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Sample records for rice gall midge

  1. Rice-gall midge interactions: Battle for survival.

    PubMed

    Bentur, Jagadish S; Rawat, Nidhi; Divya, D; Sinha, Deepak K; Agarrwal, Ruchi; Atray, Isha; Nair, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Gall midges are insects specialized in maneuvering plant growth, metabolic and defense pathways for their benefit. The Asian rice gall midge and rice share such an intimate relationship that there is a constant battle for survival by either partner. Diverse responses by the rice host against the midge include necrotic hypersensitive resistance reaction, non-hypersensitive resistance reaction and gall-forming compatible interaction. Genetic studies have revealed that major R (resistance) genes confer resistance to gall midge in rice. Eleven gall midge R genes have been characterized so far in different rice varieties in India. In addition, no single R gene confers resistance against all the seven biotypes of the Asian rice gall midge, and none of the biotypes is virulent against all the resistance genes. Further, the interaction of the plant resistance gene with the insect avirulence gene is on a gene-for-gene basis. Our recent investigations involving suppressive subtraction hybridization cDNA libraries, microarray analyses, gene expression assays and metabolic profiling have revealed several molecular mechanisms, metabolite markers and pathways that are induced, down-regulated or altered in the rice host during incompatible or compatible interactions with the pest. This is also true for some of the pathways studied in the gall midge. Next generation sequencing technology, gene expression studies and conventional screening of gall midge cDNA libraries highlighted molecular approaches adopted by the insect to feed, survive and reproduce. This constant struggle by the midge to overcome the host defenses and the host to resist the pest has provided us with an opportunity to observe this battle for survival at the molecular level. PMID:26455891

  2. Analysis of SSH library of rice variety Aganni reveals candidate gall midge resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Divya, Dhanasekar; Singh, Y Tunginba; Nair, Suresh; Bentur, J S

    2016-03-01

    The Asian rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae, is a serious insect pest causing extensive yield loss. Interaction between the gall midge and rice genotypes is known to be on a gene-for-gene basis. Here, we report molecular basis of HR- (hypersensitive reaction-negative) type of resistance in Aganni (an indica rice variety possessing gall midge resistance gene Gm8) through the construction and analysis of a suppressive subtraction hybridization (SSH) cDNA library. In all, 2,800 positive clones were sequenced and analyzed. The high-quality ESTs were assembled into 448 non-redundant gene sequences. Homology search with the NCBI databases, using BlastX and BlastN, revealed that 73% of the clones showed homology to genes with known function and majority of ESTs belonged to the gene ontology category 'biological process'. Validation of 27 putative candidate gall midge resistance genes through real-time PCR, following gall midge infestation, in contrasting parents and their derived pre-NILs (near isogenic lines) revealed induction of specific genes related to defense and metabolism. Interestingly, four genes, belonging to families of leucine-rich repeat (LRR), heat shock protein (HSP), pathogenesis related protein (PR), and NAC domain-containing protein, implicated in conferring HR+ type of resistance, were found to be up-regulated in Aganni. Two of the reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI)-scavenging-enzyme-coding genes Cytosolic Ascorbate Peroxidase1, 2 (OsAPx1 and OsAPx2) were found up-regulated in Aganni in incompatible interaction possibly suppressing HR. We suggest that Aganni has a deviant form of inducible, salicylic acid (SA)-mediated resistance but without HR. PMID:26801786

  3. A novel mechanism of gall midge resistance in the rice variety Kavya revealed by microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Nidhi; Chiruvuri Naga, Neeraja; Raman Meenakshi, Sundaram; Nair, Suresh; Bentur, Jagadish S

    2012-06-01

    The Asian rice gall midge [Orseolia oryzae (Wood-Mason)] is an important rice pest causing an annual average yield loss of about US $80 million in India. Rice varieties possess several discrete resistance (R) genes conferring resistance against the pest in two distinct ways, i.e., with (HR+ type) or without (HR- type) the expression of hypersensitive reaction (HR). The aim of the present work is to understand the molecular basis of compatible and incompatible (HR- type) rice gall midge interactions between the rice variety Kavya and the two gall midge biotypes: the virulent GMB4M and the avirulent GMB1 using transcriptional microarray gene expression analysis. A large number of differentially expressed genes (602genes in incompatible interaction and 1,330 genes in compatible interaction with at least twofold changes, p value <0.05) was obtained from the microarray analysis that could be grouped into six clusters based on their induction during both or either of the interactions. MapMan software was used for functional characterization of these genes into 13 categories (BINs). Real-time polymerase chain reaction validation of 26 genes selected through the analysis revealed four genes viz. NADPH oxidase, AtrbohF, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, and von Willebrand factor type A domain containing protein coding genes to be significantly upregulated during the incompatible interaction. But most of the signature genes related to HR+ type resistance like salicylic acid pathway-related genes and disease resistance protein coding genes were downregulated. On the other hand, during the compatible interaction, genes related to primary metabolism and nutrient transport were upregulated and genes for defense and signaling were downregulated. We propose a hypothesis that HR- type of resistance in the rice variety Kavya against gall midge could be due to the constitutive expression of an R gene and a case of extreme resistance which is devoid of cell death. Compatible interaction

  4. Pyrosequencing-Based Transcriptome Analysis of the Asian Rice Gall Midge Reveals Differential Response during Compatible and Incompatible Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Deepak Kumar; Nagaraju, Javaregowda; Tomar, Archana; Bentur, Jagadish S.; Nair, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    The Asian rice gall midge (Orseolia oryzae) is a major pest responsible for immense loss in rice productivity. Currently, very little knowledge exists with regard to this insect at the molecular level. The present study was initiated with the aim of developing molecular resources as well as identifying alterations at the transcriptome level in the gall midge maggots that are in a compatible (SH) or in an incompatible interaction (RH) with their rice host. Roche 454 pyrosequencing strategy was used to develop both transcriptomics and genomics resources that led to the identification of 79,028 and 85,395 EST sequences from gall midge biotype 4 (GMB4) maggots feeding on a susceptible and resistant rice variety, TN1 (SH) and Suraksha (RH), respectively. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the maggots in SH and RH revealed over-representation of transcripts from proteolysis and protein phosphorylation in maggots from RH. In contrast, over-representation of transcripts for translation, regulation of transcription and transcripts involved in electron transport chain were observed in maggots from SH. This investigation, besides unveiling various mechanisms underlying insect-plant interactions, will also lead to a better understanding of strategies adopted by insects in general, and the Asian rice gall midge in particular, to overcome host defense. PMID:23202939

  5. Biodiversity of Asian rice gall midge (Orseolia oryzae Wood Mason) from five countries examined by AFLP analysis.

    PubMed

    Katiyar, S K; Chandel, G; Tan, Y; Zhang, Y; Huang, B; Nugaliyadde, L; Fernando, K; Bentur, J S; Inthavong, S; Constantino, S; Bennett, J

    2000-04-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was used to assess the biodiversity of one of the most important dipteran pests of cereals, the Asian rice gall midge (Orseolia oryzae Wood Mason). Larvae and pupae were collected at 15 locations in five Asian countries and preserved in 95% ethanol for storage, shipment, and DNA extraction using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Although only approximately 1 microg of DNA was extracted from a single pupa or larva, the use of several AFLP primers in various combinations meant that this amount of DNA was sufficient to allow many DNA fingerprints to be made per individual. Fingerprints were sufficiently reproducible, especially during selective amplification, to allow the genetic diversity within a field population to be characterized. Extraction of DNA from a pool of 20 insects yielded AFLP fingerprints in which variation among individuals was sacrificed in favor of detecting differences among populations. For each location, pooled DNA was amplified with three primer pairs. A total of 261 distinct AFLP bands were identified for the 45 fingerprints. Cluster analysis, performed by the unweighted pair-group method (UPGMA), separated the populations into two distinct groups. Group I included two populations from Guangdong province of southern China and one each from Laos and Imphal in northeastern India, while group II was comprised of eleven populations from elsewhere in India (Assam, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, and Kerala) and from Nepal and Sri Lanka. AFLP analysis provided insight into the origins of gall midge biotypes. In 1992, the prevailing biotype in Imphal changed from Indian biotype 3 to a new biotype 3M. Our data show that biotype 3M belongs to group I and did not arise by a recent mutation from biotype 3, which belongs to group II. By contrast, Indian biotypes 2 and 4 are likely to have diverged through recent mutation and selection, as are Chinese biotypes 1 and 4. The almost

  6. COMPARATIVE SALIVARY GLAND TRANSCRIPTOMICS OF THREE GALL MIDGE PESTS OF CEREAL CROPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many gall midge species are important economic pests of crop plants. Among the most importantare the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor, the Asian rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae, and theorange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana. The salivary glands of these insects arethe source of the che...

  7. QTL Mapping in Three Rice Populations Uncovers Major Genomic Regions Associated with African Rice Gall Midge Resistance.

    PubMed

    Yao, Nasser; Lee, Cheng-Ruei; Semagn, Kassa; Sow, Mounirou; Nwilene, Francis; Kolade, Olufisayo; Bocco, Roland; Oyetunji, Olumoye; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Ndjiondjop, Marie-Noëlle

    2016-01-01

    African rice gall midge (AfRGM) is one of the most destructive pests of irrigated and lowland African ecologies. This study aimed to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with AfRGM pest incidence and resistance in three independent bi-parental rice populations (ITA306xBW348-1, ITA306xTOG7106 and ITA306xTOS14519), and to conduct meta QTL (mQTL) analysis to explore whether any genomic regions are conserved across different genetic backgrounds. Composite interval mapping (CIM) conducted on the three populations independently uncovered a total of 28 QTLs associated with pest incidence (12) and pest severity (16). The number of QTLs per population associated with AfRGM resistance varied from three in the ITA306xBW348-1 population to eight in the ITA306xTOG7106 population. Each QTL individually explained 1.3 to 34.1% of the phenotypic variance. The major genomic region for AfRGM resistance had a LOD score and R2 of 60.0 and 34.1% respectively, and mapped at 111 cM on chromosome 4 (qAfrGM4) in the ITA306xTOS14519 population. The meta-analysis reduced the number of QTLs from 28 to 17 mQTLs, each explaining 1.3 to 24.5% of phenotypic variance, and narrowed the confidence intervals by 2.2 cM. There was only one minor effect mQTL on chromosome 1 that was common in the TOS14519 and TOG7106 genetic backgrounds; all other mQTLs were background specific. We are currently fine-mapping and validating the major effect genomic region on chromosome 4 (qAfRGM4). This is the first report in mapping the genomic regions associated with the AfRGM resistance, and will be highly useful for rice breeders. PMID:27508500

  8. QTL Mapping in Three Rice Populations Uncovers Major Genomic Regions Associated with African Rice Gall Midge Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Semagn, Kassa; Sow, Mounirou; Nwilene, Francis; Kolade, Olufisayo; Bocco, Roland; Oyetunji, Olumoye; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Ndjiondjop, Marie-Noëlle

    2016-01-01

    African rice gall midge (AfRGM) is one of the most destructive pests of irrigated and lowland African ecologies. This study aimed to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with AfRGM pest incidence and resistance in three independent bi-parental rice populations (ITA306xBW348-1, ITA306xTOG7106 and ITA306xTOS14519), and to conduct meta QTL (mQTL) analysis to explore whether any genomic regions are conserved across different genetic backgrounds. Composite interval mapping (CIM) conducted on the three populations independently uncovered a total of 28 QTLs associated with pest incidence (12) and pest severity (16). The number of QTLs per population associated with AfRGM resistance varied from three in the ITA306xBW348-1 population to eight in the ITA306xTOG7106 population. Each QTL individually explained 1.3 to 34.1% of the phenotypic variance. The major genomic region for AfRGM resistance had a LOD score and R2 of 60.0 and 34.1% respectively, and mapped at 111 cM on chromosome 4 (qAfrGM4) in the ITA306xTOS14519 population. The meta-analysis reduced the number of QTLs from 28 to 17 mQTLs, each explaining 1.3 to 24.5% of phenotypic variance, and narrowed the confidence intervals by 2.2 cM. There was only one minor effect mQTL on chromosome 1 that was common in the TOS14519 and TOG7106 genetic backgrounds; all other mQTLs were background specific. We are currently fine-mapping and validating the major effect genomic region on chromosome 4 (qAfRGM4). This is the first report in mapping the genomic regions associated with the AfRGM resistance, and will be highly useful for rice breeders. PMID:27508500

  9. Gall midges (hessian flies) as plant pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gall midges constitute an important group of plant-parasitic insects. The Hessian fly (HF, Mayetiola destructor), the most investigated gall midge, was the first insect hypothesized to have a gene-for-gene interaction with its host plant, wheat (Triticum spp.). Recent investigations support that h...

  10. Tripius gyraloura n. sp. (Aphelenchoidea: Sphaerulariidae) parasitic in the gall midge Lasioptera donacis Coutin (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new nematode, Tripius gyraloura sp. n., is described from the arundo gall midge, Lasioptera donacis Coutin (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). This gall midge is being considered as a biological control agent for use in North America against the introduced giant reed, Arundo donax (L.) (Poaceae: Cyperales)....

  11. The North American gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) of hackberries (Cannabaceae: Celtis spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-three species of gall midges occur exclusively on hackberries in North America north of Mexico. Twenty-one of them belong to Celticecis and form complex, dehiscent galls on leaves and the current year’s twigs. Celticecis are definitely known only from the typical subgenus of Celtis that is di...

  12. Blueberry gall midge: A major insect pest of blueberries in the southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blueberry gall midge (BGM) (Dasineura oxycoccana: Ceccidomyidae) is a major pest of blueberries in the southeast United States. Larvae attack leaf and flower buds, causing up to 80% yield loss. Eggs hatch in a few days and larvae develop inside the protective bud. Larval feeding destroys the bud ...

  13. Massive shift in gene expression during transitions between developmental stages of the Gall Midge, Mayetiola destructor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gall midge Mayetiola destructor is a destructive pest of wheat worldwide and a model organism for studying plant – insect interactions. The insect has six different developmental stages including eggs, three instars of larvae, pupae, and adults. Molecular mechanisms controlling the transition ...

  14. Does gall midge larvae cause pre-dispersal seed mortality and limit cornflower population growth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprdova, Stanislava; Bellanger, Solène; Skuhrovec, Jiří; Darmency, Henri

    2015-11-01

    Many kinds of pests can reduce seed production. Some directly attack seeds before they are released, and some are hosted by the fruit and impact seed ripening and viability indirectly. Pre-dispersal seed mortality may have strong effects on plant population dynamics and evolution. Our goals were to determine to what extent insect-mediated pre-dispersal seed mortality contributes to population-level declines of cornflower, Centaurea cyanus L. We recorded occurrence and abundance of seed-feeding insects on flower heads in twelve cornflower populations. We measured flower head size, number of disc florets, seed production, and seed viability and germination. Larger flower heads had proportionally fewer healthy seeds. Although we observed no visible damage to the C. cyanus seed, the presence of gall midge (Cecidomyiidae) larvae inside the flower head correlated with four times fewer viable seeds. It seems that gall midges could have a significant impact on ovule fertilization, seed abortion and viability of fully developed cornflower seeds. The higher rate of aborted seeds in the presence of gall midge larvae could have been because the larvae extracted resources from the seeds, or because the larvae repelled pollinators. The viability of apparently healthy seeds was 40% lower in flower heads that contained larvae and/or aborted seed. Insect-mediated pre-dispersal mortality could select against evolution toward larger flower head, and have detrimental consequences on seed number, viability and germination, all of which could limit the spread of C. cyanus populations.

  15. Carotenoids in unexpected places: gall midges, lateral gene transfer, and carotenoid biosynthesis in animals.

    PubMed

    Cobbs, Cassidy; Heath, Jeremy; Stireman, John O; Abbot, Patrick

    2013-08-01

    Carotenoids are conjugated isoprenoid molecules with many important physiological functions in organisms, including roles in photosynthesis, oxidative stress reduction, vision, diapause, photoperiodism, and immunity. Until recently, it was believed that only plants, microorganisms, and fungi were capable of synthesizing carotenoids and that animals acquired them from their diet, but recent studies have demonstrated that two arthropods (pea aphid and spider mite) possess a pair of genes homologous to those required for the first step of carotenoid biosynthesis. Absent in all other known animal genomes, these genes appear to have been acquired by aphids and spider mites in one or several lateral gene transfer events from a fungal donor. We report the third case of fungal carotenoid biosynthesis gene homologs in an arthropod: flies from the family Cecidomyiidae, commonly known as gall midges. Using phylogenetic analyses we show that it is unlikely that lycopene cyclase/phytoene synthase and phytoene desaturase homologs were transferred singly to an ancient arthropod ancestor; instead we propose that genes were transferred independently from related fungal donors after divergence of the major arthropod lineages. We also examine variation in intron placement and copy number of the carotenoid genes that may underlie function in the midges. This trans-kingdom transfer of carotenoid genes may represent a key innovation, underlying the evolution of phytophagy and plant-galling in gall midges and facilitating their extensive diversification across plant lineages. PMID:23542649

  16. Biology and efficacy of Aprostocetus (Eulophidae: hymenoptera) as a parasitoid of the blueberry gall midge complex: Dasineura oxycoccana Johnson and Prodiplosis vaccinii (Felt) (Diptera: cecidomyiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the southeastern US, bud-infesting larvae of two gall midge species, Dasineura oxycoccana (Johnson) and Prodiplosis vaccinii (Felt), destroy from 20% to 80% of the rabbiteye blueberry crop, Vaccinium virgatum Aiton. Fortunately, these midge larvae fall prey to five species of endoparasitic wasps....

  17. Why oviposit there? Fitness consequences of a gall midge choosing the plant's youngest leaf.

    PubMed

    Ganehiarachchi, G A S M; Anderson, Kirk M; Harmon, Jason; Harris, Marion O

    2013-02-01

    For animals that lay eggs, a longstanding question is, why do females choose particular oviposition sites? For insects that lay eggs on plants there are three hypotheses: maximizing suitable habitat for juveniles, maximizing female lifespan, and maximizing egg survival. We investigated the function of the oviposition-site choice behavior of a gall midge, the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say). In spite of living less than a day and having hundreds of eggs, the ovipositing female is choosy about the placement of eggs. Choosiness makes sense. The tiny gall-making neonate larva has limited movement and strict requirements for colonization. We examined whether offspring benefit from the Hessian fly female's preference for the plant's youngest leaf. To do this we restricted the female's access to the first, second, or third leaf of a seedling (wheat Triticum aestivum L.) plant. Being placed on older leaves did not impact egg survival or larval survival during migration to attack sites at the base of the plant, but did have negative impacts on egg-to-adult survival (reduced by 48%) and reproductive potential (reduced by 30-45%). These negative impacts appear to come from larvae having to search harder to find the limited number of reactive plant cells that can be reprogrammed to form the gall nutritive tissue. We propose that the ability of larvae to find these reactive cells in spite of being placed on an older leaf is important because it creates leeway for female behavior to evolve in the face of other selection pressures, e.g., attack by egg parasitoids. PMID:23339793

  18. Massive Shift in Gene Expression during Transitions between Developmental Stages of the Gall Midge, Mayetiola Destructor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming-Shun; Liu, Sanzhen; Wang, Haiyan; Cheng, Xiaoyan; El Bouhssini, Mustapha; Whitworth, R. Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Mayetiola destructor is a destructive pest of wheat and has six developmental stages. Molecular mechanisms controlling the transition between developmental stages remain unknown. Here we analyzed genes that were expressed differentially between two successive developmental stages, including larvae at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days, pupae, and adults. A total of 17,344 genes were expressed during one or more of these studied stages. Among the expressed genes, 38–68% were differently expressed between two successive stages, with roughly equal percentages of up- and down-regulated genes. Analysis of the functions of the differentially expressed genes revealed that each developmental stage had some unique types of expressed genes that are characteristic of the physiology at that stage. This is the first genome-wide analysis of genes differentially expressed in different stages in a gall midge. The large dataset of up- and down-regulated genes in each stage of the insect shall be very useful for future research to elucidate mechanisms regulating insect development and other biological processes. PMID:27224654

  19. Pyrosequencing Reveals the Predominance of Pseudomonadaceae in Gut Microbiome of a Gall Midge

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Raman; Hulbert, Scot H.; Reese, John C.; Whitworth, Robert J.; Stuart, Jeffrey J.; Chen, Ming-Shun

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbes are known to play various roles in insects such as digestion of inaccessible nutrients, synthesis of deficient amino acids, and interaction with ecological environments, including host plants. Here, we analyzed the gut microbiome in Hessian fly, a serious pest of wheat. A total of 3,654 high quality sequences of the V3 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene were obtained through 454-pyrosequencing. From these sequences, 311 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained at the ≥97% similarity cutoff. In the gut of 1st instar, otu01, a member of Pseudomonas, was predominant, representing 90.2% of total sequences. otu13, an unidentified genus in the Pseudomonadaceae family, represented 1.9% of total sequences. The remaining OTUs were each less than 1%. In the gut of the 2nd instar, otu01 and otu13 decreased to 85.5% and 1.5%, respectively. otu04, a member of Buttiauxella, represented 9.7% of total sequences. The remaining OTUs were each less than 1%. In the gut of the 3rd instar, otu01 and otu13 further decreased to 29.0% and 0%, respectively. otu06, otu08, and otu16, also three members of the Pseudomonadaceae family were 13.2%, 8.6%, and 2.3%, respectively. In addition, otu04 and otu14, two members of the Enterobacteriaceae family, were 4.7% and 2.5%; otu18 and otu20, two members of the Xanthomonadaceae family, were 1.3% and 1.2%, respectively; otu12, a member of Achromobacter, was 4.2%; otu19, a member of Undibacterium, was 1.4%; and otu9, otu10, and otu15, members of various families, were 6.1%, 6.3%, and 1.9%, respectively. The investigation into dynamics of Pseudomonas, the most abundant genera, revealed that its population level was at peak in freshly hatched or 1 day larvae as well as in later developmental stages, thus suggesting a prominent role for this bacterium in Hessian fly development and in its interaction with host plants. This study is the first comprehensive survey on bacteria associated with the gut of a gall midge, and

  20. Deep sequencing and genome-wide analysis reveals the expansion of MicroRNA genes in the gall midge Mayetiola destructor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that play critical roles in regulating gene expression post transcription. Gall midges are a large group of insects that are of economical importance and also possess fascinating biological traits. In this study, we systematically analyzed miRNAs from th...

  1. Functional responses and prey-stage preferences of a predatory gall midge and two predacious mites wtih twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae as host

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), is an important pest of vegetables and other crops. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the potential role of three commercially available predators, predatory gall midge, Feltiella acarisuga (Vallot) (Diptera: Ceci...

  2. An equal sex ratio followed by differential sex mortality causes overestimation of females in gall midges: no evidence for sex ratio regulation.

    PubMed

    Tabadkani, Seyed Mohammad; Ashouri, Ahmad; Qolizadeh, Majid

    2012-06-01

    Monogeny, the production of unisexual broods by individual females, has been recognized for nearly 80 years. The genetic nature of gall midges' sex determination predicts an equal numbers of male-producing and female-producing females in the populations such that the overall sex ratio is expected to be nearly 1:1. However, observations of some strictly monogenous populations with biased sex ratio, mainly toward females, have raised the question of whether gall midges are able to adjust their offspring sex ratio in response to changes in environmental conditions, and some authors have even considered sex ratio regulation as a strong force in the course of the evolution of monogeny. In this paper, first, by studying the sex ratio variations of the predatory gall midge, Aphidoletes aphidimyza within a generation, we showed that adult males emerge up to 1 day earlier and have shorter life span than females (less than 4 days and up to 6 days, respectively). Although, the sex ratio of A. aphidimyza at the time of emergence was nearly 1:1 (52.41% males), a simple population simulation indicated that the differential mortality of sexes can lead to a female-biased sex ratio estimation (57.88% females) under random sampling in the natural environments. Our results imply that the primary sex ratio of monogenous gall midges is nearly 1:1 and that the arrhenogenic/thelygenic gall midges are not able to alter the number of their male/female progenies in response to changes in environmental conditions. PMID:22643882

  3. An equal sex ratio followed by differential sex mortality causes overestimation of females in gall midges: no evidence for sex ratio regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabadkani, Seyed Mohammad; Ashouri, Ahmad; Qolizadeh, Majid

    2012-06-01

    Monogeny, the production of unisexual broods by individual females, has been recognized for nearly 80 years. The genetic nature of gall midges' sex determination predicts an equal numbers of male-producing and female-producing females in the populations such that the overall sex ratio is expected to be nearly 1:1. However, observations of some strictly monogenous populations with biased sex ratio, mainly toward females, have raised the question of whether gall midges are able to adjust their offspring sex ratio in response to changes in environmental conditions, and some authors have even considered sex ratio regulation as a strong force in the course of the evolution of monogeny. In this paper, first, by studying the sex ratio variations of the predatory gall midge, Aphidoletes aphidimyza within a generation, we showed that adult males emerge up to 1 day earlier and have shorter life span than females (less than 4 days and up to 6 days, respectively). Although, the sex ratio of A. aphidimyza at the time of emergence was nearly 1:1 (52.41 % males), a simple population simulation indicated that the differential mortality of sexes can lead to a female-biased sex ratio estimation (57.88 % females) under random sampling in the natural environments. Our results imply that the primary sex ratio of monogenous gall midges is nearly 1:1 and that the arrhenogenic/thelygenic gall midges are not able to alter the number of their male/female progenies in response to changes in environmental conditions.

  4. A Simulation Approach to Assessing Sampling Strategies for Insect Pests: An Example with the Balsam Gall Midge

    PubMed Central

    Carleton, R. Drew; Heard, Stephen B.; Silk, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of pest density is a basic requirement for integrated pest management in agriculture and forestry, and efficiency in density estimation is a common goal. Sequential sampling techniques promise efficient sampling, but their application can involve cumbersome mathematics and/or intensive warm-up sampling when pests have complex within- or between-site distributions. We provide tools for assessing the efficiency of sequential sampling and of alternative, simpler sampling plans, using computer simulation with “pre-sampling” data. We illustrate our approach using data for balsam gall midge (Paradiplosis tumifex) attack in Christmas tree farms. Paradiplosis tumifex proved recalcitrant to sequential sampling techniques. Midge distributions could not be fit by a common negative binomial distribution across sites. Local parameterization, using warm-up samples to estimate the clumping parameter k for each site, performed poorly: k estimates were unreliable even for samples of n∼100 trees. These methods were further confounded by significant within-site spatial autocorrelation. Much simpler sampling schemes, involving random or belt-transect sampling to preset sample sizes, were effective and efficient for P. tumifex. Sampling via belt transects (through the longest dimension of a stand) was the most efficient, with sample means converging on true mean density for sample sizes of n∼25–40 trees. Pre-sampling and simulation techniques provide a simple method for assessing sampling strategies for estimating insect infestation. We suspect that many pests will resemble P. tumifex in challenging the assumptions of sequential sampling methods. Our software will allow practitioners to optimize sampling strategies before they are brought to real-world applications, while potentially avoiding the need for the cumbersome calculations required for sequential sampling methods. PMID:24376556

  5. Purification and partial characterization of thermal hysteresis proteins from overwintering larvae of pine needle gall midge, Thecodiplosis japonensis (Diptera: cecidomiidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Gong, H; Park, H Y

    2000-01-01

    The pine needle gall midge of Thecodiplosis japonensis is a serious forest pest and overwinters as a 3rd instar larva at soil surface in Korea. The time necessary for killing 50% of larvae at -15 degree C is 160 min. During overwintering period, T. japonensis larvae accumulate relatively high content of trehalose as the main cryoprotectant. In this paper, the proteinaceous cryoprotectants were identified. Two thermal hysteresis proteins (THP-1S and 2S) were purified from overwintering larvae by ethanol fractionation, trichloroacetic acid precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sephadex A-25) and gel permeation chromatography (Sephadex G-100). Their molecular weights are 34.9 and 37.8 kD respectively. T. japonensis THPs cannot be stained by periodic acid-Schiffs' reagent, suggesting no carbohydrate in them. The thermal hysteresis activity of THP-2 at the concentration of 50 mg/ml is 11.02 +/- 0.08 degree C (mean +/- SD, n=10), perhaps the highest active insect THP. It is the first report of purified T. japonensis THPs in Diptera. PMID:12148056

  6. Morphological and Molecular Revision of the Genus Ozirhincus (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)—Long-Snouted Seed-Feeding Gall Midges on Asteraceae

    PubMed Central

    Dorchin, Netta; Astrin, Jonas J.; Bodner, Levona; Harris, Keith M.

    2015-01-01

    The Palaearctic gall-midge genus Ozirhincus is unique among the Cecidomyiidae for its morphology and biology. Unlike most other phytophagous gall midges, species in this genus do not induce galls but develop inside achenes of Asteraceae plants. The heads of adults are characterized by an unusually elongate proboscis, the function of which is unclear. Despite a lot of attention from taxonomists in the 19th and early 20th century, a proper revision of the genus has been hindered by complex host associations, the loss of most relevant type material, and the lack of a thorough comparative study of all life stages. The present revision integrated morphological, molecular, and life-history data to clearly define species boundaries within Ozirhincus, and delimit host-plant ranges for each of them. A phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial COI and 16S genes confirmed the validity of four distinct species but did not resolve the relationships among them. All species are oligophages, and some may occur together on the same host plant. Species with wider host-plant ranges have wider European and circum-Mediterranean distribution ranges, whereas species with narrower host ranges are limited to Europe and the Russian Far East. As part of the present work, O. hungaricus is reinstated from synonymy, O. tanaceti is synonymized under O. longicollis, neotypes are designated for O. longicollis and O. millefolii, and a lectotype is designated for O. anthemidis. PMID:26134526

  7. Reactive Oxygen Species Are Involved in Plant Defense against a Gall Midge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a major role in plant defense against pathogens, but evidence for their role in defense against insects is still preliminary and inconsistent. In this study, we examined the potential role of ROS in defense of wheat and rice against Hessian fly (Mayetiola destruct...

  8. Aprostocetus xiphopunctus Sampson nov. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidea): A new natural ememy of a gall midge complex (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new endoparasitoid kills 40 – 100% of Dasineura oxycoccana and Prodiplosis vaccinii larvae, pest midges that seriously reduce blueberry yield. Female wasps methodically probe leaf buds for host larvae and their parasitism can be more effective than chemical control. With each successive molt, host...

  9. Ustilaginoidea virens infection of rice in Arkansas: Toxicity of false smut galls, their extracts and the Ustiloxin fraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cool, wet conditions in the southern U.S. during the maturing stages of rice in 1998 contributed to outbreaks of false smut caused by Ustilaginoidea virens. Water extracts of false smut galls in Asia have been reported to contain ustiloxin toxins, cyclic peptide antibiotics that interfered with mi...

  10. Insect galls of Restinga de Marambaia (Barra de Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ).

    PubMed

    Maia, V C; Silva, L O

    2016-04-19

    Thirty-one morphotypes of insect galls and two flower damages were found on 16 families, 22 genera and 24 plant species in Restinga de Marambaia (Barra de Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ). Fabaceae and Myrtaceae were the plant families with the greatest richness of insect galls (4 and 6 morphotypes, respectively), and the greatest number of galled plants (four and three species, respectively). Galls were mostly found on leaves and stems (77% and 10%, respectively). The galling insects are represented by Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hemiptera. The majority of the galls (81%) were induced by gall midges (Cecidomyiidae: Diptera). PMID:27097094

  11. Crown Gall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crown gall disease occurs on diverse dicotyledonous and gymnospermous plant species worldwide. Reports of crown gall on hop date back to at least 1929, and the disease has been reported from most countries where hop is or has been grown commercially. The epidemiology of the causal bacterium, Agrob...

  12. Crown gall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crown gall is uncommon in alfalfa. The disease has been reported from alfalfa stands in the Imperial Valley of California, but rare infected plants can be found occasionally in other parts of the U.S. Symptoms: The galls or tumor-like overgrowths form on the crown branches at or slightly below t...

  13. A massive expansion of effector genes underlies gall-formation in the wheat pest Mayetiola destructor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanisms arthropods use to induce plant gall formation are poorly understood. However, there is growing evidence that effector proteins are involved. To examine this hypothesis, we sequenced the genome of the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor, M. des), an obligate plant parasitic gall midge an...

  14. Insect galls from Serra de São José (Tiradentes, MG, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Maia, V C; Fernandes, G W

    2004-08-01

    One hundred thirty-seven morphotypes of insect galls were found on 73 plant species (47 genera and 30 families) in Serra de São José, in Tiradentes, MG, Brazil. Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Asteraceae, and Melastomataceae were the plant families that supported most of the galls (49.6% of the total). Galls were mostly found on leaves and stems (66.4% and 25.5%, respectively). Galls were induced by Diptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera (Sternorrhyncha), Hymenoptera, and Thysanoptera. The majority of them (73.7%) were induced by gall midges (Cecidomyiidae: Diptera). Besides the gall inducers, other insects found associated with the galls were parasitoids (Hymenoptera), inquilines (Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, and Hemiptera), and predators (Diptera). PMID:15622841

  15. Plant Gall Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Jacqueline Gage

    1997-01-01

    Describes a field trip to study, collect, and analyze galls in the field and classroom. Students hypothesize about factors that cause gall formation, develop a basic understanding of the complex and fragile interactions between plants and insects that result in the formation of plant galls, and determine the broader role of galls within the…

  16. Galle Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 June 2002) The Science This image is of part of Galle Crater, located at 51.9S, 29.5W. This image was taken far enough south and late enough into the southern hemisphere fall to catch observe water ice clouds partially obscuring the surface. The most striking aspect of the surface is the dissected layered unit to the left in the image. Other areas also appear to have layering, but they are either more obscured by clouds or are less well defined on the surface. The layers appear to be mostly flat lying and layer boundaries appear as topographic lines would on a map, but there are a few areas where it appears that these layers have been deformed to some level. Other areas of the image contain rugged, mountainous terrain as well as a separate pitted terrain where the surface appears to be a separate unit from the mountains and the layered terrain. The Story Galle Crater is officially named after a German astronomer who, in 1846, was the first to observe the planet Neptune. It is better known, however, as the 'Happy Face Crater.' The image above focuses on too small an area of the crater to see its beguiling grin, but you can catch the rocky line of a 'half-smile' in the context image to the right (to the left of the red box). While water ice clouds make some of the surface harder to see, nothing detracts from the fabulous layering at the center left-hand edge of the image. If you click on the above image, the scalloped layers almost look as if a giant knife has swirled through a landscape of cake frosting. These layers, the rugged, mountains near them, and pits on the surface (upper to middle section of the image on the right-hand side) all create varying textures on the crater floor. With such different features in the same place, geologists have a lot to study to figure out what has happened in the crater since it formed.

  17. Caterpillar mimicry by plant galls as a visual defense against herbivores.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Kazuo

    2016-09-01

    Plant galls, induced by arthropods and various other organisms have an intimate relationship with host plants, and gall-inducers have limited mobility. In addition to their own photosynthesis, galls are resource sinks rich with nutrients, with neighboring plant organs commonly serving as external photosynthate sources. Galls, if not well defended, may therefore be attractive food sources for herbivores. Galls produced by some aphids, jumping plant lice, thrips, and gall midges in Japan, Palearctic region and in the Middle East visually resemble lepidopteran caterpillars. I propose that such visual resemblance may reduce herbivory of galls and surrounding plant tissues, resulting in an increase in galler survival due to reduced gall damage and in enhanced galler growth due to improved nutrient inflow to the galls, when herbivores avoid colonizing or consuming plant parts that look as if they have been occupied by other herbivores. Potential predators and parasitoids of caterpillars may be attracted to the caterpillar-like galls and then attack real caterpillars and other invertebrate herbivores, which would also be beneficial for both gallers and their hosts. PMID:27220745

  18. Galling by Rhopalomyia solidaginis alters Solidago altissima architecture and litter nutrient dynamics in an old-field ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Crutsinger, Greg; Habenicht, Melissa N; Classen, Aimee T; Schweitzer, Jennifer A; Sanders, Dr. Nathan James

    2008-01-01

    Plant-insect interactions can alter ecosystem processes, especially if the insects modify plant architecture, quality, or the quantity of leaf litter inputs. In this study, we investigated the interactions between the gall midge Rhopalomyia solidaginis and tall goldenrod, Solidago altissima, to quantify the degree to which the midge alters plant architecture and how the galls affect rates of litter decomposition and nutrient release in an old-field ecosystem. R. solidaginis commonly leads to the formation of a distinct apical rosette gall on S. altissima and approximately 15% of the ramets in a S. altissima patch were galled (range: 3-34%). Aboveground biomass of galled ramets was 60% higher and the leaf area density was four times greater on galled leaf tissue relative to the portions of the plant that were not affected by the gall. Overall decomposition rate constants did not differ between galled and ungalled leaf litter. However, leaf-litter mass loss was lower in galled litter relative to ungalled litter, which was likely driven by modest differences in initial litter chemistry; this effect diminished after 12 weeks of decomposition in the field. The proportion of N remaining was always higher in galled litter than in ungalled litter at each collection date indicating differential release of nitrogen in galled leaf litter. Several studies have shown that plant-insect interactions on woody species can alter ecosystem processes by affecting the quality or quantity of litter inputs. Our results illustrate how plant-insect interactions in an herbaceous species can affect ecosystem processes by altering the quality and quantity of litter inputs. Given that S. altissima dominates fields and roadsides and that R. solidaginis galls are highly abundant throughout eastern North America, these interactions are likely to be important for both the structure and function of old-field ecosystems.

  19. The Goldenrod Ball Gall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Richard B.

    1974-01-01

    The paper presents a generalized life history of the goldenrod ball gall, a ball-shaped swelling found almost exclusively on the Canada goldenrod, Solidago canadensis, and caused by a peacock fly know as Eurosta soldiaginis. (KM)

  20. Host manipulation by the orange leafhopper Cicadulina bipunctata: gall induction on distant leaves by dose-dependent stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsukura, Keiichiro; Matsumura, Masaya; Tokuda, Makoto

    2009-09-01

    The evolution of the gall-inducing ability in insects and the adaptive significance of the galling habit have been addressed by many studies. Cicadulina bipunctata, the maize orange leafhopper, is an ideal study organism for evaluating these topics because it can be mass-reared and it feeds on model plants such as rice ( Oryza sativa) and maize ( Zea mays). To reveal differences between gall inductions by C. bipunctata and other gall inducers, we conducted four experiments concerning (a) the relationship between the feeding site and gall-induction sites of C. bipunctata on maize, (b) the effects of leafhopper sex and density, (c) the effects of length of infestation on gall induction, and (d) the effects of continuous infestation. C. bipunctata did not induce galls on the leaves where it fed but induced galls on other leaves situated at more distal positions. The degree of gall induction was significantly correlated with infestation density and length. These results indicate that C. bipunctata induces galls in a dose-dependent manner on leaves distant from feeding sites, probably by injecting chemical(s) to the plant during feeding. We suggest that insect galls are induced by a chemical stimulus injected by gall inducers during feeding into the hosts.

  1. Life history of the gall-maker Eugeniamyia dispar Maia, Mendonça-Jr. & Romanowski, 1996 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Mendonça, M de S; Romanowski, H P

    2002-05-01

    The development of the galls of the midge Eugeniamyia dispar Maia, Mendonça-Jr. & Romanowski, 1996 (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) was monitored weekly on its host plant, Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae). The work was carried out in the urban area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, from October 1993 to September 1995. Galls were collected from the field and raised in the laboratory to obtain adults. The females oviposit on young leaves of the host plant, with the first instar larvae inducing the gall, which is unilocular. The last instar larvae drop to the soil to pupate and later emerge as adults. The galls occur from late August to early June, when young leaves of the host can be found, with populations peaking during the summer. So far this species is only known from the two southernmost states of Brazil (RS and SC). PMID:12489401

  2. Pest management update on sunflower midge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sunflower midge (Contarinia schulzi) is a serious insect pest of sunflower, causing bud and head deformation that lead to poor seed development, and in many cases no seed development. This presentation describes the life cycle of the sunflower midge and shows images of infested sunflower heads. ...

  3. A mechanical plant defense defines the opening of a phenological window for gall induction by Asphondylia aucubae (Cecidomyiidae: Diptera).

    PubMed

    Imai, Kensuke; Ohsaki, Naota

    2009-04-01

    Many insect herbivores can only use hosts during a specific phenological stage, i.e., a phenological window. Previous studies have primarily examined the effects of these windows on insect herbivores, but relatively little is known about the mechanisms controlling the phenological windows. In most gall insect systems, phenological windows have been attributed to the short duration of physiologically active plant tissues that induce gall formation (reactive plant tissue). In the fruit gall midge, Asphondylia aucubae Yukawa and Ohsaki, and the host plant (i.e., Aucuba japonica) system, the disappearance of reactive plant tissue closes the phenological window, but its presence does not define the opening of the window. The hard endocarp of the fruit covers most potential oviposition sites just before the midge emergence season, but decreases in proportional cover during the emergence season. We experimentally manipulated the timing of oviposition relative to fruit development. Midges that emerged earliest and attacked fruits during their earliest developmental stages were unable to oviposit because of intact, hard endocarps, whereas their counterparts that emerged later could oviposit more readily through cracks in the endocarp. We noted possible oviposition avoidance behavior and the necessity of more frequent (repeated) ovipositor insertions to intensively stimulate the decreased reactive tissues during the latter half of the emergence season. Overall, our results indicated that the fragmentation of the defensive, hard endocarp of the host plant defines the opening of the phenological window in this plant-herbivore system. PMID:19389289

  4. A massive expansion of effector genes underlies gall-formation in the wheat pest Mayetiola destructor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chaoyang; Escalante, Lucio Navarro; Chen, Hang; Benatti, Thiago R; Qu, Jiaxin; Chellapilla, Sanjay; Waterhouse, Robert M; Wheeler, David; Andersson, Martin N; Bao, Riyue; Batterton, Matthew; Behura, Susanta K; Blankenburg, Kerstin P; Caragea, Doina; Carolan, James C; Coyle, Marcus; El-Bouhssini, Mustapha; Francisco, Liezl; Friedrich, Markus; Gill, Navdeep; Grace, Tony; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Han, Yi; Hauser, Frank; Herndon, Nicolae; Holder, Michael; Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Jackson, LaRonda; Javaid, Mehwish; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Johnson, Alisha J; Kalra, Divya; Korchina, Viktoriya; Kovar, Christie L; Lara, Fremiet; Lee, Sandra L; Liu, Xuming; Löfstedt, Christer; Mata, Robert; Mathew, Tittu; Muzny, Donna M; Nagar, Swapnil; Nazareth, Lynne V; Okwuonu, Geoffrey; Ongeri, Fiona; Perales, Lora; Peterson, Brittany F; Pu, Ling-Ling; Robertson, Hugh M; Schemerhorn, Brandon J; Scherer, Steven E; Shreve, Jacob T; Simmons, DeNard; Subramanyam, Subhashree; Thornton, Rebecca L; Xue, Kun; Weissenberger, George M; Williams, Christie E; Worley, Kim C; Zhu, Dianhui; Zhu, Yiming; Harris, Marion O; Shukle, Richard H; Werren, John H; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Chen, Ming-Shun; Brown, Susan J; Stuart, Jeffery J; Richards, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Gall-forming arthropods are highly specialized herbivores that, in combination with their hosts, produce extended phenotypes with unique morphologies [1]. Many are economically important, and others have improved our understanding of ecology and adaptive radiation [2]. However, the mechanisms that these arthropods use to induce plant galls are poorly understood. We sequenced the genome of the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor; Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a plant parasitic gall midge and a pest of wheat (Triticum spp.), with the aim of identifying genic modifications that contribute to its plant-parasitic lifestyle. Among several adaptive modifications, we discovered an expansive reservoir of potential effector proteins. Nearly 5% of the 20,163 predicted gene models matched putative effector gene transcripts present in the M. destructor larval salivary gland. Another 466 putative effectors were discovered among the genes that have no sequence similarities in other organisms. The largest known arthropod gene family (family SSGP-71) was also discovered within the effector reservoir. SSGP-71 proteins lack sequence homologies to other proteins, but their structures resemble both ubiquitin E3 ligases in plants and E3-ligase-mimicking effectors in plant pathogenic bacteria. SSGP-71 proteins and wheat Skp proteins interact in vivo. Mutations in different SSGP-71 genes avoid the effector-triggered immunity that is directed by the wheat resistance genes H6 and H9. Results point to effectors as the agents responsible for arthropod-induced plant gall formation. PMID:25660540

  5. Gall's visit to The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Eling, Paul; Draaisma, Douwe; Conradi, Matthijs

    2011-04-01

    In March 1805, Franz Joseph Gall left Vienna to start what has become known as his cranioscopic tour. He traveled through Germany, Denmark, and The Netherlands. In this article, we will describe his visit to The Netherlands in greater detail, as it has not yet received due attention. Gall was eager to go to Amsterdam because he was interested in the large collection of skulls of Petrus Camper. Gall presented a series of lectures, reports of which can be found in a local newspaper and in a few books, published at that time. We will summarize this material. We will first outline developments in the area of physiognomy, in particular in The Netherlands, and what the Dutch knew about Gall's doctrine prior to his arrival. We will then present a reconstruction of the contents of the lectures. Finally, we will discuss the reception of his ideas in the scientific community. PMID:21480037

  6. Phylogeny, evolution, and classification of gall wasps: the plot thickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gall wasps (Cynipidae) represent the most spectacular radiation of gall-inducing insects. In addition to true gall formers, gall wasps also include phytophagous inquilines, which live inside the galls induced by gall wasps or other insects. Here we present the first comprehensive molecular and total...

  7. Insecticidal sugar baits for adult biting midges.

    PubMed

    Snyder, D; Cernicchiaro, N; Allan, S A; Cohnstaedt, L W

    2016-06-01

    The mixing of an insecticide with sugar solution creates an oral toxin or insecticidal sugar bait (ISB) useful for reducing adult insect populations. The ability of ISBs to kill the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis Wirth and Jones (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), a vector of bluetongue virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease and vesicular stomatitis viruses, was tested. The commercial insecticide formulations (percentage active ingredient) tested included bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, permethrin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and spinosad. Mortality rates were determined for various concentrations of commercial formulations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 1, 2 and 3%) and observed at 1, 4, 10 and 24 h post-exposure to the ISB. In the first set of assays, laboratory-reared midges were fed sugar ad libitum and then exposed to insecticide-treated sugar solutions to measure mortality. The second assay assessed competitive feeding: midges were provided with a control sugar solution (10% sucrose) in one vial, and a sugar and insecticide solution in another. Pyrethroid treatments resulted in the greatest mortality in the first hour at the lowest concentrations and spinosad consumption resulted in the least mortality. Biting midges were not deterred from feeding on the 1% ISB solutions despite the presence of an insecticide-free alternative source of sugar. PMID:26789534

  8. Insecticidal sugar baits for adult biting midges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the latest trends in mosquito control is the use of insecticidal sugar baits (ISBs) to reduce adult mosquito populations. Tested here is the ability of ISB’s to knock-down the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis, a disease vector of bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease, and vesicular sto...

  9. Fungus-insect gall of Phlebopus portentosus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-Xia; He, Ming-Xia; Cao, Yang; Liu, Jing; Gao, Feng; Wang, Wen-Bing; Ji, Kai-Ping; Shao, Shi-Cheng; Wang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Phlebopus portentosus is a popular edible wild mushroom found in the tropical Yunnan, China, and northern Thailand. In its natural habitats, a gall often has been found on some plant roots, around which fungal fruiting bodies are produced. The galls are different from common insect galls in that their cavity walls are not made from plant tissue but rather from the hyphae of P. portentosus. Therefore we have termed this phenomenon "fungus-insect gall". Thus far six root mealy bug species in the family Pseudococcidae that form fungus-insect galls with P. portentosus have been identified: Formicococcus polysperes, Geococcus satellitum, Planococcus minor, Pseudococcus cryptus, Paraputo banzigeri and Rastrococcus invadens. Fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of more than 21 plant species, including Delonix regia, Citrus maxima, Coffea arabica and Artocarpus heterophyllus. Greenhouse inoculation trials showed that fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of A. heterophyllus 1 mo after inoculation. The galls were subglobose to globose, fulvous when young and became dark brown at maturation. Each gall harbored one or more mealy bugs and had a chimney-like vent for ventilation and access to the gall. The cavity wall had three layers. Various shaped mealy bug wax deposits were found inside the wall. Fungal hyphae invaded the epidermis of plant roots and sometimes even the cortical cells during the late stage of gall development. The identity of the fungus inside the cavity was confirmed by molecular methods. PMID:25344264

  10. Effect of Cardinal Directions on Gall Morphology and Parasitization of the Gall Wasp, Cynips quercusfolii

    PubMed Central

    Zargaran, Mohammed Reza; Safaralizadeh, Mohammed Hassan; Pourmirza, Ali Asghar; Valizadegan, Orouj

    2011-01-01

    This survey investigated the relationship between gall morphology and some fitness components in the asexual generation of Cynips quercusfolii L. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Results showed that larger C. quercusfolii galls were formed on the south side of oak trees Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagales: Fagaceae). Larval chamber diameter in the gall was similar, but gall diameter and gall wall thickness varied with the location of the gall on the tree. Cynips quercusfolii was attacked by parasitoids, and the south-facing galls suffered significantly lower parasitoid attacks. Thickness of gall walls and parasitism rate were negatively correlated. Mean gall diameter and gall wall thickness were significantly larger in south-facing galls than other directions, but the difference in the mean larval chamber diameter was not significant. These results suggest that the position of galls on the tree affected gall wall thickness, and this plays an important role in parasitoid attacks. These results suggest that C. quercusfolii prefer to attack the south side of oak trees, and selection of this side by wasps led to formation of larger galls with thick walls that decreased parasite attack, which will affect growth and survival of wasp larvae. PMID:22950357

  11. Effect of cardinal directions on gall morphology and parasitization of the gall wasp, Cynips quercusfolii.

    PubMed

    Zargaran, Mohammed Reza; Safaralizadeh, Mohammed Hassan; Pourmirza, Ali Asghar; Valizadegan, Orouj

    2011-01-01

    This survey investigated the relationship between gall morphology and some fitness components in the asexual generation of Cynips quercusfolii L. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Results showed that larger C. quercusfolii galls were formed on the south side of oak trees Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagales: Fagaceae). Larval chamber diameter in the gall was similar, but gall diameter and gall wall thickness varied with the location of the gall on the tree. Cynips quercusfolii was attacked by parasitoids, and the south-facing galls suffered significantly lower parasitoid attacks. Thickness of gall walls and parasitism rate were negatively correlated. Mean gall diameter and gall wall thickness were significantly larger in south-facing galls than other directions, but the difference in the mean larval chamber diameter was not significant. These results suggest that the position of galls on the tree affected gall wall thickness, and this plays an important role in parasitoid attacks. These results suggest that C. quercusfolii prefer to attack the south side of oak trees, and selection of this side by wasps led to formation of larger galls with thick walls that decreased parasite attack, which will affect growth and survival of wasp larvae. PMID:22950357

  12. Molecular marker assisted gene stacking for biotic and abiotic stress resistance genes in an elite rice cultivar

    PubMed Central

    Das, Gitishree; Rao, G. J. N.

    2015-01-01

    Severe yield loss due to various biotic stresses like bacterial blight (BB), gall midge (insect) and Blast (disease) and abiotic stresses like submergence and salinity are a serious constraint to the rice productivity throughout the world. The most effective and reliable method of management of the stresses is the enhancement of host resistance, through an economical and environmentally friendly approach. Through the application of marker assisted selection (MAS) technique, the present study reports a successful pyramidization of genes/QTLs to confer resistance/tolerance to blast (Pi2, Pi9), gall Midge (Gm1, Gm4), submergence (Sub1), and salinity (Saltol) in a released rice variety CRMAS2621-7-1 as Improved Lalat which had already incorporated with three BB resistance genes xa5, xa13, and Xa21 to supplement the Xa4 gene present in Improved Lalat. The molecular analysis revealed clear polymorphism between the donor and recipient parents for all the markers that are tagged to the target traits. The conventional backcross breeding approach was followed till BC3F1 generation and starting from BC1F1 onwards, marker assisted selection was employed at each step to monitor the transfer of the target alleles with molecular markers. The different BC3F1s having the target genes/QTLs were inter crossed to generate hybrids with all 10 stress resistance/tolerance genes/QTLs into a single plant/line. Homozygous plants for resistance/tolerance genes in different combinations were recovered. The BC3F3 lines were characterized for their agronomic and quality traits and promising progeny lines were selected. The SSR based background selection was done. Most of the gene pyramid lines showed a high degree of similarity to the recurrent parent for both morphological, grain quality traits and in SSR based background selection. Out of all the gene pyramids tested, two lines had all the 10 resistance/tolerance genes and showed adequate levels of resistance/tolerance against the five target

  13. Unconventional conservation among genes encoding small secreted salivary sland proteins from a gall midge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to functional constraints associated with protein-coding sequences, introns and the 3’-untranslated region (UTR) of most genes vary the most, followed by the 5’-UTR. The coding region is the most conserved due to stronger functional constraints. During characterization of transcripts and gene...

  14. Pyrosequencing reveals the predominance of Pseudomonadaceae in gut microbiome of a Gall Midge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gut microbes are known to play various roles in insects such as digestion of inaccessible nutrients, synthesis of deficient amino acids, and interaction with ecological environments, including host plants. Here, we analyzed the gut microbiome in Hessian fly, a serious pest of wheat. A total of 3,654...

  15. Woody stem galls interact with foliage to affect community associations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) hijack the physiology of their host plant to produce galls which house wasps throughout their immature stages. The gall-maker – host plant interaction is highly evolved, and galls represent an extended phenotype of the gall wasp. We evaluated two-way interaction...

  16. Benefits of photosynthesis for insects in galls.

    PubMed

    Haiden, S A; Hoffmann, J H; Cramer, M D

    2012-12-01

    Insect-induced plant galls are predominantly reputed to act as strong carbon sinks, although many types of galls contain chlorophyll and have the potential to photosynthesize. We investigated whether the photosynthetic capacity of bud galls induced by a Pteromalid wasp, Trichilogaster acaciaelongifoliae, in Acacia longifolia subsidises carbon budgets or provides O(2) to the larvae while concurrently consuming CO(2) in the dense gall tissue, thereby maintaining (O(2)) and (CO(2)) within the range of larval tolerance. Low (O(2)) (<5 % v/v) were found within the internal tissues of galls, and these concentrations responded only marginally to light, suggesting that the photosynthetic activity within the gall is inconsequential in the provision of O(2) to the larvae. The metabolic response of larvae to reduced (O(2)) and elevated (CO(2)) indicated that larvae were tolerant of hypoxia/hypercarbia and also capable of reducing their respiratory rates to cope with hypercarbia. The low mortality of larvae in galls shaded with Al-foil for 20 days showed that photosynthesis was not vital for the survival of the larvae, although growth of shaded galls was substantially reduced. Gas exchange measurements confirmed that, while photosynthesis never fully compensated for the respiratory costs of galls, it contributed substantially to the maintenance and growth, especially of young galls, reducing their impact as carbon sinks on the host. We conclude that, although photosynthesis may contribute to O(2) provision, its main role is to reduce the dependence of the insect-induced gall on the host plant for photosynthates, thereby reducing intra-plant, inter-gall competition and enhancing the probability that each gall will reach maturity. PMID:22622876

  17. Mechanisms Driving Galling Success in a Fragmented Landscape: Synergy of Habitat and Top-Down Factors along Temperate Forest Edges

    PubMed Central

    Kelch, Nina-S.; Neves, Frederico S.; Fernandes, G. Wilson

    2016-01-01

    Edge effects play key roles in the anthropogenic transformation of forested ecosystems and their biota, and are therefore a prime field of contemporary fragmentation research. We present the first empirical study to address edge effects on the population level of a widespread galling herbivore in a temperate deciduous forest. By analyzing edge effects on abundance and trophic interactions of beech gall midge (Mikiola fagi Htg.), we found 30% higher gall abundance in the edge habitat as well as lower mortality rates due to decreased top-down control, especially by parasitoids. Two GLM models with similar explanatory power (58%) identified habitat specific traits (such as canopy closure and altitude) and parasitism as the best predictors of gall abundance. Further analyses revealed a crucial influence of light exposure (46%) on top-down control by the parasitoid complex. Guided by a conceptual framework synthesizing the key factors driving gall density, we conclude that forest edge proliferation of M. fagi is due to a complex interplay of abiotic changes and trophic control mechanisms. Most prominently, it is caused by the microclimatic regime in forest edges, acting alone or in synergistic concert with top-down pressure by parasitoids. Contrary to the prevailing notion that specialists are edge-sensitive, this turns M. fagi into a winner species in fragmented temperate beech forests. In view of the increasing proportion of edge habitats and the documented benefits from edge microclimate, we call for investigations exploring the pest status of this galling insect and the modulators of its biological control. PMID:27310599

  18. Mechanisms Driving Galling Success in a Fragmented Landscape: Synergy of Habitat and Top-Down Factors along Temperate Forest Edges.

    PubMed

    Kelch, Nina-S; Neves, Frederico S; Fernandes, G Wilson; Wirth, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Edge effects play key roles in the anthropogenic transformation of forested ecosystems and their biota, and are therefore a prime field of contemporary fragmentation research. We present the first empirical study to address edge effects on the population level of a widespread galling herbivore in a temperate deciduous forest. By analyzing edge effects on abundance and trophic interactions of beech gall midge (Mikiola fagi Htg.), we found 30% higher gall abundance in the edge habitat as well as lower mortality rates due to decreased top-down control, especially by parasitoids. Two GLM models with similar explanatory power (58%) identified habitat specific traits (such as canopy closure and altitude) and parasitism as the best predictors of gall abundance. Further analyses revealed a crucial influence of light exposure (46%) on top-down control by the parasitoid complex. Guided by a conceptual framework synthesizing the key factors driving gall density, we conclude that forest edge proliferation of M. fagi is due to a complex interplay of abiotic changes and trophic control mechanisms. Most prominently, it is caused by the microclimatic regime in forest edges, acting alone or in synergistic concert with top-down pressure by parasitoids. Contrary to the prevailing notion that specialists are edge-sensitive, this turns M. fagi into a winner species in fragmented temperate beech forests. In view of the increasing proportion of edge habitats and the documented benefits from edge microclimate, we call for investigations exploring the pest status of this galling insect and the modulators of its biological control. PMID:27310599

  19. Effect of octreotide on gall stone prevalence and gall bladder motility in acromegaly.

    PubMed Central

    Catnach, S M; Anderson, J V; Fairclough, P D; Trembath, R C; Wilson, P A; Parker, E; Besser, G M; Wass, J A

    1993-01-01

    Octreotide therapy in acromegaly is associated with an increased prevalence of gall stones, which may be the result of an inhibition of gall bladder motility. Gall stone prevalence in untreated acromegalic patients relative to the general population is unknown, however, and the presence of gall stones and gall bladder motility in these patients and in acromegalic patients receiving octreotide was therefore examined. Thirty four percent of 39 patients who had taken octreotide for a mean of 20 months had gall stones compared with 16% of 38 patients who had not been treated with octreotide (p < 0.005). In a subgroup of 21 patients studied prospectively over 4 to 18 months, two patients developed stones. No patient had symptoms referrable to their gall stones. In 31 untreated acromegalic patients, the mean fasting gall bladder volume was similar to that in normal subjects. Maximal percentage emptying, however, was impaired (34 v 64%, p < 0.001) and the mean postprandial residual gall bladder volume increased (21.7 v 9.0 ml, p < 0.001). Treatment with octreotide increased the mean postprandial residual volume further to 36.8 ml (p < 0.001). Gall bladder emptying in untreated acromegalic subjects is impaired. Octreotide further increases postprandial residual gall bladder volume and this may be a factor in the increased gall stone prevalence seen in these patients. PMID:8432484

  20. Sugar-feeding status alters biting midge photoattraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biting midges transmit disease in livestock and wildlife that result in significant loss of value. Therefore understanding biting midge attraction to light is important for monitoring the insect populations and possibly using traps to reduce populations. This study determined that color of light is ...

  1. Roughness characterization of the galling of metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, C.; Marteau, J.; Deltombe, R.; Chen, Y. M.; Bigerelle, M.

    2014-09-01

    Several kinds of tests exist to characterize the galling of metals, such as that specified in ASTM Standard G98. While the testing procedure is accurate and robust, the analysis of the specimen's surfaces (area=1.2 cm) for the determination of the critical pressure of galling remains subject to operator judgment. Based on the surface's topography analyses, we propose a methodology to express the probability of galling according to the macroscopic pressure load. After performing galling tests on 304L stainless steel, a two-step segmentation of the S q parameter (root mean square of surface amplitude) computed from local roughness maps (100 μ m× 100 μ m) enables us to distinguish two tribological processes. The first step represents the abrasive wear (erosion) and the second one the adhesive wear (galling). The total areas of both regions are highly relevant to quantify galling and erosion processes. Then, a one-parameter phenomenological model is proposed to objectively determine the evolution of non-galled relative area A e versus the pressure load P, with high accuracy ({{A}e}=100/(1+a{{P}2}) with a={{0.54}+/- 0.07}× {{10}-3} M P{{a}-2} and with {{R}2}=0.98). From this model, the critical pressure of galling is found to be equal to 43MPa. The {{S}5 V} roughness parameter (the five deepest valleys in the galled region's surface) is the most relevant roughness parameter for the quantification of damages in the ‘galling region’. The significant valleys’ depths increase from 10 μm-250 μm when the pressure increases from 11-350 MPa, according to a power law ({{S}5 V}=4.2{{P}0.75}, with {{R}2}=0.93).

  2. Pheromone-based action thresholds for control of the swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), and residual insecticide efficacy in cole crops.

    PubMed

    Hallett, Rebecca H; Sears, Mark K

    2013-02-01

    The swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii (Kieffer), is an invasive gall midge causing economic damage to cole crops (Brassica oleracea L.) and other crucifers in eastern Canada and United States. An effective decision-making tool for timing insecticide applications is a critical part of an integrated pest management program against C. nasturtii. Experiments were undertaken over 2 yr and at three locations in southern Ontario to develop pheromone-based action thresholds for C. nasturtii in cabbage and broccoli. An economic comparison between action threshold and calendar insecticide regimes was undertaken. The threshold approach was both economically viable and successful at minimizing swede midge damage for cabbage, and an action threshold of five males per trap per day with a minimum 7 d retreatment interval successfully reduced damage to acceptable levels. However, this approach was not successful with broccoli, which, unlike cabbage, is susceptible to damage by C. nasturtii through all plant stages, including heading. Acetamiprid and lambda-cyhalothrin both demonstrated approximately 7 d residual activity against C. nasturtii. Registration labels for both insecticides specify a minimum 7 d retreatment interval, which is supported by residual efficacy results. More effective insecticidal products may have longer residual efficacy and improve efficacy of the action threshold approach for broccoli and cabbage. PMID:23448040

  3. Bringing the Outside In: Insects and Their Galls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel; Wilkens, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Introduces gall-making insects and explains gall development. Explains how to bring galls into the classroom and conduct experiments. Suggests using gall systems to introduce students to the concepts of genetic control, biodiversity, plant and animal development, species interactions, biodiversity, and the flow of energy through the food web. (YDS)

  4. Fossil oak galls preserve ancient multitrophic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Graham N; van der Ham, Raymond W.J.M; Brewer, Jan G

    2008-01-01

    Trace fossils of insect feeding have contributed substantially to our understanding of the evolution of insect–plant interactions. The most complex phenotypes of herbivory are galls, whose diagnostic morphologies often allow the identification of the gall inducer. Although fossil insect-induced galls over 300 Myr old are known, most are two-dimensional impressions lacking adequate morphological detail either for the precise identification of the causer or for detection of the communities of specialist parasitoids and inquilines inhabiting modern plant galls. Here, we describe the first evidence for such multitrophic associations in Pleistocene fossil galls from the Eemian interglacial (130 000–115 000 years ago) of The Netherlands. The exceptionally well-preserved fossils can be attributed to extant species of Andricus gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galling oaks (Quercus), and provide the first fossil evidence of gall attack by herbivorous inquiline gallwasps. Furthermore, phylogenetic placement of one fossil in a lineage showing obligate host plant alternation implies the presence of a second oak species, Quercus cerris, currently unknown from Eemian fossils in northwestern Europe. This contrasts with the southern European native range of Q. cerris in the current interglacial and suggests that gallwasp invasions following human planting of Q. cerris in northern Europe may represent a return to preglacial distribution limits. PMID:18559323

  5. Gall insects and indirect plant defenses

    PubMed Central

    De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2008-01-01

    Many plants can defend themselves against insect herbivory by attracting natural enemies that kill feeding herbivores and limit the damage they inflict. Such “indirect defenses” can be induced by insects feeding on different plant tissues and using a variety of feeding styles. However, we have recently shown that gall-inducing insect species can avoid the indirect defenses of their host plant species and even alter volatile emissions following subsequent herbivory. One of the species we studied, Eurosta solidaginis, induces galls on goldenrod (Solidago altissima) and appears to exert a unique influence over the indirect defenses of its host plant that is not readily explained by levels of defense-related phytohormones, gall formation or resource depletion. Our evidence suggests that this gall-insect species may be able to manipulate its host plant species to avoid and/or modify its defensive responses. The results also provide insight into gall induction because the gall-insect species that we screened did not increase levels of jasmonic acid, which, in addition to triggering volatile emissions, is a powerful growth regulator that could prevent the cell growth and division that leads to gall formation. PMID:19704500

  6. 77 FR 73654 - Eau Galle Renewable Energy Company, Eau Galle Hydro, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Eau Galle Renewable Energy Company, Eau Galle Hydro, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. By letter filed October 12, 2012, Eau Galle Renewable Energy Company informed the..., originally issued March 10, 1987,\\1\\ and transferred to Eau Galle Renewable Energy Company by letter.\\2\\...

  7. The chemical ecology of cecidomyiid midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Hall, David R; Amarawardana, Lakmali; Cross, Jerry V; Francke, Wittko; Boddum, Tina; Hillbur, Ylva

    2012-01-01

    The family of cecidomyiid midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) exhibits diversified patterns of life history, behavior, host range, population dynamics and other ecological traits. Those that feed on plants include many important agricultural pests; most cultivated plants are attacked by at least one midge species. Several features of the reproductive biology of cecidomyiid midges point to an important role for chemical communication, with this topic last reviewed comprehensively 12 years ago. Here, we review progress on identification of sex pheromones, chemicals involved in location of host plants, the neurophysiology of reception of volatile chemicals, and application of semiochemicals to management of pest species of cecidomyiid midges that has occurred during the last decade. We hope this review will stimulate and sustain further research in these fields. PMID:22215563

  8. Induction of Crown Gall on Carrot Slices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babich, H.; Fox, K. D.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the transfer of plasmid from a bacterium to a plant cell has received little attention. Presents an experiment for studying this type of genetic transformation using the causative agent of crown gall, a malignant plant tumor. (DDR)

  9. Gall-ID: tools for genotyping gall-causing phytopathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Tabima, Javier F.; Grunwald, Niklaus J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the population structure and genetic diversity of plant pathogens, as well as the effect of agricultural practices on pathogen evolution, is important for disease management. Developments in molecular methods have contributed to increase the resolution for accurate pathogen identification, but those based on analysis of DNA sequences can be less straightforward to use. To address this, we developed Gall-ID, a web-based platform that uses DNA sequence information from 16S rDNA, multilocus sequence analysis and whole genome sequences to group disease-associated bacteria to their taxonomic units. Gall-ID was developed with a particular focus on gall-forming bacteria belonging to Agrobacterium, Pseudomonas savastanoi, Pantoea agglomerans, and Rhodococcus. Members of these groups of bacteria cause growth deformation of plants, and some are capable of infecting many species of field, orchard, and nursery crops. Gall-ID also enables the use of high-throughput sequencing reads to search for evidence for homologs of characterized virulence genes, and provides downloadable software pipelines for automating multilocus sequence analysis, analyzing genome sequences for average nucleotide identity, and constructing core genome phylogenies. Lastly, additional databases were included in Gall-ID to help determine the identity of other plant pathogenic bacteria that may be in microbial communities associated with galls or causative agents in other diseased tissues of plants. The URL for Gall-ID is http://gall-id.cgrb.oregonstate.edu/. PMID:27547538

  10. Gall-ID: tools for genotyping gall-causing phytopathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Davis Ii, Edward W; Weisberg, Alexandra J; Tabima, Javier F; Grunwald, Niklaus J; Chang, Jeff H

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the population structure and genetic diversity of plant pathogens, as well as the effect of agricultural practices on pathogen evolution, is important for disease management. Developments in molecular methods have contributed to increase the resolution for accurate pathogen identification, but those based on analysis of DNA sequences can be less straightforward to use. To address this, we developed Gall-ID, a web-based platform that uses DNA sequence information from 16S rDNA, multilocus sequence analysis and whole genome sequences to group disease-associated bacteria to their taxonomic units. Gall-ID was developed with a particular focus on gall-forming bacteria belonging to Agrobacterium, Pseudomonas savastanoi, Pantoea agglomerans, and Rhodococcus. Members of these groups of bacteria cause growth deformation of plants, and some are capable of infecting many species of field, orchard, and nursery crops. Gall-ID also enables the use of high-throughput sequencing reads to search for evidence for homologs of characterized virulence genes, and provides downloadable software pipelines for automating multilocus sequence analysis, analyzing genome sequences for average nucleotide identity, and constructing core genome phylogenies. Lastly, additional databases were included in Gall-ID to help determine the identity of other plant pathogenic bacteria that may be in microbial communities associated with galls or causative agents in other diseased tissues of plants. The URL for Gall-ID is http://gall-id.cgrb.oregonstate.edu/. PMID:27547538

  11. Phylogeny, Evolution and Classification of Gall Wasps: The Plot Thickens

    PubMed Central

    Ronquist, Fredrik; Nieves-Aldrey, José-Luis; Buffington, Matthew L.; Liu, Zhiwei; Liljeblad, Johan; Nylander, Johan A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Gall wasps (Cynipidae) represent the most spectacular radiation of gall-inducing insects. In addition to true gall formers, gall wasps also include phytophagous inquilines, which live inside the galls induced by gall wasps or other insects. Here we present the first comprehensive molecular and total-evidence analyses of higher-level gall wasp relationships. We studied more than 100 taxa representing a rich selection of outgroups and the majority of described cynipid genera outside the diverse oak gall wasps (Cynipini), which were more sparsely sampled. About 5 kb of nucleotide data from one mitochondrial (COI) and four nuclear (28S, LWRh, EF1alpha F1, and EF1alpha F2) markers were analyzed separately and in combination with morphological and life-history data. According to previous morphology-based studies, gall wasps evolved in the Northern Hemisphere and were initially herb gallers. Inquilines originated once from gall inducers that lost the ability to initiate galls. Our results, albeit not conclusive, suggest a different scenario. The first gall wasps were more likely associated with woody host plants, and there must have been multiple origins of gall inducers, inquilines or both. One possibility is that gall inducers arose independently from inquilines in several lineages. Except for these surprising results, our analyses are largely consistent with previous studies. They confirm that gall wasps are conservative in their host-plant preferences, and that herb-galling lineages have radiated repeatedly onto the same set of unrelated host plants. We propose a revised classification of the family into twelve tribes, which are strongly supported as monophyletic across independent datasets. Four are new: Aulacideini, Phanacidini, Diastrophini and Ceroptresini. We present a key to the tribes and discuss their morphological and biological diversity. Until the relationships among the tribes are resolved, the origin and early evolution of gall wasps will remain elusive

  12. Host plant susceptibility to the swede midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Hallett, Rebecca H

    2007-08-01

    The relative resistance and susceptibility of various cruciferous plants to swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii (Kieffer) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), damage was investigated to provide growers with planting recommendations and to identify potential sources of resistance to the swede midge. Broccoli cultivars experienced more severe damage than cabbage, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts. The broccoli 'Paragon', 'Eureka', and 'Packman' are highly susceptible to the swede midge, whereas 'Triathlon' and 'Regal' showed reduced susceptibility to damage and slower development of damage symptoms. No differences were found between normal and red cultivars of cabbage and cauliflower in damage severity and progression of damage symptoms. Four new plant species (Brassica juncea Integlifolia group, Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O. E. Shulz., Lepidium campestre (L.) R.Br., and Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic.) are reported as hosts of the swede midge. The weed species Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb, Camelina microcarpa Andrz. ex Dc., and Erysimum cheiranthoides L. exhibited no damage symptoms, and they seem to be nonhost crucifers for the swede midge. PMID:17849887

  13. Adaptive significance of gall formation for a gall-inducing aphids on Japanese elm trees.

    PubMed

    Takei, Mami; Yoshida, Sayaka; Kawai, Takashi; Hasegawa, Morifumi; Suzuki, Yoshihito

    2015-01-01

    Insect galls are abnormal plant tissues induced by external stimuli from parasitizing insects. It has been suggested that the stimuli include phytohormones such as auxin and cytokinins produced by the insects. In our study on the role of hormones in gall induction by the aphid Tetraneura nigriabdominalis, it was found that feedback regulation related to auxin and cytokinin activity is absent in gall tissues, even though the aphids contain higher concentrations of those phytohormones than do plant tissues. Moreover, jasmonic acid signaling appears to be compromised in gall tissue, and consequently, the production of volatile organic compounds, which are a typical defense response of host plants to herbivory, is diminished. These findings suggest that these traits of the gall tissue benefit aphids, because the gall tissue is highly sensitive to auxin and cytokinin, which induce and maintain it. The induced defenses against aphid feeding are also compromised. The abnormal responsiveness to phytohormones is regarded as a new type of extended phenotype of gall-inducing insects. PMID:25437243

  14. XX1 Asian chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus, is an invasive pest of chestnut in Japan, Europe, and the United States. D. kuriphilus induces formation of galls on all chestnut species. Damage caused by galling reduces commercial chestnut yields and threatens restoration of American chestnut i...

  15. Erythromycin induces supranormal gall bladder contraction in diabetic autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Catnach, S M; Ballinger, A B; Stevens, M; Fairclough, P D; Trembath, R C; Drury, P L; Watkins, P J

    1993-01-01

    Gall bladder motor function is impaired in some patients with diabetes. It has been suggested that the abnormalities of gall bladder motility are confined to those patients with autonomic neuropathy. Erythromycin, a motilin receptor agonist, causes gall bladder contraction in both normal subjects and patients with gall stones with impaired gall bladder emptying. The effect of erythromycin on gall bladder motility in seven patients with diabetes with an autonomic neuropathy, six patients with diabetes without autonomic neuropathy, and 17 normal subjects was studied using ultrasound. There was no significant difference in gall bladder fasting volume between the three groups, but the patients with diabetes with autonomic neuropathy had impaired postprandial gall bladder emptying compared with normal subjects (percentage emptied (SEM) 40 (10.3)% v 64 (2.8)%, p < 0.01) and those with autonomic neuropathy (48 (7.7)%, NS). Erythromycin produced a dramatic reduction in gall bladder fasting volume in patients with diabetes with an autonomic neuropathy, compared with either normal subjects or patients with diabetes without autonomic neuropathy (percentage reduction 62 (4.6)% in patients with autonomic neuropathy, v 37 (17.6)% in those without autonomic neuropathy, and 26 (7.3)% in the normal subjects, (p < 0.02) and returned gall bladder emptying to normal in all patients with impaired emptying. The pronounced effect of erythromycin in diabetic autonomic neuropathy suggests denervation supersensitivity and that the action of erythromycin on the gall bladder is neurally modulated. PMID:8174966

  16. Imaging of adenomyomatosis of the gall bladder.

    PubMed

    Stunell, H; Buckley, O; Geoghegan, T; O'Brien, J; Ward, E; Torreggiani, W

    2008-04-01

    Adenomyomatosis is a relatively common abnormality of the gall bladder, with a reported incidence of between 2.8 and 5%. Although mainly confined to the adult study group, a number of cases have been reported in the paediatric study group. It is characterized pathologically by excessive proliferation of the surface epithelium and hypertrophy of the muscularis propria of the gall bladder wall, with invagination of the mucosa into the thickened muscularis forming the so-called 'Rokitansky-Aschoff' sinuses. The condition is usually asymptomatic and is often diagnosed as an incidental finding on abdominal imaging. The radiological diagnosis is largely dependent on the visualization of the characteristic Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses. As the condition is usually asymptomatic, the importance of making a correct diagnosis is to prevent misinterpretation of other gall bladder conditions such as gall bladder cancer, leading to incorrect treatment. In the past, oral cholecystography was the main imaging method used to make this diagnosis. In most institutions, oral cholecystography is no longer carried out, and the diagnosis is now more commonly seen on cross-sectional imaging. In this review article, we describe the manifestations of adenomyomatosis on the various imaging methods, with an emphasis on more modern techniques such as magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. A brief section on oral cholecystography to aid readers familiar with this technique in understanding the comparable imaging features on more modern imaging techniques is included. PMID:18373800

  17. Computing galled networks from real data

    PubMed Central

    Huson, Daniel H.; Rupp, Regula; Berry, Vincent; Gambette, Philippe; Paul, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: Developing methods for computing phylogenetic networks from biological data is an important problem posed by molecular evolution and much work is currently being undertaken in this area. Although promising approaches exist, there are no tools available that biologists could easily and routinely use to compute rooted phylogenetic networks on real datasets containing tens or hundreds of taxa. Biologists are interested in clades, i.e. groups of monophyletic taxa, and these are usually represented by clusters in a rooted phylogenetic tree. The problem of computing an optimal rooted phylogenetic network from a set of clusters, is hard, in general. Indeed, even the problem of just determining whether a given network contains a given cluster is hard. Hence, some researchers have focused on topologically restricted classes of networks, such as galled trees and level-k networks, that are more tractable, but have the practical draw-back that a given set of clusters will usually not possess such a representation. Results: In this article, we argue that galled networks (a generalization of galled trees) provide a good trade-off between level of generality and tractability. Any set of clusters can be represented by some galled network and the question whether a cluster is contained in such a network is easy to solve. Although the computation of an optimal galled network involves successively solving instances of two different NP-complete problems, in practice our algorithm solves this problem exactly on large datasets containing hundreds of taxa and many reticulations in seconds, as illustrated by a dataset containing 279 prokaryotes. Availability: We provide a fast, robust and easy-to-use implementation of this work in version 2.0 of our tree-handling software Dendroscope, freely available from http://www.dendroscope.org. Contact: huson@informatik.uni-tuebingen.de PMID:19478021

  18. CARE, MAINTENANCE, AND EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF BITING MIDGES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The laboratory colonization and rearing of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) conducted at the Arthropod-borne Animal Diseases Research Laboratory (ABADRL) have been key to investigations concerning the role of this biting midge as a vector of several viral pathogens of veterinary imp...

  19. PUTATIVE STRESS REGULATED GENES OF THE ANTARCTIC MIDGE, BELGICA ANTARCTICA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antarctica presents one of the earth’s most inhospitable environments. Though an abundance of animals have adapted to life associated with the sea in this part of the world, few animals have adapted to the rigors of a terrestrial existence. One exception is the flightless midge Belgica antarctica ...

  20. STRESS PROTEINS OF THE ANTARCTIC MIDGE, BELGICA ANTARCTICA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antarctica presents one of the earth’s most inhospitable environments. Though an abundance of animals have adapted to life associated with the sea in this part of the world, few animals have adapted to the rigors of a terrestrial existence. One exception is the flightless midge Belgica antarctica ...

  1. Nonselective oviposition by a fastidious insect: the laboratory host range of the melaleuca gall midge Lophodiplosis trifida (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasion by the Australian paperbark, Melaleuca quinquenervia, has degraded large expanses of south Florida wetlands. Restoration of these wetlands requires the removal of expansive monocultures of this large tree while simultaneously curtailing its spread. Management strategies developed by feder...

  2. Unbalanced activation of glutathione metabolic pathways suggests potential involvement in plant defense against the gall midge mayetiola destructor in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glutathione, a thiol tripeptide of '-glutamylcysteinylglycine, exists abundantly in nearly all organisms. Glutathione participates in various physiological processes involved in redox reactions by serving as an electron donor/acceptor. In this study, we found that the abundance of total glutathion...

  3. Anatomic Variant of Liver, Gall Bladder and Inferior Vena Cava

    PubMed Central

    Gladwin, V.; Chand, Parkash

    2016-01-01

    The morphology and relations of liver, gall bladder and inferior vena cava are cardinal. Their anatomical variations may be a reason for the adverse surgical outcome. During routine anatomy dissection of an abdomen, we noticed a variant liver, gall bladder and inferior vena cava in a 63-year-old male cadaver. In the specimen, a retrohepatic segment of inferior vena cava was found to be intrahepatic. On dissection, it was observed that inferior vena cava was covered entirely by a liver tissue on its dorsal aspect. In the same specimen, the gall bladder had undulated inferior surface. On dissection of the gall bladder, numerous mucosal folds were present in the interior. A band of fibrous tissue was found, which was extending from the right side of the gall bladder to the falciform ligament. Hence, preoperative scanning of congenital variations of the liver, gall bladder and inferior vena cava may be compassionate in planning safe surgeries and interventional abdominal procedures.

  4. Percutaneous cholecystolithotomy: is gall stone recurrence inevitable?

    PubMed Central

    Donald, J J; Cheslyn-Curtis, S; Gillams, A R; Russell, R C; Lees, W R

    1994-01-01

    Using radiological interventional techniques the gall bladder can be cleared of stones with a high success rate. As with any treatment option that leaves the gall bladder in situ there is an accompanying risk of stone recurrence, which is currently unknown for the radiological method. One hundred patients were studied prospectively to determine the recurrence rate of stones and clinical outcome after successful percutaneous cholecystolithotomy. Follow up included both clinical assessment and ultrasound examination at 3, 6, and 12 months and then annual intervals thereafter. The overall stone recurrence rate was 31% at a mean follow up of 26 months (range, 3-50 months). By actuarial life table analysis, the cumulative proportion of gall stone recurrence was 7, 19, 28, 35, and 44% at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 months respectively. Of the 31 patients with recurrent stones; 17 remain asymptomatic, seven have experienced biliary colic, two abdominal pain, three non-specific upper gastrointestinal symptoms, and two jaundice secondary to common duct stones. Thirteen of the stone free patients have remained symptomatic; six with abdominal pain and seven with nonspecific upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Eight patients have subsequently had a cholecystectomy. No significant difference was found between the sex of the patient or the number of stones before treatment and the stone recurrence rates. The cumulative stone recurrence rate was significantly less in the 56 patients who received adjuvant chemolitholysis (p < 0.05). These data show that stone recurrence after successful percutaneous cholecystolithotomy occurs in the minority, and is usually asymptomatic. It is concluded that the technique remains justified in the management of selected patients with gall stones. PMID:8200568

  5. Antiinflammatory evaluation of alcoholic extract of galls of Quercus infectoria.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Hamid, Hinna; Ali, Asif; Alam, M Sarwar; Athar, Mohammad

    2004-02-01

    Galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagaceae) possess pleiotropic therapeutic activities, with particular efficacy against inflammatory diseases. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of alcoholic extract of Q. infectoria galls on various in vivo and in vitro experimental models of inflammation. Oral administration of gall extract significantly inhibited carrageenan, histamine, serotonin and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced paw oedemas, while topical application of gall extract inhibited phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) induced ear inflammation. The extract also inhibited various functions of macrophages and neutrophils relevant to the inflammatory response. In vitro exposure of rat peritoneal macrophages to gall extract ameliorated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated PGE2 and nitric oxide (NO) production and PMA stimulated superoxide (O2*-) production in a dose dependent manner. Gall extract also scavenged NO and O2*-. Probing into mechanism of NO inhibition in macrophages revealed gall extract to ameliorate the induction of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), respectively without any inhibitory effect on its catalytic activities even at higher concentrations. Gall extract also significantly inhibited formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) stimulated degranulation in neutrophils. These results suggest that alcoholic extract of galls of Q. infectoria exerts in vivo antiinflammatory activity after oral or topical administration and also has the ability to prevent the production of some inflammatory mediators. PMID:15013194

  6. Cues used in host-seeking behavior by frog-biting midges (Corethrella spp. Coquillet).

    PubMed

    Bernal, Ximena E; de Silva, Priyanka

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the role of carbon dioxide and host temperature in host attraction in frog-biting midges (Corethrella spp). In these midges, females are known to use frog calls to localize their host, but the role of other host-emitted cues has yet not been investigated. We hypothesized that carbon dioxide acts as a supplemental cue to frog calls. To test this hypothesis, we determined the responses of the midges to carbon dioxide, frog calls, and both cues. A significantly lower number of midges are attracted to carbon dioxide and silent traps than to traps broadcasting frog calls. Adding carbon dioxide to the calls does not increase the attractiveness to the midges. Instead, carbon dioxide can have deterrent effects on frog-biting midges. Temperature of calling frogs is not a cue potentially available to the midges. Contrary to our hypothesis, there was no supplemental effect of carbon dioxide when presented in conjunction to calls. Midge host-seeking behavior strongly depends on the mating calls emitted by their anuran host. Overall, non-acoustic cues such as host body temperature and carbon dioxide are not important in long-distance host location by frog-biting midges. PMID:26047192

  7. Collective Behaviour without Collective Order in Wild Swarms of Midges

    PubMed Central

    Attanasi, Alessandro; Cavagna, Andrea; Del Castello, Lorenzo; Giardina, Irene; Melillo, Stefania; Parisi, Leonardo; Pohl, Oliver; Rossaro, Bruno; Shen, Edward; Silvestri, Edmondo; Viale, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    Collective behaviour is a widespread phenomenon in biology, cutting through a huge span of scales, from cell colonies up to bird flocks and fish schools. The most prominent trait of collective behaviour is the emergence of global order: individuals synchronize their states, giving the stunning impression that the group behaves as one. In many biological systems, though, it is unclear whether global order is present. A paradigmatic case is that of insect swarms, whose erratic movements seem to suggest that group formation is a mere epiphenomenon of the independent interaction of each individual with an external landmark. In these cases, whether or not the group behaves truly collectively is debated. Here, we experimentally study swarms of midges in the field and measure how much the change of direction of one midge affects that of other individuals. We discover that, despite the lack of collective order, swarms display very strong correlations, totally incompatible with models of non-interacting particles. We find that correlation increases sharply with the swarm's density, indicating that the interaction between midges is based on a metric perception mechanism. By means of numerical simulations we demonstrate that such growing correlation is typical of a system close to an ordering transition. Our findings suggest that correlation, rather than order, is the true hallmark of collective behaviour in biological systems. PMID:25057853

  8. Correlation between gall bladder fasting volume and postprandial emptying in patients with gall stones and healthy controls.

    PubMed Central

    Pauletzki, J; Cicala, M; Holl, J; Sauerbruch, T; Schafmayer, A; Paumgartner, G

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate whether the extent of postprandial gall bladder emptying is correlated with gall bladder fasting volume, gall bladder motility was studied in 56 patients with cholesterol gall stone and 19 control patients. Gall bladder volumes were determined sonographically, while cholecystokinin plasma values were measured radioimmunologically. Twenty three per cent of gall stone patients were classified as pathological contractors (residual fraction > mean +2SD of controls) and 77% as normal contractors. Normal but not pathological contractor patients exhibited larger gall bladder fasting volumes (mean (SEM)) (24.7 (1.7) ml) than controls (15.3 (1.2) ml, p < 0.001). In normal contractor patients and controls fasting volume was closely related with ejection volume (r = 0.97, p < 0.001) and residual volume (r = 0.80, p < 0.001). Although ejection volume was enlarged in normal contractor patients it did not compensate the increase in fasting volume. Thus, residual volumes were considerably increased not only in pathological contractors (12.7 (2.5) ml, p < 0.001) but also in normal contractor patients (7.0 (0.5) v 4.6 (0.6) ml, p < 0.001). Postprandial cholecystokinin secretion did not differ between patients and controls. It is concluded, that in normal contractor patients gall bladder fasting volume is closely correlated with ejection and residual volume. Thus, fasting volume may be an essential factor affecting postprandial gall bladder emptying. Large fasting volumes in cholesterol gall stone disease could thereby contribute to bile retention, which facilitates gall stone growth. PMID:8244118

  9. Winter Biology and Freeze Tolerance in the Goldenrod Gall Fly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandro, Luke H.; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a variety of opportunities for educational activities that can be found in the complex, yet easy-to-manipulate, trophic relationships between goldenrod plants, insects that induce gall formation, and the natural enemies of these gallmakers. Gall collection, measurement, and observation (exit holes, larval response,…

  10. Fish gall bladder consumption presenting as acute renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, A; Karnik, ND; Gupta, VA; Hase, NK

    2015-01-01

    A forty two year old male was admitted with history of anuria and breathlessness following consumption of raw rohu fish gall bladder. He had azotemia and required hemodialysis. His renal failure improved over a period of about four weeks. Incidences have been reported from South East Asian countries associating consumption of raw rohu fish gall bladder with acute renal failure. PMID:26440398

  11. Not all oak gall wasps gall oaks: the description of Dryocosmus rileypokei, a new, apostate species of Cynipini from California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cynipini gall wasps are commonly known as oak gall wasps for their almost exclusive use of oak (Quercus spp.) as their host plant. Previously, only three of the nearly1000 species of Cynipini have been recorded from a host plant other than Quercus. These three species are known from western chinqu...

  12. Transcriptome analyses of blood and sugar digestive processes in female Culicoides sonorensis midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Female Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae) midges vector numerous diseases impacting livestock and humans. The molecular physiology of this midge has been under-studied, so our approach was to gain an understanding of basic processes of blood and sucrose digestion using tra...

  13. Method refinements for the midge life-cycle, Chironomus dilutus test

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval stages of non-biting midges can be found in almost any freshwater ecosystem, and one of the commonly tested midges is Chironomus dilutus (Chironomidae, Diptera) which is used for toxicity testing and ecological risk assessment of freshwater contaminants. USEPA, ASTM, Envir...

  14. Effect of vegetarianism on development of gall stones in women.

    PubMed Central

    Pixley, F; Wilson, D; McPherson, K; Mann, J

    1985-01-01

    Real time ultrasonography was used to compare the prevalence of gall stones in two groups of women aged 40-69: 632 women recruited from general practice registers and 130 vegetarians. One hundred and fifty-six (25%) of the 632 women who ate meat and 15 (12%) of the 130 vegetarian women either had gall stones visible on ultrasonography or had previously undergone cholecystectomy (p less than 0.01). The prevalence of gall stones was found to increase with age and body mass index. The 2.5 fold increase in risk of developing gall stones in non-vegetarians compared with vegetarians was reduced to 1.9 when controlling for these two potentially confounding factors, but remained significant. A family history of gall stones was reported more often by women with gall stones, but no association was found with parity or use of exogenous oestrogens. Thus the importance of age and obesity to determine the prevalence of gall stone was confirmed, and a dietary factor associated with vegetarianism may prevent this common condition. PMID:3926039

  15. Effect of vegetarianism on development of gall stones in women.

    PubMed

    Pixley, F; Wilson, D; McPherson, K; Mann, J

    1985-07-01

    Real time ultrasonography was used to compare the prevalence of gall stones in two groups of women aged 40-69: 632 women recruited from general practice registers and 130 vegetarians. One hundred and fifty-six (25%) of the 632 women who ate meat and 15 (12%) of the 130 vegetarian women either had gall stones visible on ultrasonography or had previously undergone cholecystectomy (p less than 0.01). The prevalence of gall stones was found to increase with age and body mass index. The 2.5 fold increase in risk of developing gall stones in non-vegetarians compared with vegetarians was reduced to 1.9 when controlling for these two potentially confounding factors, but remained significant. A family history of gall stones was reported more often by women with gall stones, but no association was found with parity or use of exogenous oestrogens. Thus the importance of age and obesity to determine the prevalence of gall stone was confirmed, and a dietary factor associated with vegetarianism may prevent this common condition. PMID:3926039

  16. Avirulence Effector Discovery in a Plant Galling and Plant Parasitic Arthropod, the Hessian Fly (Mayetiola destructor)

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Rajat; Subramanyam, Subhashree; Zhao, Chaoyang; Chen, Ming-Shun; Harris, Marion O.; Stuart, Jeff J.

    2014-01-01

    Highly specialized obligate plant-parasites exist within several groups of arthropods (insects and mites). Many of these are important pests, but the molecular basis of their parasitism and its evolution are poorly understood. One hypothesis is that plant parasitic arthropods use effector proteins to defeat basal plant immunity and modulate plant growth. Because avirulence (Avr) gene discovery is a reliable method of effector identification, we tested this hypothesis using high-resolution molecular genetic mapping of an Avr gene (vH13) in the Hessian fly (HF, Mayetiola destructor), an important gall midge pest of wheat (Triticum spp.). Chromosome walking resolved the position of vH13, and revealed alleles that determine whether HF larvae are virulent (survive) or avirulent (die) on wheat seedlings carrying the wheat H13 resistance gene. Association mapping found three independent insertions in vH13 that appear to be responsible for H13-virulence in field populations. We observed vH13 transcription in H13-avirulent larvae and the salivary glands of H13-avirulent larvae, but not in H13-virulent larvae. RNA-interference-knockdown of vH13 transcripts allowed some H13-avirulent larvae to escape H13-directed resistance. vH13 is the first Avr gene identified in an arthropod. It encodes a small modular protein with no sequence similarities to other proteins in GenBank. These data clearly support the hypothesis that an effector-based strategy has evolved in multiple lineages of plant parasites, including arthropods. PMID:24964065

  17. Avirulence effector discovery in a plant galling and plant parasitic arthropod, the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor).

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Rajat; Subramanyam, Subhashree; Zhao, Chaoyang; Chen, Ming-Shun; Harris, Marion O; Stuart, Jeff J

    2014-01-01

    Highly specialized obligate plant-parasites exist within several groups of arthropods (insects and mites). Many of these are important pests, but the molecular basis of their parasitism and its evolution are poorly understood. One hypothesis is that plant parasitic arthropods use effector proteins to defeat basal plant immunity and modulate plant growth. Because avirulence (Avr) gene discovery is a reliable method of effector identification, we tested this hypothesis using high-resolution molecular genetic mapping of an Avr gene (vH13) in the Hessian fly (HF, Mayetiola destructor), an important gall midge pest of wheat (Triticum spp.). Chromosome walking resolved the position of vH13, and revealed alleles that determine whether HF larvae are virulent (survive) or avirulent (die) on wheat seedlings carrying the wheat H13 resistance gene. Association mapping found three independent insertions in vH13 that appear to be responsible for H13-virulence in field populations. We observed vH13 transcription in H13-avirulent larvae and the salivary glands of H13-avirulent larvae, but not in H13-virulent larvae. RNA-interference-knockdown of vH13 transcripts allowed some H13-avirulent larvae to escape H13-directed resistance. vH13 is the first Avr gene identified in an arthropod. It encodes a small modular protein with no sequence similarities to other proteins in GenBank. These data clearly support the hypothesis that an effector-based strategy has evolved in multiple lineages of plant parasites, including arthropods. PMID:24964065

  18. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Gall Bladder.

    PubMed

    Haid, Max; Gahju, Badri; Schulz, Craig; Sterner, David; Falconer, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the gall bladder (SCCGB) is a rare condition, with only 53 prior cases reported in the world literature when our case was first diagnosed. Our patient was found to have limited stage disease and was treated with sequential laparoscopic cholecystectomy, etoposide/carboplatin chemotherapy followed by consolidating loco-regional radiation therapy. She is alive and well without evidence of disease more than 132 months since diagnosis. We describe here our experience in the diagnosis, staging workup, treatment, and surveillance of a case of SCCGB and review the published literature. Treated aggressively with currently available methods, patients with limited stage SCCGB can have an excellent prognosis. The authors' intent is to provide a reasonable plan of treatment for other physicians facing such an unusual patient. PMID:27197345

  19. Holocene temperature history of northern Iceland inferred from subfossil midges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axford, Yarrow; Miller, Gifford H.; Geirsdóttir, Áslaug; Langdon, Peter G.

    2007-12-01

    The Holocene temperature history of Iceland is not well known, despite Iceland's climatically strategic location at the intersection of major surface currents in the high-latitude North Atlantic. Existing terrestrial records reveal spatially heterogeneous changes in Iceland's glacier extent, vegetation cover, and climate over the Holocene, but these records are temporally discontinuous and mostly qualitative. This paper presents the first quantitative estimates of temperatures throughout the entire Holocene on Iceland. Mean July temperatures are inferred based upon subfossil midge (Chironomidae) assemblages from three coastal lakes in northern Iceland. Midge data from each of the three lakes indicate broadly similar temperature trends, and suggest that the North Icelandic coast experienced relatively cool early Holocene summers and gradual warming throughout the Holocene until after 3 ka. This contrasts with many sites on Iceland and around the high-latitude Northern Hemisphere that experienced an early to mid-Holocene "thermal maximum" in response to enhanced summer insolation forcing. Our results suggest a heightened temperature gradient across Iceland in the early Holocene, with suppressed terrestrial temperatures along the northern coastal fringe, possibly as a result of sea surface conditions on the North Iceland shelf.

  20. The salivary secretome of the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis

    PubMed Central

    Lehiy, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are hematophagous insects with over 1400 species distributed throughout the world. Many of these species are of particular agricultural importance as primary vectors of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses, yet little is known about Culicoides genomics and proteomics. Detailed studies of members from other blood-feeding Dipteran families, including those of mosquito (Culicidae) and black fly (Simuliidae), have shown that protein components within the insect’s saliva facilitate the blood feeding process. To determine the protein components in Culicoides sonorensis midges, secreted saliva was collected for peptide sequencing by tandem mass spectrometry. Forty-five secreted proteins were identified, including members of the D7 odorant binding protein family, Kunitz-like serine protease inhibitors, maltase, trypsin, and six novel proteins unique to C. sonorensis. Identifying the complex myriad of proteins in saliva from blood-feeding Dipteran species is critical for understanding their role in blood feeding, arbovirus transmission, and possibly the resulting disease pathogenesis. PMID:24949243

  1. Using Goldenrod Galls to Teach Science Process Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peard, Terry L.

    1994-01-01

    Emphasizes the importance of using examples from the student's environment to aid in teaching science process skills. The author uses diagrams to aid in discussing the various uses of goldenrod (Solidago sp) galls in the classroom. (ZWH)

  2. Increased gall bladder volume in primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed Central

    van de Meeberg, P C; Portincasa, P; Wolfhagen, F H; van Erpecum, K J; VanBerge-Henegouwen, G P

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) requires invasive procedures such as liver biopsy and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC). Sonographic measurement of fasting gall bladder volume, which has been reported to be enlarged in PSC, could serve as a non-invasive screening test. METHODS: Fasting gall bladder volume was studied in patients with PSC (n = 24), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC, n = 13), liver cirrhosis due to other causes (n = 18), ulcerative colitis (n = 15), and healthy controls (n = 23). Meal induced gall bladder emptying was studied in patients with PSC, patients with PBC, and healthy controls. RESULTS: In patients with PSC gall bladder volume was greatly enlarged (72.9 (SEM 3.7) ml) compared with healthy controls (25.4 (1.7) ml, and patients with PBC (30.9 (2.7) ml), liver cirrhosis (31.3 (4.0) ml) or ulcerative colitis (25.8 (2.0) ml) (p < 0.0005 v all). In four patients with PSC the gall bladder wall was irregularly thickened (> 4 mm) as previously described in PSC. Postprandial residual fractions (% of fasting volume) were comparable between patients with PSC (17.5 (3.7)%) and those with PBC (23.6 (7.1%) and healthy controls (12.7 (2.3)%) Although gall bladder emptying seems normal, increased biliary pressure in patients with PSC cannot be excluded. CONCLUSION: Apart from wall thickening, patients with PSC often present with enlargement of the gall bladder. Sonographic determination of fasting gall bladder volume may be a useful, non-invasive, and easy to perform tool in the evaluation of patients suspected of having PSC. Images Figure 2 PMID:8944571

  3. K-ras gene mutation in gall bladder carcinomas and dysplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Ajiki, T; Fujimori, T; Onoyama, H; Yamamoto, M; Kitazawa, S; Maeda, S; Saitoh, Y

    1996-01-01

    Epithelial dysplasia of gall bladder is an important precancerous lesion of gall bladder carcinogenesis. To investigate the frequency of K-ras gene mutation in gall bladder carcinoma and dysplasia, K-ras codon 12 mutations were investigated by the polymerase chain reaction/restriction enzyme based method following direct sequencing. Mutation was detected in 59% (30 of 51) of gall bladder carcinomas, in 73% (8 of 11) of gall bladder dysplasia in gall stone cases, and in 0% of the normal gall bladder epithelium. There was, however, no correlation between K-ras mutation and clinicopathological factors of gall bladder carcinoma. K-ras gene mutation occurs even in gall bladder dysplasia at an incidence similar to that in carcinomas, suggesting that testing for K-ras gene mutation may prove useful as an adjunct to bile cytological or biopsy analysis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8675098

  4. Gall volatiles defend aphids against a browsing mammal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plants have evolved an astonishing array of survival strategies. To defend against insects, for example, damaged plants emit volatile organic compounds that attract the herbivore’s natural enemies. So far, plant volatile responses have been studied extensively in conjunction with leaf chewing and sap sucking insects, yet little is known about the relationship between plant volatiles and gall-inducers, the most sophisticated herbivores. Here we describe a new role for volatiles as gall-insects were found to benefit from this plant defence. Results Chemical analyses of galls triggered by the gregarious aphid Slavum wertheimae on wild pistachio trees showed that these structures contained and emitted considerably higher quantities of plant terpenes than neighbouring leaves and fruits. Behavioural assays using goats as a generalist herbivore confirmed that the accumulated terpenes acted as olfactory signals and feeding deterrents, thus enabling the gall-inducers to escape from inadvertent predation by mammals. Conclusions Increased emission of plant volatiles in response to insect activity is commonly looked upon as a “cry for help” by the plant to attract the insect’s natural enemies. In contrast, we show that such volatiles can serve as a first line of insect defences that extends the ‘extended phenotype’ represented by galls, beyond physical boundaries. Our data support the Enemy hypothesis insofar that high levels of gall secondary metabolites confer protection against natural enemies. PMID:24020365

  5. Surgically Resected Gall Bladder: Is Histopathology Needed for All?

    PubMed Central

    Talreja, Vikash; Ali, Aun; Khawaja, Rabel; Rani, Kiran; Samnani, Sunil Sadruddin; Farid, Farah Naz

    2016-01-01

    Background. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is considered to be gold standard for symptomatic gall stones. As a routine every specimen is sent for histopathological examination postoperatively. Incidentally finding gall bladder cancers in those specimens is around 0.5–1.1%. The aim of this study is to identify those preoperative and intraoperative factors in patients with incidental gall bladder cancer to reduce unnecessary work load on pathologist and cost of investigation particularly in a developing world. Methods. Retrospective records were analyzed from January 2005 to February 2015 in a surgical unit. Demographic data, preoperative imaging, peroperative findings, macroscopic appearance, and histopathological findings were noted. Gall bladder wall was considered to be thickened if ≥3 mm on preoperative imaging or surgeons comment (on operative findings) and histopathology report. AJCC TNM system was used to stage gall bladder cancer. Results. 973 patients underwent cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstone disease. Gallbladder carcinoma was incidentally found in 11 cases. Macroscopic abnormalities of the gallbladder were found in all those 11 patients. In patients with a macroscopically normal gallbladder, there were no cases of gallbladder carcinoma. Conclusion. Preoperative and operative findings play a pivotal role in determining incidental chances of gall bladder malignancy. PMID:27123469

  6. Surgically Resected Gall Bladder: Is Histopathology Needed for All?

    PubMed

    Talreja, Vikash; Ali, Aun; Khawaja, Rabel; Rani, Kiran; Samnani, Sunil Sadruddin; Farid, Farah Naz

    2016-01-01

    Background. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is considered to be gold standard for symptomatic gall stones. As a routine every specimen is sent for histopathological examination postoperatively. Incidentally finding gall bladder cancers in those specimens is around 0.5-1.1%. The aim of this study is to identify those preoperative and intraoperative factors in patients with incidental gall bladder cancer to reduce unnecessary work load on pathologist and cost of investigation particularly in a developing world. Methods. Retrospective records were analyzed from January 2005 to February 2015 in a surgical unit. Demographic data, preoperative imaging, peroperative findings, macroscopic appearance, and histopathological findings were noted. Gall bladder wall was considered to be thickened if ≥3 mm on preoperative imaging or surgeons comment (on operative findings) and histopathology report. AJCC TNM system was used to stage gall bladder cancer. Results. 973 patients underwent cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstone disease. Gallbladder carcinoma was incidentally found in 11 cases. Macroscopic abnormalities of the gallbladder were found in all those 11 patients. In patients with a macroscopically normal gallbladder, there were no cases of gallbladder carcinoma. Conclusion. Preoperative and operative findings play a pivotal role in determining incidental chances of gall bladder malignancy. PMID:27123469

  7. Impact of biting midges on residential property values in Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ratnayake, Jay; Dale, Pat E; Sipe, Neil G; Daniels, Peter

    2006-03-01

    Biting midges (Culicoides spp.) are an important environmental health issue in Hervey Bay, an area of rapid population growth in Australia. It is also the gateway to a World Heritage area (Great Sandy Strait) and a destination for tourists. The spread of housing developments into suburbs close to midge breeding habitats has led to a problem for the local government responsible for managing biting insects in its area. Suburbs with a severe biting midge problem were found to have significantly lower residential property values than less affected suburbs. The gross reduction in value in due to the midge problem was estimated to range from more than AUS dollar 25 million, based on actual sale price, to more than AUS dollar 55 million, based on the perceptions of the most severely affected residents. PMID:16646336

  8. Papular dermatitis induced in guinea pigs by the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Histological, ultrastructural, and virological examinations were performed on abdominal skin from guinea pigs after a blood meal by colony-bred biting midges, Culicoides sonorensis. Small, superficial, cutaneous, crateriform ulcers with necrosis of superficial dermis developed at feeding sites and ...

  9. CHRONIC EFFECTS OF THE HERBICIDE DIURON ON FRESHWATER CLADOCERANS,AMPHIPODS,MIDGES,MINNOWS,WORMS, AND SNAILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chronic effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and reproduction of Daphnia pulex, and survival and growth of the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the midge Chironomus tentans, juvenile and embro/larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, annelid worms, Lumbriculus variegatus,...

  10. Chironomid midges (Diptera, chironomidae) show extremely small genome sizes.

    PubMed

    Cornette, Richard; Gusev, Oleg; Nakahara, Yuichi; Shimura, Sachiko; Kikawada, Takahiro; Okuda, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    Chironomid midges (Diptera; Chironomidae) are found in various environments from the high Arctic to the Antarctic, including temperate and tropical regions. In many freshwater habitats, members of this family are among the most abundant invertebrates. In the present study, the genome sizes of 25 chironomid species were determined by flow cytometry and the resulting C-values ranged from 0.07 to 0.20 pg DNA (i.e. from about 68 to 195 Mbp). These genome sizes were uniformly very small and included, to our knowledge, the smallest genome sizes recorded to date among insects. Small proportion of transposable elements and short intron sizes were suggested to contribute to the reduction of genome sizes in chironomids. We discuss about the possible developmental and physiological advantages of having a small genome size and about putative implications for the ecological success of the family Chironomidae. PMID:26003979

  11. Biting Midges of the Genus Culicoides in South Carolina Zoos

    PubMed Central

    Nelder, Mark P.; Swanson, Dustin A.; Adler, Peter H.; Grogan, William L.

    2010-01-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected during the summer of 2007 at the Greenville and Riverbanks Zoos in South Carolina with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) traps equipped with ultraviolet or incandescent lights and baited with carbon dioxide. Sixteen species of Culicoides were collected, four of which represented more than 80%. They were Culicoides guttipennis (Coquillett), Culicoides mulrenanni Beck, Culicoides obsoletus (Meigen), and Culicoides sanguisuga (Coquillett). C. guttipennis was found on a dead colobus monkey and a dead golden-headed lion tamarin; Culicoides husseyi Wirth & Blanton was collected from an unidentified, abandoned bird's nest. Ultraviolet light-equipped traps captured significantly more Culicoides specimens than traps with incandescent light. Half of the collected species previously have been associated with vertebrate pathogens, indicating a potential risk to captive animals. PMID:20569132

  12. Biting midges of the genus Culicoides in South Carolina zoos.

    PubMed

    Nelder, Mark P; Swanson, Dustin A; Adler, Peter H; Grogan, William L

    2010-01-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected during the summer of 2007 at the Greenville and Riverbanks Zoos in South Carolina with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) traps equipped with ultraviolet or incandescent lights and baited with carbon dioxide. Sixteen species of Culicoides were collected, four of which represented more than 80%. They were Culicoides guttipennis (Coquillett), Culicoides mulrenanni Beck, Culicoides obsoletus (Meigen), and Culicoides sanguisuga (Coquillett). C. guttipennis was found on a dead colobus monkey and a dead golden-headed lion tamarin; Culicoides husseyi Wirth & Blanton was collected from an unidentified, abandoned bird's nest. Ultraviolet light-equipped traps captured significantly more Culicoides specimens than traps with incandescent light. Half of the collected species previously have been associated with vertebrate pathogens, indicating a potential risk to captive animals. PMID:20569132

  13. Effect of different curcumin dosages on human gall bladder.

    PubMed

    Rasyid, Abdul; Rahman, Abdul Rashid Abdul; Jaalam, Kamaruddin; Lelo, Aznan

    2002-01-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that curcumin, an active compound of Curcuma xanthorrhiza and C. domestica, produces a positive cholekinetic effect. A 20 mg amount of curcumin is capable of contracting the gall bladder by up to 29% within an observation time of 2 h. The aim of the current study was to define the dosage of curcumin capable of producing a 50% contraction of the gall bladder, and to determine if there is a linear relationship between doubling the curcumin dosage and the doubling of gall bladder contraction. A randomised, single-blind, three-phase, crossover-designed examination was carried out on 12 healthy volunteers. Ultrasonography was carried out serially to measure the gall bladder volume. The data obtained was analysed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The fasting volumes of gall bladders were similar (P > 0.50), with 17.28 +/- 5.47 mL for 20 mg curcumin, 18.34 +/- 3.75 mL for 40 mg and 18.24 +/- 3.72 mL for 80 mg. The percentage decrease in gall bladder volume 2 h after administration of 20, 40 and 80 mg was 34.10 +/- 10.16, 51.15 +/- 8.08 and 72.25 +/- 8.22, respectively, which was significantly different (P < 0.01). On the basis of the present findings, it appears that the dosage of cucumin capable of producing a 50% contraction of the bladder was 40 mg. This study did not show any linear relationship between doubling curcumin dosage and the doubling of gall bladder contraction. PMID:12495265

  14. A NEW SPECIES OF INVASIVE GALL WASP (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE: TETRASTICHINAE) ON BLUE GUM (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS) IN CALIFORNIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The blue gum gall wasp, Selitrichodes globulus La Salle & Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as an invasive gall inducer on blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), in California....

  15. Biting rates of Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) on sheep in northeastern Spain in relation to midge capture using UV light and carbon dioxide-baited traps.

    PubMed

    Gerry, Alec C; Sarto i Monteys, V; Moreno Vidal, J O; Francino, O; Mullens, Bradley A

    2009-05-01

    Biting midges in the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected near sunset by direct aspiration from sheep in northeastern Spain to determine species-specific biting rates and crepuscular activity. Midges were also collected by UV-baited light traps and CO2-baited traps over the same period to compare species diversity and abundance using these common surveillance methods to actual sheep attack rates. Culicoides aspirated from sheep included C. obsoletus, C. parroti, C. scoticus, C. punctatus, and C. imicola. Peak host-seeking activity during the time period examined for the two most commonly collected species (C. obsoletus and C. parroti) occurred just before sunset and activity ceased within 1 h after sunset. Host attack rates near sunset averaged 0.9 midges/min for both species with maximum attack rates of 3/min for C. obsoletus and 4/min for C. parroti. For both species, approximately 35% of midges collected from the sheep were engorged, giving a maximum biting rate of 1.1/min for C. obsoletus and 1.5/min for C. parroti. Traps baited with CO2 collected fewer midges of each species relative to other collection methods. Traps baited with UV light provided a good indication of species richness but significantly underestimated the host attack rate of C. obsoletus and C. parroti while overestimating the host attack rate of C. imicola. Animal-baited collecting is critical to interpret the epidemiological significance of light trap collections used for surveillance of the midge vectors of bluetongue virus and African horse sickness virus. PMID:19496435

  16. Analysis of iron gall inks by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budnar, Miloš; Uršič, Mitja; Simčič, Jure; Pelicon, Primož; Kolar, Jana; Šelih, Vid Simon; Strlič, Matija

    2006-02-01

    Micro- or non-destructive analytical approach is an imperative when analysing historical artefacts. Due to its practically non-destructive character, proton induced X-ray spectrometry (PIXE) has become a method of choice for the study of historical documents. In the present paper, use of in-air PIXE method for analysis of iron gall inks applied at handwriting of documents is evaluated. The errors arising from the non-uniform ink deposit, proton penetration depth and size of the proton beam versus width of ink lines, effects of surface roughness, as well as the importance of the PIXE set-up geometry on the accuracy of the results are discussed. It follows that the main problems can be attributed to the fact that PIXE is a surface technique and that the analysis is limited to a small amount of material, while ink deposit on the paper is usually non-uniform in depth as well as on the paper surface. Despite possible systematic uncertainties when applying the PIXE method, good correlation between determinations obtained by PIXE and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) on model samples clearly demonstrate that the errors are well within a reasonable limit of a few percents.

  17. Roles of gall bladder emptying and intestinal transit in the pathogenesis of octreotide induced gall bladder stones.

    PubMed Central

    Hussaini, S H; Pereira, S P; Veysey, M J; Kennedy, C; Jenkins, P; Murphy, G M; Wass, J A; Dowling, R H

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Octreotide treatment of acromegalic patients increases the % deoxycholic acid conjugates and the cholesterol saturation of gall bladder bile, and induces gall stone formation. AIMS--To study the roles of gall bladder emptying and intestinal transit in these phenomena. METHODS AND PATIENTS--Gall bladder emptying and mouth to caecum transit was measured in (a) control subjects and acromegalic patients given saline or 50 micrograms of octreotide, and (b) acromegalic patients taking long term octreotide. In the second group, large bowel transit was also measured. RESULTS--A single dose of octreotide inhibited meal stimulated gall bladder emptying, the ejection fraction falling from mean (SEM) 66.0 (2.3)% to 7.0 (5.3)% in controls (p < 0.001); from 72.5 (2.1) to 16.6 (5.1)% in untreated acromegalic patients (p < 0.001), and to 30.4 (9.5)% in acromegalic patients taking long term octreotide (p < 0.001 v untreated acromegalic group). Octreotide prolonged mouth to caecum transit time, from 112 (15) min to 237 (13) min in controls (p < 0.001), from 170 (13) min to 282 (11) min in untreated acromegalic patients (p < 0.001), and to 247 (10) min in acromegalic patients taking long term octreotide (p < 0.001 v untreated acromegalic patients). The mean large bowel transit in octreotide untreated compared with treated acromegalic patients remained unchanged (40 (6) h v 47 (6) h). CONCLUSIONS--Prolongation of intestinal transit and impaired gall bladder emptying may contribute to lithogenic changes in bile composition and gall stone formation in patients receiving long term octreotide. PMID:8707128

  18. Ecology and evolution of gall-forming insects. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Price, P.W.; Mattson, W.J.; Baranchikov, Y.N.

    1994-09-21

    ;Partial Contents: Ecology and Population Dynamics; Effects of the Physical Environment on the Ecology of Gall Insects; Biodiversity and Distribution; Genetic Variation in Host Plant Resistance; Evolutionary Perspectives on Gall Insects.

  19. Gall insects can avoid and alter indirect plant defenses.

    PubMed

    Tooker, John F; Rohr, Jason R; Abrahamson, Warren G; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2008-01-01

    Parasitic species can dramatically alter host traits. Some of these parasite-induced changes can be considered adaptive manipulations that benefit the parasites. Gall-inducing insects are parasites well known for their ability to alter host-plant morphology and physiology, including the distribution of plant defensive compounds. Here it was investigated whether gall-inducing species alter indirect plant defenses, involving the release of volatile compounds that are attractive to foraging natural enemies. Using field and factorial laboratory experiments, volatile production by goldenrod (Solidago altissima) plants was examined in response to attack by two gall-inducing species, the tephritid fly Eurosta solidaginis and the gelechiid moth Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis, as well as the meadow spittlebug, Philaenus spumarius, and the generalist caterpillar Heliothis virescens. Heliothis virescens elicited strong indirect defensive responses from S. altissima, but the gall-inducing species and spittlebugs did not. More significantly, infestation by E. solidaginis appeared to suppress volatile responses to subsequent attack by the generalist caterpillar. The extensive control that E. solidaginis apparently exerts over host-plant defense responses may reduce the predation risk for the gall inducer and the subsequent herbivore, and could influence community-level dynamics, including the distribution of herbivorous insect species associated with S. altissima parasitized by E. solidaginis. PMID:18331430

  20. 9 CFR 95.17 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements for unrestricted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like... STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.17 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements for unrestricted entry. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone marrow, and various like...

  1. 9 CFR 95.17 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements for unrestricted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like... STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.17 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements for unrestricted entry. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone marrow, and various like...

  2. Gall structure affects ecological associations of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce structures (galls) on their host plants which house developing wasps and provide them with protection from natural enemies. The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, is an invasive pest that is destructive to chestnut (Castanea spp.). ...

  3. Clinodiplosis agerati (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), a new galling species associated with Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maia, V C; Araújo, L

    2016-04-19

    Clinodiplosis agerati, a new galling species that induces stem galls on Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, female and gall) based on material collected in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The new species is compared with the other Neotropical species. This is the first record of the Clinodiplosis in Ageratum. PMID:27097086

  4. Leaf-derived cecidomyiid galls are sinks in Machilus thunbergii (Lauraceae) leaves.

    PubMed

    Huang, Meng-Yuan; Huang, Wen-Dar; Chou, Hsueh-Mei; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Chen, Chang-Chang; Chen, Pei-Ju; Chang, Yung-Ta; Yang, Chi-Ming

    2014-11-01

    Three relevant hypotheses - nutrition, environment and the enemies hypothesis - often invoked to explore source and sink relationships between galls and their host plants are still under dispute. In this research, chlorophyll fluorescence, gas exchange capacity, stomatal conductance, total carbon and nitrogen, total soluble sugars and starches, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy of two types of galls were used to investigate source-sink relationships. Compared with host leaves, these galls demonstrated slightly lower chlorophyll fluorescence; however, gas exchange capacity and stomatal conductance were not detected at all. Scanning electron micrographs demonstrated that the abaxial epidermis of host leaves contain normal amounts of stomata, whereas no stomata were observed on the exterior and interior surfaces of both types of galls. In addition, gall inner surfaces were covered with many kinds of fungal hyphae. Gall total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) levels were lower but the C/N ratio was higher in galls than host leaves. Both types of galls accumulated higher total soluble sugars and starches than host leaves. Transmission electron micrographs also revealed that both types of galls contain plastoglobuli and giant starch granules during gall development. Results strongly indicate that leaf-derived cecidomyiid galls are sinks in Machilus thunbergii leaves. However, it is perplexing how larvae cycle and balance CO(2) and O(2) in gall growth chambers without stomata. PMID:24621096

  5. Effect of the nitric oxide donor, glyceryl trinitrate, on human gall bladder motility

    PubMed Central

    Greaves, R; Miller, J; O'Donnell, L; McLean, A; Farthing, M

    1998-01-01

    Background—Nitric oxide is a major neurotransmitter in non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) pathways. NANC inhibitory innervation has been shown in human gall bladder muscle in vitro; the role of nitric oxide in human gall bladder emptying however is undefined.
Aims—To study the effect of glyceryl trinitrate, a nitric oxide donor, on gall bladder emptying in healthy subjects using a randomised, double blind, crossover, placebo controlled design.
Methods—Ultrasonographic gall bladder volume was measured in the fasting state in eight healthy volunteers after randomised administration of either glyceryl trinitrate 1200 µg buccal spray or placebo spray. On two further occasions, after randomised administration of either glyceryl trinitrate 1200 µg buccal spray or placebo spray, gall bladder volumes were also measured after a liquid test meal. 
Results—Glyceryl trinitrate significantly increased fasting gall bladder volume to a mean of 114% (SEM 5%) of pretreatment volume (p=0.039). Glyceryl trinitrate also significantly impaired gall bladder emptying between five and 40 minutes postprandially. Gall bladder ejection fraction was also reduced after glyceryl trinitrate compared with placebo (43 (6.9)% versus 68.4 (6.5)%, p=0.016).
Conclusions—This study shows that glyceryl trinitrate produces gall bladder dilatation in the fasting state and reduces postprandial gall bladder emptying, suggesting that nitric oxide mechanisms may be operative in the human gall bladder in vivo. 

 Keywords: gall bladder motility; nitric oxide; glyceryl trinitrate PMID:9577350

  6. 9 CFR 95.17 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements for unrestricted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like... STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.17 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements for unrestricted entry. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone marrow, and various like...

  7. Estimation of gestational age from gall-bladder length.

    PubMed

    Udaykumar, K; Udaykumar, Padmaja; Nagesh, K R

    2016-01-01

    Establishing a precise duration of gestation is vital in situations such as infanticide and criminal abortions. The present study attempted to estimate the gestational age of the foetus from gall-bladder length. Foetuses of various gestational age groups were dissected, and the length of the gall bladder was measured. The results were analysed, and a substantial degree of correlation was statistically confirmed. This novel method is helpful when the foetus is fragmented, putrefied or eviscerated, where this method can be used as an additional parameter to improve the accuracy of foetal age estimation. PMID:25990829

  8. Identity and diversity of blood meal hosts of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latreille) in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Host preference studies in haematophagous insects e.g. Culicoides biting midges are pivotal to assess transmission routes of vector-borne diseases and critical for the development of veterinary contingency plans to identify which species should be included due to their risk potential. Species of Culicoides have been found in almost all parts of the world and known to live in a variety of habitats. Several parasites and viruses are transmitted by Culicoides biting midges including Bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus. The aim of the present study was to determine the identity and diversity of blood meals taken from vertebrate hosts in wild-caught Culicoides biting midges near livestock farms. Methods Biting midges were collected at weekly intervals for 20 weeks from May to October 2009 using light traps at four collection sites on the island Sealand, Denmark. Blood-fed female biting midges were sorted and head and wings were removed for morphological species identification. The thoraxes and abdomens including the blood meals of the individual females were subsequently subjected to DNA isolation. The molecular marker cytochrome oxidase I (COI barcode) was applied to identify the species of the collected biting midges (GenBank accessions JQ683259-JQ683374). The blood meals were first screened with a species-specific cytochrome b primer pair for cow and if negative with a universal cytochrome b primer pair followed by sequencing to identify mammal or avian blood meal hosts. Results Twenty-four species of biting midges were identified from the four study sites. A total of 111,356 Culicoides biting midges were collected, of which 2,164 were blood-fed. Specimens of twenty species were identified with blood in their abdomens. Blood meal sources were successfully identified by DNA sequencing from 242 (76%) out of 320 Culicoides specimens. Eight species of mammals and seven species of birds were identified as blood meal hosts. The most common host species was

  9. Midges as palaeoindicators of lake productivity, eutrophication and hypolimnetic oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodersen, Klaus Peter; Quinlan, Roberto

    2006-08-01

    The sedimentary record from lakes can be used as an archive of past environmental changes and for events related to anthropogenic activities in the catchment area. In this paper, we review the more recent studies on zoobenthos responses to changes in lake productivity and to altered sublittoral and hypolimnetic oxygen conditions, as reflected from subfossil midge (Diptera: Chironomidae) assemblages and palaeostratigraphies. We discuss how the importance of different environmental variables is scale dependent in both time and space and we summarize some of the classical and general patterns in chironomid palaeolimnology. The recent advances in quantitative reconstructions using chironomid transfer functions and numerical analyses are presented and compared. A consensus ranking of species trophic optima and respiratory adaptations from published data sets showed good agreement. Factors such as lake depth, stratification patterns, water level change, sediment conditions, submerged vegetation and ecological thresholds are all important for interpretation of palaeolimnological trajectories. We use previously published and new data to document how these factors determine, change or preserve the "lake identity" over time. We conclude that subfossil chironomids have proven to be very effective indicators for lake trophic development (productivity) and hypolimnetic oxygen conditions. Challenges in interpreting the subfossil chironomid record include the interaction between a range of scale-dependent variables and processes.

  10. Responses of the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius to DEET exposure.

    PubMed

    Campos, Diana; Gravato, Carlos; Quintaneiro, Carla; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Pestana, João L T

    2016-03-01

    N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) is the active ingredient of many commercial insect repellents. Despite being detected worldwide in effluents, surface water and groundwater, there is still limited information on DEET's toxicity toward non-target aquatic invertebrates. Thus, our main objective was to assess the effects of DEET in the life cycle of Chironomus riparius and assess its biochemical effects. Laboratory assays showed that DEET reduced developmental rates (reduced larval growth, delayed emergence) of C. riparius larvae and also caused a decrease in the size of adult midges. Concerning the biochemical responses, a short exposure to DEET caused no effects in lipid peroxidation, despite the significant inhibition of catalase and glutathione-S-transferase activities and of total glutathione contents. Moreover, inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity was also observed showing neurotoxic effects. Environmental risk assessment of insect repellents is needed. Our results showed moderate toxicity of DEET toward C. riparius, however, due to their mode of action, indirect ecological effects of DEET and of other insect repellents cannot be excluded and should be evaluated. PMID:26773354

  11. Contribution of gall microscopic structure to taxonomy of gallicolous aphids on Pistacia.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, R; Martinez, J-J I; Muñoz-Viveros, A L; Molist, P; Abad-González, J; Nieto Nafría, J M

    2016-09-01

    Aphids inducing galls on Pistacia plants belong to the tribe Fordini. According to the Heie & Wegierek classification, the genera are grouped into three subtribes. Previous microscopic studies showed that this taxonomy is not consistent with the histological characteristics of the galls. In this paper, galls induced by Aplonerura lentisci, Asiphonella cynodonti, Forda riccobonii, Slavun wertheimae and Smynthurodes betae were analyzed for the first time, as well as nine other galls previously described. Based on histological features three groups of galls can be establish: the first group comprises closed galls, induced by Baizongia pistaciae, Geoica utricularia, Rectinasus buxtoni and Slavun wertheimae; the second group includes two species of Geopemphigus (G. blackmani and G. torsus), and the third one is divided into two subgroups, the first comprises Aplonerura lentisci, Asiphonella cynodonti and Geopemphigus morral, and the second that includes Forda formicaria, F. marginata, F. riccobonii, Paracletus cimiciformis and Smynthurodes betae. An identification key of species based on microscopic features of galls is presented. PMID:27259077

  12. Antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini leaf gall extracts

    PubMed Central

    Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Iyer, Raman Shanthi; Subbaramaiah, Sundara Rajan; Richard, S Austin; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Free radicals are implicated in several metabolic diseases and the medicinal properties of plants have been explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. This research highlights the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and methanol) of Syzygium cumini (S. cumini), which have been extensively used in traditional medications to treat various metabolic diseases. Methods: The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. Results: In all the methods, the methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant potential than the standard ascorbic acid. The presence of phenolics, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenoids, and reducing sugars was identified in both the extracts. When compared, the methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents at 474±2.2 mg of GAE/g d.w and 668±1.4 mg of QUE/g d.w, respectively. The significant high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. Conclusion: The present study confirms the folklore use of S. cumini leaves gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justifies its ethnobotanical use. Further, the result of antioxidant properties encourages the use of S. cumini leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals applications. PMID:25035854

  13. Testing Optimal Foraging Theory Using Bird Predation on Goldenrod Galls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahnke, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    All animals must make choices regarding what foods to eat, where to eat, and how much time to spend feeding. Optimal foraging theory explains these behaviors in terms of costs and benefits. This laboratory exercise focuses on optimal foraging theory by investigating the winter feeding behavior of birds on the goldenrod gall fly by comparing…

  14. Science Galls Me: What Is a Niche Anyway?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halverson, Kristy Lynn; Lankford, Deanna Marie

    2009-01-01

    The authors have developed a lesson to investigate basic principles of ecology, more specifically niche partitioning, while using a jigsaw activity that explores galling insects' interactions with goldenrods. Not only does this lesson capture secondary students' interest and keeps them engaged in hands-on activities, the content addresses two…

  15. EVALUATION OF WILD JUGLANS SPECIES FOR CROWN GALL RESISTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crown Gall disease of walnut is caused by the ubiquitous soil-borne bacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens which is able to transfer a specific piece of its own DNA into the genome of the plant host cell. The result of this genetic transformation is the autonomous undifferentiated massive growth of i...

  16. Evaluation of plant constituents associated with pecan phylloxera gall formation.

    PubMed

    Hedin, P A; Neel, W W; Burks, M L; Grimley, E

    1985-04-01

    The weights of pecanCarya illinoensis Koch galls caused by several species ofPhylloxera (Homoptera: Phylloxeridae) were negatively correlated with leaf and nut weights and nut production. Several allelochemicals (isoquercitrin, juglone, and 2 proanthocyanidins) were isolated from galls, and their antibiotic potentials were estimated, based on their toxicity to the bacteriaPseudomones maltophilia (Hugh et Ryschenkow). Pecan proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins) were characterized for the first time, and their stereochemistry was elucidated. The protein and total sugar contents of total leaves and leaf surface washings were determined. The leaf surface sugar content was very low, suggesting that the puncturing strategy of this insect may be for the purpose of finding sugars. The plant growth hormones gibberellic acid, zeatin, zeatin riboside, kinetin, indole acetic acid, and abscisic acid were found in pecan leaves, stems, and their galls. Gibberellic and abscisic acids were present in highest concentrations in all tissues, but lower in galled tissues, suggesting that increased biosynthesis by pecan plant growth regulators did not occur in response to insect attack. PMID:24310069

  17. Evaluation of wild Juglans species for crown gall resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Paradox, the most widely used rootstock in CA walnut production, is highly susceptible to the causal agent of crown gall (CG) Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The bacterial pathogen induces the formation of large tumors around the crown of the tree resulting in a reduction in both vigor and yield. If left...

  18. Franz Joseph Gall and music: the faculty and the bump.

    PubMed

    Eling, Paul; Finger, Stanley; Whitaker, Harry

    2015-01-01

    The traditional story maintains that Franz Joseph Gall's (1758-1828) scientific program began with his observations of schoolmates with bulging eyes and good verbal memories. But his search to understand human nature, in particular individual differences in capacities, passions, and tendencies, can also be traced to other important observations, one being of a young girl with an exceptional talent for music. Rejecting contemporary notions of cognition, Gall concluded that behavior results from the interaction of a limited set of basic faculties, each with its own processes for perception and memory, each with its own territory in both cerebral or cerebellar cortices. Gall identified 27 faculties, one being the sense of tone relations or music. The description of the latter is identical in both his Anatomie et Physiologie and Sur les Fonctions du Cerveau et sur Celles de Chacune de ses Parties, where he provided positive and negative evidences and discussed findings from humans and lower animals, for the faculty. The localization of the cortical faculty for talented musicians, he explained, is demonstrated by a "bump" on each side of the skull just above the angle of the eye; hence, the lower forehead of musicians is broader or squarer than in other individuals. Additionally, differences between singing and nonsinging birds also correlate with cranial features. Gall even brought age, racial, and national differences into the picture. What he wrote about music reveals much about his science and creative thinking. PMID:25684283

  19. Nuclear power plant Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL). Appendix B

    SciTech Connect

    Kasza, K.E.; Diercks, D.R.; Holland, J.W.; Choi, S.U.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this generic aging lessons learned (GALL) review is to provide a systematic review of plant aging information in order to assess materials and component aging issues related to continued operation and license renewal of operating reactors. Literature on mechanical, structural, and thermal-hydraulic components and systems reviewed consisted of 97 Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) reports, 23 NRC Generic Letters, 154 Information Notices, 29 Licensee Event Reports (LERs), 4 Bulletins, and 9 Nuclear Management and Resources Council Industry Reports (NUMARC IRs) and literature on electrical components and systems reviewed consisted of 66 NPAR reports, 8 NRC Generic Letters, 111 Information Notices, 53 LERs, 1 Bulletin, and 1 NUMARC IR. More than 550 documents were reviewed. The results of these reviews were systematized using a standardized GALL tabular format and standardized definitions of aging-related degradation mechanisms and effects. The tables are included in volume s 1 and 2 of this report. A computerized data base has also been developed for all review tables and can be used to expedite the search for desired information on structures, components, and relevant aging effects. A survey of the GALL tables reveals that all ongoing significant component aging issues are currently being addressed by the regulatory process. However, the aging of what are termed passive components has been highlighted for continued scrutiny. This report consists of Volume 2, which consists of the GALL literature review tables for the NUMARC Industry Reports reviewed for the report.

  20. Development and evaluation of real-time PCR assays for bloodmeal identification in Culicoides midges.

    PubMed

    VAN DER Saag, M R; Gu, X; Ward, M P; Kirkland, P D

    2016-06-01

    Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) midges are the biological vectors of a number of arboviruses of veterinary importance. However, knowledge relating to the basic biology of some species, including their host-feeding preferences, is limited. Identification of host-feeding preferences in haematophagous insects can help to elucidate the transmission dynamics of the arboviruses they may transmit. In this study, a series of semi-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays to identify the vertebrate host sources of bloodmeals of Culicoides midges was developed. Two pan-reactive species group and seven species-specific qPCR assays were developed and evaluated. The assays are quick to perform and less expensive than nucleic acid sequencing of bloodmeals. Using these assays, it was possible to rapidly test nearly 700 blood-fed midges of various species from several geographic locations in Australia. PMID:26854008

  1. A chironomid (Diptera: Chironomidae) midge population study and laboratory evaluation of larvicides against midges inhabiting the lagoon of Venice, Italy.

    PubMed

    Ali, A; Majori, G; Ceretti, G; D'Andrea, F; Scattolin, M; Ferrarese, U

    1985-03-01

    Chironomid larval densities in the saltwater lagoon of Venice, Italy, were assessed in the spring of 1984. Four organophosphates; chlorpyrifos, temephos, fenthion and fenitrothion, and three pyrethroids; cypermethrin, permethrin and deltamethrin, were tested in the laboratory against field-collected larvae. Three industrial formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (B.t.i.) were also tested as midge larvicides. Only Chironomus salinarius occurred in the benthic samples taken from different sections of the lagoon. The densities of this species ranged from 0 to 38,976 larvae/m2. The highest mean larval density of 15,673/m2 was encountered in a section of the lagoon adjacent to Venice airport and receiving large quantities of raw sewage. The lowest mean density (less than 1 larva/m2) existed in another area of the lagoon receiving discharge from chemical industry. Cypermethrin and permethrin were 21-233X more active against the larvae than the four organophosphates. Chlorpyrifos was the most active organophosphate. Formulations of B.t.i. were economically ineffective against the larvae. PMID:3880214

  2. Abundance of biting midge species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, Culicoides spp.) on cattle farms in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Chung, Joon-Yee; Kwon, Mee-Soon; Kim, Toh-Kyung; Lee, Tae-Uk

    2013-01-01

    Culicoides biting midges were collected on three cattle farms weekly using light traps overnight from May to October between 2010 and 2011 in the southern part of Korea. The seasonal and geographical abundance of Culicodes spp. were measured. A total of 16,538 biting midges were collected from 2010 to 2011, including seven species of Culicoides, four of which represented 98.42% of the collected specimens. These four species were Culicodes (C.) punctatus (n = 14,413), C. arakawae (n = 1,120), C. oxystoma (n = 427), and C. maculatus (n = 318). C. punctatus was the predominant species (87.15%). PMID:23388441

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic midge Parochlus steinenii (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghee; Kim, Hanna; Shin, Seung Chul

    2016-09-01

    Parochlus steinenii is a winged midge found in the Antarctic Peninsula and its offshore islands. We determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of P. steinenii, which is comprised of 16 803 nucleotides and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, and the large (rrnL) and small (rrnS) rRNA genes. Its total A + T content is 72.5%. The PCG arrangement of P. steinenii is identical to that of the ancestral Diptera ground pattern. This is the first report on the mitogenome sequence of an Antarctic midge, and provides insights into the evolution of dipterans in Antarctica. PMID:26642812

  4. Diversity of insect galls associated with coastal shrub vegetation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Fernandes, Sheila P; Ascendino, Sharlene; Maia, Valéria C; Couri, Márcia S

    2016-09-01

    Surveys in the coastal sandy plains (restingas) of Rio de Janeiro have shown a great richness of galls. We investigated the galling insects in two preserved restingas areas of Rio de Janeiro state: Parque Estadual da Costa do Sol and Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Fazenda Caruara. The collections were done each two months, from June 2011 to May 2012. We investigated 38 points during 45 minutes each per collection. The galls were taken to the laboratory for rearing the insects. A total number of 151 insect galls were found in 82 plant species distributed into 34 botanic families. Most of the galls occurred on leaves and the plant families with the highest richness of galls were Myrtaceae and Fabaceae. All the six insect orders with galling species were found in this survey, where Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) was the main galler group. Hymenoptera and Thysanoptera were found as parasitoids and inquilines in 29 galls. The richness of galls in the surveyed areas reveals the importance of restinga for the composition and diversity of gall-inducing insect fauna. PMID:27627066

  5. Chestnut species and jasmonic acid treatment influence development and community interactions of galls produced by the Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant-signaling compound involved in defenses against insects and pathogens, and in the regulation of nutrient partitioning. Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce the formation of structures (galls) on their host plants which house immature wasps and provide them with nu...

  6. Description of a new species of Aphanogmus Thomson (Hymenoptera, Ceraphronidae) that parasitizes acarivorous gall midges of Feltiella (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Kazunori; Ganaha-Kikumura, Tomoko; Ohno, Suguru; Yukawa, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In 2008–2009, we reared small ceraphronids (about 0.5 mm in body length) from cocoons that had been made possibly by two acarivorous species, Feltiella acarisuga (Vallot) and Feltiella acarivora (Zehntner) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Okinawa, Japan. Detailed morphological observation revealed that the ceraphronid was a new species of Aphanogmus Thomson (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae). We describe it as Aphanogmus flavigastris Matsuo, sp. n. Identification of the Aphanogmus species is essential to evaluate its possibly negative effects on the predatory activity of Feltiella species that have been used as control agents against tetranychid mites. PMID:27408578

  7. Serine and cysteine protease-like genes in the genome of a gall midge and their interactions with host plant genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For plant-feeding insects, digestive proteases are targets for engineering protease inhibitors for pest control. In this study, we identified 105 putative serine- and cysteine-protease genes from Hessian fly genome. Among the genes, 31 encode putative trypsins, 18 encode putative chymotrypsins, se...

  8. The spruce shoot gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae): Piceacecis, a new genus for a non-native pest of Norway spruce from Europe and its native American relative

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dasineura abietiperda (Henschel), a European pest of Norway spruce, Picea abies (Pinaceae), is reported as new to North America. Damage symptoms are illustrated and an outline of its biology is given. A new genus, Piceacecis Gagné is described to include it and its North American relative, Phytophag...

  9. Evaluation of corn plant as potential banker plant for supporting predatory gall Midge, Feltiella acarisuga (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) in greenhouse vegetable production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the most important and highly polyphagous pests of vegetables and other crops worldwide. In this study, several experiments were conducted under laboratory and greenhouse conditions to evaluate whether corn plant ...

  10. Randomized-Control Screening Trials to Lower Gall Bladder Cancer Mortality in High Risk Populations.

    PubMed

    Krishnatreya, Manigreeva; Kataki, Amal Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Gall bladder cancer is generally fatal. The high morbidity and mortality due to gall bladder cancer exerts a significant impact on efforts towards cancer control in high risk populations of the World and a rationale program for control of gall bladder cancer mortality has remained as an unmet need in these populations. Currently there are no effective strategies for controlling gall bladder cancer mortality. This mini review is to highlight the need and feasibility for secondary prevention of gall bladder cancer by screening in high risk populations. A way forward is to assess the role of secondary prevention of gall bladder cancers by conducting randomized- controlled screening trials in high risk populations. PMID:27221939

  11. The fauna of cynipid oak gall wasps and their parasitoids in Lorestan province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Azizkhani, E; Rasoulian, G R; Kharazi-Pakdel, A; Omid, R; Moniri, V R; Melika, G

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried out in the period 2003-2005 to collect and identify gall wasps and their parasitoids on oak species in Lorestan province. There are two oak species, Quercus brantii and Q. infectoria, with different dispersion patterns in the province. Thus, 3 study sampling sites were selected to cover distributional pattern of oak forests. Collected galls maintained in the laboratory condition. Based on results obtained, overall, 26 different galls-formed on various plant parts (catkins, buds, fruits, leaves) were collected on two oak species; of which, 11 gall wasps are active on Q. brantii and 13 gall wasps on Q. infectoria. 19 parasitoid wasps of 12 genera and 6 families belong to Chalcidoidea superfamily with various frequency and dispersal were collected from mentioned galls. PMID:17385504

  12. An Improved, high-throughput method for detection of bluetongue virus RNA in Culicodes midges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new rapid (less than 6 h from insect-to-results) high-throughput assay is reported that is sensitive and specific for detecting BTV RNA in Culicoides biting midges. Homogenization and extraction of nucleic acids from individual Culicoides specimens were performed in a 96-well plate format using sp...

  13. Morpho-functional identification of abdominal olfactory receptors in the midge Culicoides imicola.

    PubMed

    Sollai, Giorgia; Solari, Paolo; Loy, Francesco; Masala, Carla; Crnjar, Roberto; Liscia, Anna

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the presence and the possible role of abdominal olfactory sensilla in Culicoides imicola mediating the search for potential hosts and oviposition sites, by means of a morphological, electrophysiological and behavioural approach. The results reported here show that in the midge C. imicola the whole abdomen, comprising the ovipositor, are endowed with three morphotypes of multiporous sensilla that display olfactory sensitivity towards kairomones related to the host-animal skin such as L: -(+)-lactic acid and 1-octen-3-ol, to the host-animal urine such as 3-ethylphenol and 4-propylphenol, and to the potent attractant sesame seed oil. Electrophysiological and behavioural data for the first time suggest in the midge the involvement of abdominal olfactory structures in the choice of the oviposition sites and allow in discussing their possible role in the host-animal localisation. Field experiments showed that light traps baited with the aforementioned compounds elicited a stronger degree of attractiveness on midges with respect to the unbaited traps (control), although to a different extent. Our results, while implying a number of considerations concerning the role of molecules tested as kairomones, also suggest their use in the control of the midge C. imicola population. PMID:20658345

  14. Management of North American Culicoides biting midges: Current knowledge and research needs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are biological vectors of two important viruses infecting North American ruminants: bluetongue (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHDV). While these viruses have been identified for over 60 years, we still lack an adequate understanding of t...

  15. Papular Dermatitis Induced in Guinea Pig by Biting Midge Culicoides Sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidaie)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Histological, ultrastructural, and virological examinations were performed on abdominal skin from guinea pigs after a blood meal by colony-bred biting midges, Culicoides sonorensis. Small, superficial, cutaneous, crateriform ulcers with necrosis of superficial dermis developed at feeding sites and h...

  16. Community Structure of Chironomidae (Midges) in Two Brazilian Rivers in Relation to Contrasting Land Uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonoda, K. C.; Matthaei, C.; Vettorazzi, C. A.; Trivinho-Strixino, S.

    2005-05-01

    We investigated whether the conversion of riparian land use from indigenous forest to pasture is associated with changes in midge community composition in two South Brasilian rivers. Our study was conducted in the main rivers (Sao Jose dos Dourados 6th order; Aguapei 7th order) of two catchments in Sao Paulo State. Both catchments are dominated by agricultural ecosystems but retain substantial patches of native riparian forest in certain areas. Replicated artificial substrates (baskets filled with clay rocks) were exposed in forested and pasture reaches in both rivers. Both land uses had to be present for at least 500m along both river banks, and the riparian forest had to be at least 50m wide. In each river, six baskets per reach type were sampled after a colonization period of 44 days, and all Chironomidae in these samples were sorted and identified to genus level (a total of 3399 individuals belonging to 28 different taxa). As expected, land use affected midge communities. Total midge density was significantly higher in pasture reaches than in forested reaches. By contrast, midge taxon richness was higher at the forested reaches. These results show the importance of native riparian forests for preserving aquatic biodiversity in Brasilian rivers.

  17. Dehydration, rehydration and overhydration alter patterns of gene expression in the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated molecular responses elicited by three types of dehydration (fast, slow and cryoprotective), rehydration and overhydration in larvae of the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica. The larvae spend most the year encased in ice but during the austral summer are vulnerable to summer storms,...

  18. Cryoprotective dehydration and the resistance to inoculative freezing in the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During winter, larvae of the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica (Diptera, Chironomidae), must endure 7–8 months of continuous subzero temperatures, encasement in a matrix of soil and ice, and severely desiccating conditions. This environment, along with the fact that larvae possess a high rate of w...

  19. Gene characterization of two digestive serine proteases in orange blossom wheat midge (Sitodiplosis mosellana)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two full length cDNA sequences, encoding digestive serine proteases (designated as SmPROT-1 and SmPROT-2), were recovered from the midgut of the wheat midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana in an ongoing EST project. The deduced amino acid sequences shared homology with digestive serine proteases from insect...

  20. Understanding and exploiting olfaction for the surveillance and control of Culicoides biting midges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are found worldwide with the exception of only a few countries including New Zealand, Patagonia, the Hawaiian Isles and Antarctica. They are a nuisance pest to human beings, but transmit a number of diseases that mainly affect livestock. Like many haema...

  1. UPREGULATION OF STRESS ASSOCIATED GENES IN THE OVERWINTERING STAGES OF THE ANTARCTIC MIDGE, BELGICA ANTARCTICA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have investigated the molecular basis of stress resistance in the midge Belgica antarctica, the largest known free-living animal to adapt to a terrestrial existence on the Antarctic continent. Prevalent in specific locations throughout the Antarctic peninsula, this insect has a two-year life cyc...

  2. Adenomyomatosis of the gall bladder: the NUH experience.

    PubMed

    Chan-Wilde, C; Chew, R; Foong, W C; Wee, A

    1990-05-01

    Adenomyomatosis (AD) is a degenerative disorder of the gall bladder wall which can be complicated by chronic inflammation and calculi. The true incidence of this disorder in South East Asians is not known. Nine Chinese patients with AD were discovered amongst 200 consecutive right upper quadrant ultrasound examinations. Four of them had cholecystectomy and were diagnosed as cholecystitis by the pathologist. Adenomyomatosis can be suspected on ultrasonography, but should be confirmed by oral cholecystography (OCG). There is great disparity in the ultrasound, OCG, surgical and histopathological diagnosis of this condition. This may be due to the fact that only complicated cases of AD come to surgery, where the presence of chronic cholecystitis or calculi detracts from recognising or overshadows the presence of AD. It is not known whether uncomplicated AD has any clinical significance and whether it, if given sufficient time, will lead to inflammation of the gall bladder. PMID:2203297

  3. Crown Gall Disease and Hairy Root Disease 1

    PubMed Central

    Gelvin, Stanton B.

    1990-01-01

    The neoplastic diseases crown gall and hairy root are incited by the phytopathogenic bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes, respectively. Although the molecular mechanism of T-DNA transfer to the plant most likely is the same for both species, the physiological basis of tumorigenesis is fundamentally different. Crown gall tumors result from the over-production of the phytohormones auxin and cytokinin specified by A. tumefaciens T-DNA genes. Although the T-DNA of some Riplasmids of A. rhizogenes contains auxin biosynthetic genes, these loci are not always necessary for hairy root formation. Recent experiments suggest that hairy root tumors result from the increased sensitivity of transformed cells to endogenous auxin levels. An understanding of hairy root tumorigenesis will likely result in an increased knowledge of plant developmental processes. Images Figure 1 PMID:16667272

  4. Antioxidant activities of ficus glomerata (moraceae) leaf gall extracts.

    PubMed

    Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Iyer, Shanthi; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Richard, S Austin; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2015-01-01

    An excess production or decreased scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse metabolic disorders such as diabetes, cancer, atherosclerosis and neurodegeneration. Hence the antioxidant therapy has gained an utmost importance in the treatment of such diseases linked to free radicals. The medicinal properties of plants have been investigated and explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. This research highlights the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and methanol) of Ficus glomerata (F. glomerata), which is extensively used in the preparation of traditional medications to treat various metabolic diseases. The presences of phenolics, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenoids and reducing sugars were identified in both the extracts. In comparison to the aqueous extract, the methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content at 370 ± 3.2 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg GAE/g dw) and 155 ± 3.2 mg of quercetin equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg QUE/g dw), respectively. The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. In all the methods, the methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant potential than the aqueous extract. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract and the significantly high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. The results of this study confirm the folklore use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justify its ethnobotanical use. Further, the results of antioxidant properties encourage the use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals

  5. Antioxidant activities of ficus glomerata (moraceae) leaf gall extracts

    PubMed Central

    Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Iyer, Shanthi; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Richard, S Austin; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2015-01-01

    An excess production or decreased scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse metabolic disorders such as diabetes, cancer, atherosclerosis and neurodegeneration. Hence the antioxidant therapy has gained an utmost importance in the treatment of such diseases linked to free radicals. The medicinal properties of plants have been investigated and explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. This research highlights the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and methanol) of Ficus glomerata (F. glomerata), which is extensively used in the preparation of traditional medications to treat various metabolic diseases. The presences of phenolics, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenoids and reducing sugars were identified in both the extracts. In comparison to the aqueous extract, the methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content at 370 ± 3.2 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg GAE/g dw) and 155 ± 3.2 mg of quercetin equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg QUE/g dw), respectively. The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. In all the methods, the methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant potential than the aqueous extract. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract and the significantly high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. The results of this study confirm the folklore use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justify its ethnobotanical use. Further, the results of antioxidant properties encourage the use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals

  6. Laboratory galling tests of several commercial cobalt-free weld hardfacing alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Cockeram, B.V.; Buck, R.F.; Wilson, W.L.

    1997-04-01

    Since the mechanical properties of most wear materials are generally insufficient for structural applications, hardfacing alloys have been traditionally weld deposited to provide a wear resistance surface for a base material. An important attribute of a hardfacing alloy that is subjected to high load sliding contact is the resistance to adhesive (galling) damage. Although Co-base hardfacing alloys generally possess excellent galling wear resistance, there is interest in developing cobalt-free replacement hardfacings to reduce radiation exposure costs. A laboratory galling test has been developed for weld hardfacing deposits that is a modification of the standardized ASTM G98-91 galling test procedure. The procedure for testing a weld hardfacing deposit on a softer base metal using a button-on-block configuration is described. The contact stresses for the initiation of adhesive galling damage were measured to rank the galling resistance of several commercial Fe-base, Ni-base and Co-base hardfacing alloys. Although the galling resistance of the Fe-base alloys was generally superior to the Ni-base alloys, neither system approached the excellent galling resistance of the Co-base alloys. Microstructure examinations were used to understand the micro-mechanisms for the initiation and propagation of galling damage. A physical model for the initiation and propagation of adhesive wear is used to explain the lower galling resistance for the Ni-base hardfacings and to understand the influence of composition on the galling resistance of Ni-base alloys. The composition of some Ni base hardfacings was modified in a controlled manner to quantify the influence of specific elements on the galling resistance.

  7. The Agrobacterium rhizogenes GALLS Gene Encodes Two Secreted Proteins Required for Genetic Transformation of Plants▿

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, Larry D.; Lee, Lan-Ying; McNett, Henry; Gelvin, Stanton B.; Ream, Walt

    2009-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes are related pathogens that cause crown gall and hairy root diseases, which result from integration and expression of bacterial genes in the plant genome. Single-stranded DNA (T strands) and virulence proteins are translocated into plant cells by a type IV secretion system. VirD2 nicks a specific DNA sequence, attaches to the 5′ end, and pilots the DNA into plant cells. A. tumefaciens translocates single-stranded DNA-binding protein VirE2 into plant cells where it likely binds T strands and may aid in targeting them into the nucleus. Although some A. rhizogenes strains lack VirE2, they transfer T strands efficiently due to the GALLS gene, which complements an A. tumefaciens virE2 mutant for tumor formation. Unlike VirE2, full-length GALLS (GALLS-FL) contains ATP-binding and helicase motifs similar to those in TraA, a strand transferase involved in conjugation. GALLS-FL and VirE2 contain nuclear localization signals (NLS) and secretion signals. Mutations in any of these domains abolish the ability of the GALLS gene to substitute for virE2. Here, we show that the GALLS gene encodes two proteins from one open reading frame: GALLS-FL and a protein comprised of the C-terminal domain, which initiates at an internal in-frame start codon. On some hosts, both GALLS proteins were required to substitute for VirE2. GALLS-FL tagged with yellow fluorescent protein localized to the nucleus of tobacco cells in an NLS-dependent manner. In plant cells, the GALLS proteins interacted with themselves, VirD2, and each other. VirD2 interacted with GALLS-FL and localized inside the nucleus, where its predicted helicase activity may pull T strands into the nucleus. PMID:18952790

  8. Plant responses to Agrobacterium tumefaciens and crown gall development

    PubMed Central

    Gohlke, Jochen; Deeken, Rosalia

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease on various plant species by introducing its T-DNA into the genome. Therefore, Agrobacterium has been extensively studied both as a pathogen and an important biotechnological tool. The infection process involves the transfer of T-DNA and virulence proteins into the plant cell. At that time the gene expression patterns of host plants differ depending on the Agrobacterium strain, plant species and cell-type used. Later on, integration of the T-DNA into the plant host genome, expression of the encoded oncogenes, and increase in phytohormone levels induce a fundamental reprogramming of the transformed cells. This results in their proliferation and finally formation of plant tumors. The process of reprogramming is accompanied by altered gene expression, morphology and metabolism. In addition to changes in the transcriptome and metabolome, further genome-wide (“omic”) approaches have recently deepened our understanding of the genetic and epigenetic basis of crown gall tumor formation. This review summarizes the current knowledge about plant responses in the course of tumor development. Special emphasis is placed on the connection between epigenetic, transcriptomic, metabolomic, and morphological changes in the developing tumor. These changes not only result in abnormally proliferating host cells with a heterotrophic and transport-dependent metabolism, but also cause differentiation and serve as mechanisms to balance pathogen defense and adapt to abiotic stress conditions, thereby allowing the coexistence of the crown gall and host plant. PMID:24795740

  9. Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: differentiation from associated gall bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rao, R V Raghavendra; Kumar, Ashok; Sikora, Sadiq S; Saxena, Rajan; Kapoor, Vinay K

    2005-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is a destructive form of chronic cholecystitis. In some patients it coexists with gall bladder carcinoma (GBC) and is often difficult to differentiate between the two. Present study was performed with an aim to identify differentiating features of XGC and those of XGC with associated Gall bladder carcinoma (XGC ass. GBC). A retrospective analysis of prospectively maintained data of 4800 cholecystectomies performed from January 1988 to December 2003 was carried out. On histopathology 453 cholecystectomy specimens revealed XGC. These patients were divided into two groups, those with associated GBC (n=26) and those without GBC (n=427). Clinical, radiological and operative findings were compared in these two groups. P value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The incidence of associated GBC in present series was 6%. XGC patients with associated GBC, at presentation were older than those with XGC alone and there was male preponderance. XGC patients with associated GBC were more likely to present with anorexia, weight loss, palpable lump and jaundice. Gall stones were present in majority of patients in both the groups. GB wall thickening, GB mass, enlarged abdominal lymph nodes may be found on imaging in both the groups but more so in patients with associated GBC. Both preoperative FNAC and peroperative FNAC/imprint cytology failed to reveal the associated GBC with XGC in some patients. PMID:15974235

  10. Dewatering as a non-toxic control of nuisance midge larvae in algal wastewater treatment floways.

    PubMed

    Keller, Troy A; Husted, Emily M

    2015-01-01

    Attached-algae floways have tremendous potential for use in wastewater treatment because natural algal communities show high nutrient removal efficiencies, have low operating costs, and are easy to maintain. Algal wastewater floways may also serve as a sustainable option for producing renewable energy because algae grow rapidly, are easily harvested, and can serve as a source of biomass for biofuel. However, pests such as chironomids (Diptera) colonize open channel periphyton floways and their larvae damage the biofilms. While pesticides can control midge larvae, little information is known about alternative, non-toxic controls. This study examined the effectiveness of periodic, short-term dewatering (4 hours every 9 days) on midge abundance and periphyton growth in 16 recirculating, outdoor floways (3 m long, 0.1 m wide). We compared midge abundance and algal accumulation (chlorophyll a, b, c, and pheophytin) among control (n=8) and dewatered (n=8) floways filled with secondarily treated wastewater (27 days, 10 hours of daylight). Dewatered flumes had 42% fewer midges and 28-49% lower algal productivity (as measured by chlorophyll a, b, c, and pheophytin pigments). Chlorophyll a production rates averaged (±1 SD) 0.5±0.2 μg/cm2/day in control floways compared to 0.3±0.1 μg/cm2/day dewatered floways. Short-term dewatering effectively reduced midges but also damaged periphyton. To maximize the recovery of periphyton biomass, operators should harvest periphyton from floways during dewatering events before periphyton is damaged by desiccation or direct exposure to sunlight. PMID:25607663

  11. Natural enemies of the gall-maker Eugeniamyia dispar (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae): predatory ants and parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, M de S; Romanowski, H P

    2002-05-01

    Natural enemies of the gall maker Eugeniamyia dispar (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) were studied on the urban area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil from October 1993 to March 1996. Galls and associated arthropods were followed weekly in the field on individual host plants (Eugenia uniflora, Myrtaceae) and also in the laboratory. Three species of ants attacked the galls, the most common being Pseudomyrmex sp. A proportion of galls was parasitised by Rileya sp. (Eurytomidae). The adults of this solitary ectoparasitoid were also attacked by the ants and fell prey to spider webs. PMID:12489400

  12. Evidence of hydrogen ion secretion from the human gall bladder in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Plevris, J N; Hayes, P C; Harrison, D J; Bouchier, I A

    1992-01-01

    Gall bladder bile is more acid that hepatic bile and this has been attributed to bicarbonate absorption by the gall bladder epithelium. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the acid base changes that occur across the human gall bladder mucosa. Fresh gall bladder tissue was obtained at cholecystectomy and placed in an Ussing Chamber and perfused with Ringer-Krebs glucose bicarbonate solution. The viability of the gall bladder was assessed by measuring the potential differences across the epithelium and by the morphology of the epithelial cells at the end of the experiments. Aliquots from the solutions were taken at two, 45 and 70 minutes and pCO2, hydrogen ion and bicarbonate concentrations were measured. In the mucosal side of the chamber a consistent and significant decrease was observed from two minutes to 70 minutes in bicarbonate concentration while pCO2 and hydrogen ion concentrations significantly increased. The degree of inflammation correlated well with the ability for acidification, the more inflamed the tissue the less its ability to acidify. When the gall bladder was exposed to amiloride or sodium free solution acidification was abolished in the mucosal side. When tissue metabolism was irreversibly inhibited by exposure to formaldehyde, hydrogen ion concentration and pCO2 were significantly decreased in the mucosal side of the chamber compared with the viable gall bladder. The human gall bladder is capable of secreting acid and this may be an important mechanism for preventing calcium precipitation and gall stone formation. PMID:1582602

  13. Spatiotemporal fluctuations in natural selection acting on the gall-parasitic aphid Tetraneura sorini.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, K; Akimoto, S

    2016-07-01

    The measurement of the selection gradient is crucial for understanding the magnitude of selection acting directly on a trait and predicting the evolutionary trajectory of that trait. This study evaluated the selection gradient acting on the morphology of the gall-parasitic aphid Tetraneura sorini during the galling process and compared the strength among populations. Gall formers (first instars) frequently fight with conspecifics or heterospecifics for usurping incipient galls using their well-developed hind legs. First instars that successfully acquired galls were found within galls, whereas those that failed were found dead on leaf surfaces. Selection gradients were estimated using logistic stepwise regression and partial least square (PLS) regression. Calculated selection differentials indicated that first instars that secured galls were larger in body size than failed individuals through all populations. However, selection gradients on weapon traits varied largely among populations or among years in the same population. We confirmed microevolutionary changes in the relationship between traits, which accorded with the expectation from changes in the selection gradients. When gall formers were transferred onto developing buds individually, individuals that successfully induced galls had smaller body size than failed individuals. Available evidence suggests that the selection gradient on body size becomes higher with an increasing proportion of T. sorini in the Tetraneura species community. Thus, we concluded that more intense fighting with conspecifics leads to stronger selective pressure on body size, but that selective pressure for each trait is variable depending on differences in the tactics and species composition among populations. PMID:27087064

  14. Rice Nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter presents the symptoms of deficiency and toxicity of the major and minor mineral nutrients in rice, as well as a current synopsis of nutrient transporters and their regulation. The availability of sequences from the recently completed rice genome has furthered the knowledge of how plants...

  15. [Studies on the massive flights of chironomid midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) as nuisance insects and plans for their control in the Lake Suwa area, central Japan. 2. Quantitative evaluations of the nuisance of chironomid midges].

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, K

    1991-06-01

    In order to make clear the present "nuisance" caused by chironomid midges around a eutrophic lake, a questionnaire survey of 249 leaders of the Hygiene Self-governing Association of the cities of Suwa and Okaya and the town of Shimosuwa near Lake Suwa was conducted. The results are as follows: 1. More than 90% of the respondents had specific knowledge about the chironomid midge, but 40% of them didn't know about its role as a purifier in the lake. 2. More than 10% of respondents answered that they were "can not able to stand any more" massive flights of chironomid midges, and about half of them lived within 500 m of the lake shore. The damages "nuisances" were "running laundry or defacing walls (67.1%) and "contamination of food (15.3%)", suggesting that chironomid midges influenced the daily life of the residents. 3. The selected causes of massive flights of chironomid midges were "pollution in Lake Suwa" and "decreases in the numbers of birds and dragonflies" as well as others. This means that the deterioration of the environmental situation around the lake may cause the "nuisance" of chironomid midges. 4. The respondents were more strongly interested in counterplans for the control of the chironomid midges made by administrative authorities than in plans made by each family. 5. "The distance from the lake shore" was the major factor contributing to the impression of chironomid damage. "The occupation of the respondent" was the second important factor. To redirect the insect flights away from the residential area, and to decrease the number of adult midges coming from the lake, are thought to be the most important measures for the resolution of this problem. PMID:1890774

  16. Free amino Acid contents of stem and phylloxera gall tissue cultures of grape.

    PubMed

    Warick, R P; Hildebrandt, A C

    1966-04-01

    Free amino acid constituents were determined of grape stem and Phylloxera leaf gall callus in tissue culture. Fast, medium and slow growing single cell clones of, respectively, stem and gall origins were grown on a mineral salt-sucrose medium supplemented with coconut milk and alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid. Stem and gall clones showed qualitative similarities and quantitative variations in the amino acids and nitrogenous constituents. Nineteen amino acids, glucosamine, ethanolamine, sarcosine, methionine sulfoxides and ammonia were identified. Two free polypeptides accounted for over 30% of the amino compounds in the stem and gall callus tissues which were not found in the intact plant parts. Stem clones of different growth rates grown on agar showed generally an excess of amino acid constituents over gall tissues of similar growth rates, except for the free polypeptides. Fast growing stem clones grown on agar medium contained lower amounts of certain amino acids than the fast growing gall clones, but when grown in liquid medium they contained higher amounts of these acids than the gall clones. The total and nonsoluble nitrogen of stem clones were higher than in the gall clones. Tissue cultures differed from the original plant parts with respect to their free polypeptides and high amino acid contents. PMID:16656290

  17. Metatranscriptome Analysis of Fig Flowers Provides Insights into Potential Mechanisms for Mutualism Stability and Gall Induction

    PubMed Central

    Martinson, Ellen O.; Hackett, Jeremiah D.; Machado, Carlos A.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    A striking property of the mutualism between figs and their pollinating wasps is that wasps consistently oviposit in the inner flowers of the fig syconium, which develop into galls that house developing larvae. Wasps typically do not use the outer ring of flowers, which develop into seeds. To better understand differences between gall and seed flowers, we used a metatranscriptomic approach to analyze eukaryotic gene expression within fig flowers at the time of oviposition choice and early gall development. Consistent with the unbeatable seed hypothesis, we found significant differences in gene expression between gall- and seed flowers in receptive syconia prior to oviposition. In particular, transcripts assigned to flavonoids and carbohydrate metabolism were significantly up-regulated in gall flowers relative to seed flowers. In response to oviposition, gall flowers significantly up-regulated the expression of chalcone synthase, which previously has been connected to gall formation in other plants. We propose several genes encoding proteins with signal peptides or associations with venom of other Hymenoptera as candidate genes for gall initiation or growth. This study simultaneously evaluates the gene expression profile of both mutualistic partners in a plant-insect mutualism and provides insight into a possible stability mechanism in the ancient fig-fig wasp association. PMID:26090817

  18. Free Amino Acid Contents of Stem and Phylloxera Gall Tissue Cultures of Grape 1

    PubMed Central

    Warick, R. P.; Hildebrandt, A. C.

    1966-01-01

    Free amino acid constituents were determined of grape stem and Phylloxera leaf gall callus in tissue culture. Fast, medium and slow growing single cell clones of, respectively, stem and gall origins were grown on a mineral salt-sucrose medium supplemented with coconut milk and α-naphthaleneacetic acid. Stem and gall clones showed qualitative similarities and quantitative variations in the amino acids and nitrogenous constituents. Nineteen amino acids, glucosamine, ethanolamine, sarcosine, methionine sulfoxides and ammonia were identified. Two free polypeptides accounted for over 30% of the amino compounds in the stem and gall callus tissues which were not found in the intact plant parts. Stem clones of different growth rates grown on agar showed generally an excess of amino acid constituents over gall tissues of similar growth rates, except for the free polypeptides. Fast growing stem clones grown on agar medium contained lower amounts of certain amino acids than the fast growing gall clones, but when grown in liquid medium they contained higher amounts of these acids than the gall clones. The total and nonsoluble nitrogen of stem clones were higher than in the gall clones. Tissue cultures differed from the original plant parts with respect to their free polypeptides and high amino acid contents. Images PMID:16656290

  19. A native and an introduced parasitoid utilize an exotic gall-maker host

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) is non-native to North America and induces formation of galls on petioles and leaves of all chestnut (Castanea spp., Fagales: Fagaceae). We investigated the interactions between the gall wasp D. kuriphilus, a native parasitoid, Ormyrus labotus (Hymenopt...

  20. 9 CFR 95.18 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like...), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.18 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone marrow,...

  1. 9 CFR 95.18 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like...), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.18 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone marrow,...

  2. Reproductive division of labour coevolves with gall size in Australian thrips with soldiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, T. E.; Chapman, T. W.; Kranz, B. D.; Schwarz, M. P.

    2001-12-01

    An analysis of multiple species of Australian gall-inducing thrips with soldiers reveals a significant negative correlation between the size of gall produced and the reproductive division of labour. This correlation suggests that the evolution of smaller galls limited the available space and feeding sites for the offspring of female soldiers, and was a major factor that led to the evolution of an altruistic caste in the gall-inducers. We argue that high levels of inbreeding by singly mated foundresses and incestuous mating by her soldier offspring are key to this evolutionary relationship because they make the relatedness of a female soldier to her daughters and sisters approximately equal. Evidence that relatedness plays an important role is strengthened by the observation of outbred multiply mated foundresses and unbiased sex ratio of dispersers in Oncothrips waterhousei, and the inference that both gall volume and skew decreased along this lineage.

  3. Annual cyclicity of gall stone prevalence in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus gambelii).

    PubMed

    Schwab, R G; Theis, J H

    1989-10-01

    The prevalence of gall stones (100% cholesterol) in a deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) population located in Siskiyou County, California (USA) was studied on a monthly basis from February 1985 through January 1988. During each year we documented a pronounced annual cyclicity with peak prevalence (31 to 53%) during the winter and low prevalence (2 to 3%) during late summer. Gall stone prevalence was not related to sex or age of the animal. The earliest onset of gall stone production and the maximum prevalence achieved were associated with the greatest abundance of deer mice; lower levels of population abundance were associated with later onset of gall stone production and lower peak prevalences. This association of gall stone prevalence with both season and population abundance levels suggests that the causative factor(s) is/are related to the quality and availability of the diet. PMID:2810546

  4. Gall bladder contractility in neonates: effects of parenteral and enteral feeding.

    PubMed Central

    Jawaheer, G.; Pierro, A.; Lloyd, D. A.; Shaw, N. J.

    1995-01-01

    The gall bladder size was measured in 30 newborn infants: 18 had been fed parenterally and 12 enterally. The two groups were comparable for gestational age, birthweight, postnatal age and study weight. Exclusion criteria were haemodynamic instability, septicaemia, abdominal disease and opioid treatment. Gall bladder size was measured at 15 minute intervals for 90 minutes using real-time ultrasonography and the volume calculated using the ellipsoid method. Parenterally fed infants had further measurements at 120, 150, and 360 minutes. The gall bladder was significantly larger in parenterally fed infants than in enterally fed infants (p = 0.0001). In enterally fed infants a 50% reduction in gall bladder volume was observed 15 minutes after starting the feed with a return to baseline volume by 90 minutes. In parenterally fed infants there was no gall bladder contraction. Such information may give insight into the pathophysiology of hepato-biliary complications during parenteral nutrition in infants. PMID:7796240

  5. Biliary peritonitis due to gall bladder perforation after percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Nikhil; Singh, Rana Pratap; Tiwary, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    A 19-year-old male patient underwent right percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) for right renal 1.5 × 1.5 cm lower pole stone. The procedure was completed uneventfully with complete stone clearance. The patient developed peritonitis and shock 48 h after the procedure. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large amount of bile in the abdomen along with three small perforations in the gall bladder (GB) and one perforation in the caudate lobe of the liver. Retrograde cholecystectomy was performed but the patient did not recover and expired post-operatively. This case exemplifies the high mortality of GB perforation after PNL and the lack of early clinical signs. PMID:26166971

  6. International trade in bear gall bladders: forensic source inference.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, E O; Shafer, J A; Hagey, L R

    1993-11-01

    Fresh and desiccated gall bladders of the Ursidae family (bears) obtained as criminal evidence were characterized by analysis of the principal biliary components, mainly ursodeoxycholyl-taurine, cholyl-taurine and chenodeoxycholyl-taurine using TLC and HPLC. This bile acids profile appears to be an Ursidae family characteristic. Results show that of the samples from Asia only 3% were from the Ursidae family and 18% were from "farmed bears." Samples seized in the U.S.A. and Canada showed that 22.6% and 85% respectively, were from Ursids. The remaining samples were consistent with bile from the domestic pig (Suidae). PMID:8263479

  7. Compact genome of the Antarctic midge is likely an adaptation to an extreme environment

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Joanna L.; Peyton, Justin T.; Fiston-Lavier, Anna-Sophie; Teets, Nicholas M.; Yee, Muh-Ching; Johnston, J. Spencer; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Lee, Richard E.; Denlinger, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The midge, Belgica antarctica, is the only insect endemic to Antarctica, and thus it offers a powerful model for probing responses to extreme temperatures, freeze tolerance, dehydration, osmotic stress, ultraviolet radiation and other forms of environmental stress. Here we present the first genome assembly of an extremophile, the first dipteran in the family Chironomidae, and the first Antarctic eukaryote to be sequenced. At 99 megabases, B. antarctica has the smallest insect genome sequenced thus far. Although it has a similar number of genes as other Diptera, the midge genome has very low repeat density and a reduction in intron length. Environmental extremes appear to constrain genome architecture, not gene content. The few transposable elements present are mainly ancient, inactive retroelements. An abundance of genes associated with development, regulation of metabolism and responses to external stimuli may reflect adaptations for surviving in this harsh environment. PMID:25118180

  8. Could the Extended Phenotype Extend to the Cellular and Subcellular Levels in Insect-Induced Galls?

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Renê Gonçalves da Silva; Pacheco, Priscilla; Isaias, Rosy Mary dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Neo-ontogenesis of plant galls involves redifferentiation of host plant tissues to express new phenotypes, when new cell properties are established via structural-functional remodeling. Herein, Psidium cattleianum leaves and Nothotrioza cattleiani galls are analyzed by developmental anatomy, cytometry and immunocytochemistry of cell walls. We address hypothesis-driven questions concerning the organogenesis of globoid galls in the association of P. cattleianum - N. cattleianum, and P. myrtoides - N. myrtoidis. These double co-generic systems represent good models for comparing final gall shapes and cell lineages functionalities under the perspective of convergent plant-dependent or divergent insect-induced characteristics. Gall induction, and growth and development are similar in both galls, but homologous cell lineages exhibit divergent degrees of cell hypertrophy and directions of elongation. Median cortical cells in P. cattleianum galls hypertrophy the most, while in P. myrtoides galls there is a centrifugal gradient of cell hypertrophy. Cortical cells in P. cattleianum galls tend to anisotropy, while P. myrtoidis galls have isotropically hypertrophied cells. Immunocytochemistry evidences the chemical identity and functional traits of cell lineages: epidermal cells walls have homogalacturonans (HGAs) and galactans, which confer rigidity to sites of enhanced cell division; oil gland cell walls have arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) that help avoiding cell death; and parenchyma cell walls have HGAs, galactans and arabinans, which confer porosity. Variations in such chemical identities are related to specific sites of hypertrophy. Even though the double co-generic models have the same macroscopic phenotype, the globoid morphotype, current analyses indicate that the extended phenotype of N. cattleiani is substantiated by cellular and subcellular specificities. PMID:26053863

  9. Evidence incriminating midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) as potential vectors of Leishmania in Australia.

    PubMed

    Dougall, Annette M; Alexander, Bruce; Holt, Deborah C; Harris, Tegan; Sultan, Amal H; Bates, Paul A; Rose, Karrie; Walton, Shelley F

    2011-04-01

    The first autochthonous Leishmania infection in Australia was reported by Rose et al. (2004) and the parasite was characterised as a unique species. The host was the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) but the transmitting vector was unknown. To incriminate the biological vector, insect trapping by a variety of methods was undertaken at two field sites of known Leishmania transmission. Collected sand flies were identified to species level and were screened for Leishmania DNA using a semi-quantitative real-time PCR. Collections revealed four species of sand fly, with a predominance of the reptile biter Sergentomyia queenslandi (Hill). However, no Leishmania-positive flies were detected. Therefore, alternative vectors were investigated for infection, giving startling results. Screening revealed that an undescribed species of day-feeding midge, subgenus Forcipomyia (Lasiohelea) Kieffer, had a prevalence of up to 15% for Leishmania DNA, with high parasitemia in some individuals. Manual gut dissections confirmed the presence of promastigotes and in some midges material similar to promastigote secretory gel, including parasites with metacyclic-like morphology. Parasites were cultured from infected midges and sequence analysis of the Leishmania RNA polymerase subunit II gene confirmed infections were identical to the original isolated Leishmania sp. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the closest known species to be Leishmania enriettii, with this and the Australian species confirmed as members of Leishmania sensu stricto. Collectively the results strongly suggest that the day-feeding midge (F. (Lasiohelea) sp. 1) is a potential biological vector of Leishmania in northern Australia, which is to our knowledge the first evidence of a vector other than a phlebotomine sand fly anywhere in the world. These findings have considerable implications in the understanding of the Leishmania life cycle worldwide. PMID:21251914

  10. Gradients of metabolite accumulation and redifferentiation of nutritive cells associated with vascular tissues in galls induced by sucking insects

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Renê Gonçalves da Silva; Isaias, Rosy Mary dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Plant cells respond to abiotic and biotic stimuli, which generate adaptive phenotypes in plant organs. In the case of plant galls, cell phenotypes are adaptive for the gall inducer and assume characteristics mainly linked to its protection and nutrition. Herein, the cytological development and histochemical profile of Nothotrioza cattleiani galls, a sucking insect, on the leaves of Psidium cattleianum are compared with those of other galls, especially N. myrtoidis galls, searching for conserved and divergent alterations in cell fates and cycles. Leaf cell fates are completely changed within galls, except for epidermal cells, but the comparison between Nothotrioza spp. galls shows conserved fates. Nevertheless, cytological development of N. cattleiani galls is different from the standby-redifferentiation of N. myrtoidis galls. Starch and lignins, and reducing sugars form centrifugal and centripetal gradients of accumulation, respectively. Proteins, total phenolics, terpenoids, proanthocyanidins and reactive oxygen species are detected in bidirectional gradients, i.e. weak or undetectable reaction in the median cortical cells that is gradually more intense in the cell layers towards the inner and outer surfaces of the gall. True nutritive cells associated with vascular tissues, together with the bidirectional gradients of metabolite accumulation, are herein reported for the first time in insect galls. The globoid galls of N. cattleiani, though macro-morphologically similar to the galls of N. myrtoidis, are distinct and unique among insect galls, as far as the cellular, subcellular and histochemical traits are concerned. Thus, the traits of the galls on P. cattleianum studied herein represent the extended phenotypes of their inducers. PMID:26209687

  11. Gradients of metabolite accumulation and redifferentiation of nutritive cells associated with vascular tissues in galls induced by sucking insects.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Renê Gonçalves da Silva; Isaias, Rosy Mary Dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Plant cells respond to abiotic and biotic stimuli, which generate adaptive phenotypes in plant organs. In the case of plant galls, cell phenotypes are adaptive for the gall inducer and assume characteristics mainly linked to its protection and nutrition. Herein, the cytological development and histochemical profile of Nothotrioza cattleiani galls, a sucking insect, on the leaves of Psidium cattleianum are compared with those of other galls, especially N. myrtoidis galls, searching for conserved and divergent alterations in cell fates and cycles. Leaf cell fates are completely changed within galls, except for epidermal cells, but the comparison between Nothotrioza spp. galls shows conserved fates. Nevertheless, cytological development of N. cattleiani galls is different from the standby-redifferentiation of N. myrtoidis galls. Starch and lignins, and reducing sugars form centrifugal and centripetal gradients of accumulation, respectively. Proteins, total phenolics, terpenoids, proanthocyanidins and reactive oxygen species are detected in bidirectional gradients, i.e. weak or undetectable reaction in the median cortical cells that is gradually more intense in the cell layers towards the inner and outer surfaces of the gall. True nutritive cells associated with vascular tissues, together with the bidirectional gradients of metabolite accumulation, are herein reported for the first time in insect galls. The globoid galls of N. cattleiani, though macro-morphologically similar to the galls of N. myrtoidis, are distinct and unique among insect galls, as far as the cellular, subcellular and histochemical traits are concerned. Thus, the traits of the galls on P. cattleianum studied herein represent the extended phenotypes of their inducers. PMID:26209687

  12. Using Midges to Assess Past Climate Change in New England and the Canadian Arctic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, D. R.

    2005-05-01

    Paleolimnology has become an important tool in environmental monitoring programs because it can provide baseline data often unavailable by other means. Remains of midges (Chironomidae and other Diptera) have proven useful in paleolimnological biomonitoring of anoxic conditions, nutrient loading, toxic pollutants, and climate change. Analyses of lake sediment cores from Baffin Island highlight faunal changes during the Holocene and indicate warm conditions in the early Holocene. Diversity tends to be low in late-glacial sediments and then increases as climate warms and the landscape develops. In New England lake cores, the much more subtle climate change known as the Little Ice Age can be seen in changes in the chironomid fauna. Using midges as paleoindicators requires modern "training sets" that quantify larval midge distributions across environmental gradients. Surficial sediment samples collected for training sets contain head capsule remains from the whole lake and represent an integrated sample of the modern fauna. These techniques may be useful for investigating chironomid diversity. Typically, head capsule remains can be identified only to genus but since many rapid biological assessment methods take the Chironomidae only to the family level, collection of head capsule remains could be a useful alternative.

  13. [Construction of PPENK-MIDGE-NLS gene vector and the expression in rat].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Xu, Xuemin; Peng, Xijuan; Jiang, Wei; Yao, Linong

    2015-02-01

    Increasing the production and secretion of endogenous opioid peptide by immune cell can significantly induce myocardial protective effects against ischemia-reperfusion injury. Gene therapy is promising to increase endogenous enkephalin (ENK). However, classical viral and plasmid vectors for gene delivery are hampered by immunogenicity, gene recombination, oncogene activation, the production of antibacterial antibody and changes in physiological gene expression. Minimalistic immunologically defined gene expression (MIDGE) can overcome all the deficients of viral and plasmid vectors. The exon of rat's preproenkephalin (PPENK) gene was amplified by PCR and the fragments were cloned into pEGFP-N1 plasmids. The recombined plasmids were digested with enzymes to obtain a linear vector contained promoter, preproenkephalin gene, RNA stable sequences and oligodesoxy nucleotides (ODNs) added to both ends of the gene vector to protect gene vector from exonuclease degradation. A nuclear localization sequence (NLS) was attached to an ODN to ensure the effective transport to the nucleus and transgene expression. Flow cytometry, laser confocal microscopy and Western blotting demonstrated that PPENK-MIDGE-NLS can transfect leukocyte of rat in vivo, increase the expression of proenkephalin (PENK) in tissue, and the transfection efficiency depends on gene vector's dosage. These results indicate that PPENK-MIDGE-NLS could be an innovative method to protect and treatment of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:26062347

  14. Management of North American Culicoides Biting Midges: Current Knowledge and Research Needs.

    PubMed

    Pfannenstiel, Robert S; Mullens, Bradley A; Ruder, Mark G; Zurek, Ludek; Cohnstaedt, Lee W; Nayduch, Dana

    2015-06-01

    Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are biological vectors of two important viruses impacting North American ruminants--bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV). These viruses have been identified for over 60 years in North America, but we still lack an adequate understanding of the basic biology and ecology of the confirmed vector, Culicoides sonorensis, and know even less about other putative Culicoides vector species. The major gaps in our knowledge of the biology of Culicoides midges are broad and include an understanding of the ecology of juveniles, the identity of potential alternate vector species, interactions of midges with both pathogens and vertebrates, and the effectiveness of potential control measures. Due to these broad and numerous fundamental knowledge gaps, vector biologists and livestock producers are left with few options to respond to or understand outbreaks of EHD or BT in North America, or respond to emerging or exotic Culicoides-transmitted pathogens. Here we outline current knowledge of vector ecology and control tactics for North American Culicoides species, and delineate research recommendations aimed to fill knowledge gaps. PMID:26086558

  15. Comparison of different light sources for trapping Culicoides biting midges, mosquitoes and other dipterans.

    PubMed

    González, Mikel; Alarcón-Elbal, Pedro María; Valle-Mora, Javier; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2016-08-15

    The response of Culicoides biting midges, mosquitoes and other dipterans to different wavelengths was evaluated in a farm meadow in northern Spain. A total of 9449 specimens of 23 species of Culicoides, 5495 other ceratopogonids (non-biting midges), 602 culicids and 12428 other mixed dipterans were captured. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suction light traps fitted with five light emitting diodes (LEDs) (white, green, red, blue, ultraviolet) were run for 15 consecutive nights. Significantly more Culicoides were collected in those traps fitted with green, blue or ultraviolet (UV) lights than in red and white-baited LED traps for the most abundant species captured: C. punctatus (37.5%), C. cataneii (26.5%) and C. obsoletus/C. scoticus (20.4%). Similar results were obtained for non-Culicoides ceratopogonids, mosquitoes and other mixed dipterans. Wavelengths in green (570nm) resulted effective for targeting some Culicoides species, culicids and other midges. In a second trial, the effectiveness of 4-W white and UV tubes was compared to traps fitted with UV LED and a standard incandescent light bulb. More specimens of all taxa were collected with fluorescent black light (UV) traps than with the other light sources, except culicids, which were recovered in high numbers from fluorescent white light traps. PMID:27514882

  16. Pharmacognostic studies of insect gall of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Savitri; Kaushik, Vasuki Srinivas; Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Ramanna, Latha Muuaiah; Lakkappa, Dhananjaya Bhadrapura

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the detailed pharmacognostic profile of galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Q. infectoria olivier) (Fagaceae), an important medicinal plant used in the Indian system of medicine. Methods Samples of galls of Q. infectoria were studied by macroscopical, microscopical, physiochemical, phytochemical, fluorescence analysis and othjer methods for standardization as recommended by WHO. Results Macroscopically, the crude drug is globose with horny appearances on external surface (1.4-2.3 cm in length and 1-1.5 cm in diameter), with greyish-brown to brownish-black in colour externally and dark brown buff colored. Surface is smooth with numerous horny protuberances giving rough touch, and with unpleasant odour. Microscopically, a wide zone of radially elongated parenchyma cells between upper and lower epidermis were found. The vascular strands were present at all places and radially elongated sclerides touched the lower epidermis. In physico-chemical studies, the moisture, total ash, acid insoluble ash, alcohol soluble, water soluble, petroleum ether, chloroform extractive value and tannin content were found to be 2.790, 5.020, 0.110, 38.780, 41.210, 0.402, 1.590 and 49.200 percentage respectively. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenes, tannins, saponins and alkaloids. Conclusions The results of the present study serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this medicinally important plant drug material for future investigations and applications. PMID:24144128

  17. The impact of gallic acid on iron gall ink corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouchon-Quillet, V.; Remazeilles, C.; Bernard, J.; Wattiaux, A.; Fournes, L.

    Many old manuscripts suffer from iron-gall ink corrosion, threatening our graphic heritage. Corroded papers become brown and brittle with age. The chemical reactions involved in this corrosion are relatively well known: they include both acidic hydrolysis and oxidation catalysed by free iron(II). Yet, a great variety of iron-gall ink recipes, including a wide range of constituents can be found in the literature and the visual aspect of old inks, can be very different from one inscription to another, even if they have been written on the same sheet of paper. This suggests that even if the free iron(II) plays a dominant role in the paper alteration, the contribution of other ingredients should not be neglected. For this reason, we explored the impact gallic acid may have on the corrosion mechanisms and in particular on the oxidation reactions. These investigations were carried out on laboratory probes prepared with paper sheets immersed in different solutions, all containing the same amount of iron sulphate, and different gallic acid concentrations. These probes were then artificially aged and their degradation state was evaluated by bursting strength measurements, FTIR spectrometry and Mössbauer spectrometry. All these analyses lead us to conclude that gallic acid has an influence on the iron(III)/iron(II) ratio, probably because of its reducing properties.

  18. Comparative anatomy of gall development on Gypsophila paniculata induced by bacteria with different mechanisms of pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Chalupowicz, L; Barash, I; Schwartz, M; Aloni, R; Manulis, S

    2006-07-01

    Galls induced on Gypsophila paniculata by Pantoea agglomerans pv. gypsophilae (Pag) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (At), bacteria with different mechanisms of pathogenicity, were compared morphologically and anatomically. The pathogenicity of Pag is dependent on the presence of an indigenous plasmid that harbors hrp gene cluster, genes encoding Hop virulence proteins and biosynthetic genes for auxin (IAA) and cytokinins (CKs), whereas that of At involves host transformation. The Pag-induced gall was rough, brittle and exhibited limited growth, in contrast to the smooth, firm appearance and continuous growth of the At-induced gall. Anatomical analysis revealed the presence of cells with enlarged nuclei and multiple nucleoli, giant cells and suberin deposition in Pag that were absent from At-induced galls. Although circular vessels were observed in both gall types, they were more numerous and the vascular system was more organized in At. An aerenchymal tissue was observed in the upper part of the galls. Ethylene emission from Pag galls, recorded 6 days after inoculation, was eight times as great as that from non-infected controls. In contrast, a significant decrease in ethylene production was observed in Gypsophila cuttings infected with Pag mutants deficient in IAA and CK production. The results presented are best accounted for by the two pathogens having distinct pathogenicity mechanisms that lead to their differential recognition by the host as non-self (Pag) and self (At). PMID:16477460

  19. Phytohormones Related to Host Plant Manipulation by a Gall-Inducing Leafhopper

    PubMed Central

    Tokuda, Makoto; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Matsukura, Keiichiro; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Kumashiro, Shun; Matsumura, Masaya; Kamiya, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    The maize orange leafhopper Cicadulina bipunctata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) induces galls characterized by growth stunting and severe swelling of leaf veins on various plants of Poaceae. Previous studies revealed that galls are induced not on feeding site but on distant, newly extended leaves during the feeding, and strongly suggested that some chemicals injected by the leafhopper affect at the leaf primordia. To approach the mechanism underlying gall induction by C. bipunctata, we examined physiological response of plants to feeding by the leafhopper. We performed high-throughput and comprehensive plant hormone analyses using LC-ESI-MS/MS. Galled maize leaves contained higher contents of abscisic acid (ABA) and trans-Zeatin (tZ) and lower contents of gibberellins (GA1 and GA4) than ungalled maize leaves. Leafhopper treatment significantly increased ABA and tZ contents and decreased GA1 and GA4 contents in extending leaves. After the removal of leafhoppers, contents of tZ and gibberellins in extending leaves soon became similar to the control values. ABA content was gradually decreased after the removal of leafhoppers. Such hormonal changes were not observed in leafhopper treatment on leaves of resistant maize variety. Water contents of galled leaves were significantly lower than control leaves, suggesting water stress of galled leaves and possible reason of the increase in ABA content. These results imply that ABA, tZ, and gibberellins are related to gall induction by the leafhopper on susceptible variety of maize. PMID:23638047

  20. Evolution of a complex behavior: the origin and initial diversification of foliar galling by Permian insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schachat, Sandra R.; Labandeira, Conrad C.

    2015-04-01

    A central notion of the early evolution of insect galling is that this unique behavior was uncommon to rare before the diversification of angiosperms 135 to 125 m.yr. ago. However, evidence accumulated during recent years shows that foliar galls were diverse and locally abundant as early as the Permian Period, 299 to 252 m.yr. ago. In particular, a diversity of leaf galling during the Early Permian has recently been documented by the plant-damage record of foliar galls and, now, our interpretation of the body-fossil record of culprit insect gallers. Small size is a prerequisite for gallers. Wing-length measurements of Permian insects indicate that several small-bodied hemipteroid lineages originated early during the Permian, some descendant lineages of which gall the leaves of seed plants to the present day. The earliest foliar gallers likely were Protopsyllidiidae (Hemiptera) and Lophioneuridae (Thripida). Much of the Early Permian was a xeric interval, and modern galls are most common in dry, extra-tropical habitats such as scrubland and deserts. Plant-damage, insect body fossils, and the paleoclimate record collectively support the ecological expansion of foliar galling during the Early Permian and its continued expansion through the Late Permian.

  1. Evolution of a complex behavior: the origin and initial diversification of foliar galling by Permian insects.

    PubMed

    Schachat, Sandra R; Labandeira, Conrad C

    2015-04-01

    A central notion of the early evolution of insect galling is that this unique behavior was uncommon to rare before the diversification of angiosperms 135 to 125 m.yr. ago. However, evidence accumulated during recent years shows that foliar galls were diverse and locally abundant as early as the Permian Period, 299 to 252 m.yr. ago. In particular, a diversity of leaf galling during the Early Permian has recently been documented by the plant-damage record of foliar galls and, now, our interpretation of the body-fossil record of culprit insect gallers. Small size is a prerequisite for gallers. Wing-length measurements of Permian insects indicate that several small-bodied hemipteroid lineages originated early during the Permian, some descendant lineages of which gall the leaves of seed plants to the present day. The earliest foliar gallers likely were Protopsyllidiidae (Hemiptera) and Lophioneuridae (Thripida). Much of the Early Permian was a xeric interval, and modern galls are most common in dry, extra-tropical habitats such as scrubland and deserts. Plant-damage, insect body fossils, and the paleoclimate record collectively support the ecological expansion of foliar galling during the Early Permian and its continued expansion through the Late Permian. PMID:25783809

  2. Unexpected High Diversity of Galling Insects in the Amazonian Upper Canopy: The Savanna Out There

    PubMed Central

    Julião, Genimar R.; Venticinque, Eduardo M.; Fernandes, G. Wilson; Price, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    A relatively large number of studies reassert the strong relationship between galling insect diversity and extreme hydric and thermal status in some habitats, and an overall pattern of a greater number of galling species in the understory of scleromorphic vegetation. We compared galling insect diversity in the forest canopy and its relationship with tree richness among upland terra firme, várzea, and igapó floodplains in Amazonia, Brazil. The soils of these forest types have highly different hydric and nutritional status. Overall, we examined the upper layer of 1,091 tree crowns. Galling species richness and abundance were higher in terra firme forests compared to várzea and igapó forests. GLM-ANCOVA models revealed that the number of tree species sampled in each forest type was determinant in the gall-forming insect diversity. The ratio between galling insect richness and number of tree species sampled (GIR/TSS ratio) was higher in the terra firme forest and in seasonally flooded igapó, while the várzea presented the lowest GIR/TSS ratio. In this study, we recorded unprecedented values of galling species diversity and abundance per sampling point. The GIR/TSS ratio from várzea was approximately 2.5 times higher than the highest value of this ratio ever reported in the literature. Based on this fact, we ascertained that várzea and igapó floodplain forests (with lower GIA and GIR), together with the speciose terra firme galling community emerge as the gall diversity apex landscape among all biogeographic regions already investigated. Contrary to expectation, our results also support the “harsh environment hypothesis”, and unveil the Amazonian upper canopy as similar to Mediterranean vegetation habitats, hygrothermically stressed environments with leaf temperature at lethal limits and high levels of leaf sclerophylly. PMID:25551769

  3. Effect of the Gall Wasp Leptocybe invasa on Hydraulic Architecture in Eucalyptus camaldulensis Plants.

    PubMed

    Tong, You-Gui; Ding, Xiao-Xi; Zhang, Kai-Cun; Yang, Xin; Huang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The gall wasp, Leptocybe invasa (Hymenoptera; Eulophidae), is a devastating pest of eucalypt plantations in the Middle East, the Mediterranean basin, Africa, India, South-East Asia, and China. Heavy galling causes the leaves to warp and in extreme cases it may stunt the growth of the trees of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying how L. invasa inhibits the growth of plants of E. camaldulensis are unclear. Because the growth rate of plants is mainly dependent on photosynthesis that is largely correlated with hydraulic architecture, we speculate that galling of L. invasa depresses hydraulic conductance of stem and leaf. In the present study, we examined the effects of L. invasa galling on hydraulic architecture and photosynthetic parameters in E. camaldulensis plants. We found that galling of L. invasa significantly decreased stem hydraulic conductance (K stem), midday leaf water potential (Ψmd), minor vein density, and stomatal density (SD). Furthermore, the stomatal conductance (g s), chlorophyll content, CO2 assimilation rate (A n) and photosynthetic electron flow were reduced in infected plants. Therefore, the galling of L. invasa not only declined the water supply from stem to leaves, but also restricted water transport within leaf. As a result, galled plants of E. camaldulensis reduced leaf number, leaf area, SD and g s to balance water supply and transpirational demand. Furthermore, galled plants had lower leaf nitrogen content, leading to decreases in chlorophyll content, CO2 assimilation rate and photosynthetic electron flow. These results indicate that the change in hydraulic architecture is responsible for the inhibition of growth rate in galled plants. PMID:26913043

  4. Unexpected high diversity of galling insects in the Amazonian upper canopy: the savanna out there.

    PubMed

    Julião, Genimar R; Venticinque, Eduardo M; Fernandes, G Wilson; Price, Peter W

    2014-01-01

    A relatively large number of studies reassert the strong relationship between galling insect diversity and extreme hydric and thermal status in some habitats, and an overall pattern of a greater number of galling species in the understory of scleromorphic vegetation. We compared galling insect diversity in the forest canopy and its relationship with tree richness among upland terra firme, várzea, and igapó floodplains in Amazonia, Brazil. The soils of these forest types have highly different hydric and nutritional status. Overall, we examined the upper layer of 1,091 tree crowns. Galling species richness and abundance were higher in terra firme forests compared to várzea and igapó forests. GLM-ANCOVA models revealed that the number of tree species sampled in each forest type was determinant in the gall-forming insect diversity. The ratio between galling insect richness and number of tree species sampled (GIR/TSS ratio) was higher in the terra firme forest and in seasonally flooded igapó, while the várzea presented the lowest GIR/TSS ratio. In this study, we recorded unprecedented values of galling species diversity and abundance per sampling point. The GIR/TSS ratio from várzea was approximately 2.5 times higher than the highest value of this ratio ever reported in the literature. Based on this fact, we ascertained that várzea and igapó floodplain forests (with lower GIA and GIR), together with the speciose terra firme galling community emerge as the gall diversity apex landscape among all biogeographic regions already investigated. Contrary to expectation, our results also support the "harsh environment hypothesis", and unveil the Amazonian upper canopy as similar to Mediterranean vegetation habitats, hygrothermically stressed environments with leaf temperature at lethal limits and high levels of leaf sclerophylly. PMID:25551769

  5. Effect of the Gall Wasp Leptocybe invasa on Hydraulic Architecture in Eucalyptus camaldulensis Plants

    PubMed Central

    Tong, You-Gui; Ding, Xiao-Xi; Zhang, Kai-Cun; Yang, Xin; Huang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The gall wasp, Leptocybe invasa (Hymenoptera; Eulophidae), is a devastating pest of eucalypt plantations in the Middle East, the Mediterranean basin, Africa, India, South-East Asia, and China. Heavy galling causes the leaves to warp and in extreme cases it may stunt the growth of the trees of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying how L. invasa inhibits the growth of plants of E. camaldulensis are unclear. Because the growth rate of plants is mainly dependent on photosynthesis that is largely correlated with hydraulic architecture, we speculate that galling of L. invasa depresses hydraulic conductance of stem and leaf. In the present study, we examined the effects of L. invasa galling on hydraulic architecture and photosynthetic parameters in E. camaldulensis plants. We found that galling of L. invasa significantly decreased stem hydraulic conductance (Kstem), midday leaf water potential (Ψmd), minor vein density, and stomatal density (SD). Furthermore, the stomatal conductance (gs), chlorophyll content, CO2 assimilation rate (An) and photosynthetic electron flow were reduced in infected plants. Therefore, the galling of L. invasa not only declined the water supply from stem to leaves, but also restricted water transport within leaf. As a result, galled plants of E. camaldulensis reduced leaf number, leaf area, SD and gs to balance water supply and transpirational demand. Furthermore, galled plants had lower leaf nitrogen content, leading to decreases in chlorophyll content, CO2 assimilation rate and photosynthetic electron flow. These results indicate that the change in hydraulic architecture is responsible for the inhibition of growth rate in galled plants. PMID:26913043

  6. A remarkable career in science-Joseph G. Gall.

    PubMed

    Endow, Sharyn A; Nizami, Zehra F; Gerbi, Susan A

    2013-07-01

    A festive group of ∼150 current and former students, postdoctoral and other associates, and colleagues gathered during the weekend of April 12-14, 2013 to celebrate Joe Gall's 85th birthday. The gathering, hosted by the Carnegie Institution for Science, Department of Embryology (Allan Spradling, Director) and organized by a group of Joe's current and former students (Zehra Nizami, Alison Singer, Ji-Long Liu, Virginia Zakian, Susan Gerbi), was held in Baltimore, MD. Dinners and symposia extending over 3 days celebrated Joe's scientific findings over the years, together with those of his former students, postdoctoral fellows, and other associates (see program at https://sites.google.com/site/gallsymposium2013/ ). PMID:23828690

  7. A review of gall bladder carcinoma in Ibadan.

    PubMed

    Akute, O O; Ayantunde, A A; Obajimi, M O

    2003-12-01

    Twenty cases of histologically proven carcinoma of the gall bladder (GB) seen in the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria between 1983 and 1997 were reviewed. There were seven males and thirteen females, thus giving a sex ratio of 1:2. The majority of the cancers occurred between the fourth and seventh decade of life. The pre-operative diagnosis has improved and about 70% of the ten patients with adequate clinical information had definitive surgical treatment. The advent of new imaging techniques at this hospital, consisting of ultasound (US) and computerized axial tomography(CT) has made pre-operative diagnosis possible. This is in contrast to the situation noted twenty years earlier in a similar study. Surgical intervention can now be timed and planned appropriately in the majority of cases although late presentation is still a problem. With earlier presentation, prompt diagnosis and appropriately planned surgery, a better survival figure is anticipated at this institution. PMID:15045015

  8. Production of anticandidal cotton textiles treated with oak gall extract.

    PubMed

    Tayel, Ahmed A; El-Tras, Wael F; Abdel-Monem, Omnia A; El-Sabbagh, Sabha M; Alsohim, Abdullah S; El-Refai, Elham M

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans, one of the most dreadful fungal pathogens threatening humans, could not be easily prevented. The anticandidal activity of oak gall extract, Quercus infectoria (QIE), was investigated as a potential natural alternative to synthetic and chemical fungicides. QIE anticandidal potentiality was confirmed using both qualitative and quantitative assays. Cotton textiles were treated with QIE and then evaluated as anticandidal fabrics. QIE-treated textiles had a potent anticandidal activity, which could completely inhibit the inoculated C. albicans cells. The durability of anticandidal activity in QIE-treated textiles almost completely disappeared after the fourth laundering cycle. QIE could be recommended, however, as a potent anticandidal agent for preparing antiseptic solutions and emulsions and as a finishing agent for manufacturing anticandidal disposable diapers and hygienic clothes. PMID:24401783

  9. Histopathogenesis of Galls Induced by Meloidogyne naasi in Wheat Roots

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, I. A.; Taylor, D. P.

    1970-01-01

    Histopathogenesis of galls induced by Meloidogyne naasi in wheat roots was studied. Large numbers of larvae penetrated wheat root tips within 24 hr; larvae migrated both inter- and intracellularly, causing cortical hypertrophy. Giant cells were formed in the stele around the head of each nematode within 4 to 5 days. Initial pathological alterations in giant cell formation consisted of hypertrophy of protophloem and protoxylem cells, their nuclei and nucleoli. Giant ceils contained 2 to 8 agglomerated multinucleolate nuclei. Synchronous mitotic divisions were first observed 9 days after inoculation. After 21 days, giant cells became highly vacuolate. Observations 40 days after inoculation revealed a complete degeneration of cell contents in many giant cells but their thick walls remained intact. Abnormal xylem completely surrounded the degenerated or partially degenerated giant cells. PMID:19322304

  10. Bioconcentration of 5,5',6-trichlorobiphenyl and pentachlorophenol in the midge, Chironomus riparius, as measured by a pharmacokinetic model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lydy, M.J.; Hayton, W.L.; Staubus, A.E.; Fisher, S.W.

    1994-01-01

    A two compartment pharmacokinetic model was developed which describes the uptake and elimination of 5,5',6-trichlorobiphenyl (TCB) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) in the midge, Chironomus riparius. C. riparius were exposed to nominal TCB (2 ??g L-1) and PCP (9 ??g L-1) concentrations during a 16 h static uptake phase. Depuration was determined over approximately 45 h using a flowthrough system without feeding. The uptake clearance (P) was 330 ?? 61 ml g-1 midge h-1 for TCB and 55 ?? 4 ml g-1 midge h-1 for PCP, while measured bioconcentration factors (BCF) were 35,900 and 458 for TCB and PCP, respectively. Overall, the clearance-volume- based pharmacokinetic model predicted BCF values that were consistent with published values as well as with BCF values obtained from the octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)).

  11. Nematodes from galls on Myrtaceae. VIII. Fergusobia from small galls on shoot buds, with descriptions of four new species.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kerrie A; Bartholomaeus, Faerlie; Giblin-Davis, Robin M; Ye, Weimin; Taylor, Gary S; Thomas, W Kelley

    2014-01-01

    Small shoot bud galls induced by the Fergusobia (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae)/Fergusonina (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) mutualism occur on various Eucalyptus spp. Four new species of Fergusobia, collected from small shoot bud galls on Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. gomphocephala and E. leucoxylon, are described. Fergusobia gomphocephalae Davies n. sp. is morphologically characterized by a combination of a small C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a variable, conoid tail, a small C-shaped infective female with a hemispherical tail tip, and an arcuate or J-shaped male with a broad tail, angular spicule and short peloderan bursa. Fergusobia leucoxylonae Davies n. sp. has a C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a conoid tail with a narrowly rounded tip, an arcuate infective female with a broadly rounded tail tip, and an almost straight to barely J-shaped male with angular (not heavily sclerotised) spicule and short bursa. Fergusobia schmidti Davies & Bartholomaeus n. sp. has an arcuate to open C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a relatively large body diameter, relatively long stylet and small tail with a broadly rounded tail tip, an open C-shaped infective female with a broadly rounded to hemispherical tail tip, and an arcuate to barely J-shaped male with spicules angular at about 33% of their length and peloderan bursa arising at about half body length. Fergusobia sporangae Davies n. sp. has an arcuate to open C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a relatively long stylet and a broadly rounded tail tip, an arcuate infective female with a short tail with a broadly rounded to hemispherical tip, and an arcuate to barely J-shaped male with angular (not heavily sclerotised) spicule and short peloderan bursa. Various forms of small shoot bud galls are described. From phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the D2/D3 expansion segment of the large subunit rRNA gene, the four new species belong to two sister clades of Fergusobia. The larval shield morphology of their associated

  12. Schmallenberg Virus Circulation in Culicoides in Belgium in 2012: Field Validation of a Real Time RT-PCR Approach to Assess Virus Replication and Dissemination in Midges

    PubMed Central

    De Regge, Nick; Madder, Maxime; Deblauwe, Isra; Losson, Bertrand; Fassotte, Christiane; Demeulemeester, Julie; Smeets, François; Tomme, Marie; Cay, Ann Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous Culicoides biting midges are suggested to be putative vectors for the recently emerged Schmallenberg virus (SBV) based on SBV RNA detection in field-caught midges. Furthermore, SBV replication and dissemination has been evidenced in C. sonorensis under laboratory conditions. After SBV had been detected in Culicoides biting midges from Belgium in August 2011, it spread all over the country by the end of 2011, as evidenced by very high between-herd seroprevalence rates in sheep and cattle. This study investigated if a renewed SBV circulation in midges occurred in 2012 in the context of high seroprevalence in the animal host population and evaluated if a recently proposed realtime RT-PCR approach that is meant to allow assessing the vector competence of Culicoides for SBV and bluetongue virus under laboratory conditions was applicable to field-caught midges. Therefore midges caught with 12 OVI traps in four different regions in Belgium between May and November 2012, were morphologically identified, age graded, pooled and tested for the presence of SBV RNA by realtime RT-PCR. The results demonstrate that although no SBV could be detected in nulliparous midges caught in May 2012, a renewed but short lived circulation of SBV in parous midges belonging to the subgenus Avaritia occured in August 2012 at all four regions. The infection prevalence reached up to 2.86% in the south of Belgium, the region where a lower seroprevalence was found at the end of 2011 than in the rest of the country. Furthermore, a frequency analysis of the Ct values obtained for 31 SBV-S segment positive pools of Avaritia midges showed a clear bimodal distribution with peaks of Ct values between 21–24 and 33–36. This closely resembles the laboratory results obtained for SBV infection of C. sonorensis and implicates indigenous midges belonging to the subgenus Avaritia as competent vectors for SBV. PMID:24466312

  13. Entomopathogenic Fungus as a Biological Control for an Important Vector of Livestock Disease: The Culicoides Biting Midge

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Minshad Ali; Pope, Edward C.; Carpenter, Simon; Scholte, Ernst-Jan; Butt, Tariq M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The recent outbreak of bluetongue virus in northern Europe has led to an urgent need to identify control measures for the Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges that transmit it. Following successful use of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against larval stages of biting midge Culicoides nubeculosus Meigen, we investigated the efficacy of this strain and other fungi (Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosorosea and Lecanicillium longisporum) as biocontrol agents against adult C. nubeculosus in laboratory and greenhouse studies. Methodology/Findings Exposure of midges to ‘dry’ conidia of all fungal isolates caused significant reductions in survival compared to untreated controls. Metarhizium anisopliae strain V275 was the most virulent, causing a significantly decrease in midge survival compared to all other fungal strains tested. The LT50 value for strain V275 was 1.42 days compared to 2.21–3.22 days for the other isolates. The virulence of this strain was then further evaluated by exposing C. nubeculosus to varying doses (108–1011 conidia m−2) using different substrates (horse manure, damp peat, leaf litter) as a resting site. All exposed adults were found to be infected with the strain V275 four days after exposure. A further study exposed C. nubeculosus adults to ‘dry’ conidia and ‘wet’ conidia (conidia suspended in 0.03% aq. Tween 80) of strain V275 applied to damp peat and leaf litter in cages within a greenhouse. ‘Dry’ conidia were more effective than ‘wet’ conidia, causing 100% mortality after 5 days. Conclusion/Significance This is the first study to demonstrate that entomopathogenic fungi are potential biocontrol agents against adult Culicoides, through the application of ‘dry’ conidia on surfaces (e.g., manure, leaf litter, livestock) where the midges tend to rest. Subsequent conidial transmission between males and females may cause an increased level of fungi-induced mortality in midges

  14. Galled by the Gallbladder?: Your Tiny, Hard-Working Digestive Organ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Galled by the Gallbladder? Your Tiny, Hard-Working Digestive Organ Most of us give little thought to ... among the most common and costly of all digestive system diseases. By some estimates, up to 20 ...

  15. Skeletal Metastasis From Carcinoma of the Gall Bladder: Need for Bone Scintigraphy Justified?

    PubMed Central

    Aswani, Yashant; Hira, Priya

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Carcinoma of the gall bladder has a guarded prognosis with predominant sites of involvement being liver and regional nodes. Osseous metastasis in carcinoma of the gall bladder is rare and hence bone scintigraphy does not form a part of the routine work-up for such patients. Case Reports We describe two patients with carcinoma of the gall bladder with osteolytic metastasis (stage 4). Conservative treatment was planned but both of them succumbed to the illness. Conclusions We thus highlight the importance of performing a bone scan or PET CT in cases of carcinoma of the gall bladder. Besides, our cases challenge Paget’s seed – soil theory for sites of metastasis. PMID:27231491

  16. Leaf-Mining and Gall-Forming Insects: Tools for Teaching Population Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Valerie K.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the use of leaf mines (formed by larvae of small moths or flies) and galls (wasps' larvae) in various insect population studies. Also considers the advantages of using these structures for instructional purposes. (DH)

  17. Gall bladder rupture associated with cholecystitis in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius).

    PubMed

    Huynh, M; Guillaumot, P; Hernandez, J; Ragetly, G

    2014-09-01

    A six-year-old neutered female albino ferret was presented with an acute episode of lethargy and anorexia. Clinical examination revealed marked cranial abdominal pain. A severe neutrophilic leukocytosis was present. Abdominal ultrasound was consistent with a diffuse peritonitis and severe bile duct inflammation. Cytology of the abdominal effusion revealed bile peritonitis. An exploratory laparotomy was performed and the gall bladder appeared inflamed with multiple perforations. A cholecystectomy was performed. The ferret recovered without complication. Bacteriological culture of the bile and gall bladder yielded a pure growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Histopathological analysis of the gall bladder and liver was consistent with a marked cholecystitis and cholangiohepatitis. On the basis of sensitivity testing, the ferret was treated with marbofloxacin for one month. No complications or reoccurrence were seen up to 1 year after the diagnosis. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of bile peritonitis secondary to gall bladder rupture in a ferret. PMID:25168742

  18. Effect of endoscopic sphincterotomy on gall bladder bile lithogenicity and motility

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, B; Agarwal, D; Baijal, S; Negi, T; Choudhuri, G; Saraswat, V

    1998-01-01

    Background—Endoscopic sphincterotomy has been shown to inhibit stone formation in the gall bladder of experimental animals. 
Aims—To investigate the alterations in bile composition and gall bladder motility after endoscopic sphincterotomy. 
Patients—A study was performed of gall bladder bile composition and gall bladder motility in patients with gallstone disease ((n = 20; age 40-60 years, median age 55 years: seven men), with gall bladder calculi (n = 12) and with diseased gall bladder (chronic inflammation) without gall bladder calculi (n = 8)), who had received endoscopic sphincterotomy for common bile duct stones. Age and sex matched disease controls comprised 20 patients with gallstone disease but without stones and an intact sphincter of Oddi (with gall bladder calculi (n = 10) and diseased gall bladder without gall bladder calculi (n =10)). 
Methods—Gall bladder motility was assessed by ultrasound. Duodenal bile collected by nasoduodenal tube after stimulation of gall bladder by intravenous ceruletid infusion was analysed for cholesterol, phospholipid, and bile acid concentrations, cholesterol saturation index, and nucleation time. 
Results—There was a significant reduction in mean (SEM) fasting volume (12.5 (1.7) ml v 26.4 (2.5) ml; p<0.001) and mean (SEM) residual volume (4.34 (0.9) ml v 14.7 (0.98) ml; p<0.001), and increase in mean (SEM) ejection fraction (65.7 (4.2)% v 43.6 (5.52)%; p<0.001) and mean (SEM) rate constant of gall bladder emptying (−0.031/min v −0.020/min; p<0.01) in patients who had been subjected to endoscopic sphincterotomy. Median nucleation time was significantly longer (17 days v 6 days; p<0.006) in treated patients. There was a reduction in total mean (SEM) lipid concentrations (6.73(0.32) g/dl v 7.72 (0.84) g/dl; p<0.05), cholesterol (5.6 (1.5) mmol/l v 10.3 (2.23) mmol/l; p<0.001) and CSI (0.72 (0.15) v 1.32(0.31); p<0.001). There was no significant change in mean (SEM) phospholipid (25.6 (3.5) mmol/l v 23

  19. Antitumor properties of two traditional aromatic rice genotypes (Kalijira and Chinigura)

    PubMed Central

    Mannan, Mohammad Abdul; Sarker, Tushar Chandra; Kabir, Ahmad Humayan; Rahman, Mostafizur; Alam, Mohammad Firoz

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Methanol extract of bran and unpolished grain of two traditional aromatic rice genotypes viz. Kalijira and Chinigura were assayed for their activity on the growth and initiation of crown-gall tumors on potato disks. Materials and Methods: Three Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens) strain AtSl0105, AtTa0112, and AtAc0114 were used as the tumor forming agent. Collected rice was separated to bran and unpolished grain by different milling processes and made into fine powder before extracting using methanol. Antitumor assay of plant extracts was performed according to standard potato disc bioassay. Disc diffusion assay (Kirby-Bauer Method) was used to screen A. tumefaciens sensitivity test. Results: The results demonstrated a high correlation between the ability of aromatic rice to inhibit the initiation and growth of crown-gall tumors on potato disks. Maximum tumor inhibitions were observed against the strain AtSl0105 by Kalijira bran (73.91%) and Chinigura bran (69.56%). Both unpolished grains showed significant effect (Kalijira 57.43%, Chinigura 55.53%) to inhibit the tumor. Conclusion: It can be concluded that aromatic rice (Kalijira and Chinigura) might be a potential source of antitumor agent that can be used for further drug development for tumor treatment. PMID:25050299

  20. Faustovirus-Like Asfarvirus in Hematophagous Biting Midges and Their Vertebrate Hosts.

    PubMed

    Temmam, Sarah; Monteil-Bouchard, Sonia; Sambou, Masse; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Azza, Saïd; Decloquement, Philippe; Khalil, Jacques Y Bou; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Jardot, Priscilla; Robert, Catherine; La Scola, Bernard; Mediannikov, Oleg Y; Raoult, Didier; Desnues, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    Faustovirus, a new Asfarviridae-related giant virus, was recently isolated in Vermamoeba vermiformis, a protist found in sewage water in various geographical locations and occasionally reported in human eye infection cases. As part of a global metagenomic analysis of viral communities existing in biting midges, we report here for the first time the identification and isolation of a Faustovirus-like virus in hematophagous arthropods and its detection in their animal hosts. The DNA virome analysis of three pools of Culicoides sp., engorged female Culicoides imicola and non-engorged male/female C. imicola biting midges collected in Senegal, revealed the presence of amoeba-infecting giant viruses and, among them, a majority of sequences related to Faustovirus. Phylogenetic analyses conducted on several structural genes of Faustovirus confirmed the clustering of the arthropod-borne Faustovirus with sewage-borne Faustoviruses, with a distinct geographical clustering of Senegalese Faustovirus strains. Transmission electron microscopy identified viral particles with morphologies and diameters which were compatible with Faustovirus. The presence of infectious arthropod-borne Faustovirus was finally confirmed by successful isolation on V. vermiformis amoeba. Global proteomic analysis of biting midges identified that arthropods' blood meal originating from cattle, rodents and humans. Further screening of cattle sera and rodent tissue resulted in prevalence of Faustovirus being estimated at 38% in rodents and 14% in cattle, suggesting a possible origin of Faustovirus presence in arthropods via the ingestion of contaminated blood meal. Viral loads were the highest in rodents' urine and kidney samples, suggesting a possible excretion of viral particles into the environment. Faustovirus DNA polymerase-related sequences were also detected in more than 9 and 11% of febrile patients and healthy Senegalese human sera, respectively. Our study thus, highlights the need to investigate

  1. Fossil midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) as palaeoclimatic indicators for the Eurasian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Stephen J.

    2006-08-01

    Chironomids (non-biting midges) have been used in palaeoenvironmental studies in Eurasia since the 1920s. Initially changes in chironomid assemblages were largely interpreted as a response to changes in trophic status or water depth. It was only with the advent of chironomid-temperature inference models in the early 1990s that their potential as palaeoclimatic indicators was fully exploited. This paper provides a brief review of the pioneering studies but focuses on the most recent advances. Better taxonomic resolution of fossil midges, expansion of modern training sets, use of air temperature data derived from meteorological stations rather than surface-water temperature data, and Bayesian statistical approaches have lead to improvements in the performance of chironomid-temperature transfer functions. Applications of these transfer functions to derive chironomid-inferred temperature estimates from Lateglacial (ca 15,000-11,200 cal. yr BP) and Holocene (11,200 cal. yr BP to Present) sequences from throughout Eurasia are reviewed in this paper. Chironomid-inferred Lateglacial reconstructions closely reflect oxygen isotope records from Greenland ice cores. Holocene reconstructions are less consistent. Some closely follow instrumental records or corroborate other proxy data, while other reconstructions are less successful. As a result of soil development during the Holocene, changes in pH, nutrients, DO and DOC had a greater influence than temperature on the composition of some midge assemblages. One way to mitigate this is through consensus temperature reconstructions from several sites in the same region. The challenge for future workers is for further improvement in taxonomic resolution of sub-fossil chironomid larvae, to improve further the performance of chironomid-temperature inference models, to develop training sets for southern Europe and Russia and to improve our understanding of the ecological responses of chironomids.

  2. Critical body residues for lethal and sublethal effects of membrane narcotics in the midge, Chironomus riparius

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, S.W.; Hwang, H.; Landrum, P.F.

    1995-12-31

    The concept of the critical body residue (CBR) offers a compelling new way to evaluate hazard posed by persistent contaminants such as PCBs. The authors tested the utility of using CBRs for PCBs in an invertebrate species, Chironomus riparius. Acute toxicity (< 10 d) tests were performed with 2nd instar larvae by adding trace amounts of {sup 14}C-labeled PCBs to unlabeled PCBs in amounts sufficient to generate a dose-responsive mortality curve. Because of the limited water solubility of the PCBs tested, it was not possible to produce a toxic tissue concentration via aqueous exposure. This difficulty was overcome by allowing the midges to feed upon contaminated algae (Chlorella vulgaris) which could be loaded with much higher levels of PCBs than would dissolve in water. CBRs for acute toxicity were measured for 3 PCBs; an average CBR of about 1 mmol/kg was determined. If the midge CBRs are lipid normalized, they fall into the range of values that have previously been determined for vertebrates. The authors also evaluated CBRs in midges for a variety of sublethal impairments including development time within a stadium, larval weight and fecundity. A CBR of 1.09 {micro}mol/kg resulted in a significant increase in larval development time and decrease in larval weight for second instar larvae. Tissue residues declined in the third and fourth instars, despite continuing exposure suggesting that the animals developed attenuating mechanisms or that contaminant loss at ecdysis is significant. Despite declining tissue residues throughout the larval instars, fecundity was reduced from 284 eggs/female in controls to 244 eggs/female in animals exposed to the highest sublethal concentration.

  3. Faustovirus-Like Asfarvirus in Hematophagous Biting Midges and Their Vertebrate Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Temmam, Sarah; Monteil-Bouchard, Sonia; Sambou, Masse; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Azza, Saïd; Decloquement, Philippe; Khalil, Jacques Y. Bou; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Jardot, Priscilla; Robert, Catherine; La Scola, Bernard; Mediannikov, Oleg Y.; Raoult, Didier; Desnues, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    Faustovirus, a new Asfarviridae-related giant virus, was recently isolated in Vermamoeba vermiformis, a protist found in sewage water in various geographical locations and occasionally reported in human eye infection cases. As part of a global metagenomic analysis of viral communities existing in biting midges, we report here for the first time the identification and isolation of a Faustovirus-like virus in hematophagous arthropods and its detection in their animal hosts. The DNA virome analysis of three pools of Culicoides sp., engorged female Culicoides imicola and non-engorged male/female C. imicola biting midges collected in Senegal, revealed the presence of amoeba-infecting giant viruses and, among them, a majority of sequences related to Faustovirus. Phylogenetic analyses conducted on several structural genes of Faustovirus confirmed the clustering of the arthropod-borne Faustovirus with sewage-borne Faustoviruses, with a distinct geographical clustering of Senegalese Faustovirus strains. Transmission electron microscopy identified viral particles with morphologies and diameters which were compatible with Faustovirus. The presence of infectious arthropod-borne Faustovirus was finally confirmed by successful isolation on V. vermiformis amoeba. Global proteomic analysis of biting midges identified that arthropods' blood meal originating from cattle, rodents and humans. Further screening of cattle sera and rodent tissue resulted in prevalence of Faustovirus being estimated at 38% in rodents and 14% in cattle, suggesting a possible origin of Faustovirus presence in arthropods via the ingestion of contaminated blood meal. Viral loads were the highest in rodents' urine and kidney samples, suggesting a possible excretion of viral particles into the environment. Faustovirus DNA polymerase-related sequences were also detected in more than 9 and 11% of febrile patients and healthy Senegalese human sera, respectively. Our study thus, highlights the need to investigate

  4. A new algorithm quantifies the roles of wind and midge flight activity in the bluetongue epizootic in northwest Europe.

    PubMed

    Sedda, Luigi; Brown, Heidi E; Purse, Bethan V; Burgin, Laura; Gloster, John; Rogers, David J

    2012-06-22

    The 2006 bluetongue (BT) outbreak in northwestern Europe had devastating effects on cattle and sheep in that intensively farmed area. The role of wind in disease spread, through its effect on Culicoides dispersal, is still uncertain, and remains unquantified. We examine here the relationship between farm-level infection dates and wind speed and direction within the framework of a novel model involving both mechanistic and stochastic steps. We consider wind as both a carrier of host semio-chemicals, to which midges might respond by upwind flight, and as a transporter of the midges themselves, in a more or less downwind direction. For completeness, we also consider midge movement independent of wind and various combinations of upwind, downwind and random movements. Using stochastic simulation, we are able to explain infection onset at 94 per cent of the 2025 affected farms. We conclude that 54 per cent of outbreaks occurred through (presumably midge) movement of infections over distances of no more than 5 km, 92 per cent over distances of no more than 31 km and only 2 per cent over any greater distances. The modal value for all infections combined is less than 1 km. Our analysis suggests that previous claims for a higher frequency of long-distance infections are unfounded. We suggest that many apparent long-distance infections resulted from sequences of shorter-range infections; a 'stepping stone' effect. Our analysis also found that downwind movement (the only sort so far considered in explanations of BT epidemics) is responsible for only 39 per cent of all infections, and highlights the effective contribution to disease spread of upwind midge movement, which accounted for 38 per cent of all infections. The importance of midge flight speed is also investigated. Within the same model framework, lower midge active flight speed (of 0.13 rather than 0.5 m s(-1)) reduced virtually to zero the role of upwind movement, mainly because modelled wind speeds in the area

  5. Effects of pH on the toxicity and uptake of (14C)lindane in the midge, Chironomus riparius

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, S.W.

    1985-10-01

    The toxicity of the insecticide, lindane, was measured in the midge, Chironomus riparius, at pH 4, 6, and 8 with the finding that lindane is significantly more toxic at pH 6 than at pH 4 and 8. The higher toxicity of lindane at pH 6 is a product of two factors. First the penetration of the compound into the midge is lower at pH 4 than at pH 6 and 8. Second, a greater percentage of total radioactivity is contributed by parent compound at pH 6.

  6. Chronic and acute infection of the gall bladder by Salmonella Typhi: understanding the carrier state

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Escobedo, Geoffrey; Marshall, Joanna M.; Gunn, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite major treatment and prevention efforts, millions of new typhoid infections occur worldwide each year. For a subset of infected individuals, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi colonizes the gall bladder and remains there long after symptoms subside, serving as a reservoir for the further spread of the disease. In this Progress article, we explore recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which Salmonella spp. — predominantly S. Typhi — colonize and persist in the human gall bladder. PMID:21113180

  7. Anti-Lipoxygenase Activity of Leaf Gall Extracts of Terminalia chebula (Gaertn.) Retz. (Combretaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Ramachandra, Yarappa Lakshmikantha; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Subbaiah, Sujan Ganapathy Pasura; Austin, Richard Surendranath; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2016-01-01

    Lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitors are the promising therapeutic target for treating a wide spectrum of inflammatory-related diseases such as cancer, asthma, lymphoma, leukemia, and autoimmune disorders. In the present study, the photochemical constituents and the anti-LOX potential of leaf galls of Terminalia chebula are evaluated to exemplify its further potential development as medicine. Extracts of T. chebula galls were tested for anti-LOX activity using linoleic acid as substrate and lipoxidase as an enzyme and also the total content of polyphenols with phytochemical analysis of the extract were determined. The presence of highest total phenolic and flavonoid content of 141 ± 2.2 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g d.w and 125 ± 1.4 mg of quercetin equivalent/g d.w and maximal LOX inhibitory activity (52.67%) at 800 μg/mL concentrations were identified in the ethanolic extracts of leaf galls of T.chebula. The higher LOX inhibitory activity was positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids. The results of this study confirm the folklore use of T. chebula leaves gall extracts as a natural anti-inflammatory agent and justify its ethnobotanical use. Therefore, the results encourage the use of T. chebula leave gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food, and nutraceuticals applications. SUMMARY The present investigation demonstrated promising anti-LOX proper-ties of T. chebula leaves gall extracts. Presumably, these activities could be attributed in part to the polyphenolic features of the extract, as there was a strong correlation of higher LOX inhibiting activities with that of high total phenolic and flavonoid content in the methanolic leaf gall extracts of T. chebula. The results of this study confirm the folklore use of T. chebula leaves gall extracts as a natural anti-inflammatory agent and justify the ethnobotanical approach in the search for novel bioactive com-pounds. PMID:26941541

  8. Morphogenesis of galls induced by Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) on Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae) leaves.

    PubMed

    Arduin, M; Fernandes, G W; Kraus, J E

    2005-11-01

    The commonest insect gall on Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae) leaves is induced by Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera, Psyllidae). The gall-inducing insect attacks young leaves in both the unfolded and the fully expanded stages. Four developmental phases were observed in this type of gall: 1) A folding phase, during which the leaf lamina folded upward alongside the midrib and the edges of the upper portion of the leaf approached each other, forming a longitudinal slit. A single chamber was formed on the adaxial surface of the leaf; 2) A swelling phase, in which the folded leaf tissues thickened and the edges of the leaf drew closer together, narrowing the slit. In this phase the gall matured, turning succulent, fusiform and pale green. The single nymphal chamber was lined with white wax and was able to house from one to several nymphs; 3) A dehiscence phase, characterized by the opening of the slit to release inducers; and 4) A senescence phase, when the gall turned dark and dry. The dermal system of the mature gall was composed of a single-layered epidermis. The mesophyll was swollen, and the swelling was due mainly to hyperplasia of the parenchyma. The vascular tissues along the midrib vein were conspicuous and the perivascular fibers resembled parenchymal cells. The hypertrophied secretory cavities contained low lipophylic content. This gall does not form nutritive tissue, but salivary sheaths left by the inducers were observed near the parenchyma, vascular bundles and secretory cavities. This study complements our current knowledge of gall biology and sheds further light on the plasticity of plant tissues stimulated by biotic factors. PMID:16532179

  9. Evaluation of biofilm removal activity of Quercus infectoria galls against Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi-Sichani, Maryam; Karbasizadeh, Vajihe; Dokhaharani, Samaneh Chaharmiri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases affecting humans of all ages. Streptococcus mutans has an important role in the development of dental caries by acid production. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and biofilm disinfective effects of the oak tree Quercus infectoria galls against S. mutans. Materials and Methods: The bacterial strain used in this study was S. mutans (ATCC: 35668). Two kinds of galls, Mazouj and Ghalghaf were examined. Galls were extracted by methanol, ethanol and acetone by Soxhlet apparatus, separately. Extracts were dissolved in sterile distilled water to a final concentration of 10.00, 5.00, 2.50, 1.25, 0.63, 0.31, and 0.16 mg/ml. Microdilution determined antibacterial activities. The biofilm removal activities of the extracts were examined using crystal violet-stained microtiter plate method. One-way ANOVA was used to compare biofilm formation in the presence or absence of the extracts. Results: The methanolic, ethanolic, and acetonic extracts of Q. infectoria galls showed the strong inhibitory effects on S. mutans (P < 0.05). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values for the Mazouj and Ghalghaf gall extracts against S. mutans were identical. The MIC values ranged from 160 μg/ml to 320 μg/ml, whereas the MBC values ranged from 320 μg/ml to 640 μg/ml. All extracts of Q. infectoria galls significantly (P < 0.05) reduced biofilm biomass of S. mutans at the concentrations higher than 9.8 μg/ml. Conclusion: Three different extracts of Q. infectoria galls were similar in their antibacterial activity against S. mutans. These extracts had the highest biofilm removal activities at 312.5 μg/ml concentration. The galls of Q. infectoria are potentially good sources of antibacterial and biofilm disinfection agent. PMID:26962315

  10. Heat Tolerance and Aging of the Anhydrobiotic Seed Gall Nematode with SEM Observations.

    PubMed

    Eisenback, J D; Wei, Ma; Roane, C W

    2013-03-01

    The seed gall nematode, Anguina agrostis, feeds and reproduces within the developing ovaries of bentgrass seeds and overwinters in seed galls as anhydrobiotic juveniles. These dormant juveniles can survive within the seed gall for many years. In this dehydrated state, they are more tolerant to extreme environmental conditions than are their hydrated counterparts. Nematodes in seed galls were exposed to various high temperatures (80 to 160°C) for time intervals of 5 to 30 min. Survival decreased as time and temperature increased. Remarkably, these nematodes survived exposure to 155°C for 5 min, higher than that recorded for any other metazoan. In contrast, seed galls that had been stored at room temperature and humidity for 5 yr also survived exposure to extreme temperatures; however, their survival rates were not as high as those for freshly collected galls. Juveniles within the seed gall were coiled and grouped together conforming to the shape of the seed gall. The gross morphology of the cuticle of the juveniles was very smooth and relatively undistorted by the shrinkage from the loss water from their body tissues. Wherever the nematodes were cut with a razor blade, a small amount of their contents oozed out of the opening and coalesced with that of other nearby specimens and appeared gel-like. Elucidation of the mechanisms that enable these nematodes to remain viable after exposure to extreme heat remains a mystery. Understanding the changes that occur in these nematodes as they rehydrate and return to life from an ametabolic state may have major impacts on the life sciences, including insights into the answer of the age-old question: "What is life?" PMID:23589659

  11. All stages of the Palaearctic predaceous midge Palpomyia schmidti Goetghebuer, 1934 (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Szadziewski, Ryszard; Golovatyuk, Larisa V; Sontag, Elżbieta; Urbanek, Aleksandra; Zinchenko, Tatiana D

    2016-01-01

    All stages and the ecology of the Southern Palaearctic Palpomyia schmidti collected from the vicinity of the saline Lake Elton in Russia are described and illustrated. The morphology of larvae and pupae as well as the detailed ecology of the larvae are described for the first time. P. schmidti is a halobiontic biting midge, widely distributed in the steppes and deserts of the Palaearctic region. It is proposed that the Palpomyia schmidti group should include five Holarctic species. P. downesi Grogan & Wirth, 1979 from north-western North America is recognized as a new junior synonym of the Eastern Palaearctic P. tuvae Remm, 1972. New synonymy. PMID:27395743

  12. Oil and PCB interactions on the uptake and excretion in midges

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, P.G.; Rediske, R.R.

    1984-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of sediment oil contamination on the bioaccumulation and excretion of Aroclor 1242 by the chironomid larvae Glyptotendipes barbipes Staeger. This dipteran was chosen as the test organism because it is an important fish food, and also the larva can tolerate a wide range of sediment PCB and oil concentrations. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions where midges were exposed to varying concentrations of Aroclor 1242 and mineral oil mixtures. An artificial substrate was chosen over natural sediment because it could be easily prepared in large quantities and accurately contaminated with both PCB and oil.

  13. The influence of host number on the attraction of biting midges, Culicoides spp., to light traps.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Saenz, A; McCarter, P; Baylis, M

    2011-03-01

    A preliminary study was undertaken to investigate how the number of sheep below a light-suction trap affects the number of female Culicoides obsoletus Meigen (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) caught. As the number of sheep increased from zero to three, the number of midges caught increased, but there appeared to be no further increase when six sheep were used. The lack of increase between three and six sheep is attributable to different activity rates on certain nights, perhaps in response to weather, and suggests, therefore, that catches in light traps increase linearly with sheep numbers, at least for small host numbers. PMID:20704653

  14. Characterization of microsatellite loci for the pitcher plant midge, Metriocnemus knabi Coq. (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Rasic, Gordana; Maxwell, Sheri A; Keyghobadi, Nusha

    2009-09-01

    As a component of the inquiline community of the purple pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea), the pitcher plant midge Metriocneus knabi has been the subject of various ecological studies. However, very little is known about its characteristics beyond the larval stage, in particular the dispersal ability of adults. This study presents new molecular tools developed for testing of evolutionary and ecological questions in natural populations of this species. We describe a set of 12 microsatellite loci specific to M. knabi that are sufficiently polymorphic to provide insight into population genetic structure and dispersal patterns. PMID:21564915

  15. Phrenology and the neurosciences: contributions of F. J. Gall and J. G. Spurzheim.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Donald

    2005-06-01

    The pseudoscience of phrenology arose from the observations and intuitions of Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828) and his disciple Johann Gaspar Spurzheim (1776-1832). Gall believed that mental functions are localized in discrete parts of the brain, which he called organs. He located the organs subserving intellectual functions chiefly in the cerebral cortex. To support this doctrine, Gall and Spurzheim carried out extensive neuro-anatomical studies, and made some important discoveries. The Gordon Craig Library contains a book by Spurzheim on the anatomy of the brain, published in London in 1826, which summarizes these discoveries. Gall also believed that the functional strength of the cerebral and cerebellar organs was expressed by their bulk: a well-developed organ caused a bulge in the overlying cranial bone. Hence, feeling the bumps of the skull was a means of assessing the individual's personality. This very fallacious component of Gall's doctrine had great influence in the nineteenth century, affecting psychiatry, criminology and educational theory. Further research demolished Gall's doctrine, and phrenology sank into disrepute. Nevertheless, phrenological thinking played an important part in the growth of clinical neurology in the second half of the nineteenth century. PMID:15943741

  16. High-Temperature Galling Characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V with and without Surface Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian; ERDMAN III, DONALD L; Ohriner, Evan Keith; Jolly, Brian C

    2011-01-01

    Galling is a severe form of surface damage in metals and alloys that typically arises under relatively high normal force, low-sliding speed, and in the absence of effective lubrication. It can lead to macroscopic surface roughening and seizure. The occurrence of galling can be especially problematic in high-temperature applications like diesel engine exhaust gas recirculation system components and adjustable turbocharger vanes, because suitable lubricants may not be available, moisture desorption promotes increased adhesion, and the yield strength of metals decreases with temperature. Oxidation can counteract these effects to some extent by forming lubricative oxide films. Two methods to improve the galling resistance of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V were investigated: (a) applying an oxygen diffusion treatment, and (b) creating a metal-matrix composite with TiB2 using a high-intensity infrared heating source. A new, oscillating three-pin-on-flat, high-temperature test method was developed and used to characterize galling behavior relative to a cobalt-based alloy (Stellite 6B ). The magnitude of the oscillating torque, the surface roughness, and observations of surface damage were used as measures of galling resistance. Owing to the formation of lubricative oxide films, the galling resistance of the Ti-alloy at 485o C, even non-treated, was considerably better than it was at room temperature. The IR-formed composite displayed reduced surface damage and lower torque than the substrate titanium alloy.

  17. Spatial distribution of galls caused by Aculus tetanothrix (Acari: Eriophyoidea) on arctic willows.

    PubMed

    Kuczyński, Lechosław; Skoracka, Anna

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of galls caused by Aculus tetanothrix (Acari: Eriophyoidea) on three Salix species was studied. The factors influencing this distribution were analysed, i.e. willow species, study area and shoot length. Spatial pattern of gall distribution within the shoot was also examined. The study was conducted in Russia, Kola Peninsula. Densities of galls caused by A. tetanothrix differed significantly among willow species. Considerably higher gall density was recorded in the White Sea coast than in the Khibiny Mountains. This may be explained by the influence of a milder maritime climate that favors mite occurrence compared to a harsh and variable mountain climate that limits mite abundance. There was no relationship between the gall density and the shoot length. The highest density of galls was recorded on the inner offshoots; within the offshoot, there was a maximum density on the fifth leaf. This pattern was repeatable for all shoots studied, independent of the study area, willow species and length of shoots, suggesting the optimal conditions for A. tetanothrix exist on leaves in the middle part of a shoot. This distribution pattern may be an effect of the trade-off between the costs and benefits resulting from leaf quality and mite movement along the shoot. This hypothesis, however, needs to be tested experimentally. PMID:16132741

  18. The histo structure of galls induced by aphids as a useful taxonomic character: the case of Rectinasus (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Eriosomatinae).

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Rafael; Molist, Pilar; González-Sierra, Silvia; Martinez, Jean Jacques Itzhak; Nafría, Juan M Nieto

    2014-01-01

    Morphological differentiation of gall tissues induced on plants may play a role to characterize the real taxonomic position of the gall inducer. We verified this hypothesis with galls induced by Rectinasus buxtoni on Pistacia palaestina. There is controversy about the taxonomic localization of genus Rectinasus: in one classification it is situated with the genera Forda and Paracletus while in another it is linked to the genera Geoica and Baizongia. Histological examination of the walls of the galls reveals the presence of two opposed vascular bundles and an inner surface of the gall with cavities. These features place Rectinasus in the same group as Geoica and Baizongia, and not with Paracletus and Forda, whose galls have a different histological structure, as generally admitted. PMID:25283424

  19. The insect gall collection of the Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro: biome cerrado, rupestrian fields.

    PubMed

    Maia, V C; Rodrigues, A R; Ascendino, S H S; Boggi, M

    2014-08-01

    An inventory of the insect gall from Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) was elaborated based on samples of the collection of the Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Data on localities and host plants were obtained from the labels and information about the gall morphology (plant organ of occurrence, shape, and presence of trichomes) by observing the samples. The galling species was determined based on the literature. The collection includes 131 morphotypes of galls from Cerrado, obtained from 71 host plant species distributed in 50 genera and 30 botanical families (Table 1). All galls were collected in rupestrian fields (a rare vegetation physiognomy of the Brazilian Cerrado) in the state of Minas Gerais. As the collection comprises a great diversity of insect galls, it can be considered representative of this physiognomy. PMID:25627387

  20. Efficacy of alphacypermethrin-treated high density polyethylene mesh applied to jet stalls housing horses against Culicoides biting midges in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Page, P C; Labuschagne, K; Venter, G J; Schoeman, J P; Guthrie, A J

    2015-05-30

    The efficacy of alphacypermethrin-treated high density polyethylene (HDPE) mesh applied to jet stalls against Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) was determined by mechanical aspiration of midges from horses and using Onderstepoort 220 V downdraught black light traps in four blocks of a 3 × 2 randomised design under South African field conditions. The alphacypermethrin-treated HDPE mesh applied to the stall significantly (P = 0.008) reduced the number of Culicoides midges, predominantly Culicoides (Avaritia) imicola Kieffer, mechanically aspirated from horses housed in the stall. The mesh reduced the Culicoides midge attack rate in the treated stall compared to the untreated stall and a sentinel horse by 6 times and 14 times, respectively. The number of Culicoides midges and C. imicola collected in light traps from the untreated and alphacypermethrin HDPE mesh-treated stalls did not differ significantly (P = 0.82). Alphacypermethrin-treated HDPE mesh could be used to reduce exposure of horses in jet stalls to Culicoides midges, specifically C. imicola, and the risk of midge-borne Orbivirus transmission. PMID:25794942

  1. Biting rates and developmental substrates for biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Iquitos, Peru.

    PubMed

    Mercer, David R; Spinelli, Gustavo R; Watts, Douglas M; Tesh, Robert B

    2003-11-01

    Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected at 16 periurban and rural sites around Iquitos, Peru, between 17 October 1996 and 26 May 1997. Culicoides paraensis (Goeldi), the principal vector of Oropouche virus, was the most commonly collected species (9,086 flies) with Culicoides insinuatus Wirth & Blanton second (7,229 flies). Although both species were collected at all sampling sites (linear (distance surveyed approximately 25 km), C. paraensis dominated at northern collection sites (> 90%), whereas C. insinuatus prevailed at southern collection sites (> 60%). C. paraensis were collected from human sentinels at a constant rate throughout daylight hours, at similar rates during wet and dry months, and regardless of rainfall. Larval developmental substrates for C. paraensis included decaying platano (Musa x paradisiaca L. [Musaceae]) stems, stumps, flowers, fruits, and debris beneath platano trees as well as from soil beneath a fruiting mamay (Syzygium malaccense Merr. & Perry [Myrtaceae] ) tree and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline. C. insinuatus adults likewise emerged from decaying platano and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline, but also from debris accumulated in the axils of aguaje (Mauritia flexuosa L. [Palmae]) fronds and decaying citrus fruit. Despite high numbers of biting adults near putative substrates, adults of neither species emerged from other decomposing plant material, soil, phytotelmata, or artificial containers. Because both species of biting midges emerged in high numbers from all parts of platano (ubiquitous in Iquitos), it will be challenging to control them through sanitation. PMID:14765657

  2. Characterization of Viral Communities of Biting Midges and Identification of Novel Thogotovirus Species and Rhabdovirus Genus

    PubMed Central

    Temmam, Sarah; Monteil-Bouchard, Sonia; Robert, Catherine; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Sambou, Masse; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Labas, Noémie; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg; Desnues, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    More than two thirds of emerging viruses are of zoonotic origin, and among them RNA viruses represent the majority. Ceratopogonidae (genus Culicoides) are well-known vectors of several viruses responsible for epizooties (bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, etc.). They are also vectors of the only known virus infecting humans: the Oropouche virus. Female midges usually feed on a variety of hosts, leading to possible transmission of emerging viruses from animals to humans. In this context, we report here the analysis of RNA viral communities of Senegalese biting midges using next-generation sequencing techniques as a preliminary step toward the identification of potential viral biohazards. Sequencing of the RNA virome of three pools of Culicoides revealed the presence of a significant diversity of viruses infecting plants, insects and mammals. Several novel viruses were detected, including a novel Thogotovirus species, related but genetically distant from previously described tick-borne thogotoviruses. Novel rhabdoviruses were also detected, possibly constituting a novel Rhabdoviridae genus, and putatively restricted to insects. Sequences related to the major viruses transmitted by Culicoides, i.e., African horse sickness, bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease viruses were also detected. This study highlights the interest in monitoring the emergence and circulation of zoonoses and epizooties using their arthropod vectors. PMID:26978389

  3. Joint toxicity of triazine herbicides and organophosphate insecticides to the midge Chironomus tentans.

    PubMed

    Schuler, L J; Trimble, A J; Belden, J B; Lydy, M J

    2005-08-01

    A series of recent studies demonstrated that the triazine herbicide atrazine, although not itself acutely toxic, potentiated the toxicity of certain organophosphate insecticides (OPs) to the midge Chironomus tentans. In the current study, a series of triazine herbicides and triazine herbicide degradation products were tested to determine if other triazines potentiate OP toxicity to midges. Chlorpyrifos and diazinon were the OPs tested. Toxicity tests were conducted using a factorial design and analysis of variance to statistically determine if each triazine had an effect on expected toxicity. Log-probit procedures were also used to evaluate the magnitude of change in median effective concentration (EC50) values during coexposure with each triazine. All of the triazine herbicides tested (atrazine, simazine, cyanazine, and hexazinone) were capable of potentiating the toxicity of the OPs, whereas the degradation products (s-triazine, deethylatrazine, and deisopropylatrazine) had less effect. In most cases, a triazine concentration of 100 microg/L was necessary to significantly increase OP toxicity, and higher concentrations of triazine caused a greater degree of potentiation. Changes in EC50 values ranged from no change to a 2.5-fold increase in toxicity. Generally, EC50 values changed by less than a factor of 2, indicating that the effect may be of limited concern in regard to future risk assessments of OPs. PMID:15988628

  4. Proteomic evaluation of cadmium toxicity on the midge Chironomus riparius Meigen larvae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Eun; Yoo, Dong-hun; Son, Jino; Cho, Kijong

    2006-02-01

    Heavy-metal pollution of aquatic ecosystems is a widespread phenomenon after industrial consumption. Whether aquatic organisms are adapted to the heavy-metal pollutants or not, such environmental stress causes changes in physiological responses. In this study, the aquatic midge, Chironomus riparius Meigen, was used to find changes of expression of proteins in relation to cadmium exposure. Dose-response relationships between cadmium concentrations and mortality of 3rd instar midge larvae were observed and the protein levels were compared using PD-Quest after 2-DE. Comparing the intensity of protein spots, 21 proteins decreased and 18 proteins increased in response to cadmium treatment. With increased proteins, three enzymes such as S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, O-methyltransferase, and aspartokinase were involved in the glutathione biosynthesis and a key enzyme regulating fatty acid biosynthesis, oleyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase was also identified. According to the functional classification of decreased levels of proteins, they were involved in energy production, protein fate, nucleotide biosynthesis, cell division, transport and binding, signal transduction, and fatty acid and phospholipid metabolism in the cell. In addition, phenol hydroxylase, thioesterase, zinc metalloprotease, and aspartate kinase were newly expressed after cadmium exposure at the concentration of the LC(10 )value. Therefore, these proteins seem to be potential biomarkers for cadmium exposure in the aquatic ecosystems. PMID:16372273

  5. Wild swarms of midges linger at the edge of an ordering phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardina, Irene

    2014-03-01

    The most notable hallmark of collective behavior in biological systems is the emergence of order: individuals synchronize their state, giving the stunning impression that the group behaves as one. Birds flocks, fish schools and mammal herds are just a few common examples of polarized animal groups. Mating swarms of mosquitoes and midges, on the other hand, do not display global order and it is therefore unclear whether swarms are a true instance of collective behavior or a mere epiphenomenon of the independent response of each insect to an environmental stimulus. The crucial task for a group, however, is not simply to achieve an ordered state, but to respond collectively to the environmental stimuli. For this to happen, correlation must be large, namely individuals must be able to influence each other's behavioral changes on a group scale. In this work, we experimentally study wild swarms of midges and find that, despite the lack of collective order, swarms display strong correlation, comparable to that found in highly ordered groups of vertebrates. Correlation is orders of magnitude larger in natural swarms than in random systems, indicating the existence of large clusters of insects responding together. We also find that the total amount of correlation, i.e. the susceptibility, increases sharply with the swarm density, a distinctive mark of an incipient ordering phase transition. Swarms, however, live at the near-critical edge of this transition, never plunging in the ordered phase, suggesting that their size and density are tuned to maximize collective response.

  6. Characterization of Viral Communities of Biting Midges and Identification of Novel Thogotovirus Species and Rhabdovirus Genus.

    PubMed

    Temmam, Sarah; Monteil-Bouchard, Sonia; Robert, Catherine; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Sambou, Masse; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Labas, Noémie; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg; Desnues, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    More than two thirds of emerging viruses are of zoonotic origin, and among them RNA viruses represent the majority. Ceratopogonidae (genus Culicoides) are well-known vectors of several viruses responsible for epizooties (bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, etc.). They are also vectors of the only known virus infecting humans: the Oropouche virus. Female midges usually feed on a variety of hosts, leading to possible transmission of emerging viruses from animals to humans. In this context, we report here the analysis of RNA viral communities of Senegalese biting midges using next-generation sequencing techniques as a preliminary step toward the identification of potential viral biohazards. Sequencing of the RNA virome of three pools of Culicoides revealed the presence of a significant diversity of viruses infecting plants, insects and mammals. Several novel viruses were detected, including a novel Thogotovirus species, related but genetically distant from previously described tick-borne thogotoviruses. Novel rhabdoviruses were also detected, possibly constituting a novel Rhabdoviridae genus, and putatively restricted to insects. Sequences related to the major viruses transmitted by Culicoides, i.e., African horse sickness, bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease viruses were also detected. This study highlights the interest in monitoring the emergence and circulation of zoonoses and epizooties using their arthropod vectors. PMID:26978389

  7. Aquaporins in the antarctic midge, an extremophile that relies on dehydration for cold survival.

    PubMed

    Goto, Shin G; Lee, Richard E; Denlinger, David L

    2015-08-01

    The terrestrial midge Belgica antarctica relies extensively on dehydration to survive the low temperatures and desiccation stress that prevail in its Antarctic habitat. The loss of body water is thus a critical adaptive mechanism employed at the onset of winter to prevent injury from internal ice formation; a rapid mechanism for rehydration is equally essential when summer returns and the larva resumes the brief active phase of its life. This important role for water movement suggests a critical role for aquaporins (AQPs). Recent completion of the genome project on this species revealed the presence of AQPs in B. antarctica representing the DRIP, PRIP, BIB, RPIP, and LHIP families. Treatment with mercuric chloride to block AQPs also blocks water loss, thereby decreasing cell survival at low temperatures. Antibodies directed against mammalian or Drosophila AQPs suggest a wide tissue distribution of AQPs in the midge and changes in protein abundance in response to dehydration, rehydration, and freezing. Thus far, functional studies have been completed only for PRIP1. It appears to be a water-specific AQP, but expression levels are not altered by dehydration or rehydration. Functional assays remain to be completed for the additional AQPs. PMID:26338869

  8. TOXICITY OF SEVERAL FUNGICIDES FOR ORANGE WHEAT BLOSSOM MIDGE, SITODIPLOSIS MOSELLANA (GÉHIN) (DIPTERA: CECIDOMYIIDAE).

    PubMed

    Chavalle, S; Jansen, J-P; San Martin y Gomez, G; De Proft, M

    2015-01-01

    The orange wheat blossom midge, Sitadiplosis mosellano (Géhin) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), can cause severe losses in wheat grain yield and quality. This pest is known to be susceptible to many insecticides, but various field observations have suggested that some fungicides could also significantly affect S. mosellana. In order to confirm these field observations, the effect on adult midges of several fungicides commonly applied to wheat crops was investigated in the laboratory and in small plots in the field. In each experiment, the fungicides were compared with a positive (insecticide) and a negative control (water). Four fungicides were assessed in the laboratory, each with five doses based on basis of a tenfold dilution starting at the field-recommended dose. The mortality rate was evaluated after 24 hours and the lethal dose 50% (LD50) was determined for each product. In the field, six fungicides were tested at the recommended dose. The effect of each product was compared on the basis of the number of S. mosellana adults caught alive with an insect vacuum sampler (Vortis®) on the morning after the treatments. Both experiments showed a significant effect of several fungicides tested on S. mosellana adults. Chlorothalonil was not toxic for S. mosellana, but tebuconazole, fluxapyroxad and azoxystrobin all induced significant mortality rates. PMID:27145574

  9. Stacking resistance to crown gall and nematodes in walnut rootstocks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Crown gall (CG) (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) and the root lesion nematodes (RLNs) (Pratylenchus vulnus) are major challenges faced by the California walnut industry, reducing productivity and increasing the cost of establishing and maintaining orchards. Current nematode control strategies include nematicides, crop rotation, and tolerant cultivars, but these methods have limits. Developing genetic resistance through novel approaches like RNA interference (RNAi) can address these problems. RNAi-mediated silencing of CG disease in walnut (Juglans regia L.) has been achieved previously. We sought to place both CG and nematode resistance into a single walnut rootstock genotype using co-transformation to stack the resistance genes. A. tumefaciens, carrying self-complimentary iaaM and ipt transgenes, and Agrobacterium rhizogenes, carrying a self-complimentary Pv010 gene from P. vulnus, were used as co-transformation vectors. RolABC genes were introduced by the resident T-DNA in the A. rhizogenes Ri-plasmid used as a vector for plant transformation. Pv010 and Pv194 (transgenic control) genes were also transferred separately using A. tumefaciens. To test for resistance, transformed walnut roots were challenged with P. vulnus and microshoots were challenged with a virulent strain of A. tumefaciens. Results Combining the two bacterial strains at a 1:1 rather than 1:3 ratio increased the co-transformation efficiency. Although complete immunity to nematode infection was not observed, transgenic lines yielded up to 79% fewer nematodes per root following in vitro co-culture than untransformed controls. Transgenic line 33-3-1 exhibited complete crown gall control and 32% fewer nematodes. The transgenic plants had thicker, longer roots than untransformed controls possibly due to insertion of rolABC genes. When the Pv010 gene was present in roots with or without rolABC genes there was partial or complete control of RLNs. Transformation using only one vector showed 100

  10. Combination of MIDGE-Th1 DNA vaccines with the cationic lipid SAINT-18: studies on formulation, biodistribution and vector clearance.

    PubMed

    Endmann, Anne; Oswald, Detlef; Riede, Oliver; Talman, Eduard G; Vos, Roelien E; Schroff, Matthias; Kleuss, Christiane; Ruiters, Marcel H J; Juhls, Christiane

    2014-06-01

    We have previously shown that the combination of MIDGE-Th1 DNA vectors with the cationic lipid SAINT-18 increases the immune response to the encoded antigen in mice. Here, we report on experiments to further optimize and characterize this approach. We evaluated different formulations of MIDGE-Th1 vectors with SAINT-18 by assessing their influence on the transfection efficiency in cell culture and on the immune response in mice. We found that high amounts of SAINT-18 in formulations with a w/w ratio MIDGE Th1/SAINT-18 of 1:4.8 are beneficial for cell transfection in vitro. In contrast, the formulation of HBsAg-encoding MIDGE-Th1 DNA vectors with the lowest amount of SAINT-18 (w/w ratio MIDGE Th1/SAINT-18 of 1:0.5) resulted in the highest serum IgG1 and IgG2a levels after intradermal immunization of mice. Consequently, latter formulation was selected for a comparative biodistribution study in rats. Following intradermal administration of both naked and formulated MIDGE-Th1 DNA, the vectors localized primarily at the site of injection. Vector DNA levels decreased substantially over the two months duration of the study. When administered in combination with SAINT-18, the vectors were found in significantly higher amounts in draining lymph nodes in comparison to administration of naked MIDGE-Th1 DNA. We propose that the high immune responses induced by MIDGE-Th1/SAINT-18 lipoplexes are mediated by enhanced transfection of cells in vivo, resulting in stronger antigen expression and presentation. Importantly, the combination of MIDGE-Th1 vectors with SAINT-18 was well tolerated in mice and rats and is expected to be safe in human clinical applications. PMID:24681271