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Sample records for rice gbr reduces

  1. Rice Domestication Revealed by Reduced Shattering of Archaeological rice from the Lower Yangtze valley

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yunfei; Crawford, Gary W.; Jiang, Leping; Chen, Xugao

    2016-01-01

    Plant remains dating to between 9000 and 8400 BP from a probable ditch structure at the Huxi site include the oldest rice (Oryza sativa) spikelet bases and associated plant remains recovered in China. The remains document an early stage of rice domestication and the ecological setting in which early cultivation was taking place. The rice spikelet bases from Huxi include wild (shattering), intermediate, and domesticated (non-shattering) forms. The relative frequency of intermediate and non-shattering spikelet bases indicates that selection for, at the very least, non-shattering rice was underway at Huxi. The rice also has characteristics of japonica rice (Oryza sativa subsp. japonica), helping to clarify the emergence of a significant lineage of the crop. Seeds, phytoliths and their context provide evidence of increasing anthropogenesis and cultivation during the occupation. Rice spikelet bases from Kuahuqiao (8000–7700 BP), Tianluoshan (7000–6500 BP), Majiabang (6300–6000 BP), and Liangzhu (5300–4300 BP) sites indicate that rice underwent continuing selection for reduced shattering and japonica rice characteristics, confirming a prolonged domestication process for rice. PMID:27324699

  2. Rice Domestication Revealed by Reduced Shattering of Archaeological rice from the Lower Yangtze valley.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yunfei; Crawford, Gary W; Jiang, Leping; Chen, Xugao

    2016-01-01

    Plant remains dating to between 9000 and 8400 BP from a probable ditch structure at the Huxi site include the oldest rice (Oryza sativa) spikelet bases and associated plant remains recovered in China. The remains document an early stage of rice domestication and the ecological setting in which early cultivation was taking place. The rice spikelet bases from Huxi include wild (shattering), intermediate, and domesticated (non-shattering) forms. The relative frequency of intermediate and non-shattering spikelet bases indicates that selection for, at the very least, non-shattering rice was underway at Huxi. The rice also has characteristics of japonica rice (Oryza sativa subsp. japonica), helping to clarify the emergence of a significant lineage of the crop. Seeds, phytoliths and their context provide evidence of increasing anthropogenesis and cultivation during the occupation. Rice spikelet bases from Kuahuqiao (8000-7700 BP), Tianluoshan (7000-6500 BP), Majiabang (6300-6000 BP), and Liangzhu (5300-4300 BP) sites indicate that rice underwent continuing selection for reduced shattering and japonica rice characteristics, confirming a prolonged domestication process for rice. PMID:27324699

  3. Effects of germination on the nutritive value and bioactive compounds of brown rice breads.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Fabiola; Caceres, Patricio J; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Rosell, Cristina M; Frias, Juana

    2015-04-15

    The effect of germination conditions on the nutritional benefits of germinated brown rice flour (GBR) bread has been determined. The proximate composition, phytic acid, in vitro protein digestibility and in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis of starch, glucose and starch content, as well as the most relevant bioactive compounds (GABA, γ-oryzanol and total phenolic compounds) and antioxidant activity of breads prepared with GBR at different germination conditions was determined. When comparing different germination times (0 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h), germination for 48 h provides GBR bread with nutritionally superior quality on the basis of its higher content of protein, lipids and bioactive compounds (GABA and polyphenols), increased antioxidant activity and reduced phytic acid content and glycaemic index, although a slight decrease in in vitro protein digestibility was detected. Overall, germination seems to be a natural and sustainable way to improving the nutritional quality of gluten-free rice breads. PMID:25466026

  4. Processing Conditions, Rice Properties, Health and Environment

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Poritosh; Orikasa, Takahiro; Okadome, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Nobutaka; Shiina, Takeo

    2011-01-01

    Rice is the staple food for nearly two-thirds of the world’s population. Food components and environmental load of rice depends on the rice form that is resulted by different processing conditions. Brown rice (BR), germinated brown rice (GBR) and partially-milled rice (PMR) contains more health beneficial food components compared to the well milled rice (WMR). Although the arsenic concentration in cooked rice depends on the cooking methods, parboiled rice (PBR) seems to be relatively prone to arsenic contamination compared to that of untreated rice, if contaminated water is used for parboiling and cooking. A change in consumption patterns from PBR to untreated rice (non-parboiled), and WMR to PMR or BR may conserve about 43–54 million tons of rice and reduce the risk from arsenic contamination in the arsenic prone area. This study also reveals that a change in rice consumption patterns not only supply more food components but also reduces environmental loads. A switch in production and consumption patterns would improve food security where food grains are scarce, and provide more health beneficial food components, may prevent some diseases and ease the burden on the Earth. However, motivation and awareness of the environment and health, and even a nominal incentive may require for a method switching which may help in building a sustainable society. PMID:21776212

  5. Biochar amendment reduced methylmercury accumulation in rice plants.

    PubMed

    Shu, Rui; Wang, Yongjie; Zhong, Huan

    2016-08-01

    There is growing concern about methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation in rice grains and thus enhanced dietary exposure to MeHg in Asian countries. Here, we explored the possibility of reducing grain MeHg levels by biochar amendment, and the underlying mechanisms. Pot (i.e., rice cultivation in biochar amended soils) and batch experiments (i.e., incubation of amended soils under laboratory conditions) were carried out, to investigate MeHg dynamics (i.e., MeHg production, partitioning and phytoavailability in paddy soils, and MeHg uptake by rice) under biochar amendment (1-4% of soil mass). We demonstrate for the first time that biochar amendment could evidently reduce grain MeHg levels (49-92%). The declines could be attributed to the combined effects of: (1) increased soil MeHg concentrations, probably explained by the release of sulfate from biochar and thus enhanced microbial production of MeHg (e.g., by sulfate-reducing bacteria), (2) MeHg immobilization in soils, facilitated by the large surface areas and high organosulfur content of biochar, and (3) biodilution of MeHg in rice grains, due to the increased grain biomass under biochar amendment (35-79%). These observations together with mechanistic explanations improve understanding of MeHg dynamics in soil-rice systems, and support the possibility of reducing MeHg phytoaccumulation under biochar amendment. PMID:27045620

  6. Antioxidative Effects of Germinated Brown Rice-Derived Extracts on H2O2-Induced Oxidative Stress in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Md Zamri, Nur Diyana; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Abd Ghafar, Siti Aisyah; Ismail, Maznah

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of germinated brown rice (GBR) are likely mediated by multiple bioactives. To test this hypothesis, HepG2 cells pretreated with GBR extracts, rich in acylated steryl glycoside (ASG), gamma amino butyric acid GABA), phenolics or oryzanol, were incubated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and their hydroxyl radical (OH(•)) scavenging capacities and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) generation were evaluated. Results showed that GBR-extracts increased OH(•) scavenging activities in both cell-free medium and posttreatment culture media, suggesting that the extracts were both direct- and indirect-acting against OH(•). The levels of TBARS in the culture medium after treatment were also reduced by all the extracts. In addition, H2O2 produced transcriptional changes in p53, JNK, p38 MAPK, AKT, BAX, and CDK4 that were inclined towards apoptosis, while GBR-extracts showed some transcriptional changes (upregulation of BAX and p53) that suggested an inclination for apoptosis although other changes (upregulation of antioxidant genes, AKT, JNK, and p38 MAPK) suggested that GBR-extracts favored survival of the HepG2 cells. Our findings show that GBR bioactive-rich extracts reduce oxidative stress through improvement in antioxidant capacity, partly mediated through transcriptional regulation of antioxidant and prosurvival genes. PMID:25431609

  7. Antioxidative Effects of Germinated Brown Rice-Derived Extracts on H2O2-Induced Oxidative Stress in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Md Zamri, Nur Diyana; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Abd Ghafar, Siti Aisyah; Ismail, Maznah

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of germinated brown rice (GBR) are likely mediated by multiple bioactives. To test this hypothesis, HepG2 cells pretreated with GBR extracts, rich in acylated steryl glycoside (ASG), gamma amino butyric acid GABA), phenolics or oryzanol, were incubated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and their hydroxyl radical (OH•) scavenging capacities and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) generation were evaluated. Results showed that GBR-extracts increased OH• scavenging activities in both cell-free medium and posttreatment culture media, suggesting that the extracts were both direct- and indirect-acting against OH•. The levels of TBARS in the culture medium after treatment were also reduced by all the extracts. In addition, H2O2 produced transcriptional changes in p53, JNK, p38 MAPK, AKT, BAX, and CDK4 that were inclined towards apoptosis, while GBR-extracts showed some transcriptional changes (upregulation of BAX and p53) that suggested an inclination for apoptosis although other changes (upregulation of antioxidant genes, AKT, JNK, and p38 MAPK) suggested that GBR-extracts favored survival of the HepG2 cells. Our findings show that GBR bioactive-rich extracts reduce oxidative stress through improvement in antioxidant capacity, partly mediated through transcriptional regulation of antioxidant and prosurvival genes. PMID:25431609

  8. Mechanical intervention for reducing dust concentration in traditional rice mills

    PubMed Central

    PRANAV, Prabhanjan K.; BISWAS, Mrinmoy

    2016-01-01

    A huge number of workers are employed in traditional rice mills where they are potentially exposed to dust. In this study a dust collection system was developed to capture the airborne dust in the rice mill. The feeding and sieving section of the mill was identified as major dust creating zone. The dust was captured by creating suitable air stream at feeding and sieving sections of the mill and collected in cyclone dust collector. The air stream was created by blower which was selected on the basis to get minimum air speed of 0.5 m/s in the working zones of workers. It was observed that the developed system is successfully collects the significant amount of dust and able to reduce the dust concentration up to 58%. Further, the respirable dust concentration reduced to below 5 mg/m3 throughout the mill which is within the recommended limit of dust exposure. PMID:26829976

  9. Cooking rice in excess water reduces both arsenic and enriched vitamins in the cooked grain.

    PubMed

    Gray, Patrick J; Conklin, Sean D; Todorov, Todor I; Kasko, Sasha M

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of rinsing rice and cooking it in variable amounts of water on total arsenic, inorganic arsenic, iron, cadmium, manganese, folate, thiamin and niacin in the cooked grain. We prepared multiple rice varietals both rinsed and unrinsed and with varying amounts of cooking water. Rinsing rice before cooking has a minimal effect on the arsenic (As) content of the cooked grain, but washes enriched iron, folate, thiamin and niacin from polished and parboiled rice. Cooking rice in excess water efficiently reduces the amount of As in the cooked grain. Excess water cooking reduces average inorganic As by 40% from long grain polished, 60% from parboiled and 50% from brown rice. Iron, folate, niacin and thiamin are reduced by 50-70% for enriched polished and parboiled rice, but significantly less so for brown rice, which is not enriched. PMID:26515534

  10. Perinatal exposure to germinated brown rice and its gamma amino-butyric acid-rich extract prevents high fat diet-induced insulin resistance in first generation rat offspring

    PubMed Central

    Adamu, Hadiza Altine; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ooi, Der-Jiun; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Rosli, Rozita; Ismail, Maznah

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests perinatal environments influence the risk of developing insulin resistance. Objective The present study was aimed at determining the effects of intrauterine exposure to germinated brown rice (GBR) and GBR-derived gamma (γ) aminobutyric acid (GABA) extract on epigenetically mediated high fat diet–induced insulin resistance. Design Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were fed high-fat diet (HFD), HFD+GBR, or HFD+GABA throughout pregnancy until 4 weeks postdelivery. The pups were weighed weekly and maintained on normal pellet until 8 weeks postdelivery. After sacrifice, biochemical markers of obesity and insulin resistance including oral glucose tolerance test, adiponectin, leptin, and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) were measured. Hepatic gene expression changes and the global methylation and histone acetylation levels were also evaluated. Results Detailed analyses revealed that mothers given GBR and GABA extract, and their offspring had increased adiponectin levels and reduced insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, leptin, oxidative stress, and RBP4 levels, while their hepatic mRNA levels of GLUT2 and IPF1 were increased. Furthermore, GBR and GABA extract lowered global DNA methylation levels and modulated H3 and H4 acetylation levels. Conclusions These results showed that intrauterine exposure to GBR-influenced metabolic outcomes in offspring of rats with underlying epigenetic changes and transcriptional implications that led to improved glucose homeostasis. PMID:26842399

  11. Reducing arsenic accumulation in rice grain through iron oxide amendment.

    PubMed

    Farrow, Eric M; Wang, Jianmin; Burken, Joel G; Shi, Honglan; Yan, Wengui; Yang, John; Hua, Bin; Deng, Baolin

    2015-08-01

    Effects of soil-arsenic (As), phosphorus and iron oxide on As accumulation in rice grain were investigated. Cultivars that have significantly different sensitivity to As, straighthead-resistant Zhe 733 and straighthead-susceptible Cocodrie, were used to represent different cultivar varieties. The grain accumulation of other elements of concern, selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), and cadmium (Cd) was also monitored. Results demonstrated that high soil-As not only resulted in high grain-As, but could also result in high grain-Se, and Zhe 733 had significantly less grain-As than Cocodrie did. However, soil-As did not impact grain-Mo and Cd. Among all elements monitored, iron oxide amendment significantly reduced grain-As for both cultivars, while the phosphate application only reduced grain-Se for Zhe 733. Results also indicated that cultivar type significantly impacted grain accumulation of all monitored trace elements. Therefore, applying iron oxide to As-contaminated land, in addition to choosing appropriate rice cultivar, can effectively reduce the grain accumulation of As. PMID:25910688

  12. Effects of White Rice, Brown Rice and Germinated Brown Rice on Antioxidant Status of Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Imam, Mustapha Umar; Musa, Siti Nor Asma; Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, and can be increased by diet like white rice (WR). Though brown rice (BR) and germinated brown rice (GBR) have high antioxidant potentials as a result of their bioactive compounds, reports of their effects on oxidative stress-related conditions such as type 2 diabetes are lacking. We hypothesized therefore that if BR and GBR were to improve antioxidant status, they would be better for rice consuming populations instead of the commonly consumed WR that is known to promote oxidative stress. This will then provide further reasons why less consumption of WR should be encouraged. We studied the effects of GBR on antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic rats, induced using a high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection, and also evaluated the effects of WR, BR and GBR on catalase and superoxide dismutase genes. As dietary components, BR and GBR improved glycemia and kidney hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, and prevented the deterioration of total antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic rats. Similarly, GBR preserved liver enzymes, as well as serum creatinine. There seem to be evidence that upregulation of superoxide dismutase gene may likely be an underlying mechanism for antioxidant effects of BR and GBR. Our results provide insight into the effects of different rice types on antioxidant status in type 2 diabetes. The results also suggest that WR consumption, contrary to BR and GBR, may worsen antioxidant status that may lead to more damage by free radicals. From the data so far, the antioxidant effects of BR and GBR are worth studying further especially on a long term to determine their effects on development of oxidative stress-related problems, which WR consumption predisposes to. PMID:23202932

  13. Germinated Brown Rice Alters Aβ(1-42) Aggregation and Modulates Alzheimer's Disease-Related Genes in Differentiated Human SH-SY5Y Cells

    PubMed Central

    Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Ismail, Maznah; Ismail, Norsharina; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu Mohammed; Abdullah, Maizaton Atmadini

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease involves complex etiological factors, of which the deposition of beta-amyloid (Aβ) protein and oxidative stress have been strongly implicated. We explored the effects of H2O2, which is a precursor for highly reactive hydroxyl radicals, on neurotoxicity and genes related to AD on neuronal cells. Candidate bioactive compounds responsible for the effects were quantified using HPLC-DAD. Additionally, the effects of germinated brown rice (GBR) on the morphology of Aβ(1-42) were assessed by Transmission Electron Microscopy and its regulatory effects on gene expressions were explored. The results showed that GBR extract had several phenolic compounds and γ-oryzanol and altered the structure of Aβ(1-42) suggesting an antiamyloidogenic effect. GBR was also able to attenuate the oxidative effects of H2O2 as implied by reduced LDH release and intracellular ROS generation. Furthermore, gene expression analyses showed that the neuroprotective effects of GBR were partly mediated through transcriptional regulation of multiple genes including Presenilins, APP, BACE1, BACE2, ADAM10, Neprilysin, and LRP1. Our findings showed that GBR exhibited neuroprotective properties via transcriptional regulation of APP metabolism with potential impact on Aβ aggregation. These findings can have important implications for the management of neurodegenerative diseases like AD and are worth exploring further. PMID:26858770

  14. Expressing ScACR3 in rice enhanced arsenite efflux and reduced arsenic accumulation in rice grains.

    PubMed

    Duan, Guilan; Kamiya, Takehiro; Ishikawa, Satoru; Arao, Tomohito; Fujiwara, Toru

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic (As) accumulation in rice grain poses a serious health risk to populations with high rice consumption. Extrusion of arsenite [As(III)] by ScAcr3p is the major arsenic detoxification mechanism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, ScAcr3p homolog is absent in higher plants, including rice. In this study, ScACR3 was introduced into rice and expressed under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. In the transgenic lines, As concentrations in shoots and roots were about 30% lower than in the wild type, while the As translocation factors were similar between transgenic lines and the wild type. The roots of transgenic plants exhibited significantly higher As efflux activities than those of the wild type. Within 24 h exposure to 10 μM arsenate [As(V)], roots of ScACR3-expressing plants extruded 80% of absorbed As(V) to the external solution as As(III), while roots of the wild type extruded 50% of absorbed As(V). Additionally, by exposing the As-containing rice plants to an As-lacking solution for 24 h, about 30% of the total As derived from pre-treatment was extruded to the external solution by ScACR3-expressing plants, while about 15% of As was extruded by wild-type plants. Importantly, ScACR3 expression significantly reduced As accumulation in rice straws and grains. When grown in flooded soil irrigated with As(III)-containing water, the As concentration in husk and brown rice of the transgenic lines was reduced by 30 and 20%, respectively, compared with the wild type. This study reports a potential strategy to reduce As accumulation in the food chain by expressing heterologous genes in crops. PMID:22107880

  15. Controlled-release urea commingled with rice seeds reduced emission of ammonia and nitrous oxide in rice paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuechao; Zhang, Min; Li, Yuncong; Fan, Xiaohui; Geng, Yuqing

    2013-11-01

    Reduction of ammonia (NH) and nitrous oxide (NO) emission and enhanced nitrogen (N) fertilizer use efficiency have been investigated with different N fertilizer management and application methods for irrigated rice production. Few studies have examined NH and NO emissions from rice paddy soil when commingling controlled release urea with rice seeds. The objective of this study was to assess NH volatilization and NO emission from a novel controlled-release urea formulation (CRU-180) when commingled at the full application rate with seeds in a single application during the preparation of plant plugs at the nursery stage. The experiment was conducted as a factorial design with two fertilizer sources (conventional urea and CRU-180), four rates (0, 100, 200, and 300 kg N ha), and three replicates. The entire amount of CRU-180 was incorporated into each plug with germinated seed. The conventional urea was split into four applications based on the standard practice for fertilizer application. The CRU-180 treatments reduced the NH and NO concentration in the paddy flood water and paddy soil solution as compared with the conventional urea treatments. The percentage of applied N fertilizer emitted as NH volatilization and NO emission in the CRU-180 treatments was only about 10% of that from the conventional urea treatments at the same N application rate. The application of CRU-180 with seeds offers a novel N fertilizer management technique, a method to reduce environmental impacts associated with rice production and the cost of rice production. PMID:25602407

  16. GBR 12909 administration as an animal model of bipolar mania: time course of behavioral, brain oxidative alterations and effect of mood stabilizing drugs.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Ana Isabelle G; de Araújo, Maíra Moraes; da Silva Araújo, Tatiane; de Souza, Greicy Coelho; Cavalcante, Lígia Menezes; de Jesus Souza Machado, Michel; de Lucena, David Freitas; Quevedo, João; Macêdo, Danielle

    2015-10-01

    Polymorphisms in the human dopamine transporter (DAT) are associated with bipolar endophenotype. Based on this, the acute inhibition of DAT using GBR12909 causes behavioral alterations that are prevented by valproate (VAL), being related to a mania-like model. Herein our first aim was to analyze behavioral and brain oxidative alterations during a 24 h period post-GBR12909 to better characterize this model. Our second aim was to determine the preventive effects of lithium (Li) or VAL 2 h post-GBR12909. For this, adult male mice received GBR12909 or saline being evaluated at 2, 4, 8, 12 or 24 h post-administration. Hyperlocomotion, levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation in brain areas were assessed at all these time-points. GBR12909 caused hyperlocomotion at 2 and 24 h. Rearing behavior increased only at 2 h. GSH levels decreased in the hippocampus and striatum at the time points of 2, 4, 8 and 12 h. Increased lipid peroxidation was detected at the time-points of 2 and 12 h in all brain areas studied. At the time-point of 2 h post-GBR12909 Li prevented the hyperlocomotion and rearing alterations, while VAL prevented only rearing alterations. Both drugs prevented pro-oxidative changes. In conclusion, we observed that the main behavioral and oxidative alterations took place at the time-period of 2 h post-GBR12909, what points to this time-period as the best for the assessment of alterations in this model. Furthermore, the present study expands the predictive validity of the model by the determination of the preventive effects of Li. PMID:26073232

  17. Structure and functional interaction of the extracellular domain of human GABAB receptor GBR2

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Yong; Xiong, Dazhi; Mosyak, Lidia; Malito, David L.; Kniazeff, Julie; Chen, Yan; Burmakina, Svetlana; Quick, Matthias; Bush, Martin; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Fan, Qing R.

    2012-01-01

    Inhibitory neurotransmission is mediated primarily by GABA. Metabotropic GABAB receptor is a G protein coupled receptor central to mammalian brain function. Malfunction of GABAB receptor has been implicated in a number of neurological disorders. GABAB receptor functions as a heterodimeric assembly of GBR1 and GBR2 subunits, where GBR1 is responsible for ligand-binding and GBR2 is responsible for G protein coupling. Here we demonstrate that the GBR2 ectodomain directly interacts with the GBR1 ectodomain to increase agonist affinity by selectively stabilizing the agonist-bound conformation of GBR1. We present the crystal structure of the GBR2 ectodomain, which reveals a polar heterodimeric interface. We also identify specific heterodimer contacts from both subunits, and GBR1 residues involved in ligand recognition. Lastly, our structural and functional data indicate that the GBR2 ectodomain adopts a constitutively open conformation, suggesting a structural asymmetry in the active state of GABAB receptor that is unique to the GABAergic system. PMID:22660477

  18. Enhanced rice production but greatly reduced carbon emission following biochar amendment in a metal-polluted rice paddy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Afeng; Bian, Rongjun; Li, Lianqing; Wang, Xudong; Zhao, Ying; Hussain, Qaiser; Pan, Genxing

    2015-12-01

    Soil amendment of biochar (BSA) had been shown effective for mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and alleviating metal stress to plants and microbes in soil. It has not yet been addressed if biochar exerts synergy effects on crop production, GHG emission, and microbial activity in metal-polluted soils. In a field experiment, biochar was amended at sequential rates at 0, 10, 20, and 40 t ha(-1), respectively, in a cadmium- and lead-contaminated rice paddy from the Tai lake Plain, China, before rice cropping in 2010. Fluxes of soil carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) were monitored using a static chamber method during the whole rice growing season (WRGS) of 2011. BSA significantly reduced soil CaCl2 extractable pool of Cd, and DTPA extractable pool of Cd and Pb. As compared to control, soil CO2 emission under BSA was observed to have no change at 10 t ha(-1) but decreased by 16-24% at 20 and 40 t ha(-1). In a similar trend, BSA at 20 and 40 t ha(-1) increased rice yield by 25-26% and thus enhanced ecosystem CO2 sequestration by 47-55% over the control. Seasonal total N2O emission was reduced by 7.1, 30.7, and 48.6% under BSA at 10, 20, and 40 t ha(-1), respectively. Overall, a net reduction in greenhouse gas balance (NGHGB) by 53.9-62.8% and in greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) by 14.3-28.6% was observed following BSA at 20 and 40 t ha(-1). The present study suggested a great potential of biochar to enhancing grain yield while reducing carbon emission in metal-polluted rice paddies. PMID:26213131

  19. Reducing arsenic accumulation in rice grain through iron oxide amendment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this research, we investigated the accumulation of arsenic (As), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), and cadmium (Cd) in rice grain under different soil conditions in standard straighthead-resistant and straighthead-susceptible cultivars, Zhe 733 and Cocodrie, respectively. Results demonstrated that,...

  20. Reducing retrogradation and lipid oxidation of normal and glutinous rice flours by adding mango peel powder.

    PubMed

    Siriamornpun, Sirithon; Tangkhawanit, Ekkarat; Kaewseejan, Niwat

    2016-06-15

    Green and ripe mango peel powders (MPP) were added to normal rice flour (NRF) and glutinous rice flour (GRF) at three levels (400, 800 and 1200 ppm) and their effects on physicochemical properties and lipid oxidation inhibition were investigated. Overall, MPP increased the breakdown viscosity and reduced the final viscosity in rice flours when compared to the control. Decreasing in retrogradation was observed in both NRF and GRF with MPP added of all levels. MPP addition also significantly inhibited the lipid oxidation of all flours during storage (30 days). Retrogradation values were strongly negatively correlated with total phenolic and flavonoid contents, but not with fiber content. The hydrogen bonds and hydrophilic interactions between phenolic compounds with amylopectin molecule may be involved the decrease of starch retrogradation, especially GRF. We suggest that the addition of MPP not only reduced the retrogradation but also inhibited the lipid oxidation of rice flour. PMID:26868561

  1. Microbial mechanisms to reduce the uncertainties in the CH4 emissions from global rice fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaljit, K.; Tian, H.; Ren, W.; Yang, J.

    2013-12-01

    In terrestrial ecosystems, methane (CH4) uptake or emission represents the net balance between activities of different microbial organisms including anaerobic Methanogens that produce CH4 and Methanotrophs which oxidize CH4 in the aerobic environments. In this way, anaerobic soil environments such as rice fields are major source of terrestrial CH4 emissions. However, large uncertainties in the CH4 emission estimates have been reported from rice fields. The bottom-up and top-down methods showed a wide range of CH4 emissions estimations ranging from 25 to 300 Tg yr-1 from rice fields. The major reason for uncertainties in the CH4 emissions includes the water management that alters the balance of Methanogens and Methanotrophs in the rice fields. Two kinds of water management practices are followed including continuous flooding (CF) which refers to the continuous submergence as well as alternate wetting and drying (AWD) in which the rice fields are drained for several days during the growing season. The AWD provides aeration stress on Methanogens resulting in lower CH4 emissions than CF water management followed in the rice fields. A single aeration during growing season may significantly reduce the CH4 emission from the rice fields. Currently, most of the models structures assume that Methanogens become active once the soil moisture content is raised to saturation. However, several laboratory scale studies have indicated that following aeration the Methanogens don't become fully functional immediately even if the soil moisture content is raised to saturation. In this study, we integrated the aeration stress mechanisms on the Methanogens in the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM). The improved version of DLEM was used to conduct uncertainty analysis on global CH4 emission estimation following CF and AWD water management in the rice fields. Results of this study have shown that inclusion of the aeration stress mechanism on Methanogens in the modeling framework has

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reduced the ratios of inorganic/organic arsenic in rice grains.

    PubMed

    Li, H; Chen, X W; Wong, M H

    2016-02-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) - Rhizophagus intraradices was inoculated to rice to investigate its effects on arsenic (As) uptake, grain As speciation, and rhizospheric As concentration of six rice cultivars grown in As-amended soil (60 mg As kg(-1) soil). The AMF inoculation induced either positive, neutral or negative responses in rice grown in As contaminated soil, suggesting that functional diversity may exist in AMF symbiosis when As is taken up and transferred. The ratios of inorganic/organic As concentrations in rice grains of all cultivars were significantly reduced by AMF, that involved the transformation of inorganic As into less toxic organic form dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in rice. AMF decreased significantly total As and inorganic As concentrations in rice grains of Handao 3. Positive correlations (R(2) = 0.30-0.56, P < 0.05) between As in the rhizospheric soil solution and As in rice grain at different periods were observed. This inferred that the As survey of soil solution can be an effective measure for evaluating As in grains. PMID:26688259

  3. Tyramine accumulation in rice cells caused a dwarf phenotype via reduced cell division.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Soon; Park, Sangkyu; Kang, Kiyoon; Lee, Kyungjin; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2011-02-01

    Transgenic rice plants overexpressing a rice tyrosine decarboxylase (TyDC) exhibited a dwarf phenotype with a high level of tyramine accumulation. The height of transgenic rice was reduced on average to 35% of the wild-type height, whereas the number of tillers increased to 190% that of wild type. When judged by cellular distribution of tyramine and tyramine derivatives, the level of tyramine in soluble and insoluble fractions was higher than that of tyramine derivatives such as 4-coumaroyltyramine (CT) in the transgenic rice plants, suggesting that tyramine rather than its derivatives was a causative compound triggering the dwarf phenotype. Microscopic observation revealed that cell size in the transgenic lines was maintained, with a slightly irregular arrangement in the leaf mesophyll cells. When wild-type rice seeds were grown in the presence of tyramine, rice seedlings also showed stunted phenotypes in a dose-dependent manner. When these stunted seedlings were employed to measure the degree of cellular proliferation by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, only small numbers of cells were found to retain labeled nuclei in shoot tips compared with the untreated control. These results show that the dwarf phenotype associated with tyramine accumulation in transgenic rice plants is attributable to a reduction in cell number rather than cell size. In addition, our dwarf phenotype caused by tyramine was not closely associated with known dwarf genes such as D88. PMID:20978800

  4. Simultaneous pretreatment and sacchariffication of rice husk by Phanerochete chrysosporium for improved production of reducing sugars.

    PubMed

    Potumarthi, Ravichandra; Baadhe, Rama Raju; Nayak, Priyanka; Jetty, Annapurna

    2013-01-01

    Phanerochete chrysosporium, the white-rot fungus, (a best source for lignolytic enzymes system) was used in the biological pretreatment of rice husk for reducing sugars production. Usually reducing sugar production through biochemical process involves two steps: solid state fermentation (SSF) of fungal pretreatment for delignification, subsequently pretreated biomass subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis. During the fungal pretreatment of rice husk for reducing sugar production along with cellulase and xylanse, the activities of lignin degradation-related enzymes such as lignin peroxidases (LiP), GLOX (glyoxidase), and aryl alcohol oxidases (AAO), were observed. The fungal pretreated rice husk produced highest (895.9 mg/ml/2g of rise husk) reducing sugars on 18th day of fungal treatment. This method may be good alternative to avoid operational costs associated with washing and the removal of inhibitors during the conventional pretreatment methods. PMID:23196230

  5. Flood-tolerant rice reduces yield variability and raises expected yield, differentially benefitting socially disadvantaged groups

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Manzoor H.; de Janvry, Alain; Emerick, Kyle; Raitzer, David; Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30% of the cultivated rice area in India is prone to crop damage from prolonged flooding. We use a randomized field experiment in 128 villages of Orissa India to show that Swarna-Sub1, a recently released submergence-tolerant rice variety, has significant positive impacts on rice yield when fields are submerged for 7 to 14 days with no yield penalty without flooding. We estimate that Swarna-Sub1 offers an approximate 45% increase in yields over the current popular variety when fields are submerged for 10 days. We show additionally that low-lying areas prone to flooding tend to be more heavily occupied by people belonging to lower caste social groups. Thus, a policy relevant implication of our findings is that flood-tolerant rice can deliver both efficiency gains, through reduced yield variability and higher expected yield, and equity gains in disproportionately benefiting the most marginal group of farmers. PMID:24263095

  6. Phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated paddy soils with Pteris vittata markedly reduces arsenic uptake by rice.

    PubMed

    Ye, Wen-Ling; Khan, M Asaduzzaman; McGrath, Steve P; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2011-12-01

    Arsenic (As) accumulation in food crops such as rice is of major concern. To investigate whether phytoremediation can reduce As uptake by rice, the As hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata was grown in five contaminated paddy soils in a pot experiment. Over a 9-month period P. vittata removed 3.5-11.4% of the total soil As, and decreased phosphate-extractable As and soil pore water As by 11-38% and 18-77%, respectively. Rice grown following P. vittata had significantly lower As concentrations in straw and grain, being 17-82% and 22-58% of those in the control, respectively. Phytoremediation also resulted in significant changes in As speciation in rice grain by greatly decreasing the concentration of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). In two soils the concentration of inorganic As in rice grain was decreased by 50-58%. The results demonstrate an effective stripping of bioavailable As from contaminated paddy soils thus reducing As uptake by rice. PMID:21840633

  7. Biochar amendment immobilizes lead in rice paddy soils and reduces its phytoavailability

    PubMed Central

    Li, Honghong; Liu, Yuting; Chen, Yanhui; Wang, Shanli; Wang, Mingkuang; Xie, Tuanhui; Wang, Guo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine effects of rice straw biochar on Pb sequestration in a soil-rice system. Pot experiments were conducted with rice plants in Pb-contaminated paddy soils that had been amended with 0, 2.5, and 5% (w/w) biochar. Compared to the control treatment, amendment with 5% biochar resulted in 54 and 94% decreases in the acid soluble and CaCl2-extractable Pb, respectively, in soils containing rice plants at the maturity stage. The amount of Fe-plaque on root surfaces and the Pb concentrations of the Fe-plaque were also reduced in biochar amended soils. Furthermore, lead species in rice roots were determined using Pb L3-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), and although Pb-ferrihydrite complexes dominated Pb inventories, increasing amounts of organic complexes like Pb-pectins and Pb-cysteine were found in roots from the 5% biochar treatments. Such organic complexes might impede Pb translocation from root to shoot and subsequently reduce Pb accumulation in rice with biochar amendment. PMID:27530495

  8. Biochar amendment immobilizes lead in rice paddy soils and reduces its phytoavailability.

    PubMed

    Li, Honghong; Liu, Yuting; Chen, Yanhui; Wang, Shanli; Wang, Mingkuang; Xie, Tuanhui; Wang, Guo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine effects of rice straw biochar on Pb sequestration in a soil-rice system. Pot experiments were conducted with rice plants in Pb-contaminated paddy soils that had been amended with 0, 2.5, and 5% (w/w) biochar. Compared to the control treatment, amendment with 5% biochar resulted in 54 and 94% decreases in the acid soluble and CaCl2-extractable Pb, respectively, in soils containing rice plants at the maturity stage. The amount of Fe-plaque on root surfaces and the Pb concentrations of the Fe-plaque were also reduced in biochar amended soils. Furthermore, lead species in rice roots were determined using Pb L3-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), and although Pb-ferrihydrite complexes dominated Pb inventories, increasing amounts of organic complexes like Pb-pectins and Pb-cysteine were found in roots from the 5% biochar treatments. Such organic complexes might impede Pb translocation from root to shoot and subsequently reduce Pb accumulation in rice with biochar amendment. PMID:27530495

  9. Managing phosphorus fertilizer to reduce algae, maintain water quality, and sustain yields in water-seeded rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In water-seeded rice systems blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) hinder early-season crop growth by dislodging rice seedlings and reducing light. Since algae are often phosphorus (P) limited, we investigated whether changing the timing of P fertilizer application could reduce algae without reducing cro...

  10. [Application of Microbial Fuel Cells in Reducing Methane Emission from Rice Paddy].

    PubMed

    Deng, Huan; Cai, Lü-cheng; Jiang, Yun-bin; Zhong, Wen-hui

    2016-01-15

    We aimed to study whether the methane emission from rice paddy with straw return can be alleviated in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In our study, the soil mixed with 0. 5% ( mass fraction) rice straw was packed into MFCs reactors, then flooded with excess of sterilized water and transplanted with rice seedlings followed by the operation of MFCs. The MFCs were operated for 98 days covering five stages of seeding, tillering, mid-season aeration, rice filling, and ripening. The voltage data were recorded continuously and in real time during the MFCs operation and the methane emitted was collected once a week using the static chamber method and the methane emission flux was determined by gas chromatography. The results showed that the MFCs current increased and reached the peak value in the seeding and tillering stages and the operation of MFCs significantly reduced the accumulative methane emission in these two stages. The possible reason could be that the electrogens competed with methanogens for organic substrates. The height, the above and below ground biomass, and the productivity of rice plants were not significantly affected by the 98-day operation of MFCs. Our study provides a potential green and sustainable technology for the reduction of CH, emission from rice paddy fields. PMID:27078978

  11. Exogenous spermidine alleviates oxidative damage and reduce yield loss in rice submerged at tillering stage

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming; Chu, Meijie; Ding, Yanfeng; Wang, Shaohua; Liu, Zhenghui; Tang, She; Ding, Chengqiang; Li, Ganghua

    2015-01-01

    To figure out whether spermidine (Spd) can alleviate oxidative damage on rice (Oryza sativa L.) caused by submergence stress, Ningjing 3 was used in this study. The results showed that, spraying Spd on rice leaves at a concentration of 0.5 mM promoted the growth recovery of rice after drainage, such as green leaves, tillers, and aboveground dry mass. According to physiological analysis, Spd accelerate restored chlorophylls damage by submergence, and decreased the rate of O2·− generation and H2O2 content, inhibited submergence-induced lipid peroxidation. Spd also helped to maintain antioxidant enzyme activities after drainage, such as superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and GR, which ultimately improved the recovery ability of submerged rice. With the effect of Spd, the rice yields increased by 12.1, 17.9, 13.5, and 18.0%, of which submerged for 1, 3, 5, 7 days, respectively. It is supposed that exogenous Spd really has an alleviate effect on submergence damage and reduce yield loss of rice. PMID:26583021

  12. Disease-reducing effect of Chromolaena odorata extract on sheath blight and other rice diseases.

    PubMed

    Khoa, Nguyen Đac; Thuy, Phan Thi Hong; Thuy, Tran Thi Thu; Collinge, David B; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs

    2011-02-01

    Sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris) is a major cause of crop loss in intensive rice production systems. No economically viable control methods have been developed. We screened aqueous extracts of common herbal plants that could reduce sheath blight lesions and found that foliar spraying and seed soaking application of extracts of either fresh or dried leaves of Chromolaena odorata gave up to 68% reduction in sheath blight lesion lengths under controlled and semi-field conditions. The observed reductions were not dependent on growth conditions of C. odorata and rice cultivar. The effect was observed until 21 days after inoculation and was not dependent on microbial activity. Under semi-field conditions, extracts also reduced severity of other important rice diseases, i.e., blast (Pyricularia oryzae) using foliar spray (up to 45%), brown spot (Bipolaris oryzae) using seed treatment (up to 57%), and bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) using both application methods (up to 50%). PMID:20839964

  13. Optimizing rice plant photosynthate allocation reduces N2O emissions from paddy fields.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Huang, Xiaomin; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Xingyue; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Chengyan; Deng, Aixing; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Lianhai; Hu, Shuijin; Zhang, Weijian

    2016-01-01

    Rice paddies are a major source of anthropogenic nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, especially under alternate wetting-drying irrigation and high N input. Increasing photosynthate allocation to the grain in rice (Oryza sativa L.) has been identified as an effective strategy of genetic and agronomic innovation for yield enhancement; however, its impacts on N2O emissions are still unknown. We conducted three independent but complementary experiments (variety, mutant study, and spikelet clipping) to examine the impacts of rice plant photosynthate allocation on paddy N2O emissions. The three experiments showed that N2O fluxes were significantly and negatively correlated with the ratio of grain yield to total aboveground biomass, known as the harvest index (HI) in agronomy (P < 0.01). Biomass accumulation and N uptake after anthesis were significantly and positively correlated with HI (P < 0.05). Reducing photosynthate allocation to the grain by spikelet clipping significantly increased white root biomass and soil dissolved organic C and reduced plant N uptake, resulting in high soil denitrification potential (P < 0.05). Our findings demonstrate that optimizing photosynthate allocation to the grain can reduce paddy N2O emissions through decreasing belowground C input and increasing plant N uptake, suggesting the potential for genetic and agronomic efforts to produce more rice with less N2O emissions. PMID:27378420

  14. Optimizing rice plant photosynthate allocation reduces N2O emissions from paddy fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yu; Huang, Xiaomin; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Xingyue; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Chengyan; Deng, Aixing; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Lianhai; Hu, Shuijin; Zhang, Weijian

    2016-07-01

    Rice paddies are a major source of anthropogenic nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, especially under alternate wetting-drying irrigation and high N input. Increasing photosynthate allocation to the grain in rice (Oryza sativa L.) has been identified as an effective strategy of genetic and agronomic innovation for yield enhancement; however, its impacts on N2O emissions are still unknown. We conducted three independent but complementary experiments (variety, mutant study, and spikelet clipping) to examine the impacts of rice plant photosynthate allocation on paddy N2O emissions. The three experiments showed that N2O fluxes were significantly and negatively correlated with the ratio of grain yield to total aboveground biomass, known as the harvest index (HI) in agronomy (P < 0.01). Biomass accumulation and N uptake after anthesis were significantly and positively correlated with HI (P < 0.05). Reducing photosynthate allocation to the grain by spikelet clipping significantly increased white root biomass and soil dissolved organic C and reduced plant N uptake, resulting in high soil denitrification potential (P < 0.05). Our findings demonstrate that optimizing photosynthate allocation to the grain can reduce paddy N2O emissions through decreasing belowground C input and increasing plant N uptake, suggesting the potential for genetic and agronomic efforts to produce more rice with less N2O emissions.

  15. Optimizing rice plant photosynthate allocation reduces N2O emissions from paddy fields

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yu; Huang, Xiaomin; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Xingyue; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Chengyan; Deng, Aixing; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Lianhai; Hu, Shuijin; Zhang, Weijian

    2016-01-01

    Rice paddies are a major source of anthropogenic nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, especially under alternate wetting-drying irrigation and high N input. Increasing photosynthate allocation to the grain in rice (Oryza sativa L.) has been identified as an effective strategy of genetic and agronomic innovation for yield enhancement; however, its impacts on N2O emissions are still unknown. We conducted three independent but complementary experiments (variety, mutant study, and spikelet clipping) to examine the impacts of rice plant photosynthate allocation on paddy N2O emissions. The three experiments showed that N2O fluxes were significantly and negatively correlated with the ratio of grain yield to total aboveground biomass, known as the harvest index (HI) in agronomy (P < 0.01). Biomass accumulation and N uptake after anthesis were significantly and positively correlated with HI (P < 0.05). Reducing photosynthate allocation to the grain by spikelet clipping significantly increased white root biomass and soil dissolved organic C and reduced plant N uptake, resulting in high soil denitrification potential (P < 0.05). Our findings demonstrate that optimizing photosynthate allocation to the grain can reduce paddy N2O emissions through decreasing belowground C input and increasing plant N uptake, suggesting the potential for genetic and agronomic efforts to produce more rice with less N2O emissions. PMID:27378420

  16. Identification and isolation of active N2O reducers in rice paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Satoshi; Ohno, Hiroki; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Otsuka, Shigeto; Senoo, Keishi

    2011-12-01

    Dissolved N(2)O is occasionally detected in surface and ground water in rice paddy fields, whereas little or no N(2)O is emitted to the atmosphere above these fields. This indicates the occurrence of N(2)O reduction in rice paddy fields; however, identity of the N(2)O reducers is largely unknown. In this study, we employed both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches to identify N(2)O reducers in rice paddy soil. In a soil microcosm, N(2)O and succinate were added as the electron acceptor and donor, respectively, for N(2)O reduction. For the stable isotope probing (SIP) experiment, (13)C-labeled succinate was used to identify succinate-assimilating microbes under N(2)O-reducing conditions. DNA was extracted 24  h after incubation, and heavy and light DNA fractions were separated by density gradient ultracentrifugation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and clone library analysis targeting the 16S rRNA and the N(2)O reductase gene were performed. For culture-dependent analysis, the microbes that elongated under N(2)O-reducing conditions in the presence of cell-division inhibitors were individually captured by a micromanipulator and transferred to a low-nutrient medium. The N(2)O-reducing ability of these strains was examined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results of the SIP analysis suggested that Burkholderiales and Rhodospirillales bacteria dominated the population under N(2)O-reducing conditions, in contrast to the control sample (soil incubated with only (13)C-succinate). Results of the single-cell isolation technique also indicated that the majority of the N(2)O-reducing strains belonged to the genera Herbaspirillum (Burkholderiales) and Azospirillum (Rhodospirillales). In addition, Herbaspirillum strains reduced N(2)O faster than Azospirillum strains. These results suggest that Herbaspirillum spp. may have an important role in N(2)O reduction in rice paddy soils. PMID:21677691

  17. Identification and isolation of active N2O reducers in rice paddy soil

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Satoshi; Ohno, Hiroki; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Otsuka, Shigeto; Senoo, Keishi

    2011-01-01

    Dissolved N2O is occasionally detected in surface and ground water in rice paddy fields, whereas little or no N2O is emitted to the atmosphere above these fields. This indicates the occurrence of N2O reduction in rice paddy fields; however, identity of the N2O reducers is largely unknown. In this study, we employed both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches to identify N2O reducers in rice paddy soil. In a soil microcosm, N2O and succinate were added as the electron acceptor and donor, respectively, for N2O reduction. For the stable isotope probing (SIP) experiment, 13C-labeled succinate was used to identify succinate-assimilating microbes under N2O-reducing conditions. DNA was extracted 24 h after incubation, and heavy and light DNA fractions were separated by density gradient ultracentrifugation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and clone library analysis targeting the 16S rRNA and the N2O reductase gene were performed. For culture-dependent analysis, the microbes that elongated under N2O-reducing conditions in the presence of cell-division inhibitors were individually captured by a micromanipulator and transferred to a low-nutrient medium. The N2O-reducing ability of these strains was examined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results of the SIP analysis suggested that Burkholderiales and Rhodospirillales bacteria dominated the population under N2O-reducing conditions, in contrast to the control sample (soil incubated with only 13C-succinate). Results of the single-cell isolation technique also indicated that the majority of the N2O-reducing strains belonged to the genera Herbaspirillum (Burkholderiales) and Azospirillum (Rhodospirillales). In addition, Herbaspirillum strains reduced N2O faster than Azospirillum strains. These results suggest that Herbaspirillum spp. may have an important role in N2O reduction in rice paddy soils. PMID:21677691

  18. Alternate Wetting and Drying as an Effective Management Practice to Reduce Methane in Arkansas Rice Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runkle, B.; Smith, S. F.; Suvocarev, K.; Reba, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Approximately 15% of the global 308 Tg CH4 emitted by anthropogenic sources is currently attributed to rice cultivation. Arkansas, the leading state in rice cultivation, produces over 42% of the total rice and represents over 43% of total land planted to rice in the US. Although rice production is generally water-intensive, some rice producers have adopted a conservation practice, 'Alternate Wetting and Drying' (AWD), in which the flood is released periodically during the growing season. In addition, implementing AWD can reduce CH4 emissions though the introduction of aerobic conditions. To assess the magnitude of this reduction, conventionally flooded (CONV) and AWD fields were identically instrumented for the 2015 season and fluxes of CH4 were measured with an open path IRGA. Other biophysical variables were monitored to determine the relative dominance of potential drivers. Half-hourly CH4 fluxes from the AWD and CONV fields during their similar initial flood (DOY 138-161) were well correlated (R2 = 0.762), indicating similar mechanisms controlling CH4 emissions in both fields. After the initial drydown event in the AWD field (162 DOY), daily median CH4 fluxes continued to rise to 7.80 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 on 163 DOY before subsiding to a local minimum of 0.162 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 on 171 DOY. Daily median CH4 fluxes between 9.24 and 16.0 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 were observed in the CONV field during this same period. Cumulative emissions from both fields following the drydown event and prior to rewetting demonstrated a reduction in CH4 emissions by the AWD treatment by 82%. The substantial decrease in CH4 emissions by AWD in the early growing season supports and expands upon previous chamber-based research and offers strong evidence for the efficacy of AWD in reducing CH4 emissions in AR rice production. The presentation will also assess the latter portion of the growing season, currently underway, and will provide process-based relationships between biophysical parameters and CH

  19. Sprinkler irrigation of rice fields reduces grain arsenic but enhances cadmium.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo; Meharg, Andrew A; Smolders, Erik; Manzano, Rebeca; Becerra, Daniel; Sánchez-Llerena, Javier; Albarrán, Ángel; López-Piñero, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that rice cultivated under flooded conditions has higher concentrations of arsenic (As) but lower cadmium (Cd) compared to rice grown in unsaturated soils. To validate such effects over long terms under Mediterranean conditions a field experiment, conducted over 7 successive years was established in SW Spain. The impact of water management on rice production and grain arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) was measured, and As speciation was determined to inform toxicity evaluation. Sprinkler irrigation was compared to traditional flooding. Both irrigation techniques resulted in similar grain yields (~3000 kg grain ha(-1)). Successive sprinkler irrigation over 7 years decreased grain total As to one-sixth its initial concentration in the flooded system (0.55 to 0.09 mg As kg(-1)), while one cycle of sprinkler irrigation also reduced grain total As by one-third (0.20 mg kg(-1)). Grain inorganic As concentration increased up to 2 folds under flooded conditions compared to sprinkler irrigated fields while organic As was also lower in sprinkler system treatments, but to a lesser extent. This suggests that methylation is favored under water logging. However, sprinkler irrigation increased Cd transfer to grain by a factor of 10, reaching 0.05 mg Cd kg(-1) in 7 years. Sprinkler systems in paddy fields seem particularly suited for Mediterranean climates and are able to mitigate against excessive As accumulation, but our evidence shows that an increased Cd load in rice grain may result. PMID:24742557

  20. Structure and functional interaction of the extracellular domain of human GABA[subscript B] receptor GBR2

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, Yong; Xiong, Dazhi; Mosyak, Lidia; Malito, David L.; Kniazeff, Julie; Chen, Yan; Burmakina, Svetlana; Quick, Matthias; Bush, Martin; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Fan, Qing R.

    2012-10-24

    Inhibitory neurotransmission is mediated primarily by GABA. The metabotropic GABA{sub B} receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor central to mammalian brain function. Malfunction of GABA{sub B} receptor has been implicated in several neurological disorders. GABA{sub B} receptor functions as a heterodimeric assembly of GBR1 and GBR2 subunits, where GBR1 is responsible for ligand-binding and GBR2 is responsible for G protein coupling. Here we demonstrate that the GBR2 ectodomain directly interacts with the GBR1 ectodomain to increase agonist affinity by selectively stabilizing the agonist-bound conformation of GBR1. We present the crystal structure of the GBR2 ectodomain, which reveals a polar heterodimeric interface. We also identify specific heterodimer contacts from both subunits, and GBR1 residues involved in ligand recognition. Lastly, our structural and functional data indicate that the GBR2 ectodomain adopts a constitutively open conformation, suggesting a structural asymmetry in the active state of GABA{sub B} receptor that is unique to the GABAergic system.

  1. Effect of cocaine, nomifensine, GBR 12909 and WIN 35428 on carbon fiber microelectrode sensitivity for voltammetric recording of dopamine.

    PubMed

    Davidson, C; Ellinwood, E H; Douglas, S B; Lee, T H

    2000-08-15

    Electrochemical measurements using voltammetry or amperometry at carbon-fiber microelectrodes have been used in vitro and in vivo to examine regulatory mechanisms for the central dopamine system. In many of these experiments, dopamine efflux concentrations under control conditions are determined followed by their alterations in response to a drug treatment. The present study demonstrates that some drugs can affect dopamine measurements, not only by their expected pharmacological action but also by directly altering the microelectrode responsivity. The commonly used reuptake inhibitors GBR 12909 (10 microM) and nomifensine (5 microM) drastically reduce electrode sensitivity and, in the case of nomifensine, increase the time to reach a plateau in response to dopamine boluses (i.e. reduced 'frequency response'). Cocaine (10 microM) and WIN 35428 (2 microM) have negligible effect on these indices. This decrease in sensitivity was found in both nafion and non-nafion coated electrodes. Further, the reduction in sensitivity seen in non-nafion coated electrodes was not prevented by increasing the reversal potential (from +1.0 to +1.3 V) and voltage scan rate (from 350 to 450 V/s). These data suggest that care must be taken when interpreting data from voltammetric or amporometric experiments using carbon electrodes where GBR 12909 or nomifensine are used, especially at high concentrations. Furthermore, wherever possible, direct effects of a drug on electrode sensitivity and frequency response should be determined. PMID:10967364

  2. Rice protein hydrolysates stimulate GLP-1 secretion, reduce GLP-1 degradation, and lower the glycemic response in rats.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yuki; Hira, Tohru; Inoue, Daisuke; Harada, Yukikazu; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Mikio; Kadowaki, Motoni; Hara, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    Rice has historically been consumed in Asia as a major source of carbohydrates, however, little is known regarding the functional roles of rice proteins as dietary factors. In the present study, we investigated whether peptides derived from rice proteins could stimulate GLP-1 secretion, which results in reducing glycemia via the incretin effect in normal rats. Hydrolysates were prepared from the protein fraction of rice endosperm or rice bran, and the effects of these hydrolysates on GLP-1 secretion were examined in a murine enteroendocrine cell line GLUTag. Plasma was collected after oral administration of the rice protein hydrolysates, under anesthesia, or during glucose tolerance tests in rats. In anesthetized rats, plasma dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) activity was measured after ileal administration of the rice protein hydrolysates. GLP-1 secretion from GLUTag cells was potently stimulated by the rice protein hydrolysates, especially by the peptic digest of rice endosperm protein (REPH) and that of rice bran protein (RBPH). Oral administration of REPH or RBPH elevated plasma GLP-1 concentrations, which resulted in the reduction of glycemia under the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. In addition, the plasma DPP-IV activity was attenuated after ileal administration of REPH or RBPH, which resulted in a higher ratio of intact (active) GLP-1 to total GLP-1 in the plasma. These results demonstrate that rice proteins exert potent stimulatory effects on GLP-1 secretion, which could contribute to the reduction of postprandial glycemia. The inhibitory effect of these peptides on the plasma DPP-IV activity may potentiate the incretin effect of GLP-1. PMID:26107658

  3. Exploiting Co-Benefits of Increased Rice Production and Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emission through Optimized Crop and Soil Management.

    PubMed

    An, Ning; Fan, Mingsheng; Zhang, Fusuo; Christie, Peter; Yang, Jianchang; Huang, Jianliang; Guo, Shiwei; Shi, Xiaojun; Tang, Qiyuan; Peng, Jianwei; Zhong, Xuhua; Sun, Yixiang; Lv, Shihua; Jiang, Rongfeng; Dobermann, Achim

    2015-01-01

    Meeting the future food security challenge without further sacrificing environmental integrity requires transformative changes in managing the key biophysical determinants of increasing agronomic productivity and reducing the environmental footprint. Here, we focus on Chinese rice production and quantitatively address this concern by conducting 403 on-farm trials across diverse rice farming systems. Inherent soil productivity, management practices and rice farming type resulted in confounded and interactive effects on yield, yield gaps and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (N2O, CH4 and CO2-equivalent) with both trade-offs and compensating effects. Advances in nitrogen, water and crop management (Best Management Practices-BMPs) helped closing existing yield gaps and resulted in a substantial reduction in CO2-equivalent emission of rice farming despite a tradeoff of increase N2O emission. However, inherent soil properties limited rice yields to a larger extent than previously known. Cultivating inherently better soil also led to lower GHG intensity (GHG emissions per unit yield). Neither adopting BMPs only nor improving soils with low or moderate productivity alone can adequately address the challenge of substantially increasing rice production while reducing the environmental footprint. A combination of both represents the most efficient strategy to harness the combined-benefits of enhanced production and mitigating climate change. Extrapolating from our farm data, this strategy could increase rice production in China by 18%, which would meet the demand for direct human consumption of rice by 2030. It would also reduce fertilizer nitrogen consumption by 22% and decrease CO2-equivalent emissions during the rice growing period by 7% compared with current farming practice continues. Benefits vary by rice-based cropping systems. Single rice systems have the largest food provision benefits due to its wider yield gap and total cultivated area, whereas double-rice system

  4. Exploiting Co-Benefits of Increased Rice Production and Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emission through Optimized Crop and Soil Management

    PubMed Central

    An, Ning; Fan, Mingsheng; Zhang, Fusuo; Christie, Peter; Yang, Jianchang; Huang, Jianliang; Guo, Shiwei; Shi, Xiaojun; Tang, Qiyuan; Peng, Jianwei; Zhong, Xuhua; Sun, Yixiang; Lv, Shihua; Jiang, Rongfeng; Dobermann, Achim

    2015-01-01

    Meeting the future food security challenge without further sacrificing environmental integrity requires transformative changes in managing the key biophysical determinants of increasing agronomic productivity and reducing the environmental footprint. Here, we focus on Chinese rice production and quantitatively address this concern by conducting 403 on-farm trials across diverse rice farming systems. Inherent soil productivity, management practices and rice farming type resulted in confounded and interactive effects on yield, yield gaps and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (N2O, CH4 and CO2-equivalent) with both trade-offs and compensating effects. Advances in nitrogen, water and crop management (Best Management Practices—BMPs) helped closing existing yield gaps and resulted in a substantial reduction in CO2-equivalent emission of rice farming despite a tradeoff of increase N2O emission. However, inherent soil properties limited rice yields to a larger extent than previously known. Cultivating inherently better soil also led to lower GHG intensity (GHG emissions per unit yield). Neither adopting BMPs only nor improving soils with low or moderate productivity alone can adequately address the challenge of substantially increasing rice production while reducing the environmental footprint. A combination of both represents the most efficient strategy to harness the combined-benefits of enhanced production and mitigating climate change. Extrapolating from our farm data, this strategy could increase rice production in China by 18%, which would meet the demand for direct human consumption of rice by 2030. It would also reduce fertilizer nitrogen consumption by 22% and decrease CO2-equivalent emissions during the rice growing period by 7% compared with current farming practice continues. Benefits vary by rice-based cropping systems. Single rice systems have the largest food provision benefits due to its wider yield gap and total cultivated area, whereas double-rice system

  5. Reducing CH4 emission from rice paddy fields by altering water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudo, S.; Itoh, M.

    2010-12-01

    Percentage of atmospheric methane emitted form rice paddy is estimated at 60Tg/yr (20 - 100Tg/yr) which is near 10% of total global methane emission of 535Tg/yr (410 - 660Tg) (IPCC(1995), and which is near 30% of anthropogenic CH4 emission. Thus, mitigation of CH4 emission is urgently required. CH4 in paddy soil is emanated by the activities of anaerobic bacteria which is called methane producer through reduction of CO2 or decomposition of acetic acid, and it is transported to atmosphere through soil or paddy water surface. It is effective to control methane emission from rice paddy that period is extended on intermittent drainage, composted rice straw is incorporated as fertilizer instead of flesh one, or other. However, empirical approach of these kinds of experiments had not been sufficient because such a kind of experiment required significant times and efforts. In this study, we conducted demonstrative experiments to verify the effects of water management method differences in order to reduce CH4 emission from rice paddy at 9 experimental sites in 8 prefectures. In this, we used new gas analyzer which can measure CH4, CO2 and N2O at once developed by National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences (NIAES), Japan. In this report, we show the results in two years of this study. 'Nakaboshi' (mid-season-drainage) is one of cultivation methods in rice paddy that surface water in paddy field is once drained for about 10 days and the field is maintained like upland field to give adequate stress to rice plant for better harvest qualities and yields. Our targeted evaluation was dependencies of Nakaboshi periods lengths and Nakaboshi periods to CH4 emission reduction amounts for total cultivation periods within harvest yield maintained. The longer length of Nakaboshi period was extended, the lesser CH4 emitted even after when Nakaboshi period lasted, as a whole. In some cases, for example in Kagoshima, exceptional phenomena of that significant high emission were

  6. Integrated model shows that atmospheric brown clouds and greenhouse gases have reduced rice harvests in India

    SciTech Connect

    Auffhammer, M.; Ramanathan, V.; Vincent, J.R.

    2007-12-26

    Previous studies have found that atmospheric brown clouds partially offset the warming effects of greenhouse gases. This finding suggests a tradeoff between the impacts of reducing emissions of aerosols and greenhouse gases. Results from a statistical model of historical rice harvests in India, coupled with regional climate scenarios from a parallel climate model, indicate that joint reductions in brown clouds and greenhouse gases would in fact have complementary, positive impacts on harvests. The results also imply that adverse climate change due to brown clouds and greenhouse gases contributed to the slowdown in harvest growth that occurred during the past two decades.

  7. Seed-specific silencing of OsMRP5 reduces seed phytic acid and weight in rice.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Xu; Zhao, Hai-Jun; Pang, Wei-Qin; Cui, Hai-Rui; Poirier, Yves; Shu, Qing-Yao

    2014-08-01

    Phytic acid (PA) is poorly digested by humans and monogastric animals and negatively affects human/animal nutrition and the environment. Rice mutants with reduced PA content have been developed but are often associated with reduced seed weight and viability, lacking breeding value. In the present study, a new approach was explored to reduce seed PA while attaining competitive yield. The OsMRP5 gene, of which mutations are known to reduce seed PA as well as seed yield and viability, was down-regulated specifically in rice seeds by using an artificial microRNA driven by the rice seed specific promoter Ole18. Seed PA contents were reduced by 35.8-71.9% in brown rice grains of transgenic plants compared to their respective null plants (non-transgenic plants derived from the same event). No consistent significant differences of plant height or number of tillers per plant were observed, but significantly lower seed weights (up to 17.8% reduction) were detected in all transgenic lines compared to null plants, accompanied by reductions of seed germination and seedling emergence. It was observed that the silencing of the OsMRP5 gene increased the inorganic P (Pi) levels (up to 7.5 times) in amounts more than the reduction of PA-P in brown rice. This indicates a reduction in P content in other cellular compounds, such as lipids and nucleic acids, which may affect overall seed development. Put together, the present study demonstrated that seed specific silencing of OsMRP5 could significantly reduce the PA content and increase Pi levels in seeds; however, it also significantly lowers seed weight in rice. Discussions were made regarding future directions towards producing agronomically competitive and nutritionally valuable low PA rice. PMID:24648215

  8. Improving water management practices to reduce nutrient export from rice paddy fields.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Jian; Yao, Ju-Xiang; Wang, Zhao-De; Xu, Xin; Lin, Xian-Yong; Czapar, George F; Zhang, Jian-Ying

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loss from rice paddy fields represents a significant threat to water quality in China. In this project, three irrigation-drainage regimes were compared, including one conventional irrigation-drainage regime, i.e. continuous submergence regime (CSR), and two improved regimes, i.e. the alternating submergence-nonsubmergence regime (ASNR) and the zero-drainage irrigation technology (ZDIT), to seek cost-effective practices for reducing nutrient loss. The data from these comparisons showed that, excluding the nutrient input from irrigation, the net exports of total N and total P via surface field drainage ranged from -3.93 to 2.39 kg ha and 0.17 to 0.95 g ha(-1) under the CSR operation, respectively, while N loss was -2.46 to -2.23 kg ha(-1) and P export was -0.65 to 0.31 kg ha(-1) under the improved regimes. The intensity of P export was positively correlated to the rate of P application. Reducing the draining frequency or postponing the draining operation would shift the ecological role of the paddy field from a nutrient export source to an interception sink when ASNR or the zero-drainage water management was used. In addition, since the rice yields are being guaranteed at no additional cost, the improved irrigation-drainage operations would have economic as well as environmental benefits. PMID:21473282

  9. Fipronil application on rice paddy fields reduces densities of common skimmer and scarlet skimmer.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Atsushi; Hayashi, Takehiko I; Ohnishi, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Goka, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Several reports suggested that rice seedling nursery-box application of some systemic insecticides (neonicotinoids and fipronil) is the cause of the decline in dragonfly species noted since the 1990s in Japan. We conducted paddy mesocosm experiments to investigate the effect of the systemic insecticides clothianidin, fipronil and chlorantraniliprole on rice paddy field biological communities. Concentrations of all insecticides in the paddy water were reduced to the limit of detection within 3 months after application. However, residuals of these insecticides in the paddy soil were detected throughout the experimental period. Plankton species were affected by clothianidin and chlorantraniliprole right after the applications, but they recovered after the concentrations decreased. On the other hand, the effects of fipronil treatment, especially on Odonata, were larger than those of any other treatment. The number of adult dragonflies completing eclosion was severely decreased in the fipronil treatment. These results suggest that the accumulation of these insecticides in paddy soil reduces biodiversity by eliminating dragonfly nymphs, which occupy a high trophic level in paddy fields. PMID:26979488

  10. Fipronil application on rice paddy fields reduces densities of common skimmer and scarlet skimmer

    PubMed Central

    Kasai, Atsushi; Hayashi, Takehiko I.; Ohnishi, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Goka, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Several reports suggested that rice seedling nursery-box application of some systemic insecticides (neonicotinoids and fipronil) is the cause of the decline in dragonfly species noted since the 1990s in Japan. We conducted paddy mesocosm experiments to investigate the effect of the systemic insecticides clothianidin, fipronil and chlorantraniliprole on rice paddy field biological communities. Concentrations of all insecticides in the paddy water were reduced to the limit of detection within 3 months after application. However, residuals of these insecticides in the paddy soil were detected throughout the experimental period. Plankton species were affected by clothianidin and chlorantraniliprole right after the applications, but they recovered after the concentrations decreased. On the other hand, the effects of fipronil treatment, especially on Odonata, were larger than those of any other treatment. The number of adult dragonflies completing eclosion was severely decreased in the fipronil treatment. These results suggest that the accumulation of these insecticides in paddy soil reduces biodiversity by eliminating dragonfly nymphs, which occupy a high trophic level in paddy fields. PMID:26979488

  11. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions, water use, and grain arsenic levels in rice systems.

    PubMed

    Linquist, Bruce A; Anders, Merle M; Adviento-Borbe, Maria Arlene A; Chaney, Rufus L; Nalley, L Lanier; da Rosa, Eliete F F; van Kessel, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is faced with the challenge of providing healthy food for a growing population at minimal environmental cost. Rice (Oryza sativa), the staple crop for the largest number of people on earth, is grown under flooded soil conditions and uses more water and has higher greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than most crops. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that alternate wetting and drying (AWD--flooding the soil and then allowing to dry down before being reflooded) water management practices will maintain grain yields and concurrently reduce water use, greenhouse gas emissions and arsenic (As) levels in rice. Various treatments ranging in frequency and duration of AWD practices were evaluated at three locations over 2 years. Relative to the flooded control treatment and depending on the AWD treatment, yields were reduced by <1-13%; water-use efficiency was improved by 18-63%, global warming potential (GWP of CH4 and N2 O emissions) reduced by 45-90%, and grain As concentrations reduced by up to 64%. In general, as the severity of AWD increased by allowing the soil to dry out more between flood events, yields declined while the other benefits increased. The reduction in GWP was mostly attributed to a reduction in CH4 emissions as changes in N2 O emissions were minimal among treatments. When AWD was practiced early in the growing season followed by flooding for remainder of season, similar yields as the flooded control were obtained but reduced water use (18%), GWP (45%) and yield-scaled GWP (45%); although grain As concentrations were similar or higher. This highlights that multiple environmental benefits can be realized without sacrificing yield but there may be trade-offs to consider. Importantly, adoption of these practices will require that they are economically attractive and can be adapted to field scales. PMID:25099317

  12. Reducing water use for rice production with remote monitoring and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is an important food crop worldwide and farmers in the Lower Mississippi Water Resource Area of the U.S. grew 68% of the total U.S. crop. U.S.-produced rice is grown almost exclusively in a flooded culture and the water applied to rice has resulted in high energy costs and water shortages in so...

  13. Reducing arsenic in rice grain using novel germplasm and water management practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the staple food for about half of the world’s population. Arsenic (As) is harmful for both animals and human beings. Total dietary studies in Europe and the United States have indicated that rice is the primary source of arsenic in a non-seafood based diet. Recently, rice p...

  14. Altered cell wall properties are responsible for ammonium-reduced aluminium accumulation in rice roots.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhao, Xue Qiang; Chen, Rong Fu; Dong, Xiao Ying; Lan, Ping; Ma, Jian Feng; Shen, Ren Fang

    2015-07-01

    The phytotoxicity of aluminium (Al) ions can be alleviated by ammonium (NH4(+)) in rice and this effect has been attributed to the decreased Al accumulation in the roots. Here, the effects of different nitrogen forms on cell wall properties were compared in two rice cultivars differing in Al tolerance. An in vitro Al-binding assay revealed that neither NH4(+) nor NO3(-) altered the Al-binding capacity of cell walls, which were extracted from plants not previously exposed to N sources. However, cell walls extracted from NH4(+)-supplied roots displayed lower Al-binding capacity than those from NO3(-)-supplied roots when grown in non-buffered solutions. Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy analysis revealed that, compared with NO3(-)-supplied roots, NH4(+)-supplied roots possessed fewer Al-binding groups (-OH and COO-) and lower contents of pectin and hemicellulose. However, when grown in pH-buffered solutions, these differences in the cell wall properties were not observed. Further analysis showed that the Al-binding capacity and properties of cell walls were also altered by pHs alone. Taken together, our results indicate that the NH4(+)-reduced Al accumulation was attributed to the altered cell wall properties triggered by pH decrease due to NH4(+) uptake rather than direct competition for the cell wall binding sites between Al(3+) and NH4(+). PMID:25444246

  15. The Hypocholesterolemic Effect of Germinated Brown Rice Involves the Upregulation of the Apolipoprotein A1 and Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Genes

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Maznah; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Ithnin, Hairuszah

    2013-01-01

    Germinated brown rice (GBR) is rich in bioactive compounds, which confer GBR with many functional properties. Evidence of its hypocholesterolemic effects is emerging, but the exact mechanisms of action and bioactive compounds involved have not been fully documented. Using type 2 diabetic rats, we studied the effects of white rice, GBR, and brown rice (BR) on lipid profile and on the regulation of selected genes involved in cholesterol metabolism. Our results showed that the upregulation of apolipoprotein A1 and low-density lipoprotein receptor genes was involved in the hypocholesterolemic effects of GBR. Additionally, in vitro studies using HEPG2 cells showed that acylated steryl glycoside, gamma amino butyric acid, and oryzanol and phenolic extracts of GBR contribute to the nutrigenomic regulation of these genes. Transcriptional and nontranscriptional mechanisms are likely involved in the overall hypocholesterolemic effects of GBR suggesting that it may have an impact on the prevention and/or management of hypercholesterolemia due to a wide variety of metabolic perturbations. However, there is need to conduct long-term clinical trials to determine the clinical relevance of the hypocholesterolemic effects of GBR determined through animal studies. PMID:23671850

  16. Germinated brown rice and its bioactives modulate the activity of uterine cells in oophorectomised rats as evidenced by gross cytohistological and immunohistochemical changes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Germinated brown rice (GBR) is gaining momentum in the area of biomedical research due to its increased use as a nutraceutical for the management of diseases. The effect of GBR on the reproductive organs of oophorectomised rats was studied using the gross, cytological, histological and immunohistochemical changes, with the aim of reducing atrophy and dryness of the genital organs in menopause. Methods Experimental rats were divided into eight groups of six rats per group. Groups 1, 2 and 3 (sham-operated (SH), oophorectomised without treatment (OVX) and oophorectomised treated with 0.2 mg/kg oestrogen, respectively) served as the controls. The groups 4,5,6,7 and 8 were treated with 20 mg/kg Remifemin, 200 mg/kg of GBR, ASG, oryzanol and GABA, respectively. All treatments were administered orally, once daily for 8 weeks. Vaginal smear cytology was done at the 7th week on all the rats. The weight and dimensions of the uterus and vagina were determined after sacrifice of the rats. Uterine and vaginal tissues were taken for histology and Immunohistochemical examinations. Results GBR and its bioactives treated groups significantly increased the weight and length of both the uterus and the vagina when compared to Oophorectomised non-treated group (OVX-non-treated) (p < 0.05). Significant changes were observed in the ratio of cornified epithelial cells and number of leucocytes in the vaginal cytology between the oophorectomised non-treated and treated groups. There was also an increase in the luminal and glandular epithelial cells activity in the treated compared with the untreated groups histologically. Immunohistochemical staining showed specific proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the luminal and glandular epithelium of the treated groups, which was absent in the OVX-non-treated group. GBR improved the length and weight of the uterus and also increased the number of glandular and luminal cells epithelia of the vagina. Conclusion GBR and its

  17. Characterization of cadmium-resistant bacteria and their potential for reducing accumulation of cadmium in rice grains.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaoyan; Mou, Renxiang; Cao, Zhaoyun; Xu, Ping; Wu, Xiaoliang; Zhu, Zhiwei; Chen, Mingxue

    2016-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) pollution is a serious widespread environmental problem that not only destroys the microbial ecology of soil and decreases crop production, but also poses a serious risk to human health. Many methods have been used for the remediation of Cd pollution but none of these is totally satisfactory. Microbial remediation strategies have attracted increasing interest since they are environmentally friendly and cost-effective. In the present study, three Cd-resistant bacteria were isolated and evaluated for potential application in Cd bioremediation. Based on their morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics, together with 16S rDNA gene sequence analyses, bacteria were identified as Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila (2#), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9#) and Delftia tsuruhatensis (12#). Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed very high tolerance to metals, especially Cd (2200mg/L), Zn (1800mg/L) and Pb (1200mg/L), and is thought to be a multi-metal-resistant bacterium. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also sensitive to 13 different antibiotics. The effects of the bacterial strains on the growth of rice plants and their ability to reduce Cd accumulation from Cd-contaminated soils in pot experiments were also evaluated. For Oryza sativa L. A grown in contaminated soil (3mg/kg Cd), the accumulation of Cd was decreased by 31.2 and 25.5% in brown rice and polished rice, respectively, by strain 9#; Pseudomonas aeruginosa was more effective in reducing Cd accumulation in rice grains than a mixture of strains. For Oryza sativa L. B, a mixture of strains acting synergistically was more effective than a single strain in reducing Cd accumulation; treatment with mixed strains (strains+3mg/kg Cd) resulted in 41.3, 35.9, and 32.6% reductions in Cd accumulation in unhulled rice, brown rice and polished rice, respectively. Although different results were obtained for two rice varieties, it can still be concluded that Cd-resistant bacteria are suitable for reducing Cd accumulation in

  18. Triacontanol Reduces Transplanting Shock in Machine-Transplanted Rice by Improving the Growth and Antioxidant Systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaochun; Zhong, Qiuyi; Li, Yuxiang; Li, Ganghua; Ding, Yanfeng; Wang, Shaohua; Liu, Zhenghui; Tang, She; Ding, Chengqiang; Chen, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Machine transplantation results in serious transplant shock in seedlings and results in a longer recover stage, which negatively impacts the growth of low-position tillers and the yield of machine-transplanted rice. A barrel experiment was conducted to examine the effect of the foliar application of triacontanol (TRIA) on machine-transplanted rice during the recovery stage. TRIA (0, 1, 5, and 10 μM) was sprayed over leaves 2 days before transplanting. The chlorophyll content, sucrose content, oxidative damage, antioxidant enzyme levels, glutathione (GSH), and ascorbate (ASA) redox states, tiller dynamics and yield components of the plants were investigated. The results show that foliar-applied TRIA significantly alleviates the growth inhibition and oxidative damage caused by transplant shock. Furthermore, the application of TRIA increased the chlorophyll and sucrose contents of the plants. Importantly, TRIA not only significantly improved the activity of catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (POD), demonstrating that POD can play an important role in scavenging H2O2 during the recovery stage, but it also enhanced the redox states of ASA and GSH by regulating the activities of enzymes involved in the ASA-GSH cycle, such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR). A dose of 10 μM TRIA was the most efficient in reducing the negative effects of transplant shock, increasing the panicles, grain filling, and grain yield per hill by 17.80, 5.86, and 16.49%, respectively. These results suggest that TRIA acts to reduce transplant shock in association with the regulation of the redox states of ASA and GSH and antioxidant enzymes and serves as an effective antioxidant to maintain photosynthetic capacity and promote the occurrence of low tillers. PMID:27379149

  19. Triacontanol Reduces Transplanting Shock in Machine-Transplanted Rice by Improving the Growth and Antioxidant Systems

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaochun; Zhong, Qiuyi; Li, Yuxiang; Li, Ganghua; Ding, Yanfeng; Wang, Shaohua; Liu, Zhenghui; Tang, She; Ding, Chengqiang; Chen, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Machine transplantation results in serious transplant shock in seedlings and results in a longer recover stage, which negatively impacts the growth of low-position tillers and the yield of machine-transplanted rice. A barrel experiment was conducted to examine the effect of the foliar application of triacontanol (TRIA) on machine-transplanted rice during the recovery stage. TRIA (0, 1, 5, and 10 μM) was sprayed over leaves 2 days before transplanting. The chlorophyll content, sucrose content, oxidative damage, antioxidant enzyme levels, glutathione (GSH), and ascorbate (ASA) redox states, tiller dynamics and yield components of the plants were investigated. The results show that foliar-applied TRIA significantly alleviates the growth inhibition and oxidative damage caused by transplant shock. Furthermore, the application of TRIA increased the chlorophyll and sucrose contents of the plants. Importantly, TRIA not only significantly improved the activity of catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (POD), demonstrating that POD can play an important role in scavenging H2O2 during the recovery stage, but it also enhanced the redox states of ASA and GSH by regulating the activities of enzymes involved in the ASA–GSH cycle, such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR). A dose of 10 μM TRIA was the most efficient in reducing the negative effects of transplant shock, increasing the panicles, grain filling, and grain yield per hill by 17.80, 5.86, and 16.49%, respectively. These results suggest that TRIA acts to reduce transplant shock in association with the regulation of the redox states of ASA and GSH and antioxidant enzymes and serves as an effective antioxidant to maintain photosynthetic capacity and promote the occurrence of low tillers. PMID:27379149

  20. High Amylose White Rice Reduces Post-Prandial Glycemic Response but Not Appetite in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Zenel, Alison M.; Stewart, Maria L.

    2015-01-01

    The present study compared the effects of three rice cultivars on postprandial glycemic control and appetite. A single-blind, randomized, crossover clinical trial was performed with 18 healthy subjects, nine males and nine females. Three treatments were administered at three separate study visits: commercially available conventional white rice (short grain), specialty high amylose white rice 1 (Dixiebelle), and specialty high amylose white rice 2 (Rondo). Postprandial capillary blood glucose, venous blood glucose and insulin measurements, and appetite visual analog scale (VAS) surveys were done over the course of two hours. The capillary blood glucose concentrations were significantly lower for Rondo compared to short grain rice at 30 min, and for Dixiebelle and Rondo compared to short grain rice at 45, 60, and 120 min. Capillary blood glucose area under the curve (AUC) was significantly lower for Dixiebelle and Rondo compared to short grain rice. Subjects were significantly more hungry at 30 min after Dixiebelle intake than Rondo intake, but there were no other significant effects in appetite ratings. The present study determined that intake of high amylose rice with resistant starch (RS) can attenuate postprandial blood glucose and insulin response in comparison to short grain rice. PMID:26147654

  1. Effects of Germinated Brown Rice Addition on the Flavor and Functionality of Yogurt

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the functional and physicochemical properties of yogurt, supplemented with germinated brown rice (GBR) containing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), during storage. GBR was produced by soaking brown rice at 30℃, and saccharified germinated brown rice (SGBR) was produced by treating brown rice with α- and β-amylase for 1 h, at 80℃ and 60℃, respectively. Yogurt was manufactured using a commercial starter (YC-X11, CHR. Hansen, Denmark) at 37℃ for 12 h. The fatty acids and GABA contents were analyzed using GC and HPLC, respectively. The fatty acids in the cereal samples consisted of oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acid. The portion of oleic acid was the highest, at 35.65% in GBR, and 32.16% in SGBR. During germination, the oleic acid content increased, whereas linolenic and palmitic acid contents from GBR tended to decrease. Although the portion of saturated fatty acids, such as stearic and myristic acid, decreased significantly (p<0.05), that of unsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic and linoleic acid, increased with an increase in supplementation of BR, GBR, or SGBR in the yogurt. The yogurt, supplemented with cereal samples, showed a tendency of an increase in the concentration of GABA with an increase in the supplementation of the cereal samples. However, yogurt supplemented with GBR showed the highest concentration of GABA, regardless of the supplementation of the cereal samples. These results indicated that yogurt supplemented with BR, GBR, or SGBR could be a promising dairy product. PMID:27621692

  2. Identification of Genomic Regions and the Isoamylase Gene for Reduced Grain Chalkiness in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wenqian; Zhou, Qiaoling; Yao, Yue; Qiu, Xianjin; Xie, Kun; Yu, Sibin

    2015-01-01

    Grain chalkiness is an important grain quality related to starch granules in the endosperm. A high percentage of grain chalkiness is a major problem because it diminishes grain quality in rice. Here, we report quantitative trait loci identification for grain chalkiness using high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping of a chromosomal segment substitution line population in which each line carried one or a few introduced japonica cultivar Nipponbare segments in the genetic background of the indica cultivar ZS97. Ten quantitative trait loci regions were commonly identified for the percentage of grain chalkiness and the degree of endosperm chalkiness. The allelic effects at nine of these quantitative trait loci reduced grain chalkiness. Furthermore, a quantitative trait locus (qPGC8-2) on chromosome 8 was validated in a chromosomal segment substitution line–derived segregation population, and had a stable effect on chalkiness in a multiple-environment evaluation of the near-isogenic lines. Residing on the qPGC8-2 region, the isoamylase gene (ISA1) was preferentially expressed in the endosperm and revealed some nucleotide polymorphisms between two varieties, Nipponbare and ZS97. Transgenic lines with suppression of ISA1 by RNA interference produced grains with 20% more chalkiness than the control. The results support that the gene may underlie qPGC8-2 for grain chalkiness. The multiple-environment trials of the near-isogenic lines also show that combination of the favorable alleles such as the ISA1 gene for low chalkiness and the GS3 gene for long grains considerably improved grain quality of ZS97, which proves useful for grain quality improvement in rice breeding programs. PMID:25790260

  3. Exploring a suitable nitrogen fertilizer rate to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and ensure rice yields in paddy fields.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yiming; Wang, Xiaopeng; Yang, Jingping; Zhao, Xing; Ye, Xinyi

    2016-09-15

    The application rate of nitrogen fertilizer was believed to dramatically influence greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy fields. Thus, providing a suitable nitrogen fertilization rate to ensure rice yields, reducing GHG emissions and exploring emission behavior are important issues for field management. In this paper, a two year experiment with six rates (0, 75, 150, 225, 300, 375kgN/ha) of nitrogen fertilizer application was designed to examine GHG emissions by measuring carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) flux and their cumulative global warming potential (GWP) from paddy fields in Hangzhou, Zhejiang in 2013 and 2014. The results indicated that the GWP and rice yields increased with an increasing application rate of nitrogen fertilizer. Emission peaks of CH4 mainly appeared at the vegetative phase, and emission peaks of CO2, and N2O mainly appeared at reproductive phase of rice growth. The CO2 flux was significantly correlated with soil temperature, while the CH4 flux was influenced by logging water remaining period and N2O flux was significantly associated with nitrogen application rates. This study showed that 225kgN/ha was a suitable nitrogen fertilizer rate to minimize GHG emissions with low yield-scaled emissions of 3.69 (in 2013) and 2.23 (in 2014) kg CO2-eq/kg rice yield as well as to ensure rice yields remained at a relatively high level of 8.89t/ha in paddy fields. PMID:27179680

  4. Reducing rice field algae and cyanobacteria abundance by altering phosphorus fertilizer applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In California’s water seeded rice systems algal/cyanobacterial biomass can be a problem during rice establishment. Algal/cyanobacterial growth may be stimulated by phosphorus (P) additions in freshwater habitats, so we set up experiments to evaluate the effects of fertilizer P management on algal/cy...

  5. Identification of genes and physiological factors that reduce accumulation of arsenic in rice grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The arsenic (As) levels in rice grains and food products can reach toxic levels when produced under certain growing conditions. The World Health Organization (WHO) recently set a CODEX limit of 0.2 ppm inorganic As in milled white rice, and lower limits may be set for baby food products. While studi...

  6. Biocontrol-based sheath blight management to reduce fungicide use on rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheath blight (ShB) caused by Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most important rice diseases in Texas, Arkansas, Mississippi, and other southern states. The lack of complete ShB resistance in the most commonly planted varieties and the severity of this disease results in southern U.S. rice farmers ap...

  7. Irrigation with oxygen-nanobubble water can reduce methane emission and arsenic dissolution in a flooded rice paddy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamikawa, Kazunori; Takahashi, Masayoshi; Makino, Tomoyuki; Tago, Kanako; Hayatsu, Masahito

    2015-08-01

    A remarkable feature of nanobubbles (<10-6 m in diameter) is their long lifetime in water. Supplying oxygen-nanobubbles (NBs) to continuously flooded paddy soil may retard the development of reductive conditions, thereby reducing the emission of methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas, and dissolution of arsenic, an environmental load. We tested this hypothesis by performing a pot experiment and measuring redox-related variables. The NBs were introduced into control water (with properties similar to those of river water) using a commercially available generator. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) growth did not differ between plants irrigated with NB water and those irrigated with control water, but NB water significantly (p < 0.05) reduced cumulative CH4 emission during the rice-growing season by 21%. The amounts of iron, manganese, and arsenic that leached into the drainage water before full rice heading were also reduced by the NB water. Regardless of the water type, weekly-measured CH4 flux was linearly correlated with the leached iron concentration during the rice-growing season (r = 0.74, p < 0.001). At the end of the experiment, the NB water significantly lowered the soil pH in the 0-5 cm layer, probably because of the raised redox potential. The population of methanogenic Archaea (mcrA copy number) in the 0-5 cm layer was significantly increased by the NB water, but we found no correlation between the mcrA copy number and the cumulative CH4 emission (r = -0.08, p = 0.85). In pots without rice plants, soil reduction was not enhanced, regardless of the water type. The results indicate that NB water reduced CH4 emission and arsenic dissolution through an oxidative shift of the redox conditions in the flooded soil. We propose the use of NB water as a tool for controlling redox conditions in flooded paddy soils.

  8. GBR-12909 and fluspirilene potently inhibited binding of ( sup 3 H) (+) 3-PPP to sigma receptors in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Contreras, P.C.; Bremer, M.E.; Rao, T.S. )

    1990-01-01

    Fluspirilene and GBR-12909, two compounds structurally similar to BMY-14802 and haloperidol, were assessed for their ability to interact with sigma receptors. Fluspirilene, an antipsychotic agent that interacts potently with dopamine receptors, inhibited the binding of ({sup 3}H)-(+)3-PPP (IC{sub 50} = 380 nM) more potently than rimcazole, a putative sigma antagonist that was tested clinically for antipsychotic activity. GBR-12909, a potent dopamine uptake blocker, also inhibited the binding of ({sup 3}H)-(+)3-PPP with an IC{sub 50} of 48 nM. However, other compounds that block the re-uptake of catecholamines, such as nomifensine, desipramine, imipramine, xylamine, benztropine and cocaine, were much weaker than GBR-12909as sigma ligands. Thus, GBR-12909 and fluspirilene, compounds structurally similar to BMY-14802, are potent sigma ligands.

  9. [Rice straw and sewage sludge as carbon sources for sulfate-reducing bacteria treating acid mine drainage].

    PubMed

    Su, Yu; Wang, Jin; Peng, Shu-chuan; Yue, Zheng-bo; Chen, Tian-hu; Jin, Jie

    2010-08-01

    The performance of three organic carbon sources was assessed in terms of sulfate reduction and main metal removal, by using sewage sludge as the source of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and adding rice straw and ethanol with equal quantity. Results indicated that sewage sludge which contained certain amount of alkaline material could neutralize acidity of acid mine drainage(AMD) on the first day of experiment, elevating pH value from the initial 2.5 to around 5.4-6.3 and achieving suitable pH condition for SRB growth. Sewage sludge contained fewer biodegradable organic substance, reactive mixture with single sewage sludge showed the lowest sulfate reduction (65.9%). When the single sewage sludge was supplemented with rice straw, SRB reducing sulfate was enhanced (79.2%), because the degradation rate of rice straw was accelerated by the specific bacteria in sewage sludge, providing relatively abundant carbon source for SRB. Control experiment with ethanol was most effective in promoting sulfate reduction (97.9%). Metal removal efficiency in all three reactors was as high as 99% for copper, early copper removal was mainly attributed to the adsorption capacity of sewage sludge prior to SRB acclimation. It is feasible for using rice straw and sewage sludge as carbon sources for SRB treating acid mine drainage at a low cost, this may have significant implication for in situ bioremediation of mine environment. PMID:21090305

  10. Organic matter and water management strategies to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice fields in Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, A.

    2014-12-01

    The reduction of CH4 and N2O emissions from rice paddies is of utmost importance in minimizing the impact of rice production on global warming. A field experiment was therefore conducted in farmers' field in Hanoi, Vietnam to examine whether the use of straw compost or straw biochar, in combination with the safe alternate wetting and drying (AWD) has the potential to suppress both CH4 and N2O emissions from rice paddies while maintaining the rice yield. The study compared the proposed strategies with local farmers' practice of permanent flooding (PF) and farmyard manure (FYM) incorporation, respectively. A control treatment without organic matter incorporation in both AWD and PF water regimes was also included in the study; all treatments received equal amounts of mineral fertilizer. Gas emissions were monitored using the closed chamber method at seven-day intervals during the first 50 days and at 15-day intervals thereafter. Addition of FYM, straw compost and biochar increased CH4 emissions by 230 %, 150 % and 38 %, respectively, when compared with the control treatments in both the AWD and PF water regimes. Within AWD, FYM increased N2O emissions by 30 %, straw compost and biochar displayed similar amount of N2O emissions as the control treatment. Within PF, N2O emissions under FYM and straw compost were 40 % and 35 % higher than the control treatment, respectively, and biochar once again displayed similar amount of N2O emissions as the control treatment. Yield difference was not significant (P > 0.05) between any of the treatments. These results indicated that the straw compost incorporation might not reduce the global warming potential (GWP) and yield-scaled GWP of rice production, whereas biochar in combination with AWD has the potential to maintain the GWP and yield-scaled GWP of rice production at lower level than the farmers' practice.

  11. Reduced Dependence of Crested Ibis on Winter-Flooded Rice Fields: Implications for Their Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yiwen; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Wang, Tiejun; van Gils, Hein A. M. J.; Wang, Qi; Qing, Baoping; Ding, Changqing

    2014-01-01

    The Crested Ibis Nipponia nippon was once thought to be extinct in the wild until seven birds were discovered in a remote mountain village in China in 1981. Studies suggested that winter-flooded rice fields play an essential role in nest site selection by the Crested Ibis and hence in their survival. Considerable efforts were therefore made to conserve the winter-flooded rice fields, but these have caused conflicts between the agricultural and conservation communities. The population and geographical range of the wild Crested Ibis has expanded greatly since 1981, but there is no spatial information on the winter-flooded rice fields, nor on the current association of nest sites and winter-flooded rice fields. We mapped winter-flooded rice fields across the entire current range of Crested Ibis using innovative remote sensing and geographical information systems (GIS) techniques. The spatial relationships between the nest site clusters and winter-flooded rice fields were quantified using Ward's hierarchical clustering method and Ripley's K-function. We show that both have significantly clumped distribution patterns and that they are positively associated. However, the dependence of Crested Ibis on the winter-flooded rice fields varied significantly among the nest site clusters and has decreased over the years, indicating the absence of winter-flooded rice fields is not constraining their recovery and population expansion. We therefore recommend that efforts should be made to protect the existing winter-flooded rice fields and to restore the functionality of natural and semi-natural wetlands, to encourage both in-situ conservation and the re-introduction of the Crested Ibis. In addition, we recommend that caution should be exercised when interpreting the habitat requirements of species with a narrow distribution, particularly when that interpretation is based only on their current habitat. PMID:24874870

  12. Biochar amendment reduces rice Cd uptake in polluted and unpolluted paddy soils: a long term field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, R.; Cui, L.; Pan, G.; Li, L.

    2012-04-01

    The bioavailability of Cd in agricultural soils has been a great health concern due to the potential risk through exposure of agro-food produced in Cd-contaminated fields. Yet, rice subject to Cd contamination appears to have expanded at the last decade due to irrigation with waste water and chemical fertilization in south china. This is supposed to raise the Cd accumulation of rice grain. Therefore, techniques to reduce Cd mobility and plant uptake have been a urgent demand for food safety in China.A field experiment was performed in a high-polluted (HP), mid-pollute (MP) and unpolluted (UP) paddy soil with biochar(BC) amendment in 2011. BC was applied in HP, MP and UP in 2008, 2009, 2009 with the rates of 0, 10, 20, 40t ha-1 in HP, MP and 0, 40t ha-1 in UP. The experiment was monitored in 2011. It was observed that BC amendment did not affect rice grain yield but significantly increased soil pH by 0.58-0.77, 1.30 units in MP, UP and there was no difference in HP. The Cacl2 extracted Cd in soil was decreased by 18.1%-28.9% in HP, 49.3%-67.5% in MP and 83.1% in UP, respectively. Meanwhile, H2O extractable Cd in soil was decreased by 20.0%-31.7% in HP, 32.7%-44.2% in MP and 25.0% in UP, respectively. With the BC treatment, rice grain Cd concentration was decreased 4.7%-17.6% in HP, 35.9%-53.4% in MP. Especially in UP field, the rice grain Cd concentration was decreased from 0.22mg kg-1 to 0.07mg kg-1 which was below National standard (0.20mg kg-1) in China. The straw and root Cd contents were also significantly decreased with BC application. Therefore, BC amendment in polluted and unpolluted fields can sustainably reduce rice Cd uptake and it may offer a basic option to reduce Cd levels in rice. Keywords: Biochar, Cd, bioavailability, paddy soil, food safety

  13. Water-saving ground cover rice production system reduces net greenhouse gas fluxes in an annual rice-based cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Z.; Du, Y.; Tao, Y.; Zheng, X.; Liu, C.; Lin, S.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2014-11-01

    To safeguard food security and preserve precious water resources, the technology of water-saving ground cover rice production system (GCRPS) is being increasingly adopted for rice cultivation. However, changes in soil water status and temperature under GCRPS may affect soil biogeochemical processes that control the biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The overall goal of this study is to better understand how net ecosystem greenhouse gas exchanges (NEGE) and grain yields are affected by GCRPS in an annual rice-based cropping system. Our evaluation was based on measurements of the CH4 and N2O fluxes and soil heterotrophic respiration (CO2 emissions) over a complete year, and the estimated soil carbon sequestration intensity for six different fertilizer treatments for conventional paddy and GCRPS. The fertilizer treatments included urea application and no N fertilization for both conventional paddy (CUN and CNN) and GCRPS (GUN and GNN), and solely chicken manure (GCM) and combined urea and chicken manure applications (GUM) for GCRPS. Averaging across all the fertilizer treatments, GCRPS increased annual N2O emission and grain yield by 40 and 9%, respectively, and decreased annual CH4 emission by 69%, while GCRPS did not affect soil CO2 emissions relative to the conventional paddy. The annual direct emission factors of N2O were 4.01, 0.09 and 0.50% for GUN, GCM and GUM, respectively, and 1.52% for the conventional paddy (CUN). The annual soil carbon sequestration intensity under GCRPS was estimated to be an average of -1.33 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, which is approximately 44% higher than the conventional paddy. The annual NEGE were 10.80-11.02 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 for the conventional paddy and 3.05-9.37 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 for the GCRPS, suggesting the potential feasibility of GCRPS in reducing net greenhouse effects from rice cultivation. Using organic fertilizers for GCRPS considerably reduced annual emissions of CH4

  14. Water-saving ground cover rice production system reduces net greenhouse gas fluxes in an annual rice-based cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Z.; Du, Y.; Tao, Y.; Zheng, X.; Liu, C.; Lin, S.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2014-06-01

    To safeguard food security and preserve precious water resources, the technology of water-saving ground cover rice production system (GCRPS) is being increasingly adopted for the rice cultivation. However, changes in soil water status and temperature under GCRPS may affect soil biogeochemical processes that control the biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The overall goal of this study is to better understand how net ecosystem greenhouse gas exchanges (NEGE) and grain yields are affected by GCRPS in an annual rice-based cropping system. Our evaluation was based on measurements of the CH4 and N2O fluxes and soil heterotrophic respiration (CO2 emission) over a complete year, as well as the estimated soil carbon sequestration intensity for six different fertilizer treatments for conventional paddy and GCRPS. The fertilizer treatments included urea application and no N fertilization for both conventional paddy (CUN and CNN) and GCRPS (GUN and GNN), solely chicken manure (GCM) and combined urea and chicken manure applications (GUM) for GCRPS. Averaging across all the fertilizer treatments, GCRPS increased annual N2O emission and grain yield by 40% and 9%, respectively, and decreased annual CH4 emission by 69%, while GCRPS did not affect soil CO2 emissions relative to the conventional paddy. The annual direct emission factors of N2O were 4.01, 0.087 and 0.50% for GUN, GCM and GUM, respectively, and 1.52% for the conventional paddy (CUN). The annual soil carbon sequestration intensity under GCRPS was estimated to be an average of -1.33 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, which is approximately 44% higher than the conventional paddy. The annual NEGE were 10.80-11.02 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 for the conventional paddy and 3.05-9.37 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 for the GCRPS, suggesting the potential feasibility of GCRPS in reducing net greenhouse effect from rice cultivation. Using organic fertilizers for GCRPS considerably reduced annual emissions

  15. [Effects of increased planting density with reduced nitrogen fertilizer application on rice yield, N use efficiency and greenhouse gas emission in Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiang-cheng; Zhang, Zhen-ping; Zhang, Jun; Deng, Ai-xing; Zhang, Wei-jian

    2016-02-01

    The traditional rice growing practice has to change to save resource and protect environment, and it' s necessary to develop new technology in rice cultivation. Therefore, a two-year field experiment of Japonica rice (Liaoxing 1) was conducted in Northeast China in 2012 and 2013 to investigate the integrated effects of dense planting with less basal nitrogen (N) and unchanged top-dressing N (IR) on rice yield, N use efficiency (NUE) and greenhouse gas emissions. Compared with traditional practice (CK), we increased the rice seedling density by 33.3% and reduced the basal N rate by 20%. The results showed that the average N agronomy efficiency and partial factor productivity were improved by 49.6% (P<0.05) and 20.4% (P<0.05), respectively, while the area and yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions were reduced by 9.9% and 12.7% (P<0.05), respectively. Although IR cropping mode decreased panicle number and biomass production, it significantly enhanced rice seed setting rate and harvest index, resulting in an unchanged or even highei yield. NH4+-N and NO3(-)-N concentrations in rice rhizosphere soil were reduced, resulting in an increment of N recovery efficiency. Generally, proper dense planting with less basal N applicatior could be a good approach for the trade-off between rice yield, NUE and greenhouse gas emission. PMID:27396117

  16. Carotenoid inhibitors reduce strigolactone production and Striga hermonthica infection in rice.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Muhammad; Charnikhova, Tatsiana; Verstappen, Francel; Bouwmeester, Harro

    2010-12-01

    The strigolactones are internal and rhizosphere signalling molecules in plants that are biosynthesised through carotenoid cleavage. They are secreted by host roots into the rhizosphere where they signal host-presence to the symbiotic arbuscular mycrorrhizal (AM) fungi and the parasitic plants of the Orobanche, Phelipanche and Striga genera. The seeds of these parasitic plants germinate after perceiving these signalling molecules. After attachment to the host root, the parasite negatively affects the host plant by withdrawing water, nutrients and assimilates through a direct connection with the host xylem. In many areas of the world these parasites are a threat to agriculture but so far very limited success has been achieved to minimize losses due to these parasitic weeds. Considering the carotenoid origin of the strigolactones, in the present study we investigated the possibilities to reduce strigolactone production in the roots of plants by blocking carotenoid biosynthesis using carotenoid inhibitors. Hereto the carotenoid inhibitors fluridone, norflurazon, clomazone and amitrole were applied to rice either through irrigation or through foliar spray. Irrigation application of all carotenoid inhibitors and spray application of amitrole significantly decreased strigolactone production, Striga hermonthica germination and Striga infection, also in concentrations too low to affect growth and development of the host plant. Hence, we demonstrate that the application of carotenoid inhibitors to plants can affect S. hermonthica germination and attachment indirectly by reducing the strigolactone concentration in the rhizosphere. This finding is useful for further studies on the relevance of the strigolactones in rhizosphere signalling. Since these inhibitors are available and accessible, they may represent an efficient technology for farmers, including poor subsistence farmers in the African continent, to control these harmful parasitic weeds. PMID:20732294

  17. Germinated brown rice and its bio-functional compounds.

    PubMed

    Cho, Dong-Hwa; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2016-04-01

    Brown rice (BR) contains bran layers and embryo, where a variety of nutritional and biofunctional components, such as dietary fibers, γ-oryzanol, vitamins, and minerals, exist. However, BR is consumed less than white rice because it has an inferior eating texture when cooked. Germination is one of the techniques used to improve the texture of the cooked BR. In addition, it induces numerous changes in the composition and chemical structure of the bioactive components. Moreover, many studies reported that the germination could induce the formation of new bioactive compounds, such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The consumption of germinated brown rice (GBR) is increasing in many Asian countries because of its improved eating quality and potential health-promoting functions. However, there is still a lack of studies on the compositional and functional changes of the bioactive components during germination. This review contains recent research findings, especially on the bioactive components in GBR. PMID:26593491

  18. Contact urticaria from rice.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Y; Ohsuna, H; Aihara, M; Tsubaki, K; Ikezawa, Z

    2001-02-01

    A 30-year-old man with atopic dermatitis had had erythema and itching of the hands after washing rice in water, though he had always eaten cooked rice without problems. Handling test with water used to wash regular rice was performed on abraded hands, and produced urticarial erythema after several minutes. Applications of water used to wash allergen-reduced rice were negative for urticarial reaction. Prick test with water used to wash regular rice was +++. However prick test reaction with water used to wash allergen-reduced rice was +. Histamine-release test of regular rice-washing water was grade 3 and that of allergen-reduced rice grade 1. In immunoblotting analysis with regular rice washing water, there were no bands with this patient. These results suggest that the allergen responsible for contact urticaria in this patient might be water-soluble, heat-unstable, and not contained in allergen-reduced rice. PMID:11205411

  19. Alterations in locomotor activity after microinjections of GBR-12909, selective dopamine antagonists or neurotensin into the medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Radcliffe, R A; Erwin, V G

    1996-06-01

    It has been postulated that increased dopamine (DA) activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) exerts an inhibitory influence over DA release in the nucleus accumbens and, thus, also over locomotor activity. Experiments were designed to examine the role of mPFC DA and neurotensin (NT), a neuropeptide which interacts with DA, in spontaneous locomotor activity. LS/IBG mice were injected bilaterally with either GBR-12909, a selective DA uptake blocker, the DA D1 receptor antagonist R-(+)-SCH-23390, the DA D2 receptor antagonist epidepride, NT or a combination of drugs. GBR-12909 produced a U-shaped dose-response curve with a maximum inhibition of 47% of control. Postmortem tissue levels of DA, 5-hydroxytryptamine, norepinephrine and their major metabolites were determined after microinjections of GBR-12909. Tissue levels of these compounds were not significantly affected by GBR-12909. However, the ratios of homovanilic acid/DA and homovanilic acid + 3,4-dihyroxyphenylacetic acid/DA were significantly decreased, whereas the 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid/5-hydroxytryptamine ratio was not affected by GBR-12909, suggesting a selective effect on DAergic processes. By itself, R-(+)-SCH-23390 had no effect on locomotor activity except at a very high dose which caused locomotor inhibition (49% of control). Epidepride caused a dose-dependent inhibition of locomotor activity with a maximum inhibition of 49% of control. When coinjected with an inhibitory dose of GBR-12909, both epidepride and R-(+)-SCH-23390 attenuated the GBR-12909 effect in a dose-dependent manner. A broad range of doses of NT was found to have no consistent effect on locomotor activity. However, when coinjected with an inhibitory dose of GBR-12909, NT attenuated the GBR-12909-induced inhibition in a dose-dependent manner. The results suggest that stimulation of DA receptors in the mPFC, both DA D1 and DA D2 receptors mediates locomotor inhibition. Furthermore, stimulation of NT receptors appears to

  20. A tolerance study of single and multiple dosing of the selective dopamine uptake inhibitor GBR 12909 in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Søgaard, U; Michalow, J; Butler, B; Lund Laursen, A; Ingersen, S H; Skrumsager, B K; Rafaelsen, O J

    1990-10-01

    GBR 12909 selectively blocks dopamine uptake and its biochemical and pharmacological profiles suggest that it may possess antidepressant activity and be of value in treatment of Parkinson's disease. The tolerance, pharmacokinetics and influence on psychomotor performance of GBR 12909 were investigated in a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study. Four healthy subjects were administered oral single doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg GBR 12909 and placebo, and four other healthy subjects received, 50, 100 and 150 mg GBR 12909 and placebo once daily for 7 days. The intermediate and highest doses resulted in mild to moderate side-effects such as difficulties in concentrating, asthenia, feeling of drug influence and palpitations. No changes were observed in haematological and clinico-chemical parameters. A dose-related effect on ECG was observed with a slight reduction of the T-wave amplitude. No signs of arrhythmia or decompensation during exercise until exhaustion were observed. Psychomotor performance indicated dose-related sedation in the single-dose study. Only minor deviations from first order kinetics were observed. Elimination half-life was estimated at 1-2 days. Steady-state serum concentrations of GBR 12909 appeared to be attained within 1 week. Based on the results of this study, the estimated therapeutic doses are expected to be well-tolerated in patients. PMID:2150527

  1. Parboiled rice hull mulch in containers reduces liverwort and bittercress growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of preemergence herbicides for weed control is not always possible; some crops and many enclosed production sites are not labeled for herbicide applications. The objective of this research was to determine the utility of parboiled rice hull mulch for controlling two of the most common weeds in ...

  2. SUPPLEMENTAL ULTRAVIOLET-B RADIATION DOES NOT REDUCE GROWTH OR GRAIN YIELD IN RICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Negative effects of enhanced UV-B radiation have been demonstrated in plants, but impacts under realistic field conditions remain uncertain. Adverse impacts to major crops, such as rice (Oryza sativa L.), that are grown in areas with currently high ambient levels of UV-B, could h...

  3. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions, water use and grain arsenic levels in rice systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture is faced with the challenge of providing healthy food for a growing population while minimizing environmental consequences. Rice (Oryza sativa), the staple crop for the largest number of people on earth, is grown under flooded soil conditions and uses more water and has higher greenhous...

  4. Clinical and histological evaluation of alloderm GBR and BioOss in the treatment of Siebert's class I ridge deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sudarsan, Sabitha; Arun, K. V.; Priya, M. S.; Arun, Ramya

    2008-01-01

    Complete prosthetic rehabilitation using implants require the presence of adequate dimensions of alveolar bone. Ridge augmentation procedures include the use of guided bone regeneration (GBR) procedures where the barrier membrane provides cell occlusion and space for the regenerating tissues. Alloderm GBR has been introduced for the purpose of augmenting bone and has been postulated to have the additionally ability to integrate into soft tissues. Twenty-two patients with Siebert's class I ridge deficiency were treated with BioOss and Alloderm GBR and followed up for a period of nine months. Significant increase in ridge dimensions of both hard and soft tissues were observed at six months period itself, suggesting that it as an effective method of augmenting deficient ridges. PMID:20142949

  5. Rice koji reduced body weight gain, fat accumulation, and blood glucose level in high-fat diet-induced obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Kawasaki, Chihiro; Cheng, Kai-Chun; Ushikai, Miharu; Amitani, Haruka; Asakawa, Akihiro; Okutsu, Kayu; Sameshima, Yoshihiro; Takamine, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    Rice koji is considered a readily accessible functional food that may have health-promoting effects. We investigated whether white, yellow, and red koji have the anti-obesity effect in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), which is a model for obesity. Mice were fed HFD containing 10% (w/w) of rice koji powder or steamed rice for 4 weeks. Weight gain, epididymal white adipose tissue, and total adipose tissue weight were significantly lower in all rice koji groups than in the HFD-rice group after 4 weeks. Feed efficiency was significantly reduced in the yellow koji group. Blood glucose levels were significantly lower in the white and red koji groups with HOMA-R and leptin levels being reduced in the white koji group. White and red koji increased glucose uptake and GLUT4 protein expression in L6 myotube cells. These results showed that all rice koji have the anti-obesity or anti-diabetes effects although the mechanisms may differ depending on the type of rice koji consumed. PMID:25237599

  6. Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions Reduced Following Conversion of Rice Paddies to Inland Crab-Fish Aquaculture in Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuwei; Hu, Zhiqiang; Wu, Shuang; Li, Shuqing; Li, Zhaofu; Zou, Jianwen

    2016-01-19

    Aquaculture is an important source of atmospheric methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), while few direct flux measurements are available for their regional and global source strength estimates. A parallel field experiment was performed to measure annual CH4 and N2O fluxes from rice paddies and rice paddy-converted inland crab-fish aquaculture wetlands in southeast China. Besides N2O fluxes dependent on water/sediment mineral N and CH4 fluxes related to water chemical oxygen demand, both CH4 and N2O fluxes from aquaculture were related to water/sediment temperature, sediment dissolved organic carbon, and water dissolved oxygen concentration. Annual CH4 and N2O fluxes from inland aquaculture averaged 0.37 mg m(-2) h(-1) and 48.1 μg m(-2) h(-1), yielding 32.57 kg ha(-1) and 2.69 kg N2O-N ha(-1), respectively. The conversion of rice paddies to aquaculture significantly reduced CH4 and N2O emissions by 48% and 56%, respectively. The emission factor for N2O was estimated to be 0.66% of total N input in the feed or 1.64 g N2O-N kg(-1) aquaculture production in aquaculture. The conversion of rice paddies to inland aquaculture would benefit for reconciling greenhouse gas mitigation and agricultural income increase as far as global warming potentials and net ecosystem economic profits are of concomitant concern. Some agricultural practices such as better aeration and feeding, and fallow season dredging would help to lower CH4 and N2O emissions from inland aquaculture. More field measurements from inland aquaculture are highly needed to gain an insight into national and global accounting of CH4 and N2O emissions. PMID:26669815

  7. Combination of wet irrigation and nitrification inhibitor reduced nitrous oxide and methane emissions from a rice cropping system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Yu, Haiyang; Zhang, Guangbin; Xu, Hua; Ma, Jing

    2016-09-01

    To conserve water resources and guarantee food security, a new technology termed as "wet irrigation" is developed and practiced in rice fields; thus, its impact on radiative forcing derived from nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions merits serious attention. Dicyandiamide (DCD), a kind of nitrification inhibitor, is proposed as a viable means to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emission while enhancing crop productivity. However, little is known about the response of GHG emission and grain yield to DCD application in a rice system under wet irrigation. In these regard, effects of water regime and DCD application on CH4 and N2O emissions, grain yield, global warming potential (GWP), and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) from rice fields were studied. For this study, a field experiment, designed: Treatment II (intermittent irrigation), Treatment WI (wet irrigation), Treatment IID (II plus DCD), and Treatment WID (WI plus DCD), was conducted in Jurong, Jiangsu Province, China, from 2011 to 2012. Relative to Treatment II, Treatment WI decreased CH4 emission significantly by 49-71 % while increasing N2O emission by 33-72 %. By integrating CH4 and N2O emissions and grain yield, Treatment WI was 20-28 and 11-15 % lower than Treatment II in GWP and GHGI, respectively. The use of DCD under wet irrigation reduced N2O emission significantly by 25-38 % (p < 0.05) and CH4 emission by 7-8 %, relative to Treatment WI, resulting in a decline of 18-30 % in GWP. Due to the increase in N use efficiency, maximal grain yield (6-7 %) and minimal GHGI (22-34 %) was observed in Treatment WID. These findings indicate that combined application of N fertilizer and DCD is a win-win strategy in water-saving high-yield rice production with less GHG emission. PMID:27230147

  8. Water management reduces greenhouse gas emissions in a Mediterranean rice paddy field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruening, Carsten; Meijide, Ana; Manca, Giovanni; Goded, Ignacio; Seufert, Guenther; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Rice paddy fields are one of the biggest anthropogenic sources of methane (CH4), the second most important greenhouse gas (GHG) after carbon dioxide (CO2). Therefore most studies on greenhouse gases (GHG) in these agricultural systems focus on the evaluation of CH4 production. However, there are other GHGs such as CO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O) also exchanged within the atmosphere. Since each of the GHGs has its own radiative forcing effect, the total GHG budget of rice cultivation and its global warming potential (GWP) must be assessed. For this purpose a field experiment was carried out in a Mediterranean rice paddy field in the Po Valley (Italy), the largest rice producing region in Europe. Ecosystem CO2 and CH4 fluxes were assessed using the eddy covariance technique, while soil respiration and soil CH4 and N2O fluxes were measured with closed chambers for two complete years. Combining all GHGs measured, the rice paddy field acted as a sink of -368 and -828 g CO2 eq m-2 year-1 in the first and second years respectively. Both years, it was a CO2 sink and a CH4 source, while the N2O contribution to the GWP was relatively small. Differences in the GHG budget between the two years of measurements were mainly caused by the greater CH4 emissions in the first year (37.4 g CH4 m-2 compared to 21.03 g CH4 m-2 in the second year), probably as a consequence of the drainage of the water table in the middle of the growing season during the second year, which resulted in lower CH4 emissions without significant increases of N2O and CO2 fluxes. However, midseason drainage also resulted in small decreases of yield, indicating that GHG budget studies from agricultural systems should consider carbon exports through the harvest. The balance between net GWP and carbon yield indicated a loss of carbon equivalents from the system, which was more than 30-fold higher in the first year. Our results therefore suggest that an adequate management of the water table has the potential to be an

  9. Maintaining yields and reducing nitrogen loss in rice-wheat rotation system in Taihu Lake region with proper fertilizer management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Lihong; Yu, Yingliang; Yang, Linzhang

    2014-11-01

    In the Tailake region of China, heavy nitrogen (N) loss of rice-wheat rotation systems, due to high fertilizer-N input with low N use efficiency (NUE), was widely reported. To alleviate the detrimental impacts caused by N loss, it is necessary to improve the fertilizer management practices. Therefore, a 3 yr field experiments with different N managements including organic combined chemical N treatment (OCN, 390 kg N ha-1 yr-1, 20% organic fertilizer), control-released urea treatment (CRU, 390 kg N ha-1 yr-1, 70% resin-coated urea), reduced chemical N treatment (RCN, 390 kg N ha-1 yr-1, all common chemical fertilizer), and site-specific N management (SSNM, 333 kg N ha-1 yr-1, all common chemical fertilizer) were conducted in the Taihu Lake region with the ‘farmer’s N’ treatment (FN, 510 kg N ha-1 yr-1, all common chemical fertilizer) as a control. Grain yield, plant N uptake (PNU), NUE, and N losses via runoff, leaching, and ammonia volatilization were assessed. In the rice season, the FN treatment had the highest N loss and lowest NUE, which can be attributed to an excessive rate of N application. Treatments of OCN and RCN with a 22% reduced N rate from FN had no significant effect on PNU nor the yield of rice in the 3 yr; however, the NUE was improved and N loss was reduced 20-32%. OCN treatment achieved the highest yield, while SSNM has the lowest N loss and highest NUE due to the lowest N rate. In wheat season, N loss decreased about 28-48% with the continuous reduction of N input, but the yield also declined, with the exception of OCN treatment. N loss through runoff, leaching and ammonia volatilization was positively correlated with the N input rate. When compared with the pure chemical fertilizer treatment of RCN under the same N input, OCN treatment has better NUE, better yield, and lower N loss. 70% of the urea replaced with resin-coated urea had no significant effect on yield and NUE improvement, but decreased the ammonia volatilization loss. Soil

  10. Metabolic engineering of the regulators in nitrogen catabolite repression to reduce the production of ethyl carbamate in a model rice wine system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinrui; Zou, Huijun; Fu, Jianwei; Zhou, Jingwen; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Rice wine has been one of the most popular traditional alcoholic drinks in China. However, the presence of potentially carcinogenic ethyl carbamate (EC) in rice wine has raised a series of food safety issues. During rice wine production, the key reason for EC formation is urea accumulation, which occurs because of nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. NCR represses urea utilization by retaining Gln3p in the cytoplasm when preferred nitrogen sources are present. In order to increase the nuclear localization of Gln3p, some possible phosphorylation sites on the nuclear localization signal were mutated and the nuclear localization regulation signal was truncated, and the disruption of URE2 provided an additional method of reducing urea accumulation. By combining these strategies, the genes involved in urea utilization (DUR1,2 and DUR3) could be significantly activated in the presence of glutamine. During shake flask fermentations of the genetically modified strains, very little urea accumulated in the medium. Furthermore, the concentrations of urea and EC were reduced by 63% and 72%, respectively, in a model rice wine system. Examination of the normal nutrients in rice wine indicated that there were few differences in fermentation characteristics between the wild-type strain and the genetically modified strain. These results show that metabolic engineering of the NCR regulators has great potential as a method for eliminating EC during rice wine production. PMID:24185848

  11. Reducing Soil CO2 Emission and Improving Upland Rice Yield with no-Tillage, Straw Mulch and Nitrogen Fertilization in Northern Benin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dossou-Yovo, E.; Brueggemann, N.; Naab, J.; Huat, J.; Ampofo, E.; Ago, E.; Agbossou, E.

    2015-12-01

    To explore effective ways to decrease soil CO2 emission and increase grain yield, field experiments were conducted on two upland rice soils (Lixisols and Gleyic Luvisols) in northern Benin in West Africa. The treatments were two tillage systems (no-tillage, and manual tillage), two rice straw managements (no rice straw, and rice straw mulch at 3 Mg ha-1) and three nitrogen fertilizers levels (no nitrogen, recommended level of nitrogen: 60 kg ha-1, and high level of nitrogen: 120 kg ha-1). Potassium and phosphorus fertilizers were applied to be non-limiting at 40 kg K2O ha-1 and 40 kg P2O5 ha-1. Four replications of the twelve treatment combinations were arranged in a randomized complete block design. Soil CO2 emission, soil moisture and soil temperature were measured at 5 cm depth in 6 to 10 days intervals during the rainy season and every two weeks during the dry season. Soil moisture was the main factor explaining the seasonal variability of soil CO2 emission. Much larger soil CO2 emissions were found in rainy than dry season. No-tillage planting significantly reduced soil CO2 emissions compared with manual tillage. Higher soil CO2 emissions were recorded in the mulched treatments. Soil CO2 emissions were higher in fertilized treatments compared with non fertilized treatments. Rice biomass and yield were not significantly different as a function of tillage systems. On the contrary, rice biomass and yield significantly increased with application of rice straw mulch and nitrogen fertilizer. The highest response of rice yield to nitrogen fertilizer addition was obtained for 60 kg N ha-1 in combination with 3 Mg ha-1 of rice straw for the two tillage systems. Soil CO2 emission per unit grain yield was lower under no-tillage, rice straw mulch and nitrogen fertilizer treatments. No-tillage combined with rice straw mulch and 60 kg N ha-1 could be used by smallholder farmers to achieve higher grain yield and lower soil CO2 emission in upland rice fields in northern Benin.

  12. Alternate wetting and drying of rice reduced CH4 emissions but triggered N2O peaks in a clayey soil of central Italy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing CH4 and N2O emissions from rice cropping systems while sustaining production levels with less water requires a better understanding of the key processes involved. Alternate wetting and drying (AWD) irrigation is one promising practice that has been shown to reduce CH4 emissions. However, li...

  13. Alternate wetting and drying of rice reduced CH4 emissions but triggered N2O peaks in a clayey soil of central Italy.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing CH4 and N2O emissions from rice cropping systems while sustaining production levels with less water requires a better understanding of the key processes involved. Alternate wetting and drying (AWD) irrigation is one promising practice that has been shown to reduce CH4 emissions. However, li...

  14. Effect of selenium enrichment on the quality of germinated brown rice during storage.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Liu, Kunlun; Chen, Fusheng

    2016-09-15

    Changes in the quality of selenized germinated brown rice (Se-GBR) and germinated brown rice (GBR) under controlled temperature storage were investigated. Samples were sealed in air-tight jars (75% RH) and stored at 15, 25, or 35 °C for 9 months. Fatty acid value (FAV), peroxide value (POV), and carbonyl value (CV) were determined every 45d. FAV, POV, and CV gradually increased with the storage period. Samples stored under low-temperature showed lower FAVs, POVs, and CVs than samples stored at higher temperatures. Compared with GBR, Se-GBR showed lower FAVs, POVs and CVs; this indicates Se exerted a positive effect on the preservation of rice quality. Over 100 volatile compounds were identified, and 15 volatile aldehydes were further studied. To determine the distribution pattern of volatile aldehydes, principal component analysis (PCA) was employed. The first two principal components determined from the PCA of volatile aldehydes explained 50.22% of the variance observed. PMID:27080875

  15. Overexpression of rice glutaredoxins (OsGrxs) significantly reduces arsenite accumulation by maintaining glutathione pool and modulating aquaporins in yeast.

    PubMed

    Verma, Pankaj Kumar; Verma, Shikha; Meher, Alok Kumar; Pande, Veena; Mallick, Shekhar; Bansiwal, Amit Kumar; Tripathi, Rudra Deo; Dhankher, Om Parkash; Chakrabarty, Debasis

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic (As) is an acute poison and class I carcinogen, can cause a serious health risk. Staple crops like rice are the primary source of As contamination in human food. Rice grown on As contaminated areas accumulates higher As in their edible parts. Based on our previous transcriptome data, two rice glutaredoxins (OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1) were identified that showed up-regulated expression during As stress. Here, we report OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 from rice involved in the regulation of intracellular arsenite (AsIII). To elucidate the mechanism of OsGrx mediated As tolerance, both OsGrxs were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli (Δars) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strains (Δycf1, Δacr3). The expression of OsGrxs increased As tolerance in E. coli (Δars) mutant strain (up to 4 mM AsV and up to 0.6 mM AsIII). During AsIII exposure, S. cerevisiae (Δacr3) harboring OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 have lower intracellular AsIII accumulation (up to 30.43% and 24.90%, respectively), compared to vector control. Arsenic accumulation in As-sensitive S. cerevisiae mutant (Δycf1) also reduced significantly on exposure to inorganic As. The expression of OsGrxs in yeast maintained intracellular GSH pool and increased extracellular GSH concentration. Purified OsGrxs displays in vitro GSH-disulfide oxidoreductase, glutathione reductase and arsenate reductase activities. Also, both OsGrxs are involved in AsIII extrusion by altering the Fps1 transcripts in yeast and protect the cell by maintaining cellular GSH pool. Thus, our results strongly suggest that OsGrxs play a crucial role in the maintenance of the intracellular GSH pool and redox status of the cell during both AsV and AsIII stress and might be involved in regulating intracellular AsIII levels by modulation of aquaporin expression and functions. PMID:27174139

  16. Sulfur alleviates arsenic toxicity by reducing its accumulation and modulating proteome, amino acids and thiol metabolism in rice leaves

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Garima; Singh, Amit Pal; Kumar, Amit; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Deeba, Farah; Kumar, Smita; Suman, Shankar; Adhikari, Bijan; Shukla, Yogeshwar; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Pandey, Vivek; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of water is a global concern and rice consumption is the biggest dietary exposure to human posing carcinogenic risks, predominantly in Asia. Sulfur (S) is involved in di-sulfide linkage in many proteins and plays crucial role in As detoxification. Present study explores role of variable S supply on rice leaf proteome, its inclination towards amino acids (AA) profile and non protein thiols under arsenite exposure. Analysis of 282 detected proteins on 2-DE gel revealed 113 differentially expressed proteins, out of which 80 were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF. The identified proteins were mostly involved in glycolysis, TCA cycle, AA biosynthesis, photosynthesis, protein metabolism, stress and energy metabolism. Among these, glycolytic enzymes play a major role in AA biosynthesis that leads to change in AAs profiling. Proteins of glycolytic pathway, photosynthesis and energy metabolism were also validated by western blot analysis. Conclusively S supplementation reduced the As accumulation in shoot positively skewed thiol metabolism and glycolysis towards AA accumulation under AsIII stress. PMID:26552588

  17. Transgenes for insect resistance reduce herbivory and enhance fecundity in advanced generations of crop–weed hybrids of rice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao; Xia, Hui; Wang, Wei; Wang, Feng; Su, Jun; Snow, Allison A; Lu, Bao-Rong

    2011-01-01

    Gene flow from transgenic crops allows novel traits to spread to sexually compatible weeds. Traits such as resistance to insects may enhance the fitness of weeds, but few studies have tested for these effects under natural field conditions. We created F2 and F3 crop–weed hybrid lineages of genetically engineered rice (Oryza sativa) using lines with two transgene constructs, cowpea trypsin inhibitor (CpTI) and a Bt transgene linked to CpTI (Bt/CpTI). Experiments conducted in Fuzhou, China, demonstrated that CpTI alone did not significantly affect fecundity, although it reduced herbivory. In contrast, under certain conditions, Bt/CpTI conferred up to 79% less insect damage and 47% greater fecundity relative to nontransgenic controls, and a 44% increase in fecundity relative to the weedy parent. A small fitness cost was detected in F3 progeny with Bt/CpTI when grown under low insect pressure and direct competition with transgene-negative controls. We conclude that Bt/CpTI transgenes may introgress into co-occurring weedy rice populations and contribute to greater seed production when target insects are abundant. However, the net fitness benefits that are associated with Bt/CpTI could be ephemeral if insect pressure is lacking, for example, because of widespread planting of Bt cultivars that suppress target insect populations. PMID:25568014

  18. Sulfur alleviates arsenic toxicity by reducing its accumulation and modulating proteome, amino acids and thiol metabolism in rice leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Garima; Singh, Amit Pal; Kumar, Amit; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Deeba, Farah; Kumar, Smita; Suman, Shankar; Adhikari, Bijan; Shukla, Yogeshwar; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Pandey, Vivek; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of water is a global concern and rice consumption is the biggest dietary exposure to human posing carcinogenic risks, predominantly in Asia. Sulfur (S) is involved in di-sulfide linkage in many proteins and plays crucial role in As detoxification. Present study explores role of variable S supply on rice leaf proteome, its inclination towards amino acids (AA) profile and non protein thiols under arsenite exposure. Analysis of 282 detected proteins on 2-DE gel revealed 113 differentially expressed proteins, out of which 80 were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF. The identified proteins were mostly involved in glycolysis, TCA cycle, AA biosynthesis, photosynthesis, protein metabolism, stress and energy metabolism. Among these, glycolytic enzymes play a major role in AA biosynthesis that leads to change in AAs profiling. Proteins of glycolytic pathway, photosynthesis and energy metabolism were also validated by western blot analysis. Conclusively S supplementation reduced the As accumulation in shoot positively skewed thiol metabolism and glycolysis towards AA accumulation under AsIII stress.

  19. Calcium Mitigates Arsenic Toxicity in Rice Seedlings by Reducing Arsenic Uptake and Modulating the Antioxidant Defense and Glyoxalase Systems and Stress Markers

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Anisur; Mostofa, Mohammad Golam; Alam, Md. Mahabub; Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Fujita, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    The effect of exogenous calcium (Ca) on hydroponically grown rice seedlings was studied under arsenic (As) stress by investigating the antioxidant and glyoxalase systems. Fourteen-day-old rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. BRRI dhan29) seedlings were exposed to 0.5 and 1 mM Na2HAsO4 alone and in combination with 10 mM CaCl2 (Ca) for 5 days. Both levels of As caused growth inhibition, chlorosis, reduced leaf RWC, and increased As accumulation in the rice seedlings. Both doses of As in growth medium induced oxidative stress through overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by disrupting the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems. Exogenous application of Ca along with both levels of As significantly decreased As accumulation and restored plant growth and water loss. Calcium supplementation in the As-exposed rice seedlings reduced ROS production, increased ascorbate (AsA) content, and increased the activities of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the glyoxalase I (Gly I) and glyoxalase II (Gly II) enzymes compared with seedlings exposed to As only. These results suggest that Ca supplementation improves rice seedlings tolerance to As-induced oxidative stress by reducing As uptake, enhancing their antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems, and also improving growth and physiological condition. PMID:26798635

  20. Functional foods and the biomedicalisation of everyday life: a case of germinated brown rice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyomin

    2013-07-01

    Germinated brown rice (GBR) is a functional food, whose benefits for chronic diseases have been demonstrated by scientific research on a single constituent of GBR, gamma aminobutyric acid. This article examines the processes through which the emphasis on biomedical rationality made during the production and consumption of functional foods is embedded in the complicated social contexts of the post-1990s. In the case of GBR, the Korean government, food scientists, mass media and consumers have added cultural accounts to the biomedical understanding of foods. In particular, consumers have transformed their households and online communities into a place for surveillance medicine. Functional foods are embedded in multiple actors' perspectives on what healthy foods mean and how and where the risks of chronic diseases should be managed. PMID:23116161

  1. Reduced arsenic accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) shoot involves sulfur mediated improved thiol metabolism, antioxidant system and altered arsenic transporters.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Garima; Singh, Amit Pal; Kumar, Amit; Mishra, Seema; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Kumar, Smita; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Pandey, Vivek; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2016-02-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination in rice is at alarming level as majority of rice growing regions are As contaminated such as South East Asia. Restricting the As in aerial parts of rice plant may be an effective strategy to reduce As contamination in food chain. Sulfur (S), an essential element for plant growth and development, plays a crucial role in diminishing heavy metal toxicity. Current study is designed to investigate the role of S to mitigate As toxicity in rice under different S regimes. High S (5 mM) treatment resulted in enhanced root As accumulation as well as prevented its entry in to shoot. Results of thiol metabolism indicate that As was complexed in plant roots through enhanced synthesis of phytochelatins. High S treatment also reduced the expression of OsLsi1 and OsLsi2, the potent transporters of As in rice. High S treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and mitigated the As induced oxidative stress. Thus from present study it is evident that proper supply of S nutrition may be helpful in prevention of As accumulation in aerial parts of plant as well as As induced toxicity. PMID:26741538

  2. An Efficient Method Using Gluconacetobacter europaeus To Reduce an Unfavorable Flavor Compound, Acetoin, in Rice Vinegar Production

    PubMed Central

    Akasaka, Naoki; Sakoda, Hisao; Hidese, Ryota; Ishii, Yuri

    2013-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter europaeus, one of the microorganisms most commonly used for vinegar production, produces the unfavorable flavor compound acetoin. Since acetoin reduction is important for rice vinegar production, a genetic approach was attempted to reduce acetoin produced by G. europaeus KGMA0119 using specific gene knockout without introducing exogenous antibiotic resistance genes. A uracil-auxotrophic mutant with deletion of the orotate phosphoribosyltransferase gene (pyrE) was first isolated by positive selection using 5-fluoroorotic acid. The pyrE disruptant designated KGMA0704 (ΔpyrE) showed 5-fluoroorotic acid resistance. KGMA0704 and the pyrE gene were used for further gene disruption experiments as a host cell and a selectable marker, respectively. Targeted disruption of aldC or als, which encodes α-acetolactate decarboxylase or α-acetolactate synthase, was attempted in KGMA0704. The disruption of these genes was expected to result in a decrease in acetoin levels. A disruption vector harboring the pyrE marker within the targeted gene was constructed for double-crossover recombination. The cells of KGMA0704 were transformed with the exogenous DNA using electroporation, and genotypic analyses of the transformants revealed the unique occurrence of targeted aldC or als gene disruption. The aldC disruptant KGMA4004 and the als disruptant KGMA5315 were cultivated, and the amount of acetoin was monitored. The acetoin level in KGMA4004 culture was significantly reduced to 0.009% (wt/vol) compared with KGMA0119 (0.042% [wt/vol]), whereas that of KGMA5315 was not affected (0.037% [wt/vol]). This indicates that aldC disruption is critical for acetoin reduction. G. europaeus KGMA4004 has clear application potential in the production of rice vinegar with less unfavorable flavor. PMID:24056455

  3. Sparteine monooxygenase in brain and liver: Identified by the dopamine uptake blocker ( sup 3 H)GBR-12935

    SciTech Connect

    Kalow, W.; Tyndale, R.F.; Niznik, H.B.; Inaba, T. )

    1990-02-26

    P450IID6 (human sparteine monooxygenase) metabolizes many drugs including neuroleptics, antidepressants, and beta-blockers. The P450IID6 exists in human, bovine, rat and canine brains, but in very low quantities causing methodological difficulties in its assessment. Work with ({sup 3}H)GBR-12935; 1-(2-(diphenylmethoxy) ethyl)-4-(3-phenyl propyl) piperazine has shown that it binds a neuronal/hepatic protein with high affinity ({approximately}7nM) and a rank order of inhibitory potency suggesting that the binding protein is cytochrome P450IID6. The binding was used to predict that d-amphetamine and methamphetamine would interact with P450IID6. Inhibition studies indicated that these compounds were competitive inhibitors of P450IID6. Haloperidol (HAL) and it's metabolite hydroxy-haloperidol (RHAL) are both competitive inhibitors of P450IID6 activity and were found to inhibit ({sup 3}H)GBR-12935 binding. K{sub i} values of twelve compounds (known to interact with the DA transporter or P450IID6) for ({sup 3}H)GRB-12935 binding and P450IID6 activity. The techniques are now available for measurements of cytochrome P450IID6 in healthy and diseased brain/liver tissue using radio-receptor binding assay techniques with ({sup 3}H)GBR-12935.

  4. Salicylic acid modulates arsenic toxicity by reducing its root to shoot translocation in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amit P.; Dixit, Garima; Mishra, Seema; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Tiwari, Manish; Mallick, Shekhar; Pandey, Vivek; Trivedi, Prabodh K.; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Tripathi, Rudra D.

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is posing serious health concerns in South East Asia where rice, an efficient accumulator of As, is prominent crop. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signaling molecule and plays a crucial role in resistance against biotic and abiotic stress in plants. In present study, ameliorative effect of SA against arsenate (AsV) toxicity has been investigated in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Arsenate stress hampered the plant growth in terms of root, shoots length, and biomass as well as it enhanced the level of H2O2 and MDA in dose dependent manner in shoot. Exogenous application of SA, reverted the growth, and oxidative stress caused by AsV and significantly decreased As translocation to the shoots. Level of As in shoot was positively correlated with the expression of OsLsi2, efflux transporter responsible for root to shoot translocation of As in the form of arsenite (AsIII). SA also overcame AsV induced oxidative stress and modulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes in a differential manner in shoots. As treatment hampered the translocation of Fe in the shoot which was compensated by the SA treatment. The level of Fe in root and shoot was positively correlated with the transcript level of transporters responsible for the accumulation of Fe, OsNRAMP5, and OsFRDL1, in the root and shoot, respectively. Co-application of SA was more effective than pre-treatment for reducing As accumulation as well as imposed toxicity. PMID:26042132

  5. Use of rice straw biochar simultaneously as the sustained release carrier of herbicides and soil amendment for their reduced leaching.

    PubMed

    Lü, Jinhong; Li, Jianfa; Li, Yimin; Chen, Baozhu; Bao, Zhangfeng

    2012-07-01

    The sustained release and reduced leaching of herbicides is expected for enhancing their efficacy and minimizing their pollution. For this purpose, the rice straw biochar made at a relatively low temperature (350 °C) (RS350) was used simultaneously as the carrier for incorporating herbicides besides as the soil amendment. In this way, the sustained release of herbicides acetochlor and 2,4-D was obtained in the release experiments, due to the high and reversible sorption by RS350 biochar. Besides, the RS350 biochar significantly reduced the leached amount of herbicides by 25.4%-40.7% for acetochlor, and by 30.2%-45.5% for 2,4-D, depending on the depth (50 or 100 mm) of biochar-amended soil horizon. The high retention of both herbicides in the biochar-amended topsoil makes it possible to extend their efficacy. The results suggest a potential way of using low temperature biochars to reduce the leaching of herbicides without impacting their efficacy. PMID:22686323

  6. Overexpression of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) TAPETUM DEVELOPMENT1-like Eg707 in rice affects cell division and differentiation and reduces fertility.

    PubMed

    Thuc, Le Vinh; Geelen, Danny; Ky, Huynh; Ooi, Siew-Eng; Napis, Suhaimi B; Sinniah, Uma Rani; Namasivayam, Parameswari

    2013-02-01

    The functional analysis of the TAPETUM DEVELOPMENT1-like analog Eg707 of oil palm was carried out in rice by over-expressing Eg707 under the control of a double cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Ectopic expression of Eg707 in rice induced dark green and matured compact brownish calli compared to pale wild type and negative control calli. Regenerated transgenic rice plants exhibited a reduction in organ size and plant height, rolled, erect leaves, less tillers, increased chlorophyll content, and reduced fertility with smaller green seeds. At the molecular level Eg707 overexpression caused an increase in the transcription of SAPK9, a SnRK2 protein kinase family member that is activated by ABA and hyperosmotic stress. Together, the results show that ectopic Eg707 expression influences cell division and differentiation, presumably via altered hormone homeostasis. PMID:23086301

  7. House design modifications reduce indoor resting malaria vector densities in rice irrigation scheme area in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Atieli, Harrysone; Menya, Diana; Githeko, Andrew; Scott, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background Simple modifications of typical rural house design can be an effective and relatively inexpensive method of reducing indoor mosquito vector densities and consequently decreasing malaria transmission. Public health scientists have shown the potential for house design to protect people against malaria, yet this type of intervention remains virtually ignored. A randomized-controlled study was, therefore, undertaken to determine the effects of this method of vector control on the density of indoor resting malaria vectors in a rice irrigation scheme area in lowlands of western Kenya. Methods Ten treatment houses were modified with ceilings of papyrus mats and insecticide-treated netting (ITN) and tested against ten control houses without papyrus ceilings. To determine densities of mosquitoes resting in homes, the pyrethrum spray method was used to simultaneously collect indoor resting malaria vectors in intervention and control houses. Each house was sampled a total of eight times over a period of four months, resulting in a total of 80 sampling efforts for each treatment. Community response to such intervention was investigated by discussions with residents. Results Papyrus mats ceiling modification reduced house entry by Anopheles gambiae s.l and Anopheles funestus densities by between 78–80% and 86% respectively compared to unmodified houses. Geometric mean density of Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus in modified houses were significantly lower (t18 = 7.174, P < 0.0001 and t18 = 2.52, P = 0.02, respectively) compared to controls. Unmodified houses were associated with relatively higher densities of malaria vectors. There was a 84% (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.07–0.39, P < 0.0001) and 87% (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.03–0.5, P = 0.0004) reduction in the odds of Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus presence in modified houses, respectively, compared with unmodified houses. Residents responded favourably to this mode of vector control. Conclusion House

  8. Dietary Njavara rice bran oil reduces experimentally induced hypercholesterolaemia by regulating genes involved in lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Chithra, Pushpan K; Sindhu, G; Shalini, V; Parvathy, Rathnam; Jayalekshmy, Ananthasankaran; Helen, Antony

    2015-04-28

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-atherogenic effect of Njavara rice bran oil (NjRBO) on atherosclerosis by modulating enzymes and genes involved in lipid metabolism in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). Adult male rats (Sprague-Dawley strain, weighing 100-120 g) were divided into three groups of nine animals each. Group I served as the control, group II were fed a HCD and group III were fed a HCD and NjRBO (100 mg/kg body weight). The study duration was 60 d. Serum and tissue lipid profile, atherogenic index, enzymes of lipid metabolism, plasma C-reactive protein levels, serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, gene and protein expression of paraoxonase 1 (PON1), PPARα, ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), apoB and apoA1 in the liver were quantified. Total cholesterol, TAG, phospholipid, NEFA, LDL-cholesterol concentrations in the serum and liver, lipogenic enzyme activities, hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and atherogenic index were significantly increased in HCD-fed rats, but they decreased after treatment with NjRBO. HDL-cholesterol level and lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase activity were increased in the NjRBO-treated group, but decreased in the HCD-fed group. The expression levels of ABCA1, apoA1, PON1 and PPARα were found to be significantly increased in NjRBO-treated group compared with the HCD-fed group; however, the expression level of apoB was found to be higher in HCD-fed group and lower in the NjRBO-treated group. These data suggest that NjRBO possesses an anti-atherogenic property by modulating lipid metabolism and up-regulating genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport and antioxidative defence mechanism through the induction of the gene expression PON1. PMID:25823019

  9. SymbioGBR: a web-based database of Symbiodinium associated with cnidarian hosts on the Great Barrier Reef

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The algal endosymbionts (genus Symbiodinium) associated with scleractinian corals (and other reef invertebrates) have received a lot of research attention in the past decade, particularly as certain host-symbiont associations appear more affected by increasing seawater temperatures than others. With the rapid accumulation of information on the diversity of Symbiodinium, it is becoming increasingly difficult to compare newly acquired Symbiodinium data with existing data to detect patterns of host-symbiont specificity on broader spatial scales. The lack of a general consensus on the classification of Symbiodinium species coupled with the variety of different markers used to identify the genus Symbiodinium (ITS1, ITS2, LSU D1/D2, chloroplast 23S rDNA and psbA minicircle) further complicate direct comparison. Description The SymbioGBR database compiles all currently available Symbiodinium sequences and associated host information of data collected from the Great Barrier Reef into a single relational database that is accessible via a user-friendly, searchable web-based application (http://www.SymbioGBR.org). SymbioGBR allows users to query Symbiodinium types or sequences sourced from various genetic markers (e.g. ITS1, ITS2, LSU D1/D2 and chloroplast 23S) and invertebrate host species to explore their reported associations. In addition, as the database includes sequence information of multiple genetic markers, it allows cross-referencing between conventional (e.g. ITS2 region) and novel markers that exhibit low intragenomic variability (e.g. psbA region). Finally, the database is based on the collection details of individual specimens. Such host-symbiont associations can be assessed quantitatively and viewed in relation to their environmental and geographic context. Conclusions The SymbioGBR database provides a comprehensive overview of Symbiodinium diversity and host-associations on the Great Barrier Reef. It provides a quick, user-friendly means to compare

  10. 76 FR 78610 - Notice of Intent To Reduce the Frequency of Rice and Potato Stocks Surveys and All Associated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... of Rice and Potato Stocks Surveys and All Associated Reports AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics... approved information collections for rice and potato stocks that are currently approved under OMB 0535-0007. Under the current OMB approval the Potato Stocks Survey is conducted on a monthly basis from...

  11. Neuroprotective Effects of Germinated Brown Rice in Rotenone-Induced Parkinson's-Like Disease Rats.

    PubMed

    Chompoopong, Supin; Jarungjitaree, Sunit; Punbanlaem, Tideeporn; Rungruang, Thanaporn; Chongthammakun, Sukumal; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Taechowisan, Thongchai

    2016-09-01

    The effects of germinated brown rice (GBR) on the motor deficits and the dopaminergic (DA) cell death were investigated in Parkinson's-like disease (PD) rats. Reactive oxidative species generated by chronic subcutaneous injection of rotenone (RT) lead to neuronal apoptosis particularly in the nigrostriatal DA system and produce many features of PD, bradykinesis, postural instability and rigidity. In this study, 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA), previously reported to inhibit RT-induced DA cell death, was used as the positive control. Results show that pretreatment with GBR as well as 4-PBA significantly enhanced the motor activity after RT injection, and GBR affected significantly in open field test, only in the ambulation but not the mobility duration, and ameliorated the time to orient down (t-turn) and total time to descend the pole (t-total) in pole test as compared to RT group, but significantly lowered both t-turn and t-total only in 4-PBA group. The percentage of apoptotic cells in brain measured by flow cytometry and the inflammatory effect measured by ELISA of TNF-α showed significant increase in RT group as compared to the control (CT) group at P < 0.05. Apoptotic cells in RT group (85.98 %) showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase versus CT group (17.50 %), and this effect was attenuated in GBR+RT group by decreasing apoptotic cells (79.32 %), whereas, increased viable cells (17.94 %) versus RT group (10.79 %). GBR in GBR + RT group could decrease TNF-α both in the serum and in brain. In summary, GBR showed a neuroprotective effect in RT-induced PD rats, and it may be useful as a value-added functional food to prevent neurodegenerative disease or PD. PMID:27430236

  12. Application of herbicides is likely to reduce greenhouse gas (N2O and CH4) emissions from rice-wheat cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jingyan; Chen, Linmei; Sun, Qing; Sang, Mengmeng; Huang, Yao

    2015-04-01

    Herbicides have been widely used to control weeds in croplands; however, their effects on greenhouse gas emissions remain unclear. The effects of three wheat herbicides (acetochlor, AC; tribenuron-methyl, TBM; fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, FE) and two rice herbicides (butachlor, BC; bensulfuron-methyl, BSM) on N2O and CH4 emissions were investigated in this study. In the wheat growing season, applications of AC and FE + TBM significantly reduced N2O emissions by 31% compared with no herbicide use (p = 0.001). In the rice growing season, the application of BC significantly reduced CH4 emissions by 58% (p = 0.022), and BSM significantly reduced N2O emissions by 27% (p = 0.040); however, no significant difference among treatments with regard to the aggregate emissions of N2O and CH4 in the CO2 equivalent for the 100-year horizon was observed (p > 0.05). Relative to control plots, which were not treated with herbicides, the combined application of the herbicides FE and TBM in the wheat season led to a significant decrease in greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) by ∼41% (p = 0.002), and the application of BC together with BSM reduced GHGI by 22% in the rice season, although this reduction was not statistically significant (p = 0.158). Further investigation suggested that the inhibitory effect of herbicides on N2O emissions in the wheat field could be ascribed to low soil ammonium nitrogen and less abundance of denitrifying bacteria. The inhibitory effects of separate applications of BC on CH4 emissions in rice fields, in contrast, were linked to high soil nitrate nitrogen and urease activity.

  13. Differentiation of weedy traits in ALS-resistant red rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red rice is a weedy form of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) that competes aggressively with rice in the southern U.S., reduces yields and contaminates rice grains. The introduction of ClearfieldTM rice, a nontransgenic, herbicide-resistant rice cultivar a decade ago has led to increased use of imazet...

  14. Selenate mitigates arsenite toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by reducing arsenic uptake and ameliorates amino acid content and thiol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Dixit, Garima; Singh, Amit Pal; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Srivastava, Sudhakar; Mishra, Kumkum; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2016-11-01

    Arsenic (As) is a toxic element with the potential to cause health effects in humans. Besides rice is a source of both amino acids (AAs) and mineral nutrients, it is undesired source of As for billions of people consuming rice as the staple food. Selenium (Se) is an essential metalloid, which can regulate As toxicity by strengthening antioxidant potential. The present study was designed to investigate As(III) stress mitigating effect of Se(VI) in rice. The level of As, thiolic ligands and AAs was analyzed in rice seedlings after exposure to As(III)/Se(VI) alone and As(III)+Se(VI) treatments. Selenate supplementation (As(III) 25μM+Se(VI) 25μM) decreased total As accumulation in both root and shoot (179 & 144%) as compared to As(III) alone treatment. The As(III)+Se(VI) treatment also induced the levels of non-protein thiols (NPTs), glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs) as compared to As(III) alone treatment and also modulated the activity of enzymes of thiol metabolism. The content of amino acids (AAs) was significantly altered with Se(VI) supplementation. Importantly, essential amino acids (EAAs) were enhanced in As(III)+Se(VI) treatment as compared to As(III) alone treatment. In contrast, stress related non-essential amino acids (NEAAs) like GABA, Glu, Gly, Pro and Cys showed enhanced levels in As(III) alone treatment. In conclusion, rice supplemented with Se(VI) tolerated As toxicity with reduced As accumulation and increased the nutrition quality by increasing EAAs. PMID:27497079

  15. Rice husks and their hydrochars cause unexpected stress response in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans: reduced transcription of stress-related genes.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Shumon; Dicke, Christiane; Kalderis, Dimitrios; Kern, Jürgen

    2015-08-01

    Currently, char substrates gain a lot of interest since soils amended with such substrates are being discussed to increase in fertility and productivity, water retention, and mitigation of greenhouse gases. Char substrates can be produced by carbonization of organic matter. Among different process conditions, temperature is the main factor controlling the occurrence of organic and inorganic contaminants such as phenols and furfurals, which may affect target and non-target organisms. The hydrochar produced at 200 °C contained both furfural and phenol with concentrations of 282 and 324 mg kg(-1) in contrast to the 300 °C hydrochar, which contained only phenol with a concentration of 666 mg kg(-1). By washing with acetone and water, these concentrations were significantly reduced. In this study, the potential toxic effects of hydrochars on the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans were investigated via gene transcription studies using the following four matrices: (i) raw rice husk, (ii) unwashed rice char, (iii) acetone/water washed rice char, and (iv) the wash water of the two rice chars produced at 200 and 300 °C via hydrothermal carbonization (HTC). Furthermore, genetically modified strains, where the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene sequence is linked to a reporter gene central in specific anti-stress regulations, were also exposed to these matrices. Transgenic worms exposed to hydrochars showed very weak, if any, fluorescence, and expression of the associated RNAs related to stress response and biotransformation genes was surprisingly downregulated. Similar patterns were also found for the raw rice husk. It is hypothesized that an unidentified chemical trigger exists in the rice husk, which is not destroyed during the HTC process. Therefore, the use of GFP transgenic nematode strains cannot be recommended as a general rapid monitoring tool for farmers treating their fields with artificial char. However, it is hypothesized that the observed reduced

  16. Potential improvement in rice seedling establishment and weed suppression in reduced-input systems using osmotically pre-conditioned seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian indica rice cultivars have exhibited suppression potential against barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) in drill-seeded, flood-irrigated production systems in the U.S. However, the degree of weed suppression has been inconsistent, and is dependent on environmental and production factors whi...

  17. Water-conserving practices in Arkansas rice production to improve soil N availability and reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is commonly grown in the U.S. under continual flood from early vegetative growth until shortly before harvest. Wetting and drying cycles offer potential savings in water use. In a three-year field study, wetting/drying cycles improved water use efficiency (kg grain m-3 water applied) by 22 to 4...

  18. Water management impacts on arsenic speciation and iron-reducing bacteria in contrasting rice-rhizosphere compartments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice cultivated on arsenic (As) contaminated-soils usually accumulates variable grain-As concentrations, as impacted by genotypic differences, soil variables and crop management. A field-scale experiment was conducted to study the impact of intermittent and continuous flooding on As speciation and m...

  19. Change of water sources reduces health risks from heavy metals via ingestion of water, soil, and rice in a riverine area, South China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li'e; Mo, Zhaoyu; Qin, Jian; Li, Qin; Wei, Yanhong; Ma, Shuyan; Xiong, Yuxia; Liang, Guiqiang; Qing, Li; Chen, Zhiming; Yang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zou, Yunfeng

    2015-10-15

    This study evaluates the effect of water source change on heavy metal concentrations in water, paddy soil, and rice, as well as the health risks to residents of three riverine communities in South China. The results show that after substituting the sources of drinking water, heavy metal levels (except for Pb at Tangjun) in drinking water were below WHO guideline values and the potential risk from drinking water may be negligible. The As (46.2-66.8%), Pb (65.7-82.6%), Cd (50.8-55.0%), and Hg (28.3-32.6%) concentrations in paddy soils in Sanhe and Lasha significantly (p<0.05) decreased with a change of irrigation water sources compared to Tangjun, without change of irrigation water source. Similarly, the Cd (39.1-81.3%) and Hg (60.0-75.0%) concentrations in rice grown at Sanhe and Lasha significantly (p<0.05) decreased compared to those at Tangjun. Consequently, replacing irrigation water source significantly (p<0.05) reduced the hazard quotient (HQ) and cancer risk for the corresponding single metal via soil ingestion and rice consumption. Despite that total non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks at Sanhe and Lasha were significantly decreased, they still exceeded the maximum acceptable limits recommended by US EPA, indicating that residents of these two communities remain at high risks of both non-cancer and cancer effects. PMID:26026418

  20. Disruption of OsSULTR3;3 reduces phytate and phosphorus concentrations and alters the metabolite profile in rice grains.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haijun; Frank, Thomas; Tan, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Chenguang; Jabnoune, Mehdi; Arpat, A Bulak; Cui, Hairui; Huang, Jianzhong; He, Zuhua; Poirier, Yves; Engel, Karl-Heinz; Shu, Qingyao

    2016-08-01

    Two low phytic acid (lpa) mutants have been developed previously with the aim to improve the nutritional value of rice (Oryza sativa) grains. In the present study, the impacts of lpa mutations on grain composition and underlying molecular mechanisms were investigated. Comparative compositional analyses and metabolite profiling demonstrated that concentrations of both phytic acid (PA) and total phosphorus (P) were significantly reduced in lpa brown rice, accompanied by changes in other metabolites and increased concentrations of nutritionally relevant compounds. The lpa mutations modified the expression of a number of genes involved in PA metabolism, as well as in sulfate and phosphate homeostasis and metabolism. Map-based cloning and complementation identified the underlying lpa gene to be OsSULTR3;3. The promoter of OsSULTR3;3 is highly active in the vascular bundles of leaves, stems and seeds, and its protein is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. No activity of OsSULTR3;3 was revealed for the transport of phosphate, sulfate, inositol or inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate by heterologous expression in either yeast or Xenopus oocytes. The findings reveal that OsSULTR3;3 plays an important role in grain metabolism, pointing to a new route to generate value-added grains in rice and other cereal crops. PMID:27110682

  1. Correlation between (/sup 3/H)dopamine specific uptake and (/sup 3/H)GBR 12783 specific binding during the maturation of rat striatum

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnet, J.J.; Costentin, J.

    1989-01-01

    The development of the specific uptake of dopamine in the rat striatum during the early postnatal period is compared with the ontogenetic changes of the specific binding of (/sup 3/H)GBR 12783 to the site of uptake inhibition. During maturation, the increase in the specific binding of (/sup 3/H)GBR 12783 parallels the increase in the specific uptake of dopamine. (/sup 3/H)GBR 12783 specific binding sites increase in number from day 1 postpartum until 40 days, when they reach the adult level. In 40 day-old rats, the weight of the striatum represents 80% of adult values. The affinity of (/sup 3/H)GBR 12783 for the inhibition site is similar in membrane preparations obtained from 6 day-old pups and adults; this results in a same ability of the inhibitor to block the specific uptake of dopamine into synaptosomes obtained from pups or adult rats. These data support the hypothesis of the existence of a single molecular entity including both the inhibition site and the carrier itself.

  2. A paddy eco-ditch and wetland system to reduce non-point source pollution from rice-based production system while maintaining water use efficiency.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yujiang; Peng, Shizhang; Luo, Yufeng; Xu, Junzeng; Yang, Shihong

    2015-03-01

    Non-point source (NPS) pollution from agricultural drainage has aroused widespread concerns throughout the world due to its contribution to eutrophication of water bodies. To remove nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from agricultural drainage in situ, a Paddy Eco-ditch and Wetland System (PEDWS) was designed and built based on the characteristics of the irrigated rice district. A 2-year (2012-2013) field experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of this system in Gaoyou Irrigation District in Eastern China. The results showed that the reduction in water input in paddy field of the PEDWS enabled the maintenance of high rice yield; it significantly increased irrigation water productivity (WPI), gross water productivity (WPG), and evapotranspiration water productivity (WPET) by 109.2, 67.1, and 17.6%, respectively. The PEDWS dramatically decreased N and P losses from paddy field. Compared with conventional irrigation and drainage system (CIDS), the amount of drainage water from PEDWS was significantly reduced by 56.2%, the total nitrogen (TN) concentration in drainage was reduced by 42.6%, and thus the TN and total phosphorus (TP) losses were reduced by 87.8 and 70.4%. PEDWS is technologically feasible and applicable to treat nutrient losses from paddy fields in situ and can be used in similar areas. PMID:25304242

  3. Modest amendment of sewage sludge biochar to reduce the accumulation of cadmium into rice(Oryza sativa L.): A field study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youchi; Chen, Tingting; Liao, Yongkai; Reid, Brian J; Chi, Haifeng; Hou, Yanwei; Cai, Chao

    2016-09-01

    Much research has considered the influence of biochars on the availability and phytoaccumulation of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) from soil. However, the vast majority of these studies use, what are arguably, unrealistic and unpractical amounts of biochar (10, 50 and even up to 100 t/ha). To offer a more realistic insight into the influence of biochar on PTE partitioning and phytoaccumulation, a field study, using modest rates of biochar application (1.5, 3.0 t/ha), was undertaken. Specifically, the research investigated the influence of sewage sludge biochar (SSBC) on the accumulation of Cd into rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown in Cd contaminated (0.82 ± 0.07 mg/kg) paddy soil. Results indicated, Cd concentrations in rice grains to significantly (p < 0.05) decrease from 1.35 ± 0.09 mg/kg in the control to 0.82 ± 0.07 mg/kg and 0.80 ± 0.21 mg/kg in the 1.5 t/ha and 3.0 t/ha treatments, respectively. Accordingly, the hazardous quotient (HQ) indices for Cd, associated with rice grain consumption, were also reduced by ∼40%. SSBC amendment significantly (p < 0.05) increased grain yields from 1.90 ± 0.08 g/plant in the control to 2.17 ± 0.30 g/plant and 3.40 ± 0.27 g/plant in the 1.5 t/ha and 3.0 t/ha treatments, respectively. Thus, the amendment of SSBC to contaminated paddy soils, even at low application rates, could be an effective approach to mitigate Cd accumulation into rice plants, to improve rice grain yields, and to thereby improve food security and protect public health. PMID:27368131

  4. Insights into molecular mechanism of blast resistance in weedy rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weedy rice is a serious pest in direct-seeded rice fields in the U.S. and worldwide. Under suitable conditions, weedy rice can reduce crop yields up to 70%. However, weedy rice may carry novel disease resistance genes. Rice blast disease caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is a major disease wo...

  5. Rice-straw mulch reduces the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations on kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala (Brassicaceae) plants.

    PubMed

    Silva-Filho, Reinildes; Santos, Ricardo Henrique Silva; Tavares, Wagner de Souza; Leite, Germano Leão Demolin; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2014-01-01

    Organic mulches, like peel and rice-straw, besides other materials affect the UV and temperature, which cause a reduction in the aphid arrival. The aim was to evaluate the effect of covering the soil with straw on the populations of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae on the kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala plants. The first experiment evaluated the direct effect of the rice-straw mulch and the second its indirect effect on aphid immigration, testing the plant characteristics that could lead to the landing preference of this insect. The third experiment evaluated the direct effect of the mulch on the aphid population. In the second and third experiments, four plants, each in a 14 L polyethylene pot with holes at the bottom, were used in areas with and without soil mulching. These pots were changed between areas, after seven days, to evaluate the effects of this change on the arrival of the winged aphids to the plants. Each plant was covered with anti-aphid gauze and inoculated with one winged M. persicae. Winged and apterous adults of this insect were counted per plant after 15 days. The temperature increased in the mulched plots to a maximum of 21-36°C and to 18-32°C in the plots with or without soil covering, respectively. Plant growth reduced the numbers of the winged aphids landing before and after they were moved to the bare soil plots. The nutrient content was similar in plants in both the mulched and no mulched plots. The population growth of M. persicae was higher in the control than in the mulched plots. This was partially due to temperatures close to 30°C in these plots and changes in the plant physiology. The soil mulching with rice-straw decreased the M. persicae landing, increased the plot temperatures and improved the vegetative growth of the kale plants. PMID:24714367

  6. Rice-Straw Mulch Reduces the Green Peach Aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Populations on Kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala (Brassicaceae) Plants

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Filho, Reinildes; Santos, Ricardo Henrique Silva; Tavares, Wagner de Souza; Leite, Germano Leão Demolin; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2014-01-01

    Organic mulches, like peel and rice-straw, besides other materials affect the UV and temperature, which cause a reduction in the aphid arrival. The aim was to evaluate the effect of covering the soil with straw on the populations of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae on the kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala plants. The first experiment evaluated the direct effect of the rice-straw mulch and the second its indirect effect on aphid immigration, testing the plant characteristics that could lead to the landing preference of this insect. The third experiment evaluated the direct effect of the mulch on the aphid population. In the second and third experiments, four plants, each in a 14 L polyethylene pot with holes at the bottom, were used in areas with and without soil mulching. These pots were changed between areas, after seven days, to evaluate the effects of this change on the arrival of the winged aphids to the plants. Each plant was covered with anti-aphid gauze and inoculated with one winged M. persicae. Winged and apterous adults of this insect were counted per plant after 15 days. The temperature increased in the mulched plots to a maximum of 21–36°C and to 18–32°C in the plots with or without soil covering, respectively. Plant growth reduced the numbers of the winged aphids landing before and after they were moved to the bare soil plots. The nutrient content was similar in plants in both the mulched and no mulched plots. The population growth of M. persicae was higher in the control than in the mulched plots. This was partially due to temperatures close to 30°C in these plots and changes in the plant physiology. The soil mulching with rice-straw decreased the M. persicae landing, increased the plot temperatures and improved the vegetative growth of the kale plants. PMID:24714367

  7. Introgression of resistance-conferring ALS mutations in herbicide-resistant weedy rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weedy red rice (Oryza sativa) competes aggressively with rice, reducing yields and grain quality. Clearfield™ rice, a nontransgenic, herbicide-resistant (HR) rice introduced in 2002 to control weedy rice, has resulted in some ALS-resistant weedy rice apparently due to gene flow. Studies were conduct...

  8. Overexpression of Rice Glutaredoxin OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 Reduces Intracellular Arsenic Accumulation and Increases Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Pankaj K.; Verma, Shikha; Pande, Veena; Mallick, Shekhar; Deo Tripathi, Rudra; Dhankher, Om P.; Chakrabarty, Debasis

    2016-01-01

    Glutaredoxins (Grxs) are a family of small multifunctional proteins involved in various cellular functions, including redox regulation and protection under oxidative stress. Despite the high number of Grx genes in plant genomes (48 Grxs in rice), the biological functions and physiological roles of most of them remain unknown. Here, the functional characterization of the two arsenic-responsive rice Grx family proteins, OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 are reported. Over-expression of OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana conferred arsenic (As) tolerance as reflected by germination, root growth assay, and whole plant growth. Also, the transgenic expression of OsGrxs displayed significantly reduced As accumulation in A. thaliana seeds and shoot tissues compared to WT plants during both AsIII and AsV stress. Thus, OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 seem to be an important determinant of As-stress response in plants. OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 transgenic showed to maintain intracellular GSH pool and involved in lowering AsIII accumulation either by extrusion or reducing uptake by altering the transcript of A. thaliana AtNIPs. Overall, OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 may represent a Grx family protein involved in As stress response and may allow a better understanding of the As induced stress pathways and the design of strategies for the improvement of stress tolerance as well as decreased As content in crops. PMID:27313586

  9. Overexpression of Rice Glutaredoxin OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 Reduces Intracellular Arsenic Accumulation and Increases Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Verma, Pankaj K; Verma, Shikha; Pande, Veena; Mallick, Shekhar; Deo Tripathi, Rudra; Dhankher, Om P; Chakrabarty, Debasis

    2016-01-01

    Glutaredoxins (Grxs) are a family of small multifunctional proteins involved in various cellular functions, including redox regulation and protection under oxidative stress. Despite the high number of Grx genes in plant genomes (48 Grxs in rice), the biological functions and physiological roles of most of them remain unknown. Here, the functional characterization of the two arsenic-responsive rice Grx family proteins, OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 are reported. Over-expression of OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana conferred arsenic (As) tolerance as reflected by germination, root growth assay, and whole plant growth. Also, the transgenic expression of OsGrxs displayed significantly reduced As accumulation in A. thaliana seeds and shoot tissues compared to WT plants during both AsIII and AsV stress. Thus, OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 seem to be an important determinant of As-stress response in plants. OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 transgenic showed to maintain intracellular GSH pool and involved in lowering AsIII accumulation either by extrusion or reducing uptake by altering the transcript of A. thaliana AtNIPs. Overall, OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 may represent a Grx family protein involved in As stress response and may allow a better understanding of the As induced stress pathways and the design of strategies for the improvement of stress tolerance as well as decreased As content in crops. PMID:27313586

  10. Improved production of reducing sugars from rice straw using crude cellulase activated with Fe₃O₄/alginate nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Neha; Singh, Jay; Ramteke, Pramod W; Mishra, P K; Srivastava, Manish

    2015-05-01

    Effect of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) and Fe3O4/Alginate nanocomposites (NCs) have been investigated on production and thermostability of crude cellulase enzyme system obtained by newly isolated thermotolerant Aspergillus fumigatus AA001. Fe3O4 NPs and Fe3O4/Alginate NCs have been synthesized by co-precipitation method and characterized through various techniques. In presence of Fe3O4 NPs and Fe3O4/Alginate NCs, filter paper activity of crude cellulase was increased about 35% and 40%, respectively in 72 h as compared to control. Fe3O4/Alginate NCs treated crude enzyme was thermally stable up to 8h at 70°C and retained 56% of its relative activity whereas; control samples could retain only 19%. Further, the hydrolysis of 1.0% alkali treated rice straw using Fe3O4/Alginate NCs treated cellulase gave much higher sugar productivity than control at optimal condition. These findings may be utilized in the area of biofuels and biowaste management. PMID:25740000

  11. Can the co-cultivation of rice and fish help sustain rice production?

    PubMed

    Hu, Liangliang; Zhang, Jian; Ren, Weizheng; Guo, Liang; Cheng, Yongxu; Li, Jiayao; Li, Kexin; Zhu, Zewen; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Shiming; Cheng, Lei; Tang, Jianjun; Chen, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Because rice feeds half of the world's population, a secure global food supply depends on sustainable rice production. Here we test whether the co-cultivation of rice and fish into one "rice-fish system" (RFS; fish refers to aquatic animals in this article) could help sustain rice production. We examined intensive and traditional RFSs that have been widely practiced in China. We found that rice yields did not decrease when fish yield was below a threshold value in each intensive RFS. Below the thresholds, moreover, fish yields in intensive RFSs can be substantially higher than those in traditional RFS without reducing rice yield. Relative to rice monoculture, the use of fertilizer-nitrogen and pesticides decreased, and the farmers' net income increased in RFSs. The results suggest that RFSs can help sustain rice production, and suggest that development of co-culture technologies (i.e. proper field configuration for fish and rice) is necessary to achieve the sustainability. PMID:27349875

  12. Crop performance and weed suppression by weed-suppressive rice cultivars in furrow- and flood-irrigated systems under reduced herbicide inputs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control in rice is challenging, particularly in light of increased resistance to herbicides in weed populations and diminishing availability of irrigation water. Certain indica rice cultivars can produce high yields and suppress weeds in conventional flood-irrigated, drill-seeded systems in the...

  13. Amended final report on the safety assessment of Oryza Sativa (rice) Bran Oil, Oryza Sativa (rice) Germ Oil, Rice Bran Acid,Oryza Sativa (rice) Bran Wax, Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax, Oryza Sativa (rice)Bran Extract, Oryza Sativa (rice) Extract, Oryza Sativa (rice) Germ Powder, Oryza Sativa (rice) Starch, Oryza Sativa (rice) Bran, Hydrolyzed Rice Bran Extract, Hydrolyzed Rice Bran Protein, Hydrolyzed Rice Extract, and Hydrolyzed Rice Protein.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    as a skin-conditioning agent--miscellaneous, is used in two product categories. Use concentrations are in the 1% to 2% range. Rice Bran Extract is comprised of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, mineral ash, and water. The content includes palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids. Other components include antioxidants such as tocopherols. Rice Extract reduced the cytotoxicity of sodium chloride in male rats. Bran, Starch and Powder: Rice Bran (identified as rice hulls) is an abrasive and bulking agent in one formulation. Rice Starch is an absorbent and bulking agent in 51 formulations across a wide range of product categories. Rice Germ Powder is an abrasive and one manufacturer described an exfoliant use, but it was not reported to be used in 2002. Oral carcinogenicity studies done on components of Rice Bran (phytic acid and gamma-oryzanol) were negative. Rice Bran did not have an anticarcinogenic effect on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced large bowel tumors. In cocarcinogenicity studies done using 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and other agents, with Rice Bran Oil and Rice Bran-derived hemicellulose and saccharide, tumor inhibition was observed; gamma-oryzanol did not inhibit the development of neoplasms. A decrease in cutaneous lesions in atopic dermatitis patients was reported following bathing with a Rice Bran preparation. Proteins: Hydrolyzed Rice Bran Protein and Hydrolyzed Rice Protein function as conditioning agents (hair or skin), but only the latter was reported to be used in a few products. An in vitro phototoxicity assay using UVA light found no photochemical toxicity. Rice bran protein hydrolysates are not acutely toxic, are not skin or ocular irritants in animals, are not skin sensitizers in guinea pig maximization tests, and are not irritating or sensitizing in clinical tests. Isolated cases of allergy to raw rice have been reported, but rice, in general, is considered non allergenic. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel considered that safety test

  14. INTERACTION OF COCAINE-, BENZTROPINE-, AND GBR12909-LIKE COMPOUNDS WITH WILDTYPE AND MUTANT HUMAN DOPAMINE TRANSPORTERS: MOLECULAR FEATURES THAT DIFFERENTIALLY DETERMINE ANTAGONIST BINDING PROPERTIES

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Kyle C.; Zhen, Juan; Kharkar, Prashant; Mishra, Manoj; Chen, Nianhang; Dutta, Aloke K.; Reith, Maarten E.A.

    2009-01-01

    The widely abused psychostimulant cocaine is thought to elicit its reinforcing effects primarily via inhibition of the neuronal dopamine transporter (DAT). However, not all DAT inhibitors share cocaine’s behavioral profile, despite similar or greater affinity for the DAT. This may be due to differential molecular interactions with the DAT. Our previous work using transporter mutants with altered conformational equilibrium (W84L and D313N) indicated that benztropine and GBR12909 interact with the DAT in a different manner than cocaine. Here, we expand upon these previous findings, studying a number of structurally different DAT inhibitors for their ability to inhibit [3H]CFT binding to wildtype, W84L and D313N transporters. We systematically tested structural intermediates between cocaine and benztropine, structural hybrids of benztropine and GBR12909 and a number of other structurally heterologous inhibitors. Derivatives of the stimulant desoxypipradrol (2-benzhydrylpiperidine) exhibited a cocaine-like binding profile with respect to mutation, whereas compounds possessing the diphenylmethoxy moiety of benztropine and GBR12909 were dissimilar to cocaine-like compounds. In tests with specific isomers of cocaine and tropane analogues, compounds with 3α stereochemistry tended to exhibit benztropine-like binding, whereas those with 3β stereochemistry were more cocaine-like. Our results point to the importance of specific molecular features—most notably the presence of a diphenylmethoxy moiety—in determining a compound’s binding profile. This study furthers the concept of using DAT mutants to differentiate cocaine-like inhibitors from atypical inhibitors in vitro. Further studies of the molecular features that define inhibitor-transporter interaction could lead to the development of DAT inhibitors with differential clinical utility. PMID:18786172

  15. Characterization of dopamine transporter and locomotor effects of cocaine, GBR 12909, epidepride, and SCH 23390 in C57BL and DBA mice.

    PubMed

    Womer, D E; Jones, B C; Erwin, V G

    1994-06-01

    C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice were used to examine genetic differences in locomotor activating effects of acute cocaine administration and to determine whether differences were mediated by dopaminergic systems. C57BL/6 mice were less activated than DBA/2 mice at 5 and 10 min after 10 and 15 mg/kg cocaine. HPLC analysis showed equivalent brain cocaine concentrations in the two strains at 5 and 10 min after 10, 15, or 20 mg/kg doses. The selective dopamine uptake inhibitor, GBR 12909, at 5 and 7.5 mg/kg, produced greater locomotor activation in DBA/2 mice than in C57BL/6 mice. However, binding studies with the selective dopamine uptake ligand [3H]GBR 12935, revealed no between-strain difference in Kd or Bmax in caudate putamen (CP) or nucleus accumbens (NA) membranes. Competition assays using unlabeled dopamine to compete for [3H]GBR 12935 binding in CP or NA membranes showed no between-strain difference by brain region. The specific D1 or D2 antagonists, SCH 23390 or epidepride, respectively, produced dose-dependent decreases in locomotor activity but there were no between-strain differences. However, epidepride, at a dose of 0.003 mg/kg, completely reversed cocaine-induced (15 mg/kg) activation in both strains. These findings show that C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice differ in dopamine-related behaviors and suggest that dopaminergic processes may mediate genetic differences in cocaine sensitivity. PMID:8090798

  16. Interaction of cocaine-, benztropine-, and GBR12909-like compounds with wild-type and mutant human dopamine transporters: molecular features that differentially determine antagonist-binding properties.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Kyle C; Zhen, Juan; Kharkar, Prashant; Mishra, Manoj; Chen, Nianhang; Dutta, Aloke K; Reith, Maarten E A

    2008-11-01

    The widely abused psychostimulant cocaine is thought to elicit its reinforcing effects primarily via inhibition of the neuronal dopamine transporter (DAT). However, not all DAT inhibitors share cocaine's behavioral profile, despite similar or greater affinity for the DAT. This may be due to differential molecular interactions with the DAT. Our previous work using transporter mutants with altered conformational equilibrium (W84L and D313N) indicated that benztropine and GBR12909 interact with the DAT in a different manner than cocaine. Here, we expand upon these previous findings, studying a number of structurally different DAT inhibitors for their ability to inhibit [(3)H]CFT binding to wild-type, W84L and D313N transporters. We systematically tested structural intermediates between cocaine and benztropine, structural hybrids of benztropine and GBR12909 and a number of other structurally heterologous inhibitors. Derivatives of the stimulant desoxypipradrol (2-benzhydrylpiperidine) exhibited a cocaine-like binding profile with respect to mutation, whereas compounds possessing the diphenylmethoxy moiety of benztropine and GBR12909 were dissimilar to cocaine-like compounds. In tests with specific isomers of cocaine and tropane analogues, compounds with 3alpha stereochemistry tended to exhibit benztropine-like binding, whereas those with 3beta stereochemistry were more cocaine-like. Our results point to the importance of specific molecular features--most notably the presence of a diphenylmethoxy moiety--in determining a compound's binding profile. This study furthers the concept of using DAT mutants to differentiate cocaine-like inhibitors from atypical inhibitors in vitro. Further studies of the molecular features that define inhibitor-transporter interaction could lead to the development of DAT inhibitors with differential clinical utility. PMID:18786172

  17. Overexpression of Rice NAC Gene SNAC1 Improves Drought and Salt Tolerance by Enhancing Root Development and Reducing Transpiration Rate in Transgenic Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guanze; Li, Xuelin; Jin, Shuangxia; Liu, Xuyan; Zhu, Longfu; Nie, Yichun; Zhang, Xianlong

    2014-01-01

    The SNAC1 gene belongs to the stress-related NAC superfamily of transcription factors. It was identified from rice and overexpressed in cotton cultivar YZ1 by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. SNAC1-overexpressing cotton plants showed more vigorous growth, especially in terms of root development, than the wild-type plants in the presence of 250 mM NaCl under hydroponic growth conditions. The content of proline was enhanced but the MDA content was decreased in the transgenic cotton seedlings under drought and salt treatments compared to the wild-type. Furthermore, SNAC1-overexpressing cotton plants also displayed significantly improved tolerance to both drought and salt stresses in the greenhouse. The performances of the SNAC1-overexpressing lines under drought and salt stress were significantly better than those of the wild-type in terms of the boll number. During the drought and salt treatments, the transpiration rate of transgenic plants significantly decreased in comparison to the wild-type, but the photosynthesis rate maintained the same at the flowering stage in the transgenic plants. These results suggested that overexpression of SNAC1 improve more tolerance to drought and salt in cotton through enhanced root development and reduced transpiration rates. PMID:24489802

  18. Influence of adsorption versus coprecipitation on the retention of rice straw-derived dissolved organic carbon and subsequent reducibility of Fe-DOC systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodano, Marcella; Lerda, Cristina; Martin, Maria; Celi, Luisella; Said-Pullicino, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The dissimilatory reduction of Fe oxides is the main organic C-consuming process in paddy soils under anoxic conditions. The contribution of Fe(III) reduction to anaerobic C mineralization depends on many factors, but most importantly on the bioavailability of labile organic matter and a reducible Fe pool as electron donors and acceptors, respectively. On the other hand, the strong affinity of these minerals for organic matter and their capability of protecting it against microbial decomposition is well known. Natural Fe oxides in these soils may therefore play a key role in determining the C source/sink functions of these agro-ecosystems. Apart from contributing to C stabilization, the interaction between Fe oxides and dissolved organic C (DOC) may influence the structure and reactivity of these natural oxides, and selectively influence the chemical properties of DOC. Indeed, Fe-DOC associations may not only reduce the availability of DOC, but may also limit the microbial reduction of Fe oxides under anoxic conditions. In fact, the accessibility of these minerals to microorganisms, extracellular enzymes, redox active shuttling compound or reducing agents may be impeded by the presence of sorbed organic matter. In soils that are regularly subjected to fluctuations in redox conditions the interaction between DOC and Fe oxides may not only involve organic coatings on mineral surfaces, but also Fe-DOC coprecipitates that form during the rapid oxidation of soil solutions containing important amounts of DOC and Fe(II). However, little is known on how these processes influence DOC retention, and the structure and subsequent reducibility of these Fe-DOC associations. We hypothesized that the nature and extent of the interaction between DOC and Fe oxides may influence the accessibility of the bioavailable Fe pool and consequently its reducibility. We tested this hypothesis by synthesizing a series of Fe-DOC systems with increasing C:Fe ratios prepared by either surface

  19. Rice Nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter presents the symptoms of deficiency and toxicity of the major and minor mineral nutrients in rice, as well as a current synopsis of nutrient transporters and their regulation. The availability of sequences from the recently completed rice genome has furthered the knowledge of how plants...

  20. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Inonotus obliquus and germinated brown rice extracts.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Trishna; Park, Sa Ra; Kim, Da Hye; Jo, Jeong Eun; Lim, Beong Ou

    2013-01-01

    Inonotus obliquus (IO) is parasitic mushroom that grows on birch and other trees in Russia, Korea, Europe and United States. However, IO is not readily available for consumption due to its high cost and difficult growth. In this regard, IO was inoculated on germinated brown rice (GBR) in the present study and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the IO grown on germinated brown rice (IOGBR) extracts were evaluated extensively and compared with those for IO and GBR. IOGBR showed highest antioxidant activities with scavenging total intracellular ROS and MDA levels as well as increasing the antioxidant enzymes activity in the H₂O₂-stimulated mice liver. It also exhibited best inflammatory activities by suppressing the proinflammatory mediators such as NO, PGE₂, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in an LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cell line. This study provides a comparative approach to find out an excellent natural source of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agent as a dietary supplement. PMID:23917116

  1. Ectopic expression of a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase gene PtCYP714A3 from Populus trichocarpa reduces shoot growth and improves tolerance to salt stress in transgenic rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cuiting; Yang, Yang; Wang, Haihai; Ran, Xiaojuan; Li, Bei; Zhang, Jiantao; Zhang, Hongxia

    2016-09-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 714 protein family represents a unique group of CYP monooxygenase, which functions as a shoot-specific regulator in plant development through gibberellin deactivation. Here, we report the functional characterizations of PtCYP714A3, an OsCYP714D1/Eui homologue from Populus trichocarpa. PtCYP714A3 was ubiquitously expressed with the highest transcript level in cambium-phloem tissues, and was greatly induced by salt and osmotic stress in poplar. Subcellular localization analyses indicated that PtCYP714A3-YFP fusion protein was targeted to endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Expression of PtCYP714A3 in the rice eui mutant could rescue its excessive-shoot-growth phenotype. Ectopic expression of PtCYP714A3 in rice led to semi-dwarfed phenotype with promoted tillering and reduced seed size. Transgenic lines which showed significant expression of PtCYP714A3 also accumulated lower GA level than did the wild-type (WT) plants. The expression of some GA biosynthesis genes was significantly suppressed in these transgenic plants. Furthermore, transgenic rice plants exhibited enhanced tolerance to salt and maintained more Na(+) in both shoot and root tissues under salinity stress. All these results not only suggest a crucial role of PtCYP714A3 in shoot responses to salt toxicity in rice, but also provide a molecular basis for genetic engineering of salt-tolerant crops. PMID:26970512

  2. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  3. Seed physicochemical characteristics of field-grown U.S. weedy red rice biotypes: Contrasts with commercial cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red rice in the US is an aggressive weed that reduces the yield of rice and contaminates its grain. It is the same species as rice, which provides an opportunity for intercrossing. This genetic similarity complicates the management of red rice in fields and rice mills, but also indicates a potential...

  4. Organ specific analysis of the anaerobic primary metabolism in rice and wheat seedlings II: light exposure reduces needs for fermentation and extends survival during anaerobiosis.

    PubMed

    Mustroph, Angelika; Boamfa, Elena I; Laarhoven, Lucas J J; Harren, Frans J M; Pörs, Yvonne; Grimm, Bernhard

    2006-12-01

    Low oxygen stress in plants can occur during flooding and compromise the availability and utilization of carbohydrates in root and shoot tissues. Low-oxygen-tolerant rice and -sensitive wheat plants were analyzed under anaerobiosis in light to evaluate main factors of the primary metabolism that affect sensitivity against oxygen deprivation: activity of glycolysis and the rate of photosynthesis. Relatively stable ATP contents (93 and 58% of aerated control levels after 24 h anaerobiosis) in illuminated shoot tissues account for enhanced tolerance of rice and wheat seedlings to anaerobiosis upon light exposure in comparison to anoxia in darkness. Although the photosynthetic process was inhibited during low oxygen stress, which was partly due to CO(2) deficiency, more light-exposed than dark-incubated seedlings survived. Illuminated plants could tolerate a 70% lower anaerobic ethanol production in shoots in comparison to darkness, although still an 18-times higher ethanol production rate was determined in rice than in wheat leaves. In conclusion, light-exposed plants grown under anaerobiosis may recycle low amounts of generated oxygen between photosynthesis and dissimilation and generate additional energy not only from substrate phosphorylation during glycolysis but also from other sources like cyclic electron transport. PMID:16802177

  5. Bone mass density estimation: Archimede’s principle versus automatic X-ray histogram and edge detection technique in ovariectomized rats treated with germinated brown rice bioactives

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Sani Ismaila; Maznah, Ismail; Mahmud, Rozi Binti; Esmaile, Maher Faik; Zuki, Abu Bakar Zakaria

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone mass density is an important parameter used in the estimation of the severity and depth of lesions in osteoporosis. Estimation of bone density using existing methods in experimental models has its advantages as well as drawbacks. Materials and methods In this study, the X-ray histogram edge detection technique was used to estimate the bone mass density in ovariectomized rats treated orally with germinated brown rice (GBR) bioactives, and the results were compared with estimated results obtained using Archimede’s principle. New bone cell proliferation was assessed by histology and immunohistochemical reaction using polyclonal nuclear antigen. Additionally, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium and zinc concentrations were detected using a chemistry analyzer and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Rats were divided into groups of six as follows: sham (nonovariectomized, nontreated); ovariectomized, nontreated; and ovariectomized and treated with estrogen, or Remifemin®, GBR-phenolics, acylated steryl glucosides, gamma oryzanol, and gamma amino-butyric acid extracted from GBR at different doses. Results Our results indicate a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium, and zinc and ash content in the treated groups compared with the ovariectomized nontreated group (P < 0.05). Bone density increased significantly (P < 0.05) in groups treated with estrogen, GBR, Remifemin®, and gamma oryzanol compared to the ovariectomized nontreated group. Histological sections revealed more osteoblasts in the treated groups when compared with the untreated groups. A polyclonal nuclear antigen reaction showing proliferating new cells was observed in groups treated with estrogen, Remifemin®, GBR, acylated steryl glucosides, and gamma oryzanol. There was a good correlation between bone mass densities estimated using Archimede’s principle and the edge detection technique between the treated groups (r2 = 0.737, P

  6. Origins and evolution of weedy rice in the US

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red rice is a weedy form of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) that infests crop fields and reduces US rice harvests by up to 80%. This agricultural weed has been proposed to arise either through de-domestication of feral US crop germplasm and/or introduction of foreign germplasm (potentially including ...

  7. Variation of As concentration between soil types and rice genotypes and the selection of cultivars for reducing As in the diet.

    PubMed

    Ye, X X; Sun, B; Yin, Y L

    2012-04-01

    Human exposure to toxic heavy metals via the food chain is of increasing concern. In the present study, the effects of soil type and genotype on variation in arsenic (As) concentrations of different organs were investigated by using nine rice cultivars grown in two soils, with two levels of As contamination. There were significant genotypic differences (P<0.05) in As concentrations of all organs, and As concentrations of polished grain were significantly affected by genotype and soil type. The As concentration in polished grain was higher in red paddy soil under As treatment, with range from 0.24 to 1.03 mg kg(-1), and the As concentration of three cultivars exceeded the concentration of Chinese Food Hygiene Standard (0.7 mg kg(-1)). The As concentrations in stems, leaves and polished grain were all significantly and positively correlated. The As concentrations in polished grain were positively and significantly (P<0.01) correlated with As root-grain translocation factor. The results indicated that As concentration in grain was partially governed by As uptake and the transfer of As from root to grain. The grain As concentration of the nine cultivars was significantly correlated between the two soil types at different levels of As contamination. Some genotypes, such as japonica rice (e.g. Ning jing 1 and Nan jing 32) had consistently low grain As concentrations. The results suggest the possibility of breeding the As rice cultivars to produce grain for safe consumption from soils with slight and moderate levels of As. PMID:22221666

  8. Evolutionary Genomics Of Invasive Weedy Rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red rice is an interfertile, weedy form of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) that competes aggressively with the crop in the southern U.S., reducing yields and contaminating harvests. Weed strains range from ‘crop mimics,’ which share many domestication traits with the crop, to strains closely resembli...

  9. Molecular evolution of flowering time loci in U.S. weedy rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weedy rice is a persistent weed of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) fields worldwide, which competes with the crop and drastically reduces rice yields. Within the US, two main populations of genetically differentiated weedy rice exist, the straw-hulled (SH) group and the black-hulled awned (BHA) grou...

  10. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues.

    PubMed

    Belal, Elsayed B

    2013-01-01

    A rice straw - cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 °C, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L(-1). PMID:24159309

  11. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues

    PubMed Central

    Belal, Elsayed B.

    2013-01-01

    A rice straw - cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 °C, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L−1. PMID:24159309

  12. Effect of germination on the physicochemical and antioxidant characteristics of rice flour from three rice varieties from Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chinma, Chiemela Enyinnaya; Anuonye, Julian Chukwuemeka; Simon, Omotade Comfort; Ohiare, Raliat Ozavize; Danbaba, Nahemiah

    2015-10-15

    This study determined the effect of germination (48 h) on the physicochemical and antioxidant characteristics of rice flour from three rice varieties from Nigeria. Local rice varieties (Jamila, Jeep and Kwandala) were evaluated and compared to an improved variety (MR 219). Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of flours were determined using standard methods. Protein, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and antioxidant properties of rice flours increased after germination while phytic acid and total starch contents decreased. Foaming capacity and stability of rice flours increased after germination. Germination resulted to changes in pasting and thermal characteristics of rice flours. Germinated rice flours had better physicochemical and antioxidant properties with reduced phytic acid and starch contents compared to MR 219, which can be utilized as functional ingredients in the preparation of rice-based products. PMID:25952893

  13. Assessment of bone healing on tibial fractures treated with wire osteosynthesis associated or not with infrared laser light and biphasic ceramic bone graft (HATCP) and guided bone regeneration (GBR): Raman spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos de Carvalho, Fabíola; Aciole, Gilberth Tadeu S.; Aciole, Jouber Mateus S.; Silveira, Landulfo, Jr.; Nunes dos Santos, Jean; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, through Raman spectroscopy, the repair of complete tibial fracture in rabbits fixed with wire osteosynthesis - WO, treated or not with infrared laser light (λ 780nm, 50mW, CW) associated or not to the use of HATCP and GBR. Surgical fractures were created under general anesthesia (Ketamine 0.4ml/Kg IP and Xilazine 0.2ml/Kg IP), on the tibia of 15 rabbits that were divided into 5 groups and maintained on individual cages, at day/night cycle, fed with solid laboratory pelted diet and had water ad libidum. On groups II, III, IV and V the fracture was fixed with WO. Animals of groups III and V were grafted with hydroxyapatite + GBR technique. Animals of groups IV and V were irradiated at every other day during two weeks (16J/cm2, 4 x 4J/cm2). Observation time was that of 30 days. After animal death the specimens were kept in liquid nitrogen for further analysis by Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy showed significant differences between groups (p<0.001). It is concluded that IR laser light was able to accelerate fracture healing and the association with HATCP and GBR resulted on increased deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite.

  14. Can the co-cultivation of rice and fish help sustain rice production?

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Liangliang; Zhang, Jian; Ren, Weizheng; Guo, Liang; Cheng, Yongxu; Li, Jiayao; Li, Kexin; Zhu, Zewen; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Shiming; Cheng, Lei; Tang, Jianjun; Chen, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Because rice feeds half of the world’s population, a secure global food supply depends on sustainable rice production. Here we test whether the co-cultivation of rice and fish into one “rice-fish system” (RFS; fish refers to aquatic animals in this article) could help sustain rice production. We examined intensive and traditional RFSs that have been widely practiced in China. We found that rice yields did not decrease when fish yield was below a threshold value in each intensive RFS. Below the thresholds, moreover, fish yields in intensive RFSs can be substantially higher than those in traditional RFS without reducing rice yield. Relative to rice monoculture, the use of fertilizer-nitrogen and pesticides decreased, and the farmers’ net income increased in RFSs. The results suggest that RFSs can help sustain rice production, and suggest that development of co-culture technologies (i.e. proper field configuration for fish and rice) is necessary to achieve the sustainability. PMID:27349875

  15. Simulating rice response to climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, U.; Padilla, J.L. |

    1995-12-31

    The response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to elevated CO{sub 2} concentration and temperature increase was simulated using the CERES-rice model. CERES-rice belongs to the International Benchmark Sites Network for Agrotechnology Transfer (IBSNAT) family of crop and nutrient dynamics models. Long-term historical data from the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) wetland site was used to quantify the climatic change effects. The model simulated such beneficial effects of CO{sub 2} enrichment as increased grain yields, reduced transpiration, increased water use efficiency, improved use of intercepted radiation, reduced N losses, and higher N use efficiency. The trends were reversed for all of the above parameters with increase in temperature. CERES-rice simulated these negative trends in low input rice production as well. Based on the model`s prediction, some of the negative effects of temperature increase in warmer regions of the world could be offset by use of rice varieties that are tolerant to high temperature-induced spikelet sterility, and planting varieties with longer growth duration, particularly, longer grain filling duration. With improved varieties and good management future impact of climate change could be capitalized to have positive effects on rice production. Although the model has been extensively tested, it is critical to validate it with field data from extreme temperature and CO{sub 2} level studies. 33 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Rice ( Oryza) hemoglobins

    PubMed Central

    Arredondo-Peter, Raúl; Moran, Jose F.; Sarath, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice ( Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a single copy of the thb gene exist in Oryza sativa var. indica and O. sativa var. japonica, Hb transcripts coexist in rice organs and Hb polypeptides exist in rice embryonic and vegetative organs and in the cytoplasm of differentiating cells. At the structural level, the crystal structure of rice Hb1 has been elucidated, and the structures of the other rice Hbs have been modeled. Kinetic analysis indicated that rice Hb1 and 2, and possibly rice Hb3 and 4, exhibit a very high affinity for O 2, whereas rice Hb5 and tHb possibly exhibit a low to moderate affinity for O 2. Based on the accumulated information on the properties of rice Hbs and data from the analysis of other plant and non-plant Hbs, it is likely that Hbs play a variety of roles in rice organs, including O 2-transport, O 2-sensing, NO-scavenging and redox-signaling. From an evolutionary perspective, an outline for the evolution of rice Hbs is available. Rice nshb and thb genes vertically evolved through different lineages, rice nsHbs evolved into clade I and clade II lineages and rice nshbs and thbs evolved under the effect of neutral selection. This review also reveals lacunae in our ability to completely understand rice Hbs. Primary lacunae are the absence of experimental information about the precise functions of rice Hbs, the properties of modeled rice Hbs and the cis-elements and trans-acting factors that regulate the expression of rice hb genes, and the partial understanding of the evolution of rice Hbs. PMID:25653837

  17. Silicon-Mediated Resistance in a Susceptible Rice Variety to the Rice Leaf Folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yongqiang; Lei, Wenbin; Wen, Lizhang; Hou, Maolin

    2015-01-01

    The rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée), is one of the most destructive rice pests in Asian countries. Rice varieties resistant to the rice leaf folder are generally characterized by high silicon content. In this study, silicon amendment, at 0.16 and 0.32 g Si/kg soil, enhanced resistance of a susceptible rice variety to the rice leaf folder. Silicon addition to rice plants at both the low and high rates significantly extended larval development and reduced larval survival rate and pupation rate in the rice leaf folder. When applied at the high rate, silicon amendment reduced third-instars’ weight gain and pupal weight. Altogether, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase and net reproduction rate of the rice leaf folder population were all reduced at both the low and high silicon addition rates. Although the third instars consumed more in silicon-amended treatments, C:N ratio in rice leaves was significantly increased and food conversion efficiencies were reduced due to increased silicon concentration in rice leaves. Our results indicate that reduced food quality and food conversion efficiencies resulted from silicon addition account for the enhanced resistance in the susceptible rice variety to the rice leaf folder. PMID:25837635

  18. Antioxidants and antioxidant activity of several pigmented rice brans.

    PubMed

    Laokuldilok, Thunnop; Shoemaker, Charles F; Jongkaewwattana, Sakda; Tulyathan, Vanna

    2011-01-12

    This study investigated the antioxidant content and activity of phenolic acids, anthocyanins, α-tocopherol and γ-oryzanol in pigmented rice (black and red rice) brans. After methanolic extraction, the DPPH free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity were measured. The pigmented rice bran extract had a greater reducing power than a normal rice bran extract from a long grain white rice. All bran extracts were highly effective in inhibiting linoleic acid peroxidation (60-85%). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of antioxidants in rice bran found that γ-oryzanol (39-63%) and phenolic acids (33-43%) were the major antioxidants in all bran samples, and black rice bran also contained anthocyanins 18-26%. HPLC analysis of anthocyanins showed that pigmented bran was rich in cyanidin-3-glucoside (58-95%). Ferulic acid was the dominant phenolic acid in the rice bran samples. Black rice bran contained gallic, hydroxybenzoic, and protocatechuic acids in higher contents than red rice bran and normal rice bran. Furthermore, the addition of 5% black rice bran to wheat flour used for making bread produced a marked increase in the free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity compared to a control bread. PMID:21141962

  19. Decreased photosynthesis in the erect panicle 3 (ep3) mutant of rice is associated with reduced stomatal conductance and attenuated guard cell development

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hongyang; Murchie, Erik H.; González-Carranza, Zinnia H.; Pyke, Kevin A.; Roberts, Jeremy A.

    2015-01-01

    The ERECT PANICLE 3 gene of rice encodes a peptide that exhibits more than 50% sequence identity with the Arabidopsis F-box protein HAWAIIAN SKIRT (HWS). Ectopic expression of the Os02g15950 coding sequence, driven by the HWS (At3g61950) promoter, rescued the hws-1 flower phenotype in Arabidopsis confirming that EP3 is a functional orthologue of HWS. In addition to displaying an erect inflorescence phenotype, loss-of-function mutants of Os02g15950 exhibited a decrease in leaf photosynthetic capacity and stomatal conductance. Analysis of a range of physiological and anatomical features related to leaf photosynthesis revealed no alteration in Rubisco content and no notable changes in mesophyll size or arrangement. However, both ep3 mutant plants and transgenic lines that have a T-DNA insertion within the Os02g15950 (EP3) gene exhibit smaller stomatal guard cells compared with their wild-type controls. This anatomical characteristic may account for the observed decrease in leaf photosynthesis and provides evidence that EP3 plays a role in regulating stomatal guard cell development. PMID:25582452

  20. Efficacy of Selected Insecticides Applied to Hybrid Rice Seed.

    PubMed

    Adams, A; Gore, J; Musser, F; Cook, D; Catchot, A; Walker, T; Dobbins, C

    2016-02-01

    Hybrid rice and insecticide seed treatments targeting rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, have altered the landscape of rice production. The effect of reduced seeding rates on seed treatment efficacy in hybrid rice has not been studied. During 2011 and 2012, an experiment was conducted at seven locations to determine the relationship between low seeding rates used in hybrid rice and efficacy of selected insecticidal seed treatments as measured by rice water weevil densities and yield. Labeled rates of thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole, and clothianidin were compared with higher rates of these products to determine if labeled rates provide an acceptable level of control of the rice water weevil. Study locations were divided into low, moderate, and high groups based on rice water weevil larval densities. All seed treatments and seed treatment rates reduced rice water weevil densities. However, there was no observed yield or economic benefit from the use of an insecticidal seed treatment in areas of low pressure. Differences in yield were observed among seed treatments and seed treatment rates in moderate and high pressure locations, and all seed treatments yielded better than the untreated plots, but these differences were not always economical. All seed treatments showed an economic advantage in areas of high weevil pressure, and there were no differences among seed treatment products or rates, suggesting that currently labeled seed treatment rates in hybrid rice are effective for rice water weevil management. PMID:26537671

  1. Efficacy of Selected Insecticides Applied to Hybrid Rice Seed

    PubMed Central

    Adams, A.; Gore, J.; Musser, F.; Cook, D.; Walker, T.; Dobbins, C.

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid rice and insecticide seed treatments targeting rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, have altered the landscape of rice production. The effect of reduced seeding rates on seed treatment efficacy in hybrid rice has not been studied. During 2011 and 2012, an experiment was conducted at seven locations to determine the relationship between low seeding rates used in hybrid rice and efficacy of selected insecticidal seed treatments as measured by rice water weevil densities and yield. Labeled rates of thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole, and clothianidin were compared with higher rates of these products to determine if labeled rates provide an acceptable level of control of the rice water weevil. Study locations were divided into low, moderate, and high groups based on rice water weevil larval densities. All seed treatments and seed treatment rates reduced rice water weevil densities. However, there was no observed yield or economic benefit from the use of an insecticidal seed treatment in areas of low pressure. Differences in yield were observed among seed treatments and seed treatment rates in moderate and high pressure locations, and all seed treatments yielded better than the untreated plots, but these differences were not always economical. All seed treatments showed an economic advantage in areas of high weevil pressure, and there were no differences among seed treatment products or rates, suggesting that currently labeled seed treatment rates in hybrid rice are effective for rice water weevil management. PMID:26537671

  2. Polishing and parboiling effect on the nutritional and technological properties of pigmented rice.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Flávia Fernandes; Vanier, Nathan Levien; Berrios, Jose De J; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Wood, Delilah; Williams, Tina; Pan, James; Elias, Moacir Cardoso

    2016-01-15

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of polishing and parboiling on proximate composition, structure, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, cooking time and hardness of IAC-600 black rice cultivar and MPB-10 red rice lineage. Proximate analysis and light micrographs revealed higher migration of red rice proteins than black rice proteins to the endosperm as a result of parboiling. Parboiling reduced the ash content of red rice while no difference was determined in black rice. Gelatinized starch granules from both genotypes showed similar appearance. There was a decrease in relative crystallinity on both black and red rice subjected to parboiling, which was an indicative of crystallites disruption. Polishing removed more than 90% of free phenolics for both genotypes, while parboiling allowed the partial preservation of free phenolics content in polished rice. Parboiling induced an increase in the cooking time of red rice, but a decrease in the cooking time of black rice. PMID:26258708

  3. [Effect of rice-duck mutualism on nutrition ecology of paddy field and rice quality].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiangsheng; Huang, Pisheng; Zhen, Ruohong; Jing, Liuming; Tang, Hebao; Zhang, Chunyang

    2004-04-01

    The production of nuisanceless rice was conducted by the technique of rice-duck mutualism without applying any pesticide and chemical fertilizer. The results showed that compared to the control, the effect of eliminating weeds was over 99.4%, and the cardinal numbers of plant diseases and insect pests reduced obviously. Nutrients and dissolved oxygen in paddy water and rapidly available nutrients in soil increased, but after maturing stage, compared to basal fertility, rapidly available P and K decreased. The N, P, and K absorption amounts of rice plant, rice yield, setting panicles rate, filled grains and ripened rate increased. The milling, appearance, nutritional, cooking and eating quality of rice improved, especially in reducing chalkiness. The comprehensive benefits of paddy field enhanced obviously. PMID:15334961

  4. Comparison of the performance of natural latex membranes prepared with different procedures and PTFE membrane in guided bone regeneration (GBR) in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Moura, Jonas M L; Ferreira, Juliana F; Marques, Leonardo; Holgado, Leandro; Graeff, Carlos F O; Kinoshita, Angela

    2014-09-01

    This work assessed the performance of membranes made of natural latex extracted from Hevea brasiliensis prepared with three different methods: polymerized immediately after collection without the use of ammonia (L1); polymerized after preservation in ammonia solution (L2); and polymerized after storage in ammonia, followed by Soxhlet technique for the extraction of substances (L3). Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane was used as control. Two 10-mm diameter bone defects were surgically made in the calvaria of thirty adult male New Zealand rabbits. Defects (total n = 60) were treated with guided bone regeneration (GBR) using L1, L2, L3 or PTFE membranes (n = 15 for each membrane). Ten animals were euthanized after 7, 20 and 60 days postoperatively so that five samples (n = 5) of each treatment were collected at each time, and bone regeneration was assessed microscopically. The microscopic analysis revealed defects filled with blood clot and new bone formation at the margins of the defect in all 7-day samples, while 20-day defects were mainly filled with fibrous connective tissue. After 60 days defects covered with L1 membranes showed a significantly larger bone formation area in comparison to the other groups (P < 0.05, ANOVA, Tukey). Additionally, bone tissue hypersensitization for L1 and PTFE membranes was also investigated in six additional rabbits. The animals were subjected to the same surgical procedure for the confection of one 10-mm diameter bone defect that was treated with L1 (n = 3) or PTFE (n = 3). Fifty-three days later, a second surgery was performed to make a second defect, which was treated with the same type of membrane used in the first surgery. Seven days later, the animals were euthanized and samples analyzed. No differences among L1 and PTFE samples collected from sensitized and non-sensitized animals were found (P > 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis). Therefore, the results demonstrated that latex membranes presented performance

  5. Iron Biofortification of Myanmar Rice

    PubMed Central

    Aung, May Sann; Masuda, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Takanori; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Yamakawa, Takashi; Nishizawa, Naoko K.

    2013-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency elevates human mortality rates, especially in developing countries. In Myanmar, the prevalence of Fe-deficient anemia in children and pregnant women are 75 and 71%, respectively. Myanmar people have one of the highest per capita rice consumption rates globally. Consequently, production of Fe-biofortified rice would likely contribute to solving the Fe-deficiency problem in this human population. To produce Fe-biofortified Myanmar rice by transgenic methods, we first analyzed callus induction and regeneration efficiencies in 15 varieties that are presently popular because of their high-yields or high-qualities. Callus formation and regeneration efficiency in each variety was strongly influenced by types of culture media containing a range of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations. The Paw San Yin variety, which has a high-Fe content in polished seeds, performed well in callus induction and regeneration trials. Thus, we transformed this variety using a gene expression cassette that enhanced Fe transport within rice plants through overexpression of the nicotianamine synthase gene HvNAS1, Fe flow to the endosperm through the Fe(II)-nicotianamine transporter gene OsYSL2, and Fe accumulation in endosperm by the Fe storage protein gene SoyferH2. A line with a transgene insertion was successfully obtained. Enhanced expressions of the introduced genes OsYSL2, HvNAS1, and SoyferH2 occurred in immature T2 seeds. The transformants accumulated 3.4-fold higher Fe concentrations, and also 1.3-fold higher zinc concentrations in T2 polished seeds compared to levels in non-transgenic rice. This Fe-biofortified rice has the potential to reduce Fe-deficiency anemia in millions of Myanmar people without changing food habits and without introducing additional costs. PMID:23750162

  6. Biofortified β-carotene rice improves vitamin A intake and reduces the prevalence of inadequacy among women and young children in a simulated analysis in Bangladesh, Indonesia, and the Philippines1

    PubMed Central

    Angeles-Agdeppa, Imelda; Atmarita, Atmarita; Gironella, Glen M; Muslimatun, Siti; Carriquiry, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitamin A deficiency continues to be a major public health problem affecting developing countries where people eat mostly rice as a staple food. In Asia, rice provides up to 80% of the total daily energy intake. Objective: We used existing data sets from Bangladesh, Indonesia, and the Philippines, where dietary intakes have been quantified at the individual level to 1) determine the rice and vitamin A intake in nonpregnant, nonlactating women of reproductive age and in nonbreastfed children 1–3 y old and 2) simulate the amount of change that could be achieved in the prevalence of inadequate intake of vitamin A if rice biofortified with β-carotene were consumed instead of the rice consumed at present. Design: We considered a range of 4–20 parts per million (ppm) of β-carotene content and 10–70% substitution levels for the biofortified rice. Software was used to estimate usual rice and vitamin A intake for the simulation analyses. Results: In an analysis by country, the substitution of biofortified rice for white rice in the optimistic scenario (20 ppm and 70% substitution) decreased the prevalence of vitamin A inadequacy from baseline 78% in women and 71% in children in Bangladesh. In Indonesia and the Philippines, the prevalence of inadequacy fell by 55–60% in women and dropped by nearly 30% in children from baseline. Conclusions: The results of the simulation analysis were striking in that even low substitution levels and modest increases in the β-carotene of rice produced a meaningful decrease in the prevalence of inadequate intake of vitamin A. Increasing the substitution levels had a greater impact than increasing the β-carotene content by >12 ppm. PMID:27510534

  7. Comparison on cellular mechanisms of iron and cadmium accumulation in rice: prospects for cultivating Fe-rich but Cd-free rice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Chang, Jiadong; Chen, Ruijie; Li, Hubo; Lu, Hongfei; Tao, Longxing; Xiong, Jie

    2016-12-01

    Iron (Fe) is essential for rice growth and humans consuming as their staple food but is often deficient because of insoluble Fe(III) in soil for rice growth and limited assimilation for human bodies, while cadmium (Cd) is non-essential and toxic for rice growth and humans if accumulating at high levels. Over-accumulated Cd can cause damage to human bodies. Selecting and breeding Fe-rich but Cd-free rice cultivars are ambitious, challenging and meaningful tasks for researchers. Although evidences show that the mechanisms of Fe/Cd uptake and accumulation in rice are common to some extent as a result of similar entry routes within rice, an increasing number of researchers have discovered distinct mechanisms between Fe/Cd uptake and accumulation in rice. This comprehensive review systematically elaborates and compares cellular mechanisms of Fe/Cd uptake and accumulation in rice, respectively. Mechanisms for maintaining Fe homeostasis and Cd detoxicification are also elucidated. Then, effects of different fertilizer management on Fe/Cd accumulation in rice are discussed. Finally, this review enumerates various approaches for reducing grain Cd accumulation and enhancing Fe content in rice. In summary, understanding of discrepant cellular mechanisms of Fe/Cd accumulation in rice provides guidance for cultivating Fe-fortified rice and has paved the way to develop rice that are tolerant to Cd stress, aiming at breeding Fe-rich but Cd-free rice. PMID:27502932

  8. A MULTI-YEAR COMPARISON OF RICE-BARNYARDGRASS ROOT INTERACTIONS IN WEED SUPPRESSIVE AND NON-SUPPRESSIVE RICE CULTIVARS USING STABLE 13C ISOTOPE ANALYSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed-suppressive (primarily indica-based) rice cultivars can aid with the control of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) more effectively than do traditional long-grain rice cultivars in drill-seeded rice systems in the southern U.S. In earlier tests, weed-suppressive cultivars often have reduce...

  9. Oil uptake properties of fried batters from rice flour.

    PubMed

    Shih, F; Daigle, K

    1999-04-01

    Batters were prepared, using rice flour as the main component, and analyzed for their oil uptake properties during frying. Rice flour resisted oil absorption better but was less effective as a thickening agent than wheat flour. Of the rice components, increased amylose in the amylopectin/amylose ratio of the starch decreased the batter oil uptake, whereas increased protein content had the opposite effect. Various additives were introduced and investigated for their ability to develop viscosity and other desirable characteristics for the batter. As additives to the rice flour batters, phosphorylated starch and gelatinized rice flour enhanced both the thickening and oil-reducing capacities of the batter. Compared with values for batters from wheat flour, the percent batter oil uptake in the fried crust for the modified rice flour batters was decreased by up to 62%, and the percent total oil uptake for the whole coated drumstick was reduced by up to 59%. PMID:10564026

  10. Rice Production and Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briers, Gary; Lee, Jasper S.

    This guide contains lesson plans for use in secondary programs of agricultural education in geographical areas in which rice is produced. Six units and 13 problem areas are organized into teaching plans that cover the broad nature of rice production. The six units are: (1) determining the importance and history of rice production; (2) determining…

  11. Rice bran oil and oryzanol reduce plasma lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol ester accumulation to a greater extent than ferulic acid in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J; Woolfrey, Benjamin; Kritchevsky, David

    2007-02-01

    Our laboratory has reported that the hypolipidemic effect of rice bran oil (RBO) is not entirely explained by its fatty acid composition. Because RBO has a greater content of the unsaponifiables, which also lower cholesterol compared to most vegetable oils, we wanted to know whether oryzanol or ferulic acid, two major unsaponifiables in RBO, has a greater cholesterol-lowering activity. Forty-eight F(1)B Golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) (BioBreeders, Watertown, MA) were group housed (three per cage) in cages with bedding in an air-conditioned facility maintained on a 12-h light/dark cycle. The hamsters were fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) containing 10% coconut oil and 0.1% cholesterol for 2 weeks, at which time they were bled after an overnight fast (16 h) and segregated into 4 groups of 12 with similar plasma cholesterol concentrations. Group 1 (control) continued on the HCD, group 2 was fed the HCD containing 10% RBO in place of coconut oil, group 3 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% ferulic acid and group 4 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% oryzanol for an additional 10 weeks. After 10 weeks on the diets, plasma total cholesterol (TC) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (very low- and low-density lipoprotein) concentrations were significantly lower in the RBO (-64% and -70%, respectively), the ferulic acid (-22% and -24%, respectively) and the oryzanol (-70% and -77%, respectively) diets compared to control. Plasma TC and non-HDL-C concentrations were also significantly lower in the RBO (-53% and -61%, respectively) and oryzanol (-61% and -70%, respectively) diets compared to the ferulic acid. Compared to control and ferulic acid, plasma HDL-C concentrations were significantly higher in the RBO (10% and 20%, respectively) and oryzanol (13% and 24%, respectively) diets. The ferulic acid diet had significantly lower plasma HDL-C concentrations compared to the control (-9%). The RBO and oryzanol diets were significantly lower for

  12. Arsenic in rice: a cause for concern.

    PubMed

    Hojsak, Iva; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri; Campoy, Cristina; Colomb, Virginie; Decsi, Tamas; Domellöf, Magnus; Fewtrell, Mary; Mis, Nataša Fidler; Mihatsch, Walter; Molgaard, Christian; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic intake is likely to affect long-term health. High concentrations are found in some rice-based foods and drinks widely used in infants and young children. In order to reduce exposure, we recommend avoidance of rice drinks for infants and young children. For all of the rice products, strict regulation should be enforced regarding arsenic content. Moreover, infants and young children should consume a balanced diet including a variety of grains as carbohydrate sources. Although rice protein-based infant formulas are an option for infants with cows' milk protein allergy, the inorganic arsenic content should be declared and the potential risks should be considered when using these products. PMID:25536328

  13. Genome duplication improves rice root resistance to salt stress

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Salinity is a stressful environmental factor that limits the productivity of crop plants, and roots form the major interface between plants and various abiotic stresses. Rice is a salt-sensitive crop and its polyploid shows advantages in terms of stress resistance. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of genome duplication on rice root resistance to salt stress. Results Both diploid rice (HN2026-2x and Nipponbare-2x) and their corresponding tetraploid rice (HN2026-4x and Nipponbare-4x) were cultured in half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium with 150 mM NaCl for 3 and 5 days. Accumulations of proline, soluble sugar, malondialdehyde (MDA), Na+ content, H+ (proton) flux at root tips, and the microstructure and ultrastructure in rice roots were examined. We found that tetraploid rice showed less root growth inhibition, accumulated higher proline content and lower MDA content, and exhibited a higher frequency of normal epidermal cells than diploid rice. In addition, a protective gap appeared between the cortex and pericycle cells in tetraploid rice. Next, ultrastructural analysis showed that genome duplication improved membrane, organelle, and nuclei stability. Furthermore, Na+ in tetraploid rice roots significantly decreased while root tip H+ efflux in tetraploid rice significantly increased. Conclusions Our results suggest that genome duplication improves root resistance to salt stress, and that enhanced proton transport to the root surface may play a role in reducing Na+ entrance into the roots. PMID:25184027

  14. Extraction of light filth from rice flours, extruded rice products, and rice paper: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Dent, R G

    1982-09-01

    Two new methods were developed for the extraction of rodent hairs and insect fragments from rice products: one for rice flour and one for extruded rice products and rice paper. A 100 g sample of rice flour was extracted with mineral oil-40% isopropanol, followed by a water phase as needed for additional cycles. For extruded rice products and rice paper, a 225 g sample of each was initially extracted as above, followed by a single extraction with mineral oil-20% isopropanol. Both methods used an acid hydrolysis pretreatment followed by wet sieving and a percolator extraction. Average rodent hair recoveries were 77.8% for rice flour and 82.2% for extruded rice products and rice paper. Average insect fragment recoveries were 89.6% for rice flour and 91.9% for extruded rice products and rice paper. Both methods were adopted official first action. PMID:7130079

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions, irrigation water use, and arsenic concentrations; a common thread in rice water management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice has historically been grown as a flooded crop in the United States. As competition for water resources has grown, there is interest in reducing water use in rice production so as to maintain a viable and sustainable rice industry into the future. An irrigation study was established in 2011 at ...

  16. Development of Ozone Technology Rice Storage Systems (OTRISS) for Quality Improvement of Rice Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nur, M.; Kusdiyantini, E.; Wuryanti, W.; Winarni, T. A.; Widyanto, S. A.; Muharam, H.

    2015-06-01

    This research has been carried out by using ozone to address the rapidly declining quality of rice in storage. In the first year, research has focused on the rice storage with ozone technology for small capacity (e.g., household) and the medium capacity (e.g., dormitories, hospitals). Ozone was produced by an ozone generator with Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma (DBDP). Ozone technology rice storage system (OTRISS) is using ozone charateristic which is a strong oxidizer. Ozone have a short endurance of existence and then decompose, as a result produce oxygen and radicals of oxygen. These characteristics could kill microorganisms and pests, reduce air humidity and enrich oxygen. All components used in SPBTO assembled using raw materials available in the big cities in Indonesia. Provider of high voltage (High Voltage Power Supply, 40-70 kV, 23 KH, AC) is one of components that have been assembled and tested. Ozone generator is assembled with 7 reactors of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma (DBDP). Rice container that have been prepared for OTRISS have adjusted so can be integrated with generator, power supply and blower to blow air. OTRISS with a capacity of 75 kg and 100 kg have been made and tested. The ability of ozone to eliminate bacteria and fungi have been tested and resulted in a decrease of microorganisms at 3 log CFU/g. Testing in food chemistry showed that ozone treatment of rice had not changed the chemical content that still meet the standard of chemical content and nutritional applicable to ISO standard milled rice. The results of this study are very likely to be used as an alternative to rice storage systems in warehouse. Test and scale-up is being carried out in a mini warehouse whose condition is mimicked to rice in National Rice Storage of Indonesia (Bulog) to ensure quality. Next adaptations would be installed in the rice storage system in the Bulog.

  17. Cooked rice texture and rice flour pasting properties; impacted by rice temperature during milling.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mohammed; Meullenet, Jean-Francois

    2015-03-01

    Rice milling plays a key factor in determining rice quality and value. Therefore accurate quality assessments are critical to the rice industry. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of exposing rice to elevated temperatures during milling, on cooked rice texture and rice flour pasting properties. Two long (Cybonnett and Francis) and one medium (Jupiter) rice (oryzae sativa L.) cultivars were milled using McGill laboratory mill for 30 and 40 s after warmed up the mill before milling. Four different milling temperatures per milling duration were achieved. Cooked rice texture properties were assessed using a uniaxial compression test and rice flour pasting properties measured using a TA-2000 rheometer. Results of this study showed that exposure of rice to high temperatures during milling significantly decreased cooked rice firmness. An increase in milled rice temperature after milling from 10.0 to 13.3 °C resulted in a 5.4 and 8.1 N decrease in cooked rice firmness. Although not always significant, the increase in milled rice temperature during milling resulted in an increase in cooked rice stickiness. The increase in milling temperature also showed significant increase in rice flour pasting properties. Changes in rice functional characteristics were attributed to the changes occurring to rice chemical constituents due to temperature exposure as indicated by the increase in rice protein hydrophobicity. Proteins are known to affect rice starch water holding capacity and other starch gelatinization properties. PMID:25745230

  18. Production of glutinous rice flour from broken rice via ultrasonic assisted extraction of amylose.

    PubMed

    Setyawati, Yohana Dwi; Ahsan, Sitti Faika; Ong, Lu Ki; Soetaredjo, Felycia Edi; Ismadji, Suryadi; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2016-07-15

    In this study, a modified aqueous leaching method by complex formation of amylose with glycerol was employed for reducing the amylose content of starch in broken white rice to less than 2%, so that the resulting starch can be classified to that of glutinous rice flour. By employing ultrasonication in alkaline condition, extraction of amylose could be performed by washing at lower temperature in shorter time compared to the existing aqueous leaching method. The effects of glycerol concentration, alkali concentration, ultrasonication and treatment time on the amylose content of the treated starch were systematically investigated. Under optimum condition, amylose content of broken white rice starch can be reduced from 27.27% to 1.43% with a yield of 80.42%. The changes in the physicochemical properties of the rice flour before and after treatment were studied. PMID:26948601

  19. Enhancing the health-beneficial qualities of whole grain rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various pre- and post-harvest approaches (i.e. pre-germination of whole grains and reduced milling degree) to enhancing the health beneficial compounds of whole grain and milled rice have been reported. A discussion of the results from our pre-harvest efforts is as follows. The majority of rice cons...

  20. Effects of decomposing rice straw on growth of and nitrogen fixation by Rhizobium

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, E.L.; Huang, C.Y.; Lin, C.Y.

    1981-03-01

    Five phenolic compounds produced in decomposing rice straw and sterile extracts of decomposing rice straw in soil were very inhibitory to growth of three strains of Rhizobium. The effects were additive and in several instances synergistic. The phenolic compounds also reduced nodule numbers and hemoglobin content of the nodules in two bean (Phaseohus vulgaris) varieties. Extracts of decomposing rice straw in soil (same concentration as in the soil) significantly reduced N/sub 2/ fixation (acetylene reduction) in Bush Black Seeded beans. This may explain in part the great reduction in soybean yields in Taiwan following rice crops when the rice stubble is left in the field.

  1. Effect of depth of flooding on the rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus, and yield of rice.

    PubMed

    Tindall, Kelly V; Bernhardt, John L; Stout, Michael J; Beighley, Donn H

    2013-01-01

    The rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus (Kuschel) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a semi-aquatic pest of rice and is the most destructive insect pest of rice in the United States. Adults oviposit after floods are established, and greenhouse studies have shown that plants exposed to deep floods have more eggs oviposited in leaf sheaths than plants exposed to a shallow flood. Experiments were conducted in three mid-southern states in the USA to determine if the depth of flooding would impact numbers of L. oryzophilus on rice plants under field conditions. Rice was flooded at depths of approximately 5 or 10 cm in Arkansas in 2007 and 2008 and Louisiana in 2008, and at depths between 0-20 cm in Missouri in 2008. Plants were sampled three and four weeks after floods were established in all locations, and also two weeks after flood in Missouri. On all sampling dates in four experiments over two years and at three field sites, fewer L. oryzophilus larvae were collected from rice in shallow-flooded plots than from deep-flooded plots. The number of L. oryzophilus was reduced by as much as 27% in shallow-flooded plots. However, the reduction in insect numbers did not translate to a significant increase in rice yield. We discuss how shallow floods could be used as a component of an integrated pest management program for L. oryzophilus. PMID:23906324

  2. Energy from rice residues

    SciTech Connect

    Mahin, D.B.

    1990-03-01

    Developing countries produce millions of tons of rice husks and straw as a byproduct of harvesting rice. Although some of these rice residues are used for fuel or other purposes, most are burned for disposal or just dumped. However, since the mid- 1980's, industrial plants for rice residue utilization have been installed in several countries and are planned in a number of others. The report provides information on systems to produce energy from rice residues that are commercially available in the United States, Europe, and various developing countries, with an emphasis on those currently used or sold on an international level. Specifically reviewed are the use of rice husks to produce: (1) industrial process heat either directly from furnaces or by generating low pressure steam in boilers; (2) mechanical and electrical power for rice milling via steam engine systems, steam turbine/generator systems, and gasifier/engine systems; and (3) electric power for the grid. The outlook for producing energy from rice straw is also assessed. In addition, the prospects for the use of energy from husks or straw in the processing of rice bran are reviewed.

  3. Determinants for grading Malaysian rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Yusoff, Nooraini; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2016-08-01

    Due to un-uniformity of rice grading practices in Malaysia, zones which actively producing rice in Malaysia are using their own way of grading rice. Rice grading is important in determining rice quality and its subsequent price in the market. It is an important process applied in the rice production industry with the purpose of ensuring that the rice produced for the market meets the quality requirements of consumer. Two important aspects that need to be considered in determining rice grades are grading technique and determinants to be used for grading (usually referred as rice attributes). This article proposes the list of determinants to be used in grading Malaysian rice. Determinants were explored through combination of extensive literature review and series of interview with the domain experts and practitioners. The proposed determinants are believed to be beneficial to BERNAS in improving the current Malaysian rice grading process.

  4. Balancing the Needs of China's Wetland Conservation and Rice Production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongjun; Wang, Guoping; Lu, Xianguo; Jiang, Ming; Mendelssohn, Irving A

    2015-06-01

    China's rice policy for protecting paddy fields and constructing rice production bases is in conflict with its wetland conservation strategy. The policy will increase the rice planting area, the loss of remaining wetlands, and environmental pollution, with intensive application of fertilizers and heavy use of pesticides. The key to resolving this conflict is to bring rice production in compliance with wetland conservation and sustainable agriculture. An operational, sound regulatory program is needed to improve China's wetland conservation. Using wetland conservation in the US as an example, we argue that more effective technical guidelines for wetland inventory and monitoring are necessary to support the implementation of the regulatory program. Agricultural conservation programs are also needed to stop further wetland loss from agricultural usages. An ecoagricultural strategy and practice should be adopted for rice production to reduce pollution and loss of remaining wetlands. Agroecological engineering tools can be used to reduce the impacts of nutrient- and pesticide-enriched agricultural runoff to wetlands. PMID:25955310

  5. Mitigation of arsenic accumulation in rice with water management and silicon fertilization.

    PubMed

    Li, R Y; Stroud, J L; Ma, J F; McGrath, S P; Zhao, F J

    2009-05-15

    Rice represents a major route of As exposure in populations that depend on a rice diet. Practical measures are needed to mitigate the problem of excessive As accumulation in paddy rice. Two potential mitigation methods, management of the water regime and Si fertilization, were investigated under greenhouse conditions. Growing rice aerobically during the entire rice growth duration resulted in the leastAs accumulation. Maintaining aerobic conditions during either vegetative or reproductive stage of rice growth also decreased As accumulation in rice straw and grain significantly compared with rice grown under flooded conditions. The effect of water management regimes was consistent with the observed effect of flooding-induced arsenite mobilization in the soil solution. Aerobic treatments increased the percentage of inorganic As in grain, but the concentrations of inorganic As remained lower than in the flooded rice. Silicon fertilization decreased the total As concentration in straw and grain by 78 and 16%, respectively, even though Si addition increased As concentration in the soil solution. Silicon also significantly influenced As speciation in rice grain and husk by enhancing methylation. Silicon decreased the inorganic As concentration in grain by 59% while increasing the concentration of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) by 33%. There were also significant differences between two rice genotypes in grain As speciation. This study demonstrated that water management Si fertilization, and selection of rice cultivars are effective measures that can be used to reduce As accumulation in rice. PMID:19544887

  6. Spotlight on rice: an update from the Rice Division

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This short paper is a 'spotlight' on the Rice Division of the Marican Association of Cereal Chemists, International and features an update and future challenges in rice research and industry. Since rice is consumed largely as milled white rice intact kernals, size, shape, color, appearance, function...

  7. Post-harvest field manipulations to conserve waste rice for waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stafford, J.D.; Kaminski, R.M.; Reinecke, K.J.; Kurtz, M.E.; Manley, S.W.

    2005-01-01

    Rice seeds escaping collection by combines during harvest (hereafter, waste rice) provide quality forage for migrating and wintering waterfowl in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV) and other rice growing regions in the United States. Recent sample surveys across the MAV have revealed abundance of waste rice in fields declined an average of 71% between harvest and late autumn. Thus, we evaluated the ability of common post-harvest, field-management practices to conserve waste rice for waterfowl until early winter via controlled experiments in Mississippi rice test plots in 2001 and 2003 and analyses of data from MAV-wide surveys of waste rice in rice production fields in 2000-2002. Our experiments indicated test plots with burned rice stubble that were not flooded during autumn contained more waste rice than other treatments in 2001 (P?0.10). Waste-rice abundance in test plots did not differ among postharvest treatments in 2003 (P = 0.97). Our analyses of data from the MAV sample surveys did not detect differences in abundance of waste rice among fields burned, rolled, disked, or left in standing stubble post-harvest (P?0.04; Bonferroni corrected critical ( a= 0.017). Because results from test-plot experiments were inconclusive, we based our primary inference regarding best post-harvest treatments on patterns of rice abundance identified from the MAV surveys and previously documented environmental and agronomic benefits of managing harvested rice fields for wintering waterfowl. Therefore, we recommend leaving standing stubble in rice fields after harvest as a preliminary beneficial management practice. We suggest future research evaluate potential of postharvest practices to conserve waste rice for waterfowl and reduce straw in production rice fields managed for wintering waterfowl throughout the MAV.

  8. Water management, rice varieties and mycorrhizal inoculation influence arsenic concentration and speciation in rice grains.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Wu, Songlin; Ren, Baihui; Chen, Baodong

    2016-05-01

    A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of water management and mycorrhizal inoculation on arsenic (As) uptake by two rice varieties, the As-resistant BRRI dhan 47 (B47) and As-sensitive BRRI dhan 29 (B29). Grain As concentration of B47 plants was significantly lower than that of B29, and grain As concentration of B47 was higher under flooding conditions than that under aerobic conditions. In general, mycorrhizal inoculation (Rhizophagus irregularis) had no significant effect on grain As concentrations, but decreased the proportion of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in grains of B47. The proportion of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in the total grain As was dramatically higher under flooding conditions. Results demonstrate that rice variety selection and appropriate water management along with mycorrhizal inoculation could be practical countermeasures to As accumulation and toxicity in rice grains, thus reducing health risks of As exposure in rice diets. PMID:26585898

  9. Registration of 'Cybonnet' Rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Cybonnet’ rice is a high-yielding, short-season, long-grain cultivar. It originated form the cross ‘Cypress’//’Newbonnet’/’Katy’ made at the University of Arkansas Rice Research and Extension Center in Stuttgart, AR. Cybonnet is similar in maturity to ‘Kaybonnet’ and ‘Wells’, is a simidwarf culti...

  10. Making rice even healthier!

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is a naturally healthy food, but what if it could be made even healthier? Would Americans eat more rice if it could be advertised to be a 'New and Improved' source of calcium to promote bone growth, or iron to prevent anemia? Grocery stores are full of foods that are vitamin enhanced to attract...

  11. Registration of 'Medark' Rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Medark’ rice is a high-yielding, early maturing, semidwarf, medium-grain cultivar. It originated from the cross ‘Bengal’/’Short Rico’ and is similar in maturity to Bengal. It has improved disease resistance to rice blase, brown spot and straighthead. Medark has a lodging resistance slightly less...

  12. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  13. [Effect of transgenic insect-resistant rice on biodiversity].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Zhen

    2011-05-01

    Rice is the most important food crops in maintaining food security in China. The loss of China's annual rice production caused by pests is over ten million tons. Present studies showed that the transgenic insect-resistant rice can substantially reduce the application amount of chemical pesticides. In the case of no pesticide use, the pest density in transgenic rice field is significantly lower than that in non-transgenic field, and the neutral insects and natural enemies of pests increased significantly, indicating that the ecological environment and biodiversity toward the positive direction. The gene flow frequency from transgenic rice is dramatically reduced with the distance increases, reaching less than 0.01% at the distance of 6.2 m. Application of transgenic insect-resistant rice in China has an important significance for ensuring food security, maintaining sustainable agricultural development, and protecting the ecological environment and biodiversity. This review summarized the research progress in transgenic insect-resistant rice and its effect on biodiversity. The research directions and development trends of crop pest controlling in future are discussed. These help to promote better use of transgenic insect-resistant rice. PMID:21586387

  14. Rice blast disease in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is an important agricultural commodity in Texas, with an economic impact of more than $1 billion annually. Rice blast, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the most devastating diseases in rice. Texas Rice Belt provides a warm, humid climate favorable for the infection and reproduction of M....

  15. Rice and red rice interference. II. Rice response to population densities of three red rice (Oryza sativa) ecotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red rice, which grows taller and produces more tillers than domestic rice and shatters most of its seeds early, is a major weed in many rice-growing areas of the world. Field experiments were conducted at Stuttgart, AR in 1997 and 1998 to evaluate the growth response of the Kaybonnet (KBNT) rice cul...

  16. Deep phosphorus fertiliser placement and reduced irrigation methods for rice (Oryza sativa L.) combine to knock-out competition from its nemesis, barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P.Beauv)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Productivity of rice is increasingly being constrained by limitations in the quantity, quality, and cost of water and nutrients, and competition from weeds. This is a ‘commentary’ on the recent work of Weerarathne et al. (2015). They reported new discoveries from greenhouse experiments that showed...

  17. International Experience in Standards and Labeling Programs for Rice Cookers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina

    2008-05-01

    China has had an active program on energy efficiency standards for household appliances since the mid-1990s. Rice cooker is among the first to be subject to such mandatory regulation, since it is one of the most prevalent electric appliances in Chinese households. Since first introduced in 1989, the minimum energy efficiency standard for rice cookers has not been revised. Therefore, the potential for energy saving is considerable. Initial analysis from CNIS indicates that potential carbon savings is likely to reach 7.6 million tons of CO2 by the 10th year of the standard implementation. Since September 2007, CNIS has been working with various groups to develop the new standard for rice cookers. With The Energy Foundation's support, LBNL has assisted CNIS in the revision of the minimum energy efficiency standard for rice cookers that is expected to be effective in 2009. Specifically, work has been in the following areas: assistance in developing consumer survey on usage pattern of rice cookers, review of international standards, review of international test procedures, comparison of the international standards and test procedures, and assessment of technical options of reducing energy use. This report particularly summarizes the findings of reviewing international standards and technical options of reducing energy consumption. The report consists of an overview of rice cooker standards and labeling programs and testing procedures in Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan and Thailand, and Japan's case study in developing energy efficiency rice cooker technologies and rice cooker efficiency programs. The results from the analysis can be summarized as the follows: Hong Kong has a Voluntary Energy Efficiency Labeling scheme for electric rice cookers initiated in 2001, with revision implemented in 2007; South Korea has both MEPS and Mandatory Energy Efficiency Label targeting the same category of rice cookers as Hong Kong; Thailand's voluntary endorsement labeling program is

  18. Phytonutrients in rices of different bran color

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The consumption of the whole grain has been linked to the reduced incidence of chronic (cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease) and various inflammatory diseases. The phytonutrients/antioxidants contained in the whole grain, specifically in the bran layer, contribute to these health benefits. Rice...

  19. Scheduling Irrigation on Non-Flooded Rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While continuous-flood irrigation, the most common method for US rice production, can have a fairly high application efficiency, factors such as soil variability and the size of most Mid-South farming operations combine to reduce the efficiency in many cases. Center pivot irrigation is one potential...

  20. Expression of barley SUSIBA2 transcription factor yields high-starch low-methane rice

    SciTech Connect

    Su, J.; Hu, C.; Yan, X.; Jin, Y.; Chen, Z.; Guan, Q.; Wang, Y.; Zhong, D.; Jansson, Georg C.; Wang, F.; Schnrer, Anna; Sun, Chuanxin

    2015-07-22

    Atmospheric methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide, and is responsible for about 20% of the global warming effect since pre-industrial times. Rice paddies are the largest anthropogenic methane source and produce 7–17% of atmospheric methane. Warm waterlogged soil and exuded nutrients from rice roots provide ideal conditions for methanogenesis in paddies with annual methane emissions of 25–100-million tonnes. This scenario will be exacerbated by an expansion in rice cultivation needed to meet the escalating demand for food in the coming decades4. There is an urgent need to establish sustainable technologies for increasing rice production while reducing methane fluxes from rice paddies. However, ongoing efforts for methane mitigation in rice paddies are mainly based on farming practices and measures that are difficult to implement5. Despite proposed strategies to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions4,6, no high-starch low-methane-emission rice has been developed. Here we show that the addition of a single transcription factor gene, barley SUSIBA2, conferred a shift of carbon flux to SUSIBA2 rice, favouring the allocation of photosynthates to aboveground biomass over allocation to roots. The altered allocation resulted in an increased biomass and starch content in the seeds and stems, and suppressed methanogenesis, possibly through a reduction in root exudates. Three-year field trials in China demonstrated that the cultivation of SUSIBA2 rice was associated with a significant reduction in methane emissions and a decrease in rhizospheric methanogen levels. SUSIBA2 rice offers a sustainable means of providing increased starch content for food production while reducing greenhouse gas emissions from rice cultivation. Approaches to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions as seen in SUSIBA2 rice may be particularly beneficial in a future climate with rising temperatures resulting in increased methane

  1. Expression of barley SUSIBA2 transcription factor yields high-starch low-methane rice.

    PubMed

    Su, J; Hu, C; Yan, X; Jin, Y; Chen, Z; Guan, Q; Wang, Y; Zhong, D; Jansson, C; Wang, F; Schnürer, A; Sun, C

    2015-07-30

    Atmospheric methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide, and is responsible for about 20% of the global warming effect since pre-industrial times. Rice paddies are the largest anthropogenic methane source and produce 7-17% of atmospheric methane. Warm waterlogged soil and exuded nutrients from rice roots provide ideal conditions for methanogenesis in paddies with annual methane emissions of 25-100-million tonnes. This scenario will be exacerbated by an expansion in rice cultivation needed to meet the escalating demand for food in the coming decades. There is an urgent need to establish sustainable technologies for increasing rice production while reducing methane fluxes from rice paddies. However, ongoing efforts for methane mitigation in rice paddies are mainly based on farming practices and measures that are difficult to implement. Despite proposed strategies to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions, no high-starch low-methane-emission rice has been developed. Here we show that the addition of a single transcription factor gene, barley SUSIBA2 (refs 7, 8), conferred a shift of carbon flux to SUSIBA2 rice, favouring the allocation of photosynthates to aboveground biomass over allocation to roots. The altered allocation resulted in an increased biomass and starch content in the seeds and stems, and suppressed methanogenesis, possibly through a reduction in root exudates. Three-year field trials in China demonstrated that the cultivation of SUSIBA2 rice was associated with a significant reduction in methane emissions and a decrease in rhizospheric methanogen levels. SUSIBA2 rice offers a sustainable means of providing increased starch content for food production while reducing greenhouse gas emissions from rice cultivation. Approaches to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions as seen in SUSIBA2 rice may be particularly beneficial in a future climate with rising temperatures resulting in increased

  2. Expression of barley SUSIBA2 transcription factor yields high-starch low-methane rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, J.; Hu, C.; Yan, X.; Jin, Y.; Chen, Z.; Guan, Q.; Wang, Y.; Zhong, D.; Jansson, C.; Wang, F.; Schnürer, A.; Sun, C.

    2015-07-01

    Atmospheric methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide, and is responsible for about 20% of the global warming effect since pre-industrial times. Rice paddies are the largest anthropogenic methane source and produce 7-17% of atmospheric methane. Warm waterlogged soil and exuded nutrients from rice roots provide ideal conditions for methanogenesis in paddies with annual methane emissions of 25-100-million tonnes. This scenario will be exacerbated by an expansion in rice cultivation needed to meet the escalating demand for food in the coming decades. There is an urgent need to establish sustainable technologies for increasing rice production while reducing methane fluxes from rice paddies. However, ongoing efforts for methane mitigation in rice paddies are mainly based on farming practices and measures that are difficult to implement. Despite proposed strategies to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions, no high-starch low-methane-emission rice has been developed. Here we show that the addition of a single transcription factor gene, barley SUSIBA2 (refs 7, 8), conferred a shift of carbon flux to SUSIBA2 rice, favouring the allocation of photosynthates to aboveground biomass over allocation to roots. The altered allocation resulted in an increased biomass and starch content in the seeds and stems, and suppressed methanogenesis, possibly through a reduction in root exudates. Three-year field trials in China demonstrated that the cultivation of SUSIBA2 rice was associated with a significant reduction in methane emissions and a decrease in rhizospheric methanogen levels. SUSIBA2 rice offers a sustainable means of providing increased starch content for food production while reducing greenhouse gas emissions from rice cultivation. Approaches to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions as seen in SUSIBA2 rice may be particularly beneficial in a future climate with rising temperatures resulting in increased

  3. Estrogen receptor modulatory effects of germinated brown rice bioactives in the uterus of rats through the regulation of estrogen-induced genes

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Sani Ismaila; Maznah, Ismail; Mahmud, Rozi Bint; Saeed, Mohammed Ibrahim; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ishaka, Aminu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The expression of genes regulated by estrogen in the uterus was studied in ovariectomized (OVX) rats treated with germinated brown rice (GBR) bioactives, and compared to Remifemin or estrogen at different doses to identify the regulation of these genes in the uterus and their molecular mechanisms. Methods Rats were treated orally with GBR bioactives (phenolics), acylated steryl glucosides (ASG), γ-amino butyric acid (GABA), and γ-oryzanol (ORZ) at 100 and 200 mg/kg, Remifemin (REM) at 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, or estrogen (EST) at 0.2 mg/kg. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) was extracted from the uterus, and messenger (m)RNA expression of selected genes encoding estrogen receptor-beta (ER-β), calcium-binding protein (CaBP9k), complement protein (C3), heat shock protein 70 kDa (HSP70), and interleukin (IL)-4 receptor were quantified. Similarly, serum steroid hormone concentration was monitored at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after treatments. ER-β antibody binding to the uterus sections was also studied using immunohistochemistry. Results The group treated with EST (0.2 mg/kg) upregulated ER-β, C3, and IL-4 receptor genes compared to other groups (P<0.001). GBR phenolics (200 mg/kg) treatment upregulated the ER-β gene almost to the level of the sham non-treated group. The CaBP9k gene showed upregulation in groups treated with ASG (200 mg/kg), EST (0.2 mg/kg), and ORZ (200 mg/kg) (P<0.05). Estrogen levels increased in groups treated with EST, ASG, and ORZ (200 mg/kg) compared to the OVX untreated group (P<0.05), and there was a slight non-significant decrease (P>0.05) in the progesterone levels in the OVX untreated group compared to the sham and other treated groups. There was a significant increase at 8 weeks in the level of FSH (P<0.05) in the treated groups compared to the OVX untreated group. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in serum luteinizing hormone (LH) between the OVX untreated group and other groups. The sham and GBR phenolics treated group showed ER

  4. Environmental profile of paddy rice cultivation with different straw management.

    PubMed

    Fusi, Alessandra; Bacenetti, Jacopo; González-García, Sara; Vercesi, Annamaria; Bocchi, Stefano; Fiala, Marco

    2014-10-01

    Italy is the most important European country in terms of paddy rice production. North Italian districts such as Vercelli, Pavia, Novara, and Milano are known as some of the world's most advanced rice cultivation sites. In 2013 Italian rice cultivation represented about 50% of all European rice production by area, and paddy fields extended for over 216,000 ha. Cultivation of rice involves different agricultural activities which have environmental impacts mainly due to fossil fuels and agrochemical requirements as well as the methane emission associated with the fermentation of organic material in the flooded rice fields. In order to assess the environmental consequences of rice production in the District of Vercelli, the cultivation practices most frequently carried out were inventoried and evaluated. The general approach of this study was not only to gather the inventory data for rice production and quantify their environmental impacts, but also to identify the key environmental factors where special attention must be paid. Life Cycle Assessment methodology was applied in this study from a cradle-to-farm gate perspective. The environmental profile was analyzed in terms of seven different impact categories: climate change, ozone depletion, human toxicity, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, and fossil depletion. Regarding straw management, two different scenarios (burial into the soil of the straw versus harvesting) were compared. The analysis showed that the environmental impact was mainly due to field emissions, the fuel consumption needed for the mechanization of field operations, and the drying of the paddy rice. The comparison between the two scenarios highlighted that the collection of the straw improves the environmental performance of rice production except that for freshwater eutrophication. To improve the environmental performance of rice production, solutions to save fossil fuel and reduce the emissions from

  5. Methane Emissions From Global Paddy Rice Agriculture - a New Estimate Based on DNDC Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, S. C.; Li, C.; Salas, W.; Ingraham, P.; Li, J.; Beach, R.; Frolking, S.

    2012-12-01

    Roughly one-quarter of global methane emissions to the atmosphere come from the agricultural sector. Agricultural emissions are dominated by livestock (ruminants) and paddy-rice agriculture. We report on a new estimate of global methane emissions from paddy rice c.2010, based on DNDC model simulations of rice cropping around the world. We first generated a global map of rice cropping at 0.5°-resolution, based on existing global crop maps and various other published data. For each 0.5° grid cell that has rice agriculture, we simulated all rice cropping systems that our mapping indicated to be occurring there - irrigated and/or rainfed; single-rice, double-rice, triple-rice, and/or rice-rotated with other upland crops - under local climate and soil conditions, with assumptions about crop management (e.g., fertilizer type and amount, irrigation, flooding frequency and duration, manure application, tillage, crop residue management). We estimate global paddy rice emissions at 23 Tg CH4/yr from 120 Mha of rice paddies (land area) and 160 Mha of rice cropping (harvested area) for the baseline management scenario. We also report on the spatial distribution of these emissions, and the impacts of various management alternatives (flooding methods, fertilizer types, crop residue incorporation etc.) on yield, soil carbon sequestration and emissions of methane and nitrous oxide. For example, simulations with continuous flooding on all paddies increased simulated global paddy rice emissions to 33 Tg CH4/yr, while simulations where all fertilizer was applied as ammonium sulfate reduced simulated global paddy rice emissions to about 19 Tg CH4/yr. Simulated global paddy rice yield was about 320 Tg C in grain.

  6. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice...) (percent) Chalky kernels 1,2 In long grain rice (percent) In medium or short grain rice (percent)...

  7. Delivering golden rice to developing countries.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Jorge E

    2007-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies create a vicious circle of malnutrition, poverty, and economic dependency that we must strive to break. Golden Rice offers a sustainable solution to reduce the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency-related diseases and mortality, a problem that affects the health of millions of children in all developing countries. The technology is based on the reconstitution of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway by addition of 2 transgenes. The outcome of this high-tech approach will be provided to end users as nutrient-dense rice varieties that are agronomically identical to their own, locally adapted varieties. This intervention has the potential to reach remote rural populations without access to fortification and supplementation programs. As part of our delivery strategy, we are partnering with government and nongovernment, national and international agricultural institutions to navigate through cumbersome and expensive regulatory regimes that affect the release of genetically modified crops, and to create local demand for the biofortified rice varieties. PMID:17955992

  8. Early generation selection for rice fissure resistance proves effective and indicates a fissure resistance gene on chromsome 1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole rice kernels have two to three times more market value than brokens, which means that any reduction in milling yield results in financial losses for both rice producers and millers. One of the leading causes of reduced milling yield is exposure of the rice kernels to severe moisture changes b...

  9. Linkage Mapping of Stem Saccharification Digestibility in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Cangmei; Sun, Lili; Ali, Imran; Huang, Linli; Yu, Chunyan; Simister, Rachael; Steele-King, Clare; Gan, Yinbo; McQueen-Mason, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    Rice is the staple food of almost half of the world population, and in excess 90% of it is grown and consumed in Asia, but the disposal of rice straw poses a problem for farmers, who often burn it in the fields, causing health and environmental problems. However, with increased focus on the development of sustainable biofuel production, rice straw has been recognized as a potential feedstock for non-food derived biofuel production. Currently, the commercial realization of rice as a biofuel feedstock is constrained by the high cost of industrial saccharification processes needed to release sugar for fermentation. This study is focused on the alteration of lignin content, and cell wall chemotypes and structures, and their effects on the saccharification potential of rice lignocellulosic biomass. A recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population derived from a cross between the lowland rice variety IR1552 and the upland rice variety Azucena with 271 molecular markers for quantitative trait SNP (QTS) analyses was used. After association analysis of 271 markers for saccharification potential, 1 locus and 4 pairs of epistatic loci were found to contribute to the enzymatic digestibility phenotype, and an inverse relationship between reducing sugar and lignin content in these recombinant inbred lines was identified. As a result of QTS analyses, several cell-wall associated candidate genes are proposed that may be useful for marker-assisted breeding and may aid breeders to produce potential high saccharification rice varieties. PMID:27415441

  10. Linkage Mapping of Stem Saccharification Digestibility in Rice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bohan; Gómez, Leonardo D; Hua, Cangmei; Sun, Lili; Ali, Imran; Huang, Linli; Yu, Chunyan; Simister, Rachael; Steele-King, Clare; Gan, Yinbo; McQueen-Mason, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    Rice is the staple food of almost half of the world population, and in excess 90% of it is grown and consumed in Asia, but the disposal of rice straw poses a problem for farmers, who often burn it in the fields, causing health and environmental problems. However, with increased focus on the development of sustainable biofuel production, rice straw has been recognized as a potential feedstock for non-food derived biofuel production. Currently, the commercial realization of rice as a biofuel feedstock is constrained by the high cost of industrial saccharification processes needed to release sugar for fermentation. This study is focused on the alteration of lignin content, and cell wall chemotypes and structures, and their effects on the saccharification potential of rice lignocellulosic biomass. A recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population derived from a cross between the lowland rice variety IR1552 and the upland rice variety Azucena with 271 molecular markers for quantitative trait SNP (QTS) analyses was used. After association analysis of 271 markers for saccharification potential, 1 locus and 4 pairs of epistatic loci were found to contribute to the enzymatic digestibility phenotype, and an inverse relationship between reducing sugar and lignin content in these recombinant inbred lines was identified. As a result of QTS analyses, several cell-wall associated candidate genes are proposed that may be useful for marker-assisted breeding and may aid breeders to produce potential high saccharification rice varieties. PMID:27415441

  11. Behavior of iodine-129 in rice paddy fields

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, Shigeo; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki

    1995-12-31

    Transfer factors of iodine from soil to rice were obtained by laboratory experiments using {sup 125}I tracer. Two typical soil types in Japan, Andosol and Gray lowland soil, were used. The transfer factor (TF) is defined as concentration of the nuclide in a plant organ at harvest divided by concentration of the nuclide in dry soil. The TFs for brown (hulled) rice were 0.006 for Andosol and 0.002 for Gray lowland soil. The TFs for different organs of rice plants decreased in the order of blade > stem > rachis > unhulled rice {much_gt} brown rice. The concentration of iodine in soil solution under flooded conditions varied with time during cultivation. The iodine concentration in rice plants seemed to be influenced by the soil solution. The effect of removal of I-129 from paddy fields by harvesting rice plants was also modeled. Even assuming continuous deposition of I-129 on the field, annual harvesting of the blades and stems of rice plants could effectively reduce the amount of the nuclide in the root zone.

  12. Rice fortification: an emerging opportunity to contribute to the elimination of vitamin and mineral deficiency worldwide.

    PubMed

    Muthayya, Sumithra; Hall, Jessica; Bagriansky, Jack; Sugimoto, Jonathan; Gundry, Daniel; Matthias, Dipika; Prigge, Shane; Hindle, Peter; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Maberly, Glen

    2012-12-01

    Vitamin and mineral deficiencies are ranked among the top causes of poor health and disability in the world. These deficiencies damage developing brains, impair learning ability, increase susceptibility to infections, and reduce the work productivity of nations. Food fortification is a sustainable, cost-effective approach to reducing vitamin and mineral deficiency. As the staple food for an estimated 3 billion people, rice has the potential to fill an obvious gap in current fortification programs. In recent years, new technologies have produced fortified rice kernels that are efficacious in reducing vitamin and mineral deficiency. There are opportunities to fortify a significant share of rice that comes from large mills supplying centralized markets and national welfare programs in major rice-growing countries. The rice export markets, which handle 30 million MT of rice annually, also present a key fortification opportunity. The cost of fortifying rice is only 1.5% to 3% of the current retail price of rice. Countries that mandate rice fortification have the strongest evidence for achieving wide coverage and impact. The Rice Fortification Resource Group (RiFoRG), a global network of public and private partners that offers technical and advocacy support for rice fortification, has a vision of promoting rice fortification worldwide. It has a targeted approach, engaging multisector partners in key countries where the opportunities are greatest and there is receptivity to early adoption of large-scale rice fortification. The challenges are real, the imperative to address them is powerful, and the opportunities to deliver the promise of rice fortification are clear. PMID:23424896

  13. Improving Rice Zinc Biofortification Success Rates Through Genetic and Crop Management Approaches in a Changing Environment

    PubMed Central

    Nakandalage, Niluka; Nicolas, Marc; Norton, Robert M.; Hirotsu, Naoki; Milham, Paul J.; Seneweera, Saman

    2016-01-01

    Though rice is the predominant source of energy and micronutrients for more than half of the world population, it does not provide enough zinc (Zn) to match human nutritional requirements. Moreover, climate change, particularly rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, reduces the grain Zn concentration. Therefore, rice biofortification has been recognized as a key target to increase the grain Zn concentration to address global Zn malnutrition. Major bottlenecks for Zn biofortification in rice are identified as low Zn uptake, transport and loading into the grain; however, environmental and genetic contributions to grain Zn accumulation in rice have not been fully explored. In this review, we critically analyze the key genetic, physiological and environmental factors that determine Zn uptake, transport and utilization in rice. We also explore the genetic diversity of rice germplasm to develop new genetic tools for Zn biofortification. Lastly, we discuss the strategic use of Zn fertilizer for developing biofortified rice. PMID:27375636

  14. Improving Rice Zinc Biofortification Success Rates Through Genetic and Crop Management Approaches in a Changing Environment.

    PubMed

    Nakandalage, Niluka; Nicolas, Marc; Norton, Robert M; Hirotsu, Naoki; Milham, Paul J; Seneweera, Saman

    2016-01-01

    Though rice is the predominant source of energy and micronutrients for more than half of the world population, it does not provide enough zinc (Zn) to match human nutritional requirements. Moreover, climate change, particularly rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, reduces the grain Zn concentration. Therefore, rice biofortification has been recognized as a key target to increase the grain Zn concentration to address global Zn malnutrition. Major bottlenecks for Zn biofortification in rice are identified as low Zn uptake, transport and loading into the grain; however, environmental and genetic contributions to grain Zn accumulation in rice have not been fully explored. In this review, we critically analyze the key genetic, physiological and environmental factors that determine Zn uptake, transport and utilization in rice. We also explore the genetic diversity of rice germplasm to develop new genetic tools for Zn biofortification. Lastly, we discuss the strategic use of Zn fertilizer for developing biofortified rice. PMID:27375636

  15. Resequencing rice genomes: an emerging new era of rice genomics.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuehui; Lu, Tingting; Han, Bin

    2013-04-01

    Rice is a model system for crop genomics studies. Much of the early work on rice genomics focused on analyzing genome-wide genetic variation to further understand rice gene functions in agronomic traits and to generate data and resources for rice research. The advent of next-generation high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies and the completion of high-quality reference genome sequences have enabled the development of sequencing-based genotyping and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that have significantly advanced rice genetics research. This has led to the emergence of a new era of rice genomics aimed at bridging the knowledge gap between genotype and phenotype in rice. These technologies have also led to pyramid breeding through genomics-assisted selection, which will be useful in breeding elite varieties suitable for sustainable agriculture. Here, we review the recent advances in rice genomics and discuss the future of this line of research. PMID:23295340

  16. CFD Analysis of Bubbling Fluidized Bed Using Rice Husk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ravi Inder; Mohapatra, S. K.; Gangacharyulu, D.

    Rice is Cultivated in all the main regions of world. The worldwide annual rice production could be 666million tons (www.monstersandcritics.com,2008) for year 2008. The annual production of rice husk is 133.2 million tons considering rice husk being 20% of total paddy production. The average annual energy potential is 1.998 *1012 MJ of rice husk considering 15MJ/kg of rice husk. India has vast resource of rice husk; a renewable source of fuel, which if used effectively would reduce the rate of depletion of fossil energy resources. As a result a new thrust on research and development in boilers bases on rice husk is given to commercialize the concept. CFD is the analysis of systems involving fluid flow, heat transfer and associated phenomena such as chemical reactions by means of computer-based simulation. High quality Computational Fluid dynamics (CFD) is an effective engineering tool for Power Engineering Industry. It can determine detailed flow distributions, temperatures, and pollutant concentrations with excellent accuracy, and without excessive effort by the software user. In the other words it is the science of predicting fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, chemical reactions and related phenomena; and an innovate strategy to conform to regulations and yet stay ahead in today's competitive power market. This paper is divided into two parts; in first part review of CFD applied to the various types of boilers based on biomass fuels/alternative fuels is presented. In second part CFD analysis of fluidized bed boilers based on rice husk considering the rice husk based furnace has been discussed. The eulerian multiphase model has used for fluidized bed. Fluidized bed has been modeled using Fluent 6.2 commercial code. The effect of numerical influence of bed superheater tubes has also been discussed.

  17. Rice roots select for type I methanotrophs in rice field soil.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liqin; Ma, Ke; Lu, Yahai

    2009-09-01

    Methanotrophs are an important regulator for reducing methane (CH(4)) emissions from rice field soils. The type I group of the proteobacterial methanotrophs are generally favored at low CH(4) concentration and high O(2) availability, while the type II group lives better under high CH(4) and limiting O(2) conditions. Such physiological differences are possibly reflected in their ecological preferences. In the present study, methanotrophic compositions were compared between rice-planted soil and non-planted soil and between the rhizosphere and rice roots by using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of particulate methane monooxygenase (pmoA) genes. In addition, the effects of rice variety and nitrogen fertilizer were evaluated. The results showed that the terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs), which were characteristic for type I methanotrophs, substantially increased in the rhizosphere and on the roots compared with non-planted soils. Furthermore, the relative abundances of the type I methanotroph T-RFs were greater on roots than in the rhizosphere. Of type I methanotrophs, the 79bp T-RF, which was characteristic for an unknown group or Methylococcus/Methylocaldum, markedly increased in field samples, while the 437bp, which possibly represented Methylomonas, dominated in microcosm samples. These results suggested that type I methanotrophs were enriched or selected for by rice roots compared to type II methanotrophs. However, the members of type I methanotrophs are dynamic and sensitive to environmental change. Rice planting appeared to increase the copy number of pmoA genes relative to the non-planted soils. However, neither the rice variety nor the N fertilizer significantly influenced the dynamics of the methanotrophic community. PMID:19481894

  18. Sugarcane rice residue biochars and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Sugarcane production in U.S. involves either pre-harvest burning or after-harvest burning of the residue. Approximately 70-90% of the dry matter of harvested sugarcane trash is lost through open field burning. This practice has caused considerable concerns over air quality and soil sustainability. We propose an alternative conservation approach to convert the sugarcane residue to biochar and used as soil amendment to conserve carbon and potentially improve soil fertility. In this study, fundamental properties of biochars made from sugarcane residue along with rice residues were tested for agronomic and environmental benefits. Sugarcane and rice harvest residues and milling processing byproducts bagasse and rice husk were converted to biochars at different pyrolysis temperatures and characterized. In general, sugarcane leave biochar contained more P, K, Ca and Mg than sugarcane bagasse biochar. Rice straw biochar had more S, K Ca but less P than rice husk biochar. Both biochars had higher available fraction of total P than that of total K. Sugarcane leave biochar converted at 450oC was dominated with various lignin derived phenols as well as non-specific aromatic compounds whereas bagasse biochar was with both lignin derived phenol and poly aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Rice straw char was dominated with non-specific aromatic compounds. At 750oC, charred material was dominated with aromatic ethers while losing the aromatic C=C structures. These molecular and surface property differences likely contributed to the difference in water holding capacities observed with these biochars. On the other hand, rice straw biochars produced at different pyrolysis temperatures had no significant effect on rice germination. Soils treated with sugarcane leave/trash biochar significantly enhanced sugarcane growth especially the root length. Treating soil with either sugarcane leave or bagasse char also enhanced soil adsorption capacity of atrazine; a common herbicide used in sugarcane

  19. Improving folate (vitamin B9) stability in biofortified rice through metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Blancquaert, Dieter; Van Daele, Jeroen; Strobbe, Simon; Kiekens, Filip; Storozhenko, Sergei; De Steur, Hans; Gellynck, Xavier; Lambert, Willy; Stove, Christophe; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2015-10-01

    Biofortification of staple crops could help to alleviate micronutrient deficiencies in humans. We show that folates in stored rice grains are unstable, which reduces the potential benefits of folate biofortification. We obtain folate concentrations that are up to 150 fold higher than those of wild-type rice by complexing folate to folate-binding proteins to improve folate stability, thereby enabling long-term storage of biofortified high-folate rice grains. PMID:26389575

  20. Low uptake affinity cultivars with biochar to tackle Cd-tainted rice--A field study over four rice seasons in Hunan, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, De; Guo, Hu; Li, Ruiyue; Li, Lianqing; Pan, Genxing; Chang, Andrew; Joseph, Stephen

    2016-01-15

    Biochar is becoming an environmentally friendly material for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils and improving food safety. A field trial over four rice seasons was conducted to investigate the use of biochar and low Cd accumulating cultivars on Cd uptake in a heavy metal contaminated soil. Wheat straw derived biochar was applied at 0, 20 and 40 t ha(-1). Two rice cultivars with differing Cd accumulation abilities were selected in each season. The results showed that both biochar and low Cd affinity cultivars significantly reduced rice grain Cd accumulation. Biochar had no significant effect the first season but thereafter consistently reduced rice grain Cd by a maximum of 61, 86 and 57% over the next three seasons. Zn accumulation in the rice grains was not decreased by biochar application, although available soil Zn was sharply reduced (35-91%). Indica conventional rice cultivars had much lower Cd, but higher Zn and lower Cd/Zn ratios in the grain than indica hybrid cultivars. Biochar was more effective for mitigating grain Cd accumulation in low Cd affinity cultivars than in high affinity cultivars. Soil pH was sustainably increased (up to nearly 1 unit) while available Cd significantly decreased by a maximum of 85% after biochar addition. The translocation of Cd from rice roots to shoots was reduced from 20 to 80% by biochar. Low uptake affinity cultivars combined with biochar reduced late rice grain Cd concentration and Cd/Zn ratios by 69-80% and 72-80%, respectively. It indicated that the management of combining biochar and low Cd affinity cultivars should be an efficient way to remediate Cd contaminated rice paddies and reduce health risk associated with consuming rice from these soils. PMID:26490528

  1. Effect of rice variety and nutrient management on rice productivity in organic rice system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for organic rice has been increasing for decades. However, the information on sustainable organic rice production systems is still lacking. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of soil amendment products, nitrogen rate, and variety on rice grain yield, yield components, ...

  2. Survey of arsenic and its speciation in rice products such as breakfast cereals, rice crackers and Japanese rice condiments.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guo-Xin; Williams, Paul N; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Deacon, Claire; Carey, Anne-Marie; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Joerg; Meharg, Andrew A

    2009-04-01

    Rice has been demonstrated to be one of the major contributors to arsenic (As) in human diets in addition to drinking water, but little is known about rice products as an additional source of As exposure. Rice products were analyzed for total As and a subset of samples were measured for arsenic speciation using high performance liquid chromatography interfaced with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). A wide range of rice products had total and inorganic arsenic levels that typified those found in rice grain including, crisped rice, puffed rice, rice crackers, rice noodles and a range of Japanese rice condiments as well as rice products targeted at the macrobiotic, vegan, lactose intolerant and gluten intolerance food market. Most As in rice products are inorganic As (75.2-90.1%). This study provides a wider appreciation of how inorganic arsenic derived from rice products enters the human diet. PMID:18775567

  3. In vitro antioxidant assay of medium chain fatty acid rich rice bran oil in comparison to native rice bran oil.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Avery; Ghosh, Mahua; Bhattacharyya, D K

    2015-08-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) rich-rice bran oils in comparison with native rice bran oil. Different in vitro methods were used to evaluate the free radical scavenging activity, metal chelation activity, reducing acitivity, ABTS radical scavenging activity, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value and so on at different concentrations of the oils such as 10-100 μg/mL. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation was evaluated measuring thiobarbituric acid responsive substance (TBARS) and conjugated diene formation. All the oils showed potent antioxidant activity at 100 μg/mL concentration. TBARS formation and conjugated diene formation was lower with MCFA rich oils i.e. the inhibition of lipid peroxidation was more in MCFA rich oils than original rice bran oil. Caprylic acid rich rice bran oil showed maximum antioxidant activity in comparison to capric- and lauric acid rich rice bran oils. Overall the MCFA rich rice bran oils showed to be more potent antioxidant than rice bran oil due to their lower unsaturated fatty acid content. PMID:26243941

  4. RICE IDENTITY TESTING USING DNA MARKER ANALYSIS OF PROCESSEDOR ARCHIVED RICE TISSUE AND RICE-INGREDIENT FOODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The highly regarded reputation of USA rice in the world marketplace rice has been achieved by delivering rice and rice products that meet rigorous standards of uniformity and quality. In this regard, seed dealers, farmers, millers, and processors are concerned that the rice seed they are handling is...

  5. Rice cropping density and intensity lessened in southeast China during the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Bingwen; Qi, Wen; Tang, Zhenghong; Chen, Chongcheng; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and updated time series maps of paddy rice distribution and planting intensity will greatly improve our knowledge. Unfortunately, spatiotemporal explicit information on rice fields is relatively limited, and considerable uncertainties still exist as regards to its inter-annual variations in China. In this study, an improved rice mapping methodology was proposed through combined consideration of vegetation phenology and surface moisture variations from different seasonal rice. This method was applied to southeast China based on 500 m 8 day composite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Enhance Vegetation Indices with two bands (EVI2) during the period 2001-2013. Its efficiency was validated with 763 ground survey sites, with an overall accuracy of 95.02 % and the kappa index of 0.9217. Spatiotemporal analysis indicated that rice cropping density and intensity lessened in southeast China during the period 2001-2013. Particularly, the paddy rice-planted areas reduced by 30.09 %, changing from 231,005 to 161,484 km(2). Among them, the planted areas of double rice decreased by 49.34 %, changing from 34,215 to 17,335 km(2). Therefore, averaged rice cropping intensity in southeast China decreased from 1.148 to 1.107. The primary dynamic patterns were from single rice or a rotation of rice plus other crops to non-rice (93,386 km(2)) and double rice to non-double rice (24,132 km(2)). When analyzed at provincial and altitudinal gradient levels, it was obvious that areas with greater rice cropping density or intensity were associated with more remarkable reductions. Graphical abstract The left graph shows that the rice cropping density lessened in Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong, Jiangxi, Anhui, Jiangsu, Henan provinces and other three provincial-level administrative units (Zhejiang, Fujian and Shanghai) from 2001 to 2013. The middle graph indicates the movement of gravity center as well as the variations in the total planted areas of single rice, rice plus

  6. Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    M. Aslam K. Khalil

    2009-07-16

    This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small

  7. Transcriptomic analyses of space-induced rice mutants with enhanced susceptibility to rice blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhenlong; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Meng; Hang, Xiaoming; Lei, Cailin; Sun, Yeqing

    Mutagenic factors of the space environment influence organisms in different aspects. To elucidate the transcriptomic effects of space flight, a space flight-induced rice mutant, 972-4, and its on-ground control, 972ck, were inoculated with rice blast pathogens. Compared to the control, the mutant exhibited reduced resistance to the rice blast pathogen CH45. Microarray technique was employed to analyze affected genes and revealed that 481 genes were expressed at higher levels in the mutant strain and 188 genes were expressed at higher levels in the control strain under normal growth conditions, indicating that transcriptomic changes of rice seeds are induced by the space environment. After inoculation with the rice blast pathogen CH45, however, 2680 genes were differentially expressed in 972ck and 1863 genes were differentially expressed in 972-4. In addition, disease evaluation indicated that the control strain 972ck is more resistant to the rice blast pathogen CH45 than mutant strain 972-4. In addition, genes in both strains that were co-regulated after blast inoculation account for only 36.8% and 53.3% of the genes expressed in 972ck and 972-4, respectively. A large percentage of blast-regulated genes were not consistently expressed in 972-4 and 972ck, and the mutant and control strains exhibit different gene expression patterns after blast inoculation. Interestingly, 84 genes constitutively expressed higher in 972ck were up-regulated by blast inoculation, and 105 genes that were expressed at constitutively higher levels in 972-4 were down-regulated by blast inoculation. Of the differentially expressed, 7 encoded genes associated with pathogen resistance. Taken together, our results suggest that gene expression patterns are different between a space flight-induced rice mutant and its on-ground control, and the differential expression of resistance genes may be a potential mechanism that modulates the resistance of 972-4 to rice blast. Our results also suggest

  8. Reduction in uptake by rice and soybean of aromatic arsenicals from diphenylarsinic acid contaminated soil amended with activated charcoal.

    PubMed

    Arao, Tomohito; Maejima, Yuji; Baba, Koji

    2011-10-01

    Activated charcoal (AC) amendment has been suggested as a promising method to immobilize organic contaminants in soil. We performed pot experiments with rice and soybean grown in agricultural soil polluted by aromatic arsenicals (AAs). The most abundant AA in rice grains and soybean seeds was methylphenylarsinic acid (MPAA). MPAA concentration in rice grains was significantly reduced to 2% and 3% in 0.2% AC treated soil compared to untreated soil in the first year of rice cultivation. In the second year, MPAA concentration in rice grains was significantly reduced to 15% in 0.2% AC treated soil compared to untreated soil. MPAA concentration in soybean seeds was significantly reduced to 44% in 0.2% AC treated soil compared to untreated soil. AC amendment was effective in reducing AAs in rice and soybean. PMID:21782301

  9. Nitrogen uptake and use efficiency in rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is a staple food for a large proportion of the world’s population. Most of the rice is produced and consumed in Asia. Rice is produced in both upland and lowland systems, with about 76% of the global rice produced from irrigated-lowland rice systems. Nitrogen (N) is one of the most important in...

  10. Rice disease management under organic production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in organic rice production has increased because of the increased market demand for organic rice. Texas organic rice acreage has constantly increased over the last decade, reaching 32,000 acres in 2012. Texas is now the leading state in organic rice production in the U.S. Organic rice is p...

  11. Organic Rice Production: Challenges and Opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The market demand for organically produced rice has grown steadily with the majority of the acreage now being located in Texas and California. A wide range of organic products are marketed including conventional long and medium grain rice, aromatic or scented rice, rice with colored bran, and rice f...

  12. Water Management Practices Affect Arsenic and Cadmium Accumulation in Rice Grains

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongyan; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) accumulation in rice grains is a great threat to its productivity, grain quality, and thus human health. Pot and field studies were carried out to unravel the effect of different water management practices (aerobic, aerobic-flooded, and flooded) on Cd and As accumulation in rice grains of two different varieties. In pot experiment, Cd or As was also added into the soil as treatment. Pots without Cd or As addition were maintained as control. Results indicated that water management practices significantly influenced the Cd and As concentration in rice grains and aerobic cultivation of rice furnished less As concentration in its grains. Nonetheless, Cd concentration in this treatment was higher than the grains of flooded rice. Likewise, in field study, aerobic and flooded rice cultivation recorded higher Cd and As concentration, respectively. However, growing of rice in aerobic-flooded conditions decreased the Cd concentration by 9.38 times on average basis as compared to aerobic rice. Furthermore, this treatment showed 28% less As concentration than that recorded in flooded rice cultivation. The results suggested that aerobic-flooded cultivation may be a promising strategy to reduce the Cd and As accumulations in rice grains simultaneously. PMID:25013859

  13. Modelling pollen-mediated gene flow in rice: risk assessment and management of transgene escape.

    PubMed

    Rong, Jun; Song, Zhiping; de Jong, Tom J; Zhang, Xinsheng; Sun, Shuguang; Xu, Xian; Xia, Hui; Liu, Bo; Lu, Bao-Rong

    2010-05-01

    Fast development and commercialization of genetically modified plants have aroused concerns of transgene escape and its environmental consequences. A model that can effectively predict pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) is essential for assessing and managing risks from transgene escape. A pollen-trap method was used to measure the wind-borne pollen dispersal in cultivated rice and common wild rice, and effects of relative humidity, temperature and wind speed on pollen dispersal were estimated. A PMGF model was constructed based on the pollen dispersal pattern in rice, taking outcrossing rates of recipients and cross-compatibility between rice and its wild relatives into consideration. Published rice gene flow data were used to validate the model. Pollen density decreased in a simple exponential pattern with distances to the rice field. High relative humidity reduced pollen dispersal distances. Model simulation showed an increased PMGF frequency with the increase of pollen source size (the area of a rice field), but this effect levelled off with a large pollen-source size. Cross-compatibility is essential when modelling PMGF from rice to its wild relatives. The model fits the data well, including PMGF from rice to its wild relatives. Therefore, it can be used to predict PMGF in rice under diverse conditions (e.g. different outcrossing rates and cross-compatibilities), facilitating the determination of isolation distances to minimize transgene escape. The PMGF model may be extended to other wind-pollinated plant species such as wheat and barley. PMID:20132516

  14. Rice Bran Fermented with Saccharomyces boulardii Generates Novel Metabolite Profiles with Bioactivity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Emerging evidence supporting chronic disease fighting properties of rice bran has advanced the development of stabilized rice bran for human use as a functional food and dietary supplement. A global and targeted metabolomic investigation of stabilized rice bran fermented with Saccharomyces boulardii was performed in three rice varieties. Metabolites from S. boulardii-fermented rice bran were detected by gas chromatography−mass spectrometry (GC−MS) and assessed for bioactivity compared to nonfermented rice bran in normal and malignant lymphocytes. Global metabolite profiling revealed significant differences in the metabolome that led to discovery of candidate compounds modulated by S. boulardii fermentation. Fermented rice bran extracts from three rice varieties reduced growth of human B lymphomas compared to each variety’s nonfermented control and revealed that fermentation differentially altered bioactive compounds. These data support that integration of global and targeted metabolite analysis can be utilized for assessing health properties of rice bran phytochemicals that are enhanced by yeast fermentation and that differ across rice varieties. PMID:21306106

  15. A Double Built-In Containment Strategy for Production of Recombinant Proteins in Transgenic Rice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Sinan; Shen, Zhicheng

    2014-01-01

    Using transgenic rice as a bioreactor for mass production of pharmaceutical proteins could potentially reduce the cost of production significantly. However, a major concern over the bioreactor transgenic rice is the risk of its unintended spreading into environment and into food or feed supplies. Here we report a mitigating method to prevent unwanted transgenic rice spreading by a double built-in containment strategy, which sets a selectively termination method and a visual tag technology in the T-DNA for transformation. We created transgenic rice with an inserted T-DNA that harbors a human proinsulin gene fused with the far-red fluorescent protein gene mKate_S158A, an RNAi cassette suppressing the expression of the rice bentazon detoxification enzyme CYP81A6, and an EPSPS gene as the selection marker for transformation. Herbicide spray tests indicated that such transgenic rice plants can be killed selectively by a spray of bentazon at regular field application dosage for rice weed control. Moreover, the transgenic rice seeds were bright red in color due to the fused far-red fluorescent protein, and could be easily visualized under daylight by naked eyes. Thus, the transgenic rice plants reported in this study could be selectively killed by a commonly used herbicide during their growth stage, and their seeds may be detected visually during processing and consumption after harvest. This double built-in containment strategy may greatly enhance the confinement of the transgenic rice. PMID:25531447

  16. Selenium modulates mercury uptake and distribution in rice (Oryza sativa L.), in correlation with mercury species and exposure level.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiating; Li, Yufeng; Li, Yunyun; Gao, Yuxi; Li, Bai; Hu, Yi; Zhao, Yuliang; Chai, Zhifang

    2014-10-01

    Rice cultured in Hg- and/or Se-contaminated fields is an important food source of human Hg/Se intake. There are elevated Hg and Se levels in the soil of the Wanshan District, Guizhou Province. Here we attempted to explore how a Hg antagonist, Se, modulates the absorption and accumulation of inorganic mercury (IHg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in rice. The effects of Se on the content and transportation of Hg in hydroponic and soil cultured rice plants were examined. The results show that IHg mainly accumulated in the rice roots, but some also accumulated in the rice grain. In comparison to IHg, MeHg can be concentrated in the rice grain, and the proportion of MeHg in the rice grain may account for above 40% of the total Hg. Se can protect against Hg phytotoxicity in rice and inhibit IHg accumulation in rice tissues, but was not remarkable for MeHg at a low dosage exposure level in this study. These discrepancies imply mechanistic differences between IHg and MeHg absorption and accumulation in rice. This study illustrates that Se plays an important role in modulating Hg uptake, transportation and accumulation in rice. Therefore, Se is considered to be a naturally existing element that effectively reduces Hg accumulation in rice, which may have significant implications for food safety. PMID:25142173

  17. Rice: chemistry and technology.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice has taken center stage this last decade, not only as an important provider of nourishment for the world’s population, but as a grain now recognized as having many unique nutritional and functional attributes with potential to be captured in a multitude of value-added food and non-food applicati...

  18. Exploring Japan through Rice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    1998-01-01

    Explores the role of rice in Japanese culture by presenting historical background and teaching activities in a variety of categories, such as language, sociology, history, and contemporary politics. Suggests teachers create cross-cultural comparisons; for example, the role of corn in the United States. Provides a list of teacher resources. (CMK)

  19. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Zzzz of... - Operating Limitations for Existing, New, and Reconstructed Spark Ignition, 4SRB Stationary RICE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., New, and Reconstructed Spark Ignition, 4SRB Stationary RICE >500 HP Located at a Major Source of HAP... Limitations for Existing, New, and Reconstructed Spark Ignition, 4SRB Stationary RICE >500 HP Located at a... stationary RICE complying with the requirement to reduce formaldehyde emissions by 76 percent or more (or...

  20. Contributions of climate, varieties, and agronomic management to rice yield change in the past three decades in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, He; Tao, Fulu; Xiao, Dengpan; Shi, Wenjiao; Liu, Fengshan; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Yujie; Wang, Meng; Bai, Huizi

    2016-06-01

    The long-term field experiment data at four representative agro-meteorological stations, together with a crop simulation model, were used to disentangle the contributions of climate change, variety renewal, and fertilization management to rice yield change in the past three decades. We found that during 1981-2009 varieties renewal increased rice yield by 16%-52%, management improvement increased yield by 0-16%, and the contributions of climate change to rice yield varied from — 16% to 10%. Varieties renewal and management improvement offset the negative impacts of climate change on rice production. Among the major climate variables, decreases in solar radiation reduced rice yield on average by 0.1%per year. The impact of temperature change had an explicit spatial pattern. It increased yield by 0.04%-0.4% per year for single rice at Xinbin and Ganyu station and for late rice at Tongcheng station, by contrast reduced yield by 0.2%-0.4% per year for single rice at Mianyang station and early rice at Tongcheng station. During 1981-2009, rice varieties renewal was characterized by increases in thermal requirements, grain number per spike and harvest index. The new varieties were less sensitive to climate change than old ones. The development of high thermal requirements, high yield potential and heat tolerant rice varieties, together with improvement of agronomic management, should be encouraged to meet the challenges of climate change and increasing food demand in future.

  1. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  2. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  3. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice... (percent) Removed by a 5 plate 3 (percent) Removed by a 6 plate 3 (percent) Through a 6 sieve 3...

  4. Mitochondrial ORF79 levels determine pollen abortion in cytoplasmic male sterile rice.

    PubMed

    Kazama, Tomohiko; Itabashi, Etsuko; Fujii, Shinya; Nakamura, Takahiro; Toriyama, Kinya

    2016-03-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is an important agricultural trait characterized by lack of functional pollen, and caused by ectopic and defective mitochondrial gene expression. The pollen function in CMS plants is restored by the presence of nuclear-encoded restorer of fertility (Rf) genes. Previously, we cloned Rf2, which restores the fertility of Lead Rice (LD)-type CMS rice. However, neither the function of Rf2 nor the identity of the mitochondrial gene causing CMS has been determined in LD-CMS rice. Here, we show that the mitochondrial gene orf79 acts as a CMS-associated gene in LD-CMS rice, similar to its role in BT-CMS rice originating from Chinsurah Boro II, and Rf2 weakly restores fertility in BT-CMS rice. We also show that RF2 promotes degradation of atp6-orf79 RNA in a different manner from that of RF1, which is the Rf gene product in BT-CMS rice. The amount of ORF79 protein in LD-CMS rice was one-twentieth of the amount in BT-CMS rice. The difference in ORF79 protein levels probably accounts for the mild and severe pollen defects in LD-CMS and BT-CMS rice, respectively. In the presence of Rf2, accumulation of ORF79 was reduced to almost zero and 25% in LD-CMS and BT-CMS rice, respectively, which probably accounts for the complete and weak fertility restoration abilities of Rf2 in LD-CMS and BT-CMS rice, respectively. These observations indicate that the amount of ORF79 influences the pollen fertility in two strains of rice in which CMS is induced by orf79. PMID:26850149

  5. Rice Glycosyltransferase (GT) Phylogenomic Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Ronald, Pamela

    The Ronald Laboratory staff at the University of California-Davis has a primary research focus on the genes of the rice plant. They study the role that genetics plays in the way rice plants respond to their environment. They created the Rice GT Database in order to integrate functional genomic information for putative rice Glycosyltransferases (GTs). This database contains information on nearly 800 putative rice GTs (gene models) identified by sequence similarity searches based on the Carbohydrate Active enZymes (CAZy) database. The Rice GT Database provides a platform to display user-selected functional genomic data on a phylogenetic tree. This includes sequence information, mutant line information, expression data, etc. An interactive chromosomal map shows the position of all rice GTs, and links to rice annotation databases are included. The format is intended to "facilitate the comparison of closely related GTs within different families, as well as perform global comparisons between sets of related families." [From http://ricephylogenomics.ucdavis.edu/cellwalls/gt/genInfo.shtml] See also the primary paper discussing this work: Peijian Cao, Laura E. Bartley, Ki-Hong Jung and Pamela C. Ronalda. Construction of a Rice Glycosyltransferase Phylogenomic Database and Identification of Rice-Diverged Glycosyltransferases. Molecular Plant, 2008, 1(5): 858-877.

  6. Effective Suppression of Methane Emission by 2-Bromoethanesulfonate during Rice Cultivation

    PubMed Central

    Waghmode, Tatoba R.; Haque, Md. Mozammel; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kim, Pil Joo

    2015-01-01

    2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES) is a structural analogue of coenzyme M (Co-M) and potent inhibitor of methanogenesis. Several studies confirmed, BES can inhibit CH4 prodcution in rice soil, but the suppressing effectiveness of BES application on CH4 emission under rice cultivation has not been studied. In this pot experiment, different levels of BES (0, 20, 40 and 80 mg kg-1) were applied to study its effect on CH4 emission and plant growth during rice cultivation. Application of BES effectively suppressed CH4 emission when compared with control soil during rice cultivation. The CH4 emission rates were significantly (P<0.001) decreased by BES application possibly due to significant (P<0.001) reduction of methnaogenic biomarkers like Co-M concentration and mcrA gene copy number (i.e. methanogenic abunadance). BES significantly (P<0.001) reduced methanogen activity, while it did not affect soil dehydrogenase activity during rice cultivation. A rice plant growth and yield parameters were not affected by BES application. The maximum CH4 reduction (49% reduction over control) was found at 80 mg kg-1 BES application during rice cultivation. It is, therefore, concluded that BES could be a suitable soil amendment for reducing CH4 emission without affecting rice plant growth and productivity during rice cultivation. PMID:26562416

  7. Effective Suppression of Methane Emission by 2-Bromoethanesulfonate during Rice Cultivation.

    PubMed

    Waghmode, Tatoba R; Haque, Md Mozammel; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kim, Pil Joo

    2015-01-01

    2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES) is a structural analogue of coenzyme M (Co-M) and potent inhibitor of methanogenesis. Several studies confirmed, BES can inhibit CH4 prodcution in rice soil, but the suppressing effectiveness of BES application on CH4 emission under rice cultivation has not been studied. In this pot experiment, different levels of BES (0, 20, 40 and 80 mg kg-1) were applied to study its effect on CH4 emission and plant growth during rice cultivation. Application of BES effectively suppressed CH4 emission when compared with control soil during rice cultivation. The CH4 emission rates were significantly (P<0.001) decreased by BES application possibly due to significant (P<0.001) reduction of methnaogenic biomarkers like Co-M concentration and mcrA gene copy number (i.e. methanogenic abunadance). BES significantly (P<0.001) reduced methanogen activity, while it did not affect soil dehydrogenase activity during rice cultivation. A rice plant growth and yield parameters were not affected by BES application. The maximum CH4 reduction (49% reduction over control) was found at 80 mg kg-1 BES application during rice cultivation. It is, therefore, concluded that BES could be a suitable soil amendment for reducing CH4 emission without affecting rice plant growth and productivity during rice cultivation. PMID:26562416

  8. The evolutionary genomics of weedy red rice in the U.S.A.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red rice is an interfertile, weedy form of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) that competes aggressively with the crop in the southern U.S., reducing yields and contaminating harvests. No wild Oryza species occur in North America, and the weed has been proposed to have evolved through multiple mechanis...

  9. PEDIGREE AND DNA MARKER ANALYSIS OF BLAST RESISTANCE GENES IN US RICE GERMPLASM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blast resistance genes have been effectively used in southern US rice germplasm to reduce crop losses from this serious disease threat. Historical records indicate the most common blast resistance genes in USA rice germplasm are Pi-z and Pi-ks in medium grain and Pi-kh and Pi-ta2 in long grain varie...

  10. Rice rotation and tillage effects on soil aggregation and aggregate carbon and nitrogen dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) production in Arkansas and much of the Mississippi River Delta is characterized as tillage-intensive. Traditional-tillage (TT) has been shown to reduce soil quality, however, as a potential carbon (C) market emerges, no-tillage (NT) rice production practices are being consider...