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The midcontinent rift system  

E-print Network

FAULT EDGE OF ARCHEAt~ PAL~OZOIC MINN a2 o 200 W|S KAN MO oHIO Fiaure 3 Generalized geologic map showing major features of the prerift Precambrian basement and principal geologic units associated with the midcontinent rift system. Random "=" represent... of the crust is greatly reduced. The gravity and magnetic anomalies of the MGA are correlative in a general sense--that is, major maxima and minima are spatially coincident (Figures 1, 2); however, in detail the anomalies are commonly not correlated. Gravity...

Van Schmus, W. R.; Hinze, W. J.



The East African rift system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This overview paper considers the East African rift system (EARS) as an intra-continental ridge system, comprising an axial rift. It describes the structural organization in three branches, the overall morphology, lithospheric cross-sections, the morphotectonics, the main tectonic features—with emphasis on the tension fractures—and volcanism in its relationships with the tectonics. The most characteristic features in the EARS are narrow elongate zones of thinned continental lithosphere related to asthenospheric intrusions in the upper mantle. This hidden part of the rift structure is expressed on the surface by thermal uplift of the rift shoulders. The graben valleys and basins are organized over a major failure in the lithospheric mantle, and in the crust comprise a major border fault, linked in depth to a low angle detachment fault, inducing asymmetric roll-over pattern, eventually accompanied by smaller normal faulting and tilted blocks. Considering the kinematics, divergent movements caused the continent to split along lines of preexisting lithospheric weaknesses marked by ancient tectonic patterns that focus the extensional strain. The hypothesis favored here is SE-ward relative divergent drifting of a not yet well individualized Somalian plate, a model in agreement with the existence of NW-striking transform and transfer zones. The East African rift system comprises a unique succession of graben basins linked and segmented by intracontinental transform, transfer and accommodation zones. In an attempt to make a point on the rift system evolution through time and space, it is clear that the role of plume impacts is determinant. The main phenomenon is formation of domes related to plume effect, weakening the lithosphere and, long after, failure inducing focused upper mantle thinning, asthenospheric intrusion and related thermal uplift of shoulders. The plume that had formed first at around 30 Ma was not in the Afar but likely in Lake Tana region (Ethiopia), its almost 1000 km diameter panache weakening the lithosphere and preparing the later first rifting episode along a preexisting weak zone, a Pan-African suture zone bordering the future Afar region. From the Afar, the rift propagated afterward from north to south on the whole, with steps of local lithospheric failure nucleations along preexisting weak zones. These predisposed lines are mainly suture zones, in which partial activation of low angle detachment faults reworked former thrust faults verging in opposite directions, belonging to double verging ancient belts. This is responsible for eventual reversal in rift asymmetry from one basin to the next. Supposing the plume migrated southward, or other plumes emplaced, the rift could propagate following former weaknesses, even outside areas influenced by plumes. This view of rift formation reconciles the classical models: active plume effect triggered the first ruptures; passive propagations of failure along lithospheric scale weak zones were responsible for the onset of the main rift segments. Various other aspects are shortly considered, such as tectonics and sedimentation, and relationships of the 'cradle of Mankind' with human evolution. By its size, structure and occurrence of oceanic lithosphere in the Afar, the EARS can be taken as a model of the prelude of oceanic opening inside a continent.

Chorowicz, Jean



Geophysical studies of the West Antarctic Rift System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The West Antarctic rift system extends over a 3000 × 750 km, largely ice covered area from the Ross Sea to the base of the Antarctic Peninsula, comparable in area to the Basin and Range and the East African rift system. A spectacular rift shoulder scarp along which peaks reach 4–5 km maximum elevation marks one flank and extends from

J. C. Behrendt; W. E. LeMasurier; A. K. Cooper; F. Tessensohn; A. Tréhu; D. Damaske



Rifting Attractor Structures in the Baikal Rift System: Location and Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current geodynamics and tectonophysics of the Baikal rift system (BRS) as recorded in lithospheric stress and strain are discussed in the context of self organization of nonlinear dissipative dynamic systems and nonlinear media. The regional strain field inferred from instrumental seismic moment and fault radius data for almost 70,000 MLH ? 2.0 events of 1968 through 1994 shows a complex pattern with zones of high strain anisotropy in the central part and both flanks of the rift system (the South Baikal, Hovsgöl, and Muya rift basins, respectively). The three zones of local strain anisotropy highs coincide with domains of predominantly vertical stress where earthquakes of different magnitudes are mostly of normal slip geometry. Pulse-like reversals of principal stresses in the high-strain domains appear to be nonlinear responses of the system to subcrustal processes. In this respect, the BRS lithosphere is interpreted in terms of the self organization theory as a geological dissipative system. Correspondingly, the domains of high strain anisotropy and stress change, called rifting attractor structures (RAS), are the driving forces of its evolution. The location and nonlinear dynamics of the rifting attractors have controlled lithospheric stress and strain of the rift system over the period of observations, and the same scenario may have been valid also in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic rifting history. The suggested model of a positive-feedback (fire-like) evolution of nonlinear dynamical systems with rifting attractors opens a new perspective on the current geodynamics and tectonophysics of the Baikal rift system.

Klyuchevskii, Anatoly V.



Proterozoic Midcontinent Rift System, an overview  

SciTech Connect

The Middle and Late Proterozoic Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) extends across the middle US, from Lake Superior through Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa and Nebraska into Kansas on the southwest limb and across upper and lower Michigan on the southeast limb. Exploration for oil and gas generated over 7,000 miles of seismic, a leasehold of near seven million acres, but only three test wells. The initial extension of the MRS was marked by filling with layered basalt. Thickness documented by GLIMPCE suggests crustal separation was nearly achieved. The thick dense basalts and thinned pre-rift crust provide high amplitude gravity anomalies which characterize the rift trend. Extension slowed and eventually ceased, creating a sag phase during which clastic sediments were deposited, including sapropelic shale and siltstone, fluvial sandstones and siltstones, and fluvial/alluvial conglomerates. Tectonic inversion to compressional and transpressional forces occurred late in rift history, possibly during part of the period of clastic fill. The MRS trend is highly segmented, with varied tectonic styles, suggesting complex stress systems in its development. The Nonesuch Formation is marine or lacustrine siltstone and shale containing sufficient organic matter to be an effective source rock for oil and gas. Similar facies have been identified along the extent of the western limb, in the subsurface in Minnesota, Iowa and Kansas. TOC values are as high as 3% and maturity ranges from peak oil to advanced. Surface seeps, fluid inclusions, mud log shows and modeling indicate the potential for multiple episodes of generation. Potential reservoir rocks have been identified and seals are present as lacustrine and fluvial shales and possible evaporites. The MRS remains a relatively unexplored frontier hydrocarbon province with giant field potential in the heart of North America.

Kerr, S.D.; Landon, S.M.



Tectonic maps of the Ethiopian rift system, and an apology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ethiopian rift system, inclusive of Afar, has become of very great interest to volcanologists and structural geologists, more particularly since the advent of plate tectonic theory. As is well-known, this theory predicts t hat the floor of Afar must be underlain by some form of neo-oceanic crust, where the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and A frican rift systems

P. A. Mohr



Evidence for a Nascent Rift in South Sudan: Westward Extension of the East African Rift System?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Joint inversion of seismic and gravity data of eastern Africa reveals a low seismic wave velocity arm stretching from the southern Main Ethiopian rift westward in an east-west direction that has not been noticed in earlier work. The zone of low velocities is located in the upper mantle and is not overlain by a known structural rift expression. We analyzed the local pattern of seismicity and the stresses in the African plate to interpret this low velocity arm. The zone of low velocities is located within the Central African Fold Belt, which dissects the northern and southern portions of the African continent. It is seismically active with small to intermediate sized earthquakes occurring in the crust. Seven earthquake solutions indicate (oblique) normal faulting and low-angle normal faulting with a NS to NNW-SSE opening direction, as well as strike-slip faulting. This pattern of deformation is typically associated with rifting. The present day stress field in northeastern Africa reveals a tensional state of stress at the location of the low velocity arm with an opening direction that corresponds to the earthquake data. We propose that the South Sudan low velocity zone and seismic center are part of an undeveloped, nascent rift arm. The arm stretches from the East African Rift system westward.

Maceira, M.; Van Wijk, J. W.; Coblentz, D. D.; Modrak, R. T.



Thermal and mechanical development of the East African Rift System  

E-print Network

The deep basins, uplifted flanks, and volcanoes of the Western and Kenya rift systems have developed along the western and eastern margins of the 1300 km-wide East African plateau. Structural patterns deduced from field, ...

Ebinger, Cynthia Joan



Geophysical glimpses into the Ferrigno Rift at the northwestern tip of the West Antarctic Rift System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) forms one of the largest continental rift systems on Earth. The WARS is of major significance as it forms the lithospheric cradle for the marine-based and potentially unstable West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). Seismic refraction, reflection, aeromagnetic, gravity and drilling in the Ross Sea have revealed most of what we know about its structure, tectonic and magmatic patterns and sedimentary basins. Aerogeophysical research and passive seismic networks have considerably extended our knowledge of the WARS and its influence on the overlying WAIS in the Siple Coast and Amundsen Sea Embayment (ASE) regions. The Bellingshausen Sea Embayment region has however remained largely unexplored, and hence the possible extent of the WARS in this sector has remained poorly constrained. Here we use a combination of reconnaissance ground-based and airborne radar observations, airborne gravity, satellite gravity and aeromagnetic data to investigate the WARS in the Bellingshausen Sea Embayment, in the area of the Ferrigno Ice Stream (Bingham et al., 2012, Nature). This region is of high significance, as it one of the main sectors of the WAIS that is currently exhibiting rapid ice loss, thought to be driven primarily by oceanic warming. Assessing geological controls on subice topography and ice dynamics is therefore of prime importance in this part of the WAIS. Ground-based and airborne radar image a subglacial basin beneath the Ferrigno Ice Stream that is up to 1.5 kilometres deep and that connects the ice-sheet interior to the Bellingshausen Sea margin. We interpret this basin as a narrow, glacially overdeepened rift basin that formed at the northwestern tip of the WARS. Satellite gravity data cannot resolve such a narrow rift basin but indicate that the crust beneath the region is likely thinned, lending support to the hypothesis that this area is indeed part of the WARS. Widely-spaced aeromagnetic data image a linear low along the inferred Ferrigno rift, but provide no evidence for high-amplitude aeromagnetic anomalies, typically associated with Cenozoic magmatism within the WARS. However, the reconnaissance character of these data, do not enable us to rule out the presence of magmatism within this part of the rift and cannot disclose the potential greater variability in subglacial geology either. Bingham et al. (2012) proposed the glacially overdeepened Ferrigno rift basins provided major controls for a palaeo-ice stream on the adjacent continental shelf during glacial maxima. The palaeo-ice stream, in turn, eroded the 'Belgica' trough, which today routes warm open ocean water back to the ice front to potentially reinforce dynamic thinning. Dynamic thinning in the Bellingshausen Sea region appears to be steered back to the ice-sheet interior along the Ferrigno rift system. We conclude that detailed aerogeophysical studies of the inferred rift basins that cut across the WAIS margin in the Bellingshausen Sea sector are a high priority to: a) better comprehend the structure and the tectono-magmatic evolution of the WARS and; b) to test the hypothesis that these rifts play a key role in rapidly transmitting oceanic-driven change inland, potentially promoting accelerated ice-sheet instability.

Bingham, Robert; Ferraccioli, Fausto



Seismicity of the Baikal rift system from regional network observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper we report the state-of-the-art of seismicity study in the Baikal rift system and the general results obtained. At present, the regional earthquake catalog for fifty years of the permanent instrumental observations consists of over 185,000 events. The spatial distribution of the epicenters, which either gather along well-delineated belts or in discrete swarms is considered in detail for different areas of the rift system. At the same time, the hypocenters are poorly constrained making it difficult to identify the fault geometry. Clustered events like aftershock sequences or earthquake swarms are typical patterns in the region; moreover, aftershocks of M ? 4.7 earthquakes make up a quarter of the whole catalog. The maximum magnitude of earthquakes recorded instrumentally is MLH7.6 for a strike-slip event in the NE part of the Baikal rift system and MLH6.8 for a normal fault earthquake in the central part of the rift system (Lake Baikal basin). Predominant movement type is normal faulting on NE striking faults with a left lateral strike-slip component on W-E planes. In conclusion, some shortcomings of the seismic network and data processing are pointed out.

Radziminovich, N. A.; Gileva, N. A.; Melnikova, V. I.; Ochkovskaya, M. G.



Hydrothermal vents in Lake Tanganyika, East African, Rift system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sublacustrine hydrothermal vents with associated massive sulfides were discovered during April 1987 at Pemba and Cape Banza on the Zaire side of the northern basin of Lake Tanganyika, East African Rift system. New investigations by a team of ten scuba divers during the multinational (France, Zaire, Germany, and Burundi) TANGANYDRO expedition (August-October 1991) found hydrothermal vents down to a depth

Jean-Jacques Tiercelin; Catherine Pflumio; Maryse Castrec; Jacques Boulégue; Pascal Gente; Joël Rolet; Christophe Coussement; Karl O. Stetter; Robert Huber; Sony Buku; Wafula Mifundu



Calving of large tabular icebergs from ice shelf rift systems Ian Joughin1,2  

E-print Network

Calving of large tabular icebergs from ice shelf rift systems Ian Joughin1,2 and Douglas R. Mac large icebergs to calve from the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica. Time series of rift geometries indicate geometry. Both the observations and model suggest that rift opening, and, thus, tabular-iceberg calving

Boyce, C. Kevin


Petroleum system of the Shelf Rift Basin, East China Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tertiary section of the Oujioang and Quiontang Depressions of the East China Sea Basin consists of at least eight rift-related depositional sequences identified seismically by regionally significant onlap and truncation surfaces. These sequences are calibrated by several wells including the Wenzhou 6-1-1 permitting extrapolation of petroleum system elements using seismic facies analysis. Gas and condensate correlated to non-marine source

A. C. Cunningham; J. M. Armentrout; M. Prebish



Eocene to Miocene geometry of the West Antarctic Rift System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tectonic models for the Late Cretaceous\\/Tertiary evolution of the West Antarctic Rift System range from hundreds of kilometres of extension to negligible strike-slip displacement and are based on a variety of observations, as well as kinematic and geodynamic models. Most data constraining these models originate from the Ross Sea\\/Adare Trough area and the Transantarctic Mountains. We use a new Antarctic

R. D. Müller; K. Gohl; S. C. Cande; A. Goncharov; A. V. Golynsky



Hydrothermal vents is Lake Tanganyika, East African Rift system  

SciTech Connect

Sublacustrine hydrothermal vents with associated massive sulfides were discovered during April 1987 at Pemba and Cape Banza on the Zaire side of the northern basin of Lake Tanganyika, East African Rift system. New investigations by a team of ten scuba divers during the multinational (France, Zaire, Germany, and Burundi) TANGANYDRO expedition (August-October 1991) found hydrothermal vents down to a depth of 46 m along north-trending active faults bounding the Tanganyika rift on the western side. Temperatures from 53 to 103 {degrees}C were measured in hydrothermal fluids and sediments. Veins of massive sulfides 1-10 cm thick (pyrite and marcasite banding) were found associated with vents at the Pemba site. At Cape Banza, active vents are characterized by 1-70-cm-high aragonite chimneys, and there are microcrystalline pyrite coatings on the walls of hydrothermal pipes. Hydrothermal fluid end members show distinctive compositions at the two sites. The Pemba end member is a NaHCO{sub 3}-enriched fluid similar to the NaHCO{sub 3} thermal fluids form lakes Magadi and Bogoria in the eastern branch of the rift. The Cape Banza end member is a solution enriched in NaCl. Such brines may have a deep-seated basement origin, as do the Uvinza NaCl brines on the eastern flank of the Tanganyika basin. Geothermometric calculations have yielded temperatures of fluid-rock interaction of 219 and 179 {degrees}C in the Pemba and Cape Banza systems, respectively. Abundant white or reddish-brown microbial colonies resembling Beggiatoa mats were found surrounding the active vents. Thermal fluid circulation is permitted by opening of cracks related to 130{degrees}N normal-dextral faults that intersect the north-south major rift trend. The sources of heat for such hydrothermal systems may relate to the existence of magmatic bodies under the rift, which is suggested by the isotopic composition of carbon dioxide released at Pemba and Cape Banza. 21 refs., 2 figs.

Tiercelin, J.J. [Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France)] [Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France); Pflumio, C.; Castrec, M. [Universite Paris VI, Paris (France)] [and others] [Universite Paris VI, Paris (France); and others



Structural aspects of Mid-Continent rift system in Kansas  

SciTech Connect

The Humboldt fault zone and the faulted Abilene anticline are among many prominent north-northeast to south-southwest-trending structures in northeastern Kansas that occur in Paleozoic rocks as a result of renewed movement of faults associated with the Mid-Continent rift system (MRS). The Humboldt fault zone consists of a number of anastomosing fault segments with high-angle, normal or reverse displacements of up to 600 m. Most of this movement occurred during the Late Mississippian to Early Pennsylvanian. Domal culminations, some of which bear oil, and rhomboid-shaped grabens, are recognized.

Berendsen, P.; Newell, K.D.; Blair, K.P. (Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence (USA))



The Rhine graben rift system-plate tectonics and transform faulting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rhinegraben is the central segment of a rift system which traverses Western Europe from the North Sea to the Mediterranean. Rifting, which had started in the Middle Eocene, was preceded by early-Teriary nephelinitic eruptions. The center of maximum subsidence shifted along the graben axis from south to north during geologic times. The maximum thickness of sedimentary fill is observed

J. H. Illies




E-print Network

A-1 RIFT-BASIN STRUCTURE AND ITS INFLUENCE ON SEDIMENTARY SYSTEMS MARTHA OLIVER WITHJACK AND ROY W: Rift basins are complex features defined by several large-scale structural components including faulted-scale structures also develop within rift basins. These include basement-involved and detached normal faults


Lacustrine system evolution during early rifting: El Castellar Formation (Galve sub-basin, Central Iberian Chain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed sedimentological study of the first synrift deposits recorded in the Galve sub-basin of NE Spain during the Early Cretaceous aided in the reconstruction of climatic and tectonic influences. The El Castellar Formation is composed of siliciclastics and carbonates (unit 1), claystones, gypsum, and carbonates (unit 2), and marls and limestones (unit 3). Unit 1 facies formed in alluvial and palustrine plains, a local alluvial fan, and low-energy shallow lake subenvironments. Low-energy lacustrine facies characterised unit 2. In contrast, palustrine, low- and high-energy lake facies were identified for unit 3. The spatial and temporal distribution of lithofacies representing the several environments were used to propose a general lacustrine system evolution from isolated ponds and marshes, to low-energy shallow lakes, and finally to an extensive, high-energy lake. Lake evolution is related to changes in the subsidence pattern, from local- to basin-scale subsidence, which was ultimately related to the transition from the initial rift to rift climax stage. Shallowing-upwards lacustrine successions have been interpreted as climatically forced and linked to sediment and water supply. Both tectonics and climate determined the change from an overfilled to a balanced-fill lake-basin through time.

Meléndez, Nieves; Liesa, Carlos L.; Soria, Ana R.; Meléndez, Alfonso



Structural geology of the African rift system: Summary of new data from ERTS-1 imagery. [Precambrian influence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ERTS imagery reveals for the first time the structural pattern of the African rift system as a whole. The strong influence of Precambrian structures on this pattern is clearly evident, especially along zones of cataclastic deformation, but the rift pattern is seen to be ultimately independent in origin and nature from Precambrian tectonism. Continuity of rift structures from one swell to another is noted. The widening of the Gregory rift as its northern end reflects an underlying Precambrian structural divergence, and is not a consequence of reaching the swell margin. Although the Western Rift is now proven to terminate at the Aswa Mylonite Zone, in southern Sudan, lineaments extend northeastwards from Lake Albert to the Eastern Rift at Lake Stefanie. The importance of en-echelon structures in the African rifts is seen to have been exaggerated.

Mohr, P. A.



CASERTZ aeromagnetic data reveal late Cenozoic flood basalts (?) in the West Antarctic rift system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The late Cenozoic volcanic and tectonic activity of the enigmatic West Antarctic rift system, the least understood of the great active continental rifts, has been suggested to be plume driven. In 1991-1992, as part of the CASERTZ (Corridor Aerogeophysics of the Southeast Ross Transect Zone) program, an ~25 000 km aeromagnetic survey over the ice-covered Byrd subglacial basin shows magnetic "texture' critical to interpretations of the underlying extended volcanic terrane. The aeromagnetic data reveal numerous semicircular anomalies ~100-1100 nT in amplitude, interpreted as having volcanic sources at the base of the ice sheet; they are concentrated along north-trending magnetic lineations interpreted as rift fabric. The CASERTZ aeromagnetic results, combined with >100 000 km of widely spaced aeromagnetic profiles, indicate at least 106 km3 of probable late Cenozoic volcanic rock (flood basalt?) in the West Antarctic rift beneath the ice sheet and Ross Ice Shelf. -from Authors

Behrendt, J.C.



Failure was not an option- the Mid-Continent Rift system succeeded  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1.1 Ga Mid-Continent Rift (MCR) in North America is often viewed as a failed rift formed by isolated midplate volcanism and extension within the ~1.3-~0.98 Ga Grenville orogeny. An alternative view is suggested by analogy with younger and morphologically similar rift systems, whose plate tectonic settings are more easily understood because their surroundings - including seafloor with magnetic anomalies - have not been deformed or destroyed by subsequent collisions and rifting events. In this view, the MCR was part of a larger plate boundary rifting event that resulted in a successful episode of seafloor spreading. This view is motivated by various pieces of evidence. The MCR rifting looks much like rigid plate block motion, such as associated with the West Central African Rift systems formed during the Mesozoic breakup of Africa and South America and the ongoing rifting in the East African Rift region with seafloor spreading in the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea. This view explains the affinities of the Grenville-age rocks in the central and southern Appalachians to Amazonia rather than Canadian Grenville-age Appalachian rocks. The MCR extends farther to the south than traditionally assumed along the East Continental Gravity High (a buried feature from Ohio to Alabama). This failed portion of the rift system connected to the rift successfully separating Laurentia and Amazonia. The seafloor spreading separating Amazonia from Laurentia may explain the former's relative motion toward Greenland and Baltica. This model is consistent with some of the ~1.1 Ga geological events in Amazonia. A change in the apparent polar wander path for Laurentia during the period of volcanism of the MCR could be attributed to this plate reconfiguration. The extensional phase on the MCR may have ended because motion was taken up by seafloor spreading between Laurentia and Amazonia rather ending due to another continental collision. Later reverse faulting on the MCR normal faults due to compression, perhaps from collisions around Rodinia's margins, would not be unexpected because the MCR would be a relatively weak intraplate zone due to higher crustal temperatures and faults.

Merino, M.; Stein, C. A.; Stein, S. A.; Keller, G. R.; Flesch, L. M.; Jurdy, D. M.



Mapping of the major structures of the African rift system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The new fault map of the main Ethiopian rift, based on aerial photo compilations, generally agrees well with the maps produced from ERTS-1 imagery. Characteristically, the ERTS-1 imagery shows some of the major faults to be more extensive than realized from ground studies, though due to the angle of sun illumination some east-facing fault scarps are not easily discernible on the imagery. The Corbetti caldera, shows up surprisingly poor on the imagery, and is shown to be an adjunct to an older, larger caldera now occupied by Lakes Awassa and Shallo. The lithological boundaries mapped by De Paola in the rift are difficult to discern on the ERTS-1 imagery. On the Somalian plateau, east of the rift, a denuded caldera has been identified as the source of much of the lavas of the Batu Mountains. Further south, ERTS-1 imagery amplifies the structural and lithological mapping of the Precambrian rocks of the Shakisso-Arero area, and of the Kenya-Ethiopia border region. For the first time with some certainty, it is now possible to say that on the evidence of the ERTS-1 imagery, the Western Rift does not continue northeast beyond the Sudan-Uganda border, and is thus not to be sought in western Ethiopia.

Mohr, P. A. (principal investigator)



Modeling fault kinematics, segment interaction and transfer zone geometry as a function of pre-existing fabrics: the Albertine rift, East African Rift System.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on the development of the Rwenzori Mountains, an uplift horst block within the northern-most segment of the western branch of the East African Rift System (EARS). Attention is drawn to the role of pre-existing crustal weaknesses left behind by Proterozoic mobile belts that pass around cratonic Archean shields namely the Tanzanian Craton to the southeast and the Congo craton to the northwest. We study how the southward propagating sub-segment of the rift that contains Lake Albert to the north interacts with the northward propagating sub-segment that contains the lakes Edward and George and how this interaction produces the structural geometries observed within and around the Rwenzori horst block. Analogue experiments are used to simulate behavior of the upper crust with pre-cut rubber strips of varying overstep/overlap, placed oblique and/or orthogonal to the extension vector. The points of connection to the basal sheet present velocity discontinuities to localize deformation below the sand. Surface geometry of the developing rifts and section cuts are used to study the kinematics that result from the given boundary conditions. In general we try to model two parallel rifts that propagate towards each other and interact. Results show that greater overstep of rifts produces an oblique shear-dominated transfer zone with deep grabens (max.7.0km) in the adjoining segments. Smaller overlap ends in extension-dominated transfer, offset rift segments without oblique transfer faults to join two adjacent rift arms and produces moderately deep grabens (max.4.6km). When overlap doubles the overstep (SbR5), rifts propagate sub-orthogonal to the extension direction in a rotation-dominated transfer and form shallow valleys (max.2.9km). Whether a block like the Rwenzori Mountains is captured and rotates, depends on the overlap/overstep ratio where the rotation direction of a captured block is determined by the sense of overlap (right- or left-lateral). Fault orientation, fault kinematics and block rotation (once in play) re-enforce each other, and depending on the local kinematics different parts of a captured block can be rotated by different amounts but in the same general direction. The results are compared with the natural scenario. Keywords: Albertine rift; Analogue; Extension; Kinematics; Transfer zone

Aanyu, Kevin; Koehn, Daniel



Rifting in the Proterozoic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proterozoic rifts at various stages of extension have been involved in different types of endogenous activity. As a result, the following evolutionary gradation of riftogenous structures is recorded: Aulacogens—continental paleorifts that are not affected by metamorphism and granite formation; intracontinental ensialic folded systems which have originated from continental rifts of higher permeability that passed through monocyclic intrageosyncline evolution including granite formation and metamorphism (Gudsonides, Kibarides, Timanides, etc.); intracontinental ensimatic folded systems which have originated from rifts where spreading has terminated (Red Sea type), and which passed through intracontinental monocyclic evolution (Hoggar-Atacorides, Sayano-Enisey system, etc.), and marginal folded belts which formed along ancient continental margins and which underwent polycyclic orthogeosyncline evolution of the accretionary type (Arabian-Nubian shield, etc.). Proterozoic riftogenous structures are closely related in their evolution with zones of tectonothermal reworking of ancient basement (Mozambique belt, Stanovoy belt, etc.) which are domains of dispersed rifting. During the first half of the Proterozoic, only intracontinental riftogenous structures existed. Real oceanic openings and plate tectonic events did not occur before the Middle Riphean. This reflects the evolution of rifting as well as tectonic processes as a whole. Proterozoic riftogenous folded structures and zones of basement reworking predetermined the location of rifts and oceans of Mesozoic and Cenozoic age, e.g., the Stanovoy area (Mesozoic rifts), the Baikalides (Baikal rift system), the Mozambique belt (East African rift system), the Arabian-Nubian area (Red Sea rift), and the Protoatlantic folded system within Gondwanaland (South Atlantic Ocean).

Bozhko, N. A.



Stratigraphy, Structure, and Ore Deposits of the Southern Limb of the Midcontinent Rift System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features an overview of the Midcontinent Rift system of North America, an area that extends for more than 2000 km northeasterly from Kansas, through the Lake Superior region, and then southeasterly through lower Michigan. This summary of the stratigraphy, structure, and mineralization of rift rocks provides an overview of the geologic history in northern Wisconsin and upper Michigan. Separate sections describe the tectonic history and structural features of the area, the stratigraphy of volcanic and sedimentary deposits, and the mineralization that produced rich copper and silver deposits. Information is supported by numerous citations while maps and diagrams help illustrate the concepts.

Bornhorst, T.; Woodruff, L.; Nicholson, S.; University, Michigan T.


The tectono-sedimentary evolution of a hyper-extended rift basin: the example of the Arzacq-Mauléon rift system (Western Pyrenees, SW France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a sedimentary and structural analysis that together with maps, sections and new Ar/Ar data enable to describe the tectono-sedimentary evolution of the Mauléon hyper-extended rift basin exposed in the W-Pyrenees. Hyper-extension processes that ultimately resulted in exhuming mantle rocks are the result of the subsequent development of two diachronous detachment systems related to two evolutional stages of rifting. An initial Late Aptian Early Albian crustal thinning phase is first recorded by the development of a crustal necking zone controlled by the north-vergent Southern Mauléon Detachment system. During a subsequent exhumation phase, active faulting migrates to the north with the emplacement of the Northern Mauléon detachment system that exhumed north section thinned continental crust and mantle rocks. This diachronous crustal thinning and exhumation processes are also recorded by the diachronous deposition of syn-tectonic sedimentary tracts above the two supra-detachment sub-basins. Syn-tectonic sedimentary tracts record the progressive exhumation of footwall rocks along detachment systems. Tectonic migration from the southern to the northern Mauléon Detachment system is recorded by the coeval deposition of "sag" deposits above the necking zone basin and of syn-tectonic tracts above exhumed rocks north section. Located on a hanging-wall situation related to the Mauléon hyper-extension structures, the Arzacq Basin also records a major crustal thinning phase as shown by its subsidence evolution so as by deep seismic images. The absence of major top-basement structures and its overall sag morphology suggest that crustal thinning processes occurred by decoupled extension of lower crustal levels contrasting with the Southern Mauléon Detachment system. Reconciling observations from the Mauléon and Arzacq Basins, we finally propose in this paper that they were the result of one and the same asymmetric crustal thinning and exhumation processes, where extension is accommodated into the upper crust in the Mauléon Basin (lower plate basin) and relayed in ductile lower crust below the Arzacq Basin (upper plate basin).

Masini, Emmanuel; Manatschal, Gianreto; Tugend, Julie; Mohn, Geoffroy; Flament, Jean-Marie



563Studinger et al.--Airborne geophysical mapping of the West Antarctic Rift System Mesozoic and Cenozoic extensional tectonics of the West Antarctic Rift  

E-print Network

and Cenozoic extensional tectonics of the West Antarctic Rift System from high-resolution airborne geophysical shoulder close to the Whitmore Mountains block might have been reactivated during regional Cenozoic right Byrd Land (Fig. 1). In contrast, models of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic evolution of the region between

Studinger, Michael


Hydrogeological aspects of fault zones on various scales in the Roer Valley Rift System  

E-print Network

Abstract Hydrogeological aspects of fault zones on various scales in the Roer Valley Rift System in the damage zone that has formed around the main fault plane shows in detail the impact of tectonic deformation on the hydrogeologic structure of the fault zone. Mechanisms like clay smearing and partic- ulate

Bense, Victor


Earthquake depth distribution in the Baikal rift system and its rheological meaning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate determination of the earthquake source depth within the crust is possible provided that dense seismic network is operating and reliable velocity models are available. These conditions are not implemented in the Baikal rift system that leads to the ambiguity of the results and confusion with their interpretations. Meanwhile the earthquake depth is of special importance for the study of

Natalia Radziminovich



Tectonic development of the SW Arabian Plate margin within the central Arabian flank of the Red Sea rift system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Red Sea rift system is a prime example of continental rifting and has contributed significantly to our understanding of the geologic processes that manage the rupture of continental lithosphere. Using a combined geo- and thermochronometric approach, we explore the modes and mechanisms of rift margin development by studying Red Sea rift-related geologic products along the central Saudi Arabian flank of the rift system, north of Jeddah. We use apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronometry and whole-rock 40Ar/39Ar dating of basalt to define the spatiotemporal relationship between rift flank extensional structures and rift-related harrat volcanism. This technical approach permits the reconstruction of the tectonic margin from early rift architecture, to strain distribution during progressive rifting, and through subsequent whole-scale modifications of the rift flank due to thermal and isostatic factors. Constraints on the dynamics of rift flank deformation are achieved through the collection of geologic samples along long-baseline thermochronometric transects that traverse the entire Arabian shield from the coastal escarpment to the inland Paleozoic sedimentary cover sequences. Long-baseline transects resolve the timing of rift flank uplift and reveal the pattern of lithospheric modification during the rupturing of continental lithosphere. Locally, short-baseline elevation transects map the footwall exhumation of major normal faults that delineate both the modern rift margin and inland extensional basins such as the NW-trending Hamd-Jizil basin, a prominent syn-extensional basin comprised of two distinct half-grabens (Jizil and Hamd) located NW of Medina. Diffuse lithospheric extension during the Oligo-Miocene affected a widespread area well inboard from the modern rift margin; samples from footwall blocks that bound the inland Jizil and Hamd half-grabens yield apatite (U-Th)/He cooling ages of 14.7 ± 0.9 Ma and 24.5 ± 1.5 Ma, respectively. The mid-Miocene age is doubly-significant since it reveals not only a Red Sea rift signal 140 km inboard from the modern border fault complex but also underscores the importance of fault reactivation during progressive rifting since the Jizil half-graben is structurally delineated by faults formed within the Neoproterozoic Najd shear zone fabric. Oligo-Miocene apatite (U-Th)/He ages from Jabal Radwa, a pluton exhumed within the border fault complex, show that rift flank exhumation and extensional faulting occurred within the central portion of the Arabian rift flank penecontemporaneous to faulting in the Hamd-Jizil half-graben system. Within the rift flank fault systems, an absence of footwall exhumation ages younger than ~13 Ma confirms that major extensional faulting migrated basin-ward in the middle Miocene during a time of rift reorganization and the establishment of the Dead Sea-Gulf of Aqaba transform. However, minor deepening of the inland Hamd-Jizil basin continued through the late Miocene as relatively young, basin-internal faults cut 17 Ma - 10 Ma basalt flows from harrat Khaybar that had blanketed the region.

Szymanski, E.; Stockli, D. F.; Johnson, P. R.; Kattan, F. H.; Cosca, M. A.



Impact of geodynamic development of the Barents Sea deep rift on evolving petroleum systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All the Barents Sea deposits are situated in the epicenter on active geodynamic development of the Barents Sea rift and, most important, over the zone of listric faults intersection, which consist a knot system over the mantle diapir. This is confirmed by prospecting seismology. Intrusion of hot mantle matter with further cooling down of abnormal lense might be a possible cause of appearance and evolution of ultradeep depressions. A high "seismic stratification" of the lower crust (nearly reaching the basement surface) at time scale about 8 sec. is typical for the inner, the deepest part of the depression. Supposing the "seismic stratified" lower crust correspond to "basalt" layer, this area is nearly upper crust ("granitic-gneiss") free. This fact confurmes conception on development of "granite free gaps" in the depression basement. Thick blocks of "seismically transparent" upper crust corresponding to the "granitic-gneiss" layer are marked out within Kolsk-Kanin monocline. An abrupt thickness decrease and appearance of "stratified" areas takes place at the southern edge of the depression. A filling of the over-rift sag with sediments, revival of the faults and their effect on the filtration processes and gas hydrates formation took place in the South Barents Sea depression. Repeating activation of the fault blocks in the basement, especially during late Jurassic - early Cretaceous period contributed to formation of the structures related to the greatest deposits of the South Barents Sea depression. An extended field acoustic data collected in the Barents Sea led to understanding of general fundamental problems for all Arctic Seas and, first of all, the problem of Quaternary glaciations. An analysis of Eurasian-Arctic continental margin shows correspondence between the rift systems of the shelf with those of the ocean. This relation can be observed by an example of the central Arctic region. All the rift systems underlying the sediment basin are expressed in the sea bed relief as spacious and extensive graben valleys burnished by lobes. The rift structures and the sediment cover are connected by the systems of transversal (or oblique) faults. A study of the regional geologic structure of basins affords believing in the very complicated inner riftogenic structure of the base and the lower part of the sediment cover, which is represented by a combination of grabens and horsts bound by the same tectonic border in the form of high amplitude fault zones, and have a very high density of fault-fractured tectonics. In the same time, a branching of the rift structures related to rounding of large solid blocks of the crust, represented by Archaean or Baikal base prominences, takes place. Their frequent structural connection with the continental paleo-rift structures is ascertained, but the shelf rift system are not their straight prolongation and separated by base thresholds concealed under the sediment cover or by bulkheads expressed even in the modern relief. Filling of over rift flexure by sediments, revival of faults and their impact on flow processes and gas hydrate formation in under sea bed sediments have occurred in the South Barents depression. Geodynamic development of the Barents sea rift not only played a substantial role in formation of as unique fields as Shtokman, Prirazlomnoe and others, but created prerequisites for possible gas outbursts into near-surface sediments of the Barents Sea that could result, in some cases, in gas hydrate formation. Periodic activation of basic fault blocks, especially in late Jurassic - early Cretaceous time significantly contributed to formation of the structures related to the greatest fields of South Barents depression. The information on geodynamic development of the region, thermal convection and modern sedimentation enable assessment of the real potentiality for underwater works in the region, potential gas hydrates resources, and will help to assign a strategy of prospecting work, to range the known

Balanyuk, I.; Dmitrievsky, A.



Tectonic and sediment supply control of deep rift lake turbidite systems: Lake Baikal, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tectonically influenced half-graben morphology controls the amount and type of sediment supply and consequent type of late Quaternary turbidite systems developed in the active rift basins of Lake Baikal, Russia. Steep border fault slopes (footwall) on the northwest sides of half-graben basins provide a limited supply of coarser grained clastic material to multiple small fan deltas. These multiple sediment sources in turn laterally feed small (65 km) axially fed elongate mud-rich fans sourced by regional exterior drainage of the Selenga River that supplies large quantities of silt. Basin plain turbidites in the center of the linear basins and axial channels that are controlled by rift-parallel faults are fed from, and interfinger with, aprons and fans. The predictability of the turbidite systems in Lake Baikal provides the best example yet studied of how tectonics and sediment supply interact to control the development of a wide variety of coeval turbidite systems on a single basin floor.

Nelson, C.H.; Karabanov, E.B.; Colman, S.M.; Escutia, C.



The Mercedario rift system in the principal Cordillera of Argentina and Chile (32° SL)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies carried out in the High Andes of central-western Argentina in the provinces of San Juan and Mendoza have established its stratigraphic and structural evolution. This paper presents new data on the Triassic–Early Jurassic rift system, the depositional sequences, and a synthesis of the tectonic evolution of the region, along with a correlation with the Chilean continental margin.The paleogeographic

P. Pamela Alvarez; Victor A. Ramos



Earthquake depth distribution in the Baikal rift system and its rheological meaning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate determination of the earthquake source depth within the crust is possible provided that dense seismic network is operating and reliable velocity models are available. These conditions are not implemented in the Baikal rift system that leads to the ambiguity of the results and confusion with their interpretations. Meanwhile the earthquake depth is of special importance for the study of regional seismicity, the processes of rupturing, the geometry of faults and macroseismic effects. A special interest this parameter has for estimating strength properties of the lithosphere. This question, in turn, is a keystone for understanding the origin and development of the Baikal rift. The main aim of the report is to review of all available data on the earthquake source depth for the Baikal region, to consider the peculiarities of depth distribution in different case studies (for background seismicity and swarm/aftershock sequences) and to construct yield stress envelopes. The results show that the highest seismic activity is observed within the depth range of 10-20 km. The bottom of the seismically active part of the crust corresponding to the level, above which 90% of sources are located, lies at a depth of 25 km. The trend of the deepening of seismic sources is observed at the northeast flank of the rift zone, where seismic activity involves the lower part of the crust. No reliably localized sources are documented below the Moho discontinuity. Crustal strength estimation was based on the assumptions concerning frictional sliding and dislocation creep at the upper and lower parts of the crust correspondingly. The mean regional values of surface heat flow and strain rate as well as varied composition and pore pressure were used in the calculations. The best fitting of the yield stress envelopes to the earthquake depth histograms is found under mainly mafic composition of the middle and lower crust, high pore pressure at depth and the crust heated less than could be expected for a rift zone.

Radziminovich, Natalia



Seismic anisotropy of the lithosphere/asthenosphere system beneath the Rwenzori region of the East-African Rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from a temporary seismic network of 32 broad-band stations located around the Rwenzori region of the Albertine rift at the border between Uganda and DR Congo. The study aims to constrain seismic anisotropy and mantle deformation processes in relation to the formation of the rift zone. Shear-wave splitting measurements from local and teleseismic earthquakes are used to investigate the seismic anisotropy in the crust and upper mantle beneath the Rwenzori region. At most stations, shear-wave splitting parameters obtained from individual earthquakes exhibit only minor variations with backazimuth. We therefore employ a joint inversion of SKS waveforms to derive hypothetical one-layer parameters. The corresponding fast polarizations are generally rift-parallel and the average delay time is about 1 s. On the other hand, shear phases from local events within the crust are characterized by a bimodal pattern of fast polarizations and an average delay time of 0.04 s. This observation suggests that the dominant source region for seismic anisotropy beneath the rift is located within the mantle. We use finite-frequency waveform modeling to test different models of anisotropy within the lithosphere/asthenosphere system of the rift. The results show that the rift-parallel fast polarizations are consistent with HTI anisotropy caused by rift-parallel magmatic intrusions or lenses located within the lithospheric mantle - as it would be expected during the early stages of continental rifting. Furthermore, the short-scale spatial variations in the fast polarizations observed in the southern part of the study area can be explained by effects due to sedimentary basins of low isotropic velocity in combination with a shift in the orientation of anisotropic fabrics in the upper mantle. A uniform anisotropic layer in relation to large-scale asthenospheric mantle flow is less consistent with the observed splitting parameters.

Homuth, Benjamin; Löbl, Ulrike; Batte, Arthur; Link, Klemens; Kasereka, Celestine; Rümpker, Georg



Post-Pan-African tectonic evolution of South Malawi in relation to the Karroo and recent East African rift systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural studies conducted in the Lengwe and Mwabvi Karroo basins and in the basement in South Malawi, using regional maps and published data extended to cover Southeast Africa, serve to propose a series of geodynamic reconstructions which reveal the persistence of an extensional tectonic regime, the minimum stress ?3 of which has varied through time. The period of Karroo rifting and the tholeiitic and alkaline magmatism which terminated it, were controlled by NW-SE extension, which resulted in the creation of roughly NE-SW troughs articulated by the Tanganyika-Malawi and Zambesi pre-transform systems. These were NW-SE sinistral-slip systems with directions of movement dipping slightly to the Southeast, which enabled the Mwanza fault to play an important role in the evolution of the Karroo basins of the Shire Valley. The Cretaceous was a transition period between the Karroo rifting and the formation of the Recent East African Rift System. Extension was NE-SW, with some evidence for a local compressional episode in the Lengwe basin. Beginning in the Cenozoic, the extension once more became NW-SE and controlled the evolution in transtension of the Recent East African Rift System. This history highlights the major role of transverse faults systems dominated by strike-slip motion in the evolution and perpetuation of the continental rift systems. These faults are of a greater geological persistence than the normal faults bounding the grabens, especially when they are located on major basement anisotropies.

Castaing, C.



Age relationships for magmatic units of Mid-Continent rift system  

SciTech Connect

K-Ar ages ranging from about 600 to 1000 Ma have recently been reported for gabbro and basalt recovered from the Texaco 1 Poersch well in Kansas. This has prompted suggestions that rift magmatism there may be distinctly younger than that in the Lake Superior region, and that development of the rift may have lasted several hundred million years. Review of ages from Keweenawan volcanic and plutonic rocks in the Lake Superior region shows that the best results are obtained from U-Pb analyses of zircon and baddeleyite; recent published results range from 1087 to 1108 Ma, with uncertainties on individual ages of /plus minus/ 4 m.y. This finding is consistent with earlier reported U-Pb zircon results. Virtually all other techniques are susceptible to geologic error and generally yield ages of significant less than 1100 Ma. The reliability decreases approximately in the sequence Rb-Sr (whole rock), K-Ar (biotite), Ar/sup 39/-Ar/sup 40/ (whole rock), K-Ar (whole rock), with fresh, coarse-grained plutonic rocks yielding older ages than altered, fine-grained volcanic rocks. K-Ar data on altered, fine-grained mafic rocks, therefore, are very poor indicators of original crystallization ages. Since the rocks from the Texaco 1 Poersch well are fine grained and slightly to moderately altered, their true ages are probably substantially older than 800-900 Ma. Interpretations based on the K-Ar ages from this well are ill advised; tectonic interpretation of the Mid-Continent rift system must wait for more accurate results. Several possibilities exist for obtaining more reliable ages from samples of the Poersch well and other, older wells in the region. These studies are in progress, and any available results will be presented.

Van Schmus, W.R.



Relationships between pre-rift structure and rift architecture in Lakes Tanganyika and Malawi, East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continental rift systems are rips in plates caused by focusing of extensional stresses along some zone. In the same way that tensile cracks in the side of a brick building generally follow the mortar between bricks, rifts initially follow the weakest pathways in the pre-rift materials. There has even been a suggestion that the occurrence of rifts is controlled by

J. Versfelt; B. R. Rosendahl



Footwall progradation in syn-rift carbonate platform-slope systems (Early Jurassic, Northern Apennines, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The so-called Umbria-Marche Domain of Northern Apennines represents a vast depositional system, also stretching across the Adriatic Sea subsurface, that was characterized by dominantly pelagic sedimentation through most of its Jurassic to Oligocene/Early Miocene history. The pelagic succession is underlain by Hettangian shallow-water carbonates (Calcare Massiccio Fm.), constituting a regional carbonate platform that was subjected to tectonic extension due to rifting of the Adria/African Plate in the earliest Jurassic. While tectonic subsidence of the hangingwalls drove the drowning of the platform around the Hettangian/Sinemurian boundary, the production of benthic carbonate on footwall blocks continued parallel to faulting, through a sequence of facies that was abruptly terminated by drowning and development of condensed pelagites in the early Pliensbachian. By then rifting had ceased, so that the Pliensbachian to Early Cretaceous hangingwall deposits represent a post-rift basin-fill succession onlapping the tectonically-generated escarpment margins of the highs. During the early phases of syndepositional faulting, the carbonate factories of footwall blocks were still temporarily able to fill part of the accommodation space produced by the normal faults by prograding into the incipient basins. In this paper we describe for the first time a relatively low-angle (< 10°) clinoform bed package documenting such an ephemeral phase of lateral growth of a carbonate factory. The clinoforms are sigmoidal, and form low-relief (maximum 5-7 m) bodies representing a shallow-water slope that was productive due to development of a Lithocodium-dominated factory. Continued faulting and hangingwall subsidence then decoupled the slope from the platform top, halting the growth of clinoforms and causing the platform margin to switch from accretionary to bypass mode as the pre-rift substrate became exposed along a submarine fault escarpment. The downfaulted clinoform slope was then buried by base-of-escarpment proximal turbidites, forming a bypass wedge. Such a contact would be imaged along a seismic section as an unconformity, suggestive of shut-off of the local carbonate factory and onlap by pelagic mud. The composition of the turbidites, however, at least initially duplicates that of the clinoforms, indicating that the footwall top was still productive, yet the mechanisms of sediment shedding into the basin had changed due to the modifications of submarine topography induced by synsedimentary tectonics.

Fabbi, Simone; Santantonio, Massimo



Estimating the age of formation of lakes: An example from Lake Tanganyika, East African Rift system  

SciTech Connect

Age estimates for ancient lakes are important for determining their histories and their rates of biotic and tectonic evolution. In the absence of dated core material from the lake`s sedimentary basement, several techniques have been used to generate such age estimates. The most common of these, herein called the reflection seismic-radiocarbon method (RSRM), combines estimates of short-term sediment-accumulation rates derived from radiocarbon-dated cores and depth-to-basement estimates derived from reflection-seismic data at or near the same locality to estimate an age to basement. Age estimates form the RSRM suggest that the structural basins of central Lake Tanganyika began to form between 9 and 12 Ma. Estimates for the northern and southern basins are younger (7 to 8 Ma and 2 to 4 Ma, respectively). The diachroneity of estimates for different segments of the lake is equivocal, and may be due to erosional loss of record in the northern and southern structural basins or to progressive opening of the rift. The RSRM age estimates for Lake Tanganyika are considerably younger than most prior estimates and clarify the extensional history of the western branch of the East African Rift system. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Cohen, A.; Soreghan, M.J. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)] [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Scholz, C.A. [Duke Univ. Marine Lab., Beaufort, NC (United States)] [Duke Univ. Marine Lab., Beaufort, NC (United States)



Estimating the age of formation of lakes: An example from Lake Tanganyika, East African Rift system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Age estimates for ancient lakes are important for determining their histories and their rates off biotic and tectonic evolution. In the absence of dated core material from the lake's sedimentary basement, several techniques have been used to generate such age estimates. The most common off these, herein called the reflection seismic-radiocarbon method (RSRM), combines estimates off short-term sediment-accumulation rates derived from radiocarbon-dated cores and depth-to-basement estimates derived from reflection-seismic data at or near the same locality to estimate an age to basement. Age estimates from the RSRM suggest that the structural basins of central Lake Tanganyika began to form between 9 and 12 Ma. Estimates for the northern and southern basins are younger (7 to 8 Ma and 2 to 4 Ma, respectively). The diachroneity off estimates for different segments of the lake. is equivocal, and may be due to erosional loss off record in the northern and southern structural basins or to progressive opening of the rift. The RSRM age estimates for Lake Tanganyika are considerably younger than most prior estimates and clarify the extensional history of the western branch of the East African Rift system.

Cohen, Andrew S.; Soreghan, Michael J.; Scholz, Christopher A.



East African Rift Valley, Kenya  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This rare, cloud free view of the East African Rift Valley, Kenya (1.5N, 35.5E) shows a clear view of the Turkwell River Valley, an offshoot of the African REift System. The East African Rift is part of a vast plate fracture which extends from southern Turkey, through the Red Sea, East Africa and into Mozambique. Dark green patches of forests are seen along the rift margin and tea plantations occupy the cooler higher ground.



Development of Magma Reservoirs during the Final Stages of Rifting - the Role of the Continental Lithosphere in Magma Genesis in the Afar Depression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Afar depression, which lies at the intersection of the East African Rift system, the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, is a key target in understanding the transition from continental rifting to oceanic spreading. Critical to this transition is thinning of the lithospheric mantle and the commencement of dominantly asthenospheric decompression melting. Lithospheric stretching and elevated mantle potential temperatures have facilitated melt production and these magmatic products may be used to probe conditions of melt generation beneath the Afar depression. Quaternary basalts in the region exhibit an array of trace element characteristics that extend from enriched to somewhat depleted. The more trace element enriched samples share similar characteristics to basalts from the Main Ethiopian Rift, interpreted to represent a mixture of asthenospheric and lithospheric reservoirs. However, a subset of basalts from the Afar depression exhibits a distinctive depletion in the most incompatible trace elements, Ti, K, and P. These Afar depression depleted basalts (ADDB) have no correlative within the Ethiopian Rift and are distinguished from regional MORB suites by radiogenic Pb and Sr values. The ADDB suite have Pb isotopes that overlap with the least radiogenic end of the Main Ethiopian rift array, but display more radiogenic Nd isotopes. The ?Hf- ?Nd values of the ADDB suite fall in a tight cluster substantially above the mantle array. The isotopic characteristics of the ADDB suite cannot be explained by melting of existing inferred asthenospheric or lithospheric reservoirs. Alternatively, we suggest the ADDB suite is the result of melting at shallow levels in the lithospheric mantle. Advanced lithospheric thinning within the Afar depression has exposed this shallow reservoir to melt generation. In less extended regions, such as in the Ethiopian rift, thicker lithospheric mantle prevents melt generation within this shallow lithospheric mantle reservoir, consistent with the restricted occurrence of the ADDB suite to the Afar depression. Thus, in addition to asthenospheric decompression melting, the lithospheric mantle is contributing to melt production within the Afar depression. When combined with enriched trace element and isotopic values for other basalts in the Afar depression, our data indicate a wide array of potential melt sources in the region that includes the Afar plume, continental lithosphere and ambient asthenosphere. These data have significant implications for existing interpretations that link low-velocity seismic anomalies to melt derived from oceanic-ridge style decompression melting of the ambient asthenosphere beneath the Afar depression. Instead, the continued presence and melting of the continental lithosphere dictates that the Afar depression remains a transitional structure between a continental rift and an oceanic spreading center.

Rooney, T. O.; Yirgu, G.; Dosso, L.



The Okavango Dike Swarm (ODS) of Northern Botswana: Was it associated with a failed Rift System?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dikes and dike swarms often play a significant role in the initiation and extension of rift zones. The giant ODS in northern Botswana, Africa represents a Jurassic aged (~180Ma) thermo-tectonic event which developed during the initial lithospheric weakening phase of Gondwana. Detailed investigations of the mafic dike swarm over the last four decades have provided insights into its age, shape, orientation, and chemistry but have thus far been limited in addressing the crustal structure below the swarm. Historically, the ODS has been interpreted as a failed rift arm based on its association with the Bouvet Hotspot and geometric relationship with two other prominent dike swarms. More recent studies suggest instead that the ODS was emplaced along a preexisting Precambrian basement fabric. Accordingly, the origin of the swarm still remains a matter of debate. The objectives of this study were: (1) determine the role of crustal heterogeneities on the emplacement of the dikes, (2) determine variations in crustal thickness below the ODS and geographically related Okavango Rift Zone (ORZ), a zone of incipient rifting and (3) determine along-strike variations in Curie Point Depth (CPD) below the swarm. We used high resolution aeromagnetic data and applied mathematical filters to enhance structures associated with the swarm's oblique geometry. Crustal thicknesses were estimated using the radial average power spectrum method, applied to 1.2km spatial resolution gravity data. 3D inversions were used to map the magnetic basement and determine the depth to the base of the swarm. Our results showed: (1) There were no apparent basement structures with the same 110° orientation as the ODS. (2) Crustal thickness below the swarm ranges from 39 to 45km with an average of 42± 3km, comparable with thicknesses derived from the Southern African Seismic Experiment (SASE). In contrast, crustal thickness below the ORZ is 9 to 16km thinner than the surrounding blocks. (3) The magnetic basement extends to a depth of about 24km and is segmented into a number of along-strike magnetic bodies. The lack of significant crustal thinning below the ODS and poor relationship with the Precambrian basement fabric suggests either the ODS was not associated with a failed rift system or the remnants of the crustal disturbance have since been modified to depict a normal continental crust. The along-strike magnetic bodies conceivably represent mid-crustal feeder chambers, similar to those found in modern extensional environments such as Afar, or magma pooling zones developed along Proterozoic discontinuities. Due to the relative inconsistency of the magnetic anomaly below the swarm we speculate that a majority of the dikes are confined to the upper 5-10km of the crust. The ODS is thus interpreted to be a magma enhanced fissure network emplaced within the upper crust during an extensive period of regional tension induced by a continental wide upwelling of the asthenosphere caused by thermal incubation of the mantle.

LePera, Alan; Atekwana, Estella; Abdelsalam, Mohamed



Active deformation of the Corinth rift, Greece: Results from repeated Global Positioning System surveys between 1990 and 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1990 and 1995, we carried out seven Global Positioning System (GPS) campaigns in the Corinth rift area in order to constrain the spatial and temporal crustal deformation of this active zone. The network, 193 points over ~10,000 km2, samples most of the active faults. In order to estimate the deformation over a longer period, 159 of those points are

P. Briole; A. Rigo; H. Lyon-Caen; J. C. Ruegg; K. Papazissi; C. Mitsakaki; A. Balodimou; G. Veis; D. Hatzfeld; A. Deschamps



Tectonics of the baikal rift deduced from volcanism and sedimentation: a review oriented to the Baikal and Hovsgol lake systems.  


As known from inland sedimentary records, boreholes, and geophysical data, the initiation of the Baikal rift basins began as early as the Eocene. Dating of volcanic rocks on the rift shoulders indicates that volcanism started later, in the Early Miocene or probably in the Late Oligocene. Prominent tectonic uplift took place at about 20 Ma, but information (from both sediments and volcanics) on the initial stage of the rifting is scarce and incomplete. A comprehensive record of sedimentation derived from two stacked boreholes drilled at the submerged Akademichesky ridge indicates that the deep freshwater Lake Baikal existed for at least 8.4 Ma, while the exact formation of the lake in its roughly present-day shape and volume is unknown. Four important events of tectonic/environmental changes at about approximately 7, approximately 5, approximately 2.5, and approximately 0.1 Ma are seen in that record. The first event probably corresponds to a stage of rift propagation from the historical center towards the wings of the rift system. Rifting in the Hovsgol area was initiated at about this time. The event of ~5 Ma is a likely candidate for the boundary between slow and fast stages of rifting. It is reflected in a drastic change of sedimentation rate due to isolation of the Akademichesky ridge from the central and northern Lake Baikal basins. The youngest event of 0.1 Ma is reflected by the (87)0Sr/ (86)Sr ratio increase in Lake Baikal waters and probably related to an increasing rate of mountain growth (and hence erosion) resulting from glacial rebounding. The latter is responsible for the reorganization of the outflow pattern with the termination of the paleo-Manzurka outlet and the formation of the Angara outlet. The event of approximately 2.5 Ma is reflected in the decrease of the (87)Sr/(86)Sr and Na/Al ratios in Lake Baikal waters. We suggest that it is associated with a decrease of the dust load due to a reorganization of the atmospheric circulations in Mainland Asia. All these tectonic and climatic events could (and actually did) influence the biota of Lake Baikal. The Hovsgol rift basin was shaped to its recent form between 5.5 and 0.4 Ma. However, freshwater Lake Hovsgol appeared only in the latest pre-Holocene time as a result of meltwater inflow and increase of atmospheric precipitations during the Bølling-Allerød warming. Prior to this, a significantly smaller, saline outflow-free precursor of Lake Hovsgol existed. It explains why two, now connected, lakes of similar water chemistry within similar climatic and tectonic conditions differ so much in their biodiversity. PMID:19198772

Ivanov, Alexei V; Demonterova, Elena I



Modelling Rift Valley fever (RVF) disease vector habitats using active and passive remote sensing systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Ames Ecosystem Science and Technology Branch and the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases are conducting research to detect Rift Valley fever (RVF) vector habitats in eastern Africa using active and passive remote-sensing. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) calculated from Landsat TM and SPOT data is used to characterize the vegetation common to the Aedes mosquito. Relationships have been found between the highest NDVI and the 'dambo' habitat areas near Riuru, Kenya on both wet and dry data. High NDVI values, when combined with the vegetation classifications, are clearly related to the areas of vector habitats. SAR data have been proposed for use during the rainy season when optical systems are of minimal use and the short frequency and duration of the optimum RVF mosquito habitat conditions necessitate rapid evaluation of the vegetation/moisture conditions; only then can disease potential be stemmed and eradication efforts initiated.

Ambrosia, Vincent G.; Linthicum, K. G.; Bailey, C. L.; Sebesta, P.



Lower Pliensbachian caldera volcanism in high-obliquity rift systems in the western North Patagonian Massif, Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Cerro Carro Quebrado and Cerro Catri Cura area, located at the border between the Neuquén Basin and the North Patagonian Massif, the Garamilla Formation is composed of four volcanic stages: 1) andesitic lava-flows related to the beginning of the volcanic system; 2) basal massive lithic breccias that represent the caldera collapse; 3) voluminous, coarse-crystal rich massive lava-like ignimbrites related to multiple, steady eruptions that represent the principal infill of the system; and, finally 4) domes, dykes, lava flows, and lava domes of rhyolitic composition indicative of a post-collapse stage. The analysis of the regional and local structures, as well as, the architectures of the volcanic facies, indicates the existence of a highly oblique rift, with its principal extensional strain in an NNE-SSW direction (˜N10°). The analyzed rocks are mainly high-potassium dacites and rhyolites with trace and RE elements contents of an intraplate signature. The age of these rocks (189 ± 0.76 Ma) agree well with other volcanic sequences of the western North Patagonian Massif, as well as, the Neuquén Basin, indicating that Pliensbachian magmatism was widespread in both regions. The age is also coincident with phase 1 of volcanism of the eastern North Patagonia Massif (188-178 Ma) represented by ignimbrites, domes, and pyroclastic rocks of the Marifil Complex, related to intraplate magmatism.

Benedini, Leonardo; Gregori, Daniel; Strazzere, Leonardo; Falco, Juan I.; Dristas, Jorge A.



Tectonics of the Nafir-Skjálfandadjúp volcanic system, Tjörnes Fracture Zone, offshore North Iceland: A case of transtensional rifting along a divergent plate boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multibeam bathymetric and high resolution seismic reflection data (Chirp) have been used to illuminate the structural framework of the Nafir-Skjálfandadjúp volcanic system, located within the offshore Grímsey Oblique Rift, Tjörnes Fracture Zone. Tectonic movements within the Tjörnes Fracture Zone are distributed within three NW-trending rift and/or transform zones in the form of seismic lineaments; Grímsey Oblique Rift, Húsavík-Flatey Faults and Dalvík Lineament, which are superimposed on NS trending sediment filled rift basins. The Grímsey Oblique Rift was formed ~2 myrs ago and currently takes up most part of the tectonic movements within the Tjörnes Fracture Zone. The Grímsey Oblique Rift is 140 km long, composed of four NS to NNW-SSE trending, left-stepping, en echelon volcanic systems; Mánáreyjar, Nafir-Skjálfandadjúp (NaS), Hóllinn and Stóragrunn, which all exhibit Holocene volcanism. South of the Grímsey Oblique Rift is the Húsavík-Flatey Fault System, a system of right-lateral strike-slip faults which take up a part of the tectonic movements within the Tjörnes Fracture Zone. The Nafir-Skjálfandadjúp volcanic system is oriented approximately NS on the Grímsey Oblique Rift. It is composed of the Nafir seamounts which form the volcanic center of the NaS, and the Skjálfandadjúp rift basin which is the foci of maximum extension and sediment accumulation. The Skjálfandadjúp rift basin is made up of normal faults with up to 50-60 m vertical displacement along its rim, and 5-15 m within the center of the basin. Comparison of the structure of the NaS with models and natural occurrences of oblique rifting indicate that it is at an early stage of deformation, with tectonic activity moving from the border faults towards the internal faults of the basin. Correlation of Chirp data with tephrochronology from the sediment core MD99-2275 provided constraints on tectonic movements along individual faults from Early Postglacial time throughout Holocene. Post-glacial tectonic activity commenced as early as 14-15 kyrs BP, followed by four major rifting episodes at 12 kyrs, 11 kyrs, 10 kyrs and 3 kyrs. The 10-12 kyr period of enhanced tectonic activity was accompanied by numerous local eruptions within the TFZ, followed by more moderate activity throughout Holocene. This increase in eruption rates within Grímsey Oblique Rift corresponds with enhanced eruption rates on land, observed within the Northern and Western Volcanic Zones of Iceland at 10-12 kyrs.

Magnusdottir, S.; Brandsdottir, B.; Driscoll, N. W.; Detrick, R. S.



Spatial variation of primordial 3-He in crustal fluids along the East-African Rift system (the Ethiopian and the Kenya Rift section)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

(3)He/(4)He compositions are presented for groundwater samples from the Ethiopian segment of the East-Afrikan Rift and from its northern extension, the adjacent Afar region (Djibuti). Helium isotope data are compared to those obtained previously from the Gregory Rift, south of Ethiopia. The distribution pattern of mantle-derived volatiles along the entire East-African-Rift (-from south Kenya to Djibuti-) is discussed and their sources are identified. Helium isotope ratios (R) for samples from the Ethiopian part of the Rift range from 6.3 to 16.0 times the atmospheric ratio (Ra=1.4 x 10(exp -6) and thus show together with a MOR component a considerable hotspot helium component. These mantle helium concentrations are comparable to those observed in groundwaters and volcanic rocks from the Afar plume region in Djibuti. Here R/Ra values range from 9 to 13 times the atmospheric composition, with mantle-derived helium concentrations being higher than at spreading ocean ridges. R/Ra values from Ethiopia and Djibuti are entirely different from those observed in groundwaters at the southerly extending Gregory Rift in Kenya, where R/Ra values scatter between 0.5 and 6. At the northernmost part of the Gregory Rift, close to Ethiopia mantle helium contents are slightly higher, with R/Ra-values varying between 6.5 and 8.0.

Griesshaber, E.; Weise, S.; Darling, G.



DoD-GEIS Rift Valley Fever Monitoring and Prediction System as a Tool for Defense and US Diplomacy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the last 10 years the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center's Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (GEIS) partnering with NASA'S Goddard Space Flight Center and USDA's USDA-Center for Medical, Agricultural & Veterinary Entomology established and have operated the Rift Valley fever Monitoring and Prediction System to monitor, predict and assess the risk of Rift Valley fever outbreaks and other vector-borne diseases over Africa and the Middle East. This system is built on legacy DoD basic research conducted by Walter Reed Army Institute of Research overseas laboratory (US Army Medical Research Unit-Kenya) and the operational satellite environmental monitoring by NASA GSFC. Over the last 10 years of operation the system has predicted outbreaks of Rift Valley fever in the Horn of Africa, Sudan, South Africa and Mauritania. The ability to predict an outbreak several months before it occurs provides early warning to protect deployed forces, enhance public health in concerned countries and is a valuable tool use.d by the State Department in US Diplomacy. At the international level the system has been used by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAD) and the World Health Organization (WHO) to support their monitoring, surveillance and response programs in the livestock sector and human health. This project is a successful testament of leveraging resources of different federal agencies to achieve objectives of force health protection, health and diplomacy.

Anyamba, Assaf; Tucker, Compton J.; Linthicum, Kenneth J.; Witt, Clara J.; Gaydos, Joel C.; Russell, Kevin L.



He-Ne-Ar isotope studies of mafic volcanic rocks and mantle xenoliths from the East African Rift System - contrasting isotope signals in different rift branches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helium isotope studies of the East African Rift System (EARS) suggest the involvement of a deep mantle plume(s) beneath the northern (Ethiopian) segment [1-3]. The highest 3He/4He (RA) signatures found to date show a close association with the greatest magma volumes erupted since the Early Cenozoic in the region. While the helium isotope characteristics are well established in the Ethiopia-Afar region, Ne and Ar systematics remain poorly constrained. Using a combined He-Ne-Ar isotope approach, our aim is to determine the regional extent of the influence of the Afar plume and to distinguish between subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) and/or a possible second mantle plume sources located to the south of the Turkana Depression. Xenoliths and mafic lavas from N-Tanzania display a limited range in He isotopes (5-7 RA) with exceptions at Arusha (7.8RA) and Labait (8.7RA), through 7.1-8.7 RA in N-Kenya and S-Ethiopia, to 14.3 RA in the Main Ethiopian Rift and Afar, spanning nearly the entire range of previously reported values. The mean 3He/4He ratio from of lavas and xenoliths from N-Tanzania is remarkably close to the global average of 6.1±0.9 (RA) for continental xenoliths and basalts, thought to represent the SCLM [4]. Thus far, only MORB-like values of 7.3-8.3 RA have been found in volcanics of the Western rift. Initial Ne isotope data reveal the presence of a solar-like Ne component in xenoliths from the Ethiopia-Afar region, with extrapolated 21Ne/22Neex ratios of 0.0365 (assuming Ne-B = 12.5). This trend overlaps that of the Loihi-Kilauea line (L-K). Interestingly, a xenolith from N-Tanzania has a 21Ne/22Neex ratio of 0.0415, falling on a trajectory intermediate between MORB and L-K. The highest 40Ar/36Ar ratio obtained on phenocrysts/xenoliths to date is 1510. The generally low 3He/4He ratios of N-Tanzania likely result from different mixing proportions of asthenospheric sources with lithospheric material, the latter having developed lower 3He/4He ratios over time, presumably via lithospheric enrichment/aging events. The finding of a possible solar neon component in N-Tanzanina suggests a mantle plume underlies the area, but with isotopic characteristics distinct from the Afar plume [5]. This finding is consistent with seismic evidence [6], geodynamic modeling [7] and Os isotope results [8]. [1] Marty, B., et al. (1996). Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 144, 223-237, [2] Pik, R., et al. (2006). Chem. Geol. 226, 100-114, [3] Scarsi, P., Craig, H., (1996). Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 144, 505-516, [4] Gautheron and Moreira, Planet. Sci. Lett. 2002, [5] George et al. (1998) Geology 26, 923-926, [6] Nyblade et al. (2000) Geology 28, 7, 599-602, [7] Lin et al. (2005) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 237, 175-192, [8] Chesley et al., 1999, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta

Halldorsson, S. A.; Hilton, D. R.; Scarsi, P.; Abebe, T.; Massi, K. M.; Barry, P. H.; Fischer, T. P.; de Moor, J.; Rudnick, R. L.



Basement control in the development of the early cretaceous West and Central African rift system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structural framework of the Precambrian basement of the West and Central African Rift System (WCARS) is described in order to examine the role of ancient structures in the development of this Early Cretaceous rift system. Basement structures are represented in the region by large Pan-African mobile belts (built at ca. 600 Ma) surrounding the > 2 Ga West African, Congo and Sao Francisco cratons. Except for the small Gao trough (eastern Mali) located near the contact nappe of the Pan-African Iforas suture zone along the edge of the West African craton, the entire WCARS is located within the internal domains of the Pan-African mobile belts. Within these domains, two main structural features occur as the main basement control of the WCARS: (1) an extensive network of near vertical shear zones which trend north-south through the Congo, Brazil, Nigeria, Niger and Algeria, and roughly east-west through northeastern Brazil and Central Africa. The shear zones correspond to intra-continental strike-slip faults which accompanied the oblique collision between the West African, Congo, and Sao Francisco cratons during the Late Proterozoic; (2) a steep metamorphic NW-SE-trending belt which corresponds to a pre-Pan-African (ca. 730 Ma) ophiolitic suture zone along the eastern edge of the Trans-Saharian mobile belt. The post-Pan-African magmatic and tectonic evolution of the basement is also described in order to examine the state of the lithosphere prior to the break-up which occurred in the earliest Cretaceous. After the Pan-African thermo-tectonic event, the basement of the WCARS experienced a long period of intra-plate magmatic activity. This widespread magmatism in part relates to the activity of intra-plate hotspots which have controlled relative uplift, subsidence and occasionally block faulting. During the Paleozoic and the early Mesozoic, this tectonic activity was restricted to west of the Hoggar, west of Aïr and northern Cameroon. During the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous the St. Helena mantle plume may have had an important effect in weakening the lithosphere across a broad zone from Brazil to Sudan. However, causes of extension and stretching are likely to be found in a plate tectonic framework. At that time, the opening of both the Indian and Atlantic oceans were the dominant forces which favoured the development of the WCARS and its propagation by strike-slip movements and extensional displacements along pre-existing Pan-African lithospheric zones of weakness.

Maurin, Jean-Christophe; Guiraud, René



Open system evolution of trachyte and phonolite magmas from the East Africa Rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Quaternary Suswa volcanic system consists of a large shield volcano that developed two nested summit calderas and erupted metaluminous to peralkaline trachyte and phonolite lavas and tuffs. Suswa is adjacent to the Greater Olkaria Volcanic Center, Longonot, Eburru, and Menengai volcanic systems, which erupted trachyte, comendite, and pantellerite. These volcanoes comprise the Central Kenya Peralkaline Province and are the site of active geothermal energy production and exploration. Mafic to intermediate lavas (Elementieta, Ndabibi, and Lolonito-Akira-Tandamara volcanic fields) lie in the rift floor between the shield volcanoes and occur as components of mixed magmas within the complexes. Suswa includes two suites of trachyte-phonolite lavas and tuffs. The first suite (C1) consists of lavas that built the original shield volcano and lavas and tuffs related to the formation of the first caldera; the second suite (C2) consists of lavas and tuffs erupted during and after the formation of the second caldera. Trachyte-carbonate immiscibility has been recorded in C1 ash flow units. The lavas and tuffs of the C2 suite are generally less peralkaline and more silica undersaturated than those of the C1 suite and did not share a common parental magma. Geochemical modeling precludes fractional crystallization as the sole process for Suswa magmas. Instead, assimilation of syenitic material (probably the crystal mush left over from C1 fractional crystallization), resorption, and mixing between the mafic to intermediate lavas satellite to the shield volcanoes have contributed to the composition and eruptive style of these volcanoes.

Anthony, E. Y.; Espejel, V.



Lake Superior Rift basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sedimentary basins of late Precambrian age have been identified beneath Lake Superior using seismic reflection profiles leased by Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Ill., from Grant Norpac, Inc. [McGinnis et al., 1989]. These data, along with 650 km of Great Lakes International Multidisciplinary Program for Crustal Evolution (GLIMPCE) profiles [Behrendt et al., 1988], are being used to develop an understanding of failed rift processes, from initial plate separation, through basin evolution, to final quiescence.

McGinnis, L. D.


Failed Rifts: They May Have Failed but They are Still interesting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term failed rift has been used in the literature since the early days of plate tectonics. Successful rifts form oceans and the resulting passive margins often bury much of the information that could be used to deduct their evolution. There are many examples of failed rifts (aulacogens) on the continents that are well studied partly because they subside and basins develop that contain natural resources. It is not clear why some rifts fail. For example, the Mid-Continent rift in central North America was extremely active magmatically and very little of the original crust remains in the Lake Superior region. On the other hand, the West and Central African Rift System extends entirely across Africa from the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean. It is associated with only modest magmatism but is associated with a large number of basins. In many cases, a successful rift is preceded by a failed one inboard of it. Finally, many failed rifts have been reactivated one or more times in an intraplate setting and some pose seismic hazards today.

Keller, G. R.



Tectonic localization of multi-plume hydrothermal fluid flow in a segmented rift system, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-temperature (>250°C) multi-plume hydrothermal systems occur in a range of tectonic settings, though most are extensional or transtensional. A key feature of such settings is their tendency to partition into discrete structural elements that scale with the thickness of the seismogenic zone. The late Miocene to present record of arc magmatism and rifting in the North Island of New Zealand illustrates the importance of structural segmentation and reactivation of inherited basement fabrics on the localisation of hydrothermal upflow. The <2 My-old Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) represents the most recent NE-SW-trending locus of heat and mass transfer in a >15 My record of similarly-oriented magmatism, rifting and hydrothermal activity associated with subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the North Island of New Zealand. Lateral migration of the locus of arc magmatism, concomitant with roll-back of the subducting slab, is supported by the SE-directed younging of: 1) volcanism; 2) fault-controlled rift basins; and 3) hydrothermal activity, represented by the distribution of epithermal mineralisation within the ~15-3 Ma Coromandel Volcanic Zone (CVZ), and geothermal activity within the TVZ. Currently the TVZ is extending in a NW-SE direction at a rate that varies from ~3 mm/yr to ~15 mm/yr from SW to NE, respectively. The TVZ is partitioned into discrete rift segments, comprising arrays of NE-striking normal faults of ~20 km in length, as expected on mechanical grounds for the 6-8 km-thick seismogenic zone. Transfer zones between rift segments coincide with N-to-NW-trending alignments of geothermal fields, <61 ka volcanic vents, and margins of rhombic shaped caldera boundaries, which supports the notion that such tectonic features are important sites for heat and mass transfer. Although masked at the surface, upward continued aeromagnetic data reveals deep lineations that align with transfer zones and major faults in exposed Mesozoic metasedimentary basement rocks proximal to the TVZ. Transfer zones are thus inferred to be hard-linked at depth via reactivated basement faults, some of which appear to extend into the CVZ. Two similarly oriented features spaced ~ 30 km apart can be recognized elsewhere within the CVZ. The most productive epithermal deposits to date are localised where these inferred transfer zones intersect arc-parallel fault arrays. A similar tectonic configuration occurs in the Deseado Massif, Argentinian Patagonia, where interplay between transfer and rift faults is inferred to have localized hydrothermal fluids in small pull-apart basins and arrays of extension veins for durations >30 My.

Rowland, J. V.; Downs, D. T.; Scholz, C.; de P. S. Zuquim, M.



Oil source rocks in lacustrine sequences from Tertiary grabens, western Mediterranean rift system, northeast Spain  

SciTech Connect

Lacustrine sequences, 100-250 m thick, containing oil-prone, organic-rich mudstones (ORM) are exposed in five Tertiary basins in northeastern Spain. They were deposited in small lacustrine basins (up to 50 km/sup 2/) that developed in grabens of the western Mediterranean rift system. ORMs from the Rubielos basin comprise laminated gray mudstones with interbedded rhythmite intervals (up to 2.5 m thick) formed by couplets of organic- and carbonate-rich laminae (< 1 mm thick). In marginal zones, ORMs (up to 10 m thick) alternate with lean, bioturbated green marls (up to 5 m thick). ORMs (Rock-Eval yields /approximately/ 40 kg/MT, HI /approximately/ 850 mg HC/g TOC) had a dominant waxy terrestrial plant input, with significant and variable algal/bacterial input. ORMs in these basins are immature for petroleum generation. Larger lacustrine basins similar to those described above, in more appropriate burial/thermal situations, can be envisioned as zones of potential interest for lacustrine oil exploration in the western Mediterranean.

Anadon, P.; Cawley, S.J.; Julia, R.



A hydrogeologic model of stratiform copper mineralization in the Midcontinent Rift System, Northern Michigan, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper presents a suite of two-dimensional mathematical models of basin-scale groundwater flow and heat transfer for the middle Proterozoic Midcontinent Rift System. The models were used to assess the hydrodynamic driving mechanisms responsible for main-stage stratiform copper mineralization of the basal Nonesuch Formation during the post-volcanic/pre-compressional phase of basin evolution. Results suggest that compaction of the basal aquifer (Copper Harbor Formation), in response to mechanical loading during deposition of the overlying Freda Sandstone, generated a pulse of marginward-directed, compaction-driven discharge of cupriferous brines from within the basal aquifer. The timing of this pulse is consistent with the radiometric dates for the timing of mineralization. Thinning of the basal aquifer near White Pine, Michigan, enhanced stratiform copper mineralization. Focused upward leakage of copper-laden brines into the lowermost facies of the pyrite-rich Nonesuch Formation resulted in copper sulfide mineralization in response to a change in oxidation state. Economic-grade mineralization within the White Pine ore district is a consequence of intense focusing of compaction-driven discharge, and corresponding amplification of leakage into the basal Nonesuch Formation, where the basal aquifer thins dramatically atop the Porcupine Mountains volcanic structure. Equilibrium geochemical modeling and mass-balance calculations support this conclusion. We also assessed whether topography and density-driven flow systems could have caused ore genesis at White Pine. Topography-driven flow associated with the Ottawan orogeny was discounted because it post-dates main-stage ore genesis and because recent seismic interpretations of basin inversion indicates that basin geometry would not be conductive to ore genesis. Density-driven flow systems did not produce focused discharge in the vicinity of the White Pine ore district.

Swenson, J. B.; Person, M.; Raffensperger, J. P.; Cannon, W. F.; Woodruff, L. G.; Berndt, M. E.



Fluvial systems response to rift margin tectonics: Makhtesh Ramon area, southern Israel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geomorphic evolution of Makhtesh Ramon, a feather-shaped erosional valley, and the Nahal Neqarot drainage system to the south occurred largely in response to tectonic activity along the Dead Sea Rift and its western shoulder. Remnants of Miocene clastic sediments (Hazeva Formation) deposited on an erosional peneplain that formed over this area during the Oligocene epoch provide a datum plane for reconstructing subsequent fluvial evolution. These clastic remnants are presently located on the shoulders of Makhtesh Ramon at various elevations. The peneplain truncating the Makhtesh Ramon block has been tilted 0.7% northeastward since the Pliocene epoch (post-Hazeva Formation), whereas that of the Neqarot syncline, south of the Ramon, has been tilted 1.2%. The elliptical exposure of friable Lower Cretaceous sandstone, exposed in the core of the truncated Ramon structure, governed the development of a new ENE directed (riftward) drainage system through capture of streams that previously drained toward the Mediterranean Sea to the northwest. Incised fluvial gaps in the southern rim of Makhtesh Ramon and alluvial fan relicts within Makhtesh Ramon attest to original drainage into the Makhtesh from the south. Remnants of the Plio-Pleistocene Arava Conglomerate on the eastern end of the Neqarot syncline contain clasts from rocks exposed within Makhtesh Ramon, also indicating that streams flowed into the Makhtesh from the southern Neqarot block through the western gaps, then turning eastward and exiting the Makhtesh via the next (Sha'ar-Ramon) gap to the east. Further down-faulting of the Neqarot block during Mid-Late Pleistocene time led to westward retreat of the Neqarot valley and capture of the last stream flowing northward into the Ramon, leaving the modern Makhtesh Ramon isolated from the southern drainage system.

Ben-David, Ram; Eyal, Yehuda; Zilberman, Ezra; Bowman, Dan



Cenozoic rift formation in the northern Caribbean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rifts form in many different tectonic environments where the lithosphere is put into extension. An outline is provided of the distribution, orientation, and relative ages of 16 Cenozoic rifts along the northern edge of the Caribbean plate and it is suggested that these structures formed successively by localized extension as the Caribbean plate moved eastward past a continental promontory of North America. Evidence leading to this conclusion includes (1) recognition that the rifts become progressively younger westward; (2) a two-phase subsidence history in a rift exposed by upthrusting in Jamaica; (3) the absence of rifts east of Jamaica; and (4) the observation that removal of 1400 km of strike-slip displacement on the Cayman Trough fault system places the Paleogene rifts of Jamaica in an active area of extension south of Yucatan where the rifts of Honduras and Guatemala are forming today.

Mann, P.; Burke, K.



Spatial Variation of Primordial 3-He in Crustal Fluids Along the East-African Rift System (Ethiopian and the Kenya Rift Section).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

(3)He/(4)He compositions are presented for groundwater samples from the Ethiopian segment of the East-African Rift and from its northern extension, the adjacent Afar region (Djibuti). Helium isotope data are compared to those obtained previously from the ...

E. Griesshaber, S. Weise, G. Darling



GLIMPCE Seismic reflection evidence of deep-crustal and upper-mantle intrusions and magmatic underplating associated with the Midcontinent Rift system of North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Deep-crustal and Moho reflections, recorded on vertical incidence and wide angle ocean bottom Seismometer (OBS) data in the 1986 GLIMPCE (Great Lakes International Multidisciplinary Program on Crustal Evolution) experiment, provide evidence for magmatic underplating and intrusions within the lower crust and upper mantle contemporaneous with crustal extension in the Midcontinent Rift system at 1100 Ma. The rift fill consists of 20-30 km (7-10 s) of basalt flows, secondary syn-rift volcaniclastic and post-basalt sedimentary rock. Moho reflections recorded in Lake Superior over the Midcontinent Rift system have times from 14-18 s (about 46 km to as great as 58 km) in contrast to times of about 11-13 s (about 36-42 km crustal thickness) beneath the surrounding Great Lakes. The Seismically complex deep-crust to mantle transition zone (30-60 km) in north-central Lake Superior, which is 100 km wider than the rift half-graben, reflects the complicated products of tectonic and magmatic interaction of lower-crustal and mantle components during evolution or shutdown of the aborted Midcontinent Rift. In effect, mantle was changed into crust by lowering Seismic velocity (through intrusion of lower density magmatic rocks) and increasing Moho (about 8.1 km s-1 depth. ?? 1990.

Behrendt, J.C.; Hutchinson, D.R.; Lee, M.; Thornber, C.R.; Trehu, A.; Cannon, W.; Green, A.



Evolution of bimodal volcanism in Gona, Ethiopia: geochemical associations and geodynamic implications for the East African Rift System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The East African rift system in Ethiopia formed in the Earth's youngest flood basalt province, and provides a natural laboratory to study the geochemistry of bimodal volcanism and its implications for plume-derived magmatism, mantle-lithosphere interactions and evolution of continental rifts from plate extension to rupture. Our geochemical studies of the ~6 Ma to recent eruptive products from Gona within the Afar Rift Zone are understood in context of crustal and upper mantle seismic imaging studies that provide constraints on spatial variations. Geochemical (major element, trace element and isotope) analyses of basalts and rhyolitic tuff from Gona indicate a common magma source for these bimodal volcanics. Light rare earth elements (LREEs) are enriched with a strong negative Eu anomaly and a positive Ce anomaly in some of the silicic volcanic rocks. We observe strong depletions in Sr and higher concentrations of Zr, Hf, Th, Nb and Ta. We hypothesize that the silicic rocks may be residues from a plume-derived enriched magma source, following partial melting with fractional crystallization of plagioclase at shallow magma chambers. The absence of Nb-Ta anomaly shows no crustal assimilation by magmas. Sr isotopes, in conjunction with Nd and Pb isotopes and a strong Ce anomaly could reflect interaction of the parent magma with a deep saline aquifer or brine. Nd isotopic ratios (?Nd = 1.9 to 4.6) show similarity of the silicic tuffs and basalts in their isotopic compositions except for some ~6 Ma lavas showing MORB-like values (?Nd = 5 to 8.7) that suggest involvement of the asthenosphere with the plume source. Except for one basaltic tuff, the whole rock oxygen isotopic ratios of the Gona basalts range from +5.8‰ to +7.9‰, higher than the ? values for typical MORB, +5.7. The oxygen isotopes in whole rocks from the rhyolite tuffs vary from 14.6‰ to 20.9‰ while their Sr isotope ratios <0.706, indicative of post-depositional low T alteration of these silicic rocks by a fluid derived from seawater or some crustal fluid not enriched in radiogenic Sr. The bimodality of the volcanic rocks may be genetically related by fractional crystallization or by partial melting of a hydrothermally altered mafic crust from earlier magma generation in the rift, without continental crustal assimilation. The geochemical data, along with geophysical and geodetic studies, assist our understanding of the tectonics of continental break up and plume magmatism in the Afar depression and the East African Rift system.

Ghosh, N.; Basu, A. R.; Gregory, R. T.; Richards, I.; Quade, J.; Ebinger, C. J.



Age of Fault Movements in Tanzanian Sector of East African Rift System  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE Neogene volcanic province of northern Tanzania is a southerly extension of the more extensive volcanic areas of Ethiopia and Kenya. It stands astride the Eastern Rift Valley and represents a complex interplay of volcanic activity and widespread Earth movements with associated faulting. A general picture is that an older series of basaltic-trachytic shield volcanoes, together with smaller nephelinitic centres,

R. M. MacIntyre



Structural geometry and evolution of the Dead Sea-Jordan rift system as deduced from new subsurface data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of deep drilling data and seismic reflection surveys obtained in recent years permit establishment of a tectonic model of the Dead Sea-Jordan rift system that is in part conformable with some of the many, often controversial, theories on this subject, but which also introduces new information negating some concepts that are widely accepted in the literature. The Dead Sea-Jordan rift system is not a tensional graben between two parallel sets of faults, but instead can be best defined as a sinistral transform connecting an incipient oceanic ridge—the Red Sea—with an upthrusted collision zone, the Taurus range. The shear is caused by the opening of the Red Sea and the motion of the Arabian sub-plate away from the African plate. The shearing occurs along a largely south-north trending, slightly arcuate Une, consisting of a series of en echelon left-stepping left-lateral strike-slip master faults of varying lengths. These faults characteristically die out to the north by bending outward (northeast), and the movement is taken up by the strike-slip faults to the left (i.e. to the west). Where overlap of the two faults occurs, very narrow and very deep grabens have evolved, in places the width being equal to the depth. The narrowness of these grabens is dictated by the closeness of the overlapping segments of the successive strike-slip faults. This feature points to the probability that the en echelon strike-slip faults have a common root zone at great depth. These grabens are not typical "leaky" pull-aparts in that they have no gravimetric, magnetic or heat flow anomalies; nor are they closed on all four sides by large faults. Their northern ends are characterized by gradually rising graben floors without major diagonal cross faults. The Dead Sea-Jordan rift system sensu stricto extends over a distance of 420 km, from the northern shore of the Gulf of Elat to the northern margin of the Hula Valley. Southward, it is connected with the Red Sea along the Gulf of Elat transition zone, which has elements of strike-slip as well as tensional opening. A northern transition zone exists between the Hula Valley and the Taurus arc where diminishing strike-slip movement is compensated by several underthrust belts. The time of the beginning of the movement along the rift can be established as pre-middle Miocene, because mid-Miocene sediments overlie an Upper Cretaceous graben floor. Rifting has continued intermittently to the present. Volcanism in the northern fifth of the rift is genetically associated with the seismically active, tensional Golan-Hauran-Jebel Drouz-Wadi Sirhan tectonic trend, which has a north west-southeast orientation and not with the north-south trending Dead Sea-Jordan rift.

Kashai, E. L.; Croker, P. F.



Pre-breakup geology of the Gulf of Mexico-Caribbean: Its relation to Triassic and Jurassic rift systems of the region  

SciTech Connect

A review of the pre-breakup geology of west-central Pangea, comprised of northern South America, Gulf of Mexico and West Africa, combined with a study of the Mesozoic rift trends of the region confirms a relation between the rift systems and the underlying older grain of deformation. The pre-breakup analysis focuses attention on the Precambrian, Early Paleozoic and Late Paleozoic tectonic events affecting the region and assumes a Pindell fit. Two Late Precambrian orogenic belts are observed in the west central Pangea. Along the northern South American margin and Yucatan a paleo northeast trending Pan-African aged fold belt is documented. A second system is observed along West Africa extending from the High Atlas to the Mauritanides and Rockelides. During the Late Paleozoic, renewed orogenic activity, associated with the Gondwana/Laurentia suture, affected large segments of west central Pangea. The general trend of the system is northeast-southwest and essentially parallels the Gyayana Shield, West African, and eastern North American cratons. Mesozoic rifting closely followed either the Precambrian trends or the Late Paleozoic orogenic belt. The Triassic component focuses along the western portions of the Gulf of Mexico continuing into eastern Mexico and western South America. The Jurassic rift trend followed along the separation between Yucatan and northern South America. At Lake Maracaibo the Jurassic rift system eventually overlaps the Triassic rifts. The Jurassic rift resulted in the [open quotes]Hispanic Corridor[close quotes] that permitted Tethyan and Pacific marine faunas to mix at a time when the Gulf of Mexico underwent continental sedimentation.

Bartok, P. (EGEP Consultores, Caracus (Venezuela))



Influence of pre-existing fabrics on fault kinematics and rift geometry of interacting segments: Analogue models based on the Albertine Rift (Uganda), Western Branch-East African Rift System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims at showing how far pre-existing crustal weaknesses left behind by Proterozoic mobile belts, that pass around cratonic Archean shields (Tanzania Craton to the southeast and Congo Craton to the northwest), control the geometry of the Albertine Rift. Focus is laid on the development of the Lake Albert and Lake Edward/George sub-segments and between them the greatly uplifted Rwenzori Mountains, a horst block located within the rift and whose highest peak rises to >5000 m above mean sea level. In particular we study how the southward propagating Lake Albert sub-segment to the north interacts with the northward propagating Lake Edward/George sub-segment south of it, and how this interaction produces the structures and geometry observed in this section of the western branch of the East African Rift, especially within and around the Rwenzori horst. We simulate behaviour of the upper crust by conducting sandbox analogue experiments in which pre-cut rubber strips of varying overstep/overlap connected to a basal sheet and oriented oblique and/or orthogonal to the extension vector, are placed below the sand-pack. The points of connection present velocity discontinuities to localise deformation, while the rubber strips represent ductile domain affected by older mobile belts. From fault geometry of developing rift segments in plan view and section cuts, we study kinematics resulting from a given set of boundary conditions, and results are compared with the natural scenario. Three different basal model-configurations are used to simulate two parallel rifts that propagate towards each other and interact. Wider overstep (model SbR3) produces an oblique transfer zone with deep grabens (max. 7.0 km) in the adjoining segments. Smaller overlap (model SbR4) ends in offset rift segments without oblique transfer faults to join the two, and produces moderately deep grabens (max. 4.6 km). When overlap doubles the overstep (model SbR5), rifts propagate sub-orthogonal to the extension direction and form shallow valleys (max. 2.9 km). Relative ratios of overlap/overstep between rift segments dictate the kind of transition zone that develops and whether or not a block (like the Rwenzoris) is captured and rotates; hence determining the end-member geometry. Rotation direction is controlled by pre-existing fabrics. Fault orientation, fault kinematics, and block rotation (once in play) reinforce each other; and depending on the local kinematics, different parts of a captured block may rotate with variable velocities but in the same general direction. Mechanical strength anisotropy of pre-structured crust only initially centres fault nucleation and propagation parallel to the grain of weakness of the basement, but at later stages of a protracted period of crustal extension, such boundaries are locally defied.

Aanyu, K.; Koehn, D.



Parga Chasma: Coronae and Rifting on Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The majority of coronae (quasicircular volcano-tectonic features) are found along rifts or fracture belts, and the majority of rifts have coronae [e.g. 1,2]. However, the relationship between coronae and rifts remains unclear [3-6]. There is evidence that coronae can form before, after, or synchronously with rifts [3,4]. The extensional fractures in the rift zones have been proposed to be a result of broad scale upwelling and traction on the lower lithosphere [7]. However, not all rift systems have a significant positive geoid anomaly, as would be expected for an upwelling site [8]. This could be explained if the rifts lacking anomalies are no longer active. Coronae are generally accepted to be sites of local upwelling [e.g. 1], but the observed rifting is frequently not radial to the coronae and extends well beyond the coronae into the surrounding plains. Thus the question remains as to whether the rifts represent regional extension, perhaps driven by mantle tractions, or if the coronae themselves create local thinning and extension of the lithosphere. In the first case, a regional extension model should be consistent with the observed characteristics of the rifts. In the latter case, a model of lithospheric loading and fracturing would be more appropriate. A good analogy may be the propagation of oceanic intraplate volcanoes [9].

Smrekar, S. E.; Stofan, E. R.; Buck, W. R.; Martin, P.



Calibration Systems Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The Calibration Systems project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is aimed towards developing and demonstrating compact Quantum Cascade (QC) laser-based calibration systems for infrared imaging systems. These on-board systems will improve the calibration technology for passive sensors, which enable stand-off detection for the proliferation or use of weapons of mass destruction, by replacing on-board blackbodies with QC laser-based systems. This alternative technology can minimize the impact on instrument size and weight while improving the quality of instruments for a variety of missions. The potential of replacing flight blackbodies is made feasible by the high output, stability, and repeatability of the QC laser spectral radiance.

Myers, Tanya L.; Broocks, Bryan T.; Phillips, Mark C.



The provenance and chemical variation of sandstones associated with the Mid-continent Rift System, U.S.A.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sandstones along the northern portion of the Precambrian Mid-continent Rift System (MRS) have been petrographically and chemically analyzed for major elements and a variety of trace elements, including the REE. After the initial extrusion of the abundant basalts along the MRS, dominantly volcaniclastic sandstones of the Oronto Group were deposited. These volcaniclastic sandstones are covered by quartzose and subarkosic sandstones of the Bayfield Group. Thus the sandstones of the Oronto Group were derived from previously extruded basalts, whereas, the sandstones of the Bayfield Group were derived from Precambrian granitic gneisses located on the rift flanks. The chemical variation of these sandstones closely reflects the changing detrital modes with time. The elemental composition of the sandstones confirms the source lithologies suggested by the mineralogy and clasts. The Oronto Group sandstones contain lower ratios of elements concentrated in silicic source rocks (La or Th) relative to elements concentrated in basic source rocks (Co, Cr, or Sc) than the Bayfield Group. Also, the average size of the negative Eu anomaly of the sandstones of the Oronto Group is significantly less (Eu/Eu* mean ?? standard deviation = 0.79 ?? 0.13) than that of the Bayfield Group (mean + standard deviation = 0.57 ?? 0.09), also suggesting a more basic source for the former than the latter. Mixing models of elemental ratios give added insight as to the evolution of the rift. These models suggest that the volcanistic sandstones of the lower portion of the Oronto Group are derived from about 80 to 90 percent basalt and 10 to 20 percent granitoids. The rest of the Oronto Group and the lower to middle portion of the Bayfield Group could have formed by mixing of about 30 to 60 percent basalt and 40 to 70 percent granitoids. The upper portion of the Bayfield Group is likely derived from 80 to 100 percent granitoids and zero to 20 percent basalt.

Cullers, R.L.; Berendsen, P.



Is the Ventersdorp rift system of southern Africa related to a continental collision between the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe Cratons at 2.64 Ga AGO?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rocks of the Ventersdorp Supergroup were deposited in a system of northeast trending grabens on the Kaapvaal Craton approximately 2.64 Ga ago contemporary with a continental collision between the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe Cratons. It is suggested that it was this collision that initiated the Ventersdorp rifting. Individual grabens strike at high angles toward the continental collision zone now exposed in the Limpopo Province where late orogenic left-lateral strike-slip faulting and anatectic granites are recognized. The Ventersdorp rift province is related to extension in the Kaapvaal Craton associated with the collision, and some analogy is seen with such rifts as the Shansi and Baikal Systems associated with the current India-Asia continental collision.

Burke, K.; Kidd, W. S. F.; Kusky, T.



Evidence of rapid Cenozoic uplift of the shoulder escarpment of the Cenozoic West Antarctic rift system and a speculation on possible climate forcing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cenozoic West Antarctic rift system, characterized by Cenozoic bimodal alkalic volcanic rocks, extends over a largely ice-covered area, from the Ross Sea nearly to the Bellingshausen Sea. Various lines of evidence lead to the following interpretation: the transantarctic Mountains part of the rift shoulder (and probably the entire shoulder) has been rising since about 60 Ma, at episodic rates of ~1 km/m.y., most recently since mid-Pliocene Time, rather than continuously at the mean rate of 100 m/m.y. Uplift rates vary along the scarp, which is cut by transverse faults. It is speculated that this uplift may have climatically forced the advance of the Antarctic ice sheet since the most recent warm period. A possible synergistic relation is suggested between episodic tectonism, mountain uplift, and volcanism in the Cenozoic West Antarctic rift system and waxing and waning of the Antarctic ice sheet beginning about earliest Oligocene time. -from Authors

Behrendt, J.C.; Cooper, A.



Tectonics of the West Antarctic rift system: new light on the history and dynamics of distributed intracontinental extension  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The West Antarctic rift system (WARS) is the product of multiple stages of intracontinental deformation from Jurassic to Present. The Cretaceous rifting phase accomplished >100 percent extension across the Ross Sea and central West Antarctica, and is widely perceived as a product of pure shear extension orthogonal to the Transantarctic Mountains that led to breakup and opening of the Southern Ocean between West Antarctica and New Zealand. New structural, petrological, and geochronological data from Marie Byrd Land reveal aspects of the kinematics, thermal history, and chronology of the Cretaceous intracontinental extension phase that cannot be readily explained by a single progressive event. Elevated temperatures in "Lachlan-type" crust caused extensive crustal melting and mid-crustal flow within a dextral transcurrent strain environment, leading to rapid extension and locally to exhumation and rapid cooling of a migmatite dome and detachment footwall structures. Peak metamorphism and onset of crustal flow that brought about WARS extension between 105 Ma and 90 Ma is kinematically, temporally, and spatially linked to the active convergent margin system of East Gondwana. West Antarctica-New Zealand breakup is distinguished as a separate event at 83-70 Ma, from the standpoint of kinematics and thermal evolution

Siddoway, C.S.



The geothermal fields of the Kenya rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the standpoint of geothermal energy, Kenya's resources are due to the presence of the Kenya rift which is part of the East African rift system. Geological, geophysical and geothermal studies indicate that Neogene volcanic activity has led to the presence of near surface heat generating sources. Geothermal fields of the Kenya rift occur in two types of environments. The main geothermal fields are associated with Quaternary volcanoes. The second type is associated with fissures that are related to active fault zones. In either case, these fields are dissected by numerous rift faults that give rise to a number of geothermal springs and fumaroles.

Riaroh, Don; Okoth, William



Supracrustal faults of the St. Lawrence rift system, Québec: kinematics and geometry as revealed by field mapping and marine seismic reflection data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The St. Lawrence rift system from the Laurentian craton core to the offshore St. Lawrence River system is a seismically active zone in which fault reactivation is believed to occur along late Proterozoic to early Paleozoic normal faults related to the opening of the Iapetus ocean. The rift-related faults fringe the contact between the Grenvillian basement to the NW and Cambrian-Ordovician rocks of the St. Lawrence Lowlands to the SE and occur also within the Grenvillian basement. The St. Lawrence rift system trends NE-SW and represents a SE-dipping half-graben that links the NW-SE-trending Ottawa-Bonnechère and Saguenay River grabens, both interpreted as Iapetan failed arms. Coastal sections of the St. Lawrence River that expose fault rocks related to the St. Lawrence rift system have been studied between Québec city and the Saguenay River. Brittle faults marking the St. Lawrence rift system consist of NE- and NW-trending structures that show mutual crosscutting relationships. Fault rocks consist of fault breccias, cataclasites and pseudotachylytes. Field relationships suggest that the various types of fault rocks are associated with the same tectonic event. High-resolution marine seismic reflection data acquired in the St. Lawrence River estuary, between Rimouski, the Saguenay River and Forestville, identify submarine topographic relief attributed to the St. Lawrence rift system. Northeast-trending seismic reflection profiles show a basement geometry that agrees with onshore structural features. Northwest-trending seismic profiles suggest that normal faults fringing the St. Lawrence River are associated with a major topographic depression in the estuary, the Laurentian Channel trough, with up to 700 m of basement relief. A two-way travel-time to bedrock map, based on seismic data from the St. Lawrence estuary, and comparison with the onshore rift segment suggest that the Laurentian Channel trough varies from a half-graben to a graben structure from SW to NE. It is speculated that natural gas occurrences within both the onshore and offshore sequences of unconsolidated Quaternary deposits are possibly related to degassing processes of basement rocks, and that hydrocarbons were drained upward by the rift faults.

Tremblay, Alain; Long, Bernard; Massé, Manon



A common feeding system of the NE and S rifts as revealed by the bilateral 2002/2003 eruptive event at Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mount Etna volcano is often characterized by bilateral eruptive events, involving both the south (S) and the north east (NE) rifts. The last event occurred in 2002-2003 from October 27 to January 28. A detailed, stratigraphically time-controlled sampling of lavas and tephra of the southern eruptive fissure was performed in order to (1) track the petrological features of products during the eruption and (2) integrate the results with those previously obtained on the NE rift. Whole-rock composition and textural observations were implemented by major and minor element analyses of plagioclases in lavas and tephra from both sides of the volcano. Fractionation models constrained by mass balance (major and trace elements) and Rayleigh calculations suggest that magmas are linked by the same liquid line of descent by fractionating 9.11 % of a mineral assemblage of Cpx (52.69 %), Plg (21.41), and Ol (7.46 %). These new data allowed us to identify at least two feeding episodes through the southern fissure and infer that high-K2O porphyritic magmas, emitted on both the S and NE rifts, derives by fractionation from the same parent magma. However, lavas and tephra from the southern flank were slightly more primitive. Textural and petrological study of plagioclase moreover indicates that chemical-physical conditions in the deep feeding system were similar for magmas erupting from both rifts as suggested by the presence of dissolved rounded cores in both lavas. Magmas evolved differently on the S and the NE rifts only at shallow levels. Comparison with published seismotectonic data supports the idea that the main magma feeding the eruption on October 27 ascended along the same pathway at depth and was intercepted by the fracture system of the S and NE rifts at shallow depth, between 6 and 3 km b.s.l.

Giacomoni, P. P.; Ferlito, C.; Alesci, G.; Coltorti, M.; Monaco, C.; Viccaro, M.; Cristofolini, R.



Patterns of late Cenozoic volcanic and tectonic activity in the West Antarctic rift system revealed by aeromagnetic surveys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aeromagnetic surveys, spaced ???5 km, over widely separated areas of the largely ice- and sea-covered West Antarctic rift system, reveal similar patterns of 100- to 1700-nT, shallow-source magnetic anomalies interpreted as evidence of extensive late Cenozoic volcanism. We use the aeromagnetic data to extend the volcanic rift interpretation over West Antarctica starting with anomalies over (1) exposures of highly magnetic, late Cenozoic volcanic rocks several kilometers thick in the McMurdo-Ross Island area and elsewhere; continuing through (2) volcanoes and subvolcanic intrusions directly beneath the Ross Sea continental shelf defined by marine magnetic and seismic reflection data and aeromagnetic data and (3) volcanic structures interpreted beneath the Ross Ice Shelf partly controlled by seismic reflection determinations of seafloor depth to (4) an area of similar magnetic pattern over the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (400 km from the nearest exposed volcanic rock), where interpretations of late Cenozoic volcanic rocks at the base of the ice are controlled in part by radar ice sounding. North trending magnetic rift fabric in the Ross Sea-Ross Ice Shelf and Corridor Aerogeophysics of the Southeast Ross Transect Zone (CASERTZ) areas, revealed by the aeromagnetic surveys, is probably a reactivation of older rift trends (late Mesozoic?) and is superimposed on still older crosscutting structural trends revealed by magnetic terrace maps calculated from horizontal gradient of pseudogravity. Longwavelength (???100-km wide) magnetic terraces from sources within the subvolcanic basement cross the detailed survey areas. One of these extends across the Ross Sea survey from the front of the Transantarctic Mountains with an east-southeast trend crossing the north trending rift fabric. The Ross Sea-Ross Ice Shelf survey area is characterized by highly magnetic northern and southern zones which are separated by magnetically defined faults from a more moderately magnetic central zone. Aeromagnetic data in the south delineate the Ross fault of unknown age. The extension of the southern Central Basin south of the Ross fault is associated with an 825-nT magnetic anomaly over the Ross Ice Shelf requiring inferred late Cenozoic volcanic rock essentially at the seafloor at its south end, as shown by magnetic models. Models show that the thickness of magnetic volcanic rocks beneath Hut Point Peninsula at McMurdo Station is probably 100,000 km of widely spaced aeromagnetic profiles, led to the interpretation of the mostly subglacial West Antarctic flood basalts(?) or their subglacially erupted and intruded equivalent. The volume of the exposed volcanos is small in contrast to the much greater volume (> 106 km3) of late Cenozoic magmatic rock remaining at volcanic centers beneath the continental shelf, Ross Ice Shelf and West Antarctic Ice Sheet. We suggest as an alternative or supplemental explanation to the previously proposed mantle plume hypothesis for the late Cenozoic volcanism significantly greater lower lithosphere (mantle) stretching resulting in greater decompression melting than the limited Cenozoic crustal extension allows. However, this implies a space problem that is not obviously resolved, because the Antarctic Plate is essentially surrounded by spreading centers.

Behrendt, J.C.; Saltus, R.; Damaske, D.; McCafferty, A.; Finn, C.A.; Blankenship, D.; Bell, R.E.



Using remote sensing, ecological niche modeling, and Geographic Information Systems for Rift Valley fever risk assessment in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary goal in this study was to explore remote sensing, ecological niche modeling, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) as aids in predicting candidate Rift Valley fever (RVF) competent vector abundance and distribution in Virginia, and as means of estimating where risk of establishment in mosquitoes and risk of transmission to human populations would be greatest in Virginia. A second goal in this study was to determine whether the remotely-sensed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) can be used as a proxy variable of local conditions for the development of mosquitoes to predict mosquito species distribution and abundance in Virginia. As part of this study, a mosquito surveillance database was compiled to archive the historical patterns of mosquito species abundance in Virginia. In addition, linkages between mosquito density and local environmental and climatic patterns were spatially and temporally examined. The present study affirms the potential role of remote sensing imagery for species distribution prediction, and it demonstrates that ecological niche modeling is a valuable predictive tool to analyze the distributions of populations. The MaxEnt ecological niche modeling program was used to model predicted ranges for potential RVF competent vectors in Virginia. The MaxEnt model was shown to be robust, and the candidate RVF competent vector predicted distribution map is presented. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was found to be the most useful environmental-climatic variable to predict mosquito species distribution and abundance in Virginia. However, these results indicate that a more robust prediction is obtained by including other environmental-climatic factors correlated to mosquito densities (e.g., temperature, precipitation, elevation) with NDVI. The present study demonstrates that remote sensing and GIS can be used with ecological niche and risk modeling methods to estimate risk of virus establishment in mosquitoes and transmission to humans. Maps delineating the geographic areas in Virginia with highest risk for RVF establishment in mosquito populations and RVF disease transmission to human populations were generated in a GIS using human, domestic animal, and white-tailed deer population estimates and the MaxEnt potential RVF competent vector species distribution prediction. The candidate RVF competent vector predicted distribution and RVF risk maps presented in this study can help vector control agencies and public health officials focus Rift Valley fever surveillance efforts in geographic areas with large co-located populations of potential RVF competent vectors and human, domestic animal, and wildlife hosts. Keywords. Rift Valley fever, risk assessment, Ecological Niche Modeling, MaxEnt, Geographic Information System, remote sensing, Pearson's Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient, vectors, mosquito distribution, mosquito density, mosquito surveillance, United States, Virginia, domestic animals, white-tailed deer, ArcGIS

Tedrow, Christine Atkins


Mercury isotopic composition of hydrothermal systems in the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field and Guaymas Basin sea-floor rift  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To characterize mercury (Hg) isotopes and isotopic fractionation in hydrothermal systems we analyzed fluid and precipitate samples from hot springs in the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field and vent chimney samples from the Guaymas Basin sea-floor rift. These samples provide an initial indication of the variability in Hg isotopic composition among marine and continental hydrothermal systems that are controlled predominantly by mantle-derived magmas. Fluid samples from Ojo Caliente hot spring in Yellowstone range in ?202Hg from - 1.02‰ to 0.58‰ (± 0.11‰, 2SD) and solid precipitate samples from Guaymas Basin range in ?202Hg from - 0.37‰ to - 0.01‰ (± 0.14‰, 2SD). Fluid samples from Ojo Caliente display mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) of Hg from the vent (?202Hg = 0.10‰ ± 0.11‰, 2SD) to the end of the outflow channel (&delta202Hg = 0.58‰ ± 0.11‰, 2SD) in conjunction with a decrease in Hg concentration from 46.6pg/g to 20.0pg/g. Although a small amount of Hg is lost from the fluids due to co-precipitation with siliceous sinter, we infer that the majority of the observed MDF and Hg loss from waters in Ojo Caliente is due to volatilization of Hg0(aq) to Hg0(g) and the preferential loss of Hg with a lower ?202Hg value to the atmosphere. A small amount of mass-independent fractionation (MIF) was observed in all samples from Ojo Caliente (?199Hg = 0.13‰ ±1 0.06‰, 2SD) but no significant MIF was measured in the sea-floor rift samples from Guaymas Basin. This study demonstrates that several different hydrothermal processes fractionate Hg isotopes and that Hg isotopes may be used to better understand these processes.

Sherman, L.S.; Blum, J.D.; Nordstrom, D.K.; McCleskey, R.B.; Barkay, T.; Vetriani, C.



Which Fault Orientations Occur during Oblique Rifting? Combining Analog and Numerical 3d Models with Observations from the Gulf of Aden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oblique rift systems like the Gulf of Aden are intrinsically three-dimensional. In order to understand the evolution of these systems, one has to decode the fundamental mechanical similarities of oblique rifts. One way to accomplish this, is to strip away the complexity that is generated by inherited fault structures. In doing so, we assume a laterally homogeneous segment of Earth's lithosphere and ask how many different fault populations are generated during oblique extension inbetween initial deformation and final break-up. We combine results of an analog and a numerical model that feature a 3D segment of a layered lithosphere. In both cases, rift evolution is recorded quantitatively in terms of crustal fault geometries. For the numerical model, we adopt a novel post-processing method that allows to infer small-scale crustal fault orientation from the surface stress tensor. Both models involve an angle of 40 degrees between the rift normal and the extensional direction which allows comparison to the Gulf of Aden rift system. The resulting spatio-temporal fault pattern of our models shows three normal fault orientations: rift-parallel, extension-orthogonal, and intermediate, i.e. with a direction inbetween the two previous orientations. The rift evolution involves three distinct phases: (i) During the initial rift phase, wide-spread faulting with intermediate orientation occurs. (ii) Advanced lithospheric necking enables rift-parallel normal faulting at the rift flanks, while strike-slip faulting in the central part of the rift system indicates strain partitioning. (iii) During continental break-up, displacement-orthogonal as well as intermediate faults occur. We compare our results to the structural evolution of the Eastern Gulf of Aden. External parts of the rift exhibit intermediate and displacement-orthogonal faults while rift-parallel faults are present at the rift borders. The ocean-continent transition mainly features intermediate and displacement-orthogonal faults. The fault pattern agrees very well with the analog and numerical model results, except for the displacement-orthogonal fault orientation of the initial rift stage. This orientation, however, coincides with the trend of inherited Mesozoic basins indicating the overprinting influence of structural inheritance.

Autin, J.; Brune, S.



The role that plate tectonics, inferred stress changes and stratigraphic unconformities have on the evolution of the West and Central African Rift System and the Atlantic continental margins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Muglad rift basin of Sudan, is a good example of polyphase rifting, with at least three major phases of basin development. Each phase has resulted in the generation of source rock, reservoir and seal geology with structural traps often closely linked to basement highs. In this paper we investigate on a regional scale the tectonic processes that have contributed to rift basin development. On a regional scale, the evolution of the Africa-wide Mesozoic rift system is intimately linked to relative movements of African sub-plates and to global plate tectonic processes and plate interactions. Changes in plate interactions are observed in the oceanic crust as azimuth changes of fracture zone geometries and by inference have caused significant modifications to both the orientation and magnitude of the motions of the African sub-plates. Such plate motion processes have controlled the polyphase development of the West and Central African Rift System. On the basinal scale, changes of sub-plate motions have resulted in changes in the stress field which have had a clear impact on the deformation and fault geometries of rift basins and on the resulting stratigraphy. The construction of the first unified stratigraphic chart for the West and Central African Rift System shows a close correlation in the timing of the major unconformities with the timing of changes in relative plate motion as observed in the changes of the azimuthal geometry of the oceanic fracture zones in the Central Atlantic. Since similarly timed unconformities exist along the continental margins of Africa and South America, we propose that the causative mechanism is change in relative plate motion which leads to an increase or decrease in the tension on the plate and thus controls the strength or effective elastic thickness, Te, of the crust/plate beneath the margins. This results in a focused change in isostatic response of the margin during short-period changes in relative plate motion; i.e. more tension will mean that loads are not compensated locally resulting in local uplift of the margin.

Fairhead, J. D.; Green, C. M.; Masterton, S. M.; Guiraud, R.



Quantitative challenges to our understanding of the tectonostratigraphic evolution of rift basin systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pervasive orbitally-paced lake level cycles combined with magnetic polarity stratigraphy in central Pangean early Mesozoic rift basins provide a thus far unique and very large-scale quantitative basis for observing patterns of basin fill and comparisons with other basins. The 32 Myr accumulation rate history of the Newark basin is segmented into intervals lasting millions of years with virtually no change in the long-term accumulation rate (at the 400-kyr-scale), and the transitions between segments are abrupt and apparently basin-wide. This is startling, because the basin geometry was, and is, a half graben - triangular in cross section and dish-shaped in along-strike section. The long periods of time with virtually no change is challenging given a simple model of basin growth (1), suggesting some kind of compensation in sediment input for the increasing surface of the area of the basin through time. Perhaps even more challenging are observations based on magnetic polarity stratigraphy and the cyclicity, that basins distributed over a huge area of central Pangea (~700,000 km2) show parallel and correlative quantitative changes in accumulation rate with those of the Newark basin. The synchronous changes in the accumulation rate in these basins suggests a very large-scale linkage, the only plausible mechanism for which would seem to be at the plate-tectonic scale, perhaps involving extension rates. Together, we can speculate that some kind of balance between extension rates, basin accommodation space and perhaps regional drainage basin size might have been in operation The most dramatic accumulation rate change in the basins' histories occurred close to, and perhaps causally related to, the Triassic-Jurassic boundary and end-Triassic extinction. The Newark basin, for example exhibits a 4-to-5-fold increase in accumulation rate during the emplacement of the brief (<1 Myr) and aerially massive Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) beginning at 201.5 Ma, the only igneous event known during this long rifting episode. Parallel and correlative accumulation rate changes are seen in several of the other northern basins within central Pangea. Surprisingly, the rate of accommodation growth apparently increased dramatically during this time, because not only did the accumulation rate dramatically increase, the lakes apparently deepened during the same time as a huge volume of CAMP igneous material entered the basins. At the same time, the more southern basins in the southeastern US, apparently ceased to subside (2). Our ability to measure time in these rift basins using the orbitally-paced cycles, coupled with the ability to correlate between the basins using magnetic polarity stratigraphy, challenges us to form new mechanistic explanations and quantitative models to test against this rich library of observations. References: 1) Schlische RW & Olsen PE, 1990, Jour. Geol. 98:135. 2) Schlische et al., 2003, in Hames WE et al. (eds), Geophys. Monogr. 136:61.

Olsen, P. E.; Kent, D. V.



Evidence of rapid Cenozoic uplift of the shoulder escarpment of the Cenozoic West Antarctic rift system and a speculation on possible climate forcing  

SciTech Connect

The Cenzoic West Antarctic rift system, characterized by Cenozoic bimodal alkalic volcanic rocks, extends over a largely ice-covered area, from the Ross Sea nearly to the Bellingshausen Sea. It is bounded on one side by a spectacular 4-to 5-km-high rift-shoulder scarp (maximum bedrock relief 5 to 7 km) from northern Victoria Land-Queen Maud Mountains to the Ellsworth-Whitmore-Horlick Mountains. Jurassic tholeiites crop out with the late Cenozoic volcanic rocks along the section of the Transantarctic Mountains from northern Victoria Land to the Horlick Mountains. The Cenozoic rift shoulder diverges here from the Jurassic tholeiite trend, and the tholeiites are exposed discontinuously along the lower elevation (1-2 km) section of the Transantarctic Mountains to the Weddell Sea. Various lines of evidence, no one of which is independently conclusive, lead the authors (as others have also suggested) to interpret the following. The Transantarctic Mountains part of the rift shoulder (and probably the entire shoulder) has been rising since about 60 Ma, at episodic rates of {approximately}1 km/m.y., most recently since mid-Pliocene time, rather than continuously at the mean rate of 100m/m.y. Uplift rates vary along the scarp, which is cut by transverse faults. The authors speculate that this uplift may have climatically forced the advance of the Antarctic ice sheet since the most recent warm period. They suggest a possible synergistic relation between episodic tectonism, mountain uplift, and volcanism in the Cenozoic West Antarctic rift system and waxing and waning of the Antarctic ice sheet beginning about earliest Oligocene time.

Behrendt, J.C. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA)); Cooper, A. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA))



Three-dimensional laboratory modelling of rifting: application to the Baikal Rift, Russia  

E-print Network

-branch configuration of the Baikal rift system only by introducing a weak zone in the area of Lake Baikal. Such a zone to the tension direction. In nature and in the model, rifting starts in the central branch corresponding to Lake Baikal. The modelling also predicts the formation of a fourth oblique f NS-trending branch to the south

Déverchère, Jacques


The palaeo-lake Suguta and its importance for understanding lake level fluctuations in the East African Rift System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the most recent dry-wet-dry cycle in the presently arid Suguta Valley in the Northern Kenya Rift where a 300-m-deep lake has formed during the so-called African Humid Period (AHP, 14.8-5.5 ka BP). Hydromodeling suggests that a relatively moderate 25% increase in precipitation was responsible for this dramatic lake level rise, which demonstrates the character of the Suguta Valley as an amplifier lake system. To detect the response of this lake system to climate fluctuations and their possible driving mechanisms with a focus on abrupt vs. gradual changes, we reconstructed a palaeo-lake level record for the time between 14 and 5 ka BP from up to 40 m thick lake-sediment sequences at three locations in the ~2,500 km2 palaeo-lake Suguta area. The sediments have been investigated for sediment characteristics such as grain size distributions, detrital and authigenic mineral phases, geochemical properties and microfossil assemblages. The stratigraphy for the sequences is based on 38 AMS 14C ages of biogenic carbonate and charcoal samples. Parallel dating of charcoal and snail-shell samples show age differences between 1,570-2,240 years suggesting a remarkably high, but well-defined reservoir age for palaeo-Lake Suguta most likely due to aged groundwater or 14C depleted CO2 degassing from active volcanoes. The observed reservoir effect highlights the potential problems while correlating East African lake level records with chronologies based on 14C datings of aquatic materials. The new chronology of water level fluctuations in the amplifier-lake Suguta indicates a general dry-wet-dry cycle synchronous with other lake chronologies during the AHP and multiple short-term fluctuations with abrupt lake level drops between 100 to 300 m within 100 to 200 years at 12.8-11.6 (during Younger Dryas time), 11.1-10.9; 10.4-10.2; 9.5-9.1; 9.0-8.8; 8.5-8.1 (during the 8.2 ka event) cal ka BP that seem to be linked with changes in the coupling between atmosphere and ocean systems. In contrast, the termination of the overall lake episode during the AHP shows a relatively gradual (linear) response to the reduction of solar heating due to insolation changes. The results of the analysis provides new insights into the sensitivity of Rift Valley lakes to climate change on different time scales. Abrupt climate shifts most likely caused dramatic environmental pressure on the biosphere, including humans that were already able to adopt relatively quickly to environmnetal change by new technologies during this time.

Junginger, A.; Olago, D. O.; Trauth, M. H.



Mesozoic fault reactivation along the St. Lawrence Rift System as constrained by (U-Th/He) thermochronology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Saint Lawrence Rift System (SLRS) is a half-graben, extending for 1000 km along St. Lawrence River valley. Late Proterozoic-Early Paleozoic faults of the graben form the contact with the metamorphic Grenvillian basement to the northwest and extend under the Paleozoic sedimentary sequences of the St. Lawrence Lowlands to the southeast. The SLRS is the second most seismically active area in Canada, but the causes of this activity remain unclear. Reactivation of the SLRS is believed to have occurred along Late Proterozoic to Early Paleozoic normal faults related to the opening of the Iapetus Ocean. The absence of strata younger than the Ordovician makes difficult to determine when the faults reactivated after the Ordovician. Field relations between the normal faults bordering the SLRS and those produced by the Charlevoix impact crater suggest a reactivation of the rift younger than the Devonian, the estimated age of the impact. Apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology is an adequate tool to recognize thermal events related to fault movements. A thermochronology study was then started along three transects across the SLRS, from Québec up to Charlevoix. Apatites were extracted and separated from five granitic to charnockitic gneisses and an amphibolite of Grenvillian age. The samples were exposed on hanging wall and footwall of the Montmorency and Saint-Laurent faults at three different locations along the SLRS. For precision and accuracy, each of the six samples was analyzed for radiogenic 4He and U-Th contents at least twice. Apatite grains were isolated by heavy liquids and magnetic separation. For each sample, ten apatite grains were selected under optical microscope and inserted into Pt capsules. Particular care was taken to isolate apatite free of mineral and fluid inclusions. Indeed, SEM investigations showed that some inclusions are U-rich monazite, which is a supplementary source of 4He to be avoided. The 4He content was determined by using a static noble gas mass spectrometer in CRPG-Nancy and duplicates using a quadrupole mass spectrometer at GEOTOP-UQAM. 4He was measured against internal He gas standards and Durango apatite, with the reference U-Th/He age of 31.13 ± 1.01 Ma. U and Th contents were determined at CRPG-Nancy and duplicated at McGill University by ICP-MS. Preliminary results of U-Th/He on St.-Laurent fault yield an age of 137±12 Ma for the hanging wall, at Sault-au-Cochon and 118±10 Ma for a sample from the footwall, at Cap-aux-oies. Previous Apatite Fission Track (AFT) performed for the two locations gave expected older ages at 149±16 Ma and 196±19 Ma for the hanging wall and the footwall, respectively. These preliminary U-Th/He results are consistent with AFT ages of the area (i.e. as expected, U-Th/He ages are younger than AFT ages) but do not yet provide new constraints for the structural evolution of the St. Lawrence rift system. We are determining further U-Th/He ages and these ages will constrain an exhumation model of the region.

Bouvier, L.; Pinti, D. L.; Tremblay, A.; Minarik, W. G.; Roden-Tice, M. K.; Pik, R.



Incipient continental rifting: Insights from the Okavango Rift Zone, northwestern Botswana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this dissertation aeromagnetic, gravity, and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Digital Elevation Model (SRTM DEM) data from the Okavango Rift Zone in northwest Botswana are used to map the distribution of rift and basement structures. The distribution of these structures provide useful insights into the early stages of continental rifting. The objectives of this study are (1) assessing the role of pre-existing structures on rift basin development, (2) characterizing the geometry of the nascent rift basins, (3) documenting fault growth and propagation patterns, and (4) investigating the border fault development. Potential field data especially aeromagnetic data are used to map out structures in the sediment covered basement, whereas SRTM DEM data express the surface morphology of the structures. The azimuth of rift faults parallel the orientation of the fold axes and the prominent foliation directions of the basement rocks. This indicates that pre-existing structures in the basement influenced the development of the rift structures. NE dipping faults consistently exhibit greater displacements than SE dipping faults, suggesting a developing half-graben geometry. Individual faults grow by along axis linkage of small segments that develop from soft linkage (under lapping to overlapping segments) to hard linkage (hooking, fused segments). Major rifts faults are also linking through transfer zones by the process of "fault piracy" to establish an immature border fault system. The relationships between scam heights and vertical throws reveal that the young and active faults are located outside the rift while the faults with no recent activities are in the middle suggesting that the rift is also growing in width. This study demonstrates the utility of potential field data and SRTM DEM to provide a 3-D view of incipient continental rifting processes such as fault growth and propagation.

Kinabo, Baraka Damas


Minimal Role of Basal Shear Tractions in Driving Nubia-Somalia Divergence Across the East African Rift System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nubian and Somalian plates actively diverge along the topographically high, ~5000 km long East African Rift System (EARS). As no major subduction zones bound Africa, one can assume that the forces driving the Nubia-Somalia plate system result primarily from mantle buoyancies and lateral variation in lithospheric gravitational potential energy. Images from seismic tomography and convection models suggest active mantle flow beneath Africa. However, the contribution from large-scale convection to the force balance driving plate divergence across the EARS remains in question. In this work we investigate the impact of mantle shear tractions on the dynamics of Nubia-Somalia divergence across the EARS. We compare surface motions inferred from GPS observations with strain rates and velocities predicted from dynamic models where basal shear stresses are (1) derived from forward mantle circulation models and (2) inferred from stress field boundary conditions that balance buoyancy forces in the African lithosphere. Upper mantle anisotropy derived from seismic observations beneath Africa provide independent constraints for the latter. Preliminary results suggest that basal shear tractions play a minor role in the dynamics of Nubia-Somalia divergence along the EARS. This result implies mantle-lithosphere decoupling, possibly promoted by a low viscosity asthenosphere. We corroborate the robustness of our results with estimates of upper mantle viscosity based on local upper mantle temperature estimates and rheological parameters obtained from laboratory experiments.

Stamps, D. S.; Calais, E.; Iaffaldano, G.; Flesch, L. M.



Cenozoic rift tectonics of the Japan Sea  

SciTech Connect

The Japan Sea is one of the back-arc basins in trench-arc systems bordering the western Pacific. Recent paleomagnetic works suggest the Japan Sea opened during early to middle Miocene. Radiometric and microfossil ages of the Cenozoic onland sequences in the Japanese Islands elucidate the rift tectonics of the Japan Sea. The rifting history is summarized as follows: nonmarine volcanic formations of prerift stage before 50 Ma, rift-onset unconformity at 40 Ma, nonmarine volcanic formations of synrift stage 20-33 Ma, breakup unconformity 19 Ma showing the opening of the Japan Sea, marine volcanic and sedimentary formations of synrift stage 14.5-18 Ma, beginning of regional subsidence 14.5 Ma corresponding to the end of the Japan Sea opening, marine sedimentary formations of postdrift stage after 14.5 Ma. Rifting is not limited to the synrift stage but is continued to the syndrift stage. Rifting led to a horst-and-graben structure. Thus, the Cenozoic onland sequences in the Japanese Islands are suited for a study of rift tectonics because the sequences were subaerially exposed by the late Miocene-Holocene island-arc tectonics. Rift tectonics cannot be studied as easily in most Atlantic-type passive margins.

Kimura, K.



Fault growth and propagation during incipient continental rifting: Insights from a combined aeromagnetic and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model investigation of the Okavango Rift Zone, northwest Botswana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital Elevation Models (DEM) extracted from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data and high-resolution aeromagnetic data are used to characterize the growth and propagation of faults associated with the early stages of continental extension in the Okavango Rift Zone (ORZ), northwest Botswana. Significant differences in the height of fault scarps and the throws across the faults in the basement indicate extended fault histories accompanied by sediment accumulation within the rift graben. Faults in the center of the rift either lack topographic expressions or are interpreted to have become inactive, or have large throws and small scarp heights indicating waning activity. Faults on the outer margins of the rift exhibit either (1) large throws or significant scarp heights and are considered older and active or (2) throws and scarp heights that are in closer agreement and are considered young and active. Fault linkages between major fault systems through a process of "fault piracy" have combined to establish an immature border fault for the ORZ. Thus, in addition to growing in length (by along-axis linkage of segments), the rift is also growing in width (by transferring motion to younger faults along the outer margins while abandoning older faults in the middle). Finally, utilization of preexisting zones of weakness allowed the development of very long faults (>100 km) at a very early stage of continental rifting, explaining the apparent paradox between the fault length versus throw for this young rift. This study clearly demonstrates that the integration of the SRTM DEM and aeromagnetic data provides a 3-D view of the faults and fault systems, providing new insight into fault growth and propagation during the nascent stages of continental rifting.

Kinabo, B. D.; Hogan, J. P.; Atekwana, E. A.; Abdelsalam, M. G.; Modisi, M. P.



Understanding the thermal and tectonic evolution of Marie Byrd Land from a reanalysis of airborne geophysical data in the West Antarctic Rift System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) is a region characterized by a significant topographic range, a complex tectonic history, and active subglacial volcanism. Those elements exert a large influence on the stability of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, which flows within the cradle-shaped rift system and is currently grounded well below sea level. This potentially unstable configuration is the motivation for gaining a better understanding of the ice sheet boundary conditions dictated by rift evolution and how they impact the ice flow. In this study we focus on characterizing the distribution of and transition between sedimentary basins and inferred geothermal heat flux from the flanks to the floor of the rift system. We do so through analysis of gravity data both for sources within the deep lithosphere and near surface targets in the crust. A compilation of gravity datasets over West and Central Antarctica and the analysis thereof is presented. In particular we use gravity data collected during several airborne geophysical surveys: CASERTZ (1994-1997), SOAR/WMB (1997-1998), AGASEA (2004-2005), ICEBRIDGE (2008-2011), and GIMBLE (2012-2013). New processing and data reduction methodologies are applied to the older gravity surveys to improve the high frequency signal content and to make these surveys compatible with modern works (i.e. AGASEA, ICEBRIDGE, GIMBLE). The high frequency signal provides better resolution of small-scale features within survey blocks but long-wavelength integrity is retained by registering the airborne free-air disturbance within those blocks to the gravity disturbance derived from the GOCE global satellite gravity field. This allows for consistent long wavelength interpretation across the merged surveys and provides improved gravity analysis of the deep lithosphere while retaining the capacity to study smaller scale features. A crustal model for the area is produced using the Bouguer anomaly and spectral analyses of the Bouguer anomaly and free-air disturbance. Airy isostatic corrections are applied to the Bouguer anomaly where permissible to set the foundation for the identification and discrimination of sedimentary basins and intrusive/extrusive complexes beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. This analysis also provides a framework for interpreting POLENET seismic studies in the region. Successful integration of the gravity and seismic results will ultimately be necessary for understanding the thermal evolution of Marie Byrd Land and its context within the West Antarctic Rift System.

Quartini, E.; Powell, E. M.; Richter, T.; Damiani, T.; Burris, S. G.; Young, D. A.; Blankenship, D. D.



The structure of the cross-cutting volcanic chain of Northern Tanzania and its relation to the East African rift system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The WSW—ENE chain of Cenozoic volcanoes in northern Tanzania lies tangental to and on the southeastern flank of the Kenya dome and represents a major cross-cutting feature of the Eastern Rift System dividing areas of the rift that are tectonically distinctly different. These tectonic differences are reflected in the nature of the rift's faulting, volcanism, seismicity and geothermal activity. To investigate the crustal structure associated with the volcanic chain a gravity survey was made of northern Tanzania. The results of this investigation indicate that after the removal of the negative Bouguer anomaly associated with the Kenya dome, the large negative anomalies associated with the volcanic chain can be almost entirely accounted for by low density (2.1 g cm -3) surface volcanics overlying Precambrian basement (density 2.67 g cm -3). Gravitational effects of deeper crustal structures (if present) underlying the volcanic chain are thus effectively masked. Despite this, the spatial disposition and character of the faulting, seismicity and geothermal activity together with the estimates of crustal extension to the north and south of the volcanic chain provide evidence that the volcanic chain may represent the early stages of a transform fault, which in this case prevents crustal extension associated with the Kenya rift from being wholly transmitted to the block fault structures of Tanzania. The difference between the crustal extension to the north and south of the volcanic chain is considered to be taken up along the 200 km length of the volcanic chain by en echelon faulting and fissuring, the latter providing routes for magma to reach the surface.

Fairhead, J. D.



Lake Baikal - A Touchstone for Global Change and Rift Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a United States Geological Survey (USGS) fact sheet about the Lake Baikal rift system. This site provides a good general overview of this rift system, illustrating its importance to the overall study of plate tectonics. The Lake Baikal rift system is a modern analogue for formation of ancient Atlantic-type continental margins. It tells us the first chapter in the story of how continents separate and ultimately develop into ocean basins like the Atlantic Ocean. Continental rifting is an important component of plate tectonics theory.


InSAR observations of post-rifting deformation around the Dabbahu rift segment, Afar, Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increased displacement rates have been observed following manylarge earthquakes and magmatic events. Although an order of magnitude smaller than the displacements associated with the main event, the post-seismic or post-rifting deformation may continue for years to decades after the initial earthquake or dyke intrusion. Due to the rare occurrence of subaerial rifting events, there are very few observations to constrain models of post-rifting deformation. In 2005 September, a 60-km-long dyke was intruded along the Dabbahu segment of the Nubia-Arabia Plate boundary (Afar, Ethiopia), marking the beginning of an ongoing rifting episode. Continued activity has been monitored using satellite radar interferometry and data from global positioning system instruments deployed around the rift in response to the initial intrusion. Using multiple satellite passes, we are able to separate the rift perpendicular and vertical displacement fields around the Dabbahu segment. Rift perpendicular and vertical rates of up to 180 and 240 mm yr-1, respectively. Here, we show that models of viscoelastic relaxation alone are insufficient to reproduce the observed deformation field and that a large portion of the observed signal is related to the movement of magma within the rift segment. Our models suggest upper mantle viscosities of 1018-19 Pa s overlain by an elastic crust of between 15 and 30 km. To fit the observations, inflation and deflation of magma chambers in the centre of the rift and to the south east of the rift axis is required at rates of ˜0.13 and -0.08 km3 yr-1.

Hamling, Ian J.; Wright, Tim J.; Calais, Eric; Lewi, Elias; Fukahata, Yukitoshi



Organic Geochemical and tectonic evolution of the Midcontinent Rift system. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The older assemblages stand in contrast with the ca. 1000 Ma old Hunting Formation, Arctic Canada, which contains what may be the oldest evidence for modem algae - red algal fossils that compare closely with members of the extant family Bangiophyceae (Butterfield et al., 1990). Taken together the Nonesuch, Shaler, Hunting and other assemblages support the hypothesis of a major episode of eukaryotic diversification ca. 1000 Ma ago. Prior to this time, eukaryotic primary producers must have been physiologically primitive (and now extinct) algae whose abundance in ecosystems is poorly constrained by analogies with the present oceans. Cyanobacteria were major primary producers in a wide range of marine environments. After 1000 Ma, diversifying red green and chromophyte algae contributed significantly to primary production in all save microbial mat communities in restricted environments. It bears mention that such mat communities remained significant potential sources of buried organic matter until the end of the Proterozoic, necessitating exploration strategies that differ from those commonly employed for younger rocks (Knoll, in press). As in Phanerozoic basins, petroleum exploration in Proterozoic rocks requires tools for stratigraphic correlation. In Neoproterozoic (<1000 Ma) rocks, biostratigraphy is possible, and it is aided significantly by C and Sr isotopic chemostratigraphy. New data from the Shaler Group contribute to the construction of C and Sr isotopic curves for Neoproterozoic time, making possible much improved chronostratigraphy for this time interval. (Asmerom et al., 1991; Hayes et al., ms. in preparation).

Hayes, J.M.; Pratt, L.M. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Knoll, A.H. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Organismal and Evolutionary Biology



Volcanism at rifts  

SciTech Connect

The earth's outer shell rifts continuously, stretching and splitting both on the ocean's floor and on continents. Every 30 million years or so the rifting becomes cataclysmic, releasing continent-size floods of magma. This paper explains that the same mechanism is at work in both cases, the difference being in the slightly hotter temperature of the parent mantle for spectacular volcanic outbursts. Two kinds of evidence are described: quantitative descriptions of rock melting and a wide range of observations made on the rifted edges of continents and in the oceans that have opened between them.

White, R.S.; McKenzie, D.P.



Twenty-five years of geodetic measurements along the Tadjoura-Asal rift system, Djibouti, East Africa  

E-print Network

sits on dry land in the Afar depression near the triple junction between the Arabia, Somalia, and Nubia deformation on its northeastern side. This rate, slightly higher than the large-scale Arabia-Somalia motion junction between Arabia, Somalia, and Nubia, is actively deforming by continental stretching, rifting

Vigny, Christophe


An updated global earthquake catalogue for stable continental regions: Reassessing the correlation with ancient rifts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present an updated global earthquake catalogue for stable continental regions (SCRs; i.e. intraplate earthquakes) that is available on the Internet. Our database contains information on location, magnitude, seismic moment and focal mechanisms for over 1300 M (moment magnitude) ??? 4.5 historic and instrumentally recorded crustal events. Using this updated earthquake database in combination with a recently published global catalogue of rifts, we assess the correlation of intraplate seismicity with ancient rifts on a global scale. Each tectonic event is put into one of five categories based on location: (i) interior rifts/taphrogens, (ii) rifted continental margins, (iii) non-rifted crust, (iv) possible interior rifts and (v) possible rifted margins. We find that approximately 27 per cent of all events are classified as interior rifts (i), 25 per cent are rifted continental margins (ii), 36 per cent are within non-rifted crust (iii) and 12 per cent (iv and v) remain uncertain. Thus, over half (52 per cent) of all events are associated with rifted crust, although within the continental interiors (i.e. away from continental margins), non-rifted crust has experienced more earthquakes than interior rifts. No major change in distribution is found if only large (M ??? 6.0) earthquakes are considered. The largest events (M ??? 7.0) however, have occurred predominantly within rifts (50 per cent) and continental margins (43 per cent). Intraplate seismicity is not distributed evenly. Instead several zones of concentrated seismicity seem to exist. This is especially true for interior rifts/taphrogens, where a total of only 12 regions are responsible for 74 per cent of all events and as much as 98 per cent of all seismic moment released in that category. Of the four rifts/taphrogens that have experienced the largest earthquakes, seismicity within the Kutch rift, India, and the East China rift system, may be controlled by diffuse plate boundary deformation more than by the presence of the ancient rifts themselves. The St. Lawrence depression, Canada, besides being an ancient rift, is also the site of a major collisional suture. Thus only at the Reelfoot rift (New Madrid seismic zone, NMSZ, USA), is the presence of features associated with rifting itself the sole candidate for causing seismicity. Our results suggest that on a global scale, the correlation of seismicity within SCRs and ancient rifts has been overestimated in the past. Because the majority of models used to explain intraplate seismicity have focused on seismicity within rifts, we conclude that a shift in attention more towards non-rifted as well as rifted crust is in order. ?? 2005 RAS.

Schulte, S.M.; Mooney, W.D.



Contemporary surface ruptures in the zone of the Baikal-Mondy fault (Baikal rift system): dynamics of formation and origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sublatitudinal Baikal-Mondy (Tunka) left-lateral strike-slip fault accommodates North Mongolia submeridional rift basins opening (Darkhad and Khubsugul). It is the connecting link between the central and south-western parts of the Baikal rift system. We investigated the present-day activity of faulting on southern border of Mondy basin, which is due to their position at the junction of east-west trending active faults of the Baikal-Mondy fault system with submeridional structures of Khubsugul basin. The investigated area is characterized by high seismic activity. The epicenter of one of the strongest Mondy earthquake 1950 (Mw = 7.0) is located within the Mondy basin. Reconstruction of Late Cenozoic tectonic stress field shows a predominance of strike-slip deformation regime with NW-SE direction of the minimum compression axis and NE-SW direction of the maximum compression axis, which correlates with the present-day stress field derived from the data on earthquake focal mechanisms. On the top of the southern shoulder of Mondy basin a series of extended NE trending surface ruptures that cut the crust of weathering and bedrock across the local watershed were discovered. The rupture length reaches 180 m, width ruptures bedrock reaches 0.6 m. In the bedrock tectonic microfractures of NW and NE directions are dominated, but the NW trending surface ruptures are not observed. In the area of contemporary ruptures the geodetic measurements were carried out in the period 2009-2013. The results of processing the measurement data on the local testing ground showed that most divergent baselines undergoes extension with maximum values reaching 30 mm/year. The block experienced elongation in all directions, but the morphology of ruptures suggests that the main direction of stretching is NW-SE. The intensity of cracks opening decreases markedly with time. According to eyewitnesses known that active crack opening at about 100 mm/year started 4 years before Kultuk earthquake (27.08.2008, Mw = 6.3), the epicenter of which was located near the southern tip of the Baikal basin. The existence of centimeter level deformations is confirmed using of differential SAR interferometry method. A pair of images taken with an interval of 2 years highlighted the linear zone of active deformation in the centimeter level. The length of the structure is about 4 kilometers. The offset along the Line-of-Sight (LOS) direction is from 18 to 42 mm, which corresponds to the vertical displacement of 22 to 50 mm, or a horizontal displacement of 32 to 74 mm (Lebedeva et al., 2013). Along with the described ruptures we discovered normal faults with an amplitude greater than 2 m, which can be traced along the submeridional local watershed. The length of the normal faults reaches 800 m. The morphology and position of these faults can be attributed to their sackung structures. We conclude that the detected current surface ruptures have complex origins and develop under the influence of endogenous (tectonic) and exogenous forces. They founded along NE trending ancient tectonic structures within wide strike-slip zone and main direction of opening corresponds to the direction of extension of paleo- and present-day stress field. According to the dynamics of ruptures opening, the main phase of their formation is connected with stage of Kultuk earthquake preparation. As for geodetic data the block is stretched in all directions, it can be assumed that, by analogy with closely spaced sacking

Sankov, Vladimir; Sankov, Aleksei; Lebedeva, Marina; Ashurkov, Sergey; Parfeevets, Anna



TerraSAR-X high-resolution radar remote sensing: an operational warning system for Rift Valley fever risk.  


In the vicinity of the Barkedji village (in the Ferlo region of Senegal), the abundance and aggressiveness of the vector mosquitoes for Rift Valley fever (RVF) are strongly linked to rainfall events and associated ponds dynamics. Initially, these results were obtained from spectral analysis of high-resolution (~10 m) Spot-5 images, but, as a part of the French AdaptFVR project, identification of the free water dynamics within ponds was made with the new high-resolution (down to 3-meter pixels), Synthetic Aperture Radar satellite (TerraSAR-X) produced by Infoterra GmbH, Friedrichshafen/Potsdam, Germany. During summer 2008, within a 30 x 50 km radar image, it was found that identified free water fell well within the footprints of ponds localized by optical data (i.e. Spot-5 images), which increased the confidence in this new and complementary remote sensing technique. Moreover, by using near real-time rainfall data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), NASA/JAXA joint mission, the filling-up and flushing-out rates of the ponds can be accurately determined. The latter allows for a precise, spatio-temporal mapping of the zones potentially occupied by mosquitoes capable of revealing the variability of pond surfaces. The risk for RVF infection of gathered bovines and small ruminants (~1 park/km(2)) can thus be assessed. This new operational approach (which is independent of weather conditions) is an important development in the mapping of risk components (i.e. hazards plus vulnerability) related to RVF transmission during the summer monsoon, thus contributing to a RVF early warning system. PMID:21080318

Vignolles, Cécile; Tourre, Yves M; Mora, Oscar; Imanache, Laurent; Lafaye, Murielle



Continental breakup and the onset of ultraslow seafloor spreading off Flemish Cap on the Newfoundland rifted margin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prestack depth-migrated seismic reflection data collected off Flemish Cap on the Newfoundland margin show a structure of abruptly thinning continental crust that leads into an oceanic accretion system. Within continental crust, there is no clear evidence for detachment surfaces analogous to the S reflection off the conjugate Galicia Bank margin, demonstrating a first-order asymmetry in final rift development. Anomalously thin

John R. Hopper; Thomas Funck; Brian E. Tucholke; Hans Christian Larsen; W. Steven Holbrook; Keith E. Louden; Donna Shillington; Helen Lau



Pristine Rhyolite Glass Melt Inclusions in Quartz Phenocrysts From the 1.1 Ga Midcontinent Rift System, Keweenaw Peninsula, Michigan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pristine rhyolite glass from the Proterozoic eon is rarely reported in the literature. Glass-bearing melt inclusions (MI) have been identified in quartz phenocrysts from rhyolite cobbles found in rift related conglomerates within the Portage Lake Volcanics (PLV) near Calumet, Michigan. The rhyolites represent an aspect of mantle plume related bi-modal magmatism that is contemporaneous with the 1.1 Ga Midcontinent Rift System (MRS). Previous studies classified felsic rocks from the PLV into two types, one that is similar to Icelandic rhyolites (Type I) and another similar to Cenozoic topaz rhyolites (Type II). The MRS rhyolite magmas are thought to have been at high temperatures (900-1100 °C) and low water contents prior to eruption. Low-grade burial metamorphism and hydrothermal alteration has affected some rocks in the region. The MI in this study have been categorized based on their phase assemblages and preservation history. Type 1 MI contain clear glass and a shrinkage bubble, Type 2 contain clear glass, a shrinkage bubble and 1 or more, coarser grained (> 3 um) crystals, and Type 3 MI are totally devitrified or otherwise breached. The MI range in size from 1 to over 200 um in diameter and have a negative hexagonal bi-pyramidal morphology. Major element oxide compositions (75.4-SiO2, 0.09-TiO2, 11.3-Al2O3, 2.2-FeO, 0.04- MnO, 0.06-MgO, 0.84-CaO, 5.9-K2O and 2.85-Na2O in wt %) determined by EPMA for Type 1 MI are similar to whole rock compositions reported for rhyolites in the MRS. The water contents of MI are low, as evidenced by the high totals (98.67 wt %) from the EPMA and the fact that a water peak was not observed during Raman analysis (indicating that the MI contain less than 1 wt % H2O). LA-ICPMS analysis for additional trace elements (Cu, Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Eu, Yb, Ta, Th and U) were preformed on both Type 1 and Type 2 MI. Discrimination based on Ba/Rb and Ba/Th indicate that the MI are most similar to the Type II rhyolites in the region. Cathodoluminescence of quartz phenocrysts reveals several periods of resorption and new quartz growth over what we tentatively interpret as non-magmatic cores. Ti tends to increase rimward from 50-220 ppm in the magmatic growth zones corresponding to a temperature change of 675-850 °C, respectively (using the TitaniQ method with a fixed TiO2 activity equal to 1). If the TiO2 activity were lower (0.6 for example) a temperature change of 730-930 °C would be possible. Magmatic quartz crystallization temperatures may have increased by more than 175 °C from core to rim, presumably due to recharge by hotter magma sometime prior to eruption. Our results indicate that the quartz host protected the chemical integrity of the original melt that had been trapped over 1 billion years ago in select MI. Other factors including the stable tectonic history of the region and the low volatile content of the magma, may have favored the preservation of the rhyolite glass MI. The eruptive style of much of the felsic magmatism in the MRS remains an enigma in part due to a lack of exposure and few constraints on magma volatile contents and eruption temperatures. The MI described here, even those from cobbles, can be important to understanding the role of volatiles, magma chamber evolution, thermal history, and the eruptive styles related to MRS bi-modal magmatism.

Student, J. J.; Wark, D. A.; Mutchler, S. R.; Bodnar, R. J.



Young rift kinematics in the Tadjoura rift, western Gulf of Aden, Republic of Djibouti  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tadjoura rift forms the westernmost edge of the westerly propagating Sheba ridge, between Arabia and Somalia, as it enters into the Afar depression. From structural and remote sensing data sets, the Tadjoura rift is interpreted as an asymmetrical south facing half-graben, about 40 km wide, dominated by a large boundary fault zone to the north. It is partially filled up by the 1-3 Myr old Gulf Basalts which onlapped the older Somali Basalts along its shallower southern flexural margin. The major and trace element analysis of 78 young onshore lavas allows us to distinguish and map four distinct basaltic types, namely the Gulf, Somali, Goumarre, and Hayyabley Basalts. These results, together with radiometric age data, lead us to propose a revised volcano-stratigraphic sketch of the two exposed Tadjoura rift margins and to discriminate and date several distinct fault networks of this oblique rift. Morphological and statistical analyses of onshore extensional fault populations show marked changes in structural styles along-strike, in a direction parallel to the rift axis. These major fault disturbances are assigned to the arrest of axial fault tip propagation against preexisting discontinuities in the NS-oriented Arta transverse zone. According to our model, the sinistral jump of rifting into the Asal-Ghoubbet rift segment results from structural inheritance, in contrast with the en échelon or transform mechanism of propagation that prevailed along the entire length of the Gulf of Aden extensional system.

Daoud, Mohamed A.; Le Gall, Bernard; Maury, René C.; Rolet, JoëL.; Huchon, Philippe; Guillou, Hervé



Controls on rifting in Africa and the regional tectonic model for the Nigeria and East Niger rift basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since early Mesozoic times, three phases of rifting have occurred in Africa and are related to distinct phases of breakup of Gondwana. These contrasting rift episodes have provided an insight to the extent to which plate tectonic processes and more localised mechanical anisotropy processes within the African lithosphere have influenced rifting. Gravity modelling of the Nigeria and East Niger rift basins shows the extent and nature of the broad (regional) positive Bouguer anomaly associated with these rifts. The removal of this regional anomaly allows the delineation of the (residual) negative Bouguer anomaly which reflects the lateral extent and thickness of Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments. This residual anomaly is interpreted using iterative three dimensional modelling, by incorporating a density-depth function derived from well logs. Results indicate that an extensive basin complex exists in eastern Niger with sedimentary sections greater than 7 km in depth and are in good agreement with the aeromagnetic data. A simple estimate of crustal extension across the East Niger rift basin indicates that up to 58 km of crustal stretching has occurred, placing an upper limit on the amount of sinistral strike-slip movement required within the Benue Trough to open the East Niger rift. A similar strike-slip and extension rift geometry is observed elsewhere in the West and Central African rift system which indicates that the Cretaceous period was an important time for strike-slip tectonics. Changes in the differential opening of the Central and South Atlantic Oceans during the Cretaceous can adequately explain the large strike-slip displacements and associated rift basins in West and North Central Africa and are considered here to more closely reflect the initial rift processes that shaped the continental margin of Africa than those associated with the modern East African rift system.

Fairhead, J. D.; Green, C. M.


Examples of Models Fit to Magnetic Anomalies Observed Over Subaerial, Submarine, and Subglacial Volcanoes in the West Antarctic Rift System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aeromagnetic and marine magnetic surveys over the volcanically active West Antarctic rift system, constrained by seismic reflection profiles over the Ross Sea continual shelf, and radar ice sounding surveys over the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) allowed calculation of models fit to very high-amplitude anomalies. We present several examples: exposed 2700-m high, subaerial erupted volcano Mt Melbourne; the 750-m high source of anomaly D (Hamilton submarine volcano) in the Ross sea; and the 600-m high edifice of Mt. CASERTZ beneath the WAIS. The character of these anomalies and their sources varies greatly, and is inferred to be the result of subaerial, submarine and subglacial emplacement respectively. Mt. Melbourne erupted through the WAIS at a time when it was grounded over the Ross Sea continental shelf. Highly magnetic volcanic flows inferred to have high remanent (normal) magnetization in the present field direction produce the 600-nT positive anomaly. The flows protected the edifice above the ice from erosion. Negligible amounts of probably subglacially erupted, apparently non-magnetic hyaloclastite exist in association with Mt. Melbourne. Mt. CASERTZ is nonmagnetic and the edifice is interpreted as consisting of a transient mound of unconsolidated hyaloclastite injected into the WAIS. However Mt. CASERTZ, about 8-km diameter, overlies a 200-m high, 40-km wide highly magnetic residual edifice modeled as the top of the source (an active subglacial volcano) of a 400-nT high positive anomaly. Any former edifices comprising hyaloclastite, pillow breccia or other volcanic debris injected into the moving WAIS apparently have been removed. About 400 other high- amplitude anomalies associated with low relief (80 percent less than 200 m) edifices at the base of the ice (the tops of the sources of these steep gradient anomalies) beneath the WAIS defined by radar ice sounding have been interpreted as having former hyaloclastite edifices, which were removed by the moving ice. The source of the -1300-nT negative anomaly D projecting 600 m above the Ross Sea continental shelf is enigmatic. We interpret models as either the result of reversed magnetization (less than 780 Ka) at a time of deglaciation of the continental shelf, or a hydrothermally altered central core surrounded by highly magnetic flows erupted beneath the Ross sea since deglaciation in Holocene time.

Behrendt, J. C.; Finn, C. A.; Blankenship, D. D.




SciTech Connect

This document is the final report on the work completed on DE-FG02-95ER25238 since the start of the second renewal period: Jan 1, 2001. It supplements the annual reports submitted in 2001 and 2002. In the renewal proposal I envisaged work in three main areas: Analytical and topological tools for studying flows and maps Low dimensional models of fluid flow Models of animal locomotion and I describe the progess made on each project.

Philip Holmes



Helium isotope ratios in Ethiopian Rift basalts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helium isotope ratios were measured in olivine and pyroxene phenocrysts from basalts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley and Afar Depression between 6° and 15°N and 37° and 43°E. 3He/ 4He ratios range from 6 to 17 times the atmospheric value (R A = 1.4 × 10 -6), that is, from ratios less than typical MORB (depleted mantle) helium (R/R A= 8 ± 1) to ratios similar to high- 3He hotspots and to the Yellowstone hotspot (R/R A= 16.5). The high 3He/ 4He ratios occur all along the Ethiopian Rift and well up into the Afar Depression, with a maximum value of 17.0 R A at 8°N in the Rift Axis and a high value of 14.2 R A in the central Tat'Ali sector of the Afar Depression. The ratios decrease to MORB-like values near the edge of the Red Sea, and to sub-MORB ratios (5-6 R A) at the northern end of the Rift (Zula Peninsula) and at the southern end, at lakes Abaya and Chamo. The Ethiopian Rift provides the only continental hotspot terrain in which helium isotope ratios can be compared in detail between volcanic lavas and associated geothermal and volcanic gases, a primary motivation for this work. Comparison with our previously measured ratios in fluids and gases (range 2-15 R A) shows excellent agreement in the areas sampled for both lavas and fluids, and indicates that high-temperature volcanic fluids can be used for establishing helium isotope signatures in such terrains. The high- 3He values in both fluids and basalts show that a Primitive Mantle (PM) component is required and that a Lower Mantle High- 3He plume is strongly involved as a driving force in the rifting process of the East African Rift System.

Scarsi, P.; Craig, H.



Intracontinental Rifts As Glorious Failures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rifts: "Elongate depressions overlying places where the lithosphere has ruptured in extension" develop in many environments because rocks are weak in extension (Sengor 2nd edn. Springer Encycl. Solid Earth Geophys.). I focus on intra-continental rifts in which the Wilson Cycle failed to develop but in which that failure has led to glory because rocks and structures in those rifts throw exceptional light on how Earth's complex continental evolution can operate: The best studied record of human evolution is in the East African Rift; The Ventersdorp rifts (2.7 Ga) have yielded superb crustal-scale rift seismic reflection records; "Upside-down drainage" (Sleep 1997) has guided supra-plume-head partial melt into older continental rifts leading Deccan basalt of ~66Ma to erupt into a Late Paleozoic (~ 300Ma) rift and the CAMP basalts of ~201 Ma into Ladinian, ~230 Ma, rifts. Nepheline syenites and carbonatites, which are abundant in rifts that overlie sutures in the underlying mantle lithosphere, form by decompression melting of deformed nepheline syenites and carbonatites ornamenting those sutures (Burke et al.2003). Folding, faulting and igneous episodes involving decompression melting in old rifts can relate to collision at a remote plate margin (Guiraud and Bosworth 1997, Dewey and Burke 1974) or to passage of the rift over a plume generation zone (PGZ Burke et al.2008) on the Core Mantle Boundary (e.g.Lake Ellen MI kimberlites at ~206 Ma).

Burke, K.



Inventory Systems Laboratory. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four computer programs to aid students in understanding inventory systems, constructing mathematical inventory models, and developing optimal decision rules are presented. The program series allows a user to set input levels, simulates the behavior of major variables in inventory systems, and provides performance measures as output. Inventory…

Naddor, Eliezer


Structural inheritance, segmentation, and rift localization in the Gulf of Aden oblique rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structural evolution of the Gulf of Aden passive margins was controlled by its oblique divergence kinematics, inherited structures, and the Afar hot spot. The rifting between Arabia and Somalia started at 35 Ma just before the hot spot paroxysm (at 30Ma) and lasted until 18Ma, when oceanic spreading started. Fieldwork suggests that rift parallel normal faults initiated in the (future) distal margins, after a first stage of distributed rifting, and witness the rift localization, as confirmed by 4-layer analogue models. These faults arise either from crust or lithosphere scale buoyancy forces that are strongly controlled by the mantle temperature under the influence of the Afar hot spot. This implies a transition from a distributed mode to a localized one, sharper, both in space and time, in the West (close to the hot spot) than in the East (far away from the hot spot). In this framework, first order transform F.Z. are here (re-) defined by the fact that they deform continental crust. In the Gulf of Aden, as well as in other continental margins, it appears that these F.Z. are often, if not always, located at continental transfer or "transform" fault zones. Our detailed field-study of an offshore transfer fault zone in the southeastern Gulf of Aden (Socotra Island) shows that these structures are long-lived since early rifting until post rift times. During the early rifting, they are inherited structures reactivated as oblique normal faults before accommodating strike-slip motion. During the Ocean-Continent Transition (OCT) formation ("post syn-rift" times), a significant uplift occurred in the transfer fault zone footwall as shown by stratigraphic and LT thermochronology data. Second order transform F.Z. are defined as deforming only the OCT, thus initiated at the moment of its formation. In the western Gulf of Aden, the hot spot provoked a rift localization strongly oblique to the divergence and, as a consequence, several second order transform F.Z. formed (as well as third order ones that initiated after the onset of oceanic spreading). In the East, the second and third order segmentation is less pronounced as both the OCT and ridge segments are sub-perpendicular to the divergence. During post-rift times, plate reorganization led to oceanic propagator development and second/third transform F.Z. migration along with deformation and vertical movements and normal displacement along the first order transform F.Z. Finally, during Quaternary times, the evolving boundary conditions of the Arabian plate probably also induced vertical movements along the margins.

Bellahsen, Nicolas; Leroy, Sylvie; Autin, Julia; d'Acremont, Elia; Razin, Philippe; Husson, Laurent; Pik, Raphael; Watremez, Louise; Baurion, Celine; Beslier, Marie-Odile; Khanbari, Khaled; Ahmed, Abdulhakim



Final focus systems for linear colliders  

SciTech Connect

The final focus system of a linear collider must perform two primary functions, it must focus the two opposing beams so that their transverse dimensions at the interaction point are small enough to yield acceptable luminosity, and it must steer the beams together to maintain collisions. In addition, the final focus system must transport the outgoing beams to a location where they can be recycled or safely dumped. Elementary optical considerations for linear collider final focus systems are discussed, followed by chromatic aberrations. The design of the final focus system of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) is described. Tuning and diagnostics and steering to collision are discussed. Most of the examples illustrating the concepts covered are drawn from the SLC, but the principles and conclusions are said to be generally applicable to other linear collider designs as well. 26 refs., 17 figs. (LEW)

Erickson, R.A.



Evaluation of geothermal potential of Rio Grande rift and Basin and Range province, New Mexico. Final technical report, January 1, 1977-May 31, 1978  

SciTech Connect

A study was made of the geological, geochemical and geophysical characteristics of potential geothermal areas in the Rio Grande rift and Basin and Range province of New Mexico. Both regional and site-specific information is presented. Data was collected by: (1) reconnaissance and detailed geologic mapping, emphasizing Neogene stratigraphy and structure; (2) petrologic studies of Neogene igneous rocks; (3) radiometric age-dating; (4) geochemical surveying, including regional and site-specific water chemistry, stable isotopic analyses of thermal waters, whole-rock and mineral isotopic studies, and whole-rock chemical analyses; and (5) detailed geophysical surveys, using electrical, gravity and magnetic techniques, with electrical resistivity playing a major role. Regional geochemical water studies were conducted for the whole state. Integrated site-specific studies included the Animas Valley, Las Cruces area (Radium Springs and Las Alturas Estates), Truth or Consequences region, the Albuquerque basin, the San Ysidro area, and the Abiquiu-Ojo Caliente region. The Animas Valley and Las Cruces areas have the most significant geothermal potential of the areas studied. The Truth or Consequences and Albuquerque areas need further study. The San Ysidro and Abiquiu-Ojo Caliente regions have less significant geothermal potential. 78 figs., 16 tabs.

Callender, J.F.



Intelligent wind power prediction systems final report  

E-print Network

Intelligent wind power prediction systems ­ final report ­ Henrik Aalborg Nielsen (han (FU 4101) Ens. journal number: 79029-0001 Project title: Intelligent wind power prediction systems #12;#12;Intelligent wind power prediction systems 1/36 Contents 1 Introduction 6 2 The Wind Power Prediction Tool 7 3


Forensic investigation of rift-to-drift transitions and volcanic rifted margins birth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic rifted margins (VRM) reflect excess magmatism generated during the rift-to-drift transition of a continental rift system evolving into a Mid-Ocean Ridge (MOR). As a result many VRM (e.g. NAIP and CAMP) are recognized as Large Igneous Provinces (LIP). The prominent structural characteristics of VRM are Continental Flood Basalts, High-Velocity Lower Crustal bodies (HVLC) and Seaward Dipping Reflector Sequences (SDRS). However, the causes of these anomalously high eruption rates and magma volumes are presently poorly understood. Controversial issue opinions are based on two competing hypotheses: 1) Mantle plume related mechanisms where the excess magmatism results from elevated mantle temperatures; and 2) Rift induced small scale convection processes causing temperature anomalies and enhancing the mantle rock flux through the melt window. Largely because of difficulties to sample oceanic basement at VRM -due to thick sediment covers- the composition of rift-to-drift transition magmas is generally poorly constrained. We reviewed the geodynamic histories and magma compositions from well known VRM (e.g. NE Australia, E USA, Madagascar) and compared these data with own geochemical data from different NE Atlantic tectono-magmatic VRM zones. These comparisons point to a consistent, general VRM formation model. This model has to explain the primary observation, that geological long periods of extension have been reported -in all investigated VRM areas- prior to the breakup. Extensional far field stress looks to be the main geodynamic cause for continental breakup. Small scale convection during the late phase of a continental rift system is probably the key process generating excess magmatism in LIP related to rift-to-drift transitions.

Meyer, R.; Hertogen, J.



Optimization of the NLC final focus system  

SciTech Connect

An optimization scheme for final focus systems is discussed and applied to the NLC design. The optical functions at the defocusing sextupoles, the sextupole strength, and the length of the system must obey eight conditions that are imposed by the spot size increase due to higher-order aberrations, the effects of synchrotron radiation in the bending magnets, power supply ripple, magnet vibration tolerances, and the estimated orbit stability at the sextupoles. These eight conditions determine the minimum optimum length of the system. The NLC final focus design was shortened to this optimum.

Zimmermann, F.; Helm, R.; Irwin, J.



Clinical Research Informatics Systems Project Final Report  

E-print Network

Submitted to: Dr. Joyce Mitchell Chair, Department of Medical Informatics Associate Vice President, HealthClinical Research Informatics Systems Project Final Report March 29, 2010 Rev. 8.30.2010 Report Orientation Checklist (Draft)................................XII #12;Clinical Research Informatics Systems

Provancher, William


Depositional and tectonic framework of the rift basins of Lake Baikal from multichannel seismic data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent multichannel seismic reflection data from Lake Baikal, located in a large, active, continental rift in central Asia, image three major stratigraphic units totalling 3.5 to 7.5 km thick in four subbasins. A major change in rift deposition and faulting between the oldest and middle-rift units probably corresponds to the change from slow to fast rifting. A brief comparison of the basins of Lake Baikal with those of the East African rift system highlights differences in structural style that can be explained by differences in age and evolution of the surrounding basement rocks. -from Authors

Hutchinson, D. R.; Golmshtok, A. J.; Zonenshain, L. P.; Moore, T. C.; Scholz, C. A.; Klitgord, K. D.



Geophysical evidence of Cretaceous volcanics in Logone Birni Basin (Northern Cameroon), Central Africa, and consequences for the West and Central African Rift System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed analyses and interpretation realized by combining existing 2D reflection seismic and Gravity/Magnetic data of the Logone Birni Basin (LBB) in the West and Central African Rift System (WCAS) have revealed the distribution of the main buried volcanic bodies as well as their relationships with the structural and tectonic evolution of this basin. The volcanic activity in the LBB is restricted to the Cretaceous period. Three main volcanic episodes are identified and are associated to the Neocomian, Late Albian and Cenomanian-Turonian rifting phases respectively. The volcanic bodies within the Lower Cretaceous are either lying directly on basement or are mainly interbedded with the contemporaneous sediments whereas the Upper Cretaceous bodies are morphologically expressed in the forms of dykes and sills. The volcanic activity was more intense in the western region of the central LBB (Zina sub-basin) along the Cameroon-Nigeria border whereas it was scanty and scattered in the other parts of the basin. The main volcanic dykes are found on the flanks of the major faults bounding basement horsts or in crestal positions in association with syndepositional faults. Although WCAS is associated with large amount of crustal extension and minor volcanism, the intense volcanic activity observed in LBB during the Cretaceous suggests that the intrusive zone during this period was confined to the basement beneath the study area flanked respectively to the north, south and southwest by the Lake Chad, Poli and Chum triple junctions. Tensional stresses generated by this localized domal uplift accounts for most of the observed tectonic structures where major faults transected the entire lithosphere, thus providing conduits for magma migration.

Loule, Jean-Pierre; Pospisil, Lubomil



Evolution, distribution, and characteristics of rifting in southern Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ethiopia is a key region to understand the evolution of the East African rift system, since it is the area of interaction between the main Ethiopian rift (MER) and the Kenyan rift. However, geological data constraining rift evolution in this remote area are still relatively sparse. In this study the timing, distribution, and style of rifting in southern Ethiopia are constrained by new structural, geochronological, and geomorphological data. The border faults in the area are roughly parallel to preexisting basement fabrics and are progressively more oblique with respect to the regional Nubia-Somalia motion proceeding southward. Kinematic indicators along these faults are mainly dip slip, pointing to a progressive rotation of the computed direction of extension toward the south. Radiocarbon data indicate post 30 ka faulting at both western and eastern margins of the MER with limited axial deformation. Similarly, geomorphological data suggest recent fault activity along the western margins of the basins composing the Gofa Province and in the Chew Bahir basin. This supports that interaction between the MER and the Kenyan rift in southern Ethiopia occurs in a 200 km wide zone of ongoing deformation. Fault-related exhumation at ~10-12 Ma in the Gofa Province, as constrained by new apatite fission track data, occurred later than the ~20 Ma basement exhumation of the Chew Bahir basin, thus pointing to a northward propagation of the Kenyan rift-related extension in the area.

Philippon, Melody; Corti, Giacomo; Sani, Federico; Bonini, Marco; Balestrieri, Maria-Laura; Molin, Paola; Willingshofer, Ernst; Sokoutis, Dimitrios; Cloetingh, Sierd



Sediment geochemistry and tectonic setting: Application of discrimination diagrams to early stages of intracontinental rift evolution, with examples from the Okavango and Southern Tanganyika rift basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we have applied discriminant diagrams and bivariate plots for tectonic setting to Quaternary sediments from the East African Rift System (EARS). Sediment samples used in this study represent two different phases in early stage intracontinental rift evolution: the alluvial fan of the nascent Okavango system and a lacustrine basin within the relatively more mature Tanganyika system. The

P. Huntsman-Mapila; J.-J. Tiercelin; M. Benoit; S. Ringrose; S. Diskin; J. Cotten; C. Hémond



Hydrothermal flow systems in the Midcontinent Rift: Oxygen and hydrogen isotopic studies of the North Shore Volcanic Group and related hypabyssal sills, Minnesota  

SciTech Connect

Rift-related lavas of the North Shore Volcanic Group (NSVG) are intruded by plutonic rocks of the Duluth Complex along the unconformity between the NSVG and the underlying Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks (Animikie Group) and Archean volcano-sedimentary and plutonic rocks. Heat associated with the emplacement of the mafic intrusions generated fluid flow in the overlying plateau lavas. {delta}{sup 18}O values for whole rocks from the NSVG and hypabyssal sills range from 5.5 to 17.7{per_thousand} and 5.3 to 11.5{per_thousand}, respectively, and most values are higher than those considered normal for basaltic rocks (5.4 to 6.0{per_thousand}). In general, there is a positive correlation between whole rock {delta}{sup 18}O and water content, which suggests that elevated {delta}{sup 18}O values are related primarily to secondary mineral growth and isotopic exchange during hydrothermal alteration and metamorphism. {delta}{sup 18}O{sub H{sub 2}O} values computed from amygdule-filling minerals such as smectite, chlorite, and epidote found in low- to high-temperature metamorphic zones range from {approximately}{minus}1 to 6{per_thousand} with an average value of {approximately}3{per_thousand}. Smectite in the lower-grade zones gives computed {delta}D{sub H{sub 2}O} values between {minus}26 and {minus}83{per_thousand}, whereas epidote in the higher-grade zones gives {delta}D{sub H{sub 2}O} values of {minus}15 to 6{per_thousand}. Fluid isotopic compositions computed from epidote and smectite values are suggestive of the involvement of at least two fluids during the early stages of amygdule filling. Fluid {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O values determined from epidote at the higher metamorphic grades indicate that seawater dominated the deeper portions of the system where greenschist facies assemblages and elevated {delta}{sup 18}O values were produced in flow interiors, as well as margins. Smectite isotopic compositions suggest that meteoric water was predominant in the shallower portions of the system. The increase in {delta}{sup 18}O values of massive flow interiors with depth is interpreted as a result of rock interaction with a fluid of constant oxygen isotopic composition with increasing temperature. The stable isotopic data are supportive of previous suggestions that seawater was involved in the hydrothermal system associated with the Midcontinent Rift. Although the origin of the seawater remains problematic, it appears that marine incursions may have occurred during the late stages of Portage Lake volcanism, and periodically thereafter.

Park, Y.R.; Ripley, E.M. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences] [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences



Anomalous deep earthquakes beneath the East African Rift: evidence for rift induced delamination of the lithosphere?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The over 5000 m high Rwenzori Mountains are situated within the western branch of the East African Rift System, at the border between Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo. They represent a basement block within the rift valley whose origin and relation to the evolution of the EARS are highly puzzling. During 2006/2007 a network of 27 seismological stations was operated in this area to investigate crustal and upper mantle structure in conjunction with local seismicity. The data analysis revealed unexpectedly high microseismic activity. On average more than 800 events per month could be located with magnitudes ranging from 0.5 to 5.1. Hypocentral depths go as deep as 30 km with a pronounced concentration of activity at a depth of about 15 km. This presentation focuses on a cluster of seven earthquakes that were located at anomalous depths between 53 and 60 km. According to our present knowledge these are the deepest events so far observed within the EARS and the African Plate. Their origin might be connected to magmatic intrusions. However, the existence of earthquakes at this depth is enigmatic, especially within a rifting regime were one expects hot and weak material close to the surface, which is not capable of seismogenic deformation. We think that these events are closely related to the evolution of the Rwenzoris. A recent hypothesis to explain the extreme uplift of the Rwenzori Mountains is rift induced delamination (RID) of mantle lithosphere that is captured between two approaching rift segments. By numerical modelling we show that the RID-process is also able to bring material that is cold and brittle enough to release seismic energy into greater depth. Therefore the RID-mechanism gives a consistent explanation for the detected deep events as well as for the uplift of a mountain block in a rift setting.

Lindenfeld, Michael; Rümpker, Georg; Schmeling, Harro; Wallner, Herbert



Crustal structure of central Lake Baikal: Insights into intracontinental rifting  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cenozoic rift system of Baikal, located in the interior of the largest continental mass on Earth, is thought to represent a potential analog of the early stage of breakup of supercontinents. We present a detailed P wave velocity structure of the crust and sediments beneath the Central Basin, the deepest basin in the Baikal rift system. The structure is characterized by a Moho depth of 39-42.5 km; an 8-km-thick, laterally continuous high-velocity (7.05-7.4 km/s) lower crust, normal upper mantle velocity (8 km/s), a sedimentary section reaching maximum depths of 9 km, and a gradual increase of sediment velocity with depth. We interpret the high-velocity lower crust to be part of the Siberian Platform that was not thinned or altered significantly during rifting. In comparison to published results from the Siberian Platform, Moho under the basin is elevated by <3 km. On the basis of these results we propose that the basin was formed by upper crustal extension, possibly reactivating structures in an ancient fold-and-thrust belt. The extent and location of upper mantle extension are not revealed by our data, and it may be offset from the rift. We believe that the Baikal rift structure is similar in many respects to the Mesozoic Atlantic rift system, the precursor to the formation of the North Atlantic Ocean. We also propose that the Central Baikal rift evolved by episodic fault propagation and basin enlargement, rather than by two-stage rift evolution as is commonly assumed.

ten Brink, U.S.; Taylor, M.H.



A model for Iapetan rifting of Laurentia based on Neoproterozoic dikes and related rocks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geologic evidence of the Neoproterozoic rifting of Laurentia during breakup of Rodinia is recorded in basement massifs of the cratonic margin by dike swarms, volcanic and plutonic rocks, and rift-related clastic sedimentary sequences. The spatial and temporal distribution of these geologic features varies both within and between the massifs but preserves evidence concerning the timing and nature of rifting. The most salient features include: (1) a rift-related magmatic event recorded in the French Broad massif and the southern and central Shenandoah massif that is distinctly older than that recorded in the northern Shenandoah massif and northward; (2) felsic volcanic centers at the north ends of both French Broad and Shenandoah massifs accompanied by dike swarms; (3) differences in volume between massifs of cover-sequence volcanic rocks and rift-related clastic rocks; and (4) WNW orientation of the Grenville dike swarm in contrast to the predominately NE orientation of other Neoproterozoic dikes. Previously proposed rifting mechanisms to explain these features include rift-transform and plume–triple-junction systems. The rift-transform system best explains features 1, 2, and 3, listed here, and we propose that it represents the dominant rifting mechanism for most of the Laurentian margin. To explain feature 4, as well as magmatic ages and geochemical trends in the Northern Appalachians, we propose that a plume–triple-junction system evolved into the rift-transform system. A ca. 600 Ma mantle plume centered east of the Sutton Mountains generated the radial dike swarm of the Adirondack massif and the Grenville dike swarm, and a collocated triple junction generated the northern part of the rift-transform system. An eastern branch of this system produced the Long Range dike swarm in Newfoundland, and a subsequent western branch produced the ca. 554 Ma Tibbit Hill volcanics and the ca. 550 Ma rift-related magmatism of Newfoundland.

Burton, William C.; Southworth, Scott



Fault evolution in the Potiguar rift termination, Equatorial margin of Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transform shearing between South American and African plates in the Cretaceous generated a series of sedimentary basins on both plate margins. In this study, we use gravity, aeromagnetic, and resistivity surveys to identify fault architecture and to analyse the evolution of the eastern Equatorial margin of Brazil. Our study area is the southern onshore termination of the Potiguar rift, which is an aborted NE-trending rift arm developed during the breakup of Pangea. The Potiguar rift is a Neocomian structure located in the intersection of the Equatorial and western South Atlantic and is composed of a series of NE-trending horsts and grabens. This study reveals new grabens in the Potiguar rift and indicates that stretching in the southern rift termination created a WNW-trending, 10 km wide and ~40 km long right-lateral strike-slip fault zone. This zone encompasses at least eight depocenters, which are bounded by a left-stepping, en-echelon system of NW- to EW-striking normal faults. These depocenters form grabens up to 1200 m deep with a rhomb-shaped geometry, which are filled with rift sedimentary units and capped by post-rift sedimentary sequences. The evolution of the rift termination is consistent with the right-lateral shearing of the Equatorial margin in the Cretaceous and occurs not only at the rift termination, but also as isolated structures away from the main rift.

de Castro, D. L.; Bezerra, F. H. R.



Regional Hydrothermal Cooling During the Initiation of Continental Rifting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermochronologic data from the uplifted flanks of the Red Sea clearly indicate at least two distinct phases of regional cooling: the first at about 32 Ma and the second at about 21 Ma according to Omar and Steckler (1995). The latter phase correlates well with the rapid subsidence in the rift and uplift of the flanks. Thus this cooling data is generally interpreted to result from tectonic denudation. The earlier cooling is more problematic, since sediments of the same age are not clearly identified in rift basins. A different explanation for the early cooling episode is suggested by numerical models of lithospheric stretching. Those models show that rift initiation can result in a very broad region of lithospheric downbending. This bending produces small magnitude (several percent) surface extension of the sides of the rift. Eventually, these rift flanks are bent in the opposite sense and uplifted. The earlier phase of extensional strain may create a system of cracks and faults of sufficient permeability to allow significant water circulation. Hydrothermal flow could produce cooling of rocks as deep as 5-10 km. The cooling would be recorded in low-temperature thermochrologic systems such as apatite fission tracks. Model thermal histories for different rift and hydrothermal flow histories are compared to fission track data from the Red Sea region.

Buck, W. R.



Common Host-Derived Chemicals Increase Catches of Disease-Transmitting Mosquitoes and Can Improve Early Warning Systems for Rift Valley Fever Virus  

PubMed Central

Rift Valley fever (RVF), a mosquito-borne zoonosis, is a major public health and veterinary problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Surveillance to monitor mosquito populations during the inter-epidemic period (IEP) and viral activity in these vectors is critical to informing public health decisions for early warning and control of the disease. Using a combination of field bioassays, electrophysiological and chemical analyses we demonstrated that skin-derived aldehydes (heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal) common to RVF virus (RVFV) hosts including sheep, cow, donkey, goat and human serve as potent attractants for RVFV mosquito vectors. Furthermore, a blend formulated from the four aldehydes and combined with CO2-baited CDC trap without a light bulb doubled to tripled trap captures compared to control traps baited with CO2 alone. Our results reveal that (a) because of the commonality of the host chemical signature required for attraction, the host-vector interaction appears to favor the mosquito vector allowing it to find and opportunistically feed on a wide range of mammalian hosts of the disease, and (b) the sensitivity, specificity and superiority of this trapping system offers the potential for its wider use in surveillance programs for RVFV mosquito vectors especially during the IEP. PMID:23326620

Tchouassi, David P.; Sang, Rosemary; Sole, Catherine L.; Bastos, Armanda D. S.; Teal, Peter E. A.; Borgemeister, Christian; Torto, Baldwyn



Dynamical properties of disordered systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This final report covers the most recent period of the Office of Navy Research Contract titled DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF DISORDERED SYSTEMS. During this period, research has been completed on a variety of research problems contained in this ONR Research Proposal. The principal areas of research can be summarized under the following categories: 1) The fractal interpretation of amorphous structures; 2) Non-linear conductivity of low dimensional materials; 3) The effect of anodization on the superconducting transition temperature; 4) The time dependence of the remanent magnetization of spin glasses; and 5) The experimental opportunities for physics at high magnetic fields.

Orbach, R.L.; Kennel, C.; Cinderella, A.



Solar energy system, Baltimore County Jail, Towson, Maryland. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Baltimore County Jail solar system incorporates four independent piping systems: (1) glycol loop system; (2) solar water system; (3) chilled water system; and (4) domestic cold and hot water system. This final report includes: final system description; construction costs; as-build drawings; acceptance test; control drawings; and product information.

Not Available



Neutronic calculations for a final focus system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For heavy-ion fusion and for "liquid-protected" reactor designs such as HYLIFE-II (Moir et al., Fusion Technol. 25 (1994); HYLIFE-II-Progress Report, UCID-21816, 4-82-100), a mixture of molten salts made of F 10, Li 6, Li 7, Be 9 called flibe allows highly compact target chambers. Smaller chambers will have lower costs and will allow the final-focus magnets to be closer to the target with decreased size of the focus spot and of the driver, as well as drastically reduced costs of IFE electricity. Consequently the superconducting coils of the magnets closer to the chamber will suffer higher radiation damage though they can stand only a certain amount of energy deposited before quenching. The scope of our calculations is essentially the total energy deposited on the magnetic lens system by fusion neutrons and induced ?-rays. Such a study is important for the design of the final focus system itself from the neutronic point of view and indicates some guidelines for a design with six magnets in the beam line. The entire chamber consists of 192 beam lines to provide access of heavy ions that will implode the pellet. A 3-D transport calculation of the radiation penetrating through ducts that takes into account the complexity of the system, requires Monte Carlo methods. The development of efficient and precise models for geometric representation and nuclear analysis is necessary. The parameters are optimized thanks to an accurate analysis of six geometrical models that are developed starting from the simplest. Different configurations are examined employing TART 98 (D.E. Cullen, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, UCRL-ID-126455, Rev. 1, November, 1997) and MCNP 4B (Briesmeister (Ed.), Version 4B, La-12625-m, March 1997, Los Alamos National Laboratory): two Monte Carlo codes for neutrons and photons. The quantities analyzed include: energy deposited by neutrons and gamma photons, values of the total fluence integrated on the whole energy range, neutron fluence spectrum, total path length of neutrons in energy, neutron mean free path versus energy. The results of the two codes turned out to be in good agreement with each other for different zones and configurations of the system. The source restriction technique gives reliable results as it is proved comparing re-normalized results with results obtained with a 4? source and with sources emitting with different set of solid angles. For this reason, this technique is used in all the six models avoiding other variance reduction techniques. Finally, solutions are suggested for optimizing the system from the neutronic point of view, with respect to both relative position of the magnets and choice of shielding materials.

Mainardi, E.; Premuda, F.; Lee, E.



Toarcian–Kimmeridgian depositional cycles of the south-western Morondava Basin along the rifted continental margin of Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

After rifting and final breakup of Gondwana along the former East-African-Antarctic Orogen during the Toarcian–Aalenian, passive\\u000a margins formed around the Proto-Indian Ocean. Sedimentological and stratigraphic studies in the southern Morondava Basin contribute\\u000a to an improved reconstruction of palaeoenvironmental changes during the syn-rift and post-rift margin formation. Depositional\\u000a models based on outcrop and literature data in combination with subsurface data sets

Markus Geiger; Günter Schweigert



Rift flank segmentation, basin initiation and propagation: a neotectonic example from Lake Baikal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

New surficial data (field, Landsat TM and topography) define morpho-tectonic domains and rift flank segmentation in the Ol'khon region of the Central Baikal rift. Deformation, drainage and depositional patterns indicate a change in the locus of active extension that may relate to a recent (rift with concomitant shifts in depocentres. Within the hanging wall of the new western border fault, distinct segments control the location of drainage paths and syn-rift deposits. Morphology, sediment thicknesses and fault scarp amplitude indicate that a segmented rift flank graben has propagated southwards along the rift flank and is still actively fragmenting. These surficial data are used to constrain a model for the time-dependent topographic variations during progressive subsidence along a rift flank, involving the transfer of footwall units to hanging-wall domains. Rapid changes in border fault footwall relief in this model are associated with change in the active border fault location with widespread mass-wasting. The model shows that time-dependent histories need to be integrated with flexural uplift models for active normal faults. The active, syn-rift depositional systems of the Ol'khon region provide a valuable analogue for the early evolution of continental margins and the structural controls on syn-rift hydrocarbon sources and reservoirs.

Agar, S.M.; Klitgord, Kim D.



Multi-Point Combustion System: Final Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low-NOx emission combustor concept has been developed for NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aircraft (ERA) program to meet N+2 emissions goals for a 70,000 lb thrust engine application. These goals include 75 percent reduction of LTO NOx from CAEP6 standards without increasing CO, UHC, or smoke from that of current state of the art. An additional key factor in this work is to improve lean combustion stability over that of previous work performed on similar technology in the early 2000s. The purpose of this paper is to present the final report for the NASA contract. This work included the design, analysis, and test of a multi-point combustion system. All design work was based on the results of Computational Fluid Dynamics modeling with the end results tested on a medium pressure combustion rig at the UC and a medium pressure combustion rig at GRC. The theories behind the designs, results of analysis, and experimental test data will be discussed in this report. The combustion system consists of five radially staged rows of injectors, where ten small scale injectors are used in place of a single traditional nozzle. Major accomplishments of the current work include the design of a Multipoint Lean Direct Injection (MLDI) array and associated air blast and pilot fuel injectors, which is expected to meet or exceed the goal of a 75 percent reduction in LTO NOx from CAEP6 standards. This design incorporates a reduced number of injectors over previous multipoint designs, simplified and lightweight components, and a very compact combustor section. Additional outcomes of the program are validation that the design of these combustion systems can be aided by the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict and reduce emissions. Furthermore, the staging of fuel through the individually controlled radially staged injector rows successfully demonstrated improved low power operability as well as improvements in emissions over previous multipoint designs. Additional comparison between Jet- A fuel and a hydrotreated biofuel is made to determine viability of the technology for use with alternative fuels. Finally, the operability of the array and associated nozzles proved to be very stable without requiring additional active or passive control systems. A number of publications have been publish

Goeke, Jerry; Pack, Spencer; Zink, Gregory; Ryon, Jason



Field Studies of Geothermal Reservoirs Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The Rio Grande rift provides an excellent field laboratory to study the nature of geothermal systems in an extensional environment. Much of the geologic complexity that is found in the Basin and Range is absent because the rift is located on cratonic crust with a thin and well-characterized Phanerozoic stratigraphy and tectonic history. On the other hand, the Neogene thermo-tectonic history of the rift has many parallels with the Basin and Range to the west. The geology of the southern Rio Grande rift is among the best characterized of any rift system in the world. Also, most geologic maps for the region are rather unique in that detailed analyses of Quaternary stratigraphic and surficial unit are added in concert with the details of bedrock geology. Pleistocene to Holocene entrenchment of the Rio Grande and tributaries unroofs the alteration signatures and permeability attributes of paleo outflow plumes and upflow zones, associated with present-day, but hidden or ''blind,'' hydrothermal systems at Rincon and San Diego Mountain.

James C Witcher



Inversion tectonics during continental rifting: The Turkana Cenozoic rifted zone, northern Kenya  

E-print Network

Inversion tectonics during continental rifting: The Turkana Cenozoic rifted zone, northern Kenya B: The Turkana Cenozoic rifted zone, northern Kenya, Tectonics, 24, TC2002, doi:10.1029/2004TC001637. 1 tectonics occurs also quite widely in continental rifts, and areas of inversion in the reference Cenozoic

Brest, Université de


Tertiary arc rifting in northern Luzon, Philippines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North Luzon terrane (NLT), comprising the section of Luzon north of the Philippine Fault, is one of the largest arc terranes in the Philippine Archipelago. Numerous features suggest that the NLT is a late Oligocene to early Miocene analogue for the processes in the modern intra-arc rift zone at the northern end of the Mariana Trough. First, the NLT has bifurcating magmatic arcs sharing similar magmatic histories. These include the Northern Sierra Madre (NSM) and Cordillera Central (CC) magmatic arcs, which are separated by the Cagayan basin but which are linked in the Caraballo Range to the south. The rock record indicates that the NSM, CC, and Caraballo Ranges were active arcs in late Eocene to late Oligocene time. Second, seismic reflection and well data indicate that the Cagayan basin formed by extensional faulting in late Oligocene to early Miocene time. Third, alkalic arc magmatism, recognized to be a precursor of intra-arc rifting in modern settings, occurred at the juncture of the NSM and CC arcs in late Oligocene to early Miocene time. Fourth, oceanic crust, represented by the Itogon ophiolite, formed at the southwestern end of the Cagayan basin in late Oligocene to early Miocene time. Major and trace element chemistry show that the Itogon sheeted dikes have tholeiitic arc and backarc basin basalt affinities. The rock record and geophysical offshore data suggest that the NLT was developing in an island arc system above the subducting West Philippine plate in late Eocene time. Rifting occurred in the island arc from late Oligocene to early Miocene time but did not mature into backarc spreading, most likely because of the collision of the Benham Rise, a basaltic rise in the West Philippine basin, with the NLT. The arc rifting in the NLT may be another manifestation of the extensional tectonism that affected most of Southeast Asia in late Oligocene to early Miocene time, during which the South China and Southeast Sulu basins formed. Subsequent to arc rifting, the history of the NLT has been linked to the subduction of the South China plate along the Manila Trench. The structural history of the Cagayan basin and magmatic history of the southern CC suggest that the subduction in the Manila Trench at the latitude of the NLT began about 15 Ma.

Florendo, Federico F.



Gravity analysis of Parga and Hecate chasmata: Implications for rift and corona formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two largest rift systems on Venus, Parga, and Hecate chasmata contain one third of all coronae. We map variations in elastic thickness and apparent depth of compensation (ADC) in these two regions using the admittance function for gravity and topography. We examine the relationship between rifting and coronae by comparing lithospheric structure with corona characteristics including volcanism, topographic shape,

Suzanne E. Smrekar; Trudi Hoogenboom; Ellen R. Stofan; Paula Martin



Geochemical evidence of mantle reservoir evolution during progressive rifting along the western Afar margin  

E-print Network

junction, where the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and African Rift System extension zones converge, is a pivotal-oceanic axes of extension. Ã? 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. INTRODUCTION Early quantitative may also localize strain and magmatism during rifting (e.g., Ebinger and Sleep, 1998; van Wijk et al

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Investigation of Icelandic rift zones reveals systematic changes in hydrothermal outflow in concert with seismic and magmatic events: Implications for investigation of Mid-Ocean Ridge hydrothermal systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Co-registration of several generations of geological data was carried out for hydrothermal fields along active rift zones of the Iceland plate boundary zone. Significant short- and long-term changes in vent locations, flow rates and styles, and fluid characteristics over short periods take place in concert with recorded earthquakes, dike intrusions, and fissure eruptions. Higher resolution, more detailed analysis of the Icelandic hydrothermal sites will inform investigation of similar data from mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems along the RIDGE 2000 focus sites. Initial results from the Hengill and Krafla geothermal areas covering a time-span of nearly 40 years at ~10 year intervals reveal limited changes in the surface expression of fault populations, with the exception of local fault and fracture systems. The location and population density of individual vents and groups of vents underwent significant changes over the same time period, with either vents shifting location, or new vents opening and old vents closing. Registration of changes in vent fluid temperatures, vent field ground temperatures, fluid flow rates, and vent eruptive styles reveal changes in hydrothermal flow systematics in concert with the observed changes in vent location and vent population density. Significant local seismic and volcanological events (earthquakes, earthquake swarms, dike intrusions, eruptions, inflation/deflation) that are potential triggers for the observed changes take place in intervening years between production of successive maps. Changes in modeled stress intensities and local fracture/fault density and geometry associated with these tectono-magmatic events correspond well to inferred locations of increased or decreased shallow permeability thought to control hydrothermal outflow behavior. Recent seismic events are strongly linked to well-mapped changes in fracture/fault population and hydrothermal flow behavior in the Hveragerdi region, near Hengill, and provide higher temporal resolution and allow more direct correlation between tectonic events and shallow crustal permeability changes. Refinement of this spatial and temporal investigation of hydrothermal flow behavior and linkages to tectonic and volcanic activity is being carried out using higher resolution, GIS-based data from these hydrothermal systems. Applying these techniques to seafloor hydrothermal systems along the RIDGE 2000 focus sites and other intensively studied hydrothermal areas along the mid-ocean ridge should reveal similar temporal and spatial correlative relationships between short-term geological events and the shallow architecture of the mid-ocean ridge crest.

Curewitz, D.; Karson, J. A.



Seismicity within a propagating ice shelf rift: the relationship between icequake locations and ice shelf structure  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Iceberg calving is a dominant mass loss mechanism for Antarctic ice shelves, second only to basal melting. An important known process involved in calving is the initiation and propagation of through-penetrating fractures called rifts; however, the mechanisms controlling rift propagation remain poorly understood. To investigate the mechanics of ice-shelf rifting, we analyzed seismicity associated with a propagating rift tip on the Amery Ice Shelf, using data collected during the Austral summers of 2004-2007. We investigated seismicity associated with fracture propagation using a suite of passive seismological techniques including icequake locations, back projection, and moment tensor inversion. We confirm previous results that show that seismicity is characterized by periods of relative quiescence punctuated by swarms of intense seismicity of one to three hours. However, even during periods of quiescence, we find significant seismic deformation around the rift tip. Moment tensors, calculated for a subset of the largest icequakes (MW?>?-2.0) located near the rift tip, show steeply dipping fault planes, horizontal or shallowly plunging stress orientations, and often have a significant volumetric component. They also reveal that much of the observed seismicity is limited to the upper 50?m of the ice shelf. This suggests a complex system of deformation that involves the propagating rift, the region behind the rift tip, and a system of rift-transverse crevasses. Small-scale variations in the mechanical structure of the ice shelf, especially rift-transverse crevasses and accreted marine ice, play an important role in modulating the rate and location of seismicity associated with propagating ice shelf rifts.

Heeszel, David S.; Fricker, Helen A.; Bassis, Jeremy N.; O'Neel, Shad; Walter, Fabian



Hypogene and supergene alteration of the zeolite-bearing pyroclastic deposits at Tell Rimah, Jordan, and rift-related processes along the Dead-Sea-Transform Fault System during the Quaternary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The boundary between the Arabian and African plates, is marked in the Middle East by one of the most prominent deep-seated lineamentary structures, called the Dead-Sea-Transform Fault System (DSTFS). Structural and mineralogical processes related to the DSTFS were correlated with equivalent processes leading to the alteration of pyroclastic deposits of alkali-olivine basaltic to nepheline basaltic composition which formed during a time span of less than 0.5 Ma. The large deposit of Tell Rimah, Jordan, is operated for the exploitation of zeolites, tuffs, and as pozzolana raw material. Four discrete stages of mineralizations have been distinguished from each other within these volcanic-hosted mineral deposits. (1) Hypogene syneruptive alteration of pyroclastic rocks produced siliceous gels ("allophane"), smectite, analcime, and phillipsite in vesicles when the groundwater level was low in the rift basin of the DSTFS. The lake-level lowstand caused the fluid system in the pyroclastic cone to become self-sufficient and it has been considered as a closed hydrothermal system. (2) Periods of tectonic and magmatic quiescence grinded the detrital sedimentation in the rift basin to a halt, while triggering a supergene alteration in the eruptive cones on the adjacent Arabian Plate. (3) Epigenetic alteration affected the pyroclastic rocks in the distal part of the DSTFS as a result of a rising water level. The water gradually filled the pore space of the permeable pyroclastic deposits almost to completeness and caused meniscus and blocky cements of calcite, phillipsite and chabazite to develop. In the rift basin, contemporaneously with the alteration of the pyroclastic rocks, freshwater limestones formed on calcareous bedrocks. Ba and Mn minerals in these freshwater limestones were supplied by subaquatic brines. Subsequently, a drastic lowering of the lake water level in the DSTFS converted the system of subaquatic freshwater limestones into subaerial tufa and travertine. As long as the basal parts of the pyroclastic units at Tell Rimah were in the reaches of the saline groundwaters, calcite and faujasite developed in the pyroclastic host rocks. (4) Another lake level lowstand within the rift basin caused the pyroclastic host rocks to get emerged and forced zeolite-carbonate mineralization in the tuffs to a complete stillstand. Hypogene and supergene alteration in these phreatomagmatic-strombolian pyroclastic cones of the Pleistocene x were correlated with lake high- and lowstands in the adjacent rift basin along the DSTFS. The results obtained by current tectono-morphological studies of the rift-related alteration of pyroclastic rocks along the DSTFS may also be applied to basin-and-swell-topographies elsewhere in the world. The current studies involved microscopy supplemented by SEM-EDX, X-ray diffraction analysis, mid (MIR) and far (FIR) infrared spectroscopy. Major and trace elements were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). C- and O isotope analyses were conducted on carbonate minerals, which were also targeted on by radiocarbon dating.

Dill, H. G.; Techmer, A.; Botz, R.; Dohrmann, R.; Kaufhold, S.



New final focus system for the SLAC linear collider  

SciTech Connect

The final focus system of the SLC has been upgraded by replacing the final quadrupole magnets with higher gradient superconducting magnets positioned closer to the interaction point. The parameters of the new system have been chosen to be compatible with the SLD detector with a minimum of changes to other final focus components. Commissioning plans for the new system are also presented. 5 refs., 1 fig.

Toge, N.; Ash, W.W.; Chao, Y.C.; Erickson, R.; Gray, R.; Mansour, D.; Spencer, C.M.; Ziemann, V. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Band, H. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA). Dept. of Physics); Bazarko, A.O. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA). Dept. of Physics); Hertzbach, S.S.; Kofler, R.R. (Massachusetts Univ., Amherst, MA (USA). Dept. of Physics); Turk, J. (Yale Univ., New



Middle Miocene to Pleistocene sedimentary record of rift evolution in the southern Albert Rift (Uganda)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents an almost complete Middle Miocene to Pleistocene sequence of synrift sediments in the western branch of the East African Rift. The studied succession is exposed in several patches on an eastward tilted block between the northern tip of the Rwenzori Block and the eastern shoulder of the Albert Rift. In this position, it reaches a maximum thickness of 600 m of which 350 m have been logged systematically by analysing lithofacies and sediment architecture. Stratigraphic subdivision of the succession relies on published biostratigraphic data of endemic mollusc associations and their correlation across East Africa. The synrift sediments encountered are siliciclastics ranging from clay to coarse gravel with gypsum and ferrugineous interlayers or impregnations. Lithofacies and architectural analysis indicate alluvial plain, delta plain, nearshore, delta front, or lacustrine depositional environments. Based on the vertical stacking pattern, prograding and retrograding trends of the depositional environments, and climatic indicators (e.g. conservation of feldspar, gypsum, and/or iron hydroxide precipitation), four evolutionary phases can be distinguished: (i) a first phase between ca. 14.5 and 10.0 Ma is characterised by bedload-dominated fluvial environment with massive sandy to gravelly bedforms, feldspar-rich sands, rare iron impregnations and relatively low accommodation space. This phase is interpreted as pre- and early synrift sedimentation under a semiarid climate. (ii) From ca. 10.0 to 4.5 Ma predominantly fine-grained siliciclastics were deposited in a distal fluvial plain to lacustrine setting characterised by limited accommodation space. Fluctuation of thin beds, dominance of clay and frequent iron impregnations point to a more humid climate with seasonality and weak tectonic activity. (iii) During the third phase between 4.5 and 2.0 Ma delta plain and nearshore deposits with frequent ferrugineous impregnations and rich mollusc associations occurred, indicating a humid period with lake-level highstands and accelerated subsidence. (iv) During the final sedimentary interval between 2.0 and 1.5 Ma gravel units reoccurred with less iron- but more carbonate and gypsum impregnations, and arkosic sandstones. This phase recorded a general aridisation trend most probably caused by the upcoming rain barrier of the Rwenzori Mountains together with accelerated rift-flank uplift and strong subsidence of the rift floor. The results of this study are of particular importance for delineating key controls on sedimentation in the Albert Rift.

Roller, S.; Hornung, J.; Hinderer, M.; Ssemmanda, I.



Rifting of the Tyrrhenian Basin, a complex interaction among faulting , magmatism and mantle exhumation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tyrrhenian basin has been created during the extension of continental lithosphere driven by the retreat of a Ionian slab across the mantle. The basin does not seem to be actively extending, but its preserved crustal structure provides information of the time evolution of the processes involved in rifting. The basin rifted from north to south, with rifting stopping after progressively larger stretching factor towards the south. The northern region stopped opening after a relatively low extension factor. Towards the south extension increased up to full crustal separation that produced mantle exhumation. The final structure displays two conjugate margins with asymmetric structures. Thus, the basin provides a natural laboratory to investigate a full rift system, that displays variable amounts of extension. We present observations from a two-ship seismic experiment that took place in spring 2010. The cruise took place on two legs. In the first leg, the Spanish R/V Sarmiento de Gamboa and the Italian R/V Urania collected five E-W trending wide-angle seismic (WAS) profiles across the entire basin using 17 Ocean Bottom Seismometers and 25 Ocean Bottom Hydrophones and a 4800 c.i. G-II gun array. The profiles were extended with land stations that recorded the marine shots. During a second leg the R/V Sarmiento de Gamboa collected 16 Multichannel Seismic Reflection (MCS) profiles using a 3.75 km-long streamer and a 3000 c.i. G-II gun array. MCS profiles were acquired coincident with the WAS profiles, and a number of additional lines concentrated in the central region of the basin where mantle exhumation took place. The seismic profiles were located to cover regions of the basin that displays different amount of extension, and the coincident wide-angle and MCS transects cross the entire basin to image the two conjugate margins. In this presentation we compare observations from different transects mapping the structures produced at different extension factors. A comparison of the different transects permits to trade space (different transects mapping different extension factors) for time (different transects provide an evolutionary snapshot of the extension process). Each transect provides the tectonic structure, the geometry of sedimentary deposits, and P-wave seismic velocity distribution. This information allows to interpret the mechanisms of deformation, infer the importance and potential role of magmatism in the rifting process, and estimate the region of mantle exhumation, currently inferred from one drill site. The analysis of the data provides insight in the process of formation of asymmetry structure conjugated margins.

Ranero, C. R.; Sallarés, V.; Grevemeyer, I.; Zitellini, N.; Guzman, M.; Prada, M.; Moeller, S.; de Franco, R.; Medoc Cruise Party



Stress and slip partitioning during oblique rifting: comparison between data from the Main Ethiopian Rift and laboratory experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oblique rifting in the central and northern Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) has resulted in a complex structural pattern characterized by two differently oriented fault systems: a set of NE-SW-trending boundary faults and a system of roughly NNE-SSW-oriented fault swarms affecting the rift floor (Wonji faults). Boundary faults formed oblique to the regional extension vector, likely as a result of the oblique reactivation of a pre-existing deep-seated rheological anisotropy, whereas internal Wonji faults developed sub-orthogonal to the stretching direction. Previous works have successfully reconciled this rift architecture and fault distribution with the long-term plate kinematics; however, at a more local scale, fault-slip and earthquake data reveal significant variations in the orientation the minimum principal stress and related fault-slip direction across the rift valley. Whereas fault measurements indicate a roughly N95°E extension on the axial Wonji faults, a N105°E to N110°E directed minimum principal stress is observed along boundary faults. Both fault-slip data and analysis of seismicity indicate a roughly pure dip-slip motion on the boundary faults, despite their orientation (oblique to the regional extension vector) should result in an oblique displacement. To shed light on the process driving the variability of data derived from fault-slip (and seismicity) analysis we present crustal-scale analogue models of oblique rifting, deformed in a large-capacity centrifuge by using materials and boundary conditions described in several previous modeling works. As in these previous works, the experiments show the diachronous activation of two fault systems, boundary and internal, whose pattern strikingly resemble that observed in previous lithospheric-scale modeling, as well as that described in the MER. Internal faults arrange in two different, en-echelon segments connected by a transfer zone where strike-slip displacement dominates. Whereas internal faults develop roughly orthogonal to the extension direction, boundary faults form oblique to the imposed stretching vector: as a group, the faults follow the rift trend, controlled by a pre-existing weak anisotropy, but individually they form oblique to both the rift margin and the extension vector. Detailed analysis of fault displacements suggest that whereas the average displacement on single internal faults is consistent with the imposed direction of extension, slip on boundary faults does not parallel this direction; the average motion on these faults is orthogonal to the faults, resulting in a roughly pure dip-slip motion. This gives rise to a marked difference in fault-slip direction between internal faults (where slip orientation follow the regional extension) and boundary faults (where displacement is oblique to the "regional" extension). A similar scenario is observed for the reconstructed direction of the minimum principal stress that follows the regional stress field within the rift and is re-oriented at rift margins. Minor counterclockwise block rotations accommodate the different slip along the different fault systems. The model-to-nature striking is striking in terms of fault orientation, stress and slip orientation and its across-axis variations. The analogue models thus allows explaining the across-axis variability observed in natural fault-slip and earthquake data. Modeling results support that boundary faults form in response to a local stress re-orientation imposed by a deep seated anisotropy: their displacement trajectories deviate from those imposed by the regional extension, resulting in a pure dip-slip motion in an overall oblique rifting kinematics, as observed in other sectors of the East African Rift. Conversely, internal faults -which form later and affect a weaker, more uniform lithosphere- respond directly to the regional extension direction resulting in a fault slip sub-parallel to the Nubia-Somalia motion. Minor counterclockwise block rotations are required to accommodate the difference in slip along the different fault systems.

Corti, G.; Philippon, M.; Sani, F.; Keir, D.



Earthquake clusters in Corinth Rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clusters commonly occur as main shock-aftershock (MS-AS) sequences but also as earthquake swarms, which are empirically defined as an increase in seismicity rate above the background rate without a clear triggering main shock earthquake. Earthquake swarms occur in a variety of different environments and might have a diversity of origins, characterized by a high b-value in their magnitude distribution. The Corinth Rift, which was selected as our target area, appears to be the most recent extensional structure, with a likely rate of fault slip of about 1cm/yr and opening of 7mm/yr. High seismic activity accommodates the active deformation with frequent strong (M?6.0) events and several seismic excitations without a main shock with clearly discriminative magnitude. Identification of earthquake clusters that occurred in this area in last years and investigation of their spatio-temporal distribution is attempted, with the application of known declustering algorithms, aiming to associate their occurrence with certain patterns in seismicity behavior. The earthquake catalog of the National Hellenic Seismological Network is used, and a certain number of clusters were extracted from the dataset, with the MS-AS sequences being distinguished from earthquake swarms. Spatio-temporal properties of each subset were analyzed in detail, after determining the respective completeness magnitude. This work was supported in part by the THALES Program of the Ministry of Education of Greece and the European Union in the framework of the project entitled "Integrated understanding of Seismicity, using innovative Methodologies of Fracture mechanics along with Earthquake and non-extensive statistical physics - Application to the geodynamic system of the Hellenic Arc, SEISMO FEAR HELLARC".

Mesimeri, Maria; Papadimitriou, Eleftheria; Karakostas, Vasilios; Tsaklidis, George



Morphostructural evidence for Recent/active extension in Central Tanzania beyond the southern termination of the Kenya Rift.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southern tip zone of the Kenya Rift on the eastern branch of the East African System is usually thought to occur in the so-called North Tanzanian Divergence. In this region, the narrow (50 km-wide) axial graben of southern Kenya splays southwards, via a major EW-trending volcanic lineament, into a 200 km-wide broad rifted zone with three separate arms of normal faulting and tilted fault blocks (Eyasi, Manyara and Pangani arms from W to E). Remote sensing analysis from Central Tanzania demonstrates that rift morphology exists over an area lying 400 km beyond the southern termination of the Kenya Rift. The most prominent rift structures are observed in the Kilombero region and consist of a 100 km-wide range of uplifted basement blocks fringed to the west by an E-facing half-graben inferred to reach depths of 6-8 km from aeromagnetic dataset. Physiographic features (fault scarps), and river drainage anomalies suggest that the present-day rift pattern in the Kilombero extensional province principally results from Recent/Neogene deformation. That assumption is also supported by the seismogenic character of a number of faults. The Kilombero half-graben is superimposed upon an earlier rift system, Karoo in age, which is totally overprinted and is only evidenced from its sedimentary infill. On the other hand, the nature and thickness of the inferred Neogene synrift section is still unknown. The Kilombero rifted zone is assumed to connect northwards into the central rift arm (Manyara) of the South Kenya Rift via a seismically active transverse fault zone that follows ductile fabrics within the Mozambican crystalline basement. The proposed rift model implies that incipient rifting propagates hroughout the cold and strong crust/lithosphere of Central Tanzania along Proterozoic (N140=B0E) basement weakness zones and earlier Karoo (NS)rift structures. A second belt of Recent-active linked fault/basins also extends further East from the Pangani rift arm to the offshore Zanzibar-Kerimbas graben system. The structural connection of the Kilombero rifted zone with the Lake Malawi rift further south is also envisaged and should imply the link of the eastern and western branchs of the East African Rift System south of the Tanzanian craton.

Le Gall, B.; Rolet, J.; Gernigon, L.; Ebinger, C.; Gloaguen, R.



Rifting, heat flux, and water availability beneath the catchment of Pine Island Glacier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) is a major rift system that developed in the Cretaceous and Cenozoic. It forms the lithsopheric cradle for the marine-based, and potentially unstable West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). Determining the geological boundary conditions beneath the WAIS and in particular geothermal heat flux may help model its response to external climatic forcing. However, in the Amundsen Sea Embayment sector of WAIS, where major glaciers such as Pine Island and Thwaites are rapidly changing today, fundamental properties such as geothermal heat flux to the base of the ice sheet have remained poorly constrained due to sparse geophysical data coverage and the lack of drilling sites. New crustal thickness estimates derived from airborne gravity data (Jordan et al., 2010, GSA Bul.), are interpreted to show a continuation of the WARS beneath Pine Island Glacier, and suggest two phases of continental rifting affected this region. Here we explore the impact of continental rifting on geothermal heat flux variations and basal water availability beneath Pine Island Glacier. Using 1D thermal models of rift evolution, we assess geothermal heat flux configurations resulting from either single or two-phase rifting and explore the dependency on the age of rifting and pre-rift setting. Additionally, 1D glaciological models were implemented to predict the changes in subglacial water distribution created by different rifting models. Our modelling reveals that geothermal heat-flux beneath the WAIS is critically sensitive to rift age and evolution and has the potential to significantly alter basal conditions if it continued to be active in the Neogene as some recent geological interpretations suggest.

Jordan, T. A.; Ferraccioli, F.; Hindmarsh, R. C.



Fault kinematics and tectonic stress in the seismically active Manyara Dodoma Rift segment in Central Tanzania Implications for the East African Rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Eastern Branch of the East African Rift System is well known in Ethiopia (Main Ethiopian Rift) and Kenya (Kenya or Gregory Rift) and is usually considered to fade away southwards in the North Tanzanian Divergence, where it splits into the Eyasi, Manyara and Pangani segments. Further towards the south, rift structures are more weakly expressed and this area has not attracted much attention since the mapping and exploratory works of the 1950s. In November 4, 2002, an earthquake of magnitude Mb = 5.5 struck Dodoma, the capital city of Tanzania. Analysis of modern digital relief, seismological and geological data reveals that ongoing tectonic deformation is presently affecting a broad N-S trending belt, extending southward from the North Tanzanian Divergence to the region of Dodoma, forming the proposed "Manyara-Dodoma Rift segment". North of Arusha-Ngorongoro line, the rift is confined to a narrow belt (Natron graben in Tanzania) and south of it, it broadens into a wide deformation zone which includes both the Eyasi and Manyara grabens. The two-stage rifting model proposed for Kenya and North Tanzania also applies to the Manyara-Dodoma Rift segment. In a first stage, large, well-expressed topographic and volcanogenic structures were initiated in the Natron, Eyasi and Manyara grabens during the Late Miocene to Pliocene. From the Middle Pleistocene onwards, deformations related to the second rifting stage propagated southwards to the Dodoma region. These young structures have still limited morphological expressions compared to the structures formed during the first stage. However, they appear to be tectonically active as shown by the high concentration of moderate earthquakes into earthquake swarms, the distribution of He-bearing thermal springs, the morphological freshness of the fault scarps, and the presence of open surface fractures. Fault kinematic and paleostress analysis of geological fault data in basement rocks along the active fault lines show that recent faults often reactivate older fault systems that were formed under E-W to NW-SE horizontal compression, compatible with late Pan-African tectonics. The present-day stress inverted from earthquake focal mechanisms shows that the Manyara-Dodoma Rift segment is presently subjected to an extensional stress field with a N080°E direction of horizontal principal extension. Under this stress field, the rift develops by: (1) reactivation of the pre-existing tectonic planes of weakness, and (2) progressive development of a new fault system in a more N-S trend by the linkage of existing rift faults. This process started about 1.2 Ma ago and is still ongoing.

Macheyeki, Athanas S.; Delvaux, Damien; De Batist, Marc; Mruma, Abdulkarim



The development of extension and magmatism in the Red Sea rift of Afar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the importance of continental breakup in plate tectonics, precisely how extensional processes such as brittle faulting, ductile plate stretching, and magma intrusion evolve in space and time during the development of new ocean basins remains poorly understood. The rifting of Arabia from Africa in the Afar depression is an ideal natural laboratory to address this problem since the region exposes subaerially the tectonically active transition from continental rifting to incipient seafloor spreading. We review recent constraints on along-axis variations in rift morphology, crustal and mantle structure, the distribution and style of ongoing faulting, subsurface magmatism and surface volcanism in the Red Sea rift of Afar to understand processes ultimately responsible for the formation of magmatic rifted continental margins. Our synthesis shows that there is a fundamental change in rift morphology from central Afar northward into the Danakil depression, spatially coincident with marked thinning of the crust, an increase in the volume of young basalt flows, and subsidence of the land towards and below sea-level. The variations can be attributed to a northward increase in proportion of extension by ductile plate stretching at the expense of magma intrusion. This is likely in response to a longer history of localised heating and weakening in a narrower rift. Thus, although magma intrusion accommodates strain for a protracted period during rift development, the final stages of breakup are dominated by a phase of plate stretching with a shift from intrusive to extrusive magmatism. This late-stage pulse of decompression melting due to plate thinning may be responsible for the formation of seaward dipping reflector sequences of basalts and sediments, which are ubiquitous at magmatic rifted margins worldwide.

Keir, Derek; Bastow, Ian D.; Pagli, Carolina; Chambers, Emma L.



Final Paper DAT Cognitive Art Therapy System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Del Giacco Art Therapy is a cognitive art therapy process that focuses on stimulating the mental sensory systems and working to stabilize the nervous system and create new neural connections in the brain. This system was created by Maureen Del Giacco, Phd. after recovering from her own traumatic brain injury and is based on extensive research of…

Jacobson, Eric



Traffic management system: Recommendations. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies the primary and secondary air traffic networks inside and outside Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area where particular safety and traffic problems exist. The Consortium Louis Berger International, Inc.-IBI Group-UBATEC provides recommendations divided into two groups: one based on engineering aspects for each identified deficiency in the selected routes; and a second group that is based on the results of the evaluations of needs. This is Volume 5, Recommendations Final Report, and it provides recommendations to optimize transportation in the city of Buenos Aires.




Determination and implication of Lower Crustal Bodies in the Møre rifted margin (offshore Norway)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Møre margin is the result of a long period of rifting events influenced by different tectonic processes. The last extension phase of the Møre margin was accompanied by the onset of massive magmatic activity leading to the emplacement of seaward dipping reflector sequences (SDRS). However the previous events were probably characterized by a smaller amount of magmatism, like for a classic magma poor rifted margin. Several refraction studies across the Møre rifted margin have also revealed the occurrence of high velocity lower crustal bodies (LCB) under the distal SDRS wedge but also in more proximal positions of the margin (e.g. Kvarven et al., 2012). The nature, age and location of these LCBs are still questionable and represent key and primary parameters to understand the tectonic and crustal evolution of the volcanic rifted margin. Nature, age and geometry of these LCBs have major implications on the rheological and thermal evolution of the rift/margin system. In light of 2D potential field modelling combined with reflection and refraction seismic data, we reinvestigated the crustal nature of the Møre volcanic rifted margin and adjacent Jan Mayen corridor. In the proximal domain of the Møre volcanic rifted margin, our study shows that the LCBs most likely represent inherited crustal bodies and are not necessarily made of rift-related serpentinised mantle as previously proposed. In the distal margin, our preferred interpretation suggests that the outer LCBs are still made of relics of pre-rift lower continental crustal rocks, more or less intruded and/or underplated by Tertiary magmatic rocks. The seismic, magnetic and gravity data do not easily support large scale exhumation of serpentinised mantle in the inner and outer parts of the Møre Basin. Our model suggests that the Møre rift system evolved through a significant Late Jurassic-Cretaceous thinning phase. This rift episode led to a thin continental crust with pre rift lower crustal rocks but without perennial domains of exhumed and serpentinised mantle. This significant extensional event preceded a Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary rift episode which is characterised by different and independent magmatic and lithospheric processes leading to breakup (e.g. diking and lithospheric plumbing).

Nirrengarten, Michael; Gernigon, Laurent; Manatschal, Gianreto



Tectono-sedimentary development of the (Permian) Karoo sediments in the Kilombero Rift Valley, Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kilombero Rift Valley in Tanzania belongs to the East African Rift System and contains a sedimentary sequence of Karoo age that is more than 6000 m thick. The present Kilombero Rift basin is most likely of Cenozoic origin. Nevertheless, within the present rift, the Karoo sequences were formed in an earlier rift basin characterised by westerly-dipping boundary faults, i.e. with a different polarity than the present one. The Karoo sequences of Permian age comprise three formations in the Kilombero Rift (Ndeke Beds, Calcareous Beds and Ruhembe Beds). These units are made up of terrigenous, mainly siliciclastic sediments. The succession is well correlated with other East African Karoo units, and displays a rift-controlled sedimentation. The Ndeke Beds represent debris flow, braided stream and floodplain deposits within an alluvial fan system, building out from well developed, high relief border faults, situated to the east in a westward-facing half-graben. The present results point towards a half-graben of about 80 km length and at least 40 km width. There seems to have been only one major early rifting phase, which triggered the deposition of the Ndeke Beds. Most of the Ndeke Beds and the succeeding Calcareous Beds represent a post-rift filling phase. In this development, the alluvial fans formed the marginal parts of a basin, which, through a succeeding topographic levelling and the development towards a low relief landscape, were dominated by lacustrine sedimentation. The overlying, mainly fluviodeltaic Ruhembe Beds reflect a late Karoo tectonic activity. This event is displayed in well-developed debris flow zones near the top of the Karoo succession in the Kilombero Rift basin. Our stratigraphical investigation has not discovered any sedimentary units between the Karoo and Quaternary. However, Mesozoic Beds have been described from the western rifts and the coastal areas of Tanzania, and may also be present in the central areas of the Kilombero Rift Basin. The Cenozoic rift phase is clearly reflected in the present topographic relief, where two synthetic, eastwards facing half-grabens are separated by a well developed, high relief accommodation zone (the Gombati Transfer Zone). The accommodation zone displays a complex tectonic signature due to block faulting and rotation of the strata, between prominent dextral transfer faults. This pattern is in great contrast to the minor tectonic disturbances found in the sediments, both to the north and south of the transfer zone. The switch in half-graben polarity and tectonic setting from the Karoo to the Cenozoic situation, clearly demonstrate that even if the tectonic lineaments tend to follow the same zones of weakness, their polarity and internal configuration is far from straightforward.

Nilsen, O.; Dypvik, H.; Kaaya, C.; Kilembe, E.



Heat flow in the Kenya rift zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An understanding of the processes of continental rifting is fundamental to understanding the evolution of the continents. Considerable evidence exists to suggest that continental rift zones are associated with high heat flow and elevated lithospheric geotherms, but direct heat-flow measurements from young rifts do not clearly define surface heat-flow anomalies associated with deep-seated thermal processes in these rifts. The first detailed compilation of heat-flow data from the Neogene Kenya rift is presented here. Heat-flow data are presented from traditional heat-flow determinations in water drill-holes, from bottom-hole-temperature measurements in oil wells, and from heat-flow estimates from groundwater silica data. These data define generally low heat flow on the flanks of the Kenya rift, with high, but variable heat flow on the rift floor. There is a spatial association among high heat-flow values, Quaternary volcanism and faulting, and hydrothermal manifestations on the rift floor. We interpret these results to suggest that any deep-seated thermal anomaly associated with the Kenya rift has not yet been conducted to the surface. The high heat-flow values are interpreted to result from heat advected into the axial rift zone with local redistribution of this heat by hydrothermal convection. Normal to moderately high heat flow was measured in eastern Kenya between the rift zone and the coast. The regional heat flow in eastern Kenya is interpreted to be normal, with local shallow modification by groundwater flow eastward from the Kenya dome. These interpretations support a model of relatively young evolution of the asthenospheric anomaly beneath the Kenya rift zone, with the age of heating of the mantle at the Mono no older than about 10 Ma.

Wheildon, J.; Morgan, Paul; Williamson, K. H.; Evans, T. R.; Swanberg, C. A.



Manzanita Hybrid Power system Project Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The Manzanita Indian Reservation is located in southeastern San Diego County, California. The Tribe has long recognized that the Reservation has an abundant wind resource that could be commercially utilized to its benefit, and in 1995 the Tribe established the Manzanita Renewable Energy Office. Through the U.S. Department of Energy's Tribal Energy Program the Band received funds to install a hybrid renewable power system to provide electricity to one of the tribal community buildings, the Manzanita Activities Center (MAC building). The project began September 30, 1999 and was completed March 31, 2005. The system was designed and the equipment supplied by Northern Power Systems, Inc, an engineering company with expertise in renewable hybrid system design and development. Personnel of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory provided technical assistance in system design, and continued to provide technical assistance in system monitoring. The grid-connected renewable hybrid wind/photovoltaic system provides a demonstration of a solar/wind energy hybrid power-generating project on Manzanita Tribal land. During the system design phase, the National Renewable Energy Lab estimated that the wind turbine is expected to produce 10,000-kilowatt hours per year and the solar array 2,000-kilowatt hours per year. The hybrid system was designed to provide approximately 80 percent of the electricity used annually in the MAC building. The project proposed to demonstrate that this kind of a system design would provide highly reliable renewable power for community uses.

Trisha Frank



Traffic management system: Phase 2. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report, conducted by Louis Berger International, Inc., was funded by the US Trade and Development Agency. This report identifies the primary and secondary air traffic networks inside and outside Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area where particular safety and traffic problems exist. The Consortium Louis Berger International, Inc.-IBI Group-UBATEC provides recommendations divided into two groups: one based on engineering aspects for each identified deficiency in the selected routes; and a second group that is based on the results of the evaluation of needs. This is Volume 3, Phase 2 Final Report, and it consists of the following: (1) Introduction; (2) Existing Conditions and Deficiencies; (3) Recommendations; and (4) Appendix: Definition of the Primary Network of the Metropolitan Area.




Final Analysis of Academic Assistance System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Academic Assistance System (AAS) at Rio Hondo College in California is the early academic warning system that flags students in academic trouble. The AAS aims to assist these at-risk students through counseling, time management/study skills workshops, tutoring, and other programs. Students who received early warning letters and who responded…

Maack, Stephen C.


Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report  

SciTech Connect

Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors.

Haley, D.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pigoski, T.M. [Merrit Systems, Inc. (United States)



Water-storage-tube systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Passive solar collection/storage/distribution systems were surveyed, designed, fabricated, and mechanically and thermally tested. The types studied were clear and opaque fiberglass tubes, metal tubes with plastic liners, and thermosyphoning tubes. (MHR)

Hemker, P.



Environmental Management System Demonstration Project. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report outlines the activities of the Environmental Management System (EMS) Demonstration Project, provides an analysis of how the project participants progressed in implementing the ISO 14001 Standard, discusses EMS implementation issues, incentives...

C. P. Diamond



Analysis of Hybrid Hydrogen Systems: Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Report on biomass pathways for hydrogen production and how they can be hybridized to support renewable electricity generation. Two hybrid systems were studied in detail for process feasibility and economic performance. The best-performing system was estimated to produce hydrogen at costs ($1.67/kg) within Department of Energy targets ($2.10/kg) for central biomass-derived hydrogen production while also providing value-added energy services to the electric grid.

Dean, J.; Braun, R.; Munoz, D.; Penev, M.; Kinchin, C.



The protracted development of focused magmatic intrusion during continental rifting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

transition from mechanical thinning toward focused magmatic intrusion during continental rifting is poorly constrained; the tectonically active Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) provides an ideal study locale to address this issue. The presence of linear magmatic-tectonic belts in the relatively immature central MER may indicate that the transition from mechanical to magmatic rifting is more spatially distributed and temporally protracted than has previously been assumed. Here we examine lava geochemistry and vent distribution of a Pliocene-Quaternary linear magmatic chain along the western margin of the central MER—the Akaki Magmatic Zone. Our results show limited variability in parental magma that evolve in a complex polybaric fractionation system that has not changed significantly over the past 3 Ma. Our results suggest the following: (1) channeling of plume material and the localization of shear- or topography-induced porosity modulates melt intrusion into the continental lithosphere. (2) Pre-existing lithospheric structures may act as catalysts for intrusion of magmas into the lithospheric mantle. (3) The midcrustal to upper crustal strain regime dictates the surface orientation of volcanic vents. Therefore, although linear magmatic belts like those in the central MER may young progressively toward the rift axis and superficially resemble oceanic style magmatism, they actually represent prebreakup magmatism on continental crust. The oldest linear magmatic belts observed seismically and magnetically at the edge of the ocean basins thus may not, as is often assumed, actually mark the onset of seafloor spreading.

Rooney, Tyrone O.; Bastow, Ian D.; Keir, Derek; Mazzarini, Francesco; Movsesian, Emily; Grosfils, Eric B.; Zimbelman, James R.; Ramsey, Michael S.; Ayalew, Dereje; Yirgu, Gezahegn



Masirah Graben, Oman: A hidden Cretaceous rift basin  

SciTech Connect

Reflection seismic data, well data, geochemical data, and surface geology suggest that a Cretaceous rift basin exists beneath the thrusted allochthonous sedimentary sequence of the Masirah graben, Oman. The Masirah graben is located east of the Huqf uplift, parallel to the southern coast of Oman. The eastern side of the northeast-trending Huqf anticlinorium is bounded by an extensional fault system that is downthrown to the southeast, forming the western edge of the Masirah graben. This graben is limited to the east by a large wedge of sea floor sediments and oceanic crust, that is stacked as imbricate thrusts. These sediments/ophiolites were obducted onto the southern margin of the Arabian plate during the collision of the Indian/Afghan plates at the end of the Cretaceous. Most of the Masirah graben is covered by an allochthonous sedimentary sequence, which is complexly folded and deformed above a detachment. This complexly deformed sequence contrasts sharply with what is believed to be a rift sequence below the ophiolites. The sedimentary sequence in the Masirah graben was stable until further rifting of the Arabian Sea/Gulf of Aden in the late Tertiary, resulting in reactivation of earlier rift-associated faults. Wells drilled in the Masirah graben in the south penetrated reservoir quality rocks in the Lower Cretaceous Natih and Shuaiba carbonates. Analyses of oil extracted from Infracambrian sedimentary rocks penetrated by these wells suggest an origin from a Mesozoic source rock.

Beauchamp, W.H. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Ries, A.C. [Ries-Coward Associates Ltd., Caversham (United Kingdom); Coward, M.P. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)] [and others



Elastic Lithosphere Thickness and Heat Flux Estimates from Rift Valley Topography: Coracis Fossae, Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Coracis Fossae in the Thaumasia region on Mars are two several hundred kilometer long and ˜50 km wide extensional structures. Their complex morphology, fractured graben floors and segmented border faults, which are arranged in en echelon pattern, suggest that they are Martian analogues to terrestrial rift systems. At Coracis Fossae's NE segment rift flank uplift is most pronounced, the rift shoulders having heights of more than 1000 m with respect to the surrounding planes. We model the uplift by fitting a flexed broken plate to the topography data obtained by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter. Thus, the elastic thickness at the time of rifting is constrained to 10.3 - 12.5 km. Assuming a diabase composition of the crust, this corresponds to a thermal gradient of 27 - 33 K km-1. Investigating the key surface units associated with the rifting, the time of rift formation is determined by measuring their crater size-frequency distribution and comparing the results to an impact cratering chronology model. The time of rifting is thus constrained to 3.5 - 3.9 Gyr b.p. Given the fault block topography and elastic thickness, the stresses acting on the bounding faults which support the topography may be calculated. We estimate that at the Coracis Fossae the faults need not withstand stresses in excess of 5 MPa, a value comparable to terrestrial faults. We take this weakness as an indication that the faults are or have been in contact with liquid water below the surface.

Grott, M.; Hauber, E.; Werner, S. C.; Kronberg, P.; Neukum, G.



National Geoscience Data Repository System. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The American Geological Institute (AGI) has completed the first phase of a study to assess the feasibility of establishing a National Geoscience Data Repository System to capture and preserve valuable geoscientific data. The study was initiated in response to the fact that billions of dollars worth of domestic geological and geophysical data are in jeopardy of being irrevocably lost or destroyed as a consequence of the ongoing downsizing of the US energy and minerals industry. This report focuses on two major issues. First, it documents the types and quantity of data available for contribution to a National Geoscience Data Repository System. Second, it documents the data needs and priorities of potential users of the system. A National Geoscience Data Repository System would serve as an important and valuable source of information for the entire geoscience community for a variety of applications, including environmental protection, water resource management, global change studies, and basic and applied research. The repository system would also contain critical data that would enable domestic energy and minerals companies to expand their exploration and production programs in the United States for improved recovery of domestic oil, gas, and mineral resources.

Schiffries, C.M.; Milling, M.E.



Final Report Advanced Quasioptical Launcher System  

SciTech Connect

This program developed an analytical design tool for designing antenna and mirror systems to convert whispering gallery RF modes to Gaussian or HE11 modes. Whispering gallery modes are generated by gyrotrons used for electron cyclotron heating of fusion plasmas in tokamaks. These modes cannot be easily transmitted and must be converted to free space or waveguide modes compatible with transmission line systems.This program improved the capability of SURF3D/LOT, which was initially developed in a previous SBIR program. This suite of codes revolutionized quasi-optical launcher design, and this code, or equivalent codes, are now used worldwide. This program added functionality to SURF3D/LOT to allow creating of more compact launcher and mirror systems and provide direct coupling to corrugated waveguide within the vacuum envelope of the gyrotron. Analysis was also extended to include full-wave analysis of mirror transmission line systems. The code includes a graphical user interface and is available for advanced design of launcher systems.

Jeffrey Neilson



Autonomous microexplosives subsurface tracing system final report.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the autonomous micro-explosive subsurface tracing system is to image the location and geometry of hydraulically induced fractures in subsurface petroleum reservoirs. This system is based on the insertion of a swarm of autonomous micro-explosive packages during the fracturing process, with subsequent triggering of the energetic material to create an array of micro-seismic sources that can be detected and analyzed using existing seismic receiver arrays and analysis software. The project included investigations of energetic mixtures, triggering systems, package size and shape, and seismic output. Given the current absence of any technology capable of such high resolution mapping of subsurface structures, this technology has the potential for major impact on petroleum industry, which spends approximately $1 billion dollar per year on hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States alone.

Engler, Bruce Phillip; Nogan, John; Melof, Brian Matthew; Uhl, James Eugene; Dulleck, George R., Jr.; Ingram, Brian V.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Rivas, Raul R.; Cooper, Paul W.; Warpinski, Norman Raymond; Kravitz, Stanley H.



Sequencing Information Management System (SIMS). Final report  

SciTech Connect

A feasibility study to develop a requirements analysis and functional specification for a data management system for large-scale DNA sequencing laboratories resulted in a functional specification for a Sequencing Information Management System (SIMS). This document reports the results of this feasibility study, and includes a functional specification for a SIMS relational schema. The SIMS is an integrated information management system that supports data acquisition, management, analysis, and distribution for DNA sequencing laboratories. The SIMS provides ad hoc query access to information on the sequencing process and its results, and partially automates the transfer of data between laboratory instruments, analysis programs, technical personnel, and managers. The SIMS user interfaces are designed for use by laboratory technicians, laboratory managers, and scientists. The SIMS is designed to run in a heterogeneous, multiplatform environment in a client/server mode. The SIMS communicates with external computational and data resources via the internet.

Fields, C.



Virgin Islands Educational Dissemination System. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reports on a 5-year project developed by the Department of Education of the U.S. Virgin Islands to create a useful information and technical assistance system for professional personnel to bring about educational change and growth. The project was based on the original Interstate Project in Dissemination model (with the exception…

Oliver, James M.; And Others


National Geoscience Data Repository System. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American Geological Institute (AGI) has completed the first phase of a study to assess the feasibility of establishing a National Geoscience Data Repository System to capture and preserve valuable geoscientific data. The study was initiated in response to the fact that billions of dollars worth of domestic geological and geophysical data are in jeopardy of being irrevocably lost or

C. M. Schiffries; M. E. Milling



A stratigraphical-geochemical study on the Chaco Paraná continental rift basin—An approach study based on regional sedimentology and drill-hole core analyses, South América  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is focused on a geologic “regional rift basin system pattern” and its stratigraphicalgeochemical relationship.\\u000a This is mainly based on the littoral shallow marine sedimentary succession paleogeography and deposits. These successions\\u000a characterize the large extensional intracratonic Chaco Paraná Basin rift system. The basin is located in South America west\\u000a of the Brazilian Shield. The analyzed rift basin system evolved

Roberto Torra



Kinematic modelling of large-scale structural asymmetry across the Dead Sea Rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dead Sea Rift (DSR) is characterized by large-scale topographic and structural asymmetries: the rift's eastern side is flexed upward toward the axis and its overall shape resembles an uplifted shoulder; the western side of the rift is flexed down toward the axis and its overall shape resembles a wide arch. We use a kinematic model of the lithosphere to explain the cumulative deformation of the pre-rift topography in response to two tectonic processes: normal faulting due to lithospheric extension and isostatic uplift. The model considers the sum relief of three surfaces: relief that existed prior to the formation of the rift (initial topography), relief created by slip along a curved normal boundary fault (kinematic topography), and relief created by isostatic response of the lithosphere to this faulting and to an additional unmodelled load (isostatic topography). The model predicts the observed structure across the rift only when we considered a significant additional load, comparable in magnitude to the load induced by the kinematic topography. The additional load reflects the negative mass anomaly of the 8-10-km-deep Dead Sea Basin, which is filled with unconsolidated sediments. By constraining the model with the structural observations, we determined that the extension perpendicular to the rift axis lies in the range 1-4 km in the northern half of the rift and 2-8 km in the southern half. The model also explains other observations across the DSR, such as the configuration of the three present-day regional drainage systems and the observed low-magnitude upward deflection of the Moho beneath the rift.

Wdowinski, S.; Zilberman, Ezra



Rift Valley fever in Namibia, 2010.  


During May-July 2010 in Namibia, outbreaks of Rift Valley fever were reported to the National Veterinary Service. Analysis of animal specimens confirmed virus circulation on 7 farms. Molecular characterization showed that all outbreaks were caused by a strain of Rift Valley fever virus closely related to virus strains responsible for outbreaks in South Africa during 2009-2010. PMID:24274469

Monaco, Federica; Pinoni, Chiara; Cosseddu, Gian Mario; Khaiseb, Siegfried; Calistri, Paolo; Molini, Umberto; Bishi, Alec; Conte, Annamaria; Scacchia, Massimo; Lelli, Rossella



Geological and Tectonic Evidence for the Formation and Extensional Collapse of the West Antarctic Plateau: Implications for the Formation of the West Antarctic Rift System and the Transantarctic Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Transantarctic Mountains (TAM), the world's longest and highest non-contractional intracontinental mountain belt, define the western boundary of the West Antarctic rift system (WARS). The WARS is a broad region of extended continental lithosphere, ca. 750-1000 km wide, lying dominantly below sea-level. A new model (Bialas et al., 2007), proposes that a region of thickened continental crust and high-standing topography, the "West Antarctic Plateau", underwent extensional collapse to leave a remnant edge representing the proto-TAM. Tectonic and paleogeographic reconstructions indicate the plateau formed inboard of a continental arc along the paleo- Pacific margin of Antarctica, active throughout the Paleozoic until the late Mesozoic. This high-standing region was responsible for confining sediments (Beacon Supergroup) to elongate basins along the length of the TAM. Much of the present region of the WARS has been correlated with the Lachlan Fold belt of southeastern Australia. This belt formed from the Ordovician to Carboniferous during back-arc basin formation associated with slab roll- back with short periods of compression. Convergence along the paleo-Pacific margin, perhaps enhanced by subduction of more buoyant oceanic lithosphere as the Phoenix-Pacific ridge was obliquely subducted, resulted in crustal thickening and formation of high-standing terrain (the plateau). Extensional collapse of the plateau most likely began in the Jurassic during initial rifting between East and West Antarctica, but was mainly accomplished during distributed rifting in the Cretaceous (ca. 105-85) following subduction of the Phoenix-Pacific ridge and prior to the separation of New Zealand from Marie Byrd Land. Continued formation of the TAM continued in the Cenozoic concomitant with extension in the WARS that was localized along its western margin adjacent to the TAM. Glacial erosion in the Oligocene and early-Miocene enhanced peak height in the TAM. In this presentation we discuss the diverse geological, geophysical, thermochronological and tectonic evidence for the West Antarctic Plateau and the implications for the formation of the Transantarctic Mountains.

Fitzgerald, P. G.; Studinger, M.; Bialas, R. W.; Buck, W.



Tectono-stratigraphic signature of multiphased rifting on divergent margins (deep-offshore southwest Iberia, North Atlantic)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional 2D multichannel seismic, borehole, dredge and outcrop data, together with burial models for strata in southwest Iberia, are used to investigate the tectono-stratigraphic signature of multiphased rifting on divergent margins. Our burial model reveals that Mesozoic extension occurred during three main phases, each comprising distinct subsidence pulses separated by short-lived periods of crustal uplift. The importance of the three phases varies across discrete sectors of the margin, each one revealing similar depositional architectures and associated tectonic systems tracts: 1) the Rift Initiation phase, characterized by incipient subsidence and overall aggradation/progradation over a basal unconformity, 2) the Rift Climax phase, which marks maxima of tectonic subsidence and is characterized by retrogradation-progradation, and 3) the Late Rift phase, recording the progradational infill of the basin and the effects of eustasy. The Rift Initiation systems tracts comprise Sinemurian and late Callovian-early Oxfordian strata. Marine units in the Pliensbachian and Late Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian represent the Rift Climax phase, a period marked by the development of Maximum Flooding Surfaces. Late Rift deposits were identified in the Rhaetian-Hettangian, Toarcian-Bathonian and Kimmeridgian-Berriasian. The results of this work are important to the economic exploration of deep-offshore rift basins, as they reveal that sequence stratigraphy can be used to predict sedimentary facies distribution in more distal segments of such basins. Significantly, this work recognizes that multiple tectonic-stratigraphic (rift) cycles can occur on deep-offshore rift basins, from the onset of rift-related extension until continental break-up, a character that contrast to what is known from deep-sea drilling data from the distal margin of Northwest Iberia.

Pereira, Ricardo; Alves, Tiago M.



FY07 Final Report for Calibration Systems  

SciTech Connect

Remote infrared (IR) sensing provides a valuable method for detection and identification of materials associated with nuclear proliferation. Current challenges for remote sensors include minimizing the size, mass, and power requirements for cheaper, smaller, and more deployable instruments without affecting the measurement performance. One area that is often overlooked is sensor calibration design that is optimized to minimize the cost, size, weight, and power of the payload. Yet, an on-board calibration system is essential to account for changes in the detector response once the instrument has been removed from the laboratory. The Calibration Systems project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is aimed towards developing and demonstrating compact quantum cascade (QC) laser-based calibration systems for infrared sensor systems in order to provide both a spectral and radiometric calibration while minimizing the impact on the instrument payload. In FY05, PNNL demonstrated a multi-level radiance scheme that provides six radiance levels for an enhanced linearity check compared to the currently accepted two-point scheme. PNNL began testing the repeatability of this scheme using a cryogenically cooled, single-mode quantum cascade laser (QCL). A cyclic variation in the power was observed that was attributed to the thermal cycling of the laser's dewar. In FY06, PNNL continued testing this scheme and installed an auxiliary liquid nitrogen reservoir to limit the thermal cycling effects. Although better repeatability was achieved over a longer time period, power fluctuations were still observed due to the thermal cycling. Due to the limitations with the cryogenic system, PNNL began testing Fabry-Perot QCLs that operate continuous-wave (cw) or quasi-cw at room temperature (RT) in FY06. PNNL demonstrated a multi-level scheme that provides five radiance levels in 105 seconds with excellent repeatability. We have continued testing this repeatability in FY07. A burn-in effect appears in which the power increases over a certain time period. Repeatability better than 1%, however, is demonstrated for most of the radiance levels after this initial burn-in. In FY06, PNNL also began investigating a fiber-coupled RT QCL for a compact IR calibration source. PNNL demonstrated a uniform beam profile by measuring a time-averaged response and modulating the fiber optic with a motor to minimize the effects of speckle. In FY07, PNNL examined the power stability of fiber-coupled QCLs. Feedback appears to degrade the stability so that anti-reflective coatings for fibers may be essential. In FY07, PNNL continued to investigate the stability of room temperature QCLs as well as the measurement technique to provide a quantitative estimate for the measurement uncertainty. We designed and built a custom environmental enclosure to reduce the measurement uncertainty. After an initial burn-in, we have achieved uncertainties better than 0.1% for data collected over almost 100 hours of operation. We also built a bench-top system to demonstrate how the QC laser can be used to calibrate a microbolometer array and illustrated the importance of a multi-point calibration.

Myers, Tanya L.; Broocks, Bryan T.; Cannon, Bret D.; Ho, Nicolas



Final Report of Strongly Interacting Fermion Systems  

SciTech Connect

There has been significant progress in three broad areas: (A) Optical properties, (B) Large-scale computations, and (C) Many-body systems. In this summary the emphasis is primarily on those papers that point to the research plans. At the same time, some important analytic work is not neglected, some of it even appearing in the description of large-scale Computations. Indeed one of the aims of such computations is to give new insights which lead to development of models capable of simple analytic or nearly analytic analysis.

Wilkins, J. W.



Imaging systems for biomedical applications. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Many of the activities of the human body manifest themselves by the presence of a very weak magnetic field outside the body, a field that is so weak that an ultra-sensitive magnetic sensor is needed for specific biomagnetic measurements. Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) are extremely sensitive detectors of magnetic flux and have been used extensively to detect the human magnetocardiogram, and magnetoencephalogram. and other biomagnetic signals. In order to utilize a SQUID as a magnetometer, its transfer characteristics should be linearized. This linearization requires extensive peripheral electronics, thus limiting the number of SQUID magnetometer channels in a practical system. The proposed digital SQUID integrates the processing circuitry on the same cryogenic chip as the SQUID magnetometer and eliminates the sophisticated peripheral electronics. Such a system is compact and cost effective, and requires minimal support electronics. Under a DOE-sponsored SBIR program, we designed, simulated, laid out, fabricated, evaluated, and demonstrated a digital SQUID magnetometer. This report summarizes the accomplishments under this program and clearly demonstrates that all of the tasks proposed in the phase II application were successfully completed with confirmed experimental results.

Radparvar, M.



Final solar-systems monitoring report, 1985  

SciTech Connect

The Active Solar Monitoring Project was conducted by the Ministry of Energy of the Province of Ontario, Canada, between November, 1982, and October, 1985. The objective of the project was to instrument, monitor, assess, and report on the energy performance and reliability of the solar energy demonstration projects sponsored by the Ministry. The monitoring project was an essential part of Ontario's Solar Energy Program, which included over 190 solar-heating demonstration projects, and 2 photovoltaic demonstration projects. These were located on government buildings, and on commercial, industrial, municipal, institutional, and religious buildings. The solar energy systems on some of these buildings, and their monitoring activities, were sponsored jointly by the Ministry of Energy, and Energy Mines, and Resources Canada.

Not Available



Solar heating system installed at Troy, Ohio. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the Final Report of the Solar Energy System located at Troy-Miami County Public Library, Troy, Ohio. The completed system is composed of tree basic subsystems: the collector system consisting of 3264 square feet of Owens Illinois evacuated glass tube collectors; the storage system which includes a 5000-gallon insulated steel tank; and the distribution and control system which includes piping, pumping and control logic for the efficient and safe operation of the entire system. This solar heating system was installed in an existing facility and is, therefore, a retrofit system. This report includes extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.




Buried waste containment system materials. Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of a test program to validate the application of a latex-modified cement formulation for use with the Buried Waste Containment System (BWCS) process during a proof of principle (POP) demonstration. The test program included three objectives. One objective was to validate the barrier material mix formulation to be used with the BWCS equipment. A basic mix formula for initial trials was supplied by the cement and latex vendors. The suitability of the material for BWCS application was verified by laboratory testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A second objective was to determine if the POP BWCS material emplacement process adversely affected the barrier material properties. This objective was met by measuring and comparing properties of material prepared in the INEEL Materials Testing Laboratory (MTL) with identical properties of material produced by the BWCS field tests. These measurements included hydraulic conductivity to determine if the material met the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for barriers used for hazardous waste sites, petrographic analysis to allow an assessment of barrier material separation and segregation during emplacement, and a set of mechanical property tests typical of concrete characterization. The third objective was to measure the hydraulic properties of barrier material containing a stop-start joint to determine if such a feature would meet the EPA requirements for hazardous waste site barriers.

Weidner, J.R.; Shaw, P.G.



Shortening deformation of the back-arc rift basin in the central northern Honshu, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pacific plate is being subducted beneath northern Honshu, Japan, forms a classical example of trench-arc-back arc system. The compressional stress, perpendicular to the northern Honshu arc, has produced the shortening deformation in the Miocene back arc rift basins since the Pliocene. Two narrow up-rift zones run parallel to the arc: Dewa hills on the west and Ou Backbone range

N. Kato; H. Sato



Left-lateral transtension along the Ethiopian Rift and constrains on the mantle-reference plate motions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the kinematics of the Ethiopian Rift, in the northern part of East African Rift System, derived from compilation of geodetic velocities, focal mechanism inversions, structural data analysis and geological profiles. In the central Ethiopian Rift, the GPS velocity field shows a systematic magnitude increase in ENE direction, and the incremental extensional strain axes recorded by earthquake focal mechanisms and fault slip inversion show ? N100°E orientation. This deviation between direction of GPS velocity vectors and orientation of incremental extensional strain is developed due to left lateral transtensional deformation along the NE-SW trending segment of the rift. This interpretation is consistent with the en-échelon pattern of tensional and transtensional faults, plus the distribution of the volcanic centers, and the asymmetry of the rift itself. We analyzed the kinematics of the Ethiopian Rift also relative to the mantle comparing the results in the deep and shallow hotspot reference frames. While the oblique orientation of the rift was controlled by the pre-existing lithospheric fabric, the two reference frames predict different kinematics of Africa and Somalia plates along the rift itself, both in magnitude and direction, and with respect to the mantle. However, the observed kinematics and tectonics along the rift are more consistent with a faster WSW-ward motion of Africa than Somalia observed in the shallow hotspot framework. The faster WSW motion of Africa with respect to Somalia plate is inferred to be due to the lower viscosity in the top asthenosphere (LVZ-low-velocity zone) beneath Africa. These findings have significant implication for the evolution of continental rifting in transtensional settings and provide evidence for the kinematics of the Ethiopian Rift in the context of the Africa-Somalia plate interaction in the mantle reference frame.

Muluneh, Ameha A.; Cuffaro, Marco; Doglioni, Carlo



The Sagatu Ridge dike swarm, Ethiopian rift margin. [tectonic evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A swarm of dikes forms the core of the Sagatu Ridge, a 70-km-long topographic feature elevated to more than 4000 m above sea level and 1500 m above the level of the Eastern (Somalian) plateau. The ridge trends NNE and lies about 50 km east of the northeasterly trending rift-valley margin. Intrusion of the dikes and buildup of the flood-lava pile, largely hawaiitic but with trachyte preponderant in the final stages, occurred during the late Pliocene-early Pleistocene and may have been contemporaneous with downwarping of the protorift trough to the west. The ensuing faulting that formed the present rift margin, however, bypassed the ridge. The peculiar situation and orientation of the Sagatu Ridge, and its temporary existence as a line of crustal extension and voluminous magmatism, are considered related to a powerful structural control by a major line of Precambrian crustal weakness, well exposed further south. Transverse rift structures of unknown type appear to have limited the development of the ridge to the north and south.

Mohr, P. A.; Potter, E. C.



Next-Generation Linear Collider Final Focus System Stability Tolerances  

SciTech Connect

The design of final focus systems for the next generation of linear colliders has evolved largely from the experience gained with the design and operation of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) and with the design of the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB). We will compare the tolerances for two typical designs for a next-generation linear collider final focus system. The chromaticity generated by strong focusing systems, like the final quadrupole doublet before the interaction point of a linear collider, can be canceled by the introduction of sextupoles in a dispersive region. These sextupoles must be inserted in pairs separated by a -I transformation (Chromatic Correction Section) in order to cancel the strong geometric aberrations generated by sextupoles. Designs proposed for both the JLC or NLC final focus systems have two separate chromatic correction sections, one for each transverse plane separated by a ''{beta}-exchanger'' to manipulate the {beta}-function between the two CCS. The introduction of sextupoles and bending magnets gives rise to higher order aberrations (long sextupole and chrome-geometries) and radiation induced aberrations (chromaticity unbalance and ''Oide effect'') and one must optimize the lattice accordingly.

Roy, G.; Irwin, J.; /SLAC



Final system instrumentation design package for Decade 80 solar house  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The final configuration of the Decade 80 solar house to monitor and collect system performance data is presented. A review demonstrated by actual operation that the system and the data acquisition subsystem operated satisfactorily and installation of instrumentation was in accordance with the design. This design package is made up of (1) site and system description, (2) operating and control modes, and (3) instrumentation program (including sensor schematic).



Quantification and restoration of extensional deformation along the Western Iberia and Newfoundland rifted margins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many recent papers describe the structure of the Iberia and Newfoundland rifted margins; however, none of them propose kinematic restorations of the complete rift system to quantify the amount of extension necessary to exhume mantle and initiate seafloor spreading. In our study, we use two pairs of cross sections considered as conjugate lines: one across the Galicia Bank-Flemish Cap and the other across the Southern Iberia Abyssal Plain-Flemish Pass. Both transects have been imaged by reflection- and refraction-seismic methods and have been drilled during Ocean Drilling Program Legs 103, 149, 173, and 210. Drilling penetrated parts of the rift stratigraphy and the underlying basement. The cross sections can therefore be considered as the best-documented conjugate transects across present-day hyperextended, magma-poor rifted margins. The aim of this paper is threefold: (1) provide a detailed description of the crustal architecture of the two conjugate sections, (2) define the extensional structures and their ages, and (3) quantify the amount of strain and strain rate accommodated along these lines. This paper proposes a quantitative description of extension along the Iberia-Newfoundland rift system and discusses the limitations and problems in quantifying extensional deformation along hyperextended rifted margins.

Sutra, Emilie; Manatschal, Gianreto; Mohn, Geoffroy; Unternehr, Patrick



Investigation of rifting processes in the Rio Grande Rift using data from unusually large earthquake swarms  

SciTech Connect

San Acacia Swarm in the Rio Grande Rift. Because the Rio Grande rift is one of the best seismically instrumented rift zones in the world, studying its seismicity provides an exceptional opportunity to explore the active tectonic processes within continental rifts. We have been studying earthquake swarms recorded near Socorro in an effort to link seismicity directly to the rifting process. For FY94, our research has focused on the San Acacia swarm, which occurred 25 km north of Socorro, New Mexico, along the accommodation zone between the Albuquerque-Belen and Socorro basins of the central Rio Grande rift. The swarm commenced on 25 February 1983, had a magnitude 4.2 main shock on 2 March and ended on 17 March, 1983.

Sanford, A.; Balch, R. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); House, L.; Hartse, H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)



Petroleum geology of Cretaceous-Tertiary rift basins in Niger, Chad, and Central African Republic  

SciTech Connect

This overview of the petroleum geology of rift basins in Niger, Chad, and Central African Republic (CAR) is based on exploration work by Exxon and partners in the years 1969-1991. The work included 50,000 km of modern reflection seismic, 53 exploration wells, 1,000,000 km[sup 2] of aeromagnetic coverage, and about 10,500 km of gravity profiles. The results outline ten Cretaceous and Tertiary rift basins, which constitute a major part of the West and Central African rift system (WCARS). The rift basins derive from a multiphased geologic history dating from the Pan-African (approximately 750-550 Ma) to the Holocene. WCARS in the study area is divided into the West African rift subsystem (WAS) and the Central African rift subsystem (WAS) and the Central African rift subsystem (CAS). WAS basins in Niger and Chad are chiefly extensional, and are filled by up to 13,000 m of Lower Cretaceous to Holocene continental and marine clastics. The basins contain five oil (19-43[degrees]API) and two oil and gas accumulations in Upper Cretaceous and Eocene sandstone reservoirs. The hydrocarbons are sourced and sealed by Upper Cretaceous and Eocene marine and lacustrine shales. The most common structural styles and hydrocarbon traps usually are associated with normal fault blocks. CAS rift basins in Chad and CAR are extensional and transtensional, and are filled by up to 7500 m of chiefly Lower Cretaceous continental clastics. The basins contain eight oil (15-39[degrees]API) and one oil and gas discovery in Lower and Upper Cretaceous sandstone reservoirs. The hydrocarbons are sourced by Lower Cretaceous shales and sealed by interbedded lacustrine and flood-plain shales. Structural styles range from simple fault blocks through complex flower structures. The main hydrocarbon traps are in contractional anticlines. Geological conditions favor the discovery of potentially commercial volumes of oil in WCARS basins, of Niger, Chad and CAR. 108 refs., 24 figs., 4 tabs.

Genik, G.J. (Exxon Exploration Co., Houston, TX (United States))



Seismicity and magmatic processes in the Rwenzori region of the Albertine Rift.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this presentation we summarize results from two extensive seismic field studies with temporary station networks in the Rwenzori region of the Albertine rift, located at the border between Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo. The first network was running from February 2006 to September 2007. It consisted of 27 seismic stations which were deployed in the Ugandan part of the area. A second network of 33 stations was operated between October 2009 and October 2011. It traversed the whole rift segment from the eastern rift shoulder in Uganda to the western shoulder in the D.R. Congo, covering the whole Rwenzori region. The data analysis revealed a pronounced local earthquake activity in this area with an average rate of more than 800 events per month and proves that this segment of the Albertine Rift belongs to the seismically most active regions of the whole East African Rift System. The earthquake distribution is highly heterogeneous. The highest activity is observed in the northeastern part of the Rwenzori area. Here, the mountains are connected to the eastern rift shoulder whereas they are surrounded by rift segments elsewhere. We were able to locate seismicity bursts with more than 300 events per day. The depth extent of seismicity ranges from 20 to 39 km and correlates well with Moho depths that were derived from teleseismic receiver functions. The majority of the derived fault plane solutions exhibit normal faulting with WNW-ESE oriented T-axes, which is perpendicular to the rift axis and in good agreement with kinematic rift models. The area of highest seismic activity is also characterized by the existence of several vertical elongated earthquake clusters in the crust. From petrological considerations we presume that these events are triggered by fluids and gases which originate from a magmatic source below the crust. The existence of a magmatic source within the lithosphere is supported by the detection of mantle earthquakes at about 40 - 60 km depth below the cluster area. We interpret these observations as an indication of deep magmatic infiltration processes that play a significant role in rift formation and that may eventually lead to the complete detachment of the Rwenzori block from the surrounding rift flanks.

Lindenfeld, Michael; Rümpker, Georg; Kasereka, Celestin M.; Batte, Arthur; Schumann, Andreas



New perspectives on the evolution of narrow, modest extension continental rifts: Embryonic core complexes and localized, rapid Quaternary extension in the Rio Grande rift, central New Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Updated models for continental rift zones need to address the role and development of low-angle normal fault networks, episodicity of extension, and interaction of 'active and passive' driving mechanisms. In the Rio Grande rift, USA, low-angle normal faults are found throughout the entire length of the rift, but make up a small percentage of the total fault population. The low-angle Jeter and Knife Edge faults, for example, crop out along the SW and NE margins of the Albuquerque basin, respectively. Apatite fission track (AFT) age-elevation data and apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) ages from these rift flank uplifts record cooling between ~21 - 16 Ma in the NE rift flank and ~20 - 10 Ma in the SW, which coincides with times of rapid extension and voluminous syntectonic sedimentation. The timing of exhumation is also similar to rift flanks farther north in active margins based on AFT data alone. In addition, synthetic faults in the hanging wall of each low-angle fault become progressively steeper and younger basinward, and footwall blocks are the highest elevation along the rift flanks. These observations are consistent with a model where initially high-angle faults are shallowed in regions of maximum extension. As they rotate, new intrabasinal faults emerge which also can be rotated if extension continues. These relationships are similarly described in mature core complexes, and if these processes continued in the Rio Grande rift, it could eventually result in mid-crustal ductily deformed rocks in the footwall placed against surficial deposits in the hanging wall across faults that have been isostatically rotated to shallow dips. Although existing data are consistent with highest strain rates during a pulse of extension along the entire length of the rift 20-10 Ma., GPS-constrained measurements suggest that the rift is still actively-extending at 1.23-1.39 nstr/yr (Berglund et al., 2012). Additional evidence for Quaternary extension comes from travertine deposits that are cut by multiple tensile vein sets along the western margin of the Albuquerque basin in the Lucero uplift. At this location, U-series ages on travertine deposits are used to calculate strain rates at this location. These strain rates (15-105 nstr/yr) are higher than both the modern strain rates as well as the average long-term strain rates (3-14 nstr/yr) obtained from restored cross-sections across different basins in the rift. To explain these observations, we propose a model involving high fluid pressures, which promote the formation of tensile veins that are oriented with respect to the modern day stress field in the rift. These regions of anomalously-high strain need not be widespread, and are only active on timescales of the hydraulic system, but they are nevertheless an underappreciated mechanism of progressive extension in the rift. Berglund, H.T., Sheehan, A.F., Murray, M.H., Roy, M., Lowry, A.R., Nerem, R.S., and Blume, F., 2012, Distributed deformation across the Rio Grande Rift, Great Plains, and Colorado Plateau: Geology, v. 40, p. 23-26.

Ricketts, J.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Kelley, S.



Accumulation of fossil fuels and metallic minerals in active and ancient rift lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study of active and ancient rift systems around the world suggests that accumulations of fossil fuels and metallic minerals are related to the interactions of processes that form rift valleys with those that take place in and around rift lakes. The deposition of the precursors of petroleum, gas, oil shale, coal, phosphate, barite, Cu-Pb-Zn sulfides, and uranium begins with erosion of uplifted areas, and the consequent input of abundant nutrients and solute loads into swamps and tectonic lakes. Hot springs and volcanism add other nutrients and solutes. The resulting high biological productivity creates oxidized/reduced interfaces, and anoxic and H2S-rich bottom waters which preserves metal-bearing organic tissues and horizons. In the depositional phases, the fine-grained lake deposits are in contact with coarse-grained beach, delta, river, talus, and alluvial fan deposits. Earthquake-induced turbidites also are common coarse-grained deposits of rift lakes. Postdepositional processes in rifts include high heat flow and a resulting concentration of the organic and metallic components that were dispersed throughout the lakebeds. Postdepositional faulting brings organic- and metal-rich sourcebeds in contact with coarse-grained host and reservoir rocks. A suite of potentially economic deposits is therefore a characteristic of rift valleys. ?? 1983.

Robbins, E. I.



Analysis of the Junction of the East African Rift and the Cretaceous-Paleogene Rifts in Northern Kenya and Southern Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The East African rift (EAR) is a Tertiary-Miocene system that extends from the Middle East, through East Africa, to Mozambique in southern Africa. Much of the present information is from the Ethiopian and Kenyan parts of the rift. Several characteristics of the EAR such as rift-related volcanism, faulting and topographic relief being exposed make it attractive for studying continental rift processes. Structural complexities reflected in the geometries of grabens and half-grabens, the existence of transverse fault zones and accommodation zones, and the influence of pre-existing geologic structures have been documented. In particular, the EAR traverses the Anza graben and related structures near the Kenya/Ethiopian border. The Anza graben is one in a series of Cretaceous-Paleogene failed rifts that trend across Central Africa from Nigeria through Chad to Sudan and Kenya with an overall northwest-southeast trend. In spite of a number of recent studies, we do not understand the interaction of these two rift systems. In both Ethiopia and Kenya, the rift segments share some broad similarities in timing and are related in a geographic sense. For example, volcanism appears to have generally preceded or in some cases have been contemporaneous with major rift faulting. Although, these segments are distinct entities, each with its own tectonic and magmatic evolution, and they do connect in the region crossed by the Anza graben and related structures. In our present study, we are using a combination of recently collected seismic, gravity and remote sensing data to increase our understanding of these two segments of the EAR. We hope that by analysing the satellite data, the variety and differences in the volume of magmatic products extruded along in southern Ethiopia and northern Kenya will be identified. The geometry of structures (in particular, those causing the gravity axial high) will be modelled to study the impact of the older Anza graben structural trends with the younger EAR. For example there is significant crustal thinning in the Lake Turkana area of the northern Kenya segment of the EAR system. In regard to the recent EAGLE experiment in Ethiopia, we are ivestigating if the transition from relatively thick crust (~40 km) to thinned, rifted crust is as abrupt in Ethiopia as it is in Kenya.

Mariita, N. O.; Tadesse, K.; Keller, G. R.



Systems Synthesis Project Final Report Spring Semester, January -May 2011  

E-print Network

Systems Synthesis Project Final Report Spring Semester, January - May 2011 May 6, 2011 Prepared for Planning Center for Economic Development at Heinz College Greg Lagana, Director of Projects Members Pittsburgh Andrew Dash, Senior Planner, Department of City Planning Richard Feder, Consultant, Trans

Blelloch, Guy E.


An unusual mantle source region for nephelinites from the Oslo Rift, Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have analyzed the trace-element and isotopic composition of a series of lavas and their constituent pyroxenes and calcite from near the town of Skien in the Permo-Carboniferous Oslo Rift. The series decreases in alkalinity upsection: the lowermost lavas are nephelinites, followed by basanites and finally alkali basalts. This sequence is accompanied by decreasing light rare earth element (LREE), Th,

E. Y. Anthony; T. V. Segalstad; E.-R. Neumann



Rift Valley Fever Virus Encephalitis Is Associated with an Ineffective Systemic Immune Response and Activated T Cell Infiltration into the CNS in an Immunocompetent Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

Background Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes outbreaks of severe disease in livestock and humans throughout Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. In people, RVFV generally causes a self-limiting febrile illness but in a subset of individuals, it progresses to more serious disease. One manifestation is a delayed-onset encephalitis that can be fatal or leave the afflicted with long-term neurologic sequelae. In order to design targeted interventions, the basic pathogenesis of RVFV encephalitis must be better understood. Methodology/Principal Findings To characterize the host immune responses and viral kinetics associated with fatal and nonfatal infections, mice were infected with an attenuated RVFV lacking NSs (?NSs) that causes lethal disease only when administered intranasally (IN). Following IN infection, C57BL/6 mice developed severe neurologic disease and succumbed 7–9 days post-infection. In contrast, inoculation of ?NSs virus subcutaneously in the footpad (FP) resulted in a subclinical infection characterized by a robust immune response with rapid antibody production and strong T cell responses. IN-inoculated mice had delayed antibody responses and failed to clear virus from the periphery. Severe neurological signs and obtundation characterized end stage-disease in IN-inoculated mice, and within the CNS, the development of peak virus RNA loads coincided with strong proinflammatory responses and infiltration of activated T cells. Interestingly, depletion of T cells did not significantly alter survival, suggesting that neurologic disease is not a by-product of an aberrant immune response. Conclusions/Significance Comparison of fatal (IN-inoculated) and nonfatal (FP-inoculated) ?NSs RVFV infections in the mouse model highlighted the role of the host immune response in controlling viral replication and therefore determining clinical outcome. There was no evidence to suggest that neurologic disease is immune-mediated in RVFV infection. These results provide important insights for the future design of vaccines and therapeutic options. PMID:24922480

Dodd, Kimberly A.; McElroy, Anita K.; Jones, Tara L.; Zaki, Sherif R.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Spiropoulou, Christina F.



From conjugate volcanic rifted margins to micro-continent formation: Double breakup development of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We re-evaluate the structure and spreading evolution of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea and surrounding volcanic (rifted) margins based on new high-resolution aeromagnetic surveys. The new dataset combined with long-offset seismic and gravity data allow us to have a better understanding of the structure and evolution of the conjugate margin systems in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea from the rifting to the drifting stage. We particularly focus on the new JAS-12 aeromagnetic survey acquired between the Aegir Ridge and the Jan Mayen micro-continent, which was initially part of the Møre-Vøring-Greenland rift system. Combined with the previous NB-07 and JAS-05 surveys, our final compilation fully covers the continent-ocean transition and the whole oceanic spreading system from the Møre margin to the conjugate Jan Mayen micro-continent with high quality, high-resolution and reliable magnetic data. The new dataset allowed a new, consistent and precise interpretation of the magnetic polarity chrons and oceanic fractures, providing the basis for more accurate rotation poles estimation, and better basin and crustal reconstructions between Norway, Greenland and the Jan Mayen micro-continent. This dataset allowed us to clarify the pre- and post-breakup configurations of the rift system and discuss the mechanisms involved during the onset of the two phases of breakup leading to the micro-continent formation. Our observations and models suggest that the pre-breakup rift system evolved through a significant Late Jurassic-Cretaceous thinning phase. This episode led to a significant thinning of the continental crust and an exhumation of pre-existing lower crust. However, we have not been able to identify and/or validate any clear domains of exhumed and denudated serpentinised mantle. The first Eocene breakup is mostly characterised by severe magmatism (sill, SDRS). Lithospheric/asthenospheric processes leading to rift localisation do not necessarily represent a continuum of lithospheric deformation with the precedent thinning system. Diking and disconnected lithospheric plumbing are proposed to explain the Eocene breakup. After the first phase of continental breakup, two major phases of spreading influenced the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. Phase I (from C24 to C21r, ~54 to 49 Ma) marks the earliest phase of spreading, probably initiated in the central and outer part of the Møre Basin. During this period, the formation of overlapping systems and pseudo-fault development, indirectly influenced by the proto-margin segmentation, suggests the presence of additional micro-plates in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. We also observed a significant change in the oceanic spreading system in the late Early Eocene. Based on observations from the surrounding areas, this supports a major and distinct tectonic and magmatic event in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea at around C21r (49-47.9 Ma), the beginning of a second phase. During Phase II, from C21r-C12 or possibly younger (48-<32 Ma) of the Norway Basin development, spreading rates decreased, spreading direction changed leading to the formation of unexpected N-S oriented oceanic fracture zones. Phase II probably coincides with the climax of extension and possibly local spreading that is suspected in the southern part of the Jan Mayen micro-continent forming a complex area of oceanic, transitional and continental fragments before its complete dislocation from East Greenland in Latest Oligocene.

Gernigon, Laurent; Blischke, Anett; Nasuti, Aziz; Olesen, Odleiv; Sand, Morten; Sveinn Arnarson, Thorarinn



Beam dynamics in the SLC final focus system  

SciTech Connect

The SLC luminosity is reached by colliding beams focused to about 2 transverse sizes. The Final Focus System (FFS) must enable, beyond its basic optical design, the detection and correction of errors accumulated in the system. In this paper, after summarizing the design, we review the sensitivity to such errors and the ability to correct them. The overall tuning strategy involves three phases: single beam spot minimization, steering the beams in collision and luminosity optimization with beam-beam effects.

Bambade, P.S.



A volcanic province near the western termination of the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone at the rifted margin, offshore northeast Newfoundland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

mid-Cretaceous to Late Cretaceous volcanic province, named here the Charlie-Gibbs Volcanic Province, is described near the western termination of the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone, against the rifted continental margin northeast of Newfoundland. We used seismic data to map 14 volcanic seamounts, now buried below younger sediments. They rise 0.7 to 2 s two-way time (twt) above the surrounding basement level and are about 8-30 km wide. Some are conical while others are more flat-topped. Underlying igneous units resembling flows and sills are also observed. Based on magnetic modeling of the large positive magnetic anomalies associated with the seamounts, the total thickness of igneous rocks can locally reach about 8 km. This magmatism occurred in the vicinity of the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone and extends about 150 km to the north along the rifted continental margin. The volcanic province also forms the northern boundary of the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Orphan Basin, along a major transform margin there. Truncation of rift-related structures which extend to deep crustal levels is observed at the transform, along trends similar to those of prerift Appalachian terrane boundaries on the adjacent shelf. This suggests the existence of a preexisting weak zone in the continental lithosphere within which a complex strike-slip fault system developed and may have controlled the location of final continental breakup between the Rockall and North American plates in the Late Cretaceous.

Keen, C. E.; Dafoe, L. T.; Dickie, K.



Initiation and evolution of the Oligo-Miocene rift basins of southwestern Europe: Contribution of deep seismic reflection profiling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Southwestern European Oligo-Miocene rift basins have recently been investigated by deep seismic reflection profiling. The study of these data, together with other geophysical and geological data, shows that the rifts, which run from the Rhinegraben to the western Mediterranean, do not form a single clearcut system. The N-trending rifts (Rhinegraben, Bresse and Limagne) were developed on a cold and rigid lithosphere affected by the Alpine collision. The NE-trending rifts (southeastern France, Gulf of Lions and Valencia Trough) were formed slightly later in a backarc basin associated with an active segment of the European-Iberian plate that was heated, affected by widespread calcalkaline volcanism and probably weakened. All the southwestern European rifts and basins together may, however, be related to a common heritage represented by the boundary between the European-Iberian and African-Apulian plates that was created in the Jurassic with the initiation of the Tethys Ocean. The present features of the southwestern European Oligo-Miocène rift basins may be explained by a combination of three geodynamic mechanisms: mechanical stretching of the lithosphere, active mantle uplifting, and subordinate lithospheric flexuring. All the rifts were probably initiated by passive stretching. A systematic discrepancy between stretching derived from fault analysis and attenuation of the crust has been observed in all the rifts. This suggests that these rifts were subsequently reworked by one or several active mantle upwelling events associated with late shoulder uplift, asthenosphere upwelling and anomalous P-wave velocities in the lowermost crust and the uppermost mantle. Crustal attenuation may have been achieved by mantle intrusion, metamorphism of the deep crust and/or its delamination. Some of the rifts were affected by lithospheric flexuring. Combinations, in various proportions, of a small number of geodynamic mechanisms probably controlled many basins in the world. This explains the unique characteristics of each basin, difficulties in basin classification and the frequent failure of single-mechanism models to explain the geological observations.

Bois, C.



The 1974 Ethiopian rift geodimeter survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The field techniques and methods of data reduction for five successive geodimeter surveys in the Ethiopian rift valley are enlarged upon, with the considered conclusion that there is progressive accumulation of upper crustal strain, consonant with on-going rift extension. The extension is restricted to the Quaternary volcanotectonic axis of the rift, namely the Wonji fault belt, and is occurring at rates of 3 to 6 mm/yr in the northern sector of the rift valley. Although this concurs with the predictions of platetectonic analysis of the Afar triple junction, it is considered premature to endorse such a concurrence on the basis of only 5 years of observations. This is underlined by the detection of local tectonic contractions and expansions associated with geothermal and gravity anomalies in the central sector of the rift valley. There is a hint of a component of dextral slip along some of the rift-floor fault zones, both from geological evidence and from the strain patterns detected in the present geodetic surveys.

Mohr, P.



Drilling to Resolve the Evolution of the Corinth Rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The initiation and evolution of continental rifting, ultimately leading to rifted margin and ocean basin formation, are major unanswered questions in solid Earth-plate tectonics. Many previous insights have come from mature rifted margins where activity has ceased or from computer models. The Gulf of Corinth Rift in central Greece presents an ideal laboratory for the study of young, highly active rifting that complements other rift zones (e.g., the East African and Gulf of California rifts). Exposure and preservation of syn-rift stratigraphy, high rates of extension, and an existing network of offshore seismic data offer a unique opportunity to constrain the rift history and basin development at exceptionally high resolution in the Gulf of Corinth.

McNeill, Lisa; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Nixon, Casey



Geodynamic significance of the TRM segment in the East African Rift: active tectonics and paleostress in western Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tanganyika-Rukwa-Malawi (TRM) rift segment in western Tanzania is a key sector for understanding the opening dynamics of the East African rift system (EARS). In an oblique opening model, it is considered as a dextral transfer fault zone that accommodates the general opening of the EARS in a NW-SE direction. In an orthogonal opening model, it accommodates pure dip-slip normal faulting with extension orthogonal to the rift segments and a general E-W extension for the entire EARS. We investigated the active tectonic architecture and paleostress evolution of the Ufipa plateau and adjacent Rukwa basin and in order to define their geodynamic role in the development of the EARS and highlight their pre-rift brittle tectonic history. The active fault architecture, fault-kinematic analysis and paleostress reconstruction show that the recent to active fault systems that control the rift structure develop in a pure extensional setting with extension direction orthogonal to the trend of the TRM segment. Two pre-rift brittle events are evidenced. An older brittle thrusting is related to the interaction between the Bangweulu block and the Tanzanian craton during the late Pan-African (early Paleozoic). It was followed by a transpressional inversion during the early Mesozoic. This inversion stage caused dextral strike-slip faulting along the fault systems that now control the major rift structures. It has been erroneously interpreted as related to the late Cenozoic EARS which instead is characterized by pure normal faulting.

Delvaux, D.; Kervyn, F.; Macheyeki, A. S.; Temu, E. B.



Formation of curved seafloor fabric by changes in rift propagation velocity and spreading rate - Application to the 95.5 deg W Galapagos propagator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Possible rigid plate models and shear models for the formation of curved seafloor lineaments by rift propagation are investigated and are applied to the Galapagos propagation rift system at 95 deg W. It is shown that the geometry noted at the Galapagos can result from either rift propagation acceleration or a spreading rate decrease during the last few hundred thousand years. It is postulated that the reverse curvature could result from either deceleration of rift propagation or an increase in spreading rate. The data interpreted as requiring a shear zone are found to be equally consistent with two distinct models based on rigid plate tectonics.

Acton, Gary; Stein, Seth; Engeln, Joseph F.



Simulated final approach path captures using the microwave landing system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer simulation results are presented for intercepting final approach paths using various Microwave Landing System (MLS) path capture concepts. This study, conducted under the Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) program, simulated these captures using the MD-80 aircraft as the study model. Several different capture concepts were investigated. Systems that could be retrofitted into existing aircraft with minimum hardware and software changes were considered. An enhanced ILS look-alike capture provided improved tracking performance over conventional ILS without using a full-up path computer. The other concepts used waypoint databases and path computers to provide smart captures. These captures included lateral path intercepts as well as vertical path control. Winds, turbulence, and MLS noise were included in the simulation. In all cases, acceptable tracking errors were obtained during transition to the final approach path.

Feather, J. B.



Strain Distribution across the Terceira (Azores) Rift from 13 years of GPS data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Terceira Rift is the westernmost segment of the Nubia-Eurasia plate boundary. Despite the intense investigation carried out along the past decades based on geological, geophysical, and geodetic data, the interpretation of the behaviour of this plate boundary is still controversial in what concerns the location of the triple junction and the strain distribution across the Azores plateau, and in particular, the amount of extension taking place outside the Terceira Rift. This is particular difficult to study because geodetic displacements can only be measured on the islands and most of the processes occur offshore. In this work, we use GPS observations acquired between 1997 and 2010 to investigate the strain distribution along the Terceira Rift, The number and data-span of the existing permanent stations are still limited and so we combine their velocity field with the solutions derived from episodic data, which averages 7-8 years with 3-4 reoccupations. This allows the definition of mean velocities along a SW-NE transect, crossing Pico-Faial, S. Jorge and Terceira Islands, close to the direction of Eurasia Nubia relative motion, as described by regional geodetic models. Finally, the geodetic displacement field is compared with half space elastic modelling, to assess the probable location of rifting processes and the amount of extension taking place outside the Terceira Rift. This is a contribution from MAREKH (PTDC/MAR/108142/2008) FCT project.

Fernandes, R. M.; Miranda, J. M.; Luis, J. M.



Erosion of Terrestrial Rift Flank Topography: A Quantitative Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many rifted or passive continental margins feature a seaward-facing erosional escarpment which abruptly demarcates deeply weathered, low relief, interior uplands from a deeply incised, high relief coastal zone. It is generally accepted that these escarpments originate at the time of continental rifting and propagate inland through the elevated rift flank topography at rates on the order of 1 km/Myr over the course of a margin's history. Considering the length of passive margins worldwide and an average rift flank plateau height of several hundred meters, it is clear that sediment eroded from passive margins is an important component of the mass flux from continents to oceans through geologic time. The overall goal of the research reported here is to develop a quantitative understanding of the kinematics of escarpment propagation across passive margins and the underlying geological processes responsible for this behavior. Plateau-bounding escarpments in general exhibit two basic forms depending on the direction of surface water drainage on the plateau interior relative to the escarpment. Where surface water flows away from the escarpment, the escarpment takes the form of subdued embayments and promontories, such that its overall trend remains fairly straight as it evolves with time. Where upland streams flow across the escarpment, it takes the form of dramatic, narrow gorges whose heads appear to propagate up the plateau drainage systems as large-scale knickpoints. From work on the Colorado Plateau, Schmidt (1987) noted that the Colorado River is located much closer to the Grand Canyon's south rim, a drainage divide escarpment, than to the north rim, which is a gorge-like escarpment. The main implication is that the gorge-like form might be associated with higher long-term average erosion rates compared to the drainage divide escarpment type.

Weissel, Jeffrey K.



Erosion and rift dynamics: new thermomechanical aspects of post-rift evolution of extensional basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigate thermo-mechanical consequences of erosion of rift shoulders. Conventional models imply post-rift cooling that results in subsidence and strengthening of the lithosphere. Existing models neglect geodynamic consequences of surface processes (erosion and sedimentation). According to sedimentologic and geomorphologic data, surface processes modify the topography and thickness of sedimentary infill at rates comparable with the rates of the tectonic uplift/subsidence (few 0.1 mm/y). Consequently, a coupling between the surface and tectonic processes can be expected. An increase of the sedimentary load leads to localised inelastic weakening of the lithosphere. At the same time, erosional unloading of rift shoulders leads to local strengthening and flexural rebound. Subsidence of the rift "neck" (strongest layer of the thinned lithosphere) and uplift of the rift shoulders create pressure gradients sufficient to drive ductile flow in the low-viscosity lower crust. This flow, directed outward from the centre of the basin might facilitate uplift of the rift shoulders. It may even drive some post-rift "extension". In the limiting case of slow erosion and sedimentation rates, gravitational stresses can reverse the flow, resulting in a retardation of basin subsidence rate, homogenisation of the crustal thickness, accelerated collapse of the shoulders and in some post-rift "compression". These effects significantly change predictions of basin evolution inferred from the conventional back-stripping models.

Burov, E.; Cloetingh, S.



Question of Ages of Cenozoic Volcanic Centers Inferred Beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) in the West Antarctic Rift System (WR) from Coincident Aeromagnetic and Radar Ice Sounding Surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recently acquired radar ice sounding surveys (Holt, et al., 2006) extending the 1990s Central West Antarctica (CWA) aerogeophysical survey to the Amundsen and Bellingshausen sea coasts allows us to revise a thought experiment reported by Behrendt et al., 1991 from very limited bed elevation data. Were the ice of the WAIS flowing through the WR to be compressed to the density of crustal rock, almost all of the area beneath the WAIS would be at or above sea level, much >1 km elevation. There are only about 10-20% of the very deep areas (such as the Bentley subglacial trench and the Byrd Subglacial Basin) filled with 3-4-km thick ice that would be well below sea level. The age of the 5-7-km high rift shoulder bounding the asymmetric WR from northern Victoria Land through the Horlick Mountains (where it diverges from the Transantarctic Mountains) to the Ellsworth Mountains has been reported as old as Cretaceous. Volcanic exposures associated with the West Antarctic rift system in the present WAIS area extend at least to 34 Ma and the West Antarctic ice sheet has flowed through the rift possibly as far back in time as 25 Ma. Active volcanism has been reported for the WR at only a few widely scattered locations, so speculations about present volcanic activity beneath the WAIS are quite uncertain, and it is probably quite rare. The Central West Antarctic aeromagnetic and radar ice sounding survey carried out in the 1990s revealed about 1000 "volcanic centers" characterized by 100-1000 nT shallow source magnetic anomalies, at least 400 of which have associated bed topography. About 80% of these show relief <200 m and have been interpreted as smoothed off as they were erupted (injected) into the moving WAIS. Several kilometer-thick highly magnetic sources are required to fit these anomalies requiring high remanent magnetizations in the present field direction. We interpreted these sources as subvolcanic intrusions which must be younger than about 100 Ma because the Antarctic plate has been in its approximately present position since that time. Eighteen anomalies have >600 bed relief and were interpreted as erupted subaerially at a time when the WAIS was absent. At least one of these subaerially erupted peaks (Mt. Resnik, having 2 km bed relief) was erupted through a magnetic reversal. About 100 "volcanic" anomalies show reversed magnetic polarization indicating these must be at least as old as the Brunes-Matayama reversal at about 780 Ka. Essentially no volcanic rocks or detritus has been reported from the few drill holes that have penetrated the WAIS, although some have speculated, from the presence of smectite recovered from rock cores into the Ross Sea continental shelf, that this mineral has resulted from alteration of volcanic rock erupted beneath the WAIS. We consider the absence of volcanic samples from beneath the WAIS is not evidence of their absence. This seems particularly true considering the long time of the apparently coincident volcanism beneath the WAIS, possibly as great as 25 Ma, and the relatively brief age of the ice presently comprising the WAIS, about 200 Ka at most (e.g. perhaps the bulk of the volcanic centers are >10 Ma). Because none of the volcanic rocks or subvolcanic intrusions inferred to underlie the "volcanic centers" marked by high amplitude anomalies and low relief bed topography has been directly sampled, the question of their age cannot be answered.

Behrendt, J. C.; Finn, C. A.; Blankenship, D. D.



Diachronism in the late Neoproterozoic-Cambrian arc-rift transition of North Gondwana: A comparison of Morocco and the Iberian Ossa-Morena Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the northwestern border of the West African craton (North Gondwana), a transition from late Neoproterozoic subduction/collision to Cambrian rift processes was recorded in the Anti-Atlas (Morocco) and in the Ossa-Morena Zone (Iberia). Cambrian rifting affected both Pan-African and Cadomian basements in a stepwise and diachronous way. Subsequently, both areas evolved into a syn-rift margin episodically punctuated by uplift and tilting that precluded Furongian sedimentation. A comparison of sedimentary, volcanic and geodynamic evolution is made in the late Neoproterozoic (Pan-African and Cadomian) belts and Cambrian rifts trying to solve the apparent diachronous (SW-NE-trending) propagation of an early Palaeozoic rifting regime that finally led to the opening of the Rheic Ocean.

Álvaro, J. Javier; Bellido, Félix; Gasquet, Dominique; Pereira, M. Francisco; Quesada, Cecilio; Sánchez-García, Teresa



Simulated coal gas MCFC power plant system verification. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the main project is to identify the current developmental status of MCFC systems and address those technical issues that need to be resolved to move the technology from its current status to the demonstration stage in the shortest possible time. The specific objectives are separated into five major tasks as follows: Stack research; Power plant development; Test facilities development; Manufacturing facilities development; and Commercialization. This Final Report discusses the M-C power Corporation effort which is part of a general program for the development of commercial MCFC systems. This final report covers the entire subject of the Unocal 250-cell stack. Certain project activities have been funded by organizations other than DOE and are included in this report to provide a comprehensive overview of the work accomplished.




Off rift and on rift volcanism along the southern most extremity of the Reykjanes Ridge.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In August-September 2013 R/V Marcus G Langseth conducted a geophysical survey of the southern Reykjanes Ridge and flanks to the Bight transform fault including the first orthogonally spreading segment to the south. The objectives were to better understand how the Reykjanes Ridge replaced the earlier transform fault-dominated structure. The survey acquired full-coverage multibeam bathymetry of some 90,000 km2 and acoustic backscatter imagery and coincident gravity and magnetic profiles. The Rift axis of the RR is defined by a rift valley, striking 36° NE, and deepens from N to S towards the Bight transform fault. Volcanism along the rift axis is characterized by en-echelon volcanic ridges striking 14°NE and rising some 400-1000 m above the valley floor, single circular volcanic sea mounts 400-600 m high, lava flow sheets and craters. Fissures and faults are not very prominent with in the rift valley. However, at both sides bounding the rift valley, fissure, faults and uplifting of the crust is a dominant feature. Surprisingly numerous volcanic edifices are observed on the faulted crust drifting away from the plate boundary. Further these volcanic edifices do not all show any faulting and have cone shape forms, indicating more explosive activity than within the rift. The volcanic edifices range in size from 2-3 km at the base to some hundreds of meters. Backscatter analysis shows that in general the volcanic edifices have higher values than the surrounding basement. These vents are observed as far as 100 km from the rifting center. High backscatter along with little or no faulting indicates that these off rift volcanic vents are younger than the basement they are resting on, thus manifesting that volcanism is not solely confined to the active rift boundary in the area. The segment south of Bight transform fault is highly dotted by these off rift volcanic vents

Hoskuldsson, Armann; Martinez, Fernando; Hey, Richard



Crustal tomographic imaging of a transitional continental rift: the Ethiopian rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we image crustal structure beneath a magmatic continental rift to understand the interplay between crustal stretching and magmatism during the late stages of continental rifting: the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER). The northern sector of this region marks the transition from continental rifting in the East African Rift to incipient seafloor spreading in the southern Red Sea and western Gulf of Aden. Our local tomographic inversion exploits 172 broad-band instruments covering an area of 250 × 350 km of the rift and adjacent plateaux. The instruments recorded a total of 2139 local earthquakes over a 16-month period. Several synthetic tests show that resolution is good between 12 and 25 km depth (below sea level), but some horizontal velocity smearing is evident along the axis of the Main Ethiopian Rift below 16 km. We present a 3-D P-wave velocity model of the mid-crust and present the first 3-D Vp/Vs model of the region. Our models show high P-wave velocities (6.5 km s-1) beneath the axis of the rift at a depth of 12-25 km. The presence of high Vp/Vs ratios (1.81-1.84) at the same depth range suggest that they are cooled mafic intrusions. The high Vp/Vs values, along with other geophysical evidence, suggest that dyking is pervasive beneath the axis of the rift from the mid-crustal depths to the surface and that some portion of partial melt may exist at lower crustal depths. Although the crustal stretching factor across the Main Ethiopian Rift is ~1.7, our results indicate that magma intrusion in narrow zones accommodates a large proportion of extensional strain, with similarities to slow-spreading mid-ocean ridge processes.

Daly, E.; Keir, D.; Ebinger, C. J.; Stuart, G. W.; Bastow, I. D.; Ayele, A.



Joint Technical Architecture for Robotic Systems (JTARS)-Final Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document represents the final report for the Joint Technical Architecture for Robotic Systems (JTARS) project, funded by the Office of Exploration as part of the Intramural Call for Proposals of 2005. The project was prematurely terminated, without review, as part of an agency-wide realignment towards the development of a Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and meeting the near-term goals of lunar exploration.

Bradley, Arthur T.; Holloway, Sidney E., III



Crustal Deformation Field Around Rift Zone In Southeastern Afar Derived From Jers-1/in-sar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Afar is one of the major active rift zones recognized on the ground and located around the triple junction of Arabia, Somalia and Nubian plates. Afar is one of the major rift zones recognized on the ground. The crustal deformation of Afar has been deduced from paleomagnetism, geology and seismology by many scientists. The current crustal deformation must be detected by geodetic measurements. Ruegg et al. (J. Geophys. Res., 1984) showed the crustal deformation across the Asal-Ghoubbet rift with rate of about 60 mm/yr extension derived from triangulation and trilateration. Walpersdorf et al. (J. Geodyn., 1999) show the opening between South Djibouti and Yemen with rate of 16 mm/yr by GPS surveys. Denser observations are required for detailed crustal deformation, however it is difficult to construct such observation network because of harsh environment. The geodetic application of remote sensing is useful in this region, and we apply JERS-1 SAR interferometry in southeastern Afar, which is one of the most active deformation area. In this study, we use six SAR scenes observed from 1996/5/20 to 1997/5/7, and generate five interferograms; these repeat cycles are 88 (2 pairs), 176, 264, 352 days. First, we generate the digital elevation model (DEM) from two 88 repeat cycle pairs applying the multiple pass SAR interferometry method by Kwok and Fahnestock (IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, 1996). Next, the topographic fringes of all pairs are removed using the DEM. The crustal deformation derived from SAR interferometry increases with expanding repeat cycle. Finally, the velocity field is estimated by fitting to linear trend for each pixel. The spreading rate of Asal-Ghoubbet rift derived from SAR interferometry is good agreement with that by Ruegg et al. (J. Geophys. Res., 1984). We can see the crustal deformation with the subsidence sense in the west of Asal-Ghoubbet rift. This suggests that the extension is distinguished in this area. The subsidence sense deformation is also seen along the Manda-Inakir rift, and we can see the V shape of subsidence area in the east end of the Manda-Inakir rift, which is transition zone from the Manda-Inakir rift to the Mak'Arrassou strike slip zone. It may be caused that the stress along the tectonic line from the Manda-Inakir rift to the Mak'Arrasou strike slip zone is gradually change from the extension to the strike slip.

Ozawa, T.; Nogi, Y.; Shibuya, K.


The aeromagnetic method as a tool to identify Cenozoic magmatism in the West Antarctic Rift System beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet: a review; Thiel subglacial volcano as possible source of the ash layer in the WAISCOR  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) flows through the volcanically active West Antarctic Rift System (WARS). The aeromagnetic method has been the most useful geophysical tool for identification of subglacial volcanic rocks, since 1959–64 surveys, particularly combined with 1978 radar ice-sounding. The unique 1991–97 Central West Antarctica (CWA) aerogeophysical survey covering 354,000 km2 over the WAIS, (5-km line-spaced, orthogonal lines of aeromagnetic, radar ice-sounding, and aerogravity measurements), still provides invaluable information on subglacial volcanic rocks, particularly combined with the older aeromagnetic profiles. These data indicate numerous 100–>1000 nT, 5–50-km width, shallow-source, magnetic anomalies over an area greater than 1.2 × 106 km2, mostly from subglacial volcanic sources. I interpreted the CWA anomalies as defining about 1000 “volcanic centers” requiring high remanent normal magnetizations in the present field direction. About 400 anomaly sources correlate with bed topography. At least 80% of these sources have less than 200 m relief at the WAIS bed. They appear modified by moving ice, requiring a younger age than the WAIS (about 25 Ma). Exposed volcanoes in the WARS are The present rapid changes resulting from global warming, could be accelerated by subglacial volcanism.

Behrendt, John C.



Final prototype of magnetically suspended flywheel energy storage system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype of a 500 Wh magnetically suspended flywheel energy storage system was designed, built, and tested. The authors present the work done and include the following: (1) a final design of the magnetic bearing, control system, and motor/generator, (2) construction of a prototype system consisting of the magnetic bearing stack, flywheel, motor, container, and display module, and (3) experimental results for the magnetic bearings, motor, and the entire system. The successful completion of the prototype system has achieved: (1) manufacture of tight tolerance bearings, (2) stability and spin above the first critical frequency, (3) use of inside sensors to eliminate runout problems, and (4) integration of the motor and magnetic bearings.

Anand, D. K.; Kirk, J. A.; Zmood, R. B.; Pang, D.; Lashley, C.



The final analysis Little Leo: A system and service overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an emerging commercial space industry consisting of constellations of low earth orbiting satellites to that will provide global telecommunications services. Within the set of proposed low earth orbiting satellite systems, there exists two distinct classes. One class provides high bandwidth digital voice and data services, and the other provides narrowband store and forward digital data services. The digital data service systems are called Little LEOs or Infosats. These systems will provide a variety of personal, business, environmental, and industrial digital data services on a global scale. Infosat systems provide a niche telecommunications infrastructure that benefit industries and governments of the world whether developing or industrialized; geographically homogeneous or diverse; or low, middle, or high income. The flexible nature of the service allows it to be applied in many ways to meet changing needs. This paper provides an overview of the Final Analysis Infosat system.

Fatig, Michael



Permo-Triassic anatexis, continental rifting and the disassembly of western Pangaea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crustal anatectites are frequently observed along ocean-continent active margins, although their origins are disputed with interpretations varying between rift-related and collisional. We report geochemical, isotopic and geochronological data that define an ~ 1500 km long belt of S-type meta-granites along the Andes of Colombia and Ecuador, which formed during 275-223 Ma. These are accompanied by amphibolitized tholeiitic basaltic dykes that yield concordant zircon U-Pb dates ranging between 240 and 223 Ma. A model is presented which places these rocks within a compressive Permian arc setting that existed during the amalgamation of westernmost Pangaea. Anatexis and mafic intrusion during 240-223 Ma are interpreted to have occurred during continental rifting, which culminated in the formation of oceanic crust and initiated the break-up of western Pangaea. Compression during 275-240 Ma generated small volumes of crustal melting. Rifting during 240-225 Ma was characterized by basaltic underplating, the intrusion of tholeiitic basalts and a peak in crustal melting. Tholeiitic intrusions during 225-216 Ma isotopically resemble depleted mantle and yield no evidence for contamination by continental crust, and we assign this period to the onset of continental drift. Dissected ophiolitic sequences in northern Colombia yield zircon U-Pb dates of 216 Ma. The Permo-Triassic margin of Ecuador and Colombia exhibits close temporal, faunal and geochemical similarities with various crustal blocks that form the basement to parts of Mexico, and thus these may represent the relict conjugate margin to NW Gondwana. The magmatic record of the early disassembly of Pangaea spans ~ 20 Ma (240-216 Ma), and the duration of rifting and rift-drift transition is similar to that documented in Cretaceous-Tertiary rift settings such as the West Iberia-Newfoundland conjugate margins, and the Taupo-Lau-Havre System, where rifting and continental disassembly also occurred over periods lasting ~ 20 Ma.

Cochrane, Ryan; Spikings, Richard; Gerdes, Axel; Ulianov, Alexey; Mora, Andres; Villagómez, Diego; Putlitz, Benita; Chiaradia, Massimo



Models of segmentation along the Terceira Rift: implications for the MAR evolution to the south of Azores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the MAREKH project we investigate the Mid-Atlantic Ridge Evolution in the last 20 Ma between Kurchatov and Hayes. Our aim is to extend to the south previous kinematic studies to understand the most important kinematic changes and their impact on the segmentation pattern of the MAR and the formation of the Terceira Rift. The Terceira rift (TR) is frequently pointed out as unique ultraslow oblique spreading system differing from other oceanic rifts in that it cuts across relatively old and thick lithosphere. Its pattern of segmentation and the evidence for highly focused magmatism makes it comparable with the continental East African Rift. The analogy with the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) is particularly remarkable since both the TR and the MER tectonic settings are characterized by two distinct sets of faults trending 20-30° apart. Findings from analogue modelling by Corti (2008) have shown that rift evolution and segmentation in the MER is controlled by rift obliquity independently of magmatic processes or changes in plate kinematics. In this work we explore the feasibility of a similar model in the Azores using finite element numerical modeling. The results improve our understanding on the processes of formation and activation of the observed pattern of faulting and rift segmentation in the Azores plateau, exploring in particular if the two sets of tectonic trends formed diachronically with activity switching from one to another or if they formed simultaneously like a mixed extensional-shear fracture network, establish the connection between the step-like pattern of the Terceira Rift and the segmentation of the MAR to the south of the triple junction and eventually provide constraints on the thermal structure and material properties by determining what combination of model set-ups match the observed patterns. This work was funded by FCT, PTDC/MAR/108142/2008 MAREKH research project. Pest-OE/CTE/LA0019/2011 - IDL

Neves, M. L.; Miranda, J. M.; Luis, J. M.



Variable-Speed Wind System Design : Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

Almost from the onset of the development of wind energy conversion systems (WECS), it was known that variable-speed operation of the turbine would maximize energy capture. This study was commissioned to assess the cost, efficiency gain, reduction of the cost of energy (COE), and other operating implications of converting the existing hardware of a modern fixed-speed wind energy conversion system to variable-speed operation. The purpose of this study was to develop a preliminary design for the hardware required to allow variable-speed operation using a doubly-fed generator with an existing fixed-speed wind turbine design. The turbine selected for this study is the AWT-26 designed and built by Advanced Wind Turbines Inc. of Redmond, Washington. The lowest projected COE using this variable-speed generation system is projected to be $0.0499/kWh, compared to the lowest possible COE with fixed-speed generation which is projected to be $0.0546/kWh. This translates into a 8.6% reduction of the COE using this variable-speed generation option. The preliminary system design has advanced to where the printed circuit boards can be physically laid out based on the schematics and the system software can be written based on the control flow-charts. The core of hardware and software has been proven to be successful in earlier versions of VSG systems. The body of this report presents the results of the VSWG system development. Operation under normal and fault conditions is described in detail, the system performance for variable-speed operation is estimated and compared to the original fixed-speed system performance, and specifications for all system components (generator, power electronic converter, and system controller) are given. Costs for all components are estimated, and incremental system cost is compared to incremental energy production. Finally, operational features of the VSWG which are not available in the existing FSWG system are outlined.

Lauw, Hinan K.; Weigand, Claus H.; Marckx, Dallas A.; Electronic Power Conditioning, Inc.



A finite amplitude necking model of rifting in brittle lithosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We formulate a mechanical model describing the formation of rifts as finite amplitude necking of an elastic-plastic layer overlying a fluid substrate. A perfectly plastic rheology is a continuum description of faulting in rift zones. Two important aspects of rift evolution are illustrated by this model: the evolution of the rift width as extension proceeds and the finite strain that occurs. A region at yield initially develops with a width determined by the thickness of the brittle layer, and the internal deformation within this yield zone is proportional to the topographic slope. As extension proceeds, the surface within the rift subsides, and the width of the subsiding yield zone decreases. At any stage of rifting, material in regions just outside the yield zone is deformed but no longer deforming. The width of these deformed regions increases with increasing extension. Vertical forces due to the mass deficit of the rift depression will flex the elastic layer outside the yield zone, creating flanking uplifts. The external force required to maintain active rifting increases with the amount of lithospheric stretching, indicating that rifting is a quasi-static, stable process. Because the yield zone will revert to elastic behavior if the external force causing extension is removed, the model predicts that the rift depression and flanking uplifts will be preserved after extension stops. Our simple mechanical model demonstrates the inherent relationship among graben formation, lithospheric thinning, and rift shoulder uplift in rift zones.

Lin, Jian; Parmentier, E. M.



A Multidisciplinary Investigation of Rio Grande Rift Deformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rio Grande rift is the easternmost actively deforming province of the western margin of North America. Geologic observations suggest the character of rifting changes from north to south, with a narrow rift marked by linear topographic depressions in Colorado and northern New Mexico grading to a broad ``basin and range'' expression in south-central New Mexico. Reasons behind the variable

A. R. Lowry; A. F. Sheehan; M. Roy; E. Jones; S. Nerem



Deep magma body beneath the summit and rift zones of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A magnitude 7.2 earthquake in 1975 caused the south flank of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, to move seaward in response to slippage along a deep fault. Since then, a large part of the volcano's edifice has been adjusting to this perturbation. The summit of Kilauea extended at a rate of 0.26 meter per year until 1983, the south flank uplifted more than 0.5 meter, and the axes of both the volcano's rift zones extended and subsided; the summit continues to subside. These ground-surface motions have been remarkably steady and much more widespread than those caused by either recurrent inflation and deflation of the summit magma chamber or the episodic propagation of dikes into the rift zones. Kilauea's magmatic system is, therefore, probably deeper and more extensive than previously thought; the summit and both rift zones may be underlain by a thick, near vertical dike-like magma system at a depth of 3 to 9 kilometers.

Delaney, P.T.; Fiske, R.S.; Miklius, A.; Okamura, A.T.; Sako, M.K.



Latest stages of deformation leading to breakup of the Australian-Antarctic rifted margins: new constraints from deep seismic observations and potential data.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of large domains of hyper-extended continental crust and exhumed mantle along many present-day magma-poor rifted margins questions the existing models proposed to explain lithospheric breakup and onset of seafloor spreading. In particular, the amount of magma and its relation to tectonic structures is yet little understood. Trying to find answers to these questions asks to work in the most distal parts of rifted margins where the latest stage of rifting occurred and the first steady state oceanic crust was emplaced. In this aim, the Australian-Antarctic conjugated margins provide an excellent study area. Indeed, the central sector of the Great Australian Bight/Wilkes Land developed in a magma-poor probably ultra-slow setting and displays a complex and not yet well understood Ocean-Continent Transition (OCT). This distal area is well imaged by numerous high quality seismic lines covering the whole OCT and the steady-state oceanic crust. Our seismic observations allow the recognition of different tectono-sedimentary units and magmatic additions. The relation between the sedimentary units, magmatic additions and the tectonic structures enable to define a complex interaction between these processes indicating a clear polyphase evolution of rifting and migration of the deformation towards the area of future breakup. The migration of deformation is well imaged by the fact that each tectono-sedimentary unit "downlaps" oceanwards onto "new" basement, which enables to define basement units that become younger oceanwards. This observation suggests that final rifting is associated with the creation of new "basement" under conditions that are not yet those of a steady state oceanic crust. We propose that two major detachment systems are responsible for mantle exhumation forming this new basement. In particular, they can explain the different deformation phases observed in the tectono-sedimentary sequences and related magmatic additions. It appears that the sedimentary structures linked to these two detachment systems can be followed along the margins over several hundreds of kilometres, indicating that they represent a large scale asymmetric extension. The identification on potential field maps of different domains corresponding to the different basement units allows us to propose an oceanward and gradual variation in the basement composition. It is likely that the amount of magma gradually increases until the emplacement of the first steady state oceanic crust and that magma underplating may have occurred along most of the distal margin. One main question resulting from our model is related to the interpretation of the magnetic anomalies in such an asymmetric context. Answering to this question can help to solve the paleogeographic reconstructions and to better define the age of the lithospheric breakup in these margins.

Gillard, Morgane; Autin, Julia; Manatschal, Gianreto; Sauter, Daniel; Munschy, Marc; Schaming, Marc



Advanced power conditioning for maglev systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The final report contains parametric scaling data and computer models of power conditioning equipment applicable to the design of an advanced maglev system. The power conditioning topologies were selected based on data from a literature search, on characteristics of present power semiconductor technology devices, and on actual performance characterization of designs using a circuit analysis program. The analyses show that GTOs are the best switches for traction drives, input power conditioning equipment, and the braking chopper. At lower power levels, as required for auxiliary power and superconducting coil power conditioning, the IGBT appeared to be the best switch.

Nerem, A.; Bowles, E.E.; Chapelle, S.; Callanan, R.J.



Young Stellar Object Candidates in the Aquila Rift Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the 2m telescope of the Turingia State Observatory at Tauten-berg (TLS), imaging observations in 3 wavebands (H ?, R and I) are performed in the 16 fields in the Aquila Rift region. The observed fields cover about 7 square degrees. Excluding the 3 fields with unqualified data, the photometrical analysis is made for the remaining 13 fields, from which point sources are identified, and finally 7 H ? emission-line star candidates are identified by color-color diagrams. The 7 candidates are located in five fields. Three of them are located near the Galactic plane, while the galactic latitudes of the rest are greater than 4°. The 2 M ASS counterparts of the point sources are identified, and the properties of the 7 H ? emission-line star candidates are further analyzed by using the two-color diagrams. It is found that the near-infrared radiation from these H ? emission-line star candidates has no obvious infrared excess, one of them even falls on the main-sequence branch. This indicates that the H ?-emissive young stellar objects (YSOs) are not always accompanied with the infrared excess, and that the results of the H ? emission line observation and the infrared excess observation are mutually supplemented. If the 7 H ? emission-line star candidates are regarded as YSO candidates, then the number of YSOs in the Aquila Rift region is quite small. The further confirmation of these candidates needs subsequent spectral observations.

Zhang, Miao-miao; Wang, Hong-chi; Stecklum, B.



The use of subsurface thermal data, isotopic tracers and earthquake hypocenter locations to unravel deep regional flow systems within the crystalline basement beneath the Rio Grande rift, New Mexico. (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rio Grande rift in New Mexico hosts a number of low-temperature geothermal systems as well as the 19 km deep Socorro Magma Body. The presence of a mantle helium anomaly measured at San Acacia spring (3He/4He = 0.295 RA) and in an adjacent shallow well (50m < ; 0.8 RA) overlying the Socorro Magma Body at the southern terminus of the Albuquerque Basin suggests that deeply sourced fluids mix with the sedimentary basin groundwater flow system. Temperatures recorded at the base of the San Acacia well is elevated (29 oC). Published estimates of uplift rates and heat flow suggest that the magma body was emplaced about 1-3 ka and reflects a long-lived (several Ma) magmatic system. Further south near the southern terminus of the Engle Basin, much warmer temperatures (42 oC) occur at shallow depths within the spa district in the town of Truth or Consequences at shallow depths also suggesting deep-fluid circulation. 14C constrained apparent groundwater residence times in the spa district range between 6-10 ka. We have developed two 6-19 km deep crustal-scale, cross-sectional models that simulate subsurface fluid flow, heat and isotope (3He/4He) transport as well as groundwater residence times along the Rio Grande rift. The North-South oriented model of the Albuquerque Basin incorporates a high-permeability conduit 100 m wide having hydrologic properties differing from surrounding crystalline basement units. We use these models to constrain the crustal permeability structure and fluid circulation patterns beneath the Albuquerque and Engle Basins. Model results are compared to measurements of groundwater temperatures, residence times (14C), and 3He/4He data. We also use the distribution of earthquake hypocenters to constrain likely fault-crystalline basement hydraulic interactions in the seismogenic crust above the Socorro Magma Body. For the case of the southern Albuquerque Basin, conduit permeability associated with the Indian Hill conduit/fault zone must range between about 1.0E-13 to 1.0E-15 m2 in order for simulated 3He/4He, solute concentrations, and temperatures to match observed conditions. Basement permeability outside of the fault damage zone must range between 1.0E-17 to 1.0E-18 m2. However, a much longer transport time is required (between about 20-30 ka) in order to match observed conditions suggesting multiple magmatic intrusion events. For the case of the Engle Basin near Truth or Consequences, bulk crustal permeability between a depth of 2-6 km below the sedimentary succession must approach 1.0E-12 m2 in order to reproduce hot spring temperatures and groundwater residence times. We compare these model derived permeability estimates to published permeability-depth relationships for crustal rocks (Manning and Ingebritsen, 1999; Ingebritsen and Manning, 2010).

Person, M. A.; Woolsey, E.; Pepin, J.; Crossey, L. J.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Phillips, F. M.; Kelley, S.; Timmons, S.



Modeling the tectonic development of the Tucano and Sergipe-Alagoas rift basins, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tucano and Sergipe-Alagoas basins of northeast Brazil form part of a regional extensional basin system that was operative during the Mesozoic breakup of South America and Africa with both basins developing on Precambrian crust. The synchronous development of the rift basins suggest that they are genetically linked in space and time. Whereas the offshore Sergipe-Alagoas basin is characterized by a substantial thickness of post-rift sediment, the Tucano basin either failed to develop or at least preserve a significant thickness of post-rift sediment. Observed primary porosities within both pre- and syn-rift Tucano basin sediment imply that significant post-rift sedimentation never occurred. Failure to develop significant post-rift subsidence has important thermal and mechanical implications for the reaction of the lithosphère to rifting and can be explained in terms of: (1) depth-dependent lithospheric extension in which intracrustal detachments allow the extension of the crust to be decoupled from the thinning of the lithospheric mantle, (2) small rates of extension that allow the lithosphere to cool during rifting, and/or (3) lithospheric rifting during which the flexural strength of the lithosphere remains high. With respect to points (2) and (3), forward modeling demonstrates that finite rifting rates over a 20-25 m.y. period are insufficient to cool the lithosphere to the point where post-rift subsidence fails to develop. An interesting complication arises when the flexural strength of the lithosphere remains large during rifting: it tends to suppress the vertical motions of the lithosphere, such as those engendered by the cooling of the lithosphere following rifting, thereby reducing significantly the amplitude of the post-rift subsidence. Thus, the lack of post-rift sedimentation within a basin does not necessarily imply that extension has been limited to the crust. From our kinematic modeling of the Tucano basin, the observed negative free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies (- 120 mGals) suggest that the flexural strength of the lithosphere has remained sufficiently large to maintain the load of the sediment. We can model successfully the observed Tucano basin architecture and gravity anomaly irrespective of whether we assume depth-dependent or depth-independent lithospheric extension primarily because the flexural strength of the lithosphere tends to "buffer" or suppress the amplitude of the post-rift subsidence. In contrast, the adjacent Sergipe-Alagoas basin is associated with low-amplitude gravity anomalies which may reflect a resetting of flexural strength during rifting. Prior to rifting, however, there was no appreciable elevation difference between the Tucano and Sergipe-Alagoas regions (as might be induced by a hot-spot for example) implying that the flexural strength of the lithosphere was similar. The total thickness of the syn- and post-rift sediments within the Sergipe-Alagoas basin is about the same as the thickness of rift-phase sediments in the Tucano basin. Thus, the amount of crustal extension responsible for each basin was similar. However, since the Sergipe-Alagoas basin contains 4-5 km of post-rift sediments, lithospheric mantle thinning in this region must have been significantly greater than the crustal extension to overcome the effects of "flexural bufferring". The need for lithospheric mantle thinning to be greater that crustal extension in the Sergipe-Alagoas region was also a result obtained by modeling the development of the ocean/continent boundary between Brazil and Africa. From our coupled kinematic and rheological model of lithospheric extension, we predict that the ocean/continent boundary should form preferentially at the location of greatest crustal and lithospheric mantle thinning, that is, within the region of maximum depth-independent lithospheric extension. The ocean/continent boundary formed east of the Sergipe-Alagoas basin despite the fact that the Tucano basin represents the region of greatest crustal thinning. If extension had been uniform with dep

Karner, Garry D.; Egan, Stuart S.; Weissel, Jeffrey K.



The structures, stratigraphy and evolution of the Gulf of Corinth rift, Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multichannel seismic and bathymetry survey of the central and eastern Gulf of Corinth (GoC), Greece, reveals the offshore fault geometry, seismic stratigraphy and basin evolution of one of Earths most active continental rift systems. Active, right-stepping, en-echelon, north-dipping border faults trend ESE along the southern Gulf margin, significantly overlapping along strike. The basement offsets of three (Akrata-Derveni, Sithas and Xylocastro) are linked. The faults are biplanar to listric: typically intermediate angle (˜35° in the centre and 45-48° in the east) near the surface but decreasing in dip and/or intersecting a low- or shallow-angle (15-20° in the centre and 19-30° in the east) curvi-planar reflector in the basement. Major S-dipping border faults were active along the northern margin of the central Gulf early in the rift history, and remain active in the western Gulf and in the subsidiary Gulf of Lechaio, but unlike the southern border faults, are without major footwall uplift. Much of the eastern rift has a classic half-graben architecture whereas the central rift has a more symmetric w- or u-shape. The narrower and shallower western Gulf that transects the >40-km-thick crust of the Hellenides is associated with a wider distribution of overlapping high-angle normal faults that were formerly active on the Peloponnesus Peninsula. The easternmost sector includes the subsidiary Gulfs of Lechaio and Alkyonides, with major faults and basement structures trending NE, E-W and NW. The basement faults that control the rift architecture formed early in the rift history, with little evidence (other than the Vrachonisida fault along the northern margin) in the marine data for plan view evolution by subsequent fault linkage. Several have maximum offsets near one end. Crestal collapse graben formed where the hanging wall has pulled off the steeper onto the shallower downdip segment of the Derveni Fault. The dominant strikes of the Corinth rift faults gradually rotate from 090-120° in the basement and early rift to 090-100° in the latest rift, reflecting a ˜10° rotation of the opening direction to the 005° presently measured by GPS. The sediments include a (locally >1.5-km-) thick, early-rift section, and a late-rift section (also locally >1.5-km-thick) that we subdivide into three sequences and correlate with seven 100-ka glacio-eustatic cycles. The Gulf depocentre has deepened through time (currently >700 mbsl) as subsidence has outpaced sedimentation. We measure the minimum total horizontal extension across the central and eastern Gulf as varying along strike between 4 and 10 km, and estimate full values of 6-11 km. The rift evolution is strongly influenced by the inherited basement fabric. The regional NNW structural fabric of the Hellenic nappes changes orientation to ESE in the Parnassos terrane, facilitating the focused north-south extension observed offshore there. The basement-penetrating faults lose seismic reflectivity above the 4-14-km-deep seismogenic zone. Multiple generations and dips of normal faults, some cross-cutting, accommodate extension beneath the GoC, including low-angle (15-20°) interfaces in the basement nappes. The thermally cool forearc setting and cross-orogen structures unaccompanied by magmatism make this rift a poor analogue and unlikely precursor for metamorphic core complex formation.

Taylor, Brian; Weiss, Jonathan R.; Goodliffe, Andrew M.; Sachpazi, Maria; Laigle, Mireille; Hirn, Alfred



Stratigraphy and rifting history of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Anza rift, Kenya  

SciTech Connect

Lithological and compositional relationships, thicknesses, and palynological data from drilling cuttings from five wells in the Anza rift, Kenya, indicate active rifting during the Late Cretaceous and Eocene-Oligocene. The earlier rifting possibly started in the Santonian-Coniacian, primarily occurred in the Campanian, and probably extended into the Maastrichtian. Anza rift sedimentation was in lacustrine, lacustrine-deltaic, fluvial, and flood-basin environments. Inferred synrift intervals in wells are shalier, thicker, more compositionally immature, and more poorly sorted than Lower Cretaceous ( )-lower Upper Cretaceous and upper Oligocene( )-Miocene interrift deposits. Synrift sandstone is mostly feldspathic or arkosic wacke. Sandstone deposited in the Anza basin during nonrift periods is mostly quartz arenite, and is coarser and has a high proportion of probable fluvial deposits relative to other facies. Volcanic debris is absent in sedimentary strata older than Pliocene-Holocene, although small Cretaceous intrusions are present in the basin. Cretaceous sandstone is cemented in places by laumontite, possibly recording Campanian extension. Early Cretaceous history of the Anza basin is poorly known because of the limited strata sampled; Jurassic units were not reached. Cretaceous rifting in the Anza basin was synchronous with rifting in Sudan and with the breakup and separation of South America and Africa; these events likely were related. Eocene-Oligocene extension in the Anza basin reflects different stresses. The transition from active rifting to passive subsidence in the Anza basin at the end of the Neogene, in turn, records a reconfigured response of east African plates to stresses and is correlated with formation of the East Africa rift.

Winn, R.D. Jr.; Steinmetz, J.C. (Marathon Oil Co., Littleton, CO (United States)); Kerekgyarto, W.L. (Marathon Oil Co., Houston, TX (United States))



The aeromagnetic method as a tool to identify Cenozoic magmatism in the West Antarctic Rift System beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet — A review; Thiel subglacial volcano as possible source of the ash layer in the WAISCORE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) flows through the volcanically active West Antarctic Rift System (WARS). The aeromagnetic method has been the most useful geophysical tool for identification of subglacial volcanic rocks, since 1959-64 surveys, particularly combined with 1978 radar ice-sounding. The unique 1991-97 Central West Antarctica (CWA) aerogeophysical survey covering 354,000 km2 over the WAIS, (5-km line-spaced, orthogonal lines of aeromagnetic, radar ice-sounding, and aerogravity measurements), still provides invaluable information on subglacial volcanic rocks, particularly combined with the older aeromagnetic profiles. These data indicate numerous 100->1000 nT, 5-50-km width, shallow-source, magnetic anomalies over an area greater than 1.2 × 106 km2, mostly from subglacial volcanic sources. I interpreted the CWA anomalies as defining about 1000 "volcanic centers" requiring high remanent normal magnetizations in the present field direction. About 400 anomaly sources correlate with bed topography. At least 80% of these sources have less than 200 m relief at the WAIS bed. They appear modified by moving ice, requiring a younger age than the WAIS (about 25 Ma). Exposed volcanoes in the WARS are < 34 Ma, but at least four are active. If a few buried volcanic centers are active, subglacial volcanism may well affect the WAIS regime. Aerogeophysical data (Blankenship et al., 1993, Mt. Casertz; Corr and Vaughan, 2008, near Hudson Mts.) indicated active subglacial volcanism. Magnetic data indicate a caldera and a surrounding "low" in the WAISCORE vicinity possibly the result of a shallow Curie isotherm. High heat flow reported from temperature logging in the WAISCORE (Conway et al., 2011; Clow, personal commun.) and a volcanic ash layer (Dunbar, 2012) are consistent with this interpretation. A subaerially erupted subglacial volcano, (Mt Thiel), about 100 km distant, may be the ash source. The present rapid changes resulting from global warming, could be accelerated by subglacial volcanism.

Behrendt, John C.



Tertiary arc rifting in northern Luzon, Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The North Luzon terrane (NLT), comprising the section of Luzon north of the Philippine Fault, is one of the largest arc terranes in the Philippine Archipelago. Numerous features suggest that the NLT is a late Oligocene to early Miocene analogue for the processes in the modern intra-arc rift zone at the northern end of the Mariana Trough. First, the NLT

Federico F. Florendo



Rift Valley Fever, Mayotte, 2007-2008  

PubMed Central

After the 2006–2007 epidemic wave of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in East Africa and its circulation in the Comoros, laboratory case-finding of RVF was conducted in Mayotte from September 2007 through May 2008. Ten recent human RVF cases were detected, which confirms the indigenous transmission of RFV virus in Mayotte. PMID:19331733

Giry, Claude; Gabrie, Philippe; Tarantola, Arnaud; Pettinelli, Francois; Collet, Louis; D'Ortenzio, Eric; Renault, Philippe; Pierre, Vincent



Late Paleozoic Rifting in northern Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metasedimentary rocks exposed in the eastern Peshawar basin and the southern Swat region of northern Pakistan provide evidence for late Paleozoic continental rifting. The onset of extensional tectonics in the Early Carboniferous is indicated by north derived clasts in the Jafar Kandao Formation eroded from thermally induced uplifts of parts of the formerly passive margin of Gondwana. Rift highlands were eroded until they were inundated during the Middle Carboniferous. Renewed uplift accompanied the eruption of basaltic lava flows during the Early Permian. Uplift along south dipping, northeast striking normal faults during the Carboniferous was accompanied by alkaline magmatism represented by the Shewa-Shahbazgarhi and Warsak porphyries and Koga syenite. Geochemistry of basaltic flows (now amphibolites) and intrusions associated with Permian uplift is similar to the coeval Panjal volcanics of northwestern India and indicates rift zone magmatism. Postrifting thermal subsidence led to the deposition of Upper Triassic marine carbonate rocks which unconformably overlie the rift basalts. A similar tectonic history in central Afghanistan suggests continuity between the two regions prior to the opening of the Neo-Tethys.

Pogue, Kevin R.; Dipietro, Joseph A.; Khan, Said Rahim; Hughes, Scott S.; Dilles, John H.; Lawrence, Robert D.



Longitudinal evolution of Suez rift structure, Egypt  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional study of the structure of the Suez Rift has been carried out using field and subsurface data in an attempt to determine the role of transverse faults and the longitudinal evolution of the rift. As in most intracontinental rifts, the structure of the Gulf of Suez area is governed by normal faults and tilted blocks, whose crests constitute the main target of exploratory wells. The fault pattern consists of two major sets of trends: (1) longitudinal faults parallel with the rift axis and created in an extensional regime, trending east-northeast-west-southwest, and (2) transverse faults with north-south to north-northeast-south-southwest dominant trend. The transverse faults are inherited passive discontinuities, whereas most of the longitudinal faults were created during the Neogene in a purely extensional regime. Both sets were simultaneously active, producing a zigzag pattern and rhombic-shaped blocks. The transverse faults can show horizontal strike-slip components and act as relays between major normal faults.

Colletta, B.; Le Quellec, P.; Letouzey, J.; Moretti, I.



Submarine Thermal Springs on the Galapagos Rift  

Microsoft Academic Search

The submarine hydrothermal activity on and near the Galapagos Rift has been explored with the aid of the deep submersible Alvin. Analyses of water samples from hydrothermal vents reveal that hydrothermal activity provides significant or dominant sources and sinks for several components of seawater; studies of conductive and convective heat transfer suggest that two-thirds of the heat lost from new

John B. Corliss; Jack Dymond; Louis I. Gordon; John M. Edmond; Richard P. von Herzen; Robert D. Ballard; Kenneth Green; David Williams; Arnold Bainbridge; Kathy Crane; Tjeerd H. van Andel



How do volcanic rift zones relate to flank instability? Evidence from collapsing rifts at Etna  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic rift zones, characterized by repeated dike emplacements, are expected to delimit the upper portion of unstable flanks at basaltic edifices. We use nearly two decades of InSAR observations excluding wintertime acquisitions, to analyze the relationships between rift zones, dike emplacement and flank instability at Etna. The results highlight a general eastward shift of the volcano summit, including the northeast and south rifts. This steady-state eastward movement (1-2 cm/yr) is interrupted or even reversed during transient dike injections. Detailed analysis of the northeast rift shows that only during phases of dike injection, as in 2002, does the rift transiently becomes the upper border of the unstable flank. The flank's steady-state eastward movement is inferred to result from the interplay between magmatic activity, asymmetric topographic unbuttressing, and east-dipping detachment geometry at its base. This study documents the first evidence of steady-state volcano rift instability interrupted by transient dike injection at basaltic edifices.

Ruch, Joel; Pepe, Susi; Casu, Francesco; Acocella, Valerio; Neri, Marco; Solaro, Giuseppe; Sansosti, Eugenio



Melt-induced seismic anisotropy and magma assisted rifting in Ethiopia: Evidence from surface waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The East African rift in Ethiopia is unique worldwide because it captures the final stages of transition from continental rifting to seafloor spreading. A recent study there has shown that magma intrusion plays an important role during the final stages of continental breakup, but the mechanism by which it is incorporated into the extending plate remains ambiguous: wide-angle seismic data and complementary geophysical tools such as gravity analysis are not strongly sensitive to the geometry of subsurface melt intrusions. Studies of shear wave splitting in near-vertical SKS phases beneath the transitional Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) provide strong and consistent evidence for a rift-parallel fast anisotropic direction. However, it is difficult to discriminate between oriented melt pocket (OMP) and lattice preferred orientation (LPO) causes of anisotropy based on SKS study alone. The speeds of horizontally propagating Love (SH) and Rayleigh (SV) waves vary in similar fashions with azimuth for LPO- and OMP-induced anisotropy, but their relative change is distinctive for each mechanism. This diagnostic is exploited by studying the propagation of surface waves from a suite of azimuths across the MER. Anisotropy is roughly perpendicular to the absolute plate motion direction, thus ruling out anisotropy due to the slowly moving African Plate. Instead, three mechanisms for anisotropy act beneath the MER: periodic thin layering of seismically fast and slow material in the uppermost ˜10 km, OMP between ˜20-75 km depth, and olivine LPO in the upper mantle beneath. The results are explained best by a model in which low aspect ratio melt inclusions (dykes and veins) are being intruded into an extending plate during late stage breakup. The observations from Ethiopia join a growing body of evidence from rifts and passive margins worldwide that shows magma intrusion plays an important role in accommodating extension without marked crustal thinning.

Bastow, I. D.; Pilidou, S.; Kendall, J.-M.; Stuart, G. W.



Fault Growth and Propagation and its Effect on Surficial Processes within the Incipient Okavango Rift Zone, Northwest Botswana, Africa (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Okavango Rift Zone (ORZ) is suggested to be a zone of incipient continental rifting occuring at the distal end of the southwestern branch of the East African Rift System (EARS), therefore providing a unique opportunity to investigate neotectonic processes during the early stages of rifting. We used geophysical (aeromagnetic, magnetotelluric), Shuttle Radar Tomography Mission, Digital Elevation Model (SRTM-DEM), and sedimentological data to characterize the growth and propagation of faults associated with continental extension in the ORZ, and to elucidate the interplay between neotectonics and surficial processes. The results suggest that: (1) fault growth occurs by along axis linkage of fault segments, (2) an immature border fault is developing through the process of “Fault Piracy” by fault-linkages between major fault systems, (3) significant discrepancies exits between the height of fault scarps and the throws across the faults compared to their lengths in the basement, (4) utilization of preexisting zones of weakness allowed the development of very long faults (> 25-100 km) at a very early stage of continental rifting, explaining the apparent paradox between the fault length versus throw for this young rift, (5) active faults are characterized by conductive anomalies resulting from fluids, whereas, inactive faults show no conductivity anomaly; and 6) sedimentlogical data reveal a major perturbation in lake sedimentation between 41 ka and 27 ka. The sedimentation perturbation is attributed to faulting associated with the rifting and may have resulted in the alteration of hydrology forming the modern day Okavango delta. We infer that this time period may represent the age of the latest rift reactivation and fault growth and propagation within the ORZ.

Atekwana, E. A.



Depositional character of a dry-climate alluvial fan system from Palaeoproterozoic rift setting using facies architecture and palaeohydraulics: Example from the Par Formation, Gwalior Group, central India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ?20 m thick coarse-grained clastic succession in the basal part of Palaeoproterozoic Par Formation, Gwalior Group has been investigated using process-based sedimentology and deductive palaeohydraulics. Bounded between granitic basement at its base and shallow marine succession at the top, the studied stratigraphic interval represents products of an alluvial fan and its strike-wise co-existent braided river system that possibly acted as a tributary for the fan. Detailed facies, facies association analysis allowed identification of two anatomical parts for the fan system viz. proximal and mid fan. While thin proximal fan is represented by products of rock avalanche and hyperconcentrated flows with widely varying rheology, the mid fan is represented by products of sheet floods and flows within streamlets. The interpretation found support from palaeoslope estimation carried out on the fluvial part of the mid fan that plot dominantly within the alluvial fan field demarcated by Blair and McPherson (1994). Dry climatic condition suggested from dominance of stream flow over mass flow deposition within the Par alluvial fan. Strike-wise, the fan is discontinuous and juxtaposed with a braid plain system. In contrast to the fluvial part of fan system, the palaeoslope data from the braid plain system dominantly plot within the ‘natural depositional gap' defined by Blair and McPherson. A raised palaeoslope for the river systems, as suggested from Proterozoic braid plain deposits around the Globe, is found valid for the Par braid plain system as well. From preponderance of granular and sandy sediments within the alluvial fan and braid plain systems and a pervasive north-westward palaeocurrent pattern within the fluvial systems the present study infers a gently sloping bevelled source area in the south-southeast of the basin with occurrence of steep cliffs only locally.

Chakraborty, Partha Pratim; Paul, Pritam



Coexistence of phases in final one-dimensional systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the framework of L.D. Landau (1908-1968) approach it is shown, that two-phase equilibrium is possible in linear macrosystems of the final size at low temperatures. At further downturn of temperature two-phase equilibrium becomes unstable and the system passes in a single-phase state. These results remain in force and at the account of interaction of interphase borders with each other and with the ends of linear system. Following Landau [1] we shall consider the linear system made of alternating pieces of two various phases. Points of contact between various phases (interphase borders) we shall present as a weak solution. For linear system of the limited size L (L>> 1) at low temperatures a single-phase state is stable. The increase in temperature will lead to phase transition of the first order in a two-phase state. The original cascade of phase transitions of the first order, because of increase of quantity of interphase border of item will be observed actually. 1. L.D.Landau, E.M.Lifshits. Theoretical physics. Statistical physics. A part 1. 4 edition. Moscow (In Russian): the Science publisher, 1995.

Udodov, Vladimir; Naumov, Ivan



Strain distribution across magmatic margins during the breakup stage: Seismicity patterns in the Afar rift zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fault patterns record the strain history along passive continental margins, but geochronological constraints are, in general, too sparse to evaluate these patterns in 3D. The Afar depression in Ethiopia provides a unique setting to evaluate the time and space relations between faulting and magmatism across an incipient passive margin that formed above a mantle plume. The margin comprises a high elevation flood basalt province with thick, underplated continental crust, a narrow fault-line escarpment underlain by stretched and intruded crust, and a broad zone of highly intruded, mafic crust lying near sealevel. We analyze fault and seismicity patterns across and along the length of the Afar rift zone to determine the spatial distribution of strain during the final stages of continental breakup, and its relation to active magmatism and dike intrusions. Seismicity data include historic data and 2005-2007 data from the collaborative US-UK-Ethiopia Afar Geodynamics Project that includes the 2005-present Dabbahu rift episode. Earthquake epicenters cluster within discrete, 50 km-long magmatic segments that lack any fault linkage. Swarms also cluster along the fault-line scarp between the unstretched and highly stretched Afar rift zone; these earthquakes may signal release of stresses generated by large lateral density contrasts. We compare Coulomb static stress models with focal mechanisms and fault kinematics to discriminate between segmented magma intrusion and crank- arm models for the central Afar rift zone.

Brown, C.; Ebinger, C. J.; Belachew, M.; Gregg, T.; Keir, D.; Ayele, A.; Aronovitz, A.; Campbell, E.



Practical reliability and uncertainty quantification in complex systems : final report.  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to investigate the use of Bayesian methods for the estimation of the reliability of complex systems. The goals were to find methods for dealing with continuous data, rather than simple pass/fail data; to avoid assumptions of specific probability distributions, especially Gaussian, or normal, distributions; to compute not only an estimate of the reliability of the system, but also a measure of the confidence in that estimate; to develop procedures to address time-dependent or aging aspects in such systems, and to use these models and results to derive optimal testing strategies. The system is assumed to be a system of systems, i.e., a system with discrete components that are themselves systems. Furthermore, the system is 'engineered' in the sense that each node is designed to do something and that we have a mathematical description of that process. In the time-dependent case, the assumption is that we have a general, nonlinear, time-dependent function describing the process. The major results of the project are described in this report. In summary, we developed a sophisticated mathematical framework based on modern probability theory and Bayesian analysis. This framework encompasses all aspects of epistemic uncertainty and easily incorporates steady-state and time-dependent systems. Based on Markov chain, Monte Carlo methods, we devised a computational strategy for general probability density estimation in the steady-state case. This enabled us to compute a distribution of the reliability from which many questions, including confidence, could be addressed. We then extended this to the time domain and implemented procedures to estimate the reliability over time, including the use of the method to predict the reliability at a future time. Finally, we used certain aspects of Bayesian decision analysis to create a novel method for determining an optimal testing strategy, e.g., we can estimate the 'best' location to take the next test to minimize the risk of making a wrong decision about the fitness of a system. We conclude this report by proposing additional fruitful areas of research.

Grace, Matthew D.; Ringland, James T.; Marzouk, Youssef M. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA); Boggs, Paul T.; Zurn, Rena M.; Diegert, Kathleen V. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Pebay, Philippe Pierre; Red-Horse, John Robert (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)



The Late Paleozoic Southern Margin of the Siberian paleocontinent: transformation from an active continental margin to intracontinental rifting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large volcanoplutonic belt was formed on the southern margin of Siberian paleocontinent in the Early Carboniferous-Early Permian. Now it's stretched through whole Mongolia and the adjacent region of China. In the belt structure there are defined the successive rock complexes: the older one represented by differentiated basalt-andesite-rhyodacite series and younger bimodal complex of basalt-comendite-trachyrhyolite composition. The granodiorite-plagiogranite and diorite-monzonite-granodiorite plutonic massifs are associated with the former, while peralkaline granite massifs are characteristic of the latter. Geochronological results and geological relations between rocks of the bimodal and differentiated complexes showed first that rocks of the differentiated complex originated 350 to 330 Ma ago at the initial stage of forming of the marginal continental belt, linked with development active continental margin. This is evident from geochronological dates obtained for the Adzh-Bogd and Edrengiyn-Nuruu massifs and for volcanic associations of the complex. The dates are consistent with paleontological data. The bimodal association was formed later, 320 to 290 Ma ago. The time span separating formation of two igneous complexes ranges from several to 20-30 m.y. in different areas of the marginal belt. The bimodal magmatism was interrelated with rifting responsible for development of the Gobi-Tien Shan rift zone in the belt axial part and the Main Mongolian lineament along the belt northern boundary. Loci of bimodal rift magmatism likely migrated with time: the respective magmatic activity first initiated on the west of the rift system and then advanced gradually eastward with development of rift structures. Normal granitoids untypical but occurring nevertheless among the products of rift magmatism in addition to peralkaline massifs are assumed to have been formed, when the basic magmatism associated with rifting stimulated crustal anatexis and generation of crustal granitoid magmas under specific conditions of rifting within the active continental margin.

Kozlovsky, A. M.; Yarmolyuk, V. V.; Sal'Nikova, E. B.



Kinematics of the Ethiopian Rift and Absolute motion of Africa and Somalia Plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ethiopian Rift (ER), in the northern part of East African Rift System (EARS), forms a boundary zone accommodating differential motion between Africa and Somalia Plates. Its orientation was influenced by the inherited Pan-African collisional system and related lithospheric fabric. We present the kinematics of ER derived from compilation of geodetic velocities, focal mechanism inversions, structural data analysis, and construction of geological profiles. GPS velocity field shows a systematic eastward magnitude increase in NE direction in the central ER. In the same region, incremental extensional strain axes recorded by earthquake focal mechanism and fault slip inversion show ?N1000E orientation. This deviation between GPS velocity trajectories and orientation of incremental extensional strain is developed due to left lateral transtensional deformation. This interpretation is consistent with the en-échelon pattern of tensional and transtensional faults, the distribution of the volcanic centers, and the asymmetry of the rift itself. Small amount of vertical axis blocks rotation, sinistral strike slip faults and dyke intrusions in the rift accommodate the transtensional deformation. We analyzed the kinematics of ER relative to Deep and Shallow Hot Spot Reference Frames (HSRF). Comparison between the two reference frames shows different kinematics in ER and also Africa and Somalia plate motion both in magnitude and direction. Plate spreading direction in shallow HSRF (i.e. the source of the plumes locates in the asthenosphere) and the trend of ER deviate by about 27°. Shearing and extension across the plate boundary zone contribute both to the style of deformation and overall kinematics in the rift. We conclude that the observed long wavelength kinematics and tectonics are consequences of faster SW ward motion of Africa than Somalia in the shallow HSRF. This reference frame seems more consistent with the geophysical and geological constraints in the Rift. The faster SW motion of Africa with respect to Somalia plate is due to a possibly lower viscosity in the top asthenosphere (Low-Velocity Zone) beneath Africa. These findings have significant implications for the evolution of continental rifting in transtensional settings and provide evidence for the kinematics and tectonics of the Ethiopian rift in the context of the Africa-Somalia plate interaction in the mantle reference frame.

Muluneh, A. A.; Cuffaro, M.; Doglioni, C.



First Evidence of Epithermal Gold Occurrences in the SE Afar Rift, Republic of Djibouti  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Republic of Djibouti, located at the SE part of the Afar volcanic Triangle, is characterized by intense tectonic and bimodal volcanic activity, and is emplaced over an earlier magmatic rift system, as old as 25-30 Ma. Each magmatic event is accompanied by hydrothermal activity. Few works have been so far published on hydrothermal mineralization in the Afar area. Mineralization

Nima Moussa; Yves Fouquet; Antoine Marie Caminiti; Bernard Le Gall; Joel Rolet; Marcel Bohn; Joel Etoubleau; Christophe Delacourt; Mohamed Jalludin



Why farm the city? Theorizing urban agriculture through a lens of metabolic rift  

E-print Network

Why farm the city? Theorizing urban agriculture through a lens of metabolic rift Nathan Mc, urban farming JEL Classifications: Q, R Introduction Part of the momentum surrounding food system, Received on July 15, 2009; accepted on December 14, 2009 Urban agriculture (UA


Modelling the lithospheric rheology control on Cretaceous rifting in West Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-scale analogue models were used to investigate the process of Cretaceous orthogonal extension in the West Antarctic Rift System. The models considered the transition from the East Antarctic Craton to a weaker lithosphere, and the results support previous hypotheses about the strong control exerted by lateral variations in lithospheric structures on the process of extension. Strain was mostly accommodated at

Marco Bonini; Giacomo Corti; C. DelVentisette; Piero Manetti; Genene Mulugeta; Dimitrios Sokoutis



Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) Munition Classification System enhancements. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) is a non-destructive evaluation technology developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This technology has resulted in three generations of instrumentation, funded by the Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA), specifically designed for field identification of chemical weapon (CW) munitions. Each generation of ARS instrumentation was developed with a specific user in mind. The ARS1OO was built for use by the U.N. Inspection Teams going into Iraq immediately after the Persian Gulf War. The ARS200 was built for use in the US-Russia Bilateral Chemical Weapons Treaty (the primary users for this system are the US Onsite Inspection Agency (OSIA) and their Russian counterparts). The ARS300 was built with the requirements of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in mind. Each successive system is an improved version of the previous system based on learning the weaknesses of each and, coincidentally, on the fact that more time was available to do a requirements analysis and the necessary engineering development. The ARS300 is at a level of development that warrants transferring the technology to a commercial vendor. Since LANL will supply the computer software to the selected vendor, it is possible for LANL to continue to improve the decision algorithms, add features where necessary, and adjust the user interface before the final transfer occurs. This paper describes the current system, ARS system enhancements, and software enhancements. Appendices contain the Operations Manual (software Version 3.01), and two earlier reports on enhancements.

Vela, O.A.; Huggard, J.C.



Seismic anisotropy and mantle flow beneath the Baikal rift zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SEISMIC studies have shown that continental rifts such as Lake Baikal and the Great Rift Valley of East Africa are like mid-ocean rifts in that they lie above broad regions of asthenospheric upvvarp of much greater extent than the surface expression of rifting1-4. The direction of mantle flow in such regions can be investigated using the seismic anisotropy created by flow-induced orientation of mantle olivine crystals5-8. Seismic studies of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge have revealed upwelling mantle flow beneath the ridge and flow normal to the ridge axis on either side8-10. Here we present results from an array of seismic stations across the Baikal rift zone in southern Siberia. The splitting in arrival times of SKS seismic waves indicates that the upper mantle beneath the rift zone is anisotropic, with the fast direction (which reflects the direction of mantle flow) being horizontal and normal to the rift axis. This suggests that the broad upwarp associated with this continental rift is caused by similar mantle flow to that at mid- ocean rifts. This may help to elucidate the processes involved in continental rifting.

Gao, S.; Davis, P. M.; Liu, H.; Slack, P. D.; Zorin, Yu. A.; Mordvinova, V. V.; Kozhevnikov, V. M.; Meyer, R. P.



On the Interaction of a Vigorous Hydrothermal System with an Active Magma Chamber: The Puna Magma Chamber, Kilauea East Rift, Hawaii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extent of the interaction between hydrothermal systems and active magma chambers has long been of fundamental interest to the development of ore deposits, cooling of magma chambers, and dehydration of the subducting lithosphere. As volatiles build up in the residual magma in the trailing edge of magmatic solidification fronts, is it possible that volatiles are transferred from the active magma to the hydrothermal system and vice versa? Does the external fracture front associated with vigorous hydrothermal systems sometimes propagate into the solidification front, facilitating volatile exchange? Or is the magma always sealed at temperatures above some critical level related to rock strength and overpressure? The degree of hydrothermal interaction in igneous systems is generally gauged in post mortem studies of ?18O and ?D, where it has been assumed that a fracture front develops about the magma collapsing inward with cooling. H.P. Taylor and D. Norton's (1979; J. Petrol.)seminal work inferred that rocks are sealed with approach to the solidus and there is little to no direct interaction with external volatiles in the active magma. In active lava lakes a fracture front develops in response to thermal contraction of the newly formed rock once the temperature drops to ~950°C (Peck and Kinoshita,1976;USGS PP935A); rainfall driven hydrothermal systems flash to steam near the 100 °C isotherm in the solidified lake and have little effect on the cooling history (Peck et al., 1977; AJS). Lava lakes are fully degassed magmas and until the recent discovery of the Puna Magma Chamber (Teplow et al., 2008; AGU) no active magma was known at sufficiently great pressure to contain original volatiles. During the course of routine drilling of an injection well at the Puna Geothermal Venture (PGV) well-field, Big Island, Hawaii, a 75-meter interval of diorite containing brown glass inclusions was penetrated at a depth of 2415 m, continued drilling to 2488 m encountered a melt of dacitic composition of ~67 wt.% SiO2. The melt flowed up the borehole, quenched, and was repeatedly re-drilled over a depth interval of ~8 m, producing several kilograms of clear, colorless vitric cuttings. The melt is of low crystallinity, vesicle-free, at a minimum temperature of ~865°C, and with an apparent viscosity of ~106.5 Pa-s. The magma is separated from the deepest hydrothermal regime at 356°C by 526 m of sealed rock. Heat flux from the magma into the overlying geothermal reservoir at ~2784 mW/m2 is an order of magnitude greater than that for mid-ocean ridges. Typical Hawaiian basalt contains ~0.25 wt.% water. The dacite melt contains ~2.44 wt.% water, and is of normal magmatic ?18O (5.4 ‰) and ?D (-61.8‰), which is in contrast to the surrounding hydrothermal waters. A similar preliminary analysis of the water content in the altered basalt just outside the sealed zone shows it to heavily hydrated (~4.94 wt.%) and altered by the hydrothermal field. This suggests that volatile under-saturated magmas are sealed with respect to hydrothermal fields and deeper systems may be even more strongly sealed.

Gregory, R. T.; Marsh, B. D.; Teplow, W.; Fournelle, J.



FY 93 Thermal Loading Systems Study Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Thermal Loading Systems Study being conducted by the is to identify a thermal strategy that will meet the performance requirements for waste isolation and will be safe and licensable. Specifically, both postclosure and preclosure performance standards must be met by the thermal loading strategy ultimately selected. In addition cost and schedule constraints must be considered. The Systems Engineering approach requires structured, detailed analyses that will ultimately provide the technical basis for the development, integration, and evaluation of the overall system, not just a subelement of that system. It is also necessary that the systems study construct options from within the range that are allowed within the current legislative and programmatic framework. For example the total amount of fuel that can legally be emplaced is no more than 70,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU) which is composed of 63,000 MTU spent fuel and 7,000 MTU of defense high level waste. It is the intent of this study to begin the structured development of the basis for a thermal loading decision. However, it is recognized that to be able to make a final decision on thermal loading will require underground data on the effects of heating as well as a suite of ''validated'' models. It will be some time before these data and models are available to the program. Developing a final, thermal loading decision will, therefore, be an iterative process. In the interim, the objective of the thermal loading systems study has been to utilize the information available to assess the impact of thermal loading. Where technical justification exists, recommendations to narrow the range of thermal loading options can be made. Additionally, recommendations as to the type of testing and accuracy of the testing needed to establish the requisite information will be made. A constraint on the ability of the study to select an option stems from the lack of primary hard data, uncertainties in derived data, unsubstantiated models, and the inability to fully consider simultaneously coupled processes. As such, the study must rely on idealized models and available data to compare the thermal loading options. This report presents the findings of the FY 1993 MGDS Thermal Loading Systems Study. The objectives of the study were to: (1) if justified, place bounds on the thermal loading which would establish the loading that is ''too hot''; (2) ''grade'' or evaluate the performance as a function of thermal loading of the potential repository to contain high level spent nuclear fuel against performance criteria; (3) evaluate the performance of the various options with respect to cost, safety, and operability; and (4) recommend the additional types of tests and/or analyses to be conducted to provide the necessary information for a thermal loading selection.

S.F. Saterlie



Commercial thermal distribution systems, Final report for CIEE/CEC  

SciTech Connect

According to the California Energy Commission (CEC 1998a), California commercial buildings account for 35% of statewide electricity consumption, and 16% of statewide gas consumption. Space conditioning accounts for roughly 16,000 GWh of electricity and 800 million therms of natural gas annually, and the vast majority of this space conditioning energy passes through thermal distribution systems in these buildings. In addition, 8600 GWh per year is consumed by fans and pumps in commercial buildings, most of which is used to move the thermal energy through these systems. Research work at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been ongoing over the past five years to investigate the energy efficiency of these thermal distribution systems, and to explore possibilities for improving that energy efficiency. Based upon that work, annual savings estimates of 1 kWh/ft{sup 2} for light commercial buildings, and 1-2 kWh/ft{sup 2} in large commercial buildings have been developed for the particular aspects of thermal distribution system performance being addressed by this project. Those savings estimates, combined with a distribution of the building stock based upon an extensive stock characterization study (Modera et al. 1999a), and technical penetration estimates, translate into statewide saving potentials of 2000 GWh/year and 75 million thermal/year, as well as an electricity peak reduction potential of 0.7 GW. The overall goal of this research program is to provide new technology and application knowledge that will allow the design, construction, and energy services industries to reduce the energy waste associated with thermal distribution systems in California commercial buildings. The specific goals of the LBNL efforts over the past year were: (1) to advance the state of knowledge about system performance and energy losses in commercial-building thermal distribution systems; (2) to evaluate the potential of reducing thermal losses through duct sealing, duct insulation, and improved equipment sizing; and (3) to develop and evaluate innovative techniques applicable to large buildings for sealing ducts and encapsulating internal duct insulation. In the UCB fan project, the goals were: (1) to develop a protocol for testing, analyzing and diagnosing problems in large commercial building built-up air handling systems, and (2) to develop low-cost measurement techniques to improve short term monitoring practices. To meet our stated goals and objectives, this project: (1) continued to investigate and characterize the performance of thermal distribution systems in commercial buildings; (2) performed energy analyses and evaluation for duct-performance improvements for both small and large commercial buildings; (3) developed aerosol injection technologies for both duct sealing and liner encapsulation in commercial buildings; and (4) designed energy-related diagnostic protocols based on short term measurement and used a benchmarking database to compare subject systems with other measured systems for certain performance metrics. This year's efforts consisted of the following distinct tasks: performing characterization measurements for five light commercial building systems and five large-commercial-building systems; analyzing the potential for including duct performance in California's Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential and Non-Residential Buildings (Title 24), including performing energy and equipment sizing analyses of air distribution systems using DOE 2.1E for non-residential buildings; conducting laboratory experiments, field experiments, and modeling of new aerosol injection technologies concepts for sealing and coating, including field testing aerosol-based sealing in two large commercial buildings; improving low-cost fan monitoring techniques measurements, and disseminating fan tools by working with energy practitioners directly where possible and publishing the results of this research and the tools developed on a web-site. The final report consists of five sections listed below. Each section includes its related

Xu, Tengfang; Bechu, Olivier; Carrie, Remi; Dickerhoff, Darryl; Fisk, William; Franconi, Ellen; Kristiansen, Oyvind; Levinson, Ronnen; McWilliams, Jennifer; Wang, Duo; Modera, Mark; Webster, Tom; Ring, Erik; Zhang, Qiang; Huizenga, Charlie; Bauman, Fred; Arens, Ed



The pathogenesis of Rift Valley fever.  


Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging zoonotic disease distributed in sub-Saharan African countries and the Arabian Peninsula. The disease is caused by the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) of the family Bunyaviridae and the genus Phlebovirus. The virus is transmitted by mosquitoes, and virus replication in domestic ruminant results in high rates of mortality and abortion. RVFV infection in humans usually causes a self-limiting, acute and febrile illness; however, a small number of cases progress to neurological disorders, partial or complete blindness, hemorrhagic fever, or thrombosis. This review describes the pathology of RVF in human patients and several animal models, and summarizes the role of viral virulence factors and host factors that affect RVFV pathogenesis. PMID:21666766

Ikegami, Tetsuro; Makino, Shinji



The Pathogenesis of Rift Valley Fever  

PubMed Central

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging zoonotic disease distributed in sub-Saharan African countries and the Arabian Peninsula. The disease is caused by the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) of the family Bunyaviridae and the genus Phlebovirus. The virus is transmitted by mosquitoes, and virus replication in domestic ruminant results in high rates of mortality and abortion. RVFV infection in humans usually causes a self-limiting, acute and febrile illness; however, a small number of cases progress to neurological disorders, partial or complete blindness, hemorrhagic fever, or thrombosis. This review describes the pathology of RVF in human patients and several animal models, and summarizes the role of viral virulence factors and host factors that affect RVFV pathogenesis. PMID:21666766

Ikegami, Tetsuro; Makino, Shinji



Rifted Margins: Building Blocks of Later Collision  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Rifted margins develop by the splitting apart of continents and form the trailing edges of ocean basins, to be incorporated\\u000a into collision zones when those basins eventually close. Magma-poor margins are dominated by tectonic processes, including\\u000a crustal extension and thinning, mantle serpentinization and the unroofing of broad expanses of lithospheric mantle. Magma\\u000a rich margins may follow a similar history until

T. Reston; G. Manatschal


The influence of large-scale mantle flow on the dynamics of the East African Rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because the Nubia/Somalia plate system is almost entirely surrounded by spreading ridges in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, Earth's mantle buoyancies are thought to play a key role in the dynamics of East Africa rifting. While this notion is supported by images of large-scale mantle structures beneath Africa from seismic tomography, the details of the force balance driving continental rifting are still debated. In particular, the contribution of gravitational potential energy (GPE) associated with continental topography in driving ~E-W extension across the East African Rift remains elusive. The Nubia/Somalia divergent boundary therefore presents a unique opportunity to quantify in detail plate-driving forces associated with 1) mantle buoyancies acting at the base of the African lithosphere and 2) lateral GPE gradients within the lithosphere. In this study we employ numerical models of the mantle/lithosphere system to test explicitly the contribution of mantle convection to the dynamics of rifting in East Africa. Preliminary results suggest that such contribution may be smaller than previously thought, and that forces arising from GPE gradients may control surface deformation in East Africa.

Stamps, D. S.; Iaffaldano, G.; Calais, E.



The South China sea margins: Implications for rifting contrasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implications regarding spatially complex continental rifting, crustal extension, and the subsequent evolution to seafloor spreading are re-examined for the northern and southern-rifted margins of the South China Sea. Previous seismic studies have shown dramatic differences in the present-day crustal thicknesses as the manifestations of the strain experienced during the rifting of the margin of south China. Although the total crustal

Dennis E. Hayes; Susan S. Nissen



Optical Diagnostic System for Solar Sails: Phase 1 Final Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's In-Space Propulsion program recently selected AEC-ABLE Engineering and L'Garde, Inc. to develop scale-model solar sail hardware and demonstrate its functionality on the ground. Both are square sail designs with lightweight diagonal booms (<100 g/m) and ultra-thin membranes (<10 g/sq m). To support this technology, the authors are developing an integrated diagnostics instrumentation package for monitoring solar sail structures such as these in a near-term flight experiment. We refer to this activity as the "Optical Diagnostic System (ODS) for Solar Sails" project. The approach uses lightweight optics and photogrammetric techniques to measure solar sail membrane and boom shape and dynamics, thermography to map temperature, and non-optical sensors including MEMS accelerometers and load cells. The diagnostics package must measure key structural characteristics including deployment dynamics, sail support tension, boom and sail deflection, boom and sail natural frequencies, sail temperature, and sail integrity. This report summarizes work in the initial 6-month Phase I period (conceptual design phase) and complements the final presentation given in Huntsville, AL on January 14, 2004.

Pappa, Richard S.; Blandino, Joseph R.; Caldwell, Douglas W.; Carroll, Joseph A.; Jenkins, Christopher H. M.; Pollock, Thomas C.



Development of the Barents Sea rift and its influence on sedimentation and hydrocarbon formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A special attention is given to the geodynamic active zone of the Barents Sea rift. Its development was accompanied by vigorous tectonic activity, propagation of deep faults, deep fractured zones that played an important role in fluid dynamic and thermobaric regime of the whole region. Geodynamic development of the Barents Sea rift not only played a substantial role in formation of as unique oil and gas fields as Shtokman, Prirazlomnoe and others, but created prerequisites for possible gas outbursts into near-surface sediments that could result, in some cases, in hydrocarbon formation. All the Barents Sea deposits are situated in the epicenter of the rift and, most important, over the zone of listric faults intersection, which set up a knot system over the mantle diapir. It is confirmed by prospecting seismology. Intrusion of hot mantle matter with further cooling down of abnormal lense might be a possible cause of appearance and evolution of ultradeep depressions. A high "seismic stratification" of the lower crust (nearly reaching the basement surface) at time scale about 8 sec. is typical for the deepest part of the depression. Supposing the "seismic stratified" lower crust correspond to "basalt" layer, this area is nearly upper crust ("granitic-gneiss") free. This fact confurmes conception on development of "granite free gaps" in the depression basement. Thick blocks of "seismically transparent" upper crust corresponding to the "granitic-gneiss" layer are marked out within Kolsk-Kanin monocline. An abrupt thickness decrease and appearance of "stratified" areas takes place at the southern edge of the depression. A filling of the over-rift sag with sediments, revival of the faults and their effect on the filtration processes and gas hydrates formation took place in the South Barents Sea depression. Repeating activation of the fault blocks in the basement, especially during late Jurassic - early Cretaceous period contributed to formation of the structures related to the greatest deposits of this depression. An extended field acoustic data collected in the Barents Sea led to understanding of general fundamental problems for all Arctic Seas and, first of all, the problem of Quaternary glaciations. An analysis of Eurasian-Arctic continental margin shows correspondence between the rift systems of the shelf with those of the ocean. This relation can be observed by an example of the central Arctic region. All the rift systems underlying the sediment basin are expressed in the sea bed relief as spacious and extensive graben valleys burnished by lobes. The rift structures and the sediment cover are connected by the systems of transversal (or oblique) faults. A study of the regional geologic structure of basins affords believing in the very complicated inner riftogenic structure of the base and the lower part of the sediment cover, which is represented by a combination of grabens and horsts bound by the same tectonic border in the form of high amplitude fault zones, and have a very high density of fault-fractured tectonics. In the same time, a branching of the rift structures related to rounding of large solid blocks of the crust, represented by Archaean or Baikal base prominences, takes place. Their frequent structural connection with the continental paleo-rift structures is ascertained, but the shelf rift system are not their straight prolongation and separated by base thresholds concealed under the sediment cover or by bulkheads expressed even in the modern relief. The information on geodynamic development of the region, thermal convection and modern sedimentation enable assessment of the real potentiality for underwater works in the region, potential gas hydrates resources, and will help to assign a strategy of prospecting work, to range the known fields, to carry out a regional survey for engineering work.

Balanyuk, Inna; Dmitrievsky, Anatoly; Shapovalov, Sergey; Chaikina, Olga



Variable styles of rifting expressed in crustal structure across three rift segments of the Gulf of California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a summary of results from a crustal-scale seismic experiment conducted in the southern Gulf of California. This experiment, the PESCADOR experiment, imaged crustal structure across three rift segments, the Alarcon, Guaymas, and San José del Cabo to Puerto Vallarta (Cabo-PV) segments, using seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection data acquired with airgun sources and recorded by closely spaced (10-15 km) ocean-bottom seismometers (OBSs). The imaged crustal structure reveals a surprisingly large variation in rifting style and magmatism between these segments: the Alarcon segment is a wide rift with apparently little syn-rift magmatism; the Guaymas segment is a narrow, magmatically robust rift; and the Cabo-PV segment is a narrow, magmatically "normal" rift. Our explanation for the observed variability is non-traditional in that we do not invoke mantle temperature, the factor commonly invoked to explain end-member volcanic and non-volcanic rifted margins, as the source of the considerable, though non-end-member variability we observe. Instead, we invoke mantle depletion related to pre-rift arc volcanism to account for observed wide, magma-poor rifting and mantle fertility and possibly the influence of sediments to account for robust rift and post-rift magmatism. These factors may commonly vary over small lateral spatial scales in regions that have transitioned from convergent to extensional tectonics, as is the case for the Gulf of California and many other rifts. Our hypothesis suggests that substantial lateral variability may exist within the uppermost mantle beneath the Gulf of California today, and it is hoped that ongoing efforts to image upper mantle structure here will provide tests for this hypothesis.

Lizarralde, D. D.; Axen, G. J.; Brown, H. E.; Fletcher, J. M.; Fernandez, A. G.; Harding, A. J.; Holbrook, W. S.; Kent, G. M.; Paramo, P.; Sutherland, F. H.; Umhoefer, P. J.



Geometry and growth of an inner rift fault pattern: the Kino Sogo Fault Belt, Turkana Rift (North Kenya)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantitative analysis is presented of the scaling properties of faults within the exceptionally well-exposed Kino Sogo Fault Belt (KSFB) from the eastern part of the 200-km-wide Turkana rift, Northern Kenya. The KSFB comprises a series of horsts and grabens within an arcuate 40-km-wide zone that dissects Miocene-Pliocene lavas overlying an earlier asymmetric fault block. The fault belt is ˜150 km long and is bounded to the north and south by transverse (N50°E and N140°E) fault zones. An unusual feature of the fault system is that it accommodates very low strains (<1%) and since it is no older than 3 Ma, it could be characterised by extension rates and strain rates that are as low as ˜0.1 mm/yr and 10 -16 s -1, respectively. Despite its immaturity, the fault system comprises segmented fault arrays with lengths of up to 40 km, with individual fault segments ranging up to ˜9 km in length. Fault length distributions subscribe to a negative exponential scaling law, as opposed to the power law scaling typical of other fault systems. The relatively long faults and segments are, however, characterised by maximum throws of no more than 100 m, providing displacement/length ratios that are significantly below those of other fault systems. The under-displaced nature of the fault system is attributed to early stage rapid fault propagation possibly arising from reactivation of earlier underlying basement fabrics/faults or magmatic-related fractures. Combined with the structural control exercised by pre-existing transverse structures, the KSFB demonstrates the strong influence of older structures on rift fault system growth and the relatively rapid development of under-displaced fault geometries at low strains.

Vétel, William; Le Gall, Bernard; Walsh, John J.


Plate-Based Fuel Processing System Final Report  

SciTech Connect

On-board reforming of liquid fuels into hydrogen is an enabling technology that could accelerate consumer usage of fuel cell powered vehicles. The technology would leverage the convenience of the existing gasoline fueling infrastructure while taking advantage of the fuel cell efficiency and low emissions. Commercial acceptance of on-board reforming faces several obstacles that include: (1) startup time, (2) transient response, and (3) system complexity (size, weight and cost). These obstacles are being addressed in a variety of projects through development, integration and optimization of existing fuel processing system designs. In this project, CESI investigated steam reforming (SR), water-gas-shift (WGS) and preferential oxidation (PrOx) catalysts while developing plate reactor designs and hardware where the catalytic function is integrated into a primary surface heat exchanger. The plate reactor approach has several advantages. The separation of the reforming and combustion streams permits the reforming reaction to be conducted at a higher pressure than the combustion reaction, thereby avoiding costly gas compression for combustion. The separation of the two streams also prevents the dilution of the reformate stream by the combustion air. The advantages of the plate reactor are not limited to steam reforming applications. In a WGS or PrOx reaction, the non-catalytic side of the plate would act as a heat exchanger to remove the heat generated by the exothermic WGS or PrOx reactions. This would maintain the catalyst under nearly isothermal conditions whereby the catalyst would operate at its optimal temperature. Furthermore, the plate design approach results in a low pressure drop, rapid transient capable and attrition-resistant reactor. These qualities are valued in any application, be it on-board or stationary fuel processing, since they reduce parasitic losses, increase over-all system efficiency and help perpetuate catalyst durability. In this program, CESI took the initial steam reforming plate-reactor concept and advanced it towards an integrated fuel processing system. A substantial amount of modeling was performed to guide the catalyst development and prototype hardware design and fabrication efforts. The plate-reactor mechanical design was studied in detail to establish design guidelines which would help the plate reactor survive the stresses of repeated thermal cycles (from start-ups and shut-downs). Integrated system performance modeling was performed to predict system efficiencies and determine the parameters with the most significant impact on efficiency. In conjunction with the modeling effort, a significant effort was directed towards catalyst development. CESI developed a highly active, sulfur tolerant, coke resistant, precious metal based reforming catalyst. CESI also developed its own non-precious metal based water-gas shift catalyst and demonstrated the catalysts durability over several thousands of hours of testing. CESI also developed a unique preferential oxidation catalyst capable of reducing 1% CO to < 10 ppm CO over a 35 C operating window through a single pass plate-based reactor. Finally, CESI combined the modeling results and steam reforming catalyst development efforts into prototype hardware. The first generation 3kW(e) prototype was fabricated from existing heat-exchanger plates to expedite the fabrication process. This prototype demonstrated steady state operation ranging from 5 to 100% load conditions. The prototype also demonstrated a 20:1 turndown ratio, 10:1 load transient operation and rapid start-up capability.

Carlos Faz; Helen Liu; Jacques Nicole; David Yee



Mean age of rifting and volcanism on Venus deduced from impact crater densities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UNLIKE the extensively cratered highlands of the Moon and Mars, the surface of Venus does not preserve a record of heavy bombard-ment from the early history of the Solar System1-3. Those craters that are found on Venus appear to be statistically indistinguishable from a random spatial population and rarely show modification by folds, faults and lava flows1-3. Although the volcanic and tec-tonic history of Venus is still much debated2-5, there is mounting evidence for near-global resurfacing ˜300-500 Myr ago1,2,6. Moreover, it has recently been noted that the density of impact craters on large volcanic structures is less than the average crater density of the planet, suggestive of significant activity after the resurfacing event7. It is not clear, however, whether these features represent late remnants of the global event or continuing volcanism and tectonism of a still active planet. To address this question, we have used the regional variations in crater density to date volcan-oes, rifts and coronae which, based on stratigraphic evidence, clearly post-date the main resurfacing event8-11. The calculated mean ages of 70-125 Myr exclude the possibility that the majority of these features represent the final stages of the global event.

Price, Maribeth; Suppe, John



Extreme peralkalinity in delhayelite- and andremeyerite-bearing nephelinite from Nyiragongo volcano, East African Rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly peralkaline leucite nephelinite from the active volcano Nyiragongo in the Virunga province of the East African Rift contains globules of iron- and volatile-rich, highly peralkaline silicate glass with (Na + K)/Al up to 18 which has formed as a late differentiate of less peralkaline precursors, probably by fractional crystallization at a shallow level in the volcanic system. A number of uncommon minerals coexist with this glass (kalsilite, kirschsteinite, chlorbartonite, götzenite, delhayelite, umbrianite, zirconian cuspidine, andremeyerite (BaFe2Si2O7), other Ba-Fe-Ti silicate minerals, and unnamed alkali-barium phosphate and Zr-Nb-Ti silicate minerals). These minerals are members of late magmatic assemblages that have survived sub-solidus recrystallization. Combeite occurs as a near-solidus mineral. Low-variance mineral assemblages in Nyiragongo nephelinite define a cooling trend from eruptive temperatures ? 980 °C to the solidus of extremely peralkaline residual liquids at ca. 600 °C, followed by sub-solidus recrystallization and metasomatism down to ca. 500 °C. Oxygen fugacity well below the QFM buffer (QFM-2 to -3) persisted throughout the magmatic crystallization stage, but increased to above QFM during the final stage of postmagmatic recrystallization. Highly alkaline, volatile-rich minerals such as delhayelite, götzenite and cuspidine were stabilized by a combination of high peralkalinity and elevated activity of chlorine and fluorine; these conditions persisted to sub-solidus temperatures.

Andersen, Tom; Elburg, Marlina A.; Erambert, Muriel



Melt globules as micro-magmachambers: Extreme fractionation in peralkaline nephelinite at Nyiragongo, East African Rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly peralkaline leucite nephelinite from the active volcano Nyiragongo in the Virunga province of the East African Rift contains globules of iron- and volatile-rich, highly peralkaline silicate glass with (Na+K)/Al up to 18, which has formed as a late differentiate of less peralkaline precursors, probably by fractional crystallization at a shallow level in the volcanic system. Several uncommon minerals coexist with this glass (kalsilite, kirschsteinite, chlorbartonite, götzenite, delhayelite, zirconian cuspidine, rare alkali-barium minerals), while combeite is a near-solidus mineral. Low-variance mineral assemblages define a cooling trend from eruptive temperatures ?980 ºC to the solidus of extremely peralkaline residual liquids at 600 ºC. Oxygen fugacities well below the QFM buffer (QFM-2 to-3) persisted throughout the magmatic crystallization stage. The oxygen fugacity increased to QFM+1 or higher during the final stage of postmagmatic recrystallization. Highly alkaline, volatile-rich minerals such as delhayelite, götzenite and cuspidine were stabilized by a combination of high peralkalinity and elevated activity of chlorine and fluorine; these conditions persisted to sub-solidus temperatures. The exotic mineralogy in these melt globules is similar to mineral assemblages in agpaitic nepheline syenites. The crystallization hisotory of these globules may be an analogue to fractionation processes in large, agpaitic intrusions (e.g. Ilímaussaq, Greenland), including the interplay of the controlling factors peralkalinity, oxygen- and volatile fugacity.

Andersen, Tom; Elburg, Marlina; Erambert, Muriel



Rifting and breakup in the South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magma-poor or intermediate magmatic South China Sea is a natural laboratory for studying rifting and breakup. The basin shows an irregular triangular shape with a SW pointing apex, which manifests a preceding propagating rift. The earliest phase of rifting started in the Early Paleocene when a Mesozoic convergent margin changed to extension. After about 30 Million years of rifting, breakup in the major eastern subbasin of the SCS occurred in the Early Oligocene but rifting continued and subsequent breakup of the southwest subbasin took place in the Late Oligocene. The wide Early Cenozoic South China Sea rift preserves the initial rift architecture at the distal margins. Seismic reflection data imaging conjugate crustal sections at the South China Sea margins result in a conceptual model for rift-evolution at conjugate magma-poor margins in time and space. Most distinct are regular undulations in the crust-mantle boundary. Individual rift basins are bounded to crustal blocks by listric normal faults on either side. Moho uplifts are distinct beneath major rift basins, while the Moho is downbended beneath crustal blocks, with a wavelength of undulations in the crust-mantle boundary that approximately equals the thickness of the continental crust. Most of the basin-bounding faults sole out within the middle crust. At the distal margins, detachment faults are located at a mid-crustal level where a weak zone decouples crust and mantle lithosphere during rifting. The lower crust in contrast is interpreted as being strong. Only in the region within about 50 km from the continent-ocean transition (COT) we suggest that normal faults reach the mantle, enabling potentially a coupling between the crust and the mantle. Here, at the proximal margins detachment fault dip either seaward or landward. This may indicate the presence of exhumed mantle bordering the continental margins. Post-rift shallow-water platform carbonates indicate a delay in subsidence during rifting in the South China Sea. We propose that this is an inherent process in highly-extended continental margins and a common origin may be the influx of warm asthenospheric material into initially cool sub-lithospheric mantle. On a crustal-scale largely symmetric process predominate in the initial rifting stage. At the future COT either of the rift basin bounding faults subsequently penetrates the entire crust, resulting in asymmetry at this location. However, asymmetric deformation which is controlled by large scale detachment faulting is confined to narrow areas and does not result in a margin-wide simple-shear model. Rather considerable along-margin variations are suggested resulting in alternating "upper and lower plate" margins.

Franke, Dieter; Savva, Dimitri; Pubellier, Manuel; Steuer, Stephan; Mouly, Benoit; Auxietre, Jean-Luc; Meresse, Florian; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas



Facies distributions within contrasting structural components of a rift lake: Lake Tanganyika, Africa  

SciTech Connect

Lake Tanganyika is the most widely cited modern analog for interpreting ancient rift lakes; thus, understanding controls on its facies distribution is critical for refining stratigraphic models for rifts. Four recurrent margin types occur along the alternating half-graben structure of the lake: rift axes, platforms, escarpments, and accommodation zones. Data from study sites in the northern part of the lake suggest that predictable facies differences exist between these structural margin types. The rift axis site comprises a low-gradient, clastic (wave/current)-dominated deltaic system, with strong facies asymmetry and minor carbonate accumulations on raised benches. The platform margin site comprises a series of structurally controlled benches over which long, continuous facies tracts occur. Carbonate sands, muds, and shell gravel dominate; clastics are limited to moderate-sized silty deltas and long, narrow shoreface sands. The escarpment margin site is a steep-gradient system along which small ({lt}1 km{sup 2}) fan deltas alternate with cemented talus. The accommodation zone margin sites are also dominated by rugged structural relief, generally small fan deltas, and semicontinuous shoreface sand belts ({gt}5 km) onshore and poorly sorted silts offshore. TOC from fine-grained samples reflects the contrast in margin types. TOC values for the platform and rift axis range from 0.4 - 2.1 wt. % (avg. 1.3%), whereas accommodation zone and escarpment margin values range from 0.5-5.5% (avg. 3.0%). Acid insoluble sulfur shows a similar trend. Although all data are significantly correlated with depth, the relative area of the lake margin above and below the oxicline is directly controlled by the structural style of the lake margin.

Soreghan, M.J.; Cohen, A.S. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States))



Persistent fault controlled basin formation since the Proterozoic along the Western Branch of the East African Rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Western Branch of the East African Rift System is outlined by elongate sedimentary basins, frequently occupied by Cenozoic rift lakes. The role of the inheritance of the leading rift faults from pre-existing basement structures has often been invoked. Recent studies in western Tanzania confirm the extent of the northwest orientated Palaeoproterozoic Ubende Belt contribution to the Phanerozoic Rift. Attention is drawn here on the occurrence of different Meso- and Neoproterozoic sedimentary basins that developed along the ductile shear belt as a result of repeated sinistral wrench fault reactivation. These basins partly overlap each other and typically bear shallow and weakly evolved sediments. North of the Ubende Belt, the Mesoproterozoic Kibara Belt is inferred to have originated as a basin controlled by the complex termination of the Ubende wrench fault. Phanerozoic rift basins also develop along the northwest orientated Ubende Belt structure. They display the same elongate shape as the Proterozoic basins. In Late Palaeozoic-Early Mesozoic the Karoo rift basins formed from a dextral lateral shear reactivation of the inherited Proterozoic shear faults. During the first phase of development the Lake Tanganyika Basin is belived to bear the same characteristics as all previous basins along the Ubende Shear Belt, mainly controlled by strike-slip movements along pre-existing shear faults. The present Lake Tanganyika Basin is subdivided in two sub-basins, separated by the transverse Mahali Shoal, which is an active structure located on the Ubende Shear. The deep lake basin mainly developed outside the Ubende Belt. The northern sub-basin appears to be structurally controlled by the reactivation of the Mesoproterozoic sinistral wrench fault termination of the Ubende shear faults. Structural control of the Palaeoproterozoic basement is however unclear for the southern sub-basin of Lake Tanganyika: this part of the rift segment is flanked by Palaeoproterozoic basement which has not been affected by the Ubende Shear.

Klerkx, J.; Theunissen, K.; Delvaux, D.



Beam dynamics and emittance growth during final beam bunching in HIF driver systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beam dynamics is investigated by multiparticle simulations during final beam bunching and final beam focusing in a driver system for heavy-ion inertial fusion. The particle simulations predict the emittance growth during the longitudinal bunch compression for various particle distributions at initial conditions. Particle distributions in the beam transverse cross-section approach uniform during the final beam bunching. It is found that the distribution has the Gaussian profile at the focal spot in the radial direction after the final focusing.

Kikuchi, T.; Someya, T.; Kawata, S.; Nakajima, M.; Horioka, K.; Katayama, T.



Final design review summary report for the TN-WHC cask and transportation system  

SciTech Connect

This document represents comments generated from a review of Transnuclear`s Final Design Package distributed on December 10, 1996 and a review of the Final Design Analysis Report meeting held on December 17 & 18, 1996. The Final design describes desicn features and presents final analyses @j performed to fabricate and operate the system while meeting the Cask/Transportation Functions and Requirements, WHC-SD-SNF-FRD-011, Rev. 0 and specification WHC-S-0396, Rev. 1.

Kee, A.T.



Seismicity Patterns and Magmatic Processes in the Rwenzori Region, East-African Rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 5000m high Rwenzori Mountains are situated within the western branch of the East African Rift System (EARS), at the border between Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo. They represent a basement block located within the rift valley whose origin and relation to the evolution of the EARS are highly puzzling. During a recent seismological campaign we located more than 800 earthquakes per month with magnitudes ranging from 0.5 to 5.1. Vertical sections across the northern parts of the Rwenzoris show, that west of the mountains (towards the rift valley) the focal depths range from 10 to 20 km, whereas the hypocentres go as deep as 30 km on the eastern side. This is in good agreement with Moho-depths derived from receiver functions and implies that all of these events are located within the crust. However, about 30 km east of the northern mountain ridge we located a cluster of 7 events that exhibit an anomalous depth of about 60 km. We can confidently locate these earthquakes within the mantle lithosphere beneath the rift. The existence of earthquakes at this depth is enigmatic, especially within a rifting regime were one expects hot and weak material relatively close to the surface. We think that these events are possibly related to the evolution of the Rwenzori Mountains. A recent hypothesis to explain the extreme uplift of the Rwenzori Mountains is rift induced delamination (RID) of mantle lithosphere. Here we show that the RID-process is indeed capable of explaining the seismic energy release in the mantle. However, in view of the specific hypocentral location of the event cluster, magmatic impregnation processes associated with dyke propagation into the mantle lithosphere may be a more realistic cause for seismic radiation at the observed depth. Crustal earthquakes northeast of the Rwenzori area are relocated with a double-difference algorithm to improve the spatial resolution of seismicity pattern. Several event clusters in the vicinity of the Fort Portal volcanic field form pipe-like structures with vertical extensions of 3 to 6 km and diameters of 1 to 2 km. In this region the rifting process is probably still in an early stage. The structures possibly indicate magmatic feeding channels through the crust that originate from the heated and impregnated lithospheric mantle.

Lindenfeld, M.; Rumpker, G.; Schmeling, H.; Wallner, H.



Dynamics of rifting and modes of extension on icy satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple numerical model of extension in icy satellite shells is developed. Thinning of the ice weakens the shell, promoting further extension. If lateral flow in the lower part of the shell is unimportant, extension is opposed and wide rifts are generated; if lateral flow is rapid, localized extension is favored and narrow rifts are produced. Thick shells or high

F. Nimmo



Volcanic highlands in the South Atlantic rift zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The morphostructure of the segment between the Cardno and St. Helen transform fracture zones is studied in the rift zone of the South Atlantic slow-spreading mid-oceanic ridge (SAMOR). It was found that it is atypical of similar ridges because of the absence of an evolved rift valley. The rift zone in the transverse section is a cupola with flat slopes, whose surface is divided by volcanic massifs, plateau-like valleys, and unclear ridges and valleys. The entire morphostructure (a cupola-like regional pedestal and the listed relief forms of the second order) indicates its volcanic origin, and the rift zone in this segment is a volcanic high-land. This conclusion is supported by seismic and magnetic data. Because other (not all) SAMOR segments contain the rift valley, the results of this study indicate alternation of the tectonic and magmatic morphostructures along the entire rift zone and identification of its scales is the most important task of the morphostructural study of the SAMOR rift zone. Determination of geodynamic regimes on the basis of the results of morphostructural studies of the rift zone will arise from the solution of this task.

Il'in, A. V.



Exploring the Environment: Rift Valley Fever  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will study the nature and transmission of the Rift Valley fever virus to determine ways to prevent an outbreak. This is one of several interdisciplinary problem-based learning modules for high school and middle school students addressing real-world problems in environmental earth science. Teacher pages include module notes, software information, and a teacher-to-teacher message board to share/borrow ideas for planning, facilitating, and assessing information. Situations and very clear instructions are given on how to implement problem-based learning in the classroom.

University, Classrooms O.; Program, Nasa L.; University, Wheeling J.



Numerical modeling of seismicity and geodynamics of the Kachchh rift zone, Gujarat, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The numerical block-and-fault model of lithosphere dynamics and seismicity (BAFD) is used to understand crustal motion and features of the observed seismicity in the Kachchh rift zone, Gujarat, Western India. The block-model allows simulating seismicity and geodynamics simultaneously unlike other modeling approaches for studying seismicity or geodynamics. The model structure of Kachchh rift zone is composed of seven major crustal blocks separated by fault planes. Based on the orientation of boundary crustal block movements, we develop a set of numerical experiments to analyze the spatial distribution of earthquakes, frequency-to-magnitude relationships, earthquake focal mechanisms, velocity field, and fault slip rates in the model. The main results of our modeling suggest that an NNW-SSE trending compression is a principal driving force in the Kachchh rift zone that explains basic features of the regional seismicity, direction of block motions, and the presence of an extensional stress regime associated with the Cambay rift zone. Large synthetic events occur on the fault segments associated with the Allah-Bund fault, Katrol hill fault and north Wagad fault which have been causative faults for the 1819 Mw7.7 Allah-Bund, 1956 Mw6.0 Anjar and 2001 Mw7.7 Bhuj earthquakes. The frequency-magnitude distribution for both synthetic seismicity and observed seismicity shows a similar slope. The focal mechanisms of the synthetic events are found to be consistent with those of earthquakes in the region. A special attention has been paid to study long-term and post-seismic deformations. Our results are in a qualitative agreement with the GPS post-seismic observations in the Kachchh rift zone. We infer that the observed seismicity and crustal block motions are a consequence of the dynamics of the entire regional fault and block system rather than that of a single causative fault only.

Vorobieva, Inessa; Mandal, Prantik; Gorshkov, Alexander



Water resource management and biodiversity conservation in the Eastern Rift Valley Lakes, Northern Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Eastern Rift Valley Lakes of East Africa and their watersheds have gone through significant anthropogenic changes over years. Several land use pressures and overexploitations of natural resources have eroded the biological and physical systems that support those resources. The principal objective of this study was to undertake a comprehensive water resource management problem analysis in the Eastern Rift Valley Lakes so as to highlight the current state of knowledge on key environmental and biodiversity problems, institutional capacities and needs to conserve biodiversity and water resources in the respective lakes. Two stages were be involved in data collection. The first stage involved literature search in libraries and documentation centres held in various institutions. Second stage involved the main fieldwork, which aimed at collecting secondary information from regional and districts offices situated within the basins in question. Findings from this study show that trends in the growth of human population, expansion of cropland and increase in livestock population in the Eastern Rift Valley Lakes zone indicate rapid increase over the next few decades. The pressure of this rapidly increasing population on the available resources will be too great to sustain desirable livelihood in the area. Even at the current rate of population increase, water resource utilisation in and around most Rift Valley Lakes is not sustainable. The intensification of agriculture through the application of fertilisers and pesticides will lead to the soil and water pollution, as is already happening in Mang’ola and Mto wa Mbu where irrigated farming is practised. Although a number of studies have been conducted in the Eastern Rift Valley Lakes and Wetlands in the Northern Tanzania, there are still a lot of issues which have not studied adequately.

Yanda, P. Z.; Madulu, N. F.


Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks in Mauritania and Related Environmental Conditions  

PubMed Central

Four large outbreaks of Rift Valley Fever (RVF) occurred in Mauritania in 1998, 2003, 2010 and 2012 which caused lots of animal and several human deaths. We investigated rainfall and vegetation conditions that might have impacted on RVF transmission over the affected regions. Our results corroborate that RVF transmission generally occurs during the months of September and October in Mauritania, similarly to Senegal. The four outbreaks were preceded by a rainless period lasting at least a week followed by heavy precipitation that took place during the second half of the rainy season. First human infections were generally reported three to five weeks later. By bridging the gap between meteorological forecasting centers and veterinary services, an early warning system might be developed in Senegal and Mauritania to warn decision makers and health services about the upcoming RVF risk. PMID:24413703

Caminade, Cyril; Ndione, Jacques A.; Diallo, Mawlouth; MacLeod, Dave A.; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Dia, Ibrahima; Morse, Andrew P.



Paleomagnetic evidence of oblique rift localization in the Gulf of California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleomagnetic analysis of extensive Miocene ignimbrites in northwest Mexico reveals the timing and distribution of dextral shear associated with the inception of the Gulf of California rift. We drilled new high-precision paleomagnetic reference sites for the regionally extensive 12.5 Ma Tuff of San Felipe (SF) and the 6.4 Ma Tuffs of Mesa Cuadrada (MC) in undeformed, mesa-top exposures in north-central Baja California, west of the rift-bounding San Pedro Martír fault system. The paleomagnetic remanence directions determined at these tectonically stable sites in central Baja California (DSF=212.4°, ISF=-3.0°, nSF=48; DMC=15.6°, IMC=56.2°, nMC=92) are consistent over tens of kilometers. These directions are counter-clockwise from directions measured at most previously published paleomagnetic sites within the rift, an indication that fault blocks within the rift have experienced variable clockwise vertical-axis rotation. Additionally, ?95 confidence cones at these new sites (SF=1.3°, MC=1.0°) are smaller than at the previously defined reference site at Mesa Cuadrada (SF=4.1°, MC=8.9°), where few cores were drilled (nSF=6, nMC=3). Comparisons of new paleomagnetic remanence directions from central Baja California with directions from previous intra-rift studies indicate clockwise vertical-axis rotations for SF and MC up to 76 ± 11° and 40 ± 3°, respectively. An important exception is the easternmost SF drill site in central Sonora, where no clockwise rotation has occurred since 12.5 Ma. Although SF is tilted gently to the west at this site, it appears to lie beyond the limit of clockwise vertical-axis rotation related to oblique rifting. The mean magnitudes of the rotation errors (bar?RSF= 4.3°, bar?RMC= 6.3°) using these new paleomagnetic sites are lower than using the previous reference sites at Mesa Cuadrada (bar?RSF=5.6°, bar?RMC=13.2°), owing mostly to the larger number of cores collected at the new reference sites. At 10 of 11 paired sites within the rift where both SF and MC are present in the same fault block, SF is rotated clockwise by a greater amount than MC. 7 of these 10 sites are precise enough to statistically isolate differential rotation. At paired sites, a weighted mean of 16° of clockwise rotation (maximum of 48°) occurred prior to 6.4 Ma. By weighting all paired site results by the differential rotation error, we estimate that 48% (locally 0% to 75%) of the net rotation occurred during the proto-Gulf time period (12.5 - 6 Ma) and prior to rift localization ca. 6 Ma. This early rotation occurred in a ~50-100 kilometer-wide belt of strike-slip faulting embedded within the wider Mexican Basin and Range extensional province, and connected to the San Andreas fault in southern California. Where extension is hosted within a strike-slip-dominated setting (i.e. oblique rift), the overall higher strain rates along shear zones and across the intervening extensional pull-apart basins may localize crustal thinning within an otherwise wide-rift setting, facilitating crustal rupture. By increasing strain rates and connecting areas of focused crustal thinning, strike-slip faulting may have catalyzed the subsequent formation of the Gulf of California

Bennett, S. E.; Oskin, M. E.



Two-dimensional surface velocity field across the Asal Rift (Afar Depression) from 11 years of InSAR data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze two-dimensional surface velocity maps of the 200x400 km2 region covering the Asal Rift located at the western tip of the Aden Ridge, using the 1997-2008 archive of InSAR data from the RADARSAT satellite. The large phase signal due to turbulent tropospheric conditions over the Afar region is mostly removed from the 11-year average line of sight (LOS) velocity maps, revealing a clear deformation signal across the rift. Assuming the horizontal velocity to be parallel to the direction predicted by the Arabia/Somalia rotation pole (Vigny et al., 2007), we compute the fields of the vertical and horizontal components of the velocity from the ascending and descending line of sight (LOS) velocity maps. The horizontal velocity field shows the divergence between the Arabia and Somalia plates concentrated along the Asal rift, and veering toward the south-west, into the Derella-Gaggade basin system. The Asal rift shoulders open at a rate of ~15 mm/yr, while the horizontal velocity decreases away from the rift down to the plate motion rate of ~11-12 mm/yr. The vertical velocity field shows a ~60 km wide zone of doming centered over the rift associated with shoulder uplift and subsidence of the rift inner floor. The differential movement between the shoulders and the rift floor is accommodated by two main antithetic faults: the south-dipping Fault ? well developed in the topography and the recent north-dipping Fault E with a small topographic scarp. We explain the observed velocity field with 2D-forward and 3D-inverse models combining dislocations of rectangular elements in an elastic half-space. The forward model allows us to estimate the overall geometry and rates of an inflating body at 5 km depth (represented by a combination of a dike and a horizontal sill) and creep on two faults. The least-squares inverse model shows an inflating body located under the Fieale volcano expanding at 2 106 m3/yr. Faults bordering the rift show down-dip and opening motion especially at their base where they are connected to the inflating body. Comparison of the total geometric moment rate due to the opening of all modelled structures and the total volume of magma estimated to have been mobilized during the 1978 seismo-magmatic event suggests that the system may still be in a transient mode, as the current inflation rate would accumulate the same volume in 40-50 years.

Tomic, J.; Peltzer, G.; Doubre, C.



Integration of geophysical and geochemical data for the study of the North-Est Rift dynamics on Mount Etna volcano  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mount Etna volcano is located at the front of the Apennine-Maghrebian Chain, along the Malta Escarpment, and lies on the Pliocene-Pleistocene foredeep deposits. The apparatus is characterized by a central conduit divided, at surface, into four summit craters, with a maximum elevation of 3329 m above sea level. In the upper part (>1500 m), three main "rift zones" can be identified: the NE Rift, the S Rift and the W Rift. These structures are probably shallow, do not tap deep magma and are usually directly fed by the central conduit, rather than from an underlying shallow magma chamber. The volcano is characterized by the displacement of its eastern to southern flanks, involving an on-shore area of >700 km2. This is confined to the north by the Pernicana fault system (PFS). The PFS, located on the NE sector of Mt. Etna, is >18 km long, from the NE Rift to the coastline. The western PFS is seismogenetic, while the eastern PFS undergoes creep movements. In its westernmost section, the PFS is divided into two main segments, the more northerly of these starting from the Monte Nero area of the NE Rift and the more southerly from Piano Provenzana. The PFS is kinematically connected, with a feedback mechanism, to eruptions occurring on the NE Rift. In spite of this relationship, the PFS has shown continuous activity between 1947 and 2002, a period when no eruptions occurred on the NE Rift, with major surface fracturing and seismic activity in 1984-1988. Geophysical-geochemical investigation were conducted in the area where PFS is connected with the NE Rift, including the areas characterized by a consistent slip, as well as those structures through which the motion occurs. The aim of this work is to provide a multidisciplinary frame to characterize this dynamic and structural natural system. Magnetotelluric, geoelectric, self-potential and and soil gas emissions measurements give a comprehensive view on the geometry and depth of the lithological units together with fluid circulation insights. Here, the sedimentary basement, detected by the resistivity models, interfaces media with different physical characteristics where fluids flow play a crucial role interacting onto the Pernicana fault activity.

Tripaldi, Simona; Balasco, Marianna; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Loddo, Mariano; Moretti, Pierpaolo; Neri, Marco; Piscitelli, Sabatino; Romano, Gerardo; Schiavone, Domenico; Siniscalchi, Agata



Geodetic determination of plate velocity vector in the Ethiopia Rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Red sea, Gulf of Aden and the Main Ethiopian rift form a triple junction in the Afar Region. Although the East African Rift, the divergent plate boundary between Nubian and Somalia, is often cited as a modern archetype for rifting and continental breakup, its current kinematics is the least known of all major plate boundaries. Moreover, geodetic datum in such tectonically active area is subject to distortion that increases with time. Therefore, a close study of the positions and velocities of reference stations in such tectonic active areas is necessary, if one wants to have high precise geodetic measurement for any developmental activity. In this study phase and pseudo-range GPS measurements were processed to derive the daily solutions of positions in reference to the ITRF05. This solution from 8 continuous stations in Ethiopia, with a length of 0.75 to 2.67 years, is then combined into a cumulative solution with position and velocity estimates. Here a method that combines GPS observation data from 2007 to 2009 to estimate time-dependent motion of stations in a region of active deformation is implemented. First, observations were analysed separately to produce loosely constrained estimates of station positions and coordinate system parameters which are then combined with appropriate constraints to estimate velocities and co-seismic displacements. The result archived gives a good insight about the velocity at which the three major plates, namely the Nubian, Arabian and Somalia plates are moving with respect to each other. The study shows the relative velocity between Nubia and Somalia plates with 4.6±0.3 mm/yr. While, the Nubia and Arabia plates are moving with 33±0.15mm/yr.Moreover; positions of stations are computed with high precession for any future reference purpose. Due to short duration of measurements at some stations further observation are recommended to compute positions and velocity fields after all stations have data at least for two years time. Key words: GPS, Space geodesy, ITRF05, Deformation

Boku, E.; Teklemariam, E.; Rivalta, E.



Rift Geometry and Evolution Associated with the Break-up of Pangea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diabase dikes related to the rifting of Pangea have been used to elucidate mechanisms by which the super-continent broke-up since the early 1970s. Subsequently, these dikes were related to each other and the massive sills and lava flows that make up the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP). Our research focuses on the dikes and mechanisms of continental break-up in the southeastern United States. While, past studies indicate that the majority of Mesozoic diabase dikes within the Carolinas dominantly trend to the northwest, recent work in west-central South Carolina and the Piedmont of North Carolina has revealed numerous previously unmapped dikes with N and NE trends. These dikes have been related to the N and NE trending dikes located in the Northeastern United States via geochemical analyses. Cross-cutting relationships between dikes of different orientation has revealed an apparent pattern whereby the dikes were emplaced in the following order NW, N, and then NE-trending. Recent Ar39/Ar 40 dates suggest that these dikes were all intruded within a 2 million year window, indicating that the least compressive stress field (which would be perpendicular to dike orientation) rotated from NE-SW through E-W to NW-SE within this time period. Based on these observations, which are contrary to previous studies that attribute the northwest trending dikes in the Carolinas to a deep mantle plume, we constructed several finite element models to determine the source of the stress field change. These models were constructed to test the influence of geometry, rifting sequences, and location of force application on the orientation and evolution of stress fields in the Carolinas. Model results suggest that the direction from which rifting progressed has a strong effect on the stress field within the Carolinas and that it is unlikely that rifting began at the Blake Plateau as proposed by the plume hypothesis. Further, it is apparent that the geometry of the rifts themselves has a strong effect on the stress field within the continent, which suggests the need for further mapping of the final rifting events along the southeastern margin of the United States.

Debnam, C.; Beutel, E. K.



Using Transportable Array and CREST data to define seismicity in the Rio Grande Rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active low strain-rate deformation across the Rio Grande Rift within the Western U.S. presents the possibility that strain is released through widespread small magnitude earthquakes. In order to define seismicity across the rift and understand its tectonic significance, we construct a catalog of small magnitude earthquakes from 2007-2010. Colorado has never had a statewide seismic network, thus previous catalogs are limited to that from the USGS and from short-term temporary seismometer deployments. New Mexico seismicity is monitored with regional networks around Socorro and Carlsbad, though not statewide. This study is the first opportunity to locate events in a spatially and temporally comprehensive network from the USArray Transportable Array (TA) experiment supplemented by the Colorado Rockies Experiment and Seismic Transects (CREST) seismic experiment (Karlstrom et al., 2012). Our earthquake catalog will supplement the USArray Array Network Facility (ANF) catalog with smaller magnitude events and refined regional velocity models. We use earthquake detection and location programs to create a raw catalog of associated events and initial locations from 254 seismic stations surrounding the Rio Grande Rift. Detection processing and event association parameters have been chosen specifically to extend the magnitude threshold relative to the ANF catalog (from 3.0 to approximately 1.5) . Mine blasts will be removed by manual waveform identification from the final catalog. The catalog is compared with catalogs of existing small seismic networks near and in the rift, for example, the New Mexico Tech Seismic Network. Questions of interest include: 1) Can earthquakes be identified that are rift-related? 2) What do the patterns of seismicity tell us about the tectonics of the Rio Grande Rift? Preliminary results show event associations to ML 0.0, although magnitude completeness is higher, and several hundred events are identified each month in 2008. Tectonic events will be compared to possible induced seismic events in the Raton basin along the Colorado - New Mexico border and southeastern New Mexico. Magnitude-frequency relations and catalog completeness will be analyzed to further characterize seismic events.

Nakai, J.; Sheehan, A. F.; Bilek, S. L.



PROPOSAL TITLE Evolution of Rift and Rifted Margin Sedimentary Basins: Numerical Investigation of Tectonics, Sedimentation, and Salt-  

E-print Network

of Tectonics, Sedimentation, and Salt- Related Structures of the Atlantic Canada Margin and Elsewhere will focus on: crustal deformation during rifting and rift reactivation; salt tectonics induced by thin of salt and the development of finite amplitude salt structures. 3) The role of differential sedimentary

Beaumont, Christopher



EPA Science Inventory

This document defines and classifies 338 Final Ecosystem Goods and Services (FEGS), each defined and uniquely numbered by a combination of environmental class or sub-class and a beneficiary category or sub-category. The introductory section provides the rationale and conceptual ...


Evidence for metasomatic mantle carbonatitic magma extrusion in Mesoproterozoic ore-hosting dolomite rocks in the middle Kunyang rift, central Yunnan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kunyang rift lying on the western margin of the Yangtze platform is a rare Precambrian Fe-Cu mineralization zone. Wuding–Lufeng basin that is an important part of the zone is located on the west edge in the middle of the rift. The most important ore-hosting rocks are Mesoproterozoic dolomite rocks in the basin controlled by a ring fracture system, which

Yongbei Zhang; Hua Bi; Longshi Yu; Shihua Sun; Jiaxiang Qiu; Chengyan Xu; Hao Wang; Renjing Wang



GPS Velocity Field at the Western Tip of the Aden Ridge ; Implications for Rifting and the Arabia-Somalia-Nubia Triple Junction Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the presence of magma and a complex thermal structure, the dynamics of divergent plate boundaries are complicated, with microseismicity (ML<4) contributing very little to the total moment release. For the last 35 years several geodetic campaigns have been conducted at the western tip of the Aden Ridge propagating on land into Afar (Republic of Djibouti). The first segment above water, the Asal Rift, experienced a seismo-volcanic event in 1978, which was the first rifting episode, along with the 1978-1985 Icelandic Krafla event, to be monitored by terrestrial geodetic measurements. These measurements revealed the opening of two 1-2 m-wide dykes in the rift inner floor. Since then, terrestrial and spatial geodetic monitoring shows that the rift kept opening, during the post-rifting period, at a rate largely exceeding the plates’ motions. This significant opening rate is decreasing with time to tend, three decades after the rifting event, to the far-field opening rate. We present here the results of the GPS measurements of a 45 site network covering the Tadjoura-Asal Rift System, previously made every two years from 1995 to 2003, and repeated in 2010. The calculated 1999-2010 horizontal velocity field is very homogeneous with a quasi-constant N045° direction with respect to Somalia and a regular increase from the southern to the northern margin of the Asal Rift clearly controlled by a few normal faults, and reaching a maximum of 12.5 mm/yr. A non-negligible part of the Arabia-Somalia divergent movement (1 to 2 mm/yr) is observed south of this rift, which sheds light on the role of the active normal faults bounding the asymmetrical Gaggadé Basin and therefore brings important constraints on the location of the Red Sea Ridge-Aden Ridge-East African Rift triple junction. Since the last 2003 campaign, the lack of micro-seismicity within the Asal Rift seems to be associated with a ˜2 mm/yr decrease of the opening rate deduced from the GPS time series analysis. These results confirm the importance of non-steady state behavior of the Asal volcano-tectonic rift segment, and the role of geothermal/volcanic activity on the occurrence of transients, as suggested by InSAR results.

Doubre, C.; Socquet, A.; Masson, F.; Cressot, C.; Mohamed, K.; Vigny, C.; Ruegg, J.



Characterizing and identifying structural domains at rifted continental margins: application to the Bay of Biscay margins and its Western Pyrenean fossil remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade, the occurrence of hyperextended domains at rifted continental margins consisting of extremely thinned crust and/or exhumed mantle has been increasingly recognized both at present-day rifted margins and in fossils analogues preserved in collisional orogens. However, at present, most studies aiming to characterize rifted continental margin structure and the extreme thinning of the continental crust were either focused offshore relying on indirect geophysical methods, or onshore in deformed remnants offering direct access to geological observations. Marine and onshore examples provide complementary datasets, but their different scale and resolution of observations prevent direct correlations to be done. We use the Bay of Biscay and Western Pyrenees as a natural laboratory to develop and apply an innovative approach to characterize and identify distinctive rifted margin domains in offshore and onshore settings. The Bay of Biscay and Western Pyrenees offer the unique possibility to have access to seismically imaged, drilled and exposed parts of one and the same hyperextended rift margin system. Offshore, we use a gravity inversion technique and flexural backstripping combined with seismic interpretation to provide quantitative estimates of accommodation space, crustal thickness and lithosphere thinning. Onshore, we focus on key outcrops preserving remnants of the former rift domain to describe the nature of sediment and basement rocks and of their interface. This qualitative and quantitative characterisation provides the essential diagnostic elements for the identification of five distinct domains at magma-poor rifted margins and their fossil analogues. We name these 5 domains proximal, necking, hyperthinned, exhumed mantle and oceanic. This new approach can be used to reconcile offshore and onshore observations and aid interpretation especially when only local observations are available. Onshore remnants can be placed in an offshore rifted margin context, enabling the prediction of first order crustal architecture. For the interpretation of offshore seismic reflection sections, geological insights on rift structures and basement nature can be suggested based on onshore analogies. This combined onshore-offshore multidisciplinary approach enables us to identify and distinguish the distinct structural domains of rifted margins, resulting in a new paleogeographic map of the Bay of Biscay and Pyrenean rift. The approach underlying this mapping has general application to unravelling the spatial and temporal complexity of rifted margin structural domains.

Tugend, J.; Manatschal, G.; Kusznir, N. J.; Masini, E.



Motivation Introduction Linear maps as stream circuits Final semantics In conclusion Linear systems, coalgebraically  

E-print Network

Motivation Introduction Linear maps as stream circuits Final semantics In conclusion Linear systems, coalgebraically Jan Rutten CWI & Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam CALCO 2007 #12;Motivation Introduction Linear maps as stream circuits Final semantics In conclusion Motivation Why linear systems, coalgebraically? · Very

Rutten, Jan


Operations-Oriented Performance Measures for Freeway Management Systems: Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the second and final year activities of the project titled Using Operations-Oriented Performance Measures to Support Freeway Management Systems. Work activities included developing a prototype system architecture for testing the use ...

A. Upayokin, M. L. Sattler, R. E. Brydia, S. P. Mattingly



Extension in the Rio Grande rift.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A positive gravity anomaly along the axis of the Rio Grande rift reflects a volume of anomalous mass added at the base of the crust and intruded into the crust. Part of this volume can be associated with vertical uplift of the crust. The remainder of this anomalous volume, plus the volume of surficial graben fill, can be associated with horizontal crustal extension. The volume of crustal uplift in the Rio Grande rift is unknown, but this term can be eliminated by means of an independent equation provided by assumption of generalized isostatic equilibrium. The volume and mass equations combined provide a solution for extension of the crust in terms of the following parameters: total anomalous mass deficiency in the mantle lithosphere, total anomalous mass excess in the crust and its density contrast, total anomalous mass deficiency of surficial graben fill and its density contrast, and the volume of material eroded from the uplift. Using standard density estimates and masses determined by equivalent-source modeling of gravity profiles, I obtained 1-km extension at 37oN (Colorado-New Mexico border), 13- km extension at 35oN (Albuquerque, New Mexico), and 24-km extension at 33oN in S New Mexico.-Author

Cordell, L.



Galapagos rift at 86 /sup 0/W 5. Variations in volcanism, structure, and hydrothermal activity along a 30-kilometer segment of the rift valley  

SciTech Connect

A 30-km segment of the Galapagos Rift near 86 /sup 0/W has been mapped in detail using the Angus towed camera system, the submersible Alvin, and multi-narrowbeam sonar data. Recent volcanic activity and active hydrothermal circulation are evident along the entire length of the segment mapped. There are, however, clear along-strike variations in these processes which render previous two-dimensional models obsolete. Although alternate explanations are possible, eruptive sequences appear to begin with the outpouring of surface-fed sheet flows and end with more channelized pillow flows. In the western portion of the rift studied, sheet flows dominate with the entire valley floor covered by recent flows associated with a broad shield volcano. The eastern portion, on the other hand, is narrower; consisting primarily of less voluminous pillow flows of apparently the same youthful age. Three possible models for the volcanic evolution of this rift segment are presented. According to the first model, the extrusive portion of the crust is formed by a distinct volcanic episode, followed by a long period of volcanic quiescence. The volcanic phase begins with voluminous sheet flows emerging from numerous eruptive fissures, which in time evolve into a narrow pillow ridge. Farther along-strike, where the flows are smaller and the extrusive zone narrow, the marginal portions undergo continued fissuring and subsequent uplift to form marginal highs and lows. This deformational activity also affects the extrusive zone once volcanic activity ends, converting the distinctly lobate topography of the active period into highly lineated fault-controlled terrain. According to the second model, extension and volcanism can be viewed as a continuous process without major periods of volcanic quiescence. The initial lava flows of a new eruptive sequence fill low areas, frequently spilling over local sills and flooding much of the rift valley.

Ballard, R.D.; van Andel, T.H.; Holcomb, R.T.



Geodynamic significance of the TRM segment in the East African Rift (W-Tanzania): Active tectonics and paleostress in the Ufipa plateau and Rukwa basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tanganyika-Rukwa-Malawi (TRM) rift segment in western Tanzania is a key sector for understanding the opening dynamics of the East African rift system (EARS). In an oblique opening model, it is considered as a dextral transfer fault zone that accommodates the general opening of the EARS in an NW-SE direction. In an orthogonal opening model, it accommodates pure dip-slip normal faulting with extension orthogonal to the rift segments and a general E-W extension for the entire EARS. The central part of the TRM rift segment is well exposed in the Ufipa plateau and Rukwa basin, within the Paleoproterozoic Ubende belt. It is also one of the most seismically active regions of the EARS. We investigated the active tectonic architecture and paleostress evolution of the Ufipa plateau and adjacent Rukwa basin and in order to define their geodynamic role in the development of the EARS and highlight their pre-rift brittle tectonic history. The active fault architecture, fault-kinematic analysis and paleostress reconstruction show that the recent to active fault systems that control the rift structure develop in a pure extensional setting with extension direction orthogonal to the trend of the TRM segment. Two pre-rift brittle events are evidenced. An older brittle thrusting is related to the interaction between the Bangweulu block and the Tanzanian craton during the late Pan-African (early Paleozoic). It was followed by a transpressional inversion during the early Mesozoic. This inversion stage is the best expressed in the field and caused dextral strike-slip faulting along the fault systems that now control the major rift structures. It has been erroneously interpreted as related to the late Cenozoic EARS which instead is characterized by pure normal faulting (our third and last stress stage).

Delvaux, D.; Kervyn, F.; Macheyeki, A. S.; Temu, E. B.



Technical assessment of maglev system concepts. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Government Maglev System Assessment Team operated from 1991 to 1993 as part of the National Maglev Initiative. They assessed the technical viability of four US Maglev system concepts, using the French TGV high speed train and the German TR07 Maglev system as assessment baselines. Maglev in general offers advantages that include high speed potential, excellent system control, high capacity,




Strain accommodation by slow slip and dyking in a youthful continental rift, East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continental rifts begin and develop through repeated episodes of faulting and magmatism, but strain partitioning between faulting and magmatism during discrete rifting episodes remains poorly documented. In highly evolved rifts, tensile stresses from far-field plate motions accumulate over decades before being released during relatively short time intervals by faulting and magmatic intrusions. These rifting crises are rarely observed in thick

Eric Calais; Nicolas D'Oreye; Julie Albaric; Anne Deschamps; Damien Delvaux; Jacques Déverchère; Cynthia Ebinger; Richard W. Ferdinand; François Kervyn; Athanas S. Macheyeki; Anneleen Oyen; Julie Perrot; Elifuraha Saria; Benoît Smets; D. Sarah Stamps; Christelle Wauthier



Helium circulator auxiliary system design analysis. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report contains the results of the Helium Circulator Auxiliary System Study performed as a part of the High Temperature Reactor Development Program. The major objectives of the study were to review and analyze the existing Fort St. Vrain (FSV) system (System 21) in an effort to identify and recommend modifications which would reduce system interactions, increase system stability, and improve the capability to mitigate system transients. The Helium Circulator Auxiliary System at FSV is comprised of several sub-systems which perform various functions to support the operation of the helium circulators. The primary functions of the system are to provide a source of clean, filtered water for lubrication of the circulator bearings and provide a dry, pressurized buffering gas to the circulator seals. The recommendations contained in this report are aimed at improving performance of the bearing water portion of the system.

Not Available



Evidence for hot Mississippi Valley-type brines in the Reelfoot Rift complex, south-central United States, in Late Pennsylvanian-Early Permian  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Petrographic and fluid inclusion studies of sparry dolomite cement from Upper Cambrian to Lower Ordovician rocks and conodont thermal-alteration indices provide evidence that hot mississippi valley-type brines were once present in the Reelfoot Rift complex. The cathodoluminescent microstratigraphy of sparry dolomite cement in the Reelfoot Rift resembles that of sparry dolomite cement associated with widespread mississippi valley-type deposition in the Ozark region. If correlative cathodoluminescent zones in the sparry dolomite from the Ozark and Reelfoot Rift regions indicate broadly contemporaneous dolomite deposition, then the results show that the Ozark MVT-type hydrothermal system extended into the Reelfoot region and onto the western flank of the Nashville Dome. Independent evidence supports migration of MVT-type brines into the Ozark region from the Reelfoot Rift complex in late Paleozoic time.

Leach, D. L.; Apodaca, L. E.; Repetski, J. E.; Powell, J. W.; Rowan, E. L.



Western closure of the Corinth Rift: Stratigraphy and structure of the Lakka fault block  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Corinth Gulf, seismicity is highest in the west, where the active Psathopyrgos-Neos Erineos-Aegion fault zone (PNEAFZ;30 km long, N dip) defines the south coast. To the south and SE the inactive early rift records N and NW migration of deformation since the Pliocene. When was the PNEAFZ initiated? How did it grow? What is the relevance of this fault zone within the full rift history? This paper presents new data for the onshore westernmost rift, indicating that it had a distinct early rifting history (Early to Middle Pleistocene) before being overprinted around 400 ka by the NW migrating Corinth rift. Two syn rift stratigraphic groups are recognised in the uplifted Lakka fault block in the footwall of the PNEAFZ. The youngest Galada group, comprises marine deposits and terraces that mainly document footwall uplift since initiation of the PNEAFZ at around 400-350 ka (Palyvos et al. 2010). The oldest sediments derived from the footwall of the Lakka fault are the 400-350 ka old Aravonitsa Gilbert delta (Palyvos et al. 2010), suggesting this fault is not significantly older than the PNEAFZ. The Galada group records a gradual eastward block tilting due to differential footwall uplift as the PNEAFZ propagated east. The underlying Profitis Ilias group, (pre 400 ka, < 600 m) is characterised by south and southeastward fining continental facies from coarse alluvial conglomerates in the immediate footwall of the Psathopyrgos fault (Rodini formation) passing east and south to fluvial sandstones and conglomerates (Salmoniko formation), to deltaic and shallow water sandstones interfingering with lacustrine marls, silts and fine sandstones with rare conglomerates and lignites (Synania formation). Faunal assemblages in the Synania formation indicate freshwater to brackish conditions with occasional marine levels and support an Early to Middle Pleistocene age. To the ESE, the Synania formation passes laterally and up into a 200 m succession of fine sandstones with rare conglomerates, lignites and mudstones (Koumaris formation). In the area of the Meganitis and Selinous rivers, the Profitis Ilias group underlies and may be partly laterally equivalent to the Early to Middle Pleistocene Middle group comprising Gilbert deltas sourced from the south. New data indicate that the Profitis Ilias group was a fluvio-lacustrine system sourced from the north. Accommodation was probably created by an, as yet, unidentified south dipping fault on the north side of or below the present Gulf. The same fluvio-lacustrine system may be traced into the Patras area, further west. The Profitis Ilias group depocentre may have been part of the NE limit of the Patras rift. The westernmost Corinth rift was therefore dominated by continental facies until late Middle Pleistocene. The Rion Straits did not open west to the Mediterranean until well after 400 Ka. Any marine influence in the earlier rift came from the east. Palyvos N., Mancini M., Sorel D., Lemeille F., Pantosti D., Julia R., Triantaphyllou M., De Martini P.M. (2010) - Geomorphological, stratigraphic and geochronologic evidence of fast Pleistocene coastal uplift in the westernmost part of the Corinth Gulf (Greece). Geological Journal, 45, 78-104.

Palyvos, Nikos; Ford, Mary; Mancini, Marco; Esu, Daniela; Girotti, Odoardo; Urban, Brigitte



Composition of the crust beneath the Kenya rift  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We infer the composition of the crust beneath and on the flanks of the Kenya rift based on a comparison of the KRISP-90 crustal velocity structure with laboratory measurements of compressional-wave velocities of rock samples from Kenya. The rock samples studied, which are representative of the major lithologies exposed in Kenya, include volcanic tuffs and flows (primarily basalts and phonolites), and felsic to intermediate composition gneisses. This comparison indicates that the upper crust (5-12 km depth) consists primarily of quartzo-feldspathic gneisses and schists similar to rocks exposed on the flanks of the rift, whereas the middle crust (12-22 km depth) consists of more mafic, hornblende-rich metamorphic rocks, probably intruded by mafic rocks beneath the rift axis. The lower crust on the flanks of the rift may consist of mafic granulite facies rocks. Along the rift axis, the lower crust varies in thickness from 9 km in the southern rift to only 2-3 km in the north, and has a seismic velocity substantially higher than the samples investigated in this study. The lower crust of the rift probably consists of a crust/mantle mix of high-grade metamorphic rocks, mafic intrusives, and an igneous mafic residuum accreted to the base of the crust during differentiation of a melt derived from the upper mantle. ?? 1994.

Mooney, W.D.; Christensen, N.I.



Magma-compensated crustal thinning in continental rift zones.  


Continental rift zones are long, narrow tectonic depressions in the Earth's surface where the entire lithosphere has been modified in extension. Rifting can eventually lead to rupture of the continental lithosphere and creation of new oceanic lithosphere or, alternatively, lead to formation of wide sedimentary basins around failed rift zones. Conventional models of rift zones include three characteristic features: surface manifestation as an elongated topographic trough, Moho shallowing due to crustal thinning, and reduced seismic velocity in the uppermost mantle due to decompression melting or heating from the Earth's interior. Here we demonstrate that only the surface manifestation is observed at the Baikal rift zone, whereas the crustal and mantle characteristics can be ruled out by a new seismic profile across southern Lake Baikal in Siberia. Instead we observe a localized zone in the lower crust which has exceptionally high seismic velocity and is highly reflective. We suggest that the expected Moho uplift was compensated by magmatic intrusion into the lower crust, producing the observed high-velocity zone. This finding demonstrates a previously unknown role for magmatism in rifting processes with significant implications for estimation of stretching factors and modelling of sedimentary basins around failed rift structures. PMID:19212408

Thybo, H; Nielsen, C A



Power plant system assessment. Final report. SP-100 Program  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this assessment was to provide system-level insights into 100-kWe-class space reactor electric systems. Using these insights, Rockwell was to select and perform conceptual design studies on a ''most attractive'' system that met the preliminary design goals and requirements of the SP-100 Program. About 4 of the 6 months were used in the selection process. The remaining 2 months were used for the system conceptual design studies. Rockwell completed these studies at the end of FY 1983. This report summarizes the results of the power plant system assessment and describes our choice for the most attractive system - the Rockwell SR-100G System (Space Reactor, 100 kWe, Growth) - a lithium-cooled UN-fueled fast reactor/Brayton turboelectric converter system.

Anderson, R.V.; Atkins, D.F.; Bost, D.S.; Berman, B.; Clinger, D.A.; Determan, W.R.; Drucker, G.S.; Glasgow, L.E.; Hartung, J.A.; Harty, R.B.



Reliability Evaluation in Electric Power Systems. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

1. Objective. Investigations of practicability for computation of reliability and necessary power reserve of generation systems; reliability and necessary transmission reserve of transmission systems as a tool for operation and expansion planning in elect...

K. Edwin



Framework for Adaptable Operating and Runtime Systems: Final Project Report  

SciTech Connect

In this grant, we examined a wide range of techniques for constructing high-performance con#12;gurable system software for HPC systems and its application to DOE-relevant problems. Overall, research and development on this project focused in three specifc areas: (1) software frameworks for constructing and deploying con#12;gurable system software, (2) applcation of these frameworks to HPC-oriented adaptable networking software, (3) performance analysis of HPC system software to understand opportunities for performance optimization.

Patrick G. Bridges



Rifting Processes and Regional Sections across the South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South China Sea developed from magma-poor rifting to subsequent seafloor spreading in the Paleogene. With dimensions of more than 1000x1000 km attenuated continental crust it is close to the Basin and Range province in the United States. The area is particularly well suited for studying the transition from rifting to seafloor spreading because the marginal basin is relatively young and thus it likely preserves differences in subsidence and thermal history resulting from rifting. After only 10 to 15 Ma of seafloor spreading the margins are still close enough to each other to allow detailed conjugate studies from onshore to offshore. We address the widely discussed questions about the role and the evolution of detachment faults in combination with the nature and behavior of the lower crust. The key points which are debated are the fact that rifting continues after the formation of first oceanic crust, the role of volcanism in the rifting process and the fact that extreme crustal thinning occurred under shallow marine or even sub-aerial conditions. The classical representation of magma-poor margins showing pre-, syn- and postrift sediment architecture over uniformly stretched continental crust is modified to acknowledge the occurrence of high-angle listric faults related to fault-bounded rift basins and the presence of extremely thinned crust close to the transition to oceanic crust. A décollement zone is interpreted between the brittle upper crust and the ductile lower crust. The models need to take into account the long-lasting Paleogene rifting period during which continental or very shallow marine conditions persisted. In this presentation, conjugate pairs of rifted margins are compared regarding symmetries in architecture, synrift infill and vertical position during the rifting process.

Pubellier, M.; Franke, D.; Meresse, F.; Savva, D.; Steuer, S.; Auxietre, J.; Aurelio, M.; Chan, L. S.; Wong, P.



A System for Inter-Library Communication (SILC). Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was made of the use of time-sharing computer systems as a means of communication, accounting, message switching, and referral in a System for Inter-Library Communication (SILC). The purpose of the study was to develop data on which to evaluate the feasibility of such a system; the results are reported in terms of four issues: technical…

Hayes, R. M.


Understanding Equilibrium: The Study of Complex Systems. Final Project Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Educational Technology Center (ETC) Complex Systems Project was initiated to explore ways of using computers to help students understand systems which have often proven too complex for most high school students to understand. Preliminary work concentrated on the cognitive processes involved in modeling simple systems. This paper describes an…

Duckworth, Eleanor; And Others


An analysis of amphibious cargo barge systems. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report given summarizes a study of several towed cargo barge systems. Cargo movement performance is determined for systems containing displacement, planing hull, hydrofoil and air cushion barges towed by displacement craft, air cushion craft or helicopters. The utility of these towed systems is assessed in amphibious and replenishment operations.

M. B. Betts; C. D. Hansen



Photovoltaic-system costing-methodology development. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Presented are the results of a study to expand the use of standardized costing methodologies in the National Photovoltaics Program. The costing standards, which include SAMIS for manufacturing costs and M and D for marketing and distribution costs, have been applied to concentrator collectors and power-conditioning units. The M and D model was also computerized. Finally, a uniform construction cost-accounting structure was developed for use in photovoltaic test and application projects. The appendices contain example cases which demonstrate the use of the models.

Not Available



Tectonic Framework of the Kachchh Rift Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluation of available geological data has allowed us to determine the tectonic framework of the Kachchh rift basin (KRB), the host to the 1819 Kachchh (MW 7.8), 1956 Anjar ( M 6.0) and the recent January 26, 2001 Bhachau (MW 7.6) earthquakes. The ~ 500 km x 200 km east-west trending KRB was formed during the Mesozoic following the break-up of Gondwanaland. It is bounded to the north and south by the Nagar Parkar and Kathiawar faults which separate it from the Precambrian granitic rocks of the Indian craton. The eastern border is the Radanpur-Barmer arch (defined by an elongate belt of gravity highs) which separates it from the early Cretaceous Cambay rift basin. KRB extends ~ 150 km offshore to its western boundary, the continental shelf. Following India's collision with Eurasia, starting ~ 50 MY ago, there was a stress reversal, from an extensional to the (currently N-S) compressional regime. Various geological observations attest to continuous tectonic activity within the KRB. Mesozoic sediments were uplifted and folded and then intruded by Deccan trap basalt flows in late Cretaceous. Other evidence of continuous tectonic activity include seismically induced soft sediment deformation features in the Upper Jurassic Katrol formation on the Kachchh Mainland and in the Holocene sequences in the Great Rann. Pleistocene faulting in the fluvial sequence along the Mahi River (in the bordering Cambay rift) and minor uplift during late Quaternary at Nal Sarovar, prehistoric and historic seismicity associated with surface deformation further attest to ongoing tectonic activity. KRB has responded to N-S compressional stress regime by the formation of east-west trending folds associated with Allah Bund, Kachchh Mainland, Banni, Vigodi, Katrol Hills and Wagad faults. The Allah Bund, Katrol Hill and Kachchh Mainland faults were associated with the 1819, 1956 and 2001 earthquakes. Northeast trending Median High, Bhuj fault and Rajkot-Lathi lineament cut across the east-west trending faults. This tectonic framework suggests that KRB provides a local weak zone in the otherwise stable continental Indian craton and the observed seismicity occurs in response to the N-S compression.

Talwani, P.; Gangopadhyay, A. K.



Technology verification phase. Dynamic isotope power system. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Phase I requirements of the Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) program were to make a detailed Flight System Conceptual Design (FSCD) for an isotope fueled organic Rankine cycle power system and to build and test a Ground Demonstration System (GDS) which simulated as closely as possible the operational characteristics of the FSCD. The activities and results of Phase II, the Technology Verification Phase, of the program are reported. The objectives of this phase were to increase system efficiency to 18.1% by component development, to demonstrate system reliability by a 5000 h endurance test and to update the flight system design. During Phase II, system performance was improved from 15.1% to 16.6%, an endurance test of 2000 h was performed while the flight design analysis was limited to a study of the General Purpose Heat Source, a study of the regenerator manufacturing technique and analysis of the hardness of the system to a laser threat. It was concluded from these tests that the GDS is basically prototypic of a flight design; all components necessary for satisfactory operation were demonstrated successfully at the system level; over 11,000 total h of operation without any component failure attested to the inherent reliability of this type of system; and some further development is required, specifically in the area of performance. (LCL)

Halsey, D.G.



Guidebook to Rio Grande rift in New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Discusses the details of geologic features along the rift zone. Included are short papers on topics relative to the overall region. These papers and the road logs are of special interest to any one pursuing further study of the rift. This book is a comprehensive guide to the middle and late Cenozoic geology of the Rio Grande region of Colorado and New Mexico. Though initially used on field trips for the International Symposium on Tectonics and Magmatism of the Rio Grande rift, the guidebook will be useful to anyone interested in the Cenozoic history of the 600-mi-long area extending from central Colorado to El Paso, Texas.

Compiled by Hawley, J. W.



The tectono-stratigraphic evolution of basement highs in hyper extended deep-water rifted margins : the example of the Briançonnais domain in the Alps and comparisons with modern analogues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of hydrocarbon systems in hyper-extended deep-water rifted margins, in conjunction with technical developments, expanded the hydrocarbon exploration into domains that are yet little investigated. The increasing number of high-quality reflection and refraction seismic surveys and drill hole data show that deep-water rifted margins are very different from proximal rifted margins. The new data show evidence for a polyphase rift evolution resulting in complex rift architectures with variable amounts of magmatic addition and local mantle exhumation that cannot be predicted by classical rift models. Thus, understanding the thermal structure, subsidence history, depositional environment and sedimentary architecture is a prerequisite to apply the "play elements" in these yet little investigated domains, which is essential to evaluate the survivability of syn- to post-rift petroleum systems. Although a big progress was made in the understanding of deep water rifted margins in the last 5 years, there are still many fundamental questions that remain open and ask for further research on this topic. One open scientific question is related to the tectono-sedimentary evolution and subsidence history of basement highs in deep water rifted margins. Péron-Pinvidic and Manatschal (2010) showed that different types of basement highs can be distinguished in rifted margins. These highs include micro-continents, continental ribbons, H-blocks and extensional allochthons. Mapping these highs and properly define their stratigraphic and tectonic evolution provide important insights into the tectonic evolution of rifted margins. However, these blocks are often at deep-water and sealed by thick post-rift sediments. Therefore access to direct observations requires expensive drillings. An alternative way to study these blocks is to use field analogues. One of which is the Briançonnais domain in the Alps. To achieve our goal we propose to review the existing structural, stratigraphic and age data from the whole Briançonnais domain (from Liguria/Italy, across the French Alps to Grisons in Switzerland). We propose to construct key tectonic sections across the Briançonnais domain. These data will form the basis to discuss the rift-related tectono-stratigraphic and subsidence evolution and to constrain the along and across strike stratigraphic architecture of the Briançonnais. These observations will be compared with that of seismically imaged basement highs in deep-water rifted margins (e.g. outer high in Campos or Santos). In our presentation we will show results of our preliminary works on the Briançonnais domain in the French Alps and a comparisons with seismically imaged basement highs imaged offshore Newfoundland.

Haupert, Isabelle; Manatschal, Gianreto; Unternehr, Patrick; Decarlis, Alessandro



Tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Upper Jurassic-Neocomian rift succession, Araripe Basin, Northeast Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rift succession of the Araripe Basin can be subdivided into four depositional sequences, bounded by regional unconformities, which record different palaeogeographic and palaeoenvironmental contexts. Sequence I, equivalent to the Brejo Santo Formation, is composed of fluvial sheetflood and floodplain facies association, while Sequence II, correspondent to the lower portion of the Missão Velha Formation, is characterised by braided fluvial channel belt deposits. The fluvial deposits of Sequences I and II show palaeocurrents toward SE. The Sequence III, correspondent to the upper portion of Missão Velha Formation, is composed of fluvial sheetflood deposits, which are overlain by braided fluvial channel deposits displaying a palaeocurrent pattern predominantly toward SW to NW. Sequence IV, equivalent to the Abaiara Formation, is composed of fluvio-deltaic-lacustrine strata with polimodal paleocurrent pattern. The type of depositional systems, the palaeocurrent pattern and the comparison with general tectono-stratigraphic rift models led to the identification of different evolutionary stages of the Araripe Basin. Sequences I, II and III represent the record of a larger basin associated to an early rift stage. However, the difference of the fluvial palaeocurrent between sequences II and III marks a regional rearrangement of the drainage system related to tectonic activity that compartmentalised the large endorheic basin, defining more localised drainage basins separated by internal highs. Sequence IV is associated with the renewal of the landscape and implantation of half-graben systems. The high dispersion of palaeocurrents trends indicate that sedimentary influx occurs from different sectors of the half-grabens.

Marlon dos Santos Scherer, Claiton; Jardim de Sá, Emanuel Ferraz; Córdoba, Valéria Centurion; Sousa, Debora do Carmo; Aquino, Mayara Martins; Canelas Cardoso, Fátima Maria



Rift Valley Fever, Sudan, 2007 and 2010  

PubMed Central

To elucidate whether Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) diversity in Sudan resulted from multiple introductions or from acquired changes over time from 1 introduction event, we generated complete genome sequences from RVFV strains detected during the 2007 and 2010 outbreaks. Phylogenetic analyses of small, medium, and large RNA segment sequences indicated several genetic RVFV variants were circulating in Sudan, which all grouped into Kenya-1 or Kenya-2 sublineages from the 2006–2008 eastern Africa epizootic. Bayesian analysis of sequence differences estimated that diversity among the 2007 and 2010 Sudan RVFV variants shared a most recent common ancestor circa 1996. The data suggest multiple introductions of RVFV into Sudan as part of sweeping epizootics from eastern Africa. The sequences indicate recent movement of RVFV and support the need for surveillance to recognize when and where RVFV circulates between epidemics, which can make data from prediction tools easier to interpret and preventive measures easier to direct toward high-risk areas. PMID:23347790

Aradaib, Imadeldin E.; Erickson, Bobbie R.; Elageb, Rehab M.; Khristova, Marina L.; Carroll, Serena A.; Elkhidir, Isam M.; Karsany, Mubarak E.; Karrar, AbdelRahim E.; Elbashir, Mustafa I.



Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental rifting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radially polarized MAGSAT anomalies of North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic lithospheric sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. These major magnetic features apparently preserve their integrity until a superimposed metamorphoric event alters the magnitude and pattern of the anomalies. The longevity of continental scale magnetic anomalies contrasts markedly with that of regional gravity anomalies which tend to reflect predominantly isostatic adjustments associated with neo-tectonism. First observed as a result of NASA's magnetic satellite programs, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans. Accordingly, satellite magnetic observations provide a further tool for investigating continental drift to compliment other lines of evidence in paleoclimatology, paleontology, paleomagnetism, and studies of the radiometric ages and geometric fit of the continents.

Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.



Security Conference in Europe Exposes Rifts between US, Allies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A high-level security conference in Munich this weekend exposed rifts between the US and its European allies on the issues of a US missile defense system and the deployment of a "rapid reaction" European Union force. The US missile defense system took center stage over the weekend as Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld announced the Bush administration's plan to go ahead with development and deployment, unilaterally if necessary. Deliberately dropping "national" or "US" from his references to the system, Rumsfeld offered to develop it with European allies and extend its protection to their countries as well. Nonetheless, the European response was guarded and cautiously negative. German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder warned the US against "overly hasty and early determinations" about deploying missile defenses. The reaction of Russia was more pointed, referring to the possible development of a new arms race that could extend even into outer space (the Bush administration is considering a laser defense system) and the system's violation of the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty. Rumsfeld dismissed European fears as unfounded and suggested that the relationship with Russia needed to be renegotiated on the ground of current threats, rather than outdated cold war assumptions. In the meantime, talks at the conference also revealed some US concern over current European Union plans to develop a "rapid reaction" force that could operate independently of NATO. Turkey's opposition to such a force, combined with the US's concerns, may help to ultimately kill the project.

Charbonneau, David D.



Computer-Based Educational Software System. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

CBESS (Computer-Based Educational Software System) is a set of 22 programs addressing authoring, instructional delivery, and instructional management. The programs are divided into five groups: (1) Computer-Based Memorization System (CBMS), which helps students acquire and maintain declarative (factual) knowledge (11 programs); (2) Language Skills…

Brandt, Richard C.; Davis, Bradley N.


Regular Class Participation System (RCPS). A Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Regular Class Participation System (RCPS) project attempted to develop, implement, and validate a system for placing and maintaining students with severe disabilities in general education classrooms, with a particular emphasis on achieving both social and learning outcomes for students. A teacher-based planning strategy was developed and…

Ferguson, Dianne L.; And Others


Waste heat recovery system for residential application. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing emphasis on improving both fuel economy and emissions provides a strong incentive for development of systems that convert currently wasted energy in furnaces to useful power. The major portion of the waste energy in a residential oil or gas furnace system is associated with the exhaust gases. While recycling the heat energy in the exhaust is not new, the




Mirror fusion test facility magnet system. Final design report  

SciTech Connect

Information is given on each of the following topics: (1) magnet description, (2) superconducting manufacture, (3) mechanical behavior of conductor winding, (4) coil winding, (5) thermal analysis, (6) cryogenic system, (7) power supply system, (8) structural analysis, (9) structural finite element analysis refinement, (10) structural case fault analysis, and (11) structural metallurgy. (MOW)

Henning, C.D.; Hodges, A.J.; VanSant, J.H.; Dalder, E.N.; Hinkle, R.E.; Horvath, J.A.; Scanlan, R.M.; Shimer, D.W.; Baldi, R.W.; Tatro, R.E.



Airborne Electro-Optical Sensor Simulation System. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The total system capability, including all the special purpose and general purpose hardware comprising the Airborne Electro-Optical Sensor Simulation (AEOSS) System, is described. The functional relationship between hardware portions is described together with interface to the software portion of the computer image generation. Supporting rationale…

Hayworth, Don


Space construction system analysis, final review. Part 1: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several large space system projects which would drive out specific requirements for space construction are considered. A data base was developed to provide designers of large systems with convenient systematic access to methods of space construction and associated requirements. The results obtained were applied to technologies other than the study project.



Operational testing of intelligent rail lubrication system. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This IDEA project designs, builds, and demonstrates an automated, computer-controlled onboard intelligent system for applying new environmentally safe and consumable lubricants for rail systems. The IDEA product is to be operationally tested in a commuter rail system (METRA) for providing controlled lubrication on rails and wheel in an environmentally safe way. The lubricant applied to the rail will reduce friction between the wheel and rail and is expected to provide significant benefits in maintenance, safety, and overall economic efficiency. Progressive development of a rail lubrication system for US railroads indicates potential major benefits including reduction in wheel wear, rail wear, and track maintenance costs. Significant benefits transferable to commuter rail and high-speed transit systems are expected as well.

Kumar, S.



Windjammer solar-water-heating system. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The results of the Windjammer Solar-Water-Heating System tests showed that it was not as an efficient system as a comparable conventional system for converting solar energy into heat energy. However, it was determined that the innovative mode used less electric back-up energy for water heating. Reduced fossil fuel energy consumption being the ultimate objective of a solar water heating, the principle employed has been shown to be a workable energy saving concept. The differential mode of temperature control emerged as the more efficient mode of operation for the innovative system and under comparable conditions is projected to be nearly equivalent to the conventional solar system. Although the concept has proven workable, the costs feasible, and the potential for considereable improvements exists, additional research and development is needed to advance the design into its most practical application.

Windham, J.R.



Standards for photovoltaic energy conversion systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the results of a search for existing domestic standards and related documents for possible application in the development of a standards base for photovoltaic energy conversion systems. The search resulted in locating about 150 test methods, recommended practices, standards, solar-thermal performance criteria, and other standards-related documents. They are listed by topic areas in the appendix. The listing was prepared to assist those involved in developing performance criteria for photovoltaic systems and in identifying methods to test system performance against these criteria. It is clear from the results of the search that few standards are directly applicable to terrestrial solar photovoltaic systems and that much standards development is required to support the commercialization of such systems.

Schafft, H. A.




EPA Science Inventory

This paper describes how rules are-used as a knowledge representation formalism in an expert system called F-Cover. -Cover assists RCRA permit reviewers in evaluating performance standards for final covers at hazardous waste landfills. he paper shows how a goal tree for final cov...


Wrap up final projects Hands-on Unix system administration DeCal  

E-print Network

Lab 11 Wrap up final projects Hands-on Unix system administration DeCal 2012-11-19 Important note instructions for using the DeCal Cloud--which is part of the final project (which is in turn a required part of the course). The DeCal Cloud For more information about virtualization and the cloud, refer to Lecture 9

Walker, Matthew P.


Trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope geochemistry of Rungwe Volcanic Province, Tanzania: Implications for a superplume source for East Africa Rift magmatism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recently discovered high, plume-like 3He/4He ratios at Rungwe Volcanic Province (RVP) in southern Tanzania, similar to those at the Main Ethiopian Rift in Ethiopia, strongly suggest that magmatism associated with continental rifting along the entire East African Rift System (EARS) has a deep mantle contribution (Hilton et al., 2011). New trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data for high 3He/4He lavas and tephras from RVP can be explained by binary mixing relationships involving Early Proterozoic (+/- Archaean) lithospheric mantle, present beneath the southern EARS, and a volatile-rich carbonatitic plume with a limited range of compositions and best represented by recent Nyiragongo lavas from the Virunga Volcanic Province also in the Western Rift. Other lavas from the Western Rift and from the southern Kenya Rift can also be explained through mixing between the same endmember components. In contrast, lavas from the northern Kenya and Main Ethiopian rifts can be explained through variable mixing between the same mantle plume material and the Middle to Late Proterozoic lithospheric mantle, present beneath the northern EARS. Thus, we propose that the bulk of EARS magmatism is sourced from mixing among three endmember sources: Early Proterozoic (+/- Archaean) lithospheric mantle, Middle to Late Proterozoic lithospheric mantle and a volatile-rich carbonatitic plume with a limited range of compositions. We propose further that the African Superplume, a large, seismically anomalous feature originating in the lower mantle beneath southern Africa, influences magmatism throughout eastern Africa with magmatism at RVP and Main Ethiopian Rift representing two different heads of a single mantle plume source. This is consistent with a single mantle plume origin of the coupled He-Ne isotopic signatures of mantle-derived xenoliths and/or lavas from all segments of the EARS (Halldorsson et al., 2014).

Castillo, Paterno; Hilton, David; Halldórsson, Sæmundur



Dynamic Multifractality in Earthquake Time Series: Insights from the Corinth Rift, Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake time series are widely used to characterize the main features of seismicity and to provide useful insights into the dynamics of the seismogenic system. Properties such as intermittency and non-stationary clustering are common in earthquake time series such that multifractal concepts seem essential to describe the temporal clustering variability. Here we use a multifractal approach to study the time dynamics of the recent earthquake activity in the Corinth rift. The results indicate the degree of heterogeneous clustering and correlations acting at all time scales that suggest non-Poissonian behavior. Additionally, the multifractal analysis in different time periods showed that the degree of multifractality exhibits strong variations with time, which are associated with the dynamic evolution of the earthquake activity in the rift and the transition between periods of high and low seismicity.

Michas, Georgios; Sammonds, Peter; Vallianatos, Filippos



Rift propagation at craton margin.: Distribution of faulting and volcanism in the North Tanzanian Divergence (East Africa) during Neogene times  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A revised kinematic model is proposed for the Neogene tectono-magmatic development of the North Tanzanian Divergence where the axial valley in S Kenya splits southwards into a wide diverging pattern of block faulting in association with the disappearance of volcanism. Propagation of rifting along the S Kenya proto-rift during the last 8 Ma is first assumed to have operated by linkage of discrete magmatic cells as far S as the Ngorongoro-Kilimanjaro transverse volcanic belt that follows the margin of cratonic blocks in N Tanzania. Strain is believed to have nucleated throughout the thermally-weakened lithosphere in the transverse volcanic belt that might have later linked the S Kenya and N Tanzania rift segments with marked structural changes along-strike. The North Tanzanian Divergence is now regarded as a two-armed rift pattern involving: (1) a wide domain of tilted fault blocks to the W (Mbulu) that encompasses the Eyasi and Manyara fault systems, in direct continuation with the Natron northern trough. The reactivation of basement fabrics in the cold and intact Precambrian lithosphere in the Mbulu domain resulted in an oblique rift pattern that contrasts with the orthogonal extension that prevailed in the Magadi-Natron trough above a more attenuated lithosphere. (2) To the E, the Pangani horst-like range is thought to be a younger (< 1 Ma) structure that formed in response to the relocation of extension S of the Kilimanjaro magmatic center. A significant contrast in the mechanical behaviour of the stretched lithosphere in the North Tanzanian diverging rift is assumed to have occurred on both sides of the Masai cratonic block with a mid-crustal decoupling level to the W where asymmetrical fault-basin patterns are dominant (Magadi-Natron and Mbulu), whereas a component of dynamical uplift is suspected to have caused the topographic elevation of the Pangani range in relation with possible far-travelled mantle melts produced at depth further N.

Le Gall, B.; Nonnotte, P.; Rolet, J.; Benoit, M.; Guillou, H.; Mousseau-Nonnotte, M.; Albaric, J.; Deverchère, J.



Intergovernmental Advanced Stationary PEM Fuel Cell System Demonstration Final Report  

SciTech Connect

A program to complete the design, construction and demonstration of a PEMFC system fuelled by Ethanol, LPG or NG for telecom applications was initiated in October 2007. Early in the program the economics for Ethanol were shown to be unfeasible and permission was given by DOE to focus on LPG only. The design and construction of a prototype unit was completed in Jun 2009 using commercially available PEM FC stack from Ballard Power Systems. During the course of testing, the high pressure drop of the stack was shown to be problematic in terms of control and stability of the reformer. Also, due to the power requirements for air compression the overall efficiency of the system was shown to be lower than a similar system using internally developed low pressure drop FC stack. In Q3 2009, the decision was made to change to the Plug power stack and a second prototype was built and tested. Overall net efficiency was shown to be 31.5% at 3 kW output. Total output of the system is 6 kW. Using the new stack hardware, material cost reduction of 63% was achieved over the previous Alpha design. During a November 2009 review meeting Plug Power proposed and was granted permission, to demonstrate the new, commercial version of Plug Power's telecom system at CERL. As this product was also being tested as part of a DOE Topic 7A program, this part of the program was transferred to the Topic 7A program. In Q32008, the scope of work of this program was expanded to include a National Grid demonstration project of a micro-CHP system using hightemperature PEM technology. The Gensys Blue system was cleared for unattended operation, grid connection, and power generation in Aug 2009 at Union College in NY state. The system continues to operate providing power and heat to Beuth House. The system is being continually evaluated and improvements to hardware and controls will be implemented as more is learned about the system's operation. The program is instrumental in improving the efficiency and reducing costs of PEMFC based power systems using LPG fuel and continues to makes steps towards meeting DOE's targets. Plug Power would like to thank DOE for their support of this program.

Rich Chartrand



Automation of a gated-pipe irrigation system. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An existing gated-pipe system was automated by controlling flow into short segments of gated pipe with flow-control valves. Irrigation controllers and a microcomputer both operated the flow-control valves automatically by radio controls. The irrigation controllers and the microcomputer successfully operated the system. Although both can provide cutback-head irrigation, the microcomputer is capable of more flexible system operation. Radio controls sold for controlling model airplanes did not give reliable service when operated continuously in an irrigated field. Operation of the flo-control valves was satisfactory.

Manges, H.L.; Blume, H.R.; Matteson, D.K.; Butler, K.G.



Fylla Bank: structure and evolution of a normal-to-shear rifted margin in the northern Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cenozoic seafloor spreading between Greenland and North America is generally considered a major right-stepping ridge-transform-ridge system between NW-SE trending spreading ridge segments in the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay. The ridges were linked by N-S/NNE-SSW trending transform motions in the Davis Strait, in particular expressed by the ˜1000-km-long Ungava Fault Zone. Fylla Bank, part of the southern West Greenland continental margin, is located in the northernmost Labrador Sea at the transition between the normal and shear rifting regimes of the Labrador Sea and Davis Strait. As such, the Bank may be compared with the Demerara Plateau, part of the French Guinea-Northeast Brazil continental margin. Seismic reflection interpretations presented in this study show that Fylla Bank is situated above an extensive basin complex, herein referred to as Fylla Structural Complex, which contains an up to 5-km-thick Cretaceous-Cenozoic sedimentary succession above an inferred pre-Cretaceous basement. Seismic mapping of basement structures show that the complex is dominated by NNW-/NW-striking rift basins in its southern part and NNE-striking rift basins in its northern part. The rift basins are interpreted to be the result of an initial late-Early Cretaceous rift phase, which mainly resulted in the formation of the NNW-/NW-striking structures, and a subsequent early Campanian rift phase, mainly resulting in the formation of large NNE-striking rotated fault blocks. Resumed rifting in the early Cenozoic deepened the NNE-striking rift basins. The NNE-oriented structures have previously been interpreted to initiate during the latest Cretaceous. However, this study suggests that they initiated transfer faults already during the late-Early Cretaceous rift phase and possibly correlate with along-strike discontinuities in oceanic crust in the Labrador Sea to define margin segmentation in southern West Greenland, including the borders of Fylla Bank. A structural-kinematic model presented here thus suggests that the Cretaceous-Cenozoic poly-phase rifting to some extent was controlled by pre-existing crustal fabric. Combined with an interpreted interplay between normal stresses in the Labrador Sea and oblique-shear stresses in the Davis Strait, this resulted in a very complex structural-tectonic evolution and the formation of several distinct structural styles. The seismic interpretations are supported by maps of the Moho topography and crustal thickness which were compiled from results of pseudo-3-D gravity modelling. The maps show minimum crustal thicknesses (11 km) and maximum Moho uplifts in areas where the NNW-/NW- and NNE-striking structures interact. Moreover, a strong correlation is found between Moho topography, crustal attenuation, rift-enforced thermal uplift and erosion, and post-rift subsidence in the area. This is interpreted to be a result of thermally controlled basin dynamics.

Døssing, Arne



HARNESS: Heterogeneous Adaptable Reconfigurable Networked Systems. Final Progress Report  

SciTech Connect

HARNESS was proposed as a system that combined the best of emerging technologies found in current distributed computing research and commercial products into a very flexible, dynamically adaptable framework that could be used by applications to allow them to evolve and better handle their execution environment. The HARNESS system was designed using the considerable experience from previous projects such as PVM, MPI, IceT and Cumulvs. As such, the system was designed to avoid any of the common problems found with using these current systems, such as no single point of failure, ability to survive machine, node and software failures. Additional features included improved intercomponent connectivity, with full support for dynamic down loading of addition components at run-time thus reducing the stress on application developers to build in all the libraries they need in advance.

Fagg, G. E.



Improved Controls for Fusion RF Systems. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

We have addressed the specific requirements for the integrated systems controlling an array of klystrons used for Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD). The immediate goal for our design was to modernize the transmitter protection system (TPS) for LHCD on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center (MIT-PSFC). Working with the Alcator C-Mod team, we have upgraded the design of these controls to retrofit for improvements in performance and safety, as well as to facilitate the upcoming expansion from 12 to 16 klystrons. The longer range goals to generalize the designs in such a way that they will be of benefit to other programs within the international fusion effort was met by designing a system which was flexible enough to address all the MIT system requirements, and modular enough to adapt to a large variety of other requirements with minimal reconfiguration.

Casey, Jeffrey A. [Rockfield Research Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)



Dynamic analysis of the American Maglev system. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the dynamic interaction between a magnetic levitated (Maglev) vehicle and its supporting guideway is essential in the evaluation of the performance of such a system. This interacting coupling, known as vehicle/guideway interaction (VGI), has a significant effect on system parameters such as the required magnetic suspension forces and gaps, vehicular ride quality, and guideway deflections and stresses. This report presents the VGI analyses conducted on an actual Maglev system concept definition (SCD), the American Maglev SCD, using a linear-elastic finite-element (FE) model. Particular interest was focused on the comparison of the ride quality of the vehicle, using two different suspension systems, and their effect on the guideway structure. The procedure and necessary assumptions in the modeling are discussed.

Seda-Sanabria, Y.; Ray, J.C.



Structural development of Sumisu Rift, Izu-Bonin Arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysical swath mapping, multichannel seismic profiling, and ocean drilling data are used to document the structural evolution of Sumisu Rift and to analyze the pattern of strain resulting from extension of an intraoceanic island arc. The ˜120-km-long, 30-50-km-wide Sumisu Rift is bounded to the north and south by structural and volcanic highs west of the Sumisu and Torishima calderas and longitudinally by curvilinear border fault zones with both convex and concave dip slopes. The zig-zag pattern of normal faults (average strikes 337° and 355°) indicates extension oriented 076°±10°, orthogonal to the volcanic arc. Three oblique transfer zones divide the rift along strike into four segments with different fault trends and uplift/subsidence patterns. Differential strain across the transfer zones is accommodated by interdigitating, rift-parallel faults and sometimes by cross-rift volcanism, rather than by strike- or oblique-slip faults. From estimates of extension (2-5 km), the age of the rift (˜2 Ma), and the accelerating subsidence, we infer that Sumisu Rift is in the early synrift stage of back arc basin formation. Following an early sag phase, half graben formed with synthetically faulted, structural rollovers facing large-offset (2-2.5 km throw) border fault zones. In the three northern rift segments the largest faults are on the arc side and dip 60°-75°W, whereas in the southern segment they are on the west side and dip 25°-50°E. The present "full graben" stage is dominated by hanging wall antithetic faulting, basin widening by footwall collapse, and a concentration of subsidence in an inner rift. The hanging wall collapses, but not necessarily as a result of border fault propagation from adjacent rift segments. Whereas the border faults may penetrate the Theologically weak lithosphere (Te ? 3 km), many of the hanging wall and footwall collapse structures are detached only a few kilometers below the seafloor. Back arc volcanism, usually erupted along faults, occurs in the rift and along the protoremnant arc during both stages. Where drilled, the arc margin has been uplifted 1.1±0.5 km concurrently with ˜1.1 km of rift basin subsidence. Extremely high sedimentation rates, up to 6 m/kyr in the inner rift, have kept pace with synrift faulting, created a smooth basin floor, and resulted in sediment thicknesses that mimic the differential basin subsidence. A linear zone of weakness caused by the greater temperatures and crustal thickness along the arc volcanic line controls the initial locus of rifting. Rifts are better developed between the arc edifices; intrusions may be accommodating extensional strain adjacent to the arc volcanoes. No obvious correlations are observed between the rift structures and preexisting cross-arc trends.

Taylor, Brian; Klaus, Adam; Brown, Glenn R.; Moore, Gregory F.; Okamura, Yukinobu; Murakami, Fumitoshi



From Lithospheric Thickening and Divergent Collapse to Active Continental Rifting  

E-print Network

From Lithospheric Thickening and Divergent Collapse to Active Continental Rifting Patrice F. Rey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.5 Lithospheric geometry through time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5, the Alboran Sea, and the Basin and Range Province suggest that continental lithosphere following gravitational

Rey, Patrice F.


Observe an animation of volcanism along a rift zone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here is an animation for middle and high school students that depicts volcanism at a mid-ocean ridge. An introductory paragraph describes what occurs at a rift zone as two plates diverge and magma repeatedly moves up through the rift. The animation consists of two coordinated movie clips--one that shows a cross section of a rift zone and another that provides a view from above the rift. These clips show the volcanism and seafloor spreading that take place as two oceanic plates move apart. Students are supplied with control buttons to play, pause, and scroll through the animation. Labels indicate the key features in the animation. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Education, Terc. C.; Littell, Mcdougal



Detection of Rift Valley fever virus antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.  


A double-antibody (sandwich) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was adapted to detect Rift Valley fever virus antigen. Antibodies were purified from hyperimmune mouse and rabbit sera by affinity chromatography, using CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B coupled to a beta-propiolactone-inactivated sucrose-acetone-extracted suckling mouse liver antigen. In the assay, antigen was captured by mouse antibody adsorbed to polystyrene plates and then detected by reacting sequentially with rabbit anti-Rift Valley fever virus antibody and swine anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G conjugated to alkaline phosphatase. ELISA proved to be useful in measuring viral antigen in different animal systems. However, great variation was found in the amount of antigen per PFU encountered in different circumstances. The ELISA system was optimized using supernatant fluids from infected Vero cell cultures and had a sensitivity of 10(5) PFU/ml. Hamsters develop progressive viremia, much as seen in susceptible domestic animals, such as lambs; ELISA could reliably detect 10(6) PFU/ml of viremic hamster serum. Rhesus monkeys with Rift Valley fever infection were positive by ELISA even when viremias were only 5 X 10(3) PFU/ml. ELISA also proved to be useful in measuring viral antigen in infected mosquitoes. PMID:6409920

Niklasson, B; Grandien, M; Peters, C J; Gargan, T P



[Reaction dynamics of high-temperature systems]. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Objective was to study reactions at superthermal collision energies using a fast neutral beam produced by photodetachment. Systems under initial study included basic oxygen-hydrogen reactions. Although progress was made on each stage of the experiment, conflicting requirements (maximizing photodetachment efficiency and maximizing transmission through reaction zone) precluded ultimate success. Parameters described refer to the model system O+H{sub 2}{r_arrow}OH+H. 2 figs.

Graff, M.M.



Development of the JPL pressure letdown system. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An investigation involving the development of a pressure letdown system based on the porous plug concept has been completed. The purpose of this multi-year effort was to carry out the following five major tasks: (1) development and testing of a pressure letdown system, (2) experimental erosion studies and analysis, (3) control of the pressure letdown system, (4) development of an Ash Letdown Unit based on the pressure letdown system technology, and (5) transfer of the JPL pressure letdown technology to industry for commercialization. An extensive experimental program was undertaken to develop a fluidic vortex control element suitable for use in gas-liquid-solid flows. In an attempt to quantify erosion effects in the pressure letdown system, tests were initially carried out. A Plexiglas ash letdown device was constructed and used to demonstrate the feasibility of a continuous flow ash letdown process. A successful market survey of the JPL pressure letdown system was carried out, and a valve collaborating manufacturer was identified.

Marner, W.J.; Collins, E.R. Jr.; Rohatgi, N.K.; Clark, D.J.; Jackson, B.L.



Development of a flaring burner disposal system. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the work performed to develop a flaring burner system for spilled and recovered oils. The system is capable of flaring 180 gpm of light oil or 90 gpm of oil with a viscosity of up to 1,600 centistokes. Smokeless burning can be achieved in certain cases. The system is designed to be portable, such that the entire system can be broken down into modules and transported in a C-130 aircraft, and each module is light enough to be carried to a remote spill site by a Coast Guard helicopter. The system is self-erecting and is capable of operating safely in hazardous environments and in arctic conditions. The report describes the initial burner selection and the tests that were conducted to determine the burning parameters. The performance test program conducted on the completed prototype system is also described. These tests were successfully completed, with the conclusion that the prototype could be used for operational flaring at this time.

Beach, R.L.; Lewis, W.T.



Final Report for the Virtual Reliability Realization System LDRD  

SciTech Connect

Current approaches to reliability are not adequate to keep pace with the need for faster, better and cheaper products and systems. This is especially true in high consequence of failure applications. The original proposal for the LDRD was to look at this challenge and see if there was a new paradigm that could make reliability predictions, along with a quantitative estimate of the risk in that prediction, in a way that was faster, better and cheaper. Such an approach would be based on the underlying science models that are the backbone of reliability predictions. The new paradigm would be implemented in two software tools: the Virtual Reliability Realization System (VRRS) and the Reliability Expert System (REX). The three-year LDRD was funded at a reduced level for the first year ($120K vs. $250K) and not renewed. Because of the reduced funding, we concentrated on the initial development of the expertise system. We developed an interactive semiconductor calculation tool needed for reliability analyses. We also were able to generate a basic functional system using Microsoft Siteserver Commerce Edition and Microsoft Sequel Server. The base system has the capability to store Office documents from multiple authors, and has the ability to track and charge for usage. The full outline of the knowledge model has been incorporated as well as examples of various types of content.




Development of a polystyrene insulation system. Final technical progress report  

SciTech Connect

An adhesive coating system for loose fill polystyrene materials was developed as a product primarily for retrofit insulation of residential buildings that would neither shrink nor settle. Several problems with the coated system including flammability and shrinkage led us to consider an alternative system in which an expanded rock product called perlite was considered as an alternative to polystyrene. The primary problems with perlite are that it is very expensive and the coated structure is extremely brittle. A very attractive commercial market for retrofit insulation using either polystyrene beads or shredded polystyrene was identified. Specifically, it was demonstrated that commercial cement block buildings can be reinsulated by filling the cores of the cement blocks with a payback period of three years. With additional development, it appears that the payback period can be reduced to 2 years at present natural gas prices. The potential market for a commercial system of this kind was analyzed and determined to be on the order of ten billion dollars nationally. The estimated potential energy savings are on order of one quad. At this time, the system is being redesigned to handle commercial buildings which have areas on the order of several hundred thousand square feet. Test marketing of the present system is in progress.

Rupert, J.G.



Wetlands as a Record of Climate Change and Hydrological Response in Arid Rift Settings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Of all the terrestrial depositional settings, rift basins typically provide the greatest accommodation space, and consequently have some of the longest records of continental sedimentation. Lake deposits were the only rift component studied for records of long-term climatic change and for testing hypotheses of orbital forcing. Recently, the continuing quest for the paleontological and cultural records of human origins entombed in the sedimentary rocks of the East African Rift System raised questions concerning hydrologic and biologic response to climatic change. Additional issues are the impact of climate on paleolandscapes and the environmental stresses that might have affected human evolution. Other important indicators of rift hydrology, such as springs and wetlands are now emerging as viable records of climate change. Rift valley basins are shallow, hydrologically closed systems that are responsive to shifts in climate, and specifically sensitive to changes in the hydrologic budget (P-ET). Long term wet-dry cycles in the low latitudes are thought to be astronomically controlled, i.e. Milankovitch precession cycles (19-23 ka). In the tropics, precipitation (P) varies with changes in solar insolation which fluctuates <8-10 % over a cycle. Stronger insolation drives stronger summer monsoon maxima increasing P. Mean annual temperatures are high, but evapo-transpiration, ET (~ 2500 mm/yr) varies little. Consequently, during wetter periods regional groundwater reservoirs enlarge, the water table rises and springs and wetlands increase in number and in size compared to drier periods. Lake levels are known to fluctuate in response to change in hydrologic budget and wetlands appear to respond similarly. Springs and groundwater-fed wetlands are common, however the sources and sustainability of water or what geologic factors lead to the formation and longevity of wetlands is not well established. It appears that rainfall is trapped on topographic highs (rift fault blocks and volcanoes). This meteoric water infiltrates quickly through porous volcanic rocks and is stored in aquifers and released slowly. As a component of the rift hydrologic system, wetlands appear to be reliable indicators of rainfall fluctuations on both Milankovitch and sub-Milankovitch time scales. Wetland sediments are commoner in the geologic record during times of higher rainfall and are less common during drier periods. Modern arid rift wetland records are peats and organic-rich clay deposits that contain eolian-transported mineral matter, plant remains (e.g. roots, stems) pollen, phytoliths, diatoms, root casts, charcoal, carbonate and manganese-rich nodules, as well as copious evidence of bioturbation (plants and invertebrates to large vertebrate trampling). Older (Pleistocene) deposits that retain little original organic matter and plant remains are generally silicified, but otherwise the record is similar to modern wetlands. Records from Olduvai Gorge (1.85-1.75 Ma) contain springs and wetlands associated with stone tools. On shorter time-frames, a drought occurred during the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) and higher rainfall in East Africa during the Little Ice Age (700 BP) led to higher lake levels of Lake Naivasha and Lake Turkana (Mohamed et al. 1995; Verschuren et al. 2000) and the simultaneous initiation and expansion of Loboi Swamp in Baringo-Bogoria basin (Ashley et al. 2004). Therefore, a wetland as an indicator of climate change even on millennial-scale cycles is a viable option to lakes as paleoclimatic indicators in arid, low-latitude continental settings. Groundwater reservoirs provide a perennial water source for plants and animals (including hominins) in what might otherwise be a parched environment.

Ashley, G. M.



An integrated geophysical study of the northern Kenya rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kenyan part of the East African rift is among the most studied rift zones in the world. It is characterized by: (1) a classic rift valley, (2) sheer escarpments along the faulted borders of the rift valley, (3) voluminous volcanics that flowed from faults and fissures along the rift, and (4) axial and flank volcanoes where magma flow was most intense. In northern Kenya, the rift faults formed in an area where the lithosphere was weakened and stretched by Cretaceous-Paleogene extension, and in central and southern Kenya, it formed along old zones of weakness at the contact between the Archean Tanzania craton and the Proterozoic Mozambique orogenic belt. Recent geophysical investigations focused on the tectonic evolution of the East African rift and on exploration for geothermal energy in the southern portion of the Kenyan rift provide considerable information and insight on the structure and evolution of the lithosphere. In the north, a variety of other data exist. However, the lack of an integrated regional analysis of these data was the motivation for this study. Our study began with the collection and compilation of gravity data, and then we used the seismic refraction results from the Kenya Rift International Seismic Project (KRISP), published seismic reflection data, aeromagnetic data, and geologic and drilling data as constraints in the construction of integrated gravity models. These models and gravity anomaly maps provide insight on spatial variations in crustal thickness and upper mantle structure. In addition, they show the distribution of basins and help characterize the distribution of magmatism along the axis of the northern sector of the rift. Our main observations are the following: (1) the region of thinning and anomalous mantle widens northward in agreement with previous studies showing that the crust thins from about 35 km in the south to 20 km in the north; (2) as observed in the south, gravity highs observed along the axis are due to mafic bodies associated with the main volcanic centers, densification of the upper crust due to diking, and horst blocks where Precambrian basement has been brought to or near the surface; (3) the axis of the rift is marked by a series of high amplitude magnetic anomalies whose wavelengths are less than 2.5 km, the positive anomalies coinciding closely with known Quaternary volcanoes.

Mariita, Nicolas O.; Keller, G. Randy



Development of an AC Module System: Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

The GreenRay Inc. program focused on simplifying solar electricity and making it affordable and accessible to the mainstream population. This was accomplished by integrating a solar module, micro-inverter, mounting and monitoring into a reliable, 'plug and play' AC system for residential rooftops, offering the following advantages: (1) Reduced Cost: Reduction in installation labor with fewer components, faster mounting, faster wiring. (2) Maximized Energy Production: Each AC Module operates at its maximum, reducing overall losses from shading, mismatch, or module downtime. (3) Increased Safety. Electrical and fire safety experts agree that AC Modules have significant benefits, with no energized wiring or live connections during installation, maintenance or emergency conditions. (4) Simplified PV for a Broader Group of Installers. Dramatic simplification of design and installation of a solar power system, enabling faster and more efficient delivery of the product into the market through well-established, mainstream channels. This makes solar more accessible to the public. (5) Broadened the Rooftop Market: AC Modules enable solar for many homes that have shading, split roofs, or obstructions. In addition, due to the smaller building block size of 200W vs. 1000W, homeowners with budget limitations can start small and add to their systems over time. Through this DOE program GreenRay developed the all-in-one AC Module system with an integrated PV Module and microinverter, custom residential mounting and performance monitoring. Development efforts took the product from its initial concept, through prototypes, to a commercial product sold and deployed in the residential market. This pilot deployment has demonstrated the technical effectiveness of the AC Module system in meeting the needs and solving the problems of the residential market. While more expensive than the traditional central inverter systems at the pilot scale, the economics of AC Modules become more and more favorable as the product matures and is made in high volumes. GreenRay's early customers have been highly enthusiastic about the AC Module system benefits.

Suparna Kadam; Miles Russell



Smart Infrared Inspection System Field Operational Test Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The Smart InfraRed Inspection System (SIRIS) is a tool designed to assist inspectors in determining which vehicles passing through the SIRIS system are in need of further inspection by measuring the thermal data from the wheel components. As a vehicle enters the system, infrared cameras on the road measure temperatures of the brakes, tires, and wheel bearings on both wheel ends of commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in motion. This thermal data is then presented to enforcement personal inside of the inspection station on a user friendly interface. Vehicles that are suspected to have a violation are automatically alerted to the enforcement staff. The main goal of the SIRIS field operational test (FOT) was to collect data to evaluate the performance of the prototype system and determine the viability of such a system being used for commercial motor vehicle enforcement. From March 2010 to September 2010, ORNL facilitated the SIRIS FOT at the Greene County Inspection Station (IS) in Greeneville, Tennessee. During the course of the FOT, 413 CMVs were given a North American Standard (NAS) Level-1 inspection. Of those 413 CMVs, 384 were subjected to a SIRIS screening. A total of 36 (9.38%) of the vehicles were flagged by SIRIS as having one or more thermal issues; with brakes issues making up 33 (91.67%) of those. Of the 36 vehicles flagged as having thermal issues, 31 (86.11%) were found to have a violation and 30 (83.33%) of those vehicles were placed out-of-service (OOS). Overall the enforcement personnel who have used SIRIS for screening purposes have had positive feedback on the potential of SIRIS. With improvements in detection algorithms and stability, the system will be beneficial to the CMV enforcement community and increase overall trooper productivity by accurately identifying a higher percentage of CMVs to be placed OOS with minimal error. No future evaluation of SIRIS has been deemed necessary and specifications for a production system will soon be drafted.

Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL



The sensitivity of East African rift lakes to climate fluctuations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequences of paleo-shorelines and the deposits of rift lakes are used to reconstruct past climate changes in East Africa.\\u000a These recorders of hydrological changes in the Rift Valley indicate extreme lake-level variations on the order of tens to\\u000a hundreds of meters during the last 20,000 years. Lake-balance and climate modeling results, on the other hand, suggest relatively\\u000a moderate changes in

Lydia A. OlakaEric; Eric O. Odada; Martin H. Trauth; Daniel O. Olago



Geodynamic Evolution of the Southern Flank of the Corinth Rift  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gulf of Corinth is the most seismically active area of Europe extending in a N-S direction at a rate of 12mm\\/yr. Many studies have focused on currently active normal faults, which bound the southern flank of the Corinth rift. However, many prominent faults, that are considered no longer active, outcrop over a broader area along with their syn-rift sedimentary

D. Jousselin; S. Bourlange; M. Ford; C. Le Carlier; S. Rohais



Final approach guidance using an altimeter-aided Loran-C display system  

E-print Network

Introduction: The goal of this thesis is to test the flyability of a display system that uses a King Radio KEAO-346 altimeter and Micrologic ML-3000 LORAN-C receiver for final approach guidance and to model the dynamics ...

Dogan, Norry



Chemical energy system for a borehole seismic source. [Final report  

SciTech Connect

We describe a detonation system that will be useful in the seismological examination of geological structures. The explosive component of this system is produced by the mixing of two liquids; these liquids are classified as non-explosive materials by the Department of Transportation. This detonation system could be employed in a borehole tool in which many explosions are made to occur at various points in the borehole. The explosive for each explosion would be mixed within the tool immediately prior to its being fired. Such an arrangement ensures that no humans are ever in proximity to explosives. Initiation of the explosive mixture is achieved with an electrical slapper detonator whose specific parameters are described; this electrical initiation system does not contain any explosive. The complete electrical/mechanical/explosive system is shown to be able to perform correctly at temperatures {le}120{degrees}C and at depths in a water-filled borehole of {le} 4600 ft (i.e., at pressures of {le}2000 psig).

Engelke, R.; Hedges, R.O.



Evaluation of the Kloswall longwall mining system. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of design studies and critical requiremental tests of a new longwall mining system specifically designed to extract a very deep web (48 inches or deeper) from a longwall panel. The report includes a productivity and cost analysis comparing the new mining system with a conventional longwall operation taking a 30-inch wide web. The analysis shows the new system will increase annual production and return on investment in most cases. The report also includes conceptual drawings and specifications for a high capacity three-drum shearer and a unique shield type of roof support specifically designed for very wide web operation. The advantages and problems associated with wide web mining are discussed in general and as they relate specifically to the equipment selected for the new mining system. Details of the critical testing and the test results are presented. The study concludes by recommending that surface tests of the haulage and guidance system be conducted as the follow-on work.

Not Available



Technical assessment of maglev system concepts. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Government Maglev System Assessment Team operated from 1991 to 1993 as part of the National Maglev Initiative. They assessed the technical viability of four US Maglev system concepts, using the French TGV high speed train and the German TR07 Maglev system as assessment baselines. Maglev in general offers advantages that include high speed potential, excellent system control, high capacity, low energy consumption, low maintenance, modest land requirements, low operating costs, and ability to meet a variety of transportation missions. Further, the US Maglev concepts could provide superior performance to TR07 for similar cost or similar performance for less cost. They also could achieve both lower trip times and lower energy consumption along typical US routes. These advantages result generally from the use of large gap magnetic suspensions, more powerful linear synchronous motors and tilting vehicles. Innovative concepts for motors, guideways, suspension, and superconducting magnets all contribute to a potential for superior long term performance of US Maglev systems compared with TGV and TR07.

Lever, J.H.