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Sample records for riesgo para mastitis

  1. Uso de Sustancias en Mujeres con Desventaja Social: Riesgo para el Contagio de VIH/SIDA

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L; Bernales, M.; Miner, S.; Irarrázabal, L.; Molina, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Antecedentes La caracterización epidemiológica en Chile apunta a feminización, pauperización y heterosexualización de la epidemia del VIH, lo que implica un mayor riesgo para las mujeres en desventaja social. Si a esto se suma la utilización de sustancias, la vulnerabilidad de este grupo frente al VIH/SIDA aumenta. Objetivo Describir el uso de sustancias en mujeres con desventaja social e identificar factores de riesgo de contagio de VIH, asociados a este consumo. Material y Método 52 mujeres fueron entrevistadas como parte del proyecto “Testeando una intervención en prevención de VIH/SIDA en mujeres chilenas” GRANT # RO1 TW 006977. Se describen variables sociodemográficas y de consumo de sustancias a través de estadísticas descriptivas y se analiza la relación entre variables a través de pruebas de correlación. Resultados Los resultados indican un perfil sociodemográfico que sitúa a las mujeres en situación de vulnerabilidad frente al contagio de VIH/SIDA, con alto índice de uso de sustancias que acentúa el riesgo. Conclusiones Los hallazgos apuntan a la necesidad de considerar intervenciones que se enfoquen en la prevención de VIH en mujeres, abordando los riesgos asociados al consumo de sustancias. PMID:21197380

  2. Changing trends in mastitis.

    PubMed

    Zadoks, Rn; Fitzpatrick, Jl

    2009-01-01

    The global dairy industry, the predominant pathogens causing mastitis, our understanding of mastitis pathogens and the host response to intramammary infection are changing rapidly. This paper aims to discuss changes in each of these aspects. Globalisation, energy demands, human population growth and climate change all affect the dairy industry. In many western countries, control programs for contagious mastitis have been in place for decades, resulting in a decrease in occurrence of Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus mastitis and an increase in the relative impact of Streptococcus uberis and Escherichia coli mastitis. In some countries, Klebsiella spp. or Streptococcus dysgalactiae are appearing as important causes of mastitis. Differences between countries in legislation, veterinary and laboratory services and farmers' management practices affect the distribution and impact of mastitis pathogens. For pathogens that have traditionally been categorised as contagious, strain adaptation to human and bovine hosts has been recognised. For pathogens that are often categorised as environmental, strains causing transient and chronic infections are distinguished. The genetic basis underlying host adaptation and mechanisms of infection is being unravelled. Genomic information on pathogens and their hosts and improved knowledge of the host's innate and acquired immune responses to intramammary infections provide opportunities to expand our understanding of bovine mastitis. These developments will undoubtedly contribute to novel approaches to mastitis diagnostics and control. PMID:22082032

  3. Changing trends in mastitis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The global dairy industry, the predominant pathogens causing mastitis, our understanding of mastitis pathogens and the host response to intramammary infection are changing rapidly. This paper aims to discuss changes in each of these aspects. Globalisation, energy demands, human population growth and climate change all affect the dairy industry. In many western countries, control programs for contagious mastitis have been in place for decades, resulting in a decrease in occurrence of Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus mastitis and an increase in the relative impact of Streptococcus uberis and Escherichia coli mastitis. In some countries, Klebsiella spp. or Streptococcus dysgalactiae are appearing as important causes of mastitis. Differences between countries in legislation, veterinary and laboratory services and farmers' management practices affect the distribution and impact of mastitis pathogens. For pathogens that have traditionally been categorised as contagious, strain adaptation to human and bovine hosts has been recognised. For pathogens that are often categorised as environmental, strains causing transient and chronic infections are distinguished. The genetic basis underlying host adaptation and mechanisms of infection is being unravelled. Genomic information on pathogens and their hosts and improved knowledge of the host's innate and acquired immune responses to intramammary infections provide opportunities to expand our understanding of bovine mastitis. These developments will undoubtedly contribute to novel approaches to mastitis diagnostics and control. PMID:22082032

  4. Sonographic Elastography of Mastitis.

    PubMed

    Sousaris, Nicholas; Barr, Richard G

    2016-08-01

    Sonographic elastography has been shown to be a useful imaging modality in characterizing breast lesions as benign or malignant. However, in preliminary research, mastitis has given false-positive findings on both strain and shear wave elastography. In this article, we review the findings in mastitis with and without abscess formation on both strain and shear wave elastography. The elastographic findings in all cases were suggestive of a malignancy according to published thresholds. In cases of mastitis with abscess formation, there is a characteristic appearance, with a central very soft area (abscess cavity) and a very stiff outer rim (edema and inflammation). This appearance should raise the suspicion of mastitis with abscess formation, since these findings are rare in breast cancers. PMID:27353071

  5. Mastitis in a neonatal filly

    PubMed Central

    Gilday, Rebecca; Lewis, Danyse; Lohmann, Katharina L.

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal mastitis is a rare occurrence in the horse. This report documents a case of mastitis caused by an organism within the Streptococcus dysgalactiae group in a 1-week-old Paint filly. PMID:25565717

  6. Norwegian mastitis control programme.

    PubMed

    Osterås, O; Sølverød, L

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS) since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS); including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC) data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP) was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to changes in attitude and

  7. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS) since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS); including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC) data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP) was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to changes in attitude and

  8. Feline gangrenous mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Courtney R.

    2013-01-01

    A 3.7-kg, 3-year-old intact female domestic shorthaired cat was presented with the chief complaint of anorexia and lethargy of 3 days duration with a noticeable decrease in body condition and a large open wound on her ventral caudal abdomen. A diagnosis of acute mastitis with gland abscessation was made. The patient was successfully treated with oral antibiotics and open wound management using surgical debridement and lavage followed by wound dressings using honey. PMID:23997269

  9. [Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis].

    PubMed

    Hello, M; Néel, A; Graveleau, J; Masseau, A; Agard, C; Caillon, J; Hamidou, M

    2013-06-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare localized granulomatosis of unknown aetiology that usually affects women of childbearing age. It often mimics breast carcinoma or abscess. Histopathologic evaluation and elimination of the others aetiologies of granuloma play a crucial role in the diagnosis. Its etiopathogeny remains poorly understood, but Corynebacteria might be involved. The disease course is usually protracted, with a significant impact on quality of life. The management of IGM remains controversial, but corticosteroids are usually the first-line treatment. PMID:22981187

  10. Proteomics of mastitis causing Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mastitis remains the most prevalent disease in dairy cattle. The economic impact of mastitis on the dairy industry is estimated to be $2 billion per year. Mastitis involves a complex set of interactions between an invading pathogen and the host’s immune systems. Proteomics is a new tool used to s...

  11. Women's experiences of managing mastitis.

    PubMed

    Potter, Barbara

    2005-06-01

    The first paper in this series (last month), discussed study methodology and the measurement of the incidence of mastitis, which was shown to peak at four and 12 weeks. It concluded that the reporting pattern by women experiencing mastitis affects the measurement of reported incidence. This paper presents the qualitative data generated through interviews with 56 women. It analyses their theories of causation that may account for the two peaks in incidence. Factors most likely to contribute to the risk of developing mastitis were identified by women as incorrect positioning and incomplete emptying. Expressing by hand or pump, and hurried or infrequent feeding patterns, were also thought to be practices associated with mastitis. They considered that these practices were associated with social pressures such as the care of older children. The study concluded that respondents' theories about causation illustrate the interactive nature of anatomical, physiological, pathological and social risk factors. The two peaks in incidence occur at times when the intensity of this interaction increases. Existing research findings support these theories and present opportunities to change and develop professional practice. PMID:15984560

  12. Bovine mastitis: frontiers in immunogenetics.

    PubMed

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow's natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the high immune response (HIR) technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk, and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity(+)™ sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favorable production levels to feed a growing population. PMID

  13. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the high immune response (HIR) technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk, and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+™ sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favorable production levels to feed a growing population. PMID

  14. Mastitis detection in sheep by infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Martins, Rafhael Felipe Saraiva; do Prado Paim, Tiago; de Abreu Cardoso, Cyntia; Stéfano Lima Dallago, Bruno; de Melo, Cristiano Barros; Louvandini, Helder; McManus, Concepta

    2013-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the use of an infrared thermograph for mastitis diagnosis in sheep. Thirty-seven Santa Inês ewes were evaluated weekly through infrared images obtained with thermograph FLIR System Series-i®. Milk was collected for somatic cell count and milk compound level determination. The clinical mastitis group had the highest fat and protein level, as well as the lowest lactose level. The udder temperatures were higher for subclinical mastitis group. The udder temperature data was able to correctly classify the animals into the mastitis groups and the canonical analysis showed that these temperatures clearly differentiated the subclinical mastitis groups from the others. Therefore, this study showed that udder infrared temperatures can be used as diagnostic method to mastitis in sheep. PMID:23178047

  15. Probiotics and mastitis: evidence-based marketing?

    PubMed

    Amir, Lisa H; Griffin, Laura; Cullinane, Meabh; Garland, Suzanne M

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are defined as live micro-organisms, which when administered in adequate amounts, confer health benefits on the host. Scientists have isolated various strains of Lactobacilli from human milk (such as Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus salivarius), and the presence of these organisms is thought to be protective against breast infections, or mastitis. Trials of probiotics for treating mastitis in dairy cows have had mixed results: some successful and others unsuccessful. To date, only one trial of probiotics to treat mastitis in women and one trial to prevent mastitis have been published. Although trials of probiotics to prevent mastitis in breastfeeding women are still in progress, health professionals in Australia are receiving marketing of these products. High quality randomised controlled trials are needed to assess the effectiveness of probiotics for the prevention and/or treatment of mastitis. PMID:27446229

  16. Investigation of mastitis problems on farms.

    PubMed

    Ruegg, Pamela L

    2003-03-01

    The production of high-quality milk is a high-priority issue for dairy farmers and milk processors. The investigation of mastitis problems on dairy farms is an area of increasing demand and is an ideal way for veterinary practitioners to increase involvement in production medicine programs. Goals for the amount of clinical and subclinical mastitis should be predefined on dairy farms, and a herd investigation initiated when needed. The use of a structured approach to mastitis problems can identify risk factors for infection, result in rapid resolution of mastitis problems, and hasten the application of appropriate preventive practices. PMID:12682935

  17. Mastitis associated transcriptomic disruptions in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mastitis is ranked as the top disease for dairy cattle based on traditional cost analysis. Greater than 100 organisms from a broad phylogenetic spectrum are able to cause bovine mastitis. Transcriptomic characterization facilitates our understanding of host-pathogen relations and provides mechanisti...

  18. Management of mastitis in breastfeeding women.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Jeanne P

    2008-09-15

    Mastitis occurs in approximately 10 percent of U.S. mothers who are breastfeeding, and it can lead to the cessation of breastfeeding. The risk of mastitis can be reduced by frequent, complete emptying of the breast and by optimizing breastfeeding technique. Sore nipples can precipitate mastitis. The differential diagnosis of sore nipples includes mechanical irritation from a poor latch or infant mouth anomalies, such as cleft palate or bacterial or yeast infection. The diagnosis of mastitis is usually clinical, with patients presenting with focal tenderness in one breast accompanied by fever and malaise. Treatment includes changing breastfeeding technique, often with the assistance of a lactation consultant. When antibiotics are needed, those effective against Staphylococcus aureus (e.g., dicloxacillin, cephalexin) are preferred. As methicillin-resistant S. aureus becomes more common, it is likely to be a more common cause of mastitis, and antibiotics that are effective against this organism may become preferred. Continued breastfeeding should be encouraged in the presence of mastitis and generally does not pose a risk to the infant. Breast abscess is the most common complication of mastitis. It can be prevented by early treatment of mastitis and continued breastfeeding. Once an abscess occurs, surgical drainage or needle aspiration is needed. Breastfeeding can usually continue in the presence of a treated abscess. PMID:18819238

  19. Surgical management of silicone mastitis.

    PubMed

    Wustrack, K O; Zarem, H A

    1979-02-01

    The results of the operative treatment of 22 cases of silicone mastitis are presented. Moderate involvement can usually be managed successfully by local excision of the masses, or by a subcutaneous mastectomy with later reconstruction. Patients with severe skin infiltration and/or pectoral muscle involvement are prone to complications, however, and we now believe an aggressive approach--such as a complete mastectomy with nipple banking and excision of the infiltrated muscle, might be best. This would allow the later reconstruction to proceed in relatively uninvolved tissue, and prevent the problems of recurrent inflammation from placing bag-gel prostheses in a residual bed of silicone-infiltrated tissue. PMID:570284

  20. Oleogranulomatous Mastitis: A Topical Subject

    PubMed Central

    Kadoch, Vaneesa; Bodin, Frederic; Bruant-Rodier, Catherine; Wilk, Astride; Mathelin, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Paraffin and petrolatum have been known for more than 100 years as volumizing products. Certain countries still use them despite important complications. The authors report the case of a 39-year-old patient presenting a bilateral oleogranulomatous mastitis. An injection of petrolatum had been realized 2 years ago in Chechnya for cosmetic reasons. Clinically, she presented dense, erythemic, and painful breasts. The radiological examination found diffuse oily cysts. After first abdominal expansion, a bilateral mastectomy with immediate reconstruction was performed. The authors present a literature review about the clinical and radiological data and the possible treatments, and underline the numerous risks of this procedure, which should be strictly forbidden. PMID:26579342

  1. Lactational mastitis caused by Streptococcus lactarius.

    PubMed

    Tena, Daniel; Fernández, Cristina; López-Garrido, Beatriz; Pérez-Balsalobre, Mercedes; Losa, Cristina; Medina-Pascual, María José; Sáez-Nieto, Juan Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Human infections caused by Streptococcus lactarius have not been previously reported. In the present report, we describe a lactational mastitis caused by this organism. The infection occurred in a 28-year-old breast-feeding female, with a 10-days history of moderate pain on the right breast. The patient was cured after antibiotic treatment with levofloxacin for 21 days. Our case shows that S. lactarius should be considered as a cause of lactational mastitis. The introduction of molecular microbiology techniques can be extremely useful for knowing the implication of streptococci in lactational mastitis. PMID:27220606

  2. Mastitis, a Radiographic, Clinical, and Histopathologic Review.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lin; Reddy, Vijaya; Solmos, Gene; Watkins, Latanja; Cimbaluk, David; Bitterman, Pincas; Ghai, Ritu; Gattuso, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Mastitis is a benign inflammatory process of the breast with heterogeneous histopathological findings, which clinically and radiographically may mimic a mammary carcinoma. We undertook a retrospective study on 37 cases of mastitis in our institution to correlate the radiographic imaging features and the clinical presentation with the histopathological findings. Histologically, there were 21 granulomatous, 7 fibrous, 3 plasma cell, 3 lupus, 2 lymphocytic, and 1 case of acute mastitis. Radiographically, 16/25 (64%) patients with ultrasound studies showed irregular hypoechoic masses suspicious for malignancy. Clinically, 38% of patients had an associated systemic disease. PMID:25940456

  3. Probiotics for human lactational mastitis.

    PubMed

    Fernández, L; Arroyo, R; Espinosa, I; Marín, M; Jiménez, E; Rodríguez, J M

    2014-06-01

    The use of culture-dependent and -independent techniques to study the human milk microbiota and microbiome has revealed a complex ecosystem with a much greater diversity than previously anticipated. The potential role of the milk microbiome appears to have implications not only for short- and long-term infant health but also for mammary health. In fact, mammary disbiosis, which may be triggered by a variety of host, microbial and medical factors, often leads to acute, subacute or subclinical mastitis, a condition that represents the first medical cause for undesired weaning. Multiresistance to antibiotics, together with formation of biofilms and mechanisms for evasion of the host immune response, is a common feature among the bacterial agents involved. This explains why this condition uses to be elusive to antibiotic therapy and why the development of new strategies for mastitis management based on probiotics is particularly appealing. In fact, selected lactobacilli strains isolated from breast milk have already shown a high efficacy for treatment. PMID:24463206

  4. Streptococcus agalactiae mastitis: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Keefe, G P

    1997-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae continues to be a major cause of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle and a source of economic loss for the industry. Veterinarians are often asked to provide information on herd level control and eradication of S. agalactiae mastitis. This review collects and collates relevant publications on the subject. The literature search was conducted in 1993 on the Agricola database. Articles related to S. agalactiae epidemiology, pathogen identification techniques, milk quality consequences, and control, prevention, and therapy were included. Streptococcus agalactiae is an oblique parasite of the bovine mammary gland and is susceptible to treatment with a variety of antibiotics. Despite this fact, where state or provincial census data are available, herd prevalence levels range from 11% (Alberta, 1991) to 47% (Vermont, 1985). Infection with S. agalactiae is associated with elevated somatic cell count and total bacteria count and a decrease in the quantity and quality of milk products produced. Bulk tank milk culture has, using traditional milk culture techniques, had a low sensitivity for identifying S. agalactiae at the herd level. New culture methods, using selective media and large inocula, have substantially improved the sensitivity of bulk tank culture. Efficacy of therapy on individual cows remains high. Protocols for therapy of all infected animals in a herd are generally successful in eradicating the pathogen from the herd, especially if they are followed up with good udder hygiene techniques. PMID:9220132

  5. Inflammatory mediators in mastitis and lactation insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Ingman, Wendy V; Glynn, Danielle J; Hutchinson, Mark R

    2014-07-01

    Mastitis is a common inflammatory disease during lactation that causes reduced milk supply. A growing body of evidence challenges the central role of pathogenic bacteria in mastitis, with disease severity associated with markers of inflammation rather than infection. Inflammation in the mammary gland may be triggered by microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) as well as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) binding to pattern recognition receptors such as the toll-like receptors (TLRs) on the surface of mammary epithelial cells and local immune cell populations. Activation of the TLR4 signalling pathway and downstream nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) is critical to mediating local mammary gland inflammation and systemic immune responses in mouse models of mastitis. However, activation of NFkB also induces epithelial cell apoptosis and reduced milk protein synthesis, suggesting that inflammatory mediators activated during mastitis promote partial involution. Perturbed milk flow, maternal stress and genetic predisposition are significant risk factors for mastitis, and could lead to a heightened TLR4-mediated inflammatory response, resulting in increased susceptibility and severity of mastitis disease in the context of low MAMP abundance. Therefore, heightened host inflammatory signalling may act in concert with pathogenic or commensal bacterial species to cause both the inflammation associated with mastitis and lactation insufficiency. Here, we present an alternate paradigm to the widely held notion that breast inflammation is driven principally by infectious bacterial pathogens, and suggest there may be other therapeutic strategies, apart from the currently utilised antimicrobial agents, that could be employed to prevent and treat mastitis in women. PMID:24961655

  6. Genomic Comparative Study of Bovine Mastitis Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kempf, Florent; Slugocki, Cindy; Blum, Shlomo E.; Leitner, Gabriel; Germon, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli, one of the main causative agents of bovine mastitis, is responsible for significant losses on dairy farms. In order to better understand the pathogenicity of E. coli mastitis, an accurate characterization of E. coli strains isolated from mastitis cases is required. By using phylogenetic analyses and whole genome comparison of 5 currently available mastitis E. coli genome sequences, we searched for genotypic traits specific for mastitis isolates. Our data confirm that there is a bias in the distribution of mastitis isolates in the different phylogenetic groups of the E. coli species, with the majority of strains belonging to phylogenetic groups A and B1. An interesting feature is that clustering of strains based on their accessory genome is very similar to that obtained using the core genome. This finding illustrates the fact that phenotypic properties of strains from different phylogroups are likely to be different. As a consequence, it is possible that different strategies could be used by mastitis isolates of different phylogroups to trigger mastitis. Our results indicate that mastitis E. coli isolates analyzed in this study carry very few of the virulence genes described in other pathogenic E. coli strains. A more detailed analysis of the presence/absence of genes involved in LPS synthesis, iron acquisition and type 6 secretion systems did not uncover specific properties of mastitis isolates. Altogether, these results indicate that mastitis E. coli isolates are rather characterized by a lack of bona fide currently described virulence genes. PMID:26809117

  7. Epidemiology of Bovine Mastitis in Cows of Dharwad District

    PubMed Central

    Kurjogi, Mahantesh M.; Kaliwal, Basappa B.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is very common in cows of both developed and developing countries. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis (SCM) varies from region to region. Hence, the present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of mastitis using three diagnostic tests by considering different risk factors like age, lactation, breed, season, quarters, and herd. The results showed that surf field mastitis test (SFMT) is the most sensitive test for diagnosis of bovine mastitis, the older age and cows with later part of lactation period were more prone to bovine mastitis, and exotic breeds like Holstein freshen (HF) were more susceptible to bovine mastitis. The highest incidence of mastitis was recorded in monsoon season. The prevalence of subclinical and clinical mastitis was more in single and two quarters, respectively, and the rate of bovine mastitis was more in unorganized herds. The study concluded that SCM is directly associated with age, lactation period, and environmental factors of the cow and clinical mastitis is more associated with breed of the cow and environmental conditions. PMID:27382623

  8. Control of Bovine Mastitis: Old and Recent Therapeutic Approaches.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Fernanda; Henriques, Mariana

    2016-04-01

    Mastitis is defined as the inflammatory response resulting of the infection of the udder tissue and it is reported in numerous species, namely in domestic dairy animals. This pathology is the most frequent disease of dairy cattle and can be potentially fatal. Mastitis is an economically important pathology associated with reduced milk production, changes in milk composition and quality, being considered one of the most costly to dairy industry. Therefore, the majority of research in the field has focused on control of bovine mastitis and many efforts are being made for the development of new and effective anti-mastitis drugs. Antibiotic treatment is an established component of mastitis control programs; however, the continuous search for new therapeutic alternatives, effective in the control and treatment of bovine mastitis, is urgent. This review will provide an overview of some conventional and emerging approaches in the management of bovine mastitis' infections. PMID:26687332

  9. Serratia marcescens mastitis in a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D J; Kirk, J H; Walker, R D; Bosworth, Q W

    1990-04-01

    Serratia marcescens caused clinical mastitis in 5 cows and nonclinical mastitis in 21 cows of a 190-cow herd. Repeated bacteriologic culture of specimens from the cows, postmilking teat dip, environment, and equipment was performed. Serratia marcescens was not isolated from the dip, environment, or equipment. Progress of the infection in cows was monitored for 10 months. Some cows remained infected with S marcescens for at least 10 months. Economic loss estimates were based on Dairy Herd Improvement Association linear score reports. The average nonclinical loss was about $22/cow. PMID:2184155

  10. The release of bradykinin in bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Eshraghi, H R; Zeitlin, I J; Fitzpatrick, J L; Ternent, H; Logue, D

    1999-01-01

    The kinin peptides are released during inflammation and are amongst the most potent known mediators of vasodilatation, pain and oedema. Despite early reports of the presence of kinins in milk, no previous study has investigated the role of the kinin system in bovine mastitis. The present study indicated that mastitis was accompanied by raised levels of bradykinin (BK) in milk and the increased levels of BK correlated with the severity of mastitis. Raised BK levels in mastitic milk were not dependent on the presence of inflammatory cells, nor were they secondary to changes in blood levels of BK. In milk from sub-clinically inflamed quarters, BK was raised in those milks where Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was isolated but not in those milks where no pathogen was isolated. Increasing S. aureus artificially, also caused an increase in the milk BK. Increases in milk BK were not restricted only to the mastitic quarters of the udder. In udders in which mastitis was detected in one or more quarters, BK increases were also detected in the apparently uninvolved quarters. PMID:10328527

  11. Peptidoglycan Hydrolases for Control of Mastitis Pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine mastitis results in annual losses between $1.7 billion and $2 billion in the United States alone. Among the most relevant causative agents of this disease are Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B; GBS) and Streptococcus dysgalactiae (Group C; GCS) streptococci as well as Staphylococcus aureus. ...

  12. Calciphylaxis causing necrotizing mastitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kay, P A; Sanchez, W; Rose, J F; Farley, D R; Reynolds, C

    2001-12-01

    Calciphylaxis is a rare condition most commonly related to ESRD and hyperparathyroidism. We report a case of necrotizing mastitis caused by calciphylaxis following routine breast biopsy for microcalcifications. Early recognition of the potential for this condition should help in clinical management of patients with calciphylaxis. PMID:14965637

  13. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis with erythema nodosum and polyarthritis.

    PubMed

    Alungal, J; Abdulla, M C; Narayan, R

    2016-01-01

    A 25 year-old woman presented with a painful mass in the left breast, polyarthritis and erythema nodosum. Fine needle aspiration cytology led to a diagnosis of granulomatous mastitis. Oral prednisolone rapidly improved the arthritis and the erythema nodosum. Granulomatous mastitis is a very rare, chronic inflammatory disease and only ten patients with granulomatous mastitis with erythema nodosum and polyarthitis have been described. PMID:27608798

  14. Mycobacterium chelonei Mastitis in a Quebec Dairy Herd

    PubMed Central

    Ménard, L.; Vanasse, C.; Diaz, C.; Rivard, G.

    1983-01-01

    An epizootic of bovine mastitis caused by a nontuberculous mycobacterial agent occurred in a large Quebec dairy herd. This mastitis problem was characterized by the occurrence of a high number of cows with severely inflamed, indurated and therapeutically incurable quarters. Routine diagnostic laboratory methods yielded negative cultural findings. Approximately 40% of the milking cows developed chronic mastitis. Poor sanitation, improper milking procedures and a faulty milking system prevailed at that time. PMID:17422316

  15. Accidentes en plantas nucleares de electricidad y el riesgo de cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa acerca de los riesgos del cáncer asociados con accidentes en plantas nucleares de electricidad. Incluye información para pacientes con cáncer que viven en una zona que puede haber sido afectada por un accidente en una planta nuclear.

  16. Lupus mastitis: a mimicker of breast carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Warne, Richard Roger; Taylor, Donna; Segal, Amanda; Irish, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a case of lupus mastitis which was initially diagnosed following an incisional biopsy of a breast lump, with similar pathology found 2 years later after an ultrasound guided biopsy of the same lump. The woman had been diagnosed 7 years before with systemic lupus erythematosus. The radiological and pathological features are presented in this report with discussion of similar cases in the literature. PMID:22669997

  17. Breast Carcinoma Occurring from Chronic Granulomatous Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Luqman, Mazlan; Shahrun Niza, Abdullah Suhaimi; Saladina Jaszle, Jasmin; Nani Harlina, Md Latar; Sellymiah, Adzman; Rohaizak, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous mastitis is known as a benign and relatively rare disorder that is often difficult to differentiate from breast carcinoma. We highlight the case of a 34-year-old woman who had recurrent episodes of right breast swelling and abscess for 8 years. These were proven to be chronic granulomatous mastitis by tissue biopsies on 3 different occasions. Her condition improved on similar courses of antibiotics and high-dose prednisolone. However, she subsequently developed progressive loss of vision due to an orbital tumour. She then underwent a craniotomy and left orbital decompression with excision of the tumour, which proved to be a metastatic carcinoma. A trucut biopsy of the right breast was then done and showed features consistent with an infiltrating ductal carcinoma. This case illustrates the possibility that chronic granulomatous mastitis could be a precursor for malignancy and the difficulty in differentiating one from the other. The possible mechanisms of development and the implications for future management are also discussed. PMID:22973142

  18. Granulomatous Mastitis: Imaging of Temporal Evolution.

    PubMed

    Bilal, Ahmed; Badar Albadar, Fahad; Bashir Barlas, Nauman

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To assess the temporal imaging evolution of granulomatous mastitis and to review imaging findings. Material and Methods. Retrospective review of imaging data of 10 patients with biopsy proven granulomatous mastitis. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to their initial imaging presentation. Temporal evolution of imaging findings was observed separately for each group. Ratios, proportions, and percentages were used for data analysis. Results. Upon initial presentation, 75% of women who underwent mammogram showed an area of mass like architectural distortion. 25% demonstrated focal asymmetry. Complex cystic lesion was seen 40%. Multiple abscesses with sinus tract formation tracking into surrounding tissues were seen in 2 cases. Four out of 10 patients presented as edematous changes. Three out of this group progressed to develop complex cystic lesions/abscess formation. 25% presenting with complex cystic lesions or abscess at presentation showed spontaneous resolution. The remainder needed surgical treatment. The patients with abscess formation and sinus tract formation needed surgical management. Conclusion. Initial imaging findings in granulomatous mastitis can be variable but the eventual course and outcome is similar in most patients with surgical management required in most cases. PMID:27051554

  19. Granulomatous Mastitis: Imaging of Temporal Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Badar Albadar, Fahad; Bashir Barlas, Nauman

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To assess the temporal imaging evolution of granulomatous mastitis and to review imaging findings. Material and Methods. Retrospective review of imaging data of 10 patients with biopsy proven granulomatous mastitis. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to their initial imaging presentation. Temporal evolution of imaging findings was observed separately for each group. Ratios, proportions, and percentages were used for data analysis. Results. Upon initial presentation, 75% of women who underwent mammogram showed an area of mass like architectural distortion. 25% demonstrated focal asymmetry. Complex cystic lesion was seen 40%. Multiple abscesses with sinus tract formation tracking into surrounding tissues were seen in 2 cases. Four out of 10 patients presented as edematous changes. Three out of this group progressed to develop complex cystic lesions/abscess formation. 25% presenting with complex cystic lesions or abscess at presentation showed spontaneous resolution. The remainder needed surgical treatment. The patients with abscess formation and sinus tract formation needed surgical management. Conclusion. Initial imaging findings in granulomatous mastitis can be variable but the eventual course and outcome is similar in most patients with surgical management required in most cases. PMID:27051554

  20. Genome Sequences of Four Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Bovine Mastitis.

    PubMed

    Kant, Ravi; Taponen, Suvi; Koort, Joanna; Paulin, Lars; Åvall-Jääskeläinen, Silja; Palva, Airi

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major causative agent of mastitis in dairy cows. The pathogenicity of S. aureus may vary; it is able to cause severe clinical mastitis, but most often it is associated with chronic subclinical mastitis. Here, we present the genome assemblies of four S. aureus strains from bovine mastitis. PMID:25908141

  1. Molecular Basis of Virulence in Staphylococcus aureus Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Le Maréchal, Caroline; Seyffert, Nubia; Jardin, Julien; Hernandez, David; Jan, Gwenaël; Rault, Lucie; Azevedo, Vasco; François, Patrice; Schrenzel, Jacques; van de Guchte, Maarten; Even, Sergine; Berkova, Nadia; Thiéry, Richard; Fitzgerald, J. Ross

    2011-01-01

    Background S. aureus is one of the main pathogens involved in ruminant mastitis worldwide. The severity of staphylococcal infection is highly variable, ranging from subclinical to gangrenous mastitis. This work represents an in-depth characterization of S. aureus mastitis isolates to identify bacterial factors involved in severity of mastitis infection. Methodology/Principal Findings We employed genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to comprehensively compare two clonally related S. aureus strains that reproducibly induce severe (strain O11) and milder (strain O46) mastitis in ewes. Variation in the content of mobile genetic elements, iron acquisition and metabolism, transcriptional regulation and exoprotein production was observed. In particular, O11 produced relatively high levels of exoproteins, including toxins and proteases known to be important in virulence. A characteristic we observed in other S. aureus strains isolated from clinical mastitis cases. Conclusions/Significance Our data are consistent with a dose-dependant role of some staphylococcal factors in the hypervirulence of strains isolated from severe mastitis. Mobile genetic elements, transcriptional regulators, exoproteins and iron acquisition pathways constitute good targets for further research to define the underlying mechanisms of mastitis severity. PMID:22096559

  2. Tylosin susceptibility of Staphylococci from bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Entorf, Monika; Feßler, Andrea T; Kadlec, Kristina; Kaspar, Heike; Mankertz, Joachim; Peters, Thomas; Schwarz, Stefan

    2014-07-16

    Although the 16-membered macrolide tylosin is commonly used for the treatment of bovine mastitis, little information is currently available about the susceptibility of mastitis pathogens to tylosin. In the present study, 112 Staphylococcus aureus and 110 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) spp. isolates from cases of bovine mastitis were tested by broth microdilution and agar disk diffusion with 30 μg tylosin disks. Susceptibility to erythromycin was tested by broth microdilution and disk diffusion using 15 μg disks. Both test populations showed bimodal distributions of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and zone diameters with eleven S. aureus and eight CoNS isolates showing tylosin MICs of ≥ 256 μg/ml and no zones of growth inhibition around the tylosin 30 μg disks. All 19 isolates with tylosin MICs of ≥ 256 μg/ml were also resistant to erythromycin. For six additional erythromycin-resistant isolates, tylosin MICs of 1-8 μg/ml were observed. One S. aureus and two CoNS isolates showed inducible macrolide resistance. PCR analysis of the 25 erythromycin-resistant staphylococcal isolates identified the resistance genes erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), erm(T), mph(C) and msr(A) alone or in different combinations. An excellent correlation between the results of the different tylosin susceptibility tests (broth microdilution versus disk diffusion) was seen for S. aureus and CoNS isolates. Since tylosin does not induce the expression of the aforementioned erm genes, isolates with an inducible resistance phenotype may - if only tylosin is tested - be falsely classified as tylosin-susceptible. Thus, erythromycin should be tested in parallel and tylosin should only be used for the treatment of infections caused by erythromycin-susceptible staphylococci. PMID:24461550

  3. Optoelectronic and photonic sensors of mastitis in cow milk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borecki, M.; Niemiec, T.; Korwin-Pawlowski, M. L.; Kuczyńska, B.; Doroz, P.; Urbańska, K.; Szmidt, M.; Szmidt, J.

    2013-07-01

    Mastitis is the inflammation of the mammary gland in animals under the influence of micro-organisms causing functional disorder of udder. Mastitis causes a variety of qualitative changes in the milk, which classified as mastitis milk, has a reduced value. A number of chemical procedures and lab instruments were developed to test for mastitis, of which the widest used are the California mastitis test and the somatic cell counter. This work presents the progress in development of new photonic sensors of mastitis using a conductometer, a spectrometer and a capillary head with local heating with improved measuring procedures. We showed that the significant increase in mastitis detection sensitivity is achieved by measuring the whey acidic instead of milk. The whey can be obtained from milk in a relatively simple and inexpensive chemical process. We correlated the conductivity measurement and the measurement of the number of somatic cells in the milk. The application of the measurement of optical transmission absorption in whey instead of the classic milk measurement increases the resolution of resistance measuring more than 3 times. However, the application of the method of capillary phase-transition to whey examination increases the resolution of measurement 15 times. The changes in resistance and time of the phase transitions are linearly correlated with the number of somatic cells.

  4. Bacteriocins – Exploring Alternatives to Antibiotics in Mastitis Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pieterse, Reneé; Todorov, Svetoslav D.

    2010-01-01

    Mastitis is considered to be the most costly disease affecting the dairy industry. Management strategies involve the extensive use of antibiotics to treat and prevent this disease. Prophylactic dosages of antibiotics used in mastitis control programmes could select for strains with resistance to antibiotics. In addition, a strong drive towards reducing antibiotic residues in animal food products has lead to research in finding alternative antimicrobial agents. In this review we have focus on the pathogenesis of the mastitis in dairy cows, existing antibiotic treatments and possible alternative for application of bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria in the treatment and prevention of this disease. PMID:24031528

  5. Treatment of Sporadic Acute Puerperal Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Barton, John R.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: The purposes of this study were to compare the efficacy of amoxicillin and cephradine for the treatment of sporadic acute puerperal mastitis (SAPM) and to evaluate the microbiology and clinical parameters of this infection. Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized, single-blinded study comparing amoxicillin, 500 mg orally q 8 h for 7 days, and cephradine, 500 mg orally q 6 h for 7 days. The diagnostic criteria for SAPM included a temperature of ≥37.56℃ (≥99.6℉) and erythema and tenderness of the breast(s). Results: Twenty-seven consecutive outpatients with SAPM were evaluated for admission to the study, and 25 of these were enrolled. The mean temperature at enrollment was 38.17℃ (100.7℉), with a mean WBC count of 11,440/μl. The most frequent bacterial isolates from expressed milk were Staphylococcus aureus (7), staphylococcal species (coagulase negative) (8), and α-hemolytic streptococci (4). There were no significant differences between the 2 antibiotic regimens in cure rate, mean days to resolution of symptoms, or recurrence within 30 days. Both of the treatment failures and 1 of the 3 recurrences within 30 days were amoxicillin-treated patients whose cultures grew S. aureus. Conclusions: Oral amoxicillin and cephradine appear equally effective in the treatment of SAPM. Staphylococci were the most frequent isolates from the milk of women with mastitis. PMID:18476075

  6. Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Animals: Incidence, Economics, and Predisposing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Mukesh Kr.; Thombare, N. N.; Mondal, Biswajit

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the incidence and economics of subclinical form of bovine mastitis in Central Region of India. Daily milk records of 187 animals during three seasons were collected and subjected to analysis. The economic loss due to reduction in yield, clinical expenses, and additional resources used were quantified and aggregated. The losses due to mastitis in monetary terms were estimated to be INR1390 per lactation, among which around 49% was owing to loss of value from milk and 37% on account of veterinary expenses. Higher losses were observed in crossbred cows due to their high production potential that was affected during mastitis period. The cost of treating an animal was estimated to be INR509 which includes cost of medicine (31.10%) and services (5.47%). Inadequate sanitation, hygiene, and veterinary services were the main predisposing factors for incidence and spread of mastitis as perceived by the respondents. PMID:25093203

  7. Identification and antibiogram of microbes associated with bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Vaibhav D; Patel, Mitisha S; Joshi, Chaitanya G; Kunjadia, Anju

    2011-01-01

    An investigation of Mastitis in cattle was carried out in Anand city and in nearby villages of Gujarat state using California Mastitis Test (CMT) kit. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis was found to be 5.5% and 15.75%, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was identified through strain specific polymerase chain reaction; the remaining isolates identified on the basis of molecular analysis by 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were Staphylococcus species, B. pumilus, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Bacillus species, and Pseudomonas species. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of all the isolates was checked against 13 different antibiotics using the agar disc diffusion method. Highest bacterial resistance was observed with penicillin G and oxacillin antibiotics. It was also observed that the patterns of bacterial resistance have not changed in India over the years. The data supports the decrease in the incidence of mastitis but the rate of decrease is minimal. More effective control strategies are required. PMID:21774624

  8. Heritability estimates associated with alternative definitions of mastitis and correlations with somatic cell score and yield.

    PubMed

    Vallimont, J E; Dechow, C D; Sattler, C G; Clay, J S

    2009-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare alternative mastitis definitions and to estimate genetic correlations of producer-recorded mastitis with somatic cell score (SCS) and yield. Cow health events and lactation records from June 2002 through October 2007 were provided by Dairy Records Management Systems (Raleigh, NC). First- through fifth-lactation records from cows calving between 20 and 120 mo of age and that calved in a herd-year with at least 1% of cows with a clinical mastitis event were retained. The edited data contained 118,516 lactation records and 1,072,741 test-day records of 64,893 cows. Mastitis occurrence (1 = at least one mastitis event during lactation or test-day interval, 0 = no mastitis events), number of mastitis events during lactation, SCS, and yield were analyzed with animal models (single trait) or sire-maternal grandsire models (multiple trait) in ASREML. Comparisons were made among models assuming a normal distribution, a binary distribution, or Poisson distribution (for total episodes). The overall incidence of clinical mastitis was 15.4%; and heritability estimates ranged from 0.73% (test-day interval mastitis with a linear model) to 11.07% (number of mastitis episodes with a Poisson model). Increased mastitis incidence was genetically correlated with higher SCS (range 0.66 to 0.88) and was generally correlated with higher yield (range -0.03 to 0.40), particularly during first lactation (0.04 to 0.40). Significant genetic variation exists for clinical mastitis; and health events recorded by producers could be used to generate genetic evaluations for cow health. Sires ranked similarly for daughter mastitis susceptibility regardless of how mastitis was defined; however, test-day interval mastitis and a total count of mastitis episodes per lactation allow a higher proportion of mastitis treatments to be included in the genetic analysis. PMID:19528618

  9. Beneficios y riesgos de la terapia estrogénica en la menopausia varían por edad, de acuerdo con el e

    Cancer.gov

    Los datos de seguimiento a largo plazo del estudio Iniciativa para la Salud de la Mujer (WHI) proporcionan información nueva e importante sobre los posibles riesgos y beneficios de la terapia hormonal para tratar síntomas relacionadas con la menopausia.

  10. Resultado negativo de prueba del VPH es mejor predictor de riesgo bajo de cáncer de cuello uterino

    Cancer.gov

    De acuerdo con un estudio en el que participaron más de un millón de mujeres, los investigadores del NCI han determinado que el resultado negativo de una prueba para la detección del VPH proporciona mayor certeza o seguridad frente a riesgos futuros de cá

  11. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: presentation, investigation and management.

    PubMed

    Benson, John R; Dumitru, Dorin

    2016-06-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare chronic inflammatory condition of the breast which although benign can mimic carcinoma. Establishing a diagnosis can be challenging and requires a high index of suspicion with exclusion of infective and autoimmune breast diseases. IGM is characterized histologically by noncaseating granulomas which are of a lobulo-centric pattern and often associated with microabscess formation. Management of confirmed cases remains controversial with proponents of initial surgical or medical therapies - each has its associated problems which can be worse than the original symptoms of IGM. However, many patients require more than one modality of treatment to completely resolve IGM lesions and careful judgment is necessary to ensure optimal type and sequencing of treatments. PMID:27067146

  12. Management of mastitis on organic and conventional dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Ruegg, P L

    2009-04-01

    This paper compares management of mastitis on organic dairy farms with that on conventional dairy farms. National standards for organic production vary by country. In the United States, usage of antimicrobials to treat dairy cattle results in permanent loss of organic status of the animal, effectively limiting treatment choices for animals experiencing bacterial diseases. There are no products approved by the US Food and Drug Administration that can be used for treatment of mastitis on organic dairy farms, and usage of unapproved products is contrary to Food and Drug Administration guidelines. In general, organic dairy farms tend to be smaller, produce less, and more likely to be housed and milked in traditional barns as compared with conventionally managed herds. It is difficult to compare disease rates between herds managed conventionally or organically because perception and detection of disease is influenced by management system. To date, no studies have been published with the defined objective of comparing animal health on organic dairy herds with that on conventional dairy herds in the United States. European studies have not documented significant differences in animal health based on adoption of organic management. Few differences in bulk tank somatic cell counts have been identified between organic and conventional herds. Farmers that have adopted organic management consistently report fewer cases of clinical mastitis, but organic farmers do not use the same criteria to detect clinical mastitis. European dairy farmers that adopt organic management report use of a variety of conventional and alternative therapies for treatment and control of mastitis. In the United States, organic farmers treat clinical mastitis using a variety of alternative therapies including whey-based products, botanicals, vitamin supplements, and homeopathy. Organic farmers in the United States use a variety of alternative products to treat cows at dry-off. Virtually no data are

  13. Vaccines and diagnostic methods for bovine mastitis: fact and fiction.

    PubMed

    Yancey, R J

    1999-01-01

    A number of problems are uniquely associated with vaccination of dairy cows for mastitis. One of these is that the number of mastitis pathogens is numerous and heterogeneous. Vaccine efforts have concentrated mainly on the major mastitis pathogens. While at least one S. aureus bacterin has been commercially available for a number of years, no large-scale, independent field trials have been published in refereed journals which support the efficacy of this vaccine. Experimental vaccines for S. aureus composed of pseudocapsule-enriched bacterins supplemented with alpha- and/or beta-toxoids appear promising, but none of these has been commercialized. With S. uberis, some protection against homologous strain challenges was reported recently with a live strain and a bacterin, but other data from the same laboratory showed this vaccine would not protect against heterologous challenge strains. At this time there is only one highly effective vaccine for mastitis, the core-antigen vaccine for coliform mastitis. All of the commercially available vaccines for this indication are bacterins of rough mutants of E. coli strain J5 or Salmonella spp. Preliminary success with an experimental vaccine based on the plasminogen activator of S. uberis is a very different approach for a mastitis vaccine. Little success has been reported with vaccination against other mastitis pathogens. For diagnostic methods, the high somatic cell count, as measured by direct count or indirect assays, remains the cornerstone of mastitis diagnosis. However, for subclinical mastitis, bacterial cell culture is a reliable diagnostic method. Pathogen identification may rely on older biochemical testing methods or newer commercial identification systems, depending on the laboratory budget. ELISA assays also have been used to assess herd infection status. Epidemiologic studies have used DNA fingerprinting and ribotyping, but none of these methods has yet produced an easily utilized commercial format. Within the

  14. Clinical mastitis in primiparous Holsteins: comparisons of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency carriers and noncarriers.

    PubMed

    Wanner, J M; Rogers, G W; Kehrli, M E; Cooper, J B

    1999-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency on clinical mastitis incidence, severity, and duration in Holstein cows. Genomic DNA from milk of 847 Holstein cows in six Pennsylvania herds was used to determine bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency genotypes (82 or 9.7% carriers). Data on clinical mastitis incidence, severity, duration, and pathogen involved were collected during first lactation for the project cows. One hundred ninety-four cows had one or more clinical mastitis episodes; milk samples from each quarter with clinical mastitis were collected at discovery of the episode and were cultured following National Mastitis Council recommendations. The overall incidence of clinical mastitis was significantly affected by sire and herd-year-season of calving. In addition, incidence of clinical mastitis tended to increase with age at first calving. Severity and duration of clinical mastitis were impacted by the pathogen involved. Incidence of clinical mastitis from all pathogens, from coagulase-negative staphylococci, and from coliform bacteria was not significantly related to bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency status. Carriers tended to have lower rates of mastitis from streptococci other than Streptococcus agalactiae when compared with noncarriers, but this result should be interpreted with caution because of the low frequency of mastitis from the streptococci. Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency status was unrelated to severity or duration of clinical episodes. Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency carriers are probably similar to noncarriers in resistance to clinical mastitis. PMID:10575620

  15. Bovine mastitis in selected areas of southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dego, O Kerro; Tareke, F

    2003-06-01

    A study on bovine mastitis, designed to determine the causal agents, prevalence of infection and impact of risk factors in three cattle breeds, was conducted in selected areas of southern Ethiopia. A total of 307 lactating and non-lactating cows, of which 162 were indigenous Zebu, 85 Jersey and 60 Holstein-Friesian. were examined by clinical examination and the California mastitis (CMT) test. Of these, 40.4% were positive by CMT and bacteriology for clinical or subclinical mastitis, with prevalence rates of 37.1% and 62.9%, respectively. Out of 1133 quarters examined, 212 (18.7%) were found to be infected, 83 (39.21%) clinically and 129 (60.8%) subclinically. The prevalence of mastitis was significantly higher in Holstein-Friesian than in indigenous Zebu, in non-lactating cows than in lactating cows, in the early lactation stage than in the mid-lactation stage, in cows with lesions and/or tick infestation on skin of udder and/or teats than in cows without this factor, and in the wet season than in the dry season. Mastitis increased with parity number (R = 0.9). Of 248 CMT and clinically positive udder quarter samples analysed microbiologically, 212 were culturally positive for known mastitis pathogens and 36 were negative. Of the 199 positive samples. Staphylococcus accounted for 39.2%. Streptococcus for 23.6%, coliforms for 14.1%, Micrococcus and Bacillus species for 8.0% each and Actinomyces or Arcanobacterium (Corynebacterium) for 7.0%. It was concluded that there was a high prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis, mainly caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli, in this study area. PMID:12797409

  16. Human milk anti-inflammatory component contents during acute mastitis.

    PubMed

    Buescher, E S; Hair, P S

    2001-06-15

    Mastitis is a common complication of human lactation. We examined milk specimens from eight women with clinical mastitis to determine their content of anti-inflammatory components. Antioxidant activity (spontaneous cytochrome c reducing activity), selected pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1beta), selected endogenous cytokine control molecules (sIL-6R, sIL-1RII, and sTNFRI), lactoferrin, Na(+):K(+) ratios, and milk bioactivities that cause shedding of sIL-1RII from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), suppress PMN aggregation, and suppress PMN adherence responses were not increased compared to normal milks. Neither the bioactivities that deplete PMN intracellular Ca(2+) stores nor those that block Ca(2+) influx into fMLP-stimulated PMN were significantly increased in mastitis milks. In contrast, levels of TNFalpha, sTNFRII, and IL-1RA and bioactivities that cause shedding of sTNFRI from human PMN were significantly increased compared to normal milks. Mastitis milk has the same anti-inflammatory components and characteristics of normal milk, with elevations in selected components/activities that may help protect the nursing infant from developing clinical illness due to feeding on mastitis milk. PMID:11520075

  17. Normal somatic cell count and subclinical mastitis in Murrah buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, I P

    2006-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the normal somatic cell count (SCC) and to define subclinical mastitis in Murrah buffaloes. Data were collected from 60 clinically normal buffaloes stationed at five farms of Chitwan Nepal and Buffalo Research Center, Hissar, India. Somatic cell count was measured using the Newman-Lampert staining technique. The upper limit of SCC was determined >or=200 000/ml of milk based on the mean +/- 2SD of a total SCC. Abnormal data of the SCC was repeatedly removed, which lie beyond the values of more than mean + 2SD until all the data come to lie within (mean + 2SD). Averages of SCC of right front and right hind quarters were significantly higher than left front and left hind quarters. Nearly 94% of California mastitis test (CMT) negative quarters were having somatic cells >or=200 000/ml. The mean SCC of CMT positive quarter was significantly higher (P < 0.01) than CMT negative quarters. Subclinical mastitis was diagnosed on the basis of samples with SCCs >or=200 000/ml with positive bacterial cultures. Subclinical mastitis was found in 21.7% buffaloes and 8% of the quarter foremilk samples. Neutrophil counts were significantly higher in subclinical mastitis milk. PMID:16626405

  18. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) as an aetiological factor of mastitis in cows.

    PubMed

    Bochniarz, M; Wawron, W; Szczubiał, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the proportions of individual coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species in clinical and subclinical mastitis. The material consisted of 100 CNS isolates obtained from 223 milk samples collected from cows with clinical and subclinical mastitis. Coagulase-negative staphylococci constituted 44.8% of all isolated microorganisms. CNS were isolated from the mammary gland secretions of 86 cows from farms in the Lublin region (Poland). Clinical mastitis was found in 20 whereas subclinical mastitis in 66 study cows (23.3% and 76.7%, respectively). The symptoms of clinical mastitis were mild. The clinical forms of mastitis concerned mainly the first or second lactation. Subclinical mastitis was most commonly observed during the second lactation. Four CNS species (S. xylosus, S. chromogenes, S. haemolyticus and S. sciuri) were isolated from clinical and subclinical mastitis. S. xylosus was the commonest CNS species isolated from cows with clinical mastitis whereas S. chromogenes was the most prevalent one in subclinical mastitis cases. The three CNS species (S. warneri, S. hominis and S. saprophyticus) caused only subclinical mastitis. PMID:24195283

  19. Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis Associated with Erythema Nodosum

    PubMed Central

    Kalaycı, Tuğçe Özlem; Koruyucu, Melike Bedel; Apaydın, Melda; Etit, Demet; Varer, Makbule

    2016-01-01

    Background: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is an uncommon benign chronic inflammatory breast disease, and erythema nodosum (EN) is an extremely rare systemic manifestation of IGM. Here, we report a rare case of IGM accompanied by EN. Case Report: A 32-year-old patient was admitted to our clinic with a history of a tender mass in the right breast. On physical examination, the right breast contained a hard, tender mass in the lower half with indrawing of the nipple. She had florid EN affecting both legs. She was evaluated with mammography, ultrasound, power Doppler ultrasound, non-enhancing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and excisional biopsy. Time-intensity curves showed a type II pattern on dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, which has an intermediate probability for malignancy. The FNAB reported a benign cytology suggestive of a granulomatous inflammation, which was also supported by the histopathological findings. A partial mastectomy was performed following medical treatment. There was no recurrence at 1-year follow-up. Conclusion: IGM should be considered in the differential diagnosis of EN. Although histopathological examination remains the only method for the definite diagnosis of IGM, MRI can be helpful in the diagnosis or differentiation of benign lesions from malignant ones. PMID:27403395

  20. Dutch dairy farmers' need for microbiological mastitis diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Griffioen, Karien; Hop, Geralda E; Holstege, Manon M C; Velthuis, Annet G J; Lam, Theo J G M

    2016-07-01

    Although several microbiological mastitis diagnostic tools are currently available, dairy farmers rarely use them to base treatment decisions on. In this study, we conducted a telephone interview among 195 randomly selected Dutch dairy farmers to determine their current use of and their need for microbiological diagnostics for clinical mastitis (CM), subclinical mastitis (SCM), and dry-cow treatment (DCT), followed by the test characteristics they consider important. A structured questionnaire was used, based on face-to-face interviews previously held with other farmers. The answers were registered in a database and analyzed using descriptive statistics and univariable and multivariable models. Antimicrobial treatment decisions for CM, SCM, and DCT were mainly based on clinical signs and somatic cell count. In case of CM, 34% of farmers indicated that they currently submit milk samples for bacteriological culture (BC). This would increase to 71% if an on-farm test resulting in treatment advice within 12 h were available. For SCM, use would increase from 22 to 55%, and for DCT, from 7 to 34%, if the same 12-h test were available. For CM and DCT, the preferred test outcome was advice on which antibiotic to use, according to 58 and 15% of the farmers, respectively. For SCM, the preferred test outcome was the causative bacterium for 38% of the farmers. Farmers who currently submit CM milk samples for BC were 13.1 times more likely to indicate, as the preferred test outcome, advice on which antibiotic to use, compared with farmers who do not currently submit CM milk samples for BC. Fourteen percent of the farmers indicated not being interested at all in microbiological mastitis diagnostics for CM. For SCM and DCT, 27 and 55%, respectively, were not interested in microbiological mastitis diagnostics. Regarding test characteristics that farmers considered important, reliability was most often indicated (44-51% of the farmers). Additionally, a preferred time-to-result of

  1. [Breast cancer treated by antibiotherapy? Granulomatous mastitis with Corynebacterium].

    PubMed

    Buhler, J; Grignon, Y; Gallon, F

    2015-09-01

    Granulomatous mastitis is a rare disease, often associated with Corynebacterium infection. It raises the problem of diagnosis of breast tumor with a fast evolution and inflammatory character. We report two cases of granulomatous mastitis with Corynebacterium. It concerns the clinical and radiological description, followed by the therapeutic alternatives and future of the patients. The clinical presentation is variable. The treatment consists in a surgical procedure of resection. The medical treatment based of corticosteroids also proves efficient. The association between Corynebacterium presence and this pathology seems frequent and needs a specific bacteriological search. PMID:25721346

  2. Periductal mastitis and mammary duct ectasia in a male.

    PubMed Central

    Ashworth, M. T.; Corcoran, G. D.; Haqqani, M. T.

    1985-01-01

    A case of periductal mastitis and mammary duct ectasia is presented in a 50 year old male, with presenting symptoms similar to those of females, namely subareolar breast lump and mastalgia. As far as can be ascertained only 4 cases of mammary duct ectasia and periductal mastitis in males have been reported previously. Since this entity is not well known in males it is possible that it may be underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed clinically and histologically. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:4040633

  3. Treatment of Acute Puerperal Mastitis and Breast Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Cantlie, Helene Bertrand

    1988-01-01

    Mastitis is a benign infection of the breast if it is treated early. If two days elapse before treatment is started, it can lead to serious complications such as chronic or recurrent mastitis or breast abscess. Treatment consists in frequent nursing and massaging or stripping the breast to keep it empty of milk or pus, and appropriate antibiotics. Incision and drainage of a breast abscess can be done in the office under local anesthesia, and the drainage continued at home by the mother. PMID:21253250

  4. DIABETES MELLITUS COMO FACTOR DE RIESGO DE DEMENCIA EN LA POBLACIÓN ADULTA MAYOR MEXICANA

    PubMed Central

    Silvia, Mejía-Arango; Clemente, y Zúñiga-Gil

    2012-01-01

    Introduccion La diabetes mellitus y las demencias constituyen dos problemas crecientes de salud entre la población adulta mayor del mundo y en particular de los paises en desarrollo. Hacen falta estudios longitudinales sobre el papel de la diabetes como factor de riesgo para demencia. Objetivo Determinar el riesgo de demencia en sujetos Mexicanos con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Materiales y Metodos Los sujetos diabéticos libres de demencia pertenecientes al Estudio Nacional de Salud y Envejecimiento en México fueron evaluados a los dos años de la línea de base. Se estudió el papel de los factores sociodemográficos, de otras comorbilidades y del tipo de tratamiento en la conversión a demencia. Resultados Durante la línea de base 749 sujetos (13.8%) tuvieron diabetes. El riesgo de desarrollar demencia en estos individuos fue el doble (RR, 2.08 IC 95%, 1.59–2.73). Se encontró un riesgo mayor en individuos de 80 años y más (RR 2.44 IC 95%, 1.46–4.08), en los hombres (RR, 2.25 IC 95%, 1.46–3.49) y en sujetos con nivel educativo menor de 7 años. El estar bajo tratamiento con insulina incrementó el riesgo de demencia (RR, 2.83, IC 95%, 1.58–5.06). Las otras comorbilidades que aumentaron el riesgo de demencia en los pacientes diabéticos fueron la hipertensión (RR, 2.75, IC 95%, 1.86–4.06) y la depresión (RR, 3.78, 95% IC 2.37–6.04). Conclusión Los sujetos con diabetes mellitus tienen un riesgo mayor de desarrollar demencia, La baja escolaridad y otras comorbilidades altamente prevalentes en la población Mexicana contribuyen a la asociación diabetes-demencia. PMID:21948010

  5. Chronic Mastitis in Egypt and Morocco: Differentiating between Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis and IgG4-Related Disease.

    PubMed

    Allen, Steven G; Soliman, Amr S; Toy, Kathleen; Omar, Omar S; Youssef, Tamer; Karkouri, Mehdi; Ayad, Essam; Abdel-Aziz, Azza; Hablas, Ahmed; Tahri, Ali; Oltean, Hanna N; Kleer, Celina G; Merajver, Sofia D

    2016-09-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a benign, frequently severe chronic inflammatory lesion of the breast. Its etiology remains unknown and reported cases vary in their presentation and histologic findings with an optimal treatment algorithm yet to be described owing mainly to the disease's heterogeneity. IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a newly recognized systemic fibroinflammatory condition characterized by a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with many IgG4-positive plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. Immunosuppressive therapy is considered to be an effective first-line therapy for IgG4-RD. We sought to clarify and classify chronic mastitis according to the histologic findings of IgG4-RD mastitis with respect to IGM and to develop a robust diagnostic framework to help select patients for optimal treatment strategies. Using the largest collection to date (43 cases from Egypt and Morocco), we show that despite sharing many features, IGM and IgG4-RD mastitis are separate diseases. To diagnostically separate the diseases, we created a classification schema-termed the Michigan Classification-based upon our large series of cases, the consensus statement on IgG4-RD, and the histologic description of IGM in the literature. Using our classification, we discerned 17 cases of IgG4-RD and 8 cases of IGM among the 43 chronic mastitis cases, with 18 indeterminate cases. Thus, our Michigan Classification can form the basis of rational stratification of chronic mastitis patients between these two clinically and histopathologically heterogeneous diseases. PMID:27279578

  6. Impact of subclinical and clinical mastitis on sensitivity to pain of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Peters, M D P; Silveira, I D B; Fischer, V

    2015-12-01

    A total of 90 cows from three commercial farms were used to evaluate the relationship between subclinical mastitis and clinical mastitis and thermal nociceptive threshold. Milk strips from all udder quarters were tested for clinical mastitis with visual inspection of milk and udder alterations and for subclinical mastitis using California Mastitis Test. Milk yield was recorded, milk was sampled and further analyzed for somatic cells count (SCC). Cows were considered healthy when SCC200 000 cells/ml and no visual alterations in milk and/or udder, with moderate subclinical mastitis when SCC>500 000 cells/ml and no visual alterations in milk and/or udder and with clinical mastitis when visual alterations in milk and/or udder were detected. Nociceptive threshold was evaluated with the thermal threshold meter apparatus applied to the rear legs. Thermal threshold (TT) decreased when we compared healthy cows with cows presenting clinical mastitis and tended to decrease when we compare healthy cows with those with moderate subclinical mastitis. TT was lower at the ipsilateral rear leg compared with the contralateral leg to the infected mammary gland. TT linearly decreases as log10SCC increased and it showed sharp decrease as log10SCC exceed the value of 6.4. Increase in one unit of log10SCC increased the odds of low thermal threshold (lower than 55.8°C). Subclinical mastitis might be a welfare issue as it tended to decrease nociceptive thermal threshold. PMID:26220469

  7. Factors influencing the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in lactating dromedary camels in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Aljumaah, Riyadh S; Almutairi, Faris F; Ayadi, Moez; Alshaikh, Mohammad A; Aljumaah, Ali M; Hussein, Mansour F

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in camels in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and the factors influencing its incidence. A total of 740 quarter milk samples were collected from 47 camel herds belonging to Majahim, Maghatir, Shu'l, and Sufer breeds. California mastitis test (CMT) was used as a screening test for subclinical mastitis. Samples giving negative or trace CMT scores (0) were assigned to healthy quarters, while those giving positive scores of 1+ to 3+ were assigned to subclinically affected quarters. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of breed, parity, and stage of lactation with the prevalence of subclinical mastitis. Milk fat, protein, lactose, solid nonfat percentages and Na, Ca, and K concentrations were compared in CMT-positive versus healthy quarters. One third (33%) of tested quarters had subclinical mastitis based on CMT. The estimated probability of subclinical mastitis with the combined effects of breed, parity, and stage of lactation ranged from 15.8% to 54.6%. The risk of subclinical mastitis increased significantly with parity and with the early stage of lactation. The Shu'l breed had significantly higher prevalence of subclinical mastitis than other breeds. Significant decreases in protein, lactose, and solid nonfat, Ca and K concentrations and increase in Na concentrations were associated with subclinical mastitis. In conclusion, subclinical mastitis is prevalent in Saudi camels, and its incidence is influenced by breed, parity, and stage of lactation. PMID:21637994

  8. Association between Hyperprolactinemia and Granulomatous Mastitis.

    PubMed

    Nikolaev, Anatoly; Blake, Cassann N; Carlson, Diane L

    2016-01-01

    Granulomatous mastitis (GM) is a relatively uncommon inflammatory breast lesion with multiple suggested etiologies. Although most GM cases show association with lactation and pregnancy, a minority of cases have been linked to hyperprolactinemia caused by either dopamine antagonist medications or with intracranial lesions, such as pituitary adenoma. The goal of this study is to review the GM cases reported in the literature with a specific emphasis on those cases associated with hyperprolactinemia and prolactinomas and to identify cases of GM seen at the Cleveland Clinic Florida which demonstrate co-occurrences of GM and intracranial lesions. CoPath and Epic data bases at Cleveland Clinic Florida were searched for cases describing inflammatory breast lesions in patients with pituitary pathology. Chart reviews were conducted and pertinent medical history was extracted for case reports. H&E-stained paraffin-embedded sections retrieved from Cleveland Clinic Florida pathology storage were evaluated by light microscopy. Four cases showing a co-occurrence of GM and hyperprolactinemia were consequently identified. A prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma was present in two of the three GM cases. The third case demonstrated a concomitant craniopharyngioma, which was also associated with a rise in serum prolactin. This phenomenon was presumably attributable to compression, resulting in compromised transport of dopamine to the adenohypophysis and subsequent disinhibition of prolactin secretion by lactotrophs. The fourth patient with GM had a similar history of elevated prolactin. Classical histopathological features of GM were found in all four cases, including noncaseating granulomas, multinucleated giant cells, epithelioid histiocytes, and chronic inflammation. Intriguingly, complete resolution of inflammatory breast lesions along with normalization of prolactin levels occurred following the surgical excision of the craniopharyngioma, suggesting that intracranial lesion

  9. Neutrophil extracellular traps in sheep mastitis.

    PubMed

    Pisanu, Salvatore; Cubeddu, Tiziana; Pagnozzi, Daniela; Rocca, Stefano; Cacciotto, Carla; Alberti, Alberto; Marogna, Gavino; Uzzau, Sergio; Addis, Maria Filippa

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are structures composed of DNA, histones, and antimicrobial proteins that are released extracellularly by neutrophils and other immune cells as a means for trapping and killing invading pathogens. Here, we describe NET formation in milk and in mammary alveoli of mastitic sheep, and provide a dataset of proteins found in association to these structures. Nucleic acid staining, immunomicroscopy and fluorescent in-situ hybridization of mastitic mammary tissue from sheep infected with Streptococcus uberis demonstrated the presence of extranuclear DNA colocalizing with antimicrobial proteins, histones, and bacteria. Then, proteomic analysis by LTQ-Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometry provided detailed information on protein abundance changes occurring in milk upon infection. As a result, 1095 unique proteins were identified, of which 287 being significantly more abundant in mastitic milk. Upon protein ontology classification, the most represented localization classes for upregulated proteins were the cytoplasmic granule, the nucleus, and the mitochondrion, while function classes were mostly related to immune defence and inflammation pathways. All known NET markers were massively increased, including histones, granule proteases, and antimicrobial proteins. Of note was the detection of protein arginine deiminases (PAD3 and PAD4). These enzymes are responsible for citrullination, the post-translational modification that is known to trigger NET formation by inducing chromatin decondensation and extracellular release of NETs. As a further observation, citrullinated residues were detected by tandem mass spectrometry in histones of samples from mastitic animals. In conclusion, this work provides novel microscopic and proteomic information on NETs formed in vivo in the mammary gland, and reports the most complete database of proteins increased in milk upon bacterial mastitis. PMID:26088507

  10. BACTEREMIA NOT DETECTED DURING EXPERIMENTAL COLIFORM MASTITIS INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A bacteremia, caused by diverse species, was associated with about one third of acute coliform mastitis cases occurring in a field study report. However, blood is typically a very hostile environment for bacteria. Using blood from normal cows we demonstrate that when 2000 CFU of Escherichia coli o...

  11. Streptococcus parasanguinis: new pathogen associated with asymptomatic mastitis in sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Garayzábal, J. F.; Fernández, E.; Las Heras, A.; Pascual, C.; Collins, M. D.; Domínguez, L.

    1998-01-01

    We describe two unusual cases in sheep of subclinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus parasanguinis. This bacterium has been associated with the development of experimental endocarditis; its presence at relatively high concentrations in apparently healthy sheep milk may pose a health risk in persons with predisposing heart lesions. PMID:9866743

  12. Mastitis in dairy heifers: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Bludau, M J; Maeschli, A; Leiber, F; Steiner, A; Klocke, P

    2014-12-01

    Poor udder health represents a serious problem in dairy production and has been investigated intensively, but heifers generally have not been the main focus of mastitis control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, risk factors and consequences of heifer mastitis in Switzerland. The study included 166,518 heifers of different breeds (Swiss Red Pied, Swiss Brown Cattle and Holstein). Monthly somatic cell counts (SCCs) provided by the main dairy breeding organisations in Switzerland were monitored for 3 years; the prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) was determined on the basis of SCCs ≥100,000 cells/mL at the first test date. The probability of having SCM at the first test date during lactation was modelled using logistic regression. Analysed factors included data for the genetic background, morphological traits, geographical region, season of parturition and milk composition. The overall prevalence of SCM in heifers during the period from 2006 to 2010 was 20.6%. Higher frequencies of SCM were present in heifers of the Holstein breed (odds ratio, OR, 1.62), heifers with high fat:protein ratios (OR 1.97) and heifers with low milk urea concentrations combined with high milk protein concentrations (OR 3.97). Traits associated with a low risk of SCM were high set udders, high overall breeding values and low milk breeding values. Heifers with SCM on the first test day had a higher risk of either developing chronic mastitis or leaving the herd prematurely. PMID:25457268

  13. Trends in diagnosis and control of bovine mastitis: a review.

    PubMed

    Deb, Rajib; Kumar, Amit; Chakraborty, Sandip; Verma, Amit Kumar; Tiwari, Ruchi; Dhama, Kuldeep; Singh, Umesh; Kumar, Sushil

    2013-12-01

    Mastitis (inflammation of mammary gland) is a most devastating disease condition in terms of economic losses occurring throughout the world. The etiological agents may vary from place to place depending on climate; animal species and animal husbandry and include wide variety of gram positive and gram negative bacteria; and fungi. They may be either contagious viz. Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus agalactiae or environmental viz. S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis, Corynebacterium bovis and Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. Conventional diagnostic tests viz. California Mastitis Test (CMT); R-mastitest and Mast-O-test methods are applied under field conditions; whereas somatic cell count and Bulk Tank Somatic Cell Count (BTSCC) are useful for early mastitis detection and detection of sub clinical or chronic mastitis respectively. In vitro culture based diagnosis require further study as they can detect only viable cells. The advent of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology along with its various versions like multiplex and real time PCR has improved the rapidity and sensitivity of diagnosis. Circulating micro RNA (miRNA) based diagnosis; immune assay and proteomics based detection along with biochips and biosensors prove to be asset to diagnosticians for advanced diagnosis of this economically important condition. Improvement of milking hygiene; implementation of post-milking teat disinfection; regular control of the milking equipments; implementation of milking order; Improvement of bedding material are the general measures to prevent new cases of mastitis. The use of antibiotics (intramammary infusions; bacteriocins) and herbs (Terminalia spp.) are important for prophylaxis and therapeutics. Vaccines viz. cell based; Recombinant (staphylococcal enterotoxin type C mutant) or chimeric (pauA); live (S. uberis 0140J stain based) and bacterial surface extract based; DNA-based and DNA-protein based have greatly aided in management of bovine mastitis. Quorum sensing and

  14. A descriptive epidemiological study of mastitis in 12 Irish dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Factors relating to the occurrence of mastitis were studied on 12 Irish dairy herds with histories of elevated somatic cell count (SCC) and/or increased incidence of clinical mastitis cases. Milk recording data were analysed, housing conditions and calving areas were examined; dry cow therapy, clinical mastitis records, milking technique and aspects of milking machine function were assessed. Herds with a ratio of less than 110 cubicles per 100 cows were more likely to experience environmental mastitis. Herds with inadequate calving facilities, where cows spent prolonged periods on straw bedding, were likely to acquire environmental mastitis. In the majority of the herds, the selection of dry cow therapy lacked adequate planning. The majority of farmers took no action to reduce pain experienced by cows suffering mastitis. Deficiencies in parlour hygiene were evident in all herds experiencing elevation in SCC. PMID:21851663

  15. Effect of management practices and animal age on incidence of mastitis in Nili Ravi buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Ali, Tariq; Rahman, Abdur; Qureshi, Muhammand Subhan; Hussain, Muhammad Tariq; Khan, Muhammad Shauib; Uddin, Siraj; Iqbal, Muhammad; Han, Bo

    2014-10-01

    Buffalo is an economically important dairy animal in South Asia but mostly ignored in research priorities. In this retrospective study, the effect of management practices and age of animal on the incidence of mastitis in Nili Ravi buffaloes was investigated. A total of 1,560 quarters of buffaloes (n = 390) were screened by visual examination of the udder and milk (clinical mastitis) and California mastitis test (subclinical mastitis). Household data was collected on a predesigned questionnaire and analyzed. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis, clinical mastitis, and blind quarters was 41.8, 13.6, and 9.7 %, respectively. The highest prevalence was noted in the hind quarters and left side as compared to that in the forequarters and right side. This data significantly (p < 0.05) supported the idea that larger herd size has more chances of mastitis, with the highest prevalence (40, 32, and 27 %) in the large, medium, and small herds, respectively. Stage of lactation was significantly (p < 0.01) involved in mastitis, and the highest incidence (43.3 %) was noted in early lactation. Milk production of lactating buffaloes that ranged 6-10 l/day showed a higher rate of mastitis occurrence (p < 0.05). The cleanliness condition of a farm also contributed significantly. Animal age significantly affected the incidence of mastitis. Results revealed that age of the animal has a positive correlation (R (2) = 0.772) with mastitis. This study concluded that some factors alone or in combination with other factors influence significantly the occurrence of mastitis, and to minimize the infection, these factors should be considered. The outcome of the study will be valuable for policy-making for positive management practices and implementation of preventive measures. PMID:25027737

  16. DUCHAS VAGINALES Y OTROS RIESGOS DE VAGINOSIS BACTERIANA

    PubMed Central

    Chávez, Natividad; Molina, Helfer; Sánchez, Jorge; Gelaye, Bizu; Sánchez, Sixto E.

    2010-01-01

    Vaginosis bacteriana (VB) es una infección caracterizada por el cambio en la microflora de la vagina, asociándose a resultados adversos del embarazo y a la adquisición de infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS), incluyendo el VIH. En este estudio se buscó la asociación entre el uso de duchas vaginales y otros factores de riesgos con VB. Se usó un diseño observacional descriptivo transversal prospectivo, en 1,252 mujeres que asistieron al servicio de planificación familiar de tres hospitales nacionales (Dos de Mayo, Arzobispo Loayza, San Bartolomé) y el Instituto Materno Perinatal, durante el año 1997. Se utilizó un cuestionario estructurado donde se registraron variables socio demográficas y características del estilo de vida de las participantes. VB fue diagnosticada mediante el puntaje de Nugent. Se empleó análisis de regresión logística para calcular odds ratio (OR) e intervalos de confianza al 95%. La edad promedio de las participantes fue 25.1 ± 4,7 años, el 23.4% tenían más de 11 años de educación. La prevalencía de VB fue 20,1%. Las mujeres que practicaban duchas vaginales tuvieron 2.28 veces (OR = 2.28, IC 95% [1.0–5.0]) mayor probabilidad de tener VB comparado con aquellas que no lo practicaban. Tener dos o más parejas sexuales estuvo asociado con 2.0 veces (OR =2.0, IC 95% [1.2–3.5]) mayor probabilidad de adquirir VB comparado con aquellas que habían tenido solo una pareja sexual. Las participantes que iniciaron una relación sexual a una edad temprana tuvieron 1.4 veces (OR=1.4, IC 95% [1.0 –1.9]) mayor probabilidad de adquirir VB. El uso de duchas vaginales es un factor de riesgo de VB. Los programas destinados a la salud de la mujer deben abordar las repercusiones perjudiciales para la salud asociados con las duchas vaginales. PMID:21132048

  17. Prevalence and major bacterial causes of bovine mastitis in Asella, South Eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Lakew, Matios; Tolosa, Tadele; Tigre, Worku

    2009-10-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted in and around Asella town from November 2007 to April 2008 on dairy cows to determine the prevalence of mastitis, impact of risk factors and isolate the dominant mastitis causing bacteria on total of 223 lactating cows, of which 92 were indigenous Arsi, and 131 Holstein Zebu cross by using clinical examination and California mastitis test (CMT). Of these 144 (65.6 %) were positive by clinical examination and CMT for clinical and sub clinical mastitis, with prevalence of 26.5 % and 38 %, respectively. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) on the prevalence of mastitis between cows kept under different hygiene of milking process. Similarly a significant difference on the prevalence of mastitis between the two breeds (P < 0.05) was also observed. From 144 CMT and clinically positive milk samples analyzed microbiologically, 133 were culturally positive for known mastitis pathogens and while 11 were negative. The dominant bacterial isolates in the study animals were Staphylococcus species (41.4 %), Streptococcus species (24.8 %), and other gram positive rods and gram negative enteric bacteria (33.8 %). Good hygiene in milking process, milking clinically infected cows at last, culling chronic mastitis carriers, treating clinically infected cows and dry period therapy could reduce the prevalence of contagious mastitis in the study area. PMID:19333772

  18. [Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis treated with steroids and methotrexate].

    PubMed

    Peña-Santos, Genaro; Ruiz-Moreno, José Luis

    2011-06-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a rare inflammatory breast disease of unknown etiology. It manifests as breast mass of 6 cm on average (range 2-10 cm), often in upper outer quadrant of left breast, in another quadrant, right or bilateral breast. Clinical diagnosis by ultrasound or mammography and fine needle aspiration confuses with carcinoma; histopathology (gold standard) confirm the diagnosis after ruling out causes of granulomatous inflammation, mainly tuberculosis. Steroid treatment achieve complete remission, but adverse reactions and relapses after the descent and suspension. Methotrexate or azathioprine is added from the start to maintain remission. We report three cases of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis diagnosis and treatment based on prednisone until clinical improvement and methotrexate as maintenance therapy. Complete remission was obtained in three patients. The rheumatologist knows and handles autoimmune/inflammatory with these drugs, therefore, is suggested the multidisciplinary treatment of this disease with oncologists and gynecologists. PMID:21966829

  19. Identification of nonlipophilic corynebacteria isolated from dairy cows with mastitis.

    PubMed

    Hommez, J; Devriese, L A; Vaneechoutte, M; Riegel, P; Butaye, P; Haesebrouck, F

    1999-04-01

    Nonlipophilic corynebacteria associated with clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cows were found to belong to four species: Corynebacterium amycolatum, Corynebacterium ulcerans, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, and Corynebacterium minutissimum. These species may easily be confused. However, clear-cut differences between C. ulcerans and C. pseudotuberculosis were found in their acid production from maltotriose and ethylene glycol, susceptibility to vibriostatic agent O129, and alkaline phosphatase. Absence of growth at 20 degrees C and lack of alpha-glucosidase and 4MU-alpha-D-glycoside hydrolysis activity differentiated C. amycolatum from C. pseudotuberculosis and C. ulcerans. The mastitis C. pseudotuberculosis strains differed from the biovar equi and ovis reference strains and from caprine field strains in their colony morphologies and in their reduced inhibitory activity on staphylococcal beta-hemolysin. C. amycolatum was the most frequently isolated nonlipophilic corynebacterium. PMID:10074508

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Mycoplasma isolated from bovine mastitis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Kazuhiro; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Iwano, Hidetomo; Iwakuma, Akihiro; Onda, Ken; Sato, Reiichiro; Hayashi, Tomohito; Nagahata, Hajime; Oshida, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma spp. are highly contagious pathogens and intramammary Mycoplasma infection is a serious issue for the dairy industry. As there is no effective vaccine for Mycoplasma infection, control depends on good husbandry and chemo-antibiotic therapy. In this study, antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma strains recently isolated from cases of bovine mastitis in Japan was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). All Mycoplasma bovis strains were sensitive to pirlimycin, danofloxacin and enrofloxacin, but not kanamycin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin or tylosin. M. californicum and M. bovigenitalium strains were sensitive to pirlimycin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin and tylosin, but not to kanamycin. This is the first report to describe the MIC of major antimicrobial agents for Mycoplasma species isolated from bovine mastitis in Japan. PMID:24261609

  1. Actinomyces suimastitidis sp. nov., isolated from pig mastitis.

    PubMed

    Hoyles, L; Falsen, E; Holmström, G; Persson, A; Sjödén, B; Collins, M D

    2001-07-01

    An unusual Actinomyces-like bacterium originating from a pig with mastitis was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic investigation. The morphological and biochemical characteristics of the organism were consistent with its preliminary assignment to the genus Actinomyces but it did not appear to correspond to any recognized species. PAGE analysis of whole-cell proteins confirmed the phenotypic distinctiveness of the bacterium and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated that it represents a hitherto unknown sub-line amongst a cluster of Actinomyces species which embraces Actinomyces canis, Actinomyces georgiae, Actinomyces hyovaginalis, Actinomyces meyeri, Actinomyces odontolyticus, Actinomyces radingae and Actinomyces turicensis. Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, it is proposed that the unknown bacterium isolated from pig mastitis be classified as Actinomyces suimastitidis sp. nov. The type strain of Actinomyces suimastitidis is CCUG 39279T (= CIP 106779T). PMID:11491328

  2. Staphylococcus aureus seroproteomes discriminate ruminant isolates causing mild or severe mastitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of mastitis in ruminants. In ewe mastitis, symptoms range from subclinical to gangrenous mastitis. S. aureus factors or host-factors contributing to the different outcomes are not completely elucidated. In this study, experimental mastitis was induced on primiparous ewes using two S. aureus strains, isolated from gangrenous (strain O11) or subclinical (strain O46) mastitis. Strains induced drastically distinct clinical symptoms when tested in ewe and mice experimental mastitis. Notably, they reproduced mild (O46) or severe (O11) mastitis in ewes. Ewe sera were used to identify staphylococcal immunoreactive proteins commonly or differentially produced during infections of variable severity and to define core and accessory seroproteomes. Such SERological Proteome Analysis (SERPA) allowed the identification of 89 immunoreactive proteins, of which only 52 (58.4%) were previously identified as immunogenic proteins in other staphylococcal infections. Among the 89 proteins identified, 74 appear to constitute the core seroproteome. Among the 15 remaining proteins defining the accessory seroproteome, 12 were specific for strain O11, 3 were specific for O46. Distribution of one protein specific for each mastitis severity was investigated in ten other strains isolated from subclinical or clinical mastitis. We report here for the first time the identification of staphylococcal immunogenic proteins common or specific to S. aureus strains responsible for mild or severe mastitis. These findings open avenues in S. aureus mastitis studies as some of these proteins, expressed in vivo, are likely to account for the success of S. aureus as a pathogen of the ruminant mammary gland. PMID:21324116

  3. Antibacterial Effect of Copper on Microorganisms Isolated from Bovine Mastitis.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Jara, Angelica; Cordero, Ninoska; Aguirre, Juan; Troncoso, Miriam; Figueroa, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial properties of copper have been recognized for several years; applying these properties to the prevention of diseases such as bovine mastitis is a new area of research. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of copper on bacteria isolated from subclinical and clinical mastitis milk samples from two regions in Chile. A total of 327 microorganisms were recovered between March and September 2013, with different prevalence by sample origin (25 and 75% from the central and southern regions of Chile, respectively). In the central region, Escherichia coli and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS) were the most frequently detected in clinical mastitis cases (33%), while in the southern region S. uberis, S. aureus, and CNS were detected with frequencies of 22, 21, and 18%, respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility studies revealed that 34% of isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics and the resistance profile was different between bacterial species and origins of isolation of the bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration of copper (MIC-Cu) was evaluated in all the isolates; results revealed that a concentration as low as 250 ppm copper was able to inhibit the great majority of microorganisms analyzed (65% of isolates). The remaining isolates showed a MIC-Cu between 375 and 700 ppm copper, and no growth was observed at 1000 ppm. A linear relationship was found between the logarithm of viable bacteria number and time of contact with copper. With the application of the same concentration of copper (250 ppm), CNS showed the highest tolerance to copper, followed by S. uberis and S. aureus; the least resistant was E. coli. Based on these in vitro results, copper preparations could represent a good alternative to dipping solutions, aimed at preventing the presence and multiplication of potentially pathogenic microorganisms involved in bovine mastitis disease. PMID:27199953

  4. Characterisation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa related to bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye Rim; Hong, Min Ki; Hwang, Sun Young; Park, Young Kyung; Kwon, Ka Hee; Yoon, Jang Won; Shin, Sook; Kim, Jae Hong; Park, Yong Ho

    2014-03-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the causative pathogens of bovine mastitis. Most P. aeruginosa strains possess the type III secretion system (TTSS), which may increase somatic cell counts (SCCs) in milk from mastitis-affected cows. Moreover, most of P. aeruginosa cells can form biofilms, thereby reducing antibiotic efficacy. In this study, the presence and effect of TTSS-related genotypes on increase of SCCs among 122 P. aeruginosa isolates obtained from raw milk samples from mastitis-affected cows and their antibiotic susceptibility at planktonic and biofilm status were investigated. Based on the presence of TTSS-related genes a total of 82.7% of the isolates were found to harbour exoU and/or exoS genes, including the invasive (exoU-/exoS+, 69.4%), cytotoxic (exoU+/exoS-, 8.3%) and cytotoxic/invasive strains (exoU+/ exoS+, 5.0%). Milk containing exoS-positive isolates had higher SCCs than those containing exoS-negative isolates. The majority of isolates showed gentamicin, amikacin, meropenem and ciprofloxacin susceptibility at planktonic status. However, the susceptibility was decreased at the biofilm status. Based on minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC)/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ratios, the range of change in antibiotic susceptibility varied widely depending on the antibiotics (from ≥ 3.1-fold to ≥ 475.0-fold). In conclusion, most P. aeruginosa isolates studied here had a genotype related to increase in SCCs. The efficiency of antibiotic therapy against P. aeruginosa-related bovine mastitis could be improved by analysing both the MBEC and the MIC of isolates. PMID:24334080

  5. [Mastitis due to Mycobacterium fortuitum in an HIV negative patient].

    PubMed

    Palmero, Domingo J; Ambroggi, Marta G; Poggi, Susana E

    2004-01-01

    A case of a 39 year old HIV negative female patient with a Mycobacterium fortuitum mastitis without previous pathogenic history is reported. She was treated on the bases of drug-susceptibility testing and bibliographic empirical evidence with kanamycin, doxicicline, ciprofloxacin and trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol. A complete remission of her lesions was obtained after 15 months of treatment. Lesions due to this rapidly growing mycobacterium, diagnosis and treatment are commented. PMID:15637832

  6. Mycoplasma bovis mastitis and arthritis in a dairy heifer.

    PubMed

    2015-12-19

    Mycoplasma bovis causing mastitis and arthritis in a dairy heifer. Nutritional myopathy in a three-month-old suckler calf. Acute fasciolosis in ewes in Ayrshire. Cardiomyopathy of unknown aetiology causing death of a three-year-old Suffolk ram. Spinal aspergillosis in a seven-week-old pheasant poult These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for August from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). PMID:26679914

  7. Antibacterial Effect of Copper on Microorganisms Isolated from Bovine Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Jara, Angelica; Cordero, Ninoska; Aguirre, Juan; Troncoso, Miriam; Figueroa, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial properties of copper have been recognized for several years; applying these properties to the prevention of diseases such as bovine mastitis is a new area of research. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of copper on bacteria isolated from subclinical and clinical mastitis milk samples from two regions in Chile. A total of 327 microorganisms were recovered between March and September 2013, with different prevalence by sample origin (25 and 75% from the central and southern regions of Chile, respectively). In the central region, Escherichia coli and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS) were the most frequently detected in clinical mastitis cases (33%), while in the southern region S. uberis, S. aureus, and CNS were detected with frequencies of 22, 21, and 18%, respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility studies revealed that 34% of isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics and the resistance profile was different between bacterial species and origins of isolation of the bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration of copper (MIC-Cu) was evaluated in all the isolates; results revealed that a concentration as low as 250 ppm copper was able to inhibit the great majority of microorganisms analyzed (65% of isolates). The remaining isolates showed a MIC-Cu between 375 and 700 ppm copper, and no growth was observed at 1000 ppm. A linear relationship was found between the logarithm of viable bacteria number and time of contact with copper. With the application of the same concentration of copper (250 ppm), CNS showed the highest tolerance to copper, followed by S. uberis and S. aureus; the least resistant was E. coli. Based on these in vitro results, copper preparations could represent a good alternative to dipping solutions, aimed at preventing the presence and multiplication of potentially pathogenic microorganisms involved in bovine mastitis disease. PMID:27199953

  8. Detection and discrimination of common bovine mastitis-causing streptococci.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Alexandre; Albuquerque, Pedro; Araujo, Ricardo; Ribeiro, Niza; Tavares, Fernando

    2013-06-28

    Detection and typing of bovine mastitis pathogens are currently limited by time-consuming and culture-based techniques. In this work, a novel genus-specific DNA marker for Streptococcus and species-specific DNA markers for the prevalent mastitis pathogens Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus uberis were designed and assessed. In order to enable further discrimination of these mastitis-causing streptococci, metabolic and pathogenicity-related genes were used to infer additional functional markers. A total of 12 DNA markers were validated with a set of 50 reference strains and isolates, representative of the Streptococcus genus, of closely related species and of microorganisms with matching habitats. The experimental validation, using dot blot hybridization under high stringency conditions, confirmed the specificity of the selected markers. The broad-spectrum taxonomic marker (ST1) was specific to the Streptococcus genus and the markers selected for S. agalactiae (A1 and A2) and S. uberis (U1 and U2) were shown to be species-specific. The functional markers revealed strain-specific patterns of S. agalactiae and S. uberis. Markers derived from the fructose operon (FO1 and FO3) were specific to bovine isolates of S. agalactiae, and the nisin operon markers (NU1 and NU3) were able to discriminate isolates belonging to S. agalactiae and S. uberis. The virulence-associated markers (V1, V2 and V3) allowed the detection of S. uberis and of closely related species. This work suggests that the combined use of these novel taxa-specific markers coupled with discriminatory functional markers presents a promising approach for the rapid and cost-effective detection and discrimination of common bovine mastitis-causing pathogens, which will contribute to an improved treatment and control of this disease. PMID:23578710

  9. Technological advances in bovine mastitis diagnosis: an overview.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Carla M; Freitas, Paulo P; Bexiga, Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    Bovine mastitis is an economic burden for dairy farmers and preventive control measures are crucial for the sustainability of any dairy business. The identification of etiological agents is necessary in controlling the disease, reducing risk of chronic infections and targeting antimicrobial therapy. The suitability of a detection method for routine diagnosis depends on several factors, including specificity, sensitivity, cost, time in producing results, and suitability for large-scale sampling of milk. This article focuses on current methodologies for identification of mastitis pathogens and for detection of inflammation, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of different methods. Emerging technologies, such as transcriptome and proteome analyses and nano- and microfabrication of portable devices, offer promising, sensitive methods for advanced detection of mastitis pathogens and biomarkers of inflammation. The demand for alternative, fast, and reliable diagnostic procedures is rising as farms become bigger. Several examples of technological and scientific advances are summarized which have given rise to more sensitive, reliable and faster diagnostic results. PMID:26450837

  10. Economic effects of mastitis prevention strategies for dairy producers.

    PubMed

    Miller, G Y; Bartlett, P C

    1991-01-15

    For efficient disease management in dairy production, the influence of disease prevention strategies on farm profitability must be known. A survey of mastitis control practices, milking machine function and maintenance, and cow environmental conditions was conducted with 406 dairy producers on the Michigan Dairy Herd Improvement-somatic cell counting program responding. These survey data, in conjunction with Dairy Herd Improvement production data, were used to develop a model estimating the marginal value products of mastitis control practices. Lost milk production associated with increased somatic cell count was calculated for each herd. Mastitis control practices, milking machine function and maintenance, and cow environmental conditions were used as independent variables in an analysis of covariance model with lost milk production as the dependent variable. Variables significant in explaining changes in production from increased somatic cell count were the use of teat dip, use of sanitizer in the wash water, milking cow bedding, summer nonlactating cow housing, summer calving locations, type of regulator, alternating pulsation, and rolling herd average milk production. The marginal value product (change in revenues received) from the use of iodine, chlorhexidine, and quaternary ammonium-type teat dips were $13.79, $16.09, and $22.17/cow/year, respectively, and these changes were statistically significant. However, sanitizer in the wash water was associated with a decrease in production. Management practices that have previously been shown to be economical and did not appear in the final model included nonlactating cow therapy and single-use paper towels. PMID:2004979

  11. Patchouli alcohol dampens lipopolysaccharide induced mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Ping; Yuan, Shi-Fang; Cai, Guo-Hong; Wang, Hui; Wang, Ling; Yu, Lei; Ling, Rui; Yun, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Patchouli alcohol (PA), a tricyclic sesquiterpene isolated from Pogostemonis Herba, has been known to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and other important therapeutic activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of PA on LPS-induced mastitis in vivo and the possible mechanism. The mouse model of mastitis was induced by injection of LPS through the duct of mammary gland. Mice were pretreated with dexamethasone or PA 1 h before and 12 h after induction of LPS. The myeloperoxidase activity and inflammatory cytokines production in mammary tissues were determined. The effects of PA on NF-κB signal pathways were analyzed by Western blotting. The results showed that PA inhibited the LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β production in a dose manner. It was also observed that PA attenuated mammary histopathologic changes. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that PA could inhibit the phosphorylation of NF-κB and IκB induced by LPS. These results indicate that PA inhibits NF-κB signaling pathways to attenuate inflammatory injury induced by LPS. PA may be a potent therapeutic reagent for the prevention of mastitis. PMID:24839088

  12. The role of diagnostic microbiology in mastitis control programs.

    PubMed

    Britten, Allan M

    2012-07-01

    There are a number of important issues for the dairy practitioner to consider in designing the most appropriate mastitis microbiological service for his or her clients. These include the decision to use enhancement tools or selective agars to optimize sensitivity and specificity. The service should include a monthly BTC service that monitors for the important contagious mastitis organisms: S aureus, S agalactia, and Mycoplasma. At the cow level, a zero tolerance program to protect healthy cows from exposure to contagious mastitis will require a routine culture service to monitor for these pathogens in new herd additions, clinical cases, and all fresh cows and heifers. A wide variety of additional benefits for maintaining good udder health and the production of quality milk can come from a more comprehensive diagnostic service that looks at both individual cow and bulk tank milk. Finally, more practitioners can help their clients economically by implementation of an on-farm TNT culture service and significantly reducing the use of intramammary therapy. PMID:22664202

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of a Staphylococcus aureus Strain Isolated from a Cow with Clinical Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Paresh; Reddy, D. Peddi; Kumar, P. Anand; Gadicherla, Ramya; George, Neena

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome of Staphylococcus aureus causing clinical mastitis in a cow from India. It is a major causative agent of mastitis and, further, livestock-associated strains are emerging as a potential threat to public health, thereby warranting studies to understand the genome of this deadly pathogen. PMID:26294628

  14. Risk indicators associated with subclinical mastitis in smallholder dairy cows in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kivaria, F M; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Kapaga, A M

    2004-08-01

    Smallholder dairy farmers in Tanzania appear to be unaware of the subclinical mastitis situation in their cows. A cross-sectional study was carried out between June and September 2002 on smallholder dairy herds in the Dar es Salaam region. The study objectives were to establish the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and related risk indicators, and to assess their contribution to the occurrence of subclinical mastitis. Three field procedures based on the principles of herd health and production management were followed: clinical, farm and data inspection. The California mastitis test (CMT) was carried out on quarter milk samples to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis. A total of 182 lactating cows from 62 herds were investigated. Clinical inspection indicated that 3.8% of the lactating cows had clinical mastitis. Subclinical mastitis was detected in 90.3% of lactating cows screened. Farm inspection revealed that water scarcity, barn size, residual suckling, single udder-towel and dairy labourers as the most substantial (p < 0.05) risk indicators. Although most of the risk indicators studied were not found to be statistically significantly associated with the occurrence of subclinical mastitis, possibly owing to sample size and the presence of confounders, the epidemiological need to address such risk indicators cannot be overemphasized. PMID:15560518

  15. Occurrence of clinical mastitis in primiparous Estonian dairy cows in different housing conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kalmus, Piret; Viltrop, Arvo; Aasmäe, Birgit; Kask, Kalle

    2006-01-01

    Background Objectives of the study were to document the impact of some management factors on the occurrence of clinical mastitis in primiparous dairy cows and to identify common udder pathogens of clinical mastitis in freshly calved heifers and multiparous cows on the day of calving. Methods A one-year study was conducted during 2004 and 2005 in 11 selected Estonian dairy herds. Data consisted of 68 heifers with clinical mastitis and 995 heifers without clinical mastitis on the day of calving. Multivariable logistic regression with a random herd effect was used to investigate any association between housing system or the time interval from movement of heifers to the calving facility and day of calving on occurrence of clinical mastitis. Milk samples for bacteriological analysis were collected from affected heifers and multiparous cows on the day of calving Results Clinical mastitis occurrence in the study population of freshly calved heifers equalled 6.1 %. Housing system was not a significant risk factor for clinical mastitis of freshly calved heifers. Moving heifers to the cowbarn less than two weeks before calving in tiestall farms increased risk (OR = 5.9 p = 0.001) for clinical mastitis at parturition. The most frequently isolated udder pathogens among heifers were Escherichia coli (22.1%), Streptococcus uberis (19.1%) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (8.8%). In comparison, the main pathogen in multiparous cows with clinical mastitis at parturition was Staphylococcus aureus (11.2%). Conclusion Moving heifers to the calving facilities too late in tiestall farms increased risk for clinical mastitis at parturition. The isolated udder pathogens did not differ significantly in tiestall farms compared to freestall farms in heifers, but differences were found between heifers and multiparous cows at parturition. PMID:17118174

  16. Bacterial species and their associations with acute and chronic mastitis in suckler ewes.

    PubMed

    Smith, E M; Willis, Z N; Blakeley, M; Lovatt, F; Purdy, K J; Green, L E

    2015-10-01

    Acute mastitis in suckler ewes is often detected because of systemic signs such as anorexia or lameness, whereas chronic mastitis, characterized by intramammary abscesses with no systemic disease, is typically detected when ewes are inspected before mating. The aims of the current study were to identify the species and strains of culturable bacteria associated with acutely diseased, chronically diseased, and unaffected mammary glands to investigate whether species and strains vary by state. To investigate acute mastitis, 28 milk samples were obtained from both glands of 14 ewes with acute mastitis in one gland only. To investigate chronic mastitis, 16 ovine udders were obtained from 2 abattoirs; milk was aspirated from the 32 glands where possible, and the udders were sectioned to expose intramammary abscesses, which were swab sampled. All milk and swab samples were cultured aerobically. In total, 37 bacterial species were identified, 4 from acute mastitis, 26 from chronic mastitis, and 8 from apparently healthy glands. In chronic mastitis, the overall coincidence index of overlap of species detected in intramammary abscesses and milk was 0.60, reducing to 0.36 within individual glands, indicating a high degree of species overlap in milk and abscesses overall, but less overlap within specific glands. Staphylococcus aureus was detected frequently in all sample types; it was isolated from 10/14 glands with acute mastitis. In 5 ewes, closely related strains were present in both affected and unaffected glands. In chronic mastitis, closely related Staphylococcus aureus strains were detected in milk and abscesses from the same gland. PMID:26277313

  17. Case–control study of risk factors for infectious mastitis in Spanish breastfeeding women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify potential predisposing factors associated with human infectious mastitis. Methods We conducted a case–control study among breastfeeding women, with 368 cases (women with mastitis) and 148 controls. Data were collected by a questionnaire designed to obtain retrospective information about several factors related to medical history of mother and infant, different aspects of pregnancy, delivery and postpartum, and breastfeeding practices that could be involved in mastitis. Bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression model were used to examine the relationship between mastitis and these factors. Results The variables significantly- and independently-associated with mastitis were cracked nipples (P < 0.0001), oral antibiotics during breastfeeding (P < 0.0001), breast pumps (P < 0.0001), topical antifungal medication during breastfeeding (P = 0.0009), mastitis in previous lactations (P = 0.0014), breast milk coming in later than 24 h postpartum (P = 0.0016), history of mastitis in the family (P = 0.0028), mother-infant separation longer than 24 h (P = 0.0027), cream on nipples (P = 0.0228) and throat infection (P = 0.0224). Conclusions Valuable factors related to an increased risk of infectious mastitis have been identified. This knowledge will allow practitioners to provide appropriate management advice about modifiable risk factors, such as the use of pumps or inappropriate medication. They also could identify before delivery those women at an increased risk of developing mastitis, such as those having a familial history of mastitis, and thus develop strategies to prevent this condition. PMID:24902596

  18. The cost of clinical mastitis in the first 30 days of lactation: An economic modeling tool.

    PubMed

    Rollin, E; Dhuyvetter, K C; Overton, M W

    2015-12-01

    Clinical mastitis results in considerable economic losses for dairy producers and is most commonly diagnosed in early lactation. The objective of this research was to estimate the economic impact of clinical mastitis occurring during the first 30 days of lactation for a representative US dairy. A deterministic partial budget model was created to estimate direct and indirect costs per case of clinical mastitis occurring during the first 30 days of lactation. Model inputs were selected from the available literature, or when none were available, from herd data. The average case of clinical mastitis resulted in a total economic cost of $444, including $128 in direct costs and $316 in indirect costs. Direct costs included diagnostics ($10), therapeutics ($36), non-saleable milk ($25), veterinary service ($4), labor ($21), and death loss ($32). Indirect costs included future milk production loss ($125), premature culling and replacement loss ($182), and future reproductive loss ($9). Accurate decision making regarding mastitis control relies on understanding the economic impacts of clinical mastitis, especially the longer term indirect costs that represent 71% of the total cost per case of mastitis. Future milk production loss represents 28% of total cost, and future culling and replacement loss represents 41% of the total cost of a case of clinical mastitis. In contrast to older estimates, these values represent the current dairy economic climate, including milk price ($0.461/kg), feed price ($0.279/kg DM (dry matter)), and replacement costs ($2,094/head), along with the latest published estimates on the production and culling effects of clinical mastitis. This economic model is designed to be customized for specific dairy producers and their herd characteristics to better aid them in developing mastitis control strategies. PMID:26596651

  19. Motivation of dairy farmers to improve mastitis management.

    PubMed

    Valeeva, N I; Lam, T J G M; Hogeveen, H

    2007-09-01

    The aims of this study were 1) to explore different motivating factors and to quantify their importance in decisions of farmers on improving mastitis management, 2) to evaluate different quality payment schemes as extra incentive mechanisms for farmers, and 3) to link the motivating factors to farmer characteristics. Data on characteristics of farmers were obtained through a traditional paper-based questionnaire (n = 100). Data on the factors motivating farmers to improve mastitis management were collected in a computer-interactive mode. Adaptive conjoint analysis was used to investigate perceptions of farmers of the importance of factors. Factors that are internal to the farm performance and the individual farmer provided more motivation than external factors implying esteem and awareness of the whole dairy sector performance. Internal nonmonetary factors relating to internal esteem and taking pleasure in healthy animals on the farm were equally motivating as monetary factors affecting farm economic performance. The identified difference in perceptions of farmers of importance of extra financial incentive based on bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) depending on whether farmers think in terms of quality premium or penalty for a lower and a higher BMSCC, respectively, suggested that farmers are expected to be more motivated by a price decrease for milk with a greater BMSCC than by a price increase for milk with a lower BMSCC. In this respect, quality penalties were found to be more effective in motivating farmers than quality premiums. Two-stage cluster analysis of individual perceptions resulted in 3 distinct clusters according to motivation of farmers: premium- or penalty-oriented motivation, motivation to have an efficient (well-organized) farm that easily complies with regulatory requirements, and basic economic motivation. The obtained results highlight possible areas of improvement in incentive and educational programs aimed at improving mastitis management

  20. Duct Ectasia and Periductal Mastitis in Indian Women.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, Kirithiga; Srivastava, Anurag; Vuthaluru, Seenu; Dhar, Anita; Chaudhry, Rama

    2015-12-01

    There is very little awareness of the general physicians and surgeons about the benign breast conditions such as duct ectasia (DE) and periductal mastitis (PDM) causing nipple discharge. Not only that these benign breast diseases ring a false alarm of cancer, they are also the second most common cause of benign breast diseases. The objective was to study the clinical and microbiological profiles of duct ectasia and periductal mastitis in Indian women for better understanding of the disease process, in order to be able to treat them well. Forty-one consecutive patients presenting to the Surgical Out-Patient Department with non-bloody nipple discharge with clinical and radiological features suggestive of DE or PDM were included. Microbial culture and cytopathological study of the nipple discharge were done. Histopathological studies and culture of the ductal tissue taken intraoperatively were carried out. There is no significant difference in the age distribution among women with DE and PDM. Smoking is not associated with DE and PDM of Indian patients in contrast to the Western literature evidence. Infective etiology was present in nearly 46 % of the patients in the study population more so in the periductal mastitis cases. The most common isolated pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, unlike in Western population where nearly 50 % were anaerobes. Since the isolated organisms were resistant to the routinely used antibiotics in high proportion of cases, culture and sensitivity should be done in all possible cases for appropriately treating the subareolar sepsis before proceeding with the definitive treatment in the form of duct excision. PMID:27011490

  1. Short communication: Lactic acid bacteria from the honeybee inhibit the in vitro growth of mastitis pathogens.

    PubMed

    Piccart, K; Vásquez, A; Piepers, S; De Vliegher, S; Olofsson, T C

    2016-04-01

    Despite the increasing knowledge of prevention and control strategies, bovine mastitis remains one of the most challenging diseases in the dairy industry. This study investigated the antimicrobial activity of 13 species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), previously isolated from the honey crop of the honeybee, on several mastitis pathogens. The viable LAB were first reintroduced into a sterilized heather honey matrix. More than 20 different bovine mastitis isolates were tested against the mixture of the 13 LAB species in the honey medium using a dual-culture overlay assay. The mastitis isolates were identified through bacteriological culturing, followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Additionally, the mastitis isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing through disk diffusion. Growth of all tested mastitis pathogens, including the ones displaying antimicrobial resistance to one or more antimicrobial compounds, were inhibited to some extent by the honey and LAB combination. The antibacterial effect of these LAB opens up new perspectives on alternative treatment and prevention of bovine mastitis. PMID:26830735

  2. Urinary metabolomic fingerprinting after consumption of a probiotic strain in women with mastitis.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Fresno, Rosa; Llorach, Rafael; Marinic, Jelena; Tulipani, Sara; Garcia-Aloy, Mar; Espinosa-Martos, Irene; Jiménez, Esther; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2014-09-01

    Infectious mastitis is a common condition among lactating women, with staphylococci and streptococci being the main aetiological agents. In this context, some lactobacilli strains isolated from breast milk appear to be particularly effective for treating mastitis and, therefore, constitute an attractive alternative to antibiotherapy. A (1)H NMR-based metabolomic approach was applied to detect metabolomic differences after consuming a probiotic strain (Lactobacillus salivarius PS2) in women with mastitis. 24h urine of women with lactational mastitis was collected at baseline and after 21 days of probiotic (PB) administration. Multivariate analysis (OSC-PLS-DA and hierarchical clustering) showed metabolome differences after PB treatment. The discriminant metabolites detected at baseline were lactose, and ibuprofen and acetaminophen (two pharmacological drugs commonly used for mastitis pain), while, after PB intake, creatine and the gut microbial co-metabolites hippurate and TMAO were detected. In addition, a voluntary desertion of the pharmacological drugs ibuprofen and acetaminophen was observed after probiotic administration. The application of NMR-based metabolomics enabled the identification of the overall effects of probiotic consumption among women suffering from mastitis and highlighted the potential of this approach in evaluating the outcomes of probiotics consumption. To our knowledge, this is the first time that this approach has been applied in women with mastitis during lactation. PMID:24880136

  3. Staphylococcus aureus proteins differentially recognized by the ovine immune response in mastitis or nasal carriage.

    PubMed

    Seyffert, Nubia; Le Maréchal, Caroline; Jardin, Julien; McCulloch, John A; Rosado, Fabio R; Miyoshi, Anderson; Even, Sergine; Jan, Gwenaël; Berkova, Nadia; Vautor, Eric; Thiéry, Richard; Azevedo, Vasco; Le Loir, Yves

    2012-06-15

    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen in dairy ruminants where it is found in healthy carriage and can be a major cause of mastitis. A better knowledge of the host-pathogen interactions is needed to tackle this serious animal health problem. This study aimed at identifying S. aureus proteins differentially expressed by S. aureus in nasal colonization versus mastitis. Serological proteome analysis (SERPA) was used to examine protein samples prepared from culture supernatants of S. aureus strains originally isolated from gangrenous mastitis and nasal carriage (O11) or subclinical mastitis (O46) and to compare patterns of immune-reactive proteins. These staphylococcal proteins were revealed by sera obtained from ewes suffering from S. aureus mastitis and by sera obtained from healthy nulliparous ewes (i.e. no lactation and no mastitis or other symptoms) that were nasally colonized by S. aureus. Altogether 49 staphylococcal immune-reactive proteins were identified in this study. Patterns of proteins revealed by sera from infected- or healthy carrier- animals were comparable and analysis singled out one immune-reactive protein, N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase, which was recognized by each of the 6 sera from infected animals, when tested individually, and not by the sera of healthy carriers. This is the first study that compares the S. aureus seroproteome in colonization versus mastitis context in ruminants. These results open avenues for studies aiming at a better understanding of the balance between infection and commensal lifestyle in this opportunistic pathogen and at new prevention strategies. PMID:22342493

  4. Efficacy of specific egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) to bovine mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Yu-Hong; Jin, Li-Ji; Li, Xiao-Yu; Guo, Jie; Li, Zhi; Zhang, Bao-Jing; Fang, Rui; Xu, Yong-Ping

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the efficacy of specific egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) to bovine mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Eighteen lactating cows with clinical mastitis and 18 lactating cows with experimental mastitis (1 quarter per cow) were randomly assigned to three treatments: IgY (20mg/ml) infusion, penicillin (100mg/ml) infusion and no infusion. Treatments for clinical mastitis and experimental mastitis were performed by a 6-day course of intramammary infusion with a dosage of 10ml at an interval of 12h. Milk samples were collected at morning milking time for testing color, clot, somatic cell counts (SCC) and bacterial count. For most of the cows treated with IgY and penicillin, the milk color and clot recovered to normal form during the therapy course. The milk SCCs and bacterial counts of treated cows decreased compared to those of untreated cows (p<0.05). The cure rates by IgY for experimental and clinical mastitis were 83.3% and 50%, respectively, and those by penicillin were 66.7% and 33.3%, respectively. These results showed the potential of specific IgY to be an alternative therapy for mastitis caused by S. aureus. PMID:18774241

  5. Fibrinogen and ceruloplasmin in plasma and milk from dairy cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Tabrizi, A Davasaz; Batavani, R A; Rezaei, S Asri; Ahmadi, M

    2008-02-15

    The potential using of Acute Phase Proteins (APPs) in the assessment of mammary gland health was studied by examining the levels of Fibrinogen (Fb) and Ceruloplasmin (Cp) in plasma and milk from dairy cows with different grades of mastitis. Plasma samples were taken from jugular vein and milk samples were collected from quarters of cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis, as well as healthy controls. California Mastitis Test (CMT) were performed on each udder quarter of cows for detection of CMT2+ and CMT3+ quarters. CMT (0) and culture negative cases were considered healthy cows. Clinical mastitis, was graded as mild (clots in milk) or moderate (clots in milk and visible signs of inflammation in the mammary gland/s). The concentrations of Fb in the plasma of the cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis were higher than in the plasma of the healthy cows (p<0.01). There was no significant difference in plasma concentration of Cp between healthy and subclinical groups (p>0.05), but differences between clinical and healthy groups were significant (p<0.05). The concentrations of Fb and Cp in the milk of the cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis were higher than in the milk of the healthy cows (p<0.01). The results indicated that measurement of Fb in plasma and milk and Cp only in milk might be suitable for early diagnosis of mastitis in dairy cows. PMID:18817128

  6. Subclinical mastitis causes alterations in nitric oxide, total oxidant and antioxidant capacity in cow milk.

    PubMed

    Atakisi, Onur; Oral, Hasan; Atakisi, Emine; Merhan, Oguz; Metin Pancarci, S; Ozcan, Ayla; Marasli, Saban; Polat, Bulent; Colak, Armagan; Kaya, Semra

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate total antioxidant (TAC), and oxidant capacity (TOC) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in milk of cows with subclinical mastitis. Brown Swiss and Holstein breed cows were screened with California Mastitis Test (CMT) to determine mammary glands with subclinical mastitis. Moreover, somatic cell counts (SCC) were determined electronically in all milk samples. Mammary quarters were classified as healthy (n=25) or subclinical mastitis (n=35) based on CMT scores and somatic cell count (SCC: < or =200,000/ml or >200,000/ml) in milk. Nitric oxide, TOC and SCC levels were significantly higher (p<0.001, p<0.005 and p<0.001, respectively) in milk from mammary quarters with subclinical mastitis compared to those from healthy mammary quarters. In conclusion, subclinical mastitis results in higher NO concentrations, TOC and SCC, and NO and TOC were positively correlated with SCC. Moreover, alterations in NO levels and TOC in milk could be used as an alternative diagnostic tool to screen for subclinical mastitis. PMID:20132956

  7. A review of prevention and control of heifer mastitis via non-antibiotic strategies.

    PubMed

    McDougall, S; Parker, K I; Heuer, C; Compton, C W R

    2009-02-16

    Clinical and subclinical mastitis is a significant problem in primiparous dairy cattle (heifers) with a higher prevalence and incidence in heifers than cows, especially early in lactation. Differences in management (e.g. nutrition, pasturing, no use of dry cow therapy) as well as differences in physiological status (e.g. continuing growth in heifers) are likely contribute to the observed differences between heifers and cows. These differences may result in the requirement for different approaches for mastitis management in heifers than for cows. Mastitis is a multifactorial disease, hence control requires an understanding of the risk factors before effective interventions can be defined. Control strategies are aimed at reducing the incidence of new intramammary infections and eliminating existing infections. Potential strategies can include improved environmental and animal hygiene, application of internal and external teat sealants, prepartum application of teat antiseptics, prepartum milking and control of horn fly in environments where it acts as vector. Other less well-proven strategies to control heifer mastitis include management of heifers as a physically separate group from older cows and not feeding mastitic milk to calves. It is concluded that several well-proven strategies are available to manage heifer mastitis. However, further research is likely to improve understanding of heifer mastitis and lead to novel managerial approaches to mastitis control in this age group. PMID:18986782

  8. Evaluation of milk cathelicidin for detection of dairy sheep mastitis.

    PubMed

    Addis, M F; Tedde, V; Dore, S; Pisanu, S; Puggioni, G M G; Roggio, A M; Pagnozzi, D; Lollai, S; Cannas, E A; Uzzau, S

    2016-08-01

    Mastitis due to intramammary infections is one of the most detrimental diseases in dairy sheep farming, representing a major cause of reduced milk productions and quality losses. In particular, subclinical mastitis presents significant detection and control problems, and the availability of tools enabling its timely, sensitive, and specific detection is therefore crucial. We have previously demonstrated that cathelicidins, small proteins implicated in the innate immune defense of the host, are specifically released in milk of mastitic animals by both epithelial cells and neutrophils. Here, we describe the development of an ELISA for milk cathelicidin and assess its value against somatic cell counts (SCC) and bacteriological culture for detection of ewe mastitis. Evaluation of the cathelicidin ELISA was carried out on 705 half-udder milk samples from 3 sheep flocks enrolled in a project for improvement of mammary health. Cathelicidin was detected in 35.3% of milk samples (249/705), and its amount increased with rising SCC values. The cathelicidin-negative (n=456) and cathelicidin-positive (n=249) sample groups showed a clear separation in relation to SCC, with median values of 149,500 and 3,300,000 cells/mL, respectively. Upon bacteriological culture, 20.6% (145/705) of the milk samples showed microbial growth, with coagulase-negative staphylococci being by far the most frequent finding. A significant proportion of all bacteriologically positive milk samples were positive for cathelicidin (110/145, 75.9%). Given the lack of a reliable gold standard for defining the true disease status, sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of the cathelicidin ELISA were assessed by latent class analysis against 2 SCC thresholds and against bacteriological culture results. At an SCC threshold of 500,000 cells/mL, Se and Sp were 92.3 and 92.3% for cathelicidin ELISA, 89.0 and 94.9% for SCC, and 39.4 and 93.6% for bacteriological culture, respectively. At an SCC threshold of 1

  9. A Survey of Mastitis in Selected Ontario Dairy Herds

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, B. W.; Barnum, D. A.; Meek, A. H.

    1982-01-01

    A mastitis survey involving 74 Ontario dairy herds was conducted. The prevalence of infection at the quarter level was found to be 4.1% with Streptococcus agalactiae, 4.5% with other streptococcal species and 8.0% with Staphylococcus aureus. Regardless of the infection status, the geometric mean somatic cell count was found to increase with age of the cow but no increase was observed with increasing stage of lactation. The percentage of cows from which a bacterial pathogen was isolated increased with age but not with stage of lactation. PMID:17422140

  10. Mastitis diagnostics and performance monitoring: a practical approach

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a review is given of frequently used mastitis diagnostic methods in modern dairy practice. Methods used at the quarter, cow, herd and regional or national level are discussed, including their usability for performance monitoring in udder health. Future developments, such as systems in which milk-derived parameters are combined with modern analytical techniques, are discussed. It is concluded that, although much knowledge is available and science is still developing and much knowledge is available, it is not always fully exploited in practice. PMID:22081906

  11. Antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus agalactiae from cows with mastitis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jian; Yu, Fu-Qing; Luo, Li-Ping; He, Jian-Zhong; Hou, Rong-Guang; Zhang, Han-Qi; Li, Shu-Mei; Su, Jing-Liang; Han, Bo

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance patterns of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from cows with mastitis in China. Antibiotic resistance was based on minimum inhibitory concentrations and detection of resistance genes by PCR. S. agalactiae isolates most frequently exhibited phenotypic resistance to tetracycline, while the resistance genes most frequently detected were ermB, tetL and tetM. Resistance genes were detected in some susceptible isolates, whereas no resistance genes could be detected in some resistant isolates, indicating that the resistance genotype does not accurately predict phenotypic resistance. PMID:22627045

  12. [Herd-specific estimation of milk yield reduction due to recurrent clinical mastitis].

    PubMed

    Zoche-Golob, Veit; Spilke, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    To decide about investments in preventive measures improving udder health it is important that the farmer knows the monetary loss due to mastitis on his specific farm. The Saxon dairy herd improvement association (Sächsischer LandeskontrolIverband e.V., LKV) is developing a computer program called "Daten- und Informationsplattform Tier (DIT)"which determines - among other analyses - the milk loss caused by mastitis for a specific herd based on individual cow's mastitis and daily milk yield data. The present article introduces the linear mixed model which is taken as a basis for calculating the reduction in performance through clinical mastitis. The short and long term decrease in daily milk yield is described by expanding the lactation curve model of Ali and Schaeffer (1987). For falculating the short term drop, the model includes the laps of time in days since the mastitis incident as secon-ddegree polynomial. The coefficients are estimaged specifically for the first respectively every following case of mastitis (class of episode). Classes of episode are also considered calculating the long term decrease by estimating lactation curves without mastitis as well as corresponding to the classes of episode. By integrating the statistic software R (R Development Core Team, 2012) into the processes of the DIT the estimation of the farm specific model parameters is largely automated on the servers of the LKV.Thereby, milk yield can be estimated for every day in milk according to episode number and laps of time since the incident or with no mastitis incident respectively for a particular period of time in a specific dairy herd. The loss resulting from reduced performance due to clinical mastitis is specified by adding up the differences and can serve as a valuable basis for management decisions. PMID:23901581

  13. Vitamin Supplementation Increases Risk of Subclinical Mastitis in HIV-Infected Women123

    PubMed Central

    Arsenault, Joanne E.; Aboud, Said; Manji, Karim P.; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Villamor, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Subclinical mastitis is common in HIV-infected women and is a risk factor for mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin supplementation [vitamin A + β-carotene, multivitamins (B complex, C, and E), or multivitamins, including vitamin A + β-carotene] on the risk of subclinical mastitis during the first 2 y postpartum among HIV-infected women. The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial including 674 HIV-infected, antiretroviral naïve Tanzanian women who were recruited during pregnancy and followed-up after delivery. Breast milk samples were obtained approximately every 3 mo. Any subclinical mastitis was defined as a ratio of the sodium to potassium (Na:K) breast milk concentrations > 0.6 and further classified as either moderate (Na:K ≥ 0.6 and ≤ 1) or severe (Na:K > 1.0). Fifty-eight percent of women had at least 1 episode of any subclinical mastitis. Women assigned to multivitamins (B complex, C, and E) had a 33% greater risk of any subclinical mastitis (P = 0.005) and a 75% greater risk of severe subclinical mastitis (P = 0.0006) than women who received the placebo. Vitamin A + β-carotene also increased the risk of severe subclinical mastitis by 45% (P = 0.03). Among women with CD4+ T-cell counts ≥ 350 cells/μL, multivitamin intake resulted in a 49% increased risk of any subclinical mastitis (P = 0.006); by contrast, there were no treatment effects among women with CD4+ T-cell counts < 350 cells/μL (P- interaction for treatment × CD4+ T-cell count = 0.10). Supplementation of HIV-infected women with vitamins increased the risk of subclinical mastitis. PMID:20739447

  14. Genetic association between parameters of inmate immunity and measures of mastitis in periparturient Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Kelm, S C; Detilleux, J C; Freeman, A E; Kehrli, M E; Dietz, A B; Fox, L K; Butler, J E; Kasckovics, I; Kelley, D H

    1997-08-01

    Relationships between genetic measures of mastitis (somatic cell score, score for clinical mastitis, and scores for IMI with major or minor pathogens) and immunological parameters (physiological and molecular markers) were examined for periparturient Holstein cows. Physiological markers included 11 in vitro immunological assays. Molecular markers included the second exon of the DRB3 locus of the bovine major histocompatibility complex, the IgG2 isotype genotype, and the CD18 genotype (the locus responsible for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency). A gene substitution model was used to estimate the additive genetic effects of alleles of the three molecular markers on estimated breeding value (EBV) for mastitis measures. Pearson correlation coefficients between EBV for immunological assays and EBV for mastitis measures were computed. Molecular markers explained up to 40% of the variation in EBV for measures of mastitis. The presence of allele DRB3.2*16 was associated with higher EBV for SCS. Allele DRB3.2*8 was associated with increased EBV for clinical mastitis, as was the IgG2b allele and the normal CD18 allele. Alleles DRB3.2*11, *23, IgG2a, and the recessive allele for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency were associated with decreased clinical mastitis. A positive genetic association was found between allele DRB3.2*24 and EBV for IMI by major pathogens and between DRB3.2*3 and IMI by minor pathogens. Several correlations between EBV for immunological assays and EBV for mastitis measures were significantly different from 0. Cows with low EBV for SCS tended to have neutrophils that had greater functional ability at maximal immunosuppression, low serum IgG1, and high numbers of circulating mononuclear cells. Immunological parameters, including physiological and molecular markers, are useful aids to understand the genetics of resistance to mastitis. PMID:9276818

  15. Prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis and quality of milk on smallholder dairy farms in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mdegela, R H; Ryoba, R; Karimuribo, E D; Phiri, E J; Løken, T; Reksen, O; Mtengeti, E; Urio, N A

    2009-09-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted during October and November 2006 on 69 smallholder dairy farms with lactating cows in Mvomero and Njombe districts Tanzania, to determine the prevalence of mastitis and to assess the milk quality on the study farms. Clinical mastitis was investigated using clinical changes of udder and milk at animal level. Cow-side California Mastitis Test (CMT) and microbiological cultures were used to assess subclinical mastitis at quarter level. Milk quality was determined on bulk milk samples at herd level using alcohol and acidity tests, butter fat content, total solids, ash content as well as Delvotest for antimicrobial residues. Overall prevalence of clinical mastitis at herd level in both districts was 21.7% (n = 69). Based on CMT, prevalence of subclinical mastitis at animal level was 51.6% (n = 91). Prevalence of bacterial isolates at animal level was 35.2% (n = 91) while for fungal it was 16.7% (n = 90). Based on CMT results, prevalence of subclinical mastitis at quarter level was 30% (n = 353), while for bacteria and fungi it was 16% and 6% respectively. Contamination of milk with antimicrobial residues was 4.5% (n = 67). The milk quality parameters for most of the milk samples were within acceptable levels. Findings in this study have demonstrated high prevalence of subclinical mastitis that may contribute to low productivity of dairy cattle in both districts. About 20% of CMT subclinical cases had no involvement of microbial pathogens that suggested the need for minimal interventions with antimicrobial agents. These findings call for use of udder disinfectants and improved milking hygiene as intervention strategies to control mastitis on the smallholder dairy farms in Tanzania. PMID:20169749

  16. Relationship between season, lactation number and incidence of clinical mastitis in different stages of lactation in a Holstein dairy farm

    PubMed Central

    Moosavi, Maede; Mirzaei, Abdolah; Ghavami, Mohsen; Tamadon, Amin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the occurrence and duration of clinical mastitis in different seasons, stages of lactation period and parities in a Holstein dairy farm in Iran. A retrospective epidemiological survey from April 2005 to March 2008 was conducted on 884 clinical mastitis cases of 7437 lactations. Data of each case including calendar-date of mastitis onset, days in milk (DIM) of mastitis onset (early: 0-74 DIM; middle: 75-150 DIM, and late ≥ 150 DIM), duration of mastitis, and parity (1, 2, and ≥ 3) were recorded. Based on date of mastitis onset, cases were classified into stages of lactation. Moreover, beginning of mastitis was seasonally categorized. Duration of clinical mastitis after treatment in early lactation was less than late lactation in the first-parity cows (p = 0.005). In early lactation period, the first-parity cows suffered clinical mastitis in days earlier than two other parity groups (p < 0.001). Moreover, in late lactation period, the first-parity cows had clinical mastitis in days later than cows in the third and more parities (p = 0.002). Occurrence of clinical mastitis in summer increased in late lactation period but in winter increased in early lactation period (p = 0.001). In addition, occurrence time of clinical mastitis in summer were in days later than in spring (p = 0.02) and winter (p = 0.03) in early lactation period. In conclusion, occurrence of mastitis in winter and spring during early lactation and in summer during late lactation period were more prevalent especially in lower parities. PMID:25568687

  17. Klebsiella Species Associated with Bovine Mastitis in Newfoundland

    PubMed Central

    Podder, Milka P.; Rogers, Laura; Daley, Peter K.; Keefe, Greg P.; Whitney, Hugh G.; Tahlan, Kapil

    2014-01-01

    Klebsiella spp. is a common cause of bovine mastitis, but information regarding its molecular epidemiology is lacking from many parts of the world. On using mass spectrometry and partial sequencing of the rpoB gene, it was found that over a one year study, K. variicola and Enterobacter cloacae were misidentified as K. pneumoniae in a small number of clinical mastitis (CM) cases from Newfoundland. Results suggest that the currently used standard biochemical/phenotypic tests lack the sensitivity required to accurately discriminate among the three mentioned Gram negative bacteria. In addition, a single strain of K. variicola was associated with CM from one farm in the study as demonstrated by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR. To the best of our knowledge, K. variicola, which is normally found in the environment, has not been isolated previously from milk obtained from cows with CM. Therefore, it is possible that K. variicola was not detected in milk samples in the past due to the inability of standard tests to discriminate it from other Klebsiella species. PMID:25180510

  18. Molecular screening of ovine mastitis in different breeds.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, O; Velez, Z; Alvarenga, N; Matos, C; Duarte, M

    2013-02-01

    Clinical and subclinical mastitis directly affect mammary gland function and have a great economic impact on the sheep and goat dairy industries. The present study explores molecular diagnosis of ovine subclinical mastitis as a faster and more precise screening method compared with microbiology and biochemical techniques to assess the molecular and chemical properties of raw milk samples from healthy animals from 3 breeds of sheep raised in Portugal. Based on 16S ribosomal RNA screening by PCR, milk samples from all sheep were categorized as contaminated (n=123) or noncontaminated (n=104). For contaminated milk, different specific primers were used for pathogen identification (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Streptococcus uberis). Streptococcus agalactiae was identified as the most frequent agent. We further assessed whether contaminated versus noncontaminated samples were chemically different in terms of fat, protein, lactose, pH, and solids-not-fat. This molecular screening method allowed rapid and efficient identification of contaminated raw sheep milk, including pathogen identification, before significant alterations in milk chemical properties could be detected. This methodology may lead to a specific and efficient animal treatment and consequently less expensive flock management. PMID:23245954

  19. Sickness behavior in dairy cows during Escherichia coli mastitis.

    PubMed

    Fogsgaard, K K; Røntved, C M; Sørensen, P; Herskin, M S

    2012-02-01

    The consequences of mastitis in terms of dairy cow behavior are relatively unknown. Future assessment of dairy cow welfare during mastitis will be facilitated by knowledge about the potential of mastitis to induce sickness behavior. Our aim was to examine behavior of dairy cows in the period from 2 d before (d -2 and -1) to 3 d (d 0, 1, and 2) after experimental intramammary challenge with Escherichia coli. Effects of experimentally induced mastitis on behavior were examined in 20 primiparous Danish Holstein-Friesian cows, all 3 to 6 wk after calving and kept in tie stalls. After evening milking on d 0, each cow received an intramammary infusion with 20 to 40 cfu of E. coli in 1 healthy front quarter. Paraclinical and bacteriological examinations were conducted to confirm infection. Half of the cows were subjected to liver and udder biopsies twice during the trial. Behavior was video-recorded on 5 consecutive days, d -2 to +2 after challenge when the cows were not disturbed by humans. The behavior of the animals was compared among all days. Infection with E. coli altered the behavior of the dairy cows. Time spent feeding was lower in the initial 24 h after infection compared with that on the other days (16.6±1.1, 16.5±1.0, 13.2±1.2, 18.1±1.1, and 16.0±0.8% of time for d -2, -1, 0, 1, and 2, respectively). The duration of standing idle increased on d 0 compared with that on the control days and d 1 and 2 (29.4±2.6, 28.0±2.3, 39.1±2.6, 31.4±3.8, and 25.9±2.6% of time for d -2, -1, 0, 1 and 2, respectively). The frequency of self-grooming behavior per hour decreased in the initial 24h compared with that on d -2, -1, and 2 (4.1±0.8, 5.4±1.9, 3.2±0.6, 3.6±0.6, and 4.8±1.0 for d -2, -1, 0, 1, and 2, respectively). Likewise, duration of rumination and frequency of turning the head against the udder decreased in the first days after infection (rumination: 32.2±1.6, 34.8±1.8, 27.9±1.7, 30.0±2.6, and 34.8±1.7% of time; and frequency of turning head: 0.6

  20. In vitro growth inhibition of mastitis pathogens by bovine teat skin normal flora.

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, W D; Besser, T E; Ward, A C; Corbeil, L B

    1987-01-01

    One factor contributing to differences in the susceptibility of cows to mastitis may be differences in the teat skin normal flora, which could inhibit or enhance the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Using in vitro cross-streaking methods, we found that 25% of the isolates of teat normal flora of non-lactating heifers inhibited the growth of selected mastitis pathogens, but enhancers were not detected. Gram-positive pathogens were inhibited to a greater extent than Gram-negative pathogens. Inhibition was not a characteristic of specific genera or species of normal flora, but rather a property of certain variants within a species. This phenomenon of inhibition of mastitis pathogens in vitro by normal flora may be useful as an in vivo biological control method to reduce the incidence of mastitis. PMID:3552170

  1. Acute Escherichia coli Mastitis in Dairy Cattle: Diagnostic Parameters Associated with Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    HAGIWARA, Seiichi; MORI, Kouichiro; OKADA, Hiroyuki; OIKAWA, Shin; NAGAHATA, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to identify the diagnostic characteristics associated with poor prognosis and mortality in dairy cows with acute clinical Escherichia coli mastitis. On 17 dairy farms, 24 dairy cows with acute E. coli mastitis that had received therapeutic treatment were categorized into 2 groups by outcome: 17 cows that recovered (survivors) and 7 cows that died or were euthanized (non-survivors). Two days after onset of acute E. coli mastitis, dysstasia was observed in non-survivors, but not in survivors. Compared with survivors, significantly increased hematocrit (HCT) values and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations, and significantly decreased antithrombin activity and platelet counts were found in non-survivors on days 2 and 3 after therapy. Dysstasia, associated with decreased antithrombin activity and platelet counts, and with increased HCT and NEFA concentrations, was considered to be the major prognostic indicator associated with high mortality after therapeutic treatment in acute E. coli mastitis. PMID:25056677

  2. Application of the support vector machine to predict subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Mammadova, Nazira; Keskin, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    This study presented a potentially useful alternative approach to ascertain the presence of subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cows using support vector machine (SVM) techniques. The proposed method detected mastitis in a cross-sectional representative sample of Holstein dairy cattle milked using an automatic milking system. The study used such suspected indicators of mastitis as lactation rank, milk yield, electrical conductivity, average milking duration, and control season as input data. The output variable was somatic cell counts obtained from milk samples collected monthly throughout the 15 months of the control period. Cattle were judged to be healthy or infected based on those somatic cell counts. This study undertook a detailed scrutiny of the SVM methodology, constructing and examining a model which showed 89% sensitivity, 92% specificity, and 50% error in mastitis detection. PMID:24574862

  3. Application of the Support Vector Machine to Predict Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Mammadova, Nazira

    2013-01-01

    This study presented a potentially useful alternative approach to ascertain the presence of subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cows using support vector machine (SVM) techniques. The proposed method detected mastitis in a cross-sectional representative sample of Holstein dairy cattle milked using an automatic milking system. The study used such suspected indicators of mastitis as lactation rank, milk yield, electrical conductivity, average milking duration, and control season as input data. The output variable was somatic cell counts obtained from milk samples collected monthly throughout the 15 months of the control period. Cattle were judged to be healthy or infected based on those somatic cell counts. This study undertook a detailed scrutiny of the SVM methodology, constructing and examining a model which showed 89% sensitivity, 92% specificity, and 50% error in mastitis detection. PMID:24574862

  4. Structural equation models to estimate risk of infection and tolerance to bovine mastitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One method to improve durably animal welfare is to select, as reproducers, animals with the highest ability to resist or tolerate infection. To do so, it is necessary to distinguish direct and indirect mechanisms of resistance and tolerance because selection on these traits is believed to have different epidemiological and evolutionary consequences. Methods We propose structural equation models with latent variables (1) to quantify the latent risk of infection and to identify, among the many potential mediators of infection, the few ones that influence it significantly and (2) to estimate direct and indirect levels of tolerance of animals infected naturally with pathogens. We applied the method to two surveys of bovine mastitis in the Walloon region of Belgium, in which we recorded herd management practices, mastitis frequency, and results of bacteriological analyses of milk samples. Results and discussion Structural equation models suggested that, among more than 35 surveyed herd characteristics, only nine (age, addition of urea in the rations, treatment of subclinical mastitis, presence of dirty liner, cows with hyperkeratotic teats, machine stripping, pre- and post-milking teat disinfection, and housing of milking cows in cubicles) were directly and significantly related to a latent measure of bovine mastitis, and that treatment of subclinical mastitis was involved in the pathway between post-milking teat disinfection and latent mastitis. These models also allowed the separation of direct and indirect effects of bacterial infection on milk productivity. Results suggested that infected cows were tolerant but not resistant to mastitis pathogens. Conclusions We revealed the advantages of structural equation models, compared to classical models, for dissecting measurements of resistance and tolerance to infectious diseases, here bovine mastitis. Using our method, we identified nine major risk factors that were directly associated with an increased risk of

  5. Multiple trait genetic evaluation of clinical mastitis in three dairy cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Govignon-Gion, A; Dassonneville, R; Baloche, G; Ducrocq, V

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, a routine genetic evaluation on occurrence of clinical mastitis in three main dairy cattle breeds-- Montbéliarde (MO), Normande (NO) and Holstein (HO)--was implemented in France. Records were clinical mastitis events reported by farmers to milk recording technicians and the analyzed trait was the binary variable describing the occurrence of a mastitis case within the first 150 days of the first three lactations. Genetic parameters of clinical mastitis were estimated for the three breeds. Low heritability estimates were found: between 2% and 4% depending on the breed. Despite its low heritability, the trait exhibits genetic variation so efficient genetic improvement is possible. Genetic correlations with other traits were estimated, showing large correlations (often>0.50, in absolute value) between clinical mastitis and somatic cell score (SCS), longevity and some udder traits. Correlation with milk yield was moderate and unfavorable (ρ=0.26 to 0.30). High milking speed was genetically associated with less mastitis in MO (ρ=-0.14) but with more mastitis in HO (ρ=0.18). A two-step approach was implemented for routine evaluation: first, a univariate evaluation based on a linear animal model with permanent environment effect led to pre-adjusted records (defined as records corrected for all non-genetic effects) and associated weights. These data were then combined with similar pre-adjusted records for others traits in a multiple trait BLUP animal model. The combined breeding values for clinical mastitis obtained are the official (published) ones. Mastitis estimated breeding values (EBV) were then combined with SCSs EBV into an udder health index, which receives a weight of 14.5% to 18.5% in the French total merit index (ISU) of the three breeds. Interbull genetic correlations for mastitis occurrence were very high (ρ=0.94) with Nordic countries, where much stricter recording systems exist reflecting a satisfactory quality of phenotypes as reported by the

  6. [Treatment of suppurative mastitis using laser irradiation and continuous electric current].

    PubMed

    Alekseenko, A V; Palianitsa, S I; Tarabanchuk, V V; Seniutovich, R V; Stoliar, V F

    1987-10-01

    Laser radiation and direct electric current were used in the complex therapy of acute suppurative mastitis. The wound cavity was treated by a focussed laser till the appearance of a coagulation crust followed by galvanization of the mammary gland. Such an approach to the associated application of the laser radiation and electric field of direct current is justified pathogenetically and increases the efficiency of treatment of suppurative mastitis. PMID:3502549

  7. Granulomatous Mastitis: A Ten-Year Experience at a University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Korkut, Ercan; Akcay, Mufide Nuran; Karadeniz, Erdem; Subasi, Irmak Durur; Gursan, Nesrin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this study we aimed to define clinical, radiologic and pathological specialties of patients who applied to General Surgery Department of Atatürk University Medical Faculty with granulomatous mastitis and show medical and surgical treatment results. With the help of this study we will be able to make our own clinical algorithm for diagnosis and treatment. Materials and Methods: We searched retrospectively addresses, phone numbers and clinical files of 93 patients whom diagnosed granulomatous mastitis between a decade of January 2001 – December 2010. We noted demographic specialties, ages, gender, medical family history, main complaints, physical findings, radiological and laboratory findings, medical treatments, postoperative complications and surgical procedures if they were operated; morbidity, recurrence and success ratios, complications after treatment for patients discussed above. Results: In this study we evaluated 93 patients, 91 females and 2 males, with granulomatous mastitis retrospectively who applied to General Surgery Department of Atatürk University Medical Faculty between January 2001 and December 2010. Mean age was 34.4 years. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathologic examination of the lesions. Seventy three patients had idiopathic granulomatous lobular mastitis and 20 patients had specific granulomatous mastitis IGM (18 tuberculosis mastitis, 1 alveolar echinococcosis and 1 silk reaction). All the patients had surgical debridement or antibiotic, and anti-inflammatory treatment with results bad clinical response before applied our clinic. Conclusion: Empiric antibiotic therapy and drainage of the breast lesions are not enough for complete remission of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. The lesion must be excised completely. In selected patients, corticosteroid therapy can be useful. In the patients with tuberculous mastitis, abscess drainage and antituberculous therapy can be useful, but wide excision must be chosen for the

  8. B-mode and Doppler sonography of the mammary glands in dairy goats for mastitis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Santos, V J C; Simplício, K; Sanchez, D; Coutinho, L; Teixeira, P; Barros, F; Almeida, V; Rodrigues, L; Bartlewski, P; Oliveira, M; Feliciano, M; Vicente, W

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the sonographic characteristics of the udder and teats and to determine the Doppler indexes of mammary artery in healthy and undergoing subclinical and clinical mastitis goats. Thirty animals among Saanen and Alpine Brown goats were arranged in three groups, healthy goats (HG), goats with subclinical mastitis (SMG) and goats with clinical mastitis (CMG). Using the B-mode, the sonographic characteristics (echotexture and echogenicity) and biometry (diameter and area of the udder cistern, diameter and area of the teat cistern and thickness of the teat wall) were evaluated. Using Doppler ultrasonography, the vascular indexes of the mammary artery were obtained. It was observed hyperechogenicity with solid component in the gland cistern when comparing animals with clinical mastitis and healthy mammary tissue. Regarding the echotexture of the breast tissue, there was heterogeneity in the mammary parenchyma on the three groups, for the milk, it was observed homogeneity for animals on HG and SMG and heterogeneity for animals on CMG. Grey-scale quantitative assessment revealed increase in echogenicity (mean value) for all the structures when comparing the three groups. Biometry did not reveal statistical difference between groups, for none of the evaluated structures. Doppler examination of the mammary artery showed the decrease of end diastolic velocity and raise of pulsatility index between groups. The association of B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography is useful for the evaluation of the udder of dairy goats with mastitis. It is a sensitive and specific method for the study of this disease. Doppler mode was unable to establish reliable criteria for diagnosis of subclinical mastitis. Moreover, the quantification of echogenicity is a useful technique for the evaluation of the milk in animals with mastitis; therefore, it is suggested that it can be used as complementary technique for the diagnosis of mastitis in goats. PMID:25601226

  9. Evaluation of Lacticin 3147 and a Teat Seal Containing This Bacteriocin for Inhibition of Mastitis Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Máire P.; Meaney, William J.; Ross, R. Paul; Hill, Colin

    1998-01-01

    Lacticin 3147 is a broad-spectrum bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DPC3147 which is bactericidal against a range of mastitis-causing streptococci and staphylococci. In this study, both lacticin 3147 and the lantibiotic nisin were separately incorporated into an intramammary teat seal product. The seal containing lacticin 3147 exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity and might form the basis of an improved treatment for the prevention of mastitis in dry cows. PMID:9603853

  10. Somatic cell count and alkaline phosphatase activity in milk for evaluation of mastitis in buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Patil, M. P.; Nagvekar, A. S.; Ingole, S. D.; Bharucha, S. V.; Palve, V. T.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Mastitis is a serious disease of dairy animals causing great economic losses due to a reduction in milk yield as well as lowering its nutritive value. The application of somatic cell count (SCC) and alkaline phosphatase activity in the milk for diagnosis of mastitis in buffalo is not well documented. Therefore, the present study was conducted to observe the SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity for evaluation of mastitis in buffalo. Materials and Methods: Milk samples of forty apparently healthy lactating buffaloes were selected and categorized into five different groups viz. normal buffaloes, buffaloes with subclinical mastitis with CMT positive milk samples (+1 Grade), (+2 Grade), (+3 Grade), and buffaloes with clinical mastitis with 8 animals in each group. The milk samples were analyzed for SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity. Results: The levels of SCC (×105 cells/ml) and alkaline phosphatase (U/L) in different groups were viz. normal (3.21±0.179, 16.48±1.432), subclinical mastitis with CMT positive milk samples with +1 Grade (4.21±0.138, 28.11±1.013), with +2 Grade (6.34±0.183, 34.50±1.034), with +3 Grade (7.96±0.213, 37.73±0.737) and buffaloes with clinical mastitis (10.21±0.220, 42.37±0.907) respectively, indicating an increasing trend in the values and the difference observed among various group was statistically significant. Conclusion: In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that the concentration of milk SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity was higher in the milk of buffaloes with mastitis than in the milk of normal buffaloes. PMID:27047098

  11. Lymphocytic mastitis mimicking breast carcinoma, radiology and pathology correlation: review of two cases.

    PubMed

    Alhabshi, Sharifah Majedah Idrus; Rahmat, Kartini; Westerhout, Caroline Judy; Md Latar, Nani Harlina; Chandran, Patricia Ann; Aziz, Suraya

    2013-05-01

    Lymphocytic mastitis, or diabetic mastopathy, is an unusual finding in early-onset and long-standing diabetes. It can presents as a non-tender or tender palpable breast mass. Mammogram and ultrasound frequently demonstrate findings suspicious of malignancy, thus biopsy and histological confirmation is usually required. We reviewed two cases of lymphocytic mastitis with characteristics findings on mammogram, ultrasound, and histopathology. Diagnoses were confirmed with excision biopsy. PMID:23966831

  12. Major causes of mastitis and associated risk factors in smallholder dairy farms in and around Hawassa, Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Abera, Mesele; Habte, Tadios; Aragaw, Kassaye; Asmare, Kassahun; Sheferaw, Desie

    2012-08-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out from October 2008 to May 2009 in smallholder dairy farms in and around Hawassa to estimate the prevalence of mastitis, to isolate and characterize major bacterial pathogens, and to identify possible associated factors. The study involved a total of 201 milking cows randomly drawn from smallholder farms. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis was determined through clinical examination of the udder and using mastitis indicator paper (Bovivet indicator paper, Kruuse, Denmark). The prevalence of mastitis at cow and quarter level was 30.3 (61/201) and 10.3 (79/766), respectively. Subclinical mastitis was 25.4% and 5.0% was clinical. Stage of lactation significantly affected (P < 0.05) the prevalence of mastitis, with the highest prevalence observed in the late stage of lactation (41.3%) as compared to early (25.0%) and mid (22.1%) stages of lactation. Floor type and bedding had association (P < 0.05) with mastitis prevalence. Cows housed in concrete-floored houses had lower prevalence (19.0%) of mastitis compared to cows kept in soil-floored houses (47.6%). Mastitis prevalence was low in farms which do not use bedding (23.5%) as compared to farms using hay/straw bedding (37.4%). However, age, parity, and history of mastitis had no association (P > 0.05) on the prevalence of mastitis. The pathogens isolated from mastitic cows were Staphylococcus aureus (48.6%), other staphylococci species (15.7%), Streptococcus agalactiae (11.4%), other streptococci (17.1%), Bacillus species (2.9%), and coliforms (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species) (4.3%). Strict hygienic measure of housing and bedding should be considered, in reducing the prevalence of mastitis. PMID:22231019

  13. N-acetyl -β-D-glucosaminidase activity in cow milk as an indicator of mastitis.

    PubMed

    Hovinen, Mari; Simojoki, Heli; Pösö, Reeta; Suolaniemi, Jenni; Kalmus, Piret; Suojala, Leena; Pyörälä, Satu

    2016-05-01

    Activity of lysosomal N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase) in milk has been used as an indicator of bovine mastitis. We studied NAGase activity of 808 milk samples from healthy quarters and quarters of cows with spontaneous subclinical and clinical mastitis. Associations between milk NAGase activity and milk somatic cell count (SCC), mastitis causing pathogen, quarter, parity, days in milk (DIM) and season were studied. In addition, the performance of NAGase activity in detecting clinical and subclinical mastitis and distinguishing infections caused by minor and major bacteria was investigated. Our results indicate that NAGase activity can be used to detect both subclinical and clinical mastitis with a high level of accuracy (0·85 and 0·99). Incomplete correlation between NAGase activity and SCC suggests that a substantial proportion of NAGase activity comes from damaged epithelial cells of the udder in addition to somatic cells. We therefore recommend determination of NAGase activity from quarter foremilk after at least six hours from the last milking using the method described. Samples should be frozen before analysis. NAGase activity should be interpreted according to DIM, at least during the first month of lactation. Based on the results of the present study, a reference value for normal milk NAGase activity of 0·1-1·04 pmoles 4-MU/min/μl for cows with ≥30 DIM (196 samples) could be proposed. We consider milk NAGase activity to be an accurate indicator of subclinical and clinical mastitis. PMID:27210494

  14. Assessing individual sow risk factors for coliform mastitis: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Gerjets, Imke; Traulsen, Imke; Reiners, Kerstin; Kemper, Nicole

    2011-07-01

    In order to investigate sow-specific risk factors associated with coliform mastitis, a case-control study was performed over the course of 28 months. Data of three farms were collected under production conditions. Sows suffering from coliform mastitis after farrowing served as cases, and healthy half- or full-sib sows from the same farm served as controls. Individual sow characteristics and the seasonal influence were analysed by conditional logistic regression. The final multivariate model identified four risk factors: the risk of suffering from coliform mastitis increased with a higher number of piglets born alive and stillborn piglets. Gilts had an increased risk for the disease, and birth intervention was also associated with a higher prevalence of mastitis. Birth induction and season had no significant influence on the occurrence of coliform mastitis. The time during and soon after farrowing is a very sensitive period in pig production demanding great attention by the farmer. With respect to the economic losses, monitoring of potentially endangered sows as well as detailed documentation and selection of disease cases are of particular importance when coping with coliform mastitis. PMID:21570140

  15. Ultrasonography of the supramammary lymph nodes for diagnosis of bovine chronic subclinical mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Khoramian, B.; Vajhi, A.; Ghasemzadeh-Nava, H.; Ahrari-Khafi, M. S.; Bahonar, A.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, somatic cell count (SCC) and bacterial culture are considered as the gold standard of detecting subclinical Mastitis. Mastitis leads to proliferation of lymphocytes in the supramammary lymph nodes and subsequent enlargement of ipsilateral lymph node. Ultrasonography can be used to survey these changes. A portable ultrasound machine with a 2-5 MHz convex transducer was used to identify the supramammary lymph node size in 35 cows in a herd with chronic Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. After pre-milking udder preparation, a California mastitis test (CMT) was performed and individual milk samples were taken from each quarter for bacterial culture and somatic cell count (SCC) in accordance with NMC recommendations. The mean length (range 5.77-12.90 cm) and width (range 2.07-7.41 cm) of the lymph node were 9.2 and 4.03 cm, respectively. There was a positive correlation between lymph node size (length and depth) and culture of milk samples on ipsilateral quarters. Also, there was a significant difference correlation between CMT or mean log SCC of each side and size of supramammary lymph node in the same side. This study showed significant changes in supramammary lymph node dimensions in mastitis cases, so ultrasonography of this lymph node is probably a useful method for mastitis detection, especially in situations that test on milk is impossible. PMID:27175155

  16. Ultrasonography of the supramammary lymph nodes for diagnosis of bovine chronic subclinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Khoramian, B; Vajhi, A; Ghasemzadeh-Nava, H; Ahrari-Khafi, M S; Bahonar, A

    2015-01-01

    Currently, somatic cell count (SCC) and bacterial culture are considered as the gold standard of detecting subclinical Mastitis. Mastitis leads to proliferation of lymphocytes in the supramammary lymph nodes and subsequent enlargement of ipsilateral lymph node. Ultrasonography can be used to survey these changes. A portable ultrasound machine with a 2-5 MHz convex transducer was used to identify the supramammary lymph node size in 35 cows in a herd with chronic Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. After pre-milking udder preparation, a California mastitis test (CMT) was performed and individual milk samples were taken from each quarter for bacterial culture and somatic cell count (SCC) in accordance with NMC recommendations. The mean length (range 5.77-12.90 cm) and width (range 2.07-7.41 cm) of the lymph node were 9.2 and 4.03 cm, respectively. There was a positive correlation between lymph node size (length and depth) and culture of milk samples on ipsilateral quarters. Also, there was a significant difference correlation between CMT or mean log SCC of each side and size of supramammary lymph node in the same side. This study showed significant changes in supramammary lymph node dimensions in mastitis cases, so ultrasonography of this lymph node is probably a useful method for mastitis detection, especially in situations that test on milk is impossible. PMID:27175155

  17. Prevention of clinical coliform mastitis in dairy cows by a mutant Escherichia coli vaccine.

    PubMed Central

    González, R N; Cullor, J S; Jasper, D E; Farver, T B; Bushnell, R B; Oliver, M N

    1989-01-01

    A prospective cohort study was undertaken in two commercial California dairies. The treatment group, 246 cows, received three doses of a whole cell bacterin of J5 Escherichia coli (mutant of E. coli O111:B4) plus Freund's incomplete adjuvant vaccine (two in the dry period and one after calving) while 240 unvaccinated cows served as controls. Thirty-five cases of clinical coliform mastitis were diagnosed, six in vaccinated cows and 29 in unvaccinated cows. Bacteria isolated from the clinical cases included 15 E. coli five Klebsiella pneumoniae, three K. oxytoca, three K. ozaenae, five Enterobacter aerogenes, three Serratia marcescens and one Serratia spp. Four control cows were culled, three of them because of chronic coliform mastitis and one because of postcoliform infection agalactia. Incidence rate of clinical gram-negative mastitis was 2.57% in vaccinated cows and 12.77% in unvaccinated cows. The estimated risk ratio, the measure of risk of having clinical gram-negative mastitis for vaccinated cows to unvaccinated cows, was 0.20 (p less than 0.005), indicating a strong relationship between vaccination and lack of clinical gram-negative mastitis. The results of this trial indicate that the administration of the E. coli J5 vaccine is protective against natural challenge to gram-negative bacteria, and reduces the incidence of clinical gram-negative mastitis in dairy cows during the first three months of lactation. PMID:2670166

  18. Identification of pathogens in mastitis milk samples with fluorescent in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Gey, Annerose; Werckenthin, Christiane; Poppert, Sven; Straubinger, Reinhard K

    2013-05-01

    Traditionally, the bacteriological examination of mastitis milk samples is performed by culture followed by biochemical tests on the cultured bacteria to allow identification of the causative pathogen. Depending on the species involved, this classic identification is time-consuming compared to other techniques such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), a culture-independent method that utilizes oligonucleotides (labeled with a fluorophore) that are specific to a string of target DNA/RNA. In the current study, the applicability of FISH was evaluated for the detection of mastitis pathogens directly in milk samples. To remove interfering lipids and proteins from mastitis milk samples prior to FISH, a previously published enzymatic treatment with savinase was evaluated. FISH was performed using oligonucleotides specific for Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Escherichia coli, and Trueperella (Arcanobacterium) pyogenes. The enzymatic pretreatment and the sensitivity of FISH were evaluated using spiked whole milk samples and mastitis milk samples with bacterial loads of less than 10(3) up to 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU)/ml. Bacteria were reliably detected in milk samples with bacterial numbers of 10(6) CFU/ml or higher. However, bacteria present in numbers below 10(6) CFU/ml were not detectable in all cases. The ability of FISH to identify mastitis-causing pathogens directly in milk samples, and therefore earlier than classical culture methods, can supplement the classic diagnostic procedures for mastitis milk samples. PMID:23632662

  19. Bovine subclinical mastitis caused by different types of coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Thorberg, B-M; Danielsson-Tham, M-L; Emanuelson, U; Persson Waller, K

    2009-10-01

    Subclinical mastitis caused by intramammary infections (IMI) with coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) is common in dairy cows and may cause herd problems. Control of CNS mastitis is complicated by the fact that CNS contain a large number of different species. The aim of the study was to investigate the epidemiology of different CNS species in dairy herds with problems caused by subclinical CNS mastitis. In 11 herds, udder quarter samples were taken twice 1 mo apart, and CNS isolates were identified to the species level by biochemical methods. The ability of different CNS species to induce a persistent infection, and their associations with milk production, cow milk somatic cell count, lactation number, and month of lactation in cows with subclinical mastitis were studied. Persistent IMI were common in quarters infected with Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus simulans. The results did not indicate differences between these CNS species in their association with daily milk production, cow milk somatic cell count, and month of lactation in cows with subclinical mastitis. In cows with subclinical mastitis, S. epidermidis IMI were mainly found in multiparous cows, whereas S. chromogenes IMI were mainly found in primiparous cows. PMID:19762813

  20. Haemolytic and proteolytic activity of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from mastitis cows.

    PubMed

    Bochniarz, M; Wawron, W

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the haemolytic and proteolytic activity of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from cows with mastitis. The study was conducted on 100 CNS strains: S. xylosus (n=28), S. chromogenes (n=26), S. haemolyticus (n=25), S. sciuri (n=14), S. warneri (n=4), S. hominis (n=2), S. saprophyticus (n=1); 22 CNS were isolated from cows with clinical mastitis and 78 from those with subclinical mastitis. The CNS studied showed the ability to produce only alpha-haemolysin and belonged to one strain - S. haemolyticus (21.0% of isolated CNS strains). Haemolysin-positive CNS were responsible for both clinical and subclinical mastitis (22.7% and 20.5%, respectively). The ability to produce protease was found in 31.0% of CNS belonging to two strains: S. chromogenes and S. sciuri. Protease-positive CNS were the etiological factor of both clinical and subclinical mastitis (31.8% and 30.8%, respectively). All S. xylosus, S. warneri, S. hominis, and S. saprophyticus strains were found protease-negative and haemolysin-negative, irrespective of whether they caused clinical or subclinical mastitis in cows. PMID:22708359

  1. CNS species and antimicrobial resistance in clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Waller, K Persson; Aspán, A; Nyman, A; Persson, Y; Andersson, U Grönlund

    2011-08-26

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are often associated with bovine mastitis. Knowledge about the relative importance of specific CNS species in different types of mastitis, and differences in antimicrobial resistance among CNS species is, however, scarce. Therefore, the aims of this study were to compare prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of CNS species in clinical and subclinical mastitis using material from two national surveys. Overall, Staphylococcus chromogenes and Staphylococcus epidermidis were the most common CNS species found followed by Staphylococcus simulans and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. S. epidermidis was significantly more prevalent in subclinical than in clinical mastitis, and a similar trend was observed for Staphylococcus saprophyticus, while Staphylococcus hyicus was significantly more common in clinical mastitis. The prevalence of β-lactamase producing isolates varied markedly between CNS species, and was significantly higher in S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus (∼ 40%), than in S. simulans and S. chromogenes where none or a few of the isolates produced β-lactamase. Resistance to more than one antimicrobial substance occurred in 9% and 7% of the clinical and subclinical isolates, respectively. In conclusion, the distribution of CNS species differed between clinical and subclinical mastitis indicating inter-species variation of pathogenicity and epidemiology. Overall, the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance was low, but some variation between CNS species was observed. PMID:21561725

  2. Molecular epidemiology of mastitis pathogens of dairy cattle and comparative relevance to humans.

    PubMed

    Zadoks, Ruth N; Middleton, John R; McDougall, Scott; Katholm, Jorgen; Schukken, Ynte H

    2011-12-01

    Mastitis, inflammation of the mammary gland, can be caused by a wide range of organisms, including gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, mycoplasmas and algae. Many microbial species that are common causes of bovine mastitis, such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus also occur as commensals or pathogens of humans whereas other causative species, such as Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae or Staphylococcus chromogenes, are almost exclusively found in animals. A wide range of molecular typing methods have been used in the past two decades to investigate the epidemiology of bovine mastitis at the subspecies level. These include comparative typing methods that are based on electrophoretic banding patterns, library typing methods that are based on the sequence of selected genes, virulence gene arrays and whole genome sequencing projects. The strain distribution of mastitis pathogens has been investigated within individual animals and across animals, herds, countries and host species, with consideration of the mammary gland, other animal or human body sites, and environmental sources. Molecular epidemiological studies have contributed considerably to our understanding of sources, transmission routes, and prognosis for many bovine mastitis pathogens and to our understanding of mechanisms of host-adaptation and disease causation. In this review, we summarize knowledge gleaned from two decades of molecular epidemiological studies of mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle and discuss aspects of comparative relevance to human medicine. PMID:21968538

  3. Short communication: comparison of virulence factors in Klebsiella pneumoniae strains associated with multiple or single cases of mastitis.

    PubMed

    Kanevsky-Mullarky, I; Nedrow, A J; Garst, S; Wark, W; Dickenson, M; Petersson-Wolfe, C S; Zadoks, R N

    2014-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae mastitis in dairy cattle is generally due to an opportunistic infection from the environment, resulting in large heterogeneity among mastitis-causing strains within a herd. However, in mastitis outbreaks in 4 herds, several strains of K. pneumoniae were identified as the cause of infection in multiple cows, suggesting increased ability to either cause disease or evade host defenses. In this study, differences in capsule formation and immune evasion were compared in 5 pairs of K. pneumoniae strains, where one strain in each pair was associated with multiple cases of mastitis and the other with a single case of mastitis. Production of capsular polysaccharide, ability to evade killing by polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNL), and the relationship between the 2 were evaluated for each strain grown in broth or milk. Growth of isolates in skim milk increased capsule size and ability to evade killing by PMNL, depending on strain type. Specifically, strains associated with multiple cases of mastitis had increased capsule size in skim milk. Strains associated with single cases of mastitis were better able to evade killing by PMNL when grown in skim milk. Our results, although preliminary, suggest that the 2 groups of strains may constitute different subpopulations of K. pneumoniae. However, our findings do not indicate that capsule or evasions of killing by PMNL explain increased mastitis outbreaks with Klebsiella. Further work will explain the enhanced ability of some strains to cause mastitis in dairy cows. PMID:24534505

  4. Mastitis prevention and control practices and mastitis treatment strategies associated with the consumption of (critically important) antimicrobials on dairy herds in Flanders, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Stevens, M; Piepers, S; De Vliegher, S

    2016-04-01

    The main objectives of this study were to evaluate to what extent variations in herd-level antimicrobial consumption (AMC) can be explained by differences in management practices that are consistently effective in the prevention of (sub)clinical mastitis, on the one hand, and by differences in mastitis treatment strategies, on the other hand. Antimicrobial consumption data were obtained during 2012 and 2013 by "garbage can audits" and expressed as antimicrobial treatment incidences (ATI) for all compounds combined (total ATI) and for the critically important antimicrobials for human health separately. Data on mastitis prevention and control practices were obtained via face-to-face interviews performed during herd visits in March 2013. Some management practices and treatment strategies related to udder health were associated with the total AMC. However, the results demonstrated that implementing effective udder health management practices does not necessarily imply a low AMC and vice versa. Herds participating in a veterinary herd health management program and herds selectively drying off cows used fewer antimicrobials compared with herds not participating in such a program or applying blanket dry-cow therapy. Moreover, herds treating (some) (sub)clinical mastitis cases with intramammary homeopathic substances consumed fewer antimicrobials than herds not applying such homeopathic treatments. Besides these factors, no other direct association was found between effective udder health management practices on the one hand and AMC on the other hand. Also, the use of critically important antimicrobials was only associated with the way in which subclinical mastitis cases were treated. The latter indicates that the AMC of critically important antimicrobials is potentially driven by factors other than those included in this study such as those related to the "mindset" of the veterinarians and their farmers. Future research should therefore aim to unravel the reasoning of

  5. Risk factors associated with subclinical mastitis as detected by California Mastitis Test in smallholder dairy farms in Jimma, Ethiopia using multilevel modelling.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, T; Verbeke, J; Piepers, S; Supré, K; De Vliegher, S

    2013-10-01

    The prevalence of subclinical mastitis and associated risk factors at the herd, cow and quarter level were studied using multilevel modelling in smallholder dairy farms in Jimma, Ethiopia. Forty-two herds, out of the 55 dairy farms located in Jimma (76%), were visited, a questionnaire was performed, and 635 quarters belonging to 176 lactating cows were screened to detect the presence of subclinical mastitis using the California Mastitis Test (CMT). Sixty-two percent of the cows and 51% of the quarters were subclinically infected. Quarters from cows in later stage of lactation (>180 DIM) [opposed to early lactation (<90 DIM)] were more likely to be subclinically infected (OR=2.40, 95% CI=1.44-3.99). Overall, quarters from cows milked by squeezing (as opposed to stripping) were less likely to be subclinically infected (OR=0.45, 95% CI=0.29-0.71), although quarters from cows with tick-infested udders were more likely to be subclinically infected when milked by squeezing (as opposed to stripping). The milking technique did not influence the likelihood of infection in cows without ticks on the udder. This study stresses the high prevalence of subclinical mastitis in smallholder dairy farms in Jimma and a lack of awareness of the existence of the disease among dairy farmers. Implementation of a mastitis prevention program adapted to the local needs, including a focus on milking technique, application of appropriate tick control measurements as well as fertility management, allowing cows to be dried-off at a more appropriate moment, are needed. To conclude, milking by squeezing instead of stripping, but not of cows with tick-infested udders, as well as fertility management could reduce the subclinical mastitis prevalence (and incidence) on the short term. PMID:23910496

  6. A variety of gene polymorphisms associated with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Destek, Sebahattin; Gul, Vahit Onur; Ahioglu, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare and chronic inflammatory disorder. IGM mimics breast cancer regarding its clinical and radiological features. Etiology of IGM remains unclarified. Our patient was 37-year-old and 14 weeks pregnant. There was pain, redness and swelling in the right breast. The mass suggestive of malignancy was detected in sonography. Serum CA 125 and CA 15-3 levels were high. Genetic analysis was performed for the etiology. methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C 677 TT, β-fibrinogen-455 G>A, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 5 G/5 G, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D mutation was found. IGM was diagnosed by cor biopsy. An association was also reported between breast cancer and mutations in MTHFR-C 677 T, PAI-1, ACE genes. Genetic polymorphisms may involve in the development of IGM as it was seen in our case. Further studies should be conducted to better clarify this plausible association. PMID:27619324

  7. A variety of gene polymorphisms associated with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis.

    PubMed

    Destek, Sebahattin; Gul, Vahit Onur; Ahioglu, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare and chronic inflammatory disorder. IGM mimics breast cancer regarding its clinical and radiological features. Etiology of IGM remains unclarified. Our patient was 37-year-old and 14 weeks pregnant. There was pain, redness and swelling in the right breast. The mass suggestive of malignancy was detected in sonography. Serum CA 125 and CA 15-3 levels were high. Genetic analysis was performed for the etiology. methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C 677 TT, β-fibrinogen-455 G>A, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 5 G/5 G, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D mutation was found. IGM was diagnosed by cor biopsy. An association was also reported between breast cancer and mutations in MTHFR-C 677 T, PAI-1, ACE genes. Genetic polymorphisms may involve in the development of IGM as it was seen in our case. Further studies should be conducted to better clarify this plausible association. PMID:27619324

  8. Antimicrobial Treatment Options for Granulomatous Mastitis Caused by Corynebacterium Species

    PubMed Central

    Dobinson, Hazel C.; Anderson, Trevor P.; Chambers, Stephen T.; Doogue, Matthew P.; Seaward, Lois

    2015-01-01

    Corynebacterium species are increasingly recognized as important pathogens in granulomatous mastitis. Currently, there are no published treatment protocols for Corynebacterium breast infections. This study describes antimicrobial treatment options in the context of other management strategies used for granulomatous mastitis. Corynebacterium spp. isolated from breast tissue and aspirate samples stored from 2002 to 2013 were identified and determined to the species level using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), 16S RNA sequencing, and rpoB gene targets. The MICs for 12 antimicrobials were performed using Etest for each isolate. Correlations of these with antimicrobial characteristics, choice of antimicrobial, and disease outcome were evaluated. Corynebacterium spp. from breast tissue and aspirate samples were confirmed in 17 isolates from 16 patients. Based on EUCAST breakpoints, Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii isolates (n = 11) were susceptible to seven antibiotic classes but resistant to β-lactam antibiotics. Corynebacterium tuberculostearicum isolates (n = 4) were multidrug resistant. Two nonlipophilic species were isolated, Corynebacterium glucuronolyticum and Corynebacterium freneyi, both of which have various susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents. Short-course antimicrobial therapy was common (median, 6 courses per subject; range, 1 to 9 courses). Patients with C. kroppenstedtii presented with a hot painful breast mass and underwent multiple surgical procedures (median, 4 procedures; range, 2 to 6 procedures). The management of Corynebacterium breast infections requires a multidisciplinary approach and includes culture and appropriate sensitivity testing to guide antimicrobial therapy. Established infections have a poor outcome, possibly because adequate concentrations of some drugs will be difficult to achieve in lipophilic granulomata. Lipophilic antimicrobial therapy may offer a therapeutic

  9. Subclinical Mastitis May Not Reduce Breastmilk Intake During Established Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Marquis, Grace S.; Brakohiapa, Lucy; Timms, Leo; Lartey, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study determined the effect of subclinical mastitis (SCM) on infant breastmilk intake. Design Participants (60 Ghanaian lactating mothers and their infants) were from periurban communities in the Manya Krobo district of Ghana in 2006–2007. Bilateral breastmilk samples were obtained once between months 3 and 6 postpartum and tested for SCM using the California mastitis test (CMT) and the sodium/potassium (Na/K) ratio. Infants' 12-hour breastmilk intake was assessed by test weighing. CMT scoring for SCM diagnosis was scaled as ≥1 = positive (n = 37) and <1 = negative (n = 23). SCM diagnosis was confirmed as a Na/K ratio of >1.0 (n = 14). Results Breastmilk intake was nonsignificantly lower among infants whose mothers had elevated Na/K ratios of >1.0 (−65.1 g; 95% confidence interval −141.3 g, 11.1 g). Infants whose mothers were positive for SCM with both CMT and Na/K ratio criteria had significantly lower breastmilk intake (−88.9 g; 95% confidence interval −171.1 g, −6.9 g) compared to those whose mothers tested either negative with both tests or positive on only one. Infant weight (p < 0.01) and frequency of feeding (p = 0.01) were independently associated with breastmilk intake. However, the effect of SCM on breastmilk intake disappeared when infant weight and feeding frequency were included in a multiple linear regression model. Conclusions The results of this study did not show an effect of SCM on breastmilk intake among 3–6-month-old infants. A larger sample size with a longitudinal design will be needed in future studies. PMID:19243263

  10. Antimicrobial resistance and molecular epidemiology of streptococci from bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Rato, Márcia G; Bexiga, Ricardo; Florindo, Carlos; Cavaco, Lina M; Vilela, Cristina L; Santos-Sanches, Ilda

    2013-01-25

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS), Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (Group C Streptococcus, GCS) and Streptococcus uberis are relevant mastitis pathogens, a highly prevalent and costly disease in dairy industry due to antibiotherapy and loss in milk production. The aims of this study were the evaluation of antimicrobial drug resistance patterns, particularly important for streptococcal mastitis control and the identification of strain molecular features. Antimicrobial resistance was assessed by disk diffusion against amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefazolin, cefoperazone, pirlimycin-PRL, rifaximin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin-ERY, gentamicin, tetracycline-TET and vancomycin. Genotypic relationships were identified using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), macrolide and/or tetracycline resistance gene profiling, GBS capsular typing, GBS virulence gene profiling and GBS and S. uberis multi locus sequence typing (MLST). The majority of the isolates were susceptible to all drugs except to aminoglycoside, macrolide, lincosamide and tetracycline. Close to half of the TET resistant isolates have tetO and tetK and almost all ERY-PRL resistant isolates have ermB. A high degree of intra-species polymorphism was found for GCS. The GBS belonged to ST-2, -554, -61, -23 lineages and five new molecular serotypes and human GBS insertion sequences in the cpsE gene were found. Also, GBS of serotype V with scpB and lmb seem to be related with GBS isolates of human origin (same ST-2 and similar PFGE). Overall our results suggested that different therapeutic programs may have been implemented in the different farms and that in most cases clones were herd-specific. PMID:22964008

  11. Control of heifer mastitis: antimicrobial treatment-an overview.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Stephen C

    2009-02-16

    Initial studies in Louisiana, USA to determine the prevalence of mastitis in breeding age dairy heifers demonstrated that intramammary infections (IMIs) were present in 97% of heifers and 75% of quarters. Most common isolates were Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus hyicus, and Staphylococcus chromogenes; somatic cell counts (SCCs) ranged from 12.4 to 17.3 x 10(6)ml(-1). Histologic examination of Staph. aureus-infected quarters demonstrated significant reductions in alveolar epithelial and luminal areas, and increases in connective tissue and leukocytosis, illustrating limited secretory development and marked inflammation. A one-time infusion of various nonlactating cow antibiotic preparations into infected quarters during different stages of gestation but >45 days prepartum resulted in cure rates for Staph. aureus IMI of 67-100%. Mean SCC was 50% lower at calving for treated heifers, and milk yield over the first 2 months of lactation was 10% greater than that of untreated controls. Subsequent multiple herd studies, however, revealed that use of nonlactating cow therapy was beneficial only in herds exhibiting a high prevalence of heifer mastitis and not in low prevalence herds. Results of lactating cow antibiotic therapy infused 1-2 weeks prepartum demonstrated cure rates of 59-76% vs. 26-31.7% in untreated controls. In some studies, milk production during the first lactation in treated heifers was approximately 10% higher than untreated controls, and SCC were significantly lower; however, in other studies, prepartum treatment was successful in reducing prevalence of infection but had no effect on SCC or milk yield during the subsequent lactation. Thus, treatment of heifers is advantageous because the cure rate is much higher than during lactation, there is no milk loss, and risk of antibiotic residues minimal; however, successful therapy may not necessarily result in lowered SCC and increased milk production in all herds. PMID:18963599

  12. External quality assurance system (EQAS) for identification of mastitis pathogens in Denmark from 2006 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Karlsmose, S; Kunstmann, L; Rundsten, C F; Krogh, K; Larsen, H K D; Jensen, A B; Aarestrup, F M; Hendriksen, R S

    2013-05-01

    Bovine mastitis is the most common and costly dairy cattle disease. Mastitis is most frequently caused by bacterial species, and to ensure optimal treatment and control strategies, proper quality assured diagnosis and identification of the causative agent is important. With the aim to assess the capacity to isolate and identify mastitis pathogens at veterinary clinics, an external quality assurance system (EQAS) was annually (from 2006 to 2011) provided for the identification of mastitis pathogens. This study presents the setup of the proficiency test and the obtained results that enabled the organizers to pinpoint areas for improvement and thereby to assist veterinary practices at strengthening their mastitis diagnostics. The proficiency test consisted of 15 milk samples spiked with a pure culture of a mastitis pathogen and distributed to veterinary practices for identification. Applying an internal quality control strain, i.e. including the same strain of Streptococcus agalactiae in all iterations of the proficiency test, served to gauge the bias caused by the year-to-year variation in the selection of test strains. A total of 73% of all uploaded results over the years were correct, with the internal quality control strain exhibiting a statistically significant ascending trend from 54% correct identifications in 2006 to 91% in 2011 (p-value=0.0082; n=13). Even if specifics were not recorded as regards the laboratory methods employed at the veterinary clinics for identification of mastitis pathogens, the results from this study indicate that the practices' application of basic biochemical analyses in this context could be optimized. In addition, dissemination of information on new methods and updated nomenclature appeared to be an area which future efforts with advantage could aim at. PMID:23199580

  13. The Role of Agricultural Education and Extension in Influencing Best Practice for Managing Mastitis in Dairy Cattle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, E. J.; Hennessy, T.; Cullinan, J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the role of agricultural education and extension in influencing the adoption of best practice with regard to herd-level mastitis management. Design/Methodology/Approach: Somatic cell count (SCC) is an indicator of herd health with regard to mastitis and is negatively related to productivity and profitability. Panel data…

  14. Chimeric phage lysins act synergistically with lysostaphin to kill mastitis causing staphylococcus aureus in murine mammary glands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Staphylococci cause bovine mastitis with Staphylococcus aureus being responsible for the majority of the mastitis-based losses to the dairy industry (up to $2 billion/annum). Treatment is primarily with antibiotics that are often ineffective and potentially contribute to resistance development. Bac...

  15. Innate immune response to a bovine mastitis pathogen profiled in milk and blood monocytes using a systems biology approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine mastitis is an inflammatory condition of the mammary gland which leads to reduced milk yield and increased milk somatic cell counts (SCC) resulting in an estimated annual cost to the dairy industry worldwide of ~ 2 billion euros. Mastitis has a complex etiology, with pathogenic, host and envi...

  16. Whole-Genome Draft Sequences of Six Commensal Fecal and Six Mastitis-Associated Escherichia coli Strains of Bovine Origin

    PubMed Central

    Leimbach, Andreas; Witten, Anika; Wellnitz, Olga; Shpigel, Nahum; Petzl, Wolfram; Zerbe, Holm; Daniel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    The bovine gastrointestinal tract is a natural reservoir for commensal and pathogenic Escherichia coli strains with the ability to cause mastitis. Here, we report the whole-genome sequences of six E. coli isolates from acute mastitis cases and six E. coli isolates from the feces of udder-healthy cows. PMID:27469942

  17. Whole-Genome Draft Sequences of Six Commensal Fecal and Six Mastitis-Associated Escherichia coli Strains of Bovine Origin.

    PubMed

    Leimbach, Andreas; Poehlein, Anja; Witten, Anika; Wellnitz, Olga; Shpigel, Nahum; Petzl, Wolfram; Zerbe, Holm; Daniel, Rolf; Dobrindt, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The bovine gastrointestinal tract is a natural reservoir for commensal and pathogenic Escherichia coli strains with the ability to cause mastitis. Here, we report the whole-genome sequences of six E. coli isolates from acute mastitis cases and six E. coli isolates from the feces of udder-healthy cows. PMID:27469942

  18. Aspirina y el riesgo de cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Los resultados de muchos estudios en las últimas dos décadas permiten suponer que tomar aspirina con regularidad podría disminuir en forma considerable el riesgo de padecer cáncer o morir por la enfermedad, pero hacen falta más estudios de investigación.

  19. A knowledge-based system for diagnosis of mastitis problems at the herd level. 1. Concepts.

    PubMed

    Hogeveen, H; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E N; Tepp, D M; Kremer, W D; van Vliet, J H; Brand, A

    1995-07-01

    Much specialized knowledge is involved in the diagnosis of a mastitis problem at the herd level. Because of their problem-solving capacities, knowledge-based systems can be very useful to support the diagnosis of mastitis problems in the herd. Conditional causal models with multiple layers are used as a representation scheme for the development of a knowledge-based system for diagnosing mastitis problems. Construction of models requires extensive cooperation between the knowledge engineer and the domain expert. The first layer consists of three overview models: the general overview conditional causal model, the contagious overview conditional causal model, and the environmental overview conditional causal model, giving a causal description of the pathways through which mastitis problems can occur. The conditional causal model for primary udder defense and the conditional causal model for host defense are attached to the overview models at the second layer, and the conditional causal model for deep primary udder defense is attached to the conditional causal model for the primary udder defense at the third layer. Based on quantitative user input, the system determines the qualitative values of the nodes that are used for reasoning. The developed models showed that conditional causal models are a good method for modeling the mechanisms involved in a mastitis problem. The system needs to be extended in order to be useful in practical circumstances. PMID:7593836

  20. Meta-Analysis of Transcriptional Responses to Mastitis-Causing Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Younis, Sidra; Javed, Qamar; Blumenberg, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a widespread disease in dairy cows, and is often caused by bacterial mammary gland infection. Mastitis causes reduced milk production and leads to excessive use of antibiotics. We present meta-analysis of transcriptional profiles of bovine mastitis from 10 studies and 307 microarrays, allowing identification of much larger sets of affected genes than any individual study. Combining multiple studies provides insight into the molecular effects of Escherichia coli infection in vivo and uncovers differences between the consequences of E. coli vs. Staphylococcus aureus infection of primary mammary epithelial cells (PMECs). In udders, live E. coli elicits inflammatory and immune defenses through numerous cytokines and chemokines. Importantly, E. coli infection causes downregulation of genes encoding lipid biosynthesis enzymes that are involved in milk production. Additionally, host metabolism is generally suppressed. Finally, defensins and bacteria-recognition genes are upregulated, while the expression of the extracellular matrix protein transcripts is silenced. In PMECs, heat-inactivated E. coli elicits expression of ribosomal, cytoskeletal and angiogenic signaling genes, and causes suppression of the cell cycle and energy production genes. We hypothesize that heat-inactivated E. coli may have prophylactic effects against mastitis. Heat-inactivated S. aureus promotes stronger inflammatory and immune defenses than E. coli. Lipopolysaccharide by itself induces MHC antigen presentation components, an effect not seen in response to E. coli bacteria. These results provide the basis for strategies to prevent and treat mastitis and may lead to the reduction in the use of antibiotics. PMID:26933871

  1. Current management practices and interventions prioritised as part of a nationwide mastitis control plan

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, A. J.; Breen, J. E.; Hudson, C. D.; Green, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to report performance and management data taken from a sample of UK dairy farms that have participated in the Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board Dairy Mastitis Control Plan (DMCP) and to identify important mastitis prevention practices that are not currently widely implemented. A total of 234 UK dairy herds were included in the study from which farm management and udder health data were collected. Herds were grouped according to their mastitis epidemiology and could be classed as (i) environmental dry period (EDP) (i.e. environmental pathogen with majority of infections being acquired during the dry period), (ii) environmental lactation (EL), (iii) contagious dry period (CDP) or (iv) contagious lactation (CL). The results of this study showed that many mastitis-related management practices that are generally considered to be important were not widely performed. A better understanding of those practices not widely adopted by UK dairy farmers at present may aid practitioners in identifying and overcoming potential barriers to improved mastitis control. PMID:26966249

  2. Bovine mastitis disease/pathogenicity: evidence of the potential role of microbial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Fernanda; Saavedra, Maria José; Henriques, Mariana

    2016-04-01

    Bovine mastitis (BM) is a disease with high incidence worldwide and one of the most relevant bovine pathologies and the most costly to the dairy industry. BM is an inflammation of the udder and represents one of the most difficult veterinary diseases to control. Biofilm formation is considered a selective advantage for pathogens causing mastitis, facilitating bacterial persistence in the udder. In fact, recently some authors drew attention to the biofilm formation ability presented by several mastitis causing pathogens and to its possible relation with recurrent mastitis infections and with the increased resistance to antimicrobial agents and host immune defence system. Actually, up to now, several researchers reported the potential role of cells in this mode of growth in the previous facts mentioned. As a consequence of the presence of biofilms, the infection here focused is more difficult to treat and eradicate, making this problem a more relevant pressing issue. Thus, we believe that a deeper knowledge of these structures in mastitis can help to determine the best control strategy to be used in veterinary practice in order to reduce losses in the dairy industry and to ensure milk safety and quality. The aim of this paper was to review the existing research and consequently to provide an overview of the role of biofilms in BM infections. PMID:26772653

  3. Trematode infections in pregnant ewes can predispose to mastitis during the subsequent lactation period.

    PubMed

    Mavrogianni, V S; Papadopoulos, E; Spanos, S A; Mitsoura, A; Ptochos, S; Gougoulis, D A; Barbagianni, M S; Kyriazakis, I; Fthenakis, G C

    2014-02-01

    Objective was to investigate if trematode infections predispose ewes to mastitis and/or metritis. We used 80 trematode-infected ewes: primigravidae in group P-A and multigravidae in M-A remained untreated, primigravidae in P-B and multigravidae in M-B were drenched with netobimin and multigravidae in M-C were given rafoxanide. We collected faecal samples for parasitological examination, blood samples for β-hydroxybutyrate concentration measurement and uterine content, teat duct material and milk samples for bacteriological examination. We found significant differences in blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations between M-A, M-B and M-C during pregnancy (P ⩽ 0.002). We did not observe significant differences between groups regarding development of metritis (P>0.83). We found that for M-A, M-B and M-C ewes, respectively, median time to first case of mastitis was 5.75, 21 and 6.75 days after lambing (P = 0.003) and incidence risk of mastitis was 0.308, 0.069 and 0.222 (P = 0.047). We postulate that trematode infections predispose ewes to mastitis; perhaps, increased β-hydroxybutyrate blood concentrations adversely affect mammary cellular defences. This is the first report associating parasitic infections with mastitis in sheep. PMID:24331730

  4. Genotypic characterization by polymerase chain reaction of Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated with bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Ote, Isabelle; Taminiau, Bernard; Duprez, Jean-Noël; Dizier, Isabelle; Mainil, Jacques G

    2011-12-15

    Staphylococcus aureus is recognized worldwide as a pathogen causing many serious diseases in humans and animals, and is the most common aetiological agent of clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis. The importance of evaluating the combination of S. aureus virulence factors has been emphasized both in human and veterinary medicine, and knowledge about the genetic variability within different S. aureus populations would help in the design of efficient treatments. The aim of the present study was to determine the genetic profiles of S. aureus strains isolated from milk of cows suffering from clinical and subclinical mastitis in Belgium. The presence of about forty virulence-associated genes was investigated by specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. A high number of genotypic subtypes were observed, demonstrating further the large variation in the presence of virulence genes in S. aureus isolates and the considerable diversity of strains populations that are able to cause mastitis in cows. In accordance with other studies, we showed that some genes are associated with mastitis-causing S. aureus isolates, whereas others are absent or rarely present. We also further highlighted the presence of conserved gene combinations, namely the enterotoxigenic egc-cluster and the bovine pathogenicity island SaPIbov. Importantly, the presence of isolates carrying genes coding for toxins involved in important human infections makes the milk of cows with mastitis a potential reservoir for these toxins, and therefore a potential danger in human health, which strengthens the importance to consider raw milk consumption and its processing very carefully. PMID:21708435

  5. Evaluation of Petrifilms(TM) as a diagnostic test to detect bovine mastitis organisms in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Gitau, George K; Bundi, Royford M; Vanleeuwen, John; Mulei, Charles M

    2013-03-01

    The study purpose was to validate Petrifilms(TM) (3M Microbiology, 2005) against standard culture methods in the diagnosis of bovine mastitis organisms in Kenya. On 128 smallholder dairy cattle farms in Kenya, between June 21, 2010 and August 31, 2010, milk samples from 269 cows that were positive on California Mastitis Test (CMT) were cultured using standard laboratory culture methods and Petrifilms(TM) (Aerobic Count and Coliform Count -3M Microbiology, 2005), and results were compared. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common bacterium isolated (73 % of samples). Clinical mastitis was found in only three cows, and there were only two Gram-negative isolates, making it impossible to examine the agreement between the two tests for Gram-negative- or clinical mastitis samples. The observed agreement between the standard culture and Petrifilm(TM) (3M Microbiology, 2005) results for Gram-positive isolates was 85 %, and there was fair agreement beyond that expected due to chance alone, with a kappa (κ) of 0.38. Using culture results as a gold standard, the Petrifilms(TM) had a sensitivity of 90 % for Gram-positive samples and specificity of 51 %. With 87 % of CMT-positive samples resulting in Gram-positive pathogens cultured, there was a positive predictive value of 93 % and a negative predictive value of 43 %. Petrifilms(TM) should be considered for culture of mastitis organisms in developing countries, especially when Gram-positive bacteria are expected. PMID:23108587

  6. Pathogen profile of clinical mastitis in Irish milk-recording herds reveals a complex aetiology.

    PubMed

    Keane, O M; Budd, K E; Flynn, J; McCoy, F

    2013-07-01

    Effective mastitis control requires knowledge of the predominant pathogen challenges on the farm. In order to quantify this challenge, the aetiological agents associated with clinical mastitis in 30 milk-recording dairy herds in Ireland over a complete lactation were investigated. Standard bacteriology was performed on 630 pretreatment quarter milk samples, of which 56 per cent were culture-positive, 42 per cent culture-negative and 2 per cent contaminated. Two micro-organisms were isolated from almost 5 per cent of the culture-positive samples. The bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (23 per cent), Streptococcus uberis (17 per cent), Escherichia coli (9 per cent), Streptococcus species (6 per cent), coagulase-negative Staphylococci (4 per cent) and other species (1 per cent). A wide variety of bacterial species were associated with clinical mastitis, with S aureus the most prevalent pathogen overall, followed by S uberis. However, the bacterial challenges varied widely from farm to farm. In comparison with previous reports, in the present study, the contagious pathogens S aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae were less commonly associated with clinical mastitis, whereas, the environmental pathogens S uberis and E coli were found more commonly associated with clinical mastitis. While S aureus remains the pathogen most commonly associated with intramammary infection in these herds, environmental pathogens, such as S uberis and E coli also present a considerable challenge. PMID:23694921

  7. A HACCP-based approach to mastitis control in dairy herds. Part 2: Implementation and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Beekhuis-Gibbon, Lies; Devitt, Catherine; Whyte, Paul; O'Grady, Luke; More, Simon J; Redmond, Bairbre; Quin, Suzanne; Doherty, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    Part 1 of the study described the development of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) based programme and accompanying handbook for the control of mastitis. This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of customised HACCP-based programmes, which were developed from the handbook and assessed on six Irish dairy farms. Both quantitative and qualitative (action research) research methodologies were used to measure the success of implementation and efficacy of control of sub-clinical mastitis as measured by Somatic Cell Counts (SCC) and the degree of compliance by farmers in adopting and maintaining recommendations throughout the course of the study period. No overall differences in SCC before and during the implementation of the study were found when all six farms were considered together. Three of the six study farms experienced a significant decrease in herd milk recorded SCC during the implementation of the control programme. An essential part of the study was achieving initial agreement on recommendations as well as ongoing monitoring of compliance during the study. This pilot study shows that HACCP can be implemented on farms as a means of working towards the control of mastitis and that farmer attitude, and understanding of mastitis are crucial in terms of motivation irrespective of practical approaches used to manage mastitis. PMID:21777494

  8. Probing vaccine antigens against bovine mastitis caused by Streptococcus uberis.

    PubMed

    Collado, Rosa; Prenafeta, Antoni; González-González, Luis; Pérez-Pons, Josep Antoni; Sitjà, Marta

    2016-07-19

    Streptococcus uberis is a worldwide pathogen that causes intramammary infections in dairy cattle. Because virulence factors determining the pathogenicity of S. uberis have not been clearly identified so far, a commercial vaccine is not yet available. Different S. uberis strains have the ability to form biofilm in vitro, although the association of this kind of growth with the development of mastitis is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential use as vaccine antigens of proteins from S. uberis biofilms, previously identified by proteomic and immunological analyses. The capability of eliciting a protective immune response by targeted candidates was assayed on a murine model. Sera from rabbits immunized with S. uberis biofilm preparations and a convalescent cow intra-mammary infected with S. uberis were probed against cell wall proteins from biofilm and planktonic cells previously separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Using rabbit immunized serum, two proteins were found to be up-regulated in biofilm cells as compared to planktonic cells; when serum from the convalescent cow was used, up to sixteen biofilm proteins were detected. From these proteins, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), fructose-biphosphate aldolase (FBA), and elongation factor Ts (EFTs) were chosen to be tested as vaccine antigen candidates. For this purpose, different groups of mice were immunized with the three recombinant-expressed proteins (each one formulated separately in a vaccine), and thereafter intraperitoneally challenged with S. uberis. The three proteins induced specific IgG antibodies, but a significant reduction of mortality was only observed in the groups of mice vaccinated with FBA or EFTs. These results suggest that FBA and EFTs might be considered as strong antigenic candidates for a vaccine against S. uberis bovine mastitis. Moreover, this is the first study to indicate that also in S. uberis, GAPDH, FBA and EFTs, as proteins

  9. Proteomic Analysis to Elucidate the Antibacterial Action of Silver Ions Against Bovine Mastitis Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seog Jin; Cho, Yong Il; Kim, Ki Hyun; Cho, Eun Seok

    2016-05-01

    Silver ions act as a powerful, broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent and are known to kill over 650 different kinds of pathogens. We investigated the protein expression pattern and identity after silver ion treatment in Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, which are primarily responsible for the majority of bovine mastitis cases using proteomics. Two-dimensional electrophoresis showed that silver ion treatment significantly reduced 5 spot's density in E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. We identified 10 proteins (alkyl hydroperoxide reductase C22 subunit, phosphoglucomutase, fructose-1-phosphate kinase, putative carbamoyl transferase, alpha-galactosidase, carbamate kinase, ornithine transcarbamoylase, fumarate hydratase class II, alcohol dehydrogenase, and conserved hypothetical protein) by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF). These results demonstrated that silver ions have bactericidal effects through energy deprivation, inhibition of DNA replication, and accumulation of oxidants in bovine mastitis pathogens and suggested that silver ions can be applied for the treatment of bovine mastitis. PMID:26432451

  10. Enterotoxigenicity of Staphylococcus aureus Cultures Isolated from Acute Cases of Bovine Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Olson, J. C.; Casman, E. P.; Baer, E. F.; Stone, Judith E.

    1970-01-01

    To determine whether staphylococci causing bovine mastitis are potential causes of human intoxications, 142 cultures identified as etiological agents of acute cases and 18 cultures causing chronic cases of staphylococcal mastitis were obtained from investigators in the United States and Canada, examined microscopically, and tested for carbohydrate utilization, terminal pH, catalase, coagulase, egg yolk hydrolysis, gelatin hydrolysis, cytochrome oxidase, urease production, nitrate reduction, micrococcal nuclease, phage type, and enterotoxin production. Three cultures were not confirmed as Staphylococcus aureus. Of the 157 S. aureus cultures, 23 produced staphylococcal enterotoxins. Although a direct relationship between staphylococcal mastitis and outbreaks of staphylococcal food poisoning was not proved, results indicated that staphylococcal infections of the bovine mammary gland represent a significant reservoir of enterotoxigenic strains of S. aureus. PMID:4322455

  11. Staphylococcus aureus proteins differentially produced in ewe gangrenous mastitis or ewe milk.

    PubMed

    Le Maréchal, Caroline; Jardin, Julien; Briard-Bion, Valérie; Rault, Lucie; Berkova, Nadia; Vautor, Eric; Thiéry, Richard; Even, Sergine; Le Loir, Yves

    2013-05-31

    Despite being one of the main pathogens involved in ruminant mastitis, little is known about what proteins Staphylococcus aureus does express, in vivo, during the infection. Here, two S. aureus strains were isolated from curds formed within the udder of two ewes suffering from gangrenous mastitis. Protein samples were prepared from cell fractions and were analyzed using 1D-LC MS/MS. Results were compared to 1D-LC MS/MS analysis of the same S. aureus strains grown in ewe milk. A total of 365 proteins were identified. Most of them were related to cellular metabolism, cellular division and stress response. Half of the proteins were found in both conditions but a substantial number were specifically found in in vivo conditions and gave indications about the active metabolic status and the stresses encountered by S. aureus within the cistern during a gangrenous mastitis. PMID:23415898

  12. Molecular epidemiology of Mannheimia haemolytica and Mannheimia glucosida associated with ovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Omaleki, Lida; Browning, Glenn F; Allen, Joanne L; Barber, Stuart R

    2012-07-01

    While Mannheimia haemolytica and Mannheimia glucosida have been recognized as causes of intramammary infection in sheep, there has been no investigation of the epidemiology of the strains involved. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis was used to study the molecular epidemiology of isolates of these 2 species associated with ovine mastitis. Ten distinct strains were recognized among 12 M. haemolytica isolates, and 7 distinct strains among 13 M. glucosida isolates. The results demonstrate a high diversity of isolates with the ability to cause ovine mastitis. However, the presence of some identical isolates may suggest the possibility of horizontal transmission of these species in some flocks, possibly through lamb sucking, and/or differences in the capacity of some isolates to cause mastitis in sheep. PMID:22621951

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility of gram-positive udder pathogens from bovine mastitis milk in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Overesch, G; Stephan, R; Perreten, V

    2013-06-01

    We evaluated the susceptibility of the gram-positive mastitis pathogens S. aureus, Str. uberis, Str. dysgalactiae, E. faecalis and L. garviae to antibiotics that are of epidemiological interest or are critically important for mastitis therapy and human medicine. Penicillin resistance was found to be most frequent in S. aureus, and nearly 5 % of the Str. uberis strains displayed a decreased susceptibility to this antibiotic. Resistance to aminoglycosides and macrolides was also detected in the strains tested. The detection of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and of a ciprofloxacin-resistant Str. dysgalactiae isolate corroborated the emergence of mastitis pathogens resistant to critically important antibiotics and underscores the importance of susceptibility testing prior to antibiotic therapy. The monitoring of antibiotic susceptibility patterns and antibiogram analyses are strongly recommended for targeted antimicrobial treatment and to avoid the unnecessary use of the latest generation of antibiotics. PMID:23732380

  14. Subclinical mastitis in cattle in Algeria: frequency of occurrence and bacteriological isolates.

    PubMed

    Saidi, Radhwane; Khelef, Djamel; Kaidi, Rachid

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in cattle in eighteen herds in the center region of Algeria. Milk samples were collected from 560 quarters of 140 cows free of clinical mastitis. The samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT) and the positive samples were analysed by bacteriological culture and Speed Mam® Color. The overall quarter prevalence was 28.77% whilst animal prevalence was 28.57%.Bacteriological analysis showed that there was a wide range of bacteria that cause these infections. Staphylococcus aureus (40%) was found to be the most prevalent organism followed by Streptococcus spp. (12.5%), Enterobacteriaceae (2.5%), Pseudomonas spp. (2.5%), Staphylococcus aureus + Streptococcus spp. (12.5%), Streptococcus spp.+ Escherichia coli (7.5%), S. aureus + Mycoplasma spp.(7.5%), and S. aureus +Streptococcus spp.+ E. coli (5%). PMID:23718559

  15. In vitro antimicrobial activity of plant-derived diterpenes against bovine mastitis bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Ariana P; Estrela, Fernanda T; Moraes, Thaís S; Carneiro, Luiza J; Bastos, Jairo K; dos Santos, Raquel A; Ambrósio, Sérgio R; Martins, Carlos H G; Veneziani, Rodrigo C S

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the antibacterial activity of three diterpenes isolated from natural sources against a panel of microorganisms responsible for bovine mastitis. ent-Copalic acid (CA) was the most active metabolite, with promising MIC values (from 1.56 to 6.25 µg mL-1) against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC and clinical isolate), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae. We conducted time-kill assays of CA against S. aureus, a commensal organism considered to be a ubiquitous etiological agent of bovine mastitis in dairy farms worldwide. In the first 12 h, CA only inhibited the growth of the inoculums (bacteriostatic effect), but its bactericidal effect was clearly noted thereafter (between 12 and 24 h). In conclusion, CA should be considered for the control of several Gram-positive bacteria related to bovine mastitis. PMID:23884123

  16. Invited review: Mastitis in dairy heifers: nature of the disease, potential impact, prevention, and control.

    PubMed

    De Vliegher, S; Fox, L K; Piepers, S; McDougall, S; Barkema, H W

    2012-03-01

    Heifer mastitis is a disease that potentially threatens production and udder health in the first and subsequent lactations. In general, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the predominant cause of intramammary infection and subclinical mastitis in heifers around parturition, whereas Staphylococcus aureus and environmental pathogens cause a minority of the cases. Clinical heifer mastitis is typically caused by the major pathogens. The variation in proportions of causative pathogens between studies, herds, and countries is considerable. The magnitude of the effect of heifer mastitis on an individual animal is influenced by the form of mastitis (clinical versus subclinical), the virulence of the causative pathogen(s) (major versus minor pathogens), the time of onset of infection relative to calving, cure or persistence of the infection when milk production has started, and the host's immunity. Intramammary infection in early lactation caused by CNS does not generally have a negative effect on subsequent productivity. At the herd level, the impact will depend on the prevalence and incidence of the disease, the nature of the problem (clinical, subclinical, nonfunctional quarters), the causative pathogens involved (major versus minor pathogens), the ability of the animals to cope with the disease, and the response of the dairy manager to control the disease through management changes. Specific recommendations to prevent and control mastitis in late gestation in periparturient heifers are not part of the current National Mastitis Council mastitis and prevention program. Control and prevention is currently based on avoidance of inter-sucking among young stock, fly control, optimal nutrition, and implementation of hygiene control and comfort measures, especially around calving. More risk factors for subclinical and clinical heifer mastitis have been identified (e.g., season, location of herd, stage of pregnancy) although they do not lend themselves to the development

  17. Therapeutic Effect of Nisin Z on Subclinical Mastitis in Lactating Cows▿

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Junqiang; Hu, Songhua; Cao, Liting

    2007-01-01

    Bovine subclinical mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland caused by bacterial intramammary infection, accounting for large economic losses. Treatment of subclinical mastitis is not suggested for lactating cows due to the risk of milk contamination. The objectives of this study were to evaluate an antimicrobial peptide, nisin, in the treatment of subclinical mastitis in lactating cows. A total of 90 lactating Holstein cows with subclinical mastitis were randomly divided into nisin-treated (n = 46) and control (n = 44) groups. In the nisin-treated group, cows received an intramammary infusion of nisin at a dose of 2,500,000 IU once daily for 3 days while the control cows received no treatment. Milk samples were collected from the affected mammary quarters before treatment and 1 and 2 weeks after treatment for analyses of bacteria, somatic cells, and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase). Results indicated that nisin therapy had bacteriological cure rates of 90.1% for Streptococcus agalactiae (10 of 11), 50% for Staphylococcus aureus (7 of 14), 58.8% for coagulase-negative staphylococci (7 of 17), and 65.2% for all cases (30 of 46). Meanwhile, only 15.9% (7 of 44) of untreated cows spontaneously recovered. NAGase activity in milk samples and the number of mammary quarters with a milk somatic cell count of ≥500,000/ml were significantly decreased after nisin treatment while no significant changes took place in the control group. Because of its therapeutic effects on bovine subclinical mastitis, as well as its safety in humans, nisin deserves further study to clarify its effects on mastitis caused by different pathogens. PMID:17606675

  18. Incidence Rates of Clinical Mastitis among Canadian Holsteins Classified as High, Average, or Low Immune Responders

    PubMed Central

    Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM) between cows classified as high, average, or low for antibody-mediated immune responses (AMIR) and cell-mediated immune responses (CMIR). In collaboration with the Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network, 458 lactating Holsteins from 41 herds were immunized with a type 1 and a type 2 test antigen to stimulate adaptive immune responses. A delayed-type hypersensitivity test to the type 1 test antigen was used as an indicator of CMIR, and serum antibody of the IgG1 isotype to the type 2 test antigen was used for AMIR determination. By using estimated breeding values for these traits, cows were classified as high, average, or low responders. The IRCM was calculated as the number of cases of mastitis experienced over the total time at risk throughout the 2-year study period. High-AMIR cows had an IRCM of 17.1 cases per 100 cow-years, which was significantly lower than average and low responders, with 27.9 and 30.7 cases per 100 cow-years, respectively. Low-AMIR cows tended to have the most severe mastitis. No differences in the IRCM were noted when cows were classified based on CMIR, likely due to the extracellular nature of mastitis-causing pathogens. The results of this study demonstrate the desirability of breeding dairy cattle for enhanced immune responses to decrease the incidence and severity of mastitis in the Canadian dairy industry. PMID:23175290

  19. Clinicobiochemical investigations of gangrenous mastitis in does: immunological responses and oxidative stress biomarkers*

    PubMed Central

    El-Deeb, Wael M.

    2013-01-01

    A total of 50 does were used to determine selected hematological and biochemical parameters with special references to oxidative stress markers, acute phase protein profiles, and proinflammatory cytokines in healthy and gangrenous mastitis affected does. Animals were divided into two equal groups represented as clinically healthy (control) and diseased groups, respectively. The bacteriological examination of milk samples from diseased does revealed many types of bacterial infection. The isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus (N=23/25), Escherichia coli (N=11/25), and Clostridium perfringens (N=4/25). There was a significant increase in the levels of β-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified free fatty acids, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase and a significant reduction in the levels of glucose, cholesterol, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in does with gangrenous mastitis compared to healthy does. Moreover, there was a significant increase in the levels of malondialdehyde and uric acid with a significant decrease in the levels of reduced glutathione, super oxide dismutase, and catalase in does with gangrenous mastitis compared to healthy does. In addition, there was a significant increase in the haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, fibrinogen, interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in does with gangrenous mastitis compared to healthy ones. Conclusively, oxidative stress biomarkers, acute phase proteins, and proinflammatory cytokines play an essential task as biomarkers for gangrenous mastitis in does. Mastitis may be considered as one of the ketotic stressors in does after parturition. PMID:23303629

  20. Molecular Epidemiology of Streptococcus uberis Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Herds: Strain Heterogeneity and Transmission.

    PubMed

    Davies, P L; Leigh, J A; Bradley, A J; Archer, S C; Emes, R D; Green, M J

    2016-01-01

    Multilocus sequence typing was successfully completed on 494 isolates of Streptococcus uberis from clinical mastitis cases in a study of 52 commercial dairy herds over a 12-month period. In total, 195 sequence types (STs) were identified. S. uberis mastitis cases that occurred in different cows within the same herd and were attributed to a common ST were classified as potential transmission events (PTEs). Clinical cases attributed to 35 of the 195 STs identified in this study were classified PTE. PTEs were identified in 63% of the herds. PTE-associated cases, which include the first recorded occurrence of that ST in that herd (index case) and all persistent infections with that PTE ST, represented 40% of all the clinical mastitis cases and occurred in 63% of the herds. PTE-associated cases accounted for >50% of all S. uberis clinical mastitis cases in 33% of the herds. Nine STs (ST-5, -6, -20, -22, -24, -35, -233, -361, and -512), eight of which were grouped within a clonal complex (sharing at least four alleles), were statistically overrepresented (OVR STs). The findings indicate that 38% of all clinical mastitis cases and 63% of the PTEs attributed to S. uberis in dairy herds may be caused by the nine most prevalent strains. The findings suggest that a small subset of STs is disproportionally important in the epidemiology of S. uberis mastitis in the United Kingdom, with cow-to-cow transmission of S. uberis potentially occurring in the majority of herds in the United Kingdom, and may be the most important route of infection in many herds. PMID:26491180

  1. Molecular Epidemiology of Streptococcus uberis Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Herds: Strain Heterogeneity and Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, J. A.; Bradley, A. J.; Archer, S. C.; Emes, R. D.; Green, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Multilocus sequence typing was successfully completed on 494 isolates of Streptococcus uberis from clinical mastitis cases in a study of 52 commercial dairy herds over a 12-month period. In total, 195 sequence types (STs) were identified. S. uberis mastitis cases that occurred in different cows within the same herd and were attributed to a common ST were classified as potential transmission events (PTEs). Clinical cases attributed to 35 of the 195 STs identified in this study were classified PTE. PTEs were identified in 63% of the herds. PTE-associated cases, which include the first recorded occurrence of that ST in that herd (index case) and all persistent infections with that PTE ST, represented 40% of all the clinical mastitis cases and occurred in 63% of the herds. PTE-associated cases accounted for >50% of all S. uberis clinical mastitis cases in 33% of the herds. Nine STs (ST-5, -6, -20, -22, -24, -35, -233, -361, and -512), eight of which were grouped within a clonal complex (sharing at least four alleles), were statistically overrepresented (OVR STs). The findings indicate that 38% of all clinical mastitis cases and 63% of the PTEs attributed to S. uberis in dairy herds may be caused by the nine most prevalent strains. The findings suggest that a small subset of STs is disproportionally important in the epidemiology of S. uberis mastitis in the United Kingdom, with cow-to-cow transmission of S. uberis potentially occurring in the majority of herds in the United Kingdom, and may be the most important route of infection in many herds. PMID:26491180

  2. Risk factors for dairy cow mastitis in the central highlands of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mungube, E O; Tenhagen, B A; Kassa, T; Regassa, F; Kyule, M N; Greiner, M; Baumann, M P O

    2004-07-01

    This study, with the objective of assessing the effect of risk factors on dairy cow mastitis in the central highlands of Ethiopia, was undertaken between February and September 2001 in the urban and peri-urban areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A prevalence study and questionnaire survey were carried out simultaneously. Clinical examination of lactating udders and California mastitis test (CMT) determined clinical and subclinical mastitis, respectively. Risk factors for subclinical and clinical mastitis were identified from data on animals and farm management by chi-square analysis and subsequent logistic regression. Cows aged at least 8 years, with poor body condition, with at least 8 parities and in at least the eighth month of lactation had a significantly higher risk for subclinical mastitis (p < 0.05). The risk was reduced for cows up to their third parity in good body condition and for cows receiving dry cow therapy. Cows aged at least 4 years, or with at least 8 parities, cows in at least the fourth month of lactation, cows with poor body condition, leaking milk or previous udder infections had a significantly higher risk of clinical mastitis (p <0.05). The risk was reduced by the use of separate towels for udder cleaning and by drying off at the end of lactation. Most of the risk factors were in agreement with previous reports. However, stage of lactation and drying-off style were in contrast to others. Further research is needed to identify the interrelationship between production level, specific pathogens and management risk factors. PMID:15449836

  3. Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Bovine Mammary Microbiota: Potential Allies against Bovine Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Saraoui, Taous; Rault, Lucie; Germon, Pierre; Gonzalez-Moreno, Candelaria; Nader-Macias, Fatima M. E.; Baud, Damien; François, Patrice; Chuat, Victoria; Chain, Florian; Langella, Philippe; Nicoli, Jacques; Le Loir, Yves; Even, Sergine

    2015-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. As of yet, the control of bovine mastitis is mostly based on prevention by thorough hygienic procedures during milking. Additional strategies include vaccination and utilization of antibiotics. Despite these measures, mastitis is not fully under control, thus prompting the need for alternative strategies. The goal of this study was to isolate autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from bovine mammary microbiota that exhibit beneficial properties that could be used for mastitis prevention and/or treatment. Sampling of the teat canal led to the isolation of 165 isolates, among which a selection of ten non-redundant LAB strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Lactococcus were further characterized with regard to several properties: surface properties (hydrophobicity, autoaggregation); inhibition potential of three main mastitis pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus uberis; colonization capacities of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC); and immunomodulation properties. Three strains, Lactobacillus brevis 1595 and 1597 and Lactobacillus plantarum 1610, showed high colonization capacities and a medium surface hydrophobicity. These strains are good candidates to compete with pathogens for mammary gland colonization. Moreover, nine strains exhibited anti-inflammatory properties, as illustrated by the lower IL-8 secretion by E. coli-stimulated bMEC in the presence of these LAB. Full genome sequencing of five candidate strains allowed to check for undesirable genetic elements such as antibiotic resistance genes and to identify potential bacterial determinants involved in the beneficial properties. This large screening of beneficial properties while checking for undesirable genetic markers allowed the selection of promising candidate LAB strains from bovine mammary microbiota for the prevention and/or treatment of bovine mastitis. PMID:26713450

  4. First report of granulomatous mastitis associated with Sjögren’s syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Granulomatous mastitis is a rare and often considered as idiopathic disease. However, clinical examination and thorough diagnostic investigations have to be carried out in order to identify cases that are secondary to infections or systemic diseases since these forms may be cured with appropriate etiologic treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to describe the association of granulomatous mastitis with Sjögren’s syndrome. We discuss the clinical, pathological and therapeutic implications of this association. PMID:24112140

  5. Clinical and subclinical mastitis in smallholder dairy farms in Tanzania: risk, intervention and knowledge transfer.

    PubMed

    Karimuribo, E D; Fitzpatrick, J L; Bell, C E; Swai, E S; Kambarage, D M; Ogden, N H; Bryant, M J; French, N P

    2006-04-17

    In a cross-sectional study of 400 randomly selected smallholder dairy farms in the Tanga and Iringa regions of Tanzania, 14.2% (95% confidence interval (CI)=11.6-17.3) of cows had developed clinical mastitis during the previous year. The point prevalence of subclinical mastitis, defined as a quarter positive by the California Mastitis Test (CMT) or by bacteriological culture, was 46.2% (95% CI=43.6-48.8) and 24.3% (95% CI=22.2-26.6), respectively. In a longitudinal disease study in Iringa, the incidence of clinical mastitis was 31.7 cases per 100 cow-years. A randomised intervention trial indicated that intramammary antibiotics significantly reduced the proportion of bacteriologically positive quarters in the short-term (14 days post-infusion) but teat dipping had no detectable effect on bacteriological infection and CMT positive quarters. Other risk and protective factors were identified from both the cross-sectional and longitudinal included animals with Boran breeding (odds ratio (OR)=3.40, 95% CI=1.00-11.57, P<0.05 for clinical mastitis, and OR=3.51, 95% CI=1.29-9.55, P<0.01 for a CMT positive quarter), while the practice of residual calf suckling was protective for a bacteriologically positive quarter (OR=0.63, 95% CI=0.48-0.81, Pmastitis training course for farmers and extension officers was held, and the knowledge gained and use of different methods of dissemination were assessed over time. In a subsequent randomised controlled trial, there were strong associations between knowledge gained and both the individual question asked and the combination of dissemination methods (village meeting, video and handout) used. This study demonstrated that both clinical and subclinical mastitis is common in smallholder dairying in Tanzania, and that some of the risk and protective factors for mastitis can be addressed by practical management of dairy cows following effective knowledge

  6. Molecular characterization and expression profile of partial TLR4 gene in association to mastitis in crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Manjit; Sharma, Arjava; Bhushan, Bharat

    2014-01-01

    Crossbred cattle are more prone to mastitis in comparison to indigenous cattle. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) recognizes pathogen ligands, for example, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin from Escherichia coli and mediates signaling to initiate innate and adaptive immune responses. Mutations in TLR4 can compromise the host immune response to certain pathogens, so it may be a potential candidate for marker assisted selection to enhance mastitis resistance in dairy cattle. Hence, in this study role of bovine TLR4 gene in mastitis resistance was investigated by association as well as expression profiling analysis in crossbred cattle. The animals were divided into mastitis affected and unaffected groups on the basis of history of animals and California Mastitis Test (CMT). PCR-SSCP and Sequence analysis revealed three genotypes of coreceptor binding region 1 (CRBR1) fragment of TLR4 gene namely AA, AB, and BB in both groups of cattle. The logistic regression model did not show any significant effect of these genotypes on the occurrence of clinical mastitis. Moreover, in vitro challenge of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with LPS failed to show any association of the genotypes with TLR4 gene expression. In a nutshell, in the present study enough evidence was not found for association of the SNP variants of CRBR1 fragment of TLR4 gene with mastitis susceptibility in crossbred cattle. PMID:24669869

  7. Mastitis Modifies the Biogenic Amines Profile in Human Milk, with Significant Changes in the Presence of Histamine, Putrescine and Spermine.

    PubMed

    Perez, Marta; Ladero, Victor; Redruello, Begoña; Del Rio, Beatriz; Fernandez, Leonides; Rodriguez, Juan Miguel; Martín, M Cruz; Fernandez, María; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are low molecular weight nitrogenous organic compounds with different biological activities. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine are essential for the development of the gut and immune system of newborns, and are all found in human milk. Little is known, however, about the role of histamine, tyramine or cadaverine in breast milk. Nor is it known whether mastitis alters the BA composition of milk. The BA profile of human milk, and the influence of mastitis on BA concentrations, were therefore investigated. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine were the main BAs detected. In mastitis-affected milk, the concentrations of putrescine, spermine and histamine were higher. PMID:27584695

  8. The effect of a national mastitis control program on the attitudes, knowledge, and behavior of farmers in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Jansen, J; van Schaik, G; Renes, R J; Lam, T J G M

    2010-12-01

    Over the years, much effort has been put into implementing mastitis control programs in herds. To further improve utilization of such programs, there needs to be an understanding of the attitudes, knowledge, and behavior of farmers regarding udder health, and the way this can be influenced by mastitis control programs. This study aimed to explore the effect of a national mastitis control program on Dutch farmers' attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding mastitis. A total of 378 dairy farmers completed a survey on attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding mastitis before the start of a national mastitis control program in 2004, and 204 completed a similar survey in the final year of the program (2009). Although the average annual bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) remained the same, the farmers' self-reported attitudes, knowledge, and behavior changed significantly. The problem level of BMSCC decreased from 285,000 cells/mL in 2004 to 271,000 cells/mL in 2009. More farmers perceived that they had sufficient knowledge about the prevention of mastitis (34% in 2004 vs. 53% in 2009) and they more often perceived that they knew the cause of a mastitis problem (25% in 2004 vs. 37% in 2009). The use of gloves for milking increased from 15 to 46%, the use of a standardized mastitis treatment protocol increased from 7 to 34%, and freestalls were cleaned more often (2.28 vs. 2.51 times/d) in 2009 compared with 2004. Most changes in attitudes, knowledge, and behavior did not differ between groups of dairy farmers whose herds had an initially low (≤ 162,000 cells/mL), medium (163,000 to 205,000 cells/mL), or high (>206,000 cells/mL) BMSCC. The high BMSCC group significantly decreased their annual BMSCC level by 15,000 cells/mL. Regression analysis showed that the decrease in BMSCC was associated with a change in farmers' perceptions (e.g., increased perceived knowledge about the effect of the milking machine on mastitis) and with a change in certain management

  9. Sensitivity and specificity of a hand-held milk electrical conductivity meter compared to the California mastitis test for mastitis in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Fosgate, G T; Petzer, I M; Karzis, J

    2013-04-01

    Screening tests for mastitis can play an important role in proactive mastitis control programs. The primary objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of milk electrical conductivity (EC) to the California mastitis test (CMT) in commercial dairy cattle in South Africa using Bayesian methods without a perfect reference test. A total of 1848 quarter milk specimens were collected from 173 cows sampled during six sequential farm visits. Of these samples, 25.8% yielded pathogenic bacterial isolates. The most frequently isolated species were coagulase negative Staphylococci (n=346), Streptococcus agalactiae (n=54), and Staphylococcus aureus (n=42). The overall cow-level prevalence of mastitis was 54% based on the Bayesian latent class (BLC) analysis. The CMT was more accurate than EC for classification of cows having somatic cell counts >200,000/mL and for isolation of a bacterial pathogen. BLC analysis also suggested an overall benefit of CMT over EC but the statistical evidence was not strong (P=0.257). The Bayesian model estimated the sensitivity and specificity of EC (measured via resistance) at a cut-point of >25 mΩ/cm to be 89.9% and 86.8%, respectively. The CMT had a sensitivity and specificity of 94.5% and 77.7%, respectively, when evaluated at the weak positive cut-point. EC was useful for identifying milk specimens harbouring pathogens but was not able to differentiate among evaluated bacterial isolates. Screening tests can be used to improve udder health as part of a proactive management plan. PMID:22981736

  10. Proteomic analysis reveals protein expression differences in Escherichia coli strains associated with persistent versus transient mastitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli is a leading cause of bacterial mastitis in dairy cattle. Typically this infection is transient in nature, causing an infection that lasts 2-3 days. However, in a minority of cases, E. coli has been shown to cause a persistent intramammary infection. The mechanisms that allow for...

  11. Activity of bacteriocins synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis against Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated to bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Barboza-Corona, José Eleazar; de la Fuente-Salcido, Norma; Alva-Murillo, Nayeli; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; López-Meza, Joel E

    2009-07-01

    Antimicrobial therapy is a useful tool to control bovine mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus, as consequence an increase in staphylococci resistant cases has been registered. Alternative strategies are desirable and bacteriocins represent attractive control agents to prevent bovine mastitis. The aim of this work was to evaluate the activity of five bacteriocins synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis against S. aureus isolates associated to bovine mastitis. Fifty S. aureus isolates were recovered from milk composite samples of 26 Holstein lactating cows from one herd during September 2007 to February 2008 in México and susceptibility of those isolates to 12 antibiotics and 5 bacteriocins from B. thuringiensis was evaluated. S. aureus isolates were mainly resistant to penicillin (92%), dicloxacillin (86%), ampicillin (74%) and erythromycin (74%); whereas susceptibility to gentamicin, trimethoprim and tetracycline was detected at, respectively, 92%, 88%, and 72%. All S. aureus isolates showed susceptibility to the five bacteriocins synthesized by B. thuringiensis, mainly to morricin 269 and kurstacin 287 followed by kenyacin 404, entomocin 420 and tolworthcin 524. Our results showed that S. aureus isolates had differences in the antimicrobial resistance patterns and were susceptible to bacteriocins produced by B. thuringiensis, which could be useful as an alternative method to control bovine mastitis. PMID:19359107

  12. Impact of selection for decreased somatic cell score on productive life and culling for mastitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Impact of continued selection for decreased somatic cell score (SCS) was examined to determine if such selection resulted in greater mastitis susceptibility and shorter productive life (PL). Holstein artificial-insemination bulls with a predicted transmitting ability (PTA) for SCS based on >=35 daug...

  13. Severity variation of clinical E.coli mastitis in cows: where do we stand?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neutrophils are key effector cells that underpin both defence and severity of clinical coliform mastitis. Increased turnover and viability of neutrophils in the lumen of the bovine mammary gland facilitate the physiological response and acute inflammation that fuel this effective mammary defence mec...

  14. Methods for identification of Staphylococcus aureus isolates in cases of bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Boerlin, Patrick; Kuhnert, Peter; Hüssy, Daniela; Schaellibaum, Melchior

    2003-02-01

    A total of 272 staphylococcal isolates from cases of bovine mastitis (159 Staphylococcus aureus) belonging to 12 different species were identified with ID32 STAPH galleries, and 51 of them were confirmed by 16S rRNA gene (rrs) sequencing. The same isolates were examined for their hemolytic activity on sheep blood agar, DNase activity, and coagulase activity and with two rapid identification kits (Slidex Staph Plus kit and RAPIDEC Staph from Bio-Merieux). The results of this study confirm those obtained by other groups with hemolysis, DNase, and coagulase. Only 50% of S. aureus isolates from mastitis cases show coagulase activity after 4 h of incubation, and a 24-h incubation is necessary for the full sensitivity of this test. In contrast to results from other studies with human isolates, the Slidex Staph Plus kit was not sensitive enough for the identification of S. aureus from bovine mastitis samples. The aurease test of the RAPIDEC Staph kit showed 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Used in conjunction with hemolysis patterns, the RAPIDEC Staph kit is therefore very well adapted to rapid, efficient, and cost-effective identification of S. aureus in cultures from bovine mastitis samples. Sequencing of rrs genes also proved very efficient in identifying the Staphylococcus species encountered in these samples and confirming phenotypical identification results with unsatisfactory scores. With continuously improving technologies and decreasing costs, genetic identification methods like rrs gene sequencing will soon find a place in routine veterinary diagnostics. PMID:12574280

  15. Methods for Identification of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates in Cases of Bovine Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Boerlin, Patrick; Kuhnert, Peter; Hüssy, Daniela; Schaellibaum, Melchior

    2003-01-01

    A total of 272 staphylococcal isolates from cases of bovine mastitis (159 Staphylococcus aureus) belonging to 12 different species were identified with ID32 STAPH galleries, and 51 of them were confirmed by 16S rRNA gene (rrs) sequencing. The same isolates were examined for their hemolytic activity on sheep blood agar, DNase activity, and coagulase activity and with two rapid identification kits (Slidex Staph Plus kit and RAPIDEC Staph from Bio-Merieux). The results of this study confirm those obtained by other groups with hemolysis, DNase, and coagulase. Only 50% of S. aureus isolates from mastitis cases show coagulase activity after 4 h of incubation, and a 24-h incubation is necessary for the full sensitivity of this test. In contrast to results from other studies with human isolates, the Slidex Staph Plus kit was not sensitive enough for the identification of S. aureus from bovine mastitis samples. The aurease test of the RAPIDEC Staph kit showed 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Used in conjunction with hemolysis patterns, the RAPIDEC Staph kit is therefore very well adapted to rapid, efficient, and cost-effective identification of S. aureus in cultures from bovine mastitis samples. Sequencing of rrs genes also proved very efficient in identifying the Staphylococcus species encountered in these samples and confirming phenotypical identification results with unsatisfactory scores. With continuously improving technologies and decreasing costs, genetic identification methods like rrs gene sequencing will soon find a place in routine veterinary diagnostics. PMID:12574280

  16. Use of on-farm data to guide treatment and control mastitis caused by Streptococcus uberis.

    PubMed

    Samson, Olivier; Gaudout, Nicolas; Schmitt, Ellen; Schukken, Ynte Hein; Zadoks, Ruth

    2016-09-01

    Treatment of mastitis is the most common reason for use of antimicrobial agents in dairy cattle. The responsible use of antimicrobials could be strengthened by knowledge of predictors for cure, which would help to tailor treatment decisions. Ideally, to allow for widespread uptake, this would be achieved using data that are routinely available. To assess whether this is feasible in practice, farmers were invited to submit milk samples from mastitis cases to their veterinary practice for bacteriological culture. Among 624 culture-positive samples, 251 were positive for Streptococcus uberis. Using cow-level data, cases were classified as severe, first nonsevere, repeat, or subclinical. Additional data were collected at the cow level [somatic cell count (SCC), parity, lactation stage, milk yield, fat and protein contents, treatment] and at the herd level (housing, bedding, premilking teat disinfection, postmilking teat disinfection). Severe cases were overrepresented among heifers and animals in early lactation, and repeat cases were overrepresented in cows with 3 or more lactations. The probability of cure was higher among first- and second-parity animals than among older cows, and was higher in animals with a single elevated cow-level SCC than in animals with multiple high SCC records. Results obtained in the current study are similar to those previously described for Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. Thus, routinely available cow-level information can help to predict the outcome of antimicrobial treatment of the most common causes of gram-positive mastitis. PMID:27372580

  17. Stromal fibroblasts derived from mammary gland of bovine with mastitis display inflammation-specific changes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing; He, Guiliang; Zhang, Wenyao; Xu, Tong; Qi, Hongliang; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yong; Gao, Ming-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblasts are predominant components of mammary stromal cells and play crucial roles in the development and involution of bovine mammary gland; however, whether these cells contribute to mastitis has not been demonstrated. Thus, we have undertaken biological and molecular characterization of inflammation-associated fibroblasts (INFs) extracted from bovine mammary glands with clinical mastitis and normal fibroblasts (NFs) from slaughtered dairy cows because of fractured legs during lactation. The functional contributions of INFs to normal epithelial cells were also investigated by using an in vitro co-culture model. We present evidence that the INFs were activated fibroblasts and showed inflammation-related features. Moreover, INFs significantly inhibited the proliferation and β-casein secretion of epithelial cells, as well as upregulated the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-8 in epithelial cells. These findings indicate that functional alterations can occur in stromal fibroblasts within the bovine mammary gland during mastitis, demonstrating the importance of stromal fibroblasts in bovine mastitis and its treatment. PMID:27272504

  18. Milk protein profiles in response to Streptococcus agalactiae subclinical mastitis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pongthaisong, Pongphol; Katawatin, Suporn; Thamrongyoswittayakul, Chaiyapas; Roytrakul, Sittiruk

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the milk protein profiles of normal milk and those of milk during the course of subclinical mastitis, caused by natural Streptococcus agalactiae infection. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry were used to assess protein profiles and to identify the proteins. The results showed that S. agalactiae subclinical mastitis altered the protein profiles of milk. Following Mascot database matching, 11 and 12 protein types were identified in the milk collected from healthy and S. agalactiae subclinical mastitic udders, respectively. The distinct presence of the antibacterial protein cathelicidin-1 was detected in infected milk samples, which in turn was highly correlated to the severity of subclinical mastitis as represented by the milk somatic cell count (r = 0.616), but not the bacterial count. The protein profile of milk reveals changes in the host response to S. agalactiae intramammary infection; cathelicidin-1 could therefore serve as a biomarker for the detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. PMID:26632331

  19. Prevention of bovine mastitis by a premilking teat disinfectant containing chlorous acid and chlorine dioxide.

    PubMed

    Oliver, S P; Lewis, M J; Ingle, T L; Gillespie, B E; Matthews, K R

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a premilking teat disinfectant for the prevention of mastitis in dairy cows under natural exposure conditions. Predipping was compared with a negative control using a split udder experimental design. All teats were dipped after milking with the same teat dip. Percentage of quarters newly infected by major mastitis pathogens was 34% lower in quarters with teats predipped and postdipped than in quarters with teats postdipped only. New IMI by Streptococcus uberis and Staphylococcus aureus were significantly lower in quarters with teats predipped and postdipped than in quarters with teats postdipped only. Differences in incidence of clinical mastitis between treatment groups approached significance. Predipping and postdipping were no more effective against Gram-negative bacteria, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species, and Corynebacterium bovis than postdipping only. No chapping or irritation of teats was observed, and no adverse effects were noted using the test product as a premilking and postmilking teat disinfectant. Results of this study suggest that predipping and then postdipping with the test product was a more effective procedure against major mastitis pathogens than postdipping only. PMID:8436679

  20. Antimicrobials for mastitis causing pathogens that are refractory to resistance development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Staphylococci and streptococci are both human and agricultural pathogens responsible for >50% of clinical mastitis incidents (resulting in losses to the dairy industry greater than $2 billion annually). The rise in bacterial resistance to antibiotics world-wide has precipitated the search for alter...

  1. EFFECT OF CLINICAL STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS MASTITIS ON EARLY LACTATION DAIRY GOATS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to characterize the effect of induced Staphylococcus aureus mastitis on physical parameters and milk constituents of first lactation Alpine dairy goats in early lactation (22 d in milk). The right udder half of seven goats was challenged with approximately 120 colony-forming u...

  2. Divergence of a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa during an outbreak of ovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Wright, Elli A; Di Lorenzo, Valeria; Trappetti, Claudia; Liciardi, Manuele; Orru, Germano; Viti, Carlo; Bronowski, Christina; Hall, Amanda J; Darby, Alistair C; Oggioni, Marco R; Winstanley, Craig

    2015-01-30

    Bacterial infections causing mastitis in sheep can result in severe economic losses for farmers. A large survey of milk samples from ewes with mastitis in Sardinia, Italy, indicated an increasing prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. It has been shown previously that during chronic, biofilm-associated infections P. aeruginosa populations diversify. We report the phenotypic and genomic characterisation of two clonal P. aeruginosa isolates (PSE305 and PSE306) from a mastitis infection outbreak, representing distinct colony morphology variants. In addition to pigment production, PSE305 and PSE306 differed in phenotypic characteristics including biofilm formation, utilisation of various carbon and nitrogen sources, twitching motility. We found higher levels of expression of genes associated with biofilm formation (pelB) and twitching motility (flgD) in PSE305, compared to the biofilm and twitching-defective PSE306. Comparative genomics analysis revealed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and minor insertion/deletion variations between PSE305 and PSE306, including a SNP mutation in the pilP gene of PSE306. By introducing a wild-type pilP gene we were able to partially complement the defective twitching motility of PSE306. There were also three larger regions of difference between the two genomes, indicating genomic instability. Hence, we have demonstrated that P. aeruginosa population divergence can occur during an outbreak of mastitis, leading to significant variations in phenotype and genotype, and resembling the behaviour of P. aeruginosa during chronic biofilm-associated infections. PMID:25475851

  3. Study on Correlation of Maedi-Visna Virus (MVV) with Ovine Subclinical Mastitis in Iran.

    PubMed

    Asadpour, R; Paktinat, S; Ghassemi, F; Jafari, R

    2014-06-01

    Maedi-Visna is an important slow viral disease of sheep leading to progressive pneumonia, encephalitis and mastitis. Udder is one of the organs affected by MVV. Despite the fact that in Iran Maedi-Visna is known since 2000, to the authors' knowledge correlation of subclinical mastitis and infection with MVV has not been assayed. In this study 50 milk samples from 10 flocks in East Azerbaijan Province of Iran were tested. None of the animals exhibited any clinical signs of the disease. Forty samples were collected from CMT positive ewes and ten were taken from CMT negative ewes. Milk samples were analyzed using PCR targeting gag sequence. Presence of provirus DNA was detected in one sample from CMT negative and seven samples from CMT positive ewes. These data demonstrate that 16.5 % of sheep with subclinical mastitis were infected to MVV. Thus this virus can be considered one of the main pathogenic agents of mastitis and can be dramatically transmitted to lambs by milk. PMID:25320425

  4. Stromal fibroblasts derived from mammary gland of bovine with mastitis display inflammation-specific changes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qing; He, Guiliang; Zhang, Wenyao; Xu, Tong; Qi, Hongliang; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yong; Gao, Ming-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblasts are predominant components of mammary stromal cells and play crucial roles in the development and involution of bovine mammary gland; however, whether these cells contribute to mastitis has not been demonstrated. Thus, we have undertaken biological and molecular characterization of inflammation-associated fibroblasts (INFs) extracted from bovine mammary glands with clinical mastitis and normal fibroblasts (NFs) from slaughtered dairy cows because of fractured legs during lactation. The functional contributions of INFs to normal epithelial cells were also investigated by using an in vitro co-culture model. We present evidence that the INFs were activated fibroblasts and showed inflammation-related features. Moreover, INFs significantly inhibited the proliferation and β-casein secretion of epithelial cells, as well as upregulated the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-8 in epithelial cells. These findings indicate that functional alterations can occur in stromal fibroblasts within the bovine mammary gland during mastitis, demonstrating the importance of stromal fibroblasts in bovine mastitis and its treatment. PMID:27272504

  5. Molecular epidemiology of two Klebsiella pneumoniae mastitis outbreaks on a dairy farm in New York State.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Marcos A; Welcome, Francis L; Schukken, Ynte H; Zadoks, Ruth N

    2007-12-01

    Klebsiella spp. have become an important cause of clinical mastitis in dairy cows in New York State. We describe the occurrence of two Klebsiella mastitis outbreaks on a single dairy farm. Klebsiella isolates from milk, feces, and environmental sources were compared using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR typing. The first mastitis outbreak was caused by a single strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae, RAPD type A, which was detected in milk from eight cows. RAPD type A was also isolated from the rubber liners of milking machine units after milking of infected cows and from bedding in the outbreak pen. Predominance of a single strain could indicate contagious transmission of the organism or exposure of multiple cows to an environmental point source. No new cases with RAPD type A were observed after implementation of intervention measures that targeted the prevention of transmission via the milking machine as well as improvement of environmental hygiene. A second outbreak of Klebsiella mastitis that occurred several weeks later was caused by multiple RAPD types, which rules out contagious transmission and indicates opportunistic infections originating from the environment. The diversity of Klebsiella strains as quantified with Simpson's index of discrimination was significantly higher for isolates from fecal, feed, and water samples than for isolates from milk samples. Several isolates from bedding material that had the phenotypic appearance of Klebsiella spp. were identified as being Raoultella planticola and Raoultella terrigena based on rpoB sequencing. PMID:17928424

  6. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis and associated risk factors in smallholder dairy cows in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Karimuribo, E D; Fitzpatrick, J L; Swai, E S; Bell, C; Bryant, M J; Ogden, N H; Kambarage, D M; French, N P

    2008-07-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out on 200 randomly selected farms in each of the Iringa and Tanga regions of Tanzania to estimate the prevalence and risk factors for subclinical mastitis in dairy cows kept by smallholders. Subclinical mastitis was assessed using the California mastitis test (cmt), and by the bacteriological culture of 1500 milk samples collected from 434 clinically normal cows. The percentages of the cows (and quarters) with subclinical mastitis were 75.9 per cent (46.2 per cent) when assessed by the cmt and 43.8 per cent (24.3 per cent) when assessed by culture. Factors significantly associated with an increased risk of a cmt-positive quarter were Boran breed (odds radio [or]=3.51), a brought-in cow (rather than homebred) (or=2.39), peak milk yield, and age. The stripping method of hand milking was associated with a significantly lower prevalence of cmt-positive quarters (or=0.51). The cmt-positive cows were more likely to be culture positive (or=4.51), as were brought-in (or=2.10) and older cows. PMID:18603630

  7. Enhanced host immune recognition of E.coli causing mastitis in CD-14 transgenic mice.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherchia coli causes mastitis, an economically significant disease in dairy animals. E. coli endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) when bound by host membrane proteins such as CD-14, causes release of pro-inflammatory cytokines recruiting neutrophils as a early innate immune response. Excessive pr...

  8. Targeting mucosal immunity in the battle to develop a mastitis vaccine.

    PubMed

    Bharathan, Mini; Mullarky, Isis K

    2011-12-01

    The mucosal immune system encounters antigens that enhance and suppress immune function, and serves as a selective barrier against invading pathogens. The mammary gland not only encounters antigens but also produces a nutrient evolved to protect and enhance mucosal development in the neonate. Efforts to manipulate antibody concentrations in milk to prevent mastitis, an infection of the mammary gland, have been hampered both by complexity and variation in target pathogens and limited knowledge of cellular immunity in the gland. Successful vaccination strategies must overcome the natural processes that regulate types and concentrations of milk antibodies for neonatal development, and enhance cellular immunity. Furthermore, the need to overcome dampening of immunity caused by non-pathogenic encounters to successfully prevent establishment of infection is an additional obstacle in vaccine development at mucosal sites. A significant mastitis pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, not only resides as a normal flora on a multitude of species, but also causes clinical disease with limited treatment options. Using the bovine model of S. aureus mastitis, researchers can decipher the role of antigen selection and presentation by mammary dendritic cells, enhance development of central and effector memory function, and subsequently target specific memory cells to the mammary gland for successful vaccine development. This brief review provides an overview of adaptive immunity, previous vaccine efforts, current immunological findings relevant to enhancing immune memory, and research technologies that show promise in directing future vaccine efforts to enhance mammary gland immunity and prevent mastitis. PMID:21968537

  9. Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Mast36, a Strain Isolated from Bovine Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Gazzola, Simona; Fontana, Cecilia; Bassi, Daniela; Cocconcelli, Pier-Sandro; von Wright, Atte

    2015-01-01

    The genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Mast36, isolated from bovine mastitis, is reported here. This strain was shown to be able to grow in milk and still possess genes of vegetable origin. The genome also contains a cluster of genes associated with pathogenicity. PMID:25999570

  10. Molecular Epidemiology of Two Klebsiella pneumoniae Mastitis Outbreaks on a Dairy Farm in New York State▿

    PubMed Central

    Munoz, Marcos A.; Welcome, Francis L.; Schukken, Ynte H.; Zadoks, Ruth N.

    2007-01-01

    Klebsiella spp. have become an important cause of clinical mastitis in dairy cows in New York State. We describe the occurrence of two Klebsiella mastitis outbreaks on a single dairy farm. Klebsiella isolates from milk, feces, and environmental sources were compared using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR typing. The first mastitis outbreak was caused by a single strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae, RAPD type A, which was detected in milk from eight cows. RAPD type A was also isolated from the rubber liners of milking machine units after milking of infected cows and from bedding in the outbreak pen. Predominance of a single strain could indicate contagious transmission of the organism or exposure of multiple cows to an environmental point source. No new cases with RAPD type A were observed after implementation of intervention measures that targeted the prevention of transmission via the milking machine as well as improvement of environmental hygiene. A second outbreak of Klebsiella mastitis that occurred several weeks later was caused by multiple RAPD types, which rules out contagious transmission and indicates opportunistic infections originating from the environment. The diversity of Klebsiella strains as quantified with Simpson's index of discrimination was significantly higher for isolates from fecal, feed, and water samples than for isolates from milk samples. Several isolates from bedding material that had the phenotypic appearance of Klebsiella spp. were identified as being Raoultella planticola and Raoultella terrigena based on rpoB sequencing. PMID:17928424

  11. Diagnostic methods for mastitis in cows are not appropriate for use in humans: commentary.

    PubMed

    Kvist, Linda J

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare workers are now being targeted for marketing of diagnostic tools for mastitis that were developed for the dairy industry and which aim to provide information regarding choice of antibiotic treatment. Meanwhile, scientists are striving to understand how the human microbiome affects health and wellbeing and the importance of maintenance of bacterial balance in the human body. Breast milk supplies a multitude of bacteria to populate the baby's intestinal tract and kick-start the immune system. Researchers propose a paradigm shift in the understanding of bacterial content in breast milk and an alternative paradigm for the understanding of lactational mastitis: there is the beginning of evidence that many cases of lactational mastitis will resolve spontaneously. An international group of researchers is attempting to answer how dietary habits, birth mode, genetics and environmental factors may impact the bacterial content of breast milk. Until we have more comprehensive knowledge about the human milk microbiome, diagnostic aids for identification of women in need of antibiotic therapy for mastitis remain unreliable. Diagnostic aids could lead to the injudicious use of antibiotic therapy, which in turn may rob the infant of bacteria valuable for development of its immune system. The marketing of diagnostic aids for use in human medicine, that were originally developed for use in cows, is neither evidence-based nor good ethical practice. PMID:26877759

  12. Genome Sequences of Klebsiella variicola Isolates from Dairy Animals with Bovine Mastitis from Newfoundland, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Fraser W.; Whitney, Hugh G.

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella variicola was recently reported as an emerging and/or previously misidentified species associated with opportunistic infections in humans. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of K. variicola isolates from two animals with clinical mastitis from a dairy farm in Newfoundland, Canada. PMID:26358587

  13. Genome Sequence Analysis of Staphylococcus equorum Bovine Mastitis Isolate UMC-CNS-924

    PubMed Central

    Calcutt, Michael J.; Foecking, Mark F.; Hsieh, Hsin-Yeh; Perry, Jeanette; Stewart, George C.

    2013-01-01

    Intramammary infections in dairy cattle are frequently caused by staphylococci, resulting in mastitis and associated economic losses. A draft genome sequence was determined for Staphylococcus equorum UMC-CNS-924, isolated from the milk of a Holstein cow, to better understand the genetic basis of its pathogenesis and adaptation to the bovine mammary gland. PMID:24136848

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Bovine Mastitis Isolate Staphylococcus agnetis CBMRN 20813338

    PubMed Central

    Calcutt, Michael J.; Foecking, Mark F.; Fry, Pamela R.; Hsieh, Hsin-Yeh; Perry, Jeanette; Stewart, George C.; Scholl, Daniel T.; Messier, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Presented here is a draft genome sequence for Staphylococcus agnetis CBMRN 20813338, isolated from a lactating dairy cow with subclinical mastitis. The genome is approximately 2,416 kb and has 35.79% G+C content. Analysis of the deduced open reading frame (ORF) set identified candidate virulence attributes in addition to potential molecular targets for species identification. PMID:25189590

  15. Treatments of clinical mastitis occurring in cows on 51 large dairy herds in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, L; Ruegg, P L

    2014-09-01

    Antimicrobials are frequently used for treatment of bovine mastitis and few studies have examined modern treatment strategies on large US dairy farms. The objective of this study was to describe treatment practices for clinical mastitis occurring in cows on large dairy herds in Wisconsin. Treatments performed on 747 cows experiencing cases of mild, moderate, or severe symptoms of clinical mastitis were recorded on 51 Wisconsin dairy farms. Duplicate milk samples were collected from the affected quarter for microbiological analysis at the onset of clinical mastitis and 14 to 21 d after treatment ended. Cows were treated according to individual farm protocol. Drugs and doses used for treatments were recorded for each case. Among all herds, 5 intramammary (IMM) antimicrobials (amoxicillin, hetacillin, pirlimycin, ceftiofur, and cephapirin) were used to treat cows for clinical mastitis. Of 712 cows with complete treatment data, 71.6% were treated with IMM ceftiofur either solely or combined with other antimicrobials (administered either IMM or systemically). Of cows experiencing severe symptoms of clinical mastitis, 43.8% received IMM treatment concurrent with systemic antimicrobials. Of all cows treated, 23.1% received an additional secondary treatment (either IMM, systemic, or both) because of perceived lack of response to the initial treatment. The majority of IMM treatments were administered to cows with a microbiological diagnosis of no growth (34.9%) or Escherichia coli (27.2%). Half of the cows experiencing cases caused by E. coli were treated using systemic antimicrobials in contrast to only 6.8% of cows experiencing cases caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci. In conflict with FDA regulations, which do not allow extra-label treatments using sulfonamides, a total of 22 cows from 8 farms were treated with systemic sulfadimethoxine either solely or in combination with oxytetracycline. Antimicrobial drugs were used on all herds and many cows received extra

  16. The environmental impact of mastitis: a case study of dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Hospido, Almudena; Sonesson, Ulf

    2005-05-01

    Mastitis is defined as an inflammatory reaction of udder tissue to bacterial, chemical, thermal or mechanical injury, which causes heavy financial losses and milk wastage throughout the world. Until now, studies have focused on the economic aspects from which perspective mastitis can generally be considered as the most serious disease in dairy cows; however, costs are not the only negative consequence resulting from the infection. The environmental impact is also significant; milk is discarded, which means lower efficiency and hence a greater environmental impact per produced liter of milk. Less milk is produced, which leads to an increased need for calf feed, and meat production is also affected. The main aim of this paper was to quantify the environmental impact of mastitis incidence. A standard scenario (representative of present-day reality in Galicia, Spain) and an improved scenario (in which mastitis incidence rate is reduced by diverse actions) have been defined and compared using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. Among the impact categories studied, acidification, eutrophication and global warming were found to be the most significant environmental impacts. In all these categories, it was revealed that a decrease in mastitis incidence has a positive influence as the environmental impact is reduced. Even if the quantitative results cannot show a considerable decrease in the environmental burden, the impact cannot be regarded as negligible when the total consumption or total production of a region is considered. For example, the outcome of the proposed improvement measures for Spain's greenhouse gas emissions can be quantified as 0.06% of total emissions and 0.56% of emissions by the agricultural sector. PMID:15862837

  17. Lymphocytic mastitis and diabetic mastopathy: a molecular, immunophenotypic, and clinicopathologic evaluation of 11 cases.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Riccardo; Thorson, John; Finn, William G; Schnitzer, Bertram; Kleer, Celina G

    2003-03-01

    Lymphocytic mastitis and diabetic mastopathy are uncommon fibroinflammatory breast diseases. The lesions seen in these entities are unique in that the associated lymphoid infiltrates are composed of predominantly B cells. In addition, B-cell lymphoepithelial lesions, a finding commonly associated with extranodal marginal zone B-cell/mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas, are also often present in lymphocytic mastitis and diabetic mastopathy. Although the clinical and immunomorphologic features are well characterized, the clonality of the B-cell infiltrate and the lymphomatous potential of lymphocytic mastitis and diabetic mastopathy have not been emphasized in the literature. We evaluated 11 cases of lymphocytic mastitis/diabetic mastopathy for immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement and correlated the findings with all available clinical data. A longstanding history of Type I diabetes mellitus was present in seven patients. One nondiabetic patient had Sjogren's syndrome, and two patients had no history of diabetes mellitus or other autoimmune disease. Clinical data were unavailable for one patient. B-cell-predominant lymphoid infiltrates were seen in all cases, and B-cell lymphoepithelial lesions were found in five. No evidence of a B-cell clone was found in any of the 11 cases by appropriately controlled immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement studies, and none of the patients developed lymphoma during follow-up intervals ranging from 2-126 months. These findings suggest that despite the presence of B-cell-predominant lymphoid infiltrates and lymphoepithelial lesions, lymphocytic mastitis and diabetic mastopathy do not appear to be associated with an increased risk for lymphoma. PMID:12640102

  18. Genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus in bovine mastitis and correlation to phenotypic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Artursson, Karin; Söderlund, Robert; Liu, Lihong; Monecke, Stefan; Schelin, Jenny

    2016-09-25

    Reducing the prevalence of mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is essential to improve animal health and reduce economic losses for farmers. The clinical outcome of acute mastitis and risk of progression to persistent mastitis can, at least to some extent, be related to genetic variants of the strain causing the infection. In the present study we have used microarrays to investigate the presence of virulence genes in S. aureus isolates from dairy cows with acute clinical mastitis (n=70) and correlated the findings to other genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. Among the most commonly found virulence factors were genes encoding several hemolysin types, leukocidins D and lukM/lukF-P83, clumping factors A and B, fibrinogen binding protein and fibronectin-binding protein A. Some virulence factors e.g. fibronectin-binding protein B and Staphylococcus aureus surface protein G were less common. Genes coding for several staphylococcal enterotoxins and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) were commonly found, especially in one major pulsotype. No beta-lactamase genes were found in any common pulsotype, while present in some rare pulsotypes, indicated to be of human origin. Production of TSST-1, enterotoxins, hemolysins and beta-lactamase could all be positively correlated to presence of the corresponding genes. This study reveals a number of genotypic differences and similarities among common and rare pulsotypes of S. aureus from cases of mastitis in Sweden. The results could help the design of diagnostic tools to guide on-farm interventions according to the expected impact on udder health from a specific S. aureus genotype. PMID:27599942

  19. Effect of somatic cell count and mastitis pathogens on milk composition in Gyr cows

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gyr cows are well adapted to tropical conditions, resistant to some tropical diseases and have satisfactory milk production. However, Gyr dairy herds have a high prevalence of subclinical mastitis, which negatively affects their milk yield and composition. The objectives of this study were (i) to evaluate the effects of seasonality, mammary quarter location (rear x front), mastitis-causing pathogen species, and somatic cell count (SCC) on milk composition in Gyr cows with mammary quarters as the experimental units and (ii) to evaluate the effects of seasonality and somatic cell count (SCC) on milk composition in Gyr cows with cows as the experimental units. A total of 221 lactating Gyr cows from three commercial dairy farms were selected for this study. Individual foremilk quarter samples and composite milk samples were collected once a month over one year from all lactating cows for analysis of SCC, milk composition, and bacteriological culture. Results Subclinical mastitis reduced lactose, nonfat solids and total solids content, but no difference was found in the protein and fat content between infected and uninfected quarters. Seasonality influenced milk composition both in mammary quarters and composite milk samples. Nevertheless, there was no effect of mammary quarter position on milk composition. Mastitis-causing pathogens affected protein, lactose, nonfat solids, and total solids content, but not milk fat content. Somatic cell count levels affected milk composition in both mammary quarters and composite samples of milk. Conclusions Intramammary infections in Gyr cows alter milk composition; however, the degree of change depends on the mastitis-causing pathogen. Somatic cell count is negatively associated with reduced lactose and nonfat solids content in milk. Seasonality significantly affects milk composition, in which the concentration of lactose, fat, protein, nonfat solids and total solids differs between dry and wet seasons in Gyr cows. PMID

  20. Differences in susceptibility to Mannheimia haemolytica-associated mastitis between two breeds of dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Fragkou, Ilectra A; Skoufos, John; Cripps, Peter J; Kyriazakis, Ilias; Papaioannou, Nikos; Boscos, Costas M; Tzora, Athina; Fthenakis, George C

    2007-08-01

    We used a Mannheimia haemolytica isolate to study differences in susceptibility to experimental mastitis between two breeds of dairy sheep. The isolate was deposited into the teat duct of Karagouniko (K, n=8) or Frisarta (F, n=8) ewes. The animals were monitored by means of clinical, bacteriological, cytological and pathological methods. K ewes did not develop any systemic or mammary clinical signs, whilst F ewes became ill and developed acute clinical mastitis 12 h later (P<0.001). Bacteria were isolated from 34/48 samples from K ewes and from 46/46 samples from F ewes. Positive California mastitis test (CMT) results were 17/24 samples from K ewes and 23/23 samples from F ewes; leucocytes were seen in Giemsa-stained films. Total pathology score summed over all group K ewes was 41 (maximum possible: 128); Man. haemolytica was isolated from 12/24 tissue samples. Total pathology score summed over all group F ewes was 93; Man. haemolytica was isolated from 24/24 tissue samples. Hyperplastic lymphoid nodules consisting of lymphocytes and plasma cells with germinal activity were characteristically present at the border between teat duct-teat cistern of group K ewes; no such structures were observed in teats of group F ewes. The results identified differences in susceptibility/resistance to a mastitis pathogen among animals of the two breeds. Defence mechanisms of the teat appeared to be inadequate against the invading organisms; as lymphoid nodules have been considered important defensive mechanisms of the ovine teat, their observed lack in Frisarta ewes might have predisposed them to development of mastitis. PMID:17451623

  1. Cow-specific risk factors for clinical mastitis in Brazilian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C S F; Hogeveen, H; Botelho, A M; Maia, P V; Coelho, S G; Haddad, J P A

    2015-10-01

    Information related to mastitis risk factors is useful for the design and implementation of clinical mastitis (CM) control programs. The first objective of our study was to model the risk of CM under Brazilian conditions, using cow-specific risk factors. Our second objective was to explore which risk factors were associated with the occurrence of the most common pathogens involved in Brazilian CM infections. The analyses were based on 65 months of data from 9,789 dairy cows and 12,464 CM cases. Cow-specific risk factors that could easily be measured in standard Brazilian dairy farms were used in the statistical analyses, which included logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression. The first month of lactation, high somatic cell count, rainy season and history of clinical mastitis cases were factors associated with CM for both primiparous and multiparous cows. In addition, parity and breed were also associated risk factors for multiparous cows. Of all CM cases, 54% showed positive bacteriological culturing results from which 57% were classified as environmental pathogens, with a large percentage of coliforms (35%). Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (16%), Streptococcus uberis (9%), Streptococcus agalactiae (7%) and other Streptococci (9%) were also common pathogens. Among the pathogens analyzed, the association of cow-specific risk factors, such as Zebu breed (OR=5.84, 95%CI 3.77-10.77) and accumulated history of SCC (1.76, 95%CI 1.37-2.27), was different for CM caused by Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and S. agalactiae in comparison to CM caused by coliforms. Our results suggest that CM control programs in Brazil should specially consider the recent history of clinical mastitis cases and the beginning of the lactations, mainly during the rainy season as important risk factor for mastitis. PMID:26302854

  2. Occurrence and characterization of methicillin-resistant staphylococci from bovine mastitis milk samples in Finland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) are increasingly being isolated in bovine mastitis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the occurrence of MRS in Finnish mastitis milk samples and characterize the MRS isolates using molecular methods. Results Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was a rare finding in bovine mastitis in Finland. Only two out of 135 (1.5%) S. aureus isolates were positive for mec genes. One of these carried mecA and was of spa type t172, SCCmec type IV and ST375, and the other harboured mecC, being spa type t3256, and ST130. MRSA ST375 is common among human MRSA isolates in Finland, but this is the first report in the country of bovine mecC MRSA. In coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) originating from bovine mastitis, methicillin resistance was more common. In the two CoNS collections studied, 5.2% (17/324) and 1.8% (2/110) of the isolates were mecA positive. Eighteen of these were methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE), which were divided into 6 separate PFGE clusters. One pulsotype was detected in different parts of the country, indicating clonal spread. Most MRSE (13/18) were of SCCmec type IV, one was of type V and four were non-typeable. Comparison with a human staphylococcal database indicated that bovine MRSE strains were not closely related to human MRSE isolates. Conclusions The occurrence of MRS, especially MRSA, in bovine mastitis in Finland was low. Most methicillin-resistant bovine CoNS are MRSE, and we found evidence of a bovine MRSE strain that may spread clonally. This is the first report of a Finnish bovine isolate of MRSAmecC ST130. The study provides a baseline for further MRS monitoring. PMID:23985065

  3. Terapia hormonal para la menopausia y el cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa acerca de los resultados de los estudios sobre el uso de la terapia hormonal para la menopausia. Incluye información sobre el efecto de esta terapia en el cuerpo y explica los riesgos y beneficios del uso de hormonas.

  4. Use of rumination and activity monitoring for the identification of dairy cows with health disorders: Part II. Mastitis.

    PubMed

    Stangaferro, M L; Wijma, R; Caixeta, L S; Al-Abri, M A; Giordano, J O

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate (1) the performance of an automated health-monitoring system (AHMS) to identify cows with mastitis based on an alert system (health index score, HIS) that combines rumination time and physical activity; (2) the number of days between the first HIS alert and clinical diagnosis (CD) of mastitis by farm personnel; and (3) the daily rumination time, physical activity, and HIS patterns around CD. Holstein cows (n=1,121; 451 nulliparous and 670 multiparous) were fitted with a neck-mounted electronic rumination and activity monitoring tag (HR Tags, SCR Dairy, Netanya, Israel.) from at least -21 to 80 d in milk (DIM). Raw data collected in 2-h periods were summarized per 24 h as daily rumination and activity. An HIS (0 to 100 arbitrary units) was calculated daily for individual cows with an algorithm that used rumination and activity. A positive HIS outcome was defined as an HIS of <86 units during at least 1 d from -5 to 2 d after CD. Blood concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, total calcium, and haptoglobin were also determined in a subgroup of cows (n=459) at -11±3, -4±3, 0, 3±1, 7±1, 14±1, and 28±1 DIM. The sensitivity of the HIS was 58% [95% confidence interval (CI): 49, 67] for all cases of clinical mastitis (n=123), and 55% (95% CI: 46, 64; n=114) and 89% (95% CI: 68, 100; n=9) for cases of mastitis alone or concurrent with other health disorders, respectively. Among clinical cases, sensitivity was 80.7% (95% CI: 67, 97) for cases caused by Escherichia coli (n=31) and ranged from 45 to 48% for cases caused by gram-positive bacteria (n=39; Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Trueperella pyogenes), Staphylococcus aureus (n=11), or cases with no bacterial growth (n=25). Days between the first HIS <86 and CD were -0.6 (95% CI: -1.1, -0.2) for all cases of mastitis. Cows diagnosed with mastitis had alterations

  5. Bayesian integration of sensor information and a multivariate dynamic linear model for prediction of dairy cow mastitis.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Dan B; Hogeveen, Henk; De Vries, Albert

    2016-09-01

    Rapid detection of dairy cow mastitis is important so corrective action can be taken as soon as possible. Automatically collected sensor data used to monitor the performance and the health state of the cow could be useful for rapid detection of mastitis while reducing the labor needs for monitoring. The state of the art in combining sensor data to predict clinical mastitis still does not perform well enough to be applied in practice. Our objective was to combine a multivariate dynamic linear model (DLM) with a naïve Bayesian classifier (NBC) in a novel method using sensor and nonsensor data to detect clinical cases of mastitis. We also evaluated reductions in the number of sensors for detecting mastitis. With the DLM, we co-modeled 7 sources of sensor data (milk yield, fat, protein, lactose, conductivity, blood, body weight) collected at each milking for individual cows to produce one-step-ahead forecasts for each sensor. The observations were subsequently categorized according to the errors of the forecasted values and the estimated forecast variance. The categorized sensor data were combined with other data pertaining to the cow (week in milk, parity, mastitis history, somatic cell count category, and season) using Bayes' theorem, which produced a combined probability of the cow having clinical mastitis. If this probability was above a set threshold, the cow was classified as mastitis positive. To illustrate the performance of our method, we used sensor data from 1,003,207 milkings from the University of Florida Dairy Unit collected from 2008 to 2014. Of these, 2,907 milkings were associated with recorded cases of clinical mastitis. Using the DLM/NBC method, we reached an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.89, with a specificity of 0.81 when the sensitivity was set at 0.80. Specificities with omissions of sensor data ranged from 0.58 to 0.81. These results are comparable to other studies, but differences in data quality, definitions of

  6. Evaluation of the California mastitis test to detect an intramammary infection with a major pathogen in early lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dingwell, Randy T; Leslie, Ken E; Schukken, Ynte H; Sargeant, Jan M; Timms, Leo L

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the California mastitis test (CMT) to detect an intramammary infection caused by a major mastitis pathogen in early lactation cows. The gold standard used for comparison was bacteriological culture of single milk samples. The sensitivity (82.4%) and specificity (80.6%) of a positive CMT were highest on the 4th day of lactation. PMID:12757133

  7. Evaluation of the California mastitis test to detect an intramammary infection with a major pathogen in early lactation dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Dingwell, Randy T.; Leslie, Ken E.; Schukken, Ynte H.; Sargeant, Jan M.; Timms, Leo L.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the California mastitis test (CMT) to detect an intramammary infection caused by a major mastitis pathogen in early lactation cows. The gold standard used for comparison was bacteriological culture of single milk samples. The sensitivity (82.4%) and specificity (80.6%) of a positive CMT were highest on the 4th day of lactation. PMID:12757133

  8. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of nitric oxide-releasing polymeric particles against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli from bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Viviane F; Lancheros, Cesar A C; Narciso, Adélia M; Valereto, Elaine C S; Kobayashi, Renata K T; Seabra, Amedea B; Nakazato, Gerson

    2014-10-01

    Bovine mastitis is a serious veterinary disease that causes great loss to the dairy industry worldwide. It is a major infectious disease and is difficult to manage and control. Furthermore, emerging multidrug resistant bacteria that cause mastitis have complicated such management. The free radical nitric oxide (NO) is a potent antimicrobial agent. Thus, the aims of this study were to prepare and evaluate the antibacterial activity of nitric oxide-releasing polymeric particles against Staphylococcus aureus (MBSA) and Escherichia coli (MBEC), which were isolated from bovine mastitis. Fifteen MBSA isolates and fifteen MBEC were collected from subclinical and clinical bovine mastitis. Biocompatible polymeric particles composed of alginate/chitosan or chitosan/sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) were prepared and used to encapsulate mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA), which is a thiol-containing molecule. Nitrosation of thiol groups of MSA-containing particles formed S-nitroso-MSA particles, which are NO donors. The NO release kinetics from the S-nitroso-MSA particles showed sustained and controlled NO release over several hours. The antibacterial activity of NO-releasing particles was evaluated by incubating the particles with an MBSA multi-resistant strain, which is responsible for bovine mastitis. The minimum inhibitory concentration for S-nitroso-MSA-alginate/chitosan particles against MBSA ranged from 125 μg/mL to 250 μg/mL. The results indicate that NO-releasing polymeric particles are an interesting approach to combating bacteria resistance in bovine mastitis treatment and prevention. PMID:24979535

  9. Combined analysis of DNA methylome and transcriptome reveal novel candidate genes with susceptibility to bovine Staphylococcus aureus subclinical mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Minyan; He, Yanghua; Zhou, Huangkai; Zhang, Yi; Li, Xizhi; Yu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical mastitis is a widely spread disease of lactating cows. Its major pathogen is Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). In this study, we performed genome-wide integrative analysis of DNA methylation and transcriptional expression to identify candidate genes and pathways relevant to bovine S. aureus subclinical mastitis. The genome-scale DNA methylation profiles of peripheral blood lymphocytes in cows with S. aureus subclinical mastitis (SA group) and healthy controls (CK) were generated by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation combined with microarrays. We identified 1078 differentially methylated genes in SA cows compared with the controls. By integrating DNA methylation and transcriptome data, 58 differentially methylated genes were shared with differently expressed genes, in which 20.7% distinctly hypermethylated genes showed down-regulated expression in SA versus CK, whereas 14.3% dramatically hypomethylated genes showed up-regulated expression. Integrated pathway analysis suggested that these genes were related to inflammation, ErbB signalling pathway and mismatch repair. Further functional analysis revealed that three genes, NRG1, MST1 and NAT9, were strongly correlated with the progression of S. aureus subclinical mastitis and could be used as powerful biomarkers for the improvement of bovine mastitis resistance. Our studies lay the groundwork for epigenetic modification and mechanistic studies on susceptibility of bovine mastitis. PMID:27411928

  10. Potential use of Bacillus thuringiensis bacteriocins to control antibiotic-resistant bacteria associated with mastitis in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Chávez, A J; Martínez-Ortega, E A; Valencia-Posadas, M; León-Galván, M F; de la Fuente-Salcido, N M; Bideshi, D K; Barboza-Corona, J E

    2016-01-01

    Mastitis caused by microbial infections in dairy goats reduces milk yield, modifies milk composition, and potentially contributes to morbidity in herds and consumers of dairy products. Microorganisms associated with mastitis in dairy goats are commonly controlled with antibiotics, but it is known that continued use of these chemical agents promotes antibiotic resistance among bacterial populations. Recently, it has been shown that bacteriocins of Bacillus thuringiensis inhibit growth of food-borne pathogens and also bacteria associated with bovine mastitis. However, there is no report on their ability to inhibit microorganisms linked to mastitis in dairy goats. In this study, using 16S rDNA and ITS regions of rDNA, we identified nine bacterial isolates and an encapsulated yeast associated with mastitis in dairy goats. Enterococcus durans, Brevibacillus sp., and Staphylococcus epidermidis 2 were resistant to, respectively, 75, ~67, ~42, and ~42 % of the antibiotics screened. In addition, 60 % of the bacterial isolates were resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, vancomycin, and dicloxacillin. Importantly, 60 % of the isolates were inhibited by the bacteriocins, but S. epidermidis 1, Enterobacter sp., Escherichia vulneris, and Cryptococcus neoformans were not susceptible to these antimicrobial peptides. Using Brevibacillus sp. and Staphylococcus chromogenes as indicator bacteria, we show that peptides of ~10 kDa that correspond to the molecular mass of bacteriocins used in this study are responsible for the inhibitory activity. Our results demonstrate that multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria associated with subclinical mastitis in dairy goats from Guanajuato, Mexico, are susceptible to bacteriocins produced by B. thuringiensis. PMID:26022411

  11. Hoja informativa del alcohol y el riesgo de cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa que resume la comprobación de la relación entre el consumo de alcohol y el riesgo de varios cánceres. Incluye información de los factores que afectan el riesgo de cánceres asociados con el alcohol, como son los genes y el uso de tabaco.

  12. Effect of mastitis on luteal function and pregnancy rates in buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Mohamed Mohsen; Hendawy, Amin O; Zeitoun, Moustafa M

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mastitis on CL development and function and pregnancy rate in buffaloes. Sixty-six buffaloes (Bubalus bubalus) reared in a commercial farm at El-Beheira governorate, north of Egypt were used in this study. According to the visual observation of milk, physical examination of the udder and actual somatic cell count in milk, buffalo cows were divided into three groups: without mastitis (W), n = 23; subclinical mastitis (SC), n = 18; and clinical mastitis (C), n = 25. All buffalo cows were synchronized by double dose of PGF2α (11-day interval) and inseminated by frozen-thawed semen of fertile bull. Mean CL diameter was ultrasonically examined on Days 5, 9, 12, 16, 21, and 25 after artificial insemination (AI). Blood samples were taken on the days of ultrasonography for progesterone (P4) assay. Results indicated that pregnancy rates were lower (P < 0.05) in C (28.00%) and SC (55.56%) compared with W (69.57%) on Day 25 after first AI. Pregnancy rates reduced to 60.87%, 44.45%, and 16.00% in W, SC, and C, respectively, at Day 45 after insemination. Thus, the embryonic loss was 8.7%, 11.11%, and 12.00 % in W, SC, and C cows, respectively. Pregnancy rates decreased between 44.32% and 50.51% when mastitis occurred during Day -15 before to Day +30 after AI, compared with 59.22% in the uninfected cows. The diameter of CL was greater (P < 0.05) in W than SC and C cows starting at Day 9 postbreeding onward. Likewise, P4 concentrations on Days 9 through 25 after AI were greater (P < 0.05) in W cows as compared to SC and C cows. Positive correlations (P < 0.01) were found on Days 5, 9, 12, 16, 21, and 25 after AI between CL diameter and P4 concentrations. Similar trend was found among CL diameter, P4 concentrations, and pregnancy rate. Accordingly, incidence of mastitis revealed suppression to both CL diameter and function leading to significant reduction in pregnancy outcome of buffalo cows. PMID:27177967

  13. In vitro evaluation of a novel bacteriophage cocktail as a preventative for bovine coliform mastitis.

    PubMed

    Porter, J; Anderson, J; Carter, L; Donjacour, E; Paros, M

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential use of bacteriophage in preventing Escherichia coli mastitis on dairies. A cocktail consisting of 4 distinct bacteriophages was generated by screening against 36 E. coli isolates from dairy cows in Washington State with clinical mastitis. The bacteriophage significantly inhibited growth of 58% of the Washington State isolates and 54% of E. coli mastitis isolates from New York State, suggesting that the cocktail of phages had a relatively broad spectrum of action against relevant strains from 2 distinct geographies. The ability to suppress bacterial growth of these isolates in a liquid growth medium was not affected by the ratio of bacteriophage particles to bacterial cells (multiplicity of infection, MOI). For those E. coli that were completely inhibited by the phage cocktail, an MOI as low as 10 had the same effect as 10 µg/mL of ceftiofur on the growth rate of E. coli over a 12-h period using optical density measurements. A 3.3- to 5.6-log reduction of growth was achieved when E. coli was co-incubated with our phage cocktail in raw milk over a 12-h period at physiologic temperature. A modified gentamicin protection assay using bovine mammary epithelial cells provided a model to test whether bacteriophage could prevent cell attachment and invasion by chronic coliform mastitis strains. Pretreatment of cell cultures with the phage cocktail significantly reduced adhesion and intracellular survival of E. coli compared with controls. When combined with a bismuth-based teat sealant, the phage cocktail was able to inhibit bacterial growth when challenged with 1.6 × 10(3) cfu/mL of a clinical mastitis E. coli strain. In vitro results show bactericidal activity by our phage in raw milk and mammary tissue culture systems. Before a bacteriophage-based dry-cow treatment becomes a potential option for dairies, in vivo studies must be able to demonstrate that a specific dose of bacteriophage can protect cows from

  14. Use of milk amyloid A in the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Miglio, Arianna; Moscati, Livia; Fruganti, Gabriele; Pela, Michela; Scoccia, Eleonora; Valiani, Andrea; Maresca, Carmen

    2013-11-01

    Subclinical mastitis (SM) is one of the most important diseases affecting dairy ewes worldwide, with negative impact on the animal health, farm income and public health. Animals with SM often remain untreated because the disease may not be revealed. Increase in somatic cell count (SCC) and positive bacteriology for mastitis pathogens in milk samples are indicative of SM but the evidence of only one of these alterations must suggest an uncertain SM (UM). UM is defined when positive bacteriological examination (Latent-SM) or SCC>500 000 cells/ml (non-specific-SM) are detected in milk. Nevertheless, SCC and bacteriological examination are expensive, time consuming and are not yet in use at the farm level in dairy ewes. Recently, a sensitive acute phase protein, amyloid A, displaying multiple isoforms in plasma and different body fluids including mammary secretion (milk amyloid A-MAA), has been investigated as a marker of mastitis in cows and, in a few studies, in sheep. The aim of this trial was to compare the concentration of MAA of single udder-halves in ewes with healthy udder-halves (HU-control group) and naturally occurring subclinical mastitis, both confirmed (SM group) and uncertain (UM groups: Latent-SM and non-specific-SM), for monitoring udder health. The reliability of a specific ELISA kit for the measurement of MAA was also tested. During a 3-month trial period, 153 udder halves were assigned to the experimental groups based on their health status: 25 with SM, 40 with UM (11 with latent-SM and 29 with non-specific-SM) and 88 HU. SCC and bacteriological analysis were performed to establish the control and subclinical mastitis groups. MAA concentrations in milk samples were measured using a specific commercially milk ELISA kit. The data were submitted to statistical analysis. Significant (P<0·05) differences among the groups SM, non-specific-SM and HU were detected with the SM having the highest level and HU the lowest. MAA concentration is affected by

  15. Sensitivity and specificity of infrared thermography in detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Polat, B; Colak, A; Cengiz, M; Yanmaz, L E; Oral, H; Bastan, A; Kaya, S; Hayirli, A

    2010-08-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine interrelationships among mastitis indicators and evaluate the subclinical mastitis detection ability of infrared thermography (IRT) in comparison with the California Mastitis Test (CMT). Somatic cell count (SCC), CMT, and udder skin surface temperature (USST) data were compiled from 62 Brown Swiss dairy cows (days in milk=117+/-51, milk yield=14.7+/-5.2 kg; mean +/- SD). The CORR, REG, and NLIN procedures of Statistical Analysis System (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) were employed to attain interrelationships among mastitis indicators. The diagnostic merit of IRT as an indirect measure of subclinical mastitis was compared with CMT using the receiver operating characteristics curves. The udder skin surface temperature was positively correlated with the CMT score (r=0.86) and SCC (r=0.73). There was an exponential increase in SCC (SCC, x10(3) cells/mL=22.35 x e(1.31 x CMT score); R(2)=0.98) and a linear increase in USST (USST, degrees C=33.45+1.08 x CMT score; R(2)=0.75) as the CMT score increased. As SCC increased, USST increased logarithmically [USST, degrees C=28.72+0.49 x ln(SCC, x10(3) cells/mL); R(2)=0.72]. The USST for healthy quarters (SCC 400,000 cells/mL; n=135) (mean +/- SE; 33.45+/-0.09 vs. 35.80+/-0.08 degrees C). The sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 95.6, 93.6, 14.97, 0.05, 95.0, and 93.6, respectively, for IRT and 88.9, 98.9, 83.56, 0.11, 99.2, and 86.1, respectively, for CMT. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for IRT and CMT was not different. In conclusion, as a noninvasive and quick tool, IRT can be employed for screening subclinical mastitis via measuring USST, with a high predictive diagnostic ability similar to CMT when microbiological culturing is unavailable. However, the

  16. Impact of livestock hygiene education programs on mastitis in smallholder water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Chitwan, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Ng, Linda; Jost, Christine; Robyn, Misha; Dhakal, I P; Bett, Bernard; Dhakal, Pramod; Khadka, Rupak

    2010-09-01

    A project implemented from 2003 to 2005 trained women in Chitwan District, Nepal, in hygienic dairy production using a process of social mobilization. The aim of this research was to assess if the prevalence of mastitis in water buffalo in the households of women who were trained was lower one year after training than in untrained households, if the training influenced knowledge and practices for the prevention or control of mastitis, and if these practices and knowledge were associated with a lower prevalence of mastitis. A total of 202 households from Eastern and Western Chitwan District were included in the study. Of these, 60 households had participated in the project and 142 had not. Milk samples were collected from 129 households (33 project households and 96 non-project households). Clinical mastitis was determined using visual inspection of udders and detection of macroscopic clots and flakes in milk. The California Mastitis Test was used to diagnose sub-clinical mastitis from milk samples, and the IDEXX SNAP test to identify the presence of tetracycline residues. The prevalence of mastitis in trained households (39.4%) was 43.78% of that in untrained households (60.4%), lower but not significantly so (p=0.08, 95% CI 0.17-1.12). Thirteen indicators of knowledge or practice for the control or prevention of mastitis were more likely to occur in trained households, four significantly so (not consuming milk from sick buffalo (p=0.001), using soap to wash hands before milking (p=0.001), discarding milk after antibiotic usage (p=0.01), and choosing appropriate flooring for their livestock (p=0.03)). Trained households that discarded milk from sick buffalo were 2.96 times more likely to have at least one animal with mastitis in the household (p=0.03, 95% CI 1.15-7.65). Trained households that knew to wash buffalos' teats after milking were less likely (OR 0.25) to have mastitis in their herd (p=0.02, 95% CI 0.08-0.80). Of the 138 buffalos tested, only one tested

  17. Impact of Livestock Hygiene Education Programs on Mastitis in Smallholder Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Chitwan, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Linda; Jost, Christine; Robyn, Misha; Dhakal, I.P.; Bett, Bernard; Dhakal, Pramod; Khadkha, Rupak

    2010-01-01

    A project implemented from 2003–2005 trained women in Chitwan District, Nepal, in hygienic dairy production using a process of social mobilization. The aim of this research was to assess if the prevalence of mastitis in water buffalo in the households of women who were trained was lower one year after training than in untrained households, if the training influenced knowledge and practices for the prevention or control of mastitis, and if these practices and knowledge were associated with a lower prevalence of mastitis. A total of 202 households from Eastern and Western Chitwan District were included in the study. Of these, 60 households had participated in the project and 142 had not. Milk samples were collected from 129 households (33 project households and 96 non-project households). Clinical mastitis was determined using visual inspection of udders and detection of macroscopic clots and flakes in milk. The California Mastitis Test was used to diagnose sub-clinical mastitis from milk samples, and the IDEXX SNAP test to identify the presence of tetracycline residues. The prevalence of mastitis in trained households (39.4%) was 43.78% of that in untrained households (60.4%), lower but not significantly so (p = 0.08, 95% CI 0.17–1.12). Thirteen indicators of knowledge or practice for the control or prevention of mastitis were more likely to occur in trained households, four significantly so (not consuming milk from sick buffalo (p=0.001), using soap to wash hands before milking (p=0.001), discarding milk after antibiotic usage (p=0.01), and choosing appropriate flooring for their livestock (p=0.03)). Trained households that discarded milk from sick buffalo were 2.96 times more likely to have at least one animal with mastitis in the household (p=0.03, 95% CI 1.15–7.65). Trained households that knew to wash buffalos teats after milking were less likely (OR 0.25) to have mastitis in their herd ((p=0.02, 95% CI 0.08–0.80). Of the 138 buffalos tested, only one

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring of mastitis pathogens isolated from acute cases of clinical mastitis in dairy cows across Europe: VetPath results.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Valérie; de Jong, Anno; Moyaert, Hilde; Simjee, Shabbir; El Garch, Farid; Morrissey, Ian; Marion, Hervé; Vallé, Michel

    2015-07-01

    VetPath is an ongoing pan-European antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring programme collecting pathogens from diseased cattle, pigs and poultry not recently treated with antibiotics. Non-replicate milk samples were collected from cows with acute clinical mastitis in eight countries. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis were isolated by standardised methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined in a central laboratory by CLSI broth microdilution methodology; results were interpreted using clinical breakpoints where available. Among E. coli (n=280), resistance to tetracycline (14.3%) and cefapirin (11.1%) were most common. Resistance to other β-lactam antibiotics was absent (ceftiofur) or very low (cefalexin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid). The MIC90 of enrofloxacin and marbofloxacin was 0.03 and 0.06μg/mL, respectively, with 0.7% of strains displaying a deviating high MIC. Staphylococcus aureus (n=250) were susceptible to most antibiotics tested, although 36.0% were resistant to penicillin G. For other β-lactam antibiotics where a CLSI breakpoint was available, no resistance was detected. Tetracycline resistance was low (5.2%). Streptococcus uberis (n=282) were susceptible to all β-lactam antibiotics, although 29.8% were intermediately susceptible to penicillin G; 18.8% of strains were resistant to erythromycin and 28.7% to tetracycline. This European study shows that bacteria associated with acute clinical mastitis are susceptible to most antibiotics with the exception of penicillin G against S. aureus, and erythromycin and tetracycline against S. uberis. The results of this study should serve as a reference baseline. This work also highlights the urgent need to set additional clinical breakpoints for antibiotics frequently used to treat mastitis. PMID:26003836

  19. Factors associated with marketable milk production recovery after treatment of naturally occurring acute coliform mastitis.

    PubMed

    Shinozuka, Yasunori; Kaneko, Sohei; Kurose, Tomoyasu; Watanabe, Aiko; Kuruhara, Kana; Kawai, Kazuhiro

    2016-06-01

    Milk production loss after recovery from acute coliform mastitis causes major economic losses for dairy industries. Declines in milk production and composition are caused by multiple factors, including cow factors, microorganisms and treatments, but the influence of each factor has not been determined. To investigate risk factors for milk loss after treatment for acute coliform mastitis, multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted in 53 clinical cases. Systemic administration of fluoroquinolone was significantly associated with recovery of marketable milk production. The time to slaughter was significantly shorter in cows with complete loss of quarter milk production than in cows that produced marketable milk. In this study, we identified factors associated with increased risk of milk production loss. PMID:26860356

  20. Short communication: N-Acetylcysteine-mediated modulation of antibiotic susceptibility of bovine mastitis pathogens.

    PubMed

    Yang, F; Liu, L H; Li, X P; Luo, J Y; Zhang, Z; Yan, Z T; Zhang, S D; Li, H S

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on antibiotic susceptibility of bovine mastitis pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus agalactiae. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were tested by the agar-based E-test method. The presence of 10mM NAC reduced the MIC of penicillin and ampicillin but enhanced the MIC of erythromycin and ciprofloxacin for all of the strains. In addition, NAC-mediated modulation of MIC of kanamycin, tetracycline, and vancomycin was diverse, depending on the target bacterial pathogen and antibiotic being used. The results suggest that NAC is an important modulator of antibiotic activity against the major bovine mastitis pathogens. PMID:27016837

  1. In silico characterization of putative drug targets in Staphylococcus saprophyticus, causing bovine mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Bhasme, Pramod C; Kurjogi, Mahantesh M; Sanakal, Rajeshwari D; Kaliwal, Rohit B; Kaliwal, Basappa B

    2013-01-01

    The bovine mastitis caused by coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) has increased in many herds of urban and rural areas of India. Emergence of multi drug resistant bacteria has further made its management more complex and serious. Therefore, innovation of novel specific drug for the treatment of disease caused by particular organism remained to be a challenge. Hence, in the present study a bacterium was isolated from milk of the cow with bovine mastitis and was identified as S. saprophyticus, 44 pathways of S. saprophyticus retrieved (KEGG) from web server were found to be non homologous to the host Bos taurus, out of which 39 pathways were found to be in cytoplasm, 2 in cell wall and 3 in the cell membrane. The knowledge of the present study could make the drug discovery easier which have high affinity to the target site of the causative organism. PMID:23750077

  2. Outbreak of mastitis in sheep caused by multi-drug resistant Enterococcus faecalis in Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Sanciu, G; Marogna, G; Paglietti, B; Cappuccinelli, P; Leori, G; Rappelli, P

    2013-03-01

    An outbreak of infective mastitis due to Enterococcus faecalis occurred in an intensive sheep farm in north Sardinia (Italy). E. faecalis, which is only rarely isolated from sheep milk, was unexpectedly found in 22·3% of positive samples at microbiological examination. Forty-five out of the 48 E. faecalis isolates showed the same multi-drug resistance pattern (cloxacillin, streptomycin, kanamycin, clindamycin, oxytetracycline). E. faecalis isolates were analysed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and all 45 multi-drug resistant strains showed an indistinguishable macrorestiction profile, indicating their clonal origin. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an outbreak of mastitis in sheep caused by E. faecalis. PMID:22595402

  3. Mastitis in sheep--The last 10 years and the future of research.

    PubMed

    Gelasakis, A I; Mavrogianni, V S; Petridis, I G; Vasileiou, N G C; Fthenakis, G C

    2015-12-14

    Bacterial mastitis is a significant welfare and financial problem in sheep flocks. This paper reviews the recently published literature, including publications that highlight the significance and virulence factors of the causal agents, especially Staphylococcus aureus and Mannheimia haemolytica, the primary causes of the disease. Research has also contributed to the understanding of risk factors, including genetic susceptibility of animals to infections, supporting future strategies for sustainable disease control. Pathogenetic mechanisms, including the role of the local defenses in the teat, have also been described and can assist formulation of strategies that induce local immune responses in the teat of ewes. Further to well-established diagnostic techniques, i.e., bacteriological tests and somatic cell counting, advanced methodologies, e.g., proteomics technologies, will likely contribute to more rapid and accurate diagnostics, in turn enhancing mastitis control efforts. PMID:26216457

  4. Coagulase gene polymorphisms detected by PCR in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from subclinical bovine mastitis in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Karahan, Murat; Cetinkaya, Burhan

    2007-09-01

    The genetic relatedness of coagulase (coa) positive Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cows with subclinical mastitis in Turkey was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Among 700 milk samples positive in the California Mastitis Test (CMT), species specific PCR identified 200 (28.6%) isolates as S. aureus and 161 (80.5%) of these isolates were positive for the 3' end of the coa gene by PCR. Most isolates (n=135, 83.9%) produced a single band on coa PCR, with molecular sizes ranging from 500 to 1400bp, whereas a small number of isolates (n=26, 16.1%) yielded two amplification products. Coa RFLP analysis using AluI and Hin6I revealed 23 and 22 band patterns, respectively. The detection of double bands by coa PCR, previously reported in human isolates, suggests that milking personnel can play a role in the transmission of S. aureus. PMID:16901735

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility of environmental bovine mastitis pathogens in west central Iran.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Azizollah; Kheirabadi, K H Pirali; Nikookhah, Farzaneh

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe antimicrobial susceptibility of environmental mastitis pathogens isolated from dairy herds of Chahar Mahal province in west central Iran. Out of the 620 milk samples collected from the four districts, 180 were CMT (California mastitis test) positive that cultured and yield, 7 (3.88%) coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS), 15 (8.33%) Streptococci other than agalactiae and 17 (9.44%) E. coli. CNS resistance to penicillin was 14.28% but for streptomycin, Oxytetracycline and Colistin, were 28.57%. Non agalactiae Streptococci resistance to Oxytetracycline and Kanamycin were 20 and 13.33%, respectively. E. coli resistance to penicillin, oxytetracycline, streptomycin, erythromycin and Colistin were 88.23, 82.35, 76.47, 76.47 and 52.94%, respectively. PMID:19090221

  6. Factors associated with marketable milk production recovery after treatment of naturally occurring acute coliform mastitis

    PubMed Central

    SHINOZUKA, Yasunori; KANEKO, Sohei; KUROSE, Tomoyasu; WATANABE, Aiko; KURUHARA, Kana; KAWAI, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Milk production loss after recovery from acute coliform mastitis causes major economic losses for dairy industries. Declines in milk production and composition are caused by multiple factors, including cow factors, microorganisms and treatments, but the influence of each factor has not been determined. To investigate risk factors for milk loss after treatment for acute coliform mastitis, multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted in 53 clinical cases. Systemic administration of fluoroquinolone was significantly associated with recovery of marketable milk production. The time to slaughter was significantly shorter in cows with complete loss of quarter milk production than in cows that produced marketable milk. In this study, we identified factors associated with increased risk of milk production loss. PMID:26860356

  7. Use of videotape and phone teleconference in statewide extension program on milk quality and mastitis control.

    PubMed

    Peters, R R; DeMarco, K A; Manspeaker, J E; Cassel, E K; King, R L; Varner, M A; Douglass, L W; Paape, M J

    1986-04-01

    Extension specialists used a 3-h videotape and phone teleconferences to teach dairy farmers how to produce quality milk and control mastitis. This 5-d effort reached approximately 20% of the state's commercial dairy farms in 22 meetings at 22 locations. A survey of approximately 170 dairy producers indicated those attending the program had less education, were younger, and more were enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement program as compared with the average Maryland dairy farmer. Eighty percent reported they would like to see additional videotaped programs; 5% indicated no interest in viewing other topics on videotape. Scores on knowledge pretests and posttests were 66 and 76%, respectively. Only 1.7% were using all 13 mastitis management practices recommended in the educational program, and 11.2% said they would use all 13 practices after participating in the program. PMID:3722537

  8. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis with erythema nodosum simulating breast abscess in pregnancy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Gussman, Debra; Polis, Rachael L; Rattigan, Meghan I; Matulewicz, Theodore J

    2013-01-01

    Granulomatous mastitis is a rare benign inflammatory condition of the breast and is known to be associated with pregnancy. A 25-year-old Hispanic G2P1 at 17 weeks gestation presented to the emergency department with findings consistent of a breast abscess. The abscess failed to resolve with incision and drainage followed by multiple courses of antibiotic therapy. A biopsy was then obtained and yielded a diagnosis of granulomatous lobulitis. The patient was treated with steroids and her symptoms resolved. Granulomatous lobulitis may present with characteristics of various clinical entities including neoplasm or, as in this case, abscess. Clinicians should consider a diagnosis of granulomatous mastitis in cases of recalcitrant breast abscess.

  9. A structural equation model to evaluate direct and indirect factors associated with a latent measure of mastitis in Belgian dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Detilleux, J; Theron, L; Beduin, J-M; Hanzen, C

    2012-12-01

    In dairy cattle, many farming practices have been associated with occurrence of mastitis but it is often difficult to disentangle the causal threads. Structural equation models may reduce the complexity of such situations. Here, we applied the method to examine the links between mastitis (subclinical and clinical) and risk factors such as herd demographics, housing conditions, feeding procedures, milking practices, and strategies of mastitis prevention and treatment in 345 dairy herds from the Walloon region of Belgium. During the period January 2006 to October 2007, up to 110 different herd management variables were recorded by two surveyors using a questionnaire for the farm managers and during a farm visit. Monthly somatic cell counts of all lactating cows were collected by the local dairy herd improvement association. Structural equation models were created to obtain a latent measure of mastitis and to reduce the complexity of the relationships between farming practices, between indicators of herd mastitis and between both. Robust maximum likelihood estimates were obtained for the effects of the herd management variables on the latent measure of herd mastitis. Variables associated directly (p<0.05) with the latent measure of herd mastitis were the addition of urea in the rations; the practices of machine stripping, of pre-and post-milking teat disinfection; the presence of cows with hyperkeratotic teats, of cubicles for housing and of dirty liners before milking; the treatment of subclinical cases of mastitis; and the age of the herd (latent variable for average age and parity of cows, and percentage of heifers in the herd). Treatment of subclinical mastitis was also an intermediate in the association between herd mastitis and post-milking teat disinfection. The study illustrates how structural equation model provides information regarding the linear relationships between risk factors and a latent measure of mastitis, distinguishes between direct relationships

  10. Characterization of Prototheca zopfii Genotypes Isolated from Cases of Bovine Mastitis and Cow Barns in China.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Muhammad; Ali, Tariq; Zhang, Limei; Hou, Rongguang; Zhang, Shiyao; Ding, Laidi; Han, Dandan; Deng, Zhaoju; Rahman, Abdur; Han, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Protothecal mastitis, caused mostly by Prototheca zopfii (P. zopfii), is increasing in dairy herds and is being reported globally. The present study was aimed at studying the epidemiology of mastitis and at molecular characterization of P. zopfii isolates from dairy herds and their surroundings in three provinces of China using microbiological, biochemical and molecular methods, and antibiotic susceptibility tests. Samples from milk (n = 620) of mastitic cows and their barns sources (n = 410) including feces, feed, bedding materials and drinking water were analyzed. Among other pathogens recovered from mastitic milk, 84 (13.5 %) of the isolates were identified as P. zopfii. All of the P. zopfii isolates recovered from milk were recognized as genotype 2, whereas 58 (73.4 %) and 21 (26.6 %) isolates from environmental sources were found to be P. zopfii genotypes 1 and 2, respectively. The isolates were susceptible to some antibiotics and antifungal agents, including amikacin (78.1 %), streptomycin (58.5 %), gentamicin (17.8 %), amphotericin B (68.6 %) and nystatin (64.4 %). Additionally, the two genotypes displayed versatile patterns of susceptibility to different antimicrobials agents. Phylogeny of the genotypes on the basis of 18S SSU rDNA and 28S SSU rDNA was also investigated. The isolates of the two genotypes separated into different clades, and no interrelationship was observed among these as shown by phylogenetic analysis. The genotype 1 isolates from cow barn sources were non-pathogenic and may not present any risk of mastitis. We conclude that P. zopfii genotype 2 might play an important role in bovine mastitis in China. PMID:26450620