a linac can be of much higher intensity than those beams currently derived from radioactive sources.

  3. Resveratrol Suppresses Cytokine Production Linked to FcεRI-MAPK Activation in IgE-Antigen Complex-Exposed Basophilic Mast Cells and Mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Seon-Young; Choi, Yean-Jung; Kang, Min-Kyung; Park, Jung Han Yoon; Kang, Young-Hee

    2015-01-01

    A complicated interplay between resident mast cells and other recruited inflammatory cells contributes to the development and progression of allergic inflammation entailing the promotion of T helper 2 (Th2) cytokine responses. The current study examined whether resveratrol suppressed the production of inflammatory Th2 cytokines in cultured rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells. Cells pre-treated with resveratrol nontoxic at 1–25 μM were sensitized with anti-dinitrophenyl (anti-DNP), and subsequently stimulated by dinitrophenyl-human serum albumin (DNP–HSA) antigen. Resveratrol dose-dependently diminished the secretion of interleukin (IL)-3, IL-4, IL-13 as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α by the antigen stimulation from sensitized cells. It was found that resveratrol mitigated the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK, and JNK elevated in mast cells exposed to Fc epsilon receptor I (FcεRI)-mediated immunoglobulin E (IgE)-antigen complex. The FcεRI aggregation was highly enhanced on the surface of mast cells following the HSA stimulation, which was retarded by treatment with 1–25 μM resveratrol. The IgE-receptor engagement rapidly induced tyrosine phosphorylation of c-Src-related focal adhesion protein paxillin involved in the cytoskeleton rearrangement. The FcεRI-mediated rapid activation of c-Src and paxillin was attenuated in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the paxillin activation entailed p38 MAPK and ERK-responsive signaling, but the JNK activation was less involved. Consistently, oral administration of resveratrol reduced the tissue level of phosphorylated paxillin in the dorsal skin of DNP–HSA-challenged mice. The other tyrosine kinase Tyk2-STAT1 signaling was activated in the dorsal epidermis of antigen-exposed mice, which was associated with allergic inflammation. These results showed that resveratrol inhibited Th2 cytokines- and paxillin-linked allergic responses dependent upon MAPK signaling. Therefore, resveratrol may possess the

  4. Comparison of air kerma-length product measurements between the PTB and the IAEA for x-radiation qualities used in computed tomography (EURAMET.RI(I)-S12, EURAMET project #1327)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csete, István; Büermann, Ludwig; Alikhani, Babak; Gomola, Igor

    2015-01-01

    A comparison of air kerma-length product determinations for standard radiation qualities defined for use in computed tomography was performed between the PTB and the IAEA as EURAMET project #1327, registered in the KCDB as the EURAMET.RI(I)-S12 comparison. A pencil type reference-class ionization chamber of the IAEA and the three RQT beam qualities established according to the IEC standard 61627:2005 were selected for the comparison. The calibration coefficients for the transfer chamber in terms of Gycm/C at the PTB and the IAEA using the partial irradiation method recommended in the IAEA TRS 457 were determined. The results show the calibration coefficients of both laboratories were in a very good agreement of about 0.2 % well within the estimated relative standard uncertainty of the comparison of about 0.8 %. Residual correction due to the additional aperture required for partial irradiation of pencil chambers and feasibility of the full irradiation method were also studied. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  5. Rare-RI ring for mass measurements at RIBF

    SciTech Connect

    Ozawa, Akira

    2014-05-02

    The rare-RI (radioactive isotope) ring at the RIKEN RI Beam Factory is described. The main purpose of the rare-RI ring is to measure the mass of short-lived rare RI. In the rare-RI ring, the mass is determined by measuring the revolution time of each nucleus based on isochronous mass spectrometry. The rare-RI ring consists of six magnetic sectors, and each sector consists of four dipole magnets. To precisely optimize the isochronous conditions of the circulating particles for large acceptance, we install 10 trim coils to half of the dipole magnets. Individual injection system enables efficient injection of the produced rare RI into the ring one by one. With facilitating efficient extraction of the circulating particles, time-of-flight measurements can be performed to the each rare RI. Construction of the rare-RI ring was begun in the middle of the fiscal year 2012, and the ring is expected to be fully functional by 2015, when we can start the mass measurements for unknown masses.

  6. Efficient laser production of energetic neutral beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollica, F.; Antonelli, L.; Flacco, A.; Braenzel, J.; Vauzour, B.; Folpini, G.; Birindelli, G.; Schnuerer, M.; Batani, D.; Malka, V.

    2016-03-01

    Laser-driven ion acceleration by intense, ultra-short, laser pulse has received increasing attention in recent years, and the availability of much compact and versatile ions sources motivates the study of laser-driven sources of energetic neutral atoms. We demonstrate the production of a neutral and directional beam of hydrogen and carbon atoms up to 200 keV per nucleon, with a peak flow of 2.7× {{10}13} atom s-1. Laser accelerated ions are neutralized in a pulsed, supersonic argon jet with tunable density between 1.5× {{10}17} cm-3and 6× {{10}18} cm-3. The neutralization efficiency has been measured by a time-of-flight detector for different argon densities. An optimum is found, for which complete neutralization occurs. The neutralization rate can be explained only at high areal densities (>1× {{10}17} cm-2) by single electron charge transfer processes. These results suggest a new perspective for the study of neutral production by laser and open discussion of neutralization at a lower density.

  7. Redesigned Electron-Beam Furnace Boosts Productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Gary A.

    1995-01-01

    Redesigned electron-beam furnace features carousel of greater capacity so more experiments conducted per loading, and time spent on reloading and vacuum pump-down reduced. Common mounting plate for electron source and carousel simplifies installation and reduces vibration.

  8. Comparison of air kerma measurements for tungsten anode based mammography x-ray beam qualities (EURAMET.RI(I)-S4.1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csete, I.; Büermann, L.; Gomola, I.

    2016-01-01

    A comparison of the air kerma standards for x-radiation qualities used in mammography was performed between the PTB and the IAEA. Two reference-class ionization chamber types Radcal RC6M and Magna A650 of the IAEA and tungsten anode based beam qualities with Mo and Al external filtrations (W+Mo, W+Al) established at both laboratories were selected for the comparison. The calibration coefficients, NK_air, were determined for the transfer chambers at the PTB in May 2015 and before and after this at the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory. The results show good agreement, to be well within the 0.55 % standard uncertainty of the comparison. Correction factors to determine NK_air for these beam qualities based on calibration in RQR-M mammography beam qualities, established according to the IEC 61267 standard, were also calculated for the Radcal RC6M, 10X5-6M, and Magna A650 types of chambers. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  9. Production of a thermal stress resistant mutant Euglena gracilis strain using Fe-ion beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Koji; Kazama, Yusuke; Mitra, Sharbanee; Marukawa, Yuka; Arashida, Ryo; Abe, Tomoko; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Suzuki, Kengo

    2016-08-01

    Euglena gracilis is a common phytoplankton species, which also has motile flagellate characteristics. Recent research and development has enabled the industrial use of E. gracilis and selective breeding of this species is expected to further expand its application. However, the production of E. gracilis nuclear mutants is difficult because of the robustness of its genome. To establish an efficient mutation induction procedure for E. gracilis, we employed Fe-ion beam irradiation in the RIKEN RI beam factory. A decrease in the survival rate was observed with the increase in irradiation dose, and the upper limit used for E. gracilis selective breeding was around 50 Gy. For a practical trial of Fe-ion irradiation, we conducted a screening to isolate high-temperature-tolerant mutants. The screening yielded mutants that proliferated faster than the wild-type strain at 32 °C. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of heavy-ion irradiation on E. gracilis selective breeding. PMID:27075598

  10. Production of an Accelerated Oxygen-14 Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, James; O'Neil, James P.; Cerny, Joseph

    2002-05-03

    BEARS is an ongoing project to provide a light-ion radioactive-beam capability at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at LBNL. Light radioactive isotopes are produced at a 10 MeV proton medical cyclotron, transported 350 m via a high-speed gas transport capillary, cryogenically separated, and injected into the 88-Inch Cyclotron's ion source. The first radioactive beam successfully accelerated was Carbon-11 and beams of intensity more than 108 ions/sec have been utilized for experiments. Development of Oxygen-14 as the second BEARS beam presented considerable technical challenges, both due to its short half-life of 71 seconds and the radiation chemistry of oxygen in the target. The usual techniques developed for medical uses of Oxygen-15 involve the addition of significant amounts of carrier oxygen, something that would overload the ion source. As a solution, Oxygen-14 is produced as water in a carrier-free form, and is chemically converted in two steps to carbon dioxide, a form readily usable by the BEARS. This system has been built and is operational, and initial tests of accelerating an Oxygen-14 beam have been performed.

  11. Production of an accelerated oxygen-14 beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, J.; O'Neil, J. P.; Cerny, Joseph

    2003-05-01

    BEARS is an ongoing project to provide a light-ion radioactive-beam capability at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at LBNL. Light radioactive isotopes are produced at a 10 MeV proton medical cyclotron, transported 350 m via a high-speed gas transport capillary, cryogenically separated, and injected into the 88-Inch Cyclotron's ion source. The first radioactive beam successfully accelerated was carbon-11 and beams of intensity more than 10 8 ions/s have been utilized for experiments. Development of oxygen-14 as the second BEARS beam presented considerable technical challenges, both due to its short half-life of 71 s and the radiation chemistry of oxygen in the target. The usual techniques developed for medical uses of oxygen-15 involve the addition of significant amounts of carrier oxygen, something that would overload the ion source. As a solution, oxygen-14 is produced as water in a carrier-free form, and is chemically converted in two steps to carbon dioxide, a form readily usable by the BEARS. This system has been built and is operational, and initial tests of accelerating an oxygen-14 beam have been performed.

  12. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K6 of the standards for absorbed dose to water at 10 g cm-2 of the NPL, United Kingdom and the BIPM in accelerator photon beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, S.; Burns, D. T.; Roger, P.; Duane, S.; Bass, G. A.; Manning, J. W.; Shipley, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    A comparison of the dosimetry for accelerator photon beams was carried out between the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) from 23 September to 7 October 2014. The comparison was based on the determination of absorbed dose to water at 10 g cm-2 for three radiation qualities at the NPL. The results, reported as ratios of the NPL and the BIPM evaluations (and with the combined standard uncertainties given in parentheses), are 1.0000(62) at 6 MV, 0.9999(70) at 10 MV and 0.9993(80) at 25 MV. This result is the seventh in the on-going BIPM.RI(I)-K6 series of comparisons. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  13. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K6 of the standards for absorbed dose to water at 5 g cm-2 and 7 g cm-2 of the NPL, United Kingdom and the BIPM in accelerator photon beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, S.; Burns, D. T.; Roger, P.; Duane, S.; Bass, G. A.; Manning, J. W.; Shipley, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    A comparison of the dosimetry for accelerator photon beams was carried out between the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) in two periods from September to November 2013. The comparison was based on the determination of absorbed dose to water for three radiation qualities at the NPL. The results, reported as ratios of the NPL and the BIPM evaluations (and with the combined standard uncertainties given in parentheses), are 0.9973(62) at 6 MV, 0.9995(66) at 10 MV and 0.9957(81) at 25 MV. This result is the sixth in the on-going BIPM.RI(I)-K6 series of comparisons. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  14. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K6 of the standards for absorbed dose to water at 10 g cm-2 of the NMIJ, Japan and the BIPM in accelerator photon beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, S.; Burns, D. T.; Roger, P.; Shimizu, M.; Morishita, Y.; Kato, M.; Tanaka, T.; Kurosawa, T.; Saito, N.

    2016-01-01

    A comparison of the dosimetry for accelerator photon beams was carried out between the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) and the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) from 9 to 23 April 2015. The comparison was based on the determination of absorbed dose to water at 10 g cm-2 for three radiation qualities at the NMIJ. The results, reported as ratios of the NMIJ and the BIPM evaluations (and with the combined standard uncertainties given in parentheses), are 0.9966 (47) at 6 MV, 0.9965 (60) at 10 MV and 0.9953 (50) at 15 MV. This result is the eighth in the on-going BIPM.RI(I)-K6 series of comparisons. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  15. ITEP MEVVA ion beam for rhenium silicide production

    SciTech Connect

    Kulevoy, T.; Seleznev, D.; Kropachev, G.; Kozlov, A.; Kuibeda, R.; Yakushin, P.; Petrenko, S.; Gerasimenko, N.; Medetov, N.; Zaporozhan, O.

    2010-02-15

    The rhenium silicides are very attractive materials for semiconductor industry. In the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) at the ion source test bench the research program of rhenium silicide production by ion beam implantation are going on. The investigation of silicon wafer after implantation of rhenium ion beam with different energy and with different total dose were carried out by secondary ions mass spectrometry, energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis, and x-ray diffraction analysis. The first promising results of rhenium silicide film production by high intensity ion beam implantation are presented.

  16. Present status of Rare-RI Ring facility at RIBF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    T Yamaguchithe Rare-RI Ring Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    A new storage ring facility called the Rare-RI Ring is currently under preparation at the RI Beam Factory (RIBF) in RIKEN. The storage ring is dedicated to the single-ion precision mass spectrometry of neutron-rich exotic nuclei. The masses are essential to elucidate the evolution of the nuclear shell structure far from the β stability and to determine the pathway of astrophysical nucleosynthesis. Such exotic nuclei are provided by the large-acceptance superconducting fragment separator, BigRIPS, at the RIBF accelerator complex. The experimental principle of the Rare-RI Ring mass measurements is based on isochronous mass spectrometry combined with the individual injection technique. This novel technique enables exotic species of interest to be produced randomly, in time to be sequentially stored in the storage ring. The Rare-RI Ring facility realizes the most efficient measurements for rare isotopes. An overview of the project is presented, along with its present status.

  17. Production of high brightness H- beam by charge exchange of hydrogen atom beam in sodium jet

    SciTech Connect

    Davydenko, V.; Zelenski, A.; Ivanov, A.; Kolmogorov, A.

    2010-11-16

    Production of H{sup -} beam for accelerators applications by charge exchange of high brightness hydrogen neutral beam in a sodium jet cell is experimentally studied in joint BNL-BINP experiment. In the experiment, a hydrogen-neutral beam with 3-6 keV energy, equivalent current up to 5 A and 200 microsecond pulse duration is used. The atomic beam is produced by charge exchange of a proton beam in a pulsed hydrogen target. Formation of the proton beam is performed in an ion source by four-electrode multiaperture ion-optical system. To achieve small beam emittance, the apertures in the ion-optical system have small enough size, and the extraction of ions is carried out from the surface of plasma emitter with a low transverse ion temperature of {approx}0.2 eV formed as a result of plasma jet expansion from the arc plasma generator. Developed for the BNL optically pumped polarized ion source, the sodium jet target with recirculation and aperture diameter of 2 cm is used in the experiment. At the first stage of the experiment H{sup -} beam with 36 mA current, 5 keV energy and {approx}0.15 cm {center_dot} mrad normalized emittance was obtained. To increase H{sup -} beam current ballistically focused hydrogen neutral beam will be applied. The effects of H{sup -} beam space-charge and sodium-jet stability will be studied to determine the basic limitations of this approach.

  18. STAR results on strangeness production in beam energy scan program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    We present the recent STAR results on the production of strange hadrons (K0s, ϕ, Λ, Ξ and Ω) in √sNN= 7.7 — 39 GeV Au+Au collisions in the RHIC beam energy scan program. We investigate the strangeness enhancement and strangeness equilibration as a function of beam energy and system size at RHIC. Nuclear modification factors and particle ratios will be highlighted. Implications on partonic vs. hadronic dynamics as a function of the beam energy will be discussed.

  19. {sup 18}Ne production for the Beta beams project

    SciTech Connect

    Hodák, Rastislav; Stora, Thierry

    2013-12-30

    Intense relativistic (anti)neutrino beams are an unique tool required to study fundamental properties of neutrinos such as neutrino oscillation parameters, as well as their Majorana or Dirac nature, the lepton number conservation hypothesis and the absolute neutrino mass scale. Such beams originate from acceleration of β-decaying radioactive ions (“Beta beams”). A molten fluoride salt target has been developed for the production of the required rates of low-Q baseline isotope {sup 18}Ne for the Beta beams project. The prototyped unit has been tested on-line at ISOLDE-CERN. In this contribution an overview of the prototyping and on-line tests is presented.

  20. Ohmic heated sheet for the Ca ion beam production

    SciTech Connect

    Efremov, A.; Bogomolov, S.; Kazarinov, N.; Kochagov, O.; Loginov, V.

    2008-02-15

    The production of intense accelerated {sup 48}Ca ion beams is the key problem in the experiments on the synthesis of new superheavy nuclei. For this purpose in the FLNR (JINR), an electron cyclotron resonance ion source is used at the U-400 cyclotron. The combination of a micro oven with a hot tantalum sheet inside the discharge chamber allowed the production of the intense {sup 48}Ca{sup 5+} ion beam at the {sup 48}Ca consumption of about 0.5 mg/h. In this case, the tantalum sheet is heated by microwaves and plasma electrons. The microwave power of up to 500 W is required to heat the sheet to the temperature of about 500 deg. C. To decrease the required microwave power, a new sheet with a direct Ohmic heating was designed. The present paper describes the method, technique, and preliminary experimental results on the production of the Ca ion beam.

  1. Ohmic heated sheet for the Ca ion beam production.

    PubMed

    Efremov, A; Bogomolov, S; Kazarinov, N; Kochagov, O; Loginov, V

    2008-02-01

    The production of intense accelerated (48)Ca ion beams is the key problem in the experiments on the synthesis of new superheavy nuclei. For this purpose in the FLNR (JINR), an electron cyclotron resonance ion source is used at the U-400 cyclotron. The combination of a micro oven with a hot tantalum sheet inside the discharge chamber allowed the production of the intense (48)Ca(5+) ion beam at the (48)Ca consumption of about 0.5 mg/h. In this case, the tantalum sheet is heated by microwaves and plasma electrons. The microwave power of up to 500 W is required to heat the sheet to the temperature of about 500 degrees C. To decrease the required microwave power, a new sheet with a direct Ohmic heating was designed. The present paper describes the method, technique, and preliminary experimental results on the production of the Ca ion beam. PMID:18315097

  2. Shielding calculations for a production target for secondary beams

    SciTech Connect

    Rehm, K.E.; Back, B.B.; Jiang, C.L.

    1995-08-01

    In order to estimate the amount of shielding required for a radioactive beam facility dose rate were performed. The calculations for production targets with different geometries were performed. The calculations were performed with the MSU shielding code assuming a 500-p{mu}A 200-MeV deuteron beam stopped in a thick Al target. The target and the ion-optical elements for beam extraction are located in a 2 m{sup 3} large volume at the center of the production cell. These dose rate calculations show that with a combination of Fe and concrete it is possible to reduce the dose rate expected at the surface of a 7-m-wide cube housing the production target to less than 2 mrem/hr.

  3. Production, Characterization, and Measurement of H(D) Beams on the ORNL Merged-Beams Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J. D.; Kvale, Thomas Jay; Strasser, S. M.; Seely, D. G.; Havener, Charles C

    2009-01-01

    Total cross section measurements of electron capture processes are being studied for low-energy, Aq++H(D) collisions using the Ion-Atom Merged-Beams apparatus at the Multicharged Ion Research Facility (MIRF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). On this apparatus, a modified Faraday cup detector is used to measure the intensity of the neutral beam. The conversion of the measured electrical current to the true neutral particle beam current is necessary to accurately determine the true cross section values. Inherent in this conversion process is the number of secondary electrons (gamma) emitted from the surface of the detector upon impact of an atom. The method employed to determine gamma and its role in the absolute electron capture measurements at ORNL-MIRF are presented. With a recent upgrade to the apparatus, the neutral beam H(D) production technique has been improved and is discussed in detail in this paper.

  4. Production, Characterization, and Measurement of H(D) Beams on the ORNL Merged-Beams Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J. D.; Kvale, T. J.; Strasser, S. M. Z.; Seely, D. G.; Havener, C. C.

    2009-03-10

    Total cross section measurements of electron capture processes are being studied for low-energy, A{sup q+}+H(D) collisions using the Ion-Atom Merged-Beams apparatus at the Multicharged Ion Research Facility (MIRF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). On this apparatus, a modified Faraday cup detector is used to measure the intensity of the neutral beam. The conversion of the measured electrical current to the true neutral particle beam current is necessary to accurately determine the true cross section values. Inherent in this conversion process is the number of secondary electrons ({gamma}) emitted from the surface of the detector upon impact of an atom. The method employed to determine {gamma} and its role in the absolute electron capture measurements at ORNL-MIRF are presented. With a recent upgrade to the apparatus, the neutral beam H(D) production technique has been improved and is discussed in detail in this paper.

  5. Radioactive Ion Beam Production Capabilities At The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beene, J. R.; Dowling, D. T.; Gross, C. J.; Juras, R. C.; Liu, Y.; Meigs, M. J.; Mendez, A. J.; Nazarewicz, W.; Sinclair, J. W.; Stracener, D. W.; Tatum, B. A.

    2011-06-01

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) is a national user facility for research with radioactive ion beams (RIBs) that has been in routine operation since 1996. It is located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and operated by the ORNL Physics Division. The principal mission of the HRIBF is the production of high quality beams of shortlived radioactive isotopes to support research in nuclear structure physics and nuclear astrophysics. HRIBF is currently unique worldwide in its ability to provide neutron-rich fission fragment beams post-accelerated to energies above the Coulomb barrier for nuclear reactions. HRIBF produces RIBs by the isotope separator on-line (ISOL) technique using a particle accelerator system that consists of the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC) driver accelerator, one of the two Injectors for Radioactive Ion Species (IRIS1 or IRIS2) production systems, and the 25-MV tandem electrostatic accelerator that is used for RIB post-acceleration. ORIC provides a light ion beam (proton, deuteron, or alpha) which is directed onto a thick target mounted in a target-ion source (TIS) assembly located on IRIS1 or IRIS2. Radioactive atoms that diffuse from the target material are ionized, accelerated, mass selected, and transported to the tandem accelerator where they are further accelerated to energies suitable for nuclear physics research. RIBs are transported through a beam line system to various experimental end stations including the Recoil Mass Spectrometer (RMS) for nuclear structure research, and the Daresbury Recoil Separator (DRS) for nuclear astrophysics research. HRIBF also includes two off-line ion source test facilities, one low-power on-line ISOL test facility (OLTF), and one high-power on-line ISOL test facility (HPTL). This paper provides an overview and status update of HRIBF, describes the recently completed 4.7M IRIS2 addition and incorporation of laser systems for beam production and purification, and discusses a

  6. Production of highly charged ion beams with SECRALa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L. T.; Zhao, H. W.; Lu, W.; Zhang, X. Z.; Feng, Y. C.; Li, J. Y.; Cao, Y.; Guo, X. H.; Ma, H. Y.; Zhao, H. Y.; Shang, Y.; Ma, B. H.; Wang, H.; Li, X. X.; Jin, T.; Xie, D. Z.

    2010-02-01

    Superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is an all-superconducting-magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the production of intense highly charged ion beams to meet the requirements of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). To further enhance the performance of SECRAL, an aluminum chamber has been installed inside a 1.5 mm thick Ta liner used for the reduction of x-ray irradiation at the high voltage insulator. With double-frequency (18+14.5 GHz) heating and at maximum total microwave power of 2.0 kW, SECRAL has successfully produced quite a few very highly charged Xe ion beams, such as 10 e μA of Xe37+, 1 e μA of Xe43+, and 0.16 e μA of Ne-like Xe44+. To further explore the capability of the SECRAL in the production of highly charged heavy metal ion beams, a first test run on bismuth has been carried out recently. The main goal is to produce an intense Bi31+ beam for HIRFL accelerator and to have a feel how well the SECRAL can do in the production of very highly charged Bi beams. During the test, though at microwave power less than 3 kW, more than 150 e μA of Bi31+, 22 e μA of Bi41+, and 1.5 e μA of Bi50+ have been produced. All of these results have again demonstrated the great capability of the SECRAL source. This article will present the detailed results and brief discussions to the production of highly charged ion beams with SECRAL.

  7. Production of highly charged ion beams with SECRAL.

    PubMed

    Sun, L T; Zhao, H W; Lu, W; Zhang, X Z; Feng, Y C; Li, J Y; Cao, Y; Guo, X H; Ma, H Y; Zhao, H Y; Shang, Y; Ma, B H; Wang, H; Li, X X; Jin, T; Xie, D Z

    2010-02-01

    Superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is an all-superconducting-magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the production of intense highly charged ion beams to meet the requirements of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). To further enhance the performance of SECRAL, an aluminum chamber has been installed inside a 1.5 mm thick Ta liner used for the reduction of x-ray irradiation at the high voltage insulator. With double-frequency (18+14.5 GHz) heating and at maximum total microwave power of 2.0 kW, SECRAL has successfully produced quite a few very highly charged Xe ion beams, such as 10 e microA of Xe(37+), 1 e microA of Xe(43+), and 0.16 e microA of Ne-like Xe(44+). To further explore the capability of the SECRAL in the production of highly charged heavy metal ion beams, a first test run on bismuth has been carried out recently. The main goal is to produce an intense Bi(31+) beam for HIRFL accelerator and to have a feel how well the SECRAL can do in the production of very highly charged Bi beams. During the test, though at microwave power less than 3 kW, more than 150 e microA of Bi(31+), 22 e microA of Bi(41+), and 1.5 e microA of Bi(50+) have been produced. All of these results have again demonstrated the great capability of the SECRAL source. This article will present the detailed results and brief discussions to the production of highly charged ion beams with SECRAL. PMID:20192339

  8. ALPtraum: ALP production in proton beam dump experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döbrich, Babette; Jaeckel, Joerg; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Ringwald, Andreas; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai

    2016-02-01

    With their high beam energy and intensity, existing and near-future proton beam dumps provide an excellent opportunity to search for new very weakly coupled particles in the MeV to GeV mass range. One particularly interesting example is a so-called axion-like particle (ALP), i.e. a pseudoscalar coupled to two photons. The challenge in proton beam dumps is to reliably calculate the production of the new particles from the interactions of two composite objects, the proton and the target atoms. In this work we argue that Primakoff production of ALPs proceeds in a momentum range where production rates and angular distributions can be determined to sufficient precision using simple electromagnetic form factors. Reanalysing past proton beam dump experiments for this production channel, we derive novel constraints on the parameter space for ALPs. We show that the NA62 experiment at CERN could probe unexplored parameter space by running in `dump mode' for a few days and discuss opportunities for future experiments such as SHiP.

  9. Understanding the ion beam in EUV mask blank production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, Patrick; Jindal, Vibhu; Weaver, Alfred; Teora, Pat; Sporre, John; Ruzic, David; Goodwin, Frank

    2012-03-01

    One of the major technical hurdles to be overcome before EUV lithography can enter high volume manufacturing is the amount of defects in EUV mask blanks, many of which occur during the EUV reflector deposition process. The technology currently used to deposit this reflector is ion beam sputter deposition. Understanding the properties of the ion beam and the nature of the plasma in the deposition chamber is therefore critical to understanding defect production mechanisms and subsequently eliminating them. In this work, we have studied how the source parameters influence ion beam divergence, its footprint on the target, and the amount of beam that misses the target and hits the shielding. By optimizing the source parameters, we can modulate certain target- and shield-specific defect types. We have compared our data with models of source performance and found general agreement, enabling the theory to be fine-tuned based on the results of the measurements. Models are being developed to better describe actual source performance. We have also investigated the plasma conditions the ion beam creates in the tool, which is crucial to understanding the transport of defects from their source to the mask. A well characterized ion beam and plasma will lead to process and tool changes that will ultimately reduce defect levels in EUV mask blanks.

  10. Enhancing Neutron Beam Production with a Convoluted Moderator

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, Erik B; Baxter, David V; Muhrer, Guenter; Ansell, Stuart; Gallmeier, Franz X; Dalgliesh, Robert; Lu, Wei; Kaiser, Helmut

    2014-10-01

    We describe a new concept for a neutron moderating assembly resulting in the more efficient production of slow neutron beams. The Convoluted Moderator, a heterogeneous stack of interleaved moderating material and nearly transparent single-crystal spacers, is a directionally-enhanced neutron beam source, improving beam effectiveness over an angular range comparable to the range accepted by neutron beam lines and guides. We have demonstrated gains of 50% in slow neutron intensity for a given fast neutron production rate while simultaneously reducing the wavelength-dependent emission time dispersion by 25%, both coming from a geometric effect in which the neutron beam lines view a large surface area of moderating material in a relatively small volume. Additionally, we have confirmed a Bragg-enhancement effect arising from coherent scattering within the single-crystal spacers. We have not observed hypothesized refractive effects leading to additional gains at long wavelength. In addition to confirmation of the validity of the Convoluted Moderator concept, our measurements provide a series of benchmark experiments suitable for developing simulation and analysis techniques for practical optimization and eventual implementation at slow neutron source facilities.

  11. Charge breeding simulations for radioactive ion beam production

    SciTech Connect

    Variale, V.; Raino, A. C.; Clauser, T.

    2012-02-15

    The charge breeding technique is used for radioactive ion beam (RIB) production in order of optimizing the re-acceleration of the radioactive element ions produced by a primary beam in a thick target. Charge breeding is achieved by means of a device capable of increasing the ion charge state from 1+ to a desired value n+. In order to get high intensity RIB, experiments with charge breeding of very high efficiency could be required. To reach this goal, the charge breeding simulation could help to optimize the high charge state production efficiency by finding more proper parameters for the radioactive 1+ ions. In this paper a device based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS) is considered. In order to study that problem, a code already developed for studying the ion selective containment in an EBIS with RF quadrupoles, BRICTEST, has been modified to simulate the ion charge state breeding rate for different 1+ ion injection conditions. Particularly, the charge breeding simulations for an EBIS with a hollow electron beam have been studied.

  12. C-shaped electron beams: design, experimental production and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousley, M.; Thirunavukkarasu, G.; Babiker, M.; Yuan, J.

    2015-08-01

    The development of metamaterials operating at visible light wavelengths requires metamaterials to be produced with nanoscale structure over large areas. Improvements in the efficiency of electron beam lithography (EBL) could play an important role in accelerating this development. In this paper we show the production of a shaped probe for use in EBL. A phase structured electron wave containing vortices can be focused to produce a C-shaped cross section. Local spatial frequency analysis shows that both the gap and overall size of the C-shape can be easily controlled. We present the generation of such a C-shaped electron beam using a holographic binary amplitude diffraction mask. Thin AlF3 film is exposed to the C-shaped diffraction order and demonstrates the facile production of both a metallic C-shaped structure as well as the etching of a C-shaped hole.

  13. Positron production in crossed beams of bare uranium nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, U.; de Reus, T.; Reinhardt, J.; Mueller, B.; Greiner, W.; Soff, G.

    1988-03-01

    Positron creation in crossed-beam collisions of high-energy, fully stripped heavy ions is investigated within the coupled-channel formalism. In comparison with fixed-target collisions of highly stripped heavy-ion projectiles positron production probabilities are enhanced by more than one order of magnitude. The increase results from the possibility to excite electrons from the negative energy continuum into all bound states. The positron spectrum is shifted towards higher energies because of the absence of electron screening. Rutherford scattering as well as nuclear collisions with time delay are investigated. We also discuss the filling of empty bound states by electrons from pair-production processes.

  14. Production rate calculations for a secondary beam facility

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, C.L.; Back, B.B.; Rehm, K.E.

    1995-08-01

    In order to select the most cost-effective method for the production of secondary ion beams, yield calculations for a variety of primary beams were performed ranging in mass from protons to {sup 18}O with energies of 100-200 MeV/u. For comparison, production yields for 600-1000 MeV protons were also calculated. For light ion-(A < {sup 4}He) induced reactions at energies above 50 MeV/u the LAHET code was used while the low energy calculations were performed with LPACE. Heavy-ion-induced production rates were calculated with the ISAPACE program. The results of these codes were checked against each other and wherever possible a comparison with experimental data was performed. These comparisons extended to very exotic reaction channels, such as the production of {sup 100}Sn from {sup 112}Sn and {sup 124}Xe induced fragmentation reactions. These comparisons indicate that the codes are able to predict production rates to within one order of magnitude.

  15. Production of high intensity Beta beams at the ISOLDE facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodák, Rastislav; Stora, Thierry; Mendonça, Tania M.

    2011-12-01

    We discuss a design study devoted to a construction of the Beta beams facility at CERN, a next generation European facility aiming for a production of pure and collimated ultra-relativistic beam of electron (anti)neutrinos with help of accelerated β-decaying radioactive ions circulating in a storage decay ring. This high intense source of (anti)neutrinos directed towards a remote underground neutrino detector will allow to measure neutrino oscillations with high accuracy offering a unique chance for establishing a value of the β13 mixing angle and CP violating phase. Recently, a significant progress have been achieved on the conceptual design of high power targets required for a production and an extraction of two baseline isotopes, 6He and 18Ne, at the unexampled rate of several 1013 ions/s. There is a possibility to produce these isotopes using the so-called Isotope Separation On Line (ISOL) method at the ISOLDE facility (CERN). The 6He production is realized by taking advantage of the 9Be(n,α)6He reaction and with help of spallation neutrons and porous BeO target material. The production of 18Ne through the 19F(p,2n)18Ne reaction at required intensities is even more challenging. Currently, a molten salt (NaF) loop target is proposed for a production of high rate of 18Ne required for the Beta beams project. The progress on the design study associated with new data and plans for future is briefly presented.

  16. Monoenergetic Electronic Beam Production Using Dual Collinear Laser Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, A. G. R.; Mangles, S. P. D.; Dangor, A. E.; Kamperidis, C.; Krushelnick, K.; Najmudin, Z.; Murphy, C. D.; Foster, P.; Lancaster, K. L.; Norreys, P. A.; Gallacher, J. G.; Jaroszynski, D. A.; Viskup, R.

    2008-06-27

    The production of monoenergetic electron beams by two copropagating ultrashort laser pulses is investigated both by experiment and using particle-in-cell simulations. By proper timing between guiding and driver pulses, a high-amplitude plasma wave is generated and sustained for longer than is possible with either of the laser pulses individually, due to plasma waveguiding of the driver by the guiding pulse. The growth of the plasma wave is inferred by the measurement of monoenergetic electron beams with low divergence that are not measured by using either of the pulses individually. This scheme can be easily implemented and may allow more control of the interaction than is available to the single pulse scheme.

  17. LISE++: Exotic beam production with fragment separators and their design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, O. B.; Bazin, D.

    2016-06-01

    Since the LISE++ code presentation at the EMIS 2007 conference (Tarasov and Bazin, 2008), important improvements have been made in the analytical and Monte Carlo calculations of transmission, and accuracy of reaction product distributions. In this paper new features of the code in ion-beam optics, creation of new LISE++ blocks, and development of some reaction models will be discussed. Large progress has been done in ion-beam optics with the introduction of "elemental" blocks, that allows optical matrices calculation within LISE++. New type of configurations based on these blocks allow a detailed analysis of the transmission, useful for fragment separator design, and can be used for optics optimization based on user constraints.

  18. Demonstration of two-beam acceleration and 30 GHz power production in the CLIC Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bossart, R.; Braun, H. H.; Carron, G.; Chanudet, M.; Chautard, F.; Delahaye, J. P.; Godot, J. C.; Hutchins, S.; Martinez, C.; Suberlucq, G.; Tenenbaum, P.; Thorndahl, L.; Trautner, H.; Valentini, M.; Wilson, I.; Wuensch, W.

    1999-05-07

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) Test Facility (CTF II) at CERN has recently demonstrated Two-Beam power production and acceleration at 30 GHz. With 41 MW of 30 GHz power produced in 14 ns pulses at a repetition rate of 5 Hz, the main beam has been accelerated by 28 MeV. The 30 GHz RF power is extracted in low impedance decelerating structures from a low-energy, high-current 'drive beam' which runs parallel to the main beam. The average current in the drive-beam train is 25 A, while the peak current exceeds 2 kA. Crosschecks between measured drive-beam charge, 30 GHz power and main-beam energy gain are in good agreement. In this paper, some relevant experimental and technical issues on drive-beam generation, two-beam power production and acceleration are presented.

  19. Production and all-optical deceleration of molecular beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gary; Jayich, Andrew; Long, Xueping; Ransford, Anthony; Campbell, Wesley

    2015-05-01

    Ultracold molecules open up new opportunities in many areas of study, including many-body physics, quantum chemistry, quantum information, and precision measurements. Current methods cannot easily address the spontaneous decay of molecules into dark states without an amalgam of repump lasers. We present an alternative method to produce cold molecules. A cryogenic buffer gas beam (CBGB) is used to create an intense, slow, cold source of molecules. By using a CBGB for the production, we can quench vibrational modes that cannot be addressed with optical methods. This is then followed by an all-optical scheme using a single ultra-fast laser to decelerate the molecules and a continuous wave laser to cool the species. We have started experiments with strontium monohydride (SrH), but the proposed method should be applicable to a wide range of molecular species.

  20. Production and propagation of Hermite-sinusoidal-Gaussian laser beams.

    PubMed

    Tovar, A A; Casperson, L W

    1998-09-01

    Hermite-sinusoidal-Gaussian solutions to the wave equation have recently been obtained. In the limit of large Hermite-Gaussian beam size, the sinusoidal factors are dominant and reduce to the conventional modes of a rectangular waveguide. In the opposite limit the beams reduce to the familiar Hermite-Gaussian form. The propagation of these beams is examined in detail, and resonators are designed that will produce them. As an example, a special resonator is designed to produce hyperbolic-sine-Gaussian beams. This ring resonator contains a hyperbolic-cosine-Gaussian apodized aperture. The beam mode has finite energy and is perturbation stable. PMID:9729853

  1. Generalized energy-aperture product limit for multi-beam and spotlight SARs

    SciTech Connect

    Karr, T.J.

    1995-12-21

    The SAR energy-aperture product limit is extended to multi-beam SARS, Spotlight and moving spotlight SARS. This fundamental limit bounds the tradeoff between energy and antenna size. The kinematic relations between design variables such as platform speed, pulse repetition frequency, beam width and area rate are analyzed in a unified framework applicable to a wide variety of SARs including strip maps, spotlights, vermer arrays and multi-beam SARS, both scanning and swept-beam. Then the energy-aperture product limit is derived from the signal-to noise requirement and the kinematic constraints. The derivation clarifies impact of multiple beams and spotlighting on SAR performance.

  2. Electron Production and Collective Field Generation in Intense Particle Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Molvik, A W; Vay, J; Cohen, R; Friedman, A; Lee, E; Verboncoeur, J; Covo, M K

    2006-02-09

    Electron cloud effects (ECEs) are increasingly recognized as important, but incompletely understood, dynamical phenomena, which can severely limit the performance of present electron colliders, the next generation of high-intensity rings, such as PEP-II upgrade, LHC, and the SNS, the SIS 100/200, or future high-intensity heavy ion accelerators such as envisioned in Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion (HIF). Deleterious effects include ion-electron instabilities, emittance growth, particle loss, increase in vacuum pressure, added heat load at the vacuum chamber walls, and interference with certain beam diagnostics. Extrapolation of present experience to significantly higher beam intensities is uncertain given the present level of understanding. With coordinated LDRD projects at LLNL and LBNL, we undertook a comprehensive R&D program including experiments, theory and simulations to better understand the phenomena, establish the essential parameters, and develop mitigating mechanisms. This LDRD project laid the essential groundwork for such a program. We developed insights into the essential processes, modeled the relevant physics, and implemented these models in computational production tools that can be used for self-consistent study of the effect on ion beams. We validated the models and tools through comparison with experimental data, including data from new diagnostics that we developed as part of this work and validated on the High-Current Experiment (HCX) at LBNL. We applied these models to High-Energy Physics (HEP) and other advanced accelerators. This project was highly successful, as evidenced by the two paragraphs above, and six paragraphs following that are taken from our 2003 proposal with minor editing that mostly consisted of changing the tense. Further benchmarks of outstanding performance are: we had 13 publications with 8 of them in refereed journals, our work was recognized by the accelerator and plasma physics communities by 8 invited papers and we have 5

  3. Photoneutron production in electron beam stop for dual-axis radiographic hydrotest facility (DARHT)

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, M.B.; Brown, T.H.; Little, R.C.

    1998-03-01

    A beam stop design for an electron linear accelerator was analyzed from the perspective of photoneutron production and subsequent dose. Sophisticated nuclear data modeling codes were used to generate the photoneutron production cross sections and spectra that were then used in MCNP transport calculations. The resulting neutron dose exceeded limits for workers present in the experimental area while the accelerators are producing electron beam pulses. Therefore, the beam stop was redesigned to limit doses to acceptable values, consistent with the ALARA philosophy.

  4. Electron beam treatment parameters for control of stored product insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleghorn, D. A.; Nablo, S. V.; Ferro, D. N.; Hagstrum, D. W.

    2002-03-01

    The fluidized bed process (EBFB) has been evaluated for the disinfestation of cereal grains. The various life stages from egg to adult have been studied on the 225 kV pilot as a function of surface dose. Three of the most common pests were selected: the rice weevil ( S. oryzae), the lesser grain borer ( R. dominica) and the red flour beetle ( T. castaneum). The major challenge to this process lies in those "protected" life-stages active deeply within the endosperm of the grain kernel. The rice weevil is such an internal feeder in which the larvae develop through several molts during several weeks before pupation and adult emergence. Product velocities up to 2000 m/min have been used for infested hard winter wheat at dose levels up to 1000 Gy. Detailed depth of penetration studies at three life stages of S. oryzae larvae were conducted at 225-700 kV and demonstrated effective mortality at 400 kV×200 Gy. Mortality data are also presented for the radiation labile eggs of these insects as well as the (sterile) adults, which typically lived for several weeks before death. These results are compared with earlier 60Co gamma-ray studies on these same insects. Based upon these studies, the effectiveness of the fluidized bed process employing self-shielded electron beam equipment for insect control in wheat/rice at sub-kilogray dose levels has been demonstrated.

  5. Production of highly charged ion beams from ECR ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Z.Q.

    1997-09-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source development has progressed with multiple-frequency plasma heating, higher mirror magnetic fields and better technique to provide extra cold electrons. Such techniques greatly enhance the production of highly charged ions from ECR ion sources. So far at cw mode operation, up to 300 e{mu}A of O{sup 7+} and 1.15 emA of O{sup 6+}, more than 100 e{mu}A of intermediate heavy ions for charge states up to Ar{sup 13+}, Ca{sup 13+}, Fe{sup 13+}, Co{sup 14+} and Kr{sup 18+}, and tens of e{mu}A of heavy ions with charge states to Kr{sup 26+}, Xe{sup 28+}, Au{sup 35+}, Bi{sup 34+} and U{sup 34+} have been produced from ECR ion sources. At an intensity of at least 1 e{mu}A, the maximum charge state available for the heavy ions are Xe{sup 36+}, Au{sup 46+}, Bi{sup 47+} and U{sup 48+}. An order of magnitude enhancement for fully stripped argon ions (I {ge} 60 enA) also has been achieved. This article will review the ECR ion source progress and discuss key requirement for ECR ion sources to produce the highly charged ion beams.

  6. 76 FR 50770 - Submission for Review: Financial Resources Questionnaire (RI 34-1, RI 34-17, and RI 34-18) and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Financial Resources Questionnaire (RI 34- 1, RI 34-17, and RI 34-18) and... Benefits Premiums Underpaid (RI 34-18), collects detailed financial information for use by OPM to...

  7. Drift distance survey in DPIS for high current beam production

    SciTech Connect

    Kanesue,T.; Okamura, M.; Kondo, K.; Tamura, J.; Kashiwagi, H.; Zhang, Z.

    2009-09-20

    In a laser ion source, plasma drift distance is one of the most important design parameters. Ion current density and beam pulse width are defined by plasma drift distance between laser target and beam extraction position. In direct plasma injection scheme (DPIS), which uses a laser ion source and Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) linac, we can apply relatively higher electric field at the beam extraction due to the unique shape of a positively biased electrode. However, when we aim at very high current acceleration like several tens of mA, we observed mismatched beam extraction conditions. We tested three different ion current at ion extraction region by changing plasma drift distance to study better extraction condition. In this experiment, C{sup 6+} beam was accelerated. We confirmed that the matching condition can be improved by controlling plasma drift distance.

  8. Neutron production from beam-modifying devices in a modern double scattering proton therapy beam delivery system

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Andújar, Angélica; Newhauser, Wayne D; DeLuca, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    In this work the neutron production in a passive beam delivery system was investigated. Secondary particles including neutrons are created as the proton beam interacts with beam shaping devices in the treatment head. Stray neutron exposure to the whole body may increase the risk that the patient develops a radiogenic cancer years or decades after radiotherapy. We simulated a passive proton beam delivery system with double scattering technology to determine the neutron production and energy distribution at 200 MeV proton energy. Specifically, we studied the neutron absorbed dose per therapeutic absorbed dose, the neutron absorbed dose per source particle and the neutron energy spectrum at various locations around the nozzle. We also investigated the neutron production along the nozzle's central axis. The absorbed doses and neutron spectra were simulated with the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. The simulations revealed that the range modulation wheel (RMW) is the most intense neutron source of any of the beam spreading devices within the nozzle. This finding suggests that it may be helpful to refine the design of the RMW assembly, e.g., by adding local shielding, to suppress neutron-induced damage to components in the nozzle and to reduce the shielding thickness of the treatment vault. The simulations also revealed that the neutron dose to the patient is predominated by neutrons produced in the field defining collimator assembly, located just upstream of the patient. PMID:19147903

  9. Neutron production from beam-modifying devices in a modern double scattering proton therapy beam delivery system.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Andújar, Angélica; Newhauser, Wayne D; Deluca, Paul M

    2009-02-21

    In this work the neutron production in a passive beam delivery system was investigated. Secondary particles including neutrons are created as the proton beam interacts with beam shaping devices in the treatment head. Stray neutron exposure to the whole body may increase the risk that the patient develops a radiogenic cancer years or decades after radiotherapy. We simulated a passive proton beam delivery system with double scattering technology to determine the neutron production and energy distribution at 200 MeV proton energy. Specifically, we studied the neutron absorbed dose per therapeutic absorbed dose, the neutron absorbed dose per source particle and the neutron energy spectrum at various locations around the nozzle. We also investigated the neutron production along the nozzle's central axis. The absorbed doses and neutron spectra were simulated with the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. The simulations revealed that the range modulation wheel (RMW) is the most intense neutron source of any of the beam spreading devices within the nozzle. This finding suggests that it may be helpful to refine the design of the RMW assembly, e.g., by adding local shielding, to suppress neutron-induced damage to components in the nozzle and to reduce the shielding thickness of the treatment vault. The simulations also revealed that the neutron dose to the patient is predominated by neutrons produced in the field defining collimator assembly, located just upstream of the patient. PMID:19147903

  10. Production of high current proton beams using complex H-rich molecules at GSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adonin, A.; Barth, W.; Heymach, F.; Hollinger, R.; Vormann, H.; Yakushev, A.

    2016-02-01

    In this contribution, the concept of production of intense proton beams using molecular heavy ion beams from an ion source is described, as well as the indisputable advantages of this technique for operation of the GSI linear accelerator. The results of experimental investigations, including mass-spectra analysis and beam emittance measurements, with different ion beams (CH3+,C2H4+,C3H7+) using various gaseous and liquid substances (methane, ethane, propane, isobutane, and iodoethane) at the ion source are summarized. Further steps to improve the ion source and injector performance with molecular beams are depicted.

  11. Production of high current proton beams using complex H-rich molecules at GSI.

    PubMed

    Adonin, A; Barth, W; Heymach, F; Hollinger, R; Vormann, H; Yakushev, A

    2016-02-01

    In this contribution, the concept of production of intense proton beams using molecular heavy ion beams from an ion source is described, as well as the indisputable advantages of this technique for operation of the GSI linear accelerator. The results of experimental investigations, including mass-spectra analysis and beam emittance measurements, with different ion beams (CH3(+),C2H4(+),C3H7(+)) using various gaseous and liquid substances (methane, ethane, propane, isobutane, and iodoethane) at the ion source are summarized. Further steps to improve the ion source and injector performance with molecular beams are depicted. PMID:26932072

  12. Production of high density molecular beams with wide velocity scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, L. S.; Woo, S. O.; Rathnayaka, K. D. D.; Lyuksyutov, I. F.; Herschbach, D. R.

    2016-06-01

    We describe modifications of a pulsed rotating supersonic beam source that improve performance, particularly increasing the beam density and sharpening the pulse profiles. As well as providing the familiar virtues of a supersonic molecular beam (high intensity, narrowed velocity distribution, and drastic cooling of rotation and vibration), the rotating source enables scanning the translational velocity over a wide range. Thereby, beams of any atom or molecule available as a gas can be slowed or speeded. Using Xe beams in the slowing mode, we have obtained lab speeds down to about 40 ± 5 m/s with density near 1011 cm-3 and in the speeding mode lab speeds up to about 660 m/s and density near 1014 cm-3. We discuss some congenial applications. Providing low lab speeds can markedly enhance experiments using electric or magnetic fields to deflect, steer, or further slow polar or paramagnetic molecules. The capability to scan molecular speeds facilitates merging velocities with a codirectional partner beam, enabling study of collisions at very low relative kinetic energies, without requiring either beam to be slow.

  13. Routine production of a triton beam for an FN accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, J.W.; Ashbaugh, P.G.; Stark, J.W.

    1985-10-01

    The use of triton beams from tritiated titanium inserts in a sputter ion source has become a significant part of the McMaster Nuclear Physics programme. Tritium beams have been run on the McMaster University FN Tandem since 1978 on the basis of one scheduled running period per year accumulating a total of over 4000 hours of running time. Beams of up to one microamp are routinely put on target. Procedures for safe maintenance and operation of such a source have been developed, and techniques for handling up to 40 TBq (about 1000 Ci) of tritium have been approved by the Atomic Energy Control Board.

  14. Bunch Beam Production And Microwave Generation In Reditrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, Thomas J. T.; Davis, Harold A.; Fulton, Robert D.; Sherwood, Eugene G.

    1989-07-01

    We have discovered in our two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations that the oscillation of virtual cathodes in reditrons can produce a highly modulated electron beam. Full (100%) current modulation of the leakage electron beam was observed in our simulations. The modulation is at the frequency of the oscillating virtual cathode and the transverse magnetic mode generated by the reditron. We had further incorporated an inverse diode with a line impedance of 50 ohms in the reditron and showed that 28% of the kinetic energy of the modulated electron beam was converted into transverse electromagnetic waves with peak power of 1 GW.

  15. Positive and negative ion beam merging system for neutral beam production

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani

    2005-12-13

    The positive and negative ion beam merging system extracts positive and negative ions of the same species and of the same energy from two separate ion sources. The positive and negative ions from both sources pass through a bending magnetic field region between the pole faces of an electromagnet. Since the positive and negative ions come from mirror image positions on opposite sides of a beam axis, and the positive and negative ions are identical, the trajectories will be symmetrical and the positive and negative ion beams will merge into a single neutral beam as they leave the pole face of the electromagnet. The ion sources are preferably multicusp plasma ion sources. The ion sources may include a multi-aperture extraction system for increasing ion current from the sources.

  16. RI 1170 advanced strapdown gyro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The major components of the RI 1170 gyroscope are described. A detailed functional description of the electronics including block diagrams and photographs of output waveshapes within the loop electronics are presented. An electronic data flow diagram is included. Those gyro subassemblies that were originally planned and subsequently changed or modified for one reason or another are discussed in detail. Variations to the original design included the capacitive pickoffs, torquer flexleads, magnetic suspension, gas bearings, electronic design, and packaging. The selection of components and changes from the original design and components selected are discussed. Device failures experienced throughout the program are reported and design corrections to eliminate the failure modes are noted. Major design deficiencies such as those of the MSE electronics are described in detail. Modifications made to the gas bearing parts and design improvements to the wheel are noted. Changes to the gas bearing prints are included as well as a mathematical analysis of the 1170 gas bearing wheel by computer analysis. The mean free-path effects on gas bearing performance is summarized.

  17. Production and characterization of ion beams from magnetically insulated diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Neri, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The operation of magnetically insulated diodes and the characteristics of the resulting ion beams have been investigated using two pulsed power generators, LYNX at the 10/sup 9/W power level, and Neptune at the 10/sup 11/W power level. LYNX is a small magnetically insulated diode driven directly by a Marx bank. By changing the material used as the surface flashover ion source, the majority ion species generated by the diode could be chosen. Ion beams produced so far by this device are: protons, lithium, boron, carbon, sodium, strontium, and barium. Typical beam parameters for the ion beams are peak energies of 300 keV, current densities of 40 to 60 A/cm/sup 2/, and pulse durations of 300 to 400 nsec. The ion beam uniformity, divergence, and reproducibility were shown to be a function of the surface flashover source geometry. Finally, the LYNX ion beam was also used to anneal silicon crystals and other materials science experiments. The diode used on the Neptune generator was designed to study virtual cathode formation in a high power magnetically insulated diode. The physical cathode was replaced by electrons that ExB drift on the applied magnetic field lines. It was found that the best electrode configuration is one in which the electrons are required to only undergo the Hall drift to form the cathode. The divergence of the ion beam was examined with time-dependent and time-integrated shadowbox diagnostics. It was found that the intrinsic divergence of the ion beam does not have a strong directional dependence.

  18. CRIS: A new method in isomeric beam production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, K. M.; Billowes, J.; Bissell, M. L.; Budincevic, I.; Cocolios, T. E.; De Groote, R. P.; De Schepper, S.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Flanagan, K. T.; Franchoo, S.; Garcia Ruiz, R. F.; Heylen, H.; Marsh, B. A.; Mason, P. J. R.; Neyens, G.; Procter, T. J.; Rossel, R. E.; Rothe, S.; Simpson, G. S.; Smith, A. J.; Strashnov, I.; Stroke, H. H.; Walker, P. M.; Wendt, K. D. A.; Wood, R. T.

    2013-12-01

    The Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment at ISOLDE, CERN, uses laser radiation to stepwise excite and ionize an atomic beam for the purpose of ultra-sensitive detection of rare isotopes, and hyperfine-structure measurements. The technique also offers the ability to purify an ion beam that is heavily contaminated with radioactive isobars, including the ground state of an isotope from its isomer, allowing decay spectroscopy on nuclear isomeric states to be performed. The isomeric ion beam is selected by resonantly exciting one of its hyperfine structure levels, and subsequently ionizing it. This selectively ionized beam is deflected to a decay spectroscopy station (DSS). This consists of a rotating wheel implantation system for alpha- and beta-decay spectroscopy, and up to three germanium detectors around the implantation site for gamma-ray detection. Resonance ionization spectroscopy and the new technique of laser assisted nuclear decay spectroscopy have recently been performed at the CRIS beam line on the neutron-deficient francium isotopes. Here an overview of the two techniques will be presented, alongside a description of the CRIS beam line and DSS.

  19. Ethanol Inhibits High-Affinity Immunoglobulin E Receptor (FcεRI) Signaling in Mast Cells by Suppressing the Function of FcεRI-Cholesterol Signalosome

    PubMed Central

    Draberova, Lubica; Paulenda, Tomas; Halova, Ivana; Potuckova, Lucie; Bugajev, Viktor; Bambouskova, Monika; Tumova, Magda; Draber, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol has multiple effects on biochemical events in a variety of cell types, including the high-affinity immunoglobulin E receptor (FcεRI) signaling in antigen-activated mast cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. To get better understanding of the effect of ethanol on FcεRI-mediated signaling we examined the effect of short-term treatment with non-toxic concentrations of ethanol on FcεRI signaling events in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells. We found that 15 min exposure to ethanol inhibited antigen-induced degranulation, calcium mobilization, expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-13), and formation of reactive oxygen species in a dose-dependent manner. Removal of cellular cholesterol with methyl-β-cyclodextrin had a similar effect and potentiated some of the inhibitory effects of ethanol. In contrast, exposure of the cells to cholesterol-saturated methyl-β-cyclodextrin abolished in part the inhibitory effect of ethanol on calcium response and production of reactive oxygen species, supporting lipid-centric theories of ethanol action on the earliest stages of mast cell signaling. Further studies showed that exposure to ethanol and/or removal of cholesterol inhibited early FcεRI activation events, including tyrosine phosphorylation of the FcεRI β and γ subunits, SYK kinases, LAT adaptor protein, phospholipase Cγ, STAT5, and AKT and internalization of aggregated FcεRI. Interestingly, ethanol alone, and particularly in combination with methyl-β-cyclodextrin, enhanced phosphorylation of negative regulatory tyrosine 507 of LYN kinase. Finally, we found that ethanol reduced passive cutaneous anaphylactic reaction in mice, suggesting that ethanol also inhibits FcεRI signaling under in vivo conditions. The combined data indicate that ethanol interferes with early antigen-induced signaling events in mast cells by suppressing the function of FcεRI

  20. Ethanol Inhibits High-Affinity Immunoglobulin E Receptor (FcεRI) Signaling in Mast Cells by Suppressing the Function of FcεRI-Cholesterol Signalosome.

    PubMed

    Draberova, Lubica; Paulenda, Tomas; Halova, Ivana; Potuckova, Lucie; Bugajev, Viktor; Bambouskova, Monika; Tumova, Magda; Draber, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol has multiple effects on biochemical events in a variety of cell types, including the high-affinity immunoglobulin E receptor (FcεRI) signaling in antigen-activated mast cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. To get better understanding of the effect of ethanol on FcεRI-mediated signaling we examined the effect of short-term treatment with non-toxic concentrations of ethanol on FcεRI signaling events in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells. We found that 15 min exposure to ethanol inhibited antigen-induced degranulation, calcium mobilization, expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-13), and formation of reactive oxygen species in a dose-dependent manner. Removal of cellular cholesterol with methyl-β-cyclodextrin had a similar effect and potentiated some of the inhibitory effects of ethanol. In contrast, exposure of the cells to cholesterol-saturated methyl-β-cyclodextrin abolished in part the inhibitory effect of ethanol on calcium response and production of reactive oxygen species, supporting lipid-centric theories of ethanol action on the earliest stages of mast cell signaling. Further studies showed that exposure to ethanol and/or removal of cholesterol inhibited early FcεRI activation events, including tyrosine phosphorylation of the FcεRI β and γ subunits, SYK kinases, LAT adaptor protein, phospholipase Cγ, STAT5, and AKT and internalization of aggregated FcεRI. Interestingly, ethanol alone, and particularly in combination with methyl-β-cyclodextrin, enhanced phosphorylation of negative regulatory tyrosine 507 of LYN kinase. Finally, we found that ethanol reduced passive cutaneous anaphylactic reaction in mice, suggesting that ethanol also inhibits FcεRI signaling under in vivo conditions. The combined data indicate that ethanol interferes with early antigen-induced signaling events in mast cells by suppressing the function of FcεRI

  1. Collisional pumping for the production of intense spin-polarized neutral beams: target considerations. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Stearns, J.W.; Burrell, C.F.; Kaplan, S.N.; Pyle, R.V.; Ruby, L.; Schlachter, A.S.

    1985-04-01

    Polarized beams at intensity levels heretofore not considered feasible have recently been proposed for heating and fueling fusion plasmas. Polarized-beam fueling could increase fusion rates by 50% as well as allow control of the directionality of the fusion products. A process which we have recently described, and called collisional pumping, promises to produce beams of polarized ions vastly more intense than producible by current methods.

  2. Fusion-neutron production in the TFTR with deuterium neutral beam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Hendel, H.W.; England, A.C.; Jassby, D.L.; Mirin, A.A.; Nieschmidt, E.B.

    1986-06-01

    We report measurements of the fusion reaction rate in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) covering a wide range of plasma conditions and injected neutral beam powers up to 6.3 MW. The fusion-neutron production rate in beam-injected plasmas decreases slightly with increasing plasma density n/sub e/, even though the energy confinement parameter n/sub e/tau/sub E/ generally increases with density. The measurements indicate and Fokker-Planck simulations show that with increasing density the source of fusion neutrons evolves from mainly beam-beam and beam-target reactions at very low n/sub e/ to a combination of beam-target and thermonuclear reactions at high n/sub e/. At a given plasma current, the reduction in neutron source strength at higher n/sub e/ is due to both a decrease in electron temperature and in beam-beam reaction rate. The Fokker-Planck simulations also show that at low n/sub e/, plasma rotation can appreciably reduce the beam-target reaction rate for experiments with co-injection only. The variation of neutron source strength with plasma and beam parameters is as expected for beam-dominated regimes. However, the Fokker-Planck simulations systematically overestimate the measured source strength by a factor of 2 to 3; the source of this discrepancy has not yet been identified.

  3. Microbeam production using compound refractive lenses: beam characterization and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroer, Christian G.; Lengeler, Bruno; Benner, Boris; Guenzler, Til F.; Kuhlmann, Marion; Simionovici, Alexandre S.; Bohic, Sylvain; Drakopoulos, Michael; Snigirev, Anatoly A.; Snigireva, Irina; Schroeder, Walter H.

    2001-12-01

    Parabolic compound refractive lenses (PCRLs) are high quality hard x-ray imaging optics that can be used to image a synchrotron source onto a sample in a strongly demagnifying setup. This allows to produce an intensive microbeam with lateral extensions in the (sub-)micrometer range. Aluminium PCRLs can be operated in an energy range from about 10keV to 60keV and withstand the high heat load of the white beam of an ESRF undulator source. The microbeam properties using monochromatic and single undulator harmonic (pink) radiation are discussed, focusing on beam size, depth of field, background, flux, and gain. The large depth of focus allows to scan fairly large samples (a few millimeters in thickness) with a beam of constant lateral extension. This makes tomographic scanning techniques, such as fluorescence microtomography possible. As applications, fluorescence microtomography of plant samples with sub-cellular resolution and the mapping of trace elements in single cancer cells is shown.

  4. Production of pulsed atomic oxygen beams via laser vaporization methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinza, David E.; Coulter, Daniel R.; Liang, Ranty H.; Gupta, Amitava

    1986-01-01

    The generation of energetic pulsed atomic oxygen beams by laser-driven evaporation of cryogenically frozen ozone/oxygen films and thin indium-tin oxide (ITO) films is reported. Mass spectroscopy is used in the mass and energy characterization of beams from the ozone/oxygen films, and a peak flux of 3 x 10 to the 20th/sq m per sec at 10 eV is found. Analysis of the time-of-flight data suggests that several processes contribute to the formation of the oxygen beam. Results show the absence of metastable states such as the 2p(3)3s(1)(5S) level of atomic oxygen blown-off from the ITO films. The present process has application to the study of the oxygen degradation problem of LEO materials.

  5. Studies of slow-positron production using low-energy primary electron beams.

    SciTech Connect

    Lessner, E.

    1999-04-20

    Slow-positron beams produced from negative-work-function solid-state moderators have found numerous applications in condensed matter physics. There are potential advantages in using low-energy primary electron beams for positron production, including reduced radiation damage to single-crystal moderators and reduced activation of nearby components. We present numerical calculations of positron yields and other beam parameters for various target-moderator configurations using the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) [1] and Advanced Photon Source (APS) [2] electron linacs [3] as examples of sources for the primary electron beams. The status of experiments at these facilities is reviewed.

  6. Production of pulsed atomic oxygen beams via laser vaporization methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinza, David E.; Coulter, Daniel R.; Liang, Ranty H.; Gupta, Amitava

    1987-01-01

    Energetic pulsed atomic oxygen beams were generated by laser-driven evaporation of cryogenically frozen ozone/oxygen films and thin films of indium-tin oxide (ITO). Mass and energy characterization of beams from the ozone/oxygen films were carried out by mass spectrometry. The peak flux, found to occur at 10 eV, is estimated from this data to be 3 x 10(20) m(-2) s(-1). Analysis of the time-of-flight data indicates a number of processes contribute to the formation of the atomic oxygen beam. The absence of metastable states such as the 2p(3) 3s(1) (5S) level of atomic oxygen blown off from ITO films is supported by the failure to observe emission at 777.3 nm from the 2p(3) 3p(1) (5P sub J) levels. Reactive scattering experiments with polymer film targets for atomic oxygen bombardment are planned using a universal crossed molecular beam apparatus.

  7. The production and use of ultralow energy ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, R. D.; Armour, D. G.; van den Berg, J. A.; Cook, C. E. A.; Whelan, S.; Zhang, S.; Knorr, N.; Foad, M. A.; Ohno, H.

    2000-02-01

    An ion accelerator, purpose built to produce beams at energies down to 10 eV with current densities in the 10-100 μA cm-2 range, is described. Fitted with dual ion source assemblies, the machine enables ultralow energy ion implantation and the growth of films and multilayers to be carried out under highly controlled conditions. The accelerator delivers ion beams into an ultrahigh vacuum chamber, containing a temperature controlled target stage (range -120 to +1350 °C), where they are used to study the fundamental physics relating to the interaction of ultralow energy ions with surfaces. This knowledge underlies a wide range of ion-beam and plasma-based technologies and, to illustrate its importance, results are presented from investigations designed to determine the optimum conditions for the growth of diamond-like and aluminum films by ion-beam deposition and the formation of ultrashallow junctions in semiconductors by 2.5 keV As+ implantation. The later investigation shows how transient arsenic diffusion, which occurs during post-implant thermal processing, can be controlled by manipulating the substrate temperature during implantation.

  8. Production of multiply charged ion beams from solid substances with the mVINIS ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Draganic, I.; Dobrosavljevic, A.; Nedeljkovic, T.; Siljegovic, M.

    2006-03-15

    The mVINIS ion source has enabled us to obtain multiply charged ion beams from gases as well as from solid materials. The solid substance ion beams were produced by using two techniques: (a) the evaporation of metals by using the inlet system based on a minioven and (b) the metal-ions-from-volatile-compounds method (MIVOC) by using the modified gas inlet system. Great efforts were made in the production of high current stable ion beams of solids with relatively high melting points (over 1000 deg. C). The B{sup 3+} ion-beam current of over 300 {mu}A was one of the most intensive beams extracted until now. The obtained multiply charged ion-beam spectra of solid substances (B, Fe, and Zn) are presented as well as some of the corresponding experimental results achieved during the modification of polymers, carbon materials, and fullerenes.

  9. Monochromatic neutron beam production at Brazilian nuclear research reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stasiulevicius, Roberto; Rodrigues, Claudio; Parente, Carlos B. R.; Voi, Dante L.; Rogers, John D.

    2000-12-01

    Monochomatic beams of neutrons are obtained form a nuclear reactor polychromatic beam by the diffraction process, suing a single crystal energy selector. In Brazil, two nuclear research reactors, the swimming pool model IEA-R1 and the Argonaut type IEN-R1 have been used to carry out measurements with this technique. Neutron spectra have been measured using crystal spectrometers installed on the main beam lines of each reactor. The performance of conventional- artificial and natural selected crystals has been verified by the multipurpose neutron diffractometers installed at IEA-R1 and simple crystal spectrometer in operator at IEN- R1. A practical figure of merit formula was introduced to evaluate the performance and relative reflectivity of the selected planes of a single crystal. The total of 16 natural crystals were selected for use in the neutron monochromator, including a total of 24 families of planes. Twelve of these natural crystal types and respective best family of planes were measured directly with the multipurpose neutron diffractometers. The neutron spectrometer installed at IEN- R1 was used to confirm test results of the better specimens. The usually conventional-artificial crystal spacing distance range is limited to 3.4 angstrom. The interplane distance range has now been increased to approximately 10 angstrom by use of naturally occurring crystals. The neutron diffraction technique with conventional and natural crystals for energy selection and filtering can be utilized to obtain monochromatic sub and thermal neutrons with energies in the range of 0.001 to 10 eV. The thermal neutron is considered a good tool or probe for general applications in various fields, such as condensed matter, chemistry, biology, industrial applications and others.

  10. Velocity Distributions and Proton Beam Production in the Solar Wind

    SciTech Connect

    Pierrard, Viviane; Voitenko, Yuriy

    2010-03-25

    Helios, Ulysses, and Wind spacecraft have observed the velocity distribution functions (VDFs) of solar wind particles deviating significantly from Maxwellians. We review recent models using different approximations and mechanisms that determine various observed characteristics of the VDFs for the electrons, protons and minor ions. A new generation mechanism is proposed for super-Alfvenic proton beams and tails that are often observed in the fast solar wind. The mechanism is based on the proton trapping and acceleration by kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs), which carry a field-aligned potential well propagating with super-Alfven velocities.

  11. Production of (211)At by a vertical beam irradiation method.

    PubMed

    Nagatsu, Kotaro; Minegishi, Katsuyuki; Fukada, Masami; Suzuki, Hisashi; Hasegawa, Sumitaka; Zhang, Ming-Rong

    2014-12-01

    We produced (211)At by irradiating the semi-sealed encapsulated Bi target with an external vertical beam. At 28.5MeV, the yield of (211)At was 22MBq/μAh (600μCi/μAh). (211)At was recovered by dry distillation, and 80% of the produced (211)At was successfully obtained in dry Na(211)At form within 2h from the end of bombardment (EOB). The radionuclidic purity of (211)At was >99% at 5h from EOB. PMID:25439168

  12. Production of intense metal ion beams from ECR ion sources using the MIVOC method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomolov, S. L.; Bondarchenko, A. E.; Efremov, A. A.; Kuzmenkov, K. I.; Lebedev, A. N.; Lebedev, K. V.; Lebedev, V. Ya.; Loginov, V. N.; Mironov, V. E.; Yazvitsky, N. Yu.

    2015-12-01

    The production of metal ion beams by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources using the MIVOC (Metal Ions from Volatile Compounds) method is described. The method is based on the use of metal compounds which have high vapor pressure at room temperature, e.g., C2B10H12, Fe(C5H5)2, etc. Intense ion beams of B and Fe were produced using this method at the FLNR JINR cyclotrons. Experiments on the production of cobalt, chromium, vanadium, germanium, and hafnium ion beams were performed at the test bench of ECR ion sources. Main efforts were put into production and acceleration of 50Ti ion beams at the U-400 cyclotron. The experiments on the production of 50Ti ion beams were performed at the test bench using natural and enriched compounds of titanium (CH3)5C5Ti(CH3)3. In these experiments, 80 μA 48Ti5+ and 70 μA 48Ti11+ beam currents were obtained at different settings of the source. Following successful tests, two 3-week runs were performed with 50Ti beams at the U-400 cyclotron aimed to perform experiments on the spectroscopy of superheavy elements. The intensity of the injected 50Ti5+ beam was 50-60 μA. The source worked stably during experiments. The compound consumption rate was determined at about 2.4 mg/h, which corresponded to the 50Ti consumption of 0.6 mg/h.

  13. 77 FR 6010 - Anchorage Regulations; Newport, RI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ...; Newport, RI'' in the Federal Register (76 FR 59596). We received no comments on the proposed rule. Basis..., DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is changing the shape and expanding the dimensions... this rule is to change the shape and expand the dimensions of anchorage ``D'' at Newport, Rhode...

  14. Reflective electron-beam lithography: progress toward high-throughput production capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freed, Regina; Gubiotti, Thomas; Sun, Jeff; Kidwingira, Francoise; Yang, Jason; Ummethala, Upendra; Hale, Layton C.; Hench, John J.; Kojima, Shinichi; Mieher, Walter D.; Bevis, Chris F.; Lin, Shy-Jay; Wang, Wen-Chuan

    2012-03-01

    Maskless electron beam lithography can potentially extend semiconductor manufacturing to the 16 nm technology node and beyond. KLA-Tencor is developing Reflective Electron Beam Lithography (REBL) targeting high-volume 16 nm half pitch (HP) production. This paper reviews progress in the development of the REBL system towards its goal of 100 wph throughput for High Volume Manufacturing (HVM) at the 2X and 1X nm nodes. We will demonstrate the ability to print TSMC test patterns with the integrated system in photoresist on silicon wafers at 45 nm resolution. Additionally, we present simulation and experimental results that demonstrate that the system meets performance targets for a typical foundry product mix. Previously, KLA-Tencor reported on the development of a REBL tool for maskless lithography at and below the 16 nm HP technology node1. Since that time, the REBL team and its partners (TSMC, IMEC) have made good progress towards developing the REBL system and Digital Pattern Generator (DPG) for direct write lithography. Traditionally, e-beam direct write lithography has been too slow for most lithography applications. E-beam direct write lithography has been used for mask writing rather than wafer processing since the maximum blur requirements limit column beam current - which drives e-beam throughput. To print small features and a fine pitch with an e-beam tool requires a sacrifice in processing time unless one significantly increases the total number of beams on a single writing tool. Because of the continued uncertainty with regards to the optical lithography roadmap beyond the 16 nm HP technology node, the semiconductor equipment industry is in the process of designing and testing e-beam lithography tools with the potential for HVM.

  15. GridPix detectors: Production and beam test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppert, W. J. C.; van Bakel, N.; Bilevych, Y.; Colas, P.; Desch, K.; Fransen, M.; van der Graaf, H.; Hartjes, F.; Hessey, N. P.; Kaminski, J.; Schmitz, J.; Schön, R.; Zappon, F.

    2013-12-01

    The innovative GridPix detector is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) that is read out with a Timepix-1 pixel chip. By using wafer post-processing techniques an aluminium grid is placed on top of the chip. When operated, the electric field between the grid and the chip is sufficient to create electron induced avalanches which are detected by the pixels. The time-to-digital converter (TDC) records the drift time enabling the reconstruction of high precision 3D track segments. Recently GridPixes were produced on full wafer scale, to meet the demand for more reliable and cheaper devices in large quantities. In a recent beam test the contribution of both diffusion and time walk to the spatial and angular resolutions of a GridPix detector with a 1.2 mm drift gap are studied in detail. In addition long term tests show that in a significant fraction of the chips the protection layer successfully quenches discharges, preventing harm to the chip.

  16. 34. Boston switch interlocking tower. Central Falls, Providence Co., RI. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Boston switch interlocking tower. Central Falls, Providence Co., RI. Sec. 4116, mp 190.40. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between CT & MA state lines, Providence, Providence County, RI

  17. RESONATORS, MODES, BEAMS: Gain saturation of laser beams and production and decay of phase dislocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyutin, A. A.

    2006-02-01

    The distortion of the distribution of initially pure laser modes caused by the gain saturation is simulated numerically. It is shown that the gain saturation results in a considerable enrichment of the modal spectrum of radiation accompanied by the production and decay of phase dislocations in the far-field domain and at the output of an astigmatic π/2-mode converter.

  18. Production of Mass-Separated Fission Fragment Beams at ALTO

    SciTech Connect

    Lebois, M.; Cheikh Mhamed, M.; Curaudeau, J. M.; Ducourtieux, M.; Essabaa, S.; Franchoo, S.; Gales, S.; Guillemaud-Mueller, D.; Ibrahim, F.; Lau, C.; Lesrel, J.; Mueller, A.; Raynaud, M.; Roussiere, B.; Said, A.; Verney, D.; Vogel, C.

    2007-05-22

    Yields of neutron-rich isotopes produced by the photofission were measured at the ISOL ALTO facility. The identification was achieved by a combined measurement of {beta} and {gamma}-rays. Production rates for Xe, Kr, Sn, In and I isotopes are presented here. In parallel, empirical estimations for the yields based on the PARRNe experimental data and the results provided by a very recent FLUKA simulation are presented.

  19. Large-angle production of charged pions with incident pion beams on nuclear targets

    SciTech Connect

    Apollonio, M.; Chimenti, P.; Giannini, G.; Artamonov, A.; Giani, S.; Gilardoni, S.; Gorbunov, P.; Grant, A.; Grossheim, A.; Ivanchenko, A.; Ivanchenko, V.; Kayis-Topaksu, A.; Panman, J.; Papadopoulos, I.; Tcherniaev, E.; Tsukerman, I.; Wiebusch, C.; Zucchelli, P.; Bagulya, A.; Grichine, V.

    2009-12-15

    Measurements of the double-differential {pi}{sup {+-}} production cross section in the range of momentum 100{<=}p{<=}800 MeV/c and angle 0.35{<=}{theta}{<=}2.15 rad using {pi}{sup {+-}} beams incident on beryllium, aluminum, carbon, copper, tin, tantalum, and lead targets are presented. The data were taken with the large-acceptance hadron production (HARP) detector in the T9 beam line of the CERN Proton Synchrotron. The secondary pions were produced by beams in a momentum range from 3 to 12.9GeV/c hitting a solid target with a thickness of 5% of a nuclear interaction length. The tracking and identification of the produced particles was performed using a small-radius cylindrical time projection chamber placed inside a solenoidal magnet. Incident particles were identified by an elaborate system of beam detectors. Results are obtained for the double-differential cross sections d{sup 2}{sigma}/dp d{theta} at six incident-beam momenta. Data at 3,5,8, and 12GeV/c are available for all targets, while additional data at 8.9 and 12.9GeV/c were taken in positive particle beams on Be and Al targets, respectively. The measurements are compared with several generators of GEANT4 and the MARS Monte Carlo simulation.

  20. Large-angle production of charged pions with incident pion beams on nuclear targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollonio, M.; Artamonov, A.; Bagulya, A.; Barr, G.; Blondel, A.; Bobisut, F.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonesini, M.; Booth, C.; Borghi, S.; Bunyatov, S.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Catanesi, M. G.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Chimenti, P.; Coney, L.; Capua, E. Di; Dore, U.; Dumarchez, J.; Edgecock, R.; Ellis, M.; Ferri, F.; Gastaldi, U.; Giani, S.; Giannini, G.; Gibin, D.; Gilardoni, S.; Gorbunov, P.; Gößling, C.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; Grant, A.; Graulich, J. S.; Grégoire, G.; Grichine, V.; Grossheim, A.; Guglielmi, A.; Howlett, L.; Ivanchenko, A.; Ivanchenko, V.; Kayis-Topaksu, A.; Kirsanov, M.; Kolev, D.; Krasnoperov, A.; Martín-Albo, J.; Meurer, C.; Mezzetto, M.; Mills, G. B.; Morone, M. C.; Novella, P.; Orestano, D.; Palladino, V.; Panman, J.; Papadopoulos, I.; Pastore, F.; Piperov, S.; Polukhina, N.; Popov, B.; Prior, G.; Radicioni, E.; Schmitz, D.; Schroeter, R.; Skoro, G.; Sorel, M.; Tcherniaev, E.; Temnikov, P.; Tereschenko, V.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortora, L.; Tsenov, R.; Tsukerman, I.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Wiebusch, C.; Zucchelli, P.

    2009-12-01

    Measurements of the double-differential π± production cross section in the range of momentum 100⩽p⩽800 MeV/c and angle 0.35⩽θ⩽2.15 rad using π± beams incident on beryllium, aluminum, carbon, copper, tin, tantalum, and lead targets are presented. The data were taken with the large-acceptance hadron production (HARP) detector in the T9 beam line of the CERN Proton Synchrotron. The secondary pions were produced by beams in a momentum range from 3 to 12.9GeV/c hitting a solid target with a thickness of 5% of a nuclear interaction length. The tracking and identification of the produced particles was performed using a small-radius cylindrical time projection chamber placed inside a solenoidal magnet. Incident particles were identified by an elaborate system of beam detectors. Results are obtained for the double-differential cross sections d2σ/dpdθ at six incident-beam momenta. Data at 3,5,8, and 12GeV/c are available for all targets, while additional data at 8.9 and 12.9GeV/c were taken in positive particle beams on Be and Al targets, respectively. The measurements are compared with several generators of GEANT4 and the MARS Monte Carlo simulation.

  1. In-beam production and transport of radioactive {sup 17}F at ATLAS.

    SciTech Connect

    Pardo, R. C.

    1998-11-30

    Beam currents of radioactive {sup 17}F(T{sub 1/2} = 65s) as high as 2 x 10{sup 6} s{sup {minus}1} have been produced at the ATLAS facility and delivered to target for nuclear physics research. The d({sup 16}O, {sup 17}F)n and p({sup 17}O,{sup 17}F)n reaction were used to produce the {sup 17}F in the energy range of 65-110 MeV with {sup 17}F intensities of up to 250 pnA. The target employed is a liquid nitrogen cooled H{sub 2} gas cell, with HAVAR windows, operating at up to 8 x 10{sup 4} Pa pressure. A new beam optics geometry consisting of a superconducting solenoid immediately after the production target followed by a single superconducting resonator has significantly improved the total capture efficiency of the transport system. The superconducting solenoid captures the highly divergent secondary beam and refocuses it to improve the beam match into the remainder of the transport system. A single superconducting resonator then ''debunches'' the beam, reducing the energy spread by a factor of four. The beam energy can also be varied, using the resonant cavity, without changing the primary beam energy. Detailed discussion of the results, comparison to calculations, and further possible improvements will be presented.

  2. High-intensity, high-brightness polarized and unpolarized beam production in charge-exchange collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenski, A.; Ritter, J.; Zubets, V.; Steski, D.; Atoian, G.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Kolmogorov, A.

    2011-03-28

    Basic limitations on the high-intensity H{sup -} ion beam production were experimentally studied in charge-exchange collisions of the neutral atomic hydrogen beam in the Na-vapour jet ionizer cell. These studies are the part of the polarized source upgrade (to 10 mA peak current and 85% polarization) project for RHIC. In the source the atomic hydrogen beam of a 5-10 keV energy and total (equivalent) current up to 5 A is produced by neutralization of proton beam in pulsed hydrogen gas target. Formation of the proton beam (from the surface of the plasma emitter with a low transverse ion temperature {approx}0.2 eV) is produced by four-electrode spherical multi-aperture ion-optical system with geometrical focusing. The hydrogen atomic beam intensity up to 1.0 A/cm{sup 2} (equivalent) was obtained in the Na-jet ionizer aperture of a 2.0 cm diameter. At the first stage of the experiment H-beam with 36 mA current, 5 keV energy and {approx}1.0 cm {center_dot} mrad normalized emittance was obtained using the flat grids and magnetic focusing.

  3. Hadron production measurements to constrain accelerator neutrino beams

    SciTech Connect

    Korzenev, Alexander

    2015-07-15

    A precise prediction of expected neutrino fluxes is required for a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment. The flux is used to measure neutrino cross sections at the near detector, while at the far detector it provides an estimate of the expected signal for the study of neutrino oscillations. In the talk several approaches to constrain the ν flux are presented. The first is the traditional one when an interaction chain for the neutrino parent hadrons is stored to be weighted later with real measurements. In this approach differential hadron cross sections are used which, in turn, are measured in ancillary hadron production experiments. The approach is certainly model dependent because it requires an extrapolation to different incident nucleon momenta assuming x{sub F} scaling as well as extrapolation between materials having different atomic numbers. In the second approach one uses a hadron production yields off a real target exploited in the neutrino beamline. Yields of neutrino parent hadrons are parametrized at the surface of the target, thus one avoids to trace the particle interaction history inside the target. As in the case of the first approach, a dedicated ancillary experiment is mandatory. Recent results from the hadron production experiments – NA61/SHINE at CERN (measurements for T2K) and MIPP at Fermilab (measurements for NuMI) – are reviewed.

  4. Hadron production measurements to constrain accelerator neutrino beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzenev, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    A precise prediction of expected neutrino fluxes is required for a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment. The flux is used to measure neutrino cross sections at the near detector, while at the far detector it provides an estimate of the expected signal for the study of neutrino oscillations. In the talk several approaches to constrain the ν flux are presented. The first is the traditional one when an interaction chain for the neutrino parent hadrons is stored to be weighted later with real measurements. In this approach differential hadron cross sections are used which, in turn, are measured in ancillary hadron production experiments. The approach is certainly model dependent because it requires an extrapolation to different incident nucleon momenta assuming xF scaling as well as extrapolation between materials having different atomic numbers. In the second approach one uses a hadron production yields off a real target exploited in the neutrino beamline. Yields of neutrino parent hadrons are parametrized at the surface of the target, thus one avoids to trace the particle interaction history inside the target. As in the case of the first approach, a dedicated ancillary experiment is mandatory. Recent results from the hadron production experiments - NA61/SHINE at CERN (measurements for T2K) and MIPP at Fermilab (measurements for NuMI) - are reviewed.

  5. Plasma heating, plasma flow and wave production around an electron beam injected into the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winckler, J. R.; Erickson, K. N.

    1986-01-01

    A brief historical summary of the Minnesota ECHO series and other relevant electron beam experiments is given. The primary purpose of the ECHO experiments is the use of conjugate echoes as probes of the magnetosphere, but beam-plasma and wave studies were also made. The measurement of quasi-dc electric fields and ion streaming during the ECHO 6 experiment has given a pattern for the plasma flow in the hot plasma region extending to 60m radius about the ECHO 6 electron beam. The sheath and potential well caused by ion orbits is discussed with the aid of a model which fits the observations. ELF wave production in the plasma sheath around the beam is briefly discussed. The new ECHO 7 mission to be launched from the Poker Flat range in November 1987 is described.

  6. The Transcription Factor Ehf Is Involved in TGF-β-Induced Suppression of FcεRI and c-Kit Expression and FcεRI-Mediated Activation in Mast Cells.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Susumu; Nakano, Nobuhiro; Honjo, Asuka; Hara, Mutsuko; Maeda, Keiko; Nishiyama, Chiharu; Kitaura, Jiro; Ohtsuka, Yoshikazu; Okumura, Ko; Ogawa, Hideoki; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2015-10-01

    FcεRI, which is composed of α, β, and γ subunits, plays an important role in IgE-mediated allergic responses. TGF-β1 has been reported to suppress FcεRI and stem cell factor receptor c-Kit expression on mast cell surfaces and to suppress mast cell activation induced by cross-linking of FcεRI. However, the molecular mechanism by which these expressions and activation are suppressed by TGF-β1 remains unclear. In this study, we found that the expression of Ets homologous factor (Ehf), a member of the Ets family transcriptional factors, is upregulated by TGF-β/Smad signaling in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). Forced expression of Ehf in BMMCs repressed the transcription of genes encoding FcεRIα, FcεRIβ, and c-Kit, resulting in a reduction in cell surface FcεRI and c-Kit expression. Additionally, forced expression of Ehf suppressed FcεRI-mediated degranulation and cytokine production. Ehf inhibited the promoter activity of genes encoding FcεRIα, FcεRIβ, and c-Kit by binding to these gene promoters. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of Gata1, Gata2, and Stat5b were lower in BMMCs stably expressing Ehf compared with control cells. Because GATA-1 and GATA-2 are positive regulators of FcεRI and c-Kit expression, decreased expression of GATAs may be also involved in the reduction of FcεRI and c-Kit expression. Decreased expression of Stat5 may contribute to the suppression of cytokine production by BMMCs. In part, mast cell response to TGF-β1 was mimicked by forced expression of Ehf, suggesting that TGF-β1 suppresses FcεRI and c-Kit expression and suppresses FcεRI-mediated activation through upregulation of Ehf. PMID:26297757

  7. Advancement of highly charged ion beam production by superconducting ECR ion source SECRAL (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Guo, J. W.; Lu, W.; Zhang, W. H.; Feng, Y. C.; Yang, Y.; Qian, C.; Fang, X.; Ma, H. Y.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.

    2016-02-01

    At Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source SECRAL (Superconducting ECR ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou) has been put into operation for about 10 years now. It has been the main working horse to deliver intense highly charged heavy ion beams for the accelerators. Since its first plasma at 18 GHz, R&D work towards more intense highly charged ion beam production as well as the beam quality investigation has never been stopped. When SECRAL was upgraded to its typical operation frequency 24 GHz, it had already showed its promising capacity of very intense highly charged ion beam production. And it has also provided the strong experimental support for the so called scaling laws of microwave frequency effect. However, compared to the microwave power heating efficiency at 18 GHz, 24 GHz microwave heating does not show the ω2 scale at the same power level, which indicates that microwave power coupling at gyrotron frequency needs better understanding. In this paper, after a review of the operation status of SECRAL with regard to the beam availability and stability, the recent study of the extracted ion beam transverse coupling issues will be discussed, and the test results of the both TE01 and HE11 modes will be presented. A general comparison of the performance working with the two injection modes will be given, and a preliminary analysis will be introduced. The latest results of the production of very intense highly charged ion beams, such as 1.42 emA Ar12+, 0.92 emA Xe27+, and so on, will be presented.

  8. Advancement of highly charged ion beam production by superconducting ECR ion source SECRAL (invited).

    PubMed

    Sun, L; Guo, J W; Lu, W; Zhang, W H; Feng, Y C; Yang, Y; Qian, C; Fang, X; Ma, H Y; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2016-02-01

    At Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source SECRAL (Superconducting ECR ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou) has been put into operation for about 10 years now. It has been the main working horse to deliver intense highly charged heavy ion beams for the accelerators. Since its first plasma at 18 GHz, R&D work towards more intense highly charged ion beam production as well as the beam quality investigation has never been stopped. When SECRAL was upgraded to its typical operation frequency 24 GHz, it had already showed its promising capacity of very intense highly charged ion beam production. And it has also provided the strong experimental support for the so called scaling laws of microwave frequency effect. However, compared to the microwave power heating efficiency at 18 GHz, 24 GHz microwave heating does not show the ω(2) scale at the same power level, which indicates that microwave power coupling at gyrotron frequency needs better understanding. In this paper, after a review of the operation status of SECRAL with regard to the beam availability and stability, the recent study of the extracted ion beam transverse coupling issues will be discussed, and the test results of the both TE01 and HE11 modes will be presented. A general comparison of the performance working with the two injection modes will be given, and a preliminary analysis will be introduced. The latest results of the production of very intense highly charged ion beams, such as 1.42 emA Ar(12+), 0.92 emA Xe(27+), and so on, will be presented. PMID:26931925

  9. Radiative production of sneutrinos in e+e- annihilation with polarized beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, F.; Fraas, H.

    1994-04-01

    We give for the process e++e--->ν~+ν~¯+γ of radiative sneutrino production with polarized beams the complete analytic expression for the transition amplitude. For beam energies between 100 and 500 GeV the total cross section, the photon energy spectrum, and photon angular distribution as well as the respective longitudinal polarization asymmetries are computed in representative gaugino-Higgsino mixing scenarios with the sneutrino decaying only into the lightest neutralino. Comparing the results with those for the competing standard process of radiative neutrino production we show that with the expected luminosity for a 500-GeV e+e- collider it would be difficult to identify a sneutrino lighter than both the chargino and the second lightest neutralino. The use of longitudinally polarized beams especially would not facilitate identification of the sneutrino in this mass region.

  10. The production and use of radioactive nuclear beams at the Bevalac

    SciTech Connect

    Krebs, G.F.; Alonso, J.R.; Feinberg, B.; Kalnins, J.G.

    1991-10-01

    Using the fragmentation process, radioactive nuclear beams (RNB) are routinely produced at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory`s Bevalac. Three beam lines are operational for production and transport of RNB: (1) a line for use in the radiotherapy treatment program (A {congruent} 20 amu), (2) a line for low mass (A {congruent} 20 amu) nuclear science studies and (3) a line for medium mass (A {congruent} 50 amu) nuclear science studies. A fourth beam line is under construction that will allow higher mass RNB (A {congruent} 100 amu) to be transmitted to the Bevalac`s Heavy Ion Superconducting Spectrometer. Characteristics of RNB production and transport efficiency are described along with the RNB experimental program at the Bevalac.

  11. The production and use of radioactive nuclear beams at the Bevalac

    SciTech Connect

    Krebs, G.F.; Alonso, J.R.; Feinberg, B.; Kalnins, J.G.

    1991-10-01

    Using the fragmentation process, radioactive nuclear beams (RNB) are routinely produced at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. Three beam lines are operational for production and transport of RNB: (1) a line for use in the radiotherapy treatment program (A {congruent} 20 amu), (2) a line for low mass (A {congruent} 20 amu) nuclear science studies and (3) a line for medium mass (A {congruent} 50 amu) nuclear science studies. A fourth beam line is under construction that will allow higher mass RNB (A {congruent} 100 amu) to be transmitted to the Bevalac's Heavy Ion Superconducting Spectrometer. Characteristics of RNB production and transport efficiency are described along with the RNB experimental program at the Bevalac.

  12. Measurement of desorbed products during organic polymer thin film etching by plasma beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kurihara, Kazuaki; Karahashi, Kazuhiro; Egami, Akihiro; Nakamura, Moritaka

    2006-11-15

    The authors investigated the etching characteristics of three kinds of methacrylate polymer films, which have the same main chain but with different side chains, using a plasma beam irradiation apparatus. The polymers are polytbutylmethacrylate, polybenzylmethacrylate, and polycyclohexylmethacrylate. The major desorbed products during nitrogen plasma beam etching were found to be HCN and C{sub 2}N{sub 2} for all methacrylate polymer films. The desorbed products originating from the polymer structure, namely, the main chain and the side chain, were hardly observed. The energy distributions of desorbed products were mainly composed of Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution with a small component of collision cascade distribution for all three polymers and were slightly dependent on the ion energy. It is concluded that chemical sputtering, which can be defined as the production of weakly bound species by ion bombardment, followed by thermal desorption, is the significant ion induced mechanism of organic polymer etching.

  13. Production cross section of neutron-rich isotopes with radioactive and stable beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Myeong-Hwan; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Oh, Yongseok; Kim, Youngman

    2014-03-01

    The production cross section of neutron-rich isotopes of Ca, Zn, Te, Xe, and Pt are predicted in the diffusive multinucleon transfer reactions with stable and radioactive beams. With these isotopes one can treat the neutron shell evolution beyond N =28, 50, 82, and 126. Because of the small cross sections, the production of nuclei near the neutron drip line requires the optimal choice of reaction partners and bombarding energies.

  14. Reactive Collisions in Crossed Molecular Beams

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Herschbach, D. R.

    1962-02-01

    The distribution of velocity vectors of reaction products is discussed with emphasis on the restrictions imposed by the conservation laws. The recoil velocity that carries the products away from the center of mass shows how the energy of reaction is divided between internal excitation and translation. Similarly, the angular distributions, as viewed from the center of mass, reflect the partitioning of the total angular momentum between angular momenta of individual molecules and orbital angular momentum associated with their relative motion. Crossed-beam studies of several reactions of the type M + RI yields R + MI are described, where M = K, Rb, Cs, and R = CH{sub 3}, C{sub 3}H{sub 5}, etc. The results show that most of the energy of reaction goes into internal excitation of the products and that the angular distribution is quite anisotropic, with most of the MI recoiling backward (and R forward) with respect to the incoming K beam. (auth)

  15. Streamlining the RI/FS process

    SciTech Connect

    Dumas, L.; Doss, R.C.

    1998-07-01

    In 1994, Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E) contracted with CH2M HILL to manage remedial investigations and feasibility studies (RI/FS) at its former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites in Chico, Willows, and Marysville, California. These three sites had similar histories, MGP-related contaminants, similar geologic settings, and geographically were close together. Recognizing the advantages that may be gained, both in time and money, by streamlining the RI/FS process, PG and E and CH2M HILL combined the sites into one project. From the start of the project, PG and E and CH2M HILL looked for an implemented changes to the RI/FS process to streamline the project. These changes included combining deliverables, linking field programs at the three sites, and negotiating bulk discounts on laboratory and other services by combining the work to be done at the three sites under one contract. CH2M HILL later proposed additional measures to streamline the project that were eventually adopted by both PG and E and the regulatory agencies. PG and E and CH2M HILL are currently working with the regulatory agencies to negotiate realistic measures to address contaminants in soil and groundwater, and are jointly preparing the FS with the regulatory agencies using a unique means of documentation.

  16. The rare isotope beams production at the Texas A and M university Cyclotron Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Tabacaru, G.; May, D. P.; Chubarian, G.; Clark, H.; Kim, G. J.; Tribble, R. E.; Arje, J.

    2013-04-19

    The Cyclotron Institute at Texas A and M initiated an upgrade project for the production of radioactive-ion beams that incorporates a light-ion guide (LIG) and a heavy-ion guide coupled (HIG) with an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) constructed for charge-boosting (CB-ECRIS). This scheme is intended to produce radioactive beams suitable for injection into the K500 superconducting cyclotron. The current status of the project and details on the ion sources and devices used in the project is presented.

  17. Production of rare isotope beams at the Texas A and M University Cyclotron Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Tabacaru, G.; May, D. P.; Chubarian, G.; Clark, H.; Kim, G. J.; Tribble, R. E.; Arje, J.

    2012-02-15

    The Cyclotron Institute at Texas A and M is currently configuring a scheme for the production of radioactive-ion beams that incorporates a light-ion guide and a heavy-ion guide coupled with an electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source constructed for charge-breeding. This scheme is part of an upgrade to the facility and is intended to produce radioactive beams suitable for injection into the K500 superconducting cyclotron. The current status of the project and details on the ion sources used in the project is presented.

  18. Production of exotic isotopes in complete fusion reactions with radioactive beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargsyan, V. V.; Zubov, A. S.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Heinz, S.

    2013-11-01

    The isotopic dependence of the complete fusion (capture) cross section is analyzed in the reactions 130,132,134,136,138,140,142,144,146,148,150Xe+48Ca with stable and radioactive beams. It is shown for the first time that the very neutron-rich nuclei 186-191W can be reached with relatively large cross sections by complete fusion reactions with radioactive ion beams at incident energies near the Coulomb barrier. A comparison between the complete fusion and fragmentation reactions for the production of neutron-rich W and neutron-deficient Rn isotopes is performed.

  19. High current proton beams production at Simple Mirror Ion Source 37.

    PubMed

    Skalyga, V; Izotov, I; Razin, S; Sidorov, A; Golubev, S; Kalvas, T; Koivisto, H; Tarvainen, O

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the latest results of high current proton beam production at Simple Mirror Ion Source (SMIS) 37 facility at the Institute of Applied Physics (IAP RAS). In this experimental setup, the plasma is created and the electrons are heated by 37.5 GHz gyrotron radiation with power up to 100 kW in a simple mirror trap fulfilling the ECR condition. Latest experiments at SMIS 37 were performed using a single-aperture two-electrode extraction system. Proton beams with currents up to 450 mA at high voltages below 45 kV were obtained. The maximum beam current density was measured to be 600 mA/cm(2). A possibility of further improvement through the development of an advanced extraction system is discussed. PMID:24593436

  20. Optimization of the profile of a pulsed slow positron beam extracted from a buffer-gas positron trap for the production of a variable energy positronium beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladen, R.; Michishio, K.; Chiari, L.; Oshima, N.; Nagashima, Y.

    In this poster we will present some details of steps taken to optimize the beam profile of a pulsed slow positron beam extracted from a buffer-gas positron trap. The beam will be employed for the production of a novel positronium beam by the acceleration and photodetachment of positronium negative ions. The TUS group is planning on using this beam to study positronium diffraction from solid surfaces, providing a unique neutral-particle spectroscopic method with several advantages over conventional neutral-particle spectroscopy, such as a reduced particle mass and, hence, the reduction of damage to the sample surface This work was performed at the Tokyo University of Science. The visit of R. G. to the laboratory was sponsored in part by the NSF EAPSI fellowship and the JSPS Summer Program.

  1. Production of high power microwaves for particle acceleration with an FEL bunched electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardelle, J.; Lefevre, T.; Marchese, G.; Padois, M.; Rullier, J. L.; Donohue, J. T.

    1999-06-01

    Among the studies in the framework of high gradient linear electron-positron collider research, the Two-Beam Accelerator (TBA) is a very promising concept, and two projects are in progress, the Compact Linear Collider project at CERN (W. Schnell, Report no. CERN SL/92-51 and CLIC note 184; K. Hübner, CERN/PS 92-43, CLIC note 176; S. Van der Meer, CERN/PS 89-50, CLIC note 97.) and the Relativistic Klystron-TBA project at LBNL (Technical Review Committee, International Linear Collider Technical Review Committee Report 1995, SLAC-R-95-471, 1995). In a TBA an extremely intense low-energy electron beam, called the drive beam, is bunched at the desired operating frequency, and upon passing through resonant cavities generates radio-frequency power for accelerating the main beam. Among the different approaches to the production of a suitable drive beam, the use of an FEL has been proposed and is under active study at CEA/CESTA.

  2. Characterization of recombinant RI beta and evaluation of the presence of RI beta protein in rat brain and testicular extracts.

    PubMed

    DeManno, D A; Jackiw, V; Brooks, E; Hunzicker-Dunn, M

    1994-07-21

    Based upon recent reports that the mRNA from the regulatory (R) RI beta subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) was expressed in testicular extracts, we determined whether testicular extracts exhibited RI beta protein. To accomplish this goal, we initially determined the fundamental labeling and ionic characteristics of recombinant RI beta. Recombinant RI beta eluted from DEAE-cellulose with a salt concentration (of 0.075 M) equivalent to its elution position from soluble mouse brain extracts with catalytic subunit-free RI alpha. As predicted by its amino acid sequence homology to RI alpha, recombinant RI beta was not phosphorylated by PKA but was labeled specifically with 8-azido-adenosine 3':5'-[32P]monophosphate (8-N3[32P]cAMP). Additionally, RI antisera reacted equally with RI alpha (47 kDa) and recombinant RI beta (53 kDa). However, recombinant RI beta exhibited an unexpectedly basic pI of 6.65-6.85. By using a pH gradient for isoelectric focussing that allowed for clear focussing of 8-N3[32P]cAMP-labeled recombinant RI beta, 8-N3[32P]cAMP-labeled RI beta was readily detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in rat brain particulate extracts and exhibited a pI equivalent to that of recombinant RI beta. The 53-kDa RI beta was undetectable either by its immunoreactivity or upon photoaffinity labeling with 8-N3[32P]cAMP by one or two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in soluble or particulate extracts of testes of 14-day-old, 45-day-old, or adult rats or in epididymal sperm. However, 8-N3[32P]cAMP-labeled RI beta was detected, albeit in very small levels, by two-dimensional electrophoresis upon separation of PKAs in testes of 14-day-old rats by DEAE-cellulose chromatography but was absent in equivalent extracts from adult rat testes. These results demonstrate that the unexpectedly basic pI of RI beta allows for its clear separation by two-dimensional electrophoresis from the RII proteins and therefore allows for its unambiguous identification. Further

  3. The charge breeder beam line for the selective production of exotic species project at INFN-Legnaro National Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galatà, A.; Comunian, M.; Maggiore, M.; Manzolaro, M.; Angot, J.; Lamy, T.

    2014-02-01

    SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) is an INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) project with the aim at producing and post-accelerating exotic beams to perform forefront research in nuclear physics. To allow post-acceleration of the radioactive ions, an ECR-based Charge Breeder (CB) developed on the basis of the Phoenix booster was chosen. The design of the complete beam line for the SPES-CB will be described: a system for stable 1+ beams production was included; special attention was paid to the medium resolution mass spectrometer after the CB to limit possible superposition of the exotic beams with the impurities present in the ECR plasma.

  4. Radio Meteors Observations Techniques at RI NAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vovk, Vasyl; Kaliuzhnyi, Mykola

    2016-07-01

    The Solar system is inhabited with large number of celestial bodies. Some of them are well studied, such as planets and vast majority of big asteroids and comets. There is one group of objects which has received little attention. That is meteoroids with related to them meteors. Nowadays enough low-technology high-efficiency radio-technical solutions are appeared which allow to observe meteors daily. At RI NAO three methodologies for meteor observation are developed: single-station method using FM-receiver, correlation method using FM-receiver and Internet resources, and single-station method using low-cost SDR-receiver.

  5. Coherent production of {epsilon}{sup +} particles in crystal using proton beam from SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Okorokov, V.V.; Dubin, A.Yu.

    1995-05-01

    The unique possibilities of the SSC can be ideally used for a new generation of coherent generation experiments with relativistic protons which require 20 Tev energy of the incident beam. The availability of 20 Tev proton beam at SSC allows new experiments on coherent production of {var_epsilon}{sup +} particle by relativistic proton in crystal. Experiment carried out at low energies can now be extended with protons in very narrow energy region (resonance energy, which easy can be calculated) using the new accelerator facilities at SSC. We propose to study coherent production via the Coulomb field of the cristal atoms to excite the transition p + {gamma}{implies} {var_epsilon} {sup +} (1189).

  6. Note: Production of a mercury beam with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Vondrasek, R.; Pardo, R.; Scott, R.

    2013-11-15

    An electron cyclotron resonance ion source has been utilized to produce mercury beams with intensities of 4.5 eμA of {sup 202}Hg{sup 29+} and 3.0 eμA of {sup 202}Hg{sup 31+} from natural abundance mercury metal. The production technique relies on the evaporation of liquid mercury into the source plasma vacuum region and utilizes elemental mercury instead of a volatile organic compound as the neutral feed material.

  7. Tetraspanin CD151 Is a Negative Regulator of FcεRI-Mediated Mast Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Abdala-Valencia, Hiam; Bryce, Paul J.; Schleimer, Robert P.; Wechsler, Joshua B.; Loffredo, Lucas F.; Cook-Mills, Joan M.; Hsu, Chia-Lin; Berdnikovs, Sergejs

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells are critical in the pathogenesis of allergic disease due to the release of preformed and newly synthesized mediators, yet the mechanisms controlling mast cell activation are not well understood. Members of the tetraspanin family are recently emerging as modulators of FcεRI-mediated mast cell activation; however, mechanistic understanding of their function is currently lacking. The tetraspanin CD151 is a poorly understood member of this family and is specifically induced on mouse and human mast cells upon FcεRI aggregation but its functional effects are unknown. In this study, we show that CD151 deficiency significantly exacerbates the IgE-mediated late phase inflammation in a murine model of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. Ex vivo, FcεRI stimulation of bone marrow–derived mast cells from CD151−/− mice resulted in significantly enhanced expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-4, IL-13, and TNF-α compared with wild-type controls. However, FcεRI -induced mast cell degranulation was unaffected. At the molecular signaling level, CD151 selectively regulated IgE-induced activation of ERK1/2 and PI3K, associated with cytokine production, but had no effect on the phospholipase Cγ1 signaling, associated with degranulation. Collectively, our data indicate that CD151 exerts negative regulation over IgE-induced late phase responses and cytokine production in mast cells. PMID:26136426

  8. Tetraspanin CD151 Is a Negative Regulator of FcεRI-Mediated Mast Cell Activation.

    PubMed

    Abdala-Valencia, Hiam; Bryce, Paul J; Schleimer, Robert P; Wechsler, Joshua B; Loffredo, Lucas F; Cook-Mills, Joan M; Hsu, Chia-Lin; Berdnikovs, Sergejs

    2015-08-15

    Mast cells are critical in the pathogenesis of allergic disease due to the release of preformed and newly synthesized mediators, yet the mechanisms controlling mast cell activation are not well understood. Members of the tetraspanin family are recently emerging as modulators of FcεRI-mediated mast cell activation; however, mechanistic understanding of their function is currently lacking. The tetraspanin CD151 is a poorly understood member of this family and is specifically induced on mouse and human mast cells upon FcεRI aggregation but its functional effects are unknown. In this study, we show that CD151 deficiency significantly exacerbates the IgE-mediated late phase inflammation in a murine model of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. Ex vivo, FcεRI stimulation of bone marrow-derived mast cells from CD151(-/-) mice resulted in significantly enhanced expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-4, IL-13, and TNF-α compared with wild-type controls. However, FcεRI-induced mast cell degranulation was unaffected. At the molecular signaling level, CD151 selectively regulated IgE-induced activation of ERK1/2 and PI3K, associated with cytokine production, but had no effect on the phospholipase Cγ1 signaling, associated with degranulation. Collectively, our data indicate that CD151 exerts negative regulation over IgE-induced late phase responses and cytokine production in mast cells. PMID:26136426

  9. New flavor production in. gamma. ,. mu. ,. nu. , and hadron beams. [Review

    SciTech Connect

    Wojcicki, S.

    1980-01-01

    During the last few years the main emphasis in the study of heavy particle production (mainly charm) by means other than e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation has been on the production mechanisms. This review concentrates mainly on the production data in ..gamma.., ..mu.., ..nu.., and hadron beams. The heavy flavor searches divide themselves naturally into three categories, each one characterized by its own peculiar advantages and shortcomings; these are summarized briefly. Then the following topics are taken up: charm production by hadrons (central production, forward production - ..lambda../sub c/ and D production, anomalies and discrepancies), charm production by photons and muons, new flavor production by neutrinos, status of heavier flavors, and production bound flavors (eta/sub c/ search, UPSILON muoproduction, J/psi and UPSILON hadroproduction, J/psi muoproduction). In his outlook for the future, the author presents a few words concerning the status of detectors: emulsions, high-resolution streamer chambers, high-resolution bubble chambers, and solid-state detectors. 83 references, 36 figures, 4 tables. (RWR)

  10. Effects of sawtooth crashes on beam ions and fusion product tritons in JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, F. B.; Adams, J. M.; Bond, D. S.; Hone, M. A.; Howarth, P. J. A.; Jarvis, O. N.; Loughlin, M. J.; Sadler, G. J.; Van Belle, P.; Watkins, N.

    1994-05-01

    The JET neutron emission profile monitor is used to measure the 2.5 MeV and 14 MeV neutron emission line integrals before and after sawtooth crashes in high d-d neutron yield, hot ion H mode plasmas in the Joint European Torus (JET). Deuterium-deuterium (d-d) fusion produces 2.5 MeV neutrons and 1 MeV tritons (t) at nearly equal rates from its two reaction channels. A plasma current of 3 MA is sufficiently high to contain most of the fusion product tritons, which have birth orbit gyroradii and velocity space distributions similar to those of the 3.5 MeV or particles from d-t fusion. By examining neutron emission line integrals and tomographically deduced local emissivity profiles, an upper limit of 10% can be placed on the net fraction of fusion product tritons which are displaced from the plasma axis by those sawtooth crashes studied. This is a much smaller net fraction than that typically observed, 35-55%, for displaced injected neutral beam deuterium ions. A study of the response of beam injected deuterium ions to a sawtooth crash shows that the change in their axial density depends on the precrash spatial width of the neutron emissivity profile. The fusion product tritons, which have a large precrash spatial width, respond weakly to a crash. This weak response is consistent with the behaviour of the analogous d-d beam thermal neutrons when extrapolated to the corresponding emissivity spatial width. The implication of these observations is that beam ions and 3.5 MeV alpha particles in JET may be relatively resilient to sawtooth clashes, when the spatial width of their density is sufficiently large

  11. The Pair Beam Production Spectrum from Photon-Photon Annihilation in Cosmic Voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlickeiser, R.; Elyiv, A.; Ibscher, D.; Miniati, F.

    2012-10-01

    Highly beamed relativistic e ±-pair energy distributions result in double photon collisions of the beamed gamma rays from TeV blazars at cosmological distances with the isotropically distributed extragalactic background light (EBL) in the intergalactic medium. The typical energies k 0 ~= 10-7 in units of mec 2 of the EBL are more than 10 orders of magnitude smaller than the observed gamma-ray energies k 1 >= 107. Using the limit k 0 Lt k 1, we demonstrate that the angular distribution of the generated pairs in the lab frame is highly beamed in the direction of the initial gamma-ray photons. For the astrophysically important case of power-law distributions of the emitted gamma-ray beam up to the maximum energy M interacting with Wien-type N(k 0)vpropkq 0exp (- k 0/Θ) soft photon distributions with total number density N 0, we calculate analytical approximations for the electron production spectrum. For distant objects with luminosity distances dL Gt r 0 = (σ T N 0)-1 = 0.49N -1 0 Mpc (with Thomson cross section σ T ), the implied large values of the optical depth τ0 = dL /r 0 indicate that the electron production spectra differ at energies inside and outside the interval [(Θln τ0)-1, τ0/Θ], given the maximum gamma-ray energy M Gt Θ-1. In the case M Gt Θ-1, the production spectrum is strongly peaked near E ~= Θ-1, being exponentially reduced at small energies and decreasing with the steep power law vpropE -1 - p up to the maximum energy E = M - (1/2).

  12. Study of muon-induced neutron production using accelerator muon beam at CERN

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Y.; Lin, C. J.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Draeger, E.; White, C. G.; Luk, K. B.; Steiner, H.

    2015-08-17

    Cosmogenic muon-induced neutrons are one of the most problematic backgrounds for various underground experiments for rare event searches. In order to accurately understand such backgrounds, experimental data with high-statistics and well-controlled systematics is essential. We performed a test experiment to measure muon-induced neutron production yield and energy spectrum using a high-energy accelerator muon beam at CERN. We successfully observed neutrons from 160 GeV/c muon interaction on lead, and measured kinetic energy distributions for various production angles. Works towards evaluation of absolute neutron production yield is underway. This work also demonstrates that the setup is feasible for a future large-scale experiment for more comprehensive study of muon-induced neutron production.

  13. Design and optimization of a highly efficient optical multipass system for γ-ray beam production from electron laser beam Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupraz, K.; Cassou, K.; Delerue, N.; Fichot, P.; Martens, A.; Stocchi, A.; Variola, A.; Zomer, F.; Courjaud, A.; Mottay, E.; Druon, F.; Gatti, G.; Ghigo, A.; Hovsepian, T.; Riou, J. Y.; Wang, F.; Mueller, A. C.; Palumbo, L.; Serafini, L.; Tomassini, P.

    2014-03-01

    A new kind of nonresonant optical recirculator, dedicated to the production of γ rays by means of Compton backscattering, is described. This novel instrument, inspired by optical multipass systems, has its design focused on high flux and very small spectral bandwidth of the γ-ray beam. It has been developed to fulfill the project specifications of the European Extreme Light Infrastructure "Nuclear Pillar," i.e., the Gamma Beam System. Our system allows a single high power laser pulse to recirculate 32 times synchronized on the radio frequency driving accelerating cavities for the electron beam. Namely, the polarization of the laser beam and crossing angle between laser and electrons are preserved all along the 32 passes. Moreover, optical aberrations are kept at a negligible level. The general tools developed for designing, optimizing, and aligning the system are described. A detailed simulation demonstrates the high efficiency of the device.

  14. A CW radiofrequency ion source for production of negative hydrogen ion beams for cyclotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Kalvas, T.; Tarvainen, O.; Komppula, J.; Koivisto, H.; Tuunanen, J.; Potkins, D.; Stewart, T.; Dehnel, M. P.

    2015-04-08

    A CW 13.56 MHz radiofrequency-driven ion source RADIS for production of H{sup −} and D{sup −} beams is under development for replacing the filament-driven ion source of the MCC30/15 cyclotron. The RF ion source has a 16-pole multicusp plasma chamber, an electromagnet-based magnetic filter and an external planar spiral RF antenna behind an AlN window. The extraction is a 5-electrode system with an adjustable puller electrode voltage for optimizing the beam formation, a water-cooled electron dump electrode and an accelerating einzel lens. At 2650 W of RF power, the source produces 1 mA of H{sup −} (2.6 mA/cm{sup 2}), which is the intensity needed at injection for production of 200 µA H{sup +} with the filament-driven ion source. A simple pepperpot device has been developed for characterizing the beam emittance. Plans for improving the power efficiency with the use of a new permanent magnet front plate is discussed.

  15. Production and Separation of Radioactive Beams ^20Na and ^20Mg with MARS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subedi, Gopal; Roeder, B. T.; Alharbi, A. A.; McCleskey, M.; Simmons, E.; Spiridon, A.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R. E.

    2009-10-01

    We studied the production and separation of ^20Na and ^20Mg using the MARS spectrometer at the Cyclotron Institute, TAMU. Using a ^20Ne beam at 25 MeV/u on a H2 gas target at 2 atm and 77 K, a large production of ^20Na was observed. Further, we were able to study its β, βγ, and β-delayed α-decay. For the β-delayed α-decay, we observed alphas with energies 2.1, 3.8, 4.4, 4.8 MeV. Following this run, we ran a test experiment to obtain the maximum production of the rarer isotope ^20Mg with the same ^20Ne beam on a ^3He gas target. The gas cell was filled with ^3He at 1.5 atm and 77 K. Overall, the fusion-evaporation of ^20Ne(^3He,3n) was found to be a better reaction for ^20Mg production than the fragmentation of ^24Mg at 45 MeV/u previously tested with MARS. These findings will be used for planning an upcoming study of the β-delayed proton decay of ^20Mg to better understand the resonance states in the ^19Ne(p,γ)^20Na reaction of crucial astrophysical interest in studies of the hot CNO cycle in stars.

  16. Production of charm and beauty in e{sup +}e{sup -} with polarized electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Su, D.

    1995-09-01

    The test of the Standard Model through the measurements of Z{sup 0} to fermion couplings can benefit from much enhanced sensitivity by using longitudinally polarized electron beams. This report reviews preliminary electroweak measurements from SLD on heavy quark production at the Z{sup 0}, using 150,000 hadronic Z{sup 0} decays accumulated during the 93-95 runs with high electron beam polarization. The parity violating parameters A{sub b} and A{sub c} of the Zbb and Zcc couplings are measured directly from the left-right forward-backward asymmetries. A measurement of R{sub b} with a lifetime double tag and a summary of the preliminary measurement of A{sub LR} from the 93-95 SLD data are also included in this report.

  17. Finish ion beam treatment of the longrange cylindrical products outer surface in automatic mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalin, B. A.; Volkov, N. V.; Valikov, R. A.; Yashin, A. S.; Krivobokov, V. P.; Yanin, S. N.; Asainov, O. Kh; Yurev, Yu N.

    2016-04-01

    The results of using of ion-beam technologies methods for finish treatment of metal products are presented. The experiments were performed at the installation ILUR-03, which allows the operation of cleaning, polishing and surface layers doping of the material of unlimited length cylindrical samples by radial Ar+ ions beam with energy up to 5 keV. The tubes from zirconium alloy E110 up to 500 mm length were used as samples for investigation. It is shown that selected automatic treatment modes reduce the surface roughness over the entire length of the samples and increase uniformity of the surface layer without observable effect on the bulk properties of material. Treatment promotes the formation of oxide films with improved defensive properties.

  18. Electron-beam stimulation of the reactivity of cellulose pulps for production of derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iller, Edward; Kukiełka, Aleksandra; Stupińska, Halina; Mikołajczyk, Włodzimierz

    2002-03-01

    New alternative technologies for manufacture of cellulose fibers are currently under development. The effect of electron beam irradiation on various types of cellulose pulps have been studied in order to improve the reactivity of raw material for production of cellulose derivatives. Three different types of textile pulps, Alicell (Canada), Borregaard (Norwegian), Ketchikan (USA) and Kraft softwood as well as Kraft hardwood pulps, have been irradiated with 10 MeV electron beam from LAE 13/g linear accelerator with dose 10, 15, 20, 25 and 50 kGy. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (ESR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) were applied for determination of structural changes in irradiated pulps. Such parameters as viscosity, average degree of polymerization and α-cellulose contents were determinated by means of analytical methods. Results of there investigations are presented and discussed.

  19. Neutron productions in the fragmentation of relativistic heavy nuclei and formation of a beam of high-energy neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurevich, V. I.

    2016-03-01

    The production of quasimonoenergetic high-energy neutrons at zero angle (0°) in the spallation of relativistic heavy nuclei is discussed by considering the example of the interaction of lead nuclei with light target nuclei. It is shown that this process can be used to generate a beam of high-energy neutrons at existing heavy ion accelerators. At the same time, itmay lead to the appearance of a parasitic neutron beam because of the interaction of the heavy-ion beam used with beam line and experimental setup materials.

  20. 33 CFR 80.150 - Block Island, RI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Block Island, RI. 80.150 Section... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.150 Block Island, RI. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on the harbors of Block Island....

  1. 33 CFR 80.150 - Block Island, RI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Block Island, RI. 80.150 Section... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.150 Block Island, RI. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on the harbors of Block Island....

  2. 33 CFR 80.150 - Block Island, RI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Block Island, RI. 80.150 Section... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.150 Block Island, RI. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on the harbors of Block Island....

  3. 33 CFR 80.150 - Block Island, RI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Block Island, RI. 80.150 Section... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.150 Block Island, RI. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on the harbors of Block Island....

  4. 33 CFR 80.150 - Block Island, RI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Block Island, RI. 80.150 Section... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.150 Block Island, RI. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on the harbors of Block Island....

  5. Laser plasma acceleration of electrons: Towards the production of monoenergetic beams

    SciTech Connect

    Krushelnick, K.; Najmudin, Z.; Mangles, S.P.D.; Thomas, A.G.R.; Wei, M.S.; Walton, B.; Gopal, A.; Clark, E.L.; Dangor, A.E.; Fritzler, S.; Murphy, C.D.; Norreys, P.A.; Mori, W.B.; Gallacher, J.; Jaroszynski, D.; Viskup, R.

    2005-05-15

    The interaction of high intensity laser pulses with underdense plasma is investigated experimentally using a range of laser parameters and energetic electron production mechanisms are compared. It is clear that the physics of these interactions changes significantly depending not only on the interaction intensity but also on the laser pulse length. For high intensity laser interactions in the picosecond pulse duration regime the production of energetic electrons is highly correlated with the production of plasma waves. However as intensities are increased the peak electron acceleration increases beyond that which can be produced from single stage plasma wave acceleration and direct laser acceleration mechanisms must be invoked. If, alternatively, the pulse length is reduced such that it approaches the plasma period of a relativistic electron plasma wave, high power interactions can be shown to enable the generation of quasimonoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons.

  6. LC/MS/MS identification of some folic acid degradation products after E-beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, M. M.; Marchioni, E.; Zhao, M.; Kuntz, F.; Di Pascoli, T.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Bergaentzle, M.

    2012-08-01

    Folates belong to the B vitamin group based on the parental compound folic acid (FA). They are involved in important biochemical processes like DNA synthesis and repair. FA is composed of a pteridine ring, p-aminobenzoic acid and glutamate moieties. The human metabolism is not able to synthesize folates and therefore obtain them from diet. FA, a synthetic vitamin, is used as a food fortificant because of its low price, relative stability and increased bioavailability compared to natural folate forms. FA is known to be a sensitive compound easily degradable in aqueous solution by ultraviolet and visible light towards various by-products. Irradiation is a process for preservation of foods that uses accelerated electrons, gamma rays or X-rays. Irradiation is proposed for the treatment of various food products, eliminating or reducing pathogens and insects, increasing the storage time and replacing chemical fumigants. This study concerns the identification of degradation products of FA after E-beam irradiation. FA aqueous solutions were irradiated with a Van de Graaff electrons beam accelerator (2 MeV, 100 μA current, 20 cm scan width, dose rate about 2 kGy/s). Applied doses were between 0 (control) and 10.0 kGy. Absorbed doses were monitored with FWT 60.00 radiochromic dosimeters.

  7. Small radio frequency driven multicusp ion source for positive hydrogen ion beam production

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, L.T.; Herz, P.R.; Leung, K.N.; Pickard, D.S. )

    1994-04-01

    A compact, 2.5 cm diam rf-driven multicusp ion source has been developed and tested for H[sup +] ion production in pulse mode operation. The source is optimized for atomic hydrogen ion species and extractable current. It is found that hydrogen ion beam current densities in excess of 650 mA/cm[sup 2] can be achieved with H[sup +] species above 80%. The geometry and position of the porcelain-coated copper antenna were found to be of great significance in relation to the efficiency of the ion source.

  8. Ion source developments for the production of radioactive isotope beams at TRIUMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ames, F.; Bricault, P.; Heggen, H.; Kunz, P.; Lassen, J.; Mjøs, A.; Raeder, S.; Teigelhöfer, A.

    2014-02-01

    At the ISAC facility at TRIUMF radioactive ions are produced by bombarding solid targets with up to 100 μA of 500 MeV protons. The reaction products have to diffuse out of the hot target into an ion source. Normally, singly charged ions are extracted. They can be transported either directly to experiments or via an ECR charge state breeder to a post accelerator. Several different types of ion sources have to be used in order to deliver a large variety of rare isotope beams. At ISAC those are surface ion sources, forced electron beam arc discharge (FEBIAD) ion sources and resonant laser ionization sources. Recent development activities concentrated on increasing the selectivity for the ionization to suppress isobaric contamination in the beam. Therefore, a surface ion rejecting resonant laser ionization source (SIRLIS) has been developed to suppress ions from surface ionization. For the FEBIAD ion source a cold transfer line has been introduced to prevent less volatile components from reaching the ion source.

  9. AEgIS experiment: Towards antihydrogen beam production for antimatter gravity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariazzi, Sebastiano; Aghion, Stefano; Amsler, Claude; Ariga, Akitaka; Ariga, Tomoko; Belov, Alexandre S.; Bonomi, Germano; Bräunig, Philippe; Brusa, Roberto S.; Bremer, Johan; Cabaret, Louis; Canali, Carlo; Caravita, Ruggero; Castelli, Fabrizio; Cerchiari, Giovanni; Cialdi, Simone; Comparat, Daniel; Consolati, Giovanni; Dassa, Luca; Hendrik Derking, Jan; Di Domizio, Sergio; Di Noto, Lea; Doser, Michael; Dudarev, Alexey; Ereditato, Antonio; Ferragut, Rafael; Fontana, Andrea; Genova, Pablo; Giammarchi, Marco; Gligorova, Angela; Gninenko, Sergei N.; Hogan, Stephen D.; Haider, Stefan; Jordan, Elena; Jørgensen, Lars V.; Kaltenbacher, Thomas; Kawada, Jiro; Kellerbauer, Alban; Kimura, Mitsuhiro; Knecht, Andreas; Krasnický, Daniel; Lagomarsino, Vittorio; Lehner, Sebastian; Malbrunot, Chloe; Matveev, Viktor A.; Merkt, Frederic; Moia, Fabio; Nebbia, Giancarlo; Nédélec, Patrick; Oberthaler, Markus K.; Pacifico, Nicola; Petráček, Vojtech; Pistillo, Ciro; Prelz, Francesco; Prevedelli, Marco; Regenfus, Christian; Riccardi, Cristina; Røhne, Ole; Rotondi, Alberto; Sandaker, Heidi; Scampoli, Paola; Storey, James; Subieta Vasquez, Martin A.; Špaček, Michal; Testera, Gemma; Vaccarone, Renzo; Villa, Fabio; Widmann, Eberhard; Zavatarelli, Sandra; Zmeskal, Johann

    2014-03-01

    AEgIS (Antimatter Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy) is an experiment that aims to perform the first direct measurement of the gravitational acceleration g of antihydrogen in the Earth's field. A cold antihydrogen beam will be produced by charge exchange reaction between cold antiprotons and positronium excited in Rydberg states. Rydberg positronium (with quantum number n between 20 and 30) will be produced by a two steps laser excitation. The antihydrogen beam, after being accelerated by Stark effect, will fly through the gratings of a moiré deflectometer. The deflection of the horizontal beam due to its free fall will be measured by a position sensitive detector. It is estimated that the detection of about 103 antihydrogen atoms is required to determine the gravitational acceleration with a precision of 1%. In this report an overview of the AEgIS experiment is presented and its current status is described. Details on the production of slow positronium and its excitation with lasers are discussed. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Electron and Positron Induced Processes", edited by Michael Brunger, Radu Campeanu, Masamitsu Hoshino, Oddur Ingólfsson, Paulo Limão-Vieira, Nigel Mason, Yasuyuki Nagashima and Hajime Tanuma.

  10. Characterization of Three New Glutaredoxin Genes in the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Rhizophagus irregularis: Putative Role of RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 in Iron Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Tamayo, Elisabeth; Benabdellah, Karim; Ferrol, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    Glutaredoxins (GRXs) are small ubiquitous oxidoreductases involved in the regulation of the redox state in living cells. In an attempt to identify the full complement of GRXs in the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Rhizophagus irregularis, three additional GRX homologs, besides the formerly characterized GintGRX1 (renamed here as RiGRX1), were identified. The three new GRXs (RiGRX4, RiGRX5 and RiGRX6) contain the CXXS domain of monothiol GRXs, but whereas RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 belong to class II GRXs, RiGRX6 belongs to class I together with RiGRX1. By using a yeast expression system, we observed that the newly identified homologs partially reverted sensitivity of the GRX deletion yeast strains to external oxidants. Furthermore, our results indicated that RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 play a role in iron homeostasis in yeast. Gene expression analyses revealed that RiGRX1 and RiGRX6 were more highly expressed in the intraradical (IRM) than in the extraradical mycelium (ERM). Exposure of the ERM to hydrogen peroxide induced up-regulation of RiGRX1, RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 gene expression. RiGRX4 expression was also up-regulated in the ERM when the fungus was grown in media supplemented with a high iron concentration. These data indicate the two monothiol class II GRXs, RiGRX4 and RiGRX5, might be involved in oxidative stress protection and in the regulation of fungal iron homeostasis. Increased expression of RiGRX1 and RiGRX6 in the IRM suggests that these GRXs should play a key role in oxidative stress protection of R. irregularis during its in planta phase. PMID:26900849

  11. Characterization of Three New Glutaredoxin Genes in the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Rhizophagus irregularis: Putative Role of RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 in Iron Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Tamayo, Elisabeth; Benabdellah, Karim; Ferrol, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    Glutaredoxins (GRXs) are small ubiquitous oxidoreductases involved in the regulation of the redox state in living cells. In an attempt to identify the full complement of GRXs in the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Rhizophagus irregularis, three additional GRX homologs, besides the formerly characterized GintGRX1 (renamed here as RiGRX1), were identified. The three new GRXs (RiGRX4, RiGRX5 and RiGRX6) contain the CXXS domain of monothiol GRXs, but whereas RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 belong to class II GRXs, RiGRX6 belongs to class I together with RiGRX1. By using a yeast expression system, we observed that the newly identified homologs partially reverted sensitivity of the GRX deletion yeast strains to external oxidants. Furthermore, our results indicated that RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 play a role in iron homeostasis in yeast. Gene expression analyses revealed that RiGRX1 and RiGRX6 were more highly expressed in the intraradical (IRM) than in the extraradical mycelium (ERM). Exposure of the ERM to hydrogen peroxide induced up-regulation of RiGRX1, RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 gene expression. RiGRX4 expression was also up-regulated in the ERM when the fungus was grown in media supplemented with a high iron concentration. These data indicate the two monothiol class II GRXs, RiGRX4 and RiGRX5, might be involved in oxidative stress protection and in the regulation of fungal iron homeostasis. Increased expression of RiGRX1 and RiGRX6 in the IRM suggests that these GRXs should play a key role in oxidative stress protection of R. irregularis during its in planta phase. PMID:26900849

  12. Production of multi-, oligo- and single-pore membranes using a continuous ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, P. Yu.; Ivanov, O. M.; Lizunov, N. E.; Mamonova, T. I.; Nechaev, A. N.; Olejniczak, K.; Vacik, J.; Dmitriev, S. N.

    2015-12-01

    Ion track membranes (ITM) have attracted significant interest over the past two decades due to their numerous applications in physical, biological, chemical, biochemical and medical experimental works. A particular feature of ITM technology is the possibility to fabricate samples with a predetermined number of pores, including single-pore membranes. The present report describes a procedure that allowed for the production of multi-, oligo- and single-pore membranes using a continuous ion beam from an IC-100 cyclotron. The beam was scanned over a set of small diaphragms, from 17 to ∼1000 μm in diameter. Ions passed through the apertures and impinged two sandwiched polymer foils, with the total thickness close to the ion range in the polymer. The foils were pulled across the ion beam at a constant speed. The ratio between the transport speed and the scanning frequency determined the distance between irradiation spots. The beam intensity and the aperture diameters were adjusted such that either several, one or no ions passed through the diaphragms during one half-period of scanning. After irradiation, the lower foil was separated from the upper foil and was etched to obtain pores 6-8 μm in diameter. The pores were found using a color chemical reaction between two reagents placed on opposite sides of the foil. The located pores were further confirmed using SEM and optical microscopy. The numbers of tracks in the irradiation spots were consistent with the Poisson statistics. Samples with single or few tracks obtained in this way were employed to study fine phenomena in ion track nanopores.

  13. Production of pure quasi-monochromatic 11C beams for accurate radiation therapy and dose delivery verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzeroni, Marta; Brahme, Anders

    2015-09-01

    In the present study we develop a new technique for the production of clean quasi-monochromatic 11C positron emitter beams for accurate radiation therapy and PET-CT dose delivery imaging and treatment verification. The 11C ion beam is produced by projectile fragmentation using a primary 12C ion beam. The practical elimination of the energy spread of the secondary 11C fragments and other beam contaminating fragments is described. Monte Carlo calculation with the SHIELD-HIT10+ code and analytical methods for the transport of the ions in matter are used in the analysis. Production yields, as well as energy, velocity and magnetic rigidity distributions of the fragments generated in a cylindrical target are scored as a function of the depth within 1 cm thick slices for an optimal target consisting of a fixed 20 cm section of liquid hydrogen followed by a variable thickness section of polyethylene. The wide energy and magnetic rigidity spread of the 11C ion beam can be reduced to values around 1% by using a variable monochromatizing wedge-shaped degrader in the beam line. Finally, magnetic rigidity and particle species selection, as well as discrimination of the particle velocity through a combined Time of Flight and Radio Frequency-driven Velocity filter purify the beam from similar magnetic rigidity contaminating fragments (mainly 7Be and 3He fragments). A beam purity of about 99% is expected by the combined method.

  14. THE PAIR BEAM PRODUCTION SPECTRUM FROM PHOTON-PHOTON ANNIHILATION IN COSMIC VOIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Schlickeiser, R.; Ibscher, D.; Elyiv, A.; Miniati, F. E-mail: ibscher@tp4.rub.de E-mail: fm@phys.ethz.ch

    2012-10-20

    Highly beamed relativistic e {sup {+-}}-pair energy distributions result in double photon collisions of the beamed gamma rays from TeV blazars at cosmological distances with the isotropically distributed extragalactic background light (EBL) in the intergalactic medium. The typical energies k {sub 0} {approx_equal} 10{sup -7} in units of m{sub e}c {sup 2} of the EBL are more than 10 orders of magnitude smaller than the observed gamma-ray energies k {sub 1} {>=} 10{sup 7}. Using the limit k {sub 0} << k {sub 1}, we demonstrate that the angular distribution of the generated pairs in the lab frame is highly beamed in the direction of the initial gamma-ray photons. For the astrophysically important case of power-law distributions of the emitted gamma-ray beam up to the maximum energy M interacting with Wien-type N(k {sub 0}){proportional_to}k{sup q} {sub 0}exp (- k {sub 0}/{Theta}) soft photon distributions with total number density N {sub 0}, we calculate analytical approximations for the electron production spectrum. For distant objects with luminosity distances d{sub L} >> r {sub 0} = ({sigma} {sub T} N {sub 0}){sup -1} = 0.49N {sup -1} {sub 0} Mpc (with Thomson cross section {sigma} {sub T}), the implied large values of the optical depth {tau}{sub 0} = d{sub L} /r {sub 0} indicate that the electron production spectra differ at energies inside and outside the interval [({Theta}ln {tau}{sub 0}){sup -1}, {tau}{sub 0}/{Theta}], given the maximum gamma-ray energy M >> {Theta}{sup -1}. In the case M >> {Theta}{sup -1}, the production spectrum is strongly peaked near E {approx_equal} {Theta}{sup -1}, being exponentially reduced at small energies and decreasing with the steep power law {proportional_to}E {sup -1-p} up to the maximum energy E = M - (1/2).

  15. Self-similarity of negative particle production from the Beam Energy Scan Program at STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokarev, Mikhail

    2015-11-01

    We present the spectra of negative charged particle production in Au + Au collisions from STAR for the first phase of the RHIC Beam Energy Scan Program measured over a wide range of collision energy sNN=7.7-200GeV, and transverse momentum of produced particle in different centralities at |η| < 0.5. The spectra demonstrate strong dependence on collision energy which enhances with pT. An indication of self-similarity of negative charged particle production in Au + Au collisions is found. The constituent energy loss as a function of energy and centrality of collisions and transverse momentum of inclusive particle was estimated in the z-scaling approach. The energy dependence of the model parameters - the fractal and fragmentation dimensions and “specific heat”, was studied.

  16. Fyn kinase controls Fc{epsilon}RI receptor-operated calcium entry necessary for full degranulation in mast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Miranda, Elizabeth; Ibarra-Sanchez, Alfredo; Gonzalez-Espinosa, Claudia

    2010-01-22

    IgE-antigen-dependent crosslinking of the high affinity IgE receptor (Fc{epsilon}RI) on mast cells leads to degranulation, leukotriene synthesis and cytokine production. Calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) mobilization is a sine qua non requisite for degranulation, allowing the rapid secretion of stored pro-inflammatory mediators responsible for allergy symptoms. Fyn is a Src-family kinase that positively controls Fc{epsilon}RI-induced mast cell degranulation. However, our understanding of the mechanism connecting Fyn activation to secretion of pre-synthesized mediators is very limited. We analyzed Fc{epsilon}RI-dependent Ca{sup 2+} mobilization in bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) differentiated from WT and Fyn -/- knock out mice. Fyn -/- BMMCs showed a marked defect in extracellular Ca{sup 2+} influx after Fc{epsilon}RI crosslinking but not after thapsigargin addition. High concentrations of Gadolinium (Gd{sup 3+}) partially blocked Fc{epsilon}RI-induced Ca{sup 2+} influx in WT cells but, in contrast, completely inhibited Ca{sup 2+} mobilization in Fyn -/- cells. Low concentrations of an inhibitor of the canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) Ca{sup 2+} channels (2-aminoethoxyphenyl-borane, 2-APB) blocked Fc{epsilon}RI-induced maximal Ca{sup 2+} rise in WT but not in Fyn -/- cells. Ca{sup 2+} entry through Fyn-controlled, 2-APB sensitive channels was found to be important for full degranulation and IL-2 mRNA accumulation in WT cells. Immunoprecipitation assays showed that Fyn kinase interacts with TRPC 3/6/7 channels after IgE-antigen stimulation, but its association is not related to protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Results indicate Fyn kinase mediates the receptor-dependent activation of TRPC channels that contribute to degranulation in Fc{epsilon}RI-stimulated mast cells.

  17. Complementation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens tumor-inducing aux mutants by genes from the TR-region of the Ri plasmid of Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    PubMed Central

    Offringa, I. A.; Melchers, L. S.; Regensburg-Tuink, A. J. G.; Costantino, P.; Schilperoort, R. A.; Hooykaas, P. J. J.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper we provide information indicating that the agropine-type root-inducing (Ri) plasmid pRi1855 of Agrobacterium rhizogenes contains functional genes for auxin production (aux) in the right transferred DNA (T-DNA) region (TR-region). These genes were cloned and introduced into the T-region of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmids of mutants of Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying an aux mutation. Depending on the Ri aux gene present, the oncogenicity of the Ti aux-1 and/or aux-2 mutations was restored, showing that the Ri aux genes are able to complement the Ti aux genes. Agrobacterium strains with an agropine-type Ri plasmid not only cause hairy root on certain plant species, but they also induce tumors on other plant species. In this paper it is shown that a mutation in either of the aux genes in the Ri plasmid leads to a total loss of tumorigenicity and a strongly diminished rhizogenicity of the host bacterium, revealing that the aux genes are important for tumor and root induction. Agrobacterium strains containing the TR-region but not the TL (left)-region of the Ri plasmid are still tumorigenic on certain plant species but are no longer capable of hairy-root induction. Images PMID:16593762

  18. High intensity high charge state ion beam production with an evaporative cooling magnet ECRIS.

    PubMed

    Lu, W; Qian, C; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Fang, X; Guo, J W; Yang, Y; Feng, Y C; Ma, B H; Xiong, B; Ruan, L; Zhao, H W; Zhan, W L; Xie, D

    2016-02-01

    LECR4 (Lanzhou ECR ion source No. 4) is a room temperature electron cyclotron resonance ion source, designed to produce high current, high charge state ion beams for the SSC-LINAC injector (a new injector for sector separated cyclotron) at the Institute of Modern Physics. LECR4 also serves as a PoP machine for the application of evaporative cooling technology in accelerator field. To achieve those goals, LECR4 ECR ion source has been optimized for the operation at 18 GHz. During 2014, LECR4 ion source was commissioned at 18 GHz microwave of 1.6 kW. To further study the influence of injection stage to the production of medium and high charge state ion beams, in March 2015, the injection stage with pumping system was installed, and some optimum results were produced, such as 560 eμA of O(7+), 620 eμA of Ar(11+), 430 eμA of Ar(12+), 430 eμA of Xe(20+), and so on. The comparison will be discussed in the paper. PMID:26931956

  19. High intensity high charge state ion beam production with an evaporative cooling magnet ECRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, W.; Qian, C.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Fang, X.; Guo, J. W.; Yang, Y.; Feng, Y. C.; Ma, B. H.; Xiong, B.; Ruan, L.; Zhao, H. W.; Zhan, W. L.; Xie, D.

    2016-02-01

    LECR4 (Lanzhou ECR ion source No. 4) is a room temperature electron cyclotron resonance ion source, designed to produce high current, high charge state ion beams for the SSC-LINAC injector (a new injector for sector separated cyclotron) at the Institute of Modern Physics. LECR4 also serves as a PoP machine for the application of evaporative cooling technology in accelerator field. To achieve those goals, LECR4 ECR ion source has been optimized for the operation at 18 GHz. During 2014, LECR4 ion source was commissioned at 18 GHz microwave of 1.6 kW. To further study the influence of injection stage to the production of medium and high charge state ion beams, in March 2015, the injection stage with pumping system was installed, and some optimum results were produced, such as 560 eμA of O7+, 620 eμA of Ar11+, 430 eμA of Ar12+, 430 eμA of Xe20+, and so on. The comparison will be discussed in the paper.

  20. Vector meson and associated strangeness production using a linearly polarized photon beam at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Philip L. Cole

    2004-09-01

    The set of experiments forming the g8a run took place in the summer of 2001 in Hall B of Jefferson Lab. The g8a run was the commissioning experiment for the linearly-polarized photon beam at CLAS. The aim of these experiments is to improve the understanding of the underlying symmetry of the quark degrees of freedom in the nucleon, the nature of the parity exchange between the incident photon and the target nucleon, and the mechanism of associated strangeness production in electromagnetic reactions. A beam of tagged and collimated linearly polarized photons (energy range 1.8-2.2 GeV) in conjunction with the large solid angle coverage of CLAS make possible the extraction of the differential cross-sections and polarization observables for the photoproduction of vector mesons and kaons. The reaction channels are under investigation to search for possibly missing nucleon resonances. An overview of the experiment and preliminary results on the measurement of the photon asymmetries of the aforementioned reactions will be presented in this paper.

  1. Nanoscale SiC production by ballistic ion beam mixing of C/Si multilayer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistig, G.; Zolnai, Z.; Németh, A.; Panjan, P.; Menyhárd, M.

    2016-05-01

    The ion beam-induced mixing process using Ar+, Ga+, and Xe+ ion irradiation has been used to form SiC rich layers on the nanometer scale at the interfaces of C/Si/C/Si/C multilayer structures. The SiC depth distributions were determined by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) depth profiling and were compared to the results of analytical models developed for ballistic ion mixing and local thermal spike induced mixing. In addition, the measured SiC depth distributions were correlated to the Si and C mixing profiles simulated by the TRIDYN code which can follow the ballistic ion mixing process as a function of ion fluence. Good agreement has been found between the distributions provided by AES depth profiling and TRIDYN on the assumption that the majority of the Si (C) atoms transported to the neighboring C (Si) layer form the SiC compound. The ion beam mixing process can be successfully described by ballistic atomic transport processes. The results show that SiC production as a function of depth can be predicted, and tailored compound formation on the nanoscale becomes feasible, thus leading to controlled synthesis of protective SiC coatings at room temperature.

  2. Development of ion transportation, extraction and neutralization systems for atomic beam resonance method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagae, Daisuke; Asahi, Koichiro; Miyoshi, Hisanori; Shimada, Kenzi; Yoshimi, Akihiro; Ueno, Hideki; Murata, Jiro; Uchida, Makoto; Kameda, Daisuke; Kato, Go; Emori, Shoken; Kijima, Go; Oshima, Sachiko; Takemura, Makoto; Arai, Takemasa; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Haseyama, Tomohito; Schmidt-Ott, W. D.

    2005-11-01

    A device that produces a low-energy and largely spin polarized RI beam based on the atomic beam resonance method (RIABR) has been developed. We have performed measurements of stopping and drifting an incoming RI ion beam in a gas chamber, extraction of the ions into a vacuum region, and neutralization of the extracted low-energy ion beam. The drift efficiency of RI ions in a gas and the extraction efficiency at a Laval-type glass nozzle were found to be 0.72±0.04 and 0.033, respectively. The result of the experiment for the neutralization is also discussed.

  3. RiSA: A Science Festival for the Bilingual and Bicultural Rio Grande Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Key, Joey Shapiro; Torres, Cristina; Stone, Robert

    2014-03-01

    The Rio Grande Science and Arts (RiSA) Festival organized by the Center for Gravitational Wave Astronomy (CGWA) at the University of Texas at Brownsville (UTB) will use a wide variety of artforms to bring physics and science topics to the bilingual and bicultural population of the Rio Grande Valley of South Texas. The science and art faculty at UTB will partner with art and education professionals to create an annual community event celebrating science though art. Music, dance, poetry, and visual arts will headline the festival activities. Festival events and products will be produced in both English and Spanish to attract and inform the bilingual local community. The RiSA Festival is supported by the Science Festival Alliance and the Sloan Foundation. Supported by the Science Festival Alliance and the Sloan Foundation.

  4. Production of intense ion beams in a reflex triode with an external plasma source at the anode

    SciTech Connect

    Bystritskii, V.M.; Verigin, A.A.; Volkov, S.N.; Krasik, Y.E.; Podkatov, V.I.

    1986-09-01

    An experimental study of the production of intense ion beams in a reflex triode with an external plasma source at the anode is reported. The ions had various ratios Z/M. When the anode plasma is produced in a preliminary charging pulse of the accelerator, the plasma density is too low for operation under charge-limited emission conditions. In this case, an ion beam is observed to be produced from the plasma formed by the direct heating of the anode material by oscillating electrons. When an anode plasma resulting from the breakdown of a dielectric insert or of the vacuum gap of a composite andode by an external voltage source is used to produce an ion beam, the reflex triode operating conditions depend on delaying the operation of the accelerator with respect to the external source. The highest efficiency (approx. =20%) in the production of an ion beam is observed at t/sub d/ = 3--6 ..mu..s. In this case, the reflex triode operates under increasing or constant impedance conditions. It was shown in the course of the experiments that the ion beam which is produced is nonuniform. There are three groups of ions: H/sup +/, C/sup n//sup +/, and Cu/sup n//sup +/. The energy of the heavy ions depends on the applied anode potential. The different mass components of the ion beam do not appear at the same time. The macroscopic divergence of the beam is 4--6/sup 0/ at the periphery and drops off to approx. <1/sup 0/ at the center. The microscopic divergence of the beam is 3/sup 0/. The total energy of the ion beam which is produced is less than 120 J at an average current approx. =2.8 kA.

  5. Electron Beam Production and Characterization for the PLEIADES Thomson X-Ray Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, W. J.; Hartemann, F. V.; Tremaine, A. M.; Springer, P. T.; Le Sage, G. P.; Barty, C. P. J.; Rosenzweig, J. B.; Crane, J. K.; Cross, R. R.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Gibson, D. J.; Slaughter, D. R.; Anderson, S.

    2002-12-01

    We report on the performance of an S-band RF photocathode electron gun and accelerator for operation with the PLEIADES Thomson x-ray source at LLNL. Simulations of beam production, transport, and focus are presented. It is shown that a 1 ps, 500 pC electron bunch with a normalized emittance of less than 5 πmm-mrad can be delivered to the interaction point. Initial electron measurements are presented. Calculations of expected x-ray flux are also performed, demonstrating an expected peak spectral brightness of 1020 photons/s/mm2/mrad2/0.1% bandwidth. Effects of RF phase jitter are also presented, and planned phase measurements and control methods are discussed.

  6. Electron Beam Production and Characterization for the PLEIADES Thomson X-ray Source

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W J; Hartemann, F V; Tremaine, A M; Springer, P T; Le Sage, G P; Barty, C P J; Rosenzweig, J B; Crane, J K; Cross, R R; Fittinghoff, D B; Gibson, D J; Slaughter, D R; Anderson, S

    2002-10-14

    We report on the performance of an S-band RF photocathode electron gun and accelerator for operation with the PLEIADES Thomson x-ray source at LLNL. Simulations of beam production, transport, and focus are presented. It is shown that a 1 ps, 500 pC electron bunch with a normalized emittance of less than 5 {pi}mm-mrad can be delivered to the interaction point. Initial electron measurements are presented. Calculations of expected x-ray flux are also performed, demonstrating an expected peak spectral brightness of 10{sup 20} photons/s/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/0.1% bandwidth. Effects of RF phase jitter are also presented, and planned phase measurements and control methods are discussed.

  7. Production of a low-pressure processing plasma with ion beam injection for thin-film preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Hiroharu; Yagura, Shinya

    1988-06-01

    A low-pressure processing plasma production with an ion beam injection is presented by applying microwave and rf discharges in a low-pressure gas for thin-film preparation. Electrostatic ion energy analyzer and emissive probe techniques are used in the plasma of a nonreactive gas to get plasma characteristics. The measurement reveals that an energy of ion beam injected into a reactor is controllable by adjusting a bias potential applied between the two plasmas, and electric fields at the steady state are affected by a configuration of a magnetic field applied for an enhancement of a microwave plasma production.

  8. Defining A-Kinase Anchoring Protein (AKAP) Specificity for the Protein Kinase A Subunit RI (PKA-RI).

    PubMed

    Autenrieth, Karolin; Bendzunas, N George; Bertinetti, Daniela; Herberg, Friedrich W; Kennedy, Eileen J

    2016-04-15

    A-Kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) act as spatial and temporal regulators of protein kinase A (PKA) by localizing PKA along with multiple proteins into discrete signaling complexes. AKAPs interact with the PKA holoenzyme through an α-helix that docks into a groove formed on the dimerization/docking domain of PKA-R in an isoform-dependent fashion. In an effort to understand isoform selectivity at the molecular level, a library of protein-protein interaction (PPI) disruptors was designed to systematically probe the significance of an aromatic residue on the AKAP docking sequence for RI selectivity. The stapled peptide library was designed based on a high affinity, RI-selective disruptor of AKAP binding, RI-STAD-2. Phe, Trp and Leu were all found to maintain RI selectivity, whereas multiple intermediate-sized hydrophobic substitutions at this position either resulted in loss of isoform selectivity (Ile) or a reversal of selectivity (Val). As a limited number of RI-selective sequences are currently known, this study aids in our understanding of isoform selectivity and establishing parameters for discovering additional RI-selective AKAPs. PMID:26611881

  9. Production of Secondary Radioactive 21Na Beam for the Study of 21Na(α,p)24Mg Stellar Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binh, Dam Nguyen; Khiem, Le Hong; Kubono, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Hayakawa, S.; Kim, A.

    2008-04-01

    The availability of radioactive beams has produced great opportunities for advances in our understanding of the nucleosynthesis occurring in stellar explosions such as novae, X-ray burst and supernovae. By using an in-flight low-energy radioisotope beam separator (CRIB) at Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), University of Tokyo, we have successfully produced the 21Na proton-rich beam for the study of 21Na(α,p)24Mg reaction which is related to the astrophysically important production of 22Na in the stellar explosive environments. Since it is the first time when this reaction is studied experimentally, we have performed a test experiment to produce the 21Na beam and to estimate the feasibility of the experimental study of 21Na(α,p)24Mg reaction.

  10. Assessment of protocols in cone-beam CT with symmetric and asymmetric beams usingeffective dose and air kerma-area product.

    PubMed

    Batista, Wilson Otto; Soares, Maria Rosangela; de Oliveira, Marcus V L; Maia, Ana F; Caldas, Linda V E

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate and compare protocols with similar purposes in a cone beam CT scanner using thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) and the air kerma-area product (PKA) as the kerma index. The measurements were performed on two protocols used to obtain an image of the maxilla-mandible using the equipment GENDEX GXCB 500: Protocol [GX1] extended diameter and asymmetric beam (14cm×8.5cm-maxilla/mandible) and protocol [GX2] symmetrical beam (8.5cm×8.5cm-maxillary/mandible). LiF dosimeters inserted into a female anthropomorphic phantom were used. For both protocols, the value of PKA was evaluated using a PTW Diamentor E2 meter and the multimeter Radcal Rapidose system. The results obtained for the effective dose/PKA were separated by protocol image. [GX1]: 44.5µSv/478mGycm(2); [GX2]: 54.8µSv/507mGycm(2). Although the ratio of the diameters (14cm/8.5cm)=1.65, the ratio of effective dose values (44.5µSv/54.8µSv)=0.81, that is, the effective dose of the protocol with extended diameter is 19% smaller. The PKA values reveal very similar results between the two protocols. For the cases where the scanner uses an asymmetric beam to obtain images with large diameters that cover the entire face, there are advantages from the point of view of reducing the exposure of patients when compared to the use of symmetrical beam and/or to FOV images with a smaller diameter. PMID:25620114

  11. Production of intense beams of polarized negative hydrogen ions by double charge exchange in alkali vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruëbler, W.; Schmelzbach, P. A.

    1983-07-01

    The intensity of the polarized negative hydrogen ion beam of the ETHZ atomic beam polarized ion source has been substantially improved by a new double charge exchange device. Increasing the diameter of the charge exchange canal to 1.4 cm results in a beam output of the source of 6 μA of polarized negative hydrogen ions. Further improvements of the charge exchanger are proposed and discussed. With an updated design of the atomic beam apparatus, beams of 0.5 mA polarized negative hydrogen ions may be obtained from such a source.

  12. STUDY OF BEAM SPIN ASYMMETRY IN EXCLUSIVE Π° PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Howley, I.; Avagyan, H.

    2007-01-01

    Describing and understanding atomic nuclei is a puzzle that has intrigued scientists for decades. Approximately ten years ago, a description of nucleon structure, referred to as Generalized Parton Distribution (GPD), was introduced. GPDs are a way of describing scattering and production processes in a single framework. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) is a process that scatters a photon from a proton and detects a scattered electron, a proton, and one photon in the fi nal state. From DVCS, GPDs can be extracted in order to lead us to a more complete picture of nucleon structure. The focus of this study is to understand the beam spin asymmetry (BSA) of the neutral π° meson, a main source of background during the DVCS process. To calculate the BSA, the number of π° events with positive helicity (spin) and negative helicity were counted by integrating histograms with Gaussians fi ts. It is shown that there is a signifi cant non-zero BSA in production of exclusive π°, namely 0.0655±0.0022. In the analysis of previous experiments, the BSA of π° was assumed to be zero and therefore ignored. Now, future analyses of DVCS data may incorporate this evidence of BSA. A deeper understanding of background processes (π°) in the DVCS will allow precision measurements of GPDs, providing new insight concerning the structure of nucleons.

  13. Fundamental aspects on ion-beam surface modification: defect production and migration processes

    SciTech Connect

    Rehn, L.E.; Averback, R.S.; Okamoto, P.R.

    1984-09-01

    Ion-beam modification of metals is generating increasing scientific interest not only because it has exciting technological potential, but also because it has raised fundamental questions concerning radiation-induced diffusion processes. In addition to the implanted species, several defect production and migration mechanisms contribute to changes in the near-surface composition of an alloy during ion bombardment, e.g., atoms exchange positions via displacements and replacement sequences; preferential sputtering effects arise; radiation-enhanced diffusion and radiation-induced segregation occur. The latter two defect migration mechanisms are of particular significance since they can alter the composition to depths which are much greater than the implanted ion range. By altering various parameters such as irradiation temperature, ion mass, energy, and current density, and initial alloying distributions, a rich variety of near-surface composition profiles can be created. We have utilized changes in ion mass and energy, and irradiation temperature to distinguish defect production from defect migration effects. Experimental results are presented which provide a guide to the relative efficiencies of different mechanisms under various irradiation conditions. 46 references.

  14. Production of a sub-10 fs electron beam with 107 electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jang-Hui

    2011-05-01

    We study the possibility to produce a 1.6 pC electron beam (107 electrons) with a bunch length of less than 10 fs and a beam energy of a few MeV. Such a short, relativistic beam will be useful for an electron diffraction experiment with a 10 fs time resolution. An electron beam with 107 electrons will allow a single-shot experiment with a laser pulse pump and an electron beam probe. In this design, an S-band photocathode gun is used for generating and accelerating a beam and a buncher consisting of two S-band four-cell cavities is used for temporally compressing the beam. Focusing solenoids control the beam transverse divergence and size at the sample. Numerical optimization is carried out to achieve a beam with a 4 fs full-width-at-half-maximum length, a 26 microradian root-mean-square divergence, and a 2 nm transverse coherence length at a 3.24 MeV beam energy. When state-of-the-art rf stability is considered, beam arrival time jitter at the sample is calculated to be about 10 fs.

  15. Laser-driven wavebreaking, electron trapping, and mono-energetic beam production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esarey, Eric

    2006-10-01

    Recent breakthrough results reported in Nature demonstrate that laser-plasma accelerators can produce high quality (e.g., narrow energy spread) electron bunches at the 100 MeV level that may be useful for numerous applications. More recently, high quality electron beams at 1 GeV were produced in experiments at LBNL using 40 TW laser pulse interacting with a 3.3 cm plasma channel. In these experiments, the accelerated electrons were self-trapped from the background plasma, often attributed to the process of wavebreaking. Using a warm fluid model, a general analytic theory of wavebreaking has been developed that is valid for all regimes of interest, i.e., arbitrary temperature and phase velocity. This theory indicates that the maximum electric field obtainable by a relativistic plasma wave is lower that previously calculated. The relation between wavebreaking and particle trapping is discussed, and various quantities, such as the fraction of electrons trapped (i.e., the dark current), are calculated. A variety of methods for particle trapping relevant to present experiments, including 2D wavebreaking, density ramps, and laser injection, will be described. Limitations from dephasing and pump depletion will be summarized. Also presented will be 2D and 3D simulations modeling the production high quality electron beams from laser-plasma accelerators. C.G.R. Geddes et al., Nature 431, 538 (2004); S.P.D. Mangles et al., ibid., p. 535; J. Faure et al., ibid., p. 541. W.P. Leemans et al., submitted. C.B. Schroeder et al., Phys. Rev. E bf 72, 055401 (2005). C.B. Schroeder et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 033103 (2006). G. Fubiani et al., Phys. Rev. E 73, 026402 (2006).

  16. Isochronous field study of the Rare-RI Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Y.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Wakasugi, M.; Uesaka, T.; Ozawa, A.; Suzaki, F.; Nagae, D.; Miura, H.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yano, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Construction of the Rare-RI Ring to measure masses of short-lived rare-RI with a relative precision of 10-6 is in progress at RIKEN. The Rare-RI Ring consists of six sectors where each sector consists of four dipole magnets. Since the mass measurement is done by the isochronous mass spectrometry in the Rare-RI Ring, creating isochronous magnetic field is one of the important issues in mass measurements with the Rare-RI Ring. In order to make an isochronous field, we installed ten trim coils in the two outer dipoles among the four dipoles in each sector magnet. The isochronism of the magnetic field have been confirmed by measuring time-of-flight (TOF) of alpha particles from an alpha-source (241Am). We measured TOF of alpha particles while changing the radial gradient of the magnetic field by trim coils and evaluated the isochronism from standard deviation of the TOF spectrum. The TOF width is minimum for a radial gradient of magnetic field (\\partial {B}z/\\partial r)/B0 = 0.205 m-1, which is in good agreement with the simulated value.

  17. The production of low-energy neutral oxygen beams by grazing-incidence neutralization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albridge, R. G.; Haglund, R. F.; Tolk, N. H.; Daech, A. F.

    1987-01-01

    The Vanderbilt University neutral oxygen facility produces beams of low-energy neutral oxygen atoms by means of grazing-incidence collisions between ion beams and metal surfaces. Residual ions are reflected by applied electric fields. This method can utilize initial ion beams of either O(+) or O2(+) since a very large percentage of molecular oxygen ions are dissociated when they undergo grazing-incidence neutralization. The method of neutralization is applicable to low-energy beams and to all ions. Particular emphasis is on O and N2 beams for simulation of the low Earth orbit space environment. Since the beam is a pure O-neutral beam and since measurements of the interaction of the beam with solid surfaces are made spectroscopically, absolute reaction rates can be determined. The technique permits the beams to be used in conjunction with electron and photon irradiation for studies of synergistic effects. Comparisons of optical spectra of Kapton excited by 2.5-keV O, O(+), and O2(+) show significant differences. Optical spectra of Kapton excited by neutral oxygen beams of less than 1 keV have been recorded.

  18. Bremsstrahlung and photoneutron production in a steel shield for 15-22-MeV clinical electron beams.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yukio; Myojoyama, Atsushi; Saitoh, Hidetoshi

    2015-02-01

    The physical data regarding bremsstrahlung and neutrons produced in a steel shield by high-energy electron beams from a medical linear accelerator were investigated. These data are required to allow the accurate prediction of shielding performance for high-energy electron beams and in the design of radiotherapy facilities. A Monte Carlo code was used to develop Monte Carlo beam models for clinical electron beams and to directly simulate bremsstrahlung and secondary neutron production in a steel shield. The effective dose and dose equivalent of bremsstrahlung X rays and secondary neutrons outside a vault were determined using a realistic radiation source. The accuracy of Monte Carlo simulations was validated experimentally by comparing the measured and calculated physical quantities. In validating the Monte Carlo simulation, the measured and calculated values showed reasonable agreement, indicating that bremsstrahlung and photoneutron production and transport were simulated accurately. The bremsstrahlung X-ray dose was the main component of the total dose outside a vault. The secondary neutron dose was 1-20 % of the bremsstrahlung X-ray dose, but the neutron dose was also at a non-negligible level. The calculated neutron dose outside the vault differed from the McGinley's reported data. These results indicate that McGinley's method overestimates the neutron dose beyond the steel shield. The physical data used here will be useful in the accurate estimation of bremsstrahlung X-ray and neutron doses for high-energy electron beams. PMID:24821930

  19. Undulator-Based Production of Polarized Positrons, A Proposal for the 50-GeV Beam in the FFTB

    SciTech Connect

    G. Alexander; P. Anthony; V. Bharadwaj; Yu.K. Batygin; T. Behnke; S. Berridge; G.R. Bower; W. Bugg; R. Carr; E. Chudakov; J.E. Clendenin; F.J. Decker; Yu. Efremenko; T. Fieguth; K. Flottmann; M. Fukuda; V. Gharibyan; T. Handler; T. Hirose; R.H. Iverson; Yu. Kamyshkov; H. Kolanoski; T. Lohse; Chang-guo Lu; K.T. McDonald; N. Meyners; R. Michaels; A.A. Mikhailichenko; K. Monig; G. Moortgat-Pick; M. Olson; T. Omori; D. Onoprienko; N. Pavel; R. Pitthan; M. Purohit; L. Rinolfi; K.P. Schuler; J.C. Sheppard; S. Spanier; A. Stahl; Z.M. Szalata; J. Turner; D. Walz; A. Weidemann; J. Weisend

    2003-06-01

    The full exploitation of the physics potential of future linear colliders such as the JLC, NLC, and TESLA will require the development of polarized positron beams. In the proposed scheme of Balakin and Mikhailichenko [1] a helical undulator is employed to generate photons of several MeV with circular polarization which are then converted in a relatively thin target to generate longitudinally polarized positrons. This experiment, E-166, proposes to test this scheme to determine whether such a technique can produce polarized positron beams of sufficient quality for use in future linear colliders. The experiment will install a meter-long, short-period, pulsed helical undulator in the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) at SLAC. A low-emittance 50-GeV electron beam passing through this undulator will generate circularly polarized photons with energies up to 10 MeV. These polarized photons are then converted to polarized positrons via pair production in thin targets. Titanium and tungsten targets, which are both candidates for use in linear colliders, will be tested. The experiment will measure the flux and polarization of the undulator photons, and the spectrum and polarization of the positrons produced in the conversion target, and compare the measurement results to simulations. Thus the proposed experiment directly tests for the first time the validity of the simulation programs used for the physics of polarized pair production in finite matter, in particular the effects of multiple scattering on polarization. Successful comparison of the experimental results to the simulations will lead to greater confidence in the proposed designs of polarized positrons sources for the next generation of linear colliders. This experiment requests six-weeks of time in the FFTB beam line: three weeks for installation and setup and three weeks of beam for data taking. A 50-GeV beam with about twice the SLC emittance at a repetition rate of 30 Hz is required.

  20. Production of optical accelerating regular polygon beams and their optical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen; Ren, Zhijun

    2014-11-01

    Based on Thom's elliptic umbilical singularity, we design pivotal phase-only masks to generate accelerating regular polygon beams. By using the diffractive phase grey-scale map written onto a spatial light modulator, we experimentally obtain optical regular accelerating triple-cusp beams and quinary-cusp beams. Their optical propagation characteristics are investigated subsequently. It will provide useful information for their future potential applications.

  1. Progress in long-pulse production of powerful negative ion beams for JT-60SA and ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, A.; Umeda, N.; Hanada, M.; Yoshida, M.; Kashiwagi, M.; Tobari, H.; Watanabe, K.; Akino, N.; Komata, M.; Mogaki, K.; Sasaki, S.; Seki, N.; Nemoto, S.; Shimizu, T.; Endo, Y.; Ohasa, K.; Dairaku, M.; Yamanaka, H.; Grisham, L. R.

    2015-06-01

    Significant progress in the extension of pulse durations of powerful negative ion beams has been made to realize the neutral beam injectors for JT-60SA and ITER. In order to overcome common issues of the long-pulse production/acceleration of negative ion beams in JT-60SA and ITER, new technologies have been developed in the JT-60SA ion source and the MeV accelerator in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. As for the long-pulse production of high-current negative ions for the JT-60SA ion source, the pulse durations have been successfully increased from 30 s at 13 A on JT-60U to 100 s at 15 A by modifying the JT-60SA ion source, which satisfies the required pulse duration of 100 s and 70% of the rated beam current for JT-60SA. This progress was based on the R&D efforts for the temperature control of the plasma grid and uniform negative ion productions with the modified tent-shaped filter field configuration. Moreover, each parameter of the required beam energy, current and pulse has been achieved individually by these R&D efforts. The developed techniques are useful to design the ITER ion source because the sustainment of the caesium coverage in the large extraction area is one of the common issues between JT-60SA and ITER. As for the long-pulse acceleration of high power density beams in the MeV accelerator for ITER, the pulse duration of MeV-class negative ion beams has been extended by more than 2 orders of magnitude by modifying the extraction grid with a high cooling capability and a high transmission of negative ions. A long-pulse acceleration of 60 s has been achieved at 70 MW m-2 (683 keV, 100 A m-2) which has reached the power density of JT-60SA level of 65 MW m-2. No degradations of the voltage holding capability of the acceleration voltage and the beam optics due to the distortion of the acceleration grids have been observed in this power density level. These results are the longest pulse durations of high-current and high-power-density negative ion beams in the

  2. Schedule Optimization Study, Hanford RI/FS Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    A Schedule Optimization Study (SOS) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Program was conducted by an independent team of professionals from other federal agencies and the private sector experienced in environmental restoration. This team spent two weeks at Hanford in September 1992 examining the reasons for the lengthy RI/FS process at Hanford and developing recommendations to expedite the process. The need for the study arose out of a schedule dispute regarding the submission of the 1100-EM-1 Operable Unit RI/FS Work Plan. This report documents the study called for in the August 29, 1991, Dispute Resolution Committee Decision Statement. Battelle's Environmental Management Operations (EMO) coordinated the effort for DOE's Richland Field Office (RL).

  3. Production of a highly charged uranium ion beam with RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Higurashi, Y.; Ohnishi, J.; Nakagawa, T.; Haba, H.; Fujimaki, M.; Komiyama, M.; Kamigaito, O.; Tamura, M.; Aihara, T.; Uchiyama, A.

    2012-02-15

    A highly charged uranium (U) ion beam is produced from the RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source using 18 and 28 GHz microwaves. The sputtering method is used to produce this U ion beam. The beam intensity is strongly dependent on the rod position and sputtering voltage. We observe that the emittance of U{sup 35+} for 28 GHz microwaves is almost the same as that for 18 GHz microwaves. It seems that the beam intensity of U ions produced using 28 GHz microwaves is higher than that produced using 18 GHz microwaves at the same Radio Frequency (RF) power.

  4. Ongoing characterization of the forced electron beam induced arc discharge ion source for the selective production of exotic species facility

    SciTech Connect

    Manzolaro, M. Andrighetto, A.; Monetti, A.; Scarpa, D.; Rossignoli, M.; Vasquez, J.; Corradetti, S.; Calderolla, M.; Prete, G.; Meneghetti, G.

    2014-02-15

    An intense research and development activity to finalize the design of the target ion source system for the selective production of exotic species (SPES) facility (operating according to the isotope separation on line technique) is at present ongoing at Legnaro National Laboratories. In particular, the characterization of ion sources in terms of ionization efficiency and transversal emittance is currently in progress, and a preliminary set of data is already available. In this work, the off-line ionization efficiency and emittance measurements for the SPES forced electron beam induced arc discharge ion source in the case of a stable Ar beam are presented in detail.

  5. Optimizing production of Pb beams for 205,210Pb analysis by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sookdeo, Adam; Cornett, Jack; Kieser, William E.

    2015-10-01

    The measurement of rare radioactive lead isotopes (205Pb or 210Pb) by AMS requires the production of strong Pb negative molecular anion beams from the ion source. This paper summarizes the results of tests of different target composition on the strength and stability of 208PbF3- currents and 210Pb counts. In an 834 SIMS-type Cs+ sputter source, the superhalogen, PbF3- had the largest current or ionization efficiency from a survey of Pb molecular anions. The target matrix that produced the largest current of PbF3- was composed of PbF2, AgF2 and CsF. The ratio of AgF2 and CsF does not affect the ionization efficiency of PbF3-. Chemically refluxed targets of PbF2, AgF2 and CsF increased the ionization efficiency of PbF3-. The count rate of the rare isotope, 210Pb, was increased with the addition of microgram quantities of stable PbF2 to the targets. In an SO-110 type Cs+ sputter source the ionization efficiency of PbF3- was increased with lower rather than higher Cs+ fluence.

  6. Production of α-particle emitting ²¹¹At using 45 MeV α-beam.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gyehong; Chun, Kwonsoo; Park, Sung Ho; Kim, Byungil

    2014-06-01

    Among the α-particle emitting radionuclides, (211)At is considered to be a promising radionuclide for targeted cancer therapy due to its decay properties. The range of alpha particles produced by the decay of (211)At are less than 70 µm in water with a linear energy transfer between 100 and 130 keV µm(-1), which are about the maximum relative biological effectiveness for heavy ions. It is important to note that at the present time, only a few of cyclotrons routinely produce (211)At. The direct production method is based on the nuclear reactions (209)Bi(α,2n)(211)At. Production of the radionuclide (211)At was carried out using the MC-50 cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS). To ensure high beam current, the α-beam was extracted with an initial energy of 45 MeV, which was degraded to obtain the appropriate α-beam energy. The calculations of beam energy degradation were performed utilizing the MCNPX. Alumina-baked targets were prepared by heating the bismuth metal powder onto a circular cavity in a furnace. When using an E(α, av) of 29.17 MeV, the very small contribution of (210)At confirms the right choice of the irradiation energy to obtain a pure production of (211)At isotope. PMID:24819557

  7. LC MS analysis in the e-beam and gamma radiolysis of metoprolol tartrate in aqueous solution: Structure elucidation and formation mechanism of radiolytic products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slegers, Catherine; Maquille, Aubert; Deridder, Véronique; Sonveaux, Etienne; Habib Jiwan, Jean-Louis; Tilquin, Bernard

    2006-09-01

    E-beam and gamma products from the radiolysis of aqueous solutions of (±)-metoprolol tartrate, saturated in nitrogen, are analyzed by HPLC with on-line mass and UV detectors. The structures of 10 radiolytic products common to e-beam and gamma irradiations are elucidated by comparing their fragmentation pattern to that of (±)-metoprolol. Two of the radiolytic products are also metabolites. Different routes for the formation of the radiolytic products are proposed.

  8. Production of intense negative hydrogen beams with polarized nuclei by selective neutralization of cold negative ions

    DOEpatents

    Hershcovitch, A.

    1984-02-13

    A process for selectively neutralizing H/sup -/ ions in a magnetic field to produce an intense negative hydrogen ion beam with spin polarized protons. Characteristic features of the process include providing a multi-ampere beam of H/sup -/ ions that are

  9. Production of low-Z ions in the Dresden superconducting electron ion beam source for medical particle therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Zschornack, G.; Ritter, E.; Schwan, A.; Ullmann, F.; Grossmann, F.; Ovsyannikov, V. P.

    2012-02-15

    We report on experiments with a new superconducting electron beam ion source (EBIS-SC), the Dresden EBIS-SC, with the objective to meet the main requirements for their application in particle-therapy facilities. Synchrotrons as well as innovative accelerator concepts, such as high-gradient linacs which are driven by a large-current cyclotron (CYCLINACS) and direct drive RF linear accelerators may benefit from the advantages of EBISs in regard to their functional principle. First experimental studies of the production of low-Z ions such as H{sup +}, H{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 3}{sup +}, C{sup 4+}, and C{sup 6+} are presented. Particular attention is paid to the ion output, i.e., the number of ions per pulse and per second, respectively. Important beam parameters in this context are, among others, ion pulse shaping, pulse repetition rates, beam emittance, and ion energy spread.

  10. Meniscus and beam halo formation in a tandem-type negative ion source with surface production

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, K.; Okuda, S.; Hatayama, A.

    2012-06-04

    A meniscus of plasma-beam boundary in H{sup -} ion sources largely affects the extracted H{sup -} ion beam optics. Although it is hypothesized that the shape of the meniscus is one of the main reasons for the beam halo observed in experiments, a physical mechanism of the beam halo formation is not yet fully understood. In this letter, it is first shown by the 2D particle in cell simulation that the H{sup -} ions extracted from the periphery of the meniscus cause a beam halo since the surface produced H{sup -} ions penetrate into the bulk plasma, and, thus, the resultant meniscus has a relatively large curvature.

  11. Measurement of spin parameters in inclusive. Lambda. and K sub S production using a polarized proton beam

    SciTech Connect

    Tonse, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    A polarized proton beam incident on a Beryllium target was used for inclusive {Lambda}(1116 meV) production at beam momenta of 13.3 GeV and 18.5 GeV. The beam polarization was transverse to the beam direction with magnitude 0.63(0.40) at 13.3(18.5) GeV. The trigger condition favored forward produced {Lambda}'s with moderately high p{sub T}(p{sub T} {approximately} 1GeV). The {Lambda} polarization was measured and found to be in agreement with results from earlier experiments which used unpolarized proton beams. Analyzing power (A) and depolarization (D{sub NN}) of the {Lambda}'s were both measured and compared with a hyperon polarization model in which the polarization arises from a Thomas precession effect. There is good agreement with its predictions: A = 0 and D{sub NN} = 0. In particular, our measurement of D{sub NN} = {minus}0.009 {plus minus} 0.015 supports the idea that the valence quarks carry all of the hadron spin, since this assumption is implicit in the model's use of SU(6) wave functions to form final state hadrons from beam fragments and sea quarks. The analyzing power of K{sub s} was also measured at 13.3(18.5)GeV and found to be {minus}0.094 {plus minus} 0.012 ({minus}0.076 {plus minus} 0.015). We use the same model to predict A of K{sub s}, taking into account K{sub s} production from various sources (K{degree}, K{degree} and K*) and find good agreement with the data. Finally a small sample of {Lambda} was isolated form the 18.5 GeV sample and was found to have A = 0.03 {plus minus} 0.1, consistent with the model's prediction of zero.

  12. A novel process for production of spherical PBT powders and their processing behavior during laser beam melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Jochen; Sachs, Marius; Zhao, Meng; Fanselow, Stephanie; Wudy, Katrin; Drexler, Maximilian; Drummer, Dietmar; Wirth, Karl-Ernst; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    Additive manufacturing processes like laser beam melting of polymers are established for production of prototypes and individualized parts. The transfer to other areas of application and to serial production is currently hindered by the limited availability of polymer powders with good processability. Within this contribution a novel process route for the production of spherical polymer micron-sized particles of good flowability has been established and applied to produce polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) powders. Moreover, the applicability of the PBT powders in selective laser beam melting and the dependencies of process parameters on device properties will be outlined. First, polymer micro particles are produced by a novel wet grinding method. To improve the flowability the produced particles the particle shape is optimized by rounding in a heated downer reactor. A further improvement of flowability of the cohesive spherical PBT particles is realized by dry coating. An improvement of flowability by a factor of about 5 is achieved by subsequent rounding of the comminution product and dry-coating as proven by tensile strength measurements of the powders. The produced PBT powders were characterized with respect to their processability. Therefore thermal, rheological, optical and bulk properties were analyzed. Based on these investigations a range of processing parameters was derived. Parameter studies on thin layers, produced in a selective laser melting system, were conducted. Hence appropriate parameters for processing the PBT powders by laser beam melting, like building chamber temperature, scan speed and laser power have been identified.

  13. New development of laser ion source for highly charged ion beam production at Institute of Modern Physics (invited).

    PubMed

    Zhao, H Y; Zhang, J J; Jin, Q Y; Liu, W; Wang, G C; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2016-02-01

    A laser ion source based on Nd:YAG laser has been being studied at the Institute of Modern Physics for the production of high intensity high charge state heavy ion beams in the past ten years, for possible applications both in a future accelerator complex and in heavy ion cancer therapy facilities. Based on the previous results for the production of multiple-charged ions from a wide range of heavy elements with a 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser [Zhao et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02B910 (2014)], higher laser energy and intensity in the focal spot are necessary for the production of highly charged ions from the elements heavier than aluminum. Therefore, the laser ion source was upgraded with a new Nd:YAG laser, the maximum energy of which is 8 J and the pulse duration can be adjusted from 8 to 18 ns. Since then, the charge state distributions of ions from various elements generated by the 8 J Nd:YAG laser were investigated for different experimental conditions, such as laser energy, pulse duration, power density in the focal spot, and incidence angle. It was shown that the incidence angle is one of the most important parameters for the production of highly charged ions. The capability of producing highly charged ions from the elements lighter than silver was demonstrated with the incidence angle of 10° and laser power density of 8 × 10(13) W cm(-2) in the focal spot, which makes a laser ion source complementary to the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the future accelerator complex especially in terms of the ion beam production from some refractory elements. Nevertheless, great efforts with regard to the extraction of intense ion beams, modification of the ion beam pulse duration, and reliability of the ion source still need to be made for practical applications. PMID:26931978

  14. New development of laser ion source for highly charged ion beam production at Institute of Modern Physics (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Jin, Q. Y.; Liu, W.; Wang, G. C.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.

    2016-02-01

    A laser ion source based on Nd:YAG laser has been being studied at the Institute of Modern Physics for the production of high intensity high charge state heavy ion beams in the past ten years, for possible applications both in a future accelerator complex and in heavy ion cancer therapy facilities. Based on the previous results for the production of multiple-charged ions from a wide range of heavy elements with a 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser [Zhao et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02B910 (2014)], higher laser energy and intensity in the focal spot are necessary for the production of highly charged ions from the elements heavier than aluminum. Therefore, the laser ion source was upgraded with a new Nd:YAG laser, the maximum energy of which is 8 J and the pulse duration can be adjusted from 8 to 18 ns. Since then, the charge state distributions of ions from various elements generated by the 8 J Nd:YAG laser were investigated for different experimental conditions, such as laser energy, pulse duration, power density in the focal spot, and incidence angle. It was shown that the incidence angle is one of the most important parameters for the production of highly charged ions. The capability of producing highly charged ions from the elements lighter than silver was demonstrated with the incidence angle of 10° and laser power density of 8 × 1013 W cm-2 in the focal spot, which makes a laser ion source complementary to the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the future accelerator complex especially in terms of the ion beam production from some refractory elements. Nevertheless, great efforts with regard to the extraction of intense ion beams, modification of the ion beam pulse duration, and reliability of the ion source still need to be made for practical applications.

  15. Theoretical evaluation of induced radioactivity in food products by electron — or X-ray beam sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leboutet, H.; Aucouturier, J.

    We evaluate first the energy density for electrons or X-ray beams necessary to produce a reference level of 1 kilogray at the maximum of dose, as a function of energy, for electrons and bremsstrahlung photons ( BX rays), based on experimental data obtained on radio-therapy beams, from 4 to 32 MeV, and irradiation beams from production plant CARIC. Then from the production of neutrons on the tungsten target and from (γ n) reactions on the deuterium content of the irradiated food, the slowing down and capture of these neutrons is estimated. Radioisotopes can be produced by (γ n) reactions on iodine, and to a lesser extent on tin, lead, barium, etc., but the major contribution is neutron activation, where the more critical elements are sodium, chlorine, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, calcium. Induced activity is compared to natural activity coming from potassium 40, carbon 14 and radium, contained in all foods. We conclude that for electrons up to 1 Mrad the induced activity remains of the order of a few percent of natural activity, for energies below 10-11 MeV. Bremsstrahlung X-ray irradiations can give comparable levels as soon as the energy of the generating electron beam is above 3 MeV. The induced activity decays within a few days. There is only a small increase of induced activity as the energy changes from 5 to 10 MeV, for the same total applied dose.

  16. 78 FR 4967 - Rhode Island Disaster #RI-00010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster RI-00010 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... Island (FEMA-4089-DR), dated 11/ 14/2012. Incident: Hurricane Sandy. Incident Period: 10/26/2012 through... the President's major disaster declaration for the State of Rhode Island, dated 11/14/2012 is...

  17. 77 FR 67857 - Rhode Island Disaster #RI-00011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster RI-00011 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of Rhode Island (FEMA-4089-DR), dated 11/03/2012. Incident: Hurricane Sandy. Incident Period:...

  18. 75 FR 19666 - Rhode Island Disaster #RI-00007

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster RI-00007 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of Rhode Island (FEMA-1894-DR), dated 04/08/2010. Incident: Severe Storms and Flooding....

  19. 75 FR 18554 - Rhode Island Disaster Number RI-00006

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster Number RI-00006 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... of Rhode Island (FEMA-1894-DR), dated 03/ 29/2010. Incident: Severe storms and flooding. Incident... INFORMATION: The notice of the Presidential disaster declaration for the State of Rhode Island, dated...

  20. 75 FR 22873 - Rhode Island Disaster Number RI-00007

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster Number RI-00007 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... Assistance Only for the State of Rhode Island (FEMA-1894-DR), dated 04/08/2010. Incident: Severe storms and... Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Rhode Island, dated 04/08/2010, is hereby amended...

  1. 75 FR 17178 - Rhode Island Disaster #RI-00006

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster RI-00006 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Rhode Island.... Contiguous Counties (Economic Injury Loans Only): Rhode Island: Bristol. Connecticut: New London,...

  2. 77 FR 70203 - Rhode Island Disaster #RI-00010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster RI-00010 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Rhode Island...): Rhode Island: Kent. Connecticut: New London. Massachusetts: Bristol. The Interest Rates are: Percent...

  3. 75 FR 22872 - Rhode Island Disaster Number RI-00006

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster Number RI-00006 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... of Rhode Island (FEMA-1894-DR), dated 03/ 29/2010. Incident: Severe storms and flooding. Incident... of Rhode Island, dated 03/29/2010 is hereby amended to establish the incident period for...

  4. 77 FR 69915 - Rhode Island Disaster Number RI-00011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster Number RI-00011 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... Assistance Only for the State of Rhode Island (FEMA-4089-DR), dated 11/03/2012. Incident: Hurricane Sandy... Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of RHODE ISLAND, dated 11/03/2012, is hereby amended...

  5. 76 FR 61131 - Rhode Island Disaster #RI-00008

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster RI-00008 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Rhode Island dated 09... Island: Bristol, Kent. Connecticut: Windham. Massachusetts: Bristol, Norfolk, Worcester. The...

  6. 78 FR 21492 - Rhode Island Disaster #RI-00012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster RI-00012 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of Rhode Island (FEMA-4107-DR), dated 03/22/2013. Incident: Severe winter storm and...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... arched palate. Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis occurs in both males and females, although its signs and symptoms tend to be more severe in females. Researchers believe that the more severe features may result from hormonal differences. Related Information What does it mean if a ...

  8. [Differential diagnosis of Madelung's deformity: Léri-Weill syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, A; Zilch, H

    1987-11-01

    The Léri-Weill-syndrome is a very rare disease. The presence of Madelung's deformity is the important feature to distinguish this dyschondrosteosis from other system diseases of the skeleton combined with mesomelic dwarfism. Mesomelic dwarfism is mostly located in the lower extremity. If the deformity causes pain it is necessary to do a corrective osteotomy of the distal radius. PMID:3692340

  9. Plasma and Beam Production Experiments with HYBRIS, a Microwave-assisted H- Ion Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, R.; Kwan, J.; Hahto, S.; Regis, M.; Wallig, J.

    2007-08-01

    A two-stage ion source concept was presented a few years ago, consisting of a proven H- ion source and a 2.45-GHz Electron Cyclotron-Resonance (ECR) type ion source, here used as a plasma cathode. This paper describes the experimental development path pursued at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, from the early concept to a working unit that produces plasma in both stages and creates a negative particle beam. Without cesiation applied to the second stage, the H- fraction of this beam is very low, yielding 75 micro-amperes of extracted ion beam current at best. The apparent limitations of this approach and envisaged improvements are discussed.

  10. Production of proton beams with narrow-band energy spectra from laser-irradiated ultrathin foils

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, A. P. L; Gibbon, P.

    2007-01-15

    Three-dimensional gridless particle simulations of proton acceleration via irradiation of a very thin foil by a short-pulse, high-intensity laser have been performed to evaluate recently proposed microstructured target configurations. It is found that a pure proton microdot target does not by itself result in a quasimonoenergetic proton beam. Such a beam can only be produced with a very lightly doped target, in qualitative agreement with one-dimensional theory. The simulations suggest that beam quality in current experiments could be dramatically improved by choosing microdot compositions with a 5-10 times lower proton fraction.

  11. Structure of RiVax: a recombinant ricin vaccine

    SciTech Connect

    Legler, Patricia M.; Brey, Robert N.; Smallshaw, Joan E.; Vitetta, Ellen S.; Millard, Charles B.

    2011-09-01

    The X-ray crystal structure (at 2.1 Å resolution) of an immunogen under development as part of a ricin vaccine for humans is presented and structure-based analysis of the results was conducted with respect to related proteins and the known determinants for inducing or suppressing the protective immune response. RiVax is a recombinant protein that is currently under clinical development as part of a human vaccine to protect against ricin poisoning. RiVax includes ricin A-chain (RTA) residues 1–267 with two intentional amino-acid substitutions, V76M and Y80A, aimed at reducing toxicity. Here, the crystal structure of RiVax was solved to 2.1 Å resolution and it was shown that it is superposable with that of the ricin toxin A-chain from Ricinus communis with a root-mean-square deviation of 0.6 Å over 258 C{sup α} atoms. The RiVax structure is also compared with the recently determined structure of another potential ricin-vaccine immunogen, RTA 1–33/44–198 R48C/T77C. Finally, the locations and solvent-exposure of two toxin-neutralizing B-cell epitopes were examined and it was found that these epitopes are within or near regions predicted to be involved in catalysis. The results demonstrate the composition of the RiVax clinical material and will guide ongoing protein-engineering strategies to develop improved immunogens.

  12. Effective management of regulator RI/FS comments

    SciTech Connect

    Wolinsky, S.M.; Lojek, D.; George, R.D.; Houser, S.M.; Strimbu, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes a successful strategy that facilitates regulatory approval of CERCLA documents required by compliance agreement and CERCLA, based on the experience of Operable Unit 1, Waste Storage Area, of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). This strategy, which has become the site standard at the FEMP, was instrumental in obtaining regulator approval of the OU1 RI and FS, and early approval of the Record of Decision during a very tight compliance agreement-driven schedule. This strategy can be applied at any DOE Superfund site, especially where there is need to recover lost schedule, an incentive to meet milestones early, a need to improve the relationship between the DOE and the regulators, or where the regulatory agencies have historically provided a large volume of comments on CERCLA documents. The strategy focuses on early identification and resolution of issues relating to draft RI/FS documents, as raised in regulatory agency review comments. This pro-active strategy has the potential for schedule and cost savings, as well as for improved communication between DOE and the regulators. The strategy includes preparation of a separate comment response document, integration of comment responses with RI/FS documents, development of a database of agency comments and their resolution, and sharing lessons learned with preparers of subsequent RI/FS documents. The paper provides background on the FEMP and describes the FEMP comment response strategy; DOE and regulator interface; the Sitewide Comment Database; networked electronic file management; the process for classifying, analyzing, and responding to comments; integration with base RI/FS documents; and a conclusion.

  13. Leading the Way to RiPPs

    PubMed Central

    Link, A. James

    2016-01-01

    Many peptide-based natural products require a leader peptide to reach their final modified form, but identifying general rules for leader peptide interactions have been stymied by the diversity of these molecules. Two papers reporting crystallographic and bioinformatic analysis of these systems now reveal a structurally-conserved domain that mediates leader peptide binding. PMID:26196773

  14. Measurement of secondary particle production induced by particle therapy ion beams impinging on a PMMA target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toppi, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bellini, F.; Collamati, F.; De Lucia, E.; Durante, M.; Faccini, R.; Frallicciardi, P. M.; Marafini, M.; Mattei, I.; Morganti, S.; Muraro, S.; Paramatti, R.; Patera, V.; Pinci, D.; Piersanti, L.; Rucinski, A.; Russomando, A.; Sarti, A.; Sciubba, A.; Senzacqua, M.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Traini, G.; Voena, C.

    2016-05-01

    Particle therapy is a technique that uses accelerated charged ions for cancer treatment and combines a high irradiation precision with a high biological effectiveness in killing tumor cells [1]. Informations about the secondary particles emitted in the interaction of an ion beam with the patient during a treatment can be of great interest in order to monitor the dose deposition. For this purpose an experiment at the HIT (Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center) beam facility has been performed in order to measure fluxes and emission profiles of secondary particles produced in the interaction of therapeutic beams with a PMMA target. In this contribution some preliminary results about the emission profiles and the energy spectra of the detected secondaries will be presented.

  15. Energetic Ion Beam Production by a Low-Pressure Plasma Focus Discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, L. K.; Yap, S. L.; Wong, C. S.

    2011-03-30

    Energetic ion beam emissions in a 3 kJ Mather type plasma focus operating at low-pressure regime are investigated. Deuterium gas is used and the discharge is operated in a low-pressure regime of below 1 mbar. Formation of the current sheath during the breakdown phase at the back wall is assisted by a set delayed trigger pulse. Energetic and intense ion beams with good reproducibility have been obtained for the operating pressure ranging from 0.05 mbar to 0.5 mbar. Deuteron beam is determined by time resolved measurement by making use of three biased ion collectors placed at the end on direction. The average energies of deuteron beams are resolved by using time-of flight method. Correlation between the ion emissions and the current sheath dynamics is also discussed.

  16. Payload dose rate from direct beam radiation and exhaust gas fission products. [for nuclear engine for rocket vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capo, M. A.; Mickle, R.

    1975-01-01

    A study was made to determine the dose rate at the payload position in the NERVA System (1) due to direct beam radiation and (2) due to the possible effect of fission products contained in the exhaust gases for various amounts of hydrogen propellant in the tank. Results indicate that the gamma radiation is more significant than the neutron flux. Under different assumptions the gamma contribution from the exhaust gases was 10 to 25 percent of total gamma flux.

  17. Improved measurement of neutral current coherent $\\pi^0$ production on carbon in a few-GeV neutrino beam

    SciTech Connect

    Kurimoto, Y.; Alcaraz-Aunion, J.L.; Brice, S.J.; Bugel, L.; Catala-Perez, J.; Cheng, G.; Conrad, J.M.; Djurcic, Z.; Dore, U.; Finley, D.A.; Franke, A.J.; /Columbia U. /INFN, Rome

    2010-05-01

    The SciBooNE Collaboration reports a measurement of neutral current coherent neutral pion production on carbon by a muon neutrino beam with average energy 0.8 GeV. The separation of coherent from inclusive neutral pion production has been improved by detecting recoil protons from resonant neutral pion production. We measure the ratio of the neutral current coherent neutral pion production to total charged current cross sections to be (1.16 +/- 0.24) x 10-2. The ratio of charged current coherent pion to neutral current coherent pion production is calculated to be 0.14+0.30 -0.28, using our published charged current coherent pion measurement.

  18. Production of intense negative hydrogen beams with polarized nuclei by selective neutralization of negative ions

    DOEpatents

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    1987-01-01

    A process for selectively neutralizing H.sup.- ions in a magnetic field to produce an intense negative hydrogen ion beam with spin polarized protons. Characteristic features of the process include providing a multi-ampere beam of H.sup.- ions that are intersected by a beam of laser light. Photodetachment is effected in a uniform magnetic field that is provided around the beam of H.sup.- ions to spin polarize the H.sup.- ions and produce first and second populations or groups of ions, having their respective proton spin aligned either with the magnetic field or opposite to it. The intersecting beam of laser light is directed to selectively neutralize a majority of the ions in only one population, or given spin polarized group of H.sup.- ions, without neutralizing the ions in the other group thereby forming a population of H.sup.- ions each of which has its proton spin down, and a second group or population of H.sup.o atoms having proton spin up. Finally, the two groups of ions are separated from each other by magnetically bending the group of H.sup.- ions away from the group of neutralized ions, thereby to form an intense H.sup.- ion beam that is directed toward a predetermined objective.

  19. 77 FR 33007 - Submission for Review: Rollover Election (RI 38-117), Rollover Information (RI 38-118), and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... Special Tax Notice Regarding Rollovers (RI 37-22) AGENCY: Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: 60-Day Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Retirement Services, Office of Personnel Management (OPM... information collection to U.S. Office of Personnel Management, Union Square 370, 1900 E Street NW.,...

  20. Asia Rice Crop Estimation and Monitoring (Asia-RiCE) for GEOGLAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyoshi, K.; Tomiyama, N.; Okumura, T.; Sobue, S.

    2013-12-01

    Food security is a critical issue for the international community because of rapid population and economic growth, and climate change. In June 2011, the meeting of G20 agriculture ministers was held to discuss food security and food price volatility, and they agreed on an 'Action Plan on Food Price Volatility and Agriculture'. This plan includes a GEO Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative. The aim of GEOGLAM is to reinforce the international community's ability to produce and disseminate relevant, timely, and accurate forecasts of agricultural production on regional, national, and global scales by utilizing remote sensing technology. GEOGLAM focused on four major grain crops, wheat, maize, soybeans and rice. In particular, Asian countries are responsible for approximately 90% of the world rice production and consumption, rice is the most significant cereal crop in Asian region. Hence, Asian space and agricultural agencies with an interest in the development of rice crop monitoring technology launched an Asia-Rice Crop Estimation & Monitoring (Asia-RiCE) component for the GEOGLAM initiative. In Asian region, rice is mainly cultivated in rainy season, and a large amount of cloud limits rice crop monitoring with optical sensors. But, Synthetic Aperture RADAR (SAR) is all-weather sensor and can observe land surface even if the area is covered by cloud. Therefore, SAR technology would be powerful tool to monitor rice crop in Asian region. Asia-RiCE team required mainly SAR observation data including ALOS-2, RISAT-1, Sentinel-1 and RADARSAT, TerraSAR-X, COSMO-SkyMed for Asia-RiCE GEOGLAM Phase 1 implementation (2013-2015) to the Committee on Earth Observations (CEOS) in the GEOGLAM-CEOS Global Agricultural Monitoring Co-community Meeting held in June 2013. And also, rice crop has complicated cropping systems such as rein-fed or irrigated cultivation, single, double or sometimes triple cropping. In addition, each agricultural field is smaller than that of

  1. Preliminary consideration of a double, 480 GeV, fast cycling proton accelerator for production of neutrino beams at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Piekarz, Henryk; Hays, Steven; /Fermilab

    2007-03-01

    We propose to build the DSF-MR (Double Super-Ferric Main Ring), 480 GeV, fast-cycling (2 second repetition rate) two-beam proton accelerator in the Main Ring tunnel of Fermilab. This accelerator design is based on the super-ferric magnet technology developed for the VLHC, and extended recently to the proposed LER injector for the LHC and fast cycling SF-SPS at CERN. The DSF-MR accelerator system will constitute the final stage of the proton source enabling production of two neutrino beams separated by 2 second time period. These beams will be sent alternately to two detectors located at {approx} 3000 km and {approx} 7500 km away from Fermilab. It is expected that combination of the results from these experiments will offer more than 3 order of magnitudes increased sensitivity for detection and measurement of neutrino oscillations with respect to expectations in any current experiment, and thus may truly enable opening the window into the physics beyond the Standard Model. We examine potential sites for the long baseline neutrino detectors accepting beams from Fermilab. The current injection system consisting of 400 MeV Linac, 8 GeV Booster and the Main Injector can be used to accelerate protons to 45 GeV before transferring them to the DSF-MR. The implementation of the DSF-MR will allow for an 8-fold increase in beam power on the neutrino production target. In this note we outline the proposed new arrangement of the Fermilab accelerator complex. We also briefly describe the DSF-MR magnet design and its power supply, and discuss necessary upgrade of the Tevatron RF system for the use with the DSF-MR accelerator. Finally, we outline the required R&D, cost estimate and possible timeline for the implementation of the DSF-MR accelerator.

  2. Inducible expression and cytogenetic effects of the EcoRI restriction endonuclease in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, W F; Fero, M L; Land, M C; Winegar, R A

    1988-01-01

    The cytogenetic endpoints sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and chromosome aberrations are widely used as indicators of DNA damage induced by mutagenic carcinogens. Chromosome aberrations appear to result directly from DNA double-strand breaks, but the lesion(s) giving rise to SCE formation remains unknown. Most compounds that induce SCEs induce a spectrum of lesions in DNA. To investigate the role of double-strand breakage in SCE formation, we constructed a plasmid that gives rise to one specific lesion, a staggered-end ("cohesive") DNA double-strand break. This plasmid, designated pMENs, contains a selectable marker, neo, which is a bacterial gene for neomycin resistance, and the coding sequence for the bacterial restriction endonuclease EcoRI attached to the mouse metallothionein gene promoter. EcoRI recognizes G decreases AATTC sequences in DNA and makes DNA double-strand breaks with four nucleotides overhanging as staggered ends. Cells transfected with pMENS were resistant to the antibiotic G418 and contained an integrated copy of the EcoRI gene, detectable by DNA filter hybridization. The addition of the heavy metal CdSO4 resulted in the intracellular production of EcoRI, as measured by an anti-EcoRI antibody. Cytogenetic analysis after the addition of CdSO4 indicated a dramatic increase in the frequency of chromosome aberrations but very little effect on SCE frequency. Although there was some intercellular heterogeneity, these results confirm that DNA double-strand breaks do result in chromosome aberrations but that these breaks are not sufficient to give rise to SCE formation. Images PMID:3054512

  3. REMEDIAL INVESTIGATIONS (RI) OF REGION 4 SUPERFUND HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES: AUGUST 2007 – SEPTEMBER 2008

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Region 4 Science and Ecosystem Support Division (SESD) conducts and/or provides technical assistance to Remedial Investigation (RI) projects of Region 4 Superfund sites. These RI projects require developing and implementing RI Work Plans which include a Project Operations Pla...

  4. REMEDIAL INVESTIGATIONS (RI) OF REGION 4 SUPERFUND HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES: OCTOBER 2006 – JULY 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Region 4 Science and Ecosystem Support Division (SESD) conducts and/or provides technical assistance to Remedial Investigation (RI) projects of Region 4 Superfund sites. These RI projects require developing and implementing RI Work Plans which include a Project Operations Pla...

  5. A new fission-fragment detector to complement the CACTUS-SiRi setup at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornyi, T. G.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Siem, S.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Csige, L.

    2014-02-01

    An array of Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPAC) for the detection of heavy ions has been developed. The new device, NIFF (Nuclear Instrument for Fission Fragments), consists of four individual detectors and covers 60% of 2π. It was designed to be used in conjunction with the SiRi array of ΔE-E silicon telescopes for light charged particles and fits into the CACTUS array of 28 large-volume NaI scintillation detectors at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-pressure gas-filled PPACs are sensitive for the detection of fission fragments, but are insensitive to scattered beam particles of light ions or light-ion ejectiles. The PPAC detectors of NIFF have good time resolution and can be used either to select or to veto fission events in in-beam experiments with light-ion beams and actinide targets. The powerful combination of SiRi, CACTUS, and NIFF provides new research opportunities for the study of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions in the actinide region. The new setup is particularly well suited to study the competition of fission and γ decay as a function of excitation energy.

  6. Production of neutron-rich Ca, Sn, and Xe isotopes in transfer-type reactions with radioactive beams

    SciTech Connect

    Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Lacroix, D.

    2010-12-15

    The production cross sections of neutron-rich isotopes {sup 52,54,56,58,60}Ca, {sup 136,138,140,142}Sn, and {sup 146,148,150,152}Xe are predicted for future experiments in the diffusive multinucleon transfer reactions {sup 86,90,92,94}Kr, {sup 124,130,132,134}Sn, {sup 136,140,142,146}Xe, and {sup 138,144,146}Ba+{sup 48}Ca with stable and radioactive beams at incident energies close to the Coulomb barrier. Because of the small cross sections, the production of neutron-rich isotopes requires the optimal choice of projectile-target combinations and bombarding energies.

  7. Dose assurance on production-line of thyristor irradiated by electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yihua, Bai; Limin, Zhang; Peiling, Xu; Lingzen, Wang; Li, Zhu; Qiurong, Yu

    In order to control the quality of thyristor irradiated by electron beam, it is needed urgently to measure absorbed dose in flake of silicon and determine the optimum condition during irradiation technological testing. According to actual situation of accelerator, the measurement system of electron beam has been built up. Liquid chemical dosimeters (Fricke and ceric sulphate dosimeter) have been taken as secondary standard dosimeters. Blue cellophane thin film dosimeter was applied to measure the dose distribution on irradiation platform so as to decide the extent of irradiation. The dose rate on certain point is measured with transmission chamber. It can also monitor the stability of accelerator. It has been proved that this measurement system can be used for dose measurement of electron beam radiation processing with satisfied precision.

  8. Plasma and Beam Production Experiments with HYBRIS, aMicrowave-assisted H- Ion

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, R. AUTHOR-Kwan, S.; Hahto, S.; Regis, M.; Wallig, J.

    2006-09-13

    A two-stage ion source concept had been presented a few years ago, consisting of a proven H- ion source and a 2.45-GHz Electron Cyclotron-Resonance (ECR) type ion source, here used as a plasma cathode. This paper describes the experimental development path pursued at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, from the early concept to a working unit that produces plasma in both stages and creates a negative particle beam. Without cesiation applied to the second stage, the H{sup -} fraction of this beam is very low, yielding 75 micro-amperes of extracted ion beam current at best. The apparent limitations of this approach and envisaged improvements are discussed.

  9. Photoinjector production of a flat beam with transverse emittance ratio of 100

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, P.; Sun, Y.E.; Kim, K.J.; /Argonne

    2006-08-01

    The generation of a flat electron beam directly from a photoinjector is an attractive alternative to the electron damping ring as envisioned for linear colliders. It also has potential applications to light sources such as the generation of ultrashort x-ray pulses or Smith-Purcell free electron lasers. In this paper, we report on the experimental generation of a flat beam with a measured transverse emittance ratio of 100 {+-} 20 for a bunch charge of {approx_equal} 0.5 nC. The experimental data, obtained at the Fermilab/NICADD Photoinjector Laboratory, are compared with numerical simulations and the expected scaling laws. Possible improvement of the experiment along with application for such a flat beams are discussed.

  10. Assessing the combinatorial potential of the RiPP cyanobactin tru pathway.

    PubMed

    Ruffner, Duane E; Schmidt, Eric W; Heemstra, John R

    2015-04-17

    Ribosomally produced natural products, the RiPPs, exhibit features that are potentially useful in the creation of large chemical libraries using simple mutagenesis. RiPPs are encoded on ribosomal precursor peptides, but they are extensively posttranslationally modified, endowing them with properties that are useful in drug discovery and biotechnology. In order to determine which mutations are acceptable, strategies are required to determine sequence selectivity independently of the context of flanking amino acids. Here, we examined the absolute sequence selectivity of the trunkamide cyanobactin pathway, tru. A series of random double and quadruple simultaneous mutants were synthesized and produced in Escherichia coli. Out of a total of 763 mutated amino acids examined in 325 unique sequences, 323 amino acids were successfully incorporated in 159 sequences, leading to >300 new compounds. Rules for tru sequence selectivity were determined, which will be useful for the design and synthesis of combinatorial biosynthetic libraries. The results are also interpreted in comparison to the known natural products of tru and pat cyanobactin pathways. PMID:25140729

  11. Assessing the Combinatorial Potential of the RiPP Cyanobactin tru Pathway

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ribosomally produced natural products, the RiPPs, exhibit features that are potentially useful in the creation of large chemical libraries using simple mutagenesis. RiPPs are encoded on ribosomal precursor peptides, but they are extensively posttranslationally modified, endowing them with properties that are useful in drug discovery and biotechnology. In order to determine which mutations are acceptable, strategies are required to determine sequence selectivity independently of the context of flanking amino acids. Here, we examined the absolute sequence selectivity of the trunkamide cyanobactin pathway, tru. A series of random double and quadruple simultaneous mutants were synthesized and produced in Escherichia coli. Out of a total of 763 mutated amino acids examined in 325 unique sequences, 323 amino acids were successfully incorporated in 159 sequences, leading to >300 new compounds. Rules for tru sequence selectivity were determined, which will be useful for the design and synthesis of combinatorial biosynthetic libraries. The results are also interpreted in comparison to the known natural products of tru and pat cyanobactin pathways. PMID:25140729

  12. Influence of target requirements on the production, acceleration, transport, and focusing of ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Bangerter, R.O.; Mark, J.W.K.; Meeker, D.J.; Judd, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    We have calculated the energy gain of ion-driven fusion targets as a function of input energy, ion range, and focal spot radius. For heavy-ion drivers a given target gain, together with final-lens properties, determines a 6-D phase space volume which must exceed that occupied by the ion beam. Because of Liouville's theorem and the inevitability of some phase space dilutions, the beams's 6-D volume will increase between the ion source and the target. This imposes important requirements on accelerators and on transport and focusing systems.

  13. Self-methylation of BspRI DNA-methyltransferase.

    PubMed Central

    Szilák, L; Finta, C; Patthy, A; Venetianer, P; Kiss, A

    1994-01-01

    The DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase (m5C-MTase) M.BspRI is able to accept the methyl group from the methyl donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) in the absence of DNA. Transfer of the methyl group to the enzyme is a slow reaction relative to DNA methylation. Self-methylation is dependent on the native conformation of the enzyme and is inhibited by S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine, DNA and sulfhydryl reagents. Amino acid sequencing of proteolytic peptides obtained from M.BspRI, which had been methylated with [methyl-3H]AdoMet, and thin layer chromatography of the modified amino acid identified two cysteines, Cys156 and Cys181 that bind the methyl group in form of S-methylcysteine. One of the acceptor residues, Cys156 is the highly conserved cysteine which plays the role of the catalytic nucleophile of m5C-MTases. Images PMID:8065896

  14. Thermal analysis and neutron production characteristics of a low power copper beam dump-cum-target for LEHIPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, Y. S.; Thomas, R. G.; Verma, V.; Agarwal, A.; Prasad, N. K.; Bhagwat, P. V.; Saxena, A.; Singh, P.

    2016-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of heat deposition and neutron production have been carried out for the low power beam dump-cum-target for the 20 MeV Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA) facility at BARC using GEANT4 and FLUKA. Thermal analysis and heat transfer calculations have also been carried out using the computational fluid dynamics code CFD ACE+. In this work we present the details of the analysis of the low power beam dump-cum-target designed for conditioning of the accelerator upto a maximum power of 600 kW with a duty cycle of 2% which corresponds to an average power of 12 kW in the first phase.

  15. Pion Production from 5-15 GeV Beam for the Neutrino Factory Front-End Study

    SciTech Connect

    Prior, Gersende

    2010-03-30

    For the neutrino factory front-end study, the production of pions from a proton beam of 5-8 and 14 GeV kinetic energy on a Hg jet target has been simulated. The pion yields for two versions of the MARS15 code and two different field configurations have been compared. The particles have also been tracked from the target position down to the end of the cooling channel using the ICOOL code and the neutrino factory baseline lattice. The momentum-angle region of pions producing muons that survived until the end of the cooling channel has been compared with the region covered by HARP data and the number of pions/muons as a function of the incoming beam energy is also reported.

  16. Production of N[sup +] ions from a multicusp ion beam apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kango Leung; Kunkel, W.B.; Walther, S.R.

    1993-03-30

    A method of generating a high purity (at least 98%) N[sup +] ion beam using a multicusp ion source having a chamber formed by a cylindrical chamber wall surrounded by a plurality of magnets, a filament centrally disposed in said chamber, a plasma electrode having an extraction orifice at one end of the chamber, a magnetic filter having two parallel magnets spaced from said plasma electrode and dividing the chamber into arc discharge and extraction regions. The method includes ionizing nitrogen gas in the arc discharge region of the chamber, maintaining the chamber wall at a positive voltage relative to the filament and at a magnitude for an optimum percentage of N[sup +] ions in the extracted ion beams, disposing a hot liner within the chamber and near the chamber wall to limit recombination of N[sup +] ions into the N[sub 2][sup +] ions, spacing the magnets of the magnetic filter from each other for optimum percentage of N[sup 3] ions in the extracted ion beams, and maintaining a relatively low pressure downstream of the extraction orifice and of a magnitude (preferably within the range of 3-8[times]10[sup [minus]4] torr) for an optimum percentage of N[sup +] ions in the extracted ion beam.

  17. Production of N.sup.+ ions from a multicusp ion beam apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Kunkel, Wulf B.; Walther, Steven R.

    1993-01-01

    A method of generating a high purity (at least 98%) N.sup.+ ion beam using a multicusp ion source (10) having a chamber (11) formed by a cylindrical chamber wall (12) surrounded by a plurality of magnets (13), a filament (57) centrally disposed in said chamber, a plasma electrode (36) having an extraction orifice (41) at one end of the chamber, a magnetic filter having two parallel magnets (21, 22) spaced from said plasma electrode (36) and dividing the chamber (11) into arc discharge and extraction regions. The method includes ionizing nitrogen gas in the arc discharge region of the chamber (11), maintaining the chamber wall (12) at a positive voltage relative to the filament (57) and at a magnitude for an optimum percentage of N.sup.+ ions in the extracted ion beams, disposing a hot liner (45) within the chamber and near the chamber wall (12) to limit recombination of N.sup.+ ions into the N.sub.2.sup.+ ions, spacing the magnets (21, 22) of the magnetic filter from each other for optimum percentage of N.sup.3 ions in the extracted ion beams, and maintaining a relatively low pressure downstream of the extraction orifice and of a magnitude (preferably within the range of 3-8.times.10.sup.-4 torr) for an optimum percentage of N.sup.+ ions in the extracted ion beam.

  18. Development of an Ion Beam Irradiation System for Liquid Crystal Alignment Layer Production

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Takeshi; Kinoshita, Yuko; Tanii, Masahiro; Tatemichi, Junichi; Konishi, Masashi; Naito, Masao

    2008-11-03

    Ion beam irradiation was employed to produce alignment layers for liquid crystal (LC) displays. The alignment characteristics were compared with those by the conventional rubbing method. Ion incident angle to the films played an important role in LC sample optical qualities. A new ion irradiation method to realize a multi-domain structure for a wide viewing angle was demonstrated.

  19. Production of high-brightness CW proton beams with very high proton fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, D.; McMichael, G.; Lykke, K.R.; Schneider, J.D.; Sherman, J.; Stevens, R. Jr.; Hodgkins, D.

    1995-12-01

    This paper demonstrates a new technique to significantly enhance the proton fraction of an ion beam extracted from a plasma ion source. We employ a magnetically confined microwave driven source, though the technique is not source-specific and can probably be applied equally effectively to other plasma sources such as Penning and multicusp types. Specifically, we dope the plasma with about 1% H{sub 2}O, which increases the proton fraction of a 45 keV 45 mA beam from 75 to 90% with 375W 2.45 GHz power to the source and from 84% to 92% for 500W when the source is operated under nonresonant conditions. Much of the remaining fraction of the beam comprises a heavy mass ion we believe to be N{sup +} impurity ions resulting from the conditions under which the experiments were performed. If so, this impurity can be easily removed and much higher proton fractions could be expected. Preliminary measurements show the additive has no adverse effect on the emittance of the extracted beam, and source stability is greatly improved.

  20. Production of intense attosecond vector beam pulse trains based on harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yu-Jing; Liao, Guo-Qian; Chen, Li-Ming; Li, Yu-Tong; Wang, Wei-Min; Zhang, Jie

    2015-11-01

    We provide the first report on the harmonics generated by an intense femtosecond vector beam that is normally incident on a solid target. By using 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) codes, we observe the third and the fifth harmonic signals with the same vector structure as the driving beam, and obtain an attosecond vector beam pulse train. We also show that the conversion efficiencies of the third and the fifth harmonics reach their maxima for a plasma density of four times the critical density due to the plasma resonating with the driving force. This method provides a new means of generating intense extreme ultraviolet (XUV) vector beams via ultra-intense laser-driven harmonics. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2013CBA01501 and 2013CBA01504), the National Key Scientific Instrument and Equipment Development Project of China (Grant No. 2012YQ120047), Chinese Academy of Science Key Program, the National Natural Science of China (Grant Nos. 11135012 and 11375262), and the Project of Shandong Province Higher Educational Science and Technology Program, China (Grant No. J11LA52).

  1. Improved production of N{sup +} ions from a multicusp ion beam apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Kunkel, W.B.; Walther, S.R.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a method of generating a high purity (at least 98%) N{sup +} ion beam using a multicusp ion source having a chamber formed by a cylindrical chamber wall surrounded by a plurality of magnets, a filament centrally disposed in said chamber, a plasma electrode having an extraction orifice at one end of the chamber, a magnetic filter having two parallel magnets spaced from said plasma electrode and dividing the chamber into arc discharge and extraction regions. The method includes ionizing nitrogen gas in the arc discharge region of the chamber, maintaining the chamber wall at a positive voltage relative to the filament and at a magnitude for an optimum percentage of N{sup +} ions in the extracted ion beam, disposing a hot liner within the chamber and near the chamber wall to limit recombination of N{sup +} ions into the N{sub 2}{sup +} ions, spacing the magnets of the magnetic filter from each other for optimum percentage of N{sup +} ions in the extracted ion beams, and maintaining a relatively low pressure downstream of the extraction orifice and of a magnitude (preferably within the range of 3--8 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} torr) for an optimum percentage of N{sup +} ions in the extracted ion beam.

  2. Light ion beam approach to ICF ignition, gain, and energy production

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.; Allshouse, G.; Cook, D.; Lockner, T.; Mazarakis, M.; Olson, C.; Smith, D. ); Peterson, R.; Adler, D.; Bruggink, D.; Englestad, R.; Khater, H.; Kulcinski, G.; Lovell, E.; MacFarlane, J.; Morgahead, E.; Moses, G.; Rutledge, S.; Sawan, M.; Sviatoslalvsky, I.; Wang, P.; Wittenberg, L. )

    1994-10-05

    A review of anticipated achievements in the light ion beam method of the inertial confinement fusion program is presented. They allow to estimate the cost of produced electric energy. It appears to be quite competitive to other fusion reactor designs at the 1000 MWe level and above. (AIP) [copyright] [ital American] [ital Institute] [ital of] [ital Physics] 1994

  3. Production of beams of neutron-rich nuclei between Ca and Ni using the ion-guide technique

    SciTech Connect

    Perajarvi, K.; Cerny, J.; Hager, U.; Hakala, J.; Huikari, J.; Jokinen, A.; Karvonen, P.; Kurpeta, J.; Lee, D.; Moore, I.; Penttila, H.; Popov, A.; Aysto, J.

    2004-09-28

    Since several elements between Z = 20-28 are refractory in their nature, their neutron-rich isotopes are rarely available as low energy Radioactive Ion Beams (RIB) in ordinary Isotope Separator On-Line facilities [1-4]. These low energy RIBs would be especially interesting to have available under conditions which allow high-resolution beta-decay spectroscopy, ion-trapping and laser-spectroscopy. As an example, availability of these beams would open a way for research which could produce interesting and important data on neutron-rich nuclei around the doubly magic {sup 78}Ni. One way to overcome the intrinsic difficulty of producing these beams is to rely on the chemically unselective Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL) technique [5]. Quasi- and deep-inelastic reactions, such as {sup 197}Au({sup 65}Cu,X)Y, could be used to produce these nuclei in existing IGISOL facilities, but before they can be successfully incorporated into the IGISOL concept their kinematics must be well understood. Therefore the reaction kinematics part of this study was first performed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using its 88'' cyclotron and, based on those results, a specialized target chamber was built[6]. The target chamber shown in Fig. 1 was recently tested on-line at the Jyvaaskylaa IGISOL facility. Yields of mass-separated radioactive projectile-like species such as {sup 62,63}Co are about 0.8 ions/s/pnA, corresponding to about 0.06 % of the total IGISOL efficiency for the products that hit the Ni-degrader. (The current maximum 443 MeV {sup 65}Cu beam intensity at Jyvaaskylaa is about 20 pnA.) This total IGISOL efficiency is a product of two coupled loss factors, namely inadequate thermalization and the intrinsic IGISOL efficiency. In our now tested chamber, about 9 % of the Co recoils are thermalized in the owing He gas (p{sub He}=300 mbar) and about 0.7 % of them are converted into the mass-separated ion beams. In the future, both of these physical

  4. Quarry residuals RI/FS scoping document. [Weldon Spring quarry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to serve as a planning tool for the implementation of the Quarry Residual Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) process and to provide direct input to revising and updating the 1988 Work Plan for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study-Environmental Impact Statement for the Weldon Spring Site (RI/FS-EIS) (Peterson et al. 1988) for this effort. The scoping process is intended to outline the tasks necessary to develop and implement activities in compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act-National Environmental Policy Act (CERCLA-NEPA) process from detailed planning through the appropriate decision document. In addition to scoping the entire process, this document will serve as the primary tool for planning and accomplishing all activities to be developed in the Quarry Residual RI/FS Work Plan. Subsequent tasks are difficult to plan at this time. 10 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Two-loop matching factors for light quark masses and three-loop mass anomalous dimensions in the RI/SMOM schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Sturm, C.; Almeida, L.

    2010-04-26

    Light quark masses can be determined through lattice simulations in regularization invariant momentum-subtraction (RI/MOM) schemes. Subsequently, matching factors, computed in continuum perturbation theory, are used in order to convert these quark masses from a RI/MOM scheme to the {ovr MS} scheme. We calculate the two-loop corrections in QCD to these matching factors as well as the three-loop mass anomalous dimensions for the RI/SMOM and RI/SMOM{sub {gamma}{mu}} schemes. These two schemes are characterized by a symmetric subtraction point. Providing the conversion factors in the two different schemes allows for a better understanding of the systematic uncertainties. The two-loop expansion coefficients of the matching factors for both schemes turn out to be small compared to the traditional RI/MOM schemes. For n{sub f} = 3 quark flavors they are about 0.6%-0.7% and 2%, respectively, of the leading order result at scales of about 2 GeV. Therefore, they will allow for a significant reduction of the systematic uncertainty of light quark mass determinations obtained through this approach. The determination of these matching factors requires the computation of amputated Green's functions with the insertions of quark bilinear operators. As a by-product of our calculation we also provide the corresponding results for the tensor operator.

  6. Aspects of strangeness production with 15 -- 30 GeV proton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Dover, C.B.

    1992-04-01

    We discuss the spectrum of physics questions related to strangeness which could be addressed with a 15--30 GeV proton storage ring. We focus on various aspects of strangeness production, including hyperon production in pp collisions, studies of hyperon-nucleon scattering, production of hyper-fragments in p-nucleus collisions, and hyperon spin observables in inclusive production.

  7. Erosion and erosion products of tungsten and carbon-based materials irradiated by a high energy electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiang; Yoshida, Naoaki; Noda, Nobuaki; Zhang, Fu; Xu, Zengyu; Liu, Yong

    2003-03-01

    A pulsed electron beam test was used to simulate the thermal response of plasma facing materials under high heat loads during plasma disruptions, particularly for relatively 'long' duration off-normal events such as plasma vertical displacement events. The erosion and erosion products of purified tungsten made by powder metallurgy (PM-W), W and B 4C plasma sprayed coatings on CFC or copper and C/C composite were investigated. The time evolution of the target current indicates that the erosion products or screening clouds partly or completely shield the incident electron beam, leading to a reduction of the target current and changes in the target current profile. The weight loss of PM-W is smaller than that of the tungsten coating or C/C composite, which is in agreement with the erosion behavior. Erosion products indicate that evaporation is a major erosion mechanism of PM-W, and exfoliation and particle emission are the dominant erosion mechanisms of carbon-based materials and W plasma sprayed coatings.

  8. Laser ion beam production at CERN-ISOLDE: New features - More possibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothe, S.; Day Goodacre, T.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Marsh, B. A.; Molkanov, P. L.; Rossel, R. E.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Veinhard, M.; Wendt, K. D. A.

    2016-06-01

    This article summarizes the current specifications and the latest features of the CERN-ISOLDE resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS). This includes a description of the optical layout and the newly designed reference system. The ionization schemes for the laser ionized beams at ISOLDE are tabulated, including six new elements. All RILIS schemes are also made publicly available in the RILIS elements on-line database. Finally, we announce a paradigm shift in RILIS operation - the combination of a machine protection and a monitoring and control system has enabled on-call operation of the laser ion source for selected beams in 2014 and has become the standard mode of operation in 2015.

  9. Production of beams from solid materials at Center for Nuclear Study electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohshiro, Y.; Yamaka, S.; Watanabe, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Kotaka, Y.; Nishimura, M.; Kase, M.; Muto, H.; Yamaguchi, H.; Shimoura, S.

    2014-02-01

    Two methods for the feed of vapor from solid materials in the Center for Nuclear Study ECR ion source are described. A rod placed near the wall of the plasma chamber, operating up to a melting point of 2600 °C, has been used for CaO, SiO2, and FeO. An oven with a number of openings, operating up to 800 °C, has been used for P2O5, Li, and S. Typical ion beam intensities of 7Li2+, 6Li3+, 40Ca12+, and 56Fe15+ are achieved 280, 75, 28, and 7 eμA, respectively. High intensity heavy ion beams are stably supplied into the azimuthally varying field cyclotron.

  10. Production of a Beam of Highly Vibrationally Excited CO Using Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, N.; Schäfer, T.; Hühnert, J.; Wodtke, A. M.; Field, R. W.

    2012-06-01

    For many experimentalists (especially those, who are not spectroscopists), molecular pertubations are a curse, as they make assignments and analysis of spectral data more difficult. Nevertheless, they can also be a boon! In this talk we will show how a molecular beam of CO in high vibrational states (v=17,18) can be prepared by an optical pumping scheme that we call PUMP-PUMP-PERTURB and DUMP (P^3D). P^3D exploits the loaning, via spin-orbit perturbations, of the large oscillator strength of the 4th positive system, A ^1 π ← X ^1 Σ ^+, to the triplet manifold. This allows some nominally spin-forbidden transitions to be exploited in multistep optical pumping schemes. The ability to {state-selectively} prepare CO in high vibrational states opens up new opportunities for molecular beam scattering experiments.

  11. Tim-3 enhances FcεRI-proximal signaling to modulate mast cell activation.

    PubMed

    Phong, Binh L; Avery, Lyndsay; Sumpter, Tina L; Gorman, Jacob V; Watkins, Simon C; Colgan, John D; Kane, Lawrence P

    2015-12-14

    T cell (or transmembrane) immunoglobulin and mucin domain protein 3 (Tim-3) has attracted significant attention as a novel immune checkpoint receptor (ICR) on chronically stimulated, often dysfunctional, T cells. Antibodies to Tim-3 can enhance antiviral and antitumor immune responses. Tim-3 is also constitutively expressed by mast cells, NK cells and specific subsets of macrophages and dendritic cells. There is ample evidence for a positive role for Tim-3 in these latter cell types, which is at odds with the model of Tim-3 as an inhibitory molecule on T cells. At this point, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which Tim-3 regulates the function of T cells or other cell types. We have focused on defining the effects of Tim-3 ligation on mast cell activation, as these cells constitutively express Tim-3 and are activated through an ITAM-containing receptor for IgE (FcεRI), using signaling pathways analogous to those in T cells. Using a variety of gain- and loss-of-function approaches, we find that Tim-3 acts at a receptor-proximal point to enhance Lyn kinase-dependent signaling pathways that modulate both immediate-phase degranulation and late-phase cytokine production downstream of FcεRI ligation. PMID:26598760

  12. Tim-3 enhances FcεRI-proximal signaling to modulate mast cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Phong, Binh L.; Avery, Lyndsay; Sumpter, Tina L.; Gorman, Jacob V.; Watkins, Simon C.; Colgan, John D.

    2015-01-01

    T cell (or transmembrane) immunoglobulin and mucin domain protein 3 (Tim-3) has attracted significant attention as a novel immune checkpoint receptor (ICR) on chronically stimulated, often dysfunctional, T cells. Antibodies to Tim-3 can enhance antiviral and antitumor immune responses. Tim-3 is also constitutively expressed by mast cells, NK cells and specific subsets of macrophages and dendritic cells. There is ample evidence for a positive role for Tim-3 in these latter cell types, which is at odds with the model of Tim-3 as an inhibitory molecule on T cells. At this point, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which Tim-3 regulates the function of T cells or other cell types. We have focused on defining the effects of Tim-3 ligation on mast cell activation, as these cells constitutively express Tim-3 and are activated through an ITAM-containing receptor for IgE (FcεRI), using signaling pathways analogous to those in T cells. Using a variety of gain- and loss-of-function approaches, we find that Tim-3 acts at a receptor-proximal point to enhance Lyn kinase-dependent signaling pathways that modulate both immediate-phase degranulation and late-phase cytokine production downstream of FcεRI ligation. PMID:26598760

  13. Basic energy efficiency of plasma production in electrical discharge and electron beam reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Penetrante, B.M.; Hsiao, M.C.; Bardsley, J.N.; Merritt, B.T.; Vogtlin, G.E.; Kuthi, A.; Burkhart, C.P.; Bayless, J.R.

    1996-11-01

    Non-thermal plasma processing is an emerging technology for the abatement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) in atmospheric pressure gas streams. Either electrical discharge of electron beam methods can produce these plasmas. This paper presents a comparative assessment of various non-thermal plasma reactors. The goal of our project is two-fold: (1) to understand the feasibility and scalability of various non-thermal plasma reactors by focusing on the energy efficiency of the electron and chemical kinetics, and (2) to optimize process parameters and provide performance and economic data. Experimental results using a compact electron beam reactor, pulsed corona reactor and dielectric-barrier discharge will be presented. These reactors have been used to study the removal of NO{sub x} and a wide variety of VOCs. The effects of background gas decomposition and gas temperature on the decomposition chemistry have been studied. The decomposition mechanisms are discussed to illustrate how the chemistry could strongly affect the economics of the process. An analysis of the electron kinetics show that electrical discharge reactors are the most suitable only for processes requiring O radicals. For pollution control applications requiring copious amounts of electrons, ions, N atoms or OH radicals, the sue of electron beam reactors is generally the best way of minimizing the electrical power consumption.

  14. Statistical analysis of the ion beam production in a self magnetically insulated diode

    SciTech Connect

    Isakova, Y. I.; Pushkarev, A. I.; Khaylov, I. P.

    2013-09-15

    The paper presents the results of a study on shot to shot variation in energy density of an ion beam formed by a self-magnetically insulated diode with an explosive emission cathode. The experiments were carried out with the TEMP-4M accelerator operating in double-pulse mode: plasma formation occurs during the first pulse (negative polarity, 300–500 ns, 100–150 kV), and ion extraction and acceleration during the second pulse (positive polarity, 150 ns, 250–300 kV). Crucially, it was found that the standard deviation of energy density does not exceed 11%, whilst the same variation for ion current density was 20%–30%, suggesting the presence of neutrals in the beam. This idea is further supported by the fact that ion current density is only weakly dependant on the accelerating voltage and other output parameters of the accelerator (coefficient of determination < 0.3), whilst the correlation between the energy density of the beam and the output parameters is strong (coefficient of determination > 0.9). We attribute the neutral component as being due to charge exchange between accelerated ions and neutral molecules from a neutral layer near the anode surface. Implementation using a self-magnetically insulated diode with an explosive-emission cathode, having an operational lifetime of up to 10{sup 7} shots, has promising prospects for various technological applications.

  15. 77 FR 5581 - Submission for Review: Financial Resources Questionnaire (RI 34-1, RI 34-17) and Notice of Amount...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... Due Because of Annuity Overpayment (RI 34-3, RI 34-19) AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management... published in the Federal Register on August 16, 2011 at Volume 76 FR 50770 allowing for a 60-day public... Street NW., Washington, DC 20503, Attention: Desk Officer for the Office of Personnel Management or...

  16. Modification of the cylindrical products outer surface influenced by radial beam of argon ions at automatic mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valikov, R. A.; Yashin, A. S.; Yakutkina, T. V.; Kalin, B. A.; Volkov, N. V.; Krivobokov, V. P.; Yanin, S. N.; Asainov, O. Kh; Yurev, Yu N.

    2015-11-01

    Obtaining surface with high purity and good roughness is important for increasing the corrosion resistance and wear resistance of products working in corrosion-active environment. Installation ILUR-03 with the coaxial ion beam wide energy spectrum source for cleaning, polishing and surface doping of long cylindrical items has been developed. Upgraded installation ILUR-03 provides effective technological defects cleaning (abrasives after mechanical polishing, acid residues after chemical etching, adsorbed gases), surface polishing, film deposition by using magnetrons and surface doping by ion mixing method in one technological cycle.

  17. Radial compression of protons and H3+ ions in a multiring trap for the production of ultralow energy antiproton beams.

    PubMed

    Higaki, H; Kuroda, N; Yoshiki Franzen, K; Wang, Z; Hori, M; Mohri, A; Komaki, K; Yamazaki, Y

    2004-08-01

    Radial compression of a proton cloud was performed in a multiring trap which was designed to trap and cool a large number of antiprotons for the production of low-energy ( 10-1000 eV ) antiproton beams. The resonance frequency for the radial compression was almost constant from 3 x 10(5) to 3 x 10(6) protons. The collision process of the trapped protons was also investigated to estimate the energy of the protons inside the trap. This technique will be applied to the ASACUSA experiment at the antiproton decelerator, CERN, to extract ultraslow antiprotons with good emittance. PMID:15447603

  18. Production of a Biomimetic Fe(I)-S Phase on Pyrite by Atomic-Hydrogen Beam-Surface Reactive Scattering

    PubMed Central

    Che, Li; Gardenghi, David J.; Szilagyi, Robert K.; Minton, Timothy K.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular beam-surface scattering and X-ray absorption spectroscopic experiments were employed to study the reaction of deuterium atoms with a pyrite, FeS2 (100), surface and to investigate the electronic and geometric structures of the resulting Fe-S phases. Incident D atoms, produced by a radio frequency plasma and expanded in an effusive beam, were directed at a pyrite surface held at various temperatures from ambient up to 200 °C. During exposure to the D-atom beam, D2S products were released with a thermal distribution of molecular speeds, indicating that the D atoms likely reacted in thermal equilibrium with the surface. The yield of D2S from the surface decreased approximately exponentially with exposure duration, suggesting that the surface accessible sulfur atoms were depleted, thus leaving an iron-rich surface. This conclusion is consistent with X-ray absorption measurements of the exposed surfaces, which indicated the formation of a layered structure, with elemental iron as the outermost layer on top of a formally Fe(I)-S phase as an intermediate layer and a formally Fe(II)-S2 bulk pyrite layer at lower depths. The reduced Fe(I)-S phase is particularly remarkable because of its similarity to the catalytically active sites of small molecule metalloenzymes, such as FeFe-hydrogenases and MoFe-nitrogenases. PMID:21526811

  19. Proceedings of the workshop on the production and use of intense radioactive beams at the Isospin Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, J.D.

    1992-12-31

    These proceedings report the deliberations of a 3 1/2 day workshop on the Production and Use of Intense Radioactive Ion Beams at the Isospin Laboratory, which was held at the Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, October 1992. The purpose of this workshop was not to duplicate the programs of other recent radioactive ion beam workshops or international conferences that have focused on the scientific concepts which radioactive beams can, and in fact already are, addressing. Instead, the intent was to address the technical problems associated with the construction of the next generation ISOL facility and to initiate a discussion of the type of experimental equipment that should be developed for such a facility. We have tried to bring together in Oak Ridge the world`s experts in radioactive targets/ion sources, light and heavy-ion accelerators, and detection systems. After 1 1/2 days of overview presentations, the participants divided into three discussion groups (Experiments with Radioactive Beams, Target Ion Sources and Mass Separation, and Accelerators-Primary and Secondary) for 1 1/2 days of detailed discussions of the most pertinent issues. The final session was devoted to reports from each of the discussion groups and a general discussion of where to go from here. An outgrowth of these discussions was the establishment of working groups to coordinate future technical developments associated with the pertinent issues. The proceedings include the text of all the overview presentations, reports from each discussion group, as well as contributions from those participants who chose to provide the text of their presentations in the discussion groups and the Concluding Remarks. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. Improving Forecast Skill by Assimilation of AIRS Cloud Cleared Radiances RiCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Rosenberg, Robert I.; Iredell, Lena

    2015-01-01

    ECMWF, NCEP, and GMAO routinely assimilate radiosonde and other in-situ observations along with satellite IR and MW Sounder radiance observations. NCEP and GMAO use the NCEP GSI Data Assimilation System (DAS).GSI DAS assimilates AIRS, CrIS, IASI channel radiances Ri on a channel-by-channel, case-by-case basis, only for those channels i thought to be unaffected by cloud cover. This test excludes Ri for most tropospheric sounding channels under partial cloud cover conditions. AIRS Version-6 RiCC is a derived quantity representative of what AIRS channel i would have seen if the AIRS FOR were cloud free. All values of RiCC have case-by-case error estimates RiCC associated with them. Our experiments present to the GSI QCd values of AIRS RiCC in place of AIRS Ri observations. GSI DAS assimilates only those values of RiCC it thinks are cloud free. This potentially allows for better coverage of assimilated QCd values of RiCC as compared to Ri.

  1. Production of polycrystalline silicon from monosilane in the electron-beam plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantinov, V. O.; Shchukin, V. G.; Sharafutdinov, R. G.; Karsten, V. M.; Gartvich, G. G.; Semenova, O. I.

    2010-12-15

    The results of experimental studies concerned with deposition of solar-grade silicon from monosilane in the electron-beam plasma are reported. With the laboratory equipment, the silicon deposition rate attains up to 40 g h{sup -1} at the expenditure of energy for the process 78 kW h kg{sup -1} and the efficiency of conversion of monosilane into silicon at about 50%. Analysis of the chemical composition of the resulting material shows that the material fits the requirements imposed on solar-grade silicon. The method suggested in the study holds promise in industrial-scale applications.

  2. Confinement of a large number of antiprotons and production of an ultraslow antiproton beam.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, N; Torii, H A; Franzen, K Yoshiki; Wang, Z; Yoneda, S; Inoue, M; Hori, M; Juhász, B; Horváth, D; Higaki, H; Mohri, A; Eades, J; Komaki, K; Yamazaki, Y

    2005-01-21

    We have used a radio frequency quadrupole decelerator to decelerate antiprotons emerging from the CERN Antiproton Decelerator from MeV- to keV-scale energy, and collected five decelerated pulses in a multiring trap. Some 5 x 10(6) antiprotons were stacked in this way. Cooling of the trapped antiprotons by a simultaneously trapped electron plasma was studied nondestructively via shifts in plasma mode frequencies. We have also demonstrated the first step in extracting a 10-500 eV antiproton beam from the trap. PMID:15698175

  3. Molecular beam studies of unimolecular and bimolecular chemical reaction dynamics using VUV synchrotron radiation as a product probe

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, D.A.

    1997-08-01

    This dissertation describes the use of a new molecular beam apparatus designed to use tunable VUV synchrotron radiation for photoionization of the products from scattering experiments. The apparatus was built at the recently constructed Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, a third generation 1-2 GeV synchrotron radiation source. The new apparatus is applied to investigations of the dynamics of unimolecular reactions, photodissociation experiments, and bimolecular reactions, crossed molecular beam experiments. The first chapter describes the new apparatus and the VUV radiation used for photoionization. This is followed by a number of examples of the many advantages provided by using VUV photoionization in comparison with the traditional technique of electron bombardment ionization. At the end of the chapter there is a discussion of the data analysis employed in these scattering experiments. The remaining four chapters are complete investigations of the dynamics of four chemical systems using the new apparatus and provide numerous additional examples of the advantages provided by VUV photoionizaiton of the products. Chapters 2-4 are photofragment translational spectroscopy studies of the photodissociation dynamics of dimethyl sulfoxide, acrylonitrile, and vinyl chloride following absorption at 193 mn. All of these systems have multiple dissociation channels and provide good examples of the ability of the new apparatus to unravel the complex UV photodissociation dynamics that can arise in small polyatomic molecules.

  4. Beam-beam instability

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, A.W.

    1983-08-01

    The subject of beam-beam instability has been studied since the invention of the colliding beam storage rings. Today, with several colliding beam storage rings in operation, it is not yet fully understood and remains an outstanding problem for the storage ring designers. No doubt that good progress has been made over the years, but what we have at present is still rather primitive. It is perhaps possible to divide the beam-beam subject into two areas: one on luminosity optimization and another on the dynamics of the beam-beam interaction. The former area concerns mostly the design and operational features of a colliding beam storage ring, while the later concentrates on the experimental and theoretical aspects of the beam-beam interaction. Although both areas are of interest, our emphasis is on the second area only. In particular, we are most interested in the various possible mechanisms that cause the beam-beam instability.

  5. Production of cordycepin by a repeated batch culture of a Cordyceps militaris mutant obtained by proton beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Mina; Das, Shonkor Kumar; Fujihara, Shinya; Hatashita, Masanori; Sakurai, Akihiko

    2011-01-01

    Cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) is one of the most versatile metabolites of Cordyceps militaris due to its broad spectrum of biological activity. In our previous study, the C. militaris mutant G81-3, which produces higher levels of cordycepin, was obtained by high-energy proton beam irradiation. In this study, the effects of adenosine on cordycepin production in a surface liquid culture of the mutant and the wild type strains were investigated. For the mutant strain, the optimum dose of adenosine yielded a 30% increase in cordycepin production; the maximum levels of production with adenosine and without adenosine were 8.6g/l and 6.7 g/l, respectively. In contrast, the increase due to adenosine supplementation for the wild type strain was only 15% (3.1g/l with adenosine and 2.7 g/l without adenosine). Furthermore, a repeated batch culture, an efficient production method, was carried out to eliminate the relatively long lag phase of the mutant culture. Over four cycles, both the mutant and the wild type strain maintained a production level of more than 85% of that of the initial cycle. As a result, the disadvantage of the mutant was successfully overcome, resulting in a productivity (0.48 g/(ld)) higher than that of the batch culture (0.29 g/(ld)). The productivity for cordycepin obtained in this study is the highest reported value to date, and this method could be applied to large-scale production of cordycepin at industrial levels. PMID:20863756

  6. Targeted IgA Fc receptor I (FcαRI) therapy in the early intervention and treatment of pristane-induced lupus nephritis in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, C; Kanamaru, Y; Watanabe, T; Tada, N; Horikoshi, S; Suzuki, Y; Liu, Z; Tomino, Y

    2015-09-01

    The Fc receptor I for IgA (FcαRI) down-regulates humoral immune responses and modulates the risk of autoimmunity. This study aimed to investigate whether FcαRI targeting can affect progression of pristine-induced lupus nephritis. In the first experiment (early intervention), four groups of animals were evaluated: untreated FcαRI/FcRγ transgenic (Tg) mice and Tg mice administered control antibody (Ctr Fab), saline and anti-FcαRI Fab [macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-8a], respectively, three times a week for 29 weeks, after being injected once intraperitoneally with 0·5 ml pristane. In the second experiment, antibody injection started after the onset of nephritis and was carried out for 2 months, with similar groups as described above. MIP-8a improved proteinuria, decreased the amounts of glomerular injury markers, serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and F4/80 macrophages in the interstitium and glomeruli, in both experiments. When MIP-8a was used as early intervention, a decrease in mouse serum anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) titres and reduced deposition of immunoglobulins in glomeruli were observed. This effect was associated with reduced serum titres of immunoglobulin (Ig)G2a but not IgG1, IgG2b and IgG3. Furthermore, pathological analysis showed lower glomerular activity index and less fibronectin in MIP-8a treated mice. This study suggests that FcαRI targeting could halt disease progression and lupus activation by selective inhibition of cytokine production, leucocyte recruitment and renal inflammation. Our findings provide a basis for the use of FcαRI as a molecular target for the treatment of lupus. PMID:25907714

  7. High-resolution abundance analysis of very metal-poor r-I stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira Mello, C.; Hill, V.; Barbuy, B.; Spite, M.; Spite, F.; Beers, T. C.; Caffau, E.; Bonifacio, P.; Cayrel, R.; François, P.; Schatz, H.; Wanajo, S.

    2014-05-01

    Context. Moderately r-process-enriched stars (r-I; +0.3 ≤ [Eu/Fe] ≤ +1.0) are at least four times as common as those that are greatly enriched in r-process elements (r-II; [Eu/Fe] > +1.0), and the abundances in their atmospheres are important tools for obtaining a better understanding of the nucleosynthesis processes responsible for the origin of the elements beyond the iron peak. Aims: The main aim of this work is to derive abundances for a sample of seven metal-poor stars with -3.4 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ -2.4 classified as r-I stars, to understand the role of these stars for constraining the astrophysical nucleosynthesis event(s) that is (are) responsible for the production of the r-process, and to investigate whether they differ, in any significant way, from the r-II stars. Methods: We carried out a detailed abundance analysis based on high-resolution spectra obtained with the VLT/UVES spectrograph, using spectra in the wavelength ranges 3400-4500 Å, 6800-8200 Å, and 8700-10 000 Å, with resolving power R ~ 40 000 (blue arm) and R ~ 55 000 (red arm). The OSMARCS LTE 1D model atmosphere grid was employed, along with the spectrum synthesis code Turbospectrum. Results: We have derived abundances of the light elements Li, C, and N, the α-elements Mg, Si, S, Ca, and Ti, the odd-Z elements Al, K, and Sc, the iron-peak elements V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni, and the trans-iron elements from the first peak (Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, Ru, and Pd), the second peak (Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb), the third peak (Os and Ir, as upper limits), and the actinides (Th) regions. The results are compared with values for these elements for r-II and "normal" very and extremely metal-poor stars reported in the literature, ages based on radioactive chronometry are explored using different models, and a number of conclusions about the r-process and the r-I stars are presented. Hydrodynamical models were used for some elements, and general behaviors for the 3D corrections

  8. Ion beam production with sub-milligram samples of material from an ECR source for AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, R.; Bauder, W.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R.; Vondrasek, R.

    2016-02-01

    Current accelerator mass spectrometry experiments at the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System facility at Argonne National Laboratory push us to improve the ion source performance with a large number of samples and a need to minimize cross contamination. These experiments can require the creation of ion beams from as little as a few micrograms of material. These low concentration samples push the limit of our current efficiency and stability capabilities of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source. A combination of laser ablation and sputtering techniques coupled with a newly modified multi-sample changer has been used to meet this demand. We will discuss performance, stability, and consumption rates as well as planned improvements.

  9. Production and crosslinking of multi-layer tubes (PE & metal) by E-beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyball, Alfred

    2000-03-01

    Irradiation crosslinking of PE-tubes has been used for heating floors for about 25 years. Such tubes are also used today for drinking water supply. A further development has been the coating of such tubes with Ethylene-Vinyl-Alcohol-Copolymers (EVAL), in order to prevent oxygen diffusion into the water through the PE tube. For about 15 years composite tubes made of PE and aluminum have been available. These tubes are crosslinked with electron beams. The energy of the accelerated electrons must be adjusted for the particular tube configuration, so that the inner PE-layer will be crosslinked. This paper will concern itself with the manufacture and the crosslinking of composite tubes.

  10. New methods for high current fast ion beam production by laser-driven acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Margarone, D.; Krasa, J.; Prokupek, J.; Velyhan, A.; Laska, L.; Jungwirth, K.; Mocek, T.; Korn, G.; Rus, B.; Torrisi, L.; Gammino, S.; Cirrone, P.; Cutroneo, M.; Romano, F.; Picciotto, A.; Serra, E.; Giuffrida, L.; Mangione, A.; Rosinski, M.; Parys, P.; and others

    2012-02-15

    An overview of the last experimental campaigns on laser-driven ion acceleration performed at the PALS facility in Prague is given. Both the 2 TW, sub-nanosecond iodine laser system and the 20 TW, femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser, recently installed at PALS, are used along our experiments performed in the intensity range 10{sup 16}-10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. The main goal of our studies was to generate high energy, high current ion streams at relatively low laser intensities. The discussed experimental investigations show promising results in terms of maximum ion energy and current density, which make the laser-accelerated ion beams a candidate for new-generation ion sources to be employed in medicine, nuclear physics, matter physics, and industry.

  11. Tritium production potential of beam research and magnetic fusion program technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.D.

    1989-03-01

    Regular replenishment of tritium in the nuclear weapons stockpile is essential to maintain our nuclear deterrent. Nuclear reactor facilities presently used for the production of tritium are aging, and their operation is being curtailed awaiting the repairs and upgrades needed to meet modern standards of safety and environment. To provide improved capability in the future, DOE plans to construct a new production reactor. Alternatives to nuclear reactor methods for the production of tritium, mainly electrically-driven accelerator or fusion systems, have been proposed many times in the past. Given the critical national security implications of maintaining adequate tritium production facilities, it is clearly worthwhile for political decision-makers to have a clear and accurate picture of the technical options that could be made available at various points in the future. The goal of this white paper is to summarize available technical information on a set of non-nuclear-reactor options for tritium production with a minimum of advocacy for any one system of implicit assumptions about politically desirable attributes. Indeed, these various options differ considerably in aspects such as the maturity of the technology, the development cost and timescales required, and the capital and operating costs of a typical ''optimized'' facility.

  12. Improvement of Vitamin K2 Production by Escherichia sp. with Nitrogen Ion Beam Implantation Induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Wang, Li; Zheng, Zhiming; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Genhai; Liu, Hui; Gong, Guohong; Wu, Hefang; Liu, Hongxia; Tan, Mu; Li, Zhemin

    2015-02-01

    Low-energy ion implantation as a novel mutagen has been increasingly applied in the microbial mutagenesis for its higher mutation frequency and wider mutation spectra. In this work, N+ ion beam implantation was used to enhance Escherichia sp. in vitamin K2 yield. Optimization of process parameters under submerged fermentation was carried out to improve the vitamin K2 yield of mutant FM5-632. The results indicate that an excellent mutant FM5-632 with a yield of 123.2±1.6 μg/L, that is four times that of the original strain, was achieved by eight successive implantations under the conditions of 15 keV and 60×2.6×1013 ions/cm2. A further optimization increased the yield of the mutant by 39.7%, i.e. 172.1±1.2 μg/L which occurred in the mutant cultivated in the optimal fermentation culture medium composed of (per liter): 15.31 g glycerol, 10 g peptone, 2.89 g yeast extract, 5 g K2HPO4, 1 g NaCl, 0.5 g MgSO4·7H2O and 0.04 g cedar wood oil, incubated at 33 °C, pH 7.0 and 180 rpm for 120 h.

  13. Laser sustained discharge nozzle apparatus for the production of an intense beam of high kinetic energy atomic species

    DOEpatents

    Cross, Jon B.; Cremers, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Laser sustained discharge apparatus for the production of intense beams of high kinetic energy atomic species. A portion of the plasma resulting from a laser sustained continuous optical discharge which generates energetic atomic species from a gaseous source thereof is expanded through a nozzle into a region of low pressure. The expanded plasma contains a significant concentration of the high kinetic energy atomic species which may be used to investigate the interaction of surfaces therewith. In particular, O-atoms having velocities in excess of 3.5 km/s can be generated for the purpose of studying their interaction with materials in order to develop protective materials for spacecraft which are exposed to such energetic O-atoms during operation in low earth orbit.

  14. Laser sustained discharge nozzle apparatus for the production of an intense beam of high kinetic energy atomic species

    DOEpatents

    Cross, J.B.; Cremers, D.A.

    1986-01-10

    Laser sustained discharge apparatus for the production of intense beams of high kinetic energy atomic species is described. A portion of the plasma resulting from a laser sustained continuous optical discharge which generates energetic atomic species from a gaseous source thereof is expanded through a nozzle into a region of low pressure. The expanded plasma contains a significant concentration of the high kinetic energy atomic species which may be used to investigate the interaction of surfaces therewith. In particular, O-atoms having velocities in excess of 3.5 km/s can be generated for the purpose of studying their interaction with materials in order to develop protective materials for spacecraft which are exposed to such energetic O-atoms during operation in low earth orbit.

  15. Electrical-thermal-structural finite element simulation and experimental study of a plasma ion source for the production of radioactive ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzolaro, M.; Meneghetti, G.; Andrighetto, A.; Vivian, G.

    2016-03-01

    The production target and the ion source constitute the core of the selective production of exotic species (SPES) facility. In this complex experimental apparatus for the production of radioactive ion beams, a 40 MeV, 200 μA proton beam directly impinges a uranium carbide target, generating approximately 1013 fissions per second. The transfer line enables the unstable isotopes generated by the 238U fissions in the target to reach the ion source, where they can be ionized and finally accelerated to the subsequent areas of the facility. In this work, the plasma ion source currently adopted for the SPES facility is analyzed in detail by means of electrical, thermal, and structural numerical models. Next, theoretical results are compared with the electric potential difference, temperature, and displacement measurements. Experimental tests with stable ion beams are also presented and discussed.

  16. Electrical-thermal-structural finite element simulation and experimental study of a plasma ion source for the production of radioactive ion beams.

    PubMed

    Manzolaro, M; Meneghetti, G; Andrighetto, A; Vivian, G

    2016-03-01

    The production target and the ion source constitute the core of the selective production of exotic species (SPES) facility. In this complex experimental apparatus for the production of radioactive ion beams, a 40 MeV, 200 μA proton beam directly impinges a uranium carbide target, generating approximately 10(13) fissions per second. The transfer line enables the unstable isotopes generated by the (238)U fissions in the target to reach the ion source, where they can be ionized and finally accelerated to the subsequent areas of the facility. In this work, the plasma ion source currently adopted for the SPES facility is analyzed in detail by means of electrical, thermal, and structural numerical models. Next, theoretical results are compared with the electric potential difference, temperature, and displacement measurements. Experimental tests with stable ion beams are also presented and discussed. PMID:27036768

  17. "DIAGNOSTIC" PULSE FOR SINGLE-PARTICLE-LIKE BEAM POSITION MEASUREMENTS DURING ACCUMULATION/PRODUCTION MODE IN THE LOS ALAMOS PROTON STORAGE RING

    SciTech Connect

    Kolski, Jeffrey S.; Baily, Scott A.; Bjorklund, Eric A.; Bolme, Gerald O.; Hall, Michael J.; Kwon, Sung I.; Martinez, Martin P.; Prokop, Mark S.; Shelley, Fred E. Jr.; Torrez, Phillip A.

    2012-05-14

    Beam position monitors (BPMs) are the primary diagnostic in the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR). When injecting one turn, the transversemotion is approximated as a single particle with initial betatron position and angle {rvec x}{sub 0} and {rvec x}'{sub 0}. With single-turn injection, we fit the betatron tune, closed orbit (CO), and injection offset ({rvec x}{sub 0} and {rvec x}'{sub 0} at the injection point) to the turn-by-turn beam position. In production mode, we accumulate multiple turns, the transverse phase space fills after 5 injections (horizontal and vertical fractional betatron tunes {approx}0.2) resulting in no coherent betatron motion, and only the CO may be measured. The injection offset, which determines the accumulated beam size and is very sensitive to steering upstream of the ring, is not measurable in production mode. We describe our approach and ongoing efforts to measure the injection offset during production mode by injecting a 'diagnostic' pulse {approx}50 {micro}s after the accumulated beam is extracted. We also study the effects of increasing the linac RF gate length to accommodate the diagnostic pulse on the production beam position, transverse size, and loss.

  18. A vertical-beam target station and high-power targetry for the cyclotron production of radionuclides with medium energy protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steyn, G. F.; Vermeulen, C.; Botha, A. H.; Conradie, J. L.; Crafford, J. P. A.; Delsink, J. L. G.; Dietrich, J.; du Plessis, H.; Fourie, D. T.; Kormány, Z.; van Niekerk, M. J.; Rohwer, P. F.; Stodart, N. P.; de Villiers, J. G.

    2013-11-01

    A vertical-beam target station (VBTS) is described to exploit the high-intensity proton beams delivered by the upgraded separated-sector cyclotron of iThemba LABS for the production of longer-lived, high value radionuclides such as 22Na, 68Ge and 82Sr. Aspects of the targetry are discussed as well as a beam splitter, which makes it possible to perform radionuclide production bombardments simultaneously in two irradiation vaults. With tandem targets in two stations, four targets can be bombarded simultaneously. The delivery of 66 MeV proton beams of higher intensity has been realized by installing fixed frequency, flat-top RF resonators on both the main cyclotron and an injector cyclotron. The increase in beam intensity also required new non-destructive diagnostic components in the relevant high-energy beamlines. An overview is given of the current radionuclide production target stations, their similarities and differences and the role of the VBTS in the production programme.

  19. Neutrino trident production: a powerful probe of new physics with neutrino beams.

    PubMed

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Gori, Stefania; Pospelov, Maxim; Yavin, Itay

    2014-08-29

    The production of a μ+ μ- pair from the scattering of a muon neutrino off the Coulomb field of a nucleus, known as neutrino trident production, is a subweak process that has been observed in only a couple of experiments. As such, we show that it constitutes an exquisitely sensitive probe in the search for new neutral currents among leptons, putting the strongest constraints on well-motivated and well-hidden extensions of the standard model gauge group, including the one coupled to the difference of the lepton number between the muon and tau flavor, Lμ-Lτ. The new gauge boson Z', increases the rate of neutrino trident production by inducing additional (μγαμ)(νγ(α)ν) interactions, which interfere constructively with the standard model contribution. Existing experimental results put significant restrictions on the parameter space of any model coupled to muon number Lμ, and disfavor a putative resolution to the muon g-2 discrepancy via the loop of Z' for any mass mZ'≳400  MeV. The reach to the models' parameter space can be widened with future searches of the trident production at high-intensity neutrino facilities such as the LBNE. PMID:25215977

  20. FLUORINE-18 Production for PET and AN Investigation of the FLUORINE-18(P, ALPHA)OXYGEN-15 Reaction with a Radioactive Beam.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Andrew David

    1995-01-01

    Improved methods for the production of ^{18}F have been developed. The isotope, a beta^{+} emitter with a 110 min half-life, serves a vital role in positron emission tomography (PET), and more recently has become important in the emerging field of a radioactive beam development for nuclear reaction studies. Aside from increasing some PET radiopharmaceutical yields by factors of 2-20, the present work made possible a factor of 10 ^3-10^4 improvement in ^{18}F ion beam intensity over previously published methods. ^{18}F production targetry was developed for an 11.4 MeV, 6-8 mm FWHM, 50 muA proton beam from the UW cyclotron. Nucleophilic aqueous (^ {18}F) fluoride is produced via the ^{18}O(p,n)^ {18}F reaction on an enriched ( ^{18}O) water target. The target yield is (80 +/- 15)% of the theoretical maximum for beam currents up to 40 muA, with the highest yield to date of 70 GBq. Gas targets for the production of electrophilic (^ {18}F] F_2 were developed with a saturation bombardment yield of 3.10 +/- 0.40 GBq/muA for beam currents up to 45 muA, and a maximum yield to date of 45.5 GBq. The ^{18} F in either form has important applications in the labeling of PET radiopharmaceuticals, and the applicability of each to radioactive beam technology has been investigated. An ^{18}F ion beam was generated by a dual-accelerator method incorporating off-line chemical separation. ^ {18}F was produced on the UW radioisotope production cyclotron, then delivered to Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for beam formation on the tandem accelerator on ATLAS. An average ^{18}F ^{-} beam intensity of 1ppA was achieved from a cesium vapor, sputter negative ion source (SNICS) with a peak intensity of 4.5 ppA. This was sufficient to allow direct measurements of the ^{18}F(p,alpha) ^{15}O reaction cross section at energies of astrophysical interest. Cyclotron targetry studies, radioactive beam production techniques and results from the ^{18 }F(p,alpha)^ {15}O experiment are presented.

  1. 33 CFR 110.47 - Little Narragansett Bay, Watch Hill, R.I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Little Narragansett Bay, Watch Hill, R.I. 110.47 Section 110.47 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.47 Little Narragansett Bay, Watch Hill, R.I. All of the navigable waters...

  2. 33 CFR 100.119 - Newport-Bermuda Regatta, Narragansett Bay, Newport, RI

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Newport-Bermuda Regatta, Narragansett Bay, Newport, RI 100.119 Section 100.119 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...-Bermuda Regatta, Narragansett Bay, Newport, RI (a) Regulated area. The regulated area includes all...

  3. 76 FR 82001 - Submission for Review: Alternative Annuity Election, RI 20-80

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... information collection was previously published in the Federal Register on June 10, 2011, at Volume 76 FR... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Alternative Annuity Election, RI 20-80 AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel... on a revised information collection request (ICR) 3206-0168, Alternative Annuity Election, RI...

  4. 76 FR 18812 - Submission for Review: RI 30-10, Disabled Dependent Questionnaire

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

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  5. 78 FR 55124 - Submission for Review: Death Benefit Payment Rollover Election, RI 94-7

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Death Benefit Payment Rollover Election, RI 94-7 AGENCY: U.S. Office of... (ICR) 3206-0218, Death Benefit Payment Rollover Election, RI 94-7. As required by the Paperwork... Services, Office of Personnel Management. Title: Death Benefit Payment Rollover Election. OMB:...

  6. A Study of Charged Current Single Charged Pion Productions on Carbon in a Few-GeV Neutrino Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraide, Katsuki

    2009-01-01

    Understanding single charged pion production via neutrino-nucleus charged current interaction in the neutrino energy region of a few GeV is essential for future neutrino oscillation experiments since this process is a dominant background for vμ → vx oscillation measurements. There are two contributions to this process: single pion production via baryonic resonance (vμN → μ-+) and coherent pion production interacting with the entire nucleus (vμA → μ-+), where N is nucleon in the nucleus and A is the nucleus. The purpose of the study presented in this thesis is a precise measurement of charged current single charged pion productions, resonant and coherent pion productions, with a good final state separation in the neutrino energy region of a few GeV. In this thesis, we focus on the study of charged current coherent pion production from muon neutrinos scattering on carbon, vμ 12C → μ-12+, in the SciBooNE experiment. This is motivated by the fact that without measuring this component first, the precise determination of resonant pion production cross section can not be achieved since the contribution of coherent pion production in the region of small muon scattering angle is not small. Furthermore, the coherent process is particularly interesting because it is deeply rooted in fundamental physics via Adler's partially conserved axial-vector current theorem. We took data from June 2007 until August 2008, in both the neutrino and antineutrino beam. In total, 2.52 x 1020 protons on target were collected. We have performed a search for charged current coherent pion production by using SciBooNE's full neutrino data set, corresponding to 0.99 x 1020 protons on target. No evidence for coherent pion production is observed. We set 90% confidence level upper limits on the cross section ratio of charged

  7. Activation caused by proton beam losses in Accelerator Production of Tritium LINAC

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, C.A.; Eaton, S.L.; Daemen, L.L.; Waters, L.S.; Wilson, W.B.

    1996-03-01

    A variety of accelerator designs are being considered for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project at Alamos National Laboratory. Because activation of the structural components of the accelerator is considered a major radiation protection issue, we have developed a computational methodology to estimate quantitatively radionuclide inventories and gamma dose rates resulting from accelerator operation. The work presented here illustrates the use of our computational methodology by focusing on the 20 and 100 MeV sections of the Bridge-Coupled Drift Tube LINAC (BCDTL), and the 100 and 1000 MeV sections of the Coupled Cavity LINAC (CCL).

  8. Population trends and flight behavior of the American burying beetle, Nicrophorus americanus (Coleoptera: Silphidae), on Block Island, RI

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raithel, C.J.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Prospero, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    The endangered American burying beetle, Nicrophorus americanus, was monitored on Block Island, RI, USA, from 1991-2003 using mark-recapture population estimates of adults collected in pitfall traps. Populations increased through time, especially after 1994 when a program was initiated that provided carrion for beetle production. Beetle captures increased with increasing temperature and dew point, and decreased with increasing wind speed. Short distance movement was not related to wind direction, while longer distance flights tended to be downwind. Although many individuals flew considerable distances along transects, most recaptures were in traps near the point of release. These behaviors probably have counterbalancing effects on population estimates.

  9. Adjustable mounting device for high-volume production of beam-shaping systems for high-power diode lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haag, Sebastian; Bernhardt, Henning; Rübenach, Olaf; Haverkamp, Tobias; Müller, Tobias; Zontar, Daniel; Brecher, Christian

    2015-02-01

    In many applications for high-power diode lasers, the production of beam-shaping and homogenizing optical systems experience rising volumes and dynamical market demands. The automation of assembly processes on flexible and reconfigurable machines can contribute to a more responsive and scalable production. The paper presents a flexible mounting device designed for the challenging assembly of side-tab based optical systems. It provides design elements for precisely referencing and fixating two optical elements in a well-defined geometric relation. Side tabs are presented to the machine allowing the application of glue and a rotating mechanism allows the attachment to the optical elements. The device can be adjusted to fit different form factors and it can be used in high-volume assembly machines. The paper shows the utilization of the device for a collimation module consisting of a fast-axis and a slow-axis collimation lens. Results regarding the repeatability and process capability of bonding side tab assemblies as well as estimates from 3D simulation for overall performance indicators achieved such as cycle time and throughput will be discussed.

  10. Thermal and electrostatic simulations of the diagnostic calorimeter for the Source for Production of Ion of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma beam

    SciTech Connect

    Serianni, G.; Dalla Palma, M.; Fasolo, D.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pomaro, N.; Rizzolo, A.; Tollin, M.; De Muri, M.

    2012-02-15

    To study and optimise negative ion production for the ITER neutral beam injectors, a test facility is under construction in Padova with the aim of testing beam characteristics and to verify the source proper operation. The instrumented calorimeter STRIKE (short-time retractable instrumented kalorimeter experiment) is being developed to characterise the SPIDER (Source for Production of Ion of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) beam during short operations. The paper presents an investigation of the response of STRIKE measurement systems. It results that biasing is necessary to cope with the influence of secondary electrons on current measurements; moreover, despite the discretisation of the recorded thermal patterns introduced by the pixels of thermal cameras, a sufficient spatial resolution is expected.

  11. Programmatic Assessment of Potential Induced Radioactivity in Electron Beam Sterilization of Healthcare Products.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark; Logar, John; Montgomery, Alan; Vrain, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    ISO 11137-1:2006 Sterilization of Healthcare Products-Radiation requires that the potential for induced radioactivity be evaluated for medical devices irradiated with electrons with energy more than 10 MeV. For a manufacturing operation where new devices are being developed, a practical program for making such an evaluation should be engrained in the process, including the device design phase, where selection of materials can make a difference in the potential for activation to occur as a result of the irradiation process. The program, which is based on general assumptions as to the likely activation processes and generalized process assessments is being implemented in three phases: (1) incorporating materials consideration in the design phase, (2) evaluating potential activation empirically, including measurement at the point of irradiation, and (3) implementing routine procedures for the program, including developing a data base of results for consideration in future design efforts. PMID:27356164

  12. Measurement of Neutral Current Neutral Pion Production on Carbon in a Few-GeV Neutrino Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Kurimoto, Yoshinori

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of the π0 production via neutrino-nucleus neutral current interaction in the neutrino energy region of a few GeV is essential for the neutrino oscillation experiments. In this thesis, we present a study of neutral current π0 production from muon neutrinos scattering on a polystyrene (C8H8) target in the SciBooNE experiment. All neutrino beam data corresponding to 0.99 × 1020 protons on target have been analyzed. We have measured the cross section ratio of the neutral current π0 production to the total charge current interaction and the π0 kinematic distribution such as momentum and direction. We obtain [7.7 ± 0.5(stat.) ± 0.5(sys.)] × 10-2 as the ratio of the neutral current neutral pion production to total charged current cross section; the mean energy of neutrinos producing detected neutral pions is 1.1 GeV. The result agrees with the Rein- Sehgal model, which is generally used for the Monte Carlo simulation by many neutrino oscillation experiments. We achieve less than 10 % uncertainty which is required for the next generation search for νµ → νe oscillation. The spectrum shape of the π0 momentum and the distribution of the π0 emitted angle agree with the prediction, which means that not only the Rein-Sehgal model but also the intra-nuclear interaction models describe our data well. We also measure the ratio of the neutral current coherent pion production to total charged current cross section to be (1.17 ± 0.23 ) × 10-2 based on the Rein and Sehgal model. The result gives the evidence for non-zero coherent pion production via neutral current interaction at the mean neutrino energy of 1.0 GeV.

  13. High-brightness electron beams for production of high intensity, coherent radiation for scientific and industrial applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.-J.

    1999-01-15

    Relativistic electron beams with high six-dimensional phase space densities, i.e., high-brightness beams, are the basis for efficient generation of intense and coherent radiation beams for advanced scientific and industrial applications. The remarkable progress in synchrotrons radiation facilities from the first generation to the current, third-generation capability illustrates this point. With the recent development of the high-brightness electron gun based on laser-driven rf photocathodes, linacs have become another important option for high-brightness electron beams. With linacs of about 100 MeV, megawatt-class infrared free-electron lasers can be designed for industrial applications such as power beaming. With linacs of about 10 GeV, 1-{angstrom} x-ray beams with brightness and time resolution exceeding by several orders of magnitude the current synchrotrons radiation sources can be generated based on self-amplified spontaneous emission. Scattering of a high-brightness electron beam by high power laser beams is emerging as a compact method of generating short-pulse, bright x-rays. In the high-energy frontier, photons of TeV quantum energy could be generated by scattering laser beams with TeV electron beams in future linear colliders.

  14. 33 CFR 167.100 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General. 167.100 Section 167.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General. The traffic separation scheme in the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA, consists of four parts: Two precautionary areas...

  15. 33 CFR 167.100 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General. 167.100 Section 167.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General. The traffic separation scheme in the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA, consists of four parts: Two precautionary areas...

  16. 33 CFR 167.100 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General. 167.100 Section 167.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General. The traffic separation scheme in the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA, consists of four parts: Two precautionary areas...

  17. 33 CFR 167.100 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General. 167.100 Section 167.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General. The traffic separation scheme in the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA, consists of four parts: Two precautionary areas...

  18. 78 FR 13914 - Submission for Review: Survivor Annuity Election for a Spouse, RI 20-63; Cover Letter Giving...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Survivor Annuity Election for a Spouse, RI 20-63; Cover Letter Giving Information About the Cost To Elect Less Than the Maximum Survivor Annuity, RI 20-116; Cover Letter Giving Information About the Cost To Elect the Maximum Survivor Annuity, RI 20-117 AGENCY: U.S. Office of...

  19. 76 FR 18811 - Submission for Review: Letter Reply To Request for Information (RI 20-64), Former Spouse Survivor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... collection was previously published in the Federal Register on November 18, 2010 at Volume 75 FR 70710... Per Respondent: 45 minutes for RI 20-64A and 8 minutes for RI 20-64. Total Burden Hours: 24. U.S... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Letter Reply To Request for Information (RI 20-64), Former Spouse...

  20. Involvement of the high-affinity receptor for IgG (Fc gamma RI; CD64) in enhanced tumor cell cytotoxicity of neutrophils during granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy.

    PubMed

    Valerius, T; Repp, R; de Wit, T P; Berthold, S; Platzer, E; Kalden, J R; Gramatzki, M; van de Winkel, J G

    1993-08-01

    Three different classes of Fc receptors for IgG (Fc gamma R) are currently distinguished in humans, of which polymorphonuclear phagocytes (PMN) normally express both low-affinity receptor classes--Fc gamma RII (CD32) and Fc gamma RIII (CD16). During therapy with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), neutrophils from patients with various malignancies and different hematologic disorders were found to additionally express high levels of the receptor with high affinity for IgG (Fc gamma RI; CD64). For these patients, the relative fluorescence intensity (rFI) for Fc gamma RI was 5.3 (range, 1.7 to 10.3; n = 19), compared with 1.0 (range, 1.0 to 1.1; n = 8) for healthy donors. The expression of Fc gamma RI during G-CSF therapy could be confirmed by using a panel of six CD64-specific antibodies, and by showing mRNA for Fc gamma RI. So far, three genes for Fc gamma RI have been identified, encoding four distinct transcription products. By reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction technology, transcripts for both membrane-associated isoforms (hFc gamma RIa and hFc gamma RIb2) could be detected. The functional activity of Fc gamma RI on PMN during G-CSF therapy was shown by measuring binding of monomeric human IgG and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Thus, Fc gamma RI-positive neutrophils displayed enhanced ADCC activity to glioma (A1207), squamous cell (A431), and ovarian (SK-ov3) carcinoma cell lines. The involvement of Fc gamma RI in this increased cytotoxic activity was shown by blocking Fc gamma receptors with monoclonal antibodies, and by using F(ab')2 x F(ab')2-bispecific antibodies with specificities against tumor-related antigens and Fc gamma RI, resulting in solely Fc gamma RI-mediated cytotoxicity. Therapeutically, this additional Fc receptor on PMN may increase the efficacy of experimental antibody therapy. PMID:7687898

  1. Production of cold beams of ND3 with variable rotational state distributions by electrostatic extraction of He and Ne buffer-gas-cooled beams.

    PubMed

    Twyman, Kathryn S; Bell, Martin T; Heazlewood, Brianna R; Softley, Timothy P

    2014-07-14

    The measurement of the rotational state distribution of a velocity-selected, buffer-gas-cooled beam of ND3 is described. In an apparatus recently constructed to study cold ion-molecule collisions, the ND3 beam is extracted from a cryogenically cooled buffer-gas cell using a 2.15 m long electrostatic quadrupole guide with three 90° bends. (2+1) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization spectra of molecules exiting the guide show that beams of ND3 can be produced with rotational state populations corresponding to approximately T(rot) = 9-18 K, achieved through manipulation of the temperature of the buffer-gas cell (operated at 6 K or 17 K), the identity of the buffer gas (He or Ne), or the relative densities of the buffer gas and ND3. The translational temperature of the guided ND3 is found to be similar in a 6 K helium and 17 K neon buffer-gas cell (peak kinetic energies of 6.92(0.13) K and 5.90(0.01) K, respectively). The characterization of this cold-molecule source provides an opportunity for the first experimental investigations into the rotational dependence of reaction cross sections in low temperature collisions. PMID:25028020

  2. Production of cold beams of ND{sub 3} with variable rotational state distributions by electrostatic extraction of He and Ne buffer-gas-cooled beams

    SciTech Connect

    Twyman, Kathryn S.; Bell, Martin T.; Heazlewood, Brianna R.; Softley, Timothy P.

    2014-07-14

    The measurement of the rotational state distribution of a velocity-selected, buffer-gas-cooled beam of ND{sub 3} is described. In an apparatus recently constructed to study cold ion-molecule collisions, the ND{sub 3} beam is extracted from a cryogenically cooled buffer-gas cell using a 2.15 m long electrostatic quadrupole guide with three 90° bends. (2+1) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization spectra of molecules exiting the guide show that beams of ND{sub 3} can be produced with rotational state populations corresponding to approximately T{sub rot} = 9–18 K, achieved through manipulation of the temperature of the buffer-gas cell (operated at 6 K or 17 K), the identity of the buffer gas (He or Ne), or the relative densities of the buffer gas and ND{sub 3}. The translational temperature of the guided ND{sub 3} is found to be similar in a 6 K helium and 17 K neon buffer-gas cell (peak kinetic energies of 6.92(0.13) K and 5.90(0.01) K, respectively). The characterization of this cold-molecule source provides an opportunity for the first experimental investigations into the rotational dependence of reaction cross sections in low temperature collisions.

  3. Performance of Ion Surfing Rf-carpets for High-Energy RI Beam Gas Catcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Fumiya; Ito, Yuta; Katayama, Ichiro; Schury, Peter; Sonoda, Tetsu; Wada, Michiharu; Wollnik, Hermann

    A new concept for the transport of ions in gas by means of a traveling potential wave super-imposed on an rf-carpet (RFC), known as ion surfing, has recently been proposed. We demonstrated, for the first time, the transport and extraction of K+ and Cs+ ions using a circular rf-carpet in high pressure He gas. An efficiency of nearly 100% was obtained . In addition, we compared an RFC of a fine pitch (0.16 mm) and the one of a rough pitch (0.32 mm). For higher pressure, the fine RFC was found to be better than the rough RFC.

  4. Development of an all-permanent-magnet microwave ion source equipped with multicusp magnetic fields for high current proton beam production.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, M; Hara, S; Seki, T; Iga, T

    2008-02-01

    An all-permanent-magnet (APM) microwave hydrogen ion source was developed to reduce the size and to simplify structure of a conventional solenoid coil microwave ion source developed for reliability improvement of high current proton linac application systems. The difficulty in developing the APM source was sensitive dependence of the source performance on axial magnetic field in the microwave discharge chamber. It was difficult to produce high current proton beam stably without precise tuning of the magnetic field using solenoid coils. We lowered the sensitivity using multicusp magnetic fields for plasma confinement at the discharge chamber sidewall of the source. This enabled stable high current proton beam production with the APM microwave ion source with no tuning coil. The water cooling and the power supply for the coils are not necessary for the APM source, which leads to better reliability and system simplification. The outer diameter of the APM source was around 300 mm, which was 20% lower than the coil source. The APM source produced a maximum hydrogen ion beam current of 65 mA (high current density of 330 mA/cm(2), proton ratio of 87%, and beam energy of 30 keV) with a 5 mm diameter extraction aperture, pulse width of 400 micros, and 20 Hz repetition rate at 1.3 kW microwave power. This performance is almost the same as the best performances of the conventional coil sources. The extracted ion beams were focused with electrostatic five-grid lens to match beam to acceptance of radio-frequency quadrupole linacs. The maximum focused beam current through the orifice (5 mm radius) and the lens was 36 mA and the 90% focused beam half-width was 1-2 mm. PMID:18315183

  5. Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) process, elements and techniques guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This manual provides detailed guidance on Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Studies (RI/FSs) conducted pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The purpose of the RI/FS, to assess the risk posed by a hazardous waste site and to determine the best way to reduce that risk, and its structure (site characterization, risk assessment, screening and detailed analysis of alternatives, etc.) is defined in the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) and further explained in the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Guidance for Conducting Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies Under CERCLA (Interim Final) 540/G-89/004, OSWER Directive 9355.3-01, October 1988. Though issued in 1988, the EPA guidance remains an excellent source of information on the conduct and structure of an RI/FS. This document makes use of supplemental RI/FS-related guidance that EPA has developed since its initial document was issued in 1988, incorporates practical lessons learned in more than 12 years of experience in CERCLA hazardous site remediation, and drawing on those lessons, introduces the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER), developed by DOE as a way to proceed quickly and efficiently through the RI/FS process at DOE facilities. Thus as its title implies, this guidance is intended to describe in detail the process and component elements of an RI/FS, as well as techniques to manage the RI/FS effectively.

  6. On the sequences ri, si, ti ∈ ℤ related to extended Euclidean algorithm and continued fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Khairun Nisak; Kamarulhaili, Hailiza

    2016-06-01

    The extended Euclidean Algorithm is a practical technique used in many cryptographic applications, where it computes the sequences ri, si, ti ∈ ℤ that always satisfy ri = si a+ tib. The integer ri is the remainder in the ith sequences. The sequences si and ti arising from the extended Euclidean algorithm are equal, up to sign, to the convergents of the continued fraction expansion of a/b. The values of (ri, si, ti) satisfy various properties which are used to solve the shortest vector problem in representing point multiplications in elliptic curves cryptography, namely the GLV (Gallant, Lambert & Vanstone) integer decomposition method and the ISD (integer sub decomposition) method. This paper is to extend the proof for each of the existing properties on (ri, si, ti). We also generate new properties which are relevant to the sequences ri, si, ti ∈ ℤ. The concepts of Euclidean algorithm, extended Euclidean algorithm and continued fractions are intertwined and the properties related to these concepts are proved. These properties together with the existing properties of the sequence (ri, si, ti) are regarded as part and parcel of the building blocks of a new generation of an efficient cryptographic protocol.

  7. Beam loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanGinneken, A.; Edwards, D.; Harrison, M.

    1989-04-01

    This paper presents results from simulations of beam losses during the operation of a superconducting accelerator. The calculations use a combination of hadron/electromagnetic cascade plus elastic scattering codes with accelerator tracking routines. These calculations have been used in conjunction with the design of the Fermilab Tevatron. First accelerator geometry is described. The rest of the paper discusses a detailed attempt to simulate a fast extraction cycle, essentially in chronological order. Beginning with an unperturbed beam, the simulation generates proton phase-space distributions incident on the electrostatic septum. These interact either elastically or inelastically with the septum wires, and the products of these interactions are traced through the machine. Where these leave the accelerator, energy deposition levels in the magnets are calculated together with the projected response of the beam-loss monitors in this region. Finally, results of the calculation are compared with experimental data. (AIP)

  8. Control of Mechanical Properties of Three-Dimensional Ti-6Al-4V Products Fabricated by Electron Beam Melting with Unidirectional Elongated Pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeo, Naoko; Ishimoto, Takuya; Serizawa, Ai; Nakano, Takayoshi

    2014-09-01

    Aligned, unidirectional, elongated pores were incorporated in Ti-6Al-4V products fabricated by electron beam melting in order to control the mechanical properties of the products such that they became suitable for biomedical applications. Unidirectional pores were successfully produced when the scan spacing of the electron beam was greater than the diameter of the beam. By changing the scan spacing of the electron beam, the size of the unidirectional pores could be varied. As a result, both the Young's moduli and the yield stresses of the products with unidirectional pores decreased linearly with an increase in their porosity, owing to the stress concentration coefficient being 1 in the equation representing the relation between strength and porosity for porous materials. Further, low (<35 GPa) Young's moduli were obtained when the scan spacing was 1 mm or higher, with these values being were close to the typical Young's modulus of human cortical bone. This suggested that these porous materials could be used to fabricate customized bone implants that exhibited desired mechanical properties and suppressed the stress shielding of bone that is normally noticed when implants made of Ti alloys are used.

  9. Effective doses from panoramic radiography and CBCT (cone beam CT) using dose area product (DAP) in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Shin, H S; Nam, K C; Park, H; Choi, H U; Kim, H Y

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We compared the effective dose from panoramic radiography with that from cone beam CT (CBCT) using dose area product under adult and child exposure conditions. Methods: The effective doses of the cephalo, panorama, implant and dental modes of Alphard 3030 (Asahi Roentgen Ind., Co. Ltd, Kyoto, Japan) CBCT and the Jaw, Wide, Facial and temporomandibular joint modes of Rayscan Symphony (RAY Co., Ltd, Hwaseong, Republic of Korea) CBCT were compared with those of CRANEX® 3+ CEPH (Soredex Orion Corporation, Helsinki, Finland) panoramic radiography equipment under adult and child exposure conditions. Each effective dose was calculated using a conversion formula from dose area product meter measured values (VacuTec Messtechnik GmbH, Dresden, Germany). The conversion formulae used were suggested by Helmrot and Alm Carlsson and Batista et al, and they were applied with the tube voltage taken into consideration. Results: The maximum effective doses from the Alphard 3030 and Rayscan Symphony were 67 and 21 times greater than that from panoramic radiography, respectively. The ratios of the effective dose under the child setting to that under the adult condition were 0.60–0.62 and 0.84–0.95, and the maximum differences in effective doses between the adult and child exposure settings were equivalent to 27 and 4 times greater than a panoramic examination in the Alphard 3030 and Rayscan Symphony, respectively. Conclusions: The effective CBCT doses were higher than those of panoramic radiography. The differences in effective doses between the adult and child CBCT settings were dependent on equipment type and exposure parameters. Therefore, adequate mode selection and control of exposure as well as further research are necessary to minimize the effective dose to patients, especially for radiosensitive children. PMID:24845340

  10. Application of STORMTOOLS's simplified flood inundation model with sea level rise to assess impacts to RI coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaulding, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    The vision for STORMTOOLS is to provide access to a suite of coastal planning tools (numerical models et al), available as a web service, that allows wide spread accessibly and applicability at high resolution for user selected coastal areas of interest. The first product developed under this framework were flood inundation maps, with and without sea level rise, for varying return periods for RI coastal waters. The flood mapping methodology is based on using the water level vs return periods at a primary NOAA water level gauging station and then spatially scaling the values, based on the predictions of high resolution, storm and wave simulations performed by Army Corp of Engineers, North Atlantic Comprehensive Coastal Study (NACCS) for tropical and extratropical storms on an unstructured grid, to estimate inundation levels for varying return periods. The scaling for the RI application used Newport, RI water levels as the reference point. Predictions are provided for once in 25, 50, and 100 yr return periods (at the upper 95% confidence level), with sea level rises of 1, 2, 3, and 5 ft. Simulations have also been performed for historical hurricane events including 1938, Carol (1954), Bob (1991), and Sandy (2012) and nuisance flooding events with return periods of 1, 3, 5, and 10 yr. Access to the flooding maps is via a web based, map viewer that seamlessly covers all coastal waters of the state at one meter resolution. The GIS structure of the map viewer allows overlays of additional relevant data sets (roads and highways, wastewater treatment facilities, schools, hospitals, emergency evacuation routes, etc.) as desired by the user. The simplified flooding maps are publically available and are now being implemented for state and community resilience planning and vulnerability assessment activities in response to climate change impacts.

  11. Engineered selective plant male sterility through pollen-specific expression of the EcoRI restriction endonuclease.

    PubMed

    Millwood, Reginald J; Moon, Hong S; Poovaiah, Charleson R; Muthukumar, Balasubramaniam; Rice, John Hollis; Abercrombie, Jason M; Abercrombie, Laura L; Green, William Derek; Stewart, Charles Neal

    2016-05-01

    Unintended gene flow from transgenic plants via pollen, seed and vegetative propagation is a regulatory concern because of potential admixture in food and crop systems, as well as hybridization and introgression to wild and weedy relatives. Bioconfinement of transgenic pollen would help address some of these concerns and enable transgenic plant production for several crops where gene flow is an issue. Here, we demonstrate the expression of the restriction endonuclease EcoRI under the control of the tomato pollen-specific LAT52 promoter is an effective method for generating selective male sterility in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Of nine transgenic events recovered, four events had very high bioconfinement with tightly controlled EcoRI expression in pollen and negligible-to-no expression other plant tissues. Transgenic plants had normal morphology wherein vegetative growth and reproductivity were similar to nontransgenic controls. In glasshouse experiments, transgenic lines were hand-crossed to both male-sterile and emasculated nontransgenic tobacco varieties. Progeny analysis of 16 000-40 000 seeds per transgenic line demonstrated five lines approached (>99.7%) or attained 100% bioconfinement for one or more generations. Bioconfinement was again demonstrated at or near 100% under field conditions where four transgenic lines were grown in close proximity to male-sterile tobacco, and 900-2100 seeds per male-sterile line were analysed for transgenes. Based upon these results, we conclude EcoRI-driven selective male sterility holds practical potential as a safe and reliable transgene bioconfinement strategy. Given the mechanism of male sterility, this method could be applicable to any plant species. PMID:26503160

  12. Optical observations of meteors in RI Nikolaev Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulga, Alexander; Sybiryakova, Yevgeniya; Kulichenko, Nikolay; Vovk, Vasyl

    2015-08-01

    Video observations of meteors at the RI NAO are conducted using meteor patrol, which includes 6 optical telescopes (4 lenses: f = 85 mm, f/1.8; 2 lenses: f = 100 mm, f/2.0) equipped with a TV CCD cameras WAT-902H2 (768×576, 8.6×8.3µ). The field of view of 4 telescopes is 3.2°×4.2° and 2.7°×3.6° for 2 telescopes. System doesn't have any intensifier. Each video system is contained in a hermetic capsule to prevent it from rain and other aggressive meteorological conditions. Cameras work in the interlace mode with rate 50 half-frames per second.During 2011-2014 4135 single station meteors were observed. The mean duration of observed meteor trajectories are in 0.05-0.6 s. Double station observation campaigns has been started in September 2013 and it is still working with baseline 11.8 km. During September 2013 - September 2014 total number of observed meteor trajectories was 1757. Number of double station meteors - 328. The mean accuracy of visible radiant determination is less than 0.5 arc sec, more than 80% of radiates have standard deviation less than 0.2 arc sec.

  13. CCD UBV(RI)C photometry of twenty open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oralhan, İnci Akkaya; Karataş, Yüksel; Schuster, William J.; Michel, Raúl; Chavarría, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Fundamental astrophysical parameters have been derived for 20 open clusters (OCs) using CCD UBV(RI)C photometric data observed with the 84 cm telescope at the San Pedro Mártir National Astronomical Observatory, México. The interstellar reddenings, metallicities, distances, and ages have been compared to the literature values. Significant differences are usually due to the usage of diverse empirical calibrations and differing assumptions, such as concerning cluster metallicity, as well as distinct isochrones which correspond to differing element-abundance ratios, internal stellar physics, and photometric systems. Different interstellar reddenings, as well as varying reduction and cluster-membership techniques, are also responsible for these kinds of systematic differences and errors. The morphological ages, which are derived from the morphological indices (δV and δ1) in the CM diagrams, are in good agreement with the isochrone ages of 12 OCs, those with good red clump (RC) and red giant (RG) star candidates. No metal abundance gradient is detected for the range 6.82⩽RGC⩽15.37 kpc, nor any correlation between the cluster ages and metal abundances for these 20 OCs. Young, metal-poor OCs, observed here in the third Galactic quadrant, may be associated with stellar over-densities, such as that in Canis Major (Martin et al.) and the Monoceros Ring (Newberg et al.), or signatures of past accretion events, as discussed by Yong et al. and Carraro et al.

  14. Production and dosimetry of simultaneous therapeutic photons and electrons beam by linear accelerator: A Monte Carlo study

    SciTech Connect

    Khledi, Navid; Sardari, Dariush; Arbabi, Azim; Ameri, Ahmad; Mohammadi, Mohammad

    2015-02-24

    Depending on the location and depth of tumor, the electron or photon beams might be used for treatment. Electron beam have some advantages over photon beam for treatment of shallow tumors to spare the normal tissues beyond of the tumor. In the other hand, the photon beam are used for deep targets treatment. Both of these beams have some limitations, for example the dependency of penumbra with depth, and the lack of lateral equilibrium for small electron beam fields. In first, we simulated the conventional head configuration of Varian 2300 for 16 MeV electron, and the results approved by benchmarking the Percent Depth Dose (PDD) and profile of the simulation and measurement. In the next step, a perforated Lead (Pb) sheet with 1mm thickness placed at the top of the applicator holder tray. This layer producing bremsstrahlung x-ray and a part of the electrons passing through the holes, in result, we have a simultaneous mixed electron and photon beam. For making the irradiation field uniform, a layer of steel placed after the Pb layer. The simulation was performed for 10×10, and 4×4 cm2 field size. This study was showed the advantages of mixing the electron and photon beam by reduction of pure electron's penumbra dependency with the depth, especially for small fields, also decreasing of dramatic changes of PDD curve with irradiation field size.

  15. Production and dosimetry of simultaneous therapeutic photons and electrons beam by linear accelerator: A Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khledi, Navid; Arbabi, Azim; Sardari, Dariush; Mohammadi, Mohammad; Ameri, Ahmad

    2015-02-01

    Depending on the location and depth of tumor, the electron or photon beams might be used for treatment. Electron beam have some advantages over photon beam for treatment of shallow tumors to spare the normal tissues beyond of the tumor. In the other hand, the photon beam are used for deep targets treatment. Both of these beams have some limitations, for example the dependency of penumbra with depth, and the lack of lateral equilibrium for small electron beam fields. In first, we simulated the conventional head configuration of Varian 2300 for 16 MeV electron, and the results approved by benchmarking the Percent Depth Dose (PDD) and profile of the simulation and measurement. In the next step, a perforated Lead (Pb) sheet with 1mm thickness placed at the top of the applicator holder tray. This layer producing bremsstrahlung x-ray and a part of the electrons passing through the holes, in result, we have a simultaneous mixed electron and photon beam. For making the irradiation field uniform, a layer of steel placed after the Pb layer. The simulation was performed for 10×10, and 4×4 cm2 field size. This study was showed the advantages of mixing the electron and photon beam by reduction of pure electron's penumbra dependency with the depth, especially for small fields, also decreasing of dramatic changes of PDD curve with irradiation field size.

  16. Multi-Frequency Microwaves Plasma Production for Active Profile Control of Ion Beams on a Large Bore ECR Ion Source with Permanent Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Naoki; Kato, Yushi; Kiriyama, Ryutaro; Takenaka, Tomoya; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-07

    A new concept on magnetic field of plasma production and confinement by using permanent magnets, i.e. cylindrically comb-shaped magnets, has been proposed to enhance efficiency of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma for broad and dense ion beam source under the low pressure and also the low microwave power. The resonance zones corresponding to the fundamental ECR for 2.45 GHz and 11-13 GHz frequency are constructed at different positions. The profiles of the plasma parameters in the ECR ion source are different from each frequency of microwave. Large bore extractor is set at the opposite side against the microwave feeds. It is found that differences of their profiles also appear at those of ion beam profiles. We conducted to launch simultaneously multiplex frequency microwaves controlled individually, and tried to control the profiles of the plasma parameters and then those of extracted ion beam.

  17. Sensitivities in the production of spread-out Bragg peak dose distributions by passive scattering with beam current modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, H.-M.; Brett, Robert; Engelsman, Martijn; Slopsema, Roelf; Kooy, Hanne; Flanz, Jay

    2007-10-15

    A spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) is used in proton beam therapy to create a longitudinal conformality of the required dose to the target. In order to create this effect in a passive beam scattering system, a variety of components must operate in conjunction to produce the desired beam parameters. We will describe how the SOBP is generated and will explore the tolerances of the various components and their subsequent effect on the dose distribution. A specific aspect of this investigation includes a case study involving the use of a beam current modulated system. In such a system, the intensity of the beam current can be varied in synchronization with the revolution of the range-modulator wheel. As a result, the weights of the pulled-back Bragg peaks can be individually controlled to produce uniform dose plateaus for a large range of treatment depths using only a small number of modulator wheels.

  18. Evaluation of the effect of tooth and dental restoration material on electron dose distribution and production of photon contamination in electron beam radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bahreyni Toossi, Mohammad Taghi; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Akbari, Fatemeh; Mehrpouyan, Mohammad; Sobhkhiz Sabet, Leila

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of tooth and dental restoration materials on electron dose distribution and photon contamination production in electron beams of a medical linac. This evaluation was performed on 8, 12 and 14 MeV electron beams of a Siemens Primus linac. MCNPX Monte Carlo code was utilized and a 10 × 10 cm(2) applicator was simulated in the cases of tooth and combinations of tooth and Ceramco C3 ceramic veneer, tooth and Eclipse alloy and tooth and amalgam restoration materials in a soft tissue phantom. The relative electron and photon contamination doses were calculated for these materials. The presence of tooth and dental restoration material changed the electron dose distribution and photon contamination in phantom, depending on the type of the restoration material and electron beam's energy. The maximum relative electron dose was 1.07 in the presence of tooth including amalgam for 14 MeV electron beam. When 100.00 cGy was prescribed for the reference point, the maximum absolute electron dose was 105.10 cGy in the presence of amalgam for 12 MeV electron beam and the maximum absolute photon contamination dose was 376.67 μGy for tooth in 14 MeV electron beam. The change in electron dose distribution should be considered in treatment planning, when teeth are irradiated in electron beam radiotherapy. If treatment planning can be performed in such a way that the teeth are excluded from primary irradiation, the potential errors in dose delivery to the tumour and normal tissues can be avoided. PMID:26581762

  19. REMEDIAL INVESTIGATIONS (RI) OF REGION 4 SUPERFUND HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES: JUNE 2004 - SEPT. 2005

    EPA Science Inventory

    These projects require developing and implementing Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plans which include a Project Operations Plan, Field Sampling and Analysis Plan, Quality Assurance Plan, and a Health and Safety Plan. In general, these large complex RIs involve: collecting soil,...

  20. REMEDIAL INVESTIGATIONS (RI) OF REGION 4 SUPERFUND HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES: OCTOBER 2005 – SEPTEMBER 2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remedial Investigation projects conducted by the Region 4 Science and Ecosystem Support DIvision (SESD) require developing and implementing Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plans which include a Project Operations Plan, Field Sampling and Analysis Plan, Quality Assurance Plan, an...

  1. Nucleotide sequence of the BsuRI restriction-modification system.

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, A; Posfai, G; Keller, C C; Venetianer, P; Roberts, R J

    1985-01-01

    The genes of the 5'-GGCC specific BsuRI restriction-modification system of Bacillus subtilis have been cloned and expressed in E. coli and their nucleotide sequence has been determined. The restriction and modification genes code for polypeptides with calculated molecular weights of 66,314 and 49,642, respectively. Both enzymes are coded by the same DNA strand. The restriction gene is upstream of the methylase gene and the coding regions are separated by 780 bp. Analysis of the RNA transcripts by S1-nuclease mapping indicates that the restriction and modification genes are transcribed from different promoters. Comparison of the amino acid sequences revealed no homology between the BsuRI restriction and modification enzymes. There are, however, regions of homology between the BsuRI methylase and two other GGCC specific modification enzymes, the BspRI and SPR methylases. Images PMID:2997708

  2. Production of highly charged ion beams Kr32+, Xe44+, Au54+ with Electron String Ion Source (ESIS) Krion-2 and corresponding basic and applied studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donets, D. E.; Donets, E. D.; Donets, E. E.; Salnikov, V. V.; Shutov, V. B.

    2010-09-01

    Electron String Ion Source (ESIS) Krion-2 (JINR, Dubna) was used for basic and applied research in various aspects of multiply charged heavy ions production. Energy recuperation mode in ESIS has been proofed first and used for production of highly charged ions 84Kr28+÷84Kr32+, 124Xe40÷124Xe44 and Au51+÷ Au54+. Krion-2 ESIS was mounted on high voltage (HV) platform of LU-20 Linac and used as an injector of highly charged ions during Nuclotron run N° 41. Krion-2 ESIS has produced 3.0.107 124Xe42+ ions per pulse of 7 μs duration. This ion beam was injected into LU-20 and Nuclotron, accelerated up to energy of 186 GeV and the extracted Xe beam was used for physics experiments. Electron String Ion Source Krion-2 demonstrated the high reliability and stability running during 30 days on HV platform. We believe that it is due to an extremely low electron beam power, provided by using the electron string mode of operation: 50 W pulse power and about 10 W average power. Other possible application of ESIS could be its use in injection complexes of synchrotrons and cyclotrons for cancer therapy. Slow and fast extraction of C4+ and C6+ beams from Krion-2 ESIS were preliminary studied towards ESIS optimization for medical accelerators requirements.

  3. Identification of hairy root loci in the T-regions of Agrobacterium rhizogenes Ri plasmids.

    PubMed

    Boulanger, F; Berkaloff, A; Richaud, F

    1986-07-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes induces root formation at the wound site of inoculation in plants and inserts a fragment of its plasmid (Ri) into the plant nuclear DNA. Parts of the transferred region (T-region) of the Ri plasmid of A. rhizogenes strain A4 or 8196 are cloned in Escherichia coli. Insertions of the E. coli lacZ coding region into the hybrid plasmids were made in vivo using transduction by miniMu. Twenty insertions localized in the TL-DNA of pRiA4 (or pRi1855) and 2 inserts in the T-DNA of pRi8196 were obtained in E. coli. One of the TL-DNA insertions is saved up because it is linked to an internal T-DNA deletion; the others because they confer a lactose plus phenotype on E. coli; this indicates that the T-DNA harbours sequences that are expressed in E. coli. Fifteen of these T-DNA insertions were transfered to Agrobacterium where they substitute the corresponding wild-type T-DNA of the Ri plasmid by homologous recombination. These strains corresponding to insertion-directed mutagenesis were used to inoculate Daucus carota slices and stems and leaves of Kalanchoe daigremontiana. The two insertions strains obtained in the T-DNA of pRi8196 are avirulent on K. daigremontiana; but their phenotypes differ on D. carota slices, suggesting that insertions affect distinct loci on the T-DNA involved in hairy root formation. Only one insertion out of the twenty obtained in the TL-DNA of pRiA4 (or 1855) induces a loss of virulence on leaves of K. daigremontiana. However the TL-DNA deletion harbouring strain induces a loss of virulence on D. carota and K. daigremontiana (stems and leaves), confirming the importance of the TL-DNA for hairy root induction. re]19850711 rv]19851230 ac]19860114. PMID:24307326

  4. Characterization of high quality InN grown on production-style plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy system

    SciTech Connect

    Gherasoiu, I.; O'Steen, M.; Bird, T.; Gotthold, D.; Chandolu, A.; Song, D. Y.; Xu, S. X.; Holtz, M.; Nikishin, S. A.; Schaff, W. J.

    2008-05-15

    In this work, the authors report step-flow growth mode of InN on [0001] oriented GaN templates, using a production-style molecular beam epitaxy system, Veeco GEN200 registered , equipped with a plasma source. Using adaptive growth conditions, they have obtained a surface morphology that exhibits the step-flow features. The root mean squared roughness over an area of 5x5 {mu}m{sup 2} is 1.4 nm with monolayer height terrace steps (0.281 nm), based on atomic force microscopy. It has been found that the presence of In droplets leads to defective surface morphology. From x-ray diffraction, they estimate edge and screw dislocation densities. The former is dominant over the latter. Micro-Raman spectra reveal narrow E{sub 2}{sup 2} phonon lines consistent with excellent crystalline quality of the epitaxial layers. The Hall mobility of 1 {mu}m thick InN layers, grown in step-flow mode, is slightly higher than 1400 cm{sup 2}/V s, while for other growth conditions yielding a smooth surface with no well-defined steps, mobility as high as 1904 cm{sup 2}/V s at room temperature has been measured. The samples exhibit high intensity photoluminescence (PL) with a corresponding band edge that shifts with free carrier concentration. For the lowest carrier concentration of 5.6x10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}, they observe PL emission at {approx}0.64 eV.

  5. Serum IgE clearance is facilitated by human FcεRI internalization

    PubMed Central

    Greer, Alexandra M.; Wu, Nan; Putnam, Amy L.; Woodruff, Prescott G.; Wolters, Paul; Kinet, Jean-Pierre; Shin, Jeoung-Sook

    2014-01-01

    The high-affinity IgE receptor FcεRI is constitutively expressed in mast cells and basophils and is required for transmitting stimulatory signals upon engagement of IgE-bound allergens. FcεRI is also constitutively expressed in dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes in humans; however, the specific functions of the FcεRI expressed by these cells are not completely understood. Here, we found that FcεRI expressed by human blood DC antigen 1–positive (BDCA1+) DCs and monocytes, but not basophils, traffics to endolysosomal compartments under steady-state conditions. Furthermore, IgE bound to FcεRI on BDCA1+ DCs was rapidly endocytosed, transported to the lysosomes, and degraded in vitro. IgE injected into mice expressing human FcεRIα (FCER1A-Tg mice) was endocytosed by conventional DCs and monocytes, and endocytosis was associated with rapid clearance of circulating IgE from these mice. Importantly, this rapid IgE clearance was dependent on monocytes or DCs but not basophils. These findings strongly suggest that constitutive internalization of human FcεRI by DCs and monocytes distinctively contributes to serum IgE clearance. PMID:24569373

  6. Fast, accurate evaluation of exact exchange: The occ-RI-K algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Manzer, Samuel; Horn, Paul R.; Mardirossian, Narbe; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Construction of the exact exchange matrix, K, is typically the rate-determining step in hybrid density functional theory, and therefore, new approaches with increased efficiency are highly desirable. We present a framework with potential for greatly improved efficiency by computing a compressed exchange matrix that yields the exact exchange energy, gradient, and direct inversion of the iterative subspace (DIIS) error vector. The compressed exchange matrix is constructed with one index in the compact molecular orbital basis and the other index in the full atomic orbital basis. To illustrate the advantages, we present a practical algorithm that uses this framework in conjunction with the resolution of the identity (RI) approximation. We demonstrate that convergence using this method, referred to hereafter as occupied orbital RI-K (occ-RI-K), in combination with the DIIS algorithm is well-behaved, that the accuracy of computed energetics is excellent (identical to conventional RI-K), and that significant speedups can be obtained over existing integral-direct and RI-K methods. For a 4400 basis function C68H22 hydrogen-terminated graphene fragment, our algorithm yields a 14 × speedup over the conventional algorithm and a speedup of 3.3 × over RI-K. PMID:26178096

  7. Fast, accurate evaluation of exact exchange: The occ-RI-K algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Manzer, Samuel; Horn, Paul R.; Mardirossian, Narbe; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2015-07-14

    Construction of the exact exchange matrix, K, is typically the rate-determining step in hybrid density functional theory, and therefore, new approaches with increased efficiency are highly desirable. We present a framework with potential for greatly improved efficiency by computing a compressed exchange matrix that yields the exact exchange energy, gradient, and direct inversion of the iterative subspace (DIIS) error vector. The compressed exchange matrix is constructed with one index in the compact molecular orbital basis and the other index in the full atomic orbital basis. To illustrate the advantages, we present a practical algorithm that uses this framework in conjunction with the resolution of the identity (RI) approximation. We demonstrate that convergence using this method, referred to hereafter as occupied orbital RI-K (occ-RI-K), in combination with the DIIS algorithm is well-behaved, that the accuracy of computed energetics is excellent (identical to conventional RI-K), and that significant speedups can be obtained over existing integral-direct and RI-K methods. For a 4400 basis function C{sub 68}H{sub 22} hydrogen-terminated graphene fragment, our algorithm yields a 14 × speedup over the conventional algorithm and a speedup of 3.3 × over RI-K.

  8. Carrier phases for iodine in the Allende meteorite and their associated Xe-129(r)/I-127 ratios - A laser microprobe study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirschbaum, C.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of the carrier phases of iodine in the Allende meteorite and their associated Xe-129(r)/I-127 ratios, obtained using a new high-sensitivity low-blank mass spectrometer coupled with a low-blank laser extraction system. Two types of experiments were performed: a survey of the Xe-129(r) amounts in unirradiated specimens of fine-grained assemblages and individual coarse mineral grains, and a study of the relationship between chlorine and iodine in irradiated samples of the inclusions, in which the Xe-129(r)/I-127 ratios were determined for various minerals. As a by-product of these measurements, the Ar-40/Ar-39 ages were obtained along with some results on trapped Xe components. A schematic diagram of the new mass spectrometer system is included.

  9. Planetary GIS and EuroPlanet-RI H2020

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, A. P.; Cecconi, B.; Manaud, N.; Erard, S.; Marmo, C.

    2015-10-01

    Geographic Information System (GIS) practice and applications within Planetary Science became in the last decade a major component for studying solid surfaces of Solar System bodies [e.g. 1,2,3]: from earlier mainly Mars-focused efforts limited to few datasets, the availability of high-quality spatial data grew enormously and its accessibility is also enhanced by the use of OGC web standards. Higher-level, calibrated georeferenced datasets are the prime target for geologic and related thematic mapping [e.g. 4], although the communities potentially benefiting from a GIS-based approach are beyond and they include most closely Atmospheric science, as well as Magnetospheric and Plasma Physics, to quote only few. In the upcoming EuroPlanet-RI H2020 project Planetary GIS efforts are embedded within the VESPA activity [5] and they allow for a tight integration of OGC and VO-based tools and interfaces [6]. Nowadays GIS-based analyses are used for carrying out research tasks and systematic mapping on planetary bodies, but also for a wide range of analyses related [e.g. 7] to landing site selection, ranging from scientific merit to safety [e.g.8] Community building is a key part of VESPA [5], but also independently followed by other actors like ESA PSA [9]. Recently a workshop on Planetary GIS in broad sense and with particular reference to ESA data archives has been organized [10]. Such workshop has been strongly supported by ESA and the broad planetary community, both directly and through its official channel for Planetary Science archive science access and exploitation-related needs, the PSA User Group [11]. Its outcomes, also in terms of use case development, might be instrumental to VESPA GIS/VO future activities

  10. Production of Secondary Radioactive Beams of He and Li Neutron-Rich Isotopes in the Fragmentation Reaction {sup 15}N(47 MeV/A)+{sup 9}Be

    SciTech Connect

    Milewska, Aleksandra

    2007-11-26

    Yields of neutron-rich isotopes of He and Li produced in the reaction {sup 15}N(47 MeV/A)+{sup 9}Be have been measured. The experiment was carried out at the fragment separator COMBAS of the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR (Dubna). Ion beams accelerated with the U-400M cyclotron and thick target were used. The products were identified according to their magnetic rigidities and time of flight (TOF) via the separator. The path length of TOF was 7,5 m. As a result of fragmentation, beams of four isotopes of Lithium and two isotopes of Helium were obtained. The inclusive velocities of reaction products were obtained and isotopes yields were calculated.

  11. Radiolysis products and sensory properties of electron-beam-irradiated high-barrier food-packaging films containing a buried layer of recycled low-density polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Chytiri, S D; Badeka, A V; Riganakos, K A; Kontominas, M G

    2010-04-01

    The aim was to study the effect of electron-beam irradiation on the production of radiolysis products and sensory changes in experimental high-barrier packaging films composed of polyamide (PA), ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE). Films contained a middle buried layer of recycled LDPE, while films containing 100% virgin LDPE as the middle buried layer were taken as controls. Irradiation doses ranged between zero and 60 kGy. Generally, a large number of radiolysis products were produced during electron-beam irradiation, even at the lower absorbed doses of 5 and 10 kGy (approved doses for food 'cold pasteurization'). The quantity of radiolysis products increased with irradiation dose. There were no significant differences in radiolysis products identified between samples containing a recycled layer of LDPE and those containing virgin LDPE (all absorbed doses), indicating the 'functional barrier' properties of external virgin polymer layers. Sensory properties (mainly taste) of potable water were affected after contact with irradiated as low as 5 kGy packaging films. This effect increased with increasing irradiation dose. PMID:20127544

  12. The presence of elafin, SLPI, IL1-RA and STNFalpha RI in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas and their relation to the degree of tumour differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Westin, U; Nyström, M; Ljungcrantz, I; Eriksson, B; Ohlsson, K

    2002-01-01

    Biopsy samples of head and neck carcinomas were investigated with regard to elafin, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), interleukin 1-receptor antagonist [(IL)1-RA] and soluble tumour necrosis factor alpha receptor antagonist (STNFalpha RI). SLPI and elafin are serine protease inhibitors produced in the serous cells of the upper respiratory airways and in the keratinocytes, respectively. We have now found the presence of elafin and SLPI in squamous cell carcinomas of the upper respiratory tract (tonsillar, hypopharyngeal, tongue, mouth floor, gingival and laryngeal cancer). Significantly higher amounts of SLPI and elafin are present in well-differentiated and moderately differentiated tumours than in poorly differentiated tumours (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0015). Tumour necrosis factor-alpha and IL-1beta have been shown to stimulate the production of SLPI and elafin. Since these cytokines can both be difficult to detect, we chose to study their inhibitors, STNFalpha RI and IL1-RA, instead. IL1-RA was expressed in highly differentiated tumours as well as in poorly differentiated ones. No significant difference was seen between the groups. STNFalpha RI was only found in very small amounts, sparsely distributed in the tumours, and was not related to the degree of differentiation. PMID:11926597

  13. Intense beam production of highly charged heavy ions by the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL (invited)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, H. W.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Guo, X. H.; Cao, Y.; Lu, W.; Zhang, Z. M.; Yuan, P.; Song, M. T.; Zhao, H. Y.; Jin, T.; Shang, Y.; Zhan, W. L.; Wei, B. W.; Xie, D. Z.

    2008-02-01

    There has been increasing demand to provide higher beam intensity and high enough beam energy for heavy ion accelerator and some other applications, which has driven electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source to produce higher charge state ions with higher beam intensity. One of development trends for highly charged ECR ion source is to build new generation ECR sources by utilization of superconducting magnet technology. SECRAL (superconducting ECR ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou) was successfully built to produce intense beams of highly charged ion for Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The ion source has been optimized to be operated at 28GHz for its maximum performance. The superconducting magnet confinement configuration of the ion source consists of three axial solenoid coils and six sextupole coils with a cold iron structure as field booster and clamping. An innovative design of SECRAL is that the three axial solenoid coils are located inside of the sextupole bore in order to reduce the interaction forces between the sextupole coils and the solenoid coils. For 28GHz operation, the magnet assembly can produce peak mirror fields on axis of 3.6T at injection, 2.2T at extraction, and a radial sextupole field of 2.0T at plasma chamber wall. During the commissioning phase at 18GHz with a stainless steel chamber, tests with various gases and some metals have been conducted with microwave power less than 3.5kW by two 18GHz rf generators. It demonstrates the performance is very promising. Some record ion beam intensities have been produced, for instance, 810eμA of O7+, 505eμA of Xe20+, 306eμA of Xe27+, and so on. The effect of the magnetic field configuration on the ion source performance has been studied experimentally. SECRAL has been put into operation to provide highly charged ion beams for HIRFL facility since May 2007.

  14. Intense beam production of highly charged heavy ions by the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Guo, X H; Cao, Y; Lu, W; Zhang, Z M; Yuan, P; Song, M T; Zhao, H Y; Jin, T; Shang, Y; Zhan, W L; Wei, B W; Xie, D Z

    2008-02-01

    There has been increasing demand to provide higher beam intensity and high enough beam energy for heavy ion accelerator and some other applications, which has driven electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source to produce higher charge state ions with higher beam intensity. One of development trends for highly charged ECR ion source is to build new generation ECR sources by utilization of superconducting magnet technology. SECRAL (superconducting ECR ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou) was successfully built to produce intense beams of highly charged ion for Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The ion source has been optimized to be operated at 28 GHz for its maximum performance. The superconducting magnet confinement configuration of the ion source consists of three axial solenoid coils and six sextupole coils with a cold iron structure as field booster and clamping. An innovative design of SECRAL is that the three axial solenoid coils are located inside of the sextupole bore in order to reduce the interaction forces between the sextupole coils and the solenoid coils. For 28 GHz operation, the magnet assembly can produce peak mirror fields on axis of 3.6 T at injection, 2.2 T at extraction, and a radial sextupole field of 2.0 T at plasma chamber wall. During the commissioning phase at 18 GHz with a stainless steel chamber, tests with various gases and some metals have been conducted with microwave power less than 3.5 kW by two 18 GHz rf generators. It demonstrates the performance is very promising. Some record ion beam intensities have been produced, for instance, 810 e microA of O(7+), 505 e microA of Xe(20+), 306 e microA of Xe(27+), and so on. The effect of the magnetic field configuration on the ion source performance has been studied experimentally. SECRAL has been put into operation to provide highly charged ion beams for HIRFL facility since May 2007. PMID:18315105

  15. Endogenous IL-1 in cognitive function and anxiety: a study in IL-1RI-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Murray, Carol L; Obiang, Pauline; Bannerman, David; Cunningham, Colm

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a key pro-inflammatory cytokine, produced predominantly by peripheral immune cells but also by glia and some neuronal populations within the brain. Its signalling is mediated via the binding of IL-1α or IL-1β to the interleukin-1 type one receptor (IL-1RI). IL-1 plays a key role in inflammation-induced sickness behaviour, resulting in depressed locomotor activity, decreased exploration, reduced food and water intake and acute cognitive deficits. Conversely, IL-1 has also been suggested to facilitate hippocampal-dependent learning and memory: IL-1RI(-/-) mice have been reported to show deficits on tasks of visuospatial learning and memory. We sought to investigate whether there is a generalised hippocampal deficit in IL-1RI(-/-) animals. Therefore, in the current study we compared wildtype (WT) mice to IL-1RI(-/-) mice using a variety of hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks, as well as tests of anxiety and locomotor activity. We found no difference in performance of the IL-1RI(-/-) mice compared to WT mice in a T-maze working memory task. In addition, the IL-1RI(-/-) mice showed normal learning in various spatial reference memory tasks including the Y-maze and Morris mater maze, although there was a subtle deficit in choice behaviour in a spatial discrimination, beacon watermaze task. IL-1RI(-/-) mice also showed normal memory for visuospatial context in the contextual fear conditioning paradigm. In the open field, IL-1RI(-/-) mice showed a significant increase in distance travelled and rearing behaviour compared to the WT mice and in the elevated plus-maze spent more time in the open arms than did the WT animals. The data suggest that, contrary to prior studies, IL-1RI(-/-) mice are not robustly impaired on hippocampal-dependent memory and learning but do display open field hyperactivity and decreased anxiety compared to WT mice. The results argue for a careful evaluation of the roles of endogenous IL-1 in hippocampal and limbic

  16. BspRI restriction endonuclease: cloning, expression in Escherichia coli and sequential cleavage mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Raskó, Tamás; Dér, András; Klement, Éva; Ślaska-Kiss, Krystyna; Pósfai, Eszter; Medzihradszky, Katalin F.; Marshak, Daniel R.; Roberts, Richard J.; Kiss, Antal

    2010-01-01

    The GGCC-specific restriction endonuclease BspRI is one of the few Type IIP restriction endonucleases, which were suggested to be a monomer. Amino acid sequence information obtained by Edman sequencing and mass spectrometry analysis was used to clone the gene encoding BspRI. The bspRIR gene is located adjacently to the gene of the cognate modification methyltransferase and encodes a 304 aa protein. Expression of the bspRIR gene in Escherichia coli was dependent on the replacement of the native TTG initiation codon with an ATG codon, explaining previous failures in cloning the gene using functional selection. A plasmid containing a single BspRI recognition site was used to analyze kinetically nicking and second-strand cleavage under steady-state conditions. Cleavage of the supercoiled plasmid went through a relaxed intermediate indicating sequential hydrolysis of the two strands. Results of the kinetic analysis of the first- and second-strand cleavage are consistent with cutting the double-stranded substrate site in two independent binding events. A database search identified eight putative restriction-modification systems in which the predicted endonucleases as well as the methyltransferases share high sequence similarity with the corresponding protein of the BspRI system. BspRI and the related putative restriction endonucleases belong to the PD-(D/E)XK nuclease superfamily. PMID:20587501

  17. The role of FcεRI expressed in dendritic cells and monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Greer, Alexandra M.

    2015-01-01

    Early studies regarding the function of FcεRI in dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes have focused on its role in mediating inflammatory signaling and enhancing T cell immunity. It has been the case in part because FcεRI is the major receptor that mediates allergic inflammatory signaling in mast cells and basophils and because DCs and monocytes are antigen presenting cells capable of activating naϊve and/or effector T cells. These studies have led to the general belief that FcεRI-mediated DC signaling and antigen presentation promote development and activation of Th2 cells and contribute to allergic inflammatory diseases. However, this belief has long suffered from a lack of evidence. Recently, studies have emerged that provide evidence supporting an opposing role: that FcεRI on DCs instead promotes immune homeostasis and regulation. In this review, we will update the current status of our understanding of FcεRI biology and function, with a specific focus on DCs and monocytes. PMID:25715742

  18. A study of the structural activation caused by proton beam loss in the {open_quotes}accelerator production of tritium{close_quotes} LINAC

    SciTech Connect

    Daemen, L.L.; Beard, C.A.; Eaton, S.L.; Waters, L.S.; Wilson, W.B.

    1997-01-01

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory makes use of a high power linear proton accelerator to produce neutrons via spallation reactions m a heavy metal target. The fast spallation neutrons are moderated by a heavy water blanket, and used to produce tritium by means of the reaction: {sup 3}He(n,p)T, APT 1993. Various accelerator designs are currently under consideration. At the time when this study was performed, the project called for a 1 GeV proton linear accelerator with a beam current of 200 mA, i.e., a proton beam power of 200 MW. Given the high power at which the APT accelerator is expected to operate, as well as the heavy maintenance that is likely to be required to keep it operating, it is essential to consider health physics issues at an early stage of the design.

  19. FcεRI-Mediated Mast Cell Migration: Signaling Pathways and Dependence on Cytosolic Free Ca2+ Concentration✩

    PubMed Central

    Jung, In Duk; Lee, Hyun-Sil; Lee, Hoi Young; Choi, Oksoon Hong

    2009-01-01

    IgE-sensitized rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-2H3 mast cells have been shown to migrate towards antigen. In the present study we tried to identify the mechanism by which antigen causes mast cell migration. Antigen caused migration of RBL-2H3 cells at the concentration ranges of 1000-fold lower than those required for degranulation and the dose response was biphasic. This suggests that mast cells can detect very low concentration gradients of antigen (pg/ml ranges), which initiate migration until they degranulate near the origin of antigen, of which concentration is in the ng/ml ranges. Similar phenomenon was observed in human mast cells (HMCs) derived from CD34+ progenitors. As one mechanism of mast cell migration, we tested the involvement of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). FcεRI-mediated cell migration was dependent on the production of S1P but independent of a S1P receptor or its signaling pathways as determined with S1P receptor antagonist VPC23019 and Gi protein inhibitor pertussis toxin (PTX). This indicated that the site of action of S1P produced by antigen stimulation was intracellular. However, S1P-induced mast cell migration was dependent on S1P receptor activation and inhibited by both VPC23019 and PTX. Cell migration towards antigen or extracellular S1P was dependent on the activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, while only migration towards antigen was inhibited by the inhibitors of sphingosine kinase (SK) and phospholipase C (PLC) and intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA. In summary, our data suggest that the high affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI)-mediated mast cell migration is dependent on the production of S1P but independent of S1P receptors. Cell migration mediated by either FcεRI or S1P receptors involves activation of both PI3K and MAPK. PMID:19632319

  20. Particle beam injection system

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, Daniel L.; Kulsrud, Russell M.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a poloidal divertor for stacking counterstreaming ion beams to provide high intensity colliding beams. To this end, method and apparatus are provided that inject high energy, high velocity, ordered, atomic deuterium and tritium beams into a lower energy, toroidal, thermal equilibrium, neutral, target plasma column that is magnetically confined along an endless magnetic axis in a strong restoring force magnetic field having helical field lines to produce counterstreaming deuteron and triton beams that are received bent, stacked and transported along the endless axis, while a poloidal divertor removes thermal ions and electrons all along the axis to increase the density of the counterstreaming ion beams and the reaction products resulting therefrom. By balancing the stacking and removal, colliding, strong focused particle beams, reaction products and reactions are produced that convert one form of energy into another form of energy.

  1. The coherent production of (K+π0) Pairs by K+ beam on copper nuclei in OKA detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtovoy, V. S.

    2015-12-01

    The detection of coherent (K+π0) pairs was made in collisions of K+ beam with copper nuclei in the OKA detector. The number of electromagnetic and strong coherent events and the number of interference events were counted here. The difference between the electromagnetic and strong phases was also measured.

  2. The use of aluminum nitride to improve Aluminum-26 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry measurements and production of Radioactive Ion Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janzen, Meghan S.; Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo; Liu, Yuan; Mills, Gerald D.; Romero-Romero, Elisa; Stracener, Daniel W.

    2015-10-01

    We present results and discuss the use of aluminum nitride as a promising source material for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) science applications of 26Al isotopes. The measurement of 26Al in geological samples by AMS is typically conducted on Al2O3 targets. However, Al2O3 is not an ideal source material because it does not form a prolific beam of Al- required for measuring low-levels of 26Al. Multiple samples of aluminum oxide (Al2O3), aluminum nitride (AlN), mixed Al2O3-AlN as well as aluminum fluoride (AlF3) were tested and compared using the ion source test facility and the stable ion beam (SIB) injector platform at the 25-MV tandem electrostatic accelerator at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Negative ion currents of atomic and molecular aluminum were examined for each source material. It was found that pure AlN targets produced substantially higher beam currents than the other materials and that there was some dependence on the exposure of AlN to air. The applicability of using AlN as a source material for geological samples was explored by preparing quartz samples as Al2O3 and converting them to AlN using a carbothermal reduction technique, which involved reducing the Al2O3 with graphite powder at 1600 °C within a nitrogen atmosphere. The quartz material was successfully converted to AlN. Thus far, AlN proves to be a promising source material and could lead towards increasing the sensitivity of low-level 26Al AMS measurements. The potential of using AlN as a source material for nuclear physics is also very promising by placing 26AlN directly into a source to produce more intense radioactive beams of 26Al.

  3. ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS FROM THE SHOOTS AND ROOTS OF pRi-TRANSFORMED PLANTS OF REHMANNIA GLUTINOSA LIBOSCH.

    PubMed

    Piatczak, Ewelina; Dfbska, Marta; Kontek, Bogdan; Olas, Beata; Wysokinskai, Halina

    2016-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts derived from shoots (HR-shoots) and roots (HR-roots) of pRi-transformed Rehmannia glutinosa plants were determined. The activity was indicated by the ability of the plant extracts to inhibit superoxide anion (O2(-·)) generation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) production in resting blood platelets and platelets activated by thrombin. The strongest activity was exhibited by the HR-shoot extract (50 μg/mL). The present study also examines the antioxidant properties of the plant extracts against human plasma lipid peroxidation induced by strong biological oxidants: hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and H2O2/Fe. The study shows that extracts from transformed R. glutinosa plants may be a promising source of natural antioxidants, which would be valuable in various cardiovascular diseases. The extracts may also protect lipids against oxidative modifications. PMID:27180436

  4. Tespa1 negatively regulates FcεRI-mediated signaling and the mast cell–mediated allergic response

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Mingzhu; Qiu, Yuanjun; Guo, Chuansheng; Ji, Jian; Lei, Lei; Zhang, Xue; Liang, Jingjing; Lou, Jun; Huang, Wei; Dong, Bowen; Wu, Songquan; Wang, Jianli; Ke, Yuehai; Cao, Xuetao; Zhou, Yi Ting

    2014-01-01

    Antigen-mediated cross-linking of IgE on mast cells triggers a signaling cascade that results in their degranulation and proinflammatory cytokine production, which are key effectors in allergic reactions. We show that the activation of mast cells is negatively regulated by the newly identified adaptor protein Tespa1. Loss of Tespa1 in mouse mast cells led to hyper-responsiveness to stimulation via FcεRI. Mice lacking Tespa1 also displayed increased sensitivity to IgE-mediated allergic responses. The dysregulated signaling in KO mast cells was associated with increased activation of Grb2-PLC-γ1-SLP-76 signaling within the LAT1 (linker for activation of T cells family, member 1) signalosome versus the LAT2 signalosome. Collectively, these findings show that Tespa1 orchestrates mast cell activation by tuning the balance of LAT1 and LAT2 signalosome assembly. PMID:25422497

  5. Nanodomains in Early and Later Phases of FcεRI Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Holowka, David; Baird, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Our long term efforts to elucidate receptor-mediated signaling in immune cells, particularly transmembrane signaling initiated by the receptor (FcεRI) for immunoglobulin E (IgE) in mast cells, led us unavoidably to contemplate the role of the heterogeneous plasma membrane. Our early investigations with fluorescence microscopy revealed co-redistribution of certain lipids and signaling components with antigen-crosslinked IgE-FcεRI and pointed to participation of ordered membrane domains in the signaling process. With a focus on this function, we have worked along with others to develop diverse and increasingly sophisticated tools to analyze the complexity of membrane structure that facilitates regulation and targeting of signaling events. This essay describes how initial membrane interactions of clustered IgE-FcεRI lead to downstream cellular responses and how biochemical information integrated with nanoscale resolution spectroscopy and imaging is providing mechanistic insights at the level of molecular complexes. PMID:25658351

  6. Connectivities Ri of Fréchet Spaces in Variational Topology

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Marston

    1975-01-01

    A global study of geodesics, joining points A1 [unk] A2 on a Riemannian manifold Nn, is oriented by the answers given to two questions. How does the concept of a nondegenerate geodesic enter, and what topological invariants best condition the geodesics joining A1 to A2? We answer the first question by defining and exploiting nondegenerate point pairs A1 [unk] A2 on Nn. The connectivities Ri of Mn used in ordinary critical point theory should be replaced by the connectivities Ri of the pathwise components of the Fréchet metric space [unk]A1A2 defined in this paper. These components are homeomorphic. Their connectivities Ri condition the geodesics joining A1 to A2 on Nn in a way to be disclosed. Detailed proofs are found in the references listed, or will be presented later. PMID:16592246

  7. Schedule Optimization Study, Hanford RI/FS Program. Volume 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    A Schedule Optimization Study (SOS) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Program was conducted by an independent team of professionals from other federal agencies and the private sector experienced in environmental restoration. This team spent two weeks at Hanford in September 1992 examining the reasons for the lengthy RI/FS process at Hanford and developing recommendations to expedite the process. The need for the study arose out of a schedule dispute regarding the submission of the 1100-EM-1 Operable Unit RI/FS Work Plan. This report documents the study called for in the August 29, 1991, Dispute Resolution Committee Decision Statement. Battelle`s Environmental Management Operations (EMO) coordinated the effort for DOE`s Richland Field Office (RL).

  8. Routine {sup 18}F{sup -} production with 180 {mu}A to 200 {mu}A target beam current on a GE PETtrace 800 cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Eberl, S.; Eriksson, T.; Svedberg, O.; Norling, J.; Henderson, D.; Lam, P.; Bourdier, T.; Fulham, M.

    2012-12-19

    Through upgrades and enhancements, which are now standard on current PETtrace 800 cyclotrons, a GE PETtrace cyclotron installed in 2002 has demonstrated reliable routine [{sup 18}F]FDG production at total target beam currents of 180 {mu}A without detriment to saturation and [{sup 18}F]FDG yields. Routine production at 200 {mu}A has been achieved and its evaluation is continuing. Self-shielded target using W/Cu alloy for the target body afforded a reduction in dose rate from the Havar foils by a factor of {approx} 8-10, reducing dose from the targets and need for removing targets during maintenance. The main activation product in the shield is {sup 187}W (T1/2 24 h). The {sup 60}Co ((T1/2 5.3 y) activation is about 250 times less at 24 h post EOB and is not considered a major issue despite its long half-life.

  9. Identified particle production and freeze-out properties in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC Beam Energy Scan program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sabita

    2015-03-01

    The first phase of Beam Energy Scan (BES) program at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) was started in the year 2010 with the aim to study the several aspects of the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) phase diagram. The Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC (STAR) detector has taken data at √sNN = 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, and 39 GeV in Au+Au collisions in the years 2010 and 2011 as part of the BES programme. For these beam energies, we present the results on the particle yields, average transverse mass and particle ratios for identified particles in mid-rapidity (|y| < 0.1). The measured particle ratios have been used to study the chemical freezeout dynamics within the framework of a statistical model.

  10. Study of device mass production capability of the character projection based electron beam direct writing process technology toward 14 nm node and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Yasushi; Takakuwa, Masaki; Ohshio, Shuzo; Sugatani, Shinji; Tujimura, Ryo; Takita, Hiroshi; Ogino, Kozo; Hoshino, Hiromi; Ito, Yoshio; Miyajima, Masaaki; Kon, Jun-ichi

    2012-03-01

    Techniques to appropriately control the key factors for a character projection (CP) based electron beam direct writing (EBDW) technology for mass production are shown and discussed. In order to achieve accurate CD control, the CP technique using the master CP is adopted. Another CP technique, the Packed CP, is used to obtain suitable shot count. For the alignment on the some critical layers which have the normally an even surface, the alignment methodology differ from photolithography is required. The process that etches the SiO2 material in the shallow trench isolation is added and then the alignment marks can be detected using electron beam even at the gate layer, which is normally on an even surface. The proximity effect correction using the simplified electron energy flux model and the hybrid exposure are used to obtain enough process margins. As a result, the sufficient CD accuracy, overlay accuracy, and yield are obtained on the 65 nm node device. The condition in our system is checked using self-diagnosis on a regular basis, and scheduled maintenances have been properly performed. Due to the proper system control, more than 10,000 production wafers have been successfully exposed so far without any major system downtime. It is shown that those techniques can be adapted to the 32 nm node production with slight modifications. For the 14 nm node and beyond, however, the drastic increment of the shot count becomes more of a concern. The Multi column cell (MCC) exposure method, the key concept of which is the parallelization of the electron beam columns with a CP, can overcome this concern. It is expected that by using the MCC exposure system, those techniques will be applicable to the rapid establishment for the 14 nm node technology.

  11. RFI/RI work plan for the Road A Chemical Basin 904-111G

    SciTech Connect

    Kmetz, T.F.

    2000-03-07

    This Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI)/Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plan has been prepared for the Road A Chemical Basin Operable Unit (RdACB OU) (904-111G). This unit is subject to the requirements of both RCRA and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). This Work Plan presents the initial evaluation of existing unit data, applicable background data, the regulatory framework for the unit investigation, and the evaluations and decisions made during the determination of the scope and objectives of the planned Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities.

  12. BV RI CCD photometry of 361,281 objects in the field of M 31

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magnier, E. A.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Van Paradijs, J.; Hasinger, G.; Jain, A.; Pietsch, W.; Truemper, J.

    1992-01-01

    Deep BV RI CCD photometry was performed on a 1 sq deg region of M 31. A catalog of photometry and astrometry of a total of 361,281 stars is presented, with typical completion limits of BV RI = (22.3, 22.2, 22.2, 20.9). Photometric accuracy is about 2 percent at V = 19. This catalog allows detailed studies of stellar populations and reddening. The data are currently being used to assist in finding the optical counterparts of Einstein and ROSAT X-ray sources.

  13. Evaluation of some selected vaccines and other biological products irradiated by gamma rays, electron beams and X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, J. C.; Rey, L.; Lee, Chi-Jen

    2002-03-01

    Molecular sizing potency results are presented for irradiated samples of one lot of Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine, pneumococcal polysaccharide type 6B and typhoid vi polysaccharide vaccine. The samples were irradiated (25 kGy) by gamma rays, electron beams and X-rays. IgG and IgM antibody response in mice test results (ELISA) are given for the Hib conjugate vaccine irradiated at 0°C or frozen in liquid nitrogen.

  14. DoRiNA 2.0--upgrading the doRiNA database of RNA interactions in post-transcriptional regulation.

    PubMed

    Blin, Kai; Dieterich, Christoph; Wurmus, Ricardo; Rajewsky, Nikolaus; Landthaler, Markus; Akalin, Altuna

    2015-01-01

    The expression of almost all genes in animals is subject to post-transcriptional regulation by RNA binding proteins (RBPs) and microRNAs (miRNAs). The interactions between both RBPs and miRNAs with mRNA can be mapped on a whole-transcriptome level using experimental and computational techniques established in the past years. The combined action of RBPs and miRNAs is thought to form a post-transcriptional regulatory code. Here we present doRiNA 2.0, available at http://dorina.mdc-berlin.de. In this highly improved new version, we have completely reworked the user interface and expanded the database to improve the usability of the website. Taking into account user feedback over the past years, the input forms for both the simple and the combinatorial search function have been streamlined and combined into a single web page that will also display the search results. Especially, custom uploads is one of the key new features in doRiNA 2.0. To enable the inclusion of doRiNA into third-party analysis pipelines, all operations are accessible via a REST API. Alternatively, local installations can be queried using a Python API. Both the web application and the APIs are available under an OSI-approved Open Source license that allows research and commercial access and re-use. PMID:25416797

  15. DoRiNA 2.0—upgrading the doRiNA database of RNA interactions in post-transcriptional regulation

    PubMed Central

    Blin, Kai; Dieterich, Christoph; Wurmus, Ricardo; Rajewsky, Nikolaus; Landthaler, Markus; Akalin, Altuna

    2015-01-01

    The expression of almost all genes in animals is subject to post-transcriptional regulation by RNA binding proteins (RBPs) and microRNAs (miRNAs). The interactions between both RBPs and miRNAs with mRNA can be mapped on a whole-transcriptome level using experimental and computational techniques established in the past years. The combined action of RBPs and miRNAs is thought to form a post-transcriptional regulatory code. Here we present doRiNA 2.0, available at http://dorina.mdc-berlin.de. In this highly improved new version, we have completely reworked the user interface and expanded the database to improve the usability of the website. Taking into account user feedback over the past years, the input forms for both the simple and the combinatorial search function have been streamlined and combined into a single web page that will also display the search results. Especially, custom uploads is one of the key new features in doRiNA 2.0. To enable the inclusion of doRiNA into third-party analysis pipelines, all operations are accessible via a REST API. Alternatively, local installations can be queried using a Python API. Both the web application and the APIs are available under an OSI-approved Open Source license that allows research and commercial access and re-use. PMID:25416797

  16. Study of pion photo-production using a TPC detector to determine beam asymmetries from polarized HD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kizilgul, Serdar A.

    The Laser Electron Gamma Source facility (LEGS) provides intense, polarized, tagged gamma-ray beams by Compton backscattering laser light from relativistic electrons circulating in the X-Ray storage ring of the NSLS at BNL, Upton, NY. A series of double-polarization experiments (beam and target) has been completed to study the helicity structure of the nucleon. Neutral-pion measurements were completed in 2005 by using the Spin ASYmmetry detector system (SASY) which covers a large solid angle and allows for detection of a large range of neutral pions. Charged-pion experiments were completed in 2006. This new experiment yields data on the beam asymmetry Sigma for a polarized Hydrogen Deuterium (HD) target from the 2006 data. A Time Projection Chamber (TPC), surrounded by two-Tesla magnet, was built and incorporated into SASY to identify the pion charge and so separate neutron and proton reactions. The TPC provides snap-shots of ionizing tracks of particles produced by 300-422 MeV polarized photons on a polarized HD target. A polarized HD target was developed and used in these experiments.

  17. Degradation profile and identification of the major degradation products of dobupride under several conditions by GC/MS and HPLC-particle beam/MS.

    PubMed

    Segarra, V; Carrera, F; Fabregas, J L; Claramunt, J

    1995-07-01

    The effect of pH, light, temperature and oxygen on the stability of dobupride (1), a novel gastroprokinetic drug, has been studied, storing the sample in the solid state and as a solution in methanol-water. The main forced degradation products have been identified by means of techniques such as GC/MS and HPLC-particle beam/MS, and two major degradation pathways have been characterized. One degradation route involves the loss of chlorine, yielding 4-amino-2-butoxy-N-[1-(1,3-dioxolan-2-ylmethyl)piperid -4-yl]benzamide (4) as the major degradation product. The second pathway results from cleavage of the piperidine-amide bond, producing 4-amino-2-butoxy-5-chlorobenzamide (2) as the major degradation product. Under the studied conditions, except when exposed to direct light in solution, dobupride has been shown to be very stable: after 5 months storage, the benzamide 2 (second pathway) was the only product identified (less than 0.5%). However, when dobupride in solution is exposed to natural or artificial sunlight, degradation is very fast, and after 7 days only 5% of the unchanged product remains. Under these circumstances, the main degradation route is the first one, with compound 4 being the most abundant degradation product, and compound 2 only being detectable in small amounts. PMID:8580158

  18. Beam-foil spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, H.G.; Hass, M.

    1982-01-01

    A brief survey of some applications of beam-foil spectroscopy is presented. Among the topics covered are lifetime and magnetic moment measurements, nuclear alignment, and polarized light production. (AIP)

  19. 76 FR 22938 - Submission for Review: RI 25-37, Evidence To Prove Dependency of a Child

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: RI 25-37, Evidence To Prove Dependency of a Child AGENCY: U.S. Office of... to comment on a revised information collection request (ICR) 3206-0206, Evidence to Prove Dependency....Benson@opm.gov or faxed to (202) 606-0910. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: RI 25-37, Evidence to...

  20. 76 FR 29805 - Submission for Review: Verification of Full-Time School Attendance, RI 25-49

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Verification of Full-Time School Attendance, RI 25-49 AGENCY: U.S. Office... opportunity to comment on a revised information collection request (ICR) 3206-0215, Verification of Full-Time...@opm.gov or faxed to (202) 606-0910. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: RI 25-49, Verification of...

  1. 33 CFR 167.102 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. 167.102 Section 167.102 Navigation and....102 In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. (a)...

  2. 33 CFR 167.102 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. 167.102 Section 167.102 Navigation and....102 In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. (a)...

  3. 33 CFR 167.103 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. 167.103 Section 167.103 Navigation and Navigable... the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. (a) A...

  4. 33 CFR 167.102 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. 167.102 Section 167.102 Navigation and....102 In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. (a)...

  5. 33 CFR 167.103 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. 167.103 Section 167.103 Navigation and Navigable... the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. (a) A...

  6. 33 CFR 167.101 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Precautionary areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Precautionary areas. 167.101 Section 167.101 Navigation and Navigable... the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Precautionary areas. (a) A...

  7. 33 CFR 167.101 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Precautionary areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Precautionary areas. 167.101 Section 167.101 Navigation and Navigable... the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Precautionary areas. (a) A...

  8. 33 CFR 167.102 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. 167.102 Section 167.102 Navigation and....102 In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. (a)...

  9. 33 CFR 167.101 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Precautionary areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Precautionary areas. 167.101 Section 167.101 Navigation and Navigable... the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Precautionary areas. (a) A...

  10. 33 CFR 167.103 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. 167.103 Section 167.103 Navigation and Navigable... the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. (a) A...

  11. 33 CFR 167.101 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Precautionary areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Precautionary areas. 167.101 Section 167.101 Navigation and Navigable... the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Precautionary areas. (a) A...

  12. 33 CFR 167.103 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. 167.103 Section 167.103 Navigation and Navigable... the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. (a) A...

  13. 78 FR 55121 - Submission for Review: Self-Certification of Full-Time School Attendance for the School Year, RI...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Self-Certification of Full-Time School Attendance for the School Year, RI 25-14 and Information; and Instructions for Completing the Self-Certification of Full-Time School Attendance for the School Year, RI 25-14A AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: 60-Day...

  14. Quantitative analysis and QTL mapping for agronomic and fiber traits in an RI population of Upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this present study, we evaluated a RI population including 188 RI lines developed from 94 F2-derived families and their two parental lines, ‘HS 46’ and MARCABUCAG8US-1-88 (Gossypium hirsutum L.), at Mississippi State, MS, for two years. Fourteen agronomic and fiber traits were measured. One hundr...

  15. 77 FR 71200 - Submission for Review: 3206-0140, Representative Payee Application (RI 20-7) and Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ... Necessary for a Competency Determination (RI 30-3) AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: 60... Necessary for a Competency Determination (RI 30-3). As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub... for a Competency Determination, collects medical information regarding the annuitant's competency...

  16. 78 FR 28007 - Submission for Review: Representative Payee Application (RI 20-7) and Information Necessary for a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... November 29, 2012 at Volume 77 FR 71200 allowing for a 60-day public comment period. No comments were... Competency Determination (RI 30-3) AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: 30-Day Notice and... Competency Determination (RI 30-3). As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13, 44...

  17. 78 FR 52580 - Submission for Review: Request for Case Review for Enhanced Disability Annuity Benefit, RI 20-123

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Request for Case Review for Enhanced Disability Annuity Benefit, RI 20-123...-123. As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C. chapter 35) as... email to Cyrus.Benson@opm.gov or faxed to (202) 606- 0910. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: RI 20-123...

  18. The European Sea Level Service (ESEAS) and the ESEAS Research Infrastructure (ESEAS-RI) project: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plag, H.-P.

    2003-04-01

    This abstract describes work carried out by the ESEAS and ESEAS-RI teams (to be found at http://www.eseas.org). The ESEAS started its work in June 2001 and has the major objective to provide sea-level and sea-level related information for the European waters to scientific and non-scientific users both from inside and outside Europe. The ESEAS aims to achieve this goal in cooperation with other relevant orgaanisations such as the PSMSL, EuroGOOS, GLOSS, EUREF and IGS. The ESEAS strives to guarantee and co-ordinate the long-term monitoring activities and data exchange along the entire European coastline. This includes, among others, tasks like setting up standards for observations and data processing, quality control of the large European database of hourly sea level data, upgrading of the ESEAS Observing Sites, collocation of tide gauges with CGPS, and provision of derived products such as secular trends and estimates of extremes. The EU-funded ESEAS-RI project started on 1 November 2002 with 25 institutions from 17 countries included. The project will run over three years and provides substantial resources for improving the observational network as well as the tools for exploitation of the data. In particular, Work Package (WP) 1 (Quality Control of Sea Level Observations) will make available a quality-controlled data set of hourly tide gauge from most ESEAS Observing sites. WP2 (Absolute sea level variations) will concentrate on the determination of vertical crustal motion at the ESEAS Observing sites. WP3 (Decadal to inter-decadal sea level variations) will produce as main result an empirical model of the sea level variations in the Eurepean Seas for the last hundred years. Finally, in the frame of WP4 (Improving the sea level observing system), a number of ESEAS Observing Sites will be upgraded and/or augmented with CGPS.

  19. Final product analysis in the e-beam and gamma radiolysis of aqueous solutions of metoprolol tartrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slegers, Catherine; Tilquin, Bernard

    2006-09-01

    The radiostability of metoprolol tartrate aqueous solutions and the influence of the absorbed dose (0-50 kGy), dose rate (e-beam (EB) vs. gamma ( γ)) and radioprotectors (pharmaceutical excipients) are investigated by HPLC-UV analyses and through computer simulations. The use of radioprotecting excipients is more promising than an increase in the dose rate to lower the degradation of metoprolol tartrate aqueous solutions for applications such as radiosterilization. The decontamination of metoprolol tartrate from waste waters by EB processing appears highly feasible.

  20. Towards tabletop production of intense quasimonochromatic X-ray beams using small 2-20 MeV accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avakian, Robert O.; Ispirian, Karo A.

    2005-08-01

    The existing synchrotron radiation sources and the fourth generation x-ray sources, which are projected at SLAC, USA, and DESY, Germany, are very expensive. For this reason the search for the novel and cheaper sources using various types of radiation produced by 2-20 MeV electrons available at many hospitals, universities and firms in various countries is of great interest. A review of the physics, history, new theoretical and experimental results and of some applications is given with a purpose to consider the possibilities of construction of small tabletop sources of quasimonochromatic X-ray photon beams necessary for scientific, industrial, medicine and other applications.

  1. 77 FR 49028 - Submission for Review: Notice of Change in Student's Status, RI25-15

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Notice of Change in Student's Status, RI25-15 AGENCY: U.S. Office of... to comment on a revised information collection request (ICR) 3206-0042, Notice of Change in Student's... proposed collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of functions of the...

  2. 78 FR 4172 - Submission for Review: RI 25-15, Notice of Change in Student's Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... information collection was previously published in the Federal Register on August 15, 2012 at Volume 77 FR... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: RI 25-15, Notice of Change in Student's Status AGENCY: U.S. Office of... to comment on a revised information collection request (ICR) 3206-0042, Notice of Change in...

  3. 33 CFR 100.112 - Swim the Bay, Narragansett Bay, Narragansett, RI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Swim the Bay, Narragansett Bay, Narragansett, RI. 100.112 Section 100.112 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.112 Swim the...

  4. 33 CFR 100.119 - Newport-Bermuda Regatta, Narragansett Bay, Newport, RI

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Newport-Bermuda Regatta, Narragansett Bay, Newport, RI 100.119 Section 100.119 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.119...

  5. 33 CFR 100.112 - Swim the Bay, Narragansett Bay, Narragansett, RI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Swim the Bay, Narragansett Bay, Narragansett, RI. 100.112 Section 100.112 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.112 Swim the...

  6. 33 CFR 100.119 - Newport-Bermuda Regatta, Narragansett Bay, Newport, RI

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Newport-Bermuda Regatta, Narragansett Bay, Newport, RI 100.119 Section 100.119 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.119...

  7. 33 CFR 100.119 - Newport-Bermuda Regatta, Narragansett Bay, Newport, RI

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Newport-Bermuda Regatta, Narragansett Bay, Newport, RI 100.119 Section 100.119 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.119...

  8. Instantánea del cáncer de riñón

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de riñón; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  9. 76 FR 32997 - Submission for Review: RI 20-120, Request for Change to Unreduced Annuity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... responses. DATES: Comments are encouraged and will be accepted until August 8, 2011. This process is...., Room 4332, Washington, DC 20415, Attention: Cyrus S. Benson, or sent via electronic mail to Cyrus.Benson@opm.gov or faxed to (202) 606-0910. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: RI 20-120 is designed to...

  10. Measuring and Monitoring in the South African "Kha Ri Gude" Mass Literacy Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    After many previous failed attempts to reach illiterate adults, the award-winning South African "Kha Ri Gude" mass literacy campaign, launched in 2008, undertook to ensure that learners seized the opportunity to learn--for many adults, this was a "last chance". Written from an insider perspective by the campaign's founding…

  11. 33 CFR 80.145 - Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI. 80.145 Section 80.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.145 Race Point, MA, to Watch...

  12. 33 CFR 80.145 - Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI. 80.145 Section 80.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.145 Race Point, MA, to Watch...

  13. 33 CFR 80.145 - Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI. 80.145 Section 80.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.145 Race Point, MA, to Watch...

  14. 33 CFR 80.145 - Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI. 80.145 Section 80.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.145 Race Point, MA, to Watch...

  15. 33 CFR 80.145 - Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI. 80.145 Section 80.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.145 Race Point, MA, to Watch...

  16. 77 FR 27115 - Newport to Bermuda Regatta, Narragansett Bay, Newport, RI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 Newport to Bermuda Regatta, Narragansett Bay, Newport, RI AGENCY... Special Local Regulation for the biennial Newport to Bermuda Regatta, Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, from... Guard will enforce the special local regulation for the biennial Newport/Bermuda Regatta,...

  17. Cáncer de riñón—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de riñón, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  18. 76 FR 36582 - Submission for Review: Disabled Dependent Questionnaire, RI 30-10

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... collection was previously published in the Federal Register on April 5, 2011 at Volume 76 FR 18812 allowing... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Disabled Dependent Questionnaire, RI 30-10 AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel... on an existing information collection request (ICR) 3206-0179, Disabled Dependent Questionnaire....

  19. Assessing the Kha Ri Gude Mass Literacy Campaign: A Developmental Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romm, Norma R. A.; Dichaba, Mpho M.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we explicate our way of assessing the South African Kha Ri Gude Mass Literacy Campaign, and in particular its impact in the Eastern Cape. We provide an account primarily of focus group sessions conducted in 2013 and again in 2014 with volunteer educators and past learners in the campaign. We concentrate on the way in which…

  20. 76 FR 15350 - Submission for Review: Representative Payee Survey, RI 38-115

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Representative Payee Survey, RI 38-115 AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel... Personnel Management (OPM) offers the general public and other Federal agencies the opportunity to comment... information collection to U.S. Office of Personnel Management, Linda Bradford (Acting), Deputy...

  1. 77 FR 20330 - Disestablishment of Restricted Area; Rhode Island Sound off Newport, RI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... Sound off Newport, RI AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The U.S... located in the waters of Rhode Island Sound, 4 nautical miles due south of Lands End in Newport, Rhode... area in Rhode Island Sound, 4 nautical miles due south of Lands End in Newport, Rhode Island....

  2. 76 FR 15246 - Anchorage Regulations; Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound, RI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public... Sound, RI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard... an offshore anchorage in Rhode Island Sound south of Brenton Point, Rhode Island, for use by...

  3. 77 FR 43514 - Anchorage Regulations; Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound, RI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... Port. (3) If a request is made for the long-term lay up of a vessel, the Captain of the Port may... Rhode Island Sound, RI,'' in the Federal Register (76 FR 15246). We received nine comments on the... on the proposed rule. One letter, from the Office of Environmental Policy and Compliance,...

  4. 75 FR 47881 - Noise Exposure Map Notice, T.F.Green Airport, Warwick, RI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice, T.F.Green Airport, Warwick, RI AGENCY: Federal... its determination that the noise exposure maps for T.F.Green Airport as submitted by the Rhode Island... INFORMATION: This notice announces that the FAA finds that the noise exposure maps submitted for...

  5. 77 FR 49029 - Submission for Review: Annuity Supplement Earnings Report, RI 92-22

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Annuity Supplement Earnings Report, RI 92- 22 AGENCY: U.S. Office of... to comment on an existing information collection request (ICR) 3206-0194, Annuity Supplement Earnings... 92-22, Annuity Supplement Earnings Report, is used each year to obtain the earned income of...

  6. 77 FR 28253 - Safety Zone; America's Cup World Series, East Passage, Narragansett Bay, RI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... Series, East Passage, Narragansett Bay, RI'' in the Federal Register (77 FR 7025). We received one... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; America's Cup World Series, East Passage... the America's Cup World Series (ACWS) sailing vessel racing event. DATES: This rule is effective...

  7. 77 FR 39395 - Special Local Regulations; Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012, Narragansett Bay, RI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ...-366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms COTP Captain Of The Port DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register LLNR Light List Number NEPA National Environmental Policy Act NPRM... Festival 2012, Narragansett Bay, RI'' in the Federal Register (77 FR 16974). We received no comments on...

  8. 76 FR 34108 - Submission for Review: Representative Payee Survey (RI 38-115)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Representative Payee Survey (RI 38-115) AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel... Personnel Management (OPM) offers the general public and other federal agencies the opportunity to comment..., NW., Washington, DC 20503, Attention: Desk Officer for the Office of Personnel Management or sent...

  9. 76 FR 34108 - Submission for Review: Alternative Annuity Election (RI 20-80)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Alternative Annuity Election (RI 20-80) AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel... Personnel Management (OPM) offers the general public and other federal agencies the opportunity to comment... information collection to U.S. Office of Personnel Management, Linda Bradford (Acting) Deputy...

  10. Dual-wavelength Digital Holography for quantification of cell volume and integral refractive index (RI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boss, Daniel; Kuehn, Jonas; Depeursinge, Christian; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Marquet, Pierre

    2011-07-01

    Quantitative Phase Imaging techniques such as DHM have emerged recently in life sciences and can be aimed at monitoring and quantifying non-invasively dynamic cellular processes modifying cell morphology and/or content. Concretely, the DHM phase signal depends on two cell parameters: cell thickness and integral refractive index. Consequently, due to its dual origin, the interpretation of the phase signal variations remain difficult. Since a net water flux across the cell membrane causes a variation of both parameters, the phase signal cannot be related directly to cellular RI or thickness variations, but must be understood as a coupled signal of these two parameters. We have developped a Dual-wavelength Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) setup to separately measure in a single shot fashion cellular thickness and integral RI of living cells. The method is based on the use of an absorbing dye that causes a high RI dispersion in the extracellular medium at the two recording wavelength. Consequently, the phase signals measured at the two wavelengths, differ significantly from each other. Practically, both cell RI and thickness can be univocally determined from the two phase measurements. Important biophysical parameters of living cells, including dry mass concentrations and water membrane permeability can be deduced.

  11. Soft Fusion Energy Path: Isotope Production in Energy Subcritical/Economy Hypercritical D +D Colliding-Beam Mini Fusion Reactor `Exyder'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hester, Tim; Maglich, Bogdan; Calsec Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Bethe1 and Sakharov2 argued for soft fusion energy path via isotope production, substantiated by Manheimer3. - Copious T and 3He production4 , 5 from D(d, p) T and D(d, n) 3He reactions in 725 KeV D +D colliding beams was measured in weak-focusing Self-Collider6 , 7 radius 0.15 m, in B = 3.12 T, non-linearly stabilized by electron cloud oscillations8 to confinement time = 24 s. Simulations6 predict that by switching to strong focusing9, 10 deuterons 0.75 MeV each, generate 1 3He +1T +1p + 1n at total input energy cost 10.72 MeV. Economic value of T and 3He is 65 and 120 MeV/atom, respectively. We obtain economic gain 205MeV/10.72 MeV ~ 2,000% i.e. 3He production funds cost of T. If first wall is made of Thorium n's will breed 233U releasing 200 MeV/fission, at neutron cost 5.36 MeV versus 160 MeV in beam on target, resulting in no cost 3He production, valued 75K/g. 1. Physics Today, May 1979, p.44; 2. Memoirs, Vintage Books, (1992); 3. Phys. Today, May 2012 p. 12; 4. Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 796 (1985); 5. Bull. APS, 57, No. 3 (2012); 6. Part. Acc.1, (1970); 7. ANEUTRONIC FUSION NIM A 271 1-167 (1988); 8. Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1818 (1993); 9. Part. Acc. 34, 13 (1990).

  12. High intensity muon beam source for neutrino beam experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal Sayed, Hisham

    2015-09-01

    High intensity muon beams are essential for Muon accelerators like Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders. In this study we report on a global optimization of the muon beam production and capture based on end-to-end simulations of the Muon Front End. The study includes the pion beam production target geometry, capture field profile, and forming muon beam into microbunches for further acceleration. The interplay between the transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics during the capture and transport of muon beam is evaluated and discussed. The goal of the optimization is to provide a set of design parameters that delivers high intensity muon beam that could be fit within the acceptance of a muon beam accelerator.

  13. Design of a secondary ionization target for direct production of a C− beam from CO2 pulses for online AMS

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Gary; Ognibene, Ted

    2014-01-01

    We designed and optimized a novel device “target” that directs a CO2 gas pulse onto a Ti surface where a Cs+ beam generates C− from the CO2. This secondary ionization target enables an accelerator mass spectrometer to ionize pulses of CO2 in the negative mode to measure 14C/12C isotopic ratios in real time. The design of the targets were based on computational flow dynamics, ionization mechanism and empirical optimization. As part of the ionization mechanism, the adsorption of CO2 on the Ti surface was fitted with the Jovanovic–Freundlich isotherm model using empirical and simulation data. The inferred adsorption constants were in good agreement with other works. The empirical optimization showed that amount of injected carbon and the flow speed of the helium carrier gas improve the ionization efficiency and the amount of 12C− produced until reaching a saturation point. Linear dynamic range between 150 and 1000 ng of C and optimum carrier gas flow speed of around 0.1 mL/min were shown. It was also shown that the ionization depends on the area of the Ti surface and Cs+ beam cross-section. A range of ionization efficiency of 1–2.5% was obtained by optimizing the described parameters. PMID:24860204

  14. Ion beam thruster shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Power, J. L. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An ion thruster beam shield is provided that comprises a cylindrical housing that extends downstream from the ion thruster and a plurality of annular vanes which are spaced along the length of the housing, and extend inwardly from the interior wall of the housing. The shield intercepts and stops all charge exchange and beam ions, neutral propellant, and sputter products formed due to the interaction of beam and shield emanating from the ion thruster outside of a fixed conical angle from the thruster axis. Further, the shield prevents the sputter products formed during the operation of the engine from escaping the interior volume of the shield.

  15. THE FIRST TRANSMEMBRANE REGION OF THE BETA CHAIN STABILIZES THE TETRAMERIC FcεRI COMPLEX

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, Theresa E.; Platzer, Barbara; Dehlink, Eleonora; Fiebiger, Edda

    2009-01-01

    The family of activating immune receptors stabilizes via the 3-helix assembly principle. A charged basic transmembrane residue interacts with two charged acidic transmembrane residues and forms a 3-helix interface to stabilize receptor complexes in the lipid bilayer. One family member, the high affinity receptor for IgE, FcεRI, is a key regulator of immediate allergic responses. Tetrameric FcεRI consists of the IgE-binding α-chain, the multimembrane spanning β-chain and a dimer of the γ-subunit (FcεRγ). Comparative analysis of these seven transmembrane regions indicates that FcεRI does not meet the charge requirements for the 3-helix assembly mechanism. We performed alanine mutagenesis to show that the only basic amino acid in the transmembrane regions, βK97, is not involved in FcεRI stabilization or surface up-regulation, a hallmark function of the β-chain. Even a βK97E mutant is functional despite four negatively charged acidic amino acids in the transmembrane regions. Using truncation mutants, we demonstrate that the first uncharged transmembrane domain of the β-chain contains the interface for receptor stabilization. In vitro translation experiments depict the first transmembrane region as the internal signal peptide of the β-chain. We also show that this β-chain domain can function as a cleavable signal peptide when used as a leader peptide for a Type I protein. Our results provide evidence that tetrameric FcεRI does not assemble according to the 3-helix assembly principle. We conclude that receptors formed with multispanning proteins use different mechanisms of shielding transmembrane charged amino acids. PMID:19406478

  16. Measurements of yields of fission products in the reaction of {sup 238}U with high-energy p, d and n beams

    SciTech Connect

    Nolen, J.A.; Ahmad, I.; Back, B.B.

    1995-08-01

    An experiment was performed at the Michigan State University cyclotron to determine the yields of neutron-rich fission products in the reaction of {sup 238}U with 100-MeV neutrons, 200-MeV deuterons and 200-MeV protons. Several 1-mm-thick {sup 238}U foils were irradiated for 100-second intervals sequentially for each configuration and the ten spectra were added for higher statistics. The three successive spectra, each for a 40 s period, were accumulated for each sample. Ten foils were irradiated. Successive spectra allowed us to determine approximate half-lives of the gamma peaks. Several arrangements, which were similar to the setup we plan to use in our radioactive beam proposal, were used for the production of fission products. For the high-energy neutron irradiation, U foils were placed after a 5-inch-long, 1-inch-diameter Be cylinder which stopped the 200-MeV deuteron beam generating 100-MeV neutrons. Arrangements for deuteron irradiation included direct irradiation of U foils, placing U foils after different lengths of (0.5 inch, 1.0 inch and 1.5 inch) 2-inch diameter U cylinder. Since the deuteron range in uranium is 17 mm, some of the irradiations were due to the secondary neutrons from the deuteron-induced fission of U. Similar arrangements were also used for the 200-MeV proton irradiation of the {sup 238}U foils. In all cases, several neutron-rich fission products were identified and their yields determined. In particular, we were able to observe Sn in all the runs and determine its yield. The data show that with our proposed radioactive device we will be able to produce more than 10{sup 12} {sup 132}Sn atoms per second in the target. Assuming an overall efficiency of 1 %, we will be able to deliver one particle nanoampere of {sup 132}Sn beam at a target location. Detailed analysis of the {gamma}-ray spectra is in progress.

  17. Production of medical radioisotopes with high specific activity in photonuclear reactions with γ-beams of high intensity and large brilliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habs, D.; Köster, U.

    2011-05-01

    We study the production of radioisotopes for nuclear medicine in ( γ, xn+ yp) photonuclear reactions or ( γ, γ') photoexcitation reactions with high-flux [(1013-1015) γ/s], small diameter ˜(100 μm)2 and small bandwidth (Δ E/ E≈10-3-10-4) γ beams produced by Compton back-scattering of laser light from relativistic brilliant electron beams. We compare them to (ion, xn+ yp) reactions with (ion = p,d, α) from particle accelerators like cyclotrons and (n, γ) or (n,f) reactions from nuclear reactors. For photonuclear reactions with a narrow γ-beam the energy deposition in the target can be managed by using a stack of thin target foils or wires, hence avoiding direct stopping of the Compton and pair electrons (positrons). However, for ions with a strong atomic stopping only a fraction of less than 10-2 leads to nuclear reactions resulting in a target heating, which is at least 105 times larger per produced radioactive ion and often limits the achievable activity. In photonuclear reactions the well defined initial excitation energy of the compound nucleus leads to a small number of reaction channels and enables new combinations of target isotope and final radioisotope. The narrow bandwidth γ excitation may make use of the fine structure of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR) or fluctuations in γ-width leading to increased cross sections. Within a rather short period compared to the isotopic half-life, a target area of the order of (100 μm)2 can be highly transmuted, resulting in a very high specific activity. ( γ, γ') isomer production via specially selected γ cascades allows to produce high specific activity in multiple excitations, where no back-pumping of the isomer to the ground state occurs. We discuss in detail many specific radioisotopes for diagnostics and therapy applications. Photonuclear reactions with γ-beams allow to produce certain radioisotopes, e.g. 47Sc, 44Ti, 67Cu, 103Pd, 117 m Sn, 169Er, 195 m Pt or 225Ac, with higher specific activity

  18. Sugar exchanges in arbuscular mycorrhiza: RiMST5 and RiMST6, two novel Rhizophagus irregularis monosaccharide transporters, are involved in both sugar uptake from the soil and from the plant partner.

    PubMed

    Ait Lahmidi, Nassima; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel; Brulé, Daphnée; Chatagnier, Odile; Arnould, Christine; Doidy, Joan; Berta, Graziella; Lingua, Guido; Wipf, Daniel; Bonneau, Laurent

    2016-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are associated with about 80% of land plants. AM fungi provide inorganic nutrients to plants and in return up to 20% of the plant-fixed CO2 is transferred to the fungal symbionts. Since AM fungi are obligate biotrophs, unraveling how sugars are provided to the fungus partner is a key for understanding the functioning of the symbiosis. In this study, we identified two new monosaccharide transporters from Rhizophagus irregularis (RiMST5 and RiMST6) that we characterized as functional high affinity monosaccharide transporters. RiMST6 was characterized as a glucose specific, high affinity H(+) co-transporter. We provide experimental support for a primary role of both RiMST5 and RiMST6 in sugar uptake directly from the soil. The expression patterns of RiMSTs in response to partial light deprivation and to interaction with different host plants were investigated. Expression of genes coding for RiMSTs was transiently enhanced after 48 h of shading and was unambiguously dependent on the host plant species. These results cast doubt on the 'fair trade' principle under carbon-limiting conditions. Therefore, in light of these findings, the possible mechanisms involved in the modulation between mutualism and parasitism in plant-AM fungus interactions are discussed. PMID:27362299

  19. Low-energy mass-selected ion beam production of fragments produced from hexamethyldisilane for SiC film formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Satoru; Sugimoto, Satoshi; Kiuchi, Masato

    2016-03-01

    We have proposed an experimental methodology which makes it possible to deposit silicon carbide (SiC) films on Si substrates with a low-energy mass-selected ion beam system using hexamethyldisilane (HMD) as a gas source. In this study, one of the fragment ions produced from HMD, SiCH4+, was mass-selected. The ion energy was approximately 100 eV. Then, the SiCH4+ ions were irradiated to a Si(100) substrate. When the temperature of the Si substrate was set at 800 °C during the ion irradiation, the X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy of the substrate following the completion of ion irradiation experiment demonstrated the occurrence of 3C-SiC deposition.

  20. Search for Charged Current Coherent Pion Production on Carbon in a Few-GeV Neutrino Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraide, K.; Alcaraz-Aunion, J.L.; Brice, S.J.; Bugel, Leonard G.; Catala-Perez, J.; Cheng, G.; Conrad, J.M.; Djurcic, Zelimir; Dore, U.; Finley, David A.; Franke, A.J.; /Columbia U. /Banca di Roma /Frascati

    2008-11-01

    The SciBooNE Collaboration has performed a search for charged current coherent pion production from muon neutrinos scattering on carbon, nu{sub {mu}}{sup 12}C- {yields} {mu}{sup 12}Cpi{sup +}, with two distinct data samples. No evidence for coherent pion production is observed. We set 90% confidence level upper limits on the cross section ratio of charged current coherent pion production to the total charged current cross section at 0.67 x 10{sup -2} at mean neutrino energy 1.1 GeV and 1.36 x 10{sup -2} at mean neutrino energy 2.2 GeV.

  1. Energy release, beam attenuation radiation damage, gas production and accumulation of long-lived activity in Pb, Pb-Bi and Hg targets

    SciTech Connect

    Shubin, Yu.N.

    1996-06-01

    The calculation and analysis of the nuclei concentrations and long-lived residual radioactivity accumulated in Pb, Pb-Bi and Hg targets irradiated by 800 MeV, 30 mA proton beam have been performed. The dominating components to the total radioactivity of radionuclides resulting from fission and spallation reactions and radiative capture by both target nuclei and accumulated radioactive nuclei for various irradiation and cooling times were analyzed. The estimations of spectral component contributions of neutron and proton fluxes to the accumulated activity were carried out. The contributions of fission products to the targets activity and partial activities of main long-lived fission products to the targets activity and partial activities of main long-lived fission products were evaluated. The accumulation of Po isotopes due to reactions induced by secondary alpha-particles were found to be important for the Pb target as compared with two-step radiative capture. The production of Tritium in the targets and its contribution to the total targets activity was considered in detail. It is found that total activities of both targets are close to one another.

  2. Tailoring medium energy proton beam to induce low energy nuclear reactions in ⁸⁶SrCl₂ for production of PET radioisotope ⁸⁶Y.

    PubMed

    Medvedev, Dmitri G; Mausner, Leonard F; Pile, Philip

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports results of experiments at Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) aiming to investigate effective production of positron emitting radioisotope (86)Y by the low energy (86)Sr(p,n) reaction. BLIP is a facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory designed for the proton irradiation of the targets for isotope production at high and intermediate proton energies. The proton beam is delivered by the Linear Accelerator (LINAC) whose incident energy is tunable from 200 to 66 MeV in approximately 21 MeV increments. The array was designed to ensure energy degradation from 66 MeV down to less than 20 MeV. Aluminum slabs were used to degrade the proton energy down to the required range. The production yield of (86)Y (1.2+/-0.1 mCi (44.4+/-3.7) MBq/μAh) and ratio of radioisotopic impurities was determined by assaying an aliquot of the irradiated (86)SrCl2 solution by gamma spectroscopy. The analysis of energy dependence of the (86)Y production yield and the ratios of radioisotopic impurities has been used to adjust degrader thickness. Experimental data showed substantial discrepancies in actual energy propagation compared to energy loss calculations. PMID:25813003

  3. Dynamics of beam halo in mismatched beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P.; Garnett, R.W.; Gray, E.R.; Ryne, R.D.; Wang, T.S.

    1996-09-01

    High-power proton linacs for nuclear materials transmutation and production, and new accelerator-driven neutron spallation sources must be designed to control beam-halo formation, which leads to beam loss. The study of particle-core models is leading to a better understanding of the causes and characteristics of beam halo produced by space-charge forces in rms mismatched beams. Detailed studies of the models have resulted in predictions of the dependence of the maximum amplitude of halo particles on a mismatch parameter and on the space-charge tune-depression ratio. Scaling formulas have been derived which will provide guidance for choosing the aperture radius to contain the halo without loss.

  4. Impaired FcϵRI stability, signaling, and effector functions in murine mast cells lacking glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ping; Eastham-Anderson, Jeffrey; Kinoshita, Taroh; Brown, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    A key event and potential therapeutic target in allergic and asthmatic diseases is signaling by the IgE receptor FcϵRI, which depends on its interactions with Src family kinases (SFK). Here we tested the hypothesis that glycosylphosphatidylinositiol-anchored proteins (GPI-AP) are involved in FcϵRI signaling, based on previous observations that GPI-AP colocalize with and mediate activation of SFK. We generated mice with a hematopoietic cell-specific GPI-AP deficiency by targeted disruption of the GPI biosynthesis gene PigA. In these mice, IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis was largely abolished. PigA-deficient mast cells cultured from these mice showed impaired degranulation in response to stimulation with IgE and antigen in vitro, despite normal IgE binding and antigen-induced FcϵRI aggregation. On stimulation of these cells with IgE and antigen, coprecipitation of the FcϵRI α-chain with the γ-chain and β-chain was markedly reduced. As a result, IgE/antigen–induced FcϵRI-Lyn association and γ-chain tyrosine phosphorylation were both impaired in PigA-deficient cells. These data provide genetic evidence for an unanticipated key role of GPI-AP in FcϵRI interchain interactions and early FcϵRI signaling events, necessary for antigen-induced mast cell degranulation. PMID:21865342

  5. Noncoaxial Bessel-Gauss beams.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chaohong; Zheng, Yishu; Li, Hanqing

    2016-04-01

    We proposed a new family of noncoaxial Gauss-truncated Bessel beams through multiplying conventional symmetrical Bessel beams by a noncoaxial Gauss function. These beams can also be regarded as the exponential-truncated version of Bessel-Gauss beams since they can be transformed into the product of Bessel-Gauss beams and an exponential window function along a certain Cartesian axis. The closed-form solutions of the angular spectra and paraxial propagation of these beams were derived. These beams have asymmetrical intensity distributions and carry the same orbit angular momentum per photon as the corresponding Bessel-Gauss beams. While propagating along the z axis, the mth (m≠0) noncoaxial Bessel-Gauss beams rotate their intensity distributions and the mth-order vortex at the beam center has a transverse shift along the direction perpendicular to the offset axis. Depending on the product of the transverse scalar factor of the Bessel beams and the offset between the Gaussian window function and the center of the Bessel beams, the noncoaxial Bessel-Gauss beams can produce unit vortices with opposite signs in pairs during propagation. PMID:27140757

  6. Automated genome mining of ribosomal peptide natural products

    SciTech Connect

    Mohimani, Hosein; Kersten, Roland; Liu, Wei; Wang, Mingxun; Purvine, Samuel O.; Wu, Si; Brewer, Heather M.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Bandeira, Nuno; Moore, Bradley S.; Pevzner, Pavel A.; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2014-07-31

    Ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides (RiPPs), especially from microbial sources, are a large group of bioactive natural products that are a promising source of new (bio)chemistry and bioactivity (1). In light of exponentially increasing microbial genome databases and improved mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomic platforms, there is a need for computational tools that connect natural product genotypes predicted from microbial genome sequences with their corresponding chemotypes from metabolomic datasets. Here, we introduce RiPPquest, a tandem mass spectrometry database search tool for identification of microbial RiPPs and apply it for lanthipeptide discovery. RiPPquest uses genomics to limit search space to the vicinity of RiPP biosynthetic genes and proteomics to analyze extensive peptide modifications and compute p-values of peptide-spectrum matches (PSMs). We highlight RiPPquest by connection of multiple RiPPs from extracts of Streptomyces to their gene clusters and by the discovery of a new class III lanthipeptide, informatipeptin, from Streptomyces viridochromogenes DSM 40736 as the first natural product to be identified in an automated fashion by genome mining. The presented tool is available at cy-clo.ucsd.edu.

  7. Overview of the APT high-energy beam transport and beam expanders

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.E.; Blind, B.; Gray, E.R.

    1997-08-01

    The APT high energy beam transport (HEBT) and beam expanders convey the 1700-MeV, 100-mA cw proton beam from the linac to the tritium target/blanket assembly, or a tuning beam stop. The HEBT includes extensive beam diagnostics, collimators, and beam jitter correction, to monitor and control the 170-MW beam prior to expansion. A zero-degree beamline conveys the beam to the beam stop, and an achromatic bend conveys the beam to the tritium production target. Nonlinear beam expanders make use of higher-order multipole magnets and dithering dipoles to expand the beam to a uniform-density, 16-cm wide by 160-cm high rectangular profile on the tritium-production target. The overall optics design will be reviewed, and beam simulations will be presented.

  8. A hollow cathode ion source for production of primary ions for the BNL electron beam ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessi, James; Beebe, Edward; Carlson, Charles; McCafferty, Daniel; Pikin, Alexander; Ritter, John

    2014-02-01

    A hollow cathode ion source, based on one developed at Saclay, has been modified significantly and used for several years to produce all primary 1+ ions injected into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) at Brookhaven. Currents of tens to hundreds of microamperes have been produced for 1+ ions of He, C, O, Ne, Si, Ar, Ti, Fe, Cu, Kr, Xe, Ta, Au, and U. The source is very simple, relying on a glow discharge using a noble gas, between anode and a solid cathode containing the desired species. Ions of both the working gas and ionized sputtered cathode material are extracted, and then the desired species is selected using an ExB filter before being transported into the EBIS trap for charge breeding. The source operates pulsed with long life and excellent stability for most species. Reliable ignition of the discharge at low gas pressure is facilitated by the use of capacitive coupling from a simple toy plasma globe. The source design, and operating experience for the various species, is presented.

  9. A hollow cathode ion source for production of primary ions for the BNL electron beam ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Alessi, James Beebe, Edward; Carlson, Charles; McCafferty, Daniel; Pikin, Alexander; Ritter, John

    2014-02-15

    A hollow cathode ion source, based on one developed at Saclay, has been modified significantly and used for several years to produce all primary 1+ ions injected into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) at Brookhaven. Currents of tens to hundreds of microamperes have been produced for 1+ ions of He, C, O, Ne, Si, Ar, Ti, Fe, Cu, Kr, Xe, Ta, Au, and U. The source is very simple, relying on a glow discharge using a noble gas, between anode and a solid cathode containing the desired species. Ions of both the working gas and ionized sputtered cathode material are extracted, and then the desired species is selected using an ExB filter before being transported into the EBIS trap for charge breeding. The source operates pulsed with long life and excellent stability for most species. Reliable ignition of the discharge at low gas pressure is facilitated by the use of capacitive coupling from a simple toy plasma globe. The source design, and operating experience for the various species, is presented.

  10. A hollow cathode ion source for production of primary ions for the BNL electron beam ion source.

    PubMed

    Alessi, James; Beebe, Edward; Carlson, Charles; McCafferty, Daniel; Pikin, Alexander; Ritter, John

    2014-02-01

    A hollow cathode ion source, based on one developed at Saclay, has been modified significantly and used for several years to produce all primary 1+ ions injected into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) at Brookhaven. Currents of tens to hundreds of microamperes have been produced for 1+ ions of He, C, O, Ne, Si, Ar, Ti, Fe, Cu, Kr, Xe, Ta, Au, and U. The source is very simple, relying on a glow discharge using a noble gas, between anode and a solid cathode containing the desired species. Ions of both the working gas and ionized sputtered cathode material are extracted, and then the desired species is selected using an ExB filter before being transported into the EBIS trap for charge breeding. The source operates pulsed with long life and excellent stability for most species. Reliable ignition of the discharge at low gas pressure is facilitated by the use of capacitive coupling from a simple toy plasma globe. The source design, and operating experience for the various species, is presented. PMID:24593637

  11. Thermal-electric coupled-field finite element modeling and experimental testing of high-temperature ion sources for the production of radioactive ion beams.

    PubMed

    Manzolaro, M; Meneghetti, G; Andrighetto, A; Vivian, G; D'Agostini, F

    2016-02-01

    In isotope separation on line facilities the target system and the related ion source are two of the most critical components. In the context of the selective production of exotic species (SPES) project, a 40 MeV 200 μA proton beam directly impinges a uranium carbide target, generating approximately 10(13) fissions per second. The radioactive isotopes produced in this way are then directed to the ion source, where they can be ionized and finally accelerated to the subsequent areas of the facility. In this work both the surface ion source and the plasma ion source adopted for the SPES facility are presented and studied by means of numerical thermal-electric models. Then, numerical results are compared with temperature and electric potential difference measurements, and finally the main advantages of the proposed simulation approach are discussed. PMID:26932055

  12. Thermal-electric coupled-field finite element modeling and experimental testing of high-temperature ion sources for the production of radioactive ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzolaro, M.; Meneghetti, G.; Andrighetto, A.; Vivian, G.; D'Agostini, F.

    2016-02-01

    In isotope separation on line facilities the target system and the related ion source are two of the most critical components. In the context of the selective production of exotic species (SPES) project, a 40 MeV 200 μA proton beam directly impinges a uranium carbide target, generating approximately 1013 fissions per second. The radioactive isotopes produced in this way are then directed to the ion source, where they can be ionized and finally accelerated to the subsequent areas of the facility. In this work both the surface ion source and the plasma ion source adopted for the SPES facility are presented and studied by means of numerical thermal-electric models. Then, numerical results are compared with temperature and electric potential difference measurements, and finally the main advantages of the proposed simulation approach are discussed.

  13. SOLVENT FIRE BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D; Samuel Fink, S

    2006-05-22

    Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) conducted a burn test of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent to determine the combustion products. The testing showed hydrogen fluoride gas is not a combustion product from a solvent fire when up to 70% of the solvent is consumed. The absence of HF in the combustion gases may reflect concentration of the modifier containing the fluoride groups in the unburned portion. SwRI reported results for other gases (CO, HCN, NOx, formaldehyde, and hydrocarbons). The results, with other supporting information, can be used for evaluating the consequences of a facility fire involving the CSSX solvent inventory.

  14. Sequential Engagement of FcεRI on Mast Cells and Basophil Histamine H4 Receptor and FcεRI in Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Shiraishi, Yoshiki; Jia, Yi; Domenico, Joanne; Joetham, Anthony; Karasuyama, Hajime; Takeda, Katsuyuki; Gelfand, Erwin W.

    2012-01-01

    Histamine H4 receptor (H4R)-deficient mice (H4R−/−), H4R antagonist-treated WT mice, and WT mice depleted of basophils failed to develop early (EPR) or late phase (LPR) nasal responses following allergen sensitization and challenge. Basophil transfer from WT but not H4R−/− mice restored the EPR and LPR in H4R−/− mice. Following passive sensitization with OVA-specific IgE, FcεRI−/− recipients of WT basophils plus OVA and histamine developed an EPR and LPR. OVA-IgE passively sensitized FcεRI−/− recipients of H4R−/− basophils and OVA and histamine challenge failed to develop an EPR or LPR, and basophils were not detected in nasal tissue. In contrast, recipients of basophils from IL-13−/− and IL-4−/−/IL-13−/− mice developed an EPR but not LPR. These results demonstrate the development of allergic rhinitis proceeded in two distinct stages: histamine release from FcεRI-activated mast cells, followed by histamine-mediated recruitment of H4R-expressing basophils to the nasal cavity and activation through FcεRI. PMID:23241885

  15. Effects of electron beam, NaOH and urea on chemical composition, phenolic compounds, in situ ruminal degradability and in vitro gas production kinetics of pistachio by-products

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Masoud; Afzalzadeh, Ahmad; Behgar, Mehdi; Norouzian, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of electron beam (EB; 10, 20, 30 and 40 kGy), urea and NaOH treatments on chemical composition, phenolic compounds, in vitro gas production and in situ ruminal degradability of pistachio by-product (PB). The EB decreased (p < 0.01) neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) contents of PB. Treating PB by NaOH and urea increased cell wall constitute of PB (p < 0.01). Irradiation at doses of 30 and 40 kGy reduced tannin and increased total phenol content of PB (p < 0.01). NaOH and urea treatments decreased tannins, total phenolics and condensed tannins of PB compared to control (p < 0.01). In situ ruminal dry matter (DM) degradation data showed that irradiation increased (p < 0.01) and, urea and NaOH decreased (p < 0.01) rapidly fermentable fraction (a) of PB. NaOH decreased (p < 0.01) fraction b and total degradable fraction (a + b) of PB. Irradiation and polyethylene-glycol increased rate of gas production (k), metabolizable energy (ME) and short chain fatty acid concentrations (SCFA), while, NaOH decreased gas production potential (b), ME and SCFA (p < 0.01). Data showed that although NaOH was efficient in detannification of PB, however, it reduced gas production and in situ degradation of PB. PMID:26261705

  16. Construction of an EcoRI restriction map of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and localization of selected genes.

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, R; Pirkl, E; Herrmann, R

    1992-01-01

    A restriction map of the genome of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a small human pathogenic bacterium, was constructed by means of an ordered cosmid library which spans the complete bacterial chromosome. The positions of 143 endonuclease EcoRI restriction fragments were determined and aligned with the physical map. In addition, restriction sites for the rare-cutting enzymes XhoI (25 sites), ApaI (13 sites), NotI (2 sites), and SfiI (2 sites) were included. The resulting map consists of 185 restriction sites, has a mean resolution of 4.4 kbp, and predicts a genome size of 809 kbp. In addition, several genes were identified and mapped to their respective genomic EcoRI restriction fragments. Images PMID:1429453

  17. Molecular beam epitaxy of GaNAs alloys with high As content for potential photoanode applications in hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Novikov, S. V.; Staddon, C. R.; Foxon, C. T.; Yu, K. M.; Broesler, R.; Hawkridge, M.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Walukiewicz, W.; Denlinger, J.; Demchenko, I.

    2009-10-06

    The authors have succeeded in growing GaN1?xAsx alloys over a large composition range (0 < x < 0.8) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The enhanced incorporation of As was achieved by growing the films with high As{sub 2} flux at low (as low as 100 C) growth temperatures, which is much below the normal GaN growth temperature range. Using x-ray and transmission electron microscopy, they found that the GaNAs alloys with high As content x > 0.17 are amorphous. Optical absorption measurements together with x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy results reveal a continuous gradual decrease in band gap from -3.4 to < 1 eV with increasing As content. The energy gap reaches its minimum of -0.8 eV at x - 0.8. The composition dependence of the band gap of the crystalline GaN{sub 1?x}As{sub x} alloys follows the prediction of the band anticrossing model (BAC). However, our measured band gap of amorphous GaN{sub 1?x}As{sub x} with 0.3 < x < 0.8 are larger than that predicted by BAC. The results seem to indicate that for this composition range the amorphous GaN{sub 1?x}As{sub x} alloys have short-range ordering that resembles random crystalline GaN{sub 1?x}As{sub x} alloys. They have demonstrated the possibility of the growth of amorphous GaN{sub 1?x}As{sub x} layers with variable As content on glass substrates

  18. Nonparaxial hypergeometric beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotlyar, V. V.; Kovalev, A. A.

    2009-04-01

    We derive an analytical expression to describe the exact solution of the Helmholtz equation in cylindrical coordinates as a product of two Kummer functions. The solution is presented as a sum of two terms that describe the nonparaxial hypergeometric light beams propagated along the optical axis in the positive and negative directions. With the distance from the initial plane becoming much larger than the wavelength of light, the expression derived for the nonparaxial hypergeometric beam coincides with that for a paraxial hypergeometric mode.

  19. Uncertainties in NDE Reliability and Assessing the Impact on RI-ISI

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, Steven R.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2010-08-01

    A major thrust in the past 20 years has been to upgrade nondestructive examinations (NDE) for use in inservice inspection (ISI) programs to more effectively manage degradation at operating nuclear power plants. Risk-informed ISI (RI-ISI) is one of the outcomes of this work, and this approach relies heavily on the reliability of NDE, when properly applied, to detect sources of expected degradation. There have been a number of improvements in the reliability of NDE, specifically in ultrasonic testing (UT), through training of examiners, and improved equipment and procedure development. However, the most significant improvements in UT were derived by moving from prescriptive requirements to performance based requirements. Even with these substantial improvements, NDE contains significant uncertainties and RI-ISI programs need to address and accommodate this factor. As part of the work that PNNL is conducting for the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, we are examining the impact of these uncertainties on the effectiveness of RI-ISI programs.

  20. Cellular trafficking of the IL-1RI-associated kinase-1 requires intact kinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Boel, Gaby-Fleur . E-mail: boel@mail.dife.de; Jurrmann, Nadine; Brigelius-Flohe, Regina

    2005-06-24

    Upon stimulation of cells with interleukin-1 (IL-1) the IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI) associated kinase-1 (IRAK-1) transiently associates to and dissociates from the IL-1RI and thereafter translocates into the nucleus. Here we show that nuclear translocation of IRAK-1 depends on its kinase activity since translocation was not observed in EL-4 cells overexpressing a kinase negative IRAK-1 mutant (EL-4{sup IRAK-1-K239S}). IRAK-1 itself, an endogenous substrate with an apparent molecular weight of 24 kDa (p24), and exogenous substrates like histone and myelin basic protein are phosphorylated by nuclear located IRAK-1. Phosphorylation of p24 cannot be detected in EL-4{sup IRAK-1-K239S} cells. IL-1-dependent recruitment of IRAK-1 to the IL-1RI and subsequent phosphorylation of IRAK-1 is a prerequisite for nuclear translocation of IRAK-1. It is therefore concluded that intracellular localization of IRAK-1 depends on its kinase activity and that IRAK-1 may also function as a kinase in the nucleus as shown by a new putative endogenous substrate.

  1. Structural and Thermodymamic Basis for Enhanced DNA Binding by a Promiscuous Mutant EcoRI Endonuclease

    SciTech Connect

    Sapienza,P.; Rosenberg, J.; Jen-Jacobson, L.

    2007-01-01

    Promiscuous mutant EcoRI endonucleases bind to the canonical site GAATTC more tightly than does the wild-type endonuclease, yet cleave variant (EcoRI*) sites more rapidly than does wild-type. The crystal structure of the A138T promiscuous mutant homodimer in complex with a GAATTC site is nearly identical to that of the wild-type complex, except that the Thr138 side chains make packing interactions with bases in the 5'-flanking regions outside the recognition hexanucleotide while excluding two bound water molecules seen in the wild-type complex. Molecular dynamics simulations confirm exclusion of these waters. The structure and simulations suggest possible reasons why binding of the A138T protein to the GAATTC site has S more favorable and H less favorable than for wild-type endonuclease binding. The interactions of Thr138 with flanking bases may permit A138T, unlike wild-type enzyme, to form complexes with EcoRI* sites that structurally resemble the specific wild-type complex with GAATTC.

  2. Characterization of highly and moderately repetitive 500 bp Eco RI fragments from Xenopus laevis DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Hummel, S; Meyerhof, W; Korge, E; Knöchel, W

    1984-01-01

    Three different types of repetitive Eco RI fragments, which comigrate within a visible band of approximately 500 bp at gel electrophoresis of Xenopus laevis DNA Eco RI digests have been cloned and sequenced. These sequences are designated as Repetitive Eco RI Monomers: REM 1, REM 2 and REM 3. The sequences contain direct repeats, inverted repeats and palindromic elements. Genomic organization of the most abundant sequence (REM 1; 0.4% of total DNA) is that of an interspersed sequence. REM 2 (0.08%) is partly organized as an interspersed element and partly found in tandem arrangement, whereas REM 3 (0.02%) represents the tandemly repeated monomeric unit of a satellite DNA. In situ hybridization has shown that REM 1 and REM 2 sequences are found on most chromosomes, REM 1 being preferentially located on specific chromosomal loci. REM 3 is located near the centromere region of only one chromosome pair (presumably number 1). Hybridization of Northern blots from RNAs of different developmental stages revealed that REM 1, REM 2 and REM 3 sequences are transcribed and that transcription is under developmental control. Images PMID:6330690

  3. Beam diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Bogaty, J.; Clifft, B.E.; Zinkann, G.P.; Pardo, R.C.

    1995-08-01

    The ECR-PII injector beam line is operated at a fixed ion velocity. The platform high voltage is chosen so that all ions have a velocity of 0.0085c at the PII entrance. If a previous tune configuration for the linac is to be used, the beam arrival time must be matched to the previous tune as well. A nondestructive beam-phase pickup detector was developed and installed at the entrance to the PII linac. This device provides continuous phase and beam current information and allows quick optimization of the beam injected into PII. Bunches traverse a short tubular electrode thereby inducing displacement currents. These currents are brought outside the vacuum interface where a lumped inductance resonates electrode capacitance at one of the bunching harmonic frequencies. This configuration yields a basic sensitivity of a few hundred millivolts signal per microampere of beam current. Beam-induced radiofrequency signals are summed against an offset frequency generated by our master oscillator. The resulting kilohertz difference frequency conveys beam intensity and bunch phase information which is sent to separate processing channels. One channel utilizes a phase locked loop which stabilizes phase readings if beam is unstable. The other channel uses a linear full wave active rectifier circuit which converts kilohertz sine wave signal amplitude to a D.C. voltage representing beam current. A prototype set of electronics is now in use with the detector and we began to use the system in operation to set the arrival beam phase. A permanent version of the electronics system for the phase detector is now under construction. Additional nondestructive beam intensity and phase monitors at the {open_quotes}Booster{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}ATLAS{close_quotes} linac sections are planned as well as on some of the high-energy beam lines. Such a monitor will be particularly useful for FMA experiments where the primary beam hits one of the electric deflector plates.

  4. Some Challenges of an “Upside Down” Nitrogen Budget – Science and Management in Greenwich Bay, RI (USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    When nutrients impact estuarine water quality, scientists and managers instinctively focus on quantifying and controlling land-based sources. However, in Greenwich Bay, RI, the estuary opens onto a larger and more intensively fertilized coastal water body (Narragansett Bay). Prev...

  5. NrpRII mediates contacts between NrpRI and general transcription factors in the archaeon Methanosarcina mazei Gö1.

    PubMed

    Weidenbach, Katrin; Ehlers, Claudia; Kock, Jutta; Schmitz, Ruth A

    2010-11-01

    We report here on the formation of a complex between the two NrpR homologs present in Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 and their binding properties to the nifH and glnK(1) promoters. Reciprocal co-chromatography demonstrated that NrpRI forms stable complexes with NrpRII (at an NrpRI : NrpRII molar ratio of ∼ 1 : 3), which are not affected by 2-oxoglutarate. Promoter-binding, analyses using DNA-affinity chromatography and electrophoretic gel mobility shift assays, verified that NrpRII is not able to bind to either the nifH promoter or the glnK(1) promoter except when in complex with NrpRI. Specific binding of NrpRI to the nifH and glnK(1) promoters was shown to be highly sensitive to 2-oxoglutarate, regardless of whether only NrpRI, or NrpRI in complex with NrpRII, bound to the promoter. Finally, strong interactions between NrpRII and the general transcription factors TATA-binding proteins (TBP) 1-3 and the general transcription factor TFIIB (TFB) were demonstrated, interactions which are also sensitive to 2-oxoglutarate. On the basis of these findings we propose the following: under nitrogen sufficiency NrpRII binds from solution to either the nifH promoter or the glnK(1) promoter by simultaneously contacting NrpRI and TBP plus TFB, resulting in full repression of transcription; whereas, under nitrogen limitation, increasing 2-oxoglutarate concentrations significantly decrease the binding of NrpRI to the operator as well as the binding of NrpRII to TBP and TFB, ultimately allowing recruitment of RNA polymerase to the promoter. PMID:20875081

  6. How to Reliably Determine the Complex Refractive Index (RI) of Graphene by Using Two Independent Measurement Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Sosan; Kihm, Kenneth David; Kim, Hong goo; Lim, Gyumin; Park, Jae Sung; Lee, Joon Sik

    2014-01-01

    Reliable determination of the complex refractive index (RI) of graphene inherently requires two independent measurement realizations for two independent unknowns of the real (nG) and imaginary (kG) components, i.e., RI = nG + i kG. Thus, any single set of measurement realization provides only one constraint that is insufficient to uniquely determine the complex RI of graphene. Tandem uses of two independent measurement techniques, namely the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) angle detection and the attenuated total reflection (ATR) intensity measurement, allow for the unique determination of the complex RI of CVD-synthesized graphene. The presently measured graphene RI is determined to be 2.65 + 1.27i for the E-field oscillating parallel to graphene at 634 nm wavelength, with variations for different numbers of L (1, 3 and 5) remaining within ±3%. Thus, our demonstration results for the specified wavelength serve as an impetus to suggest the need for two independent measurement techniques in determining both the real and imaginary RI values for graphene. Additional efforts have been made to characterize graphene layers using the density function theory (DFT): this calculation provides RIG = 2.71 + 1.41i. PMID:25219628

  7. Spectroscopic investigation of the formation of hypochlorite, radiolysis by-product in 5 M NaCI featuring high-energy proton beam line experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, T.; Wetteland, C. J.; Marczak, Stanislaw; Walthall, M.; Paviet-Hartmann, P.

    2002-01-01

    Because geological salt formations are considered possible sites for radioactive waste disposal, plausible inundation scenario of salt repository will allow chloride brines to be formed, which consequently will be exposed to radiation from the waste. Key radioelements in Intermediate Level Waste (ILW),H igh Level Waste (HLW) or TRU waste have been found to be plutonium, americium, neptunium, uranium, and technetium. Therefore, the effect of radiolysis on high-saline brine under simulated repository conditions are of particular importance because it results in oxidizing chlorine-containing species, such as hypochlorite (OC1-), and hypochlorous acid (HOCI), which may oxidize actinide species to higher oxidation states. Meaningful predictions of long-term redox conditions in a nuclear repository strongly rely on estimations of G-values of the irradiation-induced formation of the oxidizers OC1- and HOCI. G-values not only depend on the total absorbed doses over the relevant timeframe, but also on the kind of irradiation involved. In fact, the G-values of hypochlorite produced by {alpha}-, {beta}-, {gamma}-, or neutron irradiation differ by an order of magnitude, depending on different LET cross-sections. To overcome the serious constrains and obstacles of conventional radiochemical work within GBq/L activity levels, we are going to simulate {alpha}-irradiation of chloride brines by the adaptation of beam-line experiments. Our long-term goal is to demonstrate how the main oxidizing chloride species such as hypochlorite caused by radiolysis may affect the overall behavior of actinides under salt repository conditions. This paper describes our first steps towards the production, the identification and the determination of these oxidizing species by beam line experiments.

  8. A Prevalent Peptide-Binding Domain Guides Ribosomal Natural Product Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Burkhart, Brandon J.; Hudson, Graham A.; Dunbar, Kyle L.; Mitchell, Douglas A.

    2015-01-01

    Ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides (RiPPs) are a rapidly growing natural product class. RiPP precursor peptides can undergo extensive enzymatic tailoring, yielding structurally and functionally diverse products, and their biosynthetic logic makes them attractive bioengineering targets. Recent work suggests that unrelated RiPP modifying enzymes contain structurally similar precursor peptide-binding domains. Using profile hidden Markov model comparisons, we discovered related and previously unrecognized peptide-binding domains in proteins spanning the majority of known prokaryotic RiPP classes; thus, we named this conserved domain the RiPP precursor peptide recognition element (RRE). Through binding studies, we verify the role of the RRE for three distinct RiPP classes: linear azole-containing peptides, thiopeptides, and lasso peptides. Because numerous RiPP biosynthetic enzymes act on peptide substrates, our findings have powerful predictive value as to which protein(s) drive substrate binding, laying a foundation for further characterization of RiPP biosynthetic pathways and the rational engineering of new peptide-binding activities. PMID:26167873

  9. On the production of a beam of the long-lived 16 sup + isomer in hafnium-178

    SciTech Connect

    Kutschera, W.; Ahmad, I.; Childs, W.J.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Pardo, R.C. ); Mausner, L.F. )

    1989-01-01

    The long-lived high-spin isomer of {sup 178}Hf, with T{sub 1/2} = 31 y and I{sup {pi}} = 16{sup +}, presents a unique opportunity for a projectile and/or target in nuclear and atomic physics. Various aspects in using {sup 178m}Hf for this purpose are discussed in this paper. One possible production mode, the irradiation of Ta with protons, was investigated. Cross sections of {approximately}40 and {approximately}200 {mu}b were found for proton energies of 46 and 92. 5 MeV, respectively. First ideas for a possible isomeric enrichment procedure by selective laser deflection are presented. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Identification of Major Risk Sources for Surface Water Pollution by Risk Indexes (RI) in the Multi-Provincial Boundary Region of the Taihu Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hong; Li, Weixin; Qian, Xin

    2015-08-01

    Environmental safety in multi-district boundary regions has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Act of 2014. Five types were categorized concerning the risk sources for surface water pollution in the multi-provincial boundary region of the Taihu basin: production enterprises, waste disposal sites, chemical storage sites, agricultural non-point sources and waterway transportations. Considering the hazard of risk sources, the purification property of environmental medium and the vulnerability of risk receptors, 52 specific attributes on the risk levels of each type of risk source were screened out. Continuous piecewise linear function model, expert consultation method and fuzzy integral model were used to calculate the integrated risk indexes (RI) to characterize the risk levels of pollution sources. In the studied area, 2716 pollution sources were characterized by RI values. There were 56 high-risk sources screened out as major risk sources, accounting for about 2% of the total. The numbers of sources with high-moderate, moderate, moderate-low and low pollution risk were 376, 1059, 101 and 1124, respectively, accounting for 14%, 38%, 5% and 41% of the total. The procedure proposed could be included in the integrated risk management systems of the multi-district boundary region of the Taihu basin. It could help decision makers to identify major risk sources in the risk prevention and reduction of surface water pollution. PMID:26308032

  11. Identification of Major Risk Sources for Surface Water Pollution by Risk Indexes (RI) in the Multi-Provincial Boundary Region of the Taihu Basin, China

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Hong; Li, Weixin; Qian, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Environmental safety in multi-district boundary regions has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Act of 2014. Five types were categorized concerning the risk sources for surface water pollution in the multi-provincial boundary region of the Taihu basin: production enterprises, waste disposal sites, chemical storage sites, agricultural non-point sources and waterway transportations. Considering the hazard of risk sources, the purification property of environmental medium and the vulnerability of risk receptors, 52 specific attributes on the risk levels of each type of risk source were screened out. Continuous piecewise linear function model, expert consultation method and fuzzy integral model were used to calculate the integrated risk indexes (RI) to characterize the risk levels of pollution sources. In the studied area, 2716 pollution sources were characterized by RI values. There were 56 high-risk sources screened out as major risk sources, accounting for about 2% of the total. The numbers of sources with high-moderate, moderate, moderate-low and low pollution risk were 376, 1059, 101 and 1124, respectively, accounting for 14%, 38%, 5% and 41% of the total. The procedure proposed could be included in the integrated risk management systems of the multi-district boundary region of the Taihu basin. It could help decision makers to identify major risk sources in the risk prevention and reduction of surface water pollution. PMID:26308032

  12. Metallic beam development for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Machicoane, Guillaume Cole, Dallas; Leitner, Daniela; Neben, Derek; Tobos, Larry

    2014-02-15

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) at Michigan State University (MSU) will accelerate a primary ion beam to energies beyond 200 MeV/u using a superconducting RF linac and will reach a maximum beam power of 400 kW on the fragmentation target. The beam intensity needed from the ECR ion source is expected to be between 0.4 and 0.5 emA for most medium mass to heavy mass elements. Adding to the challenge of reaching the required intensity, an expanded list of primary beams of interest has been established based on the production rate and the number of isotope beams that could be produced with FRIB. We report here on the development done for some of the beam in the list including mercury (natural), molybdenum ({sup 98}Mo), and selenium ({sup 82}Ser)

  13. Alternative model for chromatin organization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosomal DNA plasmid TRP1 RI circle (YARp1).

    PubMed Central

    Long, C M; Brajkovich, C M; Scott, J F

    1985-01-01

    TRP1 RI circle (now designated YARp1, yeast acentric ring plasmid 1) is a 1,453-base-pair artificial plasmid composed exclusively of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosomal DNA. It contains both the TRP1 gene and ARS1 (a DNA sequence that permits extrachromosomal maintenance of recombinant plasmids). This high-copy-number, relatively stable plasmid was shown to be organized into nucleosomes comparable to typical yeast chromatin, containing a possible maximum of nine nucleosomes per circle. Therefore, YARp1 can be used to examine the structure of chromatin of both a chromosomally derived replicator and a functional gene. By mapping regions of micrococcal nuclease cleavage in chromatin versus purified DNA, we located the positions of protected regions on the circle with reference to six unique restriction sites. Measurements made on patterns of early digestion products indicated that a region of approximately 300 base pairs in the vicinity of ARS1 was strongly resistant to micrococcal nuclease. The remainder of the plasmid appeared to be associated with five positioned nucleosomes and two nonnucleosomal, partially protected regions on the bulk of the molecules. After similar extents of digestion, naked DNA did not exhibit an equivalent pattern, although some hypersensitive cleavage sites matched sites found in the chromatin. These results are consistent with the interpretation that the protected domains are aligned with respect to a specific site or sites on the small circular chromatin. Images PMID:3018502

  14. Overcoming the signaling defect of Lyn-sequestering, signal-curtailing FcepsilonRI dimers: aggregated dimers can dissociate from Lyn and form signaling complexes with Syk.

    PubMed

    Lara, M; Ortega, E; Pecht, I; Pfeiffer, J R; Martinez, A M; Lee, R J; Surviladze, Z; Wilson, B S; Oliver, J M

    2001-10-15

    Clustering the tetrameric (alphabetagamma(2)) IgE receptor, FcepsilonRI, on basophils and mast cells activates the Src-family tyrosine kinase, Lyn, which phosphorylates FcepsilonRI beta and gamma subunit tyrosines, creating binding sites for the recruitment and activation of Syk. We reported previously that FcepsilonRI dimers formed by a particular anti-FcepsilonRI alpha mAb (H10) initiate signaling through Lyn activation and FcepsilonRI subunit phosphorylation, but cause only modest activation of Syk and little Ca(2+) mobilization and secretion. Curtailed signaling was linked to the formation of unusual, detergent-resistant complexes between Lyn and phosphorylated receptor subunits. Here, we show that H10-FcepsilonRI multimers, induced by adding F(ab')(2) of goat anti-mouse IgG to H10-treated cells, support strong Ca(2+) mobilization and secretion. Accompanying the recovery of signaling, H10-FcepsilonRI multimers do not form stable complexes with Lyn and do support the phosphorylation of Syk and phospholipase Cgamma2. Immunogold electron microscopy showed that H10-FcepsilonRI dimers colocalize preferentially with Lyn and are rarely within the osmiophilic "signaling domains" that accumulate FcepsilonRI and Syk in Ag-treated cells. In contrast, H10-FcepsilonRI multimers frequently colocalize with Syk within osmiophilic patches. In sucrose gradient centrifugation analyses of detergent-extracted cells, H10-treated cells show a more complete redistribution of FcepsilonRI beta from heavy (detergent-soluble) to light (Lyn-enriched, detergent-resistant) fractions than cells activated with FcepsilonRI multimers. We hypothesize that restraints imposed by the particular orientation of H10-FcepsilonRI dimers traps them in signal-initiating Lyn microdomains, and that converting the dimers to multimers permits receptors to dissociate from Lyn and redistribute to separate membrane domains that support Syk-dependent signal propagation. PMID:11591756

  15. Optimization of a neutron production target and a beam shaping assembly based on the 7Li( p, n) 7Be reaction for BNCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlon, A. A.; Kreiner, A. J.; Valda, A. A.; Minsky, D. M.; Somacal, H. R.; Debray, M. E.; Stoliar, P.

    2005-02-01

    In this work a thick LiF target was studied through the 7Li( p, n) 7Be reaction as a neutron source for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT) to provide a testing ground for numerical simulations aimed at producing an optimized neutron production target and beam shaping assembly design. Proton beams in the 1.88-2.0 MeV energy range were produced with the tandem accelerator TANDAR ( TANDem ARgentino) at the Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA) in Buenos Aires, Argentina. A cylindrical water-filled head-phantom, containing a boric acid sample, was irradiated to study the resulting neutron flux. The dose deposited in the boric acid sample was inferred through the Compton-suppressed detection of the gamma radiation produced from the 10B( n, αγ) 7Li capture reaction. The thermal neutron flux was evaluated using bare and Cd-covered activation gold foils. In all cases, Monte Carlo simulations have been done showing good agreement with the experimental results. Extensive MCNP simulation trials have then been performed after the preliminary calculation tool validation in order to optimize a neutron beam shaping assembly. These simulations include a thick Li metal target (instead of LiF), a whole-body phantom, two different moderator-reflector assemblies (Al/AlF 3/LiF, Fluental ®, as moderator and lead as reflector and a combination of Al, PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) and LiF as moderator and lead as reflector) and the treatment room. The doses were evaluated for proton bombarding energies of 1.92 MeV (near to the threshold of the reaction), 2.0 MeV, 2.3 MeV (near the reaction resonance) and 2.5 MeV, and for three Fluental ® and Al/PTFE/LiF moderator thicknesses (18, 26 and 34 cm). In a later instance, the effect of the specific skin radiosensitivity (an RBE of 2.5 for the 10B( n, α) 7Li reaction) and a 10B uptake 50% greater than the healthy tissue one, was considered for the scalp. To evaluate the doses in the phantom, a comparison of

  16. Polarized proton beams in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenski, A.

    2010-10-04

    The polarized beam for RHIC is produced in the optically-pumped polarized H{sup -} ion source and then accelerated in Linac to 200 MeV for strip-injection to Booster and further accelerated 24.3 GeV in AGS for injection in RHIC. In 2009 Run polarized protons was successfully accelerated to 250 GeV beam energy. The beam polarization of about 60% at 100 GeV beam energy and 36-42% at 250 GeV beam energy was measured with the H-jet and p-Carbon CNI polarimeters. The gluon contribution to the proton spin was studied in collisions of longitudinally polarized proton beams at 100 x 100 GeV. At 250 x 250 GeV an intermediate boson W production with the longitudinally polarized beams was studied for the first time.

  17. Introduction to Ion Beam Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Martisikova, Maria

    2010-01-05

    Presently, ion beam therapy reaches an increasing interest within the field of radiation therapy, which is caused by the promising clinical results obtained in the last decades. Ion beams enable higher dose conformation to the tumor and increased sparing of the surrounding tissue in comparison to the standard therapy using high energy photons. Heavy ions, like carbon, offer in addition increased biological effectiveness, which makes them suitable for treatment of radioresistant tumors. This contribution gives an overview over the physical and biological properties of ion beams. Common fundamental principles of ion beam therapy are summarized and differences between standard therapy with high energy photons, proton and carbon ion therapy are discussed. The technologies used for the beam production and delivery are introduced, with emphasis to the differences between passive and active beam delivery systems. The last part concentrates on the quality assurance in ion therapy. Specialties of dosimetry in medical ion beams are discussed.

  18. Production, formation, and transport of high-brightness atomic hydrogen beam studies for the relativistic heavy ion collider polarized source upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolmogorov, A.; Atoian, G.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Ritter, J.; Stupishin, N.; Zelenski, A.

    2014-02-01

    The RHIC polarized H- ion source had been successfully upgraded to higher intensity and polarization by using a very high brightness fast atomic beam source developed at BINP, Novosibirsk. In this source the proton beam is extracted by a four-grid multi-aperture ion optical system and neutralized in the H2 gas cell downstream from the grids. The proton beam is extracted from plasma emitter with a low transverse ion temperature of ˜0.2 eV which is formed by plasma jet expansion from the arc plasma generator. The multi-hole grids are spherically shaped to produce "geometrical" beam focusing. Proton beam formation and transport of atomic beam were experimentally studied at test bench.

  19. Production, formation, and transport of high-brightness atomic hydrogen beam studies for the relativistic heavy ion collider polarized source upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Kolmogorov, A. Stupishin, N.; Atoian, G.; Ritter, J.; Zelenski, A.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.

    2014-02-15

    The RHIC polarized H{sup −} ion source had been successfully upgraded to higher intensity and polarization by using a very high brightness fast atomic beam source developed at BINP, Novosibirsk. In this source the proton beam is extracted by a four-grid multi-aperture ion optical system and neutralized in the H{sub 2} gas cell downstream from the grids. The proton beam is extracted from plasma emitter with a low transverse ion temperature of ∼0.2 eV which is formed by plasma jet expansion from the arc plasma generator. The multi-hole grids are spherically shaped to produce “geometrical” beam focusing. Proton beam formation and transport of atomic beam were experimentally studied at test bench.

  20. Production, formation, and transport of high-brightness atomic hydrogen beam studies for the relativistic heavy ion collider polarized source upgrade.

    PubMed

    Kolmogorov, A; Atoian, G; Davydenko, V; Ivanov, A; Ritter, J; Stupishin, N; Zelenski, A

    2014-02-01

    The RHIC polarized H(-) ion source had been successfully upgraded to higher intensity and polarization by using a very high brightness fast atomic beam source developed at BINP, Novosibirsk. In this source the proton beam is extracted by a four-grid multi-aperture ion optical system and neutralized in the H2 gas cell downstream from the grids. The proton beam is extracted from plasma emitter with a low transverse ion temperature of ∼0.2 eV which is formed by plasma jet expansion from the arc plasma generator. The multi-hole grids are spherically shaped to produce "geometrical" beam focusing. Proton beam formation and transport of atomic beam were experimentally studied at test bench. PMID:24593468

  1. Beam characterization by wavefront sensor

    DOEpatents

    Neal, Daniel R.; Alford, W. J.; Gruetzner, James K.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and method for characterizing an energy beam (such as a laser) with a two-dimensional wavefront sensor, such as a Shack-Hartmann lenslet array. The sensor measures wavefront slope and irradiance of the beam at a single point on the beam and calculates a space-beamwidth product. A detector array such as a charge coupled device camera is preferably employed.

  2. Beam characterization by wavefront sensor

    DOEpatents

    Neal, D.R.; Alford, W.J.; Gruetzner, J.K.

    1999-08-10

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for characterizing an energy beam (such as a laser) with a two-dimensional wavefront sensor, such as a Shack-Hartmann lenslet array. The sensor measures wavefront slope and irradiance of the beam at a single point on the beam and calculates a space-beamwidth product. A detector array such as a charge coupled device camera is preferably employed. 21 figs.

  3. Effects of 2′-O-Methyl Nucleotide Substitution on EcoRI Endonuclease Cleavage Activities

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guojie; Zhao, Bin; Tong, Zhaoxue; Mu, Runqing; Guan, Yifu

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effect of sugar pucker conformation on DNA-protein interactions, we used 2′-O-methyl nucleotide (2′-OMeN) to modify the EcoRI recognition sequence -TGAATTCT-, and monitored the enzymatic cleavage process using FRET method. The 2′-O-methyl nucleotide has a C3′-endo sugar pucker conformation different from the C2′-endo sugar pucker conformation of native DNA nucleotides. The initial reaction velocities were measured and the kinetic parameters, Km and Vmax were derived using Michaelis-Menten equation. Experimental results showed that 2′-OMeN substitutions for the EcoRI recognition sequence decreased the cleavage efficiency for A2, A3 and T4 substitutions significantly, and 2′-OMeN substitution for T5 residue inhibited the enzymatic activity completely. In contrast, substitutions for G1 and C6 could maintain the original activity. 2′-fluoro nucleic acid (2′-FNA) and locked nucleic acid (LNA) having similar C3′-endo sugar pucker conformation also demonstrated similar enzymatic results. This position-dependent enzymatic cleavage property might be attributed to the phosphate backbone distortion caused by the switch from C2′-endo to C3′-endo sugar pucker conformation, and was interpreted on the basis of the DNA-EcoRI structure. These 2′-modified nucleotides could behave as a regulatory element to modulate the enzymatic activity in vitro, and this property will have potential applications in genetic engineering and biomedicine. PMID:24194862

  4. Transcriptome networks in the mouse retina: An exon level BXD RI database

    PubMed Central

    King, Rebecca; Lu, Lu; Williams, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Differences in gene expression provide diverse retina phenotypes and may also contribute to susceptibility to injury and disease. The present study defines the transcriptome of the retina in the BXD RI strain set, using the Affymetrix Mouse Gene 2.0 ST array to investigate all exons of traditional protein coding genes, non-coding RNAs, and microRNAs. These data are presented in a highly interactive database on the GeneNetwork website. Methods In the Normal Retina Database, the mRNA levels of the transcriptome from retinas was quantified using the Affymetrix Mouse Gene 2.0 ST array. This database consists of data from male and female mice. The data set includes a total of 52 BXD RI strains, the parental strains (C57BL/6J and DBA/2J), and a reciprocal cross. Results In combination with GeneNetwork, the Department of Defense (DoD) Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs (CDMRP) Normal Retina Database provides a large resource for mapping, graphing, analyzing, and testing complex genetic networks. Protein-coding and non-coding RNAs can be used to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that contribute to expression differences among the BXD strains and to establish links between classical ocular phenotypes associated with differences in the genomic sequence. Using this resource, we extracted transcriptome signatures for retinal cells and defined genetic networks associated with the maintenance of the normal retina. Furthermore, we examined differentially expressed exons within a single gene. Conclusions The high level of variation in mRNA levels found among the BXD RI strains makes it possible to identify expression networks that underline differences in retina structure and function. Ultimately, we will use this database to define changes that occur following blast injury to the retina. PMID:26604663

  5. EcoRI restriction endonuclease map of the composite R plasmid NR1.

    PubMed Central

    Tanak, N; Cramer, J H; Rownd, R H

    1976-01-01

    A physical map of the composite R plasmid NR1 has been constructed using specific cleavage of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) by the restriction endonuclease EcoR-. Digestion of composite NR1 DNA by EcoRI yields thirteen fragments. The six largest fragments (designated A to F) are from the resistance transfer factor component that harbors the tetracycline resistance genes (RTF-TC). The seven smallest fragments (designated G to M) are from the r-determinants component that harbors the chloramphenicol (CM), streptomycin-spectinomycin (SM/SP), and sulfonamide (SA) resistance genes. The largest fragment of several RTF-TC segregants of NR1 that have deleted the r-determinants component is 0.8 X 10(6) daltons larger than fragment A of composite NR1. Only a part of fragment H of the r-determinants component is amplified in transitioned NR1 DNA in Proteus mirabilis, which consists of multiple, tandem sequences of r-determinants attached to a single copy of the RTF-TC component. Both of these changes can be explained by the locations of the excision sites at the RTF-TC: r-determinants junctions that are involved in the dissociation and reassociation of the RTF-TC and r-determinants components. The thirteen fragments of composite NR1 DNA produced by EcoRI have been ordered using partial digestion techniques. The order of the fragments is: A-D-C-E-F-B-H-I-L-K-G-M-J. The approximate locations of the TC, CM, SM/SP, and SA resistance genes on the EcoRI map were determined by analyzing several deletion mutants of NR1. Images PMID:776943

  6. X-ray production with heavy post-accelerated radioactive-ion beams in the lead region of interest for Coulomb-excitation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bree, N.; Wrzosek-Lipska, K.; Butler, P. A.; Gaffney, L. P.; Grahn, T.; Huyse, M.; Kesteloot, N.; Pakarinen, J.; Petts, A.; Van Duppen, P.; Warr, N.

    2015-10-01

    Characteristic K X-rays have been observed in Coulomb-excitation experiments with heavy radioactive-ion beams in the lead region (Z = 82), produced at the REX-ISOLDE facility, and were used to identify the decay of strongly converted transitions as well as monopole 02+ → 01+ transitions. Different targets were used, and the X-rays were detected by the Miniball γ-ray spectrometer surrounding the target position. A stable mercury isotope, as well as neutron-deficient mercury, lead, polonium, and radon isotopes were studied, and a detailed description of the analysis using the radioactive 182,184,186,188Hg isotopes is presented. Apart from strongly converted transitions originating from the decay of excited states, the heavy-ion induced K-vacancy creation process has been identified as an extra source for K X-ray production. Isolating the atomic component of the observed K X-rays is essential for a correct analysis of the Coulomb-excitation experiment. Cross sections for the atomic reaction have been estimated and are compared to a theoretical approach.

  7. Reaction Dynamics of O((3)P) + Propyne: I. Primary Products, Branching Ratios, and Role of Intersystem Crossing from Crossed Molecular Beam Experiments.

    PubMed

    Vanuzzo, Gianmarco; Balucani, Nadia; Leonori, Francesca; Stranges, Domenico; Nevrly, Vaclav; Falcinelli, Stefano; Bergeat, Astrid; Casavecchia, Piergiorgio; Cavallotti, Carlo

    2016-07-14

    We performed synergic experimental/theoretical studies on the mechanism of the O((3)P) + propyne reaction by combining crossed molecular beams experiments with mass-spectrometric detection and time-of-flight analysis at 9.2 kcal/mol collision energy (Ec) with ab initio electronic structure calculations at a high level of theory of the relevant triplet and singlet potential energy surfaces (PESs) and statistical calculations of branching ratios (BRs) taking into account intersystem crossing (ISC). In this paper (I) we report the results of the experimental investigation, while the accompanying paper (II) shows results of the theoretical investigation with comparison to experimental results. By exploiting soft electron ionization detection to suppress/mitigate the effects of the dissociative ionization of reactants, products, and background gases, product angular and velocity distributions at different charge-to-mass ratios were measured. From the laboratory data angular and translational energy distributions in the center-of-mass system were obtained for the five competing most important product channels, and product BRs were derived. The reactive interaction of O((3)P) with propyne under single collision conditions is mainly leading to the rupture of the three-carbon atom chain, with production of the radical products methylketenyl + atomic hydrogen (BR = 0.04), methyl + ketenyl (BR = 0.10), and vinyl + formyl (BR = 0.11) and the molecular products ethylidene/ethylene + carbon monoxide (BR = 0.74) and propandienal + molecular hydrogen (BR = 0.01). Because some of the products can only be formed via ISC from the entrance triplet to the low-lying singlet PES, we infer from their BRs an amount of ISC larger than 80%. This value is dramatically large when compared to the negligible ISC reported for the O((3)P) reaction with the simplest alkyne, acetylene. At the same time, it is much larger than that (∼20%) recently observed in the related reaction of the three

  8. Application of an analytical testing method to improving the RI model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, S.; Nanjo, K.; Tsuruoka, H.; Hirata, N.

    2010-12-01

    Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) is a global project of earthquake predictability research. The final goalof this project is to have a look for the intrinsic predictability of the earthquake rupture process through forecast testing experiments. The 1st earthquake forecast testing experiment for Japan started on November 2009 within the CSEP. The Relative Intensity of seismicity model (RI model) was submitted for the experiment. Forecasting accuracy of the RI model is higher than that of random guessing1. The RI hypothesis is based on a working assumption that future large earthquakes are considered likely to occur at sites of higher seismic activity in the past. To improve its forecast performance, we expand the RI model algorithm to belong to a general class of smoothed seismicity models. A fundamental question is the effect of smoothing on the performance of earthquake forecasting. Our attempt is to introduce the smoothing radius r over which seismicity is averaged in space and find appropriate values for r. It is in general that model optimization is carried out according to a measure of retrospective forecasting accuracy. A typical measure is based on log-likelihood (LL). The existing simulation-based approach1 is computationally intensive, while a new analytical approach2 is less intensive. If both measures based on simulation, LLC, and analysis, LLE, show higher values for the given r value used for a case study of retrospective forecasting, the corresponding r is more meaningful for model optimization to the case. We consider different smooothing radii : r = 10, 30, 50 and 100 km for 115 earthquakes in all Japan, with a focal depth down to 100 km. The LLE is calculated by the method based on Imoto3. The LLC is calculated by miniCSEP code. Both LLC and LLE are the maximum values at r = 10 km, and the minimum ones by using the simulation method. It is also found that the analytical method is positively corrected with the

  9. U BV RI PHOTOMETRIC STANDARD STARS AROUND THE SKY AT +50 deg DECLINATION

    SciTech Connect

    Landolt, Arlo U.

    2013-11-01

    U BV RI photoelectric observations have been made of 335 stars around the sky, and centered approximately at +50 deg declination. The majority of the stars fall in the magnitude range 9 < V < 16, and in the color range –0.3 < (B – V) < +1.8. Those 243 stars best suited as new broadband photometric standard stars average 12.5 measures each from data taken on 98 different nights over a period of 17 years at the Kitt Peak National and Lowell Observatories.

  10. Beam tuning

    SciTech Connect

    Pardo, R.C.; Zinkann, G.P.

    1995-08-01

    A program for configuring the linac, based on previously run configurations for any desired beam was used during the past year. This program uses only a small number of empirical tunes to scale resonator fields to properly accelerate a beam with a different charge-to-mass (q/A) ratio from the original tune configuration. The program worked very well for the PII linac section where we can easily match a new beam`s arrival phase and velocity to the tuned value. It was also fairly successful for the Booster and ATLAS sections of the linac, but not as successful as for the PII linac. Most of the problems are associated with setting the beam arrival time correctly for each major linac section. This problem is being addressed with the development of the capacitive pickup beam phase monitor discussed above. During the next year we expect to improve our ability to quickly configure the linac for new beams and reduce the time required for linac tuning. Already the time required for linac tuning as a percentage of research hours has decreased from 22% in FY 1993 to 15% in the first quarter of FY 1995.

  11. Mincle, the receptor for mycobacterial cord factor, forms a functional receptor complex with MCL and FcεRI-γ.

    PubMed

    Lobato-Pascual, Ana; Saether, Per Christian; Fossum, Sigbjørn; Dissen, Erik; Daws, Michael R

    2013-12-01

    Upon receptor activation, the myeloid C-type lectin receptor Mincle signals via the Syk-CARD9-Bcl10-MALT1 pathway. It does so by recruiting the ITAM-bearing FcεRI-γ. The related receptor macrophage C-type Lectin (MCL) has also been shown to be associated with Syk and to be dependent upon this signaling axis. We have previously shown that MCL co-precipitates with FcεRI-γ, but were unable to show a direct association, suggesting that MCL associates with FcεRI-γ via another molecule. Here, we have used rat primary cells and cell lines to investigate this missing link. A combination of flow cytometric and biochemical analysis showed that Mincle and MCL form heteromers on the cell surface. Furthermore, association with MCL and FcεRI-γ increased Mincle expression and enhanced phagocytosis of Ab-coated beads. The results presented in this paper suggest that the Mincle/MCL/FcεRI-γ complex is the functionally optimal form for these C-type lectin receptors on the surface of myeloid cells. PMID:23921530

  12. Treatment with novel RSV Ig RI-002 controls viral replication and reduces pulmonary damage in immunocompromised Sigmodon hispidus.

    PubMed

    Boukhvalova, M; Blanco, J C G; Falsey, A R; Mond, J

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a significant cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in several high health risk populations, including infants, elderly and immunocompromised individuals. Mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with lower respiratory tract RSV infection can exceed 80%. It has been shown that RSV replication in immunosuppressed individuals is significantly prolonged, but the contribution of pulmonary damage, if any, to the pathogenesis of RSV disease in this susceptible population is not known. In this work, we tested RI-002, a novel standardized Ig formulation containing a high level of RSV-neutralizing Ab, for its ability to control RSV infection in immunocompromised cotton rats Sigmodon hispidus. Animals immunosuppressed by repeat cyclophosphamide injections were infected with RSV and treated with RI-002. Prolonged RSV replication, characteristic of immunosuppressed cotton rats, was inhibited by RI-002 administration. Ab treatment reduced detection of systemic dissemination of viral RNA. Importantly, pulmonary interstitial inflammation and epithelial hyperplasia that were significantly elevated in immunosuppressed animals were reduced by RI-002 administration. These results indicate the potential of RI-002 to improve outcome of RSV infection in immunocompromised subjects not only by controlling viral replication, but also by reducing damage to lung parenchyma and epithelial airway lining, but further studies are needed. PMID:26367224

  13. p66Shc is a negative regulator of FcεRI-dependent signaling in mast cells.

    PubMed

    Ulivieri, Cristina; Fanigliulo, Daniela; Masi, Giulia; Savino, Maria Teresa; Gamberucci, Alessandra; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Baldari, Cosima T

    2011-05-01

    Aggregation of FcεRI on mast cells activates signaling pathways, resulting in degranulation and cytokine release. Release of mast cell-derived inflammatory mediators is tightly regulated by the interplay of positive and negative signals largely orchestrated by adapter proteins. Among these, the Shc family adapter p52Shc, which couples immunoreceptors to Ras activation, positively regulates FcεRI-dependent signaling. Conversely, p66Shc was shown to uncouple the TCR for the Ras-MAPK pathway and prime T cells to undergo apoptotic death. Loss of p66Shc in mice results in breaking of immunologic tolerance and development of lupus-like autoimmune disease, which includes alopecia among its pathological manifestations. The presence of numerous activated mast cells in alopecic skin areas suggests a role for this adapter in mast cells. In this study, we addressed the involvement of p66Shc in FcεRI-dependent mast cell activation. We showed that p66Shc is expressed in mast cells and that mast cells from p66Shc(-/-) mice exhibit enhanced responses following Ag stimulation of FcεRI. Furthermore, using RBL-2H3 cell transfectants, we showed that aggregation of FcεRI resulted in the recruitment of a p66Shc-SHIP1 complex to linker for activation of T cells. Collectively, our data identified p66Shc as a negative regulator of mast cell activation. PMID:21430228

  14. Characterization, genetic analysis, and expression of a protease antigen (PrpRI) of Porphyromonas gingivalis W50.

    PubMed Central

    Aduse-Opoku, J; Muir, J; Slaney, J M; Rangarajan, M; Curtis, M A

    1995-01-01

    Previous studies of the serum immunoglobulin G antibody response of periodontal patients have demonstrated significant reactivity to a cell surface or extracellular arginine-specific protease of Porphyromonas gingivalis which migrates as an approximately 50-kDa band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. In the present report, two forms of the enzyme (ArgI and ArgIA) with this electrophoretic behavior were isolated. ArgI is a heterodimer of alpha and beta subunits, and ArgIA is a monomer composed of the catalytically active alpha component alone. The gene encoding ArgI (prpR1 encoding protease polyprotein ArgI) was cloned from Sau3AI digests of P. gingivalis W50 DNA into pUC18. Sequence analysis demonstrated that the alpha and beta components are contiguous on the initial translation product and are flanked by large N- and C-terminal extensions. prpR1 is 97.5% identical to the rgp-1 gene from P. gingivalis H66. prpR1 expression in Escherichia coli demonstrated the presence of an internal transcription-translation initiation site which could permit independent expression of different regions of the polyprotein. Immunochemical analysis of P. gingivalis mid-logarithmic-phase cultures suggested that the processing of PrpRI may be closely coupled to its synthesis, with only the final stages taking place at the cell surface. Southern hybridization studies demonstrated that the prpR1 gene is widely distributed in other P. gingivalis strains and that a second homologous locus to the alpha component and at least two other homologous loci to the beta component are present on the P. gingivalis chromosome. These data indicate that the ArgI protease of P. gingivalis is a member of a family of sequence-related gene products which may share both functional and antigenic properties. PMID:7591131

  15. Type I (RI) and type II (RII) receptors for transforming growth factor-beta isoforms are expressed subsequent to transforming growth factor-beta ligands during excisional wound repair.

    PubMed Central

    Gold, L. I.; Sung, J. J.; Siebert, J. W.; Longaker, M. T.

    1997-01-01

    slightly immunoreactive for RI and RII until day 5 when, immediately under the wound, immunostaining for fibroblasts, connective tissue cells, and newly forming vasculature began to increase and remained intense until day 14. Consistent with the role for TGF-beta in scarring, numerous fibroblasts, ostensibly active in the production of extracellular matrix components, continued to be slightly immunoreactive for RI and RII at 21 days. The ALK-1 (TSR-1) type I receptor, which binds both activin and TGF-beta, showed slight immunostaining early in repair (days 1 to 7) that progressively became more intense later in repair after day 10 and through day 21. This suggests that there may be a switch to a different type I receptor, implying different functions for the ALK-1 and ALK-5 receptors. The concomitant expression of TGF-beta isoforms and their signal-transducing receptors denote potential spatial and temporal activity of TGF-beta. Thus, although TGF-beta ligand is present, TGF-beta would not function in wound repair until a later time when RI and RII appear. This information should aid in the development of receptor antagonists as a therapeutic approach to scarring and fibrosis. In addition, these studies underscore the importance of defining the expression of proteins in vivo to establish a basis for the analysis of mechanisms in vitro. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9006337

  16. Barriers to Health Insurance Pre- and Post-Affordable Care Act Implementation in Providence, RI.

    PubMed

    Pigoga, Jennifer; Kibria, Farzana; Pinilla, Mauricio; Bicki, Alexandra; Joseph, Valerie; De Groot, Anne S

    2015-12-01

    The impact of healthcare reform under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) on individuals living in cities has not yet been quantified by local Departments of Health. This makes it difficult for safety net sources of healthcare, such as free clinics, to plan for the future. Therefore, members of Clinica Esperanza/Hope Clinic conducted a survey in predominantly Latino communities of South and West Providence, RI, using a convenience sample method (N = 206). Survey results were compared to a prior survey conducted in the same communities prior to ACA implementation. Despite gains due to Obamacare, a much higher level of uninsurance was reported in this survey than has been reported statewide. In 2014, as compared to 2010, 48% vs. 95% of respondents reported being uninsured, and more held private (20% vs. 5%) or government-subsidized health insurance (32% vs. 1%). Undocumented immigration status and cost were the two most commonly reported reasons for remaining uninsured under the ACA. First-generation immigrants living in urban centers are still reporting significantly higher rates of uninsurance (48%) than the general population in RI (7.4%). PMID:26623454

  17. Insights into copper coordination in the EcoRI-DNA complex by ESR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Ming; Tan, Likun; Jen-Jacobson, Linda; Saxena, Sunil

    2014-12-01

    The EcoRI restriction endonuclease requires one divalent metal ion in each of two symmetrical and identical catalytic sites to catalyse double-strand DNA cleavage. Recently, we showed that Cu2+ binds outside the catalytic sites to a pair of new sites at H114 in each sub-unit, and inhibits Mg2+-catalysed DNA cleavage. In order to provide more detailed structural information on this new metal ion binding site, we performed W-band (∼94 GHz) and X-band (∼9.5 GHz) electron spin resonance spectroscopic measurements on the EcoRI-DNA-(Cu2+)2 complex. Cu2+ binding results in two distinct components with different gzz and Azz values. X-band electron spin echo envelope modulation results indicate that both components arise from a Cu2+ coordinated to histidine. This observation is further confirmed by the hyperfine sub-level correlation results. W-band electron nuclear double resonance spectra provide evidence for equatorial coordination of water molecules to the Cu2+ ions.

  18. PERI-CC2: A Polarizable Embedded RI-CC2 Method.

    PubMed

    Schwabe, Tobias; Sneskov, Kristian; Haugaard Olsen, Jógvan Magnus; Kongsted, Jacob; Christiansen, Ove; Hättig, Christof

    2012-09-11

    We present a combination of the polarizable embedding (PE) method with the resolution-of-the-identity implementation of the approximate coupled-cluster singles and doubles method CC2. The new approach, termed PERI-CC2, allows one to study excited state phenomena of large solvated molecular systems with an accurate correlated wave function method. Central to the PE approach is the advanced description of the environmental electrostatic potential and inclusion of polarization, and the quintessence of RI-CC2 is efficient access to excited state properties while retaining the accuracy associated with CC theory. To maintain efficiency, an approximate truncated CC2 density is introduced to calculate the PE contributions. Explicitly, we derive the central equations and outline an implementation of polarizable embedding for the RI-CC2 approach. The new method is tested against previous PE-CC2 and PE-CCSD results for solvatochromic shifts, demonstrating how the important effects of polarization are incorporated well with PERI-CC2 but with a dramatically reduced overall computational cost. A follow-up investigation of the solvatochromic shift of uracil in aqueous solution further illustrates the potential of PERI-CC2. We discuss the need to explicitly incorporate several water molecules into the region treated by quantum mechanics in order to obtain a reliable and accurate description of the physical effects when specific solute/solvent interactions as, e.g., hydrogen-bonds are involved. PMID:26605734

  19. Zinc-binding metallothioneins are key modulators of IL-4 production by basophils.

    PubMed

    Ugajin, Tsukasa; Nishida, Keigo; Yamasaki, Satoru; Suzuki, Junko; Mita, Masaharu; Kubo, Masato; Yokozeki, Hiroo; Hirano, Toshio

    2015-08-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential nutrient, and Zn deficiency causes immunodeficiency and skin disorders. Basophils express FcɛRI on their surface and release multiple mediators after receptor cross-linking, including large amounts of IL-4. However, the mechanisms involved in the FcɛRI-mediated regulation of basophil IL-4 production are currently unclear. Here, we show that the Zn-binding metallothionein (MT) proteins are essential for the FcɛRI-induced basophil production of IL-4. Basophils from MT-I/II(-/-) mice produced significantly less FcɛRI-induced IL-4 than did wild-type basophils. The MTs were involved in maintaining intracellular Zn levels, thereby regulated the calcineurin activity and nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT)-mediated IL-4 production. These results suggest that the MT-dependent control of Zn homeostasis is a novel mechanism for regulating basophil IL-4 production. PMID:25801306

  20. Development of an in vitro model system for studying the interaction of Equus caballus IgE with its high-affinity receptor FcεRI.

    PubMed

    Sabban, Sari; Ye, Hongtu; Helm, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of IgE with its high-affinity Fc receptor (FcεRI) followed by an antigenic challenge is the principal pathway in IgE mediated allergic reactions. As a consequence of the high affinity binding between IgE and FcεRI, along with the continuous production of IgE by B cells, allergies usually persist throughout life, with currently no permanent cure available. Horses, especially race horses, which are commonly inbred, are a species of mammals that are very prone to the development of hypersensitivity responses, which can seriously affect their performance. Physiological responses to allergic sensitization in horses mirror that observed in humans and dogs. In this paper we describe the development of an in situ assay system for the quantitative assessment of the release of mediators of the allergic response pertaining to the equine system. To this end, the gene encoding equine FcεRIα was transfected into and expressed onto the surface of parental Rat Basophil Leukemia (RBL-2H3.1) cells. The gene product of the transfected equine α-chain formed a functional receptor complex with the endogenous rat β- and γ-chains. The resultant assay system facilitated an assessment of the quantity of mediator secreted from equine FcεRIα transfected RBL-2H3.1 cells following sensitization with equine IgE and antigenic challenge using β-hexosaminidase release as a readout. Mediator release peaked at 36.68% ± 4.88% at 100 ng ml(-1) of antigen. This assay was modified from previous assays used to study human and canine allergic responses. We have also shown that this type of assay system has multiple applications for the development of diagnostic tools and the safety assessment of potential therapeutic intervention strategies in allergic disease. PMID:25406512