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Midcontinent rift system: a frontier hydrocarbon province  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mid-continent rift system can be traced by the Mid-continent geophysical anomaly (MGA) from the surface exposure of the Keweenawan Supergroup in the Lake Superior basin southwest in the subsurface through Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas. Outcrop and well penetrations of the late rift Keweenawan sedimentary rocks reveal sediments reflecting a characteristic early continental rift clastic sequence, including alluvial

C. K. Lee; S. D. Jr. Kerr



Cenozoic rifting in the West Antarctic Rift System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) experienced two episodes of Cenozoic rifting. Seafloor spreading at the Adare spreading axis, north of the Ross Sea, from Middle Eocene to Late Oligocene time (43 - 26 Ma), was directly linked with motions within the WARS. For this time interval, marine magnetic anomalies within the Adare Basin and structural features within the Ross Sea constrain the motion between East and West Antarctica. During this episode, widespread intrusive activity took place in the continental part of the rift. Subsequent Late Oligocene until present-day (26 - 0 Ma) extension was characterized by a transition to volcanic activity. Yet, the details of extension during this episode have been poorly resolved. We present preliminary results of new seismic reflection and seafloor mapping data acquired on geophysical cruise 07-01 aboard the R/VIB Nathaniel Palmer in the northern part of the rift. Our results suggest that the style of deformation changed from spreading-related faulting into diffuse normal faulting (tilted blocks) that trend NE-SW with little resultant E-W extension. Recent volcanism is distributed throughout but tends to align with the NE-SW trend, into a localized zone. Formation of the Terror Rift, Ross Sea, within the same time frame suggests that the pole of rotation has changed its position, reflecting a change in the relative magnitudes of tensile stresses along the rift. Moreover, this change was accompanied with a sharp decrease of extension rates.

Granot, R.; Cande, S. S.; Stock, J. M.; Clayton, R. W.; Davey, F. J.



The diverging volcanic rift system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eruptions and volcano internal growth are mostly fed by dykes. The comprehension of the control factors on dyke paths is fundamental for the assessment of areas prone to vent formation and to the general understanding of how volcanoes work. We analyse an understudied magma path system; field data of nine volcanoes show they have a rectilinear rift zone in the central part passing into fan-arranged dykes at the two opposite volcano flanks. The geological, geomorphological and structural characteristics of these volcanoes and their substrate suggest that the formation of these "diverging rifts" is not specifically linked to substrate lithology and mechanical behaviour. The studied volcanoes have elongation < 0.88 and V > 10 km3 (mostly > 300 km3). Eight volcanoes have the central rift that is normal to the regional tectonic least principal stress (?3reg) and in one case it is sub-perpendicular. Field data have been combined with scaled analogue modelling, suggesting that if the ?3reg is oblique to the volcano elongation axis, dyke geometry in the edifice axial zone is controlled by elongation and thus by local gravity ?3, but dyke strike becomes perpendicular to ?3reg when dykes intrude the more external areas of the volcano. If a dyke is injected under the volcano flanks with slope inclination > 50°, it attains a geometry parallel to the slope. At lower slope inclinations at the edifice terminations, magma paths diverge outwards and crosscut slopes at high angle. Our data are in agreement with the assumption that regional tectonic stresses can affect large volcanoes up to the summit area guiding the development of a rectilinear thoroughgoing rift, both in extensional and transtensional regimes. The diverging pattern takes place due to reorientation of the local stress field guided by topography only when dyke inception localizes laterally respect to the edifice axis.

Tibaldi, A.; Bonali, F. L.; Corazzato, C.



Proterozoic Midcontinent Rift System, an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Middle and Late Proterozoic Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) extends across the middle US, from Lake Superior through Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa and Nebraska into Kansas on the southwest limb and across upper and lower Michigan on the southeast limb. Exploration for oil and gas generated over 7,000 miles of seismic, a leasehold of near seven million acres, but only three

S. D. Kerr; S. M. Landon



Geophysical studies of the West Antarctic Rift System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The West Antarctic rift system extends over a 3000 × 750 km, largely ice covered area from the Ross Sea to the base of the Antarctic Peninsula, comparable in area to the Basin and Range and the East African rift system. A spectacular rift shoulder scarp along which peaks reach 4–5 km maximum elevation marks one flank and extends from

J. C. Behrendt; W. E. LeMasurier; A. K. Cooper; F. Tessensohn; A. Tréhu; D. Damaske



MidContinent rift system: a frontier hydrocarbon province  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mid-Continent rift system can be traced by the Mid-Continent geophysical anomaly (MGA) from the surface exposure of the Keweenawan Supergroup in the Lake Superior basin southwest in the subsurface through Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas. Outcrop and well penetrations of the late rift Keweenawan sedimentary rocks reveal sediments reflecting a characteristic early continental rift clastic sequence, including alluvial

C. K. Lee; S. D. Jr. Kerr



Evidence for a Nascent Rift in South Sudan: Westward Extension of the East African Rift System?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Joint inversion of seismic and gravity data of eastern Africa reveals a low seismic wave velocity arm stretching from the southern Main Ethiopian rift westward in an east-west direction that has not been noticed in earlier work. The zone of low velocities is located in the upper mantle and is not overlain by a known structural rift expression. We analyzed the local pattern of seismicity and the stresses in the African plate to interpret this low velocity arm. The zone of low velocities is located within the Central African Fold Belt, which dissects the northern and southern portions of the African continent. It is seismically active with small to intermediate sized earthquakes occurring in the crust. Seven earthquake solutions indicate (oblique) normal faulting and low-angle normal faulting with a NS to NNW-SSE opening direction, as well as strike-slip faulting. This pattern of deformation is typically associated with rifting. The present day stress field in northeastern Africa reveals a tensional state of stress at the location of the low velocity arm with an opening direction that corresponds to the earthquake data. We propose that the South Sudan low velocity zone and seismic center are part of an undeveloped, nascent rift arm. The arm stretches from the East African Rift system westward.

Maceira, M.; Van Wijk, J. W.; Coblentz, D. D.; Modrak, R. T.



The Cenozoic evolution of the Roer Valley Rift System integrated at a European scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Roer Valley Rift System (RVRS) is located between the West European rift and the North Sea rift system. During the Cenozoic, the RVRS was characterized by several periods of subsidence and inversion, which are linked to the evolution of the adjacent rift systems. Combination of subsidence analysis and results from the analysis of thickness distributions and fault systems allows

Laurent Michon; Ronald T. Van Balen; Olivier Merle; Henk Pagnier



Mid-Continent rift system - a frontier hydrocarbon province  

SciTech Connect

Geophysical evidence in the Mid-Continent has led to delineation of a rift system active during the Proterozoic Y Era. The Mid-Continent rift system can be traced by the Mid-Continent gravity high and corresponding aeromagnetic anomaly signature from the surface exposure of the Keweenawan Supergroup in the Lake Superior basin southwest in the subsurface through Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas. The aeromagnetic anomaly signature of the rift trend discloses where these sediments have been preserved. Thick accumulations of upper Proterozoic sediments are indicated by both upward continuation of the aeromagnetic profiles across the rift trend and gravity models which incorporate: 1) a deep mafic body to create the narrow gravity high, 2) anomalously thick crust to account for the more regional gravity low, and 3) sedimentary accumulations on the Precambrian surface to explain the small-scale notches which occur within the narrow gravity high. Reflection seismic data are virtually unknown in the rift area; however, data recently acquired by COCORP across the southern end of the feature in Kansas provide evidence of thick stratified sequences in the rift valley. Studies of the East African rift have revealed that the tropical rift valley is an exceptionally fertile environment for deposition and preservation of kerogenous material. The Sirte, Suez, Viking, Dnieper-Donetz, and Tsaidam basins are just a few of the rift basins currently classed as giant producers. The existence of a rift basin trend with thick accumulations of preserved sediments, demonstrably organic rich, introduces the northern Mid-Continent US as a new frontier for hydrocarbon exploration.

Lee, C.K.; Kerr, S.D. Jr.



Thermal and mechanical development of the East African Rift System  

E-print Network

The deep basins, uplifted flanks, and volcanoes of the Western and Kenya rift systems have developed along the western and eastern margins of the 1300 km-wide East African plateau. Structural patterns deduced from field, ...

Ebinger, Cynthia Joan



Crustal structure across the transition from rifting to spreading: the Woodlark rift system of Papua New Guinea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Woodlark rift system is one of the few places where active ocean basin formation can be studied. Within this rift system, continental extension rates are some of the fastest on the planet, and extension progresses eastwards to full seafloor spreading. We use results from a recent passive seismic experiment to address the role of magmatism prior to the onset

Aaron Ferris; Geoffrey A. Abers; Barry Zelt; Brian Taylor; Steve Roecker



Geophysical glimpses into the Ferrigno Rift at the northwestern tip of the West Antarctic Rift System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) forms one of the largest continental rift systems on Earth. The WARS is of major significance as it forms the lithospheric cradle for the marine-based and potentially unstable West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). Seismic refraction, reflection, aeromagnetic, gravity and drilling in the Ross Sea have revealed most of what we know about its structure, tectonic and magmatic patterns and sedimentary basins. Aerogeophysical research and passive seismic networks have considerably extended our knowledge of the WARS and its influence on the overlying WAIS in the Siple Coast and Amundsen Sea Embayment (ASE) regions. The Bellingshausen Sea Embayment region has however remained largely unexplored, and hence the possible extent of the WARS in this sector has remained poorly constrained. Here we use a combination of reconnaissance ground-based and airborne radar observations, airborne gravity, satellite gravity and aeromagnetic data to investigate the WARS in the Bellingshausen Sea Embayment, in the area of the Ferrigno Ice Stream (Bingham et al., 2012, Nature). This region is of high significance, as it one of the main sectors of the WAIS that is currently exhibiting rapid ice loss, thought to be driven primarily by oceanic warming. Assessing geological controls on subice topography and ice dynamics is therefore of prime importance in this part of the WAIS. Ground-based and airborne radar image a subglacial basin beneath the Ferrigno Ice Stream that is up to 1.5 kilometres deep and that connects the ice-sheet interior to the Bellingshausen Sea margin. We interpret this basin as a narrow, glacially overdeepened rift basin that formed at the northwestern tip of the WARS. Satellite gravity data cannot resolve such a narrow rift basin but indicate that the crust beneath the region is likely thinned, lending support to the hypothesis that this area is indeed part of the WARS. Widely-spaced aeromagnetic data image a linear low along the inferred Ferrigno rift, but provide no evidence for high-amplitude aeromagnetic anomalies, typically associated with Cenozoic magmatism within the WARS. However, the reconnaissance character of these data, do not enable us to rule out the presence of magmatism within this part of the rift and cannot disclose the potential greater variability in subglacial geology either. Bingham et al. (2012) proposed the glacially overdeepened Ferrigno rift basins provided major controls for a palaeo-ice stream on the adjacent continental shelf during glacial maxima. The palaeo-ice stream, in turn, eroded the 'Belgica' trough, which today routes warm open ocean water back to the ice front to potentially reinforce dynamic thinning. Dynamic thinning in the Bellingshausen Sea region appears to be steered back to the ice-sheet interior along the Ferrigno rift system. We conclude that detailed aerogeophysical studies of the inferred rift basins that cut across the WAIS margin in the Bellingshausen Sea sector are a high priority to: a) better comprehend the structure and the tectono-magmatic evolution of the WARS and; b) to test the hypothesis that these rifts play a key role in rapidly transmitting oceanic-driven change inland, potentially promoting accelerated ice-sheet instability.

Bingham, Robert; Ferraccioli, Fausto



The Midcontinent rift system in Kansas  

SciTech Connect

A sequence of rift-related mafic volcanic rocks, volcanoclastic-, and clastic sedimentary rocks are recognized in cuttings and cores from about seventy wells in Kansas. The age (1,097.5 Ma) for gabbro in the Poersch [number sign]1 well in northern Kansas, as well as the general petrographic characteristics of the sedimentary rocks throughout the area favors a correlation with established Keweenawan stratigraphy in the Lake Superior region. Rift-related northeast-trending faults and older northwest-trending faults divide the area up into a number of orthogonal fault blocks or basins. Depending upon the tectonic history of the individual basin all or part of the Keweenawan section may be preserved. It is believed that large amounts of Keweenawan clastic sedimentary rock were eroded from the nemaha uplift east of the central graben of the rift and transported in an easterly direction. Prior to deposition of Paleozoic rocks the area was peneplaned. Correlation of various stratigraphic units over any distance is complicated by tectonic activity occurring at several times during the Precambrian and Paleozoic. Stratabound or stratiform deposits can occur both in the Precambrian as well as the overlying Paleozoic rocks. The possibility of massive sulfides to occur in the mafic intrusive rocks must not be excluded. In the core from the Poersch [number sign]1 well sulfides are recognized in gabbroic sills or dikes. Dark, fissile shale, similar to the Nonesuch Shale in the [number sign]1--4 Finn well averages 0.75% organic carbon. Thermal maturation within the rift probably ranges from within the oil window to over maturity.

Berendsen, P. (Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States). Kansas Geological Survey)



Petroleum system of the Shelf Rift Basin, East China Sea  

SciTech Connect

The Tertiary section of the Oujioang and Quiontang Depressions of the East China Sea Basin consists of at least eight rift-related depositional sequences identified seismically by regionally significant onlap and truncation surfaces. These sequences are calibrated by several wells including the Wenzhou 6-1-1 permitting extrapolation of petroleum system elements using seismic facies analysis. Gas and condensate correlated to non-marine source rocks and reservoired in sandstone at the Pinghu field to the north of the study area provides an known petroleum system analogue. In the Shelf Rift Basin, synrift high-amplitude parallel reflections within the graben axes correlate with coaly siltstone strata and are interpreted as coastal plain and possibly lacustrine facies with source rock potential. Synrift clinoform seismic facies prograding from the northwest footwall correlate with non-marine to marginal marine conglomerate, sandstone and siltstone, and are interpreted as possible delta or fan-delta facies with reservoir potential although porosity and permeability is low within the Wenzhou 6-1-1 well. Post-rift thermal sag sequences are characterized by parallel and relatively continuous seismic reflections and locally developed clinoform packages. These facies correlate with porous and permeable marine sandstone and siltstone. Shales of potential sealing capacity occur within marine flooding intervals of both the synrift and post-rift sequences. Traps consist of differentially rotated synrift fill, and post-rift inversion anticlines. Major exploration risk factors include migration from the synrift coaly source rocks to the post-rift porous and permeable sandstones, and seismic imaging and drilling problems associated with extensive Tertiary igneous intrusions.

Cunningham, A.C.; Armentrout, J.M.; Prebish, M. [Mobil Oil Corp., Dallas, TX (United States)] [and others



Rifting, Volcanism, and the Geochemical Character of the Mantle Beneath the West Antarctic Rift System (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) is one of the largest extensional alkali volcanic provinces on Earth, but the mechanisms responsible for generating the massive amounts of its associated magmatism remain controversial. The failure of both passive and active decompression melting models to adequately explain the observed lava volumes has prompted debate about the relative roles of thermal plume-related melting and ancient subduction-related flux melting. 40Ar/39Ar dating and geochemical analyses of the lavas, as well as volatile and trace-element determinations of olivine-hosted melt inclusions shed light on the relationship between rifting and volcanism, and also improve our understanding of the geochemical character of the mantle beneath the WARS. Results show that the magmatism post-dates the main phase of extension along the Terror Rift within the WARS, which supports a decompression-melting model without the benefit of a significant thermal anomaly. However, the observed large magma volumes seem to require a volatile-fluxed mantle, a notion supported by a long history of subduction (>500 Myr) along the paleo-Pacific margin of Gondwana. In fact, the legacy of that subduction may manifest itself in the high H2O concentrations of olivine-hosted melt inclusions (up to 3 wt% in preliminary results from ion probe measurements). The major oxide compositions of lavas in the WARS are best matched to experimental melts of garnet pyroxenite and carbonated peridotite sources. The Pb and Nd isotopic systems are decoupled from each other, suggesting removal of fluid-mobile elements from the mantle source possibly during the long history of subduction along this Gondwana margin. Extremely unradiogenic 187Os/188Os ranging to as low as 0.1081 × 0.0001 hints at the involvement of lithospheric components in generation of magmas in the WARS.

Mukasa, S. B.; Aviado, K. B.; Rilling-Hall, S.; Bryce, J. G.; Cabato, J.



Hydrothermal vents in Lake Tanganyika, East African, Rift system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sublacustrine hydrothermal vents with associated massive sulfides were discovered during April 1987 at Pemba and Cape Banza on the Zaire side of the northern basin of Lake Tanganyika, East African Rift system. New investigations by a team of ten scuba divers during the multinational (France, Zaire, Germany, and Burundi) TANGANYDRO expedition (August-October 1991) found hydrothermal vents down to a depth

Jean-Jacques Tiercelin; Catherine Pflumio; Maryse Castrec; Jacques Boulégue; Pascal Gente; Joël Rolet; Christophe Coussement; Karl O. Stetter; Robert Huber; Sony Buku; Wafula Mifundu



Calving of large tabular icebergs from ice shelf rift systems Ian Joughin1,2  

E-print Network

Calving of large tabular icebergs from ice shelf rift systems Ian Joughin1,2 and Douglas R. Mac large icebergs to calve from the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica. Time series of rift geometries indicate geometry. Both the observations and model suggest that rift opening, and, thus, tabular-iceberg calving

Boyce, C. Kevin


Characterization and quantification of active faulting in the Roer valley rift system based on high precision digital elevation models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Roer valley rift system (RVRS) is located in the northern prolongation of the upper Rhine Graben. During the Cenozoic, the evolution of the RVRS was influenced by two different rift systems situated in the North and in the South (the North Sea rift system and the West European rift system, respectively). During the last decades, moderate seismicity revealed the

Laurent Michon; Ronald T. Van Balen



Characterization and quantification of the neotectonics of the Roer Valley rift system from high precision digital elevation model analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Roer Valley Rift System (RVRS) is located in the northern prolongation of the Upper Rhine Graben. During the Cenozoic, the RVRS evolution was influenced by two different rift systems situated in the North and in the South (the North Sea rift system and the West European rift, respectively). During the last decades, the intense seismicity revealed the continuous activity

L. Michon; R. T. van Balen



Ouachita trough: Part of a Cambrian failed rift system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pre-flysch (Cambrian-Mississippian) strata of the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas and Oklahoma include two main sandstone lithofacies: (1) a craton-derived lithofacies made up largely of mature medium- to coarse-grained quartzose and carbonate detritus and, in some units, sediment eroded from exposed basement rocks and (2) an orogen-derived facies made up mainly of fine-grained quartzose sedimentary and metasedimentary debris and possibly, in lower units, a volcaniclastic component. Paleocurrent and distribution patterns indicate that detritus of facies I in the Benton uplift was derived from north and detritus of facies II throughout the Ouachitas was derived from south and east of the depositional basin. Overall sedimentological results suggest that the Ouachita trough was a relatively narrow, two-sided basin throughout most and probably all of its existence and never formed the southern margin of the North American craton. Regional comparisons suggest that it was one of several basins, including the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen, Reelfoot Rift, Illinois Basin, and Rome trough, that formed as a Cambrian failed rift system 150 to 250 m.y. after initial rifting along the Appalachian margin of the North American craton.

Lowe, Donald R.



Hydrothermal vents is Lake Tanganyika, East African Rift system  

SciTech Connect

Sublacustrine hydrothermal vents with associated massive sulfides were discovered during April 1987 at Pemba and Cape Banza on the Zaire side of the northern basin of Lake Tanganyika, East African Rift system. New investigations by a team of ten scuba divers during the multinational (France, Zaire, Germany, and Burundi) TANGANYDRO expedition (August-October 1991) found hydrothermal vents down to a depth of 46 m along north-trending active faults bounding the Tanganyika rift on the western side. Temperatures from 53 to 103 {degrees}C were measured in hydrothermal fluids and sediments. Veins of massive sulfides 1-10 cm thick (pyrite and marcasite banding) were found associated with vents at the Pemba site. At Cape Banza, active vents are characterized by 1-70-cm-high aragonite chimneys, and there are microcrystalline pyrite coatings on the walls of hydrothermal pipes. Hydrothermal fluid end members show distinctive compositions at the two sites. The Pemba end member is a NaHCO{sub 3}-enriched fluid similar to the NaHCO{sub 3} thermal fluids form lakes Magadi and Bogoria in the eastern branch of the rift. The Cape Banza end member is a solution enriched in NaCl. Such brines may have a deep-seated basement origin, as do the Uvinza NaCl brines on the eastern flank of the Tanganyika basin. Geothermometric calculations have yielded temperatures of fluid-rock interaction of 219 and 179 {degrees}C in the Pemba and Cape Banza systems, respectively. Abundant white or reddish-brown microbial colonies resembling Beggiatoa mats were found surrounding the active vents. Thermal fluid circulation is permitted by opening of cracks related to 130{degrees}N normal-dextral faults that intersect the north-south major rift trend. The sources of heat for such hydrothermal systems may relate to the existence of magmatic bodies under the rift, which is suggested by the isotopic composition of carbon dioxide released at Pemba and Cape Banza. 21 refs., 2 figs.

Tiercelin, J.J. [Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France)] [Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France); Pflumio, C.; Castrec, M. [Universite Paris VI, Paris (France)] [and others] [Universite Paris VI, Paris (France); and others



Structural aspects of Mid-Continent rift system in Kansas  

SciTech Connect

The Humboldt fault zone and the faulted Abilene anticline are among many prominent north-northeast to south-southwest-trending structures in northeastern Kansas that occur in Paleozoic rocks as a result of renewed movement of faults associated with the Mid-Continent rift system (MRS). The Humboldt fault zone consists of a number of anastomosing fault segments with high-angle, normal or reverse displacements of up to 600 m. Most of this movement occurred during the Late Mississippian to Early Pennsylvanian. Domal culminations, some of which bear oil, and rhomboid-shaped grabens, are recognized.

Berendsen, P.; Newell, K.D.; Blair, K.P. (Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence (USA))



Multiscale dynamics of a normal fault system: The western rift of Corinth  

E-print Network

Multiscale dynamics of a normal fault system: The western rift of Corinth Pascal Bernard, IPGP S, 2010 - en-echelon large normal fault system dipping north -younger, western rift : higher strain rate Normal faults rooting on a major detachment: - low angle dip of microseismicity - NS localized gradient

Cerveny, Vlastislav


Geochronological and geochemical assessment of Cenozoic volcanism from the Terror Rift region of the West Antarctic Rift System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work presented in this dissertation explains results from three different methods to determine the relation between tectonism and rift-related volcanism in the Terror Rift region of the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS). Alkaline lavas from seven submarine features, Beaufort Island and Franklin Islands, and several locations near Mt Melbourne were dated by 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and analyzed for elemental and isotopic chemical signatures. Each chapter addresses a different aspect of the hypothesis that the presence of volatiles, primarily H2O or CO2, in the magma source has led to anomalously high volumes of magmatism after rift-related decompressional melting rather than requiring an active mantle plume source. Chapter 2 provides the temporal framework, illustrating that the sampled features range in age from 6.7 Ma to 89 ka, post-dating the main Miocene age phase of Terror Rift extension. Chapter 3 illustrates the traditional enriched elemental and isotopic chemical signatures to support the overall homogeneity of these lavas and previously analyzed areas of the WARS. This chapter also provides a new model for the generation of the Pb isotopic signatures consistent with a history of metasomatism in the magma source. Chapter 4 provides an entirely new chemical dataset for the WARS. The first platinum group element (PGE) abundances and extremely unradiogenic Os isotopic signatures of Cenozoic lavas from Antarctica provide the strongest evidence of melting contributions from a lithospheric mantle source. The combined results from these three studies consistently support the original hypothesis of this dissertation. New evidence suggests that WARS related lavas are not related to a mantle plume(s) as previously proposed. Instead, they are generated by passive, decompressional melting of a source, likely a combination of the asthenospheric and lithospheric mantle, which has undergone previous melting events and metasomatism.

Rilling, Sarah E.


The stratigraphic architecture of hyper-extended rift systems: A field perspective from Aps, Pyrenees and Baja-California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of hyper-extended domains in deep water rifted margins challenged the classical view of the evolution of rift systems leading to continental breakup. In these hyper-extended domains, rift basins occur over less than 10km thick extended continental crust or exhumed subcontinental mantle. Neither their imaged stratigraphic architecture and drilled facies nor the subsidence history can be explained by classical McKenzie-type rift models. Studies performed on off- and on-shore examples demonstrate the importance of tectonic exhumation by detachment faulting. However, despite their apparent widespread occurrence in present-day rifted margins, the overall tectono-sedimentary evolution of these systems remains poorly understood. In this study we review and compare key multi-scale observations from 3 different hyper-extended rift systems. 1) The first example, in the Western Pyrenees, corresponds to a complete sediment-rich Cretaceous hyper-extended rift system that can be investigated. 2) The second example in the Swiss Alps, gives the access to supra-detachment sedimentary evolution in a sediment-starved context. 3) The last example exposed in Baja California Sur, shows supra-detachment sedimentary evolution in sediment-rich and shallow water environment. Based on these studies in three different settings, we conclude that the basins forming in the lower and upper plate position respective to detachment fault polarity develop as two different types of basins. Lower plate basins develop over top-basement detachment systems and discontinuous pieces of pre-rift strata (extensional allochthons). In this setting, the sequential development of low-angle detachment systems implies the creation of new real estate crust (new seafloor surfaces) and a complex syn-rift stratigraphic architecture. Through this domain, the deposition of syn- and post-tectonic sediments above exhumation surfaces are diachronous along stretching direction illustrating relative migration of exhumation processes. Syn-tectonic deposits correspond to the erosion of exhumed material and mass-wasting processes along active detachment fault scarps. Once active exhumation migrates, inactive parts of detachment merge to form a lower plate sag basin under thermal subsidence. In contrast, the upper plate basin records a single isochronous sag phase over weakly extended pre-rift strata. This observation suggests that upper plate sag formation is controlled by depth-dependent crustal extension. As illustrated by the different study cases, the sag phase sedimentary record of upper and lower plate settings strongly depends on their respective connection with sediment sourcing systems. Finally, we used the Rifter software developed within the Margin Modelling Phase 3 (MM3) consortium to generate equilibrated lithospheric sections based on our observations. Through these kinematic numerical experiments, we aim to quantify the tectonic, thermal and isostatic evolution of hyper-extended rift systems.

Masini, Emmanuel; Manatschal, Gianreto; Tugend, Julie; Mohn, Geoffroy; Robin, Cécile; Geoffroy, Laurent; Unternehr, Patrick



ALVIN investigation of an active propagating rift system, Galapagos 95.5?? W  

USGS Publications Warehouse

ALVIN investigations have defined the fine-scale structural and volcanic patterns produced by active rift and spreading center propagation and failure near 95.5?? W on the Galapagos spreading center. Behind the initial lithospheric rifting, which is propagating nearly due west at about 50 km m.y.-1, a triangular block of preexisting lithosphere is being stretched and fractured, with some recent volcanism along curving fissures. A well-organized seafloor spreading center, an extensively faulted and fissured volcanic ridge, develops ~ 10 km (~ 200,000 years) behind the tectonic rift tip. Regional variations in the chemical compositions of the youngest lavas collected during this program contrast with those encompassing the entire 3 m.y. of propagation history for this region. A maximum in degree of magmatic differentiation occurs about 9 km behind the propagating rift tip, in a region of diffuse rifting. The propagating spreading center shows a gentle gradient in magmatic differentiation culminating at the SW-curving spreading center tip. Except for the doomed rift, which is in a constructional phase, tectonic activity also dominates over volcanic activity along the failing spreading system. In contrast to the propagating rift, failing rift lavas show a highly restricted range of compositions consistent with derivation from a declining upwelling zone accompanying rift failure. The lithosphere transferred from the Cocos to the Nazca plate by this propagator is extensively faulted and characterized by ubiquitous talus in one of the most tectonically disrupted areas of seafloor known. The pseudofault scarps, where the preexisting lithosphere was rifted apart, appear to include both normal and propagator lavas and are thus more lithologically complex than previously thought. Biological communities, probably vestimentiferan tubeworms, occur near the top of the outer pseudofault scarp, although no hydrothermal venting was observed. ?? 1992 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Hey, R.N.; Sinton, J.M.; Kleinrock, M.C.; Yonover, R.N.; MacDonald, K.C.; Miller, S.P.; Searle, R.C.; Christie, D.M.; Atwater, T.M.; Sleep, N.H.; Johnson, H. Paul; Neal, C.A.



A morphotectonic study of an extensional fault zone in a magma-rich rift: the Baringo Trachyte Fault System, central Kenya Rift  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Baringo Trachyte Fault System is located within the central Kenya Rift and forms part of a N–S-trending linked extensional fault network. This fault system bounds to the west the 8km deep Baringo Basin which itself lies within the axial valley of the central Kenya Rift. It mainly affects a middle Pleistocene trachytic dome (510ka), the so-called Baringo Trachyte (BT).

B Le Gall; J.-J Tiercelin; J.-P Richert; P Gente; N. C Sturchio; D Stead; C Le Turdu



Investigation of rifting processes in the Rio Grande Rift using data from an unusually large earthquake swarm. Final report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Because the Rio Grande Rift is one of the best seismically instrumented rift zones in the world, studying its seismicity provides an exceptional opportunity to elucidate the active tectonic processes within continental rifts. Beginning on 29 November 1989, a 15 square km region near Bernardo, NM, produced the strongest and longest lasting sequence of earthquakes in the rift in 54 years. Our research focuses on the Bernardo swarm which occurred 40 km north of Socorro, New Mexico in the axial region of the central Rio Grande rift. Important characteristics concerning hypocenters, fault mechanisms, and seismogenic zones are discussed.

Sanford, A.; Balch, R. [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Hartse, H.; House, L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)



Simple shear detachment fault system and marginal grabens in the southernmost Red Sea rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NNW-SSE oriented Red Sea rift, which separates the African and Arabian plates, bifurcates southwards into two parallel branches, southeastern and southern, collectively referred to as the southernmost Red Sea rift. The southern branch forms the magmatically and seismo-tectonically active Afar rift, while the less active southeastern branch connects the Red Sea to the Gulf of Aden through the strait of Bab el Mandeb. The Afar rift is characterized by lateral heterogeneities in crustal thickness, and along-strike variation in extension. The Danakil horst, a counterclockwise rotating, narrow sliver of coherent continental relic, stands between the two rift branches. The western margin of the Afar rift is marked by a series of N-S aligned right-lateral-stepping and seismo-tectonically active marginal grabens. The tectonic configuration of the parallel rift branches, the alignment of the marginal grabens, and the Danakil horst are linked to the initial mode of stretching of the continental crust and its progressive deformation that led to the breakup of the once contiguous African-Arabian plates. We attribute the initial stretching of the continental crust to a simple shear ramp-flat detachment fault geometry where the marginal grabens mark the breakaway zone. The rift basins represent the ramps and the Danakil horst corresponds to the flat in the detachment fault system. As extension progressed, pure shear deformation dominated and overprinted the initial low-angle detachment fault system. Magmatic activity continues to play an integral part in extensional deformation in the southernmost Red Sea rift.

Tesfaye, Samson; Ghebreab, Woldai



Controls on the Geometry and Evolution of a Highly Asymmetric Rift System; Southern South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three Mesozoic basins (Algoa, Gamtoos and Plettenburg) in southern South Africa form a highly asymmetric rift system. This system initially formed through the negative structural inversion of the Paleozoic Cape Fold Belt and the influence of pre-existing structures in controlling basin geometry and evolution in space and time is presented. The asymmetric configuration is apparent from the consistent S to SW dip of the bounding faults. The St Croix Fault (Algoa Basin) is a shallow dipping (<24°) listric fault with a displacement of ~12.5 km. In contrast, both the Gamtoos and Plettenburg faults (Gamtoos and Pletmos basins respectively) are higher angle (40°-65°) planar faults to >12,000 m depth and have displacements of 16.5 and 12 km. Estimated cumulative displacement rates for the Gamtoos and Plettenburg faults are 0.55 mm/yr-1 and 0.43 mm/yr-1. Two models for underlying basin geometry are presented. The first invokes a south dipping decollement from which all of the normal faults branch. The second proposes a combination of a south dipping detachment surface in the NE (Algoa) and planar normal faults that extend to the brittle-ductile transition zone in the SW (Gamtoos and Pletmos). These models raise important questions regarding: 1) layer and partitioning of stress within the upper and lower crust; and 2) the accommodation of planar faults with such large displacements within the southern South African lithosphere. In addition, the evolution of the Gamtoos and Plettenburg faults are established using seismic stratigraphy coupled with onshore observations. This study reveals that these faults grew through the coalescing of co-linear, isolated depocentres to form very long and under-displaced faults during the early syn-rift interval. The faults were at least 100 km long with displacements of <800 m within 5 Myrs of rift initiation. During the subsequent 25 Myrs of rifting there was no appreciable increase in fault length, although cumulative displacement increased to ~16.5 km. Although the final Displacement-Length (D-L) values of the faults conform to established models, the near vertical D-L growth profiles do not conform to previous models. The atypical evolution of the faults is considered in a context of reactivating the underlying, pre-extensional structures.

Paton, D.



East Antarctic Rift Systems - key to understanding of Gondwana break-up  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of analysis of radio-echo sounding surveys, the RADARSAT satellite data, magnetic and gravity information give evidence that East Antarctica contains 13 riftogenic systems and/or large linear tectonic structures. Among known and suggested rifts of East Antarctica the Lambert rift has a pivotal position and it manifests oneself as symmetry axis. Six additional systems are revealed on both sides of it and any one of them possesses special features in geologic and geomorphologic aspects. In most cases they inherited the anisotropy of long-lived cratonic blocks. Riftogenic and/or large linear tectonic structures along the East Antarctica coastal regions are distributed with a steady regularity with average distance between them about 650 km. For six (7) structures from 13 (Lambert, Jutulstraumen-Pencksökket, Vestfjella, Mellor-Slessor (Bailey), Wilkes Basin, Gaussberg (?) and Rennick) there is a distinct spatial coupling with trough complexes of the Beacon Supergroup and their subsequent reactivation in Late Jurassic - Permian time when the East Gondwana started break-up. Rift system of the Lambert-Amery Glaciers and Prydz Bay is related to Mesozoic extension events and it inherited structures of Paleozoic grabens. The total length of the rift system exceeds 4000 km of the same scale as largest the World rift belts. The length of the western branch of the Lambert rift that includes the Mellor rift and graben-like structures of the Bailey and Slessor glaciers exceeds 2300 km. Results of radio-echo sounding investigation of the subglacial Aurora Basin allow to suggest that this large basin of sub-meridian extension is underlain by an extensive (> 1000 km) riftogenic structure that is running towards the Transantarctic Mountains where it forms a triple junction with the eastern branch of the Lambert rift and structures of the Wilkes Basin. It is hereby proposed that Aurora-Scott rift is formed by complex system of sub-parallel depressions divided by fragmentary horsts. The spatial correlation of the Aurora-Scott rift system, Permian basins of the Western Australia margin and coal-bearing basins in Rajmahal Hills allows suggesting that this East Antarctic structure was also formed during Permian time and about the existence of triple junction rift systems (Aurora-Scott, Perth, Rajmahal) in the pre-breakup Gondwana.

Golynsky, D. A.; Golynsky, A. V.



Structural geology of the African rift system: Summary of new data from ERTS-1 imagery. [Precambrian influence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ERTS imagery reveals for the first time the structural pattern of the African rift system as a whole. The strong influence of Precambrian structures on this pattern is clearly evident, especially along zones of cataclastic deformation, but the rift pattern is seen to be ultimately independent in origin and nature from Precambrian tectonism. Continuity of rift structures from one swell to another is noted. The widening of the Gregory rift as its northern end reflects an underlying Precambrian structural divergence, and is not a consequence of reaching the swell margin. Although the Western Rift is now proven to terminate at the Aswa Mylonite Zone, in southern Sudan, lineaments extend northeastwards from Lake Albert to the Eastern Rift at Lake Stefanie. The importance of en-echelon structures in the African rifts is seen to have been exaggerated.

Mohr, P. A.



CASERTZ aeromagnetic data reveal late Cenozoic flood basalts (?) in the West Antarctic rift system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The late Cenozoic volcanic and tectonic activity of the enigmatic West Antarctic rift system, the least understood of the great active continental rifts, has been suggested to be plume driven. In 1991-1992, as part of the CASERTZ (Corridor Aerogeophysics of the Southeast Ross Transect Zone) program, an ~25 000 km aeromagnetic survey over the ice-covered Byrd subglacial basin shows magnetic "texture' critical to interpretations of the underlying extended volcanic terrane. The aeromagnetic data reveal numerous semicircular anomalies ~100-1100 nT in amplitude, interpreted as having volcanic sources at the base of the ice sheet; they are concentrated along north-trending magnetic lineations interpreted as rift fabric. The CASERTZ aeromagnetic results, combined with >100 000 km of widely spaced aeromagnetic profiles, indicate at least 106 km3 of probable late Cenozoic volcanic rock (flood basalt?) in the West Antarctic rift beneath the ice sheet and Ross Ice Shelf. -from Authors

Behrendt, J.C.



Failure was not an option- the Mid-Continent Rift system succeeded  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1.1 Ga Mid-Continent Rift (MCR) in North America is often viewed as a failed rift formed by isolated midplate volcanism and extension within the ~1.3-~0.98 Ga Grenville orogeny. An alternative view is suggested by analogy with younger and morphologically similar rift systems, whose plate tectonic settings are more easily understood because their surroundings - including seafloor with magnetic anomalies - have not been deformed or destroyed by subsequent collisions and rifting events. In this view, the MCR was part of a larger plate boundary rifting event that resulted in a successful episode of seafloor spreading. This view is motivated by various pieces of evidence. The MCR rifting looks much like rigid plate block motion, such as associated with the West Central African Rift systems formed during the Mesozoic breakup of Africa and South America and the ongoing rifting in the East African Rift region with seafloor spreading in the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea. This view explains the affinities of the Grenville-age rocks in the central and southern Appalachians to Amazonia rather than Canadian Grenville-age Appalachian rocks. The MCR extends farther to the south than traditionally assumed along the East Continental Gravity High (a buried feature from Ohio to Alabama). This failed portion of the rift system connected to the rift successfully separating Laurentia and Amazonia. The seafloor spreading separating Amazonia from Laurentia may explain the former's relative motion toward Greenland and Baltica. This model is consistent with some of the ~1.1 Ga geological events in Amazonia. A change in the apparent polar wander path for Laurentia during the period of volcanism of the MCR could be attributed to this plate reconfiguration. The extensional phase on the MCR may have ended because motion was taken up by seafloor spreading between Laurentia and Amazonia rather ending due to another continental collision. Later reverse faulting on the MCR normal faults due to compression, perhaps from collisions around Rodinia's margins, would not be unexpected because the MCR would be a relatively weak intraplate zone due to higher crustal temperatures and faults.

Merino, M.; Stein, C. A.; Stein, S. A.; Keller, G. R.; Flesch, L. M.; Jurdy, D. M.



Variation in magma volume along the two arms of the Midcontinent Rift System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2000km-long Midcontinent Rift System (MCRS) has two major arms meeting in the Lake Superior region. One extends southwestward at least as far as central Kansas, and the other extends southeastward through Michigan. Gravity and magnetic anomalies delimit the rift zone because the highly magnetic and dense mafic igneous rocks filling the central grabens of the rift system have strong susceptibility and density contrasts with adjacent rock formations. Because the rift lies hidden beneath gently dipping Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks except in the Lake Superior region, most models of rift structure have been extrapolated from the few areas that have seismic reflection data. A fundamental question is how the two arms differ. The west arm is more pronounced than the east arm in the gravity data. Whether this difference is due to the east arm being buried by the Michigan Basin or reflects magma volume has implications for the formation of the MCRS. Existing gravity models are not standardized across the rift and therefore cannot be used to directly compare the arms. We have thus conducted gravity modeling with a uniform approach and find that the west arm has significantly more magma and that the magma volume along the west arm increases toward Lake Superior. These results imply that there was more spreading along the western arm and that the spreading on this arm decreased southward, consistent with the arms being boundaries of a microplate rotating with respect to the Superior province with its rotation pole to the southwest.

Merino, M.; Keller, G. R.; Stein, S. A.



Plate kinematics of the Afro-Arabian Rift System with emphasis on the Afar Depression, Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work utilizes the Four-Dimensional Plates (4DPlates) software, and Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) to examine plate-scale, regional-scale and local-scale kinematics of the Afro-Arabian Rift System with emphasis on the Afar Depression in Ethiopia. First, the 4DPlates is used to restore the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden, the Afar Depression and the Main Ethiopian Rift to development of a new model that adopts two poles of rotation for Arabia. Second, the 4DPlates is used to model regional-scale and local-scale kinematics within the Afar Depression. Most plate reconstruction models of the Afro-Arabian Rift System relies on considering the Afar Depression as a typical rift-rift-rift triple junction where the Arabian, Somali and Nubian (African) plates are separating by the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden and the Main Ethiopian Rift suggesting the presence of "sharp and rigid" plate boundaries. However, at the regional-scale the Afar kinematics are more complex due to stepping of the Red Sea propagator and the Gulf of Aden propagator onto Afar as well as the presence of the Danakil, Ali Sabieh and East Central Block "micro-plates". This study incorporates the motion of these micro-plates into the regional-scale model and defined the plate boundary between the Arabian and the African plates within Afar as likely a diffused zone of extensional strain within the East Central Block. Third, DInSAR technology is used to create ascending and descending differential interferograms from the Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) C-Band data for the East Central Block to image active crustal deformation related to extensional tectonics and volcanism. Results of the DInSAR study indicate no strong strain localization but rather a diffused pattern of deformation across the entire East Central Block.

Bottenberg, Helen Carrie


Twenty-five years of geodetic measurements along the Tadjoura-Asal rift system, Djibouti, East Africa  

E-print Network

years of geodetic measurements along the Tadjoura-Asal rift system, Djibouti, East Africa, J. GeophysTwenty-five years of geodetic measurements along the Tadjoura- Asal rift system, Djibouti, East Africa Christophe Vigny,1 Jean-Bernard de Chabalier,2 Jean-Claude Ruegg,2 Philippe Huchon,3 Kurt L. Feigl

Vigny, Christophe


Rift border system: The interplay between tectonics and sedimentation in the Reconcavo basin, northeastern Brazil  

SciTech Connect

A geometric and depositional model is proposed to explain the tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the main border of the Reconcavo basin. The architecture of the rift margin is characterized by a rift border system constituted by (1) a master fault, (2) a step, and (3) a clastic wedge. This footwall-derived clastic wedge is interpreted as alluvial fans and fan deltas composed of conglomerates that interfinger with hanging-wall strata. The analysis of the vertical distribution of coarse-grained components of this wedge suggests that its composition is geographically controlled, and no regular inverted stratigraphy is commonly described for this type of succession. During an initial lacustrine phase, turbidites accumulated farther from and parallel to the rift margin. The mapping of marker beds that bound these lacustrine turbidite deposits may be used to infer major periods of clastic influx and, therefore, to correlate with periods of fault-related subsidence or climatic fluctuations in the depositional basin and erosion of the sediment source area. Periods of limited back-faulting and basin expansion toward the main border are distinguished through patterns of progradation and aggradation indicating progressive retreat of the rift border and younging; in the footwall direction. The overall evolution of the rift border seems to be related to extension, block rotation, hanging-wall subsidence, and footwall uplift associated with the initial master fault, with limited propagation of faults away from the basin into the footwall.

Magnavita, L.P.; Silva, T.F. da [Petrobras/E & P - BA, Bahia (Brazil)



Stratigraphy, Structure, and Ore Deposits of the Southern Limb of the Midcontinent Rift System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features an overview of the Midcontinent Rift system of North America, an area that extends for more than 2000 km northeasterly from Kansas, through the Lake Superior region, and then southeasterly through lower Michigan. This summary of the stratigraphy, structure, and mineralization of rift rocks provides an overview of the geologic history in northern Wisconsin and upper Michigan. Separate sections describe the tectonic history and structural features of the area, the stratigraphy of volcanic and sedimentary deposits, and the mineralization that produced rich copper and silver deposits. Information is supported by numerous citations while maps and diagrams help illustrate the concepts.

T. Bornhorst


Earthquakes and Geological Structures of the St. Lawrence Rift System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The St. Lawrence Rift System (SLRS), which includes the Ottawa-Bonnechère and Saguenay grabens, is located well inside the North American plate. Most historic and the some 350 earthquakes recorded yearly occur in three main seismically active zones, namely Charlevoix (CSZ), Western Quebec (WQSZ), and Lower St. Lawrence (LSLSZ)). Outside these areas, most of the Canadian Shield and bordering regions have had a very low level of earthquake activity. In the SLRS, moderate to large earthquakes (Moment magnitude (M) 5.5 to M 7) are known to have occurred since 1663 causing landslides and damage mostly to unreinforced masonry elements of buildings located on ground capable of amplifying ground motions. Most earthquakes in these seismic zones share common characteristics such as mid- to upper crustal focal depths, no known surface ruptures and proximity to SLRS faults. Variations also exist such as vast seismically-active region (WQSZ and LSLSZ), presence of a large water body (CSZ and LSLSZ), and absence of SLRS faults near concentration of earthquakes (WQSZ). The CSZ is the best studied seismic zone and there, earthquakes occur in the Canadian Shield, mostly in a 30 X 85 km rectangle elongated along the trend of the St. Lawrence River with local variations in focal depth distribution. Faults related to the SLRS and to a meteor impact structure exist and earthquakes occur along the SLRS faults as well as in between these faults. Overall, the SLRS faults are probably reactivated by the larger earthquakes (M ? 4.5) of the 20th century (CSZ in 1925; WQCSZ in 1935 and 1944; Saguenay in 1988) for which we have focal mechanisms. We propose that caution be exercised when linking historical events that have uncertain epicentres with SLRS faults. Similarly, SLRS faults should not be necessarily considered to be the reactivated structures for most small to moderate earthquakes (M < 4.5). A good example of this is the earthquakes of the WQSZ that tend to concentrate in a well-defined NW-SE alignment with no obvious geological control, except perhaps, a hypothetical hotspot track. Two local factors can lead to the occurrence of SLRS earthquakes: weak faults or enhanced stress levels. We propose that local conditions, concentrated in a few seismic zones, can alter these factors and lead to the occurrence of earthquakes, especially those with M < 4.5. At a continent-wide scale, the correlation between the SLRS and earthquakes is appealing. We suggest, however, that pre-existing faults related to the SLRS do not explain all features of the seismicity. Seismicity is concentrated in more active areas, some with conspicuous normal faults and some with suspected weakening mechanisms such as intense pre-fracturing (e.g. due to a meteorite impact), the passage over a hot spot, or the presence of intrusions and lateral crustal density variations.

Lamontagne, M.; Ranalli, G.



The Midcontinent rift system and the Precambrian basement in southern Michigan  

SciTech Connect

The Precambrian basement within Michigan consists of at least three provinces, each characterized by distinctive potential field anomalies: (1) the Eastern Granite-Rhyolite Province (EGRP) in the south, (2) the Grenville Province in the southeast and (3) the Penokean Province to the north. Also located within the basement is the Mid-Michigan rift (MMR), which is the eastern arm of the Midcontinent rift system (MRS). Southwest and parallel to the MMR is a series of linear positive gravity anomalies which has been referred to as the Ft. Wayne rift (FWR) and the Southwest Michigan Anomaly (SWMA). The EGRP, which is characterized by undeformed and unmetamorphosed rhyolite to dacite and epizonal granites, was emplaced ca. 1510--1450 Ma. However, the EGRP may be comprised of several terranes of varying extent and origin based on analysis of potential field data and rock and mineral ages. The MMR and the FWR/SWMA are characterized by linear arrays of positive magnetic and gravity anomalies, which are probably due to thick accumulations of mafic igneous rocks within the rifts. The extent and trends of the FWR/SWMA have been largely inferred from geophysical data with a presumption of the age of about 1,100 Ma. The continuation of the MMR southward into Ohio and Kentucky as a sequence of gravity highs is questionable and needs further resolution. The FWR/SWMA may be part of the East Continent Rift Basin (ECRB). The ECRB, which is a large complex of related rift basins of Keweenawan age (1300 --1100 Ma), may be an extension of the MRS but it is not physically continuous with it. The ECRB lies to the west of the Grenville Front and extends at least from northwest Ohio to central Kentucky. Extensions of the ECRB north and south are speculative.

Smith, W.A. (Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo, MI (United States). Dept. of Geology)



The development of the East African Rift system in north-central Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between 1980 and 1986 geological surveying to produce maps on a scale of 1:250,000 was completed over an area of over 100,000 km 2 in north-central Kenya, bounded by the Equator, the Ethiopian border and longitudes 36° and 38 °E. The Gregory Rift, much of which has the structure of an asymmetric half-graben, is the most prominent component of the Cenozoic multiple rift system which extends up to 200 km to the east and for about 100 km to the west, forming the Kenya dome. On the eastern shoulder and fringes two en echelon arrays of late Tertiary to Quaternary multicentre shields can be recognized: to the south is the Aberdares-Mount Kenya-Nyambeni Range chain and, to the north the clusters of Mount Kulal, Asie, Huri Hills and Marsabit, with plateau lavas and fissure vents south of Marsabit in the Laisamis area. The Gregory Rift terminates at the southern end of Lake Turkana. Further north the rift system splays: the arcuate Kinu Sogo fault zone forms an offset link with the central Ethiopian Rift system. In the rifts of north-central Kenya volcanism, sedimentation and extensional tectonics commenced and have been continuous since the late Oligocene. Throughout this period the Elgeyo Fault acted as a major bounding fault. A comparative study of the northern and eastern fringes of the Kenya dome with the axial graben reinforces the impression of regional E-W asymmetry. Deviations from the essential N-trend of the Gregory Rift reflect structural weaknesses in the underlying Proterozoic basement, the Mozambique Orogenic Belt: thus south of Lake Baringo the swing to the southeast parallels the axes of the ca. 620 Ma phase folds. Secondary faults associated with this flexure have created a "shark tooth" array, an expression of en echelon offsets of the eastern margin of the Gregory Rift in a transtensional stress regime: hinge zones where major faults intersect on the eastern shoulder feature intense box faulting and ramp structures which have counterparts in the rift system in southern Ethiopia. The NE- and ENE-trending fissures of the eastern fringes of the Kenya dome, notably in the Meru-Nyambeni areaand in the Huri and Marsabit shields, parallel late orogenic structures dated at around 580-480 Ma. Alkaline trends characterize the petrochemistry of the Cenozoic volcanics: In the Gregory Rift, voluminous Miocene alkali basalts, associated with hawaiite/mugearite lavas, define a trend culminating in the Miocene flood phonolites of the eastern shoulderand in the trachyphonolites, trachytes and peralkaline rhyolites, with associated pyroclastics, in central volcanoes such as Korosi, Paka and Silali. Such trends may manifest in the products of a single volcanic centre, also regionally on a broadly cyclic basis. On the eastern flanks of the Kenya dome the flood phonolites are less evident, but the same alkaline trends dominate the lava sequences, supplemented by nephelinitic extrusives in parts of the Nyambeni Range and in the Laisamis area. Results from recent seismicity surveys in the Laisamis area indicate that crustal extension may be currently active on the eastern fringes of the Kenya dome, but manifest at greater depths than in the axial Gregory Rift-Lake Turkana zone: a correlation is suggested with the ultra-alkaline petrochemistry of some of the eastern multicentre shields.

Hackman, B. D.; Charsley, T. J.; Key, R. M.; Wilkinson, A. F.



Tectonic development of the SW Arabian Plate margin within the central Arabian flank of the Red Sea rift system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Red Sea rift system is a prime example of continental rifting and has contributed significantly to our understanding of the geologic processes that manage the rupture of continental lithosphere. Using a combined geo- and thermochronometric approach, we explore the modes and mechanisms of rift margin development by studying Red Sea rift-related geologic products along the central Saudi Arabian flank of the rift system, north of Jeddah. We use apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronometry and whole-rock 40Ar/39Ar dating of basalt to define the spatiotemporal relationship between rift flank extensional structures and rift-related harrat volcanism. This technical approach permits the reconstruction of the tectonic margin from early rift architecture, to strain distribution during progressive rifting, and through subsequent whole-scale modifications of the rift flank due to thermal and isostatic factors. Constraints on the dynamics of rift flank deformation are achieved through the collection of geologic samples along long-baseline thermochronometric transects that traverse the entire Arabian shield from the coastal escarpment to the inland Paleozoic sedimentary cover sequences. Long-baseline transects resolve the timing of rift flank uplift and reveal the pattern of lithospheric modification during the rupturing of continental lithosphere. Locally, short-baseline elevation transects map the footwall exhumation of major normal faults that delineate both the modern rift margin and inland extensional basins such as the NW-trending Hamd-Jizil basin, a prominent syn-extensional basin comprised of two distinct half-grabens (Jizil and Hamd) located NW of Medina. Diffuse lithospheric extension during the Oligo-Miocene affected a widespread area well inboard from the modern rift margin; samples from footwall blocks that bound the inland Jizil and Hamd half-grabens yield apatite (U-Th)/He cooling ages of 14.7 ± 0.9 Ma and 24.5 ± 1.5 Ma, respectively. The mid-Miocene age is doubly-significant since it reveals not only a Red Sea rift signal 140 km inboard from the modern border fault complex but also underscores the importance of fault reactivation during progressive rifting since the Jizil half-graben is structurally delineated by faults formed within the Neoproterozoic Najd shear zone fabric. Oligo-Miocene apatite (U-Th)/He ages from Jabal Radwa, a pluton exhumed within the border fault complex, show that rift flank exhumation and extensional faulting occurred within the central portion of the Arabian rift flank penecontemporaneous to faulting in the Hamd-Jizil half-graben system. Within the rift flank fault systems, an absence of footwall exhumation ages younger than ~13 Ma confirms that major extensional faulting migrated basin-ward in the middle Miocene during a time of rift reorganization and the establishment of the Dead Sea-Gulf of Aqaba transform. However, minor deepening of the inland Hamd-Jizil basin continued through the late Miocene as relatively young, basin-internal faults cut 17 Ma - 10 Ma basalt flows from harrat Khaybar that had blanketed the region.

Szymanski, E.; Stockli, D. F.; Johnson, P. R.; Kattan, F. H.; Cosca, M. A.



The origin of high bicarbonate and fluoride concentrations in waters of the Main Ethiopian Rift Valley, East African Rift system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal waters in the Main Ethiopian Rift Valley are characterized by high Na, bicarbonate and fluoride concentrations, and near-neutral to alkaline pH. Sodium, bicarbonate and fluoride are positively correlated in the waters. The principal reason for the bicarbonate in the area is the high rate of carbon dioxide outgassing. This, combined with acid volcanics, geothermal heating, low Ca and low

Berhanu Gizaw



Keweenaw hot spot: Geophysical evidence for a 1.1 Ga mantle plume beneath the Midcontinent Rift System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Proterozoic Midcontinent Rift System of North America is remarkably similar to Phanerozoic rifted continental margins and flood basalt provinces. Like the younger analogues, the volcanism within this older rift can be explained by decompression melting and rapid extrusion of igneous material during lithospheric extension above a broad, asthenospheric, thermal anomaly which we call the Keweenaw hot spot. Great Lakes International Multidisciplinary Program on Crustal Evolution seismic reflection profiles constrain end-member models of melt thickness and stretching factors, which yield an inferred mantle potential temperature of 1500°-1570°C during rifting. Combined gravity modeling and subsidence calculations are consistent with stretching factors that reached 3 or 4 before rifting ceased, and much of the lower crust beneath the rift consists of relatively high density intruded or underplated synrift igneous material. The isotopic signature of Keweenawan volcanic rocks, presented in a companion paper by Nicholson and Shirey (this issue), is consistent with our model of passive rifting above an asthenospheric mantle plume.

Hutchinson, D. R.; White, R. S.; Cannon, W. F.; Schulz, K. J.



Overview of petroleum potential of Proterozoic clastic rocks of the Midcontinent Rift System in Iowa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent modeling suggests the presence of about 160,000 km[sup 3] of Proterozoic clastic sediments flanking the central horst of the Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) in Iowa. The Amoco M.G. Eischeid [number sign]1 deep petroleum test well, drilled in 1987, penetrated 4,470 m of these clastic rocks, affording the opportunity to study the thickest penetration of MRS clastics. Among the 7

R. R. Anderson; R. M. McKay



The Mercedario rift system in the principal Cordillera of Argentina and Chile (32° SL)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies carried out in the High Andes of central-western Argentina in the provinces of San Juan and Mendoza have established its stratigraphic and structural evolution. This paper presents new data on the Triassic–Early Jurassic rift system, the depositional sequences, and a synthesis of the tectonic evolution of the region, along with a correlation with the Chilean continental margin.The paleogeographic

P. Pamela Alvarez; Victor A. Ramos



The transition from diffuse to focused extension: Modeled evolution of the West Antarctic Rift system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two distinct stages of extension are recognized in the West Antarctic Rift system (WARS). During the first stage, beginning in the Late Cretaceous, extension was broadly distributed throughout much of West Antarctica. A second stage of extension in the late Paleogene was focused primarily in the Victoria Land Basin, near the boundary with the East Antarctic craton. The transition to focused extension was roughly coeval with volcanic activity and strike-slip faulting in the adjacent Transantarctic Mountains. This spatial and temporal correspondence suggests that the transition in extensional style could be the result of a change in plate motions or impingement of a plume. Here we use finite element models to study the processes and conditions responsible for the two-stage evolution of rifting in the WARS. Model results indicate that the transition from a prolonged period of broadly distributed extension to a later period of focused rifting did not require a change in the regional stress regime (changes in plate motion), or deep mantle thermal state (impingement of a plume). Instead, we attribute the transition from diffuse to focused extension to an early stage dominated by the initially weak accreted lithosphere of West Antarctica, and a later stage that concentrated around a secondary weakness located at the boundary between the juvenile West Antarctica lithosphere and Precambrian East Antarctic craton. The modeled transition in extension from the initially weak West Antarctica region to the secondary weakness at the West Antarctic-East Antarctic boundary is precipitated by strengthening of the West Antarctica lithosphere during syn-extensional thinning and cooling. The modeled syn-extensional strengthening of the WARS lithosphere promotes a wide-rift mode of extension between 105 and ˜ 65 Ma. By ˜ 65 Ma most of the extending WARS region becomes stronger than the area immediately adjacent to the East Antarctic craton and extension becomes concentrated near the East Antarctic/West Antarctic boundary, forming the Victoria Land Basin region. Mantle necking in this region leads to syn-extensional weakening that promotes a narrow-rift mode of extension that becomes progressively more focused with time, resulting in formation of the Terror Rift in the western Victoria Land Basin. The geodynamic models demonstrate that the transition from diffuse to focused extension occurs only under a limited set of initial and boundary conditions, and is particularly sensitive to the pre-rift thermal state of the crust and upper mantle. Models that predict diffuse extension in West Antarctica followed by localization of rifting near the boundary between East and West Antarctica require upper mantle temperatures of 730 ± 50 °C and sufficient concentration of heat producing elements in the crust to account for ˜ 50% of the upper mantle temperature. Models with upper mantle temperatures < ca. 680 °C and/or less crustal heat production initially undergo diffuse extension in West Antarctica, and quickly develop a lithospheric neck at the model edge furthest from East Antarctica. Models with upper mantle temperatures > ca. 780 °C do not develop focused rifts, and predict indefinite diffuse extension in West Antarctica.

Huerta, Audrey D.; Harry, Dennis L.



Increased mantle heat flow with on-going rifting of the West Antarctic rift system inferred from characterisation of plagioclase peridotite in the shallow Antarctic mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lithospheric, and shallow asthenospheric, mantle in Southern Victoria Land are known to record anomalously high heat flow but the cause remains imperfectly understood. To address this issue plagioclase peridotite xenoliths have been collected from Cenozoic alkalic igneous rocks at three localities along a 150 km transect across the western shoulder of the West Antarctic rift system in Southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. There is a geochemical, thermal and chronological progression across this section of the rift shoulder from relatively hot, young and thick lithosphere in the west to cooler, older and thinner lithosphere in the east. Overprinting this progression are relatively more recent mantle refertilising events. Melt depletion and refertilisation was relatively limited in the lithospheric mantle to the west but has been more extensive in the east. Thermometry obtained from orthopyroxene in these plagioclase peridotites indicates that those samples most recently affected by refertilising melts have attained the highest temperatures, above those predicted from idealised dynamic rift or Northern Victoria Land geotherms and higher than those prevailing in the equivalent East Antarctic mantle. Anomalously high heat flow can thus be attributed to entrapment of syn-rift melts in the lithosphere, probably since regional magmatism commenced at least 24 Myr ago. The chemistry and mineralogy of shallow plagioclase peridotite mantle can be explained by up to 8% melt extraction and a series of refertilisation events. These include: (a) up to 8% refertilisation by a N-MORB melt; (b) metasomatism involving up to 1% addition of a subduction-related component; and (c) addition of ~ 1.5% average calcio-carbonatite. A high MgO group of clinopyroxenes can be modelled by the addition of up to 1% alkalic melt. Melt extraction and refertilisation mainly occurred in the spinel stability field prior to decompression and uplift. In this region mantle plagioclase originates by a combination of subsolidus recrystallisation during decompression within the plagioclase stability field and refertilisation by basaltic melt.

Martin, A. P.; Cooper, A. F.; Price, R. C.



Nature of the Mantle Sources and Bearing on Tectonic Evolution in the West Antarctic Rift System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We collected samples from subaerial lava flows and dredged some Neogene basanitic lavas from seven volcanic edifices in the Ross Sea, Antarctica - a part of the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) and one of the world's largest alkaline magmatic provinces - for a study aimed at two principal objectives: (1) Geochemical interrogation of the most primitive magmatic rocks to try and understand the nature of the seismically abnormal mantle domain recently identified beneath the shoulder of the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM), the Ross Sea Embayment and Marie Byrd Land; and (2) Using 40Ar/39Ar geochronology to establish a temporal link between magmatism and tectonism, particularly in the Terror Rift. We have attempted to answer the questions of whether magmatism is due to a hot mantle or wet mantle, and whether rifting in the area triggered magmatic activity or vice versa. Results show that the area does not have an age-progressive hotspot track, and the magmatism post-dates the main phase of extension along the Terror Rift within the WARS, which supports a decompression-melting model without the benefit of a significant thermal anomaly. In fact, preliminary volatile measurements on olivine-hosted melt inclusions have yielded water concentrations in excess of 2 wt%, indicating that flux melting was an important complementary process to decompression melting. The major oxide compositions of lavas in the WARS are best matched to experimental melts of carbonated peridotite, though garnet pyroxenite can also be a minor source. The Pb and Nd isotopic systems are decoupled from each other, suggesting removal of fluid-mobile elements from the mantle source possibly during the long history of subduction along the Paleo-Pacific margin of Gondwana. Extremely unradiogenic 187Os/188Os ranging to as low as 0.1081 ± 0.0001 hints at the involvement of lithospheric components in generation of magmas in the WARS.

Mukasa, S. B.; Rilling-Hall, S.; Marcano, M. C.; Wilson, T. J.; Lawver, L. A.; LeMasurier, W. E.



Mode of rifting in magmatic-rich setting: Tectono-magmatic evolution of the Central Afar rift system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observation of deep structures related to break-up processes at volcanic passive margins (VPM) is often a troublesome exercise: thick pre- to syn-breakup seaward-dipping reflectors (SDR) usually mask the continent-ocean boundary and hide the syn-rift tectonic structures that accommodate crustal stretching and thinning. Some of the current challenges are about clarifying 1) if tectonic stretching fits the observed thinning and 2) what is the effect of continuous magma supply and re-thickening of the crust during extension from a rheological point of view? The Afar region in Ethiopia is an ideal natural laboratory to address those questions, as it is a highly magmatic rift that is probably close enough to breakup to present some characteristics of VPM. Moreover, the structures related to rifting since Oligocene are out-cropping, onshore and well preserved. In this contribution, we present new structural field data and lavas (U-Th/He) datings along a cross-section from the Ethiopian Plateau, through the marginal graben down to the Manda-Hararo active rift axis. We mapped continent-ward normal fault array affecting highly tilted trapp series unconformably overlain by tilted Miocene (25-7 Ma) acid series. The main extensional and necking/thinning event took place during the end of this Miocene magmatic episode. It is itself overlain by flat lying Pliocene series, including the Stratoid. Balanced cross-sections of those areas allow us to constrain a surface stretching factor of about 2.1-2.9. Those findings have the following implications: - High beta factor constrained from field observations is at odd with thinning factor of ~1.3 predicted by seismic and gravimetric studies. We propose that the continental crust in Central Afar has been re-thickened by the emplacement of underplated magma and SDR. - The deformation in Central Afar appears to be largely distributed through space and time. It has been accommodated in a 200-300 km wide strip being a diffuse incipient plate boundary until the formation of present-day magmatic segments. - The difference in tectono-magmatic style between Central Afar (distributed extension and thick crust) and Northern Afar, i.e. Erta Ale segment (narrow graben, thin crust) may be explained by the difference of magma volume (extruded & underplated) brought to the crust during extension. Magma supply in Central Afar allows the crust to be stretched without subsequent thinning despite high degree of extension. - Presence or absence of thinned crust does not necessarily announce break-up. It may occur in both Central and Northern Afar, depending upon a sudden change in magmatic regime. The striking difference between the two tectono-magmatic styles of Central and Northern Afar are probably due to a combination of: 1) magma supply that affects both crustal thickness and rheology, 2) the amount of extension that may be higher in Central Afar, 3) the distance to the magmatic province, and 4) the presence of an early syn-rift transfer/transform between the two segments that might have controlled the distribution of magmatic activity.

Stab, Martin; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Pik, Raphaël; Leroy, Sylvie; Ayalew, Dereje



Seismic anisotropy of the lithosphere/asthenosphere system beneath the Rwenzori region of the East-African Rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from a temporary seismic network of 32 broad-band stations located around the Rwenzori region of the Albertine rift at the border between Uganda and DR Congo. The study aims to constrain seismic anisotropy and mantle deformation processes in relation to the formation of the rift zone. Shear-wave splitting measurements from local and teleseismic earthquakes are used to investigate the seismic anisotropy in the crust and upper mantle beneath the Rwenzori region. At most stations, shear-wave splitting parameters obtained from individual earthquakes exhibit only minor variations with backazimuth. We therefore employ a joint inversion of SKS waveforms to derive hypothetical one-layer parameters. The corresponding fast polarizations are generally rift-parallel and the average delay time is about 1 s. On the other hand, shear phases from local events within the crust are characterized by a bimodal pattern of fast polarizations and an average delay time of 0.04 s. This observation suggests that the dominant source region for seismic anisotropy beneath the rift is located within the mantle. We use finite-frequency waveform modeling to test different models of anisotropy within the lithosphere/asthenosphere system of the rift. The results show that the rift-parallel fast polarizations are consistent with HTI anisotropy caused by rift-parallel magmatic intrusions or lenses located within the lithospheric mantle - as it would be expected during the early stages of continental rifting. Furthermore, the short-scale spatial variations in the fast polarizations observed in the southern part of the study area can be explained by effects due to sedimentary basins of low isotropic velocity in combination with a shift in the orientation of anisotropic fabrics in the upper mantle. A uniform anisotropic layer in relation to large-scale asthenospheric mantle flow is less consistent with the observed splitting parameters.

Homuth, Benjamin; Löbl, Ulrike; Batte, Arthur; Link, Klemens; Kasereka, Celestine; Rümpker, Georg



History of the development of the East African Rift System: A series of interpreted maps through time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review paper presents a series of time reconstruction maps of the 'East African Rift System' ('EARS'), illustrating the progressive development of fault trends, subsidence, volcanism and topography. These maps build on previous basin specific interpretations and integrate released data from recent petroleum drilling. N-S trending EARS rifting commenced in the petroliferous South Lokichar Basin of northern Kenya in the Late Eocene to Oligocene, though there seem to be few further deep rifts of this age other than those immediately adjoining it. At various times during the Mid-Late Miocene, a series of small rifts and depressions formed between Ethiopia and Malawi, heralding the main regional rift subsidence phase and further rift propagation in the Plio-Pleistocene. A wide variation is thus seen in the ages of initiation of EARS basins, though the majority of fault activity, structural growth, subsidence, and associated uplift of East Africa seem to have occurred in the last 5-9 Ma, and particularly in the last 1-2 Ma. These perceptions are key to our understanding of the influence of the diverse tectonic histories on the petroleum prospectivity of undrilled basins.

Macgregor, Duncan



Upper mantle seismic anisotropy beneath the West Antarctic Rift System and surrounding region from shear wave splitting analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We constrain azimuthal anisotropy in the West Antarctic upper mantle using shear wave splitting parameters obtained from teleseismic SKS, SKKS and PKS phases recorded at 37 broad-band seismometres deployed by the POLENET/ANET project. We use an eigenvalue technique to linearize the rotated and shifted shear wave horizontal particle motions and determine the fast direction and delay time for each arrival. High-quality measurements are stacked to determine the best fitting splitting parameters for each station. Overall, fast anisotropic directions are oriented at large angles to the direction of Antarctic absolute plate motion in both hotspot and no-net-rotation frameworks, showing that the anisotropy does not result from shear due to plate motion over the mantle. Further, the West Antarctic directions are substantially different from those of East Antarctica, indicating that anisotropy across the continent reflects multiple mantle regimes. We suggest that the observed anisotropy along the central Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) and adjacent West Antarctic Rift System (WARS), one of the largest zones of extended continental crust on Earth, results from asthenospheric mantle strain associated with the final pulse of western WARS extension in the late Miocene. Strong and consistent anisotropy throughout the WARS indicate fast axes subparallel to the inferred extension direction, a result unlike reports from the East African rift system and rifts within the Basin and Range, which show much greater variation. We contend that ductile shearing rather than magmatic intrusion may have been the controlling mechanism for accumulation and retention of such coherent, widespread anisotropic fabric. Splitting beneath the Marie Byrd Land Dome (MBL) is weaker than that observed elsewhere within the WARS, but shows a consistent fast direction, possibly representative of anisotropy that has been `frozen-in' to remnant thicker lithosphere. Fast directions observed inland from the Amundsen Sea appear to be radial to the dome and may indicate radial horizontal mantle flow associated with an MBL plume head and low upper mantle velocities in this region, or alternatively to lithospheric features associated with the complex Cenozoic tectonics at the far-eastern end of the WARS.

Accardo, Natalie J.; Wiens, Douglas A.; Hernandez, Stephen; Aster, Richard C.; Nyblade, Andrew; Huerta, Audrey; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar; Wilson, Terry; Heeszel, David S.; Dalziel, Ian W. D.



Relationships between pre-rift structure and rift architecture in Lakes Tanganyika and Malawi, East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continental rift systems are rips in plates caused by focusing of extensional stresses along some zone. In the same way that tensile cracks in the side of a brick building generally follow the mortar between bricks, rifts initially follow the weakest pathways in the pre-rift materials. There has even been a suggestion that the occurrence of rifts is controlled by

J. Versfelt; B. R. Rosendahl



Active fault systems of the Kivu rift and Virunga volcanic province, and implications for geohazards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

H Zal, C Ebinger, D. Wood, C. Scholz, N. d'Oreye, S. Carn, U. Rutagarama The weakly magmatic Western rift system, East Africa, is marked by fault-bounded basins filled by freshwater lakes that record tectonic and climatic signals. One of the smallest of the African Great Lakes, Lake Kivu, represents a unique geohazard owing to the warm, saline bottom waters that are saturated in methane, as well as two of the most active volcanoes in Africa that effectively dam the northern end of the lake. Yet, the dynamics of the basin system and the role of magmatism were only loosely constrained prior to new field and laboratory studies in Rwanda. In this work, we curated, merged, and analyzed historical and digital data sets, including spectral analyses of merged Shuttle Radar Topography Mission topography and high resolution CHIRP bathymetry calibrated by previously mapped fault locations along the margins and beneath the lake. We quantitatively compare these fault maps with the time-space distribution of earthquakes located using data from a temporary array along the northern sector of Lake Kivu, as well as space-based geodetic data. During 2012, seismicity rates were highest beneath Nyiragongo volcano, where a range of low frequency (1-3 s peak frequency) to tectonic earthquakes were located. Swarms of low-frequency earthquakes correspond to periods of elevated gas emissions, as detected by Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Earthquake swarms also occur beneath Karisimbi and Nyamuragira volcanoes. A migrating swarm of earthquakes in May 2012 suggests a sill intrusion at the DR Congo-Rwanda border. We delineate two fault sets: SW-NE, and sub-N-S. Excluding the volcano-tectonic earthquakes, most of the earthquakes are located along subsurface projections of steep border faults, and intrabasinal faults calibrated by seismic reflection data. Small magnitude earthquakes also occur beneath the uplifted rift flanks. Time-space variations in seismicity patterns provide a baseline for hazard assessment, and guide future studies in the Kivu rift, and document the role of magmatism in rifting processes.

Zal, H. J.; Ebinger, C. J.; Wood, D. J.; Scholz, C. A.; d'Oreye, N.; Carn, S. A.; Rutagarama, U.



A geophysical investigation of possible southern extensions of the Midcontinent rift system  

SciTech Connect

The Midcontinent rift system (MCR) is a 2,000 km long arc-shaped feature extending from Kansas to Michigan via Lake Superior. The MCR is responsible for the most prominent gravity feature in North America and is 1.11--1.09 Ga in age. The purpose of this paper is to discuss possible southern extensions of the MCR. These extensions include the East Continent Gravity High (ECGH) which extends southeastward from the Great Lakes through Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee and several mafic intrusions which extend southwestward through Texas and New Mexico. The ECGH area recently has been the target of researchers who appear to have discovered a Proterozoic basin which is associated with a gravity low which flanks the ECGH. The intrusions in Texas and New Mexico are associated with northeast and northwest trending gravity and magnetic highs. These anomalies appear to be parallel and perpendicular to the pre-existing structural trends. The sources of these anomalies are associated with portions of the Debaca Basement Terrain and Pajarito Mountain in New Mexico, the Franklin Mountains and Crosbyton geophysical anomaly in Texas, and the Central Basin Platform in Texas and New Mexico. Wells drilled into the Precambrian are the primary source of information on these bodies. Dates on these bodies are between 1.07--1.22 Ga. The mafic bodies are present on both sides of the postulated Grenville age suture zone in Texas. This postulated suture may be marked by east-west trending high-low gravity anomaly pair. There are at least three possible hypothesis for the cause of rifting in the region: (1) hot spot track, (2) transform faulting and/or rifting directly related to the MCR, and (3) collision events of Grenville age in Texas.

Adams, D.C.; Keller, G.R. (Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)



Age relationships for magmatic units of Mid-Continent rift system  

SciTech Connect

K-Ar ages ranging from about 600 to 1000 Ma have recently been reported for gabbro and basalt recovered from the Texaco 1 Poersch well in Kansas. This has prompted suggestions that rift magmatism there may be distinctly younger than that in the Lake Superior region, and that development of the rift may have lasted several hundred million years. Review of ages from Keweenawan volcanic and plutonic rocks in the Lake Superior region shows that the best results are obtained from U-Pb analyses of zircon and baddeleyite; recent published results range from 1087 to 1108 Ma, with uncertainties on individual ages of /plus minus/ 4 m.y. This finding is consistent with earlier reported U-Pb zircon results. Virtually all other techniques are susceptible to geologic error and generally yield ages of significant less than 1100 Ma. The reliability decreases approximately in the sequence Rb-Sr (whole rock), K-Ar (biotite), Ar/sup 39/-Ar/sup 40/ (whole rock), K-Ar (whole rock), with fresh, coarse-grained plutonic rocks yielding older ages than altered, fine-grained volcanic rocks. K-Ar data on altered, fine-grained mafic rocks, therefore, are very poor indicators of original crystallization ages. Since the rocks from the Texaco 1 Poersch well are fine grained and slightly to moderately altered, their true ages are probably substantially older than 800-900 Ma. Interpretations based on the K-Ar ages from this well are ill advised; tectonic interpretation of the Mid-Continent rift system must wait for more accurate results. Several possibilities exist for obtaining more reliable ages from samples of the Poersch well and other, older wells in the region. These studies are in progress, and any available results will be presented.

Van Schmus, W.R.



Continental rifts and mineral resources  

SciTech Connect

Continental rifts are widespread and range in age from the present to 3 b.y. Individual rifts may form parts of complex systems as in E. Africa and the Basin and Range. Rifts have originated in diverse environments such as arc-crests, sites of continental collision, collapsing mountain belts and on continents at rest over the mantle circulation pattern. Continental rift resources can be classified by depth of origin: For example, in the Great Dike, Norilsk and Mwadui magma from the mantle is the host. At shallower depths continental crust partly melted above mafic magma hosts ore (Climax, Henderson). Rift volcanics are linked to local hydrothermal systems and to extensive zeolite deposits (Basin and Range, East Africa). Copper (Zambia, Belt), zinc (Red Dog) and lead ores (Benue) are related to hydrothermal systems which involve hot rock and water flow through both pre-rift basement and sedimentary and volcanic rift fill. Economically significant sediments in rifts include coals (the Gondwana of Inida), marine evaporites (Lou Ann of the Gulf of Mexico) and non-marine evaporites (East Africa). Oil and gas in rifts relate to a variety of source, reservoir and trap relations (North Sea, Libya), but rift-lake sediment sources are important (Sung Liao, Bo Hai, Mina, Cabinda). Some ancient iron ores (Hammersley) may have formed in rift lakes but Algoman ores and greenstone belt mineral deposits in general are linked to oceanic and island arc environments. To the extent that continental environments are represented in such areas as the Archean of the Superior and Slave they are Andean Arc environments which today have locally rifted crests (Ecuador, N. Peru). The Pongola, on Kaapvaal craton may, on the other hand represent the world's oldest preserved, little deformed, continental rift.

Burke, K. (Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Geosciences Dept.)



Mineralization potential along the trend of the Keweenawan- age Central North American Rift System in Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The tectonic and sedimentary environment of the Central North American Rift System (CNARS) provides an excellent setting for major mineral deposits. Major north-northeast-trending high-angle normal or reverse faults and northwest-trending transcurrent fault systems may exercise control over ore forming processes. Gabbro and basalt are the dominant igneous rock types. Carbonatite and kimberlite occur in Nebraska and Kansas. Concentrations of Cu, Ni, Co, Ti, Au, Ag and PG minerals are known to occur in this setting. Arkosic sandstone, siltstone, shale, and minor carbonate units occur on top of the rift basalts and in flanking basins where they may reach thicknesses of 10 km (6 miles). The potential for stratiform or unconformity-related metalliferous deposits should be considered. The rift as a whole remains largely unexplored.

Berendsen, P.



Footwall progradation in syn-rift carbonate platform-slope systems (Early Jurassic, Northern Apennines, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The so-called Umbria-Marche Domain of Northern Apennines represents a vast depositional system, also stretching across the Adriatic Sea subsurface, that was characterized by dominantly pelagic sedimentation through most of its Jurassic to Oligocene/Early Miocene history. The pelagic succession is underlain by Hettangian shallow-water carbonates (Calcare Massiccio Fm.), constituting a regional carbonate platform that was subjected to tectonic extension due to rifting of the Adria/African Plate in the earliest Jurassic. While tectonic subsidence of the hangingwalls drove the drowning of the platform around the Hettangian/Sinemurian boundary, the production of benthic carbonate on footwall blocks continued parallel to faulting, through a sequence of facies that was abruptly terminated by drowning and development of condensed pelagites in the early Pliensbachian. By then rifting had ceased, so that the Pliensbachian to Early Cretaceous hangingwall deposits represent a post-rift basin-fill succession onlapping the tectonically-generated escarpment margins of the highs. During the early phases of syndepositional faulting, the carbonate factories of footwall blocks were still temporarily able to fill part of the accommodation space produced by the normal faults by prograding into the incipient basins. In this paper we describe for the first time a relatively low-angle (< 10°) clinoform bed package documenting such an ephemeral phase of lateral growth of a carbonate factory. The clinoforms are sigmoidal, and form low-relief (maximum 5-7 m) bodies representing a shallow-water slope that was productive due to development of a Lithocodium-dominated factory. Continued faulting and hangingwall subsidence then decoupled the slope from the platform top, halting the growth of clinoforms and causing the platform margin to switch from accretionary to bypass mode as the pre-rift substrate became exposed along a submarine fault escarpment. The downfaulted clinoform slope was then buried by base-of-escarpment proximal turbidites, forming a bypass wedge. Such a contact would be imaged along a seismic section as an unconformity, suggestive of shut-off of the local carbonate factory and onlap by pelagic mud. The composition of the turbidites, however, at least initially duplicates that of the clinoforms, indicating that the footwall top was still productive, yet the mechanisms of sediment shedding into the basin had changed due to the modifications of submarine topography induced by synsedimentary tectonics.

Fabbi, Simone; Santantonio, Massimo



A geophysical profile of the southern margin of the midcontinent rift system in western Lake Superior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 70-km-long seismic reflection profile in western Michigan provides new insight into the nature, distribution, and structure of the Keweenawan Supergroup volcanic and overlying sedimentary rocks and the controversial Keweenaw fault along the southern boundary of the Midcontinent Rift System in the Lake Superior basin. Interpretation of the 5-s reflection data constrained by surface geology, magnetics, and gravity modeling shows that volcanic rocks which cropout north of the Keweenaw fault dip northerly to depths of the order of 17 km. South of the fault, volcanic rocks overlain by ˜2 km of clastic sedimentary rocks thin gradually to the south as they dip upward at a shallow angle to the outcrop in the South Range. The volcanic pile within the basin thickens rapidly to the north of the Keweenaw fault, suggesting that the volcanics were deposted in an extensional fault-bounded basin. Clear evidence of normal faulting is not present in the seismic reflection data because of a later compressional event. The thickness of the volcanic-filled basin implies that the upper crust was almost completely broken during the rifting event. The available evidence is interpreted to show the Keweenaw fault as a moderate- to high-angle reverse fault that occurs within the volcanic pile and breaks through to the surface along the abrupt change in thickness of the volcanic sequence. There is no evidence from the seismic profiling for major faulting (except for the Keweenaw fault), intrusions, or folding of the Keweenawan Supergroup in this region.

Hinze, William J.; Braile, Lawrence W.; Chandler, Val W.



Estimating the age of formation of lakes: An example from Lake Tanganyika, East African Rift system  

SciTech Connect

Age estimates for ancient lakes are important for determining their histories and their rates of biotic and tectonic evolution. In the absence of dated core material from the lake`s sedimentary basement, several techniques have been used to generate such age estimates. The most common of these, herein called the reflection seismic-radiocarbon method (RSRM), combines estimates of short-term sediment-accumulation rates derived from radiocarbon-dated cores and depth-to-basement estimates derived from reflection-seismic data at or near the same locality to estimate an age to basement. Age estimates form the RSRM suggest that the structural basins of central Lake Tanganyika began to form between 9 and 12 Ma. Estimates for the northern and southern basins are younger (7 to 8 Ma and 2 to 4 Ma, respectively). The diachroneity of estimates for different segments of the lake is equivocal, and may be due to erosional loss of record in the northern and southern structural basins or to progressive opening of the rift. The RSRM age estimates for Lake Tanganyika are considerably younger than most prior estimates and clarify the extensional history of the western branch of the East African Rift system. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Cohen, A.; Soreghan, M.J. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)] [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Scholz, C.A. [Duke Univ. Marine Lab., Beaufort, NC (United States)] [Duke Univ. Marine Lab., Beaufort, NC (United States)



Estimating the age of formation of lakes: An example from Lake Tanganyika, East African Rift system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Age estimates for ancient lakes are important for determining their histories and their rates off biotic and tectonic evolution. In the absence of dated core material from the lake's sedimentary basement, several techniques have been used to generate such age estimates. The most common off these, herein called the reflection seismic-radiocarbon method (RSRM), combines estimates off short-term sediment-accumulation rates derived from radiocarbon-dated cores and depth-to-basement estimates derived from reflection-seismic data at or near the same locality to estimate an age to basement. Age estimates from the RSRM suggest that the structural basins of central Lake Tanganyika began to form between 9 and 12 Ma. Estimates for the northern and southern basins are younger (7 to 8 Ma and 2 to 4 Ma, respectively). The diachroneity off estimates for different segments of the lake. is equivocal, and may be due to erosional loss off record in the northern and southern structural basins or to progressive opening of the rift. The RSRM age estimates for Lake Tanganyika are considerably younger than most prior estimates and clarify the extensional history of the western branch of the East African Rift system.

Cohen, Andrew S.; Soreghan, Michael J.; Scholz, Christopher A.



The 1990 to 1991 Sudan earthquake sequence and the extent of the East african rift system.  


One of the largest earthquakes ever recorded in Africa (surface wave magnitude M(s) = 7.2) occurred about 50 kilometers east of the Upper River Nile on 20 May 1990. Four days later, two more large earthquakes (M(s) = 6.4 and 7.0) occurred about 50 kilometers to the northwest in the Nile Valley. In the following months, a further 60 events were recorded by seismic stations worldwide. The earthquakes are associated with two fault systems: one east of the Nile with azimuth southeast and one along the Nile Valley with azimuth north-northeast. The activity alternated between the two fault systems and indicates that the northern extremity of the western branch of the East African Rift System extends at least 350 kilometers north of Lake Albert. PMID:17778134

Girdler, R W; McConnell, D A



Crustal and mantle structure and anisotropy beneath the incipient segments of the East African Rift System: Preliminary results from the ongoing SAFARI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the vast wealth of research conducted toward understanding processes associated with continental rifting, the extent of our knowledge is derived primarily from studies focused on mature rift systems, such as the well-developed portions of the East African Rift System (EARS) north of Lake Malawi. To explore the dynamics of early rift evolution, the SAFARI (Seismic Arrays for African Rift Initiation) team deployed 50 PASSCAL broadband seismic stations across the Malawi, Luangwa, and Okavango rifts of the EARS during the summer of 2012. The cumulative length of the profiles is about 2500 km and the planned recording duration is 2 years. Here we present the preliminary results of systematic analyses of data obtained from the first year of acquisition for all 50 stations. A total of 446 high-quality shear-wave splitting measurements using PKS, SKKS, and SKS phases from 84 teleseismic events were used to constrain fast polarization directions and splitting times throughout the region. The Malawi and Okavango rifts are characterized by mostly NE trending fast directions with a mean splitting time of about 1 s. The fast directions on the west side of the Luangwa Rift Zone are parallel to the rift valley, and those on the east side are more N-S oriented. Stacking of approximately 1900 radial receiver functions reveals significant spatial variations of both crustal thickness and the ratio of crustal P and S wave velocities, as well as the thickness of the mantle transition zone. Stations situated within the Malawi rift demonstrate a southward increase in observed crustal thickness, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the Malawi rift originated at the northern end of the rift system and propagated southward. Both the Okavango and Luangwa rifts are associated with thinned crust and increased Vp/Vs, although additional data is required at some stations to enhance the reliability of the observations. Teleseismic P-wave travel-time residuals show a delay of about 1 s at stations in the Okavango rift relative to the Limpopo belt. The study region is characterized by a relatively average mantle transition zone thickness of 250 km except for stations located within and to the immediate NW of the Okavango rift, where it is probably abnormally thin. Additional seismological techniques will be applied to the data set, and the preliminary results from the above initial analyses will be confirmed or modified by data from the SAFARI stations in the second year.

Yu, Y.; Reed, C. A.; Gao, S. S.; Liu, K. H.; Massinque, B.; Mdala, H. S.; moidaki, M.; Mutamina, D. M.; Atekwana, E. A.; Ingate, S. F.; Reusch, A.; Barstow, N.



Unravelling the influence of orogenic inheritance on the architecture and tectonic evolution of hyper-extended rift systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this starting PhD thesis is to determine under what conditions inheritance produced by former orogens influences subsequent rifting, and to unravel the influence of inherited structures and heterogeneities on the architecture and tectonic evolution of hyper-extended rift systems. To complete this task, we map along the Central and North Atlantic margin 1) rift domains; 2) age of the major rift events; and 3) key structure and heterogeneities inherited from the Caledonian and Variscan orogens. We will then study these data in the light of minimal numerical modelling experiments and use them as a basis for designing more comprehensive numerical models for the North Atlantic rifting. In order to map the Atlantic margins, we use gravity, magnetic data, seismic reflection and refraction to identify the necking zone and the continentward limit of the oceanic domain. This allows us to define the proximal domain where continental crust is not or barely thinned on one side, the unequivocal oceanic domain on the other side, and the hyper-extended domain between them. Within the hyper-extended domain, we rely on seismic data (refraction and reflection) to distinguish the area where the crust and the mantle are decoupled from the area where they are coupled, and to identify potential zones with mantle exhumation and/or magmatic additions. Previous studies mapped these domains along Iberia-Newfoundland and Bay of Biscay. The objective of this PhD is to extend this mapping further to the North, along the Irish, UK and Norwegian margins, into domains with polyphase rifting and magmatic additions. One of the goals of this work is to highlight potential correlations between first-order changes in the architecture and/or magmatic evolution of the Atlantic margin and first-order structures and heterogeneities inherited from the Caledonian and/or Variscan orogens. We also aim to assess the importance of inheritance in structuring and controlling the evolution of hyper-extended magma-rich versus magma-poor rift systems. We present our three preliminary maps, displaying 1) rifts structural domains; 2) the age of necking; and 3) the major Caledonian and Variscan inherited features in Western Europe. We also give insight into the numerical experiments we intend to run.

Chenin, Pauline; Manatschal, Gianreto; Lavier, Luc



Active deformation of the Corinth rift, Greece: Results from repeated Global Positioning System surveys between 1990 and 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1990 and 1995, we carried out seven Global Positioning System (GPS) campaigns in the Corinth rift area in order to constrain the spatial and temporal crustal deformation of this active zone. The network, 193 points over ~10,000 km2, samples most of the active faults. In order to estimate the deformation over a longer period, 159 of those points are

P. Briole; A. Rigo; H. Lyon-Caen; J. C. Ruegg; K. Papazissi; C. Mitsakaki; A. Balodimou; G. Veis; D. Hatzfeld; A. Deschamps




Microsoft Academic Search

The largest segment of the Neoproterozoic Mozambique belt in Kenya occurs east of the north-south oriented Rift system. Geological works carried out in the country during the last few decades have progressively revealed the complexity of the geology, structures and tectonics of the Mozambique belt in the region. Important high grade tectono-thermal events in the belt took place between about

C. M. Nyamai; E. M. Mathu; N. Opiyo-Akech; E. Wallbrecher


A Reappraisal of the Geology, Structures and Tectonics of the Mozambique Belt in Kenya East of the Rift System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The largest segment of the Neoproterozoic Mozambique orogenic belt in Kenya occurs east of the north-south oriented rift system. Geological investigations carried out in the country during the last few decades have revealed the complexity of the geology, structures and tectonics of the Mozambique Belt in the region. Important high-grade tectonothermal events in the belt took place between ca. 845

C. M. N yamai; E. M. Mathu; E. Wallbrecher; N. Opiyo-Akechl


Lower Pliensbachian caldera volcanism in high-obliquity rift systems in the western North Patagonian Massif, Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Cerro Carro Quebrado and Cerro Catri Cura area, located at the border between the Neuquén Basin and the North Patagonian Massif, the Garamilla Formation is composed of four volcanic stages: 1) andesitic lava-flows related to the beginning of the volcanic system; 2) basal massive lithic breccias that represent the caldera collapse; 3) voluminous, coarse-crystal rich massive lava-like ignimbrites related to multiple, steady eruptions that represent the principal infill of the system; and, finally 4) domes, dykes, lava flows, and lava domes of rhyolitic composition indicative of a post-collapse stage. The analysis of the regional and local structures, as well as, the architectures of the volcanic facies, indicates the existence of a highly oblique rift, with its principal extensional strain in an NNE-SSW direction (?N10°). The analyzed rocks are mainly high-potassium dacites and rhyolites with trace and RE elements contents of an intraplate signature. The age of these rocks (189 ± 0.76 Ma) agree well with other volcanic sequences of the western North Patagonian Massif, as well as, the Neuquén Basin, indicating that Pliensbachian magmatism was widespread in both regions. The age is also coincident with phase 1 of volcanism of the eastern North Patagonia Massif (188-178 Ma) represented by ignimbrites, domes, and pyroclastic rocks of the Marifil Complex, related to intraplate magmatism.

Benedini, Leonardo; Gregori, Daniel; Strazzere, Leonardo; Falco, Juan I.; Dristas, Jorge A.



On abrupt transpression to transtension transition in the South Baikal rift system (Tunka - South Baikal segment)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work addresses to relation of transpression and extension stress-strain conditions in intracontinental rift system. In our investigation we use a new structural, shallow geophysics, GPS geodetic data and paleostress reconstructions. The surroundings of southern tip of Siberian platform is the region of three Late Cenozoic structures conjugation: sublatitudinal Obruchev fault (OF) controlling the northern boundary of the South Baikal basin, NW trending Main Sayan fault (MSF) as the strike-slip boundary between Siberian platform and East Sayan block and WNW trending eastern segment of Tunka fault (TF) as part of the Tunka basins system northern boundary. A new evidences of superposition of compression and extension fault structures were revealed near the southern extremity of Baikal lake. We've find a very close vicinity of Late Pleistocene - Holocene strike-slip, thrust and normal faulting in the MSF and OF junction zone. The on-land Holocene normal faulting can be considered as secondary fault paragenesis within the main strike-slip zone (Sankov et al., 2009). Active strike-slip, thrust and reverse faulting characterize the MSF and TF junction zone. The transpression conditions are replaced very sharply by transtension and extension ones in eastern direction from zone of structures conjugation - the active normal faulting is dominated within the South Baikal basin. The Bystraya rift basin located in the west shows the tectonic inversion since Middle Pleistocene as a result of the strike-slip movements partitioning between TF and MSF and inset of edition compression stress. The active strike-slip and intrabasin extension conditions are dominated father to the west in Tunka basin. The results of our GPS measurements show the present day convergence and east movements of Khamar-Daban block and eastern Tunka basins relative to Siberian platform along MSF and TF with NE-SW shortening domination. The clear NW-SE divergence across Baikal basin is documented. Holocene and present-day left lateral relative motions of about 3 mm/yr (Sankov et al., 2004) between of Siberian platform and its mounting frame are accommodated along south-eastern segment of MSF. We consider two main factors of sharp transition between transpression and transtension to extension conditions in Tunka-South Baikal segment of Baikal rift system. The first one is the influence of geometry of southern tip of Siberian platform as a first order ancient lithosphere heterogeneity in agreement with (Petit et al., 1996). The second factor is the interaction in this region of two tectonic forces driving the Cenozoic geodynamics. The initial opening of the Tunka and South Baikal basins since Oligocene time as well as father Baikal rift system development caused by long lived asthenosphere flow along NW-SE direction (Sankov et al., 2011). The addition NE-SW compression started during Pliocene (Parfeevets, Sankov, 2006) as the result of the Hindustan and Eurasia convergence. The former caused transpression deformations and clockwise horizontal block rotations along south-western boundary of the platform with their SE movements to the "free space" opened by the divergence of Siberian platform and Transbaikal block (Sankov et al., 2002, 2005).

Sankov, Vladimir; Parfeevets, Anna; Lukhnev, Andrey; Miroshnitchenko, Andrey; Ashurkov, Sergey; Sankov, Alexey; Usynin, Leonid; Eskin, Alexander; Bryzhak, Evgeny



Kinematics of the South Atlantic rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South Atlantic rift basin evolved as branch of a large Jurassic-Cretaceous intraplate rift zone between the African and South American plates during the final breakup of western Gondwana. While the relative motions between South America and Africa for post-breakup times are well resolved, many issues pertaining to the fit reconstruction and particular the relation between kinematics and lithosphere dynamics during pre-breakup remain unclear in currently published plate models. We have compiled and assimilated data from these intraplated rifts and constructed a revised plate kinematic model for the pre-breakup evolution of the South Atlantic. Based on structural restoration of the conjugate South Atlantic margins and intracontinental rift basins in Africa and South America, we achieve a tight fit reconstruction which eliminates the need for previously inferred large intracontinental shear zones, in particular in Patagonian South America. By quantitatively accounting for crustal deformation in the Central and West African rift zone, we have been able to indirectly construct the kinematic history of the pre-breakup evolution of the conjugate West African-Brazilian margins. Our model suggests a causal link between changes in extension direction and velocity during continental extension and the generation of marginal structures such as the enigmatic Pre-salt sag basin and the São Paulo High. We model an initial E-W directed extension between South America and Africa (fixed in present-day position) at very low extensional velocities until Upper Hauterivian times (?126 Ma) when rift activity along in the equatorial Atlantic domain started to increase significantly. During this initial ?17 Myr-long stretching episode the Pre-salt basin width on the conjugate Brazilian and West African margins is generated. An intermediate stage between 126.57 Ma and Base Aptian is characterised by strain localisation, rapid lithospheric weakening in the equatorial Atlantic domain, resulting in both progressively increasing extensional velocities as well as a significant rotation of the extension direction to NE-SW. From Base Aptian onwards diachronous lithospheric breakup occurred along the central South Atlantic rift, first in the Sergipe-Alagoas/Rio Muni margin segment in the northernmost South Atlantic. Final breakup between South America and Africa occurred in the conjugate Santos-Benguela margin segment at around 113 Ma and in the Equatorial Atlantic domain between the Ghanaian Ridge and the Piauí-Ceará margin at 103 Ma. We conclude that such a multi-velocity, multi-directional rift history exerts primary control on the evolution of this conjugate passive margins systems and can explain the first order tectonic structures along the South Atlantic and possibly other passive margins.

Heine, C.; Zoethout, J.; Müller, R. D.



Groundwater dynamics in the complex aquifer system of Gidabo River Basin, southern Main Ethiopian Rift: Evidences from hydrochemistry and isotope hydrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Located in the tectonically active Main Ethiopian Rift system, the Gidabo River Basin in Ethiopia has a complex hydrogeological setting. The strong physiographic variation from highland to rift floor, variability in volcanic structures and disruption of lithologies by cross-cutting faults contribute for their complex nature of hydrogeology in the area. Until now, the groundwater dynamics and the impact of the tectonic setting on groundwater flow in this region are not well understood, though the local population heavily depends on groundwater as the major water supply. A combined approach based on hydrochemical and isotopic data was applied to investigate the regional flow dynamics of the groundwater and the impact of tectonic setting. Groundwater evolves from slightly mineralized Ca-Mg-HCO3 on the highland to highly mineralized Na-HCO3 dominating type in the deep rift floor aquifers. ?18O and ?D composition of groundwater show a general progressive enrichment from the highland to the rift floor, except in thermal and deep rift floor aquifers. Relatively the thermal and deep rift floor aquifers are depleted and show similar signature to the groundwaters of highland, indicating groundwater inflow from the highland. Correspondingly, rising HCO3 and increasingly enriched signatures of ? 13C points to hydrochemical evolution of DIC and diffuse influx of mantle CO2 into the groundwater system. Thermal springs gushing out along some of the fault zones, specifically in the vicinity of Dilla town, display clear influence of mantle CO2 and are an indication of the role of the faults acting as a conduit for deep circulating thermal water to the surface. By considering the known geological structures of the rift, hydrochemical and isotopic data we propose a conceptual groundwater flow model by characterizing flow paths to the main rift axis. The connection between groundwater flow and the impact of faults make this model applicable to other active rift systems with similar tectonic settings.

Degu, Abraham; Birk, Steffen; Dietzel, Martin; Winkler, Gerfried; Moggessie, Aberra



Structural style of the Turkana Rift, Kenya  

SciTech Connect

Multifold seismic reflection and geologic mapping in part of the eastern branch of the East African Rift system of northern Kenya reveal a major rift structure containing at least 3 km of Neogene sediment fill beneath Lake Turkana. This includes a series of half-graben basins, with centrally located quaternary volcanic centers, which are linked end-to-end by structural accommodation zones. Whereas the geometry of rifting is similar to that of the nonvolcanic western branch of the East African Rift system, the Turkana half-grabens are much smaller and may reflect extension of a thinner lithosphere or development of more closely spaced fracture patterns during rift evolution, or both.

Dunkelman, T.J.; Karson, J.A.; Rosendahl, B.R.



Structural style of the Turkana Rift, Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multifold seismic reflection and geologic mapping in part of the eastern branch of the East African Rift system of northern Kenya reveal a major rift structure containing at least 3 km of Neogene sediment fill beneath Lake Turkana. This includes a series of half-graben basins, with centrally located Quaternary volcanic centers, which are linked end-to-end by structural accommodation zones. Whereas the geometry of rifting is similar to that of the nonvolcanic western branch of the East African Rift system, the Turkana half-grabens are much smaller and may reflect extension of a thinner lithosphere or development of more closely spaced fracture patterns during rift evolution, or both.

Dunkelman, Thomas J.; Karson, Jeffrey A.; Rosendahl, Bruce R.



East African rift and northeast lineaments: continental spreading—transform system?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seafloor spreading and transform faulting processes are also likely to be operative during continental rifting events. Continental lines of old weakness oriented at high angles to the direction of continental rifting may be reactivated by transform faulting. These older continental transform faults, which predate and accomodate the rifting, will continue to propagate as younger oceanic transform faults as the rift develops into seas and oceans. This model is applied to the East African Rift which is postulated to be a continental spreading rift that is accommodated by east-northeast continental transform lineaments that are reactivated older crustal defects of appropriate orientation. At least five continental transform lineaments can be tentatively identified by empirical best fits to oceanic transform directions of the South Atlantic Ocean and to various continental African northeast-trending structures: (1) Cape Town-Maputo (CT-LM); (2) Orange River-Beira (OR-B); (3) Luderitz-Lindi (L-Li); (4) Walvis Bay-Mombasa-Mogadishu (WB-M-Mo); and (5) Luanda-Afar (Lu-Af). As these postulated lineaments are perennial deep seated crustal defects they may also control the development of mineral deposits.

Katz, M. B.


DoD-GEIS Rift Valley Fever Monitoring and Prediction System as a Tool for Defense and US Diplomacy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the last 10 years the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center's Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (GEIS) partnering with NASA'S Goddard Space Flight Center and USDA's USDA-Center for Medical, Agricultural & Veterinary Entomology established and have operated the Rift Valley fever Monitoring and Prediction System to monitor, predict and assess the risk of Rift Valley fever outbreaks and other vector-borne diseases over Africa and the Middle East. This system is built on legacy DoD basic research conducted by Walter Reed Army Institute of Research overseas laboratory (US Army Medical Research Unit-Kenya) and the operational satellite environmental monitoring by NASA GSFC. Over the last 10 years of operation the system has predicted outbreaks of Rift Valley fever in the Horn of Africa, Sudan, South Africa and Mauritania. The ability to predict an outbreak several months before it occurs provides early warning to protect deployed forces, enhance public health in concerned countries and is a valuable tool use.d by the State Department in US Diplomacy. At the international level the system has been used by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAD) and the World Health Organization (WHO) to support their monitoring, surveillance and response programs in the livestock sector and human health. This project is a successful testament of leveraging resources of different federal agencies to achieve objectives of force health protection, health and diplomacy.

Anyamba, Assaf; Tucker, Compton J.; Linthicum, Kenneth J.; Witt, Clara J.; Gaydos, Joel C.; Russell, Kevin L.



Anatomy of the Midcontinent Rift beneath Lake Superior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure and geometry of the 1.1-b.y.-old Midcontinent Rift system under Lake Superior is interpreted from 20 seismic reflection profiles recorded during the early and mid-1980s. The seismic data reveal that rift basins under Lake Superior are variable in depth and are partially filled with Keweenawan age sediments to depths of 7 km or more and volcanic flows to depths of 36 km. These rift basins form a continuous and sinuous feature that widens in the Allouez Basin and Marquette Basin in the western and central lake and narrows between White Ridge and the Porcupine Mountains. The rift basin bends southeast around the Keweenaw Peninsula, widens to about 100 km as it extends into the eastern half of Lake Superior, and exists the lake with its axis in the vicinity of Au Sable Point in Pictured Rocks National Lake Shore, about 50 km northeast of Munising, Michigan. The axis of the rift may exit the western end of the lake near Chequamegon Bay in Wisconsin. However, lack of data in that area limits interpretation at this time. Prior to late-stage reverse-faulting, a continuous basin of more uniform thickness was present beneath the lake. Crustal extension during rifting of approximately 50 km was followed by plate convergence and crustal shortening of approximately 30 km, with the major component of thrust from the southeast. Crustal shortening occurred after development of rift grabens and their filling with lava flows, but before deposition of the final sag basin sediments. Integration of information obtained from outcrops with data reported here indicates that the Lake Superior section of the rift is associated with as many as three major boundary faults.

Thompson, M. D.; McGinnis, L. D.; Ervin, C. P.; Mudrey, M. G.


Structural And Depositional Style Of The Syn-Rift Systems Of The West African And Brazilian Continental Margins: Regional Subsidence Independent Of Brittle Deformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The West African and Brazilian passive continental margins are characterized by the regional distribution of syn-rift and post-rift sediment assemblages that are inconsistent with the minor amounts of brittle deformation interpreted from seismic sections across the margin or from field mapping of exposed rift systems. Fundamentally, the rift phase of West Africa and Brazil consists of a series of stacked sag basins. Ostracod data from the West African margin indicate that the distal syn-rift sag basins, where dated, are Neocomian to Aptian in age and are contemporaneous with proximal syn-rift deposits developed inboard of a major hinge zone, the Atlantic Hinge zone. Despite being syn-rift deposits (by virtue of their age), the sag basins exhibit none of the diagnostic characteristics of brittle deformation, such as the existence of normal faults, the rotation of crustal blocks, the existence of prominent rift onset unconformities (onlap surfaces), and the generation of sediment wedges. Seismic sections across the Camamu-Almada margin of Brazil indicate that the regional generation of space is essentially independent of faulting, as indicated by an absence of stratigraphic growth across normal faults and a regional seaward dip of the entire syn-rift stratigraphic package. The late syn-rift history of the West African and Brazilian margins is dominated by the creation of regional but shallow depositional environments that allowed the accumulation of the Loeme and Ezanga evaporites of West Africa and the Ibura, Taipus Mirim, and Mariricu evaporites of Brazil. Following break-up, the margins underwent significant post-rift subsidence allowing the deposition of the late Cretaceous, Paleogene and Neogene sedimentary packages. The development of significant post-rift accommodation in the same region characterized by minor syn-rift faulting and shallow depositional environments is the crucial observation requiring an explanation in terms of extensional strain partitioning through the lithosphere, lower crustal flow, major dyking of the lower crust during the extension process, and the thermal effects of mantle plumes. This presentation will show seismic and drilling data for the West African and Brazilian margins that clearly demonstrates the structural and depositional style of syn-rift systems: the stacking of syn-rift sag sequences showing subtle stratal relationships rather than the more familiar (and expected) characteristics of brittle deformation. Driscoll and Karner (1998) have suggested that the formation of syn-rift sag basins requires partitioning of extension across a mid-crustal decoupling zone separating upper crust (the upper plate) from a ductile-deforming lower crust and lithospheric mantle (the lower plate). The obvious problem with this hypothesis is that extension within the upper and lower plate needs to be laterally balance. The exact form and location of the counterbalancing upper plate extension presumably exists in the vicinity of the ocean-continent transition zone where the extensional balance through the upper crust probably occurs by a combination of thinned and "rafted" crustal blocks and exposed continental mantle. Nevertheless, it remains to be shown that this strain balance actually exists in addition to exploring alternative mechanisms that can augment syn-rift and post-rift subsidence without upper crustal brittle deformation.

Karner, G. D.



Open system evolution of trachyte and phonolite magmas from the East Africa Rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Quaternary Suswa volcanic system consists of a large shield volcano that developed two nested summit calderas and erupted metaluminous to peralkaline trachyte and phonolite lavas and tuffs. Suswa is adjacent to the Greater Olkaria Volcanic Center, Longonot, Eburru, and Menengai volcanic systems, which erupted trachyte, comendite, and pantellerite. These volcanoes comprise the Central Kenya Peralkaline Province and are the site of active geothermal energy production and exploration. Mafic to intermediate lavas (Elementieta, Ndabibi, and Lolonito-Akira-Tandamara volcanic fields) lie in the rift floor between the shield volcanoes and occur as components of mixed magmas within the complexes. Suswa includes two suites of trachyte-phonolite lavas and tuffs. The first suite (C1) consists of lavas that built the original shield volcano and lavas and tuffs related to the formation of the first caldera; the second suite (C2) consists of lavas and tuffs erupted during and after the formation of the second caldera. Trachyte-carbonate immiscibility has been recorded in C1 ash flow units. The lavas and tuffs of the C2 suite are generally less peralkaline and more silica undersaturated than those of the C1 suite and did not share a common parental magma. Geochemical modeling precludes fractional crystallization as the sole process for Suswa magmas. Instead, assimilation of syenitic material (probably the crystal mush left over from C1 fractional crystallization), resorption, and mixing between the mafic to intermediate lavas satellite to the shield volcanoes have contributed to the composition and eruptive style of these volcanoes.

Anthony, E. Y.; Espejel, V.



Kinematics of Rift-Parallel Deformation Along the Rukwa Rift, Western Branch, and Main Ethiopian Rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The East African Rift System spans N-S ~5000 km and currently experiences E-W extension. Previous kinematic studies of the EARS delineated 3 relatively rigid sub-plates (Victoria, Rovuma, and Lwandle) between the Nubian and Somalian plates. GPS observations of these block interiors confirm the rigid plate model, but we also detect a systematic along-rift deformation pattern at GPS stations located within rift zones bounding the western Victoria block and continuing north between the Nubian and Somalian plates. Here we present a kinematic model of present-day rift-parallel deformation along the Western branch, Rukwa Rift, and Main Ethiopian Rift constrained by a new GPS solution, earthquake slip vectors, and mapped active fault structures. We test the roles of block rotation, elastic deformation, and anelastic deformation by varying block geometry, fault slip distribution parameters, estimating permanent strain rate, and scoring each model with GPS observations. We also explore how the present-day deformation patterns relate to longer-term paleostress indicators. Observations of slickensides and offsets in seismic reflection profiles in the northern Western branch (Albertine rift) indicate a change from ~NNE trending normal faulting to include strike-slip motion within the past 7 My that may be related to previously studied stress changes in the Turkana rift. Preliminary results from the kinematic modeling demonstrate simple elastic strain accumulation on major border faults cannot explain an observed systematic northward component in GPS velocities relative to the Victoria block and the Nubian plate.

Stamps, D.; Koehn, D.; Burke, K. C.; d'Oreye, N.; Saria, E.; Xu, R.



Tectonic localization of multi-plume hydrothermal fluid flow in a segmented rift system, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-temperature (>250°C) multi-plume hydrothermal systems occur in a range of tectonic settings, though most are extensional or transtensional. A key feature of such settings is their tendency to partition into discrete structural elements that scale with the thickness of the seismogenic zone. The late Miocene to present record of arc magmatism and rifting in the North Island of New Zealand illustrates the importance of structural segmentation and reactivation of inherited basement fabrics on the localisation of hydrothermal upflow. The <2 My-old Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) represents the most recent NE-SW-trending locus of heat and mass transfer in a >15 My record of similarly-oriented magmatism, rifting and hydrothermal activity associated with subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the North Island of New Zealand. Lateral migration of the locus of arc magmatism, concomitant with roll-back of the subducting slab, is supported by the SE-directed younging of: 1) volcanism; 2) fault-controlled rift basins; and 3) hydrothermal activity, represented by the distribution of epithermal mineralisation within the ~15-3 Ma Coromandel Volcanic Zone (CVZ), and geothermal activity within the TVZ. Currently the TVZ is extending in a NW-SE direction at a rate that varies from ~3 mm/yr to ~15 mm/yr from SW to NE, respectively. The TVZ is partitioned into discrete rift segments, comprising arrays of NE-striking normal faults of ~20 km in length, as expected on mechanical grounds for the 6-8 km-thick seismogenic zone. Transfer zones between rift segments coincide with N-to-NW-trending alignments of geothermal fields, <61 ka volcanic vents, and margins of rhombic shaped caldera boundaries, which supports the notion that such tectonic features are important sites for heat and mass transfer. Although masked at the surface, upward continued aeromagnetic data reveals deep lineations that align with transfer zones and major faults in exposed Mesozoic metasedimentary basement rocks proximal to the TVZ. Transfer zones are thus inferred to be hard-linked at depth via reactivated basement faults, some of which appear to extend into the CVZ. Two similarly oriented features spaced ~ 30 km apart can be recognized elsewhere within the CVZ. The most productive epithermal deposits to date are localised where these inferred transfer zones intersect arc-parallel fault arrays. A similar tectonic configuration occurs in the Deseado Massif, Argentinian Patagonia, where interplay between transfer and rift faults is inferred to have localized hydrothermal fluids in small pull-apart basins and arrays of extension veins for durations >30 My.

Rowland, J. V.; Downs, D. T.; Scholz, C.; de P. S. Zuquim, M.



Oil source rocks in lacustrine sequences from Tertiary grabens, western Mediterranean rift system, northeast Spain  

SciTech Connect

Lacustrine sequences, 100-250 m thick, containing oil-prone, organic-rich mudstones (ORM) are exposed in five Tertiary basins in northeastern Spain. They were deposited in small lacustrine basins (up to 50 km/sup 2/) that developed in grabens of the western Mediterranean rift system. ORMs from the Rubielos basin comprise laminated gray mudstones with interbedded rhythmite intervals (up to 2.5 m thick) formed by couplets of organic- and carbonate-rich laminae (< 1 mm thick). In marginal zones, ORMs (up to 10 m thick) alternate with lean, bioturbated green marls (up to 5 m thick). ORMs (Rock-Eval yields /approximately/ 40 kg/MT, HI /approximately/ 850 mg HC/g TOC) had a dominant waxy terrestrial plant input, with significant and variable algal/bacterial input. ORMs in these basins are immature for petroleum generation. Larger lacustrine basins similar to those described above, in more appropriate burial/thermal situations, can be envisioned as zones of potential interest for lacustrine oil exploration in the western Mediterranean.

Anadon, P.; Cawley, S.J.; Julia, R.



Probing the processes and products of an ancient continental crustal rupture: Scientific drillng into the Midcontinent Rift System  

SciTech Connect

Geochemical and geophysical investigations over the past decade suggest a laterally as well radially heterogeneous upper mantle. The sources of this variability are mantle dynamics and interactions with the crust. The opportunities to sample these variations directly are limited within continental regions. However, the basalts of the Midcontinent Rift (MCR) System of North America are particularly attractive for studying subcontinental mantle. The MCR is an 1100 Ma paleorift that extends for more than 2000 km across the North American midcontinent. Drill holes into the MCR to obtain samples of the basalt can be located to answer critical questions regarding the origin and evolution of this aborted Precambrian rift. Outcrops of the MCR rocks occur only in the Lake Superior region, and the rocks that crop out are restricted largely to the margins of the structure and the upper part of the stratigraphic section. Available drill holes are shallow and poorly distributed for scientific purposes and provide only limited samples for analysis. Many sites along the rift have been pinpointed where holes of 5 km or less in depth can be drilled to sample the Proterozoic (Keweenawan) igneous rocks of the rift. In September, 1987, approximately 90 geoscientists from North America and Europe met in Duluth, Minnesota, for a workshop. The goals of the workshop were to define the scientific objectives of drilling the MCR and to develop a plan for achieving these objectives. As a result of the workshop and subsequent deliberations, we proposed a multi-year, multi-hole program of drilling and related scientific investigation of the MCR utilizing shallow to intermediate depth holes. 18 refs. 5 figs.

Hinz, W.J.



Analogy between natural gas found in lakes of rift valley system of east Africa and its allied gas in Japan  

SciTech Connect

The Afar triangle in northeastern Ethiopia is where the Red Sea rift, the Carlsberg Ridge of the Indian Ocean, and the Rift Valley system of east Africa meet. In 1979, J. Welhan and H. Craig reported that hydrothermal vents at 21/sup 0/N, on the East Pacific Rise, are discharging turbid waters. Mixtures of the plumes with ambient seawater contain significant amounts of dissolved H/sub 2/ and CH/sub 4/ as well as mantel-derived /sup 3/He-rich helium. The /sup 3/He//sup 4/He ratios of rock samples obtained earlier by J. Lupton and H. Craig from the Mid-Oceanic Ridge, including the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the east Pacific Rise, are extremely high at an almost constant value of (1.3 +/- 0.2) x 10/sup -5/, which they defined as the MOR-type helium. However, the deep brines of the Red Sea contain about 1,000 times more methane than normal seawater does, according to Gold and Soter in 1980. Much evidence leads us to believe that large amounts of /sup 3/He-rich helium-bearing natural gas have been gushing out in many places of the Rift Valley of east Africa for a long time. In 1980, Gold and Soter stated that Lake Kivu, which occupies part of the East African rift valley, contains 50 million tons of dissolved methane for which there is no adequate microbial source. The Japanese Islands began to separate from the Asian continent during the early Miocene. The early Miocene was characterized by intensive volcanic activity that produced large amounts of pyroclastics and other volcanic rocks, generally called green tuff in Japan. It has been suggested that oil and gas in green tuff is derived from the upper mantle.

Fukuta, O.



Seismic and aseismic deformation along the East African Rift System from a reanalysis of the GPS velocity field of Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The improvement of the geodetic coverage within the African Plate over the last decade together with an extended GPS position time-series allows improved accuracy in determining the velocity field than prior geodetic studies. Using this new velocity field of the whole African continent, the best model proposed here remains consistent with previous studies including the existence of two small plates along the East African Rift System (EARS, Victoria and Rovuma). We focus specifically on the velocities along this plate boundary by estimating both the geodetic and the seismic moment rate. Whereas we use a scalar form of the Kostrov relation to calculate the geodetic moment rate, the seismic moment rate is obtained by integrating the cumulative truncated Gutenberg-Richter earthquake distribution of local events in the 39-yr-long worldwide catalogue, using a maximum likelihood method. This statistical method allows us to take into account the probable incompleteness of the existing catalogue and to assume the seismic moment rate calculated from this short catalogue to be representative of the long-term seismic deformation. The comparison of geodetic and seismic energy release sheds light on the variations of mechanical behaviour related to intracontinental extension along the EARS. The southward increase, observed along the rift, of the proportion of geodetic moment seismically accommodated suggests a significant control of the thermal structure associated with different states of rifting evolution.

Déprez, Aline; Doubre, Cécile; Masson, Frédéric; Ulrich, Patrice



Segmented lateral dyke growth in a rifting event at Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crust at many divergent plate boundaries forms primarily by the injection of vertical sheet-like dykes, some tens of kilometres long. Previous models of rifting events indicate either lateral dyke growth away from a feeding source, with propagation rates decreasing as the dyke lengthens, or magma flowing vertically into dykes from an underlying source, with the role of topography on the evolution of lateral dykes not clear. Here we show how a recent segmented dyke intrusion in the Bárðarbunga volcanic system grew laterally for more than 45 kilometres at a variable rate, with topography influencing the direction of propagation. Barriers at the ends of each segment were overcome by the build-up of pressure in the dyke end; then a new segment formed and dyke lengthening temporarily peaked. The dyke evolution, which occurred primarily over 14 days, was revealed by propagating seismicity, ground deformation mapped by Global Positioning System (GPS), interferometric analysis of satellite radar images (InSAR), and graben formation. The strike of the dyke segments varies from an initially radial direction away from the Bárðarbunga caldera, towards alignment with that expected from regional stress at the distal end. A model minimizing the combined strain and gravitational potential energy explains the propagation path. Dyke opening and seismicity focused at the most distal segment at any given time, and were simultaneous with magma source deflation and slow collapse at the Bárðarbunga caldera, accompanied by a series of magnitude M > 5 earthquakes. Dyke growth was slowed down by an effusive fissure eruption near the end of the dyke. Lateral dyke growth with segment barrier breaking by pressure build-up in the dyke distal end explains how focused upwelling of magma under central volcanoes is effectively redistributed over long distances to create new upper crust at divergent plate boundaries.

Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Hooper, Andrew; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Vogfjörd, Kristín S.; Ófeigsson, Benedikt G.; Heimisson, Elías Rafn; Dumont, Stéphanie; Parks, Michelle; Spaans, Karsten; Gudmundsson, Gunnar B.; Drouin, Vincent; Árnadóttir, Thóra; Jónsdóttir, Kristín; Gudmundsson, Magnús T.; Högnadóttir, Thórdís; Fridriksdóttir, Hildur María; Hensch, Martin; Einarsson, Páll; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Samsonov, Sergey; Brandsdóttir, Bryndís; White, Robert S.; Ágústsdóttir, Thorbjörg; Greenfield, Tim; Green, Robert G.; Hjartardóttir, Ásta Rut; Pedersen, Rikke; Bennett, Richard A.; Geirsson, Halldór; La Femina, Peter C.; Björnsson, Helgi; Pálsson, Finnur; Sturkell, Erik; Bean, Christopher J.; Möllhoff, Martin; Braiden, Aoife K.; Eibl, Eva P. S.



Segmented lateral dyke growth in a rifting event at Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland.  


Crust at many divergent plate boundaries forms primarily by the injection of vertical sheet-like dykes, some tens of kilometres long. Previous models of rifting events indicate either lateral dyke growth away from a feeding source, with propagation rates decreasing as the dyke lengthens, or magma flowing vertically into dykes from an underlying source, with the role of topography on the evolution of lateral dykes not clear. Here we show how a recent segmented dyke intrusion in the Bárðarbunga volcanic system grew laterally for more than 45 kilometres at a variable rate, with topography influencing the direction of propagation. Barriers at the ends of each segment were overcome by the build-up of pressure in the dyke end; then a new segment formed and dyke lengthening temporarily peaked. The dyke evolution, which occurred primarily over 14 days, was revealed by propagating seismicity, ground deformation mapped by Global Positioning System (GPS), interferometric analysis of satellite radar images (InSAR), and graben formation. The strike of the dyke segments varies from an initially radial direction away from the Bárðarbunga caldera, towards alignment with that expected from regional stress at the distal end. A model minimizing the combined strain and gravitational potential energy explains the propagation path. Dyke opening and seismicity focused at the most distal segment at any given time, and were simultaneous with magma source deflation and slow collapse at the Bárðarbunga caldera, accompanied by a series of magnitude M > 5 earthquakes. Dyke growth was slowed down by an effusive fissure eruption near the end of the dyke. Lateral dyke growth with segment barrier breaking by pressure build-up in the dyke distal end explains how focused upwelling of magma under central volcanoes is effectively redistributed over long distances to create new upper crust at divergent plate boundaries. PMID:25517098

Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Hooper, Andrew; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Vogfjörd, Kristín S; Ófeigsson, Benedikt G; Heimisson, Elías Rafn; Dumont, Stéphanie; Parks, Michelle; Spaans, Karsten; Gudmundsson, Gunnar B; Drouin, Vincent; Árnadóttir, Thóra; Jónsdóttir, Kristín; Gudmundsson, Magnús T; Högnadóttir, Thórdís; Fridriksdóttir, Hildur María; Hensch, Martin; Einarsson, Páll; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Samsonov, Sergey; Brandsdóttir, Bryndís; White, Robert S; Ágústsdóttir, Thorbjörg; Greenfield, Tim; Green, Robert G; Hjartardóttir, Ásta Rut; Pedersen, Rikke; Bennett, Richard A; Geirsson, Halldór; La Femina, Peter C; Björnsson, Helgi; Pálsson, Finnur; Sturkell, Erik; Bean, Christopher J; Möllhoff, Martin; Braiden, Aoife K; Eibl, Eva P S



Evolution of bimodal volcanism in Gona, Ethiopia: geochemical associations and geodynamic implications for the East African Rift System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The East African rift system in Ethiopia formed in the Earth's youngest flood basalt province, and provides a natural laboratory to study the geochemistry of bimodal volcanism and its implications for plume-derived magmatism, mantle-lithosphere interactions and evolution of continental rifts from plate extension to rupture. Our geochemical studies of the ~6 Ma to recent eruptive products from Gona within the Afar Rift Zone are understood in context of crustal and upper mantle seismic imaging studies that provide constraints on spatial variations. Geochemical (major element, trace element and isotope) analyses of basalts and rhyolitic tuff from Gona indicate a common magma source for these bimodal volcanics. Light rare earth elements (LREEs) are enriched with a strong negative Eu anomaly and a positive Ce anomaly in some of the silicic volcanic rocks. We observe strong depletions in Sr and higher concentrations of Zr, Hf, Th, Nb and Ta. We hypothesize that the silicic rocks may be residues from a plume-derived enriched magma source, following partial melting with fractional crystallization of plagioclase at shallow magma chambers. The absence of Nb-Ta anomaly shows no crustal assimilation by magmas. Sr isotopes, in conjunction with Nd and Pb isotopes and a strong Ce anomaly could reflect interaction of the parent magma with a deep saline aquifer or brine. Nd isotopic ratios (?Nd = 1.9 to 4.6) show similarity of the silicic tuffs and basalts in their isotopic compositions except for some ~6 Ma lavas showing MORB-like values (?Nd = 5 to 8.7) that suggest involvement of the asthenosphere with the plume source. Except for one basaltic tuff, the whole rock oxygen isotopic ratios of the Gona basalts range from +5.8‰ to +7.9‰, higher than the ? values for typical MORB, +5.7. The oxygen isotopes in whole rocks from the rhyolite tuffs vary from 14.6‰ to 20.9‰ while their Sr isotope ratios <0.706, indicative of post-depositional low T alteration of these silicic rocks by a fluid derived from seawater or some crustal fluid not enriched in radiogenic Sr. The bimodality of the volcanic rocks may be genetically related by fractional crystallization or by partial melting of a hydrothermally altered mafic crust from earlier magma generation in the rift, without continental crustal assimilation. The geochemical data, along with geophysical and geodetic studies, assist our understanding of the tectonics of continental break up and plume magmatism in the Afar depression and the East African Rift system.

Ghosh, N.; Basu, A. R.; Gregory, R. T.; Richards, I.; Quade, J.; Ebinger, C. J.



Pre-breakup geology of the Gulf of Mexico-Caribbean: Its relation to Triassic and Jurassic rift systems of the region  

SciTech Connect

A review of the pre-breakup geology of west-central Pangea, comprised of northern South America, Gulf of Mexico and West Africa, combined with a study of the Mesozoic rift trends of the region confirms a relation between the rift systems and the underlying older grain of deformation. The pre-breakup analysis focuses attention on the Precambrian, Early Paleozoic and Late Paleozoic tectonic events affecting the region and assumes a Pindell fit. Two Late Precambrian orogenic belts are observed in the west central Pangea. Along the northern South American margin and Yucatan a paleo northeast trending Pan-African aged fold belt is documented. A second system is observed along West Africa extending from the High Atlas to the Mauritanides and Rockelides. During the Late Paleozoic, renewed orogenic activity, associated with the Gondwana/Laurentia suture, affected large segments of west central Pangea. The general trend of the system is northeast-southwest and essentially parallels the Gyayana Shield, West African, and eastern North American cratons. Mesozoic rifting closely followed either the Precambrian trends or the Late Paleozoic orogenic belt. The Triassic component focuses along the western portions of the Gulf of Mexico continuing into eastern Mexico and western South America. The Jurassic rift trend followed along the separation between Yucatan and northern South America. At Lake Maracaibo the Jurassic rift system eventually overlaps the Triassic rifts. The Jurassic rift resulted in the [open quotes]Hispanic Corridor[close quotes] that permitted Tethyan and Pacific marine faunas to mix at a time when the Gulf of Mexico underwent continental sedimentation.

Bartok, P. (EGEP Consultores, Caracus (Venezuela))



Dynamic processes controlling evolution of rifted basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extension of the lithosphere, controlling the development of rifted basins, is driven by a combination of plate-boundary forces, frictional forces exerted on the base of the lithosphere by the convecting asthenosphere and deviatoric tensional stresses developing over upwelling branches of the asthenospheric convection system. Although mantle plumes are not a primary driving force of rifting, they play an important secondary role by weakening the lithosphere and by controlling the level of rift-related volcanic activity. A distinction between "active" and "passive" rifting is only conditionally justified. The extension of the lithosphere, depending on its rate and magnitude, and the potential temperature of the asthenosphere, can cause by adiabatic decompression partial melting of the lower lithosphere and upper asthenosphere. In rift systems, the level and timing of volcanic activity is highly variable. The lack of volcanic activity implies "passive" rifting. An initial "passive" rifting stage can be followed by a more "active" one during which magmatism plays an increasingly important role. Magmatic destabilization of the Moho may account for the frequently observed discrepancy between upper and lower crustal extension factors. Combined with evidence for thermal thinning of the mantle-lithosphere, this suggest that the volume of the lithosphere is not necessarily preserved during rifting as advocated by conventional stretching models. The structural style of rifts is controlled by the rheological structure of the lithosphere, the availability of crustal discontinuities that can be tensionally reactivated, the mode (orthogonal or oblique) and amount of extension, and the lithological composition of pre- and syn-rift sediments. Simple-shear extension prevails in rifts that subparallel the structural grain of the basement. Pure-shear extension is typical for rifts cross-cutting the basement grain. Pre-existing crustal and mantle-lithospheric discontinuities contribute to the localization of rift systems. The duration of the rifting stage of extensional basins is highly variable. Stress field changes can cause abrupt termination of rifting. In major rift systems, progressive strain concentration on the zone of future crustal separation entails abandonment of lateral rifts. Depending on constraints on lateral block movements, crustal separation can be achieved after as little as 9 My and as much as 280 My of rifting activity. Syn-rift basin subsidence is controlled by isostatic adjustment of the crust to mechanical stretching of the lithosphere, its magmatic inflation and thermal attenuation of the mantle-lithosphere. Post-rift basin subsidence is governed by thermal reequilibration of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system. Deep-seated thermal anomalies related to syn-rift pull-up of the asthenosphere-lithosphere boundary have decayed after 60 My by about 65% and after 180 My by about 95%. The magnitude of post-rift subsidence is a function of the rift-induced thermal anomaly and crustal density changes, the potential temperature of the asthenosphere and initial water depths. Intraplate stresses can have an overprinting effect on post-rift subsidence. Stretching factors derived from post-rift subsidence analyses must be corrected for such effects.

Ziegler, Peter A.; Cloetingh, Sierd



Influence of pre-existing fabrics on fault kinematics and rift geometry of interacting segments: Analogue models based on the Albertine Rift (Uganda), Western Branch-East African Rift System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims at showing how far pre-existing crustal weaknesses left behind by Proterozoic mobile belts, that pass around cratonic Archean shields (Tanzania Craton to the southeast and Congo Craton to the northwest), control the geometry of the Albertine Rift. Focus is laid on the development of the Lake Albert and Lake Edward/George sub-segments and between them the greatly uplifted Rwenzori Mountains, a horst block located within the rift and whose highest peak rises to >5000 m above mean sea level. In particular we study how the southward propagating Lake Albert sub-segment to the north interacts with the northward propagating Lake Edward/George sub-segment south of it, and how this interaction produces the structures and geometry observed in this section of the western branch of the East African Rift, especially within and around the Rwenzori horst. We simulate behaviour of the upper crust by conducting sandbox analogue experiments in which pre-cut rubber strips of varying overstep/overlap connected to a basal sheet and oriented oblique and/or orthogonal to the extension vector, are placed below the sand-pack. The points of connection present velocity discontinuities to localise deformation, while the rubber strips represent ductile domain affected by older mobile belts. From fault geometry of developing rift segments in plan view and section cuts, we study kinematics resulting from a given set of boundary conditions, and results are compared with the natural scenario. Three different basal model-configurations are used to simulate two parallel rifts that propagate towards each other and interact. Wider overstep (model SbR3) produces an oblique transfer zone with deep grabens (max. 7.0 km) in the adjoining segments. Smaller overlap (model SbR4) ends in offset rift segments without oblique transfer faults to join the two, and produces moderately deep grabens (max. 4.6 km). When overlap doubles the overstep (model SbR5), rifts propagate sub-orthogonal to the extension direction and form shallow valleys (max. 2.9 km). Relative ratios of overlap/overstep between rift segments dictate the kind of transition zone that develops and whether or not a block (like the Rwenzoris) is captured and rotates; hence determining the end-member geometry. Rotation direction is controlled by pre-existing fabrics. Fault orientation, fault kinematics, and block rotation (once in play) reinforce each other; and depending on the local kinematics, different parts of a captured block may rotate with variable velocities but in the same general direction. Mechanical strength anisotropy of pre-structured crust only initially centres fault nucleation and propagation parallel to the grain of weakness of the basement, but at later stages of a protracted period of crustal extension, such boundaries are locally defied.

Aanyu, K.; Koehn, D.



Parga Chasma: Coronae and Rifting on Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The majority of coronae (quasicircular volcano-tectonic features) are found along rifts or fracture belts, and the majority of rifts have coronae [e.g. 1,2]. However, the relationship between coronae and rifts remains unclear [3-6]. There is evidence that coronae can form before, after, or synchronously with rifts [3,4]. The extensional fractures in the rift zones have been proposed to be a result of broad scale upwelling and traction on the lower lithosphere [7]. However, not all rift systems have a significant positive geoid anomaly, as would be expected for an upwelling site [8]. This could be explained if the rifts lacking anomalies are no longer active. Coronae are generally accepted to be sites of local upwelling [e.g. 1], but the observed rifting is frequently not radial to the coronae and extends well beyond the coronae into the surrounding plains. Thus the question remains as to whether the rifts represent regional extension, perhaps driven by mantle tractions, or if the coronae themselves create local thinning and extension of the lithosphere. In the first case, a regional extension model should be consistent with the observed characteristics of the rifts. In the latter case, a model of lithospheric loading and fracturing would be more appropriate. A good analogy may be the propagation of oceanic intraplate volcanoes [9].

Smrekar, S. E.; Stofan, E. R.; Buck, W. R.; Martin, P.



Is the Ventersdorp rift system of southern Africa related to a continental collision between the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe Cratons at 2.64 Ga AGO?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rocks of the Ventersdorp Supergroup were deposited in a system of northeast trending grabens on the Kaapvaal Craton approximately 2.64 Ga ago contemporary with a continental collision between the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe Cratons. It is suggested that it was this collision that initiated the Ventersdorp rifting. Individual grabens strike at high angles toward the continental collision zone now exposed in the Limpopo Province where late orogenic left-lateral strike-slip faulting and anatectic granites are recognized. The Ventersdorp rift province is related to extension in the Kaapvaal Craton associated with the collision, and some analogy is seen with such rifts as the Shansi and Baikal Systems associated with the current India-Asia continental collision.

Burke, K.; Kidd, W. S. F.; Kusky, T.



Evidence of rapid Cenozoic uplift of the shoulder escarpment of the Cenozoic West Antarctic rift system and a speculation on possible climate forcing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cenozoic West Antarctic rift system, characterized by Cenozoic bimodal alkalic volcanic rocks, extends over a largely ice-covered area, from the Ross Sea nearly to the Bellingshausen Sea. Various lines of evidence lead to the following interpretation: the transantarctic Mountains part of the rift shoulder (and probably the entire shoulder) has been rising since about 60 Ma, at episodic rates of ~1 km/m.y., most recently since mid-Pliocene Time, rather than continuously at the mean rate of 100 m/m.y. Uplift rates vary along the scarp, which is cut by transverse faults. It is speculated that this uplift may have climatically forced the advance of the Antarctic ice sheet since the most recent warm period. A possible synergistic relation is suggested between episodic tectonism, mountain uplift, and volcanism in the Cenozoic West Antarctic rift system and waxing and waning of the Antarctic ice sheet beginning about earliest Oligocene time. -from Authors

Behrendt, John C.; Cooper, A.



Supracrustal faults of the St. Lawrence rift system, Québec: kinematics and geometry as revealed by field mapping and marine seismic reflection data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The St. Lawrence rift system from the Laurentian craton core to the offshore St. Lawrence River system is a seismically active zone in which fault reactivation is believed to occur along late Proterozoic to early Paleozoic normal faults related to the opening of the Iapetus ocean. The rift-related faults fringe the contact between the Grenvillian basement to the NW and Cambrian-Ordovician rocks of the St. Lawrence Lowlands to the SE and occur also within the Grenvillian basement. The St. Lawrence rift system trends NE-SW and represents a SE-dipping half-graben that links the NW-SE-trending Ottawa-Bonnechère and Saguenay River grabens, both interpreted as Iapetan failed arms. Coastal sections of the St. Lawrence River that expose fault rocks related to the St. Lawrence rift system have been studied between Québec city and the Saguenay River. Brittle faults marking the St. Lawrence rift system consist of NE- and NW-trending structures that show mutual crosscutting relationships. Fault rocks consist of fault breccias, cataclasites and pseudotachylytes. Field relationships suggest that the various types of fault rocks are associated with the same tectonic event. High-resolution marine seismic reflection data acquired in the St. Lawrence River estuary, between Rimouski, the Saguenay River and Forestville, identify submarine topographic relief attributed to the St. Lawrence rift system. Northeast-trending seismic reflection profiles show a basement geometry that agrees with onshore structural features. Northwest-trending seismic profiles suggest that normal faults fringing the St. Lawrence River are associated with a major topographic depression in the estuary, the Laurentian Channel trough, with up to 700 m of basement relief. A two-way travel-time to bedrock map, based on seismic data from the St. Lawrence estuary, and comparison with the onshore rift segment suggest that the Laurentian Channel trough varies from a half-graben to a graben structure from SW to NE. It is speculated that natural gas occurrences within both the onshore and offshore sequences of unconsolidated Quaternary deposits are possibly related to degassing processes of basement rocks, and that hydrocarbons were drained upward by the rift faults.

Tremblay, Alain; Long, Bernard; Massé, Manon



Kinematics of the South Atlantic rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South Atlantic rift basin evolved as a branch of a large Jurassic-Cretaceous intraplate rift zone between the African and South American plates during the final break-up of western Gondwana. While the relative motions between South America and Africa for post-break-up times are well resolved, many issues pertaining to the fit reconstruction and particularly the relation between kinematics and lithosphere dynamics during pre-break-up remain unclear in currently published plate models. We have compiled and assimilated data from these intraplated rifts and constructed a revised plate kinematic model for the pre-break-up evolution of the South Atlantic. Based on structural restoration of the conjugate South Atlantic margins and intracontinental rift basins in Africa and South America, we achieve a tight-fit reconstruction which eliminates the need for previously inferred large intracontinental shear zones, in particular in Patagonian South America. By quantitatively accounting for crustal deformation in the Central and West African Rift Zones, we have been able to indirectly construct the kinematic history of the pre-break-up evolution of the conjugate west African-Brazilian margins. Our model suggests a causal link between changes in extension direction and velocity during continental extension and the generation of marginal structures such as the enigmatic pre-salt sag basin and the São Paulo High. We model an initial E-W-directed extension between South America and Africa (fixed in present-day position) at very low extensional velocities from 140 Ma until late Hauterivian times (?126 Ma) when rift activity along in the equatorial Atlantic domain started to increase significantly. During this initial ?14 Myr-long stretching episode the pre-salt basin width on the conjugate Brazilian and west African margins is generated. An intermediate stage between ?126 Ma and base Aptian is characterised by strain localisation, rapid lithospheric weakening in the equatorial Atlantic domain, resulting in both progressively increasing extensional velocities as well as a significant rotation of the extension direction to NE-SW. From base Aptian onwards diachronous lithospheric break-up occurred along the central South Atlantic rift, first in the Sergipe-Alagoas/Rio Muni margin segment in the northernmost South Atlantic. Final break-up between South America and Africa occurred in the conjugate Santos-Benguela margin segment at around 113 Ma and in the equatorial Atlantic domain between the Ghanaian Ridge and the Piauí-Ceará margin at 103 Ma. We conclude that such a multi-velocity, multi-directional rift history exerts primary control on the evolution of these conjugate passive-margin systems and can explain the first-order tectonic structures along the South Atlantic and possibly other passive margins.

Heine, C.; Zoethout, J.; Müller, R. D.



Lithospheric structure of the Rio Grande rift.  


A high-resolution, regional passive seismic experiment in the Rio Grande rift region of the southwestern United States has produced new images of upper-mantle velocity structure and crust-mantle topography. Synthesizing these results with geochemical and other geophysical evidence reveals highly symmetric lower-crustal and upper-mantle lithosphere extensional deformation, suggesting a pure-shear rifting mechanism for the Rio Grande rift. Extension in the lower crust is distributed over a region four times the width of the rift's surface expression. Here we propose that the laterally distributed, pure shear extension is a combined effect of low strain rate and a regionally elevated geotherm, possibly abetted by pre-existing lithospheric structures, at the time of rift initiation. Distributed extension in the lower crust and mantle has induced less concentrated vertical mantle upwelling and less vigorous small-scale convection than would have arisen from more localized deformation. This lack of highly focused mantle upwelling may explain a deficit of rift-related volcanics in the Rio Grande rift compared to other major rift systems such as the Kenya rift. PMID:15729338

Wilson, David; Aster, Richard; West, Michael; Ni, James; Grand, Steve; Gao, Wei; Baldridge, W Scott; Semken, Steve; Patel, Paresh



Stratigraphic Record of the Early Mesozoic Breakup of Pangea in the Laurasia-Gondwana Rift System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rift basins of the Central Atlantic Margins (CAM) of North America and Morocco preserve largely continental sequences of sedimentary strata and less important minor basalt flows spanning much of the early Mesozoic. The best known is the Newark basin of New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania where an astronomically calibrated magnetic polarity time scale is developed. Lacustrine cycles of Milankovitch origin are commonly present in CAM basins, with the period changing from 10 ky (paleoequator with coals), to 20 ky (4 deg--10 deg N), to perhaps 40 ky northward with evaporites. Cycles of {approximately}100 ky, 413 ky, and {approximately}2 my are also important. Four mostly unconformity-bounded tectonostratigraphic sequences are present. The Anisian TS I is fluvial and eolian. TS II--TS IV (Late Triassic to Early Jurassic), consist of "tripartite" lacustrine sequences caused by extension pulses. The Newark basin accumulation rate history allows comparison with quantitative rift basin models. The North American plate's slow northward drift resulted in a relative shift of climate, although the rapid humidification during the latest Triassic and Early Jurassic is associated with a sea-level rise. The Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction is of independent origin, plausibly impact related.

Olsen, Paul E.


Contemporary horizontal movements and seismicity of the south Baikal Basin (Baikal rift system)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contemporary horizontal movements and deformations in the central and southern parts of the Baikal depression are analyzed, and their relationship with contemporary seismicity is studied. Based on the long-term measurements by the Baikal geodynamical GPS monitoring network, the refined estimate is obtained for the velocity of the divergence of the Siberian and Transbaikalian blocks, which is found to occur in the southeastward direction (130°) at 3.4 ± 0.7 mm per annum. This agrees with the parameters of the long-term extension component estimated from the geological data and with the direction of extension determined from the seismic data. The distribution of the displacement velocity across the strike of the rift, which gradually increases from one block to another, suggests a nonrigid behavior of the continental lithospheric plates at the divergent boundary. About 30% (1.0-1.5 mm per annum) of the total increase in the velocity is accommodated by the Baikal Basin. The strain rate within the trough reaches 3.1 × 10-8 yr-1 and decreases on either side across the structure. The character of distribution of the horizontal displacement velocities on the Baikal divergent boundary between the Eurasian and Amurian plates favors the model of passive rifting. The zones of highly contrasting topography and increased seismicity are localized within the area of contemporary deformations, and the seismic moment release rate directly depends on the strain rate. Here, the rate of the seismic moment release rate makes up a few percent of the geodetic moment accumulation rate calculated by the approach suggested by Anderson (1979). Based on the coherence between the graphs of the rates of geodetic moment accumulation and seismic moment release rate by the earthquakes with M ? 5.0 during the historical and instrumental observation periods, the contemporary seismic hazard for the South Baikal Basin could be assessed at a level of seismic event with M = 7.5-7.6.

Sankov, V. A.; Lukhnev, A. V.; Miroshnitchenko, A. I.; Dobrynina, A. A.; Ashurkov, S. V.; Byzov, L. M.; Dembelov, M. G.; Calais, E.; Déverchère, J.



Which Fault Orientations Occur during Oblique Rifting? Combining Analog and Numerical 3d Models with Observations from the Gulf of Aden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oblique rift systems like the Gulf of Aden are intrinsically three-dimensional. In order to understand the evolution of these systems, one has to decode the fundamental mechanical similarities of oblique rifts. One way to accomplish this, is to strip away the complexity that is generated by inherited fault structures. In doing so, we assume a laterally homogeneous segment of Earth's lithosphere and ask how many different fault populations are generated during oblique extension inbetween initial deformation and final break-up. We combine results of an analog and a numerical model that feature a 3D segment of a layered lithosphere. In both cases, rift evolution is recorded quantitatively in terms of crustal fault geometries. For the numerical model, we adopt a novel post-processing method that allows to infer small-scale crustal fault orientation from the surface stress tensor. Both models involve an angle of 40 degrees between the rift normal and the extensional direction which allows comparison to the Gulf of Aden rift system. The resulting spatio-temporal fault pattern of our models shows three normal fault orientations: rift-parallel, extension-orthogonal, and intermediate, i.e. with a direction inbetween the two previous orientations. The rift evolution involves three distinct phases: (i) During the initial rift phase, wide-spread faulting with intermediate orientation occurs. (ii) Advanced lithospheric necking enables rift-parallel normal faulting at the rift flanks, while strike-slip faulting in the central part of the rift system indicates strain partitioning. (iii) During continental break-up, displacement-orthogonal as well as intermediate faults occur. We compare our results to the structural evolution of the Eastern Gulf of Aden. External parts of the rift exhibit intermediate and displacement-orthogonal faults while rift-parallel faults are present at the rift borders. The ocean-continent transition mainly features intermediate and displacement-orthogonal faults. The fault pattern agrees very well with the analog and numerical model results, except for the displacement-orthogonal fault orientation of the initial rift stage. This orientation, however, coincides with the trend of inherited Mesozoic basins indicating the overprinting influence of structural inheritance.

Autin, J.; Brune, S.



Mercury isotopic composition of hydrothermal systems in the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field and Guaymas Basin sea-floor rift  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To characterize mercury (Hg) isotopes and isotopic fractionation in hydrothermal systems we analyzed fluid and precipitate samples from hot springs in the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field and vent chimney samples from the Guaymas Basin sea-floor rift. These samples provide an initial indication of the variability in Hg isotopic composition among marine and continental hydrothermal systems that are controlled predominantly by mantle-derived magmas. Fluid samples from Ojo Caliente hot spring in Yellowstone range in ?202Hg from - 1.02‰ to 0.58‰ (± 0.11‰, 2SD) and solid precipitate samples from Guaymas Basin range in ?202Hg from - 0.37‰ to - 0.01‰ (± 0.14‰, 2SD). Fluid samples from Ojo Caliente display mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) of Hg from the vent (?202Hg = 0.10‰ ± 0.11‰, 2SD) to the end of the outflow channel (&delta202Hg = 0.58‰ ± 0.11‰, 2SD) in conjunction with a decrease in Hg concentration from 46.6pg/g to 20.0pg/g. Although a small amount of Hg is lost from the fluids due to co-precipitation with siliceous sinter, we infer that the majority of the observed MDF and Hg loss from waters in Ojo Caliente is due to volatilization of Hg0(aq) to Hg0(g) and the preferential loss of Hg with a lower ?202Hg value to the atmosphere. A small amount of mass-independent fractionation (MIF) was observed in all samples from Ojo Caliente (?199Hg = 0.13‰ ±1 0.06‰, 2SD) but no significant MIF was measured in the sea-floor rift samples from Guaymas Basin. This study demonstrates that several different hydrothermal processes fractionate Hg isotopes and that Hg isotopes may be used to better understand these processes.

Sherman, L.S.; Blum, J.D.; Nordstrom, D.K.; McCleskey, R.B.; Barkay, T.; Vetriani, C.



The role that plate tectonics, inferred stress changes and stratigraphic unconformities have on the evolution of the West and Central African Rift System and the Atlantic continental margins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Muglad rift basin of Sudan, is a good example of polyphase rifting, with at least three major phases of basin development. Each phase has resulted in the generation of source rock, reservoir and seal geology with structural traps often closely linked to basement highs. In this paper we investigate on a regional scale the tectonic processes that have contributed to rift basin development. On a regional scale, the evolution of the Africa-wide Mesozoic rift system is intimately linked to relative movements of African sub-plates and to global plate tectonic processes and plate interactions. Changes in plate interactions are observed in the oceanic crust as azimuth changes of fracture zone geometries and by inference have caused significant modifications to both the orientation and magnitude of the motions of the African sub-plates. Such plate motion processes have controlled the polyphase development of the West and Central African Rift System. On the basinal scale, changes of sub-plate motions have resulted in changes in the stress field which have had a clear impact on the deformation and fault geometries of rift basins and on the resulting stratigraphy. The construction of the first unified stratigraphic chart for the West and Central African Rift System shows a close correlation in the timing of the major unconformities with the timing of changes in relative plate motion as observed in the changes of the azimuthal geometry of the oceanic fracture zones in the Central Atlantic. Since similarly timed unconformities exist along the continental margins of Africa and South America, we propose that the causative mechanism is change in relative plate motion which leads to an increase or decrease in the tension on the plate and thus controls the strength or effective elastic thickness, Te, of the crust/plate beneath the margins. This results in a focused change in isostatic response of the margin during short-period changes in relative plate motion; i.e. more tension will mean that loads are not compensated locally resulting in local uplift of the margin.

Fairhead, J. D.; Green, C. M.; Masterton, S. M.; Guiraud, R.



Seismicity and subsidence following the 2011 Nabro eruption, Eritrea: Insights into the plumbing system of an off-rift volcano  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nabro volcano, situated to the east of the Afar Rift Zone, erupted on 12 June 2011. Eruptions at such off-rift volcanoes are infrequent, and consequently, the plumbing systems are poorly understood. We present posteruption Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images from the TerraSAR-X satellite and posteruption continuous seismic activity from a local seismic array. Interferometric analysis of SAR data, reveals a circular, 12 km wide, signal subsiding at ˜200 mm/yr. We inverted for the best fit Mogi source finding a 4 ± 1 × 107 m3/yr volume decrease at 7 ± 1 km depth. Between 31 August and 7 October 2011, we located 658 and relocated 456 earthquakes with local magnitudes between -0.4 and 4.5. Seismicity beneath the SE edge of Nabro at 11 km depth is likely associated with high strain rates from deep magma flow into the modeled reservoir. This suggests that magma is supplied through a narrow conduit and then stored at ˜7 km depth. We interpret seismicity at 4-6 km depth as brittle fracturing above the inferred magma reservoir. Focal mechanisms delineate a thrust fault striking NE-SW and dipping 45° to the SE across the caldera floor. We propose that the crustal response is to slip on this fault which crosscuts the caldera rather than to deform on ring faults. The NE-SW fault plane is not associated with measurable surface deformation, indicating that it does not contribute much to the caldera deformation. We show that subsidence of the caldera is controlled by magma chamber processes rather than fault slip.

Hamlyn, Joanna E.; Keir, Derek; Wright, Tim J.; Neuberg, Jürgen W.; Goitom, Berhe; Hammond, James O. S.; Pagli, Carolina; Oppenheimer, Clive; Kendall, J.-Michael; Grandin, Raphaël.



Paleoseismologic studies of the Pajarito fault system, western margin of the Rio Grande rift near Los Alamos, NM  

SciTech Connect

As in much of the Basin and Range province, low levels of historical seismicity in the Rio Grande rift (RGR) are inconsistent with abundant geologic evidence for large-magnitude, late Pleistocene and Holocene earthquakes. Recent trenching and surficial mapping along the 40-km-long, north-trending Pajarito fault system (PFS) near Los Alamos provide evidence for multiple surface-rupture events during the late Pleistocene and Holocene. Near Los Alamos, the Pajarito fault (PAF) exhibits an east-facing scarp up to 120 m high that has had at least four surface-rupture events in the past few hundred thousand years. Four trenches across the base of the highest, easternmost fault scarp show that the most-recent rupture occurred prior to about 9 ka, and possible prior to deposition of the 100- to 150-ka El Cajete Pumice. The long-term (post-1.1 Ma) slip rate on the PAF is about 0.1 mm/yr. The down-to-the-west Rendija Canyon (RCF) and Guaje Mountain (GMF) faults both have had at least two surface ruptures since the middle Pleistocene, including most-recent events at about 7.4 ka along the RCF and about 4 to 6 ka along the GMF. Slickensides and other indirect evidence suggest right-oblique normal slip on the RCF and GMF. Long-term (post-1.1 Ma) slip rates on these two faults are approximately an order of magnitude less than that on the PAF. Based on the observed spatial and temporal variations in activity, the subparallel PAF, RCF, and GMF apparently act as independent seismic sources, although they are located only about 1 to 3 km apart. Nevertheless, the average recurrence interval for faults within the PFS is probably comparable to intervals of 10[sup 4] yr estimated along the eastern rift margin near Taos.

Kelson, K.I. (Wm. Lettis Associates, Oakland, CA (United States)); Hemphill-Haley, M.A.; Wong, I.G. (Woodward-Clyde Federal Services, Oakland, CA (United States)); Gardner, J.N.; Reneau, S.L. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))



Anomalous seafloor mounds in the northern Natal Valley, southwest Indian Ocean: Implications for the East African Rift System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Natal Valley (southwest Indian Ocean) has a complicated and protracted opening history, as has the surrounding southwest Indian Ocean. Recently collected multibeam swath bathymetry and 3.5 kHz seismic data from the Natal Valley reveal anomalous seafloor mounds in the northern Natal Valley. The significance, of these domes, as recorders of the geological history of the Natal Valley and SE African Margin has been overlooked with little attempt made to identify their origin, evolution or tectonic significance. This paper aims to describe these features from a morphological perspective and to use their occurrence as a means to better understand the geological and oceanographic evolution of this basin. The seafloor mounds are distinct in both shallow seismic and morphological character from the surrounding seafloor of the Natal Valley. Between 25 km and 31 km long, and 16 km and 18 km wide, these features rise some 400 m above the sedimentary deposits that have filled in the Natal Valley. Such macro-scale features have not previously been described from the Natal Valley or from other passive margins globally. They are not the result of bottom water circulation, salt tectonics; rather, igneous activity is favoured as the origin for these anomalous seafloor features. We propose a hypothesis that the anomalous seafloor mounds observed in the Natal Valley are related to igneous activity associated with the EARS. The complicated opening history and antecedent geology, coupled with the southward propagation of the East African Rift System creates a unique setting where continental rift associated features have been developed in a marine setting.

Wiles, Errol; Green, Andrew; Watkeys, Mike; Jokat, Wilfried; Krocker, Ralph



The 1.1-Ga Midcontinent Rift System, central North America: sedimentology of two deep boreholes, Lake Superior region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) of central North America is a 1.1-Ga, 2500-km long structural feature that has been interpreted as a triple-junction rift developed over a mantle plume. As much as 20 km of subaerial lava flows, mainly flood basalts, are overlain by as much as 10 km of sedimentary rocks that are mostly continental fluvial red beds. This rock sequence, known as the Keweenawan Supergroup, has been penetrated by a few deep boreholes in the search for petroleum. In this paper, two deep boreholes in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan are described in detail for the first time. Both the Amoco Production #1-29R test, herein referred to as the St. Amour well, and the nearby Hickey Creek well drilled by Cleveland Cliffs Mining Services, were 100% cored. The former is 7238 ft (2410 m) deep and the latter is 5345 ft (1780 m) deep. The entirety of the stratigraphic succession of the Hickey Creek core correlates very well with the upper portion of the St. Amour core, as determined by core description and point-counting of 43 thin sections selected out of 100 studied thin sections. Two Lower Paleozoic units and two Keweenawan red bed units—the Jacobsville Sandstone and the underlying Freda Sandstone—are described. The Jacobsville is largely a feldspatholithic sandstone and the Freda is largely a lithofeldspathic sandstone. Below the Freda, the remaining footage of the St. Amour core consists of a thick quartzose sandstone unit that overlies a heterogenous unit of intercalated red bed units of conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone, and shale; black shale; individual basalt flows; and a basal ignimbritic rhyolite. This lower portion of the St. Amour core presents an enigma, as it correlates very poorly with other key boreholes located to the west and southwest. While a black shale sequence is similar to the petroleum-bearing Nonesuch Formation farther west, there is no conglomerate unit to correlate with the Copper Harbor Conglomerate. Other key boreholes are distributed over a 1300-km distance along the better known southwest arm of the triple-junction MRS, and can be correlated rather well with the units that are exposed in the Lake Superior region. However, a definitive explanation of the anomalous, deeper St. Amour stratigraphy is elusive and any explanation is tenuous. A possible explanation for this anomalous stratigraphy may be the geographic proximity of the St. Amour borehole to the Keweenawan Hot Spot (mantle plume), the suggested thermal force behind the development of the MRS. Similarly, a drastic change in structural architecture may be explained by this geographic relationship. Thus, within the locale of this rifting center, complexities of expansion tectonics may well be responsible for igneous and sedimentary sequences that differ considerably from those found farther west along the rift arm.

Ojakangas, Richard W.; Dickas, Albert B.



Mechanical response of the south flank of kilauea volcano, hawaii, to intrusive events along the rift systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Increased earthquake activity and compression of the south flank of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, have been recognized by previous investigators to accompany rift intrusions. We further detail the temporal and spatial changes in earthquake rates and ground strain along the south flank induced by six major rift intrusions which occurred between December 1971 and January 1981. The seismic response of the south flank to individual rift intrusions is immediate; the increased rate of earthquake activity lasts from 1 to 4 weeks. Horizontal strain measurements indicate that compression of the south flank usually accompanies rift intrusions and eruptions. Emplacement of an intrusion at a depth greater than about 4 km, such as the June 1982 southwest rift intrusion, however, results in a slight extension of the subaerial portion of the south flank. Horizontal strain measurements along the south flank are used to locate the January 1983 east-rift intrusion, which resulted in eruptive activity. The intrusion is modeled as a vertical rectangular sheet with constant displacement perpendicular to the plane of the sheet. This model suggests that the intrusive body that compressed the south flank in January 1983 extended from the surface to about 2.4 km depth, and was aligned along a strike of N66??E. The intrusion is approximately 11 km in length, extended beyond the January 1983 eruptive fissures, which are 8 km in length and is contained within the 14-km-long region of shallow rift earthquakes. ?? 1986.

Dvorak, J.J.; Okamura, A.T.; English, T.T.; Koyanagi, R.Y.; Nakata, J.S.; Sako, M.K.; Tanigawa, W.T.; Yamashita, K.M.



Mesozoic Rifting in the German North Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central Graben is the southernmost expressions of the Mesozoic North Sea rift system that includes the Viking Graben, Moray Firth-Witch Ground grabens and the Horda-Egersund half graben. In the southern North Sea the Central Graben extends across the Dutch and the German exclusive economic zones. The structure of the Central Graben in German territorial waters was mapped in great detail in 2D and 3D seismic data and the stratigraphy has been constraint by borehole data. We provide a detailed review of the rifting activity in the German North Sea sector both in time and space and the link between rifting and salt movement. Major rifting activity started in the Central Graben during the Late Triassic and peaked during the Late Jurassic when extensive rift grabens formed, further influenced by halokinetic movements. First subsidence in the Central Graben area appears in the Early Triassic. This is documented by thickness variations in the sedimentary strata from the Triassic to the Jurassic. Remarkably thick sediments were deposited during the Late Triassic along the eastern border fault of the Central Graben and in the Late Jurassic sediments accumulated along graben-wide extensional faults and in rim-synclines of salt-structures. A basin inversion commenced in the Late Cretaceous resulting in an erosion of wide portions of Lower Cretaceous rocks or even complete removal in some parts. The area to the east of the Central Graben faced a completely different evolution. In this area major rifting activity initiated already in the Early to Middle Triassic. This is evident from huge packages of Middle Buntsandstein to Muschelkalk (Middle Triassic) sediments in the Horn Graben. Jurassic doming, forming the Mid-North Sea High, resulted in almost complete erosion of Lower and Middle Jurassic sediments in the central German North Sea. Sedimentation continued during the Early and Late Cretaceous. The Glückstadt Graben, which is a structure located farther east has a similar evolution as the Horn Graben with high sediment thicknesses deposited during the Triassic. This indicates that initiation of rifting started in the central German North Sea already during the Early Triassic and subsequently migrated to the west into the Central Graben. Before the Triassic thick layers of Permian rock salt (Upper Rotliegend and Zechstein) were deposited in the Central European Basin System, which spans from the UK across the Netherlands, southern Denmark, Germany, and into Poland. Salt movements resulted in the formation of salt diapirs, salt pillows, salt walls and intrusions into faults. Analyses of rim-synclines of salt diapirs reveals that most of the salt structures inside the German Central Graben had a main phase of growth during the Late Jurassic while the salt structures situated toward the southeast had their main phase of growth during the Triassic. The final products of the project are accessible at

Lutz, R.; Jähne, F.; Arfai, J.



Granular mechanics and rifting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical models have proved useful in the interpretation of seismic-scale images of rifted margins. In an effort to both test and further illuminate predictions of numerical models, workers have made some strides using map-scale field relations, microstructures, and strain analyses. Yet, fundamental predictions of modeling and tectonic restorations are not able to capture critical observations. For example, many models and interpretations call on continuous faults with restorable kinematic histories. In contrast, s-reflectors and other interpreted shear fabrics in the middle crust tend to be discontinuous and non-planar across a margin. Additionally, most rift-evolution models and interpretations call on end-member ductile flow laws over a range of mechanical and thermal conditions. In contrast, field observations have found that a range of "brittle" fault rocks (e.g., cataclasites and breccias) form in the deeper crust. Similarly, upper crustal materials in deep basins and fault zones can deform through both distributed and localized deformation. Altogether, there appears to be reason to bring a new perspective to aspects of the structural evolution of rifted margins. A granular mechanics approach to crustal deformation studies has several important strengths. Granular materials efficiently localize shear and exhibit a range of stick-slip behaviors, including quasi-viscous rheological responses. These behaviors emerge in discrete element models, analog-materials experiments, and natural and engineered systems regardless of the specific micromechanical flow law. Yet, strictly speaking, granular deformation occurs via failure of frictional contacts between elastic grains. Here, we explore how to relate granular-mechanics models to mesoscale (outcrop) structural evolution, in turn providing insight into basin- and margin- scale evolution. At this stage we are focusing on analog-materials experiments and micro-to-mesoscale observations linking theoretical predictions to structural geological observations. With this combined approach we seek to establish characteristic length scales such as grain sizes and shear zone thicknesses, and time-scales such as stick-slip event dynamics. This would allow us to define a flow law at the mesoscale from comparing the experimental results and the field observations. This rheology could eventually be used to model the strain localization history of rifted margins

Reber, Jacqueline E.; Hayman, Nicholas W.; Lavier, Luc L.



Implications of new gravity data for Baikal Rift zone structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Newly available, 2D Bouguer gravity anomaly data from the Baikal Rift zone, Siberia, indicate that this discrete, intracontinental rift system is regionally compensated by an elastic plate about 50 km thick. However, spectral and spatial domain analyses and isostatic anomaly calculations show that simple elastic plate theory does not offer an adequate explanation for compensation in the rift zone, probably because of significant lateral variations in plate strength and the presence of subsurface loads. Our results and other geophysical observations support the interpretation that the Baikal Rift zone is colder than either the East African or Rio Grande rift.

Ruppel, C.; Kogan, M. G.; Mcnutt, M. K.



Visualization of Power Systems Final Project Report  

E-print Network

Visualization of Power Systems Final Project Report Power Systems Engineering Research Center Systems Engineering Research Center Visualization of Power Systems Final Report Thomas J. Overbye, Project) the development and/or enhancement of techniques for visualizing power system data using two-dimensional (2D


Off-axis volcanism in the Gregory rift, east Africa: implications for models of continental rifting  

SciTech Connect

The largest volcanic centers of the Gregory rift occur in two belts located 100 to 150 km east and west of the axis of the rift valley. These off-axis volcanic belts include the highest peaks on the continent of Africa and are interpreted to lie above the intersection of low-angle detachment systems with the base of a regionally thinned lithosphere. These detachment systems are manifested at the surface as a series of breakaway zones and regional bounding faults that produce subbasins with half-graben form. The asymmetry of subbasins alternates along the rift axis, indicating that the polarity of the underlying active detachment systems also reverses. The detachments are separated laterally by regional oblique-slip accommodation zones typified by wrench-style tectonism. Off-axis from the rift, the detachments are inferred to merge along strike as they cut to the base of the lithosphere. This results in irregular but persistent paired zones of volcanism and lithospheric thinning off-axis from the rift proper. The development of major volcanic cones such as Mount Kilimanjaro may be controlled by the interaction of leaky accommodation zones with the regions of structurally thinned lithosphere. The central Kenya hot spot has produced the anomalous quantities of volcanic material that fills the Gregory rift and probably enhances the off-axis volcanism but does not directly control its location. The model proposed here for tectonic controls of volcanism in the Gregory rift may be applicable to Phanerozoic continental rifts in general.

Bosworth, W.



The rift to break-up evolution of the Gulf of Aden: Insights from 3D numerical lithospheric-scale modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gulf of Aden provides an ideal setting to study oblique rifting since numerous structural data are available onshore and offshore. Recent surveys showed that the spatio-temporal evolution of the Gulf of Aden rift system is dominated by three fault orientations: displacement-orthogonal (WSW), rift-parallel (WNW) and an intermediate E-W trend. The oldest parts of the rift that are exposed onshore feature displacement-orthogonal and intermediate directions, whereas the subsequently active necking zone involves mainly rift-parallel faults. The final rift phase recorded at the distal margin is characterised by displacement-orthogonal and intermediate fault orientations. We investigate the evolution of the Gulf of Aden from rift initiation to break-up by means of 3D numerical experiments on lithospheric scale. We apply the finite element model SLIM3D which includes realistic, elasto-visco-plastic rheology and a free surface. Despite recent advances, 3D numerical experiments still require relatively coarse resolution so that individual faults are poorly resolved. We address this issue by proposing a simple post-processing method that uses the surface stress-tensor to evaluate stress regime (extensional, strike-slip, compressional) and preferred fault azimuth. The described method is applicable to any geodynamic model and easy to introduce. Our model reproduces the observed fault pattern of the Gulf of Aden and illustrates how multiple fault directions arise from the interaction of local and far-field tectonic stresses in an evolving rift system. The numerical simulations robustly feature intermediate faults during the initial rift phase, followed by rift-parallel normal faulting at the rift flanks and strike-slip faults in the central part of the rift system. Upon break-up, displacement-orthogonal as well as intermediate faults occur. This study corroborates and extends findings from previous analogue experiments of oblique rifting on lithospheric scale and allows new insights in the timing of fault successions of the Gulf of Aden and continental rifts in general.

Brune, Sascha; Autin, Julia



Structure of the central Terror Rift, western Ross Sea, Antarctica  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Terror Rift is a zone of post-middle Miocene faulting and volcanism along the western margin of the West Antarctic Rift System. A new seismic data set from NSF geophysical cruise NBP04-01, integrated with the previous dataset to provide higher spatial resolution, has been interpreted in this study in order to improve understanding of the architecture and history of the Terror Rift. The Terror Rift contains two components, a structurally-controlled rollover anticlinal arch intruded by younger volcanic bodies and an associated synclinal basin. Offsets and trend changes in fault patterns have been identified, coincident with shifts in the location of depocenters that define rift sub-basins, indicating that the Terror Rift is segmented by transverse structures. Multiple phases of faulting all post-date 17 Ma, including faults cutting the seafloor surface, indicating Neogene rifting and possible modern activity.

Hall, Jerome; Wilson, Terry; Henrys, Stuart



Mesozoic fault reactivation along the St. Lawrence Rift System as constrained by (U-Th/He) thermochronology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Saint Lawrence Rift System (SLRS) is a half-graben, extending for 1000 km along St. Lawrence River valley. Late Proterozoic-Early Paleozoic faults of the graben form the contact with the metamorphic Grenvillian basement to the northwest and extend under the Paleozoic sedimentary sequences of the St. Lawrence Lowlands to the southeast. The SLRS is the second most seismically active area in Canada, but the causes of this activity remain unclear. Reactivation of the SLRS is believed to have occurred along Late Proterozoic to Early Paleozoic normal faults related to the opening of the Iapetus Ocean. The absence of strata younger than the Ordovician makes difficult to determine when the faults reactivated after the Ordovician. Field relations between the normal faults bordering the SLRS and those produced by the Charlevoix impact crater suggest a reactivation of the rift younger than the Devonian, the estimated age of the impact. Apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology is an adequate tool to recognize thermal events related to fault movements. A thermochronology study was then started along three transects across the SLRS, from Québec up to Charlevoix. Apatites were extracted and separated from five granitic to charnockitic gneisses and an amphibolite of Grenvillian age. The samples were exposed on hanging wall and footwall of the Montmorency and Saint-Laurent faults at three different locations along the SLRS. For precision and accuracy, each of the six samples was analyzed for radiogenic 4He and U-Th contents at least twice. Apatite grains were isolated by heavy liquids and magnetic separation. For each sample, ten apatite grains were selected under optical microscope and inserted into Pt capsules. Particular care was taken to isolate apatite free of mineral and fluid inclusions. Indeed, SEM investigations showed that some inclusions are U-rich monazite, which is a supplementary source of 4He to be avoided. The 4He content was determined by using a static noble gas mass spectrometer in CRPG-Nancy and duplicates using a quadrupole mass spectrometer at GEOTOP-UQAM. 4He was measured against internal He gas standards and Durango apatite, with the reference U-Th/He age of 31.13 ± 1.01 Ma. U and Th contents were determined at CRPG-Nancy and duplicated at McGill University by ICP-MS. Preliminary results of U-Th/He on St.-Laurent fault yield an age of 137±12 Ma for the hanging wall, at Sault-au-Cochon and 118±10 Ma for a sample from the footwall, at Cap-aux-oies. Previous Apatite Fission Track (AFT) performed for the two locations gave expected older ages at 149±16 Ma and 196±19 Ma for the hanging wall and the footwall, respectively. These preliminary U-Th/He results are consistent with AFT ages of the area (i.e. as expected, U-Th/He ages are younger than AFT ages) but do not yet provide new constraints for the structural evolution of the St. Lawrence rift system. We are determining further U-Th/He ages and these ages will constrain an exhumation model of the region.

Bouvier, L.; Pinti, D. L.; Tremblay, A.; Minarik, W. G.; Roden-Tice, M. K.; Pik, R.



Structure and kinematics of the Taupo Rift, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

structure and kinematics of the continental intra-arc Taupo Rift have been constrained by fault-trace mapping, a large catalogue of focal mechanisms (N = 202) and fault slip striations. The mean extension direction of ~137° is approximately orthogonal to the regional trend of the rift and arc front (? = 84° and 79°, respectively) and to the strike of the underlying subducting Pacific Plate. Bending and rollback of the subduction hinge strongly influence the location, orientation, and extension direction of intra-arc rifting in the North Island. In detail, orthogonal rifting (? = 85-90°) transitions northward to oblique rifting (? = 69-71°) across a paleovertical-axis rotation boundary where rift faults, extension directions, and basement fabric rotate by ~20-25°. Toward the south, extension is orthogonal to normal faults which are parallel to, and reactivate, steeply dipping basement fabric. Basement reactivation facilitates strain partitioning with a portion of margin-parallel motion in the overriding plate mainly accommodated east of the rift by strike-slip faults in the North Island Fault System (NIFS). Toward the north where the rift and NIFS intersect, ~4 mm/yr strike slip is transferred into the rift with net oblique extension accommodating a component of margin-parallel motion. The trend and kinematics of the Taupo Rift are comparable to late Miocene-Pliocene intra-arc rifting in the Taranaki Basin, indicating that the northeast strike of the subducting plate and the southeast extension direction have been uniform since at least 4 Ma.

Seebeck, Hannu; Nicol, Andrew; Villamor, Pilar; Ristau, John; Pettinga, Jarg



Minimal Role of Basal Shear Tractions in Driving Nubia-Somalia Divergence Across the East African Rift System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nubian and Somalian plates actively diverge along the topographically high, ~5000 km long East African Rift System (EARS). As no major subduction zones bound Africa, one can assume that the forces driving the Nubia-Somalia plate system result primarily from mantle buoyancies and lateral variation in lithospheric gravitational potential energy. Images from seismic tomography and convection models suggest active mantle flow beneath Africa. However, the contribution from large-scale convection to the force balance driving plate divergence across the EARS remains in question. In this work we investigate the impact of mantle shear tractions on the dynamics of Nubia-Somalia divergence across the EARS. We compare surface motions inferred from GPS observations with strain rates and velocities predicted from dynamic models where basal shear stresses are (1) derived from forward mantle circulation models and (2) inferred from stress field boundary conditions that balance buoyancy forces in the African lithosphere. Upper mantle anisotropy derived from seismic observations beneath Africa provide independent constraints for the latter. Preliminary results suggest that basal shear tractions play a minor role in the dynamics of Nubia-Somalia divergence along the EARS. This result implies mantle-lithosphere decoupling, possibly promoted by a low viscosity asthenosphere. We corroborate the robustness of our results with estimates of upper mantle viscosity based on local upper mantle temperature estimates and rheological parameters obtained from laboratory experiments.

Stamps, D. S.; Calais, E.; Iaffaldano, G.; Flesch, L. M.



New magnitude scales M L and spectrum-based M w for the area around Shanxi Rift System, North China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new locally calibrated M L scale was derived for the area around the Shanxi rift system, North China, from 83 events recorded on 56 stations of the Shanxi Seismic Network (SSN) resulting in 2,633 observations during the period of 2008-2012. It is expressed as M L = log( A) + 0.80log( R) + 0.00187 R - 1.4, where A is the maximum amplitude of vertical component in nanometer (nm) measured on a simulated Wood-Anderson seismogram at a hypocentral distance R. The new M L scale is valid for distances up to 600 km and is an improvement comparing to the currently used SSN scale, with a reduction in variance of 39 % in magnitude residuals. The moment magnitude M w was also calculated for the whole data set based on spectral analysis. To validate the Q-function used for spectral M w, we carried out moment tensor inversion for 17 moderate size events and selected the regional attenuation model which gave spectral M w on average closest to moment tensor M w. The most appropriate Q-function was found to be Q( f) = 299.4 f 0.563. The determination of the M w magnitudes makes it possible to derive a relationship between the M L and M w scales of this region, which is expressed as M w = 0.85 M L + 0.58, similar to relationships found elsewhere for similar tectonic environments.

Li, Bin; Havskov, Jens; Ottemöller, Lars; Sørensen, Mathilde Bøttger



Organic Geochemical and tectonic evolution of the Midcontinent Rift system. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The older assemblages stand in contrast with the ca. 1000 Ma old Hunting Formation, Arctic Canada, which contains what may be the oldest evidence for modem algae - red algal fossils that compare closely with members of the extant family Bangiophyceae (Butterfield et al., 1990). Taken together the Nonesuch, Shaler, Hunting and other assemblages support the hypothesis of a major episode of eukaryotic diversification ca. 1000 Ma ago. Prior to this time, eukaryotic primary producers must have been physiologically primitive (and now extinct) algae whose abundance in ecosystems is poorly constrained by analogies with the present oceans. Cyanobacteria were major primary producers in a wide range of marine environments. After 1000 Ma, diversifying red green and chromophyte algae contributed significantly to primary production in all save microbial mat communities in restricted environments. It bears mention that such mat communities remained significant potential sources of buried organic matter until the end of the Proterozoic, necessitating exploration strategies that differ from those commonly employed for younger rocks (Knoll, in press). As in Phanerozoic basins, petroleum exploration in Proterozoic rocks requires tools for stratigraphic correlation. In Neoproterozoic (<1000 Ma) rocks, biostratigraphy is possible, and it is aided significantly by C and Sr isotopic chemostratigraphy. New data from the Shaler Group contribute to the construction of C and Sr isotopic curves for Neoproterozoic time, making possible much improved chronostratigraphy for this time interval. (Asmerom et al., 1991; Hayes et al., ms. in preparation).

Hayes, J.M.; Pratt, L.M. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Knoll, A.H. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Organismal and Evolutionary Biology



Understanding the thermal and tectonic evolution of Marie Byrd Land from a reanalysis of airborne geophysical data in the West Antarctic Rift System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) is a region characterized by a significant topographic range, a complex tectonic history, and active subglacial volcanism. Those elements exert a large influence on the stability of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, which flows within the cradle-shaped rift system and is currently grounded well below sea level. This potentially unstable configuration is the motivation for gaining a better understanding of the ice sheet boundary conditions dictated by rift evolution and how they impact the ice flow. In this study we focus on characterizing the distribution of and transition between sedimentary basins and inferred geothermal heat flux from the flanks to the floor of the rift system. We do so through analysis of gravity data both for sources within the deep lithosphere and near surface targets in the crust. A compilation of gravity datasets over West and Central Antarctica and the analysis thereof is presented. In particular we use gravity data collected during several airborne geophysical surveys: CASERTZ (1994-1997), SOAR/WMB (1997-1998), AGASEA (2004-2005), ICEBRIDGE (2008-2011), and GIMBLE (2012-2013). New processing and data reduction methodologies are applied to the older gravity surveys to improve the high frequency signal content and to make these surveys compatible with modern works (i.e. AGASEA, ICEBRIDGE, GIMBLE). The high frequency signal provides better resolution of small-scale features within survey blocks but long-wavelength integrity is retained by registering the airborne free-air disturbance within those blocks to the gravity disturbance derived from the GOCE global satellite gravity field. This allows for consistent long wavelength interpretation across the merged surveys and provides improved gravity analysis of the deep lithosphere while retaining the capacity to study smaller scale features. A crustal model for the area is produced using the Bouguer anomaly and spectral analyses of the Bouguer anomaly and free-air disturbance. Airy isostatic corrections are applied to the Bouguer anomaly where permissible to set the foundation for the identification and discrimination of sedimentary basins and intrusive/extrusive complexes beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. This analysis also provides a framework for interpreting POLENET seismic studies in the region. Successful integration of the gravity and seismic results will ultimately be necessary for understanding the thermal evolution of Marie Byrd Land and its context within the West Antarctic Rift System.

Quartini, E.; Powell, E. M.; Richter, T.; Damiani, T.; Burris, S. G.; Young, D. A.; Blankenship, D. D.



Controls on (anomalous) topography in rifted margin settings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contrasting end members of volcanic and non-volcanic passive margin formation show a large variability in basin shape and structure, subsidence history, and associated topographic evolution of the onshore rifted margins. The large range of structural style and associated topography of these systems imply a strong variability in the underlying thermo-mechanical conditions at the time of rifting. Rift - passive margin styles ranging from narrow to ultra wide are explained using forward numerical models with varying rheological structure, with strong crust lithosphere leading to narrow rift formation associated with highly elevated rift shoulders and conversely weak crust lithosphere resulting in highly stretched wide rifted conjugate margins and little flank morphology. In some cases rifted margins appear to indicate the formation of anomalous post rift topography. A number of mechanisms including small-scale convective removal of the lower lithosphere, lithosphere counter-flow, and dynamic topography, have been invoked to explain the anomalous topography. Forward numerical models are used to predict the magnitude and characteristic topography associated with each of these mechanisms and to evaluate their potential for explaining these apparent anomalous characteristics of rifts and rifted margins.

Huismans, Ritske S.



An updated global earthquake catalogue for stable continental regions: Reassessing the correlation with ancient rifts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present an updated global earthquake catalogue for stable continental regions (SCRs; i.e. intraplate earthquakes) that is available on the Internet. Our database contains information on location, magnitude, seismic moment and focal mechanisms for over 1300 M (moment magnitude) ??? 4.5 historic and instrumentally recorded crustal events. Using this updated earthquake database in combination with a recently published global catalogue of rifts, we assess the correlation of intraplate seismicity with ancient rifts on a global scale. Each tectonic event is put into one of five categories based on location: (i) interior rifts/taphrogens, (ii) rifted continental margins, (iii) non-rifted crust, (iv) possible interior rifts and (v) possible rifted margins. We find that approximately 27 per cent of all events are classified as interior rifts (i), 25 per cent are rifted continental margins (ii), 36 per cent are within non-rifted crust (iii) and 12 per cent (iv and v) remain uncertain. Thus, over half (52 per cent) of all events are associated with rifted crust, although within the continental interiors (i.e. away from continental margins), non-rifted crust has experienced more earthquakes than interior rifts. No major change in distribution is found if only large (M ??? 6.0) earthquakes are considered. The largest events (M ??? 7.0) however, have occurred predominantly within rifts (50 per cent) and continental margins (43 per cent). Intraplate seismicity is not distributed evenly. Instead several zones of concentrated seismicity seem to exist. This is especially true for interior rifts/taphrogens, where a total of only 12 regions are responsible for 74 per cent of all events and as much as 98 per cent of all seismic moment released in that category. Of the four rifts/taphrogens that have experienced the largest earthquakes, seismicity within the Kutch rift, India, and the East China rift system, may be controlled by diffuse plate boundary deformation more than by the presence of the ancient rifts themselves. The St. Lawrence depression, Canada, besides being an ancient rift, is also the site of a major collisional suture. Thus only at the Reelfoot rift (New Madrid seismic zone, NMSZ, USA), is the presence of features associated with rifting itself the sole candidate for causing seismicity. Our results suggest that on a global scale, the correlation of seismicity within SCRs and ancient rifts has been overestimated in the past. Because the majority of models used to explain intraplate seismicity have focused on seismicity within rifts, we conclude that a shift in attention more towards non-rifted as well as rifted crust is in order. ?? 2005 RAS.

Schulte, S.M.; Mooney, W.D.



Continental breakup and the onset of ultraslow seafloor spreading off Flemish Cap on the Newfoundland rifted margin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prestack depth-migrated seismic reflection data collected off Flemish Cap on the Newfoundland margin show a structure of abruptly thinning continental crust that leads into an oceanic accretion system. Within continental crust, there is no clear evidence for detachment surfaces analogous to the S reflection off the conjugate Galicia Bank margin, demonstrating a first-order asymmetry in final rift development. Anomalously thin

John R. Hopper; Thomas Funck; Brian E. Tucholke; Hans Christian Larsen; W. Steven Holbrook; Keith E. Louden; Donna Shillington; Helen Lau



Trace-element data relevant to the origin of trachytic and pantelleritic lavas in the East African Rift system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determination of the trace-elements Ba, Ce, La, Nb, Rb, Sr and Zr have been made on lavas from six trachytic and pantelleritic volcanoes in the Kenyan and Ethiopian Rifts. Consideration of these data shows that Ce, La, Nb and Zr have behaved as truly residual elements. In the peralkaline suites examined, plotting other chemical parameters against a residual-element such as

S. D. Weaver; J. S. C. Sceal; I. L. Gibson



TerraSAR-X high-resolution radar remote sensing: an operational warning system for Rift Valley fever risk.  


In the vicinity of the Barkedji village (in the Ferlo region of Senegal), the abundance and aggressiveness of the vector mosquitoes for Rift Valley fever (RVF) are strongly linked to rainfall events and associated ponds dynamics. Initially, these results were obtained from spectral analysis of high-resolution (~10 m) Spot-5 images, but, as a part of the French AdaptFVR project, identification of the free water dynamics within ponds was made with the new high-resolution (down to 3-meter pixels), Synthetic Aperture Radar satellite (TerraSAR-X) produced by Infoterra GmbH, Friedrichshafen/Potsdam, Germany. During summer 2008, within a 30 x 50 km radar image, it was found that identified free water fell well within the footprints of ponds localized by optical data (i.e. Spot-5 images), which increased the confidence in this new and complementary remote sensing technique. Moreover, by using near real-time rainfall data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), NASA/JAXA joint mission, the filling-up and flushing-out rates of the ponds can be accurately determined. The latter allows for a precise, spatio-temporal mapping of the zones potentially occupied by mosquitoes capable of revealing the variability of pond surfaces. The risk for RVF infection of gathered bovines and small ruminants (~1 park/km(2)) can thus be assessed. This new operational approach (which is independent of weather conditions) is an important development in the mapping of risk components (i.e. hazards plus vulnerability) related to RVF transmission during the summer monsoon, thus contributing to a RVF early warning system. PMID:21080318

Vignolles, Cécile; Tourre, Yves M; Mora, Oscar; Imanache, Laurent; Lafaye, Murielle



Pristine Rhyolite Glass Melt Inclusions in Quartz Phenocrysts From the 1.1 Ga Midcontinent Rift System, Keweenaw Peninsula, Michigan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pristine rhyolite glass from the Proterozoic eon is rarely reported in the literature. Glass-bearing melt inclusions (MI) have been identified in quartz phenocrysts from rhyolite cobbles found in rift related conglomerates within the Portage Lake Volcanics (PLV) near Calumet, Michigan. The rhyolites represent an aspect of mantle plume related bi-modal magmatism that is contemporaneous with the 1.1 Ga Midcontinent Rift System (MRS). Previous studies classified felsic rocks from the PLV into two types, one that is similar to Icelandic rhyolites (Type I) and another similar to Cenozoic topaz rhyolites (Type II). The MRS rhyolite magmas are thought to have been at high temperatures (900-1100 °C) and low water contents prior to eruption. Low-grade burial metamorphism and hydrothermal alteration has affected some rocks in the region. The MI in this study have been categorized based on their phase assemblages and preservation history. Type 1 MI contain clear glass and a shrinkage bubble, Type 2 contain clear glass, a shrinkage bubble and 1 or more, coarser grained (> 3 um) crystals, and Type 3 MI are totally devitrified or otherwise breached. The MI range in size from 1 to over 200 um in diameter and have a negative hexagonal bi-pyramidal morphology. Major element oxide compositions (75.4-SiO2, 0.09-TiO2, 11.3-Al2O3, 2.2-FeO, 0.04- MnO, 0.06-MgO, 0.84-CaO, 5.9-K2O and 2.85-Na2O in wt %) determined by EPMA for Type 1 MI are similar to whole rock compositions reported for rhyolites in the MRS. The water contents of MI are low, as evidenced by the high totals (98.67 wt %) from the EPMA and the fact that a water peak was not observed during Raman analysis (indicating that the MI contain less than 1 wt % H2O). LA-ICPMS analysis for additional trace elements (Cu, Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Eu, Yb, Ta, Th and U) were preformed on both Type 1 and Type 2 MI. Discrimination based on Ba/Rb and Ba/Th indicate that the MI are most similar to the Type II rhyolites in the region. Cathodoluminescence of quartz phenocrysts reveals several periods of resorption and new quartz growth over what we tentatively interpret as non-magmatic cores. Ti tends to increase rimward from 50-220 ppm in the magmatic growth zones corresponding to a temperature change of 675-850 °C, respectively (using the TitaniQ method with a fixed TiO2 activity equal to 1). If the TiO2 activity were lower (0.6 for example) a temperature change of 730-930 °C would be possible. Magmatic quartz crystallization temperatures may have increased by more than 175 °C from core to rim, presumably due to recharge by hotter magma sometime prior to eruption. Our results indicate that the quartz host protected the chemical integrity of the original melt that had been trapped over 1 billion years ago in select MI. Other factors including the stable tectonic history of the region and the low volatile content of the magma, may have favored the preservation of the rhyolite glass MI. The eruptive style of much of the felsic magmatism in the MRS remains an enigma in part due to a lack of exposure and few constraints on magma volatile contents and eruption temperatures. The MI described here, even those from cobbles, can be important to understanding the role of volatiles, magma chamber evolution, thermal history, and the eruptive styles related to MRS bi-modal magmatism.

Student, J. J.; Wark, D. A.; Mutchler, S. R.; Bodnar, R. J.



Experimental lithium system. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A full-scale mockup of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium system was built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). This isothermal mockup, called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS), was prototypic of FMIT, excluding the accelerator and dump heat exchanger. This 3.8 m/sup 3/ lithium test loop achieved over 16,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including the HEDL-supplied electromagnetic lithium pump, the lithium jet target, the purification and characterization hardware, as well as the auxiliary argon and vacuum systems. Experience with the test loop provided important information on system operation, performance, and reliability. This report presents a complete overview of the entire Experimental Lithium System test program and also includes a summary of such areas as instrumentation, coolant chemistry, vapor/aerosol transport, and corrosion.

Kolowith, R.; Berg, J.D.; Miller, W.C.



Young rift kinematics in the Tadjoura rift, western Gulf of Aden, Republic of Djibouti  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tadjoura rift forms the westernmost edge of the westerly propagating Sheba ridge, between Arabia and Somalia, as it enters into the Afar depression. From structural and remote sensing data sets, the Tadjoura rift is interpreted as an asymmetrical south facing half-graben, about 40 km wide, dominated by a large boundary fault zone to the north. It is partially filled up by the 1-3 Myr old Gulf Basalts which onlapped the older Somali Basalts along its shallower southern flexural margin. The major and trace element analysis of 78 young onshore lavas allows us to distinguish and map four distinct basaltic types, namely the Gulf, Somali, Goumarre, and Hayyabley Basalts. These results, together with radiometric age data, lead us to propose a revised volcano-stratigraphic sketch of the two exposed Tadjoura rift margins and to discriminate and date several distinct fault networks of this oblique rift. Morphological and statistical analyses of onshore extensional fault populations show marked changes in structural styles along-strike, in a direction parallel to the rift axis. These major fault disturbances are assigned to the arrest of axial fault tip propagation against preexisting discontinuities in the NS-oriented Arta transverse zone. According to our model, the sinistral jump of rifting into the Asal-Ghoubbet rift segment results from structural inheritance, in contrast with the en échelon or transform mechanism of propagation that prevailed along the entire length of the Gulf of Aden extensional system.

Daoud, Mohamed A.; Le Gall, Bernard; Maury, René C.; Rolet, JoëL.; Huchon, Philippe; Guillou, Hervé



Inventory Systems Laboratory. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four computer programs to aid students in understanding inventory systems, constructing mathematical inventory models, and developing optimal decision rules are presented. The program series allows a user to set input levels, simulates the behavior of major variables in inventory systems, and provides performance measures as output. Inventory…

Naddor, Eliezer


New Geophysical Results About the Relationship Between the Reelfoot Rift and the Rifted Margin of Laurentia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Reelfoot rift beneath the northern Mississippi embayment is an intracratonic graben system, which formed Early Cambrian time as a result of continental breakup, and has been subsequently reactivated by compressional or tensional stresses related to plate tectonic interactions. It strikes northeastward into the continent, and is approximately perpendicular to the rifted margin of the Laurentia that is shaped by the southeast-striking Alabama-Oklahoma transform fault. The northern section of the rift near the town of New Madrid, Missouri, was the site of three great 1811-1812 earthquakes, and it remains the most seismically active area east of the Rocky Mountains. However, the southern end of the rift is obscure, and the relationship between the Reelfoot rift and the rifted margin of Laurentia remains disputed. We analyzed the gravity and magnetic database for the region using new data enhancement techniques to shed some light on this relationship. We analyzed a large area to assess the regional geological structure. Complete Bouguer gravity data and and total magnetic intensity (TMI) data were assembled and gridded on a regular grid with spacing of 2km, the TMI data were then reduced to the magnetic pole. Then the data were processed with standard techniques to attenuate the high-frequency noise, and we analyzed the regional and residual anomalies. Specially, we calculated the tilt-angle derivatives of the data. We then calculated the directional horizontal derivatives of the tilt-angle derivatives both along and perpendicular to the strike of the rift. The maps of these derivatives clearly delineate the boundaries of the edges of the Reelfoot rift, the leading edge of the Ouachita thrust belt and the margin of Laurentia. The results of the preliminary processing indicate that the southern end of the rift is near the leading edge of the Ouachita thrust belt, which produces a more curvilinear shape for the Laurentian margin than the very linear Alabama-Oklahoma transform fault suggesting its structure is more complex than usually depicted.

Guo, L.; Keller, G. R.



Continental rifting: a planetary perspective  

SciTech Connect

The only inner planet that has abundant evidence of regional extension, and the consequent generation of rifts in the earth. The absence of plate motion on the other inner planets limits their rifts to localized bulges or subsidence areas. The rifting of oceanic lithosphere is seldom preserved in the geological record. Thus, such rifting must be inferred via plate tectonic interpretation: if there is rifting, then there must be subduction whose results are commonly well preserved. Modern continental rifts are found in many tectonic settings: continental breakup, extension transverse to collisional stresses, or wide regions of nearly uniform extension. Recognition of these settings in older rocks becomes more difficult the farther back in geologic time you travel. Rift basin fillings typically show rapid lateral and vertical facies and thickness changes, bimodal volcanism, and distinctive rift-drift sequences. Proterozoic rifts and aulacogens are well-documented in North America; ex. Keweenawan, western margin of Labrador fold belt, Belt-Uinta and the Wopmay-Athapuscow regions. Documented Archean rifts are rare. In Quebec, the truncated margin of the Minto craton bounded on the south by a 2.8 Ga greenstone belt implies an earlier rift event. The oldest proposed rift dated at 3.0 Ga contains the Pongola Supergroup in southeastern Africa. The presence of Archean dikes demonstrates a rigid crust and andesites as old as 3.5 Ga imply plate tectonics and thus, at least, oceanic rifting.

Muehlberger, W.R.



Open System evolution of peralkaline trachyte and phonolite from the Suswa volcano, Kenya rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suswa is the southernmost volcanic center in the Central Kenya Peralkaline Province (CKPP) and represents the only salic center to have erupted significant volumes of peralkaline silica-undersaturated lavas and tuffs (trachyte, nepheline trachyte and phonolite). The eruptive products of Suswa can be clearly divided into two series, which correspond closely to the volcano's eruptive history. The earlier series (C1) includes lavas and tuffs that built the initial shield volcano (pre-caldera, unit S1) and erupted during the first caldera collapse (syn-caldera, units S2-S5); these rocks are dominated by peralkaline, silica-saturated to mildly under-saturated trachyte. The later series (C2) includes lavas and tuffs that erupted within the caldera structure following the initial collapse (post-caldera, units S6-S7) and during the creation of a second smaller, nested caldera and central "island block" (ring trench group, RTG, unit S8); these rocks are dominated by peralkaline phonolite. In this study, we combine mineralogical evidence with the results of major-element, trace-element, and thermodynamic modelling to propose a complex model for the origin of the Suswa volcano. From these results we conclude that C1 is the result of protracted fractional crystallization of a fairly "dry" alkali basalt (< 1 wt.% H2O) under relatively high pressure (400 MPa) and low oxygen fugacity (FMQ to FMQ-1). Although C1 appears to be primarily the result of closed system processes, a variety of open system processes are responsible for C2. We propose that crystallization of C1 trachyte resulted in the formation of a syenitic residue, which was assimilated (Ma/Mc = 0.1) during a later stage of recharge and differentiation of alkali basalt to produce post-caldera ne-trachyte. Post-caldera (S6-7) phonolites were in turn the result of fractional crystallization of this ne-trachyte. RTG phonolites, however, are the result of feldspar resorption prompted perhaps by magma recharge as evidenced by reverse zoning in alkali feldspar and linear compatible trace element patterns.

White, John Charles; Espejel-García, Vanessa V.; Anthony, Elizabeth Y.; Omenda, Peter



Evolution of Oblique Rifting on the Main Ethiopian Rift  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Movie showing the evolution of oblique rifting in analogue models (from Corti, 2008, Nature Geosc). Obliquity in this model is 30° (angle between the normal to the rift axis and the direction of extension). Note the two-phase rift evolution with a first phase of boundary fault activity and basin subsidence, followed by activation of en-echelon arranged internal faults obliquely cutting the rift floor.

Corti, Giacomo


Structural and stratigraphic evolution of the Anza rift, Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Anza rift is a large, multi-phase continental rift basin that links the Lamu embayment of southern Kenya with the South Sudan rifts. Extension and deposition of syn-rift sediments are known to have commenced by the Neocomian. Aptian-Albian strata have, thus far, not been encountered during limited drilling campaigns and, in at least one well, are replaced by a significant unconformity. Widespread rifting occurred during the Cenomanian to Maastrichtian, and continued into the Early Tertiary. Marine waters appear to have reached the central Anza rift in the Cenomanian, and a second marine incursion may have occurred during the Campanian. As no wells have yet reached basement in the basinal deeps, the possibility exists that the Anza rift may have initiated in the Late Jurassic, in conjunction with extension to the south in the Lamu embayment and to the north in the Blue Nile rift of Sudan. Structural and stratigraphic evolution in the Anza rift followed a pattern that has now been inferred in several rift settings. Early phases of extension were accommodated by moderately dipping faults that produced large stratal rotations. Sedimentary environments were dominantly fluvial, with associated small lakes and dune fields. Volcanic activity is documented for the early Neocomian, but its extent is unknown. This initial style of deformation and sedimentation may have continued through several of the earliest pulses of rifting. By the Late Cretaceous, a new system of steeply dipping faults was established, that produced a deep basin without significant rotation of strata in the north, and only minor rotation in the south. This basin geometry favored the establishment of large, deep lakes, which occasionally were connected to the sea. The older basins were partly cannibalized during the sedimentary in-filling of these successor basins. Early Senonian volcanism was encountered in one well, and reflection seismic evidence suggests that one or more thick, regionally extensive igneous sills were intruded, probably during the Early Tertiary. The change in rift style from early, strongly rotational, shallow basins to late, non-rotational, deep basins has been observed in the southern Gulf of Suez/northern Red Sea, the Southwestern Turkana/northern Kenyan rift, and at Anza. It therefore takes place in rifts in variable tectonic settings, with a wide range of volcanic activity and, presumably, with different driving mechanisms. The shift in deposition in each case is away from early rift-bounding faults toward the half-graben flexural margins, further in-board to the upper structural plate. This suggests at least some component of regional simple shear in the deformation history of the rifted lithosphere, either via broad shear zones or at discrete detachment surfaces.

Bosworth, William; Morley, Chris K.



InSAR observations of 2007 Tanzania rifting episode reveal mixed fault and dyke extension in an immature continental rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the early stages of continental rifting, extension takes place by normal faulting, while in mature continental rifts dyke intrusion dominates. Little is known about the nature of the transition between fault-controlled and dyke-controlled extension or about the processes in an intermediate setting. Here, we present observations of the temporal and spatial evolution of surface displacements during the 2007 July 14-August 4 rifting episode in Northern Tanzania, an immature section of the East African Rift. The ground deformation initiated with subsidence that can be attributed to ~40 cm of normal motion on a NE striking fault. Following July 17, deformation was dominated by the intrusion of ~7-km-long dyke. Dyke opening increased gradually to a total of ~2.4 m. From July 21, the collapse of a shallow graben above the fault dominated the near-field displacements. Comparison to the 2007 Dabbahu dyke, Afar, which occurred in a more mature rift, shows an order-of-magnitude scale difference in dyke length. Using numerical models of dyke propagation, we attribute this to the size and depth of the magma chamber; in immature rifts the thick crust and slow spreading rate favour small, deep magma chambers, forming short, buried dykes, whereas in mature rifts the thinner crust and faster spreading rate favour large, shallow magma chambers and long, erupting dykes. Observing the pattern of active processes in the East African Rift is key to understanding the development of rift systems and passive margins elsewhere.

Biggs, Juliet; Amelung, Falk; Gourmelen, Noel; Dixon, Timothy H.; Kim, Sang-Wan



Basement rift control on oil production in eastern Kansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved understanding of the central North American rift system (CNARS) offers a new interpretation of the basement structure in certain parts of the Mid-Continent. In eastern Kansas, basement structure can be shown to control oil production from some producing fields. Structural control includes rotated blocks along faults created by horst and graben tectonics typically associated with rift zones. A distinctive



The midcontinent rift system  

E-print Network

: mostly Keweenawan detritus (Oronto Group and equivalent) anorthosite - Early volcanic flows, - _ sills, dikes_ _ .... - - - - - Prevoleanie sediments ca. 1100 1100 to 1200 OZ Pre... arguments for the existence of two main igenous sequences in the Duluth Complex. The earlier phase involved extensive and efficient melt and crystal segregation to produce rock types with very contrasting mineralogies, such as peridotite, anorthosite...

Van Schmus, W. R.; Hinze, W. J.



Petrogenesis of the Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide-bearing Tamarack Intrusive Complex, Midcontinent Rift System, Minnesota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tamarack Intrusive Complex (TIC, 1105.6 ± 1.2 Ma) in NE Minnesota, was emplaced during the early stages of the development of the Midcontinent Rift System (MRS, "Early Stage": 1110-1106 Ma). Country rocks of the TIC are those of the Paleoproterozoic Thomson Formation, part of the Animikie Group including sulfide-bearing metasedimentary black shale. The magmatic system is composed of at least two principal mafic-ultramafic intrusive sequences: the sulfide-barren Bowl Intrusion in the south and the "dike" area intrusions in the north which host Ni-Cu-Platinum Group Elements (PGE) mineralization with up to 2.33% Ni, 1.24% Cu, 0.34 g/t Pt, 0.23 g/t Pd and 0.18 g/t Au. Two distinct intrusive units in the "dike" area are the CGO (coarse-grained olivine-bearing) Intrusion, a sub-vertical dike-like body, and the overlying sub-horizontal FGO (fine-grained olivine-bearing) Intrusion. Both intrusions comprise peridotite, feldspathic peridotite, feldspathic pyroxenite, melatroctolite and melagabbro. Massive sulfides are volumetrically minor and mainly occur as lenses emplaced into the country rocks associated with both intrusions. Semi-massive (net-textured) sulfides are distributed at the core of the CGO Intrusion, surrounded by a halo of the disseminated sulfides. Disseminated sulfides also occur in lenses along the base of the FGO Intrusion. Olivine compositions in the CGO Intrusion are between Fo89 and Fo82 and in the FGO Intrusion from Fo84 to Fo82. TIC intrusions have more primitive olivine compositions than that of olivine in the sheet-like intrusions in the Duluth Complex (below Fo70), as well as olivine from the smaller, conduit-related, Eagle and East Eagle Intrusions in Northern Michigan (Fo86 to Fo75). The FeO/MgO ratios of the CGO and FGO Intrusion parental magmas, inferred from olivine compositions, are similar to those of picritic basalts erupted during the early stages of the MRS formation. Trace element ratios differ slightly from other intrusions in the MRS, and are indicative of significant crustal contamination. Differences in textures, whole-rock and mineral compositions, and sulfide distribution are consistent with the emplacement of at least two distinct sulfide saturated magmatic pulses. Ni-enrichment in the TIC indicates that sulfide saturation was attained prior to the sequestration of major proportions of Ni by olivine, possibly at a deeper chamber in the magmatic system. The addition of crustal S from the Thomson Formation sulfidic country rocks is thought to have been the principal process which drove the early attainment of sulfide saturation in the magmas. The CGO Intrusion carried the greater abundance of sulfide liquid, but both the CGO and FGO intrusive sequences represent the accumulation of dense silicate minerals and sulfide liquid in a conduit system. The genetic processes that were operative in the formation of Ni-Cu-PGE mineralization in the Tamarack Intrusive Complex appear to be typical of conduit-style magmatic sulfide deposits associated with large continental basaltic provinces.

Taranovic, Valentina; Ripley, Edward M.; Li, Chusi; Rossell, Dean



Structural inheritance, segmentation, and rift localization in the Gulf of Aden oblique rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structural evolution of the Gulf of Aden passive margins was controlled by its oblique divergence kinematics, inherited structures, and the Afar hot spot. The rifting between Arabia and Somalia started at 35 Ma just before the hot spot paroxysm (at 30Ma) and lasted until 18Ma, when oceanic spreading started. Fieldwork suggests that rift parallel normal faults initiated in the (future) distal margins, after a first stage of distributed rifting, and witness the rift localization, as confirmed by 4-layer analogue models. These faults arise either from crust or lithosphere scale buoyancy forces that are strongly controlled by the mantle temperature under the influence of the Afar hot spot. This implies a transition from a distributed mode to a localized one, sharper, both in space and time, in the West (close to the hot spot) than in the East (far away from the hot spot). In this framework, first order transform F.Z. are here (re-) defined by the fact that they deform continental crust. In the Gulf of Aden, as well as in other continental margins, it appears that these F.Z. are often, if not always, located at continental transfer or "transform" fault zones. Our detailed field-study of an offshore transfer fault zone in the southeastern Gulf of Aden (Socotra Island) shows that these structures are long-lived since early rifting until post rift times. During the early rifting, they are inherited structures reactivated as oblique normal faults before accommodating strike-slip motion. During the Ocean-Continent Transition (OCT) formation ("post syn-rift" times), a significant uplift occurred in the transfer fault zone footwall as shown by stratigraphic and LT thermochronology data. Second order transform F.Z. are defined as deforming only the OCT, thus initiated at the moment of its formation. In the western Gulf of Aden, the hot spot provoked a rift localization strongly oblique to the divergence and, as a consequence, several second order transform F.Z. formed (as well as third order ones that initiated after the onset of oceanic spreading). In the East, the second and third order segmentation is less pronounced as both the OCT and ridge segments are sub-perpendicular to the divergence. During post-rift times, plate reorganization led to oceanic propagator development and second/third transform F.Z. migration along with deformation and vertical movements and normal displacement along the first order transform F.Z. Finally, during Quaternary times, the evolving boundary conditions of the Arabian plate probably also induced vertical movements along the margins.

Bellahsen, Nicolas; Leroy, Sylvie; Autin, Julia; d'Acremont, Elia; Razin, Philippe; Husson, Laurent; Pik, Raphael; Watremez, Louise; Baurion, Celine; Beslier, Marie-Odile; Khanbari, Khaled; Ahmed, Abdulhakim



Rapid onset of narrowing and along-strike propagation of an intra-arc rift: The Taupo Rift, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intra-arc active continental rifting occurs within the Taupo Rift in the North Island, New Zealand. Based on geological and geophysical evidence, we show that the Taupo rift has narrowed via inward and eastward migration of faulting (asymmetric narrowing) and propagated southwards along its axis. This evolution has occurred at relatively high rates of ~25 km/Ma (narrowing), ~ 7 to 15 km/Ma (eastward migration), and ~ < 200 to 275 km/Ma (southward propagation; rates only for the last ~ 340 kyr). The initial onshore narrow rift width is likely to be an effect of a narrow propagating rift from offshore. While several process are likely to influence rapid evolution, we propose that the main control on further rapid narrowing appears to be the presence of large heterogeneities in the crust that enable concentration of deformation, such as large magma bodies of the volcanic arc of Hikurangi subduction margin. The presence of these magma bodies localises faulting. Once faulting is localised it propagates along strike from the heterogeneity into non volcanic segments of the rift, which causes generalised narrowing. Temporal and spatial correlation between voluminous volcanic eruptions and major active faulting migration supports this model. Eastward migration of faulting also follows the eastward migration of the volcanic arc and is likely related to slab rollback. Finally, we show that southward propagation of rifting is linked to southward migration of the Hikurangi plateau and occurs episodically aided by voluminous local volcanism. The detailed recent spatial and temporal evolution of continental rifting in the Taupo Rift reveals the early stages of continental break-up and demonstrates fast evolution of rifting when aided by large scale volcanic processes such as rhyolitic supereruptions.

Villamor, P.; Berryman, K. R.; Ellis, S. M.; Schreurs, G.; Wallace, L. M.; Leonard, G.; Langridge, R. M.; Nairn, I. A.



Geochemistry of hypabyssal rocks of the Midcontinent Rift system in Minnesota, and implications for a Keweenawan magmatic ``family tree``  

SciTech Connect

The hypabyssal rocks associated with the Keweenawan (1.1 Ga) Midcontinent Rift along the Minnesota shore of Lake Superior are a distinct suite within the rock associations of this region. These rocks are found predominantly as ophitic diabase dikes and sills of various sizes, ranging from a few meters to several hundred meters across. Chilled margins were sampled and analyzed by neutron activation analysis and microprobe fused-bead techniques for bulk chemistry. Mineral compositions were obtained by electron microprobe. Variations in composition were found that are consistent with fractionation. Major-element modeling of fractionation indicates that the majority of the hypabyssal rocks formed at moderate pressures ({approximately}6 kbar), although a number show evidence of fractionation at near-surface levels, and some deeper ({approximately}10 kbar). Resorption features seen in plagioclase phenocrysts are evidence for magmatic evolution at varying levels in the crust. It is possible to relate the varied hypabyssal rocks to a single primary parent through polybaric fractionation. This parent is a high-Al primitive olivine tholeiite--a magma composition common among the volcanic rocks associated with the Midcontinent Rift. Trace-element modeling with this same parent composition yields results consistent with the formation of some hypabyssal rocks as products of a periodically tapped and replenished, constantly fractionating magma chamber, which can decouple the behavior of major and trace elements.

Jerde, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)



Rift Valley Fever Review  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a disease of animals and humans that occurs in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. A Phlebovirus in the family Bunyaviridae causes the disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes. Epidemics occur during years of unusually heavy rainfall that assessment models are being develo...


Volcanism at Rifts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the nature of catastrophic volcanism and the rifting process. Describes two kinds of evidence: quantitative descriptions of rock melting and a wide range of observations. Discusses examples of continent growth in the North Atlantic, India and the Seychelles islands, and the South Atlantic. (YP)

White, Robert S.; McKenzie, Dan P.



Neotectonics along the Turkana Rift (North Kenya) from river network analysis, remote sensing and reflection seismic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NS-trending Turkana Rift (North Kenya) cuts through a N140^oE transverse depressed zone between the Kenyan and Ethiopian domes. It forms a 200 km-long rift segment of the East African Rift System, centered on the Turkana Lake. In this region, widespread rifting occurred during the Oligocene to Mio-Pliocene and opened large NS-trending hemigrabens imaged by seismics to the West of the Turkana Lake. Because the Turkana rifted zone is a low and poorly contrasted topographic area, it is difficult to draw the trace of the active rift, in contrast with 1) the narrow (20 km-wide) N10^o-trending axial trough forming the Suguta valley to the South, and 2) the Chew Bahir faulted basin to the North. Despite a semi-arid climate, the Turkana area shows a dense and widely-distributed river drainage network dominated by the Turkwell, Kerio and Omo first-order rivers. The entire stream pattern has been extracted from Landsat satellite images and then analyzed in terms of drainage anomalies. Major anomalies have been recognized at various scales and assigned to active tectonics. The direct correlation between surface data and the deep structures imaged on seismics allows to precise the inherited (Oligo-Miocene) or newly-formed origin of the active deformation. Evidence for neotectonics are observed along 1) a large-scale transverse (EW) fault rooting at depth along a steep basement discontinuity (Turkwell), 2) a rift-parallel (NS) fault zone probably emplaced during Plio-Pleistocene and actually bounding the Napedet volcanic plateau to the West, and 3) over a round-shaped uplifted zone caused by inversion tectonics (Kalabata). Structural interpretation of offshore high-resolution seismics from Lake Turkana illustrates the existence of recent deformation and also helps complete the overall neotectonic framework of the Turkana rift zone. Finally, this study leads us to regard the Turkana area as a broad (ca. 100 km wide) zone of diffuse extension where active deformation is partly guided by rejuvenated Oligo-Miocene rift faults and long-lived transverse discontinuities.

Vetel, W.; Le Gall, B.; Tiercelin, J.-J.



DCE Bio Detection System Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The DCE (DNA Capture Element) Bio-Detection System (Biohound) was conceived, designed, built and tested by PNNL under a MIPR for the US Air Force under the technical direction of Dr. Johnathan Kiel and his team at Brooks City Base in San Antonio Texas. The project was directed toward building a measurement device to take advantage of a unique aptamer based assay developed by the Air Force for detecting biological agents. The assay uses narrow band quantum dots fluorophores, high efficiency fluorescence quenchers, magnetic micro-beads beads and selected aptamers to perform high specificity, high sensitivity detection of targeted biological materials in minutes. This final report summarizes and documents the final configuration of the system delivered to the Air Force in December 2008

Lind, Michael A.; Batishko, Charles R.; Morgen, Gerald P.; Owsley, Stanley L.; Dunham, Glen C.; Warner, Marvin G.; Willett, Jesse A.



GPS Surveys to Detect Rift-Related Active Faulting in the Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Transantarctic Mountains Deformation (TAMDEF) network is a relatively dense GPS array deployed on bedrock throughout the Victoria Land region of Antarctica. The network covers nearly a quarter million square kilometers, extending approximately 675 km N-S and 350 km E-W. It spans the uplifted Transantarctic Mountains rift-flank block, the bounding border fault zone, and the offshore Terror Rift, where there is evidence of neotectonic activity. Embedded within this network are three local arrays of GPS sites established around known or suspected Quaternary faults to test for modern displacements. Two of these fault arrays, located in Hidden Valley and on Doorly Ridge, surround mapped faults within the Transantarctic Mountains Front, the border fault zone separating the uplifted Transantarctic Mountains rift flank from the offshore rift basin. The first of these arrays consists of five monuments surrounding a NE-SW trending fault showing left-lateral strike separation and cutting a hanging valley moraine, indicating Quaternary age faulting. The second fault array is located on Doorly ridge, and consists of two monuments placed on either side of a series of NE-SW trending faults showing normal sense displacements of Jurassic and older crystalline rocks. Finally, six monuments surrounding a NE-SW trending fault with normal displacement of bedrock units in Beacon Valley, located in the interior of the Transantarctic Mountain range, comprise the third fault array. These local fault arrays were first surveyed during the 1996-1997 austral summer field season, and all arrays have been surveyed a minimum of three times, including the most recent survey of all networks during the 2005-2006 field season. Analysis of GPS velocities indicates how strain is being accommodated within the interior of the mountain range, helping to resolve questions regarding the degree of modern tectonic activity in the West Antarctic Rift System.

Konfal, S. A.; Wilson, T. J.; Willis, M. J.



The GLIMPCE seismic experiment: Onshore refraction and wide-angle reflection observations from a fan line over the Lake Superior Midcontinent Rift System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1986 GLIMPCE experiment (Great Lakes International Multidisciplinary Program for Crustal Evolution) was a combined on-ship seismic reflection and onshore seismic refraction experiment designed to determine the structure of the crust beneath the Great Lakes. The main tectonic targets of interest were the Midcontinent Rift System, the Grenville Front, the Penokean and Huronian Fold Belts and the Michipicoten Greenstone Belt. The source of the seismic energy came from a large air gun array fired at closely spaced intervals (50-350 m) over several long lines (150-350 km) crossing the lakes. Major participants of this experiment were the Geological Survey of Canada, the United States Geological Survey and a number of universities and research institutes on both sides of the border. The University of Western Ontario (UWO) collected data at five separate land stations using portable seismic refraction instruments. In this paper we present the results of a fan profile which was recorded from a UWO station on Michipicoten Island for the N-S line A which crossed the axis of the Lake Superior Synclinal Basin. The azimuth and distance ranges for this profile were 237 to 321 degrees and 120 to 170 km respectively. Detailed observations of the record sections show that p. is not a simple arrival but forms a rather complex pattern of irregular multiple arrivals. The wide-angle PmP reflection signals from the Moho are strong and well obilerved only for the shots fired near the ends of the line. The signals from the middle of the profile arrive relatively late and form very weak complex wave trains. These results indicate that the Moho in that area is probably greatly disrupted and gives added support to the rift theory for the structure under the lake. The observations also support the results of earlier crustal studies of Lake Superior which showed that the crust under the eastern part of the lake was exceedingly thick.

Epili, Duryodhan; Mereu, Robert F.


Evolution, distribution, and characteristics of rifting in southern Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ethiopia is a key region to understand the evolution of the East African rift system, since it is the area of interaction between the main Ethiopian rift (MER) and the Kenyan rift. However, geological data constraining rift evolution in this remote area are still relatively sparse. In this study the timing, distribution, and style of rifting in southern Ethiopia are constrained by new structural, geochronological, and geomorphological data. The border faults in the area are roughly parallel to preexisting basement fabrics and are progressively more oblique with respect to the regional Nubia-Somalia motion proceeding southward. Kinematic indicators along these faults are mainly dip slip, pointing to a progressive rotation of the computed direction of extension toward the south. Radiocarbon data indicate post 30 ka faulting at both western and eastern margins of the MER with limited axial deformation. Similarly, geomorphological data suggest recent fault activity along the western margins of the basins composing the Gofa Province and in the Chew Bahir basin. This supports that interaction between the MER and the Kenyan rift in southern Ethiopia occurs in a 200 km wide zone of ongoing deformation. Fault-related exhumation at ~10-12 Ma in the Gofa Province, as constrained by new apatite fission track data, occurred later than the ~20 Ma basement exhumation of the Chew Bahir basin, thus pointing to a northward propagation of the Kenyan rift-related extension in the area.

Philippon, Melody; Corti, Giacomo; Sani, Federico; Bonini, Marco; Balestrieri, Maria-Laura; Molin, Paola; Willingshofer, Ernst; Sokoutis, Dimitrios; Cloetingh, Sierd



Uplift, rifting and related geomorphological evolution of the Ethiopian volcanic province: what do we really know ? (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The East African Rift System (EARS) is particularly famous because sediments trapped in some of the rift depressions have recorded a major piece of the late Cenozoic mammalian and hominin evolution, as well as associated proxies of climate and environmental changes. The present day landscape along the EARS is spectacular and characterized by axial rift valleys surrounded by variously extended

R. Pik; D. Ayalew; G. Yirgu



The eastern arm of the Midcontinent Rift: Progress and problems  

SciTech Connect

The extent and nature of the Midcontinent Rift System (MCR) was initially determined by potential-field mapping and extrapolation of geologic information from the Lake Superior region. Early interpretation suggested a rift origin which is well supported by deep crustal reflection seismic data and isotopic evidence from the related volcanic rocks that became available during the past decade. A rift origin of the eastern arm of the MCR was corroborated by sub-Phanerozoic drilling into the clastic sediment and volcanic rocks in the McClure-Sparks drill hole located on a massive anticlinal feature in the Precambrian rocks mapped by seismic reflection data. Subsequent seismic profiling further detailed the character of the rift. However, these studies also indicate that the eastern arm is unlike the western, e.g., adjacent clastic rock basins are absent, late-stage compressional features are present, but definite evidence for high-angle reverse faulting is missing, and volcanic basins are not continuous. The termination of this arm of the rift also remains problematic. There is no direct evidence of the rift SE of the McClure-Sparks hole in central Michigan. Geophysical anomalies and deep drilling in the Howell anticline region suggest that the 1,100 Ma old rift is covered by Grenville-age thrusts. If the rift extends farther to the SE, its nature must have been altered by the Grenville orogeny. The hypothesized extension across Ohio east of the Grenville Front is unsupported by seismic reflection profiling and anomaly modeling. Grabens identified at the basement surface in Ohio and to the south are of unknown age, but appear to be more clearly related to late-stage Grenville activity and/or continuation of Eocambrian rifts of the Mississippi Embayment.

Hinze, W.J. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences)



Lithospheric modification during crustal extension in the Main Ethiopian Rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quaternary lavas erupted in zones of tectonomagmatic extension within the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) preserve details of lithospheric structure in the East African Rift System. Despite observed source heterogeneity, basalts, trachybasalts, and basaltic trachyandesites erupted in the Wonjii Fault Belt (WFB) and the Silti-Debre Zeyit Fault Zone (SDFZ) form coherent fractionation paths dominated by variable removal of observed phenocryst phases. Crustal assimilation is not widespread, though it is observed at the southern end of the WFB where both fault belts merge; farther north, assimilation of cumulate phases related to fractional crystallization of previous magmas is identified. Shallow fractionation conditions (˜1 kbar) within the WFB do not change from north to south. In contrast, lavas erupted within the contemporaneous SDFZ fractionate at various crustal depths. These results indicate a better developed magmatic system beneath the WFB where magmas rose quickly before undergoing more significant fractionation at near surface levels and a less developed system beneath the SDFZ. The distribution of magmatism and extant geophysical data indicate thinned crust and a single rift-centered zone of magmatic activity northeast of 8°30'N, consistent with a transitional lithosphere between continental and oceanic settings. Southwest of 8°30'N, thicker crust and rift-marginal axes of extension suggest lithosphere with continental affinities. The WFB is propagating southward in response to extension within the Red Sea Rift; the northward propagating SDFZ is related to rifting within the East African Rift System. This region records the unification of two rift systems, requiring care in interpreting the MER as simply transitional between continental and oceanic environments.

Rooney, Tyrone; Furman, Tanya; Bastow, Ian; Ayalew, Dereje; Yirgu, Gezahegn



Rifts in Spreading Wax Layers  

E-print Network

We report experimental results on the rift formation between two freezing wax plates. The plates were pulled apart with constant velocity, while floating on the melt, in a way akin to the tectonic plates of the earth's crust. At slow spreading rates, a rift, initially perpendicular to the spreading direction, was found to be stable, while above a critical spreading rate a "spiky" rift with fracture zones almost parallel to the spreading direction developed. At yet higher spreading rates a second transition from the spiky rift to a zig-zag pattern occurred. In this regime the rift can be characterized by a single angle which was found to be dependent on the spreading rate. We show that the oblique spreading angles agree with a simple geometrical model. The coarsening of the zig-zag pattern over time and the three-dimensional structure of the solidified crust are also discussed.

Rolf Ragnarsson; J. Lewis Ford; Christian D. Santangelo; Eberhard Bodenschatz



Neutronic calculations for a final focus system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For heavy-ion fusion and for "liquid-protected" reactor designs such as HYLIFE-II (Moir et al., Fusion Technol. 25 (1994); HYLIFE-II-Progress Report, UCID-21816, 4-82-100), a mixture of molten salts made of F 10, Li 6, Li 7, Be 9 called flibe allows highly compact target chambers. Smaller chambers will have lower costs and will allow the final-focus magnets to be closer to the target with decreased size of the focus spot and of the driver, as well as drastically reduced costs of IFE electricity. Consequently the superconducting coils of the magnets closer to the chamber will suffer higher radiation damage though they can stand only a certain amount of energy deposited before quenching. The scope of our calculations is essentially the total energy deposited on the magnetic lens system by fusion neutrons and induced ?-rays. Such a study is important for the design of the final focus system itself from the neutronic point of view and indicates some guidelines for a design with six magnets in the beam line. The entire chamber consists of 192 beam lines to provide access of heavy ions that will implode the pellet. A 3-D transport calculation of the radiation penetrating through ducts that takes into account the complexity of the system, requires Monte Carlo methods. The development of efficient and precise models for geometric representation and nuclear analysis is necessary. The parameters are optimized thanks to an accurate analysis of six geometrical models that are developed starting from the simplest. Different configurations are examined employing TART 98 (D.E. Cullen, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, UCRL-ID-126455, Rev. 1, November, 1997) and MCNP 4B (Briesmeister (Ed.), Version 4B, La-12625-m, March 1997, Los Alamos National Laboratory): two Monte Carlo codes for neutrons and photons. The quantities analyzed include: energy deposited by neutrons and gamma photons, values of the total fluence integrated on the whole energy range, neutron fluence spectrum, total path length of neutrons in energy, neutron mean free path versus energy. The results of the two codes turned out to be in good agreement with each other for different zones and configurations of the system. The source restriction technique gives reliable results as it is proved comparing re-normalized results with results obtained with a 4? source and with sources emitting with different set of solid angles. For this reason, this technique is used in all the six models avoiding other variance reduction techniques. Finally, solutions are suggested for optimizing the system from the neutronic point of view, with respect to both relative position of the magnets and choice of shielding materials.

Mainardi, E.; Premuda, F.; Lee, E.



Low lower crustal velocity across Ethiopia: Is the Main Ethiopian Rift a narrow rift in a hot craton?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

[1] The Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) is a classic narrow rift that developed in hot, weak lithosphere, not in the initially cold, thick, and strong lithosphere that would be predicted by common models of rift mode formation. Our new 1-D seismic velocity profiles from Rayleigh wave/receiver function joint inversion across the MER and the Ethiopian Plateau indicate that hot lower crust and upper mantle are present throughout the broad region affected by Oligocene flood basalt volcanism, including both the present rift and the adjacent Ethiopian Plateau hundreds of kilometers from the rift valley. The region of hot lithosphere closely corresponds to the region of flood basalt volcanism, and we interpret that the volcanism and thermal perturbation were jointly caused by impingement of the Afar plume head. Across the affected region, Vs is 3.6-3.8 km/s in the lowermost crust and ???4.3 km/s in the uppermost mantle, both ??0.3 km/s lower than in the eastern and western branches of the East African Rift System to the south. We interpret the low Vs in the lower crust and upper mantle as indicative of hot lithosphere with partial melt. Our results lead to a hybrid rift mode, in which the brittle upper crust has developed as a narrow rift along the Neoproterozoic suture between East and West Gondwana, while at depth lithospheric deformation is distributed over the broad region (??400 km wide) thermally perturbed by the broad thermal upwelling associated with the Afar plume head. Development of both the East African Rift System to the south (in cold, strong lithosphere) and the MER to the north (in hot, weak lithosphere) as narrow rifts, despite their vastly different initial thermal states and depth-integrated lithospheric strength, indicates that common models of rift mode formation that focus only on temperature, thickness, and vertical strength profiles do not apply to these classic continental rifts. Instead, inherited structure and associated lithospheric weaknesses are the primary control on the mode of extension. ?? 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

Keranen, K.M.; Klemperer, S.L.; Julia, J.; Lawrence, J. F.; Nyblade, A.A.



Plate-Tectonic Setting of the Mid-Continent Rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1.1 Ga Mid-Continent Rift (MCR) in North America is often viewed as formed by isolated midplate volcanism and extension. An alternative view is suggested by analogy with younger and morphologically similar rift systems, whose plate tectonic settings are more easily understood because their surroundings - including seafloor with magnetic anomalies - have not been deformed or destroyed by subsequent collisions and rifting events. The West and Central African rifts (WCAR), a failed rift system, formed as part of the Early Cretaceous regional extension during the separation of Africa and South America. Once seafloor spreading was established along the entire margin, extension soon stopped within Africa, leaving a failed rift. Shortly afterwards, ~85-80 Ma, motion reversed on some of the normal faults of the WCAR, probably associated with compression due to the collision of Africa with Europe. While it was active, the MCR likely resembled the present East African rift system, which has been extending for about the last 30 my, with one end in the Gulf of Aden and Red Sea having largely evolved to seafloor spreading, while the other has diffuse continental extension. Thus rather than viewing the MCR as an isolated, failed, extensional zone within a stable continent, it may have been part of a larger rift system formed during a short extensional phase within the ~1.3-~0.98 Ga Grenville orogeny, perhaps extending eastward of the Grenville Front. This extensional phase would have ended on the MCR before the continental collisions that produced the Grenville front, the most inland Grenville deformation. Later reverse faulting on the MCR normal faults due to compression, perhaps from collisions around Rodina's margins, would not be unexpected because the MCR would be a relatively weak intraplate zone due to higher crustal temperatures and faults. This reactivation might be similar to the Paleozoic deformation in the central US due to the collisions at the margins of North America.

Stein, C. A.; Stein, S. A.; Merino, M.; Keller, R. G.; Flesch, L. M.



Structure of the central Terror Rift, western Ross Sea, Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Terror Rift is a zone of post-middle Miocene faulting and volcanism along the western margin of the West Antarctic Rift System. A new seismic data set from NSF geophysical cruise NBP04-01, integrated with the previous dataset to provide higher spatial resolution, has been interpreted in this study in order to improve understanding of the architecture and history of the

Jerome Hall; Terry Wilson; Stuart Henrys



Hydrothermal flow systems in the Midcontinent Rift: Oxygen and hydrogen isotopic studies of the North Shore Volcanic Group and related hypabyssal sills, Minnesota  

SciTech Connect

Rift-related lavas of the North Shore Volcanic Group (NSVG) are intruded by plutonic rocks of the Duluth Complex along the unconformity between the NSVG and the underlying Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks (Animikie Group) and Archean volcano-sedimentary and plutonic rocks. Heat associated with the emplacement of the mafic intrusions generated fluid flow in the overlying plateau lavas. {delta}{sup 18}O values for whole rocks from the NSVG and hypabyssal sills range from 5.5 to 17.7{per_thousand} and 5.3 to 11.5{per_thousand}, respectively, and most values are higher than those considered normal for basaltic rocks (5.4 to 6.0{per_thousand}). In general, there is a positive correlation between whole rock {delta}{sup 18}O and water content, which suggests that elevated {delta}{sup 18}O values are related primarily to secondary mineral growth and isotopic exchange during hydrothermal alteration and metamorphism. {delta}{sup 18}O{sub H{sub 2}O} values computed from amygdule-filling minerals such as smectite, chlorite, and epidote found in low- to high-temperature metamorphic zones range from {approximately}{minus}1 to 6{per_thousand} with an average value of {approximately}3{per_thousand}. Smectite in the lower-grade zones gives computed {delta}D{sub H{sub 2}O} values between {minus}26 and {minus}83{per_thousand}, whereas epidote in the higher-grade zones gives {delta}D{sub H{sub 2}O} values of {minus}15 to 6{per_thousand}. Fluid isotopic compositions computed from epidote and smectite values are suggestive of the involvement of at least two fluids during the early stages of amygdule filling. Fluid {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O values determined from epidote at the higher metamorphic grades indicate that seawater dominated the deeper portions of the system where greenschist facies assemblages and elevated {delta}{sup 18}O values were produced in flow interiors, as well as margins. Smectite isotopic compositions suggest that meteoric water was predominant in the shallower portions of the system. The increase in {delta}{sup 18}O values of massive flow interiors with depth is interpreted as a result of rock interaction with a fluid of constant oxygen isotopic composition with increasing temperature. The stable isotopic data are supportive of previous suggestions that seawater was involved in the hydrothermal system associated with the Midcontinent Rift. Although the origin of the seawater remains problematic, it appears that marine incursions may have occurred during the late stages of Portage Lake volcanism, and periodically thereafter.

Park, Y.R.; Ripley, E.M. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences] [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences



Surface analogue outcrops of deep fractured basement reservoirs in extensional geological settings. Examples within active rift system (Uganda) and proximal passive margin (Morocco).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The important role of extensive brittle faults and related structures in the development of reservoirs has already been demonstrated, notably in initially low-porosity rocks such as basement rocks. Large varieties of deep-seated resources (e.g. water, hydrocarbons, geothermal energy) are recognized in fractured basement reservoirs. Brittle faults and fracture networks can develop sufficient volumes to allow storage and transfer of large amounts of fluids. Development of hydraulic model with dual-porosity implies the structural and petrophysical characterization of the basement. Drain porosity is located within the larger fault zones, which are the main fluid transfer channels. The storage porosity corresponds both to the matrix porosity and to the volume produced by the different fractures networks (e.g. tectonic, primary), which affect the whole reservoir rocks. Multi-scale genetic and geometric relationships between these deformation features support different orders of structural domains in a reservoir, from several tens of kilometers to few tens of meters. In subsurface, 3D seismic data in basement can be sufficient to characterize the largest first order of structural domains and bounding fault zones (thickness, main orientation, internal architecture, …). However, lower order structural blocks and fracture networks are harder to define. The only available data are 1D borehole electric imaging and are used to characterize the lowest order. Analog outcrop studies of basement rocks fill up this resolution gap and help the understanding of brittle deformation, definition of reservoir geometries and acquirement of reservoir properties. These geological outcrop studies give information about structural blocks of second and third order, getting close to the field scale. This allows to understand relationships between brittle structures geometry and factors controlling their development, such as the structural inheritance or the lithology (e.g. schistosity, primary structures). Two field cases, located in Morocco and Uganda, allow us to investigate basement complexes at different stages of an extension process and give us analog geological data of similar fractured basement reservoirs. Border faults and associated fracture networks of an active rifting system propagated in Proterozoic basement rocks are analyzed in the Albertine rift system in Uganda. Brittle structures developed along a proximal passive margin of the Atlantic domain are analyzed in Proterozoic basements rocks in Western Anti-Atlas in Morocco.

Walter, Bastien; Géraud, Yves; Diraison, Marc



Final design development of silicone southwall glazing system. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This cooperative solar project was undertaken to design, fabricate and test a southwall glazing system based on a flexible silicone glazing. In addition, preliminary cost, performance and market development guidelines were established. A specific silicone glazing was selected and was shown to have a solar transmission of 88%, tensile strength of greater than 50 Newtons/cm, estimated durability greater than 20 years, and to meet an industry standard flame test. A unique and simple film tensioning device was developed by the Architects Taos under contract to maintain the flexible glazing in a taunt condition over its long life without wind flutter and resulting potential damage. The selected silicone glazing was evaluated by using two southwall glazing systems: on passive test chambers and on a concrete block wall of a Dow Corning warehouse building. The evaluation was conducted at Dow Corning Midland, Michigan facilities (43.4/sup 0/N latitude) from April 1981 to March 1982. The data obtained showed that the silicone southwall glazing system using a selective adsorber on a vented concrete block wall provided over 750 MJ/m/sup 2/ of thermal energy during a winter heating system. One experiment demonstrated the performance and ease of installation of the tensioning device developed by this project. Preliminary cost estimates indicate the southwall glazing system with a selective adsorber could be installed for about $55/m/sup 2/ ($5/ft/sup 2/); with a flat black (non-selective adsorber) the installed cost is estimated to be about $40//m/sup 2/ ($4/ft/sup 2/). Prorated over a minimum ten year life, with a capital recovery factor of 0.20, this system would be cost competitive for fuel displacement with $8.00/GJ ($8.44/M Btu) heating energy when vertical wall insolation exceeds 2.5 GJ/m/sup 2/ (0.22 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ft/sup 2/) for a heating season.

Vanwert, B.; Currin, C.; Mingenbach, W.



A model for Iapetan rifting of Laurentia based on Neoproterozoic dikes and related rocks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geologic evidence of the Neoproterozoic rifting of Laurentia during breakup of Rodinia is recorded in basement massifs of the cratonic margin by dike swarms, volcanic and plutonic rocks, and rift-related clastic sedimentary sequences. The spatial and temporal distribution of these geologic features varies both within and between the massifs but preserves evidence concerning the timing and nature of rifting. The most salient features include: (1) a rift-related magmatic event recorded in the French Broad massif and the southern and central Shenandoah massif that is distinctly older than that recorded in the northern Shenandoah massif and northward; (2) felsic volcanic centers at the north ends of both French Broad and Shenandoah massifs accompanied by dike swarms; (3) differences in volume between massifs of cover-sequence volcanic rocks and rift-related clastic rocks; and (4) WNW orientation of the Grenville dike swarm in contrast to the predominately NE orientation of other Neoproterozoic dikes. Previously proposed rifting mechanisms to explain these features include rift-transform and plume–triple-junction systems. The rift-transform system best explains features 1, 2, and 3, listed here, and we propose that it represents the dominant rifting mechanism for most of the Laurentian margin. To explain feature 4, as well as magmatic ages and geochemical trends in the Northern Appalachians, we propose that a plume–triple-junction system evolved into the rift-transform system. A ca. 600 Ma mantle plume centered east of the Sutton Mountains generated the radial dike swarm of the Adirondack massif and the Grenville dike swarm, and a collocated triple junction generated the northern part of the rift-transform system. An eastern branch of this system produced the Long Range dike swarm in Newfoundland, and a subsequent western branch produced the ca. 554 Ma Tibbit Hill volcanics and the ca. 550 Ma rift-related magmatism of Newfoundland.

Burton, William C.; Southworth, Scott



Pre-Neogene controls on present-day fault activity in the West Netherlands Basin and Roer Valley Rift System (southern Netherlands): role of variations in fault orientation in a uniform low-stress regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

The West Netherlands Basin (WNB) and the neighbouring Roer Valley Rift System (RVRS) form the most prominent tectonic features of the onshore Netherlands. The two basins have a common tectonic origin and similar Mesozoic evolution, their Neogene–Quaternary evolution, however, is markedly different. While the WNB is tectonically\\/seismically inactive and is characterised by uniform Neogene–Quaternary subsidence, in the RVRS fault controlled

Geza Worum; Laurent Michon; Ronald T. van Balen; Jan-Diederik van Wees; Sierd Cloetingh; Henk Pagnier



Response of groundwater systems in the Dead Sea Rift Valley to the Nuweiba earthquake: Changes in head, water chemistry, and near-surface effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nuweiba earthquake (Mw = 7.1) of November 1995 had significant effects on groundwater heads, spring discharge, and chemistry in the Dead Sea Rift Valley. Groundwater heads increased by 6 cm near the Dead Sea (local shallow alluvial aquifer) and by 50 cm near the sea of Galilee (regional deep confined aquifer), some 330 and 460 km north of the epicenter, respectively. In the arid central Arava valley, some 210 km north of the epicenter, the discharge of small springs increased significantly. The increase in spring discharge, as recorded in Moa spring, was accompanied by a marked change in its chemistry. However, while the change in discharge followed the earthquake, the chemistry change was found some 16 days before the earthquake. The effect of the earthquake in Moa was enhanced and prolonged because of a breach in the confinement system of the shallow artesian aquifer and the formation of new flow paths along faults, cracks, and dikes. Due to the extreme aridity of the region, the sequence above the aquifer is loaded with soluble salts. Dissolution of these salts by the ascending groundwater accounts for the observed increase in salinity and changes in the spring chemistry with time. Initially, the ascending water flushed the newly formed flow paths, gradually leaching the available soluble salts. Later, as discharge shrank, upward flow was maintained within the already flushed system, and the water chemistry returned to the original aquifer composition.

Yechieli, Yoseph; Bein, Amos



Fault evolution in the Potiguar rift termination, Equatorial margin of Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transform shearing between South American and African plates in the Cretaceous generated a series of sedimentary basins on both plate margins. In this study, we use gravity, aeromagnetic, and resistivity surveys to identify fault architecture and to analyse the evolution of the eastern Equatorial margin of Brazil. Our study area is the southern onshore termination of the Potiguar rift, which is an aborted NE-trending rift arm developed during the breakup of Pangea. The Potiguar rift is a Neocomian structure located in the intersection of the Equatorial and western South Atlantic and is composed of a series of NE-trending horsts and grabens. This study reveals new grabens in the Potiguar rift and indicates that stretching in the southern rift termination created a WNW-trending, 10 km wide and ~40 km long right-lateral strike-slip fault zone. This zone encompasses at least eight depocenters, which are bounded by a left-stepping, en-echelon system of NW- to EW-striking normal faults. These depocenters form grabens up to 1200 m deep with a rhomb-shaped geometry, which are filled with rift sedimentary units and capped by post-rift sedimentary sequences. The evolution of the rift termination is consistent with the right-lateral shearing of the Equatorial margin in the Cretaceous and occurs not only at the rift termination, but also as isolated structures away from the main rift.

de Castro, D. L.; Bezerra, F. H. R.



Longitudinal strike-slip faults in oceanic rifting: a mesostructural study from western to southeastern Iceland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesostructural analysis carried out in several localities of western, southern-central and southeastern Iceland shows an unexpectedly frequent occurrence of strike-slip faults parallel to, or lying at relatively small angles with, the axis of rifting. Some faults can be interpreted in terms of shear parallel to the rifts, whereas others form conjugate systems referable to rift-parallel compression. Axial shear can be explained by the accommodation of differences in the directions of tectonic extension between different segments of the axial rift system and subordinately by lateral (rift-parallel) displacements between the major lithospheric plates. Axial compression may be attributable to rift-oblique transform shear or to mantle transport parallel to the spreading axis compensating local deficiencies in mantle upwelling. The data regard 1974 fault surfaces, mainly small-scale.

Passerini, P.; Marcucci, M.; Sguazzoni, G.; Pecchioni, E.



Multi-Point Combustion System: Final Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low-NOx emission combustor concept has been developed for NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aircraft (ERA) program to meet N+2 emissions goals for a 70,000 lb thrust engine application. These goals include 75 percent reduction of LTO NOx from CAEP6 standards without increasing CO, UHC, or smoke from that of current state of the art. An additional key factor in this work is to improve lean combustion stability over that of previous work performed on similar technology in the early 2000s. The purpose of this paper is to present the final report for the NASA contract. This work included the design, analysis, and test of a multi-point combustion system. All design work was based on the results of Computational Fluid Dynamics modeling with the end results tested on a medium pressure combustion rig at the UC and a medium pressure combustion rig at GRC. The theories behind the designs, results of analysis, and experimental test data will be discussed in this report. The combustion system consists of five radially staged rows of injectors, where ten small scale injectors are used in place of a single traditional nozzle. Major accomplishments of the current work include the design of a Multipoint Lean Direct Injection (MLDI) array and associated air blast and pilot fuel injectors, which is expected to meet or exceed the goal of a 75 percent reduction in LTO NOx from CAEP6 standards. This design incorporates a reduced number of injectors over previous multipoint designs, simplified and lightweight components, and a very compact combustor section. Additional outcomes of the program are validation that the design of these combustion systems can be aided by the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict and reduce emissions. Furthermore, the staging of fuel through the individually controlled radially staged injector rows successfully demonstrated improved low power operability as well as improvements in emissions over previous multipoint designs. Additional comparison between Jet- A fuel and a hydrotreated biofuel is made to determine viability of the technology for use with alternative fuels. Finally, the operability of the array and associated nozzles proved to be very stable without requiring additional active or passive control systems. A number of publications have been publish

Goeke, Jerry; Pack, Spencer; Zink, Gregory; Ryon, Jason



3D object-oriented image analysis in 3D geophysical modelling: Analysing the central part of the East African Rift System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-uniqueness of satellite gravity interpretation has traditionally been reduced by using a priori information from seismic tomography models. This reduction in the non-uniqueness has been based on velocity-density conversion formulas or user interpretation of the 3D subsurface structures (objects) based on the seismic tomography models and then forward modelling these objects. However, this form of object-based approach has been done without a standardized methodology on how to extract the subsurface structures from the 3D models. In this research, a 3D object-oriented image analysis (3D OOA) approach was implemented to extract the 3D subsurface structures from geophysical data. The approach was applied on a 3D shear wave seismic tomography model of the central part of the East African Rift System. Subsequently, the extracted 3D objects from the tomography model were reconstructed in the 3D interactive modelling environment IGMAS+, and their density contrast values were calculated using an object-based inversion technique to calculate the forward signal of the objects and compare it with the measured satellite gravity. Thus, a new object-based approach was implemented to interpret and extract the 3D subsurface objects from 3D geophysical data. We also introduce a new approach to constrain the interpretation of the satellite gravity measurements that can be applied using any 3D geophysical model.

Fadel, I.; van der Meijde, M.; Kerle, N.; Lauritsen, N.



Common Host-Derived Chemicals Increase Catches of Disease-Transmitting Mosquitoes and Can Improve Early Warning Systems for Rift Valley Fever Virus  

PubMed Central

Rift Valley fever (RVF), a mosquito-borne zoonosis, is a major public health and veterinary problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Surveillance to monitor mosquito populations during the inter-epidemic period (IEP) and viral activity in these vectors is critical to informing public health decisions for early warning and control of the disease. Using a combination of field bioassays, electrophysiological and chemical analyses we demonstrated that skin-derived aldehydes (heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal) common to RVF virus (RVFV) hosts including sheep, cow, donkey, goat and human serve as potent attractants for RVFV mosquito vectors. Furthermore, a blend formulated from the four aldehydes and combined with CO2-baited CDC trap without a light bulb doubled to tripled trap captures compared to control traps baited with CO2 alone. Our results reveal that (a) because of the commonality of the host chemical signature required for attraction, the host-vector interaction appears to favor the mosquito vector allowing it to find and opportunistically feed on a wide range of mammalian hosts of the disease, and (b) the sensitivity, specificity and superiority of this trapping system offers the potential for its wider use in surveillance programs for RVFV mosquito vectors especially during the IEP. PMID:23326620

Tchouassi, David P.; Sang, Rosemary; Sole, Catherine L.; Bastos, Armanda D. S.; Teal, Peter E. A.; Borgemeister, Christian; Torto, Baldwyn



The continent-ocean transition of the rifted South China continental margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continent to ocean transition (COT) architecture of rifted margins represents a key aspect in the study of the variability of different rifting systems and thus, to understand lithospheric extension and final break-up processes. We used 2250 km of reprocessed multichannel seismic data along 4 regional lines and magnetic data acquired across the NW South China continental margin to investigate a previously poorly defined COT. The along-strike structure of the NW subbasin of the South China Sea presents different amounts of extension allowing the study of conjugate pairs of continental margins and their COT in a relative small region. The time-migrated seismic sections allow us to interpreted clear continental and oceanic domains from differences in internal reflectivity, faulting style, fault-block geometry, the seismic character of the top of the basement, the geometry of sediment deposits, and Moho reflections. The continental domain is characterized by arrays of normal faults and associated tilted blocks overlaid by syn-rift sedimentary units. The Moho is imaged as sub-horizontal reflections that define a fairly continuous boundary typically at 8-10 s TWT. Estimation of the thickness of the continental crust using 6 km/s average velocity indicates a ~22 km-thick continental crust under the uppermost slope thinning abruptly to ~9-6 km under the lower slope. The oceanic crust has a comparatively highly reflective top of basement, little-faulting, not discernible syn-tectonic strata, and fairly constant thickness (4-8 km) over tens of km distance defined by usually clear Moho reflections. The COT can be very well defined based on MSC images and occurs across a ~5-10 km narrow zone. Rifting in the NW subbasin resulted in asymmetric conjugate margins. Arrays of tilted fault blocks covered by abundant syn-rift sediment are displayed across the northwestern South China continental margin, whereas the conjugate Macclesfield Bank margin shows abrupt thinning and little faulting. Seismic profiles also show a clear change in the tectonic structure of the margin from NE to SW. On the two NE-most lines, the abrupt crustal thinning occurs over a 20-40 km wide area resulting in final breakup. To the SW, the area of stretched continental crust extends over a comparatively broader ~100-110 km segment of tilted fault-blocks. We interpret that the 3D structural variability and the narrow COT is related to the lateral NE to SW propagation of a spreading center. The early spreading center propagation in the NE suddenly stopped continental stretching during ongoing rifting, causing an abrupt break-up and a narrow COT. Later arrival of spreading center to the SW resulted in a comparatively broader segment of highly stretched continental crust. We suggest that the final structure of the northwest South China continental margin have been governed by the 3D interaction between rifting and oceanic spreading center propagation to a degree larger than by the local lithospheric structure during rifting.

Cameselle, Alejandra L.; Ranero, César R.; Franke, Dieter; Barckhausen, Udo



Using of Remote Sensing Techniques for Monitoring the Earthquakes Activities Along the Northern Part of the Syrian Rift System (LEFT-LATERAL),SYRIA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake mitigation can be achieved with a better knowledge of a region's infra-and substructures. High resolution Remote Sensing data can play a significant role to implement Geological mapping and it is essential to learn about the tectonic setting of a region. It is an effective method to identify active faults from different sources of Remote Sensing and compare the capability of some satellite sensors in active faults survey. In this paper, it was discussed a few digital image processing approaches to be used for enhancement and feature extraction related to faults. Those methods include band ratio, filtering and texture statistics . The experimental results show that multi-spectral images have great potentials in large scale active faults investigation. It has also got satisfied results when deal with invisible faults. Active Faults have distinct features in satellite images. Usually, there are obvious straight lines, circular structures and other distinct patterns along the faults locations. Remotely Sensed imagery Landsat ETM and SPOT XS /PAN are often used in active faults mapping. Moderate and high resolution satellite images are the best choice, because in low resolution images, the faults features may not be visible in most cases. The area under study is located Northwest of Syria that is part of one of the very active deformation belt on the Earth today. This area and the western part of Syria are located along the great rift system (Left-Lateral or African- Syrian Rift System). Those areas are tectonically active and caused a lot of seismically events. The AL-Ghab graben complex is situated within this wide area of Cenozoic deformation. The system formed, initially, as a result of the break up of the Arabian plate from the African plate. This action indicates that these sites are active and in a continual movement. In addition to that, the statistic analysis of Thematic Mapper data and the features from a digital elevation model ( DEM )produced from SAR interferometer show the existence of spectral structures at the same sites. The Arabian plate is moving in a NNW direction, whereas the African plate is moving to the North. The left-lateral motion along the Dead Sea Fault accommodates the difference in movement rate between both plates. The analysis of TM Space Imagery and digital image processing of spectral data show that the lineaments along AL-Ghab graben maybe considered as linear conjunctions accompanied with complex fracturing system. This complex is affected by distance stresses accompanied with intensive forces. The digital image processing of Radar imagery showing the presence of active and fresh faulting zones along the AL-Ghab graben. TM and SAR-DTM data, also showed a gradual color tone and interruptions of linear-ellipse shapes which reflecting the presence of discontinuity contours along the fault zone extension .This features refer to abundance of surface morphological features indicate to Fresh Faults. Recent faulting is expressed as freshly exposed soil within the colluvial apron visible by its light tone color. These indicators had been proved by field checks. Furthermore, the statistic digital analysis of the spectral data show that there are distribution of spectral plumes. These plumes are decreasing in intensity and color contrast from the center of the site to the direction of its edges.

Dalati, Moutaz


Common host-derived chemicals increase catches of disease-transmitting mosquitoes and can improve early warning systems for rift valley fever virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rift Valley fever (RVF), a mosquito-borne zoonosis, is a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. The emergence and re-emergence of the disease in the last 20 years especially in East Africa, poses a looming health threat which is likely to spread to beyond Africa. This threat is exacerbat...


An automated GIS/remotely sensed early warning system to detect elevated populations of vectors of Rift Valley fever, a mosquito-borne emerging virus threat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mosquito transmitted infectious diseases, like eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), Rift Valley fever (RVF), and West Nile virus (WNV), pose an international threat to animal and human health. An introduction of RVF into the U.S. would severely impact wild ungulate populations and the beef and dairy ...


Comparative sequence stratigraphy of low-latitude versus high-latitude lacustrine rift basins: Seismic data examples from the East African and Baikal rifts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lakes Baikal, Malawi and Tanganyika are the world's three largest rift valley lakes and are the classic modem examples of lacustrine rift basins. All the rift lakes are segmented into half-graben basins, and seismic reflection datasets reveal how this segmentation controls the filling of the rift basins through time. In the early stages of rifting, basins are fed primarily by flexural margin and axial margin drainage systems. At the climax of syn-rift sedimentation, however, when the basins are deeply subsided, almost all the margins are walled off by rift shoulder uplifts, and sediment flux into the basins is concentrated at accommodation zone and axial margin river deltas. Flexural margin unconformities are commonplace in the tropical lakes but less so in high-latitude Lake Baikal. Lake levels are extremely dynamic in the tropical lakes and in low-latitude systems in general because of the predominance of evaporation in the hydrologic cycle in those systems. Evaporation is minimized in relation to inflow in the high-latitude Lake Baikal and in most high-latitude systems, and consequently, major sequence boundaries tend to be tectonically controlled in that type of system. The acoustic stratigraphies of the tropical lakes are dominated by high-frequency and high-amplitude lake level shifts, whereas in high-latitude Lake Baikal, stratigraphic cycles are dominated by tectonism and sediment-supply variations.

Scholz, C.A.; Moore, T.C., Jr.; Hutchinson, D.R.; Golmshtok, A. Ja; Klitgord, Kim D.; Kurotchkin, A.G.



Rifting, recurrent landsliding and Miocene structural reorganization on NW-Tenerife (Canary Islands)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied mechanisms of structural destabilization of ocean island flanks by considering the linkage between volcano construction and volcano destruction, exemplified by the composite Teno shield volcano on Tenerife (Canary Islands). During growth, Tenerife episodically experienced giant landslides, genetically associated with rifting and preferentially located between two arms of a three-armed rift system. The deeply eroded late Miocene Teno massif

T. Walter; H.-U. Schmincke



Mississippi embayment syncline: A reactivation of the Reelfoot rift zone  

SciTech Connect

Contour maps of the tops of the Paleozoic, Cretaceous, and the Eocene Porters Creek Clay sections were compiled using depth data obtained from oil, gas, and water wells which are located in six states: Tennessee, Arkansas, Mississippi, Missouri, Illinois and Indiana. All these strata are warped into the broad syncline of the Mississippi embayment. An analysis of the structural relations between the Mississippi embayment syncline and the underlying Reelfoot rift zone shows that these two structures are not coaxial; instead, their axes diverge by about 20[degree]. Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary depocenters within the embayment are not located along the rift zone. The known distribution of igneous intrusions within the embayment corresponds better to the embayment synclinal axis than to the rift axis. Therefore the authors infer that the Mississippi embayment may not have formed simply as a result of reactivation of the Reelfoot rift during the late Cretaceous and early Eocene, as was previously suggested. The formation of the Mississippi embayment syncline, its overall shape, and its relative position are probably the result of the interaction of at least two processes: (1) the cooling of Mesozoic magma intrusions, initiating subsidence; and (2) continuous loading due to sediment deposition. The distribution of modern strike-slip seismicity extends along the axis of the Reelfoot rift zone, indicating that the rift has been reactivated as a strike-slip fault system. The youngest strata that were warped into the Mississippi embayment syncline are late Eocene in age. Thus, the latest reactivation of the Reelfoot rift responsible for the present earthquakes must postdate the Late Eocene.

Li, Y. (Memphis State Univ., TN (United States). Center for Earthquake Research and Information); Dart, R.L. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))



The MOZART Project - MOZAmbique Rift Tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Project MOZART (MOZAmbique Rift Tomography) is an ongoing joint effort of Portuguese, Mozambican and British research groups to investigate the geological structure and current tectonic activity of the southernmost tip of the East African Rift System (EARS) through the deployment of a network of 30 broad band seismic stations in Central and Southern Mozambique. In contrast with other stretches of the EARS to the North and with the Kapvaal craton to the West and South, the lithosphere of Mozambique was not previously studied with a dense seismographic deployment on account of past political instability, and many questions remain unanswered with respect to the location and characteristics of the EARS to the south of Tanzania. In recent years, space geodesy revealed the existence of three microplates in and off Mozambique - Victoria, Rovuma, Lwandle - whose borders provide a connection of the EARS to the South West Indian Ridge as required by plate tectonics. However, the picture is still coarse concerning the location of the rift structures. The 2006 M7 Machaze earthquake in Central Mozambique highlighted the current tectonic activity of the region and added a further clue to the location of the continental rift, prompting the MOZART deployment. Besides helping unravel the current tectonics, the project is expected to shed light on the poorly known Mesoproterozoic structure described by Arthur Holmes in 1951 as the Mozambique Belt, and on the mechanisms of transition from stable craton to rifted continental crust, through the development of a tomographic model for the lithosphere. The MOZART network is distributed South of the Zambezi river at average inter-station spaces of the order of 100 km and includes four stations across the border in South Africa. Data exchange was agreed with AfricaArray. The deployment proceeded in two phases in March 2011, and November and December 2011. Decommissioning is foreseen for August 2013. We report preliminary results for this previously unexplored region concerning the seismicity and ambient noise (see also Domingues et al, this conference), receiver function analysis, surface wave dispersion and SEM forward modelling. These preliminary results will pave the way for a tomographic model of the lithosphere, to be developed in the next stage of the project.

Fonseca, J. F.; Chamussa, J. R.; Domingues, A.; Helffrich, G. R.; Fishwick, S.; Ferreira, A. M.; Custodio, S.; Brisbourne, A. M.; Grobbelaar, M.



LANL environmental restoration site ranking system: System description. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The basic structure of the LANL Environmental Restoration (ER) Site Ranking System and its use are described in this document. A related document, Instructions for Generating Inputs for the LANL ER Site Ranking System, contains detailed descriptions of the methods by which necessary inputs for the system will be generated. LANL has long recognized the need to provide a consistent basis for comparing the risks and other adverse consequences associated with the various waste problems at the Lab. The LANL ER Site Ranking System is being developed to help address this need. The specific purpose of the system is to help improve, defend, and explain prioritization decisions at the Potential Release Site (PRS) and Operable Unit (OU) level. The precise relationship of the Site Ranking System to the planning and overall budget processes is yet to be determined, as the system is still evolving. Generally speaking, the Site Ranking System will be used as a decision aid. That is, the system will be used to aid in the planning and budgetary decision-making process. It will never be used alone to make decisions. Like all models, the system can provide only a partial and approximate accounting of the factors important to budget and planning decisions. Decision makers at LANL will have to consider factors outside of the formal system when making final choices. Some of these other factors are regulatory requirements, DOE policy, and public concern. The main value of the site ranking system, therefore, is not the precise numbers it generates, but rather the general insights it provides.

Merkhofer, L.; Kann, A.; Voth, M. [Applied Decision Analysis, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (United States)



Seismicity within a propagating ice shelf rift: the relationship between icequake locations and ice shelf structure  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Iceberg calving is a dominant mass loss mechanism for Antarctic ice shelves, second only to basal melting. An important known process involved in calving is the initiation and propagation of through-penetrating fractures called rifts; however, the mechanisms controlling rift propagation remain poorly understood. To investigate the mechanics of ice-shelf rifting, we analyzed seismicity associated with a propagating rift tip on the Amery Ice Shelf, using data collected during the Austral summers of 2004-2007. We investigated seismicity associated with fracture propagation using a suite of passive seismological techniques including icequake locations, back projection, and moment tensor inversion. We confirm previous results that show that seismicity is characterized by periods of relative quiescence punctuated by swarms of intense seismicity of one to three hours. However, even during periods of quiescence, we find significant seismic deformation around the rift tip. Moment tensors, calculated for a subset of the largest icequakes (MW?>?-2.0) located near the rift tip, show steeply dipping fault planes, horizontal or shallowly plunging stress orientations, and often have a significant volumetric component. They also reveal that much of the observed seismicity is limited to the upper 50?m of the ice shelf. This suggests a complex system of deformation that involves the propagating rift, the region behind the rift tip, and a system of rift-transverse crevasses. Small-scale variations in the mechanical structure of the ice shelf, especially rift-transverse crevasses and accreted marine ice, play an important role in modulating the rate and location of seismicity associated with propagating ice shelf rifts.

Heeszel, David S.; Fricker, Helen A.; Bassis, Jeremy N.; O'Neel, Shad; Walter, Fabian



Investigation of Icelandic rift zones reveals systematic changes in hydrothermal outflow in concert with seismic and magmatic events: Implications for investigation of Mid-Ocean Ridge hydrothermal systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Co-registration of several generations of geological data was carried out for hydrothermal fields along active rift zones of the Iceland plate boundary zone. Significant short- and long-term changes in vent locations, flow rates and styles, and fluid characteristics over short periods take place in concert with recorded earthquakes, dike intrusions, and fissure eruptions. Higher resolution, more detailed analysis of the Icelandic hydrothermal sites will inform investigation of similar data from mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems along the RIDGE 2000 focus sites. Initial results from the Hengill and Krafla geothermal areas covering a time-span of nearly 40 years at ~10 year intervals reveal limited changes in the surface expression of fault populations, with the exception of local fault and fracture systems. The location and population density of individual vents and groups of vents underwent significant changes over the same time period, with either vents shifting location, or new vents opening and old vents closing. Registration of changes in vent fluid temperatures, vent field ground temperatures, fluid flow rates, and vent eruptive styles reveal changes in hydrothermal flow systematics in concert with the observed changes in vent location and vent population density. Significant local seismic and volcanological events (earthquakes, earthquake swarms, dike intrusions, eruptions, inflation/deflation) that are potential triggers for the observed changes take place in intervening years between production of successive maps. Changes in modeled stress intensities and local fracture/fault density and geometry associated with these tectono-magmatic events correspond well to inferred locations of increased or decreased shallow permeability thought to control hydrothermal outflow behavior. Recent seismic events are strongly linked to well-mapped changes in fracture/fault population and hydrothermal flow behavior in the Hveragerdi region, near Hengill, and provide higher temporal resolution and allow more direct correlation between tectonic events and shallow crustal permeability changes. Refinement of this spatial and temporal investigation of hydrothermal flow behavior and linkages to tectonic and volcanic activity is being carried out using higher resolution, GIS-based data from these hydrothermal systems. Applying these techniques to seafloor hydrothermal systems along the RIDGE 2000 focus sites and other intensively studied hydrothermal areas along the mid-ocean ridge should reveal similar temporal and spatial correlative relationships between short-term geological events and the shallow architecture of the mid-ocean ridge crest.

Curewitz, D.; Karson, J. A.



Continental rifting and the origin of Beta Regio, Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topographic maps based on Pioneer Venus altimetry suggest that Beta Regio, an elevated feature centered at 27 deg N, 282 deg E, is analogous to domes associated with continental rift systems on earth. This interpretation is consistent with the commonly quoted analogy between the East African rift system and the topography of the region from Beta Regio southward to Phoebe Regio. If Beta Regio is a dome, major structural uplift of the crust of Venus is implied, suggesting a more dynamic upper mantle than would be the case if Beta Regio were simply a large volcanic construct.

Mcgill, G. E.; Steenstrup, S. J.; Barton, C.; Ford, P. G.



Current rifting episode in north Iceland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major rifting episode is now occurring in north Iceland. This started on 20 December 1975, with a basaltic eruption, an exceptionally intense earthquake swarm and movement on an 80-km segment of the plate boundary. Inflation and deflation of the Krafla caldera indicate upwelling of magma and injection into the rift zone. Historical records show that similar episodic rifting occurs

Axel Björnsson; Kristján Saemundsson; Páll Einarsson; Eysteinn Tryggvason; Karl Grönvold



Hypogene and supergene alteration of the zeolite-bearing pyroclastic deposits at Tell Rimah, Jordan, and rift-related processes along the Dead-Sea-Transform Fault System during the Quaternary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The boundary between the Arabian and African plates, is marked in the Middle East by one of the most prominent deep-seated lineamentary structures, called the Dead-Sea-Transform Fault System (DSTFS). Structural and mineralogical processes related to the DSTFS were correlated with equivalent processes leading to the alteration of pyroclastic deposits of alkali-olivine basaltic to nepheline basaltic composition which formed during a time span of less than 0.5 Ma. The large deposit of Tell Rimah, Jordan, is operated for the exploitation of zeolites, tuffs, and as pozzolana raw material. Four discrete stages of mineralizations have been distinguished from each other within these volcanic-hosted mineral deposits. (1) Hypogene syneruptive alteration of pyroclastic rocks produced siliceous gels ("allophane"), smectite, analcime, and phillipsite in vesicles when the groundwater level was low in the rift basin of the DSTFS. The lake-level lowstand caused the fluid system in the pyroclastic cone to become self-sufficient and it has been considered as a closed hydrothermal system. (2) Periods of tectonic and magmatic quiescence grinded the detrital sedimentation in the rift basin to a halt, while triggering a supergene alteration in the eruptive cones on the adjacent Arabian Plate. (3) Epigenetic alteration affected the pyroclastic rocks in the distal part of the DSTFS as a result of a rising water level. The water gradually filled the pore space of the permeable pyroclastic deposits almost to completeness and caused meniscus and blocky cements of calcite, phillipsite and chabazite to develop. In the rift basin, contemporaneously with the alteration of the pyroclastic rocks, freshwater limestones formed on calcareous bedrocks. Ba and Mn minerals in these freshwater limestones were supplied by subaquatic brines. Subsequently, a drastic lowering of the lake water level in the DSTFS converted the system of subaquatic freshwater limestones into subaerial tufa and travertine. As long as the basal parts of the pyroclastic units at Tell Rimah were in the reaches of the saline groundwaters, calcite and faujasite developed in the pyroclastic host rocks. (4) Another lake level lowstand within the rift basin caused the pyroclastic host rocks to get emerged and forced zeolite-carbonate mineralization in the tuffs to a complete stillstand. Hypogene and supergene alteration in these phreatomagmatic-strombolian pyroclastic cones of the Pleistocene x were correlated with lake high- and lowstands in the adjacent rift basin along the DSTFS. The results obtained by current tectono-morphological studies of the rift-related alteration of pyroclastic rocks along the DSTFS may also be applied to basin-and-swell-topographies elsewhere in the world. The current studies involved microscopy supplemented by SEM-EDX, X-ray diffraction analysis, mid (MIR) and far (FIR) infrared spectroscopy. Major and trace elements were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). C- and O isotope analyses were conducted on carbonate minerals, which were also targeted on by radiocarbon dating.

Dill, H. G.; Techmer, A.; Botz, R.; Dohrmann, R.; Kaufhold, S.



East Antarctic rifting triggers uplift of the Gamburtsev Mountains  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains are the least understood tectonic feature on Earth, because they are completely hidden beneath the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Their high elevation and youthful Alpine topography, combined with their location on the East Antarctic craton, creates a paradox that has puzzled researchers since the mountains were discovered in 1958. The preservation of Alpine topography in the Gamburtsevs may reflect extremely low long-term erosion rates beneath the ice sheet, but the mountains’ origin remains problematic. Here we present the first comprehensive view of the crustal architecture and uplift mechanisms for the Gamburtsevs, derived from radar, gravity and magnetic data. The geophysical data define a 2,500-km-long rift system in East Antarctica surrounding the Gamburtsevs, and a thick crustal root beneath the range. We propose that the root formed during the Proterozoic assembly of interior East Antarctica (possibly about 1?Gyr ago), was preserved as in some old orogens and was rejuvenated during much later Permian (roughly 250?Myr ago) and Cretaceous (roughly 100?Myr ago) rifting. Much like East Africa, the interior of East Antarctica is a mosaic of Precambrian provinces affected by rifting processes. Our models show that the combination of rift-flank uplift, root buoyancy and the isostatic response to fluvial and glacial erosion explains the high elevation and relief of the Gamburtsevs. The evolution of the Gamburtsevs demonstrates that rifting and preserved orogenic roots can produce broad regions of high topography in continental interiors without significantly modifying the underlying Precambrian lithosphere.

Ferraccioli, F.; Finn, Carol A.; Jordan, Tom A.; Bell, Robin E.; Anderson, Lester M.; Damaske, Detlef



Thermal maturation and organic richness of potential petroleum source rocks in Proterozoic Rice Formation, North American Mid-Continent rift system, northeastern Kansas  

SciTech Connect

A recent well in northeastern Kansas penetrated 296 ft (90.2 m) of dark gray siltstone in the Precambrian Mid-Continent rift (Proterozoic Rice Formation). Correlations indicate this unit may be as thick as 600 ft (183 m) and is possibly time-equivalent to the Nonesuch Shale (Middle Proterozoic) in the Lake Superior region. The upper half of this unit qualifies as a lean source rock (averaging 0.66 wt.% TOC), and organic matter in it is in the transition stage between oil and wet gas generation. The presence of the gray siltstone in this well and similar lithologies in other wells is encouraging because it indicates the source rock deposition may be common along the Mid-Continent rift, and that parts of the rift may remain thermally within the oil and gas window. Microscopic examination of calcite veins penetrating the dark gray siltstone reveals numerous oil-filled and subordinate aqueous fluid inclusions. Homogenization temperatures indicate these rocks have been subjected to temperature of at least 110-115[degrees]C (230-239[degrees]F). Burial during the Phanerozoic is inadequate to account for the homogenization temperatures and thermal maturity of the Precambrian rocks. With the present geothermal gradient, at least 8250 ft (2.5 km) of burial is necessary, but lesser burial may be likely with probably higher geothermal gradients during rifting. Fluorescence colors and gas chromatograms indicate compositions of oils in the fluid inclusions vary. However, oils in the fluid inclusions are markedly dissimilar to the nearest oils produced from Paleozoic rocks.

Newell, K.D. (Kansas Geological Survey, Lawrence, KS (United States)); Burruss, R.C.; Palacas, J.G. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))



Pneumatic transport system development. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on solids transfer rates, system reliability, residual material in the system, degree of homogeneity before and after transport of blended nuclear fuel powders, erosion in the elbows, and materials of construction were generated to provide confirmation of the design criteria necessary for the implementation of a dilute phase pneumatic transport system in a commercial mixed oxide fuel facility. From

E. E. Smeltzer; D. A. Eckhardt; W. C. Yang; M. C. Skriba



Traffic management system: Recommendations. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies the primary and secondary air traffic networks inside and outside Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area where particular safety and traffic problems exist. The Consortium Louis Berger International, Inc.-IBI Group-UBATEC provides recommendations divided into two groups: one based on engineering aspects for each identified deficiency in the selected routes; and a second group that is based on the results of the evaluations of needs. This is Volume 5, Recommendations Final Report, and it provides recommendations to optimize transportation in the city of Buenos Aires.




Rifting of the Tyrrhenian Basin, a complex interaction among faulting , magmatism and mantle exhumation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tyrrhenian basin has been created during the extension of continental lithosphere driven by the retreat of a Ionian slab across the mantle. The basin does not seem to be actively extending, but its preserved crustal structure provides information of the time evolution of the processes involved in rifting. The basin rifted from north to south, with rifting stopping after progressively larger stretching factor towards the south. The northern region stopped opening after a relatively low extension factor. Towards the south extension increased up to full crustal separation that produced mantle exhumation. The final structure displays two conjugate margins with asymmetric structures. Thus, the basin provides a natural laboratory to investigate a full rift system, that displays variable amounts of extension. We present observations from a two-ship seismic experiment that took place in spring 2010. The cruise took place on two legs. In the first leg, the Spanish R/V Sarmiento de Gamboa and the Italian R/V Urania collected five E-W trending wide-angle seismic (WAS) profiles across the entire basin using 17 Ocean Bottom Seismometers and 25 Ocean Bottom Hydrophones and a 4800 c.i. G-II gun array. The profiles were extended with land stations that recorded the marine shots. During a second leg the R/V Sarmiento de Gamboa collected 16 Multichannel Seismic Reflection (MCS) profiles using a 3.75 km-long streamer and a 3000 c.i. G-II gun array. MCS profiles were acquired coincident with the WAS profiles, and a number of additional lines concentrated in the central region of the basin where mantle exhumation took place. The seismic profiles were located to cover regions of the basin that displays different amount of extension, and the coincident wide-angle and MCS transects cross the entire basin to image the two conjugate margins. In this presentation we compare observations from different transects mapping the structures produced at different extension factors. A comparison of the different transects permits to trade space (different transects mapping different extension factors) for time (different transects provide an evolutionary snapshot of the extension process). Each transect provides the tectonic structure, the geometry of sedimentary deposits, and P-wave seismic velocity distribution. This information allows to interpret the mechanisms of deformation, infer the importance and potential role of magmatism in the rifting process, and estimate the region of mantle exhumation, currently inferred from one drill site. The analysis of the data provides insight in the process of formation of asymmetry structure conjugated margins.

Ranero, C. R.; Sallarés, V.; Grevemeyer, I.; Zitellini, N.; Guzman, M.; Prada, M.; Moeller, S.; de Franco, R.; Medoc Cruise Party



Middle Miocene to Pleistocene sedimentary record of rift evolution in the southern Albert Rift (Uganda)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents an almost complete Middle Miocene to Pleistocene sequence of synrift sediments in the western branch of the East African Rift. The studied succession is exposed in several patches on an eastward tilted block between the northern tip of the Rwenzori Block and the eastern shoulder of the Albert Rift. In this position, it reaches a maximum thickness of 600 m of which 350 m have been logged systematically by analysing lithofacies and sediment architecture. Stratigraphic subdivision of the succession relies on published biostratigraphic data of endemic mollusc associations and their correlation across East Africa. The synrift sediments encountered are siliciclastics ranging from clay to coarse gravel with gypsum and ferrugineous interlayers or impregnations. Lithofacies and architectural analysis indicate alluvial plain, delta plain, nearshore, delta front, or lacustrine depositional environments. Based on the vertical stacking pattern, prograding and retrograding trends of the depositional environments, and climatic indicators (e.g. conservation of feldspar, gypsum, and/or iron hydroxide precipitation), four evolutionary phases can be distinguished: (i) a first phase between ca. 14.5 and 10.0 Ma is characterised by bedload-dominated fluvial environment with massive sandy to gravelly bedforms, feldspar-rich sands, rare iron impregnations and relatively low accommodation space. This phase is interpreted as pre- and early synrift sedimentation under a semiarid climate. (ii) From ca. 10.0 to 4.5 Ma predominantly fine-grained siliciclastics were deposited in a distal fluvial plain to lacustrine setting characterised by limited accommodation space. Fluctuation of thin beds, dominance of clay and frequent iron impregnations point to a more humid climate with seasonality and weak tectonic activity. (iii) During the third phase between 4.5 and 2.0 Ma delta plain and nearshore deposits with frequent ferrugineous impregnations and rich mollusc associations occurred, indicating a humid period with lake-level highstands and accelerated subsidence. (iv) During the final sedimentary interval between 2.0 and 1.5 Ma gravel units reoccurred with less iron- but more carbonate and gypsum impregnations, and arkosic sandstones. This phase recorded a general aridisation trend most probably caused by the upcoming rain barrier of the Rwenzori Mountains together with accelerated rift-flank uplift and strong subsidence of the rift floor. The results of this study are of particular importance for delineating key controls on sedimentation in the Albert Rift.

Roller, S.; Hornung, J.; Hinderer, M.; Ssemmanda, I.



Manzanita Hybrid Power system Project Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The Manzanita Indian Reservation is located in southeastern San Diego County, California. The Tribe has long recognized that the Reservation has an abundant wind resource that could be commercially utilized to its benefit, and in 1995 the Tribe established the Manzanita Renewable Energy Office. Through the U.S. Department of Energy's Tribal Energy Program the Band received funds to install a hybrid renewable power system to provide electricity to one of the tribal community buildings, the Manzanita Activities Center (MAC building). The project began September 30, 1999 and was completed March 31, 2005. The system was designed and the equipment supplied by Northern Power Systems, Inc, an engineering company with expertise in renewable hybrid system design and development. Personnel of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory provided technical assistance in system design, and continued to provide technical assistance in system monitoring. The grid-connected renewable hybrid wind/photovoltaic system provides a demonstration of a solar/wind energy hybrid power-generating project on Manzanita Tribal land. During the system design phase, the National Renewable Energy Lab estimated that the wind turbine is expected to produce 10,000-kilowatt hours per year and the solar array 2,000-kilowatt hours per year. The hybrid system was designed to provide approximately 80 percent of the electricity used annually in the MAC building. The project proposed to demonstrate that this kind of a system design would provide highly reliable renewable power for community uses.

Trisha Frank



Solar heating system final design package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The system is composed of a warm air collector, a logic control unit and a universal switching and transport unit. The collector was originally conceived and designed as an integrated roof/wall system and therefore provides a dual function in the structure. The collector serves both as a solar energy conversion system and as a structural weather resistant skin. The control unit provides totally automatic control over the operation of the system. It receives input data from sensor probes in collectors, storage and living space. The logic was designed so as to make maximum use of solar energy and minimize use of conventional energy. The transport and switching unit is a high-efficiency air-handling system equipped with gear motor valves that respond to outputs from the control system. The fan unit was designed for maximum durability and efficiency in operation, and has permanently lubricated ball bearings and excellent air-handling efficiency.



Stress and slip partitioning during oblique rifting: comparison between data from the Main Ethiopian Rift and laboratory experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oblique rifting in the central and northern Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) has resulted in a complex structural pattern characterized by two differently oriented fault systems: a set of NE-SW-trending boundary faults and a system of roughly NNE-SSW-oriented fault swarms affecting the rift floor (Wonji faults). Boundary faults formed oblique to the regional extension vector, likely as a result of the oblique reactivation of a pre-existing deep-seated rheological anisotropy, whereas internal Wonji faults developed sub-orthogonal to the stretching direction. Previous works have successfully reconciled this rift architecture and fault distribution with the long-term plate kinematics; however, at a more local scale, fault-slip and earthquake data reveal significant variations in the orientation the minimum principal stress and related fault-slip direction across the rift valley. Whereas fault measurements indicate a roughly N95°E extension on the axial Wonji faults, a N105°E to N110°E directed minimum principal stress is observed along boundary faults. Both fault-slip data and analysis of seismicity indicate a roughly pure dip-slip motion on the boundary faults, despite their orientation (oblique to the regional extension vector) should result in an oblique displacement. To shed light on the process driving the variability of data derived from fault-slip (and seismicity) analysis we present crustal-scale analogue models of oblique rifting, deformed in a large-capacity centrifuge by using materials and boundary conditions described in several previous modeling works. As in these previous works, the experiments show the diachronous activation of two fault systems, boundary and internal, whose pattern strikingly resemble that observed in previous lithospheric-scale modeling, as well as that described in the MER. Internal faults arrange in two different, en-echelon segments connected by a transfer zone where strike-slip displacement dominates. Whereas internal faults develop roughly orthogonal to the extension direction, boundary faults form oblique to the imposed stretching vector: as a group, the faults follow the rift trend, controlled by a pre-existing weak anisotropy, but individually they form oblique to both the rift margin and the extension vector. Detailed analysis of fault displacements suggest that whereas the average displacement on single internal faults is consistent with the imposed direction of extension, slip on boundary faults does not parallel this direction; the average motion on these faults is orthogonal to the faults, resulting in a roughly pure dip-slip motion. This gives rise to a marked difference in fault-slip direction between internal faults (where slip orientation follow the regional extension) and boundary faults (where displacement is oblique to the "regional" extension). A similar scenario is observed for the reconstructed direction of the minimum principal stress that follows the regional stress field within the rift and is re-oriented at rift margins. Minor counterclockwise block rotations accommodate the different slip along the different fault systems. The model-to-nature striking is striking in terms of fault orientation, stress and slip orientation and its across-axis variations. The analogue models thus allows explaining the across-axis variability observed in natural fault-slip and earthquake data. Modeling results support that boundary faults form in response to a local stress re-orientation imposed by a deep seated anisotropy: their displacement trajectories deviate from those imposed by the regional extension, resulting in a pure dip-slip motion in an overall oblique rifting kinematics, as observed in other sectors of the East African Rift. Conversely, internal faults -which form later and affect a weaker, more uniform lithosphere- respond directly to the regional extension direction resulting in a fault slip sub-parallel to the Nubia-Somalia motion. Minor counterclockwise block rotations are required to accommodate the difference in slip along the different fault systems.

Corti, G.; Philippon, M.; Sani, F.; Keir, D.



Multilevel Evaluation Systems Project. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several studies were conducted in 1987 by the Multilevel Evaluation Systems Project, which focuses on developing a model for a multi-purpose, multi-user evaluation system to facilitate educational decision making and evaluation. The project model emphasizes on-going integrated assessment of individuals, classes, and programs using a variety of…

Herman, Joan L.


Fireplace boiler system. Final progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results showed that the fireplace boiler system can generate more heat than a conventional gas fired furnace (because of controls) and can generate higher temperatures at the various supply registers. In addition, the distribution of heat from the fireplace boiler system results in better thermal confort since the furnace fan is continuous rather than intermittent as in a conventional




Water-storage-tube systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Passive solar collection/storage/distribution systems were surveyed, designed, fabricated, and mechanically and thermally tested. The types studied were clear and opaque fiberglass tubes, metal tubes with plastic liners, and thermosyphoning tubes. (MHR)

Hemker, P.



Fault kinematics and tectonic stress in the seismically active Manyara Dodoma Rift segment in Central Tanzania Implications for the East African Rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Eastern Branch of the East African Rift System is well known in Ethiopia (Main Ethiopian Rift) and Kenya (Kenya or Gregory Rift) and is usually considered to fade away southwards in the North Tanzanian Divergence, where it splits into the Eyasi, Manyara and Pangani segments. Further towards the south, rift structures are more weakly expressed and this area has not attracted much attention since the mapping and exploratory works of the 1950s. In November 4, 2002, an earthquake of magnitude Mb = 5.5 struck Dodoma, the capital city of Tanzania. Analysis of modern digital relief, seismological and geological data reveals that ongoing tectonic deformation is presently affecting a broad N-S trending belt, extending southward from the North Tanzanian Divergence to the region of Dodoma, forming the proposed "Manyara-Dodoma Rift segment". North of Arusha-Ngorongoro line, the rift is confined to a narrow belt (Natron graben in Tanzania) and south of it, it broadens into a wide deformation zone which includes both the Eyasi and Manyara grabens. The two-stage rifting model proposed for Kenya and North Tanzania also applies to the Manyara-Dodoma Rift segment. In a first stage, large, well-expressed topographic and volcanogenic structures were initiated in the Natron, Eyasi and Manyara grabens during the Late Miocene to Pliocene. From the Middle Pleistocene onwards, deformations related to the second rifting stage propagated southwards to the Dodoma region. These young structures have still limited morphological expressions compared to the structures formed during the first stage. However, they appear to be tectonically active as shown by the high concentration of moderate earthquakes into earthquake swarms, the distribution of He-bearing thermal springs, the morphological freshness of the fault scarps, and the presence of open surface fractures. Fault kinematic and paleostress analysis of geological fault data in basement rocks along the active fault lines show that recent faults often reactivate older fault systems that were formed under E-W to NW-SE horizontal compression, compatible with late Pan-African tectonics. The present-day stress inverted from earthquake focal mechanisms shows that the Manyara-Dodoma Rift segment is presently subjected to an extensional stress field with a N080°E direction of horizontal principal extension. Under this stress field, the rift develops by: (1) reactivation of the pre-existing tectonic planes of weakness, and (2) progressive development of a new fault system in a more N-S trend by the linkage of existing rift faults. This process started about 1.2 Ma ago and is still ongoing.

Macheyeki, Athanas S.; Delvaux, Damien; De Batist, Marc; Mruma, Abdulkarim



Final Report Advanced Quasioptical Launcher System  

SciTech Connect

This program developed an analytical design tool for designing antenna and mirror systems to convert whispering gallery RF modes to Gaussian or HE11 modes. Whispering gallery modes are generated by gyrotrons used for electron cyclotron heating of fusion plasmas in tokamaks. These modes cannot be easily transmitted and must be converted to free space or waveguide modes compatible with transmission line systems.This program improved the capability of SURF3D/LOT, which was initially developed in a previous SBIR program. This suite of codes revolutionized quasi-optical launcher design, and this code, or equivalent codes, are now used worldwide. This program added functionality to SURF3D/LOT to allow creating of more compact launcher and mirror systems and provide direct coupling to corrugated waveguide within the vacuum envelope of the gyrotron. Analysis was also extended to include full-wave analysis of mirror transmission line systems. The code includes a graphical user interface and is available for advanced design of launcher systems.

Jeffrey Neilson



Autonomous microexplosives subsurface tracing system final report.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the autonomous micro-explosive subsurface tracing system is to image the location and geometry of hydraulically induced fractures in subsurface petroleum reservoirs. This system is based on the insertion of a swarm of autonomous micro-explosive packages during the fracturing process, with subsequent triggering of the energetic material to create an array of micro-seismic sources that can be detected and analyzed using existing seismic receiver arrays and analysis software. The project included investigations of energetic mixtures, triggering systems, package size and shape, and seismic output. Given the current absence of any technology capable of such high resolution mapping of subsurface structures, this technology has the potential for major impact on petroleum industry, which spends approximately $1 billion dollar per year on hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States alone.

Engler, Bruce Phillip; Nogan, John; Melof, Brian Matthew; Uhl, James Eugene; Dulleck, George R., Jr.; Ingram, Brian V.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Rivas, Raul R.; Cooper, Paul W.; Warpinski, Norman Raymond; Kravitz, Stanley H.



[Develop mine communications system]. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to develop, design, and build a system prototype to demonstrate the practicality of two-way, wireless through-the-earth communications between the interior of a mine and the surface. The system was to communicate data for process and environment monitoring and control, and provide real-time voice communication for emergency situations and for daily operations use. Transmitters and receivers were designed, built, and tested in actual mines. A wireless in-mine communications system was also developed. The feasibility of the concept and the marketability of the product were successfully demonstrated. Additional work must be done to make the product suitable for, and marketable to, the coal mining industry.

Meiksin, Z.H.



Lightning protection of distribution systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Analyses are presented of experimental data obtained in the Tampa Bay area during 1978 and 1979 concerning the physical and phenomenological properties of lightning and the interaction of that lightning with the local distribution power systems. Specific results are given regarding: (1) the physical and phenomenology properties of lightning in the Tampa Bay area and its relation to lightning elsewhere; (2) measurement and theory concerning lightning-induced voltages on distribution lines; (3) distribution system operation in the presence of lightning and analytical modeling and prediction of that operation.

Uman, M.A.



Masirah Graben, Oman: A hidden Cretaceous rift basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reflection seismic data, well data, geochemical data, and surface geology suggest that a Cretaceous rift basin exists beneath the thrusted allochthonous sedimentary sequence of the Masirah graben, Oman. The Masirah graben is located east of the Huqf uplift, parallel to the southern coast of Oman. The eastern side of the northeast-trending Huqf anticlinorium is bounded by an extensional fault system

W. H. Beauchamp; A. C. Ries; M. P. Coward



Bomb detection system implementation analysis. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the economic feasibility and reliability of bomb detection devices adequate for use at airports serving air carriers, nationwide systems of devices for surveillance of passengers and baggage and detection of gamma-ray emissions from bombs using Co60-tagged detonator caps are examined. Alternatives to the liquid scintillator coincidence device, which was developed and tested by Catholic University for airport application,

G. M. Brinton; T. O. Passell



Geophysical tomography imaging system. Final CRADA report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., and Geophex, Ltd., was established to investigate high-resolution, shallow acoustic imaging of the subsurface. The primary objectives of the CRADA were accomplished, including the evaluation of a new tomographic imaging algorithm and the testing and comparison of two different acoustic sources, the hammer\\/plate source and an electromagnetic

S. J. Norton; I. J. Won



Implementing An Occupational Information System. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Washington Occupational Information System (WOIS) is a project of a consortium of State education and employment agencies to provide dissemination of occupational and educational information to both users and producers: schools, social service and manpower agencies, employees, and employers. The WOIS project organization and operation is…

Friet, James E.; Schmidt, Roy L.


Hydrogen energy systems studies. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The results of previous studies suggest that the use of hydrogen from natural gas might be an important first step toward a hydrogen economy based on renewables. Because of infrastructure considerations (the difficulty and cost of storing, transmitting and distributing hydrogen), hydrogen produced from natural gas at the end-user`s site could be a key feature in the early development of hydrogen energy systems. In the first chapter of this report, the authors assess the technical and economic prospects for small scale technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas (steam reformers, autothermal reformers and partial oxidation systems), addressing the following questions: (1) What are the performance, cost and emissions of small scale steam reformer technology now on the market? How does this compare to partial oxidation and autothermal systems? (2) How do the performance and cost of reformer technologies depend on scale? What critical technologies limit cost and performance of small scale hydrogen production systems? What are the prospects for potential cost reductions and performance improvements as these technologies advance? (3) How would reductions in the reformer capital cost impact the delivered cost of hydrogen transportation fuel? In the second chapter of this report the authors estimate the potential demand for hydrogen transportation fuel in Southern California.

Ogden, J.M.; Kreutz, T.; Kartha, S.; Iwan, L.



The evolving contribution of border faults and intra-rift faults in early-stage East African rifts: insights from the Natron (Tanzania) and Magadi (Kenya) basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the early stages of continental rifting, East African Rift (EAR) basins are conventionally depicted as asymmetric basins bounded on one side by a ~100 km-long border fault. As rifting progresses, strain concentrates into the rift center, producing intra-rift faults. The timing and nature of the transition from border fault to intra-rift-dominated strain accommodation is unclear. Our study focuses on this transitional phase of continental rifting by exploring the spatial and temporal evolution of faulting in the Natron (border fault initiation at ~3 Ma) and Magadi (~7 Ma) basins of northern Tanzania and southern Kenya, respectively. We compare the morphologies and activity histories of faults in each basin using field observations and remote sensing in order to address the relative contributions of border faults and intra-rift faults to crustal strain accommodation as rifting progresses. The ~500 m-high border fault along the western margin of the Natron basin is steep compared to many border faults in the eastern branch of the EAR, indicating limited scarp degradation by mass wasting. Locally, the escarpment shows open fissures and young scarps 10s of meters high and a few kilometers long, implying ongoing border fault activity in this young rift. However, intra-rift faults within ~1 Ma lavas are greatly eroded and fresh scarps are typically absent, implying long recurrence intervals between slip events. Rift-normal topographic profiles across the Natron basin show the lowest elevations in the lake-filled basin adjacent to the border fault, where a number of hydrothermal springs along the border fault system expel water into the lake. In contrast to Natron, a ~1600 m high, densely vegetated, border fault escarpment along the western edge of the Magadi basin is highly degraded; we were unable to identify evidence of recent rupturing. Rift-normal elevation profiles indicate the focus of strain has migrated away from the border fault into the rift center, where faults pervasively dissect 1.2-0.8 Ma trachyte lavas. Unlike Natron, intra-rift faults in the Magadi basin exhibit primarily steep, little-degraded fault scarps, implying greater activity than Natron intra-rift faults. Numerous fault-associated springs feed water into perennial Lake Magadi, which has no surface drainage input, yet survives despite a high evaporation rate that has created economically viable evaporite deposits. Calcite vein-filled joints are common along fault zones around Lake Magadi, as well as several cm veins around columnar joints that imply isotropic expansion of the fracture network under high pressures of CO2-rich fluids. Our work indicates that the locus of strain in this portion of the EAR transfers from the border fault to the center of the rift basin some time between 3 and 7 million years after rift initiation. This transition likely reflects the evolving respective roles of crustal flexure and magma budget in focusing strain, as well as the hydrothermal fluid budget along evolving fault zones.

Muirhead, J.; Kattenhorn, S. A.; Dindi, E.; Gama, R.



Comparison of the Tanganyika, Malawi, Rukwa and Turkana Rift zones from analyses of seismic reflection data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northwest-southeast extension has opened the East African Rift System along two main branches, the Western and Eastern Branches. Rift zones along the Western Branch are marked by narrow lakes floored by thick piles of fluvial clastic and 'pelagic' sediment. Magmatism is restricted to a few small areas in the 'arches' between the lakes. In contrast, rift zones along the Eastern Branch are largely filled with volcanic and volcaniclastic materials and magmatism is generally perceived to be an integral part of the rifting process. In an attempt to sort out the significance and meaning of these and other differences, we have compared multifold seismic data from three Western Branch rift zones (Tanganyika, Rukwa and Malawi) and one Eastern Branch zone (Turkana). The Tanganyika and Malawi Rift Zones are composed of half-graben basins linked in complex ways by accommodation zones which generally trend oblique to the rift axes, and sometimes oblique to the extension direction. Half-grabens alternate basinal polarities where the rift crosses Proterozoic dislocation zones. Complex fault geometries are associated with some accommodation zones; elsewhere faults are almost exclusively planar. Sedimentary fill reaches at least 4-5 km and the section is mostly Cenozoic in age. Patches of Permo-Triassic sedimentary rocks are believed to occur within both rift zones. The Rukwa Rift is a pull-apart zone that connects the northern (Livingstone) basin of Lake Malawi to the Kalemie Basin in central Lake Tanganyika. The entire pull-apart system may be a series of down-to-the-east half-grabens. An accommodation zone develops along a short stretch of the Rukwa Rift, but no full polarity reversal occurs. The break-away faults of the Livingstone, Rukwa and Kalemie basins are essentially coincident with the Proterozoic Rukwa dislocation zone, which sub-parallels the inferred extension direction. Fault geometries in the Rukwa Rift are markedly listric, especially in the pre-Cenozoic section. Sedimentary fill ranges in age from pre-Karroo through Cenozoic and locally exceeds 10 km in thickness. The Turkana Rift is composed of short, linear, NNE-trending normal fault segments that are offset in a left-lateral sense by numerous, NW-SE trending transfer faults, linking facing border fault segments together. The overall trend of the rift zone is oblique to the opening direction, like the Tanganyika and Malawi cases, but the border fault segments are sub-perpendicular. Fault geometries are highly variable, but flower structures associated with transfer faults predominate. Igneous activity is ubiquitous and appears to be localized along the transfer faults. Basin fill reaches 4-5 km in thickness and is dominated by fluvial clastic, volcaniclastic and volcanic materials. The structural differences within the Tanganyika-Rukwa-Malawi system stem mainly from the modifying effects of pre-rift anistropies on strain expressions. Fundamentally, this system is a NW-SE trending series of single-polarity pull-apart basins. At the two ends of the pull-apart zone, the rift is deflected into more N-S trending basins which have a high tendency to alternate polarities along strike. This explanation does not account for the differences in fault forms between the Tanganyika-Malawi (planar) and Rukwa (listric) Rifts. For the time being, we presume these differences arise from systematic differences between Tanganyika-Malawi and Rukwa in the age ranges of the fill and/or the maximum depths of seismic imaging. Rifting in Turkana is profoundly different than in the Tanganyika-Rukwa-Malawi sub-branch and seems to involve a softer, more ductile, more organized style of extension which may be closer to the ideal case. In a thermal sense, rifting has progressed further in Turkana than along the Western Branch zones. This does not preclude original, fundamental difference in the thermal states of two branches.

Rosendahl, Bruce R.; Kilembe, Elias; Kaczmarick, Kurt



Expected fluid residence times, thermal breakthrough, and tracer test design for characterizing a hydrothermal system in the Upper Rhine Rift Valley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relying on the structural-hydrogeological model proposed by J. Meixner (2009) for a particular hydrothermal system in South-West Germany (on the East side of the Upper Rhine Rift, this reservoir being used to demonstrate electricity production by means of a well doublet), we set up a distributed-parameter model (using Feflow) enabling to numerically simulate fluid ages, temperature evolutions and tracer test signals for a number of contrasting assumptions w. r. to (a) the nature of boundary conditions and hydrogeological characteristics of remotely situated, large-scale natural faults, (b) the degree of permeability contrast between different system compartments, (c) the hydrogeological characteristics of a naturally-occurring fault, located between injection and production wells. It appears that a spike dimensioning allowing for tracer signals to become detectable during the first three years after tracer injection in all of the contrasting a/b/c scenarios is not feasible in practice. In some of the a/b/c cases considered, the system will act like a very large reservoir, with fluid residence times in the order of decades, and extreme dilution of injected tracers. Even using preparative-scale cleaning of samples, brine separation, sample enrichment by solid phase extraction, evaporative concentrating etc. followed by state-of-the-art chromatography techniques to separate between tracer and natural background, it will not be possible to lower tracer detection limits below a certain threshold, which is mainly dictated by the amount of certain naturally-occurring aromatics in the reservoir fluids. On practical reasons, the spike dimensioning will be limited to some hundred kilogram of one or two organic tracers. This implies that part of the above-mentioned, contrasting a/b/c scenarios will remain indistinguishable during the first three years after tracer injection. However, for this reservoir structure, there is not a bijective correspondence between early-vs.-late appearance of tracer and small-vs.-large reservoir. Therefore, we further examine the questions: How much information will be lost, and what degree of uncertainty will affect temperature predictions, as a consequence of the chosen practical ceiling on injected tracer quantities? Can single-well, dual-tracer push-pull tests (to be conducted at the geothermal re-injection and/or at the geothermal production well) contribute to reducing the ambiguity of inter-well early-signal inversion? Acknowledgement: This work pertains to a research project jointly funded by Energie Baden-Württemberg (EnBW) and by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU, project key: 0325111B), with operational support from local Energy and Water Supply Plants (EWB), from the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT, Hydrogeology Group), and from the European Institute for Energy Research (EIfER, Dr. Zorn).

Ghergut, I.; Meixner, J.; Rettenmaier, D.; Maier, F.; Nottebohm, M.; Ptak, T.; Sauter, M.



The development of extension and magmatism in the Red Sea rift of Afar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the importance of continental breakup in plate tectonics, precisely how extensional processes such as brittle faulting, ductile plate stretching, and magma intrusion evolve in space and time during the development of new ocean basins remains poorly understood. The rifting of Arabia from Africa in the Afar depression is an ideal natural laboratory to address this problem since the region exposes subaerially the tectonically active transition from continental rifting to incipient seafloor spreading. We review recent constraints on along-axis variations in rift morphology, crustal and mantle structure, the distribution and style of ongoing faulting, subsurface magmatism and surface volcanism in the Red Sea rift of Afar to understand processes ultimately responsible for the formation of magmatic rifted continental margins. Our synthesis shows that there is a fundamental change in rift morphology from central Afar northward into the Danakil depression, spatially coincident with marked thinning of the crust, an increase in the volume of young basalt flows, and subsidence of the land towards and below sea-level. The variations can be attributed to a northward increase in proportion of extension by ductile plate stretching at the expense of magma intrusion. This is likely in response to a longer history of localised heating and weakening in a narrower rift. Thus, although magma intrusion accommodates strain for a protracted period during rift development, the final stages of breakup are dominated by a phase of plate stretching with a shift from intrusive to extrusive magmatism. This late-stage pulse of decompression melting due to plate thinning may be responsible for the formation of seaward dipping reflector sequences of basalts and sediments, which are ubiquitous at magmatic rifted margins worldwide.

Keir, Derek; Bastow, Ian D.; Pagli, Carolina; Chambers, Emma L.



Distribution of contemporary crustal deformation and mechanisms for extension in the Woodlark Rift: insights from GPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Woodlark Rift, southeastern Papua New Guinea, is a classic example of a rift transitioning from continental rifting to seafloor spreading, and is also the site of exhumation of the world's youngest Ultra-High Pressure (UHP) terranes. Prior to now, very little GPS data existed to constrain the kinematics of contemporary rifting, and the relationship of modern-day rifting to exhumation of the young UHP terranes. We present results from GPS campaign measurements at ~45 sites throughout the southeastern Papua New Guinea region, from GPS campaigns conducted in 2009, 2010, and 2012. Our results suggest that most of the modern-day extensional deformation has shifted southward towards the north coast of the PNG mainland, away from the locus of UHP exhumation in the D'Entrecasteaux Islands, although a few mm/yr of active extension remains in the region of UHP rock exhumation. This is consistent with modelling studies that predict a shift in the locus of extension away from the locus of UHP exhumation during the final, waning stages of UHP exhumation. Rates of total extension in the Woodlark Rift increase from west to east from several mm/yr (in the far western Woodlark Rift) to >20 mm/yr further east, due to clockwise rotation of microplates in the region about nearby poles of rotation. We will discuss the implications that our kinematic modelling of the GPS data, earthquake slip vector data, and geological data have for the large-scale driving mechanisms behind rifting in southeast PNG. Our results favour a model where rapid microplate rotation (at 2-3 degrees/Myr) and rifting in the Woodlark Basin is a consequence of strong slab pull forces from extremely rapid subduction (6-13 cm/yr) at the New Britain and San Cristobal trenches further to the north.

Wallace, L. M.; Ellis, S. M.; Tregoning, P.; Little, T. A.; Palmer, N.



Tag team tectonics: mantle upwelling and lithospheric heterogeneity ally to rift continents (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The configuration of continents we know today is the result of several billion years of active Wilson Cycle tectonics. The rifting of continents and subsequent development of ocean basins is an integral part of long-term planetary-scale recycling processes. The products of this process can be seen globally, and the East African Rift System (EARS) provides a unique view of extensional processes that actively divide a continent. Taken together with the adjoining Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, the EARS has experienced over 40 Ma of volcanism and ~30 Ma of extension. While early (pre-rift) volcanism in the region is attributed to mantle plume activity, much of the subsequent volcanism occurs synchronously with continental rifting. Numerous studies indicate that extension and magmatism are correlated: extension leads to decompression melting while magmatism accommodates further extension (e.g. Stein et al., 1997; Buck 2004; Corti 2012). Evaluation of the entire EARS reveals significant geochemical patterns - both spatial and temporal - in the volcanic products. Compositional variations are tied directly to the melt source(s), which changes over time. These variations can be characterized broadly by region: the Ethiopian plateau and Turkana Depression, the Kenya Rift, and the Western Rift. In the Ethiopian plateau, early flood basalt volcanism is dominated by mantle plume contributions with variable input from lherzolitic mantle lithosphere. Subsequent alkaline shield volcanism flanking the juvenile Main Ethiopian Rift records the same plume component as well as contributions from a hydrous peridotitic lithosphere. The hydrous lithosphere does not contribute indefinitely. Instead, young (< 2 Ma) volcanism taps a combination of the mantle plume and anhydrous depleted lithospheric mantle. In contrast, volcanism in the Kenya Rift and the Western Rift are derived dominantly from metasomatized lithospheric mantle rather than mantle plume material. These rifts lie in the mobile belts flanking the Archean Tanzanian craton, suggesting the lithosphere in these regions has a complex geodynamic history that provides an avenue of weakness for rift development around the craton. In the Tanzanian portion of the Kenya Rift, highly sodic mafic and carbonatitic lavas dominate both the rift valleys and rift shoulders. Mantle xenoliths from this region show petrographic and isotopic evidence for ancient and recent metasomatic events. In the Western Rift, highly potassic mafic lavas dominate the volcanic landscape in the rift valley and rift margins. The lithospheric mantle underlying this region is highly metasomatized, as evidenced by the presence of clinopyroxenite, websterite and glimmerite xenoliths and the absence of peridotite. The highly fusible metasomatized mantle beneath both the Kenya and Western rifts enables lithospheric melting with comparatively minor P-T perturbation. Regardless of which process begot the other, lithospheric thinning promotes melting while volcanism promotes lithospheric weakness and enables rift propagation. When viewed holistically, both mantle plume activity and lithospheric heterogeneities have played a vital role in the initiation and subsequent evolution of the rifting throughout eastern Africa.

Nelson, W. R.; Furman, T.



Lightning protection of distribution systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Research work on the lightning protection of distribution systems is described. The rationale behind the planning of the first major phase of the work - the field experiments conducted in the Tampa Bay area during August 1978 and July to September 1979 is explained. The aims of the field work were to characterize lightning in the Tampa Bay area, and to identify the lightning parameters associated with the occurrence of line outages and equipment damage on the distribution systems of the participating utilities. The equipment developed for these studies is fully described. The field work provided: general data on lightning - e.g., electric and magnetic fields of cloud and ground flashes; data from automated monitoring of lightning activity; stroke current waveshapes and peak currents measured at distribution arresters; and line outage and equipment damage on 13 kV networks in the Tampa Bay area. Computer aided analyses were required to collate and to process the accumulated data. The computer programs developed for this work are described. Improved models of the lightning ground flash were developed and incorporated into improved analytical methods for calculating the response of distribution system to overvoltages produced by direct strokes and by induction from nearby strokes. The development of the following are described: an improved model of the leader, and its incorporation into the electrogeometric method for determining the point of contact at ground level; a more detailed model of the lightning ground flash, and its incorporation into a computer program for calculating line outage rates due to direct lightning strikes; and a multi-conductor travelling wave technique for calculating voltage and current surges on the phase conductor and the neutral of an unshielded distribution line subject to a direct lightning strike.

Darveniza, M.; Uman, M.A.



Final Report of Strongly Interacting Fermion Systems  

SciTech Connect

There has been significant progress in three broad areas: (A) Optical properties, (B) Large-scale computations, and (C) Many-body systems. In this summary the emphasis is primarily on those papers that point to the research plans. At the same time, some important analytic work is not neglected, some of it even appearing in the description of large-scale Computations. Indeed one of the aims of such computations is to give new insights which lead to development of models capable of simple analytic or nearly analytic analysis.

Wilkins, J. W.



Geophysical tomography imaging system. Final CRADA report  

SciTech Connect

The Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., and Geophex, Ltd., was established to investigate high-resolution, shallow acoustic imaging of the subsurface. The primary objectives of the CRADA were accomplished, including the evaluation of a new tomographic imaging algorithm and the testing and comparison of two different acoustic sources, the hammer/plate source and an electromagnetic vibratory source. The imaging system was composed essentially of a linear array of geophones, a digital seismograph, and imaging software installed on a personal computer. Imaging was most successful using the hammer source, which was found to be less susceptible to ground roll (surface wave) interference. It is conjectured that the vibratory source will perform better for deeper targets for which ground roll is less troublesome. Potential applications of shallow acoustic imaging are numerous, including the detection and characterization of buried solid waste, unexploded ordnance, and clandestine man-made underground structures associated with treaty verification (e.g., tunnels, underground storage facilities, hidden bunkers).

Norton, S.J. [Lockheed Martin Energy Research, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Won, I.J. [Geophex, Ltd., Raleigh, NC (United States)



Physics of Correlated Systems, Final Project Report  

SciTech Connect

The funding of this DOE project has enabled the P.I. and his collaborators to tackle a number of problems involving nonperturbatively coupled atomic systems, including their interactions with each other and/or with an external electromagnetic field of the type provided by either a continuous-wave or a femtosecond short-pulse laser. The progress includes a new, deeper understanding of an old and famous theory of autoionization lineshapes, developed initially by Ugo Fano in 1935 and later extended in a highly cited 1961 article; the new result specifically is that in a collaboration with the Heidelberg group we have been able to demonstrate an unexpectedly simple behavior in the time domain that is relevant for modern short-pulse lasers. This study also demonstrates a way to modify and even control the lineshapes of unstable atomic and molecular energy levels.

Greene, Chris H. [University of Colorado at Boulder] [University of Colorado at Boulder



Determination and implication of Lower Crustal Bodies in the Møre rifted margin (offshore Norway)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Møre margin is the result of a long period of rifting events influenced by different tectonic processes. The last extension phase of the Møre margin was accompanied by the onset of massive magmatic activity leading to the emplacement of seaward dipping reflector sequences (SDRS). However the previous events were probably characterized by a smaller amount of magmatism, like for a classic magma poor rifted margin. Several refraction studies across the Møre rifted margin have also revealed the occurrence of high velocity lower crustal bodies (LCB) under the distal SDRS wedge but also in more proximal positions of the margin (e.g. Kvarven et al., 2012). The nature, age and location of these LCBs are still questionable and represent key and primary parameters to understand the tectonic and crustal evolution of the volcanic rifted margin. Nature, age and geometry of these LCBs have major implications on the rheological and thermal evolution of the rift/margin system. In light of 2D potential field modelling combined with reflection and refraction seismic data, we reinvestigated the crustal nature of the Møre volcanic rifted margin and adjacent Jan Mayen corridor. In the proximal domain of the Møre volcanic rifted margin, our study shows that the LCBs most likely represent inherited crustal bodies and are not necessarily made of rift-related serpentinised mantle as previously proposed. In the distal margin, our preferred interpretation suggests that the outer LCBs are still made of relics of pre-rift lower continental crustal rocks, more or less intruded and/or underplated by Tertiary magmatic rocks. The seismic, magnetic and gravity data do not easily support large scale exhumation of serpentinised mantle in the inner and outer parts of the Møre Basin. Our model suggests that the Møre rift system evolved through a significant Late Jurassic-Cretaceous thinning phase. This rift episode led to a thin continental crust with pre rift lower crustal rocks but without perennial domains of exhumed and serpentinised mantle. This significant extensional event preceded a Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary rift episode which is characterised by different and independent magmatic and lithospheric processes leading to breakup (e.g. diking and lithospheric plumbing).

Nirrengarten, Michael; Gernigon, Laurent; Manatschal, Gianreto



Lattice-particle simulation of stress patterns in a Rwenzori-type rift transfer zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new 3D spring lattice computer model has been developed and used to calculate the stress-field in the vicinity of a rift transfer zone. The numerical setup is based on the Rwenzori block, a transfer zone in the Western Branch of the East African Rift Valley. The study has two closely related, yet independent aims: primarily to gain insight into the pattern and the causes of the stress field in the Rwenzori area. The second aim is the evaluation of the model itself, based on a comparison of the model results with local geological structures. The simulations calculate the stress in the brittle part of the crust, at the topographic surface and at a depth of 10 km. The model does therefore not rely on the rate of the continental extension, but only on the amount. The generated stress maps display the maximum and minimum principal normal stress. The stress is calculated for a total extension of 7.5 km, a value based on common estimates for the local rift extension. The local stress field is created by the interplay of the plate driven far-field stress and the mechanics of the rift system. The propagation of the rift system leads thus to stress rotations and to characteristic stress patterns. An important mechanism is lithospheric bending caused by rift flank uplift, which reverses the far field stress in rift vicinity. The stress-field resulting from the simulations explains several previously unexplained structural features encountered in the Rwenzori block.

Sachau, Till; Koehn, Daniel; Passchier, Cees



A Comparison of Embryonic and Mature Volcanic Passive Margins. Main Ethiopian Rift vs North Atlantic Margins.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North Atlantic margins and the Main Ethiopian Rift system are considered, on the basis of geochemical and geophysical data, to record rifting of continental lithosphere above a mantle plume. Such rift systems are frequently referred to as volcanic passive margins. Rifting in the NE Atlantic occurred c.55 Ma ago and in Ethiopia it began between 15 and 18 Ma ago and continues to the present day. Consequently, the Main Ethiopian rift and its extension into the Afar volcanic province is considered to represent an embryonic passive margin system in which magmatic processes associated with the initiation of ocean spreading are beginning to dominate over tectonic rifting. Present day magmatism is concentrating in elongate en-echlon zones that have developed at the centre of the tectonic rift system in the last 2 Ma both at the surface and in the upper and mid crust. In contrast the older margins of the North Atlantic have stabilised following post-rift subsidence. Their structure is dominated by extended crust intruded by large bodies of magmatic underplate and overlain by seaward dipping reflectors. Subsequent burial and the problems of sub-basalt imaging mean that detailed structure is obscured A comparison between the embryonic structure of the MER and the older/developed NE Atlantic margin yields a stark contrast in lithospheric structure, particularly in the volume of magmatic rock identified. This suggests that an acceleration in the rate of magma production must accompany the actual break-up in order for the Main Ethiopian rift to develop into a full volcanic margin. Currently, there is very little magmatism in the Main Ethiopian rift but it has been argued that this is sufficient for break-up to proceed. If this is the case it is likely that a margin more closely similar to non-volcanic margins would result. Alternatively, the large pulse of magmatism, such as is recorded in the North Atlantic is either the result of rifting above a mantle plume, meaning that the plume plays only a small role in the initial stages of rifting, or there was an acceleration of magmatic activity in the North Atlantic that coincided with the late stage of break- up.

England, R.; Cornwell, D.; Maguire, P.



Deformational models of rifting and folding on Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Features of presumed tectonic origin on Venus are reviewed, and lithospheric strength envelopes are derived based on laboratory measurements of the deformational properties of crustal and subcrustal rocks, extrapolated to conditions appropriate to Venus. Models for rifting and folding are developed that use this lithospheric structure and take into account both brittle and ductile yielding as well as finite elastic strength. For both rifting and folding, structures with characteristic widths and spacings are predicted whose size depends on the thickness of the lithosphere, density contrast, and elastic properties of the layer. Finally, the model predictions are compared with the widths and spacings of observed tectonic features, and it is concluded that they are consistent with a relatively strong mantle layer separated from a thin brittle surface layer by a ductile lower crust. These results allow constraints to be placed on the crustal thickness and thermal gradient on Venus.

Banerdt, W. B.; Golombek, M. P.



Masirah Graben, Oman: A hidden Cretaceous rift basin  

SciTech Connect

Reflection seismic data, well data, geochemical data, and surface geology suggest that a Cretaceous rift basin exists beneath the thrusted allochthonous sedimentary sequence of the Masirah graben, Oman. The Masirah graben is located east of the Huqf uplift, parallel to the southern coast of Oman. The eastern side of the northeast-trending Huqf anticlinorium is bounded by an extensional fault system that is downthrown to the southeast, forming the western edge of the Masirah graben. This graben is limited to the east by a large wedge of sea floor sediments and oceanic crust, that is stacked as imbricate thrusts. These sediments/ophiolites were obducted onto the southern margin of the Arabian plate during the collision of the Indian/Afghan plates at the end of the Cretaceous. Most of the Masirah graben is covered by an allochthonous sedimentary sequence, which is complexly folded and deformed above a detachment. This complexly deformed sequence contrasts sharply with what is believed to be a rift sequence below the ophiolites. The sedimentary sequence in the Masirah graben was stable until further rifting of the Arabian Sea/Gulf of Aden in the late Tertiary, resulting in reactivation of earlier rift-associated faults. Wells drilled in the Masirah graben in the south penetrated reservoir quality rocks in the Lower Cretaceous Natih and Shuaiba carbonates. Analyses of oil extracted from Infracambrian sedimentary rocks penetrated by these wells suggest an origin from a Mesozoic source rock.

Beauchamp, W.H. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Ries, A.C. [Ries-Coward Associates Ltd., Caversham (United Kingdom); Coward, M.P. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)] [and others



The protracted development of focused magmatic intrusion during continental rifting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

transition from mechanical thinning toward focused magmatic intrusion during continental rifting is poorly constrained; the tectonically active Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) provides an ideal study locale to address this issue. The presence of linear magmatic-tectonic belts in the relatively immature central MER may indicate that the transition from mechanical to magmatic rifting is more spatially distributed and temporally protracted than has previously been assumed. Here we examine lava geochemistry and vent distribution of a Pliocene-Quaternary linear magmatic chain along the western margin of the central MER—the Akaki Magmatic Zone. Our results show limited variability in parental magma that evolve in a complex polybaric fractionation system that has not changed significantly over the past 3 Ma. Our results suggest the following: (1) channeling of plume material and the localization of shear- or topography-induced porosity modulates melt intrusion into the continental lithosphere. (2) Pre-existing lithospheric structures may act as catalysts for intrusion of magmas into the lithospheric mantle. (3) The midcrustal to upper crustal strain regime dictates the surface orientation of volcanic vents. Therefore, although linear magmatic belts like those in the central MER may young progressively toward the rift axis and superficially resemble oceanic style magmatism, they actually represent prebreakup magmatism on continental crust. The oldest linear magmatic belts observed seismically and magnetically at the edge of the ocean basins thus may not, as is often assumed, actually mark the onset of seafloor spreading.

Rooney, Tyrone O.; Bastow, Ian D.; Keir, Derek; Mazzarini, Francesco; Movsesian, Emily; Grosfils, Eric B.; Zimbelman, James R.; Ramsey, Michael S.; Ayalew, Dereje; Yirgu, Gezahegn



Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2013 East African Rift  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rifting in East Africa is not all coeval; volcanism and faulting have been an ongoing phenomenon on the continent since the Eocene (~45 Ma). The rifting began in northern East Africa, and led to the separation of the Nubia (Africa) and Arabia plates in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, and in the Lake Turkana area at the Kenya-Ethiopia border. A Paleogene mantle superplume beneath East Africa caused extension within the Nubia plate, as well as a first order topographic high known as the African superswell which now includes most of the eastern and southern sectors of the Nubia plate. Widespread volcanism erupted onto much of the rising plateau in Ethiopia during the Eocene-Oligocene (45–29 Ma), with chains of volcanoes forming along the rift separating Africa and Arabia. Since the initiation of rifting in northeastern Africa, the system has propagated over 3,000 km to the south and southwest, and it experiences seismicity as a direct result of the extension and active magmatism.

Hayes, Gavin; Jones, Eric S.; Stadler, Timothy J.; Barnhart, William D.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Benz, Harley M.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio



Initiation of the western branch of the East African Rift coeval with the eastern branch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The East African Rift System transects the anomalously high-elevation Ethiopian and East African plateaux that together form part of the 6,000-km-long African superswell structure. Rifting putatively developed as a result of mantle plume activity that initiated under eastern Africa. The mantle activity has caused topographic uplift that has been connected to African Cenozoic climate change and faunal evolution. The rift is traditionally interpreted to be composed of two distinct segments: an older, volcanically active eastern branch and a younger, less volcanic western branch. Here, we show that initiation of rifting in the western branch began more than 14 million years earlier than previously thought, contemporaneously with the eastern branch. We use a combination of detrital zircon geochronology, tephro- and magnetostratigraphy, along with analyses of past river flow recorded in sedimentary rocks from the Rukwa Rift Basin, Tanzania, to constrain the timing of rifting, magmatism and drainage development in this part of the western branch. We find that rift-related volcanism and lake development had begun by about 25million years ago. These events were preceded by pediment development and a fluvial drainage reversal that we suggest records the onset of topographic uplift caused by the African superswell. We conclude that uplift of eastern Africa was more widespread and synchronous than previously recognized.

Roberts, E. M.; Stevens, N. J.; O'Connor, P. M.; Dirks, P. H. G. M.; Gottfried, M. D.; Clyde, W. C.; Armstrong, R. A.; Kemp, A. I. S.; Hemming, S.



Final system instrumentation design package for Decade 80 solar house  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The final configuration of the Decade 80 solar house to monitor and collect system performance data is presented. A review demonstrated by actual operation that the system and the data acquisition subsystem operated satisfactorily and installation of instrumentation was in accordance with the design. This design package is made up of (1) site and system description, (2) operating and control modes, and (3) instrumentation program (including sensor schematic).



Tectono-stratigraphic signature of multiphased rifting on divergent margins (deep-offshore southwest Iberia, North Atlantic)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional 2D multichannel seismic, borehole, dredge and outcrop data, together with burial models for strata in southwest Iberia, are used to investigate the tectono-stratigraphic signature of multiphased rifting on divergent margins. Our burial model reveals that Mesozoic extension occurred during three main phases, each comprising distinct subsidence pulses separated by short-lived periods of crustal uplift. The importance of the three phases varies across discrete sectors of the margin, each one revealing similar depositional architectures and associated tectonic systems tracts: 1) the Rift Initiation phase, characterized by incipient subsidence and overall aggradation/progradation over a basal unconformity, 2) the Rift Climax phase, which marks maxima of tectonic subsidence and is characterized by retrogradation-progradation, and 3) the Late Rift phase, recording the progradational infill of the basin and the effects of eustasy. The Rift Initiation systems tracts comprise Sinemurian and late Callovian-early Oxfordian strata. Marine units in the Pliensbachian and Late Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian represent the Rift Climax phase, a period marked by the development of Maximum Flooding Surfaces. Late Rift deposits were identified in the Rhaetian-Hettangian, Toarcian-Bathonian and Kimmeridgian-Berriasian. The results of this work are important to the economic exploration of deep-offshore rift basins, as they reveal that sequence stratigraphy can be used to predict sedimentary facies distribution in more distal segments of such basins. Significantly, this work recognizes that multiple tectonic-stratigraphic (rift) cycles can occur on deep-offshore rift basins, from the onset of rift-related extension until continental break-up, a character that contrast to what is known from deep-sea drilling data from the distal margin of Northwest Iberia.

Pereira, Ricardo; Alves, Tiago M.



Rift Valley Fever Outbreak, Southern Mauritania, 2012  

PubMed Central

After a period of heavy rainfall, an outbreak of Rift Valley fever occurred in southern Mauritania during September–November 2012. A total of 41 human cases were confirmed, including 13 deaths, and 12 Rift Valley fever virus strains were isolated. Moudjeria and Temchecket Departments were the most affected areas. PMID:24447334

Sow, Abdourahmane; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Ba, Hampathé; Diallo, Diawo; Faye, Oumar; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Boushab, Mohamed; Barry, Yahya; Diallo, Mawlouth



Dynamics of crustal rifting in NE Iceland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetotelluric measurements have revealed a crustal thickness of 8-10 km in the axial rift zone of NE Iceland and above the proposed hot spot in central east and north Iceland. The crust thickens with age and is 20-30 km thick in the older Tertiary areas to the east and west of the axial rift zone. It also thickens toward north

Axel Björnsson



Rift-Drift, Seafloor Spreading, and Subduction Tectonics of Albanian Ophiolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Albanian ophiolites in the Dinaride-Albanide-Hellenide mountain system in the Balkan Peninsula represent oceanic remnants of the Mesozoic Pindos-Mirdita basin and structurally overlie the peripheral tectonic units, composed mainly of volcanosedimentary rift assemblages and conjugate passive margin sequences. These tectonic units and the ophiolites collectively record the rift-drift, seafloor spreading, and subduction evolution of the Pindos-Mirdita basin, which developed as a

Yildirim Dilek; Minella Shallo; Harald Furnes



Beam dynamics in the SLC final focus system  

SciTech Connect

The SLC luminosity is reached by colliding beams focused to about 2 transverse sizes. The Final Focus System (FFS) must enable, beyond its basic optical design, the detection and correction of errors accumulated in the system. In this paper, after summarizing the design, we review the sensitivity to such errors and the ability to correct them. The overall tuning strategy involves three phases: single beam spot minimization, steering the beams in collision and luminosity optimization with beam-beam effects.

Bambade, P.S.



Petrological evidence regarding the evolution of the Kenya Rift Valley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The compositions of mafic volcanic rocks of the Kenya Rift Valley indicate either generation, or final equilibration, of magmas within the lithosphere. The dominant lithologies in the mantle sources are spinel- and garnet-lherzolites and melt generation spanned the spinel-garnet transition. Modally metasomatised sources have been less important, at least in Quaternary times. The sources are depleted relative to the sources of oceanic island basalts and heterogeneous as regards minor and trace element distribution. Variable degrees of partial melting (always < 3%) and retention of minor phases diversify magma compositions. Primary magmas are rare in the rift zone. All major sequences show evidence of extensive polybaric fractionation within the upper mantle and lower crust. Inter-crustal fractionation has commonly been accompanied by assimilation and the development of silica-(over)saturated liquids. Fractionation at high crustal levels has generated a wide range of mugearitic, trachytic and phonolitic magmas. Crustal anatexis has locally resulted in the formation of peralkaline rhyolites. Generation of the enormous volumes of rift volcanics must also have generated huge volumes of mafic and ultramafic cumulates, especially at or near the Moho. It is possible that, in the most magmatically active areas, more than 20% of the thickness of the crust is due to magmatic underplating and crustal intrusion.

Macdonald, Ray



The Sagatu Ridge dike swarm, Ethiopian rift margin. [tectonic evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A swarm of dikes forms the core of the Sagatu Ridge, a 70-km-long topographic feature elevated to more than 4000 m above sea level and 1500 m above the level of the Eastern (Somalian) plateau. The ridge trends NNE and lies about 50 km east of the northeasterly trending rift-valley margin. Intrusion of the dikes and buildup of the flood-lava pile, largely hawaiitic but with trachyte preponderant in the final stages, occurred during the late Pliocene-early Pleistocene and may have been contemporaneous with downwarping of the protorift trough to the west. The ensuing faulting that formed the present rift margin, however, bypassed the ridge. The peculiar situation and orientation of the Sagatu Ridge, and its temporary existence as a line of crustal extension and voluminous magmatism, are considered related to a powerful structural control by a major line of Precambrian crustal weakness, well exposed further south. Transverse rift structures of unknown type appear to have limited the development of the ridge to the north and south.

Mohr, P. A.; Potter, E. C.



The Effect of Continental Rifting on Lithospheric Fabric: Evidence From the Mid-Continent Rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mid-Continent Rift (MCR) is a major feature of the North American continent: a 1.1 Ga rift that failed to develop into an ocean basin. Though the crustal expression of the rift is preserved, it is impossible to determine from crustal evidence the nature of the lithospheric contribution to the rifting process. The installation of teleseismic instrumentation through the Superior Province Rifting Earthscope Experiment (SPREE) is allowing investigation of the lithosphere beneath the MCR, which will help in addressing questions about the initiation, propagation, and failure of the rift structure. We focus on observing the strength and orientation of lithospheric fabric through measurements of the splitting of teleseismic SK(K)S waves at instruments in and near the rift axis, using the method of Silver and Chan (1991) to find the set of parameters that optimally restores linear particle motion. Our results show that the fast direction varies only subtly across the study area, with the exception of localized outliers. The fast direction is close to the direction of absolute plate motion, but shows greater scatter within the MCR itself. Split times show strong variations (from near-zero to 1.5 s), with lower values within the rift; the Nipigon Embayment stands out as a particularly low-anisotropy region. These measurements suggest that the rifting process thinned the lithosphere or reset its fabric, indicating significant lithospheric participation in the rifting process.

Ola, O. B.; Frederiksen, A. W.



Simulated final approach path captures using the microwave landing system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer simulation results are presented for intercepting final approach paths using various Microwave Landing System (MLS) path capture concepts. This study, conducted under the Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) program, simulated these captures using the MD-80 aircraft as the study model. Several different capture concepts were investigated. Systems that could be retrofitted into existing aircraft with minimum hardware and software changes were considered. An enhanced ILS look-alike capture provided improved tracking performance over conventional ILS without using a full-up path computer. The other concepts used waypoint databases and path computers to provide smart captures. These captures included lateral path intercepts as well as vertical path control. Winds, turbulence, and MLS noise were included in the simulation. In all cases, acceptable tracking errors were obtained during transition to the final approach path.

Feather, J. B.



Three-Dimensional (3D) Structure of the Malawi Rift from Remote Sensing and Geophysics Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Malawi rift is a Cenozoic aged rift representing the southernmost segment of the Western Branch of the East African Rift System (EARS). This rift extends over 900 km from the Rungwe volcanic province (Tanzania) in the north to the Urema graben (Mozambique) to the south, with an average width of 50km. It traverses a complex array of Proterozoic orogenic belts of different ages and Permo-Triassic (Karoo) and cretaceous graben systems. The rift's depth is between 3 to 5km partitioned between the topographic escarpment and the sediments fill. The basin's subsidence reflects accumulation of sediments and rift flank uplift. Regardless of its importance in understanding rift tectonics, especially in Africa, the three-dimensional (3D) geometry of the rift is not fully understood. This research presents results from detailed analysis of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) extracted from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data to map surface morphological expressions of the entire basin. These results are compared with available seismic data to provide along-strike and at depth variation of the geometry of the border fault systems, nature of rift segmentation and alternation of the polarity of half-grabens, and the partitioning of displacement between exposed and sub-surface border faults. Our results show the following: (1) Surface expression of border faults show that, unlike the typical half-graben en-echelon rift model, where half-graben segments with opposite polarity are linked together through accommodation zones indicative of soft linkage, the Malawi rift shows along-strike segmentation by changing geometry from half-graben to full graben geometry. A half-graben with specific polarity passes through a full-graben geometry before giving place to a half-graben with the opposite polarity. The length of half-gaben and graben segments becomes shorter as the rift progresses from north to south, and this is accompanied by a decrease in displacement within border faults. This geometry is indicative of the propagation of border faults through hard linkage. (2) The continuation of border faults at the subsurface show patterns consistent with those observed at the surface. At the sub-surface, the general trend of rift segmentation, formation of full grabens at the end of each segment, and the decreases in the length of the segments from north to south is consistent with observations at the surface. This suggests the homogeneity of strain accommodation throughout the depth of border faults. (3) Zones of segmentation of the Malawi rift coincide with regions where the pre-existing structures (both the Proterozoic basement and the Karoo grabens) are at high angle to the trend of the rift whereas well-developed border faults of the basin coincides with N-trending pre-existing structures sub-parallel to the rift.

Salmi, Haifa S. Al; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.



Pliocene Cinder Cone Chains Adjacent to the Main Ethiopian Rift: Precursors to Rift-based Quaternary Zones of Focused Magmatic Intrusion?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Main Ethiopian rift (MER) is the premier example of rifting that is actively extending a continent. A key target in understanding the transition from continental rifting to oceanic spreading are the Quaternary linear magmatic-tectonic belts that extend discontinuously along the rift north of 6°N (Wonji Fault Belt and Silti-Debre Zeyit Fault Zone). However, uncertainties remain as to how these zones of focused magmatic intrusion initiate. Possible precursors to the rift floor Quaternary linear magmatic-tectonic belts are preserved in the central MER. Here, Pliocene linear magmatic chains adjacent to the rift on eastern and western plateaus share many of the same morphological features as the later rift-floor magmatic-tectonic belts, and allow for a temporal probe of mantle sources and magmatic plumbing systems of the evolving rift. The Pliocene Akaki belt is located along the western Ethiopian plateau margin adjacent to the rift-floor Quaternary Silti-Debre Zeyit Fault Zone. Magmas within the Akaki belt extend to some of the most primitive recorded in the rift (up to ~14% MgO), and follow an augite-dominated fractionation path that is consistent with crystal fractionation at deep crustal levels. This interpretation is supported by geophysical evidence of melt present in the lower crust in this region. The magmatic plumbing system of the Akaki magmas is inferred to be similar to that of the adjacent Silti-Debre Zeyit Fault Zone. Both magmatic belts are dominated by fractionation at deep levels within the crust, and have abundant megacrysts of augite, feldspar and olivine - evidence of magma stalling. By comparison, lavas from the Wonji Fault Belt - the regionally dominant magmatic belt located adjacent to the eastern rift margin - have fractionated at much shallower levels and have few megacrysts. These data suggest a dominantly spatial control of the magma plumbing systems in the rift, with little temporal changes along the western rift margin during the Pliocene- Quaternary magmatic episodes. The trace element characteristics of more primitive (>7% MgO) Akaki lavas are comparable to other MER magmas, but show slightly elevated values of Ba/Rb and weakly negative K anomalies in primitive-mantle normalized plots. We interpret these characteristics as evidence for small quantities of amphibole in the mantle source of the Akaki lavas. By contrast, minor phlogopite is present in the source of adjacent Quaternary Silti-Debre Zeyit Fault Zone lavas, implying a temporal shift in mantle source lithologies of magmas along the western rift margin. The basis of this temporal shift and the origin of these contrasting source lithologies remains uncertain. While the geochemical signature of amphibole in the source of a magma indicates some contribution from the lithospheric mantle, the origin of this amphibole is equivocal and could be equally derived from modern or ancient metasomatic events. Easily fusible phases such as amphibole and phlogopite may be important in melt generation, and future isotopic characterization of the Akaki lavas will help constrain unresolved questions surrounding the origin of these phases and their role in magmatism in the central MER.

Rooney, T. O.; Yirgu, G.; Zimbelman, J. R.; Grosfils, E. B.; Ramsey, M.; Movsesian, E.



Mantle deformation during rifting: Constraints from quantitative microstructural analysis of olivine from the East African Rift (Marsabit, Kenya)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lherzolitic and harzburgitic peridotite xenoliths from the Marsabit volcanic field of the East-African Rift, Kenya, display a range of porphyroclastic to ultramylonitic textures that record intense deformation and strain localisation during decompression, cooling and exhumation of subcontinental mantle lithosphere during the early stages of continental rifting. Quantitative microstructural analysis by electron backscatter diffraction of both bulk fabrics and intragrain low-angle boundaries have been applied to these xenoliths to establish how deformation has evolved during this exhumation history. Bulk rock fabric analysis indicates the operation of (001)[100] (E-type) as the dominant slip system in the constituent olivines, with only one porphyroclastic xenolith recording the development of the classical (010)[100] (A-type) fabric. A weak E-type fabric is also present within the fine-grained matrix of the mylonitic and ultramylonitic xenoliths. Low-angle boundaries, preserved within individual olivine grains within the different xenoliths indicate the evolution of intra-grain slip systems from (010)[100] (A-slip) and (001)[100] (E-slip) in porphyroclastic peridotites, to dominant (001)[100] (E-slip) in the protomylonite and mylonite and dominant (100)[001] (C-slip) in the ultramylonite. Bulk fabric and intragrain low-angle boundary analyses are therefore concordant and indicate a systematic evolution of olivine slip systems from A-type to E-type to C-type during strain localisation associated with cooling during mantle exhumation. Both approaches confirm the dominant activity of the (001)[100] E-type slip system during rifting. However, the ultramylonites also provide the first evidence of [001] slip in such an environment. The activation of these two slip systems in olivine might be a useful indicator of an extensional rift margin setting in other peridotites.

Kaczmarek, Mary-Alix; Reddy, Steven M.



Investigation of rifting processes in the Rio Grande Rift using data from unusually large earthquake swarms  

SciTech Connect

San Acacia Swarm in the Rio Grande Rift. Because the Rio Grande rift is one of the best seismically instrumented rift zones in the world, studying its seismicity provides an exceptional opportunity to explore the active tectonic processes within continental rifts. We have been studying earthquake swarms recorded near Socorro in an effort to link seismicity directly to the rifting process. For FY94, our research has focused on the San Acacia swarm, which occurred 25 km north of Socorro, New Mexico, along the accommodation zone between the Albuquerque-Belen and Socorro basins of the central Rio Grande rift. The swarm commenced on 25 February 1983, had a magnitude 4.2 main shock on 2 March and ended on 17 March, 1983.

Sanford, A.; Balch, R. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); House, L.; Hartse, H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)



Imaging the midcontinent rift beneath Lake Superior using large aperture seismic data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present a detailed velocity model across the 1.1 billion year old Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) in central Lake Superior. The model was derived primarily from onshore-offshore large-aperture seismic and gravity data. High velocities obtained within a highly reflective half-graben that was imaged on coincident seismic reflection data demonstrate the dominantly mafic composition of the graben fill and constrain its total thickness to be at least 30km. Strong wide-angle reflections are observed from the lower crust and Moho, indicating that the crust is thickest (55–60km) beneath the axis of the graben. The total crustal thickness decreases rapidly to about 40 km beneath the south shore of the lake and decreases more gradually to the north. Above the Moho is a high-velocity lower crust interpreted to result from syn-rift basaltic intrusion into and/or underplating beneath the Archean lower crust. The lower crust is thickest beneath the axis of the main rift half-graben. A second region of thick lower crust is found approximately 100km north of the axis of the rift beneath a smaller half graben that is interpreted to reflect an earlier stage of rifting. The crustal model presented here resembles recent models of some passive continental margins and is in marked contrast to many models of both active and extinct Phanerozoic continental rift zones. It demonstrates that the Moho is a dynamic feature, since the pre-rift Moho is probably within or above the high-velocity lower crust, whereas the post-rift Moho is defined as the base of this layer. In the absence of major tectonic activity, however, the Moho is very stable, since the large, abrupt variations in crustal thickness beneath the MRS have been preserved for at least a billion years.

Trehu, Anne M.; Morel-a-l'Huissier, Patrick; Meyer, R.; Hajnal, Z.; Karl, J.; Mereu, R. F.; Sexton, J.; Shay, J.; Chan, W. K.; Epili, D.; Jefferson, T.; Shih, X. R.; Wendling, S.; Milkereit, B.; Green, A.; Hutchinson, Deborah R.



New perspectives on the evolution of narrow, modest extension continental rifts: Embryonic core complexes and localized, rapid Quaternary extension in the Rio Grande rift, central New Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Updated models for continental rift zones need to address the role and development of low-angle normal fault networks, episodicity of extension, and interaction of 'active and passive' driving mechanisms. In the Rio Grande rift, USA, low-angle normal faults are found throughout the entire length of the rift, but make up a small percentage of the total fault population. The low-angle Jeter and Knife Edge faults, for example, crop out along the SW and NE margins of the Albuquerque basin, respectively. Apatite fission track (AFT) age-elevation data and apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) ages from these rift flank uplifts record cooling between ~21 - 16 Ma in the NE rift flank and ~20 - 10 Ma in the SW, which coincides with times of rapid extension and voluminous syntectonic sedimentation. The timing of exhumation is also similar to rift flanks farther north in active margins based on AFT data alone. In addition, synthetic faults in the hanging wall of each low-angle fault become progressively steeper and younger basinward, and footwall blocks are the highest elevation along the rift flanks. These observations are consistent with a model where initially high-angle faults are shallowed in regions of maximum extension. As they rotate, new intrabasinal faults emerge which also can be rotated if extension continues. These relationships are similarly described in mature core complexes, and if these processes continued in the Rio Grande rift, it could eventually result in mid-crustal ductily deformed rocks in the footwall placed against surficial deposits in the hanging wall across faults that have been isostatically rotated to shallow dips. Although existing data are consistent with highest strain rates during a pulse of extension along the entire length of the rift 20-10 Ma., GPS-constrained measurements suggest that the rift is still actively-extending at 1.23-1.39 nstr/yr (Berglund et al., 2012). Additional evidence for Quaternary extension comes from travertine deposits that are cut by multiple tensile vein sets along the western margin of the Albuquerque basin in the Lucero uplift. At this location, U-series ages on travertine deposits are used to calculate strain rates at this location. These strain rates (15-105 nstr/yr) are higher than both the modern strain rates as well as the average long-term strain rates (3-14 nstr/yr) obtained from restored cross-sections across different basins in the rift. To explain these observations, we propose a model involving high fluid pressures, which promote the formation of tensile veins that are oriented with respect to the modern day stress field in the rift. These regions of anomalously-high strain need not be widespread, and are only active on timescales of the hydraulic system, but they are nevertheless an underappreciated mechanism of progressive extension in the rift. Berglund, H.T., Sheehan, A.F., Murray, M.H., Roy, M., Lowry, A.R., Nerem, R.S., and Blume, F., 2012, Distributed deformation across the Rio Grande Rift, Great Plains, and Colorado Plateau: Geology, v. 40, p. 23-26.

Ricketts, J.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Kelley, S.



Accumulation of fossil fuels and metallic minerals in active and ancient rift lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study of active and ancient rift systems around the world suggests that accumulations of fossil fuels and metallic minerals are related to the interactions of processes that form rift valleys with those that take place in and around rift lakes. The deposition of the precursors of petroleum, gas, oil shale, coal, phosphate, barite, Cu-Pb-Zn sulfides, and uranium begins with erosion of uplifted areas, and the consequent input of abundant nutrients and solute loads into swamps and tectonic lakes. Hot springs and volcanism add other nutrients and solutes. The resulting high biological productivity creates oxidized/reduced interfaces, and anoxic and H2S-rich bottom waters which preserves metal-bearing organic tissues and horizons. In the depositional phases, the fine-grained lake deposits are in contact with coarse-grained beach, delta, river, talus, and alluvial fan deposits. Earthquake-induced turbidites also are common coarse-grained deposits of rift lakes. Postdepositional processes in rifts include high heat flow and a resulting concentration of the organic and metallic components that were dispersed throughout the lakebeds. Postdepositional faulting brings organic- and metal-rich sourcebeds in contact with coarse-grained host and reservoir rocks. A suite of potentially economic deposits is therefore a characteristic of rift valleys. ?? 1983.

Robbins, E.I.



Formation of the Shanxi Rift in North China: The control of preexisting lithospheric weakness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Shanxi Rift is an active seismic zone in North China, developed mainly since Pliocene (~5 Ma). Its formation has been associated with the Indo-Asian collision; other hypothesized causes include a regional extensional stress field associated with subduction of the western pacific plate and mantle upwelling under the North China Plain. However, these mechanisms do not explain why the rift system did not form along the western boundary of the North China Plain, where lithospheric thickness changes sharply from more than 150 km under the Ordos block and the Taihangshan Mountains to the west, to less than 70 km under the North China Plain. We have used a viscoplastic finite element model to explore the conditions for localized rifting in North China. Our results show that, for all the hypothesized causes, the preferred site of rifting would be along the boundary zone of changing lithospheric thickness. The only way to initiate the Shanxi rift in its current location, which is between the Ordos block and the Taihangshan Mountains with thick lithosphere, is to have preexisting lithospheric weakening there. This lithospheric weakness was likely formed during the collision between the Easter North China block and the Western North China block during the Paleoproterozoic (~1.8 Ga). Hence the ancient tectonic event still controls the young continental rifting.

Lin, F.; Liu, M.; Ye, J.



Analysis of the Junction of the East African Rift and the Cretaceous-Paleogene Rifts in Northern Kenya and Southern Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The East African rift (EAR) is a Tertiary-Miocene system that extends from the Middle East, through East Africa, to Mozambique in southern Africa. Much of the present information is from the Ethiopian and Kenyan parts of the rift. Several characteristics of the EAR such as rift-related volcanism, faulting and topographic relief being exposed make it attractive for studying continental rift processes. Structural complexities reflected in the geometries of grabens and half-grabens, the existence of transverse fault zones and accommodation zones, and the influence of pre-existing geologic structures have been documented. In particular, the EAR traverses the Anza graben and related structures near the Kenya/Ethiopian border. The Anza graben is one in a series of Cretaceous-Paleogene failed rifts that trend across Central Africa from Nigeria through Chad to Sudan and Kenya with an overall northwest-southeast trend. In spite of a number of recent studies, we do not understand the interaction of these two rift systems. In both Ethiopia and Kenya, the rift segments share some broad similarities in timing and are related in a geographic sense. For example, volcanism appears to have generally preceded or in some cases have been contemporaneous with major rift faulting. Although, these segments are distinct entities, each with its own tectonic and magmatic evolution, and they do connect in the region crossed by the Anza graben and related structures. In our present study, we are using a combination of recently collected seismic, gravity and remote sensing data to increase our understanding of these two segments of the EAR. We hope that by analysing the satellite data, the variety and differences in the volume of magmatic products extruded along in southern Ethiopia and northern Kenya will be identified. The geometry of structures (in particular, those causing the gravity axial high) will be modelled to study the impact of the older Anza graben structural trends with the younger EAR. For example there is significant crustal thinning in the Lake Turkana area of the northern Kenya segment of the EAR system. In regard to the recent EAGLE experiment in Ethiopia, we are ivestigating if the transition from relatively thick crust (~40 km) to thinned, rifted crust is as abrupt in Ethiopia as it is in Kenya.

Mariita, N. O.; Tadesse, K.; Keller, G. R.



From conjugate volcanic rifted margins to micro-continent formation: Double breakup development of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We re-evaluate the structure and spreading evolution of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea and surrounding volcanic (rifted) margins based on new high-resolution aeromagnetic surveys. The new dataset combined with long-offset seismic and gravity data allow us to have a better understanding of the structure and evolution of the conjugate margin systems in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea from the rifting to the drifting stage. We particularly focus on the new JAS-12 aeromagnetic survey acquired between the Aegir Ridge and the Jan Mayen micro-continent, which was initially part of the Møre-Vøring-Greenland rift system. Combined with the previous NB-07 and JAS-05 surveys, our final compilation fully covers the continent-ocean transition and the whole oceanic spreading system from the Møre margin to the conjugate Jan Mayen micro-continent with high quality, high-resolution and reliable magnetic data. The new dataset allowed a new, consistent and precise interpretation of the magnetic polarity chrons and oceanic fractures, providing the basis for more accurate rotation poles estimation, and better basin and crustal reconstructions between Norway, Greenland and the Jan Mayen micro-continent. This dataset allowed us to clarify the pre- and post-breakup configurations of the rift system and discuss the mechanisms involved during the onset of the two phases of breakup leading to the micro-continent formation. Our observations and models suggest that the pre-breakup rift system evolved through a significant Late Jurassic-Cretaceous thinning phase. This episode led to a significant thinning of the continental crust and an exhumation of pre-existing lower crust. However, we have not been able to identify and/or validate any clear domains of exhumed and denudated serpentinised mantle. The first Eocene breakup is mostly characterised by severe magmatism (sill, SDRS). Lithospheric/asthenospheric processes leading to rift localisation do not necessarily represent a continuum of lithospheric deformation with the precedent thinning system. Diking and disconnected lithospheric plumbing are proposed to explain the Eocene breakup. After the first phase of continental breakup, two major phases of spreading influenced the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. Phase I (from C24 to C21r, ~54 to 49 Ma) marks the earliest phase of spreading, probably initiated in the central and outer part of the Møre Basin. During this period, the formation of overlapping systems and pseudo-fault development, indirectly influenced by the proto-margin segmentation, suggests the presence of additional micro-plates in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. We also observed a significant change in the oceanic spreading system in the late Early Eocene. Based on observations from the surrounding areas, this supports a major and distinct tectonic and magmatic event in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea at around C21r (49-47.9 Ma), the beginning of a second phase. During Phase II, from C21r-C12 or possibly younger (48-<32 Ma) of the Norway Basin development, spreading rates decreased, spreading direction changed leading to the formation of unexpected N-S oriented oceanic fracture zones. Phase II probably coincides with the climax of extension and possibly local spreading that is suspected in the southern part of the Jan Mayen micro-continent forming a complex area of oceanic, transitional and continental fragments before its complete dislocation from East Greenland in Latest Oligocene.

Gernigon, Laurent; Blischke, Anett; Nasuti, Aziz; Olesen, Odleiv; Sand, Morten; Sveinn Arnarson, Thorarinn



Final report for TMX-U systems support  

SciTech Connect

This final report is for the TMX-U RF systems development subcontract with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This program was initiated on July 1, 1983 and extended through September 30, 1985. This program was concerned with the development of RF systems to meet the objectives of the TMX-U mirror program at LLNL. To accomplish this the following areas were studied during the course of this contract: (1) Ion Cyclotron Heating, (2) Electron Cyclotron Heating, (3) Drift Pumping, (4) Plasma Modeling, (5) Neutral Beam Heating, and (6) Neutral Gas transport and fueling. The key results of these activities are reported.

Not Available



A Dynamic Alignment System for the Final Focus Test Beam  

SciTech Connect

The Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) was conceived as a technological stepping stone on the way to the next linear collider. Nowhere is this more evident than with the alignment subsystems. Alignment tolerances for components prior to beam turn are almost an order of magnitude smaller than for previous projects at SLAC. Position monitoring systems which operate independent of the beam are employed to monitor motions of the components locally and globally with unprecedented precision. An overview of the FFTB alignment system is presented herein.

Ruland, R.E.; Bressler, V.E.; Fischer, G.; Plouffe, D.; /SLAC



Overview of the Final Focus Test Beam alignment system  

SciTech Connect

The Final Focus Test Beam was conceived as a technological stepping stone on the way to the next linear collider. Nowhere is this more evident than with the alignment subsystems. Alignment tolerances for components prior to beam turn are almost an order of magnitude smaller than for previous projects at SLAC. Position monitoring systems which operate independent of the beam are employed to monitor motions of the components locally and globally with unprecedented precision. An overview of the FFTB alignment system is presented herein.

Bressler, V.E.; Ruland, R.E.; Plouffe, D.



Rift Valley Fever Virus Encephalitis Is Associated with an Ineffective Systemic Immune Response and Activated T Cell Infiltration into the CNS in an Immunocompetent Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

Background Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes outbreaks of severe disease in livestock and humans throughout Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. In people, RVFV generally causes a self-limiting febrile illness but in a subset of individuals, it progresses to more serious disease. One manifestation is a delayed-onset encephalitis that can be fatal or leave the afflicted with long-term neurologic sequelae. In order to design targeted interventions, the basic pathogenesis of RVFV encephalitis must be better understood. Methodology/Principal Findings To characterize the host immune responses and viral kinetics associated with fatal and nonfatal infections, mice were infected with an attenuated RVFV lacking NSs (?NSs) that causes lethal disease only when administered intranasally (IN). Following IN infection, C57BL/6 mice developed severe neurologic disease and succumbed 7–9 days post-infection. In contrast, inoculation of ?NSs virus subcutaneously in the footpad (FP) resulted in a subclinical infection characterized by a robust immune response with rapid antibody production and strong T cell responses. IN-inoculated mice had delayed antibody responses and failed to clear virus from the periphery. Severe neurological signs and obtundation characterized end stage-disease in IN-inoculated mice, and within the CNS, the development of peak virus RNA loads coincided with strong proinflammatory responses and infiltration of activated T cells. Interestingly, depletion of T cells did not significantly alter survival, suggesting that neurologic disease is not a by-product of an aberrant immune response. Conclusions/Significance Comparison of fatal (IN-inoculated) and nonfatal (FP-inoculated) ?NSs RVFV infections in the mouse model highlighted the role of the host immune response in controlling viral replication and therefore determining clinical outcome. There was no evidence to suggest that neurologic disease is immune-mediated in RVFV infection. These results provide important insights for the future design of vaccines and therapeutic options. PMID:24922480

Dodd, Kimberly A.; McElroy, Anita K.; Jones, Tara L.; Zaki, Sherif R.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Spiropoulou, Christina F.



East African Rift Valley Links for Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page contains links to a collection of resources devoted to the East African Valley Rift, with emphasis on environmental issues and concerns. It lists web addresses by subtopics, in outline form, with a short description to assist the viewer in searching for information. Topics include The Rift Valley, Stromboli online, African volcanoes, the Alid page, paleontology, and many more. The creator of this collection has checked uRLs provided for content and guarantees them to be quality web pages.



Rift initiation in cratonic lithosphere: Seismicity patterns in the Manyara-Natron-Magadi basins and Oldoinyo Lengai volcano  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CRAFTI project consists of a 2-year seismic acquisition program to quantify the partitioning of strain between faulting and magmatism during the early stages of continental rifting in Archaean and Proterozoic lithosphere. The <7 My Eastern Rift System in northern Tanzania and southern Kenya provides an ideal study system, as it comprises several rift segments at different stages of the rifting cycle. We present preliminary results from 38 broadband seismometers deployed in Tanzania in January 2013, and 4 stations in Kenya deployed in July 2013. The network includes a rift-perpendicular transect, and spans parts of 3 discrete rift basins in different stages of development: Manyara, Natron, Magadi. Initial analyses indicate relatively low noise levels at all stations deployed in Maasai bomas and rural schools, and good to excellent transmission, except near Quaternary Gelai, Oldoinyo Lengai, and Kitumbeine volcanoes. We present time-space relations of seismicity for the first 6 months' of data, and focal mechanisms for the largest events during that time period. Hypocentral locations are compared with the locations of eruptive centers, dike intrusions, and sub-surface projections of faults mapped in a complementary part of the CRAFTI project. The spatial and temporal distribution of earthquake activity will help identify the contributions of faulting and magmatism in each basin, and in the identification of subsurface magma reservoirs in this youthful rift system.

Lambert, C.; Rodzianko, A.; Rasendra, N.; Msabi, M.; Muirhead, J.; Ebinger, C. J.; Tiberi, C.; Roecker, S. W.; Ferdinand, R. W.; Mtelela, K.; Muzuka, A.



Formation of curved seafloor fabric by changes in rift propagation velocity and spreading rate - Application to the 95.5 deg W Galapagos propagator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Possible rigid plate models and shear models for the formation of curved seafloor lineaments by rift propagation are investigated and are applied to the Galapagos propagation rift system at 95 deg W. It is shown that the geometry noted at the Galapagos can result from either rift propagation acceleration or a spreading rate decrease during the last few hundred thousand years. It is postulated that the reverse curvature could result from either deceleration of rift propagation or an increase in spreading rate. The data interpreted as requiring a shear zone are found to be equally consistent with two distinct models based on rigid plate tectonics.

Acton, Gary; Stein, Seth; Engeln, Joseph F.



Drilling to Resolve the Evolution of the Corinth Rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The initiation and evolution of continental rifting, ultimately leading to rifted margin and ocean basin formation, are major unanswered questions in solid Earth-plate tectonics. Many previous insights have come from mature rifted margins where activity has ceased or from computer models. The Gulf of Corinth Rift in central Greece presents an ideal laboratory for the study of young, highly active rifting that complements other rift zones (e.g., the East African and Gulf of California rifts). Exposure and preservation of syn-rift stratigraphy, high rates of extension, and an existing network of offshore seismic data offer a unique opportunity to constrain the rift history and basin development at exceptionally high resolution in the Gulf of Corinth.

McNeill, Lisa; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Nixon, Casey



Variable-Speed Wind System Design : Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

Almost from the onset of the development of wind energy conversion systems (WECS), it was known that variable-speed operation of the turbine would maximize energy capture. This study was commissioned to assess the cost, efficiency gain, reduction of the cost of energy (COE), and other operating implications of converting the existing hardware of a modern fixed-speed wind energy conversion system to variable-speed operation. The purpose of this study was to develop a preliminary design for the hardware required to allow variable-speed operation using a doubly-fed generator with an existing fixed-speed wind turbine design. The turbine selected for this study is the AWT-26 designed and built by Advanced Wind Turbines Inc. of Redmond, Washington. The lowest projected COE using this variable-speed generation system is projected to be $0.0499/kWh, compared to the lowest possible COE with fixed-speed generation which is projected to be $0.0546/kWh. This translates into a 8.6% reduction of the COE using this variable-speed generation option. The preliminary system design has advanced to where the printed circuit boards can be physically laid out based on the schematics and the system software can be written based on the control flow-charts. The core of hardware and software has been proven to be successful in earlier versions of VSG systems. The body of this report presents the results of the VSWG system development. Operation under normal and fault conditions is described in detail, the system performance for variable-speed operation is estimated and compared to the original fixed-speed system performance, and specifications for all system components (generator, power electronic converter, and system controller) are given. Costs for all components are estimated, and incremental system cost is compared to incremental energy production. Finally, operational features of the VSWG which are not available in the existing FSWG system are outlined.

Lauw, Hinan K.; Weigand, Claus H.; Marckx, Dallas A.; Electronic Power Conditioning, Inc.



Paleomagnetism and magnetic fabric of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia: Evidence for oblique convergence and nonrotational reactivation of a Mesozoic intracontinental rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

report the paleomagnetic and magnetic fabric results of 58 sites from Cretaceous-Miocene marine and continental strata from the Eastern Cordillera (EC) and the Cucuta zone, at the junction between the Santander Massif and the Merida Andes of Colombia. The EC is an intracontinental doubly vergent range inverting a Triassic to Early Cretaceous rift zone. Twenty-three sites reveal nonsystematic tectonic rotations, including unrotated areas of the EC range with respect to stable South America. Our data show that the EC inverted a NNE oriented rift zone and that the orientation of the Mesozoic rift and the mountain chain roughly correspond. Interestingly, magnetic lineations from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility analysis do not trend parallel to the chain but rather are oblique to the main orogenic trend. By also considering GPS evidence of a ~1 cm/yr ENE displacement of central western Colombia accommodated by the EC, we suggest that the Miocene-Recent deformation event of this belt arises from ENE oblique convergence reactivating a NNE oriented rift zone. Oblique shortening was likely partitioned into pure dip-slip shear characterizing thick-skinned frontal thrust sheets (well known along both chain fronts) and by range-parallel right-lateral strike-slip faults, which have not been identified yet, but likely exist in the axial part of the EC. Finally, the 35° ± 9° clockwise rotation observed in four post-Miocene magnetically overprinted sites from the Cucuta zone reflects late Cenozoic and ongoing right-lateral strike-slip displacement occurring along faults parallel to the Boconó fault system, possibly connected with the right-lateral faults inferred to exist along the axial part of the EC.

Jiménez, Giovanny; Speranza, Fabio; Faccenna, Claudio; Bayona, German; Mora, Andres



Erosion of Terrestrial Rift Flank Topography: A Quantitative Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many rifted or passive continental margins feature a seaward-facing erosional escarpment which abruptly demarcates deeply weathered, low relief, interior uplands from a deeply incised, high relief coastal zone. It is generally accepted that these escarpments originate at the time of continental rifting and propagate inland through the elevated rift flank topography at rates on the order of 1 km/Myr over the course of a margin's history. Considering the length of passive margins worldwide and an average rift flank plateau height of several hundred meters, it is clear that sediment eroded from passive margins is an important component of the mass flux from continents to oceans through geologic time. The overall goal of the research reported here is to develop a quantitative understanding of the kinematics of escarpment propagation across passive margins and the underlying geological processes responsible for this behavior. Plateau-bounding escarpments in general exhibit two basic forms depending on the direction of surface water drainage on the plateau interior relative to the escarpment. Where surface water flows away from the escarpment, the escarpment takes the form of subdued embayments and promontories, such that its overall trend remains fairly straight as it evolves with time. Where upland streams flow across the escarpment, it takes the form of dramatic, narrow gorges whose heads appear to propagate up the plateau drainage systems as large-scale knickpoints. From work on the Colorado Plateau, Schmidt (1987) noted that the Colorado River is located much closer to the Grand Canyon's south rim, a drainage divide escarpment, than to the north rim, which is a gorge-like escarpment. The main implication is that the gorge-like form might be associated with higher long-term average erosion rates compared to the drainage divide escarpment type.

Weissel, Jeffrey K.



Diachronism in the late Neoproterozoic-Cambrian arc-rift transition of North Gondwana: A comparison of Morocco and the Iberian Ossa-Morena Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the northwestern border of the West African craton (North Gondwana), a transition from late Neoproterozoic subduction/collision to Cambrian rift processes was recorded in the Anti-Atlas (Morocco) and in the Ossa-Morena Zone (Iberia). Cambrian rifting affected both Pan-African and Cadomian basements in a stepwise and diachronous way. Subsequently, both areas evolved into a syn-rift margin episodically punctuated by uplift and tilting that precluded Furongian sedimentation. A comparison of sedimentary, volcanic and geodynamic evolution is made in the late Neoproterozoic (Pan-African and Cadomian) belts and Cambrian rifts trying to solve the apparent diachronous (SW-NE-trending) propagation of an early Palaeozoic rifting regime that finally led to the opening of the Rheic Ocean.

Álvaro, J. Javier; Bellido, Félix; Gasquet, Dominique; Pereira, M. Francisco; Quesada, Cecilio; Sánchez-García, Teresa



Advanced power conditioning for maglev systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The final report contains parametric scaling data and computer models of power conditioning equipment applicable to the design of an advanced maglev system. The power conditioning topologies were selected based on data from a literature search, on characteristics of present power semiconductor technology devices, and on actual performance characterization of designs using a circuit analysis program. The analyses show that GTOs are the best switches for traction drives, input power conditioning equipment, and the braking chopper. At lower power levels, as required for auxiliary power and superconducting coil power conditioning, the IGBT appeared to be the best switch.

Nerem, A.; Bowles, E.E.; Chapelle, S.; Callanan, R.J.



Final design and status of the NSLS vacuum system  

SciTech Connect

We describe the final system, as built, reasons for changes and the general status of the NSLS. The NSLS is a dedicated facility for the purpose of producing synchrotron radiation. It consists of an electron linac-booster injector system, and two storage rings, one for uv research and the other for x-ray research. (Synchrotron radiation is produced by accelerating electrons in the storage rings.) The design current and energies are 1000 ma at 700 MeV for the vuv ring and 500 ma at 2.5 GeV for the x-ray ring. A total of 44 experimental beam ports are available for use. Since each beam port may be divided into two or more experimentall beam lines, it is quite plausible to have upward of 100 simultaneously operating beam lines.

Schuchman, J.C.



Inuence of rift obliquity on fault-population systematics: results of experimental clay models  

E-print Network

. Rift obliquity is related to the acute angle, a, between the rift trend and the displacement direction develop in the center of the rift zone, one approximately rift-parallel and the other displacement in oblique continental rift basins. At the rift margins, tensional stresses are modulated and reoriented

Clifton, Amy Elizabeth


Modern and ancient mineralization in the Salton Trough Rift  

SciTech Connect

The Salton Trough of SW North America is an active continental rift, the landward extension of the divergent tectonics of the Gulf of California. Shallow magmatic heat sources, thick porous sediments, tectonic activity and saline lakes interact to yield a variety of Pleistocene to modern hydrothermal systems. The oldest mineralization, the fish Creek evaporite, is a CASO[sub 4] deposit formed by a pre-rift Tertiary marine incursion. 4--5 million years ago the prograding Colorado River delta bisected the Trough, influencing the character of Pliocene and younger hydrothermal activity. The northern part of the Trough became a closed basin filled intermittently by large freshwater lakes. Along the W margin of the rift lies the Modoc hot spring gold deposit. This deposit occurs at the intersection of a range-front growth fault with fossil lake levels, suggesting paleohydrologic control by ancient lakes. Active geothermal systems within the Trough include low-T systems such as Heber and East Mesa, localized along high-angle faults where shallow groundwaters are conductively heated above basement highs. These blind systems have no surface expression and only moderate geophysical anomalies. High-T (> 250 C) active systems occur in sediment filled pull-apart basins developed over spreading center fragments (e.g., Salton Sea, Brawley, Cerro Prieto). These systems exhibit high heat flow, strong gravity and magnetic anomalies, and often have surface manifestations such as Quaternary volcanoes and thermal features. Many contain hot metalliferous brines that have evolved in the saline lake environment of the northern Trough.

McKibben, M.A. (Univ. California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. Earth Sciences)



Permo-Triassic anatexis, continental rifting and the disassembly of western Pangaea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crustal anatectites are frequently observed along ocean-continent active margins, although their origins are disputed with interpretations varying between rift-related and collisional. We report geochemical, isotopic and geochronological data that define an ~ 1500 km long belt of S-type meta-granites along the Andes of Colombia and Ecuador, which formed during 275-223 Ma. These are accompanied by amphibolitized tholeiitic basaltic dykes that yield concordant zircon U-Pb dates ranging between 240 and 223 Ma. A model is presented which places these rocks within a compressive Permian arc setting that existed during the amalgamation of westernmost Pangaea. Anatexis and mafic intrusion during 240-223 Ma are interpreted to have occurred during continental rifting, which culminated in the formation of oceanic crust and initiated the break-up of western Pangaea. Compression during 275-240 Ma generated small volumes of crustal melting. Rifting during 240-225 Ma was characterized by basaltic underplating, the intrusion of tholeiitic basalts and a peak in crustal melting. Tholeiitic intrusions during 225-216 Ma isotopically resemble depleted mantle and yield no evidence for contamination by continental crust, and we assign this period to the onset of continental drift. Dissected ophiolitic sequences in northern Colombia yield zircon U-Pb dates of 216 Ma. The Permo-Triassic margin of Ecuador and Colombia exhibits close temporal, faunal and geochemical similarities with various crustal blocks that form the basement to parts of Mexico, and thus these may represent the relict conjugate margin to NW Gondwana. The magmatic record of the early disassembly of Pangaea spans ~ 20 Ma (240-216 Ma), and the duration of rifting and rift-drift transition is similar to that documented in Cretaceous-Tertiary rift settings such as the West Iberia-Newfoundland conjugate margins, and the Taupo-Lau-Havre System, where rifting and continental disassembly also occurred over periods lasting ~ 20 Ma.

Cochrane, Ryan; Spikings, Richard; Gerdes, Axel; Ulianov, Alexey; Mora, Andres; Villagómez, Diego; Putlitz, Benita; Chiaradia, Massimo



Anisotropy beneath a highly extended continental rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

have employed shear wave splitting techniques to image anisotropy beneath the D'Entrecasteaux Islands, in southeastern Papua New Guinea. Our results provide a detailed picture of the extending continent that lies immediately ahead of a propagating mid-ocean ridge tip; we image the transition from continental to oceanic extension. A dense shear wave splitting data set from a 2010 to 2011 passive-source seismic deployment is analyzed using single and multichannel methods. Splitting delay times of 1-1.5 s are observed and fast axes of anisotropy trending N-S, parallel to rifting direction, predominate the results. This trend is linked to lattice-preferred orientation of olivine, primarily in the shallow convecting mantle, driven by up to 200 km of N-S continental extension ahead of the westward-propagating Woodlark Rift. This pattern differs from several other continental rifts that evince rift-strike-parallel fast axes and is evident despite the complex recent tectonic history. We contend that across most of this rift, the unusually high rate and magnitude of extension has been sufficient to produce a regime change to a mid-ocean-ridge-like mantle fabric. Stations in the south of our array show more complex splitting that might be related to melt or to complex inherited structure at the edge of the extended region.

Eilon, Zachary; Abers, Geoffrey A.; Jin, Ge; Gaherty, James B.



Postspreading rifting in the Adare Basin, Antarctica: Regional tectonic consequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extension during the middle Cenozoic (43-26 Ma) in the north end of the West Antarctic rift system (WARS) is well constrained by seafloor magnetic anomalies formed at the extinct Adare spreading axis. Kinematic solutions for this time interval suggest a southward decrease in relative motion between East and West Antarctica. Here we present multichannel seismic reflection and seafloor mapping data acquired within and near the Adare Basin on a recent geophysical cruise. We have traced the ANTOSTRAT seismic stratigraphic framework from the northwest Ross Sea into the Adare Basin, verified and tied to DSDP drill sites 273 and 274. Our results reveal three distinct periods of tectonic activity. An early localized deformational event took place close to the cessation of seafloor spreading in the Adare Basin (˜24 Ma). It reactivated a few normal faults and initiated the formation of the Adare Trough. A prominent pulse of rifting in the early Miocene (˜17 Ma) resulted in normal faulting that initiated tilted blocks. The overall trend of structures was NE-SW, linking the event with the activity outside the basin. It resulted in major uplift of the Adare Trough and marks the last extensional phase of the Adare Basin. Recent volcanic vents (Pliocene to present day) tend to align with the early Miocene structures and the on-land Hallett volcanic province. This latest phase of tectonic activity also involves near-vertical normal faulting (still active in places) with negligible horizontal consequences. The early Miocene extensional event found within the Adare Basin does not require a change in the relative motion between East and West Antarctica. However, the lack of subsequent rifting within the Adare Basin coupled with the formation of the Terror Rift and an on-land and subice extension within the WARS require a pronounced change in the kinematics of the rift. These observations indicate that extension increased southward, therefore suggesting that a major change in relative plate motion took place in the middle Miocene. The late Miocene pole of rotation might have been located north of the Adare Basin, with opposite opening sign compared to the Eocene-Oligocene pole.

Granot, R.; Cande, S. C.; Stock, J. M.; Davey, F. J.; Clayton, R. W.



Structure and stratigraphy of the Turkana rift from seismic reflection data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multichannel seismic survey was conducted on Lake Turkana, a rift lake occupying a portion of the Eastern Branch of the East African Rift System. This survey revealed the presence of a significant rift structure beneath the lake, the extent and structural details of which had been previously unknown. The lake is underlain by a series of half-graben basins which alternate in polarity along the axis of the lake, and are linked end to end by zones of structural high. These half-graben often have Quaternary volcanic centers located near their latitudinal midpoints. Half-graben basins beneath Turkana deepen progressively to the north, attaining thicknesses of up to 4 km. A deep seismic reflector has been identified, and is believed to correspond to the top of a thick series of Mio-Pliocene flood volcanics. Overlying reflectors are thought to correspond to fluvial, lacustrine and volcano-clastic sediments that are Plio-Pleistocene to Recent in age. The style of rifting beneath Lake Turkana is similar to that observed beneath Lake Tanganyika, which occupies a portion of the Western Branch of the East African Rift System. The most noticeable differences are the abundant volcanism and smaller half-graben size associated with Lake Turkana. These differences may be attributed to the warmer, thinner lithosphere underlying the Eastern Branch as compared to that underlying the Western Branch.

Dunkelman, Thomas J.; Rosendahl, Bruce R.; Karson, Jeffrey A.


Structure and degree of magmatism of North and South Atlantic rifted margins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure and evolution of conjugate rifted margins in the South and North Atlantic have been studied mainly based on seismic reflection and refraction profiles, complemented by potential field data and plate reconstructions. All margins exhibit distinct along-margin structural and magmatic changes reflecting both structural inheritance extending back to a complex pre-breakup geological history and the final breakup processes. The sedimentary basins at the conjugate margins developed as a result of multiple phases of rifting, associated with complex time-dependent thermal structure of the lithosphere. A series of conjugate crustal transects reveal tectonomagmatic asymmetry, both along-strike and across the conjugate margin systems. The continent-ocean transitional domain along the magma-dominated margin segments is characterized by a large volume of flood basalts and high-velocity/high-density lower crust emplaced during and after continental breakup. Both the volume and duration of excess magmatism varies. The extrusive and intrusive complexes make it difficult to pin down a COB to be used in plate reconstructions. The continent-ocean transition is usually well defined as a rapid increase of P-wave velocities at mid- to lower crustal levels. The transition is further constrained by comparing the mean P-wave velocity to the thickness of the crystalline crust. By this comparison we can also address the magmatic processes associated with breakup, whether they are convection dominated or temperature dominated. In the NE Atlantic there is a strong correlation between magma productivity and early plate spreading rate, suggesting a common cause. A model for the breakup-related magmatism should be able to explain this correlation, but also the magma production peak at breakup, the along-margin magmatic segmentation, and the active mantle upwelling. It is likely that mantle plumes (Iceland in the NE Atlantic, Tristan da Cunha in the South Atlantic) may have influenced the volume of magmatism but they did not necessarily alter the process of rifted margin formation, implying that parts of the margins may have much in common with more magma-poor margins. Conjugate margin segments from the North and South Atlantic will be compared and discussed with particular focus on the tectonomagmatic processes associated with continental breakup.

Faleide, Jan Inge; Breivik, Asbjørn J.; Blaich, Olav A.; Tsikalas, Filippos; Planke, Sverre; Mansour Abdelmalak, Mohamed; Mjelde, Rolf; Myklebust, Reidun



Variation in styles of rifting in the Gulf of California.  


Constraints on the structure of rifted continental margins and the magmatism resulting from such rifting can help refine our understanding of the strength of the lithosphere, the state of the underlying mantle and the transition from rifting to seafloor spreading. An important structural classification of rifts is by width, with narrow rifts thought to form as necking instabilities (where extension rates outpace thermal diffusion) and wide rifts thought to require a mechanism to inhibit localization, such as lower-crustal flow in high heat-flow settings. Observations of the magmatism that results from rifting range from volcanic margins with two to three times the magmatism predicted from melting models to non-volcanic margins with almost no rift or post-rift magmatism. Such variations in magmatic activity are commonly attributed to variations in mantle temperature. Here we describe results from the PESCADOR seismic experiment in the southern Gulf of California and present crustal-scale images across three rift segments. Over short lateral distances, we observe large differences in rifting style and magmatism--from wide rifting with minor synchronous magmatism to narrow rifting in magmatically robust segments. But many of the factors believed to control structural evolution and magmatism during rifting (extension rate, mantle potential temperature and heat flow) tend to vary over larger length scales. We conclude instead that mantle depletion, rather than low mantle temperature, accounts for the observed wide, magma-poor margins, and that mantle fertility and possibly sedimentary insulation, rather than high mantle temperature, account for the observed robust rift and post-rift magmatism. PMID:17653189

Lizarralde, Daniel; Axen, Gary J; Brown, Hillary E; Fletcher, John M; González-Fernández, Antonio; Harding, Alistair J; Holbrook, W Steven; Kent, Graham M; Paramo, Pedro; Sutherland, Fiona; Umhoefer, Paul J



Practical reliability and uncertainty quantification in complex systems : final report.  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to investigate the use of Bayesian methods for the estimation of the reliability of complex systems. The goals were to find methods for dealing with continuous data, rather than simple pass/fail data; to avoid assumptions of specific probability distributions, especially Gaussian, or normal, distributions; to compute not only an estimate of the reliability of the system, but also a measure of the confidence in that estimate; to develop procedures to address time-dependent or aging aspects in such systems, and to use these models and results to derive optimal testing strategies. The system is assumed to be a system of systems, i.e., a system with discrete components that are themselves systems. Furthermore, the system is 'engineered' in the sense that each node is designed to do something and that we have a mathematical description of that process. In the time-dependent case, the assumption is that we have a general, nonlinear, time-dependent function describing the process. The major results of the project are described in this report. In summary, we developed a sophisticated mathematical framework based on modern probability theory and Bayesian analysis. This framework encompasses all aspects of epistemic uncertainty and easily incorporates steady-state and time-dependent systems. Based on Markov chain, Monte Carlo methods, we devised a computational strategy for general probability density estimation in the steady-state case. This enabled us to compute a distribution of the reliability from which many questions, including confidence, could be addressed. We then extended this to the time domain and implemented procedures to estimate the reliability over time, including the use of the method to predict the reliability at a future time. Finally, we used certain aspects of Bayesian decision analysis to create a novel method for determining an optimal testing strategy, e.g., we can estimate the 'best' location to take the next test to minimize the risk of making a wrong decision about the fitness of a system. We conclude this report by proposing additional fruitful areas of research.

Grace, Matthew D.; Ringland, James T.; Marzouk, Youssef M. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA); Boggs, Paul T.; Zurn, Rena M.; Diegert, Kathleen V. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Pebay, Philippe Pierre; Red-Horse, John Robert (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)



Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis. Phase II final report  

SciTech Connect

Through the Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis (UIICSA), the City of Chicago embarked upon an ambitious effort to identify the measure the overall industrial cogeneration market in the city and to evaluate in detail the most promising market opportunities. This report discusses the background of the work completed during Phase II of the UIICSA and presents the results of economic feasibility studies conducted for three potential cogeneration sites in Chicago. Phase II focused on the feasibility of cogeneration at the three most promising sites: the Stockyards and Calumet industrial areas, and the Ford City commercial/industrial complex. Each feasibility case study considered the energy load requirements of the existing facilities at the site and the potential for attracting and serving new growth in the area. Alternative fuels and technologies, and ownership and financing options were also incorporated into the case studies. Finally, site specific considerations such as development incentives, zoning and building code restrictions and environmental requirements were investigated.

Not Available



Petrological constraints on the crustal structure under rift zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When magmatism occurs in extensional settings, the transfer and release of heat by magma transport and storage may control the thermal structure of the crust and uppermost mantle underlying the rift zone. The composition and mineralogy of the material added to the solid crust during magmatism is also dictated by the conditions of crystallisation. The temperature, pressure and composition of this material controls the physical response of the crust on timescales relevant both for geophysical imaging of the deep structure of rift zones and for the dynamical development of the structure of zones of extension. Examination of the petrology of the products of rift zone magmatism can be used to provide constraints on the depth distribution of crystallisation and the composition of the solid material accreted to the crust and should be a key consideration in geophysical and dynamical investigations of rift zones. A number of complementary petrological techniques have been used to determine crystallisation depths under the rift zones of Iceland. These techniques include: 1) a parametrisation of clinopyroxene-liquid equilibrium; 2) a parametrisation of the composition of liquid in joint equilibrium with the phases olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene; 3) assessment of the order of appearance of phases on the liquidus; 4) the relationship between melt CO2 content and pressure. However, the application of each technique is dependent upon a number of assumptions about the achievement of equilibrium between phases and also the interpolation of parametrisations between experimental conditions. Most rift zone eruptions carry large crystals that have formed in the magma storage zone and these crystals are often referred to as phenocrysts, a term that implies equilibrium between the crystals and the melts that carry them to the surface for eruption. However, careful examination of the trace element composition of Icelandic clinopyroxene phenocrysts shows that they are rarely in equilibrium with their carrier liquids. In order to avoid significant systematic errors in estimates of crystallisation depths it is therefore necessary to use both the major and trace element composition of the clinopyroxenes to establish the range of potential equilibrium liquids at the depth of crystallisation and to identify if such liquids correspond to the composition of lavas from the same magmatic system. Existing parametrisations of experimental equilibrium between clinopyroxene and basaltic liquid are prone to large errors at crustal pressures. In order to address this problem, a series of experiments was conducted using a primitive Icelandic basalt composition as a starting material. These experiments indicate that the parametrisations can robustly be used to establish the importance of crystallisation close to the Moho under Iceland, at depths of over 20 km. It is likely that crystallisation also occurs in the middle and lower crust, generating cumulate gabbro material. However, systematic errors in available parameterisations of clinopyroxene-liquid equilibrium hinder barometry over this pressure range. In order to better establish crystallisation conditions for rift zone magmas, further experimental constraints for crustal pressures are required, along with development of more systematic studies of the volatile contents of melt inclusions.

Maclennan, J.; Gaetani, G. A.; Hartley, M. E.; Neave, D.; Winpenny, B.



Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) Munition Classification System enhancements. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) is a non-destructive evaluation technology developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This technology has resulted in three generations of instrumentation, funded by the Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA), specifically designed for field identification of chemical weapon (CW) munitions. Each generation of ARS instrumentation was developed with a specific user in mind. The ARS1OO was built for use by the U.N. Inspection Teams going into Iraq immediately after the Persian Gulf War. The ARS200 was built for use in the US-Russia Bilateral Chemical Weapons Treaty (the primary users for this system are the US Onsite Inspection Agency (OSIA) and their Russian counterparts). The ARS300 was built with the requirements of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in mind. Each successive system is an improved version of the previous system based on learning the weaknesses of each and, coincidentally, on the fact that more time was available to do a requirements analysis and the necessary engineering development. The ARS300 is at a level of development that warrants transferring the technology to a commercial vendor. Since LANL will supply the computer software to the selected vendor, it is possible for LANL to continue to improve the decision algorithms, add features where necessary, and adjust the user interface before the final transfer occurs. This paper describes the current system, ARS system enhancements, and software enhancements. Appendices contain the Operations Manual (software Version 3.01), and two earlier reports on enhancements.

Vela, O.A.; Huggard, J.C.



Probing the age and temperature of rifting in Afar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rifting along the southern part of the Red Sea margin in NE Africa (leading to formation of Afar) has been closely associated with magmatic activity since the initiation of extension at around ~ 25Ma. Numerous active volcanoes are currently found along rift zones here and magma intrusion into the crust has potentially accommodated significant amounts of extension. This extensive present-day volcanism has been linked to elevated mantle temperature, perhaps due to a thermal plume, or as a consequence of passive flow in the mantle beneath the extending lithosphere. Geochemical evidence for basaltic lavas erupted in Afar have been used to suggest that mantle temperatures are in the range 1370 to 1490°C, and that the region is currently experiencing late stage rifting. Analysis of changes in shear wave seismic velocities and relative travel time tomography suggests mantle temperatures are within a similar range, yet the region has greater similarities to a young spreading centre. The range in potential temperature estimates is however very large, with different implications for the volcanic history of the region and hence timing of break-up. Rather than focusing a single observable, we use a relatively straight forward model of extension and decompression melting to predict the seismic-velocity and attenuation structure of the asthenosphere and lithosphere, synthetic receiver functions as a result of this seismic structure, crustal thickness as a result of decompression and finally the melt composition. From this combined study we find that melt composition and seismic structure are dependent on both temperature and time. If mantle potential temperature is 1350°C then both the seismic structure and melt composition can be matched if the duration of extension is more than 30 Myr. However this is longer than the estimated duration of extension from plate reconstructions, and given the low rate of extension in Afar, this cold model only generates up to 5 km of igneous crust. If mantle potential temperature is 1450°C then both the seismic structure and melt composition can be matched after 22 Myr of extension. Furthermore, igneous crustal thickness is in excess of 10 km. Therefore, the most simple explanation is that Afar is a developing continental rift zone where melting is enhanced by a warm mantle.

Armitage, John; Goes, Saskia; Ferguson, David; Hammond, James; Calais, Eric



Deep seismic images and the tectonic framework of early rifting in the Otway Basin, Australian southern margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Otway Basin is one of a number of basins formed along Australia's southern continental margin during the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous rifting of Australia from Antarctica. It lies on a transitional area of extended lithosphere between the margin to the west, where continental separation took place close to the Australian craton, and the region to the east where separation failed to develop through Bass Strait, but instead switched to the south of Tasmania. Seven AGSO regional deep seismic profiles recorded during 1992 across onshore parts of the basin provide images of synrift basin bounding faults that dip predominantly towards the continent, basin sequences in half-graben rift segments at two-way times greater than 4 s, and mid-crustal detachments with ramp and flat geometry at mid-crustal levels. When combined with industry seismic data, trend variations on faults indicate that extensional strain direction varied along the rift system, probably locally controlled by pre-existing Palaeozoic geology but consistent with general north-south lithospheric extension. Basement highs between some of the rift segments are interpreted as accommodation (or transfer) zones. Multiple basin-bounding faults in some places mirror features within basement and may indicate a component of local strike-slip during early rifting. The syn-rift segments form part of the first-stage Early Cretaceous failed rift system in the Otway-Bass Strait region. Crustal thickness is interpreted to be 31 km (10.3-10.5 s TWT) near the northern basin margin, thinning to about 25 km (9 s TWT, 40% reduction in thickness of Palaeozoic crust) seaward of the Tartwaup fault zone. This fault zone, and the Timboon fault system farther east, are interpreted to be headwall faults (landward limit) of a Late Cretaceous second-stage rifting system along a lower plate margin which ultimately separated Australia from Antarctica.

Finlayson, D. M.; Johnstone, D. W.; Owen, A. J.; Wake-Dyster, K. D.



Seismicity, deformation and seismic hazard in the western rift of Corinth: New insights from the Corinth Rift Laboratory (CRL)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the main recent results obtained by the seismological and geophysical monitoring arrays in operation in the rift of Corinth, Greece. The Corinth Rift Laboratory (CRL) is set up near the western end of the rift, where instrumental seismicity and strain rate is highest. The seismicity is clustered between 5 and 10 km, defining an active layer, gently dipping

P. Bernard; H. Lyon-Caen; P. Briole; A. Deschamps; F. Boudin; K. Makropoulos; P. Papadimitriou; F. Lemeille; G. Patau; H. Billiris; D. Paradissis; K. Papazissi; H. Castarède; O. Charade; A. Nercessian; A. Avallone; F. Pacchiani; J. Zahradnik; S. Sacks; A. Linde



The use of subsurface thermal data, isotopic tracers and earthquake hypocenter locations to unravel deep regional flow systems within the crystalline basement beneath the Rio Grande rift, New Mexico. (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rio Grande rift in New Mexico hosts a number of low-temperature geothermal systems as well as the 19 km deep Socorro Magma Body. The presence of a mantle helium anomaly measured at San Acacia spring (3He/4He = 0.295 RA) and in an adjacent shallow well (50m < ; 0.8 RA) overlying the Socorro Magma Body at the southern terminus of the Albuquerque Basin suggests that deeply sourced fluids mix with the sedimentary basin groundwater flow system. Temperatures recorded at the base of the San Acacia well is elevated (29 oC). Published estimates of uplift rates and heat flow suggest that the magma body was emplaced about 1-3 ka and reflects a long-lived (several Ma) magmatic system. Further south near the southern terminus of the Engle Basin, much warmer temperatures (42 oC) occur at shallow depths within the spa district in the town of Truth or Consequences at shallow depths also suggesting deep-fluid circulation. 14C constrained apparent groundwater residence times in the spa district range between 6-10 ka. We have developed two 6-19 km deep crustal-scale, cross-sectional models that simulate subsurface fluid flow, heat and isotope (3He/4He) transport as well as groundwater residence times along the Rio Grande rift. The North-South oriented model of the Albuquerque Basin incorporates a high-permeability conduit 100 m wide having hydrologic properties differing from surrounding crystalline basement units. We use these models to constrain the crustal permeability structure and fluid circulation patterns beneath the Albuquerque and Engle Basins. Model results are compared to measurements of groundwater temperatures, residence times (14C), and 3He/4He data. We also use the distribution of earthquake hypocenters to constrain likely fault-crystalline basement hydraulic interactions in the seismogenic crust above the Socorro Magma Body. For the case of the southern Albuquerque Basin, conduit permeability associated with the Indian Hill conduit/fault zone must range between about 1.0E-13 to 1.0E-15 m2 in order for simulated 3He/4He, solute concentrations, and temperatures to match observed conditions. Basement permeability outside of the fault damage zone must range between 1.0E-17 to 1.0E-18 m2. However, a much longer transport time is required (between about 20-30 ka) in order to match observed conditions suggesting multiple magmatic intrusion events. For the case of the Engle Basin near Truth or Consequences, bulk crustal permeability between a depth of 2-6 km below the sedimentary succession must approach 1.0E-12 m2 in order to reproduce hot spring temperatures and groundwater residence times. We compare these model derived permeability estimates to published permeability-depth relationships for crustal rocks (Manning and Ingebritsen, 1999; Ingebritsen and Manning, 2010).

Person, M. A.; Woolsey, E.; Pepin, J.; Crossey, L. J.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Phillips, F. M.; Kelley, S.; Timmons, S.



Commercial thermal distribution systems, Final report for CIEE/CEC  

SciTech Connect

According to the California Energy Commission (CEC 1998a), California commercial buildings account for 35% of statewide electricity consumption, and 16% of statewide gas consumption. Space conditioning accounts for roughly 16,000 GWh of electricity and 800 million therms of natural gas annually, and the vast majority of this space conditioning energy passes through thermal distribution systems in these buildings. In addition, 8600 GWh per year is consumed by fans and pumps in commercial buildings, most of which is used to move the thermal energy through these systems. Research work at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been ongoing over the past five years to investigate the energy efficiency of these thermal distribution systems, and to explore possibilities for improving that energy efficiency. Based upon that work, annual savings estimates of 1 kWh/ft{sup 2} for light commercial buildings, and 1-2 kWh/ft{sup 2} in large commercial buildings have been developed for the particular aspects of thermal distribution system performance being addressed by this project. Those savings estimates, combined with a distribution of the building stock based upon an extensive stock characterization study (Modera et al. 1999a), and technical penetration estimates, translate into statewide saving potentials of 2000 GWh/year and 75 million thermal/year, as well as an electricity peak reduction potential of 0.7 GW. The overall goal of this research program is to provide new technology and application knowledge that will allow the design, construction, and energy services industries to reduce the energy waste associated with thermal distribution systems in California commercial buildings. The specific goals of the LBNL efforts over the past year were: (1) to advance the state of knowledge about system performance and energy losses in commercial-building thermal distribution systems; (2) to evaluate the potential of reducing thermal losses through duct sealing, duct insulation, and improved equipment sizing; and (3) to develop and evaluate innovative techniques applicable to large buildings for sealing ducts and encapsulating internal duct insulation. In the UCB fan project, the goals were: (1) to develop a protocol for testing, analyzing and diagnosing problems in large commercial building built-up air handling systems, and (2) to develop low-cost measurement techniques to improve short term monitoring practices. To meet our stated goals and objectives, this project: (1) continued to investigate and characterize the performance of thermal distribution systems in commercial buildings; (2) performed energy analyses and evaluation for duct-performance improvements for both small and large commercial buildings; (3) developed aerosol injection technologies for both duct sealing and liner encapsulation in commercial buildings; and (4) designed energy-related diagnostic protocols based on short term measurement and used a benchmarking database to compare subject systems with other measured systems for certain performance metrics. This year's efforts consisted of the following distinct tasks: performing characterization measurements for five light commercial building systems and five large-commercial-building systems; analyzing the potential for including duct performance in California's Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential and Non-Residential Buildings (Title 24), including performing energy and equipment sizing analyses of air distribution systems using DOE 2.1E for non-residential buildings; conducting laboratory experiments, field experiments, and modeling of new aerosol injection technologies concepts for sealing and coating, including field testing aerosol-based sealing in two large commercial buildings; improving low-cost fan monitoring techniques measurements, and disseminating fan tools by working with energy practitioners directly where possible and publishing the results of this research and the tools developed on a web-site. The final report consists of five sections listed below. Each section includes its related

Xu, Tengfang; Bechu, Olivier; Carrie, Remi; Dickerhoff, Darryl; Fisk, William; Franconi, Ellen; Kristiansen, Oyvind; Levinson, Ronnen; McWilliams, Jennifer; Wang, Duo; Modera, Mark; Webster, Tom; Ring, Erik; Zhang, Qiang; Huizenga, Charlie; Bauman, Fred; Arens, Ed



Syn-rift unconformities punctuating the lower-middle Cambrian transition in the Atlas Rift, Morocco  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cambrian Tamdroust and Bab n'Ali Volcanic Complexes represent two magmatic episodes developed in the latest Ediacaran-Cambrian Atlas Rift of Morocco. Their rifting pulses were accompanied by accumulation of volcanosedimentary edifices (dominated by effusive lava flows in the former and explosive acidic aprons in the latter) associated with active tilting and uplift. Sealing of their peneplaned horst-and-graben palaeotopographies led to the onset of distinct onlapping geometries and angular discordances capping eroded basements ranging from the Ediacaran Ouarzazate Supergroup to the Cambrian Asrir Formation. Previous interpretations of these discordances as pull-apart or compressive events are revised here and reinterpreted in an extensional (rifting) context associated with active volcanism. The record of erosive unconformities, stratigraphic gaps, condensed beds and onlapping patterns across the traditional "lower-middle Cambrian" (or Cambrian Series 2-3) transition of the Atlas Rift must be taken into consideration for global chronostratigraphic correlation based on their trilobite content.

Álvaro, J. Javier; Ezzouhairi, Hassan; Clausen, Sébastien; Ribeiro, M. Luisa; Solá, Rita




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus is a mosquito-borne zoonotic hemorrhagic disease that causes 100% abortions in ungulates such as cattle, sheep, and goats, and is often fatal to young animals. Though currently confined mainly to Africa this disease could be introduced into the U.S. and spread via mosq...


Episodic rifting of phanerozoic rocks in the victoria land basin, Western ross sea, antarctica.  


Multichannel seismic-reflection data show that the Victoria Land-basin, unlike other sedimentary basins in the Ross Sea, includes a rift-depression 15 to 25 kilometers wide that parallels the Transantarctic Mountains and contains up to 12 kilometers of possible Paleozoic to Holocene age sedimentary rocks. An unconformity separates the previously identified Cenozoic sedimentary section from the underlying strata of possible Mesozoic and Paleozoic age. Late Cenozoic volcanic rocks intrude into the entire section along the eastern flank of the basin. The Victoria Land basin is probably part of a more extensive rift system that has been active episodically since Paleozoic time. Inferred rifting and basin subsidence during Mesozoic and Cenozoic time may be associated with regional crustal extension and uplift of the nearby Transantarctic Mountains. PMID:17753283

Cooper, A K; Davey, F J



Episodic rifting of phanerozoic rocks in the Victoria Land basin, Western Ross Sea, Antarctica  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Multichannel seismic-reflection data show that the Victoria Land basin, unlike other sedimentary basins in the Ross Sea, includes a rift-depression 15 to 25 kilometers wide that parallels the Transantarctic Mountains and contains up to 12 kilometers of possible Paleozoic to Holocene age sedimentary rocks. An unconformity separates the previously identified Cenozoic sedimentary section from the underlying strata of possible Mesozoic and Paleozoic age. Late Cenozoic volcanic rocks intrude into the entire section along the eastern flank of the basin. The Victoria Land basin is probably part of a more extensive rift system that has been active episodically since Paleozoic time. Inferred rifting and basin subsidence during Mesozoic and Cenozoic time may be associated with regional crustal extension and uplift of the nearby Transantarctic Mountains.

Cooper, A. K.; Davey, F.J.



Flexural rift flank uplift at the Rio Grande rift, New Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Like other Cenozoic continental rifts, the Rio Grande rift in Colorado and New Mexico exhibits prominent flanking uplifts. Several driving stresses and thermal-mechanical processes have been proposed to explain the origin of rift flank relief, which can be modeled to infer lithospheric structure. Although we have identified multiple uplift styles at the Rio Grande rift, only one range—the Sacramento Mountains—is attributable to flexural upwarping of the lithosphere, the process most suitable for geodynamic modeling and interpretation. We demonstrate that two common assumptions in such modeling potentially introduce serious errors. First, presuming only one mechanism acts to uplift the flanks is inappropriate; various forces influence flank topography at different depths and wavelengths and no single one is dominant. Second, the end-member boundary conditions of complete mechanical continuity or discontinuity (broken plate) at the range-bounding normal fault are, in general, not applicable at rift flanks. We examine alternative analytic plate flexure solutions by comparing them to finite element models of footwall flexure at a normal fault in a two-dimensional elastic plate undergoing extension. These simulations indicate that broken plate fits to rift flanks underestimate the plate thickness unless the uplift is large (at least ˜1 km), which promotes decoupling between the hanging wall and footwall. If denudation dominates the flank unloading, as may commonly be the case, the best-fit broken plate thickness error can be even greater. Our flexural analysis of the Sacramento Mountains suggests that the Pecos River Valley originated as a flexural down warp adjacent to the rift flank. Sensitivity tests of least-squares fits to the Sacramento Mountains imply typical plate thickness errors of <20%, although in extreme cases the combined errors may be ˜50%. The average effective elastic lithosphere thickness is ˜23 km. We find that elastic-plastic models of rift flank flexure are unable to provide meaningful constraints on the thermal structure of continental lithosphere.

Brown, C. David; Phillips, Roger J.



Stratigraphy and rifting history of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Anza rift, Kenya  

SciTech Connect

Lithological and compositional relationships, thicknesses, and palynological data from drilling cuttings from five wells in the Anza rift, Kenya, indicate active rifting during the Late Cretaceous and Eocene-Oligocene. The earlier rifting possibly started in the Santonian-Coniacian, primarily occurred in the Campanian, and probably extended into the Maastrichtian. Anza rift sedimentation was in lacustrine, lacustrine-deltaic, fluvial, and flood-basin environments. Inferred synrift intervals in wells are shalier, thicker, more compositionally immature, and more poorly sorted than Lower Cretaceous ( )-lower Upper Cretaceous and upper Oligocene( )-Miocene interrift deposits. Synrift sandstone is mostly feldspathic or arkosic wacke. Sandstone deposited in the Anza basin during nonrift periods is mostly quartz arenite, and is coarser and has a high proportion of probable fluvial deposits relative to other facies. Volcanic debris is absent in sedimentary strata older than Pliocene-Holocene, although small Cretaceous intrusions are present in the basin. Cretaceous sandstone is cemented in places by laumontite, possibly recording Campanian extension. Early Cretaceous history of the Anza basin is poorly known because of the limited strata sampled; Jurassic units were not reached. Cretaceous rifting in the Anza basin was synchronous with rifting in Sudan and with the breakup and separation of South America and Africa; these events likely were related. Eocene-Oligocene extension in the Anza basin reflects different stresses. The transition from active rifting to passive subsidence in the Anza basin at the end of the Neogene, in turn, records a reconfigured response of east African plates to stresses and is correlated with formation of the East Africa rift.

Winn, R.D. Jr.; Steinmetz, J.C. (Marathon Oil Co., Littleton, CO (United States)); Kerekgyarto, W.L. (Marathon Oil Co., Houston, TX (United States))



Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Test (PEBSFT); Final report  

SciTech Connect

This final report represents a summary of data and interpretations obtained from the Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Test (PEBSFT) performed in G-Tunnel within the Nevada Test Site. The PEBSFT was conducted to evaluate the applicability of measurement techniques, numerical models, and procedures developed for future field tests that will be conducted in the Exploratory Studies Facilities (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. The primary objective of the test was to provide a basis for determining whether tests planned for the ESF have the potential to be successful. Chapter 1 on high frequency electromagnetic tomography discusses the rock mass electromagnetic permittivity and attenuation rate changes that were measured to characterize the water distribution in the near field of a simulated waste container. The data are used to obtain quantitative estimates of how the moisture content in the rock mass changes during heating and to infer properties of the spatial variability of water distribution, leading to conclusions about the role of fractures in the system. Chapter 2 discusses the changes in rock moisture content detected by the neutron logging probe. Chapter 3 permeability tests discusses the characterization of the in-situ permeability of the fractured tuff around the borehole. The air permeability testing apparatus, the testing procedures, and the data analysis are presented. Chapter 4 describes the moisture collection system installed in the heater borehole to trap and measure the moisture volumes. Chapter 5 describes relative humidity measurements made with the thermocouple psychrometer and capacitance sensors. Chapter 6 discusses gas pressure measurements in the G-Tunnel, addressing the calibration and installation of piezoresistive-gaged transducers. Chapter 7 describes the calibration and installation of thermocouples for temperature measurements. Chapter 8 discusses the results of the PEBSFT.

Ramirez, A.L. [ed.; Buscheck, T.; Carlson, R.; Daily, W.; Lee, K.; Lin, Wunan; Mao, Nai-hsien; Ueng, Tzou-Shin; Wang, H.; Watwood, D.



The aeromagnetic method as a tool to identify Cenozoic magmatism in the West Antarctic Rift System beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet — A review; Thiel subglacial volcano as possible source of the ash layer in the WAISCORE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) flows through the volcanically active West Antarctic Rift System (WARS). The aeromagnetic method has been the most useful geophysical tool for identification of subglacial volcanic rocks, since 1959-64 surveys, particularly combined with 1978 radar ice-sounding. The unique 1991-97 Central West Antarctica (CWA) aerogeophysical survey covering 354,000 km2 over the WAIS, (5-km line-spaced, orthogonal lines of aeromagnetic, radar ice-sounding, and aerogravity measurements), still provides invaluable information on subglacial volcanic rocks, particularly combined with the older aeromagnetic profiles. These data indicate numerous 100->1000 nT, 5-50-km width, shallow-source, magnetic anomalies over an area greater than 1.2 × 106 km2, mostly from subglacial volcanic sources. I interpreted the CWA anomalies as defining about 1000 "volcanic centers" requiring high remanent normal magnetizations in the present field direction. About 400 anomaly sources correlate with bed topography. At least 80% of these sources have less than 200 m relief at the WAIS bed. They appear modified by moving ice, requiring a younger age than the WAIS (about 25 Ma). Exposed volcanoes in the WARS are < 34 Ma, but at least four are active. If a few buried volcanic centers are active, subglacial volcanism may well affect the WAIS regime. Aerogeophysical data (Blankenship et al., 1993, Mt. Casertz; Corr and Vaughan, 2008, near Hudson Mts.) indicated active subglacial volcanism. Magnetic data indicate a caldera and a surrounding "low" in the WAISCORE vicinity possibly the result of a shallow Curie isotherm. High heat flow reported from temperature logging in the WAISCORE (Conway et al., 2011; Clow, personal commun.) and a volcanic ash layer (Dunbar, 2012) are consistent with this interpretation. A subaerially erupted subglacial volcano, (Mt Thiel), about 100 km distant, may be the ash source. The present rapid changes resulting from global warming, could be accelerated by subglacial volcanism.

Behrendt, John C.



Recent seismic activity of the Kivu Province, Western Rift Valley of Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kivu Province is located at the junction between the well-defined Ruzizi Valley to the south and the Lake Amin Trough to the north. In this zone, the Rift Valley is characterized by the highest uplift and by complex dislocations of the crust, accompanied by the most intensive volcanism of the East African Rift System. In this paper, we show the recent state of the seismic activity of this zone in connection with the seismic activity generated by the volcanoes Nyiragongo and Nyamuragira. The pattern of cumulative energy release by these volcanoes shows a steplike increase that is believed to be a precursor of volcanic eruptions.

Zana, N.; Kamba, M.; Katsongo, S.; Janssen, Th.



Contrasting conditions of rift and off-rift silicic magma origin on Iceland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

controlling the origin of silicic magmas on Iceland are poorly constrained. Here we present new data on H2O content, pressure, temperature, oxygen fugacity, and oxygen isotope composition of rhyolites from Askja, Öræfajökull, and Hekla volcanoes. All these parameters correlate with tectonic (rift and off-rift) setting of the volcanoes. Askja rift rhyolites originate through extensive assimilation of high-temperature hydrothermally altered crust (?18O < 2‰) at shallow depths (?1.8 km). These rhyolites are hot (935-1008°C), relatively dry (H2O < 2.7 wt%), and oxidized (QFM = +1.4). Cooler (874-902°C), wet (H2O = 4-6.3 wt%), and non-oxidized (~QFM to QFM-1) off-rift rhyolites (Öræfajökull, Hekla) originate through differentiation deeper in the crust (?4 km) with almost no or little assimilation of high-T, altered crust, as reflected by slightly lower to normal ?18O values (5.2-6‰). Although off-rift rhyolites predominate during the Holocene, older silicic rocks on Iceland primarily formed in a rift setting possibly analogous to the oldest continental crust on Earth.

Schattel, Nadine; Portnyagin, Maxim; Golowin, Roman; Hoernle, Kaj; Bindeman, Ilya



Submarine Thermal Springs on the Galapagos Rift  

Microsoft Academic Search

The submarine hydrothermal activity on and near the Galapagos Rift has been explored with the aid of the deep submersible Alvin. Analyses of water samples from hydrothermal vents reveal that hydrothermal activity provides significant or dominant sources and sinks for several components of seawater; studies of conductive and convective heat transfer suggest that two-thirds of the heat lost from new

John B. Corliss; Jack Dymond; Louis I. Gordon; John M. Edmond; Richard P. von Herzen; Robert D. Ballard; Kenneth Green; David Williams; Arnold Bainbridge; Kathy Crane; Tjeerd H. van Andel



The 1973 Ethiopian-Rift geodimeter survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remeasurement of the Adama, Lake Langana, and Arba Minch (Lake Margherita) geodimeter networks in 1973 has enabled Mohr's interpretation concerning possible surface ground deformation in the Ethiopian rift to be considerably developed. Extension appears to have occurred across the Mojjo-Adama horst at a rate of about 1 cm yr/1. The opposing rims of the Adama graben have not moved significantly relative to one another (between 1969 and 1973), but stations on the sliced graben floor show possible movement with a large rift-trend component. In the Wolenchiti quadrilateral, significant movement of station RABBIT is confirmed, but the radical change of vector (that of 1970-1971 to that of 1971-1973) casts doubt on a tectonic cause and seems to indicate that stations on steep hillslopes are liable to be unstable. South of the quadrilateral and east of the Adama graben, alternating rift-trend zones of extension and shortening appear to coexist. In the Lake Langana network, significant movements of the order of 0.5 cm yr/1 are directed perpendicular to the rift floor faulting.

Mohr, P. A.



Reemergence of Rift Valley Fever, Mauritania, 2010  

PubMed Central

A Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreak in humans and animals occurred in Mauritania in 2010. Thirty cases of RVF in humans and 3 deaths were identified. RVFV isolates were recovered from humans, camels, sheep, goats, and Culex antennatus mosquitoes. Phylogenetic analysis of isolates indicated a virus origin from western Africa. PMID:24447381

Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Hampathé; Ba, Yamar; Freire, Caio C.M.; Faye, Oumar; Ndiaye, Oumar; Elgady, Isselmou O.; Zanotto, Paolo M.A.; Diallo, Mawlouth



Longitudinal evolution of Suez rift structure, Egypt  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional study of the structure of the Suez Rift has been carried out using field and subsurface data in an attempt to determine the role of transverse faults and the longitudinal evolution of the rift. As in most intracontinental rifts, the structure of the Gulf of Suez area is governed by normal faults and tilted blocks, whose crests constitute the main target of exploratory wells. The fault pattern consists of two major sets of trends: (1) longitudinal faults parallel with the rift axis and created in an extensional regime, trending east-northeast-west-southwest, and (2) transverse faults with north-south to north-northeast-south-southwest dominant trend. The transverse faults are inherited passive discontinuities, whereas most of the longitudinal faults were created during the Neogene in a purely extensional regime. Both sets were simultaneously active, producing a zigzag pattern and rhombic-shaped blocks. The transverse faults can show horizontal strike-slip components and act as relays between major normal faults.

Colletta, B.; Le Quellec, P.; Letouzey, J.; Moretti, I.



Rift Valley fever, Mayotte, 2007-2008.  


After the 2006-2007 epidemic wave of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in East Africa and its circulation in the Comoros, laboratory case-finding of RVF was conducted in Mayotte from September 2007 through May 2008. Ten recent human RVF cases were detected, which confirms the indigenous transmission of RFV virus in Mayotte. PMID:19331733

Sissoko, Daouda; Giry, Claude; Gabrie, Philippe; Tarantola, Arnaud; Pettinelli, François; Collet, Louis; D'Ortenzio, Eric; Renault, Philippe; Pierre, Vincent




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rift Valley fever (RVF) was first confirmed outside of Africa in September 2000. This outbreak, which occurred in southwestern coastal Saudi Arabia and neighboring coastal areas of Yemen, followed elevated rainfall levels in nearby highlands which flooded the coastal areas, providing ideal environm...


Diagnostic approaches for Rift Valley Fever  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Disease outbreaks caused by arthropod-borne animal viruses (arboviruses) resulting in significant livestock and economic losses world-wide appear to be increasing. Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus (RVFV) is an important arbovirus that causes lethal disease in cattle, camels, sheep and goats in Sub-Saha...


Rift Valley fever: A neglected zoonotic disease?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a serious viral disease of animals and humans in Africa and the Middle East that is transmitted by mosquitoes. First isolated in Kenya during an outbreak in 1930, subsequent outbreaks have had a significant impact on animal and human health, as well as national economies. ...


The Paleogene pre-rift to syn-rift succession in the Dhofar margin (northeastern Gulf of Aden): Stratigraphy and depositional environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Paleogene deposits on the northern passive margin of the Gulf of Aden record the transition from the pre-rift to the syn-rift stages of the southern Arabian plate margin. In southern Oman (Dhofar Region), the relative continuity of the sedimentary record offers the possibility to investigate the early deformation phases of the Aden rift system. A new detailed sedimentological and biostratigraphic analysis of the Cuisian to Rupelian deposits of the Dhofar region allows to define a second-order transgressive-regressive cycle, that can be further subdivided into four third-order sequences between the Late Cuisian and the Early Rupelian time. The sequence stratigraphy established in this study has major implications for the understanding of the time equivalent deposits described in the eastern Arabian plate and illustrates the polyphased history of the initiation of the Aden Gulf rift system. The first two depositional sequences are controlled by a phase of deformation that only affects the eastern Oman margin, in relation with the tectonic activity at the Arabian-Indian plate boundary, during the Late Cuisian-Middle Lutetian. The last two depositional sequences record a westward migration of the deformation within the eastern realm of the proto-Gulf of Aden from the Bartonian. Priabonian uplift resulted in the basinward shift of the depositional system followed by a phase of tectonic subsidence that is recorded by the aggradation of lacustrine deposits in localized fault bounded basins. A subsequent major regional relative sea level fall related to domal uplift is recorded by terrigenous deposits (lower part of the Ashawq Formation) prior to the main phase of syn-rift tectonic subsidence (upper part of the Ashawq and Mughsayl formations) in Rupelian-Chattian times.

Robinet, J.; Razin, P.; Serra-Kiel, J.; Gallardo-Garcia, A.; Leroy, S.; Roger, J.; Grelaud, C.



Expanded studies of linear collider final focus systems at the Final Focus Test Beam  

SciTech Connect

In order to meet their luminosity goals, linear colliders operating in the center-of-mass energy range from 3,50 to 1,500 GeV will need to deliver beams which are as small as a few Manometers tall, with x:y aspect ratios as large as 100. The Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) is a prototype for the final focus demanded by these colliders: its purpose is to provide demagnification equivalent to those in the future linear collider, which corresponds to a focused spot size in the FFTB of 1.7 microns (horizontal) by 60 manometers (vertical). In order to achieve the desired spot sizes, the FFTB beam optics must be tuned to eliminate aberrations and other errors, and to ensure that the optics conform to the desired final conditions and the measured initial conditions of the beam. Using a combination of incoming-beam diagnostics. beam-based local diagnostics, and global tuning algorithms, the FFTB beam size has been reduced to a stable final size of 1.7 microns by 70 manometers. In addition, the chromatic properties of the FFTB have been studied using two techniques and found to be acceptable. Descriptions of the hardware and techniques used in these studies are presented, along with results and suggestions for future research.

Tenenbaum, P.G.



Evolution of magma-poor continental margins from rifting to seafloor spreading.  


The rifting of continents involves faulting (tectonism) and magmatism, which reflect the strain-rate and temperature dependent processes of solid-state deformation and decompression melting within the Earth. Most models of this rifting have treated tectonism and magmatism separately, and few numerical simulations have attempted to include continental break-up and melting, let alone describe how continental rifting evolves into seafloor spreading. Models of this evolution conventionally juxtapose continental and oceanic crust. Here we present observations that support the existence of a zone of exhumed continental mantle, several tens of kilometres wide, between oceanic and continental crust on continental margins where magma-poor rifting has taken place. We present geophysical and geological observations from the west Iberia margin, and geological mapping of margins of the former Tethys ocean now exposed in the Alps. We use these complementary findings to propose a conceptual model that focuses on the final stage of continental extension and break-up, and the creation of a zone of exhumed continental mantle that evolves oceanward into seafloor spreading. We conclude that the evolving stress and thermal fields are constrained by a rising and narrowing ridge of asthenospheric mantle, and that magmatism and rates of extension systematically increase oceanward. PMID:11557977

Whitmarsh, R B; Manatschal, G; Minshull, T A



Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Undergoes Communications Systems Final Check  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dunned in his space suit, Lunar Module pilot Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr. does a final check of his communications system before the boarding of the Apollo 11 mission. Launched via a Saturn V launch vehicle, the first manned lunar mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of astronauts Aldrin; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Neil Armstrong, mission commander. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. Meanwhile, astronaut Collins piloted the CM in a parking orbit around the Moon. During a 2½ hour surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.



Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong Undergoes Communications Systems Final Check  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dunned in his space suit, mission commander Neil A. Armstrong does a final check of his communications system before before the boarding of the Apollo 11 mission. Launched via a Saturn V launch vehicle, the first manned lunar mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of astronauts Armstrong; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., Lunar Module (LM) Pilot. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. Meanwhile, astronaut Collins piloted the CM in a parking orbit around the Moon. During a 2½ hour surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.



Optical Diagnostic System for Solar Sails: Phase 1 Final Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's In-Space Propulsion program recently selected AEC-ABLE Engineering and L'Garde, Inc. to develop scale-model solar sail hardware and demonstrate its functionality on the ground. Both are square sail designs with lightweight diagonal booms (<100 g/m) and ultra-thin membranes (<10 g/sq m). To support this technology, the authors are developing an integrated diagnostics instrumentation package for monitoring solar sail structures such as these in a near-term flight experiment. We refer to this activity as the "Optical Diagnostic System (ODS) for Solar Sails" project. The approach uses lightweight optics and photogrammetric techniques to measure solar sail membrane and boom shape and dynamics, thermography to map temperature, and non-optical sensors including MEMS accelerometers and load cells. The diagnostics package must measure key structural characteristics including deployment dynamics, sail support tension, boom and sail deflection, boom and sail natural frequencies, sail temperature, and sail integrity. This report summarizes work in the initial 6-month Phase I period (conceptual design phase) and complements the final presentation given in Huntsville, AL on January 14, 2004.

Pappa, Richard S.; Blandino, Joseph R.; Caldwell, Douglas W.; Carroll, Joseph A.; Jenkins, Christopher H. M.; Pollock, Thomas C.



Depositional character of a dry-climate alluvial fan system from Palaeoproterozoic rift setting using facies architecture and palaeohydraulics: Example from the Par Formation, Gwalior Group, central India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ?20 m thick coarse-grained clastic succession in the basal part of Palaeoproterozoic Par Formation, Gwalior Group has been investigated using process-based sedimentology and deductive palaeohydraulics. Bounded between granitic basement at its base and shallow marine succession at the top, the studied stratigraphic interval represents products of an alluvial fan and its strike-wise co-existent braided river system that possibly acted as a tributary for the fan. Detailed facies, facies association analysis allowed identification of two anatomical parts for the fan system viz. proximal and mid fan. While thin proximal fan is represented by products of rock avalanche and hyperconcentrated flows with widely varying rheology, the mid fan is represented by products of sheet floods and flows within streamlets. The interpretation found support from palaeoslope estimation carried out on the fluvial part of the mid fan that plot dominantly within the alluvial fan field demarcated by Blair and McPherson (1994). Dry climatic condition suggested from dominance of stream flow over mass flow deposition within the Par alluvial fan. Strike-wise, the fan is discontinuous and juxtaposed with a braid plain system. In contrast to the fluvial part of fan system, the palaeoslope data from the braid plain system dominantly plot within the ‘natural depositional gap' defined by Blair and McPherson. A raised palaeoslope for the river systems, as suggested from Proterozoic braid plain deposits around the Globe, is found valid for the Par braid plain system as well. From preponderance of granular and sandy sediments within the alluvial fan and braid plain systems and a pervasive north-westward palaeocurrent pattern within the fluvial systems the present study infers a gently sloping bevelled source area in the south-southeast of the basin with occurrence of steep cliffs only locally.

Chakraborty, Partha Pratim; Paul, Pritam



Development regimes of rifted basins and criteria of their petroleum potential  

SciTech Connect

The majority of great sedimentary basins were formed primarily by stretching and usually initiated by rifting. The evolution and development of intercontinental and passive margin rifted basins are discussed. Each basin type described (in the paper) is associated with either single or branched rift zones. The basin types are (1) unburied rift, i.e., recent rifts, or ancient rifts with post-rift stage without significant subsidence such as East Africa rifts, and Reconcavo basin in Brazil; and (2) buried rift zones where the post-rift stage is characterized by active subsidence and sediment accumulation. The basins often form by repeated rifting, and a rift zone of a different age may be completely or partially superimposed or separated from other rifting events.

Larchenkov, E. (Odessa State Univ. (Ukraine))



Kinematics of the Ethiopian Rift and Absolute motion of Africa and Somalia Plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ethiopian Rift (ER), in the northern part of East African Rift System (EARS), forms a boundary zone accommodating differential motion between Africa and Somalia Plates. Its orientation was influenced by the inherited Pan-African collisional system and related lithospheric fabric. We present the kinematics of ER derived from compilation of geodetic velocities, focal mechanism inversions, structural data analysis, and construction of geological profiles. GPS velocity field shows a systematic eastward magnitude increase in NE direction in the central ER. In the same region, incremental extensional strain axes recorded by earthquake focal mechanism and fault slip inversion show ?N1000E orientation. This deviation between GPS velocity trajectories and orientation of incremental extensional strain is developed due to left lateral transtensional deformation. This interpretation is consistent with the en-échelon pattern of tensional and transtensional faults, the distribution of the volcanic centers, and the asymmetry of the rift itself. Small amount of vertical axis blocks rotation, sinistral strike slip faults and dyke intrusions in the rift accommodate the transtensional deformation. We analyzed the kinematics of ER relative to Deep and Shallow Hot Spot Reference Frames (HSRF). Comparison between the two reference frames shows different kinematics in ER and also Africa and Somalia plate motion both in magnitude and direction. Plate spreading direction in shallow HSRF (i.e. the source of the plumes locates in the asthenosphere) and the trend of ER deviate by about 27°. Shearing and extension across the plate boundary zone contribute both to the style of deformation and overall kinematics in the rift. We conclude that the observed long wavelength kinematics and tectonics are consequences of faster SW ward motion of Africa than Somalia in the shallow HSRF. This reference frame seems more consistent with the geophysical and geological constraints in the Rift. The faster SW motion of Africa with respect to Somalia plate is due to a possibly lower viscosity in the top asthenosphere (Low-Velocity Zone) beneath Africa. These findings have significant implications for the evolution of continental rifting in transtensional settings and provide evidence for the kinematics and tectonics of the Ethiopian rift in the context of the Africa-Somalia plate interaction in the mantle reference frame.

Muluneh, A. A.; Cuffaro, M.; Doglioni, C.



Present-day kinematics of Eastern African Rift tectonic plates using continuous and episodic GPS data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the tectonic setup of the East African Rift, a complex system that extends from the Afar region where the triple junction between Somalia, Nubia and Arabia plates is located to the South West Indian Ridge where the Nubia and Antarctica meets with a third tectonic unit - possibly the so-called Lwandle block which is considered by

R. M. Fernandes; J. P. Ferreira; J. L. Quembo; L. Combrinck; C. M. Kamamia; A. Al-Aydrus; Y. Boodhoo



Rift Valley fever virus structural proteins: expression, characterization and assembly of recombinant proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Studies on Rift Valley Fever Virus (RVFV) infection process and morphogenesis have been hampered due to the biosafety conditions required to handle this virus, making alternative systems such as recombinant virus-like particles, that may facilitate understanding of these processes are highly desirable. In this report we present the expression and characterization of RVFV structural proteins N, Gn and Gc

Li Liu; Polly Roy



Pore water chemistry of an alkaline rift valley lake: Lake Turkana, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Turkana is the largest closed basin lake in the African rift system. It has evolved through the past 5000 years to become a moderately alkaline lake. Previous mass balance argument suggest that sulfate is removed from the lake by sulfate reduction in the sediments, and that the lake is accumulating in chloride, sodium, and alkalinity. Studies of pore water

T. E. Cerling; T. C. Johnson; J. D. Halfman; G. Lister



Plate-Based Fuel Processing System Final Report  

SciTech Connect

On-board reforming of liquid fuels into hydrogen is an enabling technology that could accelerate consumer usage of fuel cell powered vehicles. The technology would leverage the convenience of the existing gasoline fueling infrastructure while taking advantage of the fuel cell efficiency and low emissions. Commercial acceptance of on-board reforming faces several obstacles that include: (1) startup time, (2) transient response, and (3) system complexity (size, weight and cost). These obstacles are being addressed in a variety of projects through development, integration and optimization of existing fuel processing system designs. In this project, CESI investigated steam reforming (SR), water-gas-shift (WGS) and preferential oxidation (PrOx) catalysts while developing plate reactor designs and hardware where the catalytic function is integrated into a primary surface heat exchanger. The plate reactor approach has several advantages. The separation of the reforming and combustion streams permits the reforming reaction to be conducted at a higher pressure than the combustion reaction, thereby avoiding costly gas compression for combustion. The separation of the two streams also prevents the dilution of the reformate stream by the combustion air. The advantages of the plate reactor are not limited to steam reforming applications. In a WGS or PrOx reaction, the non-catalytic side of the plate would act as a heat exchanger to remove the heat generated by the exothermic WGS or PrOx reactions. This would maintain the catalyst under nearly isothermal conditions whereby the catalyst would operate at its optimal temperature. Furthermore, the plate design approach results in a low pressure drop, rapid transient capable and attrition-resistant reactor. These qualities are valued in any application, be it on-board or stationary fuel processing, since they reduce parasitic losses, increase over-all system efficiency and help perpetuate catalyst durability. In this program, CESI took the initial steam reforming plate-reactor concept and advanced it towards an integrated fuel processing system. A substantial amount of modeling was performed to guide the catalyst development and prototype hardware design and fabrication efforts. The plate-reactor mechanical design was studied in detail to establish design guidelines which would help the plate reactor survive the stresses of repeated thermal cycles (from start-ups and shut-downs). Integrated system performance modeling was performed to predict system efficiencies and determine the parameters with the most significant impact on efficiency. In conjunction with the modeling effort, a significant effort was directed towards catalyst development. CESI developed a highly active, sulfur tolerant, coke resistant, precious metal based reforming catalyst. CESI also developed its own non-precious metal based water-gas shift catalyst and demonstrated the catalysts durability over several thousands of hours of testing. CESI also developed a unique preferential oxidation catalyst capable of reducing 1% CO to < 10 ppm CO over a 35 C operating window through a single pass plate-based reactor. Finally, CESI combined the modeling results and steam reforming catalyst development efforts into prototype hardware. The first generation 3kW(e) prototype was fabricated from existing heat-exchanger plates to expedite the fabrication process. This prototype demonstrated steady state operation ranging from 5 to 100% load conditions. The prototype also demonstrated a 20:1 turndown ratio, 10:1 load transient operation and rapid start-up capability.

Carlos Faz; Helen Liu; Jacques Nicole; David Yee



Gas Geochemistry of Volcanic and Geothermal Areas in the Kenya Rift: Implications for the Role of Fluids in Continental Rifting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The East African Rift (EAR) is an active continental rift and ideal to investigate the processes of rift initiation and the breaking apart of continental lithosphere. Mantle and crust-derived fluids may play a pivotal role in both magmatism and faulting in the EAR. For instance, large quantities of mantle-derived volatiles are emitted at Oldoinyo Lengai volcano [1, 2]. Throughout the EAR, CO2-dominated volatile fluxes are prevalent [3, 4] and often associated with faults (i.e. Rungwe area, Tanzania, [5, 6]). The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between volcanism, faulting and the volatile compositions, focusing on the central and southern Kenyan and northern Tanzanian section of the EAR. We report our analysis results for samples obtained during a 2013 field season in Kenya. Gases were sampled at fumaroles and geothermal plants in caldera volcanoes (T=83.1-120.2°C) and springs (T=40-79.6°C and pH 8.5-10) located near volcanoes, intra-rift faults, and a transverse fault (the Kordjya fault, a key fluid source in the Magadi rift) by 4N-NaOH solution-filled and empty Giggenbach bottles. Headspace gases were analyzed by a Gas Chromatograph and a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer at the University of New Mexico. Both N2/Ar and N2/He ratios of all gases (35.38-205.31 and 142.92-564,272, respectively) range between air saturated water (ASW, 40 and ?150,000) and MORB (100-200 and 40-50). In addition, an N2-Ar-He ternary diagram supports that the gases are produced by two component (mantle and air) mixing. Gases in the empty bottles from volcanoes and springs have N2 (90.88-895.99 mmom/mol), CO2 (2.47-681.21 mmom/mol), CH4 (0-214.78 mmom/mol), O2 (4.47-131.12 mmom/mol), H2 (0-35.78 mmom/mol), Ar (0.15-10.65 mmom/mol), He (0-2.21 mmom/mol), and CO (0-0.08 mmom/mol). Although some of the samples show an atmospheric component, CO2 is a major component in most samples, indicating both volcanoes and springs are emitting CO2. Gases from volcanoes are enriched in CH4 and H2, denoting their sources are reduced (oxygen-poor) magma chambers or hydrothermal systems. 40Ar/36Ar ratios (average of all samples=299.15) are similar to our air standard value (299.65×4.05), however, some volcanoes (~308.75) and springs (~321.96) have slightly higher ratios. The springs with elevated 40Ar imply that both the intra-rift (Lake Bogoria) and transverse (Lake Magadi) faults are possibly pathways to carry volatiles from deep sources to the surface. In future work, we will carry out wet chemistry and ion chromatography analyses of the NaOH solutions, measure 3He/4He ratios and complete C, N, and S isotope analyses to further constrain fluid sources and migration processes. [1] Fischer et al., 2009, Nature 459. [2] de Moor et al., 2013, EPSL 361. [3] Sawyer et al., 2008, G-cubed 9. [4] Tassi et al., 2009, G-cubed 10. [5] Barry et al., 2013, Chem Geol 339. [6] de Moor et al., 2013, Chem Geol 339.

Lee, H.; Fischer, T. P.; Ranka, L. S.; Onguso, B.; Kanda, I.; Opiyo-Akech, N.; Sharp, Z. D.; Hilton, D. R.; Kattenhorn, S. A.; Muirhead, J.



Nature of local magma storage zones and geometry of conduit systems below balsatic eruption sites - Pu'u 'O'o, Kilauea East Rift, Hawaii, example  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fluid dynamics of the well-documented eruptive episodes at Pu'u 'O'o, Kilauea are used to investigate quantitatively the size and shape of the shallow conduit system beneath the vent. The possible geometry of this region is considered. The dynamics of the eruptive episodes is used to place restrictions on the size and shape of the region and thermal calculations are used to show that the geometry is consistent with the region being the fluid residue of the partially cooled, major preepisode 1 dike. The Pu'u 'O'o example is used to illustrate some general properties of shallow magma storage zones.

Wilson, Lionel; Head, James W., III



Diabase dikes of the Midcontinent Rift in Minnesota: a record of Keweenawan magmatism and tectonic development  

SciTech Connect

Swarms of both reversed-polarity (R, older) and normal-polarity (N, younger) basaltic dikes help to define the evolution of the Minnesota portion of the Midcontinent Rift of North America. Each swarm, representing fissure-feeders for a package of overlying plateau lavas now eroded away, shows the direction of least principal stress at that time and place in the complex evolution of this abortive but nearly-successful rift. Paleomagnetic pole determinations for Carlton county (CC) and Grand Portage (GP) R dikes are coincident along the Logan Loop of the Proterozoic track, showing essential contemporaneity, though their trends are different (N.30/sup 0/E vs. N. 70-90/sup 0/E.) and they are 250 km apart. These poles match that of the R lavas of the North Shore Volcanic Group (NSVG) and imply a younger age than the R Logan sills and dikes. The geochemistry of the dikes (71 analyses) also correlates well with NSVG flows, ranging from olivine tholeiites to transitional basalts and basaltic andesites and is similar to tholeiites of Columbia River, Parana, and Tertiary No. Atlantic provinces. Though each swarm shows a range of compositions, some are dominantly more evolved, whereas others contain more primitive dikes with higher Al, Mg/Fe, Cr and Ni and lower Fe, Ti, P and LIL's. An early major episode of rifting during the R polarity interval was followed by at least one major N episode in Minnesota before the final one along the present Lake Superior syncline axis. Rifting directions and mantle sources were different for each episode as shown by cross-trending dike sets, indicating complex rift development.

Green, J.C.; Chandler, V.C.



Rift induced delamination of mantle lithosphere and crustal uplift: a new mechanism for explaining Rwenzori Mountains' extreme elevation?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With heights of 4-5 km, the topography of Rwenzori Mountains, a large horst of old crustal rocks located inside a young passive rift system, poses the question “Why are the Rwenzori Mountains so high?”. The Cenozoic Western Rift branch of the East African Rift System is situated within the Late Proterozoic mobile belts between the Archean Tanzania Craton and Congo Craton. The special geological setting of the massif at a rift node encircled by the ends of the northern Western Rift segments of Lake Albert and Lake Edward suggests that the mechanism responsible for the high elevation of the Rwenzoris is related to the rifting process. Our hypothesis is based on the propagation of the rift tips, surrounding the stiff old lithosphere at Rwenzori region, thereby triggering the delamination of the cold and dense mantle lithosphere (ML) root by reducing viscosity and strength of the undermost lower crust. As a result, this unloading induces fast isostatic pop-up of the less dense crustal Rwenzori block. We term this RID—“ rift induced delamination of Mantle Lithosphere”. The physical consistency of the RID hypothesis is tested numerically. Viscous flow of 2D models is approximated by a Finite Difference Method with markers in an Eulerian formulation. The equations of conservation of mass, momentum and energy are solved for a multi-component system. Based on laboratory data of appropriate rock samples, a temperature-, pressure- and stress-dependent rheology is assumed. Assuming a simple starting model with a locally heated ML, the ML block between the weakened zones becomes unstable and sinks into the asthenosphere, while the overlying continental crust rises up. Thus, RID seems to be a viable mechanism to explain geodynamically the extreme uplift. Important conditions are a thermal anomaly within the ML, a ductile lower crust with visco-plastic rheology allowing significant strength reduction and lateral density variations. The special situation of a two-sided rifting or offset rift segments to decouple the ML laterally from the surrounding continental lithosphere seems to be most decisive. Further support for the RID mechanism may come from additional crustal thickness and an extensive stress field. Some parameters, such as the excess temperature and yield stress, are very sensitive, small changes determine whether delamination takes place or not.

Wallner, Herbert; Schmeling, Harro



Final design review summary report for the TN-WHC cask and transportation system  

SciTech Connect

This document represents comments generated from a review of Transnuclear`s Final Design Package distributed on December 10, 1996 and a review of the Final Design Analysis Report meeting held on December 17 & 18, 1996. The Final design describes desicn features and presents final analyses @j performed to fabricate and operate the system while meeting the Cask/Transportation Functions and Requirements, WHC-SD-SNF-FRD-011, Rev. 0 and specification WHC-S-0396, Rev. 1.

Kee, A.T.



Oil exploration in nonmarine rift basins of interior Sudan  

SciTech Connect

In early 1975 Chevron Overseas Petroleum Inc. commenced a major petroleum exploration effort in previously unexplored interior Sudan. With the complete cooperation of the Sudanese Government, Chevron has acquired a vast amount of geologic and geophysical data during the past 9 years. These data include extensive aeromagnetic and gravity surveys, 25,000 mi (40,200 km) of seismic data, and the results of 66 wells. This information has defined several large rift basins which are now recognized as a major part of the Central African rift system. The sedimentary basins of interior Sudan are characterized by thick Cretaceous and Tertiary nonmarine clastic sequences. Over 35,000 ft (10,600 m) of sediment have been deposited in the deepest trough, and extensive basinal areas are underlain by more than 20,000 ft (6100 m) of sediment. The depositional sequence includes thick lacustrine shales and claystones, flood plain claystones, and lacustrine, fluvial, and alluvial sandstones and conglomerates. Those lacustrine claystones which were deposited in an anoxic environment provide oil-prone source rocks. Reservoir sandstones have been found in a wide variety of nonmarine sandstone facies. The extensional tectonism which formed these basins began in the Early Cretaceous. Movement along major fault trends continued intermittently into the Miocene. This deformation resulted in a complex structural history which led to the formation of several deep fault-bounded troughs, major interbasin high trends, and complex basin flanks. This tectonism has created a wide variety of structures, many of which have become effective hydrocarbon traps.

Schull, T.J.



Oligo-Miocene syn-rift and Miocene post-rift sedimentary records: the tectono-stratigraphic development of the northern proximal margin of the Gulf of Aden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The northern margin of the Gulf of Aden results from the Oligo-Miocene rifting (34Ma) leading to continental break-up and the oceanic spreading since the Burdigalian (17.6 Ma). We, here, investigate in detail the tectono-stratigraphy development of the Ashawq Graben belonging to the proximal part of northern margin (southern Oman, Dhofar). This graben exhibits sedimentary records of syn-rift and post-rift sequences, so-called Dhofar (Rupelian-Burdigalian) and Fars (middle Miocene-Pliocene) Groups respectively. Analyzing the deposit conditions and sequences geometries provide fundamental inputs for the whole margin understanding. An accurate sedimentological and biostratigraphical analysis evidences two second-order sea level cycles corresponding to the syn-rift and the post-rift units separated by an erosive surface with paleo-karst cavities. The first stage of the rifting expresses as a regional uplift which led to set up of an early Oligocene mix platform system (Ashawq Fm., Shizar Mb.) overlying the proximal platform (Aydim Fm.) and continental (Zalumah Fm.) system deposit of the late Eocene to earliest Oligocene time. Then, the rift extension process during early Oligocene leads to verticals movements along normal faults and increase of the accommodation rate in the Ashawq graben. Such increase of accommodation is fully compensated by an important carbonate production leading to the aggradation of a thick reefal carbonate platform (Ashawq Fm., Nakhlit Mb.). An acceleration of the extension processes during late Oligocene time reaches an increase of the tectonic subsidence associated to the partial drowning and collapsing of the platform and to the set up of carbonate gravity-flow deposits in a deep basin (Mughsayl Fm.). In the most proximal realm, the sedimentation rate attempts to compensate the accommodation rate resulting in a differential aggradation of the reefal carbonate platform, sometimes in the form of patch reef. At the early Miocene time, the progradation of a conglomeratic fan delta system testifies the decrease of the accommodation rate and a strong basinward system shift controlled by a general uplift of the margin. This surrection phase leading to a subaerial exposure is interpreted as the consequence of the continental breakup at the Burdigalian time (17.6 Ma) and the set up of Ocean-Continent Transition (OCT). At the middle Miocene time, new subsidence phase is associated with a partial marine incursion and to the set up of proximal shallow marine carbonate deposits (Adawnib Fm.) and the lateral equivalent conglomeratic alluvial fan deposits (Nar Fm.). This post-rift unit records a progressive decrease of the tectonic activity, which may be related to the migration of the deformation towards the distal margin up to the oceanic spreading in the Gulf of Aden. Late deformation phases (erosive paleo-surface at the top the post-rift conglomerates, preservation of uplifted paleo-beach deposits) may imply a large-scale geodynamic processes.

Robinet, J.; Razin, P.; Serra Kiel, J.; Gallardo Garcia, A.; Grelaud, C.; Roger, J.; Leroy, S.; Malaval, M.



Rifted Margins: Building Blocks of Later Collision  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Rifted margins develop by the splitting apart of continents and form the trailing edges of ocean basins, to be incorporated\\u000a into collision zones when those basins eventually close. Magma-poor margins are dominated by tectonic processes, including\\u000a crustal extension and thinning, mantle serpentinization and the unroofing of broad expanses of lithospheric mantle. Magma\\u000a rich margins may follow a similar history until

T. Reston; G. Manatschal


The influence of large-scale mantle flow on the dynamics of the East African Rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because the Nubia/Somalia plate system is almost entirely surrounded by spreading ridges in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, Earth's mantle buoyancies are thought to play a key role in the dynamics of East Africa rifting. While this notion is supported by images of large-scale mantle structures beneath Africa from seismic tomography, the details of the force balance driving continental rifting are still debated. In particular, the contribution of gravitational potential energy (GPE) associated with continental topography in driving ~E-W extension across the East African Rift remains elusive. The Nubia/Somalia divergent boundary therefore presents a unique opportunity to quantify in detail plate-driving forces associated with 1) mantle buoyancies acting at the base of the African lithosphere and 2) lateral GPE gradients within the lithosphere. In this study we employ numerical models of the mantle/lithosphere system to test explicitly the contribution of mantle convection to the dynamics of rifting in East Africa. Preliminary results suggest that such contribution may be smaller than previously thought, and that forces arising from GPE gradients may control surface deformation in East Africa.

Stamps, D. S.; Iaffaldano, G.; Calais, E.



MidContinent rift: new frontier in an old area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mid-Continent rift (MCR) is a 2000-km-long intracontinental feature of middle Proterozoic age (1.1 Ga) that extends from Kansas northeastward through the Lake Superior basin and then southeastward through the lower peninsula of Michigan. The authors believe that rift-related marginal basins overlying axial basins and other structures associated with this feature may locally be prospective within four geographically identifiable rift

D. M. Jr. Davidson; M. G. Jr. Mudrey



Seismicity of the Galapagos 95.5°W propagating rift  

Microsoft Academic Search

An array of ocean bottom seismometers was deployed for 21 days about the 95.5°W Galapagos propagating rift tip to obtain seismic evidence for the propagating rift hypothesis and to investigate the dynamic effects of rift propagation. Seismicity was fiarly constant (10-17 events per day) with no indication of swarm activity. Hypocenters were determined for 304 earthquakes, the largest of which

Patricia A. Cooper; Phillip D. Milholland; Frederick K. Duennebier



Development of the Barents Sea rift and its influence on sedimentation and hydrocarbon formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A special attention is given to the geodynamic active zone of the Barents Sea rift. Its development was accompanied by vigorous tectonic activity, propagation of deep faults, deep fractured zones that played an important role in fluid dynamic and thermobaric regime of the whole region. Geodynamic development of the Barents Sea rift not only played a substantial role in formation of as unique oil and gas fields as Shtokman, Prirazlomnoe and others, but created prerequisites for possible gas outbursts into near-surface sediments that could result, in some cases, in hydrocarbon formation. All the Barents Sea deposits are situated in the epicenter of the rift and, most important, over the zone of listric faults intersection, which set up a knot system over the mantle diapir. It is confirmed by prospecting seismology. Intrusion of hot mantle matter with further cooling down of abnormal lense might be a possible cause of appearance and evolution of ultradeep depressions. A high "seismic stratification" of the lower crust (nearly reaching the basement surface) at time scale about 8 sec. is typical for the deepest part of the depression. Supposing the "seismic stratified" lower crust correspond to "basalt" layer, this area is nearly upper crust ("granitic-gneiss") free. This fact confurmes conception on development of "granite free gaps" in the depression basement. Thick blocks of "seismically transparent" upper crust corresponding to the "granitic-gneiss" layer are marked out within Kolsk-Kanin monocline. An abrupt thickness decrease and appearance of "stratified" areas takes place at the southern edge of the depression. A filling of the over-rift sag with sediments, revival of the faults and their effect on the filtration processes and gas hydrates formation took place in the South Barents Sea depression. Repeating activation of the fault blocks in the basement, especially during late Jurassic - early Cretaceous period contributed to formation of the structures related to the greatest deposits of this depression. An extended field acoustic data collected in the Barents Sea led to understanding of general fundamental problems for all Arctic Seas and, first of all, the problem of Quaternary glaciations. An analysis of Eurasian-Arctic continental margin shows correspondence between the rift systems of the shelf with those of the ocean. This relation can be observed by an example of the central Arctic region. All the rift systems underlying the sediment basin are expressed in the sea bed relief as spacious and extensive graben valleys burnished by lobes. The rift structures and the sediment cover are connected by the systems of transversal (or oblique) faults. A study of the regional geologic structure of basins affords believing in the very complicated inner riftogenic structure of the base and the lower part of the sediment cover, which is represented by a combination of grabens and horsts bound by the same tectonic border in the form of high amplitude fault zones, and have a very high density of fault-fractured tectonics. In the same time, a branching of the rift structures related to rounding of large solid blocks of the crust, represented by Archaean or Baikal base prominences, takes place. Their frequent structural connection with the continental paleo-rift structures is ascertained, but the shelf rift system are not their straight prolongation and separated by base thresholds concealed under the sediment cover or by bulkheads expressed even in the modern relief. The information on geodynamic development of the region, thermal convection and modern sedimentation enable assessment of the real potentiality for underwater works in the region, potential gas hydrates resources, and will help to assign a strategy of prospecting work, to range the known fields, to carry out a regional survey for engineering work.

Balanyuk, Inna; Dmitrievsky, Anatoly; Shapovalov, Sergey; Chaikina, Olga



Imaging detailed crustal structure and magmatic intrusion across the Ethiopian Rift using a dense linear broadband array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continental rifting is constrained by the architecture and heterogeneous composition of lithosphere within which rifting occurs. Recent studies in Ethiopia show that the Cenozoic northern Main Ethiopian Rift (NMER) has developed in a Neoproterozoic lithospheric framework modified by a Tertiary plume, magma injection having replaced mechanical failure as the main strain accommodation mechanism. A 400 km long profile of 91 broadband seismic stations striking southeast across the NMER from the uplifted Ethiopian plateau to beyond the southern margin of the rift has provided a high-resolution P receiver function section, here interpreted in terms of crustal architecture and composition in light of independent geophysical observations. Synrift deposits are identified over a ˜110 km wide region beneath which strain was accommodated during the early stages of rifting. Major variations in crustal thickness and seismic properties along the profile divide the crust into four distinct regions. Beneath the northwestern rift flank (average crustal thickness 37.5 km and Vp/Vs 1.82) mafic middle and lower crustal rocks are overlain by a felsic upper crust. Here a high P wave velocity lowest crustal layer (northwestern lower crustal layer) is proposed to consist of frozen gabbroic sills and possibly some partial melt. We suggest partial melting of lower crustal rocks and/or fractional crystallization may have contributed to the bimodal prerift and synrift magmatism. Also, the presence of this layer through its effect on crustal and lithospheric strength and rift-related diking may have controlled the location and development of the NMER in the vicinity of the profile. Beneath the rift (average crustal thickness 34.5 km and Vp/Vs 1.87) the crust is subdivided into a northwestern sector, with a thinned crust and strong likelihood of partially molten rocks, and a southeastern sector, where high velocity and density anomalies and the presence of a Moho "hole" in the receiver function profile constrain the limits of a well-developed crustal magma system. To the southeast, a 35 km wide zone marks the transition from intruded and thinned (by ˜5 km) crust beneath the rift to the amagmatic, thick crust of the southeastern rift flank (average crustal thickness 39 km and Vp/Vs 1.77) suggested to be of felsic to intermediate composition.

Cornwell, D. G.; Maguire, P. K. H.; England, R. W.; Stuart, G. W.



Structural evolution of the Abiquiu embayment, Rio Grande Rift: Implications for the development of transfer zones.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Abiquiu embayment is located along the boundary between the Colorado Plateau and the Rio Grande rift in north central New Mexico. It is an early rift basin bordered by the Canones fault system on its west side that is oblique to the regional trend of the Rio Grande rift and lies within a region where the polarity of the rift changes. Knowledge of the geometry, kinematics, and slip history of the basin-bounding faults is important in understanding segmentation of the Rio Grande rift and may shed light on the development of transform zones in general. We present geologic mapping, stratigraphic analysis and structural analyses of geologic features in the Abiquiu area to assess the role of Abiquiu embayment in the development of the Rio Grande rift. Our mapping shows that the Canones fault system is an east-dipping, oblique normal fault system that strikes northeast for approximately 20 km. It juxtaposes Permian and Triassic age formations in its footwall against upper Jurassic rocks and 300 m of Tertiary basin fill in its hanging wall. Attitudes of pre-rift strata in the hanging wall define a basin-scale rollover structure, which implies the fault system is listric at depth. Fault slip data collected from the Canones fault system shows the mean slip direction is ENE, which yields nearly equal components of left- slip and normal dip-slip. Mode 1 fractures adjacent to the fault system strike between N20E and N47E, an orientation similar to the strike of basaltic dikes several kilometers east of the surface trace of the Canones fault system. Restoration of the contact between Permian and Triassic-age rocks in a direction parallel to the mean slip direction yields slip estimates that show along strike changes. In the southern part of the study area we estimate 300 m of net slip. In the north, we estimate approximately 425 m. The majority of the total slip occurred before deposition of the 8-10 Ma Lobato basalt. Offset of this basalt unit is less than 50 m, implying that since the Late Miocene the Canones fault system has played a relatively minor role in accommodating strain in the region. Our results indicate that the Canones fault system has a negative flower structural geometry, where the up-dip segment of the fault system is listric and faces eastward. We infer the down-dip segments steepen to near vertical based on the orientation of large basaltic dikes in the hanging wall. Because the Canones fault system does not directly link to any rift margin structure, it is best described as operating within an accommodation zone between rift basins with opposing polarities. At present strain in the region is localized to the east along the Embudo transform zone. Based on our investigation of the Abiquiu embayment we hypothesize that this region has evolved from an accommodation zone whereby strain was diffuse to a transform zone along which strain is more localized.

Hicks, R. T.; Murphy, M. A.



Zonal analysis - The final step in system safety assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unexpected interaction of unrelated systems has often been implicated in design-related aircraft accidents. Zonal analysis, which is definable as the systematic inspection of geographical locations of components and interconnections in a system with a view to potential system-to-system interactions, is highly relevant to the consequences of high rotational energy systems (such as turbofan engines), corrosive liquids, and pressure vessels.

Richard E. Caldwell; David B. Merdgen



Mantle Flow, Dynamic Topography and Rift-Flank Uplift of Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Red Sea is flanked by highlands. To the east, the Arabian platform is broadly tilted along an axis that runs parallel to the sea, and the long tail of high topography has been described as a classic example of `rift-flank uplift' [Wernicke, 1985]. A suite of thermal and mechanical effects have been invoked to derive generic mechanisms for flank uplift and these have been applied, with varying levels of success, to the Arabian case. We propose that dynamic topography supported by large scale mantle flow beneath the Africa-Arabia system contributes significantly to the observed pattern of Arabian rift-flank uplift. Seismic tomographic images indicate the existence of large scale (anomalously slow) heterogeneity originating from the deep mantle under southern Africa and, apparently, connecting to more shallow structure beneath the East African Rift system and the Arabian plate. We predict Arabian topography driven by viscous stresses associated with this buoyant megastructure. We first convert velocity anomalies given by the seismic S-wave model S20RTS [Ritsema et al., 1999] to density anomalies using standard scaling profiles, and then input these into a 2-D mantle convection model. Normal stresses derived from the flow models are then used to compute associated profiles of surface (`dynamic') topography. These profiles reconcile the observed topography of the Arabian platform and they provide an explanation for the distinct geometry of rift-flank uplift across the two sides of the Red Sea. Our calculations do not preclude a contribution to topography from previously described thermal and/or mechanical effects; however, they indicate that future analyses of rift-flank uplift should consider the potential contribution from large scale mantle flow.

Daradich, A. L.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Pysklywec, R. N.; Willett, S. D.



A New Look at Spreading in Iceland: Propagating Rifts, Migrating Transform Faults, and Microplate Tectonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iceland has long been used as an analog for studies of seafloor spreading. Despite its thick (~25 km) oceanic crust and subaerial lavas, many features associated with accretion along mid-ocean ridge spreading centers, and the processes that generate them, are well represented in the actively spreading Neovolcanic Zone and deeply glaciated Tertiary crust that flanks it. Integrated results of structural and geodetic studies show that the plate boundary zone on Iceland is a complex array of linked structures bounding major crustal blocks or microplates, similar to oceanic microplates. Major rift zones propagate N and S from the hotspot centered beneath the Vatnajökull icecap in SE central Iceland. The southern propagator has extended southward beyond the South Iceland Seismic Zone transform fault to the Westman Islands, resulting in abandonment of the Eastern Rift Zone. Continued propagation may cause abandonment of the Reykjanes Ridge. The northern propagator is linked to the southern end of the receding Kolbeinsey Ridge to the north. The NNW-trending Kerlingar Pseudo-fault bounds the propagator system to the E. The Tjörnes Transform Fault links the propagator tip to the Kolbeinsey Ridge and appears to be migrating northward in incremental steps, leaving a swath of deformed crustal blocks in its wake. Block rotations, concentrated mainly to the west of the propagators, are clockwise to the N of the hotspot and counter-clockwise to the S, possibly resulting in a component of NS divergence across EW-oriented rift zones. These rotations may help accommodate adjustments of the plate boundary zone to the relative movements of the N American and Eurasian plates. The rotated crustal blocks are composed of highly anisotropic crust with rift-parallel internal fabric generated by spreading processes. Block rotations result in reactivation of spreading-related faults as major rift-parallel, strike-slip faults. Structural details found in Iceland can help provide information that is difficult or impossible to obtain in propagating systems of the deep seafloor.

Karson, J.; Horst, A. J.; Nanfito, A.



Facies distributions within contrasting structural components of a rift lake: Lake Tanganyika, Africa  

SciTech Connect

Lake Tanganyika is the most widely cited modern analog for interpreting ancient rift lakes; thus, understanding controls on its facies distribution is critical for refining stratigraphic models for rifts. Four recurrent margin types occur along the alternating half-graben structure of the lake: rift axes, platforms, escarpments, and accommodation zones. Data from study sites in the northern part of the lake suggest that predictable facies differences exist between these structural margin types. The rift axis site comprises a low-gradient, clastic (wave/current)-dominated deltaic system, with strong facies asymmetry and minor carbonate accumulations on raised benches. The platform margin site comprises a series of structurally controlled benches over which long, continuous facies tracts occur. Carbonate sands, muds, and shell gravel dominate; clastics are limited to moderate-sized silty deltas and long, narrow shoreface sands. The escarpment margin site is a steep-gradient system along which small ({lt}1 km{sup 2}) fan deltas alternate with cemented talus. The accommodation zone margin sites are also dominated by rugged structural relief, generally small fan deltas, and semicontinuous shoreface sand belts ({gt}5 km) onshore and poorly sorted silts offshore. TOC from fine-grained samples reflects the contrast in margin types. TOC values for the platform and rift axis range from 0.4 - 2.1 wt. % (avg. 1.3%), whereas accommodation zone and escarpment margin values range from 0.5-5.5% (avg. 3.0%). Acid insoluble sulfur shows a similar trend. Although all data are significantly correlated with depth, the relative area of the lake margin above and below the oxicline is directly controlled by the structural style of the lake margin.

Soreghan, M.J.; Cohen, A.S. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States))




Microsoft Academic Search

In the Rio Grande rift (RGR), a late Cenozoic continental rift from central Colorado to southern New Mexico, hanging wall margins typically contain en echelon normal fault systems with intervening areas of typically complex structure, called relay zones. Relay zones transfer displacement through complex strain patterns and eventual linkage of faults and hold clues as to how fault zones initiate

S. N. Mason; J. W. Geissman; A. J. Sussman



Persistent fault controlled basin formation since the Proterozoic along the Western Branch of the East African Rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Western Branch of the East African Rift System is outlined by elongate sedimentary basins, frequently occupied by Cenozoic rift lakes. The role of the inheritance of the leading rift faults from pre-existing basement structures has often been invoked. Recent studies in western Tanzania confirm the extent of the northwest orientated Palaeoproterozoic Ubende Belt contribution to the Phanerozoic Rift. Attention is drawn here on the occurrence of different Meso- and Neoproterozoic sedimentary basins that developed along the ductile shear belt as a result of repeated sinistral wrench fault reactivation. These basins partly overlap each other and typically bear shallow and weakly evolved sediments. North of the Ubende Belt, the Mesoproterozoic Kibara Belt is inferred to have originated as a basin controlled by the complex termination of the Ubende wrench fault. Phanerozoic rift basins also develop along the northwest orientated Ubende Belt structure. They display the same elongate shape as the Proterozoic basins. In Late Palaeozoic-Early Mesozoic the Karoo rift basins formed from a dextral lateral shear reactivation of the inherited Proterozoic shear faults. During the first phase of development the Lake Tanganyika Basin is belived to bear the same characteristics as all previous basins along the Ubende Shear Belt, mainly controlled by strike-slip movements along pre-existing shear faults. The present Lake Tanganyika Basin is subdivided in two sub-basins, separated by the transverse Mahali Shoal, which is an active structure located on the Ubende Shear. The deep lake basin mainly developed outside the Ubende Belt. The northern sub-basin appears to be structurally controlled by the reactivation of the Mesoproterozoic sinistral wrench fault termination of the Ubende shear faults. Structural control of the Palaeoproterozoic basement is however unclear for the southern sub-basin of Lake Tanganyika: this part of the rift segment is flanked by Palaeoproterozoic basement which has not been affected by the Ubende Shear.

Klerkx, J.; Theunissen, K.; Delvaux, D.



Development of a prototype airborne oil surveillance system. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype airborne oil surveillance system was developed for the U.S. Coast Guard by Aerojet ElectroSystems Company. The multisensor system permits real-time day\\/night, all-weather detection, mapping and documentation of oil spills at sea. The system was installed aboard a Coast Guard HU-16 Albatross and flight tested off the California Coast. Surveillance data were obtained from natural seeps, a series of

A. T. Edgerton; J. J. Bommarito; R. S. Schwantje; D. C. Meeks



Framework for Adaptable Operating and Runtime Systems: Final Project Report  

SciTech Connect

In this grant, we examined a wide range of techniques for constructing high-performance con#12;gurable system software for HPC systems and its application to DOE-relevant problems. Overall, research and development on this project focused in three specifc areas: (1) software frameworks for constructing and deploying con#12;gurable system software, (2) applcation of these frameworks to HPC-oriented adaptable networking software, (3) performance analysis of HPC system software to understand opportunities for performance optimization.

Patrick G. Bridges



The Print and Computer Enlargement System--PACE. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Print and Computer Enlargement (PACE) System is being designed as a portable computerized reading and writing system that enables a low-vision person to read regular print and then create and edit text using large-print computerized output. The design goal was to develop a system that: weighed no more than 12 pounds so it could be easily…

Morford, Ronald A.


Photovoltaic-system costing-methodology development. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Presented are the results of a study to expand the use of standardized costing methodologies in the National Photovoltaics Program. The costing standards, which include SAMIS for manufacturing costs and M and D for marketing and distribution costs, have been applied to concentrator collectors and power-conditioning units. The M and D model was also computerized. Finally, a uniform construction cost-accounting structure was developed for use in photovoltaic test and application projects. The appendices contain example cases which demonstrate the use of the models.

Not Available



Technology verification phase. Dynamic isotope power system. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Phase I requirements of the Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) program were to make a detailed Flight System Conceptual Design (FSCD) for an isotope fueled organic Rankine cycle power system and to build and test a Ground Demonstration System (GDS) which simulated as closely as possible the operational characteristics of the FSCD. The activities and results of Phase II, the Technology Verification Phase, of the program are reported. The objectives of this phase were to increase system efficiency to 18.1% by component development, to demonstrate system reliability by a 5000 h endurance test and to update the flight system design. During Phase II, system performance was improved from 15.1% to 16.6%, an endurance test of 2000 h was performed while the flight design analysis was limited to a study of the General Purpose Heat Source, a study of the regenerator manufacturing technique and analysis of the hardness of the system to a laser threat. It was concluded from these tests that the GDS is basically prototypic of a flight design; all components necessary for satisfactory operation were demonstrated successfully at the system level; over 11,000 total h of operation without any component failure attested to the inherent reliability of this type of system; and some further development is required, specifically in the area of performance. (LCL)

Halsey, D.G.



Wood-stove hot-water systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this grant was to evaluate the efficiency and economics of installing hot water heating systems or wood stoves. To evaluate the efficiency, six systems were installed in North Florida households and monitored over two heating systems. Three of the systems installed were placed in the flue pipe and three in the stove box. Tests indicate the in-pipe systems yielded on an average 1575 to 1675 Btu/hour, while in-stove systems yielded from 1850 to 2700 Btu/hour on the average. A detailed analysis of the economics of system performance concluded that the installation of wood-stove hot water heating systems is a marginal investment for the Tallahassee area without the current energy tax credit program and a reasonably good investment with it. It was determined that if a person used the stove as a regular heat source in the Tallahassee area and system cost was near $400.00 that person was guaranteed to recover their investment in current dollars within the useful life of the system. As a person travels north to areas where the heating season is longer, these systems become more justified.

Leitman, S.



Evaluation of two washrack recycle treatment systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluated two commercial off-the-shelf washrack wastewater recycle treatment systems (a Landa and an RGF) to determine their applicability at Army facilities. The evaluation assessed the resource requirements for installation, operation, maintenance and repair, and also assessed the effectiveness of the treatment. The two systems were found to use somewhat similar treatment processes. After a 3-month evaluation for each system, the results of the evaluations were also similar. Both systems required significant resources for in-house labor and for service. Neither system could be operated continually in an automated closed loop mode. Removal of organics was inadequate, and slugs of organics (e.g., glycol and diesel fuel) passed through the systems. These systems would not be recommended for use at Army installations unless: (1) the cost to connect the washrack to sanitary sewer was exceptionally high, or sanitary sewer was not available, or (2) the washrack was in a water short area where recycle was required.

Gerdes, G.L.; Hudson, K.L.; Stemniski, P.; Engbert, E.



Melt generation and supply at a magmatic rift zone in Afar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermochemical state of the mantle and the extension rate of the lithopshere play a fundamental role in governing melt volumes during continental rifting. Afar in northern Ethiopia has a prolonged history of extension and magmatism and is an ideal location to investigate mechanisms of melt production during the latter stages of continental break-up. However, current melting conditions here remain poorly constrained. In this study we use geochemical analysis of mafic lavas to develop a petrogenetic model for melt production beneath an active rift zone/segment in west-central Afar. Trace element and isotopic data show that melts are derived from a fertile mantle source, and all the lavas are enriched in incompatible trace elements compared to typical MORB compositions. We investigate primary melting using forward and inverse models of rare earth element (REE) concentrations in partial melts produced from a polybaric melting column. Best-fitting models of melt production with depth constrain melting to occur between depths of ~100-70 km, consistent with melting of upwelling mantle with a potential temperature of 1450 °C. The relatively deep termination of melting given by our results implies that asthenospheric ascent and melting beneath Afar are restricted by an upper thermo-mechanical boundary layer. This suggests that despite its long history of extension a significant thickness of the pre-rift African lithospheric plate still exists in this region. Major element thermobarometry shows that melts erupted at the rift axis preserve compositions consistent with melt-mantle equilibrium at the top of the melting column at ~70km depth, while off-axis lavas show evidence for major element re-equilibration at shallower depths (~60-40 km) within the upper mantle, in agreement with recent geophysical evidence for melt distribution beneath the rift zone. Overall, our results support rifting models where large extents of melt intrusion conserve plate thickness and may compensate for tectonic thinning. Melting beneath Afar still largely resembles a continental rather than oceanic rift system.

Ferguson, D. J.; Pyle, D. M.; Maclennan, J.; Blundy, J. D.; Yirgu, G.; Bastow, I. D.; Plank, T.



New Vectors of Rift Valley Fever in West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

After an outbreak of Rift Valley fever in Southern Mauritania in 1987, entomologic studies were conducted in a bordering region in Sénégal from 1991 to 1996 to identify the sylvatic vectors of Rift Valley fever virus. The virus was isolated from the floodwater mosquitoes Aedes vexans and Ae. ochraceus. In 1974 and 1983, the virus had been isolated from Ae.

D. Fontenille; M. Traore-Lamizana; M. Diallo; J. Thonnon; J. P. Digoutte; H. G. Zeller



Assessing the extent of carbonate deposition in early rift settings  

E-print Network

in this review article are all from East Africa: Lakes Turkana, Bogoria, Natron and Magadi, Manyara on microbialites and tufa, to be expected in early rift settings. Early rift lake examples exam- ined, and Tanganyika. Other lake examples include four from the western United States (Great Salt Lake and high lake

Purkis, Sam


Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks in Mauritania and Related Environmental Conditions  

PubMed Central

Four large outbreaks of Rift Valley Fever (RVF) occurred in Mauritania in 1998, 2003, 2010 and 2012 which caused lots of animal and several human deaths. We investigated rainfall and vegetation conditions that might have impacted on RVF transmission over the affected regions. Our results corroborate that RVF transmission generally occurs during the months of September and October in Mauritania, similarly to Senegal. The four outbreaks were preceded by a rainless period lasting at least a week followed by heavy precipitation that took place during the second half of the rainy season. First human infections were generally reported three to five weeks later. By bridging the gap between meteorological forecasting centers and veterinary services, an early warning system might be developed in Senegal and Mauritania to warn decision makers and health services about the upcoming RVF risk. PMID:24413703

Caminade, Cyril; Ndione, Jacques A.; Diallo, Mawlouth; MacLeod, Dave A.; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Dia, Ibrahima; Morse, Andrew P.



Two-dimensional surface velocity field across the Asal Rift (Afar Depression) from 11 years of InSAR data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze two-dimensional surface velocity maps of the 200x400 km2 region covering the Asal Rift located at the western tip of the Aden Ridge, using the 1997-2008 archive of InSAR data from the RADARSAT satellite. The large phase signal due to turbulent tropospheric conditions over the Afar region is mostly removed from the 11-year average line of sight (LOS) velocity maps, revealing a clear deformation signal across the rift. Assuming the horizontal velocity to be parallel to the direction predicted by the Arabia/Somalia rotation pole (Vigny et al., 2007), we compute the fields of the vertical and horizontal components of the velocity from the ascending and descending line of sight (LOS) velocity maps. The horizontal velocity field shows the divergence between the Arabia and Somalia plates concentrated along the Asal rift, and veering toward the south-west, into the Derella-Gaggade basin system. The Asal rift shoulders open at a rate of ~15 mm/yr, while the horizontal velocity decreases away from the rift down to the plate motion rate of ~11-12 mm/yr. The vertical velocity field shows a ~60 km wide zone of doming centered over the rift associated with shoulder uplift and subsidence of the rift inner floor. The differential movement between the shoulders and the rift floor is accommodated by two main antithetic faults: the south-dipping Fault ? well developed in the topography and the recent north-dipping Fault E with a small topographic scarp. We explain the observed velocity field with 2D-forward and 3D-inverse models combining dislocations of rectangular elements in an elastic half-space. The forward model allows us to estimate the overall geometry and rates of an inflating body at 5 km depth (represented by a combination of a dike and a horizontal sill) and creep on two faults. The least-squares inverse model shows an inflating body located under the Fieale volcano expanding at 2 106 m3/yr. Faults bordering the rift show down-dip and opening motion especially at their base where they are connected to the inflating body. Comparison of the total geometric moment rate due to the opening of all modelled structures and the total volume of magma estimated to have been mobilized during the 1978 seismo-magmatic event suggests that the system may still be in a transient mode, as the current inflation rate would accumulate the same volume in 40-50 years.

Tomic, J.; Peltzer, G.; Doubre, C.



Recognizing remnants of magma-poor rifted margins in high-pressure orogenic belts: The Alpine case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magma-poor rifted margins are being increasingly recognized in present-day Atlantic-type systems. However, findings of fossil areas floored by exhumed mantle or hyper-extended crust are comparatively rare within orogenic belts that were originated through the inversion of pre-existing rifted margins. This discrepancy may be due to the common reactivation of lithological contacts during subduction/orogeny, potentially masking pre-orogenic relationships, and, most importantly, to the frequent lack of a pre-orogenic layer-cake architecture, hindering retro-deformation of multiply deformed tectonic units. This study outlines a methodology to detect sections of magma-poor, hyper-extended rifted margins without a layer-cake architecture in multiply deformed/metamorphosed terrains. This approach is defined by comparison to well studied examples of fossil analogues preserved in weakly deformed parts of Alpine orogens. In the latter domains, continental basement and hydrated peridotites were exhumed at the basin floor during Jurassic rifting along long-offset detachment systems. Extensional geometries locally resulted in tectonic sampling of laterally discontinuous slivers of allochthonous continental basement and pre-rift sediments from the hanging wall blocks. Lithostratigraphic associations consisting of continental basement rocks directly juxtaposed with syn- to post-rift meta-sediments and/or serpentinized subcontinental mantle are widespread within sections of Alpine-type orogenic belts that underwent high- to ultra-high-pressure metamorphism. However, similar associations may arise from a variety of processes other than rift-related lithospheric thinning in magma-poor environments, including subduction mélange dynamics or deposition of sedimentary mélanges along convergent/divergent margins. The partial preservation of rift-related lithostratigraphic associations may still be assessed, despite the lack of biostratigraphic evidence, by (1) the consistency of the lithostratigraphic architecture over large areas, despite pervasive Alpine deformation, which rules out chaotic mixing during subduction/exhumation, (2) the presence of clasts of basement rocks in the neighboring meta-sediments, indicating the original proximity of the different lithologies, (3) evidence of brittle deformation in continental basement and ultramafic rocks pre-dating Alpine metamorphism, indicating that they were juxtaposed by fault activity prior to the deposition of post-rift sediments, and (4) the similar Alpine tectono-metamorphic evolution of ophiolites, continental basement and meta-sediments.

Beltrando, Marco; Manatschal, Gianreto; Mohn, Geoffroy; Dal Piaz, Giorgio Vittorio; Vitale Brovarone, Alberto; Masini, Emmanuel



Family Home Day Care Systems Demonstration Project. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project was designed to test the feasibility of providing home based, quality developmental child care within the context of the 1972 Federal day care requirements. Six home day care systems were studied in order to provide the Office of Child Development with relevant information about the organization of such systems, how they changed over…

Development Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.


Airborne Electro-Optical Sensor Simulation System. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The total system capability, including all the special purpose and general purpose hardware comprising the Airborne Electro-Optical Sensor Simulation (AEOSS) System, is described. The functional relationship between hardware portions is described together with interface to the software portion of the computer image generation. Supporting rationale…

Hayworth, Don


The final phase of the ATLAS control system upgrade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ATLAS facility (Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System) is located at the Argonne National Laboratory. The facility is a tool used in nuclear and atomic physics research focusing primarily on heavy-ion physics. Due to the complexity of the operation of the facility, a computerized control system has always been required. The nature of the design of the accelerator has allowed the

F. Munson; S. Kramer; B. Tieman



Expert system for on-line machinery diagnostics. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A project was conducted to develop, install, and operate an automated vibration monitoring system at the Millstone Unit No. 2 Nuclear Power Plant of the Northeast Utilities Company. This report describes the rotor dynamic analysis of the pumps to be monitored, the system sensor selection, installation requirements and constraints. The methods used for analysis, comparison, and trending of spectral data

J. L. Frarey; D. S. Wilson; N. J. Peterson; J. A. Bartlett



Quality Control Study of the GSL Reinsurance System. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A quality control plan for the U.S. Department of Education's Guaranteed Student Loan (GSL) reinsurance process was developed. To identify existing errors, systems documentation and past analyses of the reinsurance system were analyzed, and interviews were conducted. Corrective actions were proposed, and a quality control checklist was developed…

Advanced Technology, Inc., Reston, VA.


Wet Scrubber System Study. Volume II. Final Report and Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is the second volume of a two-part study on wet scrubber systems. The study was undertaken to achieve the following objectives: (1) evaluate current engineering technology, (2) evaluate existing scrubber systems, (3) investigate present usage problems, (4) determine potential new applications, and (5) develop specific research…

Calvert, Seymour; And Others


Water control data system software manual. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This reports describes the Southwestern Division, Corps of Engineers Water Control Data Collection and Analysis requirements and presents an overall system of software to satisfy those requirements of the water control manager. There is a brief summary of data collection, analysis, distribution, and data exchange requirements in SWD. The hardware comprising the SWD data collection and transmission system is briefly described. The primary method of transmitting information from remote gage sites is via the Geostationary Orbiting Environmental Satellite (GOES) Systems. Processing of the data is done by a network of minicomputers located at three (3) district offices and the division office. The manual details the water manager user requirements as to the products needed. The software system consisting of acquisition group, data base, analysis group and data base utility group. Also interfacing with these groups is system support software required to provide a 'user friendly' system. Within each major group are various programs and routines which interact to form the system. This system is designed to perform in an interactive mode.

Not Available



LDRD final report on a unified linear reference system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the project was to describe existing deficiencies in Geographic Information Systems for transportation (GIS-T) applications and prescribe solutions that would benefit the transportation community in general. After an in-depth literature search and much consultation with noted transportation experts, the need for a common linear reference system that integrated and supported the planning and operational needs of the

J. Jr. Espinoza; R. D. Mackoy; D. R. Fletcher



Computer-Based Educational Software System. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

CBESS (Computer-Based Educational Software System) is a set of 22 programs addressing authoring, instructional delivery, and instructional management. The programs are divided into five groups: (1) Computer-Based Memorization System (CBMS), which helps students acquire and maintain declarative (factual) knowledge (11 programs); (2) Language Skills…

Brandt, Richard C.; Davis, Bradley N.


Regular Class Participation System (RCPS). A Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Regular Class Participation System (RCPS) project attempted to develop, implement, and validate a system for placing and maintaining students with severe disabilities in general education classrooms, with a particular emphasis on achieving both social and learning outcomes for students. A teacher-based planning strategy was developed and…

Ferguson, Dianne L.; And Others


Operational testing of intelligent rail lubrication system. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This IDEA project designs, builds, and demonstrates an automated, computer-controlled onboard intelligent system for applying new environmentally safe and consumable lubricants for rail systems. The IDEA product is to be operationally tested in a commuter rail system (METRA) for providing controlled lubrication on rails and wheel in an environmentally safe way. The lubricant applied to the rail will reduce friction between the wheel and rail and is expected to provide significant benefits in maintenance, safety, and overall economic efficiency. Progressive development of a rail lubrication system for US railroads indicates potential major benefits including reduction in wheel wear, rail wear, and track maintenance costs. Significant benefits transferable to commuter rail and high-speed transit systems are expected as well.

Kumar, S.



Advanced Caution and Warning System, Final Report - 2011  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work described in this report is a continuation of the ACAWS work funded in fiscal year (FY) 2010 under the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP), Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) project. In FY 2010, we developed requirements for an ACAWS system and vetted the requirements with potential users via a concept demonstration system. In FY 2011, we developed a working prototype of aspects of that concept, with placeholders for technologies to be fully developed in future phases of the project. The objective is to develop general capability to assist operators with system health monitoring and failure diagnosis. Moreover, ACAWS was integrated with the Discrete Controls (DC) task of the Autonomous Systems and Avionics (ASA) project. The primary objective of DC is to demonstrate an electronic and interactive procedure display environment and multiple levels of automation (automatic execution by computer, execution by computer if the operator consents, and manual execution by the operator).

Spirkovska, Lilly; Aaseng, Gordon; Iverson, David; McCann, Robert S.; Robinson, Peter; Dittemore, Gary; Liolios, Sotirios; Baskaran, Vijay; Johnson, Jeremy; Lee, Charles; Ossenfort, John; Dalal, Mike; Fry, Chuck; Garner, Larry



Geodetic determination of plate velocity vector in the Ethiopia Rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Red sea, Gulf of Aden and the Main Ethiopian rift form a triple junction in the Afar Region. Although the East African Rift, the divergent plate boundary between Nubian and Somalia, is often cited as a modern archetype for rifting and continental breakup, its current kinematics is the least known of all major plate boundaries. Moreover, geodetic datum in such tectonically active area is subject to distortion that increases with time. Therefore, a close study of the positions and velocities of reference stations in such tectonic active areas is necessary, if one wants to have high precise geodetic measurement for any developmental activity. In this study phase and pseudo-range GPS measurements were processed to derive the daily solutions of positions in reference to the ITRF05. This solution from 8 continuous stations in Ethiopia, with a length of 0.75 to 2.67 years, is then combined into a cumulative solution with position and velocity estimates. Here a method that combines GPS observation data from 2007 to 2009 to estimate time-dependent motion of stations in a region of active deformation is implemented. First, observations were analysed separately to produce loosely constrained estimates of station positions and coordinate system parameters which are then combined with appropriate constraints to estimate velocities and co-seismic displacements. The result archived gives a good insight about the velocity at which the three major plates, namely the Nubian, Arabian and Somalia plates are moving with respect to each other. The study shows the relative velocity between Nubia and Somalia plates with 4.6±0.3 mm/yr. While, the Nubia and Arabia plates are moving with 33±0.15mm/yr.Moreover; positions of stations are computed with high precession for any future reference purpose. Due to short duration of measurements at some stations further observation are recommended to compute positions and velocity fields after all stations have data at least for two years time. Key words: GPS, Space geodesy, ITRF05, Deformation

Boku, E.; Teklemariam, E.; Rivalta, E.



The mode of rifting of the Tyrrhenian Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The back-arc evolution of the Tyrrhenian Sea has mainly been attributed to the roll-back towards the south-east of the subducting Ionian plate that could have provided the bulk of the space required for this extension. The Tyrrhenian Sea is a triangular basin characterized by two large bathyal basins (Vavilov and Marsili basins) that are covered by some hundred meters of sediments, and a number of peri- Tyrrhenian basins filled by thousands of meters of clastic and/or volcaniclastic sediments. The stratigraphic record of these basins offers an opportunity to study the timing and kinematics of the basin-forming faults that are relevant for the creation of a model on the opening of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Basin analysis was performed using interpretation of seismic reflection profiles and well logs. The interpretation of these data was made using seismic and sequence stratigraphy and structural geology in a GIS-dedicated environment. The sequence stratigraphy interpretation of the deepest wells were performed using discontinuities and trends in wireline log pattern. Systems tracts and transgressive-regressive cycles were identified in well log succession and seismic profiles. The sequence stratigraphy approach allows the identification of 4th-order depositional sequences (100 ka). The geologic evolution, in terms of age of basin formation, style of deformation, timing of activity of the fault bounding basins, tectonic subsidence, post-rift infill and volcanic activity, was analyzed for several peri-Tyrrhenian basins. The study reconstructed the three-dimensional architecture of the peri-Tyrrhenian basins and illustrated the link between the bathyal basin and the Tyrrhenian margin. We document that during the evolution of the Tyrrhenian region several basins opened contemporaneously with different direction of extension and a progressive change in rifting direction occurred along the Campania Margin. The mode of rifting of the Tyrrhenian Sea was characterized by different styles of the extensional basins and detachment faulting. Taking into account the published geological data, we propose a kinematic evolution of the Tyrrhenian basin over the last 12 Ma.

Milia, Alfonsa; Torrente, Maurizio M.



Evaluation of industrial combustion control systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluated O/sub 2/ and CO monitoring systems used for combustion controls to provide reliable data on their performance, operating range and accuracy. The study concentrated on three in-situ O/sub 2/ and two in-situ CO monitoring systems which are applicable to furnace and boiler controls. The project provides technical information for cost/benefit analysis of combustion control systems and to help expedite implementation of combustion control technology by industry. The evaluation of the stack gas monitoring systems was carried out for ranges of furnace operating parameters such as fuel to air mixture ratio, burner firing rate, heat extraction rate, fuel type, combustion air preheat temperature, and cyclic operating conditions, which are based on information gathered from typical operational practices of representative industrial furnaces and boilers. The experiments were performed in the NBS experimental furnace under both natural gas and No. 2 fuel oil fired conditions. An on-line gas sampling/analysis system was used as a reference system for comparati