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Sample records for riga bay baltic

  1. Seasonal dynamics of biomarkers in infaunal clam Macoma balthica from the Gulf of Riga (Baltic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barda, Ieva; Purina, Ingrida; Rimsa, Elina; Balode, Maija

    2014-01-01

    Biomarkers are often regarded as “early warning” signals of environmental pollution; however seasonal changes are mentioned as one of the most important factor that influences the activity of biomarkers. The aim of our study was to assess the importance of seasonal variation of selected contaminant biomarkers in Macoma balthica to provide background information for further environmental surveys in the Gulf of Riga. Seasonal variation of biomarkers (acetylcholinesterase (AChE), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)) was measured in infaunal clam M. balthica from the southern part of the Gulf of Riga. The majority of biomarkers (GST, CAT and GR) showed strong seasonal variability; however only CAT and GR were found to be significantly related to environmental factors (near-bottom oxygen, salinity and temperature). Integrated biomarker response (IBR) index indicated that the most stressed condition of M. balthica is during August and May. The highest values of IBR were found near the mouth of the River Daugava, suggesting the impact of environmental pollution on the benthic animals.

  2. A numerical study of circulation in the Gulf of Riga, Baltic Sea. Part II: Mesoscale features and freshwater transport pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lips, Urmas; Zhurbas, Victor; Skudra, Maris; Väli, Germo

    2016-03-01

    A regional eddy-resolving model is developed to study mesoscale processes in the Gulf of Riga in relation to river runoff, saltwater inflow, and atmospheric forcing. A number of mesoscale phenomena are simulated and discussed, such as meandering of coastal buoyant plume/current of riverine waters and formation and splitting of cyclonic eddies related to the saltwater inflow. It is shown that the Daugava River discharge forms a surface-advected plume (Yankovsky and Chapman, 1997) consisting of an anticyclonic bulge and coastal buoyant jet. In case of no saltwater inflow and no atmospheric forcing, the river runoff is distributed between the growing anticyclonic bulge and the coastal current in proportion of about 7:6. In the summer season, a substantial fraction of freshwater from the anticyclonic bulge can be transported to the north by the anticyclonic whole-basin circulation gyre leading to the bimodal transport pathways of the Daugava River plume.

  3. A numerical study of circulation in the Gulf of Riga, Baltic Sea. Part I: Whole-basin gyres and mean currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lips, Urmas; Zhurbas, Victor; Skudra, Maris; Väli, Germo

    2016-01-01

    A regional model of the Gulf of Riga (GoR) with horizontal grid spacing of 0.5 nautical miles was applied to study the features and driving forces of the whole-basin circulation in the GoR. The initial conditions and atmospheric forcing were taken from the operational models High Resolution Operational Model for the Baltic (HIROMB) and High Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM), respectively. The wind stress curl is shown to be a major contributor to the whole-basin circulation pattern. An anticyclonic circulation pattern in the summer is determined by a combined effect of the negative wind stress curl, thermal density stratification and bottom topography. Positive values of the wind stress curl and a cyclonic circulation pattern prevail during the cold period of the year when seasonal thermocline is absent. During calm periods, the anticyclonic type of circulation is established due to a combined effect of the river runoff, saltier water inflow into and mixed water outflow from the GoR. Two seasonal baroclinic jet-like currents are identified in the summer: the Northward Longshore Current in the western GoR and Southward Subsurface Longshore Current in the eastern GoR. The alteration of the circulation pattern in the GoR from cyclonic in the cold period of the year to anticyclonic in the summer, and vice versa, was shown to be observed not every year due to inter-annual variability of wind forcing.

  4. River bulge evolution and dynamics in a non-tidal sea - Daugava River plume in the Gulf of Riga, Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soosaar, Edith; Maljutenko, Ilja; Uiboupin, Rivo; Skudra, Maris; Raudsepp, Urmas

    2016-03-01

    Satellite remote sensing imagery and numerical modelling were used for the study of river bulge evolution and dynamics in a non-tidal sea, the Gulf of Riga (GoR) in the Baltic Sea. Total suspended matter (TSM) images showed a clearly formed anti-cyclonically rotating river bulge from Daugava River discharge during the studied low wind period. In about 7-8 days the bulge grew up to 20 km in diameter, before being diluted. A high-resolution (horizontal grid step of 125 m) General Estuarine Transport Model (GETM) was used for detailed description of the development of the river plume in the southern GoR over the period when satellite images were acquired. In the model simulation, the bulge growth rate was estimated as rb ˜ t0.5 ± 0.04 (R2 = 0.90). Both the model simulation and the satellite images showed that river water was mainly contained in the bulge and there were numerous intrusions at the outer perimeter of the bulge. We performed numerical sensitivity tests with actual bathymetry and measured river runoff without wind forcing (1) having an initial three-dimensional density distribution, and (2) using initially a homogeneous ambient density field. In the first case, the anti-cyclonic bulge did not develop within the course of the model simulation and the coastal current was kept offshore due to ambient density-driven circulation. In the second case, the river plume developed steadily into an anti-cyclonically recirculating bulge, with rb ˜ t0.28 ± 0.01 (R2 = 0.98), and a coastal current. Additional simulations with constant cross-shore and alongshore winds showed a significant effect of the wind in the evolution of the river bulge, even if the wind speed was moderate (3-4 m s-1). While previous studies conclude that the mid-field bulge region is governed by a balance between centrifugal, Coriolis and pressure gradient terms, our study showed that geostrophic balance is valid for the entire mid-field of the bulge, except during the 1-1.5 rotation period at

  5. River bulge evolution and dynamics in a non-tidal sea - Daugava River plume in the Gulf of Riga, Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soosaar, E.; Maljutenko, I.; Uiboupin, R.; Skudra, M.; Raudsepp, U.

    2015-10-01

    Satellite remote sensing imagery and numerical modelling were used for the study of river bulge evolution and dynamics in a non-tidal sea, the Gulf of Riga (GoR) in the Baltic Sea. Total suspended matter (TSM) images showed a clearly formed anti-cyclonically rotating river bulge from Daugava River discharge during the studied low wind period. In about 7-8 days the bulge grew up to 20 km in diameter, before being diluted. Bulge growth rate was estimated as rb ~ t 0.31± 0.23 (R2 = 0.87). A high resolution (horizontal grid step of 125 m) General Estuarine Transport Model (GETM) was used for detailed description of the development of the river plume in the southern GoR over the period when satellite images were acquired. In the model simulation, the rb ~ t 0.5± 0.04 (R2 = 0.90). Both the model simulation and the satellite images showed that river water was mainly contained in the bulge and there were numerous intrusions at the outer perimeter of the bulge. We made numerical sensitivity tests with actual bathymetry and measured river runoff without wind forcing: (1) having initial 3-dimensional density distribution, (2) using initially a homogeneous ambient density field. In the first case, the anti-cyclonic bulge did not develop within the course of the model simulation and coastal current was kept offshore due to ambient density-driven circulation. In the second case, the river plume developed steadily into an anti-cyclonically recirculating bulge and a coastal current. This showed a significant effect of the wind in the evolution of the river bulge, even if the wind speed was moderate (3-4 m s-1). In the second case, rb ~ t 0.28± 0.01 (R2 = 0.98). While previous studies conclude that mid-field bulge region is governed by balance between centrifugal, Coriolis and pressure gradient terms, our study showed that geostrophic balance is valid for the entire mid-field of the bulge. In addition, while there is discharge into the homogenous GoR in case of high inflow

  6. Features of winter sedimentation processes in Curonian Bay of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravtsov, V. A.; Emelyanov, E. M.

    2016-03-01

    The concentration distribution was studied for dissolved oxygen, phosphorus forms, and particulate matter in Curonian Bay of the Baltic Sea in poorly known consolidated ice cover conditions during the winter seasons of 2010, 2011, and 2013. The surface and near-bottom waters were sampled at 51 stations. The ice cover exerts no significant effect on the typical seasonal variation of all considered parameters in the basin. The concentrations of mineral and organic phosphorus in the bay appeared to be lower by factors of 2-4 compared to summer values. A two- to threefold decrease in the concentrations of organic phosphorus since 2010 to 2011 and then to 2013 was recorded in the bay, which resulted from a decrease in phosphorus production by phytoplankton. Despite water being isolated from air by ice, the absence of wave mixing, and the decrease in oxygen production owing to the seasonal winter decrease in the intensity photosynthetic processes, no oxygen deficiency was found in the basin. This is because oxygen supplied to the bay by river runoff and production by photosynthesis in the bay exceed the utilization for oxidation of organic matter resulting from low bioproductivity of the waters during winter. The winter decrease in the fraction of biogenic particulate matter is seen as a four- to sevenfold drop in its total concentration in the waters compared to summer seasons. The absence of wave roiling of bottom sediments also caused a decrease in the secondary supply of biogenic particulate matter from sediments into near-bottom waters. No negative trends of geoecological conditions in the bay were revealed by the studied parameters under consolidated ice cover conditions.

  7. Analysis of trophic networks and carbon flows in south-eastern Baltic coastal ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczak, Maciej T.; Müller-Karulis, Bärbel; Järv, Leili; Kotta, Jonne; Martin, Georg; Minde, Atis; Põllumäe, Arno; Razinkovas, Arturas; Strake, Solvita; Bucas, Martynas; Blenckner, Thorsten

    2009-04-01

    Carbon flows in five south-eastern Baltic coastal ecosystems (Puck Bay, Curonian Lagoon, Lithuanian coast, Gulf of Riga coast and Pärnu Bay) were compared on the basis of ECOPATH models using 12 common functional groups. The studied systems ranged from the hypertrophic Curonian Lagoon to the mesotrophic Gulf of Riga coast. Interestingly, we found that macrophytes were not consumed by grazers, but rather channelled into the detritus food chain. In all ecosystems fisheries had far reaching impacts on their target species and on the food-web in general. In particular, benthic food-webs were partly affected by indirect fisheries effects. For example, fisheries tend to change the biomass of piscivorous fish, causing a cascading effect on benthivorous fish and macrozoobenthos. These cascades are ecosystem specific and need to be considered when using benthic invertebrates as productivity and eutrophication indicators. Odum’s maturity attributes allowed a ranking of costal ecosystems according to their maturity. Namely, the community development decreased in the following order: Pärnu Bay > Gulf of Riga coast > Lithuanian coast > Puck Bay > Curonian Lagoon.

  8. The Baltic Macoma: abundance and distribution of an important winter food of diving ducks in Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorde, D.G.; Haramis, G.M.

    1997-01-01

    Poor water quality and widespread depletion of wild celery (Vallisneria americana) and other submerged aquatic plants important as waterfowl foods has resulted in the continued dependence of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) on Baltic clams (Macoma balthica) as their primary winter food. Despite this dependence, no information exists regarding the distribution and abundance of Baltic clams, and changes that occur in Baltic clam populations over time. We conducted benthic surveys to determine the distribution and abundance of Macoma balthica and M. mitchelli in major tributaries of the upper and middle Chesapeake Bay. Tributaries sampled included the Chester River south to Monie Bay on the Eastern Shore, and Middle River to the Potomac River on the western shore of Maryland. Data on depth, bottom type, shellfish, and submerged aquatic vegetation were recorded. The Baltic clam had the highest frequency of occurrence (50%), followed by M. mitchelli (36%). Other species of clams occurred in less than 14% of the 2995 sites sampled. In addition, every third month since June 1991, we have studied seasonal changes in Baltic clam abundance and recruitment at 13 high abundance sites. Recruitment was recorded at only one high density site (97% increase) between June and September transect surveys. Clam length histograms clearly indicated a new year class and depletion of older cohorts. Average summer decline in Baltic clam abundance at the other 12 sites was 59% and ranged from -11% to -97%. Based on clam length, younger cohorts were depleted at a higher rate. More than half of the Baltic clam population was depleted during the summer and spring recruitment was low.

  9. Water protection in the Baltic Sea and the Chesapeake Bay: institutions, policies and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Iho, Antti; Ribaudo, Marc; Hyytiäinen, Kari

    2015-04-15

    The Baltic Sea and the Chesapeake Bay share many characteristics. Both are shallow, brackish marine areas that suffer from eutrophication. Successful policies targeting point source pollution have lowered nutrient loads in both areas, but achieving the desired marine quality will require further abatement: efforts may be extended to more complicated and expensive pollution sources, notably agricultural nonpoint loads. Despite their ecological similarities, the two watersheds have different histories and institutional settings and have thus adopted different policies. Comparing and contrasting the policies reveal ways to improve the efficiency of each and ways to avoid the path of trial and error. No comparison of the parallel protection efforts, which involve expenditures of hundreds of millions of dollars annually, has been carried out to date. The present paper analyzes the policies applied in the two regions, distilling the results into six recommendations for future steps in preserving what are valuable sea areas. PMID:25752532

  10. Benthic re-colonization in post-dredging pits in the Puck Bay (Southern Baltic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymelfenig, Maria; Kotwicki, Lech; Graca, Bożena

    2006-07-01

    The stage of benthic re-colonization at a site formed by sand extraction was investigated some 10 years after the cessation of dredging. The examined post-dredging pit is one of five deep (up to 14 m) pits created with a static suction hopper on the sandy, flat and shallow (1-2 m) part of the inner Puck Bay (the southern Baltic Sea). The topography of the dredged area makes a specific trap for different kinds of organic matter. It is created by the small areas of post-dredging pits as compared to their depths. As a result, organic matter accumulation leads to anaerobic conditions and hydrogen sulfide formation. Macrofauna was not found to occur permanently in the deepest part (11 m) of the cup-shaped depression, which was characterized by its small area (0.2 km 2) and steep walls. However, permanent occurrence of meiofauna (max. 180 ind. 10 cm -2, mainly Nematoda) was noted. Undoubtedly, re-colonization of benthic fauna assemblages, typical of shallow and sandy seabed of the Puck Bay, will not follow in a natural way in the area of post-dredging pits. Also, it could not be expected that the re-colonization sequence would result in the formation of a structure similar to that of the natural depression (the Kuźnica Hollow).

  11. New geological aspects for freshwater seepage and formation in Eckernförde Bay, western Baltic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Jørn B.; Kuijpers, Antoon; Bennike, Ole; Laier, Troels; Werner, Friedrich

    2002-10-01

    The subsurface geology relevant to the submarine freshwater seepage in Eckernförde Bay has been investigated using shallow seismic instruments and vibrocoring. Detailed surveying revealed that the pockmarks are aligned like pearls on a string or densely clustered in furrow-like structures depending on the glacial and postglacial setting of the underlying strata. Two possible aquifers have been verified: The older Miocene sand aquifer is partly sealed by a till unit forming the central part of the Mittelgrund. The younger aquifer consists of a mixture of glacial till and meltwater sediments partly sealed by till and partly by lateglacial galciolacustrine silt and clay sediments. The investigations imply that connections exist between the aquifers and that groundwater leakage takes place in the marginal zones of the bay due to thinning and coarsening of the sediment composition of the lateglacial seal. Within the seepage areas, the pockmarks are restricted to areas covered by unconsolidated Holocene mud of low thickness' that are easy to penetrate by artesian groundwater. Macrofossil studies and AMS 14C dating of the lateglacial and Holocene units reveal that the Mittelgrund shoal of glacial origin has been modified by coastal processes and formation of cuspate foreland deposits during the subsequent palaeo-lake phases of 15-20 m below the present sea level (b.s.l.). The lake phases correlate in time with the regional Baltic Ice Lake highstand about 10,000 14C years BP and the Ancylus Lake highstand about 9200 14C years BP. This means that local contemporary lakes existed or the western margin of the regional lakes can be moved considerably further west than expected hitherto. In the earliest phase of the Littorina Sea transgression, the Mittelgrund shoal was exposed to coastal erosion once more before the final drowning and the initiation of mud sedimentation in the surrounding basins took place.

  12. Seagrass vegetation and meiofauna enhance the bacterial abundance in the Baltic Sea sediments (Puck Bay).

    PubMed

    Jankowska, Emilia; Jankowska, Katarzyna; Włodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria

    2015-09-01

    This study presents the first report on bacterial communities in the sediments of eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows in the shallow southern Baltic Sea (Puck Bay). Total bacterial cell numbers (TBNs) and bacteria biomass (BBM) assessed with the use of epifluorescence microscope and Norland's formula were compared between bare and vegetated sediments at two localities and in two sampling summer months. Significantly higher TBNs and BBM (PERMANOVA tests, P < 0.05) were recorded at bottom covered by the seagrass meadows in both localities and in both sampling months. The relationships between bacteria characteristics and environmental factors (grain size, organic matter, photopigments in sediments), meiofauna and macrofauna densities, as well as macrophyte vegetation characteristics (shoot density, phytobenthos biomass) were tested using PERMANOVA distance-based linear model (DISTLM) procedures and showed that the main factors explaining bacteria characteristics are bottom type (vegetated vs. unvegetated) and meiofauna density. These two factors explained together 48.3% of variability in TBN and 40.5% in BBM, and their impacts did not overlap (as indicated by DISTLM sequential tests) demonstrating the different natures of these relationships. The effects of seagrass were most probably related to the increase of organic matter and providing habitat while higher numbers of meiofauna organisms may have stimulated the bacterial growth by increased grazing. PMID:26178839

  13. The Mesozoic Cenozoic structural framework of the Bay of Kiel area, western Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Martin Bak; Lykke-Andersen, Holger; Dehghani, Ali; Gajewski, Dirk; Hübscher, Christian; Olesen, Morten; Reicherter, Klaus

    2005-12-01

    A dense grid of multichannel high-resolution seismic sections from the Bay of Kiel in the western Baltic Sea has been interpreted in order to reveal the Mesozoic and Cenozoic geological evolution of the northern part of the North German Basin. The overall geological evolution of the study area can be separated into four distinct periods. During the Triassic and the Early Jurassic, E W extension and the deposition of clastic sediments initiated the movement of the underlying Zechstein evaporites. The deposition ceased during the Middle Jurassic, when the entire area was uplifted as a result of the Mid North Sea Doming. The uplift resulted in a pronounced erosion of Upper Triassic and Lower Jurassic strata. This event is marked by a clear angular unconformity on all the seismic sections. The region remained an area of non-deposition until the end of the Early Cretaceous, when the sedimentation resumed in the area. Throughout the Late Cretaceous the sedimentation took place under tectonic quiescence. Reactivated salt movement is observed at the Cretaceous Cenozoic transition as a result of the change from an extensional to compressional regional stress field. The vertical salt movement influenced the Cenozoic sedimentation and resulted in thin-skinned faulting.

  14. The Mesozoic and cenozoivc evolution of the Bays of Kiel and Mecklenburg - A part of the NeoBaltic project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, M.; Huebscher, C. P.; Lykke-Andersen, H.; Reicherter, K.; Dehghani, A.; Gajewski, D.

    2005-12-01

    In the frame of the Priority Program 1135 of the German Research Foundation (DFG) "Dynamics of sedimentary systems under varying stress conditions by example of the Central European Basin System", the scientific goal of the NeoBaltic project is to describe the post-Permian to recent structural and sedimentary evolution of the entire western Baltic Sea region, with a special emphasis on neotectonic activity and its relation to salt dynamics and the possible reactivation of deeper inherited structures. In order to investigate these scientific goals the Universities of Aarhus (Denmark) and Hamburg (Germany) has since 1998 completed eight marine campaigns in the western Baltic Sea, collecting 2D high resolution seismic (HRS), gravity and magnetic data in the entire region during different projects. Since 2003 all these data has been available for the NeoBaltic project. All together the data pool have more than 8000 km HRS, 6000 km gravity and 5000 km magnetic data. Until now the project work has been focused on the completion of the data processing and the digital interpretation of important Mesozoic and Cenozoic markers on the seismic sections from the Bays of Kiel and Mecklenburg. Furthermore several maps have been completed from the potential field data (gravity and magnetic). As a result of the digital interpretation of the HRS data, the overall geological evolution of the northern part of the NGB can be subdivided into four distinct periods. During the Triassic and the Early Jurassic, E-W directed extension and the deposition of clastic sediments initiated the movement of the underlying Zechstein evaporites. This is seen by the presence of several salt pillows in the region. The deposition ceased during the Middle Jurassic, when the entire area was uplifted, due to the Mid North Sea Doming. The uplift resulted in a pronounced erosion of Upper Triassic and Lower Jurassic strata. This event is marked by a clear unconformity on the seismic sections. The region

  15. Genetic diversity in Monoporeia affinis at polluted and reference sites of the Baltic Bothnian Bay.

    PubMed

    Guban, Peter; Wennerström, Lovisa; Elfwing, Tina; Sundelin, Brita; Laikre, Linda

    2015-04-15

    The amphipod Monoporeia affinis plays an important role in the Baltic Sea ecosystem as prey and as detritivore. The species is monitored for contaminant effects, but almost nothing is known about its genetics in this region. A pilot screening for genetic variation at the mitochondrial COI gene was performed in 113 individuals collected at six sites in the northern Baltic. Three coastal sites were polluted by pulp mill effluents, PAHs, and trace metals, and two coastal reference sites were without obvious connection to pollution sources. An off-coastal reference site was also included. Contaminated sites showed lower levels of genetic diversity than the coastal reference ones although the difference was not statistically significant. Divergence patterns measured as ΦST showed no significant differentiation within reference and polluted groups, but there was significant genetic divergence between them. The off-coastal sample differed significantly from all coastal sites and also showed lower genetic variation. PMID:25701944

  16. Stable isotope tracing of anaerobic methane oxidation in the gassy sediments of Eckernfoerde Bay, German Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Martens, C.S.; Albert, D.B.; Alperin, M.J.

    1999-07-01

    Methane concentrations in the pore waters of Eckernfoerde Bay in the German Baltic Sea generally reach gas bubble saturation values within the upper meter of the sediment column. The depth at which saturation occurs is controlled by a balance between rates of methane production, consumption (oxidation), and transport. The relative importance of anaerobic methane oxidation (AMO) in controlling dissolved and gas bubble methane distributions in the bay's sediments is indirectly revealed through methane concentration versus depth profiles, depth variations in the stable C and H isotope composition of methane, and the C isotope composition of total dissolved inorganic carbon ({Sigma}CO{sub 2}). Direct radiotracer measurements indicate that AMO rates of over 15 mM/yr are focused at the base of the sulfate reduction zone. Diagenetic equations that describe the depth destructions of the {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}D values of methane reproduce isotopic shifts observed throughout the methane oxidation zone and are best fit with kinetic isotope fractionation factors of 1.012 {+-} 0.001 and 1.120 {plus{underscore}minus} 0.020 respectively.

  17. Searching for order in chaos: a sediment stratigraphical study of a multiple-impacted bay of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaalgamaa, S.; Korhola, A.

    2004-02-01

    The lithological and geochemical properties of sediment cores collected from a heavily impacted embayment in the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea, were investigated. Hillonlahti Bay has been the focus of much human activity, including timber and oil industries, transportation, housing, dredging and waste discharge, thus constituting an exceptionally challenging environment for sediment studies. A total of nine cores were sampled along perpendicular transects across the elongated bay, and described lithologically in the field. Major and trace element concentrations were determined for a "master core" taken from the central area of the bay. The vertical distribution of 210Pb, 137Cs and spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCP) was also examined in order to provide a chronological framework for the sediment. Changes in the sediment nature and differences in the distributions of soluble heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, Zn), lithophilous (Al, Ti, K, Mg, Ca, Na), redox-sensitive (Fe, Mn), and nutrient (TP) elementary concentrations were related to temporal and spatial processes. These include the building of the Hamina port starting in the mid-1930s, establishment of the timber and oil industry in 1950-1960s, construction of railway embankments in 1950 and 1996, increasing urbanisation from 1960s, and wastewater discharge between 1950 and 1987. The use of Cr as a preservative in the wood processing industry is reflected in the marked enrichment of Cr in the sediment, while the influence of wastewater discharge can be seen in the sediment record by a rise in concentrations of P and evidently organically bound Na, Cu and Zn. The results are encouraging in demonstrating that via a rather simple repertoire of sediment-analytical methods it is possible to obtain information about the land-use history and contamination in such a strongly rampaged system.

  18. Flow of nanofluid past a Riga plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Adeel; Asghar, Saleem; Afzal, Sumaira

    2016-03-01

    This paper studies the mixed convection boundary layer flow of a nanofluid past a vertical Riga plate in the presence of strong suction. The mathematical model incorporates the Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects due to nanofluid and the Grinberg-term for the wall parallel Lorentz force due to Riga plate. The analytical solution of the problem is presented using the perturbation method for small Brownian and thermophoresis diffusion parameters. The numerical solution is also presented to ensure the reliability of the asymptotic method. The comparison of the two solutions shows an excellent agreement. The correlation expressions for skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are developed by performing linear regression on the obtained numerical data. The effects of nanofluid and the Lorentz force due to Riga plate, on the skin friction are discussed.

  19. [Effect of food availability in early ontogenesis on the rate of growth and numbers of bream Abramis brama L. (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae) in Kursh Bay of the Baltic Sea].

    PubMed

    Naumenko, E N

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of studies of zooplankton and ichthyoplankton in the coastal zone of Kursh Bay of the Baltic Sea, zooplankton production accessible for juveniles of bream Abramis brama L. at early stages of ontogenesis, degree of removal of food resources, and food availability of juveniles of the bream that was reflected in the rate of growth were calculated. It is concluded that the removal of more than 60% of production of food zooplankton by bream juveniles leads to an increase of their mortality at early stages and a decrease in the rate of increase in the body weight. PMID:21786657

  20. Controls on subsurface methane fluxes and shallow gas formation in Baltic Sea sediment (Aarhus Bay, Denmark)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flury, Sabine; Røy, Hans; Dale, Andrew W.; Fossing, Henrik; Tóth, Zsuzsanna; Spiess, Volkhard; Jensen, Jørn Bo; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2016-09-01

    Shallow gas accumulates in coastal marine sediments when the burial rate of reactive organic matter beneath the sulfate zone is sufficiently high and the methanogenic zone is sufficiently deep. We investigated the controls on methane production and free methane gas accumulation along a 400 m seismo-acoustic transect across a sharp transition from gas-free into gas-bearing sediment in Aarhus Bay (Denmark). Twelve gravity cores were taken, in which the pore water was analyzed for inorganic solutes while rates of organic carbon mineralization were measured experimentally by 35SO42- radiotracer method. The thickness of organic-rich Holocene mud increased from 5 to 10 m along the transect concomitant with a shallowing of the depth of the sulfate-methane transition from >4 m to 2.5 m. In spite of drastic differences in the distribution of methane and sulfate in the sediment along the transect, there were only small differences in total mineralization, and methanogenesis was only equivalent to about 1% of sulfate reduction. Shallow gas appeared where the mud thickness exceeded 8-9 m. Rates of methanogenesis increased along the transect as did the upward diffusive flux of methane. Interestingly, the increase in the sedimentation rate and Holocene mud thickness had only a modest direct effect on methanogenesis rates in deep sediments. This increase in methane flux, however, triggered a shallowing of the sulfate-methane transition which resulted in a large increase in methanogenesis at the top of the methanogenic zone. Thus, our results demonstrate a positive feedback mechanism that causes a strong enhancement of methanogenesis and explains the apparently abrupt appearance of gas when a threshold thickness of organic-rich mud is exceeded.

  1. PREFACE: 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezinskis, G.; Bragina, L.; Colombo, P.; Frischat, G. H.; Grabis, J.; Greil, P.; Deja, J.; Kaminskas, R.; Kliava, J.; Medvids, A.; Nowak, I.; Siauciunas, R.; Valancius, Z.; Zalite, I.

    2011-12-01

    Logo This Volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering presents a selection of the contributions to the 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials (BaltSilica2011) held at Riga Technical University, Riga, Latvia from 23-25 May 2011. The conference was organized by Riga Technical University (Latvia) and Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania). The series of Baltic conferences on silicate materials was started since 2004: the first conference was held in Riga, Latvia, 2004; the second conference was held in Kaunas, Lithuania 2005; the third was held again in Riga, Latvia, 2007, and the fourth was held in Kaunas, Lithuania 2009. BaltSilica 2011 was attended by around 50 participants from Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Germany, Poland, Italy, France, Ukraine and Russia. In comparison with previous silicate materials conferences, the broadening of participating countries is an indication of the interest of scientists, engineers and students to exchange research ideas, latest results, and to find new research topics for cooperation in the fields of silicate, high temperature materials, and inorganic nanomaterials. The scientific programme included 8 invited plenary lectures 23 oral presentations and 25 posters [1]. Scientific themes covered in the conference and in this special issue: Natural and Artificial Stone Materials; Traditional and New Ceramic and Glass-Like Materials; Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials. This volume consists of 23 selected proceeding papers. The Editor of this special issue is grateful to all the contributors to BaltSilica 2011. I am also very grateful to the scientific committee, the local organizing committee, the session chairs, the referees who refereed the submitted articles to this issue, and to students from the Department of Silicate, High Temperature and Inorganic Nanomaterials Technology of the Riga Technical University who ensured the smooth running of the conference. Particular thanks goes to eight plenary

  2. Descriptions of Eumonhystera borealis n. sp., Sphaerolaimus occidentalis n. sp., and a Redescription of S. gracilis de Man 1876 (Nemata) from Bothnian Bay, Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    TurpeenniemI, T. A.

    1997-01-01

    The free-living nematodes Eumonhystera borealis n. sp., Sphaerolaimus occidentalis n. sp., and S. gracilis de Man 1876 from Bothnian Bay in the northern Baltic Sea are described and illustrated. Eumonhystera borealis n. sp. differs from other species by its small body size (314-393 μm), narrow body (a = 37-49), and large anterior amphids. In Sphaerolaimus occidentalis n. sp. the amphids are posterior to the buccal cavity, and it differs from other similar species by having two sclerotized rings in the posterior part of the buccal cavity. An intersex is reported for S. gracilis. Sphaerolaimus gracilis is cannibalistic or a predator of other species, with a preference for E. borealis n. sp. Sphaerolaimus occidentalis n. sp. coexists with S. gracilis at depths of 80 m but not at 12 m. PMID:19274135

  3. Traumatic lingual ulceration in a newborn: Riga-Fede disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Riga Fede disease is a reactive mucosal disease as a result of repetitive trauma of the tongue by the anterior primary teeth during forward and backward movement. Although the aspect of the lesion might be impressive, its nature is relatively benign. The history and clinical features are most often so typical that there is seldom a need for addititonal histopathological examination. Riga Fede disease can most often be treated with conservative measures only. Beside the presentation of a six-month-old boy with Riga Fede disease, the literature has been reviewed as well. From this review it can be concluded that Riga Fede disease is almost exclusively restricted to the tongue, occurs soon after birth when associated with (neo)natal teeth, has a male predilection, and is in one quarter of the cases associated with neurologic disorders. In the later case, Riga Fede disease develops after the age of 6 months. PMID:22621646

  4. Neoliberal austerity and corporate crime: the collapse of the Maxima supermarket in Riga, Latvia.

    PubMed

    Woolfson, Charles; Juska, Arunas

    2014-01-01

    The roof collapse of the Maxima supermarket in Riga, Latvia on November 21, 2013 left 54 dead. This analysis identifies the disaster as a "safety crime." Neoliberal deregulatory measures, intensified by the global economic and financial crisis and a programme of radical austerity, together with corporate and state disregard of public safety and well-being, combined to produce the disaster. The wider context and underlying causes of catastrophic safety failure exemplify the inherently contradictory character of the neoliberal "Baltic model" of austerity, recently much in vogue with international policymakers in both Europe and the United States. The authors conclude that the current renewed drive by the European Commission towards reducing regulation for business, especially in the aftermath of the crisis, further justifies longstanding anti-regulatory preferences of neoliberal domestic elites, with the result that the costs of disregard for public safety are externalized onto the general populace. PMID:25085827

  5. Eutrophication status of the North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat and the Baltic Sea in present and future climates: A model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skogen, Morten D.; Eilola, Kari; Hansen, Jørgen L. S.; Meier, H. E. Markus; Molchanov, Mikhail S.; Ryabchenko, Vladimir A.

    2014-04-01

    A method to combine observations and an ensemble of ecological models has been used to assess eutrophication. Using downscaled forcing from two GCMs under the A1B emission scenario, an assessment of the eutrophication status was made for a control (1970-2000) and a future climate (2070-2100) period. By using validation results from a hindcast to compute individual weights between the models, an assessment of eutrophication is done using a set of threshold values. The final classification distinguishes between three categories: problem area, potential problem area, and non-problem area, in accordance with current management practice as suggested by the Oslo and Paris Commissions (OSPAR) and the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM). For the control run the assessment indicates that the Kattegat, the Danish Straits, the Gulf of Finland, the Gotland Basin as well as main parts of the Arkona Basin, the Bornholm Basin, and the Baltic proper may be classified as problem areas. The main part of the North Sea and also the Skagerrak are non-problem areas while the main parts of the Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Riga and the entire southeastern continental coast of the North Sea may be classified as potential problem areas. In the future climate scenarios most of the previous potential problem areas in the Baltic Sea have become problem areas, except for the Bothnian Bay where the situation remain fairly unchanged. In the North Sea there seems to be no obvious changes in eutrophication status in the projected future climate.

  6. Effects of severe oxygen depletion on macrobenthos in the Pomeranian Bay (southern Baltic Sea): a case study in a shallow, sublittoral habitat characterised by low species richness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powilleit, Martin; Kube, Jan

    1999-11-01

    Severe oxygen depletion was detected in shallow parts of the Pomeranian Bay (southern Baltic Sea) for the first time in July/August 1994. A combination of extraordinary meteorological and hydrographical conditions along with generally high nutrient loads in this coastal area is thought to have led to extensive hypoxia/anoxia. Effects of this event on the macrobenthos were studied by comparing the community structure before and after summer 1994 at four sites which differed in degree of oxygen deficiency. Observed changes in the macrobenthos at three stations were attributed mainly to the hypoxia/anoxia event in summer 1994. Macrobenthos recovery after the oxygen depletion did not follow the commonly described succession pattern after a disturbance event, which is characterised by a mass recruitment of opportunistic species together with a rapid species turnover. At station 2, the most severely affected site, species number, total abundance, and total biomass of macrobenthos decreased significantly after the oxygen deficiency event, and recolonisation was still not complete two years later. Stations 1 and 3, which were moderately affected, showed almost complete recovery with respect to species composition and abundance within two years, but biomass was still lower. While recolonisation by juvenile and adult stages from nearby unimpacted coastal areas occurred at stations 1 and 3, succession was dominated by post-larval colonisation from planktonic dispersal at station 2. Station 4 was not affected by oxygen depletion and showed only small variation of community structure. The generally very slow recovery of amphipods at all three affected stations and even of the oligochaetes ( Tubificoides ( Peloscolex) benedeni and Heterochaeta ( Tubifex) costata) at station 2 further underline the severity of this oxygen deficiency in Pomeranian Bay sediments.

  7. Monitoring and analysis of air quality in Riga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubelis, Arnolds; Leitass, Andris; Vitols, Maris

    1995-09-01

    Riga, the capital of Latvia is a city with nearly 900,000 inhabitants and various highly concentrated industries. Air pollution in Riga is a serious problem affecting health and damaging valuable buildings of historical importance, as acid rain and smog take their toll. Therefore the Air Quality Management System with significant assistance from Swedish Government and persistent efforts from Riga City Council was arranged in Riga. It contains INDIC AIRVIRO system which simulates and evaluates air pollution levels at various locations. It then processes the data in order to predict air quality based on a number of criteria and parameters, measured by OPSIS differential absorption instruments, as well as data from the Meteorological Service and results of episodic measurements. The analysis of the results provided by Riga Air Quality Management System for the first time allows us to start comprehensive supervision of troposphere physical, chemical, and photochemical processes in the air of Riga as well as to appreciate the influence of lcoal pollution and transboundary transfer. The report contains the actual results of this work and first attempts of analysis as well as overview about activities towards research and teaching in the fields of spectroscopy and photochemistry of polluted atmospheres.

  8. An investigation of anticyclonic circulation in the southern Gulf of Riga during the spring period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soosaar, Edith; Maljutenko, Ilja; Raudsepp, Urmas; Elken, Jüri

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies of the gulf-type Region of Freshwater Influence (ROFI) have shown that circulation near the area of freshwater inflow sometimes becomes anticyclonic. Such a circulation is different from basic coastal ocean buoyancy-driven circulation where an anticyclonic bulge develops near the source and a coastal current is established along the right hand coast (in the northern hemisphere), resulting in the general cyclonic circulation. The spring (from March to June) circulation and spreading of river discharge water in the southern Gulf of Riga (GoR) in the Baltic Sea was analyzed based on the results of a 10-year simulation (1997-2006) using the General Estuarine Transport Model (GETM). Monthly mean currents in the upper layer of the GoR revealed a double gyre structure dominated either by an anticyclonic or cyclonic gyre in the near-head southeastern part and corresponding cyclonic/anticyclonic gyre in the near-mouth northwestern part of the gulf. Time series analysis of PCA and vorticity, calculated from velocity data and model sensitivity tests, showed that in spring the anticyclonic circulation in the upper layer of the southern GoR is driven primarily by the estuarine type density field. This anticyclonic circulation is enhanced by easterly winds but blocked or even reversed by westerly winds. The estuarine type density field is maintained by salt flux in the northwestern connection to the Baltic Proper and river discharge in the southern GoR.

  9. An investigation of anticyclonic circulation in the southern Gulf of Riga during the spring period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soosaar, Edith; Maljutenko, Ilja; Raudsepp, Urmas; Elken, Jüri

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies of the gulf-type Region of Freshwater Influence (ROFI) have shown that circulation near the area of freshwater inflow sometimes becomes anticyclonic. Such a circulation is different from basic coastal ocean buoyancy-driven circulation where an anticyclonic bulge develops near the source and a coastal current is established along the right hand coast (in the northern hemisphere), resulting in the general cyclonic circulation. The spring (from March to June) circulation and spreading of river discharge water in the southern Gulf of Riga (GoR) in the Baltic Sea was analyzed based on the results of a 10-year simulation (1997-2006) using the General Estuarine Transport Model (GETM). Monthly mean currents in the upper layer of the GoR revealed a double gyre structure dominated either by an anticyclonic or cyclonic gyre in the near-head southeastern part and corresponding cyclonic/anticyclonic gyre in the near-mouth northwestern part of the gulf. Time series analysis of PCA and vorticity, calculated from velocity data and model sensitivity tests, showed that in spring the anticyclonic circulation in the upper layer of the southern GoR is driven primarily by the estuarine type density field. This anticyclonic circulation is enhanced by easterly winds but blocked or even reversed by westerly winds. The estuarine type density field is maintained by salt flux in the northwestern connection to the Baltic Proper and river discharge in the southern GoR.

  10. Content of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in a number of regions of the Baltic Sea in 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarev, L.N.; Flegontov, V.M.; Gedenov, L.I.; Ivanova, L.M.; Orlova, T.B.; Stepanov, A.V.

    1985-07-01

    The authors present the data gathered from the samples of water and bed deposits taken at various sites in the Baltic Sea, the Gulf of Riga, and the Gulf of Finland. By means of the radiochemical method using ferrocyanide-carbonate concentration, they determine strotium-90 and cesium-137 content. The authors conclude by noting an increase in the cesium-137 content in the deep waters of the Baltic Sea and in bed deposits, and by cautioning that this development commands close attention.

  11. Riga-Fede disease and neonatal teeth

    PubMed Central

    COSTACURTA, M.; MATURO, P.; DOCIMO, R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Aim The aim of this study is to present a case of Riga-Fede disease (RFD). RFD is a benign and uncommon mucosal disorder, characterized by an ulceration of the tongue, often caused by repetitive traumatic injuries due to backward and forward movements of the tongue over the mandibular anterior incisors. RFD is most commonly associated with the eruption of primary lower incisor in older infants or natal-neonatal teeth in newborns. Methods A 2-month-old female infant was referred to our Paediatric Dentistry Unit for ulceration (13 mm diameter) on the ventral surface of the tongue and neonatal teeth. The extraction of neonatal teeth was selected as treatment of choice, over more conservative treatments, for the rapid resolution of the lesion and for the limited risk of inadequate nutrients intake. The extracted teeth underwent a macroscopic/microscopic examination. The complete healing of the lesion took 4 weeks; subsequently, the infant, revised at the 1-year follow-up visit. Conclusion Early detection of RFD is recommended because such lesions properly may induce deformity or mutilation of tongue, dehydration, inadequate nutrients intake by the infant and growth retardation. PMID:23285403

  12. Occurrence of benthic microbial nitrogen fixation coupled to sulfate reduction in the seasonally hypoxic Eckernförde Bay, Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertics, V. J.; Löscher, C. R.; Salonen, I.; Dale, A. W.; Schmitz, R. A.; Treude, T.

    2012-06-01

    Despite the worldwide occurrence of marine hypoxic regions, benthic nitrogen (N) cycling within these areas is poorly understood and it is generally assumed that these areas represent zones of intense fixed N loss from the marine system. Sulfate reduction can be an important process for organic matter degradation in sediments beneath hypoxic waters and many sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have the genetic potential to fix molecular N (N2). Therefore, SRB may supply fixed N to these systems, countering some of the N lost via microbial processes such as denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation. The objective of this study was to evaluate if N2-fixation, possibly by SRB, plays a role in N cycling within the seasonally hypoxic sediments from Eckernförde Bay, Baltic Sea. Monthly samplings were performed over the course of one year to measure N2-fixation and sulfate reduction rates, to determine the seasonal variations in bioturbation (bioirrigation) activity and important benthic geochemical profiles, such as sulfur and N compounds, and to monitor changes in water column temperature and oxygen concentrations. Additionally, at several time points, rates of benthic denitrification were also measured and the active N-fixing community was examined via molecular tools. Integrated rates of N2-fixation and sulfate reduction showed a similar seasonality pattern, with highest rates occurring in August (approx. 22 and 880 nmol cm-3 d-1 of N and SO42-, respectively) and October (approx. 22 and 1300 nmol cm-3 d-1 of N and SO42-, respectively), and lowest rates occurring in February (approx. 8 and 32 nmol cm-3 d-1 of N and SO42-, respectively). These rate changes were positively correlated with bottom water temperatures and previous reported plankton bloom activities, and negatively correlated with bottom water oxygen concentrations. Other variables that also appeared to play a role in rate determination were bioturbation, bubble irrigation and winter storm events

  13. Occurrence of benthic microbial nitrogen fixation coupled to sulfate reduction in the seasonally hypoxic Eckernförde Bay, Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertics, V. J.; Löscher, C. R.; Salonen, I.; Dale, A. W.; Gier, J.; Schmitz, R. A.; Treude, T.

    2013-03-01

    Despite the worldwide occurrence of marine hypoxic regions, benthic nitrogen (N) cycling within these areas is poorly understood and it is generally assumed that these areas represent zones of intense fixed N loss from the marine system. Sulfate reduction can be an important process for organic matter degradation in sediments beneath hypoxic waters and many sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have the genetic potential to fix molecular N (N2). Therefore, SRB may supply fixed N to these systems, countering some of the N lost via microbial processes, such as denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation. The objective of this study was to evaluate if N2 fixation, possibly by SRB, plays a role in N cycling within the seasonally hypoxic sediments from the Eckernförde Bay, Baltic Sea. Monthly samplings were performed over the course of one year to measure nitrogenase activity (NA) and sulfate reduction rates, to determine the seasonal variations in bioturbation (bioirrigation) activity and important benthic geochemical profiles, such as sulfur and N compounds, and to monitor changes in water column temperature and oxygen concentrations. Additionally, at several time points, the active N-fixing community was examined via molecular tools. Integrated rates of N2 fixation (approximated from NA) and sulfate reduction showed a similar seasonality pattern, with highest rates occurring in August (approx. 22 and 880 nmol cm-3 d-1 of N and SO42-, respectively) and October (approx. 22 and 1300 nmol cm-3 d-1 of N and SO42- respectively), and lowest rates occurring in February (approx. 8 and 32 nmol cm-3 d-1 of N and SO42-, respectively). These rate changes were positively correlated with bottom water temperatures and previous reported plankton bloom activities, and negatively correlated with bottom water oxygen concentrations. Other variables that also appeared to play a role in rate determination were bioturbation, bubble irrigation and winter storm events. Molecular analysis

  14. Recent trends and variations in Baltic Sea temperature, salinity, stratification and circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elken, Jüri; Lehmann, Andreas; Myrberg, Kai

    2015-04-01

    The presentation highlights the results of physical oceanography from BACC II (Second BALTEX Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea basin) book based on the review of recent literature published until 2013. We include also information from some more recent publications. A recent warming trend in sea surface waters has been clearly demonstrated by all available methods: in-situ measurements, remote sensing data and modelling tools. In particular, remote sensing data for the period 1990-2008 indicate that the annual mean SST has increased even by 1°C per decade, with the greatest increase in the northern Bothnian Bay and also with large increases in the Gulf of Finland, the Gulf of Riga, and the northern Baltic Proper. Although the increase in the northern areas is affected by the recent decline in the extent and duration of sea ice, and corresponding changes in surface albedo, warming is still evident during all seasons and with the greatest increase occurring in summer. The least warming of surface waters (0.3-0.5°C per decade) occurred northeast of Bornholm Island up to and along the Swedish coast, probably owing to an increase in the frequency of coastal upwelling forced by the westerly wind events. Comparing observations with the results of centennial-scale modelling, recent changes in sea water temperature appear to be within the range of the variability observed during the past 500 years. Overall salinity pattern and stratification conditions are controlled by river runoff, wind conditions, and salt water inflows through the Danish straits. The mean top-layer salinity is mainly influenced by the accumulated river runoff, with higher salinity during dry periods and lower salinity during wet periods. Observations reveal a low-salinity period above the halocline starting in the 1980s. The strength of stratification and deep salinity are reduced when the mean zonal wind stress increases, as it occurred since 1987. Major Baltic Inflows of highly saline

  15. Stone Age settlement and Holocene water level changes of the Baltic Sea in the Torvajoe Basin area, Narva-Luga Klint Bay, NE Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raig, Hanna; Rosentau, Alar; Muru, Merle; Risberg, Jan

    2014-05-01

    The Tõrvajõe basin is located in NE Estonia in the southern part of the Narva-Luga Klint Bay, that is characterized by slow post-glacial isostatic uplift (about 0-1mm/yr) and slowly undulating low topography. Post-glacial changes of the water-level of the Baltic Sea have at times flooded the area, and at times, it has emerged as terrestrial land. In addition to a complex geological development, the surroundings of the Tõrvajõe basin are interesting from the archaeological point of view because of abundant archaeological findings in the area, of which the oldest (c 8.1 cal ka BP) from the Mesolithic period and the majority, indicating very intense habitation (c 7.1-5.5 cal ka BP), from the Neolithic period. Development of the Tőrvajőe basin area during the period of Stone Age settlement (c 8.1-5.5 cal. ka BP) is studied with multiple geological and archaeological proxies. Sediments are described by lithostratigraphical methods, loss-on-ignition. AMS radiocarbon dates are used to date events and create an age-depth model. Environment is described by pollen analyses and water environment by siliceous microfossil analyses. Palaeogeographical reconstructions for time slices of interest are created to illustrate Stone Age settlement pattern and changes of the coastline and landscape over time. The aim of this interdisciplinary study is to investigate and associate palaeoenvironmental conditions and water-level changes with Stone Age settlement pattern in the Tőrvajőe area. Results show four developmental stages in the post-glacial history of the basin: Ancylus Lake lagoon, mire, lagoon during the Litorina Sea and mire. During the Ancylus Lake transgression at about 10.8-10.2 cal. ka BP a spit started to form north of the basin and a lagoon evolved behind it. Following the Ancylus Lake regression river activity and formation of palaeosoil and fen peat took place. Due to the Litorina Sea transgression, that was initially slower but accelerated around 7.8-7.6 cal ka

  16. A GIS Approach for Reconstructing the Litorina Sea Lagoon in Tolkuse-Rannametsa Area, Eastern Gulf of Riga.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habicht, Hando-Laur; Rosentau, Alar; Jõeleht, Argo; Hang, Tiit; Kohv, Marko

    2015-04-01

    The eastern coast of the Gulf of Riga in the NE Baltic Sea is characterized by slow post-glacial isostatic uplift (about 1mm/yr) and slowly undulating low topography. Therefore even small increases in sea-level can easily lead to the flooding of considerable areas. The complex deglaciation history of the Baltic Sea area left, at times, south western Estonia submerged, while at other times, it emerged as terrestrial land. Different transgressive and regressive development stages of the Baltic Sea did not only shape the landscape, but also influenced the locations of the Stone Age settlements which were closely bound to the coastal areas which also include estuaries and lagoonal systems. The coastal region of the Gulf of Riga is abundant in Meso- and Neolithic settlement sites. The present study combines LiDAR, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and geological data to reconstruct development of the Litorina Sea lagoon in Tolkuse-Rannametsa area and to create prognostic palaeogeographic maps in order to search for Meso- and Neolithic coastal settlement sites. Over 47 km of GPR profiling was done; sediments were described and dated in 37 cores two riverbank outcrops. Diatoms were analysed in the master core. A semi-automatic method for the removal of modern anthropogenic features from LiDAR derived digital elevation model (DEM) was developed, tested and used. In modelling process the impact of sedimentary processes subsequent to the time being modelled was taken into account by employing a backstripping methodology. The differential glacio-isostatic uplift within the study area was taken into account by using interpolated water-level surfaces. Palaeogeographic reconstructions shed new light into region's post-glacial coastal evolution and enabled us to suggest the possible locations of the Stone Age settlements with some of the proposed areas buried under up to 3 m thick peat layer. The results of the current study provide new chronological and shore displacement data

  17. Scandinavia and the Baltic Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Data from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera were combined to create this cloud-free natural-color mosaic of Scandinavia and the Baltic region. The image extends from 64oN, 0oE in the northwest to 56oN, 32oE in the southeast, and has been draped over a shaded relief Digital Terrain Elevation Model from the United States Geological Survey. It is displayed in an equidistant conic projection.

    The image area includes southern Norway, Sweden and Finland, northern Denmark, Estonia, Latvia and part of western Russia. Norway's rugged western coastline is deeply indented by fjords. Elongated lakes, formed by glacial erosion and deposition, are characteristic of the entire region, and are particularly dense throughout Finland and Sweden. Numerous islands are present, and a virtually continuous chain of small, scattered islands occur between Sweden and Finland. The northern and eastern waters of the Baltic Sea are almost fresh, since the Baltic receives saltwater only from the narrow and shallow sounds between Denmark and Sweden that connect it to the North Sea. Most of the major cities within the image area are coastal, including St. Petersburg, Stockholm, Helsinki, Riga, and Oslo.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  18. Modeling urban flood risk territories for Riga city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piliksere, A.; Sennikovs, J.; Virbulis, J.; Bethers, U.; Bethers, P.; Valainis, A.

    2012-04-01

    Riga, the capital of Latvia, is located on River Daugava at the Gulf of Riga. The main flooding risks of Riga city are: (1) storm caused water setup in South part of Gulf of Riga (storm event), (2) water level increase caused by Daugava River discharge maximums (spring snow melting event) and (3) strong rainfall or rapid snow melting in densely populated urban areas. The first two flooding factors were discussed previously (Piliksere et al, 2011). The aims of the study were (1) the identification of the flood risk situations in densely populated areas, (2) the quantification of the flooding scenarios caused by rain and snow melting events of different return periods nowadays, in the near future (2021-2050), far future (2071-2100) taking into account the projections of climate change, (3) estimation of groundwater level for Riga city, (4) the building and calibration of the hydrological mathematical model based on SWMM (EPA, 2004) for the domain potentially vulnerable for rain and snow melt flooding events, (5) the calculation of rain and snow melting flood events with different return periods, (6) mapping the potentially flooded areas on a fine grid. The time series of short term precipitation events during warm time period of year (id est. rain events) were analyzed for 35 year long time period. Annual maxima of precipitation intensity for events with different duration (5 min; 15 min; 1h; 3h; 6h; 12h; 1 day; 2 days; 4 days; 10 days) were calculated. The time series of long term simultaneous precipitation data and observations of the reduction of thickness of snow cover were analyzed for 27 year long time period. Snow thawing periods were detected and maximum of snow melting intensity for events with different intensity (1day; 2 days; 4 days; 7 days; 10 days) were calculated. According to the occurrence probability six scenarios for each event for nowadays, near and far future with return period once in 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 years were constructed based on

  19. Rigas Velestinlis and Astronomy in his ``Anthology of Physics''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, Efstratios Th.; Manimanis, Vassilios N.; Dimitrijević, Milan S.; Danezis, Emanouel

    2008-09-01

    Rigas Velestinlis (Velestino 1757-Belgrade 1798), Greek national hero of fight against Turkish Empire and one of the forerunners of the Greek enlightenment movement, an important part of his life lived in Bucharest and tragically died in Belgrade, so that he is important and for Romanian and Serbian history. For the history of astronomy, interesting is his Anthology of Physics, where astronomical contents are present. In this contribution, his life and work are presented and analyzed, with a particular attention to the astronomical aspects of the mentioned work and his connections with Romania.

  20. Studies on endangered and rare non-commercial fish species recorded in the Pomeranian Bay (southern Baltic Sea) in 2010-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Więcaszek, Beata; Sobecka, Ewa; Keszka, Sławomir; Stepanowska, Katarzyna; Dudko, Stanisław; Biernaczyk, Marcin; Wrzecionkowski, Konrad

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the results of studies on endangered and rare non-commercial fish species ( Spinachia spinachia, Nerophis ophidion, Syngnathus typhle, Agonus cataphractus, Pholis gunnellus, Enchelyopus cimbrius, Cyclopterus lumpus) and one lamprey species ( Lampetra fluviatilis), recorded as bycatch during monitoring surveys in 2010-2013 in the Pomeranian Bay. Two species were observed for the first time in the Pomeranian Bay: A. cataphractus and E. cimbrius. Descriptions of parasite fauna are provided for C. lumpus and E. cimbrius, which were infected with four pathogenic species from Neomonada, Digenea, Nematoda, and Acanthocephala. Almost all parasite species were new in the hosts examined.

  1. Hands-on optics and photonics outreach in Riga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesina, Natalija; Spigulis, Janis

    2014-07-01

    A long-term exposition focused on optics and photonics was created in Institute of Atomic Physics and Spectroscopy at University of Latvia in 2010. Considering unpopularity of science in Latvia and lack of broadly accessible hands-on outreach activities for school children, as well as rapid development of advanced photonic technologies, this exposition was meant to involve more students to the natural sciences and modern technologies. Exposition covers 10 topics of optics - colors, diffraction, interference, polarization, reflection, liquid crystals, gas discharge, lasers, fluorescence, infrared and ultraviolet radiation. Students' visits are organized as an exciting adventure, which differs from ordinary school lessons. The visit mainly includes own actions with hands-on exhibits, lecturer's explanations about the most difficult topics and some demonstrations shown by the lecturer. The main accent is made on hands-on experiments due to the fact that students, who had performed hands-on experiments, will be emboldened to choose their career in the field of science and technologies. The exposition now is running and is part of Riga Photonics Center. Nearly 300 students from the 8th till 12th grades visited it during academic years 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 and their generally positive feedback has been analyzed.

  2. Participation of Environmental Science Students in an Open Discussion "Riga - European Green Capital"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dace, Elina; Berzina, Alise; Ozolina, Liga; Lorence, Ieva

    2010-01-01

    Starting from the year 2010, each year one European city is selected as the European Green Capital of the year. The award is granted to a city that has a consistent record of achieving high environmental standards, and is committed to ongoing and ambitious goals for further environmental improvement and sustainable development, as well as can act as a role model to inspire other cities and promote best practices to other European cities. Riga participated in the competition once, but did not fulfill the conditions, therefore an open discussion "Riga - European Green Capital" was organized by a nongovernmental organization "Association of Environmental Science Students". The aim of the discussion was to develop suggestions for the Riga city council on how to win the title "European Green Capital". Students of technical and engineering sciences were involved in the discussion to give their vision on what is needed for the city to comply with all the criteria of the competition. Thus, another aim of the discussion was to promote collaboration between students and the Riga city council in terms of environmental thinking. As a result of the discussion, a nine-page letter was prepared with recommendations to the Riga city mayor on how to develop the city in a sustainable manner and outlining benefits which could arise if the city of Riga got the title. However, the most important outcome of the discussion are the skills which students gained from the experience of presenting their ideas and discussing them with specialists of the specific field. This should help in further studies and work, as well as in individual professional development. The discussions were also a starting point for further collaboration between the Riga city council and students from the Association of Latvian Environmental Science Students.

  3. Stable isotope composition of subfossil Cerastoderma glaucum shells from the Szczecin Bay brackish deposits and its palaeogeographical implications (South Baltic Coast, Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borówka, Ryszard K.; Strobel, Wacław; Hałas, Stanisław

    2012-03-01

    The environmental conditions of the Szczecin Bay, which existed prior to Szczecin Lagoon, have been reconstructed on the basis of the stable carbon and oxygen isotope (18O and 13C) analysis and radiocarbon dates obtained for subfossil shells of Cerastoderma (Cardium) glaucum. The shells in the collected core were well preserved in their life positions, representing a geochemical record of past temperature variation over the middle Holocene. Three major periods with different thermal conditions have been distinguished in the interval ~ 6000-4300 cal yr BP, when the important Littorina regional transgression took place. During the first period, 6000-5250 cal yr BP, water temperature decreased by 1.4°C, and then remained constant over the second period (5250-4750 cal yr BP). In contrast, during the third period (4750-4300 cal yr BP) both δ-values were highly variable and the mean summer temperature (March-November) increased by about 3.5°C. During first two periods, δ18O and δ13C were significantly correlated, indicating stability of the environmental conditions.

  4. Inspiration of slip effects on electromagnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) nanofluid flow through a horizontal Riga plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayub, M.; Abbas, T.; Bhatti, M. M.

    2016-06-01

    The boundary layer flow of nanofluid that is electrically conducting over a Riga plate is considered. The Riga plate is an electromagnetic actuator which comprises a spanwise adjusted cluster of substituting terminal and lasting magnets mounted on a plane surface. The numerical model fuses the Brownian motion and the thermophoresis impacts because of the nanofluid and the Grinberg term for the wall parallel Lorentz force due to the Riga plate in the presence of slip effects. The numerical solution of the problem is presented using the shooting method. The novelties of all the physical parameters such as modified Hartmann number, Richardson number, nanoparticle concentration flux parameter, Prandtl number, Lewis number, thermophoresis parameter, Brownian motion parameter and slip parameter are demonstrated graphically. Numerical values of reduced Nusselt number, Sherwood number are discussed in detail.

  5. Baltic Earth - Earth System Science for the Baltic Sea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    The Baltic Sea region, defined as its river catchment basin, spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It encompasses most of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the west; most of Finland and parts of Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic states in the east; and Poland and small parts of Germany and Denmark in the south. The region represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. Preliminary grand challenges and topics for which Working Groups have been installed include: • Salinity dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Land-Sea biogeochemical feedbacks in the Baltic Sea region • Natural hazards and extreme events in the Baltic Sea region • Understanding sea level dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Understanding regional variability of water and energy exchange • Utility of Regional Climate Models • Assessment of Scenario Simulations

  6. Hematological analyses of some fish species in the Gulf of Riga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medne, R.; Balode, M.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this work was to detect and compare blood parameters of European flounder ( Platichthys flesus), herring ( Clupea harertgus membras), eelpout ( Zoarces viviparous) and perch ( Perca fluviatilis) at the Eastern and Western coast of the Gulf of Riga. The number of erythrocytes in herring of the Gulf of Riga ranges from 1.45 to 2.57 × 1012/L. At the same time no statistically significant difference in red blood cells (RBC) count between herring of both coasts was detected. The most common white blood cells in GoR herring blood smear were lymphocytes ranging from 73 to 94%. The number of lymphoblasts was very small (0-4%), indicating that herring of the GoR is not exposed to chronic stress. The number of erythrocytes in flounder ranged from 0.8 to 2.65 × 1012/L, but hemoglobin—from 4.7 to 16.5 g/dL. RBC count and hemoglobin level in European flounder did not differ between coasts however hematocrit was significantly higher at the Eastern coast. White blood cell count in flounder near the Western and Eastern coast was almost equal. Blood indices in eelpouts were slightly higher at the Eastern cost. Slightly higher number of red blood cells and significantly higher hemoglobin level has been observed in perch feeding near the Eastern coast, indicating physiological disturbances of fish. Although hematological analysis pointed at slightly worse living conditions of fish at the Eastern coast, in general hematological picture did not give evidence of fish welfare decline in the Gulf of Riga.

  7. The Evaluation of Feasibility of Thermal Energy Storage System at Riga TPP-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, P.; Linkevics, O.; Cers, A.

    2015-12-01

    The installation of thermal energy storage system (TES) provides the optimisation of energy source, energy security supply, power plant operation and energy production flexibility. The aim of the present research is to evaluate the feasibility of thermal energy system installation at Riga TPP-2. The six modes were investigated: four for non-heating periods and two for heating periods. Different research methods were used: data statistic processing, data analysis, analogy, forecasting, financial method and correlation and regression method. In the end, the best mode was chosen - the increase of cogeneration unit efficiency during the summer.

  8. Curonian Spit, Baltic Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    On July 25, 2006, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), flying on NASA's Terra satellite, captured this image of the Curonian (or Courland)spit, the Curonian Lagoon (also known as the Courland Lagoon) it encloses, and part of the Baltic Sea. Just 3,800 meters (about 12,460 feet) at its widest point, the spit encloses a lagoon of some 1,620 square kilometers (625 square miles). In this image, dark blue indicates deep water, and lighter blue indicates shallow and/or sediment-laden water. Different shades of blue distinguish the deeper Baltic Sea and the shallower Curonian Lagoon. Vegetation appears in varying shades of green, paved surfaces and bare ground appear in shades of beige and gray, and sandy areas appear off-white. Obvious sandy areas appear along the length of the spit. On the Baltic Sea side, a thin off-white band of beach runs the length of the spit; on the Curonian Lagoon side, intermittent beaches carve their way into the narrow strip of land.

  9. Evolution of groundwater composition in the depression cone of Riga region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raga, B.; Kalvans, A.; Delina, A.; Perkone, E.; Retike, I.

    2012-04-01

    Riga is the capital of Latvia with around 0.9 million inhabitants where the main water supply is centralised and decentralised, mostly from groundwater sources, that is from the the Arukilas-Amatas multi-aquifer system, which consists of sandstones and siltstone. These rocks belong to the middle and upper Devonian and have good properties for groundwater extraction: they have high permeability and are widely spread. Below this system lies the middle Devonian Narvas aquitard, that consists of marl and clay. But in the southern and western part of Riga this system covers the upper Devonian Salaspils formation which consists of marl and gypsum. In the second half of the 20th century an intensive groundwater extraction from the Arukilas-Amtas multi-aquifer system took place in Riga, causing sharp and significant lowering of piezometric surfaces. The maximal decline of groundwater level was observed in 1972, when it was 16 m lower than the average. From the end of 80's started a regeneration of water table, when the volume of water usage began to decrease. Nowadays piezometric surface in the Arukilas-Amatas multi-aquifer system is being renewed and fluctuations are insignificant. The territory, where natural regime of groundwater has changed and that is induced by antropogenic effect is called "Large Riga". To track chemical changes and evolution in the Arukila-Amata multi-aquifer system long - term monitoring data is used. Data on major ions and piezometric surfaces from 45 monitoring wells that groups in 17 monitoring stations is being analysed. The area is dived into three zones - central, middle and periphery, which differ from each other by the volume of the groundwater level decline. These zones are determined from maps, that shows the piezometric surface difference between two periods: 1949-1951, that describes the natural situation, and 1970-1972, where the minimal groundwater level in the Gauja aquifer was observed. On this basis it was studied how rapidly

  10. The Baltics: Regional energy profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    However, all three Baltic Republics are heavily dependent on primary energy imports. Domestic energy sources in the Baltics are limited to oil shale mines in Estonia, small oil deposits in Lithuania, peat, and some very small hydroelectric power plants. A RBMK nuclear power station, similar to Chernobyl, operates at Snieckus in Lithuania, but the reactor fuel is also imported from Russia. However, Lithuania and Estonia are net exporters of electricity despite their reliance on primary fuels imports. The major power stations in these two Republics are the Ignalina Nuclear Power Station and the two thermal power plants at Narva in Estonia which are fueled by oil shale. The only oil refinery in the Baltics is also located in Lithuania, at Mazeikiai. This refinery has the capacity to satisfy the demand for selected refined products of the entire region, including the Kaliningrad oblast, a noncontiguous part of Russia. The Mazeikiai refinery has operated at only forty to sixty percent capacity since 1990 due to halts in crude oil supplies from Russia. The Baltic Republics also import one hundred percent of their coal and natural gas supplies. Russia is the main trading partner for all the Baltic states, accounting for more than half of their trade flow. Mutual trade within the Baltics has been surprisingly low. Other Baltic states contribute less than ten percent to each Republic`s exports or imports, even less than Belarus or Ukraine. Aside from Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, only Kazakhstan contributes more than two percent to Baltics trade.

  11. The Baltics: Regional energy profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    However, all three Baltic Republics are heavily dependent on primary energy imports. Domestic energy sources in the Baltics are limited to oil shale mines in Estonia, small oil deposits in Lithuania, peat, and some very small hydroelectric power plants. A RBMK nuclear power station, similar to Chernobyl, operates at Snieckus in Lithuania, but the reactor fuel is also imported from Russia. However, Lithuania and Estonia are net exporters of electricity despite their reliance on primary fuels imports. The major power stations in these two Republics are the Ignalina Nuclear Power Station and the two thermal power plants at Narva in Estonia which are fueled by oil shale. The only oil refinery in the Baltics is also located in Lithuania, at Mazeikiai. This refinery has the capacity to satisfy the demand for selected refined products of the entire region, including the Kaliningrad oblast, a noncontiguous part of Russia. The Mazeikiai refinery has operated at only forty to sixty percent capacity since 1990 due to halts in crude oil supplies from Russia. The Baltic Republics also import one hundred percent of their coal and natural gas supplies. Russia is the main trading partner for all the Baltic states, accounting for more than half of their trade flow. Mutual trade within the Baltics has been surprisingly low. Other Baltic states contribute less than ten percent to each Republic's exports or imports, even less than Belarus or Ukraine. Aside from Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, only Kazakhstan contributes more than two percent to Baltics trade.

  12. Lower paleozoic of Baltic Area

    SciTech Connect

    Haselton, T.M.; Surlyk, F.

    1988-01-01

    The Baltic Sea offers a new and exciting petroleum play in northwestern Europe. The Kaliningrad province in the Soviet Union, which borders the Baltic Sea to the east, contains an estimated 3.5 billion bbl of recoverable oil from lower Paleozoic sandstones. To the south, in Poland, oil and gas fields are present along a trend that projects offshore into the Baltic. Two recent Petrobaltic wells in the southern Baltic have tested hydrocarbons from lower Paleozoic sandstone. Minor production comes from Ordovician reefs on the Swedish island of Gotland in the western Baltic. The Baltic synclise, which began subsiding in the late Precambrian, is a depression in the East European platform. Strate dip gently to the south where the Baltic Synclise terminates against a structurally complex border zone. Depth to the metamorphosed Precambrian basement is up to 4,000 m. Overlying basement is 200-300 m of upper Precambrian arkosic sandstone. The Lower Cambrian consists of shallow marine quartzites. During Middle and Late Camnbrian, restricted circulation resulted in anoxic conditions and the deposition of Alum shale. The Lower Ordovician consists of quartzites and shale. The Upper Ordovician includes sandstones and algal reefs. The Silurian contains marginal carbonates and shales. For the last 25 years, exploration in northwest Europe has concentrated on well-known Permian sandstone, Jurassic sandstone, and Cretaceous chalk plays. Extrapolation of trends known and exploited in eastern Europe could open an entirely new oil province in the lower Paleozoic in the Baltic.

  13. Texaco scores a first in the Baltic

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-10-01

    Wells on the first of 2 small concrete platforms designed specifically for the fragile but harsh environment of the Baltic Sea will produce the first oil from that offshore area by late 1984. The consortium of Deutsche Texaco AG and Wintershall AG awarded contracts late last year for the platforms and drilling equipment needed to develop the Schwedeneck-See field in Kiel Bay, off the northern coast of West Germany. Severe winter weather in the area dictated the use of concrete platforms rather than conventional 6-pile steel structures. Ice forces, generated by high winds and moderate waves, demanded heavy-duty structures in spite of the shallow water. A complicating factor in the field development plan is the presence of a German Navy submarine practice area which influenced location of one of the platforms. This means that all wells will be directionally drilled, and the reach will be greater than under more favorable conditions.

  14. Remote sensing of chlorophyll in the Baltic Sea at basin scale from 1997 to 2012 using merged multi-sensor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitarch, Jaime; Volpe, Gianluca; Colella, Simone; Krasemann, Hajo; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2016-03-01

    A 15-year (1997-2012) time series of chlorophyll a (Chl a) in the Baltic Sea, based on merged multi-sensor satellite data was analysed. Several available Chl a algorithms were sea-truthed against the largest in situ publicly available Chl a data set ever used for calibration and validation over the Baltic region. To account for the known biogeochemical heterogeneity of the Baltic, matchups were calculated for three separate areas: (1) the Skagerrak and Kattegat, (2) the central Baltic, including the Baltic Proper and the gulfs of Riga and Finland, and (3) the Gulf of Bothnia. Similarly, within the operational context of the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) the three areas were also considered as a whole in the analysis. In general, statistics showed low linearity. However, a bootstrapping-like assessment did provide the means for removing the bias from the satellite observations, which were then used to compute basin average time series. Resulting climatologies confirmed that the three regions display completely different Chl a seasonal dynamics. The Gulf of Bothnia displays a single Chl a peak during spring, whereas in the Skagerrak and Kattegat the dynamics are less regular and composed of highs and lows during winter, progressing towards a small bloom in spring and a minimum in summer. In the central Baltic, Chl a follows a dynamics of a mild spring bloom followed by a much stronger bloom in summer. Surface temperature data are able to explain a variable fraction of the intensity of the summer bloom in the central Baltic.<

  15. Stable isotope signals of eutrophication in Baltic Sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, Maren; Larsen, Birger; Leivuori, Mirja; Vallius, Henry

    2000-07-01

    Increasing δ15N and δ13C values in coastal Baltic marine sediments are evaluated as indicator of changes in the trophic status of the ecosystem. The influence of eutrophication on the δ15N values was found to be so dominant that it even overprints the usually observed mixing gradient from terrestrial (low isotope values) to the marine environment (high isotope values). A distinct gradient in stable nitrogen isotope values from eutrophic coastal areas to open more oligotrophic waters in the central Baltic Sea and Gulf of Bothnia was found. Our data show high δ15N values in surface sediments: 13‰ in the Oder Lagoon and the Pomeranian Bight, over 9‰ in the Gulf of Riga (Daugava River), 7‰ in the inner Gulf of Finland (Neva River), 6.5‰ in the Curonian Lagoon (Nemunas River), and 5.7‰ in the Gdansk Deep (Vistula River). In the Baltic Sea Proper, significantly lower δ15N values of 3-5‰ are found. A decrease in δ15N values with depth/age of the sediment was indicated in some cores that were analyzed down to 15-40 cm depth in 1-cm steps. There is a great overall difference between pre-industrial δ15N values in coastal sediments and recent ones of 2.3-10‰. As explanations for this increase are suggested, elevated nutrient δ15N values of waste water in combination with fractionation processes like nutrient uptake by phytoplankton and denitrification and nitrification processes in rivers discharging into the coastal water. Delta 13C values in sediment surfaces off the river estuaries primarily indicate differences between the inorganic carbon signatures of the rivers. However, since the δ13C values also decrease downcore, we contribute this change to increased primary production caused by the enhanced nutrient load. Since both stable isotope values in sediments ( δ13C and δ15N) correlate downcore, this strongly suggests that the anthropogenic nutrient loads in the rivers might be the reason for the changes of stable isotope values.

  16. Phytoplankton pigments and dissolved organic matter distribution in the Gulf of Riga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babichenko, S.; Kaitala, S.; Leeben, A.; Poryvkina, L.; Seppälä, J.

    1999-12-01

    The results of field studies of phytoplankton and dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the Gulf of Riga in August-September 1993, June 1994 and April 1995 are presented. Actively excited fluorescence in UV- and visible spectral regions was used to investigate spatial distributions of DOM, Chl a, carotenoids and phycoerythrin in surface water. The fluorescent data were collected by means of laser remote sensing spectrometer (LIDAR), spectrofluorometers in underway flow-through mode and in the measurements of the water samples. Pronounced variable spatial structures of phytoplankton were observed in spring 1995 and late summer 1993, while in early summer 1994 the pigment distribution was rather homogeneous. The spatial modulation of high-resolution profiles of phytoplankton with the period 3.5-5 km was detected across the gulf in all seasons probably caused by variability of hydrophysical conditions. A negative correlation of DOM concentration in surface waters and salinity was revealed in August-September 1993 and June 1994.

  17. Metazoan parasites from herring (Clupea harengus L.) as biological indicators in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Unger, Patrick; Klimpel, Sven; Lang, Thomas; Palm, Harry Wilhelm

    2014-09-01

    Zoographical distribution of metazoan fish parasites in herring, Clupea harengus, from the Baltic Sea was analysed in order to use them as potential biological indicators. A total of 210 herring from six different sampling sites were investigated, harbouring 12 different parasite species [five digeneans (D), one cestode (C), three nematodes (N) and three acanthocephalans (A)]. The distribution of the parasite species differed according to region, with a distinct gradient of decreasing species richness towards the east of the Baltic Sea. The western localities at Kiel Bay, Rügen and Poland had the highest parasite diversity, including the marine parasite species Anisakis simplex (s.s.) (N), Brachyphallus crenatus and Hemiurus luehei (both D). The eastern localities had low parasite species richness, predominated by the freshwater digenean Diplostomum spathaceum. We could identify three different Baltic herring stocks, the spring-spawning herring of the western Baltic reaching from the Kattegat to the German and Polish coast, the stock of the central Baltic proper and the northern stock of C. harengus var. membras of the Gulf of Finland. The limited distribution of the herring parasites within the Baltic Sea enables their use as biological indicators for migration patterns and stock separation. The acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus laevis that has already been used as an accumulation bioindicator for heavy metals was only recorded for the western herring stocks. However, the presence of mainly generalistic parasites and their uneven distribution patterns make their use as indicators for regional environmental and global change more difficult. PMID:25119368

  18. Spatial variation of statistical properties of extreme water levels along the eastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pindsoo, Katri; Soomere, Tarmo; Rocha, Eugénio

    2016-04-01

    Most of existing projections of future extreme water levels rely on the use of classic generalised extreme value distributions. The choice to use a particular distribution is often made based on the absolute value of the shape parameter of the Generalise Extreme Value distribution. If this parameter is small, the Gumbel distribution is most appropriate while in the opposite case the Weibull or Frechet distribution could be used. We demonstrate that the alongshore variation in the statistical properties of numerically simulated high water levels along the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea is so large that the use of a single distribution for projections of extreme water levels is highly questionable. The analysis is based on two simulated data sets produced in the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The output of the Rossby Centre Ocean model is sampled with a resolution of 6 h and the output of the circulation model NEMO with a resolution of 1 h. As the maxima of water levels of subsequent years may be correlated in the Baltic Sea, we also employ maxima for stormy seasons. We provide a detailed analysis of spatial variation of the parameters of the family of extreme value distributions along an approximately 600 km long coastal section from the north-western shore of Latvia in the Baltic Proper until the eastern Gulf of Finland. The parameters are evaluated using maximum likelihood method and method of moments. The analysis also covers the entire Gulf of Riga. The core parameter of this family of distributions, the shape parameter of the Generalised Extreme Value distribution, exhibits extensive variation in the study area. Its values evaluated using the Hydrognomon software and maximum likelihood method, vary from about -0.1 near the north-western coast of Latvia in the Baltic Proper up to about 0.05 in the eastern Gulf of Finland. This parameter is very close to zero near Tallinn in the western Gulf of Finland. Thus, it is natural that the Gumbel

  19. Investigating the influence of sea level oscillations in the Danish Straits on the Baltic Sea dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhonova, Natalia; Gusev, Anatoly; Diansky, Nikolay; Zakharchuk, Evgeny

    2016-04-01

    related to the distance between the measurement point and open boundary. For example, in the Gulfs of Finland and Riga, the 36hr harmonic has an amplitude substantially higher than in the open sea, and in the Stockholm area, this harmonic is at the noise level. The 40dy and 121dy harmonics have slightly lower amplitudes than the original prescribed signal, but they are almost unchanged while propagating further into the sea, and in all the investigated locations have almost identical peaks of spectral density. The 3dy and 6dy harmonics significantly lost their amplitude in all parts of the sea, and spectral density peaks are at the noise level. The simulation results showed us that the Danish straits do not filter 121dy and 40dy oscillations, and their amplitude does not decrease much. The 13dy, 6dy and 3dy oscillations significantly lose in amplitude and have no significant peaks of the spectral density. The 1.5dy harmonic propagates to the Gulfs of Finland and Riga, and increases in amplitude due to resonance at the natural frequency of the basin. It is suggested that, while Danish straits do not filter or transform frequency characteristics of oscillations propagated from the North Sea, but the Baltic Sea configuration may affect the magnitude and propagation extent of these oscillations. Thus, the fluctuations in the North Sea and the Danish Straits can significantly contribute to the Baltic Sea dynamics in the low-frequency range of the spectrum, and the periods of natural oscillations of the basin. The research was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant № 16-05-00534) and Saint-Petersburg State University (grant №18.37.140.2014)

  20. Meteorological conditions influencing the formation of level ice within the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, A. K.; Krezel, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Baltic Sea is covered by ice every winter and on average, the ice-covered area is 45% of the total area of the Baltic Sea. The beginning of ice season usually starts in the end of November, ice extent is the largest between mid-February and mid-March and sea ice disappears completely in May. The ice covered areas during a typical winter are the Gulf of Bothnia, the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Riga. The studies of sea ice in the Baltic Sea are related to two aspects: climate and marine transport. Depending on the local weather conditions during the winter different types of sea ice can be formed. From the point of winter shipping it is important to locate level and deformed ice areas (rafted ice, ridged ice, and hummocked ice). Because of cloud and daylight independency as well as good spatial resolution, SAR data seems to be the most suitable source of data for sea ice observation in the comparatively small area of the Baltic Sea. We used ASAR Wide Swath Mode data with spatial resolution 150 m. We analyzed data from the three winter seasons which were examples of severe, typical and mild winters. To remove the speckle effect the data were resampled to 250 m pixel size and filtred using Frost filter 5x5. To detect edges we used Sobel filter. The data were also converted into grayscale. Sea ice classification was based on Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA). Object-based methods are not a common tool in sea ice studies but they seem to accurately separate level ice within the ice pack. The data were segmented and classified using eCognition Developer software. Level ice were classified based on texture features defined by Haralick (Grey Level Co-Occurrence Matrix homogeneity, GLCM contrast, GLCM entropy and GLCM correlation). The long-term changes of the Baltic Sea ice conditions have been already studied. They include date of freezing, date of break-up, sea ice extent and some of work also ice thickness. There is a little knowledge about the relationship of

  1. Evaluation of Baltic Sea transport properties using particle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dargahi, Bijan; Cvetkovic, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    Particle tracking model (PTM) is an effective tool for quantifying transport properties of large water bodies such as the Baltic Sea. We have applied PTM to our fully calibrated and validated Baltic Sea 3D hydrodynamic model for a 10-years period (2000-9). One hundred particles were released at a constant rate during an initial 10-days period from all the Baltic Sea sub-basins, the major rivers, and the open boundary in the Arkona Basin. In each basin, the particles were released at two different depths corresponding to the deep water and middle water layers. The objectives of the PTM simulations were to analyse the intra-exchange processes between the Baltic Sea basins and to estimate the arrival times and the paths of particles released from the rivers. The novel contribution of this study is determining the paths and arrival times of deeper water masses rather than the surface masses. Advective and diffusive transport processes in the Bornholm and Arkona basins are both driven by the interacting flows of the northern basins of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. Particles released from Arkona basin flows northwards along the Stople Channel. The Gotland basins are the major contributors to the exchange process in the Baltic Sea. We find high values of the advection ratio, indicative of a forced advective transport process. The Bay of Gdansk is probably the most vulnerable region in the Baltic Sea. This is despite the fact that the main exchanging basins are the Bornholm Sea and the Easter Gotland Basin. The main reason is the intensive supply of the particles from the northern basins that normally take about 3000 days to reach the Bay of Gdansk. The process maintains a high level of particle concentration (90%) along its coastlines even after the 10-years period. Comparing the particle paths in the Western and Eastern Gotland basins two interesting features were found. Particles travelled in all four directions in the former basin and the middle layer particles

  2. Fertility and culture in Eastern Europe: a case study of Riga, Latvia, 1867-1881.

    PubMed

    Wetherell, C; Plakans, A

    1997-01-01

    This case study examined the influence of cultural and economic conditions on fertility decline in Eastern Europe. Cultural influence on fertility is conceived as the agent with which individuals change behavior which is specific to different ethnic groups and contexts. This study focused on measures of nuptiality and fertility among language and religious groups in Riga, Latvia, in 1867 and 1881. Data were obtained from censuses for Coale's measures of general fertility, marital fertility, the index of illegitimate fertility, and the proportion married. Each variable is a measure of Hutterite fertility as socially unrestrained fertility. Marriage includes the singulate mean age of marriage and the median age at marriage. An average of the urban multipliers for Bavaria, Prussia, Finland, and Sweden, was used to adjust infant mortality. Fertility estimates were higher than the European Fertility Projects. Nuptiality followed the Western European marriage pattern. Nuptiality reflected Hajnal's Western European pattern of late marriage and substantial singlehood. Fertility varied by language group. Fertility was highest among Yiddish speakers and lowest among Latvians. 12.5% of marriages were interfaith marriages. Protestants were the most likely to enter interfaith unions. However, opportunity in the marriage market may have affected mixed marriages. Catholics had the lowest marital fertility. Jews were the most different on a variety of factors. Jews had higher marital fertility and proportion married, and lower female workers, illegitimacy, and proportion single. The authors conclude that the mixed results are insufficient to untangle the effects of culture due to lack of individual level data. PMID:12158980

  3. Numerical investigations of future ice conditions in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Haapala, J; Meier, H E; Rinne, J

    2001-08-01

    Global climate changes is expected to have an effect on the physical and ecological characteristics of the Baltic Sea. Estimates of future climate on the regional scale can be obtained by using either statistical or dynamical downscaling methods of global AOGCM scenario results. In this paper, we use 2 different coupled ice-ocean models of the Baltic Sea to simulate present and future ice conditions around 100 years from present. Two 10-year time slice experiments have been performed using the results of atmospheric climate model simulations as forcing, one representing pre-industrial climate conditions (control simulation), and the other global warming with a 150% increase in CO2 greenhouse gas concentration (scenario simulation). Present-day climatological ice conditions and interannual variability are realistically reproduced by the models. The simulated range of the maximum annual ice extent in the Baltic in both models together is 180 to 420 x 10(3) km2 in the control simulation and 45 to 270 x 10(3) km2 in the scenario simulation. The range of the maximum annual ice thickness is from 32 to 96 cm and from 11 to 60 cm in the control and scenario simulations, respectively. In contrast to earlier estimates, sea ice is still formed every winter in the Northern Bothnian Bay and in the most Eastern parts of the Gulf of Finland. Overall, the simulated changes of quantities such as ice extent and ice thickness, as well as their interannual variations are relatively similar in both models, which is remarkable, because the 2 coupled ice-ocean model systems have been developed independently. This increases the reliability of future projections of ice conditions in the Baltic Sea. PMID:11697256

  4. Optically black waters in the northern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthon, Jean-François; Zibordi, Giuseppe

    2010-05-01

    The peculiar bio-optical properties of the northernmost waters of the Baltic Sea (Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay) are illustrated by exploiting unique in situ measurements of apparent and inherent optical properties collected in 2007. Specifically, this study shows that the high values of absorption by colored dissolved organic matter (ays(412) around 1.4 m-1) resulting from the presence of humic matter brought by the numerous Swedish and Finnish rivers alimenting the basin are not correlated with high concentrations of particles as generally observed in the southern Baltic Sea. As a consequence, extremely low values (i.e., less than 0.5) of the ratio of scattering to absorption are observed in the blue spectral region. The corresponding spectra of normalized water leaving radiance are close to satisfy the “black pixel” assumption in the blue and even in the green part of the visible spectrum. Consequently, the Bothnian Sea and most of all the Bothnian Bay, appear ideal candidates for studies on atmospheric corrections and vicarious calibration of ocean color sensors in coastal waters.

  5. Spatial variability in the trends in extreme storm surges and weekly-scale high water levels in the eastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soomere, Tarmo; Pindsoo, Katri

    2016-03-01

    We address the possibilities of a separation of the overall increasing trend in maximum water levels of semi-enclosed water bodies into associated trends in the heights of local storm surges and basin-scale components of the water level based on recorded and modelled local water level time series. The test area is the Baltic Sea. Sequences of strong storms may substantially increase its water volume and raise the average sea level by almost 1 m for a few weeks. Such events are singled out from the water level time series using a weekly-scale average. The trends in the annual maxima of the weekly average have an almost constant value along the entire eastern Baltic Sea coast for averaging intervals longer than 4 days. Their slopes are ~4 cm/decade for 8-day running average and decrease with an increase of the averaging interval. The trends for maxima of local storm surge heights represent almost the entire spatial variability in the water level maxima. Their slopes vary from almost zero for the open Baltic Proper coast up to 5-7 cm/decade in the eastern Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Riga. This pattern suggests that an increase in wind speed in strong storms is unlikely in this area but storm duration may have increased and wind direction may have rotated.

  6. Remote sensing of chlorophyll in the Baltic Sea at basin scale from 1997 to 2012 using merged multisensor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitarch, J.; Volpe, G.; Colella, S.; Krasemann, H.; Santoleri, R.

    2015-09-01

    Fifteen-year (1997-2012) time series of chlorophyll a (CHL) in the Baltic Sea, based on merged multisensor satellite data provided by the European projects Globcolour and ESA-OC-CCI were analysed. Several available CHL algorithms were sea-truthed against a large in situ CHL dataset consisting of data by Seadatanet, HELCOM and NOAA. Matchups were calculated for three separate areas (1) Skagerrak and Kattegat, (2) Baltic Proper plus gulfs of Riga and Finland, called here "Central Baltic", (3) Gulf of Bothnia, and for the three areas as a whole. Statistics showed low linearity. The OC4v6 algorithm (R2 = 0.46, BIAS = +60 %, RMS = 79 % for the whole dataset) was linearly transformed by using the best linear fit (OC4corr). By construction, the bias was corrected, but RMS was increased instead. Despite this shortcoming, we demonstrated that errors between OC4corr and in situ data were log-normally distributed and centred at zero. Consequently, unbiased estimators of the horizontally-averaged CHL could be obtained, the error of which tends to zero when a large amount of pixels is averaged. From the basin-wide time series, the climatology and the annual anomalies were separated. The climatologies revealed completely different CHL dynamics among regions: in Skagerrak and Kattegat, CHL strongly peaks in late winter, with a minimum in summer and a secondary peak in spring. In the Central Baltic, CHL follows a dynamics of a spring CHL peak, followed by a much stronger summer bloom, with decreasing CHL towards winter. The Gulf of Bothnia shows a similar CHL dynamics as the central Baltic, although the summer bloom is absent. Across years, CHL showed great variability. Supported by auxiliary satellite sea-surface temperature (SST) data, we found that phytoplankton growth was inhibited in the central Baltic Sea in the years of colder summers or when the SST happened to increase later in the season. Extremely high CHL in spring 2008 was detected and linked to an exceptionally warm

  7. Pollution in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Rheinheimer, G

    1998-07-01

    The Baltic Sea is almost totally surrounded by land and therefore more endangered by pollution than other marine areas. The sources of marine pollution are municipal and industrial waste inputs directly into the sea or via rivers, and atmospheric inputs mainly from traffic and agriculture. The increase of inorganic plant nutrients (NH3, NOx, PO4) caused eutrophication and consequent oxygen depletion in coastal bottom waters as well as in the depths of the open sea. In the anoxic sediments, hydrogen sulfide can be produced by protein-decomposing and sulfate-reducing bacteria. The bottom fauna will be destroyed and only H2S tolerant microorganisms can survive. Originating from cellulose manufacturing and from paper mills, large amounts of poisonous chlorinated compounds contaminated the coastal waters of Sweden and Finland until the 1980s. Most of this material is still present in sediments of the central Baltic Sea and can be resuspended by near bottom currents. To reduce pollution and improve the situation in the Baltic Sea, the surrounding countries organized the Helsinki Convention, which came into force on 3.5.1980. The Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) founded in 1974 acts as coordinator and is responsible for the enforcement of the Baltic monitoring program and international research projects. The activities of HELCOM have led to the reduction of dangerous pollutants which in turn has caused the regeneration of flora and fauna in some areas. Further improvements can be expected. PMID:9722964

  8. Evidence of latitudinal fractionation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners along the Baltic Sea region

    SciTech Connect

    Agrell, C.; Okla, L.; Larsson, P.; Backe, C.; Wania, F.

    1999-04-15

    Annual cycles of the atmospheric concentrations of PCBs were determined at 16 (mostly rural) stations around the Baltic Sea between 1990 and 1993. The concentration levels of individual congeners were found to be influenced by their physical-chemical properties, ambient temperature, and geographical location. Median levels of PCBs were similar at all stations except at one urban site near Riga. A latitudinal gradient with higher levels in the south was found for the sum of PCB as well as for individual congeners, and the gradient was more pronounced for the low volatility congeners. As a result, the high volatility congeners increased in relative importance with latitude. Generally, PCB concentrations increased with temperature, but slopes of the partial pressure in air versus reciprocal temperature were different between congeners and between stations. In general, the low volatility congeners were more temperature dependent than the high volatility PCB congeners. Steep slopes at a sampling location indicate that the concentration in air is largely determined by diffusive exchange with soils. Lack of a temperature dependence may be due to the influence of long-range transported air masses at remote sites and due to the episodic or random nature of PCB sources at urban sites.

  9. Genetic differentiation of brackish water populations of cod Gadus morhua in the southern Baltic, inferred from genotyping using SNP-arrays.

    PubMed

    Poćwierz-Kotus, A; Kijewska, A; Petereit, C; Bernaś, R; Więcaszek, B; Arnyasi, M; Lien, S; Kent, M P; Wenne, R

    2015-02-01

    The Baltic is a semi-enclosed sea characterised by decreasing salinity in the eastern and northern direction with only the deeper parts of the southern Baltic suitable as spawning grounds for marine species like cod. Baltic cod exhibits various adaptations to brackish water conditions, yet the inflow of salty North Sea water near the bottom remains an influence on the spawning success of the Baltic cod. The eastern Baltic population has been very weakly studied in comparison with the western population. The aim of this study is to demonstrate for the first time genetic differentiation by the use of a large number of SNPs between eastern and western Baltic populations existing in differentiated salinity conditions. Two cod samples were collected from the Bay of Gdańsk, Poland and one from the Kiel Bight, Germany. Samples were genotyped using a cod derived SNP-array (Illumina) with 10 913 SNPs. A selection of diagnostic SNPs was performed. A set of 7944 validated SNPs were analysed to assess the differentiation of three samples of cod. Results indicated a clear distinctness of the Kiel Bight from the populations of the eastern Baltic. FST comparison between both eastern samples was non-significant. Clustering analysis, principal coordinates analysis and assignment test clearly indicated that the eastern samples should be considered as one subpopulation, well differentiated from the western subpopulation. With the SNP approach, no differentiation between groups containing 'healthy' and 'non-healthy' cod individuals was observed. PMID:24910372

  10. Microplastic concentrations in beach sediments along the German Baltic coast.

    PubMed

    Stolte, Andrea; Forster, Stefan; Gerdts, Gunnar; Schubert, Hendrik

    2015-10-15

    The contamination with microplastic particles and fibres was evaluated on beaches along the German Baltic coast. Sediments were sampled near the Warnow and Oder/Peene estuaries, on Rügen island and along the Rostock coast to derive possible entry pathways. Seasonal variations were monitored along the Rostock coast from March to July 2014. After density separation in saline solution, floating particles were found to be dominated by sand grains. Water surface tension is shown to be sufficient to explain floatation of grains with sizes less than 1.5mm. Selecting intensely coloured particles and fibres, we find lower limits of the microplastic concentrations of 0-7 particles/kg and 2-11 fibres/kg dry sediment. The largest microplastic contaminations are measured at the Peene outlet into the Baltic Sea and in the North Sea Jade Bay. City discharges, industrial production sites, fishing activity and tourism are the most likely sources for the highest microplastic concentrations. PMID:26198261

  11. The structure and stratigraphy of the sedimentary succession in the Swedish sector of the Baltic Basin: New insights from vintage 2D marine seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sopher, Daniel; Erlström, Mikael; Bell, Nicholas; Juhlin, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    We present five interpreted regional seismic profiles, describing the full sedimentary sequence across the Swedish sector of the Baltic Sea. The data for the study are part of an extensive and largely unpublished 2D seismic dataset acquired between 1970 and 1990 by the Swedish Oil Prospecting Company (OPAB). The Baltic Basin is an intracratonic basin located in northern Europe. Most of the Swedish sector of the basin constitutes the NW flank of a broad synclinal depression, the Baltic Basin. In the SW of the Swedish sector lies the Hanö Bay Basin, formed by subsidence associated with inversion of the Tornquist Zone during the Late Cretaceous. The geological history presented here is broadly consistent with previously published works. We observe an area between the Hanö Bay and the Baltic Basin where the Palaeozoic strata has been affected by transpression and subsequent inversion, associated with the Tornquist Zone during the late Carboniferous-Early Permian and Late Cretaceous, respectively. We propose that the Christiansø High was a structural low during the Late Jurassic, which was later inverted in the Late Cretaceous. We suggest that a fan shaped feature in the seismic data, adjacent to the Christiansø Fault within the Hanö Bay Basin, represents rapidly deposited, coarse-grained sediments eroded from the inverted Christiansø High during the Late Cretaceous. We identify a number of faults within the deeper part of the Baltic Basin, which we also interpret to be transpressional in nature, formed during the Caledonian Orogeny in the Late Silurian-Early Devonian. East of Gotland a number of sedimentary structures consisting of Silurian carbonate reefs and Ordovician carbonate mounds, as well as a large Quaternary glacial feature are observed. Finally, we use the seismic interpretation to infer the structural and stratigraphic history of the Baltic and Hanö Bay basins within the Swedish sector.

  12. Verbal Aspects in Germanic, Slavic, and Baltic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Alfred

    1949-01-01

    This study examines the theory of Prokosch concerning the Germanic-Slavic-Baltic tense and aspect systems. The interrelatedness and influence of languages and dialects in Slavic (Russian and Old Church Slavic), Baltic (Lithuanian), and Germanic (Old High German and Gothic) are demonstrated. Examples illustrating the use of the perfective present…

  13. Sewage derive [sup 15]N in the Baltic traced in fucus

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbie, J.E.; Fry, B. ); Larsson, U.; Elmgren, R. )

    1990-01-09

    Himmerfjarden, a fjord-like bay on the eastern shore of the Baltic, receives treated sewage from 250,000 inhabitants. Because the inorganic N in the effluent is enriched in [sup 15]N through denitrification, nitrification, and ammonia volatilization, an analysis of the distribution of [sup 15]N in the Bay tells how far from the source the sewage nitrogen moves. The attached macroalga Fucus vesiculosus was collected in early May from rocky shore at 0-0.5 m depth and the [sup 15]N content of the tips of the fronds analyzed. This N represents uptake and storage during the previous six months and growth during March and April. The [delta][sup 15]N was uniformly high (11-13[per thousand]) in the main body of the Bay within 15 km from the sewage source. Beyond 15 km values decreased with distance to a low of 4.6[per thousand] at 35 km, where the Bay ends and the coastal waters begin. Using the 11-13 and 4.6[per thousand] as endmembers, the percentage of sewage N making up the Fucus at any point may be calculated. The [delta][sub 15]N of particulate organic matter in the offshore Baltic waters was around 0[per thousand] and Fucus had an [delta][sup 15]N about 1.5[per thousand] higher than the POM. From this and other evidence we conclude that there is a belt of coastal water with an elevated [delta][sup 15]N lying along the east coast of the Baltic. This presumably derives from sewage and perhaps from agriculture and is potentially of use as a tracer of coastal zone/pelagic zone interactions.

  14. PAH and PCB in the Baltic -- A budget approach including fluxes, occurrence and concentration variability in air, suspended and settling particulates in water, surface sediments and river water

    SciTech Connect

    Broman, D.; Axelman, J.; Bandh, C.; Ishaq, R.; Naef, C.; Pettersen, H.; Zebuehr, Y.

    1995-12-31

    In order to study the fate and occurrence of two groups of hydrophobic compounds in the Baltic aquatic environment a large number of samples were collected from the southern Baltic proper to the northern Bothnian Bay for the analyses of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The following sample matrices were collected; bottom surface sediments (0--1 cm, collected with gravity corer), settling particulate matter (collected with sediment traps), open water samples and over water samples (suspended particulates and dissolved fraction sampled by filtration) and air samples (aerosols and vapor phase sampled by filtration). All samples (except over water and air) were collected at open sea in the Baltic. The analyses results have been used to make a model approach on the whole Baltic and to elucidate different aspects of the behavior of PAHs and PCBs in the Baltic, such as the occurrence of the compounds in water and sediment, the total content as well as the concentration variabilities over such a large geographical area, Further, the data on settling particulate matter as well as the air concentration data were used to estimate the total fluxes of PAHs and PCBs to the bottoms of the Baltic and t o the total water area of the Baltic, respectively. Further, data on the PAH and PCB content in river water from four major rivers provides rough estimates of the riverine input to the Baltic. The dynamics of PAHs and PCBs within the water mass have also been studied in terms of settling velocities and residence times in the water mass for these type of compounds in the open Baltic.

  15. James Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  First Views of James Bay, Canada     ... show the winter landscape of James Bay, Ontario, Canada from three of the instrument's nine cameras. The image at left captures the opening ... down. The image on the right was taken seven minutes after the first image from the most oblique, aftward-viewing camera. "These ...

  16. Stable-isotope analysis of canvasback winter diet in upper Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, D.G.; Macko, S.A.; Walker, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    A major decline in submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in Chesapeake Bay has altered the diet of wintering Canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) from historically plant to a combination of benthic animal foods, especially the ubiquitous Baltic clam (Macoma balthica), supplemented with anthropogenic corn (Zea mays). Because the isotopic signature of corn is readily discriminated from bay benthos, but not SAV, we used stable-isotope methodology to investigate the corn-SAV component of the winter diet of Canvasbacks. Feeding trials with penned Canvasbacks were conducted to establish turnover rates and fractionation end-point loci of *13C and *15N signatures of whole blood for individual ducks fed ad libitum diets of (1) Baltic clams, (2) Baltic clams and corn, and (3) tubers of wild celery (Vallisneria americana). Turnover time constants averaged 4.5 weeks, indicating that signatures of wild ducks would be representative of bay diets by late February. Isotopic signatures of wild Canvasbacks sampled in February fell on a continuum between end-point loci for the Baltic clam and the combination Baltic clam and corn diet. Although that finding verifies a clear dependence on corn-SAV for wintering Canvasbacks, it also reveals that not enough corn-SAV is available to establish ad libitum consumption for the 15,000+ Canvasbacks wintering in the upper bay. On the basis of mean *13C signature of bay Canvasbacks (n=59) and ingestion rates from feeding trials, we estimated that 258 kg corn per day would account for the observed *13C enrichment and supply 18% of daily energetic needs for 15,000 Canvasbacks. That level of corn availability is so realistic that we conclude that SAV is likely of little dietary importance to Canvasbacks in that portion of the bay.

  17. Atmospheric pathways of chlorinated pesticides and natural bromoanisoles in the northern Baltic Sea and its catchment.

    PubMed

    Bidleman, Terry; Agosta, Kathleen; Andersson, Agneta; Brorström-Lundén, Eva; Haglund, Peter; Hansson, Katarina; Laudon, Hjalmar; Newton, Seth; Nygren, Olle; Ripszam, Matyas; Tysklind, Mats; Wiberg, Karin

    2015-06-01

    Long-range atmospheric transport is a major pathway for delivering persistent organic pollutants to the oceans. Atmospheric deposition and volatilization of chlorinated pesticides and algae-produced bromoanisoles (BAs) were estimated for Bothnian Bay, northern Baltic Sea, based on air and water concentrations measured in 2011-2012. Pesticide fluxes were estimated using monthly air and water temperatures and assuming 4 months ice cover when no exchange occurs. Fluxes were predicted to increase by about 50 % under a 2069-2099 prediction scenario of higher temperatures and no ice. Total atmospheric loadings to Bothnian Bay and its catchment were derived from air-sea gas exchange and "bulk" (precipitation + dry particle) deposition, resulting in net gains of 53 and 46 kg year(-1) for endosulfans and hexachlorocyclohexanes, respectively, and net loss of 10 kg year(-1) for chlordanes. Volatilization of BAs releases bromine to the atmosphere and may limit their residence time in Bothnian Bay. This initial study provides baseline information for future investigations of climate change on biogeochemical cycles in the northern Baltic Sea and its catchment. PMID:26022329

  18. Inactivated phosphorus by added aluminum in Baltic Sea sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rydin, Emil

    2014-12-01

    Decreased phosphorus (P) retention in aquatic sediments during hypoxic periods results in increased P recycling to the water column. To revert to less productive conditions in the enclosed bays of the Baltic Sea archipelago, increased sediment P burial capacity is needed. Aluminum (Al) addition is considered to be a cost-effective lake restoration method, as it improves sediment P burial capacity. However, little is known about its ability to permanently bind P in brackish systems. In summer 2000, Al sulfate granules were added to a hypoxic bottom area in the Östhammar bay, Sweden. Sediment core samples from the area were collected 10 years later. A peak in Al and P was detected at 20 cm sediment depth, reflecting the added Al and P trapped to it. Only part of the added Al was recovered, but the recovered Al (8 g Al/m2) trapped P at a ratio of 5:1 (molar). Chemical fractionation showed that P extracted as 'Al-P' constituted 55% of the trapped P, indicating that Al added also trapped P extracted as other P forms.

  19. Mass variations of the Baltic Sea compared to superconducting gravimeter and GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, H.; Virtanen, J.; Nordman, M.; Bilker-Koivula, M.; Mäkinen, J.

    2009-04-01

    We study the gravity effect of Baltic Sea mass variations observed using different methods and time resolutions. We compare data from tide gauges, from superconductive gravimeter (SG) at Metsähovi, Finland and from the GRACE gravity satellite. The mass variation in the semi-enclosed Baltic Sea is due to both internal redistribution of the water mass and due to changes in the so-called fill level caused by water exchange with the North Sea. The monthly variation in the water mass is about 60 Gt over an area of 390000 km-2. Due to a dense network of tide gauges, the Baltic Sea is one of best monitored mass variations in this size in the world. For modeling the observed water mass, we have used both monthly PSMSL tide gauge records and hourly values from several sources. In addition, we have hydrodynamic models for comparisons. To calculate gravity effect, we have used Green's function formalism for modeled sea surface. We have previously used temporal gravity field data from GRACE satellite to show that GRACE can recover the total mass variation in the Baltic Sea on monthly scales. In addition to monthly GRACE solutions with different filters, we now also use 10-day mascon block solutions from Goddard Space Flight Center. As the GRACE solutions are already corrected for gravity changes due to oceans, we have restored the contribution due to the Baltic Sea. We have also corrected for an effect due to leakage of continental water storage using the GLDAS hydrology model. The fundamental station Metsähovi is located 10 km from the nearest bay of the Baltic Sea and 15 km from the open sea. Using a single tide gauge at the distance of 30 km from SG at Metsähovi, very clear correlation is found between gravity and sea level. Superconducting gravity data has been corrected by tides and polar motion, atmospheric mass redistribution, local groundwater and drift. Hourly mass variations of sea are clearly separable. Theoretically one-meter even-layer water cause 30 nms-2

  20. Food habits and distribution of wintering canvasbacks, Aythya valisineria, on Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.; Uhler, F.M.

    1988-01-01

    Baltic clams (Macoma balthica) were the predominant food items of 323 canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) collected throughout Chesapeake Bay during 1970-1979. Natural vegetation constituted 4% of the food volume. Widgeongrass (Ruppia maritima) and redhead grass (Potamogeton perfoliatus) constituted the greatest percent volume and frequency of occurrence among the plant species, whereas wild celery (Vallisneria americana) constituted only a trace of the food volume. These results contrast with historical records of food habits of canvasbacks in Chesapeake Bay. Canvasback population estimates during the 1970?s were examined to detect annual and seasonal changes in distribution. Linear regression analyses of winter canvasback populations in the bay showed a significant decline in the upper-bay and middle-bay populations, but no significant changes in the lower-bay and Potomac River populations. The changes in winter distribution and abundance of the canvasback appear related to changes in natural food availability, which is the result of altered environmental conditions.

  1. Evidence for an autumn downstream migration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (Linnaeus) and brown trout Salmo trutta (Linnaeus) parr to the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taal, Imre; Kesler, Martin; Saks, Lauri; Rohtla, Mehis; Verliin, Aare; Svirgsden, Roland; Jürgens, Kristiina; Vetemaa, Markus; Saat, Toomas

    2014-06-01

    In the eastern Baltic rivers, anadromous salmonid parr are known to smoltify and migrate to the sea from March until June, depending on latitude, climate and hydrological conditions. In this study, we present the first records of autumn descent of brown trout Salmo trutta and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from the Baltic Sea Basin. Otolith microchemistry analyses revealed that these individuals hatched in freshwater and had migrated to the brackish water shortly prior to capture. The fish were collected in 2006, 2008, 2009 and 2013 from Eru Bay (surface salinity 4.5-6.5 ‰), Gulf of Finland. This relatively wide temporal range of observations indicates that the autumn descent of anadromous salmonids is not a random event. These results imply that autumn descent needs more consideration in the context of the effective stock management, assessment and restoration of Baltic salmonid populations and their habitats.

  2. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 distribution in Baltic Sea waters

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarev, L.N.; Gedeonov, L.I.; Ivanova, L.M.; Stepanov, A.V.

    1988-09-01

    The strontium-90 and cesium-137 concentrations determined in 1983 in the Baltic Sea proper and the Gulf of Finland and in the Soviet Baltic rivers are furnished. The cesium-137 content has been found to be directly proportional to the salinity of the water. Significant influx of technogenic radioactive contaminants from the North to the Baltic Sea was noted in 1983.

  3. GALVESTON BAY CCMP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Galveston Bay ranks high among the nation's great bay systems, providing huge economic benefits to the region and state. Remarkably, the bay's natural resources are self-renewing as long as the bay remains healthy and productive. However, Galveston Bay, like many other U.S. bays,...

  4. Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J.; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants. PMID:25453067

  5. Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants. PMID:25453067

  6. The Ancylus Lake stage of the Baltic Sea in Fehmarn Belt: Indications of a new threshold?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldens, Peter; Schwarzer, Klaus

    2012-03-01

    The Baltic Ice Lake, Yoldia Sea, Ancylus Lake and Littorina Sea stages of regression and transgression controlled the history of the Baltic Sea since the last glacial period. Many details regarding their development remain unknown, including the question whether the regression of the Ancylus Lake (between 10,700 and 10,200 cal yr BP) took place west of the Darss Sill, or elsewhere. This study addresses whether a drowned river system in Fehmarn Belt (SW Baltic Sea) can be related to the drainage of the Ancylus Lake. The river channel is cut into glacial till in the western part of Fehmarn Belt. Here, the channel reaches an incision depth of up to 12 m at a base level of 40 m b.s.l. (below sea level). Near Mecklenburg Bay, the buried channel is incised down to 60 m b.s.l. and widens rapidly from several hundred meters to more than 1 km, fading towards east. It was mainly shaped as part of a glacial meltwater system at a maximum water level of 30 m b.s.l., and is therefore not related to the Ancylus Lake drainage. During the lowstand of the Baltic Ice Lake, local shallow water bodies covered the study area. A previously reported westward directed drainage of a lake in the eastern Fehmarn Belt could be restricted to a time interval between the highstand of the Ancylus Lake and prior to the Littorina Transgression. Timing, water level and potential water discharge of this event suggest a connection to a partial drainage of the Ancylus Lake. It is concluded that the threshold separating the Ancylus Lake from the North Sea needs to be located west of Fehmarn Belt.

  7. Status of Biodiversity in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Ojaveer, Henn; Jaanus, Andres; MacKenzie, Brian R.; Martin, Georg; Olenin, Sergej; Radziejewska, Teresa; Telesh, Irena; Zettler, Michael L.; Zaiko, Anastasija

    2010-01-01

    The brackish Baltic Sea hosts species of various origins and environmental tolerances. These immigrated to the sea 10,000 to 15,000 years ago or have been introduced to the area over the relatively recent history of the system. The Baltic Sea has only one known endemic species. While information on some abiotic parameters extends back as long as five centuries and first quantitative snapshot data on biota (on exploited fish populations) originate generally from the same time, international coordination of research began in the early twentieth century. Continuous, annual Baltic Sea-wide long-term datasets on several organism groups (plankton, benthos, fish) are generally available since the mid-1950s. Based on a variety of available data sources (published papers, reports, grey literature, unpublished data), the Baltic Sea, incl. Kattegat, hosts altogether at least 6,065 species, including at least 1,700 phytoplankton, 442 phytobenthos, at least 1,199 zooplankton, at least 569 meiozoobenthos, 1,476 macrozoobenthos, at least 380 vertebrate parasites, about 200 fish, 3 seal, and 83 bird species. In general, but not in all organism groups, high sub-regional total species richness is associated with elevated salinity. Although in comparison with fully marine areas the Baltic Sea supports fewer species, several facets of the system's diversity remain underexplored to this day, such as micro-organisms, foraminiferans, meiobenthos and parasites. In the future, climate change and its interactions with multiple anthropogenic forcings are likely to have major impacts on the Baltic biodiversity. PMID:20824189

  8. Comparative analysis of ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes in the water column and sediment-water interface of two lakes and the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ok-Sun; Junier, Pilar; Imhoff, Johannes F; Witzel, Karl-Paul

    2008-11-01

    The functional gene amoA was used to compare the diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the water column and sediment-water interface of the two freshwater lakes Plusssee and Schöhsee and the Baltic Sea. Nested amplifications were used to increase the sensitivity of amoA detection, and to amplify a 789-bp fragment from which clone libraries were prepared. The larger part of the sequences was only distantly related to any of the cultured AOB and is considered to represent new clusters of AOB within the Nitrosomonas/Nitrosospira group. Almost all sequences from the water column of the Baltic Sea and from 1-m depth of Schöhsee were related to different Nitrosospira clusters 0 and 2, respectively. The majority of sequences from Plusssee and Schöhsee were associated with sequences from Chesapeake Bay, from a previous study of Plusssee and from rice roots in Nitrosospira-like cluster A, which lacks sequences from Baltic Sea. Two groups of sequences from Baltic Sea sediment were related to clonal sequences from other brackish/marine habitats in the purely environmental Nitrosospira-like cluster B and the Nitrosomonas-like cluster. This confirms previous results from 16S rRNA gene libraries that indicated the existence of hitherto uncultivated AOB in lake and Baltic Sea samples, and showed a differential distribution of AOB along the water column and sediment of these environments. PMID:18721144

  9. James Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  First Light over James Bay     View Larger Image MISR "First light", 16:40 UTC, 24 February 2000 . This is the first image of Earth's ... the line of flight. At the top of the image, the dark-to-light transition captures the opening of the MISR cover. Progressing southward, ...

  10. Narragansett Bay

    EPA Science Inventory

    Narragansett Bay, situated on the eastern side of Rhode Island, comprises about 15% of the State’s total area. Ninety-five percent of the Bay’s surface area is in Rhode Island with the remainder in southeastern Massachusetts; 60% of the Bay’s watershed is in Massachusetts. At the...

  11. PREFACE: 12th Russia/CIS/Baltic/Japan Symposium on Ferroelectricity and 9th International Conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternberg, Andris; Grinberga, Liga; Sarakovskis, Anatolijs; Rutkis, Martins

    2015-03-01

    The joint International Symposium RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT successfully has united two international events - 12th Russia/CIS/Baltic/Japan Symposium on Ferroelectricity (RCBJSF-12) and 9th International Conference Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT-2014). The RCBJSF symposium is a continuation of series of meetings on ferroelectricity, the first of which took place in Novosibirsk (USSR) in 1976. FM&NT conferences started in 2006 and have been organized by Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia in Riga. In 2012 the International program committee decided to transform this conference into a traveling Baltic State conference and the FM&NT-2013 was organized by the Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Estonia. In 2014 the joint international symposium RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT was organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia and was part of Riga - 2014, the European Capital of Culture event. The purpose of the joint Symposium was to bring together scientists, students and high-level experts in solid state physics, materials science, engineering and related disciplines. The number of the registered participants from 26 countries was over 350. During the Symposium 128 high quality scientific talks (5 plenary, 42 invited, 81 oral) and over 215 posters were presented. All presentations were divided into 4 parallel sessions according to 4 main topics of the Symposium: Ferroelectricity, including ferroelectrics and multiferroics, pyroelectrics, piezoelectrics and actuators, integrated ferroelectrics, relaxors, phase transitions and critical phenomena. Multifunctional Materials, including theory, multiscale and multiphenomenal material modeling and simulation, advanced inorganic, organic and hybrid materials. Nanotechnologies, including progressive methods, technologies and design for production, investigation of nano- particles, composites, structures, thin films and coatings. Energy, including perspective materials and

  12. Isotopic signatures of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) as bioindicator of anthropogenic nutrient input in the western Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Philipp R; Karez, Rolf; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Dierking, Jan

    2013-07-15

    Eutrophication is a global environmental problem. Better management of this threat requires more accurate assessments of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) inputs to coastal systems than can be obtained with traditional measures. Recently, primary producer N isotopic signatures have emerged as useful proxy of such inputs. Here, we demonstrated for the first time the applicability of this method using the widespread eelgrass (Zostera marina) in the highly eutrophic Baltic Sea. Spatial availability of sewage N across a bay with one major sewage outflow predicted by eelgrass δ(15)N was high near and downstream of the outflow compared to upstream, but returned to upstream levels within 4 km downstream from the outfall. General conclusions were corroborated by traditional eutrophication measures, but in contrast to these measures were fully quantitative. Eelgrass N isotope ratios therefore show high potential for coastal screens of eutrophication in the Baltic Sea, and in other areas with eelgrass meadows. PMID:23711843

  13. Eye function of Mysidacea (Crustacea) in the northern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Lindström

    2000-03-30

    Eye spectral sensitivity, [S(lambda)], was measured in seven northern Baltic mysid species using an electroretinogram technique. Their S(lambda) curves were compared with the spectral distribution of underwater light at their normal habitats. In the littoral species Neomysis integer, Praunus flexuosus and Praunus inermis, the S(lambda) maxima, [S(lambda)(max)], were in the wavelength-bands of 525-535, 505-515 and 520-530 nm respectively. The neoimmigrant species Hemimysis anomala had a S(lambda)(max) around 500 nm and high sensitivity at 393 nm, possibly indicating UV-sensitivity. S(lambda) of the pelagic species Mysis mixta and Mysis relicta sp. II was at about 505-520 nm. M. relicta sp. I from Pojoviken Bay and fresh water humic Lake Pääjärvi had S(lambda)(max) at approximately 550 nm and 570 nm respectively. This is in accordance with a similar long-wavelength shift in light transmittance of the respective waters. The eyes of the latter population were also damaged by strong light. The pontocaspian neoimmigrant H. anomala is clearly adapted to waters transmitting more blue light. PMID:10699220

  14. Iron cycling microbial communities in sediments of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Carolina; Delwig, Olaf; Noriega-Ortega, Beatriz; Dähnke, Kirstin; Böttcher, Michael E.; Friedrich, Michael W.

    2014-05-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of iron is a key early diagenetic process. However, limited information exists about the diversity and metabolic pathways of microorganisms linked to iron cycling in marine sediments. The goal of this study was to determine the bacterial community diversity in sediments showing ongoing dissimilatory iron reduction using 454-pyrosequencing as a first step in characterizing microorganisms potentially involved in iron reduction. For this purpose, two 35 cm cores were sampled from ferruginous sediments in the Skagerrak (SK) and the Bothnian Bay (BB) from the North-Sea Baltic Sea and the northern Baltic Sea respectively. Pore water profiles showed Fe2+ and Mn2+ levels of ~140-150 µM throughout the core below a 6 cm thick oxidized surface layer in SK sediments and ~300 µM below a 2 cm thick surface layer in BB sediments. Dissolved sulphide levels were below detection in both sediments. No significant depletion of SO42- occurred at both sites, further supported by stable S and O isotope analyses of dissolved sulfate at SK site. Only very minor net sulfate reduction is suggested here from the trend in sulphur isotope signatures, in agreement with previously reported gross microbial sulphate rate measurements (Canfield et al., 1993;GCA). Based on these biogeochemical constraints, Fe reduction in the studied sediments is therefore dominated by microbial dissimilatory iron reduction, while cryptic Fe-S-cycling can be largely excluded. 16S rRNA gene sequences indicate Proteobacteria as the dominating microbial group in these sediments. Potential iron and manganese reducing bacteria included Geobacteraceae, Pelobacteraceae, Shewanellaceae, and Oceanospirillales. Additionally, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were present. Also, Fe-oxidizers were present and their occurrence correlated in depth with a Fe-oxide-rich layer, most likely a former buried Fe-oxidation front. Gene sequences point to the presence of Mariprofundus in SK sediments and

  15. Trends in the components of extreme water levels signal a rotation of winds in strong storms in the eastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pindsoo, Katri; Soomere, Tarmo

    2016-04-01

    high water levels are different, vary markedly along the coast and provide a useful quantification of the vulnerability of single coastal segments with respect to coastal flooding. The formal linear trends in the extreme values of these water level components exhibit radically different spatial variations. The slopes of the trends in the weekly average are almost constant (~4 cm/decade for 8-day running average) along the entire eastern Baltic Sea coast. This first of all indicates that the duration of storm sequences has increased. The trends for maxima of local storm surge heights represent almost the entire spatial variability in the water level extremes. Their slopes are almost zero at the open Baltic Proper coasts of the Western Estonian archipelago. Therefore, an increase in wind speed in strong storms is unlikely in this area. In contrast, the slopes in question reach 5-7 cm/decade in the eastern Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Riga. This feature suggests that wind direction in strongest storms may have rotated in the northern Baltic Sea.

  16. The sound speed anomaly of Baltic Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Rohden, C.; Weinreben, S.; Fehres, F.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of the anomalous chemical composition of Baltic seawater on the speed of sound relative to seawater with quasi-standard composition was quantified at atmospheric pressure and temperatures of 1 to 46 °C. Three modern oceanographic time-of-flight sensors were applied in a laboratory setup for measuring the speed-of-sound difference δ w in a pure water diluted sample of North Atlantic seawater and a sample of Baltic seawater of the same conductivity, i.e. the same Practical Salinity (SP=7.766). The average δ w amounts to 0.069 ± 0.014 m s-1, significantly larger than the resolution and reproducibility of the sensors and independent of temperature. This magnitude for the anomaly effect was verified with offshore measurements conducted at different sites in the Baltic Sea using one of the sensors. The results from both measurements show values up to one order of magnitude smaller than existing predictions based on chemical models.

  17. The sound speed anomaly of Baltic seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Rohden, C.; Weinreben, S.; Fehres, F.

    2016-02-01

    The effect of the anomalous chemical composition of Baltic seawater on the speed of sound relative to seawater with quasi-standard composition was quantified at atmospheric pressure and temperatures of 1 to 46 °C. Three modern oceanographic time-of-flight sensors were applied in a laboratory setup for measuring the speed-of-sound difference δw in a pure water diluted sample of North Atlantic seawater and a sample of Baltic seawater of the same conductivity, i.e., the same practical salinity (SP = 7.766). The average δw amounts to 0.069 ± 0.014 m s-1, which is significantly larger than the resolution and reproducibility of the sensors and independent of temperature. This magnitude for the anomaly effect was verified with offshore measurements conducted at different sites in the Baltic Sea using one of the sensors. The results from both measurements show values up to 1 order of magnitude smaller than existing predictions based on chemical models.

  18. CHESAPEAKE BAY MONITORING PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Chesapeake Bay Program is the unique regional partnership which has been directing and conducting the restoration of the Chesapeake Bay since the signing of the historic 1983 Chesapeake Bay Agreement. The Chesapeake Bay Program partners include the states of Maryland, Pennsyl...

  19. Language Politics and Practices in the Baltic States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle; Ozolins, Uldis; Ramoniene, Meilute; Rannut, Mart

    2008-01-01

    This monograph provides an overview of the language situation in the three Baltic countries: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. It examines the recent change in language regimes that the Baltic States have deliberately brought about since the restitution of their independence, the nature of these changes, the opposition they have engendered and the…

  20. Sorption and predicted mobility of herbicides in Baltic soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determination of pesticide sorption under local conditions is required to predict off-site transport. Recent surveys detected pesticides in surface water and groundwater of the Baltic region, but there is little information in the peer-reviewed literature regarding the fate of pesticides in Baltic s...

  1. The Baltic Klint beneath the central Baltic Sea and its comparison with the North Estonian Klint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuuling, Igor; Flodén, Tom

    2016-06-01

    Along its contact with the Baltic Shield, the margin of the East European Platform reveals a well-developed, flooded terraced relief. The most striking and consistent set of escarpments at the contact of the Lower Palaeozoic calcareous and terrigenous rocks, known as the Baltic Klint (BK), extends from northwest of Russia to the Swedish island of Öland. Marine seismic reflection profiling in 1990-2004 revealed the central Baltic Sea Klint (BSK) section in detail and enabled comparison of its geology/geomorphology with a classical klint-section onshore, namely the North Estonian Klint (NEK). The conception of the BK onshore, which is based on the land-sea separating terraced relief in northern Estonia, is not fully applicable beneath the sea. Therefore, we consider that the BSK includes the entire terraced Cambrian outcrop. We suggest the term "Baltic Klint Complex" to include the well-terraced margin of the Ordovician limestone outcrop, which is weakly developed in Estonia. Because of a steady lithological framework of the bedrock layers across the southern slope of the Fennoscandian Shield, the central BSK in the western and the NEK in the eastern part of the Baltic Homocline have largely identical morphologies. The North Estonian Ordovician limestone plateau with the calcareous crest of the BK extends across the central Baltic Sea, whereas morphological changes/variations along the Klint base occur due to the east-westerly lithostratigraphic/thickness changes in the siliciclastic Cambrian sequence. The verge of the NEK, located some 30-50 m above sea level, starts to drop in altitude as its east-westerly course turns to northeast-southwest in western Estonia. Further westwards, the BK shifts gradually into southerly deepening (0.1-0.2°) layers as its crest drops to c. 150 m below sea level (b.s.l.) near Gotska Sandön. This course change is accompanied by a considerable decrease in thickness of the platform sedimentary cover, as below the central Baltic Sea the

  2. Modelling of river plume dynamics in Öre estuary (Baltic Sea) with Telemac-3D hydrodynamic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    The main property of river plumes is their buoyancy, fresh water discharged by rivers is less dense than the receiving, saline waters. To study the processes of plume formation in case of river discharge into a brackish estuary where salinity is low (3.5 - 5 psu) a three dimensional hydrodynamic model was applied to the Öre estuary in the Baltic Sea. This estuary is a small fjord-like bay in the north part of the Baltic Sea. Size of the bay is about 8 by 8 km with maximum depth of 35 metres. River Öre has a small average freshwater discharge of 35 m3/s. But in spring during snowmelt the discharge can be many times higher. For example, in April 2015 the discharge increased from 8 m3/s to 160 m3/s in 18 days. To study river plume dynamics a finite element based three dimensional baroclinic model TELEMAC - 3D is used. The TELEMAC modelling suite is developed by the National Laboratory of Hydraulics and Environment (LNHE) of Electricité de France (EDF). Modelling domain was approximated by an unstructured mesh with element size varies from 50 to 500 m. In vertical direction a sigma-coordinate with 20 layers was used. Open sea boundary conditions were obtained from the Baltic Sea model HIROMB-BOOS using COPERNICUS marine environment monitoring service. Comparison of modelling results with observations obtained by BONUS COCOA project's field campaign in Öre estuary in 2015 shows that the model plausible simulate river plume dynamics. Modelling of age of freshwater is also discussed. This work resulted from the BONUS COCOA project was supported by BONUS (Art 185), funded jointly by the EU and the Swedish Research Council Formas.

  3. The influence of dissolved organic matter on the acid-base system of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuliński, Karol; Schneider, Bernd; Hammer, Karoline; Machulik, Ulrike; Schulz-Bull, Detlef

    2014-04-01

    To assess the influence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the acid-base system of the Baltic Sea, 19 stations along the salinity gradient from Mecklenburg Bight to the Bothnian Bay were sampled in November 2011 for total alkalinity (AT), total inorganic carbon concentration (CT), partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), and pH. Based on these data, an organic alkalinity contribution (Aorg) was determined, defined as the difference between measured AT and the inorganic alkalinity calculated from CT and pH and/or CT and pCO2. Aorg was in the range of 22-58 μmol kg- 1, corresponding to 1.5-3.5% of AT. The method to determine Aorg was validated in an experiment performed on DOM-enriched river water samples collected from the mouths of the Vistula and Oder Rivers in May 2012. The Aorg increase determined in that experiment correlated directly with the increased DOC concentration caused by enrichment of the > 1 kDa DOM fraction. To examine the effect of Aorg on calculations of the marine CO2 system, the pCO2 and pH values measured in Baltic Sea water were compared with calculated values that were based on the measured alkalinity and another variable of the CO2 system, but ignored the existence of Aorg. Large differences between measured and calculated pCO2 and pH were obtained when the computations were based on AT and CT. The calculated pCO2 was 27-56% lower than the measured value whereas the calculated pH was overestimated by more than 0.4 pH units. Since biogeochemical models are based on the transport and transformations of AT and CT, the acid-base properties of DOM should be included in calculations of the CO2 system in DOM-rich basins like the Baltic Sea. In view of our limited knowledge about the composition and acid/base properties of DOM, this is best achieved using a bulk dissociation constant, KDOM, that represents all weakly acidic functional groups present in DOM. Our preliminary results indicated that the bulk KDOM in the Baltic Sea is 2.94 · 10- 8 mol kg- 1

  4. Astaxanthin dynamics in Baltic Sea mesozooplankton communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoeijs, Pauline; Häubner, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    The red pigment astaxanthin is a powerful antioxidant, which occurs in eggs and body tissues of crustaceans and fish. It is produced by crustaceans from algal carotenoids. In a two-year field study we assessed natural concentrations and dynamics of astaxanthin in mesozooplankton communities in the brackish Baltic Sea area. Astaxanthin levels varied between 0.37 and 36 ng L- 1. They increased with salinity along the Baltic Sea gradient and were linked to zooplankton biomass and phytoplankton community composition. Astaxanthin concentrations showed typical seasonal patterns and varied from 0.2 to 5.1 ng ind- 1, 0.2 to 3.4 ng (μg C)- 1 and 6 to 100 ng mm- 3. These concentrations were inversely related to water temperature and strongly linked to zooplankton community composition. Communities dominated by the calanoid copepods Temora longicornis, Pseudocalanus acuspes and Eurytemora spp. generally held the highest concentrations. With increasing cladocerans:copepods biomass ratios community astaxanthin concentrations decreased and with higher relative biomass of Acartia spp. the proportion of astaxanthin diesters decreased. Diesters prevailed in the cold season and they are thought to improve the antioxidant protection of storage lipids during winter. Climate change causes higher temperature and lower salinity in the Baltic Sea proper. This modifies zooplankton community composition, but not necessarily into a community with lower concentrations of astaxanthin since T. longicornis (high concentrations) has been reported to increase with higher temperature. However, decreased astaxanthin production in the ecosystem is expected if a basin-wide increase in the cladocerans:copepods biomass ratios would occur with further climate change.

  5. Pole tide in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, I. P.; Rabinovich, A. B.; Kulikov, E. A.

    2014-03-01

    The pole tide, which is driven by the Chandler Wobble, has a period of about 14 months and typical amplitudes in the World Ocean of ˜0.5 cm. However, in the Baltic Sea the pole tide is anomalously high. To examine this effect we used long-term hourly sea level records from 23 tide gauges and monthly records from 64 stations. The lengths of the series were up to 123 years for hourly records and 211 years for monthly records. High-resolution spectra revealed a cluster of neighboring peaks with periods from 410 to 440 days. The results of spectral analysis were applied to estimate the integral amplitudes of pole tides from all available tide gauges along the coast of the Baltic Sea. The height of the pole tide was found to gradually increase from the entrance (Danish Straits, 1.5-2 cm) to the northeast end of the sea. The largest amplitudes—up to 4.5-7 cm—were observed in the heads of the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia. Significant temporal fluctuations in amplitudes and periods of the pole tide were observed during the 19th and 20th centuries.

  6. An Earth System Science Program for the Baltic Sea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, H. E. M.; Rutgersson, A.; Reckermann, M.

    2014-04-01

    From Russia in the east to Sweden, Denmark, and Germany in the west, reaching south to the tips of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Ukraine, the Baltic Sea watershed drains nearly 20% of Europe (see Figure 1). In the highly populated south, the temperate climate hosts intensive agriculture and industry. In the north, the landscape is boreal and rural. In the Baltic Sea itself, complex bathymetry and stratification patterns as well as extended hypoxic and anoxic deep waters add to the diversity. Yet in recent history, the differences across the Baltic Sea region have been more than physical: In the mid-20th century, the watershed was split in two.

  7. BUZZARDS BAY IR, 2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 2002 Buzzards Bay Implementation Review (IR) summarizes the progress and challenges ahead for the Buzzards Bay Project. Major new completed actions during the past two years include: designation of Buzzards Bay as a no discharge area in August 2000; full support by the Massac...

  8. Submarine groundwater discharge to the Baltic coastal zone: Impacts on the meiofaunal community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotwicki, L.; Grzelak, K.; Czub, M.; Dellwig, O.; Gentz, T.; Szymczycha, B.; Böttcher, M. E.

    2014-01-01

    The discharge of groundwater into the sea affects surrounding environments by changing the salinity, temperature and nutrient regimes. This work reports the spatial effects of a submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) on the abundance and structure of the meiofaunal community in the shallow area of Puck Bay (Baltic Sea). Several field expeditions in the years 2009 and 2010 found that low-saline groundwater escapes into the bay from permeable, sandy, near-shore sediments. The SGD literature has grown rapidly during the current decade; however, the effects of this type of disturbance on the shallow sandy bottom fauna have thus far been little studied. We provide evidence that the discharge of groundwater has a clear effect on meiofaunal assemblages in the research area. This effect was reflected in a significant decline of certain meiofaunal taxa, mainly nematodes and harpacticoids, as well as in altered patterns of temporal distribution and small-scale (vertical) zonation of meiofaunal assemblages. Overlooking submarine groundwater discharge processes may lead to serious misinterpretations of ecological data. It is clear that groundwater discharge phenomena should be considered in future scientific studies.

  9. The history of sturgeon in the Baltic Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Popovic, Danijela; Panagiotopoulou, Hanna; Baca, Mateusz; Stefaniak, Krzysztof; Mackiewicz, Pawel; Makowiecki, Daniel; King, Tim L.; Gruchota, Jakub; Weglenski, Piotr; Stankovic, Anna

    2014-01-01

    For the past 2000 years at least, A. o. oxyrinchus has been the dominant sturgeon in the Baltic Sea, indicating a much earlier origin than previously suggested. The most similar extant sturgeon populations to the extinct Baltic stock are those from the St John and St Lawrence rivers in Canada. These populations should be considered the best source of breeding material for the ongoing sturgeon restitution programmes in Poland and Germany.

  10. Nutrient trends through time in Sweden's Baltic Drainage Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, I.; Destouni, G.; Prieto, C.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in climate and land-use have and will continue to modify regional hydrology, in turn impacting environmental health, agricultural productivity and water resource quality and availability. The Baltic region is an area of interest as the coast spans nine countries- serving over 100 million people. The Baltic Sea contains one of the largest human caused hypoxic dead zones due to eutrophication driven by anthropogenic excess loading of nutrients. Policies to reduce these loads include also international directives and agreements, such as the EU Water Framework Directive, adopted in 2000 to protect and improve water quality throughout the European Union, and the Baltic Sea Action Plan under the Helsinki Commission aimed specifically at reducing the nutrient loading to and mitigating the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea. In light of these policies and amidst the number of studies on the Baltic Sea we ask, using the accessible nutrient and discharge data what does nutrient loading look like today? Are the most excessive loads going down? Observed nutrient and flow time series across Sweden allow for answering these questions, by spatial and temporal trend analysis of loads from various parts of Sweden to the Baltic Sea. Analyzing these observed time series in conjunction with the ecological health status classifications of the EU Water Framework Directive, allows in particular for answering the question if the loads into the water bodies with the poorest water quality, and from those to the Baltic Sea, are improving, being maintained or deteriorating. Such insight is required to contribute to relevant and efficient water and nutrient load management. Furthermore, empirically calculating nutrient loads, rather than only modeling, reveals that the water body health classification may not reflect what water bodies actually contribute the heaviest loads to the Baltic Sea. This work also underscores the importance of comprehensive analysis of all available data from

  11. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.78 Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis. (a) Area 1. Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light...

  12. The national pharmacopoeias of the Baltic States.

    PubMed

    Kondratas, R; Gudienė, V; Simaitiene, Z; Maurina, B; Paju, K; Hinrikus, T; Raal, A

    2015-10-01

    After Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania proclaimed their independence in 1918 and began to create their national health care systems, one of their stated priorities was the formulation and publication of national pharmacopoeias. In order to accomplish this, working groups as well as commissions composed of pharmacists, medical specialists and even linguists had to be formed. The process was long and difficult. New terminology in native languages had to be created. Sources for the monographs had to be chosen, researched, analyzed and compared. There were organizational and financial problems. Nevertheless, by the late 1930s, all three Baltic States published their national pharmacopoeias. Officially, they were not able to use them for long because during World War II all three were occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union. Pharmacists in those countries were obliged to use the Soviet pharmacopoeias, although unofficially, they also made good use of their national ones. Currently, the European Pharmacopoeia is in use in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. PMID:26601427

  13. Changing seasonality of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahru, Mati; Elmgren, Ragnar; Savchuk, Oleg P.

    2016-02-01

    Changes in the phenology of physical and ecological variables associated with climate change are likely to have significant effect on many aspects of the Baltic ecosystem. We apply a set of phenological indicators to multiple environmental variables measured by satellite sensors for 17-36 years to detect possible changes in the seasonality in the Baltic Sea environment. We detect significant temporal changes, such as earlier start of the summer season and prolongation of the productive season, in several variables ranging from basic physical drivers to ecological status indicators. While increasing trends in the absolute values of variables like sea-surface temperature (SST), diffuse attenuation of light (Ked490) and satellite-detected chlorophyll concentration (CHL) are detectable, the corresponding changes in their seasonal cycles are more dramatic. For example, the cumulative sum of 30 000 W m-2 of surface incoming shortwave irradiance (SIS) was reached 23 days earlier in 2014 compared to the beginning of the time series in 1983. The period of the year with SST of at least 17 °C has almost doubled (from 29 days in 1982 to 56 days in 2014), and the period with Ked490 over 0.4 m-1 has increased from about 60 days in 1998 to 240 days in 2013 - i.e., quadrupled. The period with satellite-estimated CHL of at least 3 mg m-3 has doubled from approximately 110 days in 1998 to 220 days in 2013. While the timing of both the phytoplankton spring and summer blooms have advanced, the annual CHL maximum that in the 1980s corresponded to the spring diatom bloom in May has now shifted to the summer cyanobacteria bloom in July.

  14. Changing seasonality of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahru, M.; Elmgren, R.; Savchuk, O. P.

    2015-11-01

    Changes in the phenology of physical and ecological variables associated with climate change are likely to have significant effect on many aspects of the Baltic ecosystems. We apply a set of phenological indicators to multiple environmental variables measured by satellite sensors for 17-35 years to detect possible changes in the seasonality in the Baltic Sea environment. We detect significant temporal changes such as earlier start of the summer season and prolongation of the productive season in multiple variables ranging from basic physical drivers to ecological status indicators. While increasing trends in the absolute values of variables like sea-surface temperature (SST), diffuse attenuation of light (Ked490) and satellite-detected chlorophyll concentration (CHL) are detectable, the corresponding changes in their seasonal cycles are more dramatic. For example, the cumulative sum of 30 000 W m-2 of surface incoming shortwave irradiance (SIS) was reached 23 days earlier in 2014 compared to the beginning of the time series in 1983. The period of the year with SST of at least 17 °C has almost doubled (from 29 days in 1982 to 56 days in 2014), the period with Ked490 over 0.4 m-1 has increased from about 60 days in 1998 to 240 days in 2013, i.e. quadrupled. The period with satellite-detected CHL of at least 3 mg m-3 has doubled from approximately 110 days in 1998 to 220 days in 2013. While the timing of both the phytoplankton spring and summer blooms have advanced, the annual CHL maximum that in the 1980s corresponded to the spring diatom bloom in May has now switched to the summer cyanobacteria bloom in July.

  15. Transformation of the Lake Ladoga-Baltic Sea water connection during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subetto, D.; Kuznetsov, D.; Ludikova, A.; Sapelko, T.; Averichkin, O.

    2009-04-01

    1. In this presentation we will present results of complex paleolimnological and archeological studies several lakes in the Karelian Isthmus, NW Russia, located along the former Ladoga-Baltic water-system connection. Complementary field expeditions were organized in 2007 and 2008 in order to core lakes Volojarvi, Makarovskoye, Lamskoye, Uzlovoye and a lake on the Isl.Puutsaari, Northern Ladoga. 2. The ancient water connection between Lake Ladoga and the Baltic in the northern lowland of the Karelian Isthmus has been originated after the ice retreating ca 14,000-12,000 cal BP. At that time, until the catastrophic dropping of the Baltic Ice Lake (BIL) water-level happened ca 11,500 cal BP, Lake Ladoga was a deep easternmost bay of the BIL. During the BIL stage the highest shoreline reached c. 50-60 m a.s.l. in the northern part of the Karelian Isthmus. All studied lakes were flooded the BIL waters. Varved-type clay sediments were formed at that time 3. Arctic climatic and environmental conditions with stagnant ice/permafrost and sparse shrub, herb and grass vegetation on barren soils characterized the central highland of the Karelian Isthmus prior to 12,650 cal yrs BP. Steppe-tundra and cold, dry conditions are inferred between 12,650-11,200/11,000 cal yrs BP. 4. After 11,500 cal BP a straight/river existed in the northern part of the Karelian Isthmus during ca 7000 years. 5. During the Yoldia Sea regression of the Baltic (11500-11 000 cal. BP) Lake Ladoga was re-connected with the Baltic. Water level of Lake Ladoga and lakes in its basin was dropped. The vegetation was arctic tundra with sparse vegetation, which made the soils susceptible to erosion as reflected by the silty clayey sediments in Lake Ladoga. Most of the studied lakes were isolated. 6. The earliest evidence of human settlement in north-eastern Baltic Area is attested at Antrea-Korpilahti (11,200-10,250 cal BP) where artifacts were found in the deposits of a channel between the Baltic and the Ladoga

  16. Chesapeake Bay study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    The objectives and scope of the Chesapeake Bay study are discussed. The physical, chemical, biological, political, and social phenomena of concern to the Chesapeake Bay area are included in the study. The construction of a model of the bay which will provide a means of accurately studying the interaction of the ecological factors is described. The application of the study by management organizations for development, enhancement, conservation, preservation, and restoration of the resources is examined.

  17. Spatial impact of the Oder river plume on water quality along the south-western Baltic coast.

    PubMed

    Schernewski, G; Neumann, T; Podsetchine, V; Siegel, H

    2001-11-01

    The Oder (Odra) river is the most important nutrient source and pollutant for the south-western Baltic Sea. Adjacent German-Polish coastal waters, the Oder (Szczecin) Lagoon and the Oder (Pomeranian) Bight therefore suffer from severe eutrophication and water quality problems. At the same time, summer (bathing) tourism is the most important economical factor in this coastal zone, especially on the islands of Usedom and Wolin. On the basis of model simulations and remote sensing data we analysed the spatial extent and variability of the Oder river plume in the lagoon and the Balic Sea in common summer situations and during the extreme Oder flood in August 1997. Water quality shows pronounced gradients between coastal waters and open Baltic Sea. In the lagoon, it usually takes more than 6 weeks until Oder water enters the large western bay, the Kleines Haff. During transport, degradation, transformation and sedimentation processes alter the water quality and prevent the inner coast of Usedom from direct impact of polluted Oder water. Ongoing nutrient supply promotes intensive algal proliferation in all parts of the lagoon and contributes to the low water transparency. Oder water passing the lagoon and entering the Baltic Sea is transported over long distances in narrow bands along the shore. Under easterly winds the water quality near well-known spas on Usedom is reduced due to Oder river plume impact. Upwelling effects can have negative impact on water quality, too. Intensive blooms of potentially toxic blue-green algae species, are the rule in the lagoon and frequent in the Oder Bight in summer. They are a hazard and limit the acceptance of swimming beaches at the inner coast of Usedom. Practical consequences of variable water quality gradients e.g. on hygienic water sampling are discussed. PMID:11759158

  18. Tampa Bay: Chapter N

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handley, Larry; Spear, Kathryn; Cross, Lindsay; Baumstark, René; Moyer, Ryan; Thatcher, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    Tampa Bay is Florida’s largest open-water estuary and encompasses an area of approximately 1036 km2 (400 mi2) (Burgan and Engle, 2006; TBNEP, 2006). The Bay’s watershed drains 5,698 km2 (2,200 mi2) of land and includes freshwater from the Hillsborough River to the north east, the Alafia and Little Manatee rivers to the east, and the Manatee River to the south (Figure 1). Freshwater inflow also enters the bay from the Lake Tarpon Canal, from small tidal tributaries, and from watershed runoff. Outflow travels from the upper bay segments (Hillsborough Bay and Old Tampa Bay) into Middle and Lower Tampa Bay. Southwestern portions of the water shed flow through Boca Ciega Bay into the Intracoastal Waterway and through the Southwest Channel and Passage Key Inlet into the Gulf of Mexico. The average depth in most of Tampa Bay is only 3.4 m (11 ft); however, 129 km (80 mi) of shipping channels with a maximum depth of 13.1 m (43 ft) have been dredged over time and are regularly maintained. These channels help to support the three ports within the bay, as well as commercial and recreational boat traffic.

  19. The Baltic Basin Case Study—towards a sustainable Baltic Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansson, Bengt-Owe; Stålvant, Carl-Einar

    2001-12-01

    Four watersheds, each characterized by a major resource use were selected for the study: The Vistula River in Poland—agriculture; the Dalälven River in Sweden—forestry; the Archipelago Sea in Sweden, Finland, Estonia—tourism; and the Lake Peipsi in Estonia/Russia—fisheries/agriculture. The main objective was to examine the reactions of particular ecosystems within the Baltic Sea drainage area, and to assess sustainability conditions on the regional level. The degree of sustainability and impact on the Baltic Sea were investigated through workshops and seminars in the areas. Overviews of environmental and socio-economic conditions were succinctly summarized in commissioned papers. Interventions by and discussions with scholars, sector experts, administrators and stakeholders of the various sites laid the foundation for conceptualizing the interaction of natural and human forces for each case. The project was able to draw quite a number of conclusions, summarized as the following lessons learnt. In the Vistula Region, nutrient emissions have levelled off but shortage of freshwater is critical. Forestry in the Dalälven watershed is largely environmental-friendly, except for fragmentation of the landscape and its negative impact on biodiversity. In the Archipelago area a former low-energy community has been replaced by a leisure time society. Different types of tourism is developing, but despite this variety, an improved integration of ecological properties with socio-economic patterns is required in order to build a sustainable, living Archipelago. The lake Peipsi basin and the surrounding area suffer both from problems of resource management and economic backwardness. Parts of the local economy has lost access to the one time large Soviet market, although the Estonian side has apparently benefited from present economic growth. To cope with the division of the lake, a regime for trans-national management is unfolding. It is based on both informal and, to an

  20. Geometrical model of the Baltic artesian basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sennikovs, J.; Virbulis, J.; Bethers, U.

    2012-04-01

    Baltic artesian basin (BAB) is a multi-layer sedimentary basin spanning around 480'000 km2. BAB is located in the territory of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, parts of Poland, Russia, Belarus and large area of the Baltic Sea, including island of Gotland. The thickness of sedimentary cover is about 5000 m in the south-western part. Crystalline bedding reaches the surface in the northern and north-western parts. The aim of the present work is development of the model of geometric structure and three dimensional finite element mesh for the hydrogeological model of the whole BAB. The information that is used to build the geometrical structure includes: (1) Stratigraphic information from boreholes in Latvia and Estonia (2) Maps of height isolines of geological layers for Latvia and Lithuania (3) Maps of sub-quaternary deposits in Latvia and Lithuania (4) Maps of fault lines on the crystalline basement surface in Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia (5) Buried valley data from Latvia and Estonia (6) Earth topography data (7) Baltic sea depth data (8) Data from published geological cross-sections, information from books and other sources. Unification of the heterogeneous information from different sources, which are employed for building of the geometrical structure of the model are performed. Special algorithms are developed for this purpose considering the priority, importance and plausibility of each of the data sources. Pre-processing of the borehole information to screen out the outlying borehole data has been performed. Model of geological structure contains 42 layers. It includes aquifers and aquitards from Cambrian up to the Quaternary deposits. Fault displacements are incorporated into the model taking into account data from the published structural maps. Four reconstructed regional erosion surfaces (upper Ordovician, Devonian, Permian and Quaternary) are included into the model Three dimensional mesh of the geological structure is constructed layer-wise. The triangular

  1. What causes the barren bottoms of the Baltic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zillén, Lovisa; Conley, Daniel J.; Gustafsson, Bo G.

    2010-05-01

    One of the largest impacts on the Baltic Sea ecosystem health is eutrophication, which causes hypoxia (< 2mg/l dissolved oxygen). It is estimated that the hypoxic zone in the Baltic Sea has increased about four times in area since 1960 due to surplus loads of waterborne and airborne nutrients (N and P) from anthropogenic sources. Hypoxia has barren vast areas of the sea-floor, reduced the macrobenthic communities and disrupted benthic food webs in the whole Baltic basin. Hypoxia alters nutrient biogeochemical cycles; it increases the internal load of phosphorus released from sediments, which causes low nitrogen/phosphorus (N/P) ratios during summer - a factor that favors cyanobacterial blooms. Hypoxia in the Baltic Sea is not unique to the modern era. Based on a compilation of Baltic geological records Zillén et al., (2008) showed that the deeper depressions of the Baltic Proper have experienced intermittent hypoxia during most of the Holocene. Hypoxia occurred basin-wide, at water depths varying between 73-240 m during three major periods; i.e. between c. 8000-4000, 2000-800 cal. yr BP and subsequent to AD 1800. These periods overlap the Holocene Thermal Maximum HTM (c. 9000-5000 cal. yr BP), the Medieval Warm Period MWP (c. AD 750-1200) and the modern historical period (AD 1800 to present). In contrast, oxic bottom conditions were common between c. 7000-6000, c. 4000-2000 and c. 800-200 cal. yr BP. The latter period coincides with the Little Ice Age (LIA) and its characteristic server winters. Although we know that hypoxia has occurred in the past and probably co-varied with external forces, such as climate change and nutrient fluxes, the relative importance of these two forcing mechanisms is unresolved, which restricts predictions about the Baltic Sea ecosystem response to future climate and anthropogenic stressors. Most previous research suggests that there may be a correlation between the oxygen conditions in the Baltic Sea and climate variability in the past

  2. BALTEX - A science broker for the Baltic Sea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reckermann, M.; von Storch, H.; Langner, J.; Omstedt, A. T.

    2010-12-01

    BALTEX (the Baltic Sea Experiment) is an interdisciplinary research network of scientists involved in environmental research dedicated to the Baltic Sea drainage basin (including disciplines such as meteorology, hydrology, oceanography, biogeochemistry and climate research). Originally founded in 1992 as a Continental Scale Experiment in GEWEX (the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment within the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) of the World Meteorological Organization, WMO), it was intended to form a common science, communication and data platform with the overall goal to integrate efforts to gain a better understanding of the water and energy cycle in the Baltic Sea basin. BALTEX Phase II (since 2003) has extended the scope to research on regional climate change and variability, climate change impacts on biogeochemistry and water management, but also made first steps towards overarching social and political issues as cross-cutting activities in the context of the scientific objectives. An important aspect of BALTEX Phase II is a more holistic approach towards observing, understanding and modelling major environmental relevant for the entire Baltic Sea region. Parts of the BALTEX Phase II research activities thus contribute to the establishment of a high resolution integrated modelling system for Northern Europe, embedded in an Earth System Model. An outstanding product of BALTEX as a “knowledge broker” for regional political institutions is the BACC report. Following to a large extent the method of IPCC, a regional assessment report on climate change in the Baltic Sea basin was compiled, which summarizes the published scientifically legitimate knowledge on regional climate change in the Baltic Sea basin and its impacts. The assessment, known as the BACC report (BALTEX Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin; BACC author team 2008, Reckermann et al., 2008) was published in 2008 as a book. A survey among climate researchers in the area

  3. The regional geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Haselton, T.M. ); Brangulis, A.P.; Margulis, L.S. ); Kanev, S. )

    1991-08-01

    The Baltic Sea is roughly equivalent in size to the North Sea. Like the North Sea, is has an excellent oil prone source rock present over most of the area. In the entire Baltic Sea about 40 wells have been drilled. During the 1980s, exploration was carried out in the Soviet, Polish, and East German sectors of the Baltic Sea by Petrobaltic. Twenty-eight wells were drilled, 14 of which tested hydrocarbons. Two wells have been drilled in Danish waters and 11 in Swedish waters - all dry holes. Most of the Baltic Sea is included in the Baltic syneclise. In the deepest part of the basin a full Paleozoic and Mesozoic section is present. Major structural features are associated with reactivation of old basement faults. Most hydrocarbon discoveries are associated with structural arches. Exploration targets are Cambrian sandstones and Ordovician and Silurian reefs. The major discoveries are the B3 field in Poland and the D6 field offshore Lithuania and Kaliningrad, both of which have in-place reserves of around 100 million bbl. The Teisseyre-Tornquist line to the southwest represents the plate boundary between the East European platform and Europe. Repeated strike slip movements along this zone result in a complex pattern of extensional and compressional features in the Danish and German sectors. Primary exploration targets include Permian carbonates and sandstones as well as older zones. Gas has been tested in the German sector onshore.

  4. Parasitism at the ecosystem level in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Zander, C D; Reimer, L W

    2002-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is characterized by organisms that can tolerate brackish water. Because of the Sea's history during glacial times, its flora and fauna (and also their parasites) can be traced to marine, freshwater and genuine brackish elements beside glacial relics. Snails, planktonic copepods, benthic amphipods and isopods are important intermediate hosts of diverse helminths; in addition polychaetes, bivalves and fishes may also act as final hosts. The most important final hosts, beside fishes, were seals and birds; these were able to disperse the parasites over the whole of the Baltic. Decreasing salinity from west to east limits the distribution of many parasites. Several marine and genuine brackish water species have almost spread over the whole Baltic. Freshwater species, however, have a lower tolerance than marine species and are only rarely found in the western part. A serious problem in the Baltic is eutrophication which can lead to massive abundances of generalist parasites, in host populations as well as host individuals. The final stage of this influence can cause a general decrease of host abundance and, as a consequence, of all kinds of parasites, due to oxygen deficiency. In comparison with the species spectrum of other brackish waters in Europe, the Baltic presents some endemic parasites as well as sharing parasite species with the Mediterranean and even the Black Sea. PMID:12396220

  5. CASCO BAY PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Casco Bay lies at the heart of Maine's most populated area. The health of its waters, wetlands, and wildlife depend in large part on the activities of the quarter-million residents who live in its watershed. Less than 30 years ago, portions of Casco Bay were off-limits to recr...

  6. Bay Mills' Bold Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    It's a long, long way from Bay Mills Community College, near the shores of frigid Lake Superior, to Detroit. But distance, time and demographics aside, the school and the city are united by Bay Mills' status as the nation's only tribally controlled college that authorizes quasi-public schools, known officially as public school academies. And it's…

  7. Response of the Baltic and North Seas to river runoff from the Baltic watershed - Physical and biological changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänninen, Jari; Vuorinen, Ilppo; Rajasilta, Marjut; Reid, Philip C.

    2015-11-01

    Selected Baltic Sea watershed River Runoff (BSRR) events during 1970-2000 were used as predictor in Generalised Linear Mixed Models (GLIMMIX) for evidence of simultaneous changes/chain of events (including possible time lags) in some chemical, physical and biological variables in the Baltic and North Sea ecosystems. Our aim was to explore for climatic-based explanation for ecological regime shifts that were documented semi-simultaneously in both ecosystems. Certain similarities were identified in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea salinity, oxygen concentration, temperature and phyto- and zooplankton parameters. These findings suggest that BSRR events which originate in the Baltic Sea catchment area modify and contribute to large scale ecosystem changes not only in the Baltic Sea, but also in the adjacent parts of the North Sea. However, the Baltic Sea inter-annual and inter-decadal variabilities of physical and biological parameters are driven by direct atmospheric forcing, typically with a relatively short lag. In contrast, such changes in the North Sea are influenced by both local and direct atmospheric forcing, typically with a longer lag than in the Baltic, and a more regional, indirect forcing from changes in the North Atlantic. We suggest that this interactive system partially is behind large scale ecosystem regime shifts found in both Seas. During our study period two such shifts have been identified independently from us in a study earlier in the Southern and Central Baltic in 1980s and 1990s and a later one in 2001/2002 in the North Sea. As a post hoc test we compared the 0+ year class strength of the North Sea herring with BSRR intensity, and found evidence for higher herring production in high BSRR periods, which further corroborates the idea of a remote effect from the large watershed area of the Baltic. Regime shifts as well as their semi-synchronous appearance in two neighbouring sea areas could be identified. GLIMMIX models provide opportunities for

  8. The acoustics of carved Baltic psaltery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peekna, Andres; Rossing, Thomas

    2001-05-01

    The Baltic psaltery family of plucked string instruments includes the kantele (Finland), the kannel (Estonia), the kokle (Latvia), the kankles (Lithuania), and the wing-shaped gusli (Northwestern Russia). In its archaic, carved form, it has a limited range, 5-13 strings, usually tuned diatonically. By means of electronic TV holography, we studied the modes of vibration of several psalteries based on historic instruments. On the better instruments, the main body resonances are well distributed in frequency so that they support the various strings. Good string-to-soundbox coupling also appears to play a role. A useful method for studying string-to-soundbox coupling involves scanning at intervals as low as 0.1 Hz for narrow peaks within the nominal tuning range of the strings, and comparing them to their neighboring body resonances, while using electronic TV holography. Predictions of the Helmholtz resonance from sound-hole dimensions and air-cavity volume while neglecting damping in the sound holes yield upper limits when many small sound holes are involved. The locations of the sound holes, as well as their area, are found to have significant effects on sound quality and volume.

  9. Temporal trends in dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus).

    PubMed

    Miller, Aroha; Hedman, Jenny E; Nyberg, Elisabeth; Haglund, Peter; Cousins, Ian T; Wiberg, Karin; Bignert, Anders

    2013-08-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (dl-PCBs) concentrations in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus) have been relatively stable since the mid to late 1990s. It is unclear why concentrations in Baltic herring are not following the observed decreases in other environmental matrices. Here, changes in long-term temporal trends in Baltic herring were examined. A number of biological variables were examined alongside the temporal trends to investigate whether fish biology e.g., growth (length, weight, age), lipid content, reproductive phase or fishing date may provide an explanation for the temporal trends observed. Significant (p<0.05) decreasing trends were observed for PCDD/F toxic equivalents (TEQPCDD/F) at three of the four sites (lipid weight (lw) and wet weight (ww), Swedish west coast lw only); however, other TEQ values e.g., TEQPCDD, TEQPCDF, TEQdl-PCB, TEQPCDD/F+dl-PCB were inconsistent, decreasing at some sites but not others. In the most recent 10 years of data, fewer significant decreases were seen overall. Over the examined time period, significant decreases (Bothnian Bay, p<0.01, southern Baltic Proper, p<0.02) and increases (Swedish west coast, p<0.02) in lipid content, growth dilution or lack thereof, and significant changes in age were observed. However herring were not randomly selected which biases this result. Continual efforts to decrease PCDD/F and dl-PCB emissions and to locate/reduce hotspots are necessary, while bearing in mind that herring biology may be impeding faster decreases of these chemicals. PMID:23806670

  10. Holocene environmental changes in the south-western Baltic Sea reflected by the geochemical data and diatoms of the sediment cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostecki, Robert; Janczak-Kostecka, Beata

    2012-12-01

    Marine sediment cores from the Pomeranian Bay and Arkona Basin were analysed in terms of geochemical composition, diatom assemblages and radiocarbon dating, in order to evaluate the characteristics of the Littorina transgression, on the environment of the south Baltic basin. The data show that this transgression had a strong influence on the evolution of the hydrographic system, which has changed substantially from the Ancylus Lake to the Littorina Sea. The beginning of the period of the Littorina Sea was estimated at 7400-8000 cal BP, but culmination of the marine ingression appeared a few hundred years afterwards in the western cores from the Arkona Basin, and almost 2000 years later in the eastern cores from the Pomeranian Bay. In this study we present a new look at the evolution of the Baltic Sea during the Holocene, based on the statistical analysis of relations between geochemical composition and diatom occurrence. Canonical correlation analysis clearly describes Ancylus and Littorina environments. The Ancylus Lake was characterised as a cold lacustrine environment with poor nutrient availability and high mineral matter inflow, probably from adjacent rivers, while the Littorina Sea environment was much warmer, with a high inflow of nutrients that favoured biogenic production.

  11. Paleozoic oil and gas complexes of the Baltic syneclise

    SciTech Connect

    Geodekyan, A.A.; Dubovskoy, I.T.; Kleshchev, K.A.; Mazur, V.B.; Ostrovskiy, M.I.; Sakalavskas, K.A.

    1981-10-01

    Principal directions for exploration of new commercial accumulations of oil and gas in the main Paleozoic prospective complexes in the Baltic syneclise, including its sea portion, have been based on an analysis of the lithologic-facies composition, structural features, attitude of the rocks, and the distribution of the reservoir horizons and possible different types of traps. The promise of the deep parts of the southeastern Baltic Sea region, where a large number of local uplifts have been identified, and traps of nonanticlinal and combined types have been recorded, is emphasized where the principal focus for the generation of oil hydrocarbons inthe Baltic syneclise is located. As compared with the land area, it is suggested that there is an increase in the supply stock and the capacity parameters of the traps and an improvement in the conditions of preservation of petroleum accumulations here.

  12. Oils and hydrocarbon source rocks of the Baltic syneclise

    SciTech Connect

    Kanev, S.; Margulis, L. ); Bojesen-Koefoed, J.A. ); Weil, W.A.; Merta, H. ); Zdanaviciute, O. )

    1994-07-11

    Prolific source rock horizons of varying thickness, having considerable areal extent, occur over the Baltic syneclise. These source sediments are rich and have excellent petroleum generation potential. Their state of thermal maturity varies form immature in the northeastern part of the syneclise to peak generation maturity in the southwestern part of the region-the main kitchen area. These maturity variations are manifest in petroleum composition in the region. Hence, mature oils occur in the Polish and Kaliningrad areas, immature oils in small accumulations in Latvian and central Lithuanian onshore areas, and intermediate oils in areas between these extremes. The oil accumulations probably result from pooling of petroleum generated from a number of different source rocks at varying levels of thermal maturity. Hence, no single source for petroleum occurrences in the Baltic syneclise may be identified. The paper describes the baltic syneclise, source rocks, thermal maturity and oils and extracts.

  13. Projected habitat loss for Atlantic herring in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Illing, Björn; Moyano, Marta; Hufnagl, Marc; Peck, Myron A

    2016-02-01

    Projected, climate-driven changes in rainfall patterns are expected to alter the salinity (S) of estuaries and larger brackish water bodies, such as the Baltic Sea. Some marine fish larvae are potentially more sensitive to low salinity than older stages, hence we compared the low salinity tolerance of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) larvae at the individual and population levels including four populations in the North and Baltic Seas. Acute low salinity tolerance was similar (S = 1.9-2.7) across populations and increased with increasing body size. Based on this physiological threshold and a regionally down-scaled climate model, spawning habitats in the northern and eastern Baltic Sea are projected to be largely unsuitable for herring by 2100. Although adaptive mechanisms may attenuate the effect in some species, the limited physiological tolerance of fish larvae will remain an important bottleneck for the persistence of marine fish populations in brackish waters undergoing climate-driven freshening. PMID:26724744

  14. The Baltic Sea natural long-term variability of salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimanke, Semjon; Markus Meier, H. E.

    2015-04-01

    The Baltic Sea is one of the largest brackish sea areas of the world. The sensitive state of the Baltic Sea is sustained by a fresh-water surplus by river discharge and precipitation on one hand as well as inflows of highly saline and oxygen-rich water masses from the North Sea on the other. Major inflows which are crucial for the renewal of the deep water occur very intermittent with a mean frequency of approximately one per year. Stagnation periods (periods without major inflows) lead for instance to a reduction of oxygen concentration in the deep Baltic Sea spreading hypoxic conditions. Depending on the amount of salt water inflow and fresh-water supply the deep water salinity of the Baltic Sea varies between 11 to 14 PSU on the decadal scale. The goal of this study is to understand the contribution of different driving factors for the decadal to multi-decadal variability of salinity in the Baltic Sea. Continuous measurement series of salinity exist from the 1950 but are not sufficiently long for the investigation of long-term fluctuations. Therefore, a climate simulation of more than 800 years has been carried out with the Rossby Center Ocean model (RCO). RCO is a biogeochemical regional climate model which covers the entire Baltic Sea. It is driven with atmospheric data dynamical downscaled from a GCM mimicking natural climate variability. The analysis focus on the role of variations in river discharge and precipitation, changes in wind speed and direction, fluctuations in temperature and shifts in large scale pressure patterns (e.g. NAO). Hereby, the length of the simulation will allow to identify mechanisms working on decadal to multi-decadal time scales. Moreover, it will be discussed how likely long stagnation periods are under natural climate variability and if the observed exceptional long stagnation period between 1983-1993 might be related to beginning climate change.

  15. Nitrogen surface water retention in the Baltic Sea drainage basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stålnacke, P.; Pengerud, A.; Vassiljev, A.; Smedberg, E.; Mörth, C.-M.; Hägg, H. E.; Humborg, C.; Andersen, H. E.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we estimate the surface water retention of nitrogen (N) in all the 117 drainage basins to the Baltic Sea with the use of a statistical model (MESAW) for source apportionment of riverine loads of pollutants. Our results show that the MESAW model was able to estimate the N load at the river mouth of 88 Baltic Sea rivers, for which we had observed data, with a sufficient degree of precision and accuracy. The estimated retention parameters were also statistically significant. Our results show that around 380 000 t of N are annually retained in surface waters draining to the Baltic Sea. The total annual riverine load from the 117 basins to the Baltic Sea was estimated at 570 000 t of N, giving a total surface water N retention of around 40%. In terms of absolute retention values, three major river basins account for 50% of the total retention in the 117 basins; i.e. around 104 000 t of N are retained in Neva, 55 000 t in Vistula and 32 000 t in Oder. The largest retention was found in river basins with a high percentage of lakes as indicated by a strong relationship between N retention (%) and share of lake area in the river drainage areas. For example in Göta älv, we estimated a total N retention of 72%, whereof 67% of the retention occurred in the lakes of that drainage area (Lake Vänern primarily). The obtained results will hopefully enable the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) to refine the nutrient load targets in the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), as well as to better identify cost-efficient measures to reduce nutrient loadings to the Baltic Sea.

  16. The influence of dissolved organic matter on the acid-base system of the Baltic Sea: A pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulinski, Karol; Schneider, Bernd; Hammer, Karoline; Schulz-Bull, Detlef

    2015-04-01

    To assess the influence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the acid-base system of the Baltic Sea, 19 stations along the salinity gradient from Mecklenburg Bight to the Bothnian Bay were sampled in November 2011 for total alkalinity (AT), total inorganic carbon concentration (CT), partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), and pH. Based on these data, an organic alkalinity contribution (Aorg) was determined, defined as the difference between measured AT and the inorganic alkalinity calculated from CT and pH and/or CT and pCO2. Aorg was in the range of 22-58 µmol kg-1, corresponding to 1.5-3.5% of AT. The method to determine Aorg was validated in an experiment performed on DOM-enriched river water samples collected from the mouths of the Vistula and Oder Rivers in May 2012. The Aorg increase determined in that experiment correlated directly with the increase of DOC concentration caused by enrichment of the >1 kDa DOM fraction. To examine the effect of Aorg on calculations of the marine CO2 system, the pCO2 and pH values measured in Baltic Sea water were compared with calculated values that were based on the measured alkalinity and another variable of the CO2 system, but ignored the existence of Aorg. Large differences between measured and calculated pCO2 and pH were obtained when the computations were based on AT and CT. The calculated pCO2 was 27-56% lower than the measured values whereas the calculated pH was overestimated by more than 0.4 pH units. Since biogeochemical models are based on the transport and transformations of AT and CT, the acid-base properties of DOM should be included in calculations of the CO2 system in DOM-rich basins like the Baltic Sea. In view of our limited knowledge about the composition and acid/base properties of DOM, this is best achieved using a bulk dissociation constant, KDOM, that represents all weakly acidic functional groups present in DOM. Our preliminary results indicated that the bulk KDOM in the Baltic Sea is 2.94•10-8 mol kg-1

  17. Benthic foraminifera cultured over a large salinity gradient: first results and comparison with field data from the Baltic Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeneveld, Jeroen; Filipsson, Helena L.; Austin, William E. N.; Darling, Kate; Quintana Krupinski, Nadine B.

    2015-04-01

    Some of the most significant challenges in paleoclimate research arise from the need to both understand and reduce the uncertainty associated with proxy methods for climate reconstructions. This is especially important for shelf and coastal environments where increasing numbers of high-resolution paleorecords are being generated. These challenges are further highlighted in connection with ECORD/IODP Expedition 347: Baltic Sea Paleoenvironments. This large-scale drilling operation took place in the Baltic Sea region during the autumn of 2013. At this time, there is a pressing need for proxy calibrations directly targeted at the brackish Baltic environment. Within the CONTEMPORARY project we are investigating different temperature and salinity proxy variables through a combination of field- and culture-based benthic foraminiferal samples, together with genetic characterization (genotyping) of the morphospecies. We have completed two field campaigns where we collected (living) foraminifera and water samples at several sites, ranging from fully marine to low salinity conditions. The core-top foraminifera have been analysed for trace metal/Ca, stable oxygen and carbon isotopes, and faunal composition. Living foraminifera collected from the sediment-water interface were cultured in sea water in two long-term experiments at different temperatures (5°C and 10°C) and at three different salinities (15, 25, and 35). The first experiment yielded a large number of reproduced and experimentally-grown Elphidium specimens. The second experiment resulted in growth but no reproduction. We will provide a summary of the experimentally grown material and discuss the challenges of generating new proxy calibrations for foraminiferal shell geochemistry in the Baltic Sea. Furthermore, specimens of Elphidium and Ammonia, found at two sampling sites (Anholt, Kattegat and Hanöbay) with differing salinities, were genotyped and the results indicate that the same genotype of Elphidium is

  18. Echoes from the past: a healthy Baltic Sea requires more effort.

    PubMed

    Kotilainen, Aarno T; Arppe, Laura; Dobosz, Slawomir; Jansen, Eystein; Kabel, Karoline; Karhu, Juha; Kotilainen, Mia M; Kuijpers, Antoon; Lougheed, Bryan C; Meier, H E Markus; Moros, Matthias; Neumann, Thomas; Porsche, Christian; Poulsen, Niels; Rasmussen, Peter; Ribeiro, Sofia; Risebrobakken, Bjørg; Ryabchuk, Daria; Schimanke, Semjon; Snowball, Ian; Spiridonov, Mikhail; Virtasalo, Joonas J; Weckström, Kaarina; Witkowski, Andrzej; Zhamoida, Vladimir

    2014-02-01

    Integrated sediment multiproxy studies and modeling were used to reconstruct past changes in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Results of natural changes over the past 6000 years in the Baltic Sea ecosystem suggest that forecasted climate warming might enhance environmental problems of the Baltic Sea. Integrated modeling and sediment proxy studies reveal increased sea surface temperatures and expanded seafloor anoxia (in deep basins) during earlier natural warm climate phases, such as the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Under future IPCC scenarios of global warming, there is likely no improvement of bottom water conditions in the Baltic Sea. Thus, the measures already designed to produce a healthier Baltic Sea are insufficient in the long term. The interactions between climate change and anthropogenic impacts on the Baltic Sea should be considered in management, implementation of policy strategies in the Baltic Sea environmental issues, and adaptation to future climate change. PMID:24414805

  19. Climate change and the Baltic Sea action plan: Model simulations on the future of the western Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedland, René; Neumann, Thomas; Schernewski, Gerald

    2012-12-01

    In this study we apply the model ERGOM to simulate the consequences of Climate Change as well as the combination of Climate Change with nutrient load reductions according to the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) on the Baltic Sea ecosystem. According to the simulations, Climate Change will cause an increase of the water temperature up to 3 K and a salinity decrease of 1.5 PSU until 2100. However, the implementation of the BSAP will have much stronger effects on the ecosystem. The model suggests that the western Baltic Sea will shift from a nitrogen (N) towards a phosphorus (P) limited system. As a consequence, N-fixation will strongly decrease. The same applies to nutrient-concentrations in winter, denitrification as well as detritus and chlorophyll concentrations in summer. The availability of N in summer, the Secchi depth and the oxygen saturation will increase. Our simulations suggest that the full implementation of the BSAP will cause imbalances in the Baltic Sea over decades before a new system state will be reached. Our results indicate that the Secchi depth alone is not a suitable indicator for the state of eutrophication. Concerning the Water Framework Directive (WFD), Climate Change might alter gradients and concentrations, e.g. of salinity, and in return this might require a re-definition of the WFD typology or a spatial shift of the surface water types, e.g. in Germany. The western Baltic Sea is strongly controlled by regional nutrient loads. Climate Change has only a limited effect on loads in the western Baltic. A re-definition of reference conditions and a good status because of Climate Change seems not necessary.

  20. A New Gravity and Magnetics Map of southern Part of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghani, A.

    2014-12-01

    During the last 20 years many marine cruises were organized by the University of Hamburg in the southern part of the Baltic Sea. On all these cruises the gravity and magnetics data were collected along profiles. The gravity measurements were carried out using the modern Air and Sea Gravimeter KSS 31M. For the magnetics measurements in the first 10 years a Marine Gradiometer of type GEOMETRICS was deployed. In the last 10 years a modern SEYSPY gradiometer of Marine Magnetics was used. All collected data were processed uniformly to be able to produce a new gravity and magnetics map of the research area. The coverage of the data is satisfied for 2-D and 3-D modelling of the crustal structure in the area. Most of the tectonic units of the structures in the Bays of Mecklenburg, Luebeck and Kiel are observed in the new gravity and magnetics maps. The results of 2-D and 3-D modelling for some local and regional areas will be presented and discussed.

  1. Origin of Elblag Upland, northern Poland, and glaciotectonism in the southern Baltic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aber, James S.; Ruszczyńska-Szenajch, Hanna

    1997-07-01

    Elblag Upland is a complex glaciotectonic landform located near Gdansk Bay in northern Poland. We conducted surface, subsurface, and remote-sensing investigations to elaborate the internal structure and morphology of the upland. The upland covers some 390 km 2 and rises more than 150 m. Elbląg Upland consists almost entirely of Pleistocene strata, many of which are strongly deformed, anomalously thick, and situated high above their normal levels. These deformed sediments were derived from source basins located to the northeast and possibly west of the upland. Elbląg Upland was created by North Polish (Vistulian = Weichselian) ice advances, which pushed locally from the northeast and possibly the west. The upland was then overridden by ice coming from the north-northwest. We propose that glaciotectonic deformation occurred as a result of ice-lobe advances — possibly surges — over unconsolidated and unfrozen sediments, in which high pore-water pressures existed in confined aquifers. Surges may have been either local or regional in character, and surging may have taken place repeatedly during Vistulian glaciation. Glaciotectonism played a prominent role in shaping the southern Baltic basin, which represents a geomorphic end-product of multiple Pleistocene glaciations.

  2. Detecting hot-spots of bivalve biomass in the south-western Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darr, Alexander; Gogina, Mayya; Zettler, Michael L.

    2014-06-01

    Bivalves are among the most important taxonomic groups in marine benthic communities in nutrient cycling via benthic-pelagic coupling and as food source for higher trophic levels. Additionally, bivalve species combine several autecological features with potential value for assessment and management purposes. Therefore, the demand for quantitative distribution maps of bivalves is high both in research with focus on functional ecology of marine benthos and in policy. In our study, we modelled and mapped the distribution of biomass of soft- and hard-bottom bivalves in the south-western Baltic Sea using Random Forest algorithms. Models were achieved for ten of the most frequent of overall 29 identified species. The distribution of bivalve biomass was mainly influenced by the abiotic parameters salinity, water depths, sediment characteristics and the amount of detritus as a proxy for food availability. Three hot-spots of bivalve biomass dominated by different species were detected: the oxygen-rich deeper parts of the Kiel Bay dominated by Arctica islandica, the shallow areas close to the mouth of the river Oder dominated by Mya arenaria and the hard-substrates around Rügen Island and the shallow Adlergrund dominated by Mytilus spp. The attained maps provide a good basis for further functional and applied analysis.

  3. Temporal changes of populations and trophic relationships of wintering diving ducks in Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Matthew C.; Wells-Berlin, Alicia M.; Kidwell, David M.; Osenton, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    Population and trophic relationships among diving ducks in Chesapeake Bay are diverse and complex as they include five species of bay ducks (Aythya spp.), nine species of seaducks (Tribe Mergini), and the Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis). Here we considered the relationships between population changes and diet over the past half century to assess the importance of prey changes to wintering waterfowl in the Bay. Food habits of 643 diving ducks collected from Chesapeake Bay during 1999-2006 were determined by analyses of their gullet (esophagus and proventriculus) and gizzard contents and compared to historical data (1885-1979) of 1,541 diving ducks. Aerial waterfowl surveys, in general, suggest that six species of seaducks were more commonly located in the meso- to polyhaline areas of the Bay, whereas five species of bay ducks and Ruddy Ducks were in the oligo- to mesohaline areas. Seaducks fed on a molluscan diet of Hooked Mussel (Ischadium recurvum), Amethyst Gemclam (Gemma gemma), and Dwarf Surfclarn (Mulinia lateralis). Bay ducks and Ruddy Ducks fed more on Baltic Macoma (Macoma balthica), the adventive Atlantic Rangia (Rangia cuneata), and submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Mergansers were found over the widest salinity range in the Bay, probably because of their piscivorous diet. Each diving duck species appears to fill a unique foraging niche, although there is much overlap of selected prey. When current food habits are compared to historic data, only the Canvasback (Aythya valisineria) has had major diet changes, although SAV now accounts for less food volume for all diving duck species, except the Redhead (Aythya americana). Understanding the trophic-habitat relationships of diving ducks in coastal wintering areas will give managers a better understanding of the ecological effects of future environmental changes. Intensive restoration efforts on SAV and oyster beds should greatly benefit diving duck populations.

  4. Organic compounds in the water column of the eastern Baltic

    SciTech Connect

    Nemirovskaya, I.A.; Nesterova, M.P.; Pustel'nikov, O.S.

    1987-11-01

    This article describes the transport, distribution, concentration, chemistry, environmental consequences, and chemical control strategies of organic wastes--including waste hydrocarbons, industrial effluents and oil spills--in the Baltic Sea and in the regions along its shorelines. Data on seasonal and compositional variations in organic waste content are provided.

  5. Breaker zone aerosol dynamics in the southern Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Zielinski, T.; Zielinski, A.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the results of lidar based investigations of aerosol concentrations and their size distributions over the breaker zones. The measurements were carried out under various weather conditions over breaker zones of the Gulf of Gdansk (1992) and from a station on the open Baltic Sea (International Experiment BAEX in 1993).

  6. Hot and Cold Ethnicities in the Baltic States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehala, Martin; Zabrodskaja, Anastassia

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the temperatures of the main ethnic groups in the Baltic states: Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians, and their three Russian-speaking communities, and the Latgalian and Polish minority groups in Latvia and Lithuania, respectively. The study uses a triangulated methodology that includes a survey questionnaire for quantitative…

  7. Bird's nest fungi (Nidulariales: Nidulariaceae) in Baltic and Dominican amber.

    PubMed

    Poinar, George

    2014-03-01

    Nidula baltica sp. nov. and Cyathus dominicanus sp. nov. are described from Cenozoic Baltic and Dominican amber. These are the first fossil members of the Family Nidulariaceae and show that the basic characteristics of this group were already established some 40-50 million years ago. PMID:24607356

  8. The Professionalisation of Adult Educators in the Baltic States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jogi, Larissa; Gross, Marin

    2009-01-01

    Adult education and lifelong learning together form one of the priorities for development in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The important historical and social context in which the professional development of adult educators has been taking place in the Baltic States since they regained their independence in the 1990s is the changes that occurred…

  9. Clustering in Engineering Education in the Baltic Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrens, Andreas; Zascerinska, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    The contemporary situation in the Baltic region, namely, the lack of working places due to the structural problems, a high unemployment rate, the migration of highly qualified people and the low rate of self-employees, demands on innovation as an engine of the economic development with a strong impact on sustainable development in the European…

  10. Lutzow-Holm Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Lutzow-Holm Bay and the Shirase Glacier, Antarctica ... in the lower right-hand corner of these images, are the primary drainage systems for the Antarctic ice sheet. These two views ...

  11. Past Occurrences of Hypoxia in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zillen, L.; Conley, D. J.; Bjorck, S.

    2007-12-01

    The hypoxic zone in the Baltic Sea has increased in area by about four times since 1950. Widespread oxygen deficiency below the halocline has severely reduced macro benthic communities in the Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland over the past decades and negatively effected food chain dynamics, fish habitats and fisheries in the entire Baltic Sea. In addition, hypoxia alters nutrient biogeochemical cycles. The cause of the increased hypoxia is believed to be enhanced eutrophication through increased anthropogenic input of nutrients, such as phosphorous and nitrogen. Conditions prior to the 1950s are considered as the benchmark and some authors suggest that the earlier Baltic Sea was an oligothrophic, clear-water body with oxygenated deep waters. By contrast, studies of short sediment cores reveal that hypoxia has been present in some of the deepest basins for at least the last 100-200 years. In addition, long sediment cores suggest that hypoxia in the Baltic Sea has occurred intermittently in deep basins over the last c. 8500 years. Thus, the occurrence of present day hypoxia in the deeper basins need not necessarily be attributed to human activity but rather to natural oceanographic, geologic and climate conditions. We present a compilation of previous publications that reported the occurrence of laminated sediments (i.e. a palaeo-proxy for hypoxia) in the Baltic Sea. This review shows that the deeper parts of the Baltic Sea have experienced either intermittent or more regular hypoxia during most of the Holocene and that more continuous laminations started to form c. 7800-8500 cal. yr BP ago, in association with the establishment of a permanent halocline during the transition from the Ancylus Lake to the Littorina Sea. Laminated sediments were more common during the early and late Holocene and coincided with intervals of high organic productivity (high TOC content) and high salinity during the Holocene Thermal Maximum and the Medieval Climate Optimum. This study

  12. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrén, T.; Barker Jørgensen, B.; Cotterill, C.; Green, S.; IODP expedition 347 scientific party, the

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 347 cored sediments from different settings of the Baltic Sea covering the last glacial-interglacial cycle. The main aim was to study the geological development of the Baltic Sea in relation to the extreme climate variability of the region with changing ice cover and major shifts in temperature, salinity, and biological communities. Using the Greatship Manisha as a European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) mission-specific platform, we recovered 1.6 km of core from nine sites of which four were additionally cored for microbiology. The sites covered the gateway to the North Sea and Atlantic Ocean, several sub-basins in the southern Baltic Sea, a deep basin in the central Baltic Sea, and a river estuary in the north. The waxing and waning of the Scandinavian ice sheet has profoundly affected the Baltic Sea sediments. During the Weichselian, progressing glaciers reshaped the submarine landscape and displaced sedimentary deposits from earlier Quaternary time. As the glaciers retreated they left a complex pattern of till, sand, and lacustrine clay, which in the basins has since been covered by a thick deposit of Holocene, organic-rich clay. Due to the stratified water column of the brackish Baltic Sea and the recurrent and widespread anoxia, the deeper basins harbor laminated sediments that provide a unique opportunity for high-resolution chronological studies. The Baltic Sea is a eutrophic intra-continental sea that is strongly impacted by terrestrial runoff and nutrient fluxes. The Holocene deposits are recorded today to be up to 50 m deep and geochemically affected by diagenetic alterations driven by organic matter degradation. Many of the cored sequences were highly supersaturated with respect to methane, which caused strong degassing upon core recovery. The depth distributions of conservative sea water ions still reflected the transition at the end of the last glaciation from fresh-water clays to

  13. Postglacial paleoceanographic environments in the Barents and Baltic seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, E. V.; Murdmaa, I. O.; Emelyanov, E. M.; Seitkalieva, E. A.; Radionova, E. P.; Alekhina, G. N.; Sloistov, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents reconstructions of ice sheet boundaries, lacustrine and marine paleobasins, as well as the connections of the Barents and Baltic seas with the North Atlantic from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Holocene. The reconstructions are based on original and published data obtained from the northern and western parts of the Barents Sea and Baltic depressions with account for the available regional schematic maps of deglaciation. The early deglaciation of the Scandinavian-Barents ice sheet culminated with the Bølling-Allerød interstadial (14.5-12.9 cal ka BP), which was characterized by a more vigorous Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and a corresponding increase in surface Atlantic water inflow into the Barents Sea through deep troughs. The Baltic Ice Lake (BIL) remained a dammed-up isolated basin during deglaciation from 16.0 to 11.7 cal ka BP. In the Younger Dryas (YD), the lake drained into the North Sea and was replaced by a brackish Yoldia Sea (YS) at the beginning of the Holocene (Preboreal, 11.7-10.7 cal ka BP), due to a limited connection between two basins through the Närke Strait. In the Barents Sea, the next increase in the Atlantic water influx into the deep basins corresponded to terminal YD and Preboreal events with a culmination in the Early Holocene. The Yoldia Sea became a lake again during the next stage, the Ancylus (~10.7-8.8 cal ka BP). Atlantic water inflow both into the Barents and Baltic seas varied during the Holocene, with a maximum contribution in the Early Holocene, when the Littorina Sea (LS, 8-4 cal ka BP) connection with the North Sea via the Danish Straits was formed to replace the Ancylus Lake. The recent, post-Littorina stage (PS, the last 4 cal ka) of the Baltic Sea evolution began in the Late Holocene.

  14. Methane fluxes and their controlling processes in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehder, G. J.; Fossing, H.; Lapham, L.; Endler, R.; Spiess, V.; Bruchert, V.; Nguyen, T.; Gülzow, W.; Schneider von Deimling, J.; Conley, D. J.; Jorgensen, B.

    2010-12-01

    The Baltic Sea is an ideal natural laboratory to study the methane cycle in the framework of diagenetic processes. With its brackish character and a gradient from nearly marine to almost limnic conditions, a strong permanent haline stratification leading to large vertical redox gradients in the water column, and a sedimentation history which resulted in the deposition of organic-rich young post-glacial sediments over older glacial and post-glacial strata with very low organic content, the Baltic allows to study the role of a variety of key parameters for early diagenetic processes including the methane cycle. Within the BONUS + Project “Baltic Gas”, a 3.5 week scientific expedition of RV Maria S. Merian in August 2010 was dedicated to study the methane cycle in the various basins of the Baltic Sea, with strong emphasis on the metabolic reactions of early diagenesis and the occurrence of shallow gas deposits. Various subbottom profiling systems were used to map the thickness and structure of organic-rich deposits and build the base for a detailed coring program for biogeochemical analysis, including methane, sulfur compounds, iron, and other compounds. Methane gradients in connection with the information of the areal extend of organic-rich deposits are used to estimate the diffusive flux from the sediments into the water column and the rate of methane oxidation, with changing importance of sulfate as oxidant along the salinity gradient. On selected key stations, rate measurements of methanogenic and methanotrophic reactions were executed. The methane distribution in the water column was comprehensively assessed, revealing amongst other findings a drastic increase in bottom water methane concentration between the post bloom summer situation and the situation in the winter of 2009, in connection to the occurrence of a benthic nepheloid layer. Air-sea flux measurements were executed along the ship’s track comprising all major basins of the Baltic. The talk gives

  15. An international scope of the regional journal Baltic Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartasiute, Stanislava

    2015-08-01

    The internationalization of publishing has been progressing in most fields of science, including astronomy and physics in particular. Along with high quality journals having a completely international readership, national and regional journals represent a significant part in number, whereas their average impact is very diverse and not always competitive. Based mainly on the Web of Science data, we will give a comparative analysis of astronomy journals published in/for countries with relatively small astronomical communities, such as Baltic and some Eastern European. Bibliometric statistics will be presented of one of such journals, Baltic Astronomy, established in 1992 as a result of cooperation between astronomers of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia. Since the first years of publishing this journal has been evolving from regional to the more internationalized status. The list of countries of contributing authors has expanded to 54, while only 19% of the articles are from the three Baltic countries, mainly from Lithuania (14%) and, to a much lesser extent, from Estonia (3%) and Latvia (2%). Recognizing the inadequacies of national and regional bases for dissemination and exchange of scientific information, the Baltic astronomical communities themselves move, however, towards internationalization: in international journals Latvia publishes twice and Estonia nearly ten times more articles than they do in Baltic Astronomy. Meanwhile Lithuanian astronomers publish nearly the same number of articles both outside and inside the region. In the light of progress being made toward consolidation of scholarly publications, a choice between a national/regional and international basis for publishing is becoming more decisive for the future of national and regional astronomy journals.

  16. Spectral quantification of Southern Baltic seabed roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szefler, K.; Tegowski, J.; Nowak, J.

    2012-12-01

    The work presents the fast and efficient tool for seafloor classification, where scales and shapes of geomorphological forms were taken into account. The precise bathymetry and seafloor texture was developed with multibeam echosounder at six different areas of size up to 10 by 20 km. This areas demonstrate typical geomorphological seafloor features of bottom relief at the southern Baltic Sea coastal waters. The acoustical measurements were accompanied by geological sampling and video inspection. High resolution mosaic maps were obtained as a result of multi-survey measurements with maximal spatial resolution of 0.05m. Such accuracy of the measurements allows to observe small geomorphologic forms as ripplemarks or pebbles. The most investigated polygons have bottom relief of polygenetic origin with relicts of periglacial forms together with contemporary forms of marine origin. In the studied areas different forms of sand accumulation were found, beginning with small ripplemarks ending at big sandy waves. In the seabed erosion zones the bottom surface is rough and varied with clearly formed embankments, abrasive platforms, inselbergs and stony gravely abrasive pavements on the bottom surface. Such geomorphic diversity of the bottom surface has allowed for development of consistent geomorphological classification system based mainly on spectral properties of seafloor roughness. Each analysed area was divided into squares (200 by 200 m) with an overlap between adjacent subareas of 75% a square size. Next, subdivided areas were spectrally transformed using a two dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D FFT). The spectral parameters as maximal value of spectral density function, spectral exponent and strength, spectral moments, mean frequency, spectral width and skewness for each characteristic type of bottom surface were determined relaying on the calculated 2D spectra. Moreover, other features characterised the corrugated surface as fractal dimension, radius of

  17. Distribution and relationships of trace metals in soft tissue, byssus and shells of Mytilus edulis trossulus from the southern Baltic.

    PubMed

    Szefe, P; Frelek, K; Szefer, K; Lee, Ch B; Kim, B S; Warzocha, J; Zdrojewska, I; Ciesielski, T

    2002-01-01

    Concentrations of Hg, Cd, Pb, Ag, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Co, Mn, and Fe in soft tissues, shells and byssus of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis trossulus) from 23 sites along the Polish coast of the Baltic Sea were determined by AAS method. Byssus, as compared with the soft tissue, concentrated more effectively Pb, Cu, Cr, and especially Ag, Ni, Mn and Fe, moderately Hg and Zn and less effectively Cd. Significant inter-regional and inter-size differences in metal concentrations in both soft tissues and byssus were recorded. Highly significant correlations (P<0.01, P<0.05) were observed between tissue and byssal concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni and Ag. Factor analysis showed clear separation of both the tissue and byssi samples based on their geographic distribution, possibly reflecting a different rate of deposition of clay minerals at the head of the Pomeranian Bay and the Gulf of Gdańsk. The Pomeranian Bay differs from the Gulf of Gdańsk in respect to geological structure of bottom sediments as a substrata for the M. edulis trossulus as well as in relation to various sources of metallic pollutants. From the data obtained in the present study and those reported previously the soft tissue and especially byssus of M. edulis, in contrast to shells, appear to be a significantly better bioindicator for identification of coastal areas exposed to metallic contaminants. PMID:12395857

  18. 33 CFR 167.102 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

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  19. 33 CFR 167.102 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

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  20. 33 CFR 167.103 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. 167.103 Section 167.103 Navigation and Navigable... the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. (a) A...

  1. 33 CFR 167.102 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

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  2. 33 CFR 167.103 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. 167.103 Section 167.103 Navigation and Navigable... the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. (a) A...

  3. 33 CFR 167.102 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

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  4. 33 CFR 167.103 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. 167.103 Section 167.103 Navigation and Navigable... the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. (a) A...

  5. 33 CFR 167.103 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. 167.103 Section 167.103 Navigation and Navigable... the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. (a) A...

  6. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  7. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  8. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  9. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  10. Pockmarks of the eastern Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) - geology, morphology and genesis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhamoida, Vladimir; Grigoriev, Andrey; Ryabchuk, Darya; Amantov, Alexey; Pimenov, Nikolay; Kropachev, Yury; Neevin, Igor; Sergeev, Alexandr; Kanapatsky, Timur

    2014-05-01

    Geological and acoustic survey carried out during last decade in the eastern Gulf of Finland allowed discovering widespread occurrence of pockmarks. It was found that pockmarks, located within the areas of Holocene silty-clayey sedimentation in the central part of the gulf are formed by gas-seepage because of active transformation of organic matter by microbiological processes. The pockmarks of other type were found in Kopora and Vyborg bays within the areas where the Holocene mud thickness does not exceeds 20-40 cm, that exclude the possibility of pockmarks formation as a result of recent biogenic gas-seepage. The sediments, outcropping here are represented mainly by clays of the Baltic Ice Lake covered by thin layer of unsorted silty sand. These clays are usually characterized by absence or very low content of organic matter. However in some samples of glacial-lacustrine clays collected within pockmarks rings the methane content risen sharply reaching 10840 mkl/dm3 that supposed gas methane inflow from underlying sediment horizons. Seismic profiling revealed a number of reflecting boundaries, the character of which suggests that they are possibly associated with gas accumulations in the geological section. Side-scan sonar and multibeam profiling undertaken by VSEGEI in 2012-2013 allowed finding within relatively small area in the Kopora Bay more than 150 pockmarks of different size. The average pockmark's diameter is in the range of 10-20 m, relative depth can achieves 1 m. Morphology of pockmarks indicates the different age (relict, not active, active) and pulsating character of the fluid emission. Hydrochemical analysis of bottom waters in the area of pockmarks occurrence showed significant variations in the concentrations of some major elements. Concentrations of Ca, Mg, K and Na in the bottom waters sampled at the various sites within the pockmarks field differ sometimes more than twice and essentially higher than their background values for the surrounding

  11. Results of the neotectonic stress state study in the eastern part of Baltic shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Lidiya A.; Zhirov, Dmitriy V.; Smaglichenko, Tatyana A.; Smaglichenko, Alexandr V.

    2010-05-01

    Recently a caving of the Kovdor quarry south-eastern bort occurred on the Kovdor massif (the eastern part of Baltic shield). This required a careful analyze of the stress field in the massif and a comparison of it with general situation in a region. In spite of weak seismicity at whole on the given territory it is characterized by the presence of earthquakes with M = 4 - 4.4 especially in zones of mining works (for example, events of 16.04.1989 and 17.08.1999 at the Khibiny-Lovoserskyi district). The risk zone is increased as for large industrial facilities AES located there as for big quarries extracting minerals. Kinematic method developed by Gushenko in 1973, 1979 has been applied in order to get the stress fields. The field works were performed during summer of 2009. According to this method vectors of tectonic movements along in fissures have been analyzed and local stress states have been reconstructed demonstrating significant range in orientation of axis of main normal stresses. These local stress states were conventionally correspond to the third rank and by using this information tectonic stresses of the second rank have been reconstructed. In the caving zone the local stress state can be characterized as uniaxial tension that could bring the caving. Previous investigations of the eastern part of Baltic shield were made for peninsulas Sredniy, Ryibachiy, for the White sea islands, at coast of the Kandalakschsky Bay, on the Chibino massif. Tectonic stresses of the first rank were revealed and were characterized as subhorizontal axis of compression and of tension. The compressional axis has the WNW orientation while and the extension axis is submeridional. Our research showed that the compression axis on the Kovdor massif has orientation 98° , angle is equal 15. This is in agreement with the previous results. The reconstructed stress field at whole well corresponds to the major faults Onego-Segozerskiy and Kandalakscha, which are seismic active zones. The

  12. Evidence of chromosomal damage in common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Matson, Cole W; Franson, J Christian; Hollmén, Tuula; Kilpi, Mikael; Hario, Martti; Flint, Paul L; Bickham, John W

    2004-12-01

    Common eiders nesting in the Baltic Sea are exposed to generally high levels of contaminants including potentially genotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorines. Blood samples were collected from eiders at eight sites in the Baltic Sea and two sites in the Beaufort Sea. DNA content variation was estimated using the flow cytometric method, and subsequently utilized as a biomarker of genetic damage. We observed no significant differences in genetic damage among populations within either the Baltic or Beaufort Seas. However, eider populations from the Baltic Sea had significantly elevated estimates of genetic damage compared to populations from the Beaufort Sea. PMID:15556194

  13. Evidence of chromosomal damage in common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from the Baltic Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matson, C.W.; Franson, J.C.; Hollmén, Tuula E.; Kilpi, Mikael; Hario, Martti; Flint, P.L.; Bickham, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Common eiders nesting in the Baltic Sea are exposed to generally high levels of contaminants including potentially genotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorines. Blood samples were collected from eiders at eight sites in the Baltic Sea and two sites in the Beaufort Sea. DNA content variation was estimated using the flow cytometric method, and subsequently utilized as a biomarker of genetic damage. We observed no significant differences in genetic damage among populations within either the Baltic or Beaufort Seas. However, eider populations from the Baltic Sea had significantly elevated estimates of genetic damage compared to populations from the Beaufort Sea.

  14. Anthropogenic and naturally produced brominated substances in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) from two sites in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin; Bignert, Anders; Legradi, Jessica; Legler, Juliette; Asplund, Lillemor

    2016-02-01

    In the eutrophicated Baltic Sea, several naturally produced hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) have been found in marine biota. OH-PBDEs are toxic to adult and developing zebrafish and shown to be potent disruptors of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Disturbed OXPHOS can result in altered energy metabolism and weight loss. In herring, the concentration of OH-PBDEs (i.e. 2'-OH-BDE68 and 6-OH-BDE47) has increased during the period 1980-2010 in the Baltic Proper. Over the same time period, the condition and fat content in Baltic herring have decreased. Given the toxicity and increasing trends of OH-PBDEs in Baltic herring it is important to further assess the exposure to OH-PBDEs in Baltic herring. In this study, the concentrations of OH-PBDEs and related brominated substances i.e. polybrominated phenols (PBPs), polybrominated anisoles (PBAs), methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in herring sampled in the northern Baltic Proper (Askö, n = 12) and the southern Bothnian Sea (Ängskärsklubb, n = 12). The geometric mean (GM) concentrations (ng/g l.w.) at Askö and Ängskärsklubb were; Σ2PBPs: 4.3 and 9.6, Σ(2)PBAs: 34 and 20, Σ(6)OH-PBDEs: 9.4 and 10, Σ(7)MeO-PBDEs: 42 and 150, Σ(6)PBDEs: 54 and 27, respectively. 6-OH-BDE47 dominated the OH-PBDE profile and comprised 87% (Askö) and 91% (Ängskärsklubb) of the ΣOH-PBDEs. At Ängskärsklubb the mean concentration of ΣMeO-PBDEs (150 ng/g l.w.) was 15 times higher than ΣOH-PBDEs. As other fish species are known to metabolically transform MeO-PBDEs to OH-PBDEs, high levels of MeO-PBDEs can be of concern as a precursor for more toxic OH-PBDEs in herring and their roe. PMID:26613358

  15. A new proposal concerning the botanical origin of Baltic amber

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Alexander P.; Tappert, Ralf; Muehlenbachs, Karlis; Boudreau, Marc; McKellar, Ryan C.; Basinger, James F.; Garrett, Amber

    2009-01-01

    Baltic amber constitutes the largest known deposit of fossil plant resin and the richest repository of fossil insects of any age. Despite a remarkable legacy of archaeological, geochemical and palaeobiological investigation, the botanical origin of this exceptional resource remains controversial. Here, we use taxonomically explicit applications of solid-state Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy, coupled with multivariate clustering and palaeobotanical observations, to propose that conifers of the family Sciadopityaceae, closely allied to the sole extant representative, Sciadopitys verticillata, were involved in the genesis of Baltic amber. The fidelity of FTIR-based chemotaxonomic inferences is upheld by modern–fossil comparisons of resins from additional conifer families and genera (Cupressaceae: Metasequoia; Pinaceae: Pinus and Pseudolarix). Our conclusions challenge hypotheses advocating members of either of the families Araucariaceae or Pinaceae as the primary amber-producing trees and correlate favourably with the progressive demise of subtropical forest biomes from northern Europe as palaeotemperatures cooled following the Eocene climate optimum. PMID:19570786

  16. Investigating the Structural Evolution of the Western Baltic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübscher, C.; Lykke-Anderson, H.; Hansen, M. Bak; Reicherter, K.

    2004-03-01

    The western Baltic Sea, located along the northern margin of the Central European Basin System (CEBS), is a world-class site for investigating the dynamics and stratigraphic evolution of a continental basin with marine geophysical data acquisition techniques. The universities of Aarhus and Hamburg have joined forces to investigate the post-Permian-to-recent structural evolution of the western Baltic, with special emphasis on neotectonic re-activation along major structural lineaments. Deep crustal structures of the CEBS are well established from previous studies. However, no systematic and localized research has yet been carried out to investigate the neotectonic activity in this region. In fact, the limited seismic resolution of previously available data prevented detailed research on Mesozoic and Cenozoic evolution or neotectonics.

  17. Projected future climate change and Baltic Sea ecosystem management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Agneta

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is likely to have large effects on the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Simulations indicate 2-4oC warming and 50-80% decreasing ice cover by 2100. Precipitation may increase ~30% in the north, causing increased land runoff of allochthonous organic matter (AOM) and organic pollutants. Salinity will decrease by about 2 units. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models indicate that in the south, bottom-water anoxia may spread, reducing cod recruitment and increasing sediment phosphorus release, promoting cyanobacterial blooms. In the north, heterotrophic bacteria will be favoured by AOM while phytoplankton may become hampered. More trophic levels in the food web will increase energy losses and consequently reduce fish production. Future management of the Baltic Sea must consider effects of climate change on the ecosystem dynamics and functions, as well as effects of anthrophogenic nutrient and pollutant load. Monitoring should have a holistic approach and encompass both autotrophic (phytoplankton) and heterotrophic (e.g. bacterial) processes.

  18. Mobile Bay turbidity study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozier, G. F.; Schroeder, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    The termination of studies carried on for almost three years in the Mobile Bay area and adjacent continental shelf are reported. The initial results concentrating on the shelf and lower bay were presented in the interim report. The continued scope of work was designed to attempt a refinement of the mathematical model, assess the effectiveness of optical measurement of suspended particulate material and disseminate the acquired information. The optical characteristics of particulate solutions are affected by density gradients within the medium, density of the suspended particles, particle size, particle shape, particle quality, albedo, and the angle of refracted light. Several of these are discussed in detail.

  19. Characterisation of juvenile flatfish habitats in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florin, Ann-Britt; Sundblad, Göran; Bergström, Ulf

    2009-04-01

    Survival and growth of the earliest life-stages is considered a key factor in determining the abundance of many marine fish species. For flatfishes, the availability of high quality nursery areas is essential for successful recruitment. Regarding the Baltic Sea, there are large gaps in knowledge on factors that influence the distribution of flatfishes during this sensitive stage. To identify the characteristics of important nursery areas in the Baltic for flounder ( Platichthys flesus) and turbot ( Psetta maxima), a field survey with push net sampling was conducted in the northern Baltic proper during autumn 2006. The sampling stations were stratified to cover several different habitat types defined by substrate and wave exposure. Apart from density of young-of-the-year (YOY) flatfishes, a number of ecological characteristics of the habitat were recorded. Physical habitat variables included substrate type, salinity, depth, turbidity, vegetation and habitat structure. Variables describing biotic processes, such as prey availability and abundance of competitors, were also sampled. The relationships between the spatial distribution of species and these ecological characteristics were fitted to presence/absence data of juvenile flatfish using generalized additive models (GAM). The best habitat descriptors for flounder in order of contribution were: substrate, habitat structure, salinity, wave exposure and occurrence of filamentous algae. Positive effects of increasing wave exposure, salinity and structure were detected while a high cover of filamentous algae had a negative effect. Sand and gravel were preferred over soft and stony substrates. For turbot the best habitat descriptors in order of contribution were: occurrence of filamentous algae, substrate and turbidity. Turbot showed a preference for areas with a low cover of filamentous algae, high turbidity and sandy substrate. Prey availability and abundance of competitors were not included in the models, indicating

  20. Access to distributed marine databases on the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, A.; Axe, P.; Bock, S.; Kaitala, S.; Manscher, O. H.; Rodriguez-Medina, M.; Olsonen, R.; Priha, I.; Tikka, K.

    2012-04-01

    Baltic Nest Institute, Stockholm University (Sweden) in cooperation with Department of Bioscience/DCE, National Centre for Environment and Energy, Aarhus University (Denmark), Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research (Germany), Finnish Environment Institute, Finnish Meteorological Institute and Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute developed a data assessment system, aimed at providing tools for online analysis of marine environmental data (temperature, salinity, chemical properties) from distributed collection of databases on the Baltic Sea. Such approach allows users to have fast access to the most recent data from all major data providers and providers remain in control of their data. The system contains a web data portal, which provides concurrent access to distributed marine databases and presents information in a unified way. Two client programs use the data portal and provide tools to analyse the data. The DAS - Data Assimilation System (http://nest.su.se/das/) accesses databases through the data portal and allow analysing the raw data and creating gridded data, which can be used as initial fields for 3D hydrodynamic models. A decision support system Nest (http://nest.su.se/nest/) developed and maintained at the Stockholm University as a tool to support decision-making at international negotiations regarding the Baltic Sea environment also uses the data portal to access marine data, provide access to the raw data and perform time-series analysis. The data portal designed to output data in a common format (CSV) for further post-processing using other software. It makes the system open to develop another client programs for data analysis.

  1. Bottom sediment resuspension in the easternmost Gulf of Finland in the Baltic Sea: A case study based on three-dimensional modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martyanov, Stanislav; Ryabchenko, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    A three-dimensional model of the Neva Bay, located in the eastern part of the Baltic Sea, was used to simulate the bottom sediment resuspension. The model takes into account the non-linear interaction of current-related and wave-related bed shear stress, sediment cohesion and packing effects, variable fall velocity of suspended particles due to hindered settling and flocculation, and also the influence of suspended particles upon the total stratification of the water column. Three main types of sediments in the Neva Bay were considered: gravel, sand and silt. The model SWAN was used to calculate the characteristics of wind waves. Satellite data was used to calibrate and validate the model. The present study has revealed that for the Neva Bay it is necessary to consider both current-related and wave-related bed shear stresses and spatial distribution of sediments, and also that taking into account the influence of suspended particles upon the total stratification in the Neva Bay leads to the damping of vertical turbulent mixing. The results have demonstrated that the model correctly simulates the patterns of high-turbidity events in the Neva Bay. Model runs for ice-free periods of 2004, 2008 and 2013 years have shown that significant sediment resuspension happened along the whole coastline from the town of Sestroretsk to the estuary of the Neva River and at the river sand bars during strong west and south-west winds. Sediment resuspension occurred most intensively during autumn months, with the peak of intensity being observed in November.

  2. Ensemble-based evaluation of extreme water levels for the eastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eelsalu, Maris; Soomere, Tarmo

    2016-04-01

    The risks and damages associated with coastal flooding that are naturally associated with an increase in the magnitude of extreme storm surges are one of the largest concerns of countries with extensive low-lying nearshore areas. The relevant risks are even more contrast for semi-enclosed water bodies such as the Baltic Sea where subtidal (weekly-scale) variations in the water volume of the sea substantially contribute to the water level and lead to large spreading of projections of future extreme water levels. We explore the options for using large ensembles of projections to more reliably evaluate return periods of extreme water levels. Single projections of the ensemble are constructed by means of fitting several sets of block maxima with various extreme value distributions. The ensemble is based on two simulated data sets produced in the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. A hindcast by the Rossby Centre Ocean model is sampled with a resolution of 6 h and a similar hindcast by the circulation model NEMO with a resolution of 1 h. As the annual maxima of water levels in the Baltic Sea are not always uncorrelated, we employ maxima for calendar years and for stormy seasons. As the shape parameter of the Generalised Extreme Value distribution changes its sign and substantially varies in magnitude along the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea, the use of a single distribution for the entire coast is inappropriate. The ensemble involves projections based on the Generalised Extreme Value, Gumbel and Weibull distributions. The parameters of these distributions are evaluated using three different ways: maximum likelihood method and method of moments based on both biased and unbiased estimates. The total number of projections in the ensemble is 40. As some of the resulting estimates contain limited additional information, the members of pairs of projections that are highly correlated are assigned weights 0.6. A comparison of the ensemble-based projection of

  3. Changes in extreme sea levels in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieterich, Christian; Gröger, Matthias; Andersson, Helén; Nerheim, Signild; Jönsson, Anette

    2016-04-01

    A newly developed shallow water model for the Baltic Sea and North Sea is presented. The model is validated by means of a comparison with hindcast simulations with observational data sets. The aim of the development is to provide and apply a modelling tool to model extreme sea levels in the Baltic Sea, Kattegat and Skagerrak. The model approach will support the direct analysis of extreme sea level observations in the past and provide the possibility to extend the statistical data base by producing very long time series or very large ensembles of coastal sea levels. This effort is intended to contribute to an assessment of risks due to storm surges and coastal flooding in the 21st century along the coast of Sweden. By using different RCP climate scenarios downscaled with a regional, coupled climate model atmospheric forcing is available to project possible changes in extreme sea levels into the future. Projected sea level rise, changes in dynamical sea level in the North East Atlantic and tidal forcing in the northern North Sea are applied as boundary condition which allows to investigate their impact on the dynamics of regional sea level variability. Initial experiments focus on the impact of model resolution, resolution in the atmospheric forcing and the amount of details necessary in the bathymetry to faithfully model coastal sea level in the Baltic Sea and North Sea.

  4. A new radiation model for Baltic Sea ecosystem modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Thomas; Siegel, Herbert; Gerth, Monika

    2015-12-01

    Photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) is one of the key requirements for primary production in the ocean. The ambient PAR is determined by incoming solar radiation and optical properties of sea water and the optically active water constituents along the radiation pathway. Especially in coastal waters, the optical properties are affected by terrigenous constituents like yellow substances as well as high primary production. Numerical models for marine ecosystems account for the optical attenuation process in different ways and details. For the consideration of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and shading effects of phytoplankton particles, we propose a dynamic parametrization for the Baltic Sea. Furthermore, products from biological turnover processes are implemented. Besides PAR and its attenuation coefficient, the model calculates the Secchi disk depth, a simple measurable parameter describing the transparency of the water column and a water quality parameter in the European Water Framework Directive. The components of the proposed optical model are partly implemented from other publications respectively derived from our own measurements for the area of investigation. The model allows a better representation of PAR with a more realistic spatial and temporal variability compared to former parametrizations. The effect is that regional changes of primary production, especially in the northern part of the Baltic Sea, show reduced productivity due to higher CDOM concentrations. The model estimates for Secchi disk depth are much more realistic now. In the northern Baltic Sea, simulated oxygen concentrations in deep water have improved considerably.

  5. Deoxygenation of the Baltic Sea during the last century

    PubMed Central

    Carstensen, Jacob; Andersen, Jesper H.; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Conley, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Deoxygenation is a global problem in coastal and open regions of the ocean, and has led to expanding areas of oxygen minimum zones and coastal hypoxia. The recent expansion of hypoxia in coastal ecosystems has been primarily attributed to global warming and enhanced nutrient input from land and atmosphere. The largest anthropogenically induced hypoxic area in the world is the Baltic Sea, where the relative importance of physical forcing versus eutrophication is still debated. We have analyzed water column oxygen and salinity profiles to reconstruct oxygen and stratification conditions over the last 115 y and compare the influence of both climate and anthropogenic forcing on hypoxia. We report a 10-fold increase of hypoxia in the Baltic Sea and show that this is primarily linked to increased inputs of nutrients from land, although increased respiration from higher temperatures during the last two decades has contributed to worsening oxygen conditions. Although shifts in climate and physical circulation are important factors modulating the extent of hypoxia, further nutrient reductions in the Baltic Sea will be necessary to reduce the ecosystems impacts of deoxygenation. PMID:24706804

  6. Regional Ocean Colour Remote Sensing Algorithm for the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hieronymi, Martin; Muller, Dagmar; Krasemann, Hajo; Schonfeld, Wolfgang; Rottgers, Rudiger; Doerffer, Roland

    2015-12-01

    The Baltic Sea is a challenging study site from an optically point of view. Its partly highly absorbing waters are mainly associated with the presence of coloured dissolved organic matter and often accompanied by non-algae absorbing particles. In addition, the Baltic Sea area is characterised by massive annual surface blooms of cyanobacteria. In Europe, the Baltic Sea is a very specific and important case study with intense user interest. In the framework of different research projects as the “Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative”, the “SEOM OC Extreme Case 2 Waters”, and partly “MyOcean”, we aim to develop an optimised, error-characterised, regional ocean colour processor applicable to several satellite sensors, like MODIS, MERIS, VIIRS, and OLCI. The procedure, which is used to determine inherent optical properties and different water constituents’ concentrations from remote sensing reflectance, is an artificial Neural Network (NN). We provide first results of comparisons of in-situ data with different ocean colour products.

  7. Genetic structure of whitefish (Coregonus maraena) in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, Jens; Florin, Ann-Britt; Mo, Kerstin; Aho, Teija; Ryman, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Stocks of whitefish ( Coregonus maraena) in the northern part of the Baltic Sea have in many areas declined drastically during recent years. Causes for the decline are yet not fully understood, but knowledge on the genetic population structure of the species is pivotal for future conservation measures. In this study we analyse the genetic variation at seven microsatellite loci for whitefish from 18 different sites along the Swedish coast of the Baltic Sea. We found a strong dependence of isolation by distance ( R = 0.73), and a week but rather fine scaled genetic structure. In addition, there were differences between more northern and southern sites in the population genetic structure, where the degree of differentiation appears to be stronger in the north compared to the south. The results suggest that whitefish is a species suitable for local management with a regional context of the management strategy. In addition, the findings corroborate what is previously known for other coastal fish species in the Baltic Sea, such as perch and pike, suggesting that the majority of gene flow occurs between adjacent areas. Finally, our results highlight the potential for genetic subdivision even when the dependence of isolation by distance is strong.

  8. Mass Balance of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A mass balance was assembled for perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in the Baltic Sea. Inputs (from riverine discharge, atmospheric deposition, coastal wastewater discharges, and the North Sea) and outputs (to sediment burial, transformation of the chemical, and the North Sea), as well as the inventory in the Baltic Sea, were estimated from recently published monitoring data. Formation of the chemicals in the water column from precursors was not considered. River inflow and atmospheric deposition were the dominant inputs, while wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents made a minor contribution (<5%). A mass balance of the Oder River watershed was assembled to explore the sources of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the river inflow. It indicated that WWTP effluents made only a moderate contribution to riverine discharge (21% for PFOA, 6% for PFOS), while atmospheric deposition to the watershed was 1–2 orders of magnitude greater than WWTP discharges. The input to the Baltic Sea exceeded the output for all four PFAAs, suggesting that inputs were higher during 2005–2010 than during the previous 20 years despite efforts to reduce emissions of PFAAs. One possible explanation is the retention and delayed release of PFAAs from atmospheric deposition in the soils and groundwater of the watershed. PMID:23528236

  9. On the causes of major Baltic inflows —an analysis of long time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schinke, Holger; Matthäus, Wolfgang

    1998-01-01

    Conditions for life in the deep water of the Baltic Sea are strongly influenced by inflows of highly saline and oxygenated water from the North Sea. These events - termed major Baltic inflows (MBI) - have episodic character, and are the only mechanisms by which the central Baltic deep water is renewed. Although the cycle of water renewal is well documented, certain meteorological and oceanographic processes determining it are either not very well understood or even partly unknown. Based on the data set of major inflows during the present century, long time series of relevant variables from the Baltic Sea itself (salinity, sea level), its drainage area (river runoff, precipitation), the whole Baltic region (air temperature) and from the North Atlantic and Europe (sea level pressure) are analyzed using statistical methods. Characteristic variations in the relevant meteorological, hydrological and oceanographic variables before and during major events are calculated in order to identify conditions favouring or preventing such events. Major Baltic inflows are characterized by two phases: (1) high pressure over the Baltic region with easterly winds followed by (2) several weeks of strong zonal wind and pressure fields over the North Atlantic and Europe. Major events may occur when only one of these is well developed, the probability of strong events is high if both phases are well developed and closely spaced in time. Variations in river runoff to the Baltic obviously have a greater impact on the occurrence of major events then hitherto supposed. The decreasing frequency and intensity of major inflows since the mid-1970s and the complete absence of such events from February 1983 to the beginning of 1993 is explained by increased zonal circulation linked with intensified precipitation in the Baltic region and increased river runoff to the Baltic. Possible anthropogenic impacts on changes in occurrence of major inflows due to river runoff regulations are indicated. The

  10. Pine Island Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Birth of a Large Iceberg in Pine Island Bay, Antarctica     View ... iceberg (42 kilometers x 17 kilometers) broke off Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica (75°S latitude, 102°W longitude) sometime ...

  11. Yaquina Bay Topobathy DEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.EPA contracted with the U.S.ACE to obtain intertidal and subtidal bathymetric soundings of Yaquina Bay between Poole Slough and the South Beach Marina in 2002. These data were compiled with U.S.ACE subtidal soundings from 1999, 1998, 2000 and National Ocean Service soundi...

  12. PECONIC BAY SYSTEM AQUACULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    PECONIC BAY SYSTEM AQUACULTURE This reference document serves as the aquaculture sub-section for Phase II of a four-phase series of economic studies being conducted by Economic Analysis, Inc., for the Peconic Estuary Program. It provides an evaluation of the history, current stat...

  13. Chesapeake Bay Critters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackay-Atha, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    When students enter the author's classroom on the first day of school, they are greeted with live crabs scuttling around in large bins. The crabs are her way of grabbing students' attention and launching the unit on the Chesapeake Bay watershed. She chooses to start the year with this unit because, despite the fact that the Potomac River can be…

  14. A gilled mushroom, Gerontomyces lepidotus gen. et sp. nov. (Basidiomycota: Agaricales), in Baltic amber.

    PubMed

    Poinar, George

    2016-09-01

    A densely scaled small mushroom in Baltic amber is described as Gerontomyces lepidotus gen. et sp. nov. and is characterized by a convex pileus 1.0 mm in diameter, distant to subdistant lamellae with smooth margins and a centrally inserted cylindrical, solid stipe. Its taxonomic placement is uncertain. This is the first mushroom described from Baltic amber. PMID:27567715

  15. Upwardly Mobile Languages: The Politics of Language in the Baltic States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozolins, Uldis

    1994-01-01

    Examines language policy in the Baltic states since they regained their independence from the Soviet Union. The article argues that each Baltic state has substantially realized its language policy aims and that the favorable response to language requirements at the group and individual level signals the extraordinary reversal of a colonial…

  16. Evaluation of MERIS products from Baltic Sea coastal waters rich in CDOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrán-Abaunza, J. M.; Kratzer, S.; Brockmann, C.

    2014-05-01

    In this study, retrievals of the medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS) reflectances and water quality products using four different coastal processing algorithms freely available are assessed by comparison against sea-truthing data. The study is based on a pair-wise comparison using processor-dependent quality flags for the retrieval of valid common macro-pixels. This assessment is required in order to ensure the reliability of monitoring systems based on MERIS data, such as the Swedish coastal and lake monitoring system (http://vattenkvalitet.se). The results show that the pre-processing with the Improved Contrast between Ocean and Land (ICOL) processor, correcting for adjacency effects, improves the retrieval of spectral reflectance for all processors. Therefore, it is recommended that the ICOL processor should be applied when Baltic coastal waters are investigated. Chlorophyll was retrieved best using the FUB (Free University of Berlin) processing algorithm, although overestimations in the range 18-26.5%, dependent on the compared pairs, were obtained. At low chlorophyll concentrations (< 2.5 mg m-3), data dispersion dominated in the retrievals with the MEGS (MERIS ground segment processor) processor. The lowest bias and data dispersion were obtained with MEGS for suspended particulate matter, for which overestimations in the range of 8-16% were found. Only the FUB retrieved CDOM (coloured dissolved organic matter) correlate with in situ values. However, a large systematic underestimation appears in the estimates that nevertheless may be corrected for by using a local correction factor. The MEGS has the potential to be used as an operational processing algorithm for the Himmerfjärden bay and adjacent areas, but it requires further improvement of the atmospheric correction for the blue bands and better definition at relatively low chlorophyll concentrations in the presence of high CDOM attenuation.

  17. The Vertical and Horizontal Distribution of Selected Trace Metals in the Baltic Sea off Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pempkowiak, J.; Chiffoleau, J.-F.; Staniszewski, A.

    2000-07-01

    Concentrations of dissolved and particulate heavy metals (Fe, Co, Ni, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn, Zn) were measured in the Baltic Proper off Poland in September 1996. Water samples were collected along two offshore horizontal transects from the mouths of the rivers Vistula and Odra and two vertical profiles in the Gdańsk and Bornholm Deeps. Particulate/dissolved metal concentrations in the following ranges were measured (mg kg -1/μg l -1): Cd—0·89-8·91/0·003-0·022, Pb—10·2-114/0·004-0·0088, Cu—20·2-214/0·14-0·80, Ni—27-71/0·59-1·63, Mn—53-7590/0-971, Zn—124-3460/0·30-1·62, Co—not analysed/0·003-0·235, Fe (%)—0·14-3·29/0-190, Al (%)—0·11-3·92/not analysed. Horizontal concentration gradients were found in the Gulf of Gdańsk, which were attributed to the inflow of metals with the Vistula runoff. The lack of gradients in the Pomeranian Bay was explained by the Odra runoff having to pass through the Szczecin Lagoon, which acts as a trap for the suspended and dissolved loads carried by the river. The steep vertical gradients of both dissolved and particulate metals were put down to bioaccumulation at the surface, the presence of accumulated colloids above the halocline and redox phenomena in the suboxic zone below the halocline. These last involve diffusion of Fe(II) and Mn(II) from anoxic sediments, their oxidation to Fe(III) and Mn(IV) and possible formation of poorly soluble sulphides.

  18. Seasonality in vegetation biometrics and its effects on sediment characteristics and meiofauna in Baltic seagrass meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankowska, Emilia; Włodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria; Kotwicki, Lech; Balazy, Piotr; Kuliński, Karol

    2014-02-01

    Seagrass meadows can act as ecosystem engineers, i.e., organisms that modify the availability of resources to other organisms. However, their possible positive impacts depend on the characteristics of the vegetation, and these can vary strongly seasonally. This study assesses seasonal variability in macrophyte taxonomic composition and seagrass biometrics in the temperate Baltic Sea eelgrass meadows. We hypothesize that the anticipated strong seasonality in vegetation cover induces parallel seasonal changes in seagrass engineering effects as indicated by changes in sediment characteristics and meiozoobenthic abundance, composition and diversity. Macrophytes, sediments, and fauna were sampled at two locations in the Puck Bay from vegetated bottoms and bare sands five times in one year. Zostera marina vegetation occurred throughout the year and showed strong seasonality with the highest values of shoot density, leaf length, and biomass in July (202.3 ± 30.0 95% CI shoots m-2) and the lowest in March (55.4 ± 15.0 shoots m-2). POC was significantly higher in vegetated sands, and these effects were evident throughout the study period regardless of variability in macrophyte vegetation. The density and diversity of meiofauna did not differ between the seagrass beds and bare sands even in summer months when vegetation was best developed. The lack of an effect of the seagrass meadows on the meiofauna can be explained by the relatively low shoot density and biomass of the studied seagrass meadows and/or higher macrobenthic predation on the vegetated bottom compared to bare sands. However, both the canopies of macrophytes and the effects of the vegetation on benthic systems could increase substantially over the course of the gradual, natural restoration of the seagrass meadows.

  19. The diet of whiting Merlangius merlangus in the western Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Ross, S D; Gislason, H; Andersen, N G; Lewy, P; Nielsen, J R

    2016-05-01

    The diet of whiting Merlangius merlangus in the western Baltic Sea was investigated and compared to the diet in the southern North Sea. Clupeids were important prey in both areas, but especially in the western Baltic Sea where they constituted up to 90% of the diet of larger individuals. Gobies, brown shrimps and polychaetes were the main prey of juveniles in the western Baltic Sea, while a wider range of species were consumed in the North Sea. The shift to piscivory occurred at smaller sizes in the western Baltic Sea and the fish prey consumed was proportionately larger than in the southern North Sea. Estimates of prey abundance and food intake of M. merlangus are required to evaluate its predatory significance in the western Baltic Sea, but its diet suggests that it could be just as significant a fish predator here as in the southern North Sea. PMID:27005681

  20. Bayes and the Law

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Norman; Neil, Martin; Berger, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Although the last forty years has seen considerable growth in the use of statistics in legal proceedings, it is primarily classical statistical methods rather than Bayesian methods that have been used. Yet the Bayesian approach avoids many of the problems of classical statistics and is also well suited to a broader range of problems. This paper reviews the potential and actual use of Bayes in the law and explains the main reasons for its lack of impact on legal practice. These include misconceptions by the legal community about Bayes’ theorem, over-reliance on the use of the likelihood ratio and the lack of adoption of modern computational methods. We argue that Bayesian Networks (BNs), which automatically produce the necessary Bayesian calculations, provide an opportunity to address most concerns about using Bayes in the law. PMID:27398389

  1. A late glacial record of ice-sheet dynamics and melt supply recovered in the sediments of IODP Expedition 347 in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passchier, Sandra; Jensen, Jørn Bo; Kenzler, Michael; Johnson, Sean; Andrén, Thomas; Barker Jørgensen, Bo

    2015-04-01

    Modern observations of increased surface ablation, meltwater routing to the bed, and increases in glacial speeds point to feedbacks between ice-sheet dynamics, melt supply, and subglacial discharge. Paleorecords have the potential to explore the decadal to centennial variability of these systems, but until recently such records were short and discontinuous in ice-proximal settings and underutilized for this specific purpose. The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 347 in the Baltic Sea recovered annually laminated sediments that document the dynamics of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet. Hydraulic piston cores recovered from Sites M0060, M0063, M0064, and M0065 allow us to reconstruct a nearly complete record of ca. 6000 years in ice retreat history at annual to decadal resolution between ca. 17 and 11ka. The late glacial successions of these four IODP drillsites comprise of a till or proglacial fluvioglacial sediment overlain by variable thicknesses of well-laminated deglacial successions within several high-recovery holes. As the Scandinavian Ice Sheet retreated from the western Baltic Sea, and to the North, the ice-sheet's grounding line migrated across the four sites and deposited overlapping sections of high-resolution ice-proximal to ice-distal successions. Laser particle size results from Sites M0060 and M0063, and inspection of line-scan images, show shifts in sedimentary facies and lithologies that were not recognized during initial visual core description. For example, at Site M0060 in the Kattegat, ice-rafting fluxes in silty clays decrease upward and are negligible in the overlying varved succession. These characteristics are interpreted as ice retreat within a calving bay environment from ca. 17ka onward, followed by distal glacial marine deposition from sediment plumes governed by meltwater discharge. Moreover, at Site M0063 in the Baltic Sea, laser particle size distributions record an abrupt shift from interlaminated clayey silt to laminated clay

  2. Lead mobilization during tectonic reactivation of the western Baltic Shield

    SciTech Connect

    Romer, R.L. Luleaa Univ. ); Wright, J.E. )

    1993-06-01

    Lead isotope data from sulfide deposits of the western part of the Baltic Shield define mixing lines in the [sup 206]Pb/[sup 204]Pb-[sup 207]Pb/[sup 204]Pb diagram. Lead from two types of sulfide deposits have been investigated: (1) Exhalative and volcanogenic deposits that are syngenetic with their host rocks; and (2) vein deposits. The syngenetic deposits locally show a very wide range of lead isotopic compositions that reflect a variable addition of highly radiogenic lead, while the vein deposits, although they have radiogenic lead isotopic compositions, exhibit only limited isotopic variations. In different provinces of the shield, both types of deposits fall on the same lead mixing array. The slope of the lead mixing lines varies as a function of the age of basement rocks and the age of the tectonic event which produced the lead mobilization and therefore relates the source rock age with the age of lead mobilization. Calculated mixing ages fall into several short time periods that correspond either to orogenic events or to major phases of continental rifting. The orogenic events are the ca 360--430 Ma Caledonian, ca 900--1100 Ma Sveconorwegian, and the ca 1800--1900 Ma Svecofennian orogenic cycles. The rifting events correspond to the formation of the ca 280 Ma Oslo rift and the Ordovician (ca 450 Ma) graben system in the area of the present Gulf of Bothnia. Each mixing age indicates that lead was mobilized, probably as a consequence of mild thermal disturbances, and that the crust was permeable to lead migration. The data show that the geographic distribution of sulfide deposits with highly radiogenic lead isotopic compositions coincides with old graben systems, orogenic belts, and orogenic forelands on the Baltic Shield. The ages of vein deposits and their geographic distribution demonstrate multiple tectonic reactivation of the interior of the Baltic Shield in response to orogenic events at its margin. 68 refs., 6 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. Ice-ocean-ecosystem operational model of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janecki, M.; Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, L.; Jakacki, J.; Nowicki, A.

    2012-04-01

    3D-CEMBS is a fully coupled model adopted for the Baltic Sea and have been developed within the grant, wchich is supported by the Polish State Committee of Scientific Reasearch. The model is based on CESM1.0 (Community Earth System Model), in our configuration it consists of two active components (ocean and ice) driven by central coupler (CPL7). Ocean (POP version 2.1) and ice models (CICE model, version 4.0) are forced by atmospheric and land data models. Atmospheric data sets are provided by ICM-UM model from University of Warsaw. Additionally land model provides runoff of the Baltic Sea (currently 78 rivers). Ecosystem model is based on an intermediate complexity marine ecosystem model for the global domain (J.K. Moore et. al., 2002) and consists of 11 main components: zooplankton, small phytoplankton, diatoms, cyanobacteria, two detrital classes, dissolved oxygen and the nutrients nitrate, ammonium, phosphate and silicate. The model is configured at two horizontal resolutions, approximately 9km and 2km (1/12° and 1/48° respectively). The model bathymetry is represented as 21 vertical levels and the thickness of the first four layers were chosen to be five metres. 3D-CEMBS model grid is based on stereographic coordinates, but equator of these coordinates is in the centre of the Baltic Sea (rotated stereographic coordinates) and we can assume that shape of the cells are square and they are identical. Currently model works in a operational state. The model creates 48-hour forecasts every 6 hours (or when new atmospheric dataset is available). Prognostic variables such as temperature, salinity, ice cover, currents, sea surface height and phytoplankton concentration are presented online on a the website and are available for registered users. Also time series for any location are accessible. This work was carried out in support of grant No NN305 111636 and No NN306 353239 - the Polish state Committee of Scientific Research. The partial support for this study was

  4. Early Holocene lake ecosystem development in the southern Baltic lowlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Słowiński, Michał; Ott, Florian; Kramkowski, Mateusz; Noryśkiewicz, Agnieszka M.; Zawiska, Izabela; Dräger, Nadine; Theuerkauf, Martin; Hass, Christoph; Obremska, Milena; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Kordowski, Jarosław; Tjallingii, Rik; Rzodkiewicz, Monika; Schwab, Markus; Brauer, Achim

    2016-04-01

    The first millennia of the Holocene are characterized by gradual and rapid environmental changes following the warming at the beginning of the Holocene superimposed by short-term climatic instability. Landscape evolution during this period occurred at different time scales due to specific response times of landscape compartments like vegetation succession, soil formation and permafrost thawing. As a consequence, a spatiotemporally heterogeneous pattern of changes occurred particularly in regions close to the margins of the continental ice sheets like the Baltic region. Regional atmospheric circulation patterns were affected by cold catabatic winds from the remains of the Fennoscandian ice sheet. The ongoing deglaciation further influenced the regional climate through meltwater release and related changes in the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Both effects declined with the progressive ice sheet melt down. Additionally, the land-sea distribution in the North Sea changed drastically during the final melting phase of the glacial ice sheets. The Baltic Sea development is even more complex due to the strong glacio-isostatic adjustments effects that resulted in open and closed water stages affecting the entire Baltic realm. Consequently, the early Holocene interval of sediment records from the southern Baltic lowlands are not considered as straightforward palaeoclimate archives but need to be interpreted in a broader context. We present five partly varved lake records from northern Poland all including an intriguing highly organic-rich interval interrupting biochemical calcite precipitation at about the same time between 10.5 and 10.2 cal kyr BP. These sediment records have been correlated by independent age models based on varve counting, AMS 14C dating, biostratigraphy and tephrochronology. We present multi-proxy records of early Holocene sediments and our preliminary interpretation suggests hydrological processes as the main reason for the intriguing shifts

  5. An ant-associated mesostigmatid mite in Baltic amber

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Jason A.; Kontschán, Jenő; Walter, David E.; Perrichot, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Fossil mesostigmatid mites (Acari: Parasitiformes: Mesostigmata) are extremely rare, and specimens from only nine families, including four named species, have been described so far. A new record of Myrmozercon sp. described here from Eocene (ca 44–49 Myr) Baltic amber represents the first—and so far only—fossil example of the derived, extant family Laelapidae. Significantly, modern species of this genus are habitually myrmecophilous and the fossil mite described here is preserved attached to the head of the dolichoderine ant Ctenobethylus goepperti (Mayr, 1868). It thus offers the oldest unequivocal evidence for an ecological association between mesostigmatid mites and social insects in the order Hymenoptera. PMID:25209198

  6. Minimum Bayes risk image correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minter, T. C., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of designing a matched filter for image correlation will be treated as a statistical pattern recognition problem. It is shown that, by minimizing a suitable criterion, a matched filter can be estimated which approximates the optimum Bayes discriminant function in a least-squares sense. It is well known that the use of the Bayes discriminant function in target classification minimizes the Bayes risk, which in turn directly minimizes the probability of a false fix. A fast Fourier implementation of the minimum Bayes risk correlation procedure is described.

  7. USGS Tampa Bay Pilot Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, K.K.; Cronin, T. M.; Crane, M.; Hansen, M.; Nayeghandi, A.; Swarzenski, P.; Edgar, T.; Brooks, G.R.; Suthard, B.; Hine, A.; Locker, S.; Willard, D.A.; Hastings, D.; Flower, B.; Hollander, D.; Larson, R.A.; Smith, K.

    2007-01-01

    Providing a web-based digital information management system of information for scientists and the public, including a system that supports the work of those officials who must make decisions that affect the state of the bay. The Tampa Bay Study is in its sixth year and will continue through September 2007. This paper presents a non-inclusive summary of key findings associated with the six primary project components listed above. Component 4 (above) is described in detail in the following chapter 13. More information on the Tampa Bay Study is available from our on-line digital information system for the Tampa Bay Study at http://gulfsci.usgs.gov.

  8. Prospects of the New Science and Outreach Network Baltic Earth with Results of the Second Climate Change Assessment for the Baltic Sea Region (BACC II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reckermann, M.; Von Storch, H.; Omstedt, A. T.; Meier, M.; Rutgersson, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Baltic Sea region in Northern Europe spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most intensively studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. A major outcome of Baltic Earth will be the update of the BALTEX Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin (BACC II). This new study after 5 years finds the results of BACC I still valid. Climate change can be detected at the regional scale but attribution is still weak. The effect of changing atmospheric aerosol loads and land use change is largely unknown so far and needs further attention in the coming years. For the observed changes in biogeochemical and ecological systems, multiple drivers are at work of which climate change is one. Their relative importance still needs to be evaluated. When addressing climate change impacts on e.g. forestry, agriculture, urban

  9. Trauma research in the Baltic countries: from political oppression to recovery.

    PubMed

    Kazlauskas, Evaldas; Zelviene, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of traumatic stress studies from the three Baltic countries-Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia-and reveal how specific social context contributes to the topics relevant in traumatic stress field in the region. Traumatic stress studies in the Baltic countries are closely related to the complicated history of the region. It was only since the restoration of independence of the Baltic States in the 1990s when traumatic stress studies could emerge. The start of the psychotraumatology in the Baltic States was inspired by the interest of the psychological effects of political violence. Four major topics in traumatic stress literature from the Baltic countries were identified in this article: political violence studies, epidemiology of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), disaster studies, and developmental aspects of trauma. Traumatic events prevalence was reported between 70 and 75%, and PTSD prevalence range 2-7% in the Baltic countries. The interest in psychotraumatology in the Baltic countries is rising. PMID:26996532

  10. Fresh oxygen for the Baltic Sea — An exceptional saline inflow after a decade of stagnation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohrholz, V.; Naumann, M.; Nausch, G.; Krüger, S.; Gräwe, U.

    2015-08-01

    The ecological state of the Baltic Sea depends crucially on sufficiently frequent, strong deep water renewal on the periodic deep water renewal events by inflow of oxygen rich saline water from the North Sea. Due to the strong density stratification these inflows are the only source for deep water ventilation. Since the early eighties of the last century the frequency of inflow events has dropped drastically from 5 to 7 major inflows per decade to only one inflow per decade. Wide spread anoxic conditions became the usual state in the central Baltic. The rare major Baltic inflow (MBI) events in 1993 and 2003 could interrupt the anoxic bottom conditions only temporarily. After more than 10 years without a major Baltic inflow events, in December 2014 a strong MBI brought large amounts of saline and well oxygenated water into the Baltic Sea. Based on observations and numerical modeling, the inflow was classified as one of the rare very strong events. The inflow volume and the amount of salt transported into the Baltic were estimated to be with 198 km3 and 4 Gt, respectively. The strength of the MBI exceeded considerably the previous 2003 event. In the list of the MBIs since 1880, the 2014 inflow is the third strongest event together with the MBI in 1913. This inflow event will most probably turn the entire Baltic deep water from anoxic to oxic conditions, with substantial spread consequences for marine life and biogeochemical cycles.

  11. Trauma research in the Baltic countries: from political oppression to recovery

    PubMed Central

    Kazlauskas, Evaldas; Zelviene, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of traumatic stress studies from the three Baltic countries—Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia—and reveal how specific social context contributes to the topics relevant in traumatic stress field in the region. Traumatic stress studies in the Baltic countries are closely related to the complicated history of the region. It was only since the restoration of independence of the Baltic States in the 1990s when traumatic stress studies could emerge. The start of the psychotraumatology in the Baltic States was inspired by the interest of the psychological effects of political violence. Four major topics in traumatic stress literature from the Baltic countries were identified in this article: political violence studies, epidemiology of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), disaster studies, and developmental aspects of trauma. Traumatic events prevalence was reported between 70 and 75%, and PTSD prevalence range 2–7% in the Baltic countries. The interest in psychotraumatology in the Baltic countries is rising. PMID:26996532

  12. Microsatellite variation in ringed seals (Phoca hispida): genetic structure and history of the Baltic Sea population.

    PubMed

    Palo, J U; Mäkinen, H S; Helle, E; Stenman, O; Väinölä, R

    2001-05-01

    Genetic variability and population structure of Baltic ringed seals and an Arctic reference population were assessed using eight microsatellite loci. Ringed seals colonized the Baltic Sea basin soon after deglaciation 11 500 years ago and are supposed to have remained largely isolated from the main Arctic stock since then, approximately 1000 generations. In the 1900s the Baltic population declined rapidly, and is now confined to three distinct breeding areas, with N < 6000 seals altogether. Microsatellite heterozygosity in ringed seals was higher than that in the closely related, boreal harbour seal and grey seal, for which the markers were initially developed. This is plausibly attributed to an overall greater population (species) size of ringed seals during the Quaternary. Allele frequency differentiation between the Baltic and Arctic ringed seals, conventionally treated as different subspecies, was weak. Assuming complete isolation, the divergence (FST=0.023) would imply a notably high postglacial effective population size, approximately 20 000 for the Baltic population. The isolation assumption however, seems unrealistic in the light of the data: a coalescent-based simulation approach to the likelihood of alternative demographic histories clearly favoured a scenario with recurrent gene flow to the Baltic, over one of complete isolation (drift only). Within the Baltic Sea, no differentiation was found between the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia breeding areas; the recent population decline and split have not yet affected the inbreeding levels of the disjunct breeding stocks. PMID:11554977

  13. 42. VIEW OF DEMULTIPLEX BAY OF TELEMETRY CHECKOUT SYSTEM. BAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. VIEW OF DEMULTIPLEX BAY OF TELEMETRY CHECKOUT SYSTEM. BAY LOCATED CENTRALLY IN TELEMETRY ROOM (ROOM 107) MIDWAY BETWEEN NORTH AND SOUTH WALLS. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  14. Significance of groundwater discharge along the coast of Poland as a source of dissolved metals to the southern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Szymczycha, Beata; Kroeger, Kevin D; Pempkowiak, Janusz

    2016-08-15

    Fluxes of dissolved trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) via groundwater discharge along the southern Baltic Sea have been assessed for the first time. Dissolved metal concentrations in groundwater samples were less variable than in seawater and were generally one or two orders of magnitude higher: Cd (2.1-2.8nmolL(-1)), Co (8.70-8.76nmolL(-1)), Cr (18.1-18.5nmolL(-1)), Mn (2.4-2.8μmolL(-1)), Pb (1.2-1.5nmolL(-1)), Zn (33.1-34.0nmolL(-1)). Concentrations of Cu (0.5-0.8nmolL(-1)) and Ni (4.9-5.8nmolL(-1)) were, respectively, 32 and 4 times lower, than in seawater. Groundwater-derived trace metal fluxes constitute 93% for Cd, 80% for Co, 91% for Cr, 6% for Cu, 66% for Mn, 4% for Ni, 70% for Pb and 93% for Zn of the total freshwater trace metal flux to the Bay of Puck. Groundwater-seawater mixing, redox conditions and Mn-cycling are the main processes responsible for trace metal distribution in groundwater discharge sites. PMID:27293076

  15. Distinct iron isotope signatures in suspended matter in the northern Baltic Sea; implications for cycling of organic carbon and phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingri, Johan; Conrad, Sarah

    2015-04-01

    Two distinct groups of iron isotope signatures can be identified both in river water and in the Bothnian Bay, northern Baltic Sea. Particles and colloids with negative iron isotope signatures (enriched in the light isotope) are mobilised in the riparian zone during high discharge. Due to high concentration of DOC the oxidation of Fe(II) is incomplete, and un-oxidised Fe(II) is associated with Fe(III)-OH and OC (organic carbon), forming Fe(II,III)-OC colloids, and particles, with a negative iron isotope signature. Colloidal iron with a negative signature is a labile fraction that transforms during freshwater transport. Photo reduction of Fe(II,III)-OC particles and colloids will release Fe(II) and reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II), and formed Fe(II) is oxidised forming Fe(III)-OH colloids with a heavy iron isotope signature. Phosphorus and organic carbon are to different extent associated to these two suspended iron complexes during transport and early diagenesis. Flocculation of negative Fe(II,III)-OC colloids produce negative Fe(II,III)-OC particles, without changes in the isotopic composition. Most of the suspended iron is rapidly removed below 1.0 psu, due to flocculation and sedimentation. Negative Fe(II,III)-OC particles may serve as an efficient 'rusty sink' for organic carbon, when deposited in the coastal zone.

  16. Structural evolution and petroleum productivity of the Baltic basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ulmishek, G.F. )

    1991-08-01

    The Baltic basin is an oval depression located in the western part of the Russian craton; it occupies the eastern Baltic Sea and adjacent onshore areas. The basin contains more than 5,000 m of sedimentary rocks ranging from latest Proterozoic to Tertiary in age. These rocks consist of four tectonostratigraphic sequences deposited during major tectonic episodes of basin evolution. Principal unconformities separate the sequences. The basin is underlain by a rift probably filled with Upper Proterozoic rocks. Vendian and Lower Cambrian rocks (Baikalian sequence) form two northeast-trending depressions. The principal stage of the basin development was during deposition of a thick Middle Cambrian-Lower Devonian (Caledonian) sequence. This stage was terminated by the most intense deformations in the basin history. The Middle Devonian-Carboniferous (Hercynian) and Permian-Tertiary (Kimmerian-Alpine) tectonic and depositional cycles only slightly modified the basin geometry and left intact the main structural framework of underlying rocks. The petroleum productivity of the basin is related to the Caledonian tectonostratigraphic sequence that contains both source rocks and reservoirs. However, maturation of source rocks, migration of oil, and formation of fields took place mostly during deposition of the Hercynian sequence.

  17. Hypoxia sustains cyanobacteria blooms in the Baltic sea.

    PubMed

    Funkey, Carolina P; Conley, Daniel J; Reuss, Nina S; Humborg, Christoph; Jilbert, Tom; Slomp, Caroline P

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient over-enrichment is one of the classic triggering mechanisms for the occurrence of cyanobacteria blooms in aquatic ecosystems. In the Baltic Sea, cyanobacteria regularly occur in the late summer months and form nuisance accumulations in surface waters and their abundance has intensified significantly in the past 50 years attributed to human-induced eutrophication. However, the natural occurrence of cyanobacteria during the Holocene is debated. In this study, we present records of cyanobacteria pigments, water column redox proxies, and nitrogen isotopic signatures for the past ca. 8000 years from Baltic Sea sediment cores. Our results demonstrate that cyanobacteria abundance and nitrogen fixation are correlated with hypoxia occurring during three main intervals: (1) ca. 7000-4000 B.P. during the Littorina transgression, (2) ca. 1400-700 B.P. during the Medieval Climate Anomaly, and (3) from ca. 1950 A.D. to the present. Issues of preservation were investigated, and we show that organic matter and pigment profiles are not simply an artifact of preservation. These results suggest that cyanobacteria abundance is sustained during periods of hypoxia, most likely because of enhanced recycling of phosphorus in low oxygen conditions. PMID:24512281

  18. Projected future climate change and Baltic Sea ecosystem management.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Agneta; Meier, H E Markus; Ripszam, Matyas; Rowe, Owen; Wikner, Johan; Haglund, Peter; Eilola, Kari; Legrand, Catherine; Figueroa, Daniela; Paczkowska, Joanna; Lindehoff, Elin; Tysklind, Mats; Elmgren, Ragnar

    2015-06-01

    Climate change is likely to have large effects on the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Simulations indicate 2-4 °C warming and 50-80 % decrease in ice cover by 2100. Precipitation may increase ~30 % in the north, causing increased land runoff of allochthonous organic matter (AOM) and organic pollutants and decreased salinity. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models indicate that, in the south, bottom-water anoxia may spread, reducing cod recruitment and increasing sediment phosphorus release, thus promoting cyanobacterial blooms. In the north, heterotrophic bacteria will be favored by AOM, while phytoplankton production may be reduced. Extra trophic levels in the food web may increase energy losses and consequently reduce fish production. Future management of the Baltic Sea must consider the effects of climate change on the ecosystem dynamics and functions, as well as the effects of anthropogenic nutrient and pollutant load. Monitoring should have a holistic approach, encompassing both autotrophic (phytoplankton) and heterotrophic (e.g., bacterial) processes. PMID:26022318

  19. Hypoxia Sustains Cyanobacteria Blooms in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient over-enrichment is one of the classic triggering mechanisms for the occurrence of cyanobacteria blooms in aquatic ecosystems. In the Baltic Sea, cyanobacteria regularly occur in the late summer months and form nuisance accumulations in surface waters and their abundance has intensified significantly in the past 50 years attributed to human-induced eutrophication. However, the natural occurrence of cyanobacteria during the Holocene is debated. In this study, we present records of cyanobacteria pigments, water column redox proxies, and nitrogen isotopic signatures for the past ca. 8000 years from Baltic Sea sediment cores. Our results demonstrate that cyanobacteria abundance and nitrogen fixation are correlated with hypoxia occurring during three main intervals: (1) ca. 7000–4000 B.P. during the Littorina transgression, (2) ca. 1400–700 B.P. during the Medieval Climate Anomaly, and (3) from ca. 1950 A.D. to the present. Issues of preservation were investigated, and we show that organic matter and pigment profiles are not simply an artifact of preservation. These results suggest that cyanobacteria abundance is sustained during periods of hypoxia, most likely because of enhanced recycling of phosphorus in low oxygen conditions. PMID:24512281

  20. [History of German-Baltic relations in medicine].

    PubMed

    Tankler, H; Laschinski, G; Roots, I

    2004-04-30

    Today, the three Baltic countries Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, have well-known medical faculties with international standing. Their individual histories are briefly outlined. However, relations of the German academic world were closest with the university of Dorpat (today: Tartu). It was re-opened in 1802 by tsar Alexander I in order to keep young Baltic people from studying abroad. The medical faculty was its biggest faculty. The university was Russian, but the official language was German. So many a German professor came to Dorpat and many professors from Dorpat were offered a chair at a German university. The scientific imports connected Dorpat with other centres of West-European science, they brought knowledge and ideas and an exchange of information. The standard was high, and among the teaching staff was a handsome number of medical celebrities, e.g. the anatomist August Rauber and the surgeon Ernst von Bergmann. In Dorpat, Rudolf Buchheim brought a new science, experimental pharmacology, into being, which his pupil and successor, Oswald Schmiedeberg, fully established and propagated all over the world. PMID:15133742

  1. Learning on the Big Bay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philp, Michael J.

    1978-01-01

    Anne Arundel Community College uses the Chesapeake Bay for a flexible ocean engineering technology program which includes mechanical, electrical, and environmental options for transfer and/or vocational students, and adult education programs covering such subjects as sailing, Bay history, boat building, scuba-diving, and marine biology. (RT)

  2. The Bayes Inference Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, K.M.; Cunningham, G.S.

    1996-04-01

    The authors are developing a computer application, called the Bayes Inference Engine, to provide the means to make inferences about models of physical reality within a Bayesian framework. The construction of complex nonlinear models is achieved by a fully object-oriented design. The models are represented by a data-flow diagram that may be manipulated by the analyst through a graphical programming environment. Maximum a posteriori solutions are achieved using a general, gradient-based optimization algorithm. The application incorporates a new technique of estimating and visualizing the uncertainties in specific aspects of the model.

  3. Tampa Bay environmental atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Kunneke, J.T.; Palik, T.F.

    1984-12-01

    Biological and water resource data for Tampa Bay were compiled and mapped at a scale of 1:24,000. This atlas consists of (1) composited information overlain on 18 biological and 20 water resource base maps and (2) an accompanying map narrative. Subjects mapped on the water resource maps are contours of the mean middepth specific conductivity which can be converted to salinity; bathymetry, sediments, tidal currents, the freshwater/saltwater interface, dredge spoil disposal sites; locations of industrial and municipal point source discharges, tide stations, and water quality sampling stations. The point source discharge locations show permitted capacity and the water quality sampling stations show 5-year averages for chlorophyll, conductivity, turbidity, temperature, and total nitrogen. The subjects shown on the biological resource maps are clam and oyster beds, shellfish harvest areas, colonial bird nesting sites, manatee habitat, seagrass beds and artificial reefs. Spawning seasons, nursery habitats, and adult habitats are identified for major fish species. The atlas will provide useful information for coastal planning and management in Tampa Bay.

  4. 76 FR 54380 - Safety Zone; Suttons Bay Labor Day Fireworks, Suttons Bay, Grand Traverse Bay, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... Bay, Grand Traverse Bay, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... rule is effective from 8 until 11 p.m. on September 3, 2011. ADDRESSES: Documents indicated in this... Department, Coast Guard, Sector Sault Sainte Marie, MI, telephone (906) 253-2429, e-mail...

  5. Radioactive pollution of the waters of the baltic sea during 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarev, L.N.; Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Gedeonov, L.I.; Gavrilov, V.M.; Gritchenko, Z.G.; Ivanova, L.M.; Orlova, T.E.; Tishkova, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented from an investigation of radioactive pollution of the waters of the Baltic Sea during 1986. Inhomogeneities in the pollution of this area of water, due to varying density of atmospheric radioactive fallout, are detected. It is found that among the radionuclides entering the surface of the Baltic Sea in 1986 as a result of atmospheric transport, the main one in terms of radiation dose is cesium-137. Comparisons are made of the level of cesium-137 content in the waters of the Baltic Sea in 1986 and in preceding years. It is noted that even in the most polluted regions of the sea the cesium-137 content was 500 times less than the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) in the USSR for drinking water. The first results of the determination of plutonium-239 and 240 in the Baltic Sea are presented.

  6. Intrusion of radioactive industrially polluted water from North Sea into central Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Vakulovskiy, S.M.; Nikitin, A.I.

    1985-02-01

    The problem of penetration of radioactive industrially polluted water into the central Baltic Sea was studied. The content of Cs-134 as determined in water near the bottom of deep water trenches along the path traveled by North Sea water entering the Baltic. Samples were taken at 5 locations, with Cs-134 concentrated from samples of several thousands of liters. It was found that radioactive pollution caused by the entry of water from the North Sea extends through the system of deep water depressions into the Baltic as far as the Gotland trench. The greatest degree of contamination is found in the Arkona depression adjacent to the straits. The concentration of Cs-134 in the Gdansk trench is one-half as great and in the Gotland trench one-third as great as in the Arkona depression. Radioactive contamination in the Baltic is attributed to discharge of radioactive wastes by plants at Windscale.

  7. Transferrin variants as markers of migrations and admixture between populations in the Baltic Sea region.

    PubMed

    Beckman, L; Sikström, C; Mikelsaar, A V; Krumina, A; Ambrasiene, D; Kucinskas, V; Beckman, G

    1998-01-01

    Transferrin (TF) types were examined by isoelectric focusing in an attempt to elucidate migrations and admixture between populations in the Baltic Sea region. A highly significant heterogeneity between populations was found with respect to TF*C subtypes as well as the rare TF variants B2, B0-1 and DCHI. With the exception for Estonia, increased frequencies of the TF*C3 allele were observed east of the Baltic Sea. The island of Gotland in the middle of the Baltic Sea also showed a high TF*C3 frequency indicating an eastern influence. The TF*DCHI allele, a marker of eastern (Finno-Ugric) influence, was found in Finland and Estonia and on the island of Gotland, but not in mainland Sweden and in the Baltic peoples (Latvians and Lithuanians). These results indicate the presence of a Finno-Ugric, most likely Estonian or Livonian, genetic influence in the Gotland population. PMID:9694249

  8. Influence of sea level rise on the dynamics of salt inflows in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hordoir, Robinson; Axell, Lars; Löptien, Ulrike; Dietze, Heiner; Kuznetsov, Ivan

    2015-10-01

    The Baltic Sea is a marginal sea, located in a highly industrialized region in Central Northern Europe. Saltwater inflows from the North Sea and associated ventilation of the deep exert crucial control on the entire Baltic Sea ecosystem. This study explores the impact of anticipated sea level changes on the dynamics of those inflows. We use a numerical oceanic general circulation model covering both the Baltic and the North Sea. The model successfully retraces the essential ventilation dynamics throughout the period 1961-2007. A suite of idealized experiments suggests that rising sea level is associated with intensified ventilation as saltwater inflows become stronger, longer, and more frequent. Expressed quantitatively as a salinity increase in the deep central Baltic Sea, we find that a sea level rise of 1 m triggers a saltening of more than 1 PSU. This substantial increase in ventilation is the consequence of the increasing cross section in the Danish Straits amplified by a reduction of vertical mixing.

  9. Two new fossil species of Cryptocephalus Geoffroy (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Baltic and Dominican Amber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new species of Cryptocephalus Geoffroy (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are described and illustrated from fossil resin: Cryptocephalus groehni sp. nov (Baltic amber) and Cryptocephalus kheelorum sp. nov. (Dominican amber). These are the first described species of Cryptocephalinae from fossil resin. ...

  10. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel...

  11. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel...

  12. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel...

  13. Magnetic enhancement of Baltic Sea sapropels by greigite magnetofossils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinholdsson, M.; Snowball, I.; Zillén, L.; Lenz, C.; Conley, D. J.

    2013-03-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are known to biosynthesise single-domain magnetite (Fe3O4) for geomagnetic navigation and their relict magnetosomes (called magnetofossils) can control the magnetic properties of lake and marine sediments. Magnetotactic bacteria also produce greigite (Fe3S4) magnetosomes but, compared to those made of magnetite, relatively little is known about the sedimentary environments where they are produced and the magnetic properties of the preserved particles. We studied the magnetic properties of sediment cores from two basins (the North Central Baltic Proper and eastern Gotland Basin) that currently experience hypoxia and we discovered the magnetic enhancement of older laminated sapropels, which are a signal of past occurrences of anoxia and hypoxia in the Baltic Sea. Magnetic concentrates extracted from the laminated sapropels were characterised by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and we identified only single-domain greigite (Fe3S4) particles with a mean size of 55×75 nm, which we interpret as magnetofossils due to diagnostic chains of individual particles separated by an intact dividing membrane. The degree of magnetic enhancement in the laminated sapropels has a positive relationship with loss-on-ignition data, which indicates a link between the production of greigite magnetosomes, organic matter supply and preservation and redox conditions. The coercive force of collections of non-interacting greigite magnetofossils is ∼13 mT, which is considerably lower than the magnetite counterparts (∼30 mT) and strictly non-bacterial and larger greigite single-domain grains (∼60 mT). The values of the interparametric ratios of SIRM/χ, χARM/SIRM and χARM/χ that we obtain for our greigite magnetofossils overlap with those previously considered to be diagnostic of magnetosomal magnetite. The presence of bacterial greigite, which is easily detected by magnetic measurements, forms a proxy for hypoxia and

  14. Denitrification in the water column of the central Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalsgaard, Tage; De Brabandere, Loreto; Hall, Per O. J.

    2013-04-01

    Removal of fixed nitrogen in the water column of the eastern Gotland Basin, central Baltic Sea, was studied during two cruises in September 2008 and August 2010. The water column was stratified with anoxic sulfidic bottom water meeting oxic nitrate containing water at the oxic-anoxic interface. Anammox was never detected whereas denitrification was found in all incubations from anoxic depths and occurred immediately below the oxic-anoxic interface. Sulfide (H2S + HS- + S2-) was in most cases the only electron donor for denitrification but, in contrast to previous findings, denitrification was in some situations driven by organic matter alone. Nitrous oxide (N2O) became an increasingly important product of denitrification with increasing sulfide concentration and was >80% of the total N gas formation at 10 μM sulfide. The potential rates of denitrification measured in incubations at elevated NO3- or sulfide concentrations were converted to in situ rates using the measured water column concentrations of NO3- and sulfide and the actual measured relations between NO3- and sulfide concentrations and denitrification rates. In situ denitrification ranged from 0.24 to 15.9 nM N2 h-1. Assuming that these rates were valid throughout the anoxic NO3- containing zone, depth integrated in situ denitrification rates of 0.06-2.11 mmol N m-2 d-1 were estimated. The thickness of this zone was generally 3-6 m, which is probably what can be maintained through regular turbulent mixing induced by internal waves at the oxic-anoxic interface. However, layers of up to 55 m thickness with low O2 water (<10 μM) were observed which was probably the result of larger scale mixing. In such a layer nitrification may produce NO3- and once the O2 has been depleted denitrification will follow resulting in enormous rates per unit area. Even with an active denitrification layer of 3-6 m thickness the pelagic denitrification per unit area clearly exceeded sediment denitrification rates elsewhere in

  15. Variational data assimilation problem for the Baltic Sea thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, Natalia; Agoshkov, Valery; Parmuzin, Eugene

    2015-04-01

    The most versatile and promising technology for solving problems of monitoring and analysis of the natural environment is a four-dimensional variational data assimilation of observation data. In such problems not only the development and justification of algorithms for numerical solution of variational data assimilation problems but the properties of the optimal solution play an important role. In this work the variational data assimilation problems in the Baltic Sea water area were formulated and studied. Numerical experiments on restoring the ocean heat flux and obtaining solution of the system (temperature, salinity, velocity, and sea surface height) in the Baltic Sea primitive equation hydrodynamics model with assimilation procedure were carried out. In the calculations we used daily sea surface temperature observation from Danish meteorological Institute, prepared on the basis of measurements of the radiometer (AVHRR, AATSR and AMSRE) and spectroradiometer (SEVIRI and MODIS). The spatial resolution of the model grid with respect to the horizontal variables amounted to 0.0625x0.03125 degree. The results of the numerical experiments are presented. This study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 13-01-00753, project 14-01-31195) and project 14-11-00609 by the Russian Science Foundation. References: 1 E.I. Parmuzin, V.I. Agoshkov, Numerical solution of the variational assimilation problem for sea surface temperature in the model of the Black Sea dynamics. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, 69-94 2 Zakharova N.B., Agoshkov V.I., Parmuzin E.I., The new method of ARGO buoys system observation data interpolation. Russian Journal of Numerical Analysis and Mathematical Modelling. Vol. 28, Issue 1, 2013. 3 Zalesny V.B., Gusev A.V., Chernobay S.Yu., Aps R., Tamsalu R., Kujala P., Rytkönen J. The Bal-tic Sea circulation modelling and assessment of marine pollution, Russ. J. Numer. Analysis and Math. Modelling, 2014, V 29

  16. Chesapeake Bay: Introduction to an Ecosystem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the contiguous United States. The Bay and its tidal tributaries make up the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. This document, which focuses of various aspects of this ecosystem, is divided into four major parts. The first part traces the geologic history of the Bay, describes the overall physical structure of…

  17. Modelling the population dynamics of Temora longicornis in the Basin Gdańsk (southern Baltic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, L.; Lemieszek, A.; Kalarus, M.; Żmijewska, I. M.

    2013-07-01

    The ecosystem model 3-D CEMBS connected with the population model, described in this paper, was used to determine the temporal distributions of T. longicornis in the Gdańsk Basin (the southern Baltic Sea) divided into the coastal zone P2 (the Gulf of Gdańsk) and the open sea P1 (Gdańsk Deep). The population model for T. longicornis consists of twelve equations for twelve states of variables, six for the mass Wi and six for the abundance Zi, i.e. two states of variables Wi and Zi, for each of the six model stages of the development; the stages were grouped as follows: eggs - Egg, stages not taking food - NI-NII, subsequent stages of nauplii - NIII-NVI, two copepodid stages - CI-CIII and CIV-CV and the last stage of adult organisms - CVI. Seasonal dynamics of T. longicornis is described by average changes in the total biomass as a sum of biomass of the examined ontogenesis stages, which are the sum of the products of the mass Wi and the abundance Zi of individual organisms at a given stage. The empirical verification of the population model based on in situ data obtained from the analysis of biological material collected in 2010-2011 in the region of Gdańsk Deep (P1) and in the western part of Gdańsk Bay (P2), and in 2006-2007 - only in Gdańsk Bay (P2). The highest values of the modelled T. longicornis biomass occurred in the period of high temperatures, i.e. in summer, in June 2010 and July 2011 in the Bay of Gdańsk - at station P2, and between late June and early July, and for almost the whole summer in Gdańsk Deep - at station P1, and amounted to respectively ca. 5200 mgw.w. m-2 and 6300 mgw.w. m-2 at station P2 and 24 500 mgw.w. m-2 and 27 800 mgw.w. m-2 at station P1. In 2006 and 2007 at station P2 the highest numerical values were recorded between late July and early August, exactly at the same time as environmental data, and amounted to 4300 mgw.w. m-2 and 5800 mgw.w. m-2, respectively. The results determined from the model are 0.25-2 times higher

  18. Tritium volume activity in the Baltic Sea in 1987-1989

    SciTech Connect

    Styro, D.B.; Korotkov, V.P.

    1994-11-01

    Tritium volume activities measured in the Baltic Sea are summarized in this paper. Activity levels were determined by the liquid scintillation method with a LS-1000 counter. The field investigations showed that the tritium volume activity in the Baltic Sea can change substantially in absolute magnitude. Therefore, average volume activity is used as an indicator of natural content. Correlations between calculated (averaged) tritium activity levels and the Chernobyl accident are very briefly discussed. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. The radiological exposure of man from radioactivity in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, S P; Bengtson, P; Bojanowsky, R; Hagel, P; Herrmann, J; Ilus, E; Jakobson, E; Motiejunas, S; Panteleev, Y; Skujina, A; Suplinska, M

    1999-09-30

    A radiological assessment has been carried out considering discharges of radioactivity to the Baltic Sea marine environment since 1950. The sources of radioactivity that have been evaluated are atmospheric nuclear-weapons fallout, fallout from the Chernobyl accident in 1986, discharges of radionuclides from Sellafield and La Hague transported into the Baltic Sea, and discharges of radionuclides from nuclear installations located in the Baltic Sea area. Dose rates from man-made radioactivity to individual members of the public (critical groups) have been calculated based on annual intake of seafood and beach occupancy time. The dose rates to individuals from the regions of the Bothnian Sea and Gulf of Finland are predicted to be larger than from any other area in the Baltic Sea due to the pattern of Chernobyl fallout. The dose rates are predicted to have peaked in 1986 at a value of 0.2 mSv year-1. Collective committed doses to members of the public have been calculated based on fishery statistics and predicted concentrations of radionuclides in biota and coastal sediments. The total collective dose from man-made radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is estimated at 2600 manSv, of which approximately two-thirds originate from Chernobyl fallout, approximately one-quarter from atmospheric nuclear-weapons fallout, approximately 8% from European reprocessing facilities, and approximately 0.04% from nuclear installations bordering the Baltic Sea area. An assessment of small-scale dumping of low-level radioactive waste in the Baltic Sea in the 1960s by Sweden and the Soviet Union has showed that doses to man from these activities are negligible. Dose rates and doses from natural radioactivity dominate except for the year 1986 where dose rates to individuals from Chernobyl fallout in some regions of the Baltic Sea approached those from natural radioactivity. PMID:10568271

  20. The LWb blood group as a marker of prehistoric Baltic migrations and admixture.

    PubMed

    Sistonen, P; Virtaranta-Knowles, K; Denisova, R; Kucinskas, V; Ambrasiene, D; Beckman, L

    1999-06-01

    Archaeological findings and historical records indicate frequent migrations and exchange of genetic material between populations in the Baltic Sea area. However, there have so far been very few attempts to trace migrations in this area using genetic markers. We have studied the Baltic populations with respect to exceptional variations in the frequencies of the Landsteiner-Wiener (LW) blood group. The frequency of the uncommon LWb gene was high in the Balts, around 6% among Latvians and Lithuanians, very low among the other western Europeans (0-0.1%) and apparently absent in Asiatic and African populations. From the Baltic region of peak frequency there was a regular decline of LWb incidence (a descending cline) in the neighboring populations: 4.0% in the Estonians, 2.9% in the Finns, 2. 2% in the Vologda Russians, and 2.0% in the Poles. Thus the distribution of LWb suggests considerable and extensive Baltic admixture, especially in the north and northeast direction. In Southern Sweden with an LWb frequency of 0.3%, the Baltic influence appeared slight, while in the population of the Swedish island Gotland in the middle of the Baltic Sea there was a significantly increased LWb frequency of 1.0% compared with that of Western European countries. The distinction of codominantly inherited LW antigenic forms, LWa and LWb (previously Nea), is known to be due to a single base substitution. Based on our population data, it is plausible that the expansion of this point mutation occurred only once during human history. Furthermore, our data indicate that the expansion of the LWb mutation occurred in Balts and that LWb can be considered a 'Baltic tribal marker', its presence in other populations being an indicator of the degree of Baltic genetic influence. PMID:10364680

  1. Bay of Fundy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The highest tides on Earth occur in the Minas Basin, the eastern extremity of the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia, Canada, where the tide range can reach 16 meters when the various factors affecting the tides are in phase. The primary cause of the immense tides of Fundy is a resonance of the Bay of Fundy-Gulf of Maine system. The system is effectively bounded at this outer end by the edge of the continental shelf with its approximately 40:1 increase in depth. The system has a natural period of approximately 13 hours, which is close to the 12h25m period of the dominant lunar tide of the Atlantic Ocean. Like a father pushing his daughter on a swing, the gentle Atlantic tidal pulse pushes the waters of the Bay of Fundy-Gulf of Maine basin at nearly the optimum frequency to cause a large to-and-fro oscillation. The greatest slosh occurs at the head (northeast end) of the system. The high tide image (top) was acquired April 20, 2001, and the low tide image (bottom) was acquired September 30, 2002. The images cover an area of 16.5 by 21 km, and are centered near 64 degrees west longitude and 45.5 degrees north latitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active

  2. Variability of atmospheric circulation patterns associated with large volume changes of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, A.; Post, P.

    2015-10-01

    Salinity and stratification in the deep basins of the Baltic Sea are linked to the occurrence of Major Baltic Inflows (MBIs) of higher saline water of North Sea origin, which occur sporadically and transport higher saline and oxygenated water to deeper layers. Since the mid-1970s, the frequency and intensity of MBIs have decreased. They were completely absent between February 1983 and January 1993. However, in spite of the decreasing frequency of MBIs, there was no obvious decrease of larger Baltic Sea volume changes (LVCs). A LVC is defined by a total volume change of at least 100 km3. LVCs can be identified from the sea level changes at Landsort which is known to represent the mean sea level of the Baltic Sea very well. Strong inflows leading to LVCs are associated to a special sequence of atmospheric circulation patterns. Our analysis based on Jenkinson-Collison circulation (JCC) types confirms that most effective inflows occur if about a month before the main inflow period, eastern air flow with anticyclonic vorticity over the western Baltic prevails. These conditions reduce the mean sea level of the Baltic Sea and lead to an increased saline stratification in the Belt Sea area. An immediate period of strong to very strong westerly winds trigger the inflow and force LVCs/MBIs. The lack of MBIs coincide with a negative trend of eastern types and a parallel increase of western type JCCs.

  3. Bacterial methanogenesis in holocene sediments in the Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Lein, A.Y.; Namsaraev, B.B.; Trotsyuk, V.Y.; Ivanov, M.V.

    1981-01-01

    Soviet biologists have found evidence of viable methanogenic microorganisms in mud samples collected in 1978 from the Baltic Sea by the research ship Academician Kurchatov. Experiments with radioactive carbon and direct measurements of the samples' methane concentrations led to several conclusions: (1) the process of bacterial methanogenesis occurs mainly via carbon dioxide reduction, (2) the methanogenic intensity depends on the depth of the deposited sediment and its distance from land; shallow-water sediments found in gulfs produced more methane than deepwater ones taken from low spots, (3) organic-matter consumption during bacterial methane reduction makes up 0.14-7.9 mg of carbon/kg of wet mud per year; this is over 20 times less than during bacterial sulfate reduction, (4) The bulk of the methane generated migrates from the muds into the water and (5) marine sediments are undersaturated with methane, suggesting that the methane migrates via filtration of pore waters, not by diffusion.

  4. Paleogeographic sedimentation settings in the northern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimonis, E. S.; Emelyanov, E. M.; Vaikutene, G.

    2008-10-01

    The grain-size and chemical composition of the bottom sediments and their diatom assemblages from the northern Baltic Sea is discussed. Characteristic layers are distinguished based on the lithostratgraphy and sediment core correlation, which reflect the transition from the lacustrine to marine sedimentation settings during the initial Holocene. Sediment cores demonstrate lateral variations in the sedimentation patterns during the marine (Yoldia Sea), the lacustrine (Ancylus Lake), and the subsequent marine (Littorina Sea) stages: first two stages were characterized by the clay deposition, while the latter one featured accumulation of silty-clayey and clayey muds in bottom depressions. Sea-level fluctuations and corresponding environmental changes are recorded in microlaminated sequences, in particular, sapropelic muds.

  5. The groundwater exchange rate of the southern Baltic coastal lowland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burzyński, K.; Sadurski, A.

    1990-11-01

    The groundwater of the southern Baltic lowlands usually occurs in particular hydrogeological conditions. The lowland is mostly covered by peats several metres in thickness. Peatbog water is isolated from deeper aquifers and has different chemical composition. Salty, relic groundwater of marine origin from the Atlantic period of the Holocene (Littorina transgression) may have survived in the deeper coastal aquifers in places of sluggish flow. The results of mathematical modelling of groundwater circulation show that the flow rate and local directions of groundwater change during the year, depending on the rate of groundwater recharge by precipitation. We present here an unsteady flow model, which makes it possible to predict the water table fluctuations during a year at any point of the area studied. The calculation of the groundwater exchange rate did not confirm the presence of any places of very sluggish groundwater flow, where salty, young relic water might have survived.

  6. Atmospheric circulation and storm events in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surkova, G. V.; Arkhipkin, Victor S.; Kislov, Alexander V.

    2015-09-01

    The storm events in the Baltic Sea are examined in connection with the main weather patterns grouped into the circulation types (CTs), and their changes in present climate. A calendar of storms was derived from results of wave model SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore) experiments for 1948-2011. Based on this calendar, a catalogue of atmospheric sea level pressure (SLP) fields was prepared for CTs from the NCEP/NCAR dataset. SLP fields were then analyzed using a pattern recognition algorithm which employed empirical orthogonal decomposition and cluster analysis. For every CT we conducted an analysis of their seasonal and interannual changes, along with their role in storm event formation. An increase of the storm CTs' frequency in the second part of the 20th century was shown to be in a close agreement with teleconnection circulation patterns such as the Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation and the Scandinavian blocking.

  7. Allelopathic activity of the Baltic cyanobacteria against microalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żak, Adam; Musiewicz, Krzysztof; Kosakowska, Alicja

    2012-10-01

    The goal of this work was to investigate the influence of Baltic cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis and Nodularia spumigena cells and cell-free filtrates on the growth of green algae Chlorella vulgaris. We have demonstrated that Anabaena variabilis and Nodularia spumigena caused allelopathic effects against microalgae. The cyanobacterial and microalgal cultures were provided on liquid medium, in 22 °C at continuous light. Cell-free filtrates were obtained by centrifugation and filtering aliquots of cyanobacterial cultures (including cultures in exponential and stationary phase of growth). Growth response of free cells (batch culture technique) and immobilized cultures (in alginate beads) of the unicellular green algae to cyanobacteria allelochemicals were tested and compared. In this experiment Anabaena variabilis supressed the growth of microalgae compared to control samples. Nodularia spumigena stimulated the growth of Chlorella vulgaris in most cases, however both positive and negative effects were observed.

  8. [Accumulation of polycyclic arenes in Baltic Sea algae].

    PubMed

    Veldre, I A; Itra, A R; Paal'me, L P; Kukk, Kh A

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents data on the level of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and some other polycyclic arenes in alga and phanerogam specimens from different gulfs of the Baltic Sea. Algae were shown to absorb BP from sea water. The mean concentration of BP in sea water was under 0.004 microgram/1, while in algae it ranged 0.1-21.2 micrograms/kg dry weight. Algae accumulate BP to a higher degree than phanerogams. The highest concentrations of BP were found in algae Enteromorpha while the lowest ones in Furcellaria. In annual green algae, BP level was higher in autumn, i. e. at the end of vegetation period, than in spring. Brown algae Fucus vesiculosus is recommended for monitoring polycyclic arene pollution in the area from Vormsi Island to Käsmu and green algae Cladophora or Enteromorpha in the eastern part of the Finnish Gulf. PMID:4060672

  9. Radiational tides at the southeastern coast of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, A. B.; Medvedev, I. P.

    2015-05-01

    The tides in the Baltic Sea are weak but unmistakably recognizable in sea-level spectra. Multiyear hourly tide gauge series enable us to examine specific tidal properties in detail and to identify some unexpected effects. Two nearby stations on the southeastern coast of the sea, namely Baltiysk, located in the strait connecting the Vistula Lagoon to the Baltic Sea, and Otkrytoe, on the coast of the Curonian Lagoon, are found to have very different character of tidal motions. Based on 13 years of simultaneous observations at these stations we constructed high-resolution spectra of sea level fluctuations that demonstrated that the tidal spectrum at Baltiysk is "classical" with sharp peaks corresponding to the major tidal constituents: M2, S2, N2, K1, O1, and P1. Unlike at Baltiysk, the main tidal peak at Otkrytoe is at the S1 frequency; the K1, P1, and S2 tidal harmonics also have significant peaks, while the other harmonics (including M2 and O1) are undistinguishable. Further analysis indicated that the tides at Baltiysk are generated by ordinary gravitational tidal forces, while at Otkrytoe they are induced by solar radiation, specifically by the breeze winds creating wind setups and setdowns in the Curonian Lagoon. Moreover, our findings demonstrate that the observed K1 and P1 peaks at Otkrytoe are related not to gravitational forces but to the seasonal modulation of the S1 radiational tidal constituent. The separate analysis of the "summer" and "winter" sea level spectra at Otkrytoe reveals prominent radiational tidal peaks (S1 and S2) in summer and the absence of these peaks in winter. The results of the analysis support the assumption that these motions are generated by the breeze winds associated with the sea/land temperature contrasts, which are substantial during the warm (ice-free) season but vague during the cold season when ice cover diminishes these contrasts.

  10. PUMa - modelling the groundwater flow in Baltic Sedimentary Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvane, G.; Marnica, A.; Bethers, U.

    2012-04-01

    In 2009-2012 at University of Latvia and Latvia University of Agriculture project "Establishment of interdisciplinary scientist group and modelling system for groundwater research" is implemented financed by the European Social Fund. The aim of the project is to develop groundwater research in Latvia by establishing interdisciplinary research group and modelling system covering groundwater flow in the Baltic Sedimentary Basin. Researchers from fields like geology, chemistry, mathematical modelling, physics and environmental engineering are involved in the project. The modelling system is used as a platform for addressing scientific problems such as: (1) large-scale groundwater flow in Baltic Sedimentary Basin and impact of human activities on it; (2) the evolution of groundwater flow since the last glaciation and subglacial groundwater recharge; (3) the effects of climate changes on shallow groundwater and interaction of hydrographical network and groundwater; (4) new programming approaches for groundwater modelling. Within the frame of the project most accessible geological information such as description of geological wells, geological maps and results of seismic profiling in Latvia as well as Estonia and Lithuania are collected and integrated into modelling system. For example data form more then 40 thousands wells are directly used to automatically generate the geological structure of the model. Additionally a groundwater sampling campaign is undertaken. Contents of CFC, stabile isotopes of O and H and radiocarbon are the most significant parameters of groundwater that are established in unprecedented scale for Latvia. The most important modelling results will be published in web as a data set. Project number: 2009/0212/1DP/1.1.1.2.0/09/APIA/VIAA/060. Project web-site: www.puma.lu.lv

  11. On Suspended matter grain size in Baltic sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubnova, Ekaterina; Sivkov, Vadim; Zubarevich, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Suspended matter grain size data were gathered during the 25th research vessel "Akademik Mstislav Keldysh" cruise (1991, September-October). Initial quantitative data were obtained with a use of the Coulter counter and subsequently modified into volume concentrations (mm3/l) for size intervals. More than 80 samples from 15 stations were analyzed (depth range 0-355 m). The main goal of research was to illustrate the spatial variability of suspended matter concentration and dispersion in Baltic Sea. The mutual feature of suspended matter grain size distribution is the logical rise of particle number along with descending of particle's size. Vertical variability of grain size distribution was defined by Baltic Sea hydrological structure, including upper mixed layer - from the surface to the thermocline - with 35 m thick, cold intermediate layer - from the thermocline to the halocline- and bottom layer, which lied under the halocline. Upper layer showed a rise in total suspended matter concentration (up to 0.6 mm3/l), while cold intermediate level consisted of far more clear water (up to 0.1 mm3/l). Such a difference is caused by the thermocline boarding role. Meanwhile, deep bottom water experienced surges in suspended matter concentration owing to the nepheloid layer presence and "liquid bottom" effect. Coastal waters appeared to have the highest amount of particles (up to 5.0 mm3/l). Suspended matter grain size distribution in the upper mixed layer revealed a peak of concentration at 7 μ, which can be due to autumn plankton bloom. Another feature in suspended matter grain size distribution appeared at the deep layer below halocline, where both O2 and H2S were observed and red/ox barrier is. The simultaneous presence of Fe and Mn (in solutions below red/ox barrier) and O2 leads to precipitation of oxyhydrates Fe and Mn and grain size distribution graph peaking at 4.5 μ.

  12. Ice-load induced tectonics controlled tunnel valley evolution - instances from the southwestern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Hseinat, M.; Hübscher, C.

    2014-08-01

    Advancing ice sheets have a strong impact on the earth's topography. For example, they leave behind an erosional unconformity, bulldozer the underlying strata and form tunnel valleys, primarily by subglacial melt-water erosion and secondarily by direct glacial erosion. The conceptual models of the reactivation of faults within the upper crust, due to the ice sheets' load, are also established. However, this phenomenon is also rather under-explored. Here, we propose a causal link between ice-load induced tectonics, the generation of near-vertical faults in the upper crust above an inherited deep-rooted fault and the evolution of tunnel valleys. The Kossau tunnel valley in the southeastern Bay of Kiel has been surveyed by means of high-resolution multi-channel seismic and echosounder data. It strikes almost south to north and can be mapped over a distance of ca 50 km. It is 1200-8000 m wide with a valley of up to 200 m deep. Quaternary deposits fill the valley and cover the adjacent glaciogenic unconformity. A near-vertical fault system with an apparent dip angle of >80°, which reaches from the top Zechstein upwards into the Quaternary, underlies the valley. The fault partially pierces the seafloor and growth is observed within the uppermost Quaternary strata only. Consequently, the fault evolved in the Late Quaternary. The fault is associated with an anticline that is between 700 and 3000 m wide and about 20-40 m high. The fault-anticline assemblage neither resembles any typical extensional, compressional or strike-slip deformation pattern, nor is it related to salt tectonics. Based on the observed position and deformation pattern of the fault-anticline assemblage, we suggest that these structures formed as a consequence of the differential ice-load induced tectonics above an inherited deep-rooted sub-salt fault related to the Glückstadt Graben. Lateral variations in the ice-load during the ice sheet's advance caused differential subsidence, thus rejuvenating the

  13. Eutrophication in the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulanowicz, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of using remote sensing to acquire fast reliable data on the nutrient problem in the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem are discussed. Pollution effects to phytoplankton blooms during late summer and early fall months are also considered.

  14. Foraminiferal stable isotope constraints on salinity changes in the deglacial and early Holocene Baltic Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana Krupinski, Nadine; Filipsson, Helena; Bokhari-Friberg, Yasmin; Knudsen, Karen-Luise; Mackensen, Andreas; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Austin, William

    2015-04-01

    The northern European Baltic Sea shows evidence of strong coupling with North Atlantic climate over recent glacial-interglacial cycles, but existing climate proxy evidence from regional sediment records suggest that the coupling may occur through non-linear processes. High-resolution regional climate records in Europe and from the Baltic Sea are critical for evaluating this coupling and the regional sensitivity to North Atlantic and global climate signals. However, evaluating the drivers and mechanisms of proposed links between the North Atlantic and Baltic Sea climate has often been hampered by a lack of long, continuous, high-resolution climate records from this area. New high-resolution sediment cores collected by IODP/ECORD Expedition 347 (Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment) allow such records to be generated, including foraminiferal geochemistry records of Baltic Sea hydrographic conditions during the most recent deglaciation and early Holocene (~19-7 cal. ka). The dramatic changes in salinity, sea level, circulation, temperature, and oxygenation during this period, e.g. through massive meltwater release from proglacial lakes and the early Holocene inundation of the Baltic by seawater highlight these non-linear links between the Baltic and North Atlantic. This work uses benthic foraminiferal stable isotope records (δ18O and δ13C) from sites in the western Baltic (M0059, Lillebælt, early Holocene marine stage (Littorina Sea)) and Kattegat (M0060, Anholt, deglaciation) to constrain salinity changes during these intervals. Because of the dramatic changes in salinity this region experiences today and during the study periods, oxygen isotope records (δ18O) here primarily reflect a signal of changing salinity, with a reduced temperature effect. Early δ18O results from the western Baltic (M0059) show a trend of declining δ18O/salinity during the first several kyr of the Littorina Sea stage, in agreement with previous work indicating declining salinity due to gradual

  15. US foreign policy and the Baltic states. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Shuey, K.A.

    1996-03-01

    This thesis examines U. S. foreign policy toward the Baltic states from 1918 to 1991 to determine if the U.S. has been realistic in its dealings with small nations. An analysis of U.S. policy indicates that the United States acts hypocritically by accepting compromises on the very moral principals to which it claims to be the protectorate of when domestic political costs are high. The sacrifice of national values degrades the credibility of the moral high ground necessary for U.S. policy. This study reviews the events that occurred during the three major periods in U.S.-Baltic relations: The initial period of Baltic independence following World War I; the Soviet annexation of the Baltics during World War II: and finally the beginning of the second period of Baltic independence during the breakup of the Soviet Union. In all three cases U.S. policy was unclear and contradictory. The Baltic case provides a good example of the tendency for U.S. policy to be paradoxical and ineffective. This study concludes that despite the U.S. policy of nonrecognition of the Soviet annexation of the Baltic states during the Cold War, the United States failed to adhere to its principals when given the opportunity. In the process, it also neglected problems within its borders that required attention perhaps more urgently than those outside. The tendency for U.S. policy to ignore the issues that actually threaten its security internally and placing a higher priority on external matters that do not have a real impact on its standing could likely lead to its inadvertent downfall.

  16. Effects of an extensive Prymnesium polylepis bloom on breeding eiders in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, K.; Hajdu, S.; Kilpi, M.; Larsson, R.; Leito, A.; Lyngs, P.

    2014-04-01

    The effects of an extensive bloom of the potentially toxic Prymnesium polylepis (Haptophyta) on breeding eiders (Somateria mollissima) in the Baltic Sea were analysed. Increasing abundances of the alternate stage P. polylepis was detected by a marine monitoring programme in the autumn 2007. The bloom peaked between March and May 2008 in the southern, central and northwestern Baltic Proper and abundances of up to 5 × 106 cells l- 1 were recorded. At several sites P. polylepis constituted between 30 and 90% of the total phytoplankton biovolume. The flagellate was only recorded in low numbers in the northeastern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland. The abundances were low in 2007, 2009 and 2010. In 28 eider colonies situated in the southern and central Baltic Proper, sharp and synchronous declines in the number of nesting eiders were observed from 2007 to 2008. In colonies on Gotland in the central Baltic Proper, a 76% decrease, from 6650 nests to 1620 nests, was followed by increases in 2009 and 2010, although not up to numbers observed in 2007. At Utklippan and Ertholmene in the southern Baltic Proper, the observed decreases of 55%, from 144 to 65 nests, and 36%, from 1660 to 1060 nests, respectively, between 2007 and 2008, were followed by increases in 2009 and 2010 up to the level observed in 2007. By contrast, no general decline of the number of nesting eiders was observed from 2007 to 2008 in 75 colonies in the northeastern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland. Hence, the spatial distribution of the P. polylepis bloom in 2008 closely matched the observed distribution of extensive non-breeding of female eiders. We suggest that the intensive spring bloom of P. polylepis, either through a toxic or non-toxic pathway, affected the main benthic food of eiders, i.e. blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus × Mytilus edulis), at pre-breeding foraging sites close to the breeding sites, and, subsequently, the body condition of adult female eiders and their breeding propensity.

  17. Development of hydroacoustical techniques for the monitoring and classification of benthic habitats in Puck Bay: Modeling of acoustic waves scattering by seagrass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raczkowska, A.; Gorska, N.

    2012-12-01

    Puck Bay is an area of high species biodiversity belonging to the Coastal Landscape Park of Baltic Sea Protected Areas (BSPA) and is also included in the list of the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and covered by the protection program "Natura 2000". The underwater meadows of the Puck Bay are important for Europe's natural habitats due to their role in enhancing the productivity of marine ecosystems and providing shelter and optimal feeding conditions for many marine organisms. One of the dominant species comprising the underwater meadows of the Southern Baltic Sea is the seagrass Zostera marina. The spatial extent of underwater seagrass meadows is altered by pollution and eutrophication; therefore, to properly manage the area one must monitor its ecological state. Remote acoustic methods are useful tools for the monitoring of benthic habitats in many marine areas because they are non-invasive and allow researchers to obtain data from a large area in a short period of time. Currently there is a need to apply these methods in the Baltic Sea. Here we present an analysis of the mechanism of scattering of acoustic waves on seagrass in the Southern Baltic Sea based on the numerical modeling of acoustic wave scattering by the biological tissues of plants. The study was conducted by adapting a model developed on the basis of DWBA (Distorted Wave Born Approximation) developed by Stanton and Chu (2005) for fluid-like objects, including the characteristics of the Southern Baltic seagrass. Input data for the model, including the morphometry of seagrass leaves, their angle of inclination and the density plant cover, was obtained through the analysis of biological materials collected in the Puck Bay in the framework of a research project financed by the Polish Government (Development of hydroacoustic methods for studies of underwater meadows of Puck Bay, 6P04E 051 20). On the basis of the developed model, we have analyzed the dependence of the target strength of a single

  18. Tsunami Inundation modeling for Tolaga Bay, Tokomaru Bay, Hicks Bay and Te Araroa communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberopoulou, A.; Wang, X.; Power, W. L.

    2012-12-01

    We assess the tsunami hazard to four communities in Raukumara Peninsula (Northeastern region of North Island of New Zealand): Tokomaru Bay, Tolaga Bay, Hicks Bay and Te Araroa. Representative severe but realistic scenarios that could affect the Raukumara peninsula are earthquakes that rupture the interface between the Australian and Pacific plates, earthquakes that rupture faults within the overlying Australian plate or the subducting Pacific plate (location is not always well constrained). Earthquakes that rupture both the plate interface and simultaneously faults within the crust of the Australian plate are also a possibility. Tsunamis may also be caused by submarine landslides that occur near the edge of the continental shelf, but these are not considered here. For this study four scenario events were constructed, including a distant event from South America (offshore Peru), outer rise events and a thrust event in the Hikurangi region off the east coast of New Zealand. The sources are not exhaustive but representative of the types of significant events that could occur in the region and were either improved from earlier sources or derived from recent studies. Available high resolution LiDAR and RTK data were combined with topographic and LINZ data for the development of bathymetric/topographic grids. Our modelling results show that Tolaga Bay appears most vulnerable to tsunami inundation although Hicks Bay and Te Araroa are also significantly inundated in several of the scenarios. Tokomaru Bay is naturally well protected because the rapid change in elevation limits the range of inundation. The worst scenario for Tokomaru Bay was an earthquake in the Hikurangi subduction zone resulting in large flow depths, whereas for Tolaga Bay inundation is severe from most scenarios. Hicks Bay and Te Araroa get the most severe flooding from earthquakes in South America and on the Hikurangi subduction zone. Inundation extent is similar for Tolaga Bay during the Outer Rise and

  19. Variability of Atmospheric Circulation Patterns associated with Major Baltic Inflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, Piia; Lehmann, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Due to the narrow and shallow Danish Straits the water exchange between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea is greatly restrained. As a consequence the salt flux into the Baltic Sea is reduced, so that during stagnation periods where no strong inflows occur the permanent halocline weakens, and even disappears in some basins. Only Major Baltic inflows (MBIs), when large volumes of highly saline and oxygenated water invade over the sills, are capable to flow as dense bottom currents into the central deeps and replace the stagnant water there, simultaneously improving living conditions to biota. MBIs are typically forced by a sequence of easterly winds lasting for about 20 days followed by strong to very strong westerly winds of similar duration. Since the mid-1970s, the frequency and intensity of major inflows have decreased, and they were completely absent between February 1983 and January 1993. As the major inflows are mainly forced by the atmosphere, the reason for this kind of change is assumed to be connected to variations in the atmospheric circulation. There have been several studies where the changes in regional atmospheric circulation have been described through local wind climatology or modes of large scale low-frequency circulation variability, defined by means of principal component analysis. Another way to describe atmospheric circulation patterns is by classifying them into different atmospheric circulation types. The latter are well suited for describing sequences of circulation patterns in appropriate temporal (in hours) and spatial (regional to local) scales. Circulation types reflect real circulation patterns, which are easy to interpret, unlike the modes of variability, that cannot be considered as typical patterns of airflow, but just as building bricks for describing variability of the atmospheric circulation. Hence, our aim was to characterize the variability of sequences of atmospheric circulation patterns at the time of MBIs, to use this

  20. Geological Storage od CO2 in the Southern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernon, Richard; O'Neill, Nick; Pasquali, Riccardo; Niemi, Auli

    2014-05-01

    Geological Storage of CO2 in the Southern Baltic Sea Region The BASTOR project identifies and characterises the potential CO2 storage sites in the southern Baltic Sea. A regional theoretical storage capacity of 16Gt of CO2 in the Middle Cambrian sandstone beneath 900 metres of cap rock was estimated. 1.9Gt of this storage potential is estimated in the Dalders Monocline with some 743Mt CO2 in individual hydrocarbon and saline aquifer structures located mainly offshore Latvia and 128Mt in the Dalders Structure. Although the study has established a relatively large theoretical storage capacity, there is no effective capacity proven within these totals. Dynamic modelling undertaken in the Southern Swedish sector suggests that the relatively poor permeability and porosity characteristics would limit the injection rate to 0.5Mt per well per annum and restrict the reservoir pressure increase to 50% above the hydrostatic pressure for an injection period of 50 years. The dynamic modelling for this area suggests that an injection strategy for this sector would be limited to 5 injection wells giving a total injection capacity of 2.5 Mt per annum. Based on these results, the potential of the Southern Swedish offshore sector to sustain injection rates of CO2 required for regional industrial capture, even when using horizontal wells, brine extraction and hydraulic fracturing, would appear to be very low. Areas to the north east of the Monocline, such as offshore Latvia have been identified as having better reservoir quality despite limited data being available. These areas could sustain higher rates of injection and prove suitable areas for commercial storage. Furthermore, the regional storage capacity assessment demonstrated that there are sweet spots in the Cambrian reservoir such as onshore Latvia, where there is commercial gas storage, and both onshore and offshore Kaliningrad, where there is ongoing hydrocarbon production. The potential for seal failure was investigated as

  1. Morphological abnormalities in gonads of the Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras): Description of types and prevalence in the northern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Rajasilta, Marjut; Elfving, Mikael; Hänninen, Jari; Laine, Päivi; Vuorinen, Ilppo; Paranko, Jorma

    2016-03-01

    Due to heavy anthropogenic influence and variation of the environmental conditions in the Baltic Sea, reproductive disorders are becoming a major environmental concern. We show here an increasing prevalence of gonadal malformations in the Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras), a key species of the Baltic ecosystem and important in commercial fishery. During 1987-2014, the spawning herring population in the Archipelago Sea (AS) (North Baltic Sea, Finland) was monitored annually and analyzed for gross morphology of the gonads [total number (n) of analyzed fish = 38 284]. Four different types of malformations were repeatedly found and named as asymmetric, rudimentary, segmented, and branched gonads, but also hermaphroditic gonads and miscellaneous (unidentified) disorders were recorded. In 2013, additional samplings (n of fish analyzed = 541) showed similar malformations in herring from the Bothnian Sea. In some gonad types, histological examination revealed disintegration of seminiferous tubules and hyperplasia of the interstitial tissue. In 2014, the overall prevalence of malformations was still relatively low in the AS (frequency = 0-3.4 %; n = 750) and had apparently minimal effect on population recruitment. However, an increasing trend in the time-series (GLM; F = 32.65; p < 0.001) and a significantly higher prevalence in the Bothnian Sea (frequency = 0.7-5.0 %; n = 541; χ (2) = 6.24; p < 0.05) suggest that gonadal malformations may become a new threat for fish in the Baltic Sea. The observed gonad atrophies may be due to environmental endocrine disruption; however, also other explanations may exist and potential explanations are discussed. PMID:26446509

  2. Chemical physiological and morphological studies of feral baltic salmon (Salmo salar) suffering from abnormal fry mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Norrgren, L. . Dept. of Pathology Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm ); Andersson, T. . Dept. of Zoophysiology); Bergqvist, P.A. . Inst. of Environmental Chemistry); Bjoerklund, I. )

    1993-11-01

    In 1974, abnormally high mortality was recorded among yolk-sac fry of Baltic salmon (Salmo salar) originating from feral females manually stripped and fertilized with milt from feral males. The cause of this mortality, designated M74, is unknown. The hypothesis is that xenobiotic compounds responsible for reproduction failure in higher vertebrates in the Baltic Sea also interfere with reproduction in Baltic salmon. The significance of M74 should not be underestimated, because the syndrome has caused up to 75% yearly mortality of developing Baltic salmon yolk-sac larvae in a fish hatchery dedicated to production of smolt during the last two decades. The author cannot exclude the possibility that only a relatively low number of naturally spawned eggs develop normally because of M74. No individual pollutant has been shown to be responsible for the development of M74 syndrome. However, a higher total body burden of organochlorine substances may be responsible for the M74 syndrome. The presence of induced hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes in both yolk-sac fry suffering from M74 and adult feral females producing offspring affected by M74 supports this hypothesis. In addition, the P450 enzyme activity in offspring from feral fish is higher than the activity in yolk-sac fry from hatchery-raised fish, suggesting that feral Baltic salmon are influenced by organic xenobiotics.

  3. Biodiversity gradient in the Baltic Sea: a comprehensive inventory of macrozoobenthos data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zettler, Michael L.; Karlsson, Anna; Kontula, Tytti; Gruszka, Piotr; Laine, Ari O.; Herkül, Kristjan; Schiele, Kerstin S.; Maximov, Alexey; Haldin, Jannica

    2014-03-01

    In the Helsinki Commission Red List project 2009-2012, taxonomic and distributional data of benthic (macro) invertebrates were compiled by the present authors in a comprehensive checklist of the Baltic Sea fauna. Based on the most recent and comprehensive data, this paper presents the diversity patterns observed among benthic invertebrates in the Baltic Sea. As expected, the total number of species per sub-region generally declined along the salinity gradient from the Danish Straits to the northern Baltic Sea. This relationship is well known from the Baltic Sea and has resulted in a general assumption of an exponentially positive relationship between species richness and salinity for marine species, and a negative relationship for freshwater species. In 1934, Remane produced a diagram to describe the hypothetical distribution of benthic invertebrate diversity along a marine-freshwater salinity gradient. Our results clearly indicated the validity of this theory for the macrozoobenthic diversity pattern within the Baltic Sea. Categorisation of sub-regions according to species composition showed both separation and grouping of some sub-regions and a strong alignment of similarity patterns of zoobenthic species composition along the salinity gradient.

  4. Sea level trends for all sections of the Baltic Sea coastline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Kristine S.; Høyer, Jacob L.; Suursaar, Ülo; Knudsen, Per; She, Jun

    2016-04-01

    To better understand influence of sea level rise on societal vulnerability and coastal erosion processes, it is important to know the sea level trend. The coastline of the Baltic Sea is not uniformly exposed, and therefore we will determine the sea level trend of the last 10, 50 and 100 years for all sections of the coastline. The observational record of sea level in the Baltic Sea is quite unique with several records of more than 100 years of data. However, the information is confined to the tide gauge locations. Here, we utilize a statistical method based on least squares regression and originally developed for short term sea level variability (Madsen et al. 2015, JGR, doi:10.1002/2015JC011070) to spread out the sea level information from selected tide gauges to all sections of the Baltic Sea coast. Monthly mean tide gauge observations are retrieved from PSMSL and supplemented with Estonian observations. The spatial distribution of the sea level is obtained from model reanalysis from the Copernicus Marine Service and satellite altimetry observations and land rise information is taken into account. Results are validated against independent tide gauges, providing a consistent record of 20th century sea level trends and variability, including uncertainties, for the entire Baltic Sea coastline. This work is sponsored by the EMODnet project Baltic Checkpoint.

  5. Oceanographic connectivity and environmental correlates of genetic structuring in Atlantic herring in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Teacher, Amber GF; André, Carl; Jonsson, Per R; Merilä, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Marine fish often show little genetic structuring in neutral marker genes, and Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in the Baltic Sea are no exception; historically, very low levels of population differentiation (FST ≍ 0.002) have been found, despite a high degree of interpopulation environmental heterogeneity in salinity and temperature. Recent exome sequencing and SNP studies have however shown that many loci are under selection in this system. Here, we combined population genetic analyses of a large number of transcriptome-derived microsatellite markers with oceanographic modelling to investigate genetic differentiation and connectivity in Atlantic herring at a relatively fine scale within the Baltic Sea. We found evidence for weak but robust and significant genetic structuring (FST = 0.008) explainable by oceanographic connectivity. Genetic differentiation was also associated with site differences in temperature and salinity, with the result driven by the locus Her14 which appears to be under directional selection (FST = 0.08). The results show that Baltic herring are genetically structured within the Baltic Sea, and highlight the role of oceanography and environmental factors in explaining this structuring. The results also have implications for the management of herring fisheries, the most economically important fishery in the Baltic Sea, suggesting that the current fisheries management units may be in need of revision. PMID:23745145

  6. Using satellite data to estimate partial pressure of CO2 in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parard, Gaëlle; Charantonis, Anastase Alexandre; Rutgersson, Anna

    2016-03-01

    In this study we focused on estimating the pressure partial of CO2 (pCO2) in the entire Baltic Sea which can be considered a coastal area in its entirety. We used the self-organizing multiple linear output (SOMLO) method to estimate the ocean surface pCO2 in the Baltic Sea from the remotely sensed sea surface temperature, chlorophyll a, colored dissolved organic matter, net primary production, and mixed-layer depth. Uncertainties in the estimates include sparsity of in situ data used to train the algorithms, in particular, for some sectors and seasons. For this application we divided the Baltic Sea in four basins. When comparing the results obtained with this division to those obtained in previous studies, we notice a decrease in the root-mean-square error (<40 μatm) between the reconstruction of the pCO2 and their corresponding in situ measurements, as well as an increase of the correlation coefficient (> 0.96) between them. The outputs of this research have a horizontal resolution of 4 km and cover the 1998-2011 period. For the first time, a climatological mean distribution of surface water pCO2 over the Baltic Sea was calculated based on the SOMLO method with a mean pCO2 of 368.3 ± 100 μatm, and a range of 234-514 μatm. The seasonal variability is similar throughout the Baltic Sea, being high in winter and low in summer.

  7. Modelling the Influence of Major Baltic Inflows on Near-Bottom Conditions at the Entrance of the Gulf of Finland

    PubMed Central

    Lessin, Gennadi; Raudsepp, Urmas; Stips, Adolf

    2014-01-01

    A coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model was implemented in order to estimate the effects of Major Baltic Inflows on the near-bottom hydrophysical and biogeochemical conditions in the northern Baltic Proper and the western Gulf of Finland during the period 1991–2009. We compared results of a realistic reference run to the results of an experimental run where Major Baltic Inflows were suppressed. Further to the expected overall decrease in bottom salinity, this modelling experiment confirms that in the absence of strong saltwater inflows the deep areas of the Baltic Proper would become more anoxic, while in the shallower areas (western Gulf of Finland) near-bottom average conditions improve. Our experiment revealed that typical estuarine circulation results in the sporadic emergence of short-lasting events of near-bottom anoxia in the western Gulf of Finland due to transport of water masses from the Baltic Proper. Extrapolating our results beyond the modelled period, we speculate that the further deepening of the halocline in the Baltic Proper is likely to prevent inflows of anoxic water to the Gulf of Finland and in the longer term would lead to improvement in near-bottom conditions in the Baltic Proper. Our results reaffirm the importance of accurate representation of salinity dynamics in coupled Baltic Sea models serving as a basis for credible hindcast and future projection simulations of biogeochemical conditions. PMID:25393720

  8. Argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) in interphases and metaphases of normal and neoplastic gill cells of Macoma balthica (Bivalvia: Tellinidae) from the Gulf of Gdansk, Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Smolarz, K; Wolowicz, M; Thiriot-Quiévreux, C

    2003-10-24

    Chromosome analysis of gill cells of different populations of Macoma balthica (L.) from the Bay of Gdansk (Baltic Sea) revealed 2 clam categories, 1 with neoplastic features and 1 without. Silver-staining was performed on interphase and metaphase cells of both categories. The mean argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR) count per abnormal interphase cell was significantly higher than in normal interphase cells. Normal silver-stained metaphases had 3 nucleolar organizer region (NOR) chromosome phenotypes. The location of the NORs in the most frequent phenotype (55.6% in 54 metaphases scored) was interstitial on the largest metacentric chromosome pair, Pair No. 1. Abnormal silver-stained metaphases had a higher number of active NOR sites. Different phenotypes were observed (frequency greater than 10% for 67 metaphases scored); 2 were similar to those in normal metaphases and 5 were ectopic. The higher activity of AgNORs observed in abnormal cells confirmed the diagnosis of malignant neoplasia. PMID:14667039

  9. Sedimentological conditions and sediment transport pathways in the nearshore zone of the Russian part of South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorokhova, Evgenia

    2016-04-01

    The sediment transport pathways and sedimentological conditions are identified on the South-Eastern Baltic Sea coastal zone (Russian part) up to the depth of 30 m on the base of grain size analysis of recent marine sediments. The interrelations between grain size statistical parameters of 971 sediment samples are used. The two independent approaches that discussed in the literature are applied: 1) the sediment trend analysis, based on spatial variations of sediment grain size parameters from sample to sample (McLaren, 1981) and 2) the population anomalies method, which allows to determine the sedimentation conditions (erosion, transit or accumulation) from the deviations of sediments grain size parameters in each sampling place from the average values in investigation area (Baraniecki and Racinowski, 1996). Taking into account that the sediment grain size composition achieve its constant in calm period of reduced storm influence and that the all samples were taking during summer season, the obtained sedimentation pattern present the long-time annual average of sediment transport pathways in the investigated area. The results show that the sediment accumulation under the wave influence prevails up to the depth of 5 m. The continuous accumulation zone breaks in erosion where the shore line changes its direction. Seaward of the accumulation zone the sediment transit area extends and interrupts by zones of erosion and accumulation up to the depth of 20 m. Sediment transport here occurs in hydrodynamic circulation cells within bays along the Sambian peninsula north coast. The erosion zones serves as sediment source on the underwater shore slope. The north-eastern direction of sediment transport exist along the straightened coast of Curonian spit according to prevail west winds. Deeper there are zones of transit and "slowly" sediment accumulation up to the depth of 30 m. The seaward and isobaths parallel sediment transport pathways are obtained in these zones. The work

  10. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE...

  11. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE...

  12. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. 165.1185 Section 165.1185 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  13. 33 CFR 100.911 - Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI. 100.911 Section 100.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.911 Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI....

  14. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include...

  15. 33 CFR 100.911 - Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI. 100.911 Section 100.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.911 Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI....

  16. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include...

  17. 33 CFR 100.911 - Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI. 100.911 Section 100.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.911 Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI....

  18. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include...

  19. 33 CFR 100.911 - Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI. 100.911 Section 100.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.911 Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI....

  20. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include...

  1. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include...

  2. 33 CFR 100.911 - Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI. 100.911 Section 100.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.911 Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI....

  3. NASA Satellites Aid in Chesapeake Bay Recovery

    NASA Video Gallery

    By studying the landscape around the Chesapeake Bay, NASA spacecrafts are helping land managers figure out how to battle the harmful pollutants that have added to the destruction of the bay's once ...

  4. Facility Layout Problems Using Bays: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoudpour, Hamid; Jaafari, Amir Ardestani; Farahani, Leila Najafabadi

    2010-06-01

    Layout design is one of the most important activities done by industrial Engineers. Most of these problems have NP hard Complexity. In a basic layout design, each cell is represented by a rectilinear, but not necessarily convex polygon. The set of fully packed adjacent polygons is known as a block layout (Asef-Vaziri and Laporte 2007). Block layout is divided by slicing tree and bay layout. In bay layout, departments are located in vertical columns or horizontal rows, bays. Bay layout is used in real worlds especially in concepts such as semiconductor and aisles. There are several reviews in facility layout; however none of them focus on bay layout. The literature analysis given here is not limited to specific considerations about bay layout design. We present a state of art review for bay layout considering some issues such as the used objectives, the techniques of solving and the integration methods in bay.

  5. The identity of Romanian amber (rumanite) with Baltic amber (succinite).

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, E. C.; Beck, C. W.; Anderson, K. B.; Chemistry; Vassar Coll.

    2000-11-01

    Romanian amber (rumanite) has been considered to be a separate species of fossil resin for more than a century. While earlier investigators held it to be very similar to succinite (Baltic amber), modern scholars have assigned it a distinctly different botanical origin. We have found that almost all of the constituents of the ether-soluble fractions of 13 specimens of authentic rumanite identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry have previously been reported in the soluble fraction of succinite, including succinic acid and its monoterpene esters. Additionally and significantly, the soluble fraction of rumanite contains a number defunctionalized compounds that do not preexist in succinite, but that are produced by pyrolysis of whole succinite or of its insoluble polymeric fraction. Simultaneous methylation pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the polymeric fraction of seven of the rumanite specimens yielded further copious amounts of dimethyl succinate, a number of diterpene resin acid methyl esters, and additional defunctionalized compounds known to be pyrolysis products of succinite. The evidence shows conclusively that the botanical origin of rumanite is not distinct from that of succinite. Rather, rumanite is a succinite that has suffered partial thermal degradation in the course of the folding of the Oligocene Kliwa sandstone formation in which it is most commonly found.

  6. Dynamics of hydrophobic organic contaminants in the Baltic proper pelagial

    SciTech Connect

    Axelman, J.; Broman, D.; Naef, C.; Pettersen, H.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrophobic organic contaminants occur in different forms in natural water. Apart from being truly dissolved in water they partition into dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particles of different sizes including pelagic bacteria, phytoplankton and zooplankton. The distribution between the different forms is dependent on carbon turnover rates in and transport between the different compartments and on the physical and chemical properties of the compound in focus. The water phase, the DOC-phase and two particle size fractions, 0.2--2pm and 2--20 pm representing the base of the pelagic food web, were analyzed for their content of PCBs and PAHs during summer and winter conditions in the open sea in the Baltic proper. New methods for separating truly dissolved from DOC-bound compounds have been developed using a high capacity perfusion adsorbent and large scale gas sparging. The small particle size fraction was sampled using high volume tangential flow filtration. The possibility to separate between these four different compartments has given a more detailed picture of the short term dynamics of hydrophobic organic compounds in the important base of the pelagial food web.

  7. Seasonal Activity Budget of Adult Baltic Ringed Seals

    PubMed Central

    Harkonen, Tero; Jüssi, Mart; Jüssi, Ivar; Verevkin, Michail; Dmitrieva, Lilia; Helle, Eero; Sagitov, Roustam; Harding, Karin C.

    2008-01-01

    Although ringed seals are important components in oceanic and fresh water ecosystems at high latitudes, little is known about how they exploit these harsh environments. Seasonal activity and diving behaviour of 19 adult Baltic ringed seals were studied by satellite telemetry. We elaborated an activity budget for ten months of the year, extending over the period from moult to the breeding season. Seals from three main regions showed explicit site fidelity and the distributions of animals tagged from different areas did not overlap, suggesting separate stocks. Both the mean duration and the mean depth of dives peaked in June and July. Seals spent 70% (females) to 85% (males) of their time diving in June and July which decreased to 50% in late autumn. Less than one percent of dives exceeded 10 min in females, while 10% of male dives lasted longer than 10 min in June to September. Less than one percent of dives lasted for more than 25 min. Both females and males were most active during day time and hauled out predominantly during the night. Activity patterns during the summer are suggested to be correlated to energy accumulation and prey availability. The information on seasonal activity budget is crucial for developing population energetic models where interactions between ringed seals and other trophic levels can be evaluated. PMID:18414676

  8. Horizontal Variation of Bacterioplankton in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Heinänen, Anne; Kuparinen, Jorma

    1991-01-01

    Variations in the thymidine incorporation rate, bacterial abundance, and mean cell volumes in the surface water (0.5 m) of the Baltic Sea in spring and summer were compared in studies with different spatial scales (570 nautical miles [nmi] [ca. 1056 km], 220 nmi [ca. 407 km], 24 nmi [ca. 44 km], 12 nmi [ca. 22 km], and 200 m). The objective of the comparison was to investigate whether a single sample taken at one sampling point is representative enough for researchers to make generalizations about a larger water area. Bacterioplankton variation was connected more to seasonal characteristics than to the spatial scale of sampling. Variation was greater and more random in spring than in summer. The state variables (bacterial abundance and mean cell volume) varied less than the rate variable (thymidine incorporation). The results suggest that the sampling design for bacterioplankton studies in northern temperate seas should be planned primarily according to the season and that more stress should be put on rate variable measurements than on those of state variables. PMID:16348580

  9. Developmental defects in pelagic fish embryos from the western Baltic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    v. Westernhagen, H.; Dethlefsen, V.; Cameron, P.; Berg, J.; Fürstenberg, G.

    1988-03-01

    In February/March 1983 and 1984 a survey of pelagic fish eggs was conducted in the western Baltic (Kiel Bight), employing a horizontally towed plankton net (1 m Ø and 300 μm mesh). Maximum egg numbers in the upper meter of the S=21×10-3 salinity layer were 200·100 m-3. The most abundant eggs were cod (up to 142 eggs·100 m-3), followed by plaice (up to 74 eggs·100 m-3) and flounder (20 eggs·100 m-3). A considerable percentage of embryos of all species displayed aberrant development. In 1983 18% of cod, 22% of flounder and 24% of plaice eggs caught contained defective embryos; in 1984 this number was larger, ranging from 28% in plaice over 32% in cod to 44% in flounder. Early developmental stages showed the highest malformation rates (up to 51% in the case of early flounder embryos). With progressive development, malformations decreased in numbers, being lowest prior to hatching. Highest rates of malformations were recorded in the Mecklenburg Bight in 1983. A second area with high incidence of malformation rates was located south and east of the island of Langeland. Several reasons, including environmental and anthropogenic factors, for the occurrence of malformed embryos in pelagic fish eggs are discussed. The potential of malformation rates in embryos of pelagic fish eggs as a tool for monitoring is considered.

  10. 33 CFR 167.100 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General. 167.100 Section 167.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General. The traffic separation scheme in the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA, consists of four parts: Two precautionary areas...

  11. 33 CFR 167.100 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General. 167.100 Section 167.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General. The traffic separation scheme in the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA, consists of four parts: Two precautionary areas...

  12. 33 CFR 167.100 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General. 167.100 Section 167.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General. The traffic separation scheme in the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA, consists of four parts: Two precautionary areas...

  13. 33 CFR 167.100 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General. 167.100 Section 167.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General. The traffic separation scheme in the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA, consists of four parts: Two precautionary areas...

  14. Chlorophyll a and phytoplankton in the Pomeranian Bay during and after the flood event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromisz, Sławomira; Zalewski, Mariusz; Ochocki, Stanisław; Kownacka, Janina M.

    1998-06-01

    Studies dealing with the impact of the flood event in the Odra River in July 1997 on the phytoplankton in the Pomeranian Bay were based on three cruises: in late July/early August, at the end of August, and in October 1997. During those studies, concentrations of chlorophyll a were measured. During the second cruise, the phytoplankton composition was investigated additionally. In August 1997, in the entire southern part of the Pomeranian Bay within a radius of about 30 km from the Swina mouth, chlorophyll concentrations were 3 4 times higher than in July 1996 and amounted to 5 15 mg/m3. Further offshore, concentrations were about 2 times higher (2 5 mg/m3) as compared to the 1996 values. At the beginning of August and in the first days of the second cruise, chlorophyll a concentrations were highest in the vicinity of the Swina mouth, reaching 15 25 mg/m3. They did not, however, differ much from the maximum values observed in July 1996. On 27 28 August 1997, a strong north-easterly wind caused open Bay waters to be transported towards the Swina outlet, leading to mixing of water masses and transport of phytoplankton with plume water towards the north-west. The chlorophyll concentrations measured on 19 29 October 1997 ranged from 2 9 mg/ m3 in the entire Bay and did not differ from those measured on 20 Sept. 3 Oct. 1993. A significant impact of the flood wave on phytoplankton composition in the Pomeranian Bay in August 1997 was not observed. Blue-green algae, blooms of which are typical of summer periods in the Baltic Sea, predominated in the entire area. Four potentially toxic species (Anabaena spiroides, Aphanizomenon flosaquae, Microcystis aeruginosa and Nodularia spumigena) appeared but did not occur in “bloom” quantities. The abundance of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum, which also is a potentially toxic species, was relatively high in the north-western part of the region studied, but this area is beyond the direct impact of estuarine waters. The

  15. San Francisco Bay Sediment Concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This March 3, 2000 image of the San Francisco Bay region shows a 60 by 75 kilometer Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image in band 1 (near infrared, 0.52-0.60 microns). The color coded suspended sediment image was created from band 1 by blacking out the land, and assigning colors to the relative brightnesses in the water. High values were colored white, then red, yellow, green, and blue. Brighter values in band 1 indicate higher sediment load in the water. The highest values are in Suisun and San Pablo Bays, into which the Sacramento River empties, and along the coast of the San Francisco Peninsula. The Pacific Ocean and San Francisco Bay water are relatively clear. Image courtesy ASTER Science Team

  16. The nutrient load from food waste generated onboard ships in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Wilewska-Bien, Magda; Granhag, Lena; Andersson, Karin

    2016-04-15

    The combination of the sensitive characteristics of the Baltic Sea and the intense maritime traffic makes the marine environment vulnerable to anthropogenic influences. The theoretical scenario calculated in this study shows that the annually generated food waste onboard ships in traffic in the Baltic Sea contains about 182tonnes of nitrogen and 34tonnes of phosphorus. Today, all food waste generated onboard can be legally discharged into the marine environment at a distance of 12NM from the nearest land. The annual load of nitrogen contained in the food waste corresponds to 52% of load of nitrogen from the ship-generated sewage. Future regulations for sewage discharge in the Baltic Sea will require significant reduction of total nitrogen and phosphorus released. The contribution of nutrients from food waste compared to sewage will therefore be relatively larger in the future, if food waste still can be legally discharged. PMID:26992746

  17. [The Baltic countries as the birthplace of embryology. Contingencies of a transnational region of science].

    PubMed

    Riha, Ortrun; Schmuck, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Modern embryology is grounded on the research of Pander (theory of germ-layers), von Baer (human egg) and Rathke (branchial arches in mammals). All these scientists lived and worked in the Baltic region. They held professorships at the universities of Koenigsberg and Dorpat and at the Imperial Academy of St. Petersburg, thus moving between the Kingdom of Prussia and the Russian Czardom. Since the Baltic countries are not commonly considered to be predestined as a birthplace of embryology, special attention is turned to the coincidences that, there of all places, made those people focus on that special field of research. Considering the peripheral position of the Baltic, the paper examines personal relations, national identities, cultural exchange, and local working conditions, including room for development as well as formidable obstacles. PMID:21563375

  18. alpha1-antitrypsin (PI) alleles as markers of Westeuropean influence in the Baltic Sea region.

    PubMed

    Beckman, L; Sikström, C; Mikelsaar, A; Krumina, A; Kucinskas, V; Beckman, G

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of alpha1-antitrypsin (PI) alleles was studied in an attempt to elucidate migrations and admixture between populations in the Baltic Sea region. The frequency of the PI Z allele, a typically Northwesteuropean marker gene, showed a highly significant regional variation in the Baltic Sea region. The highest frequency (4.5%) was found in the western part of Latvia (Courland). The PI S allele, another marker of Westeuropean influence, also showed an increased frequency in the Courland population. These results indicate that among the populations east of the Baltic Sea the Curonian population has the most pronounced Westeuropean influence. Archaeological data have shown that from the 7th century and for several hundreds of years Courland received immigrations from mainland Sweden and the island of Gotland. We speculate that the increased frequencies of the PI Z alleles and S alleles in Courland may have been caused by these migrations. PMID:9858859

  19. MPC&A training needs of the NIS/Baltics States.

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, David Franklin; Stoy-McLeod, Carol L.

    2006-07-01

    This report serves to document contract deliverables considered to be of continuing interest associated with two workshops conducted as part of an initial assessment of Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) training needs of the Newly Independent and Baltic States (NIS/Baltics). These workshops were held in Kiev, Ukraine, ca. 2003-2004, with the assistance of personnel from the George Kuzmycz Training Center (GKTC) of the Kiev Institute of Nuclear Research (KINR). Because of the dominant role Ukraine plays in the region in terms of the nuclear industry, one workshop focused exclusively on Ukrainian training needs, with participants attending from twelve Ukrainian organizations (plus U.S. DOE/NNSA representatives). The second workshop included participation by a further ten countries from the NIS/Baltics region. In addition, the training needs data developed during the workshop were supplemented by the outcomes of surveys and studies conducted by the GKTC.

  20. Factors influencing variability of mercury input to the southern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Bełdowska, Magdalena; Saniewska, Dominika; Falkowska, Lucyna

    2014-09-15

    The southern Baltic countries have been identified as significant sources of Hg into the sea. Are anthropogenic activities the sole source? How do meteorological parameters influence the deposition? Studies on input of Hg to the Baltic were conducted in 2008-2012 in the Polish coastal stations. The riverine load was found to depend directly or indirectly on the amount of precipitation and catchment type. Input of atmospheric Hg increased along with the number of precipitation episodes from remote maritime air masses, as well as with the number of days when continental air masses from regional (when domestic heating prevailed) and remote sources moved over the Baltic, during the heating season. During the non-heating season metal input was found to be proportional to episodes of rain from continental regional air masses and to the number of days under influence of continental and maritime air masses from regional sources. PMID:25066454

  1. Chesapeake Bay plume dynamics from LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Fedosh, M. S.

    1981-01-01

    LANDSAT images with enhancement and density slicing show that the Chesapeake Bay plume usually frequents the Virginia coast south of the Bay mouth. Southwestern (compared to northern) winds spread the plume easterly over a large area. Ebb tide images (compared to flood tide images) show a more dispersed plume. Flooding waters produce high turbidity levels over the shallow northern portion of the Bay mouth.

  2. MOBILE BAY AND WATERSHED WATER QUALITY MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two major products will come out of this project. The first is a compilation of 2001 water quality data for the Mobile bay area. The second is to develop and run a water quality moded for the bay to assist with development of TMDLs for the Bay

  3. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay. 117.1101 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1101 Sturgeon Bay. (a) The draw of the Michigan Street Bridge, mile 4.3 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open as follows: (1) From March 15 through...

  4. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay. 117.1101 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1101 Sturgeon Bay. (a) The draw of the Michigan Street Bridge, mile 4.3 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open as follows: (1) From March 15 through...

  5. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay. 117.1101 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1101 Sturgeon Bay. (a) The draw of the Michigan Street Bridge, mile 4.3 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open as follows: (1) From March 15 through...

  6. BAY REGION ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY EXPERIMENT (BRACE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Bay Estuary Program (TBEP) was formed in 1991 to assist the community in developing a comprehensive plan to restore and protect Tampa Bay. The ecological indicator of the health of the Bay is the coverage of seagrasses, historically in decline, which are important to...

  7. Potamocorbula amurensis discovered in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schemel, Laurence E.

    1989-01-01

    The small Asian clam, Potamocorbula amurensis, is now a major component of benthic communities in most areas of northern San Francisco Bay and some areas of South Bay. Because of its wide tolerance of salinity and other environmental variables and its high abundance in many areas, benthic ecologists believe this recent invasion may represent a major and permanent change in the bay system.

  8. SARASOTA BAY 2000: A DECADE OF PROGRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sarasota Bay 2000: A Decade of Progress is produced by the Sarasota Bay National Estuary Program for the people of Manatee and Sarasota counties. This document presents information on the current condition of Sarasota Bay and the progress made in implementing the Comprehensive Co...

  9. Bayes factors and multimodel inference

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Barker, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Multimodel inference has two main themes: model selection, and model averaging. Model averaging is a means of making inference conditional on a model set, rather than on a selected model, allowing formal recognition of the uncertainty associated with model choice. The Bayesian paradigm provides a natural framework for model averaging, and provides a context for evaluation of the commonly used AIC weights. We review Bayesian multimodel inference, noting the importance of Bayes factors. Noting the sensitivity of Bayes factors to the choice of priors on parameters, we define and propose nonpreferential priors as offering a reasonable standard for objective multimodel inference.

  10. Mobile Bay turbidity plume study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozier, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory and field transmissometer studies on the effect of suspended particulate material upon the appearance of water are reported. Quantitative correlations were developed between remotely sensed image density, optical sea truth data, and actual sediment load. Evaluation of satellite image sea truth data for an offshore plume projects contours of transmissivity for two different tidal phases. Data clearly demonstrate the speed of change and movement of the optical plume for water patterns associated with the mouth of Mobile bay in which relatively clear Gulf of Mexico water enters the bay on the eastern side. Data show that wind stress in excess of 15 knots has a marked impact in producing suspended sediment loads.

  11. South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Peter; Gibbons, Helen

    2007-01-01

    View eastward. Elevations in mapped area color coded: purple (approx 15 m below sea level) to red-orange (approx 90 m above sea level). South San Francisco Bay is very shallow, with a mean water depth of 2.7 m (8.9 ft). Trapezoidal depression near San Mateo Bridge is where sediment has been extracted for use in cement production and as bay fill. Land from USGS digital orthophotographs (DOQs) overlaid on USGS digital elevation models (DEMs). Distance across bottom of image approx 11 km (7 mi); vertical exaggeration 1.5X.

  12. Carbon Biogeochemistry in Baffin Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Helmuth; Shadwick, Elizabeth H.; Dehairs, Frank; Gratton, Yves

    2013-04-01

    The Arctic Ocean and its carbon cycle are expected to be disproportionately sensitive to climatic change and, thus the Arctic is thought to be an area where such changes may most easily be detected. In particular the carbon cycle in polar ocean is vulnerable due to the relatively high Revelle factor and correspondingly weaker CO2 buffer capacity. The Arctic ocean is influenced by runoff and precipitation, sea ice formation and melting, and the inflow of saline waters from Bering and Fram Straits as well as the Barents Sea Shelf. Pacific water is recognizable as low(er) salinity water, with high concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon, flowing from the Arctic Ocean to the North Atlantic via the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. In the Baffin Bay area, at the eastern entrance to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, the water masses of three major oceans meet. Atlantic Ocean water traveling into Baffin Bay as the east Greenland current mixes with waters from the Arctic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, which enter Baffin Bay via Nares Strait and various outflows of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, before the waters head southward along the western side of Baffin Bay, eventually feeding into the Labrador Current and the North Atlantic Ocean. Altered mixing ratios of these three water masses and freshwater in the Arctic Ocean have been recorded in recent decades. Any climatically driven alterations in the composition of waters leaving Baffin Bay may have implications for anthropogenic CO2 uptake and, hence, acidification, of the subpolar and temperate North Atlantic. We present carbon cycle, Barium and stable oxygen isotope composition data of sea water and related data from two east to west section across Baffin Bay at 75N and 76N as well as from shelf sections long the eastern and western shelves of Baffin Bay. We investigate water mass characteristics and mixing pattern of the above three major water masses in Baffin Bay. The data have been collected in the framework of two

  13. Sources of sedimentary biomarkers and proxies with potential paleoenvironmental significance for the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Jérôme; Arz, Helge W.

    2016-07-01

    The Baltic Sea is a shallow, semi-enclosed and intra-continental shelf sea characterized by anoxic bottom waters in the deepest basins, allowing for the preservation of sedimentary organic matter. In the present study, the most abundant, naturally-occurring lipids in surface sediments from the entire Baltic Sea and the Skagerrak area were identified and their potential sources were assigned. Together with long-chain n-alkanes derived from land plant leaf waxes, diploptene and branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are of allochthonous origin, while isoprenoid GDGTs, hydroxylated isoprenoid GDGTs (OH-GDGTs), n-C25:1, n-C27:1 and n-C29:1 alkenes are autochthonous lipids. The isoprenoid and OH-GDGTs are probably derived from Thaumarchaeota and the long-chain n-alkenes from phototrophic organisms. Significant correlations were found between indexes based on isoprenoid and OH-GDGTs and Baltic Sea surface and bottom temperatures. The calibrations obtained for surface temperature have statistically similar slopes, but different intercepts than calibrations established for the Nordic Seas. The branched and isoprenoid tetraether index can be used to estimate the percentage of soil (terrestrial) organic matter in the sediments of the Baltic Sea. High values of the Paq' ratio (defined here as the ratio of odd numbered n-C23 and n-C25 over n-C23 to n-C29 alkanes) in the northern Baltic Sea originate from the presence of both Sphagnum mosses in the drainage basin and submerged macrophytes, such as Potamogeton sp. and Myriophyllum sp., in the freshwater to brackish water of the coastal areas. The Paq' ratio may thus reflect fluctuations in the regional expansion of freshwater to brackish coastal environments in the Baltic Sea.

  14. Attributing causes of regional climate change in the Baltic Sea area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhend, Jonas; Gaillard-Lemdahl, Marie-José; Hansson, Hans-Christen

    2015-04-01

    Here we assess to what extent the effect of forcing mechanisms on the observed climate change in the Baltic Sea area can be detected. In particular, we assess the effect of factors causing large-scale warming (mainly anthropogenic greenhouse gases) and the regional effect of atmospheric aerosols and land-cover and land-use changes. Unfortunately, only very few targeted analyses for the Baltic catchment area are available at the moment, but findings at the regional scale are generally qualitatively consistent with global or hemispheric analyses. The observed warming in summer cannot be explained without human influence (in particular the warming effect of increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations). In other seasons and for other aspects of regional warming, findings are mixed or not significant as of yet. In addition, large-scale circulation and rainfall changes in the northern hemisphere and the Arctic have been detected to exceed natural internal variability. Other aspects of regional climate change including changes in storminess, snow properties, runoff and the changing physical properties of the Baltic Sea have not been formally attributed to human influence yet. Scientific understanding of the effect of aerosols on regional climate is still accumulating. It is likely that the major emission changes in Europe have had an effect on the climate in the Baltic region, the magnitude of which, however, is still unknown. Development of the modelling capability and targeted analyses are urgently needed to reduce the uncertainties related to the effect of aerosol changes on regional observed climate change. Historic deforestation and recent reforestation are the major anthropogenic land-cover changes affecting the Baltic Sea area. From all studies at hand it can be concluded that there is no evidence that anthropogenic land-cover change would be one of the forcings behind the recent warming in the Baltic region. However, past anthropogenic land-cover change

  15. Long-chain alkenone patterns in the Baltic Sea - An ocean-freshwater transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Hans-Martin; Schöner, Anne; Emeis, Kay-Christian

    2000-02-01

    Two different patterns of long-chain alkenones are found in surficial sediments of the Baltic Sea, which is the largest brackish water body on Earth. One pattern occurs in surficial sediments from the Western Baltic Sea where surface-water salinitiy is in excess of 7.7 PSU. It corresponds to the pattern produced by the marine coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi with a suite of C 37 di- to tetra-unsaturated methyl ketones and C 38 di- and tri-unsaturated methyl and ethyl ketones. A second pattern, resembling that found in lake sediments in lacking C 38 methyl ketones and having distinctly higher C 37:4 methyl ketone concentrations, dominates in surficial sediments of the eastern and northern Baltic Sea, where salinities are lower than 7.7 PSU. Correspondence of sea-surface temperature (SST) estimates from the U37K and U37K' indices (using marine calibrations) with mean SST in the euphotic zone from July-August (the main haptophyte growth season) is poor. Thus, these indices are not applicable as sedimentary thermometers in surficial sediments of the Baltic Sea. The different patterns may either reflect the salinity-dependent occurrence of specific alkenone producers or changes in the alkenone biosynthesis due to physiological stress caused by salinity variations. Furthermore, advection of saline and oxygenated North Sea water may transport marine algal material characterized by a marine E. huxleyi-like alkenone pattern into the western Baltic Sea, thus covering the signature of the local alkenone producers with a Baltic Sea pattern.

  16. Non-tidal loading by the Baltic Sea: comparison of modelled deformation with GNSS time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordman, Maaria; Virtanen, Heikki; Nyberg, Sonja; Mäkinen, Jaakko; Virtanen, Jenni

    2013-04-01

    The Baltic Sea is a well-monitored semi-enclosed sea in northern Europe. The mass variations of the Baltic Sea are mostly due to atmospheric pressure changes and wind, which redistribute the water within the basin and also govern the so-called fill level, the amount of water exchange with the North Sea. The variations in the sea level can be abrupt and and large, for example during storms. The variable load may cause significant effects in geodetic measurements, especially near the coastline. We have computed the time series of non-tidal loading due to Baltic Sea for 193 stations in northern Europe. These stations are used for GNSS, absolute and relative gravity measurements and other geodetic observations.. We have used hourly observations of the sea level at the tide gauges of the Baltic Operational Oceanographic Service (BOOS, http://boos.org) to estimate the momentary sea level over the whole basin of the Baltic Sea. These sea level models are then convolved with Green's functions for the Gutenberg-Bullen Earth model using program SPOTL (Agnew, 2012, http://escholarship.org/uc/item/954322pg) to obtain gravity change, deformation in three dimensions and change in tilt and strain. The time period is four years, February 2008 to February 2012. The time series could be used for several purposes, e.g. for the studies of other error sources, to create stable time series and also to correct campaign measurements, which take place in varying conditions. In this study we have compared the computed deformation to coordinate changes measured by GNSS at selected stations around the Baltic Sea. We use two different daily time series of GNSS positions: the PPP (Precise Point Positioning) time series provided by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL, http://sideshow.jpl.nasa.gov/post/series.html) and a double difference solution computed at our institute.

  17. Transplant experiments uncover Baltic Sea basin-specific responses in bacterioplankton community composition and metabolic activities.

    PubMed

    Lindh, Markus V; Figueroa, Daniela; Sjöstedt, Johanna; Baltar, Federico; Lundin, Daniel; Andersson, Agneta; Legrand, Catherine; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenically induced changes in precipitation are projected to generate increased river runoff to semi-enclosed seas, increasing loads of terrestrial dissolved organic matter and decreasing salinity. To determine how bacterial community structure and functioning adjust to such changes, we designed microcosm transplant experiments with Baltic Proper (salinity 7.2) and Bothnian Sea (salinity 3.6) water. Baltic Proper bacteria generally reached higher abundances than Bothnian Sea bacteria in both Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea water, indicating higher adaptability. Moreover, Baltic Proper bacteria growing in Bothnian Sea water consistently showed highest bacterial production and beta-glucosidase activity. These metabolic responses were accompanied by basin-specific changes in bacterial community structure. For example, Baltic Proper Pseudomonas and Limnobacter populations increased markedly in relative abundance in Bothnian Sea water, indicating a replacement effect. In contrast, Roseobacter and Rheinheimera populations were stable or increased in abundance when challenged by either of the waters, indicating an adjustment effect. Transplants to Bothnian Sea water triggered the initial emergence of particular Burkholderiaceae populations, and transplants to Baltic Proper water triggered Alteromonadaceae populations. Notably, in the subsequent re-transplant experiment, a priming effect resulted in further increases to dominance of these populations. Correlated changes in community composition and metabolic activity were observed only in the transplant experiment and only at relatively high phylogenetic resolution. This suggested an importance of successional progression for interpreting relationships between bacterial community composition and functioning. We infer that priming effects on bacterial community structure by natural episodic events or climate change induced forcing could translate into long-term changes in bacterial ecosystem process rates. PMID

  18. Transplant experiments uncover Baltic Sea basin-specific responses in bacterioplankton community composition and metabolic activities

    PubMed Central

    Lindh, Markus V.; Figueroa, Daniela; Sjöstedt, Johanna; Baltar, Federico; Lundin, Daniel; Andersson, Agneta; Legrand, Catherine; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenically induced changes in precipitation are projected to generate increased river runoff to semi-enclosed seas, increasing loads of terrestrial dissolved organic matter and decreasing salinity. To determine how bacterial community structure and functioning adjust to such changes, we designed microcosm transplant experiments with Baltic Proper (salinity 7.2) and Bothnian Sea (salinity 3.6) water. Baltic Proper bacteria generally reached higher abundances than Bothnian Sea bacteria in both Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea water, indicating higher adaptability. Moreover, Baltic Proper bacteria growing in Bothnian Sea water consistently showed highest bacterial production and beta-glucosidase activity. These metabolic responses were accompanied by basin-specific changes in bacterial community structure. For example, Baltic Proper Pseudomonas and Limnobacter populations increased markedly in relative abundance in Bothnian Sea water, indicating a replacement effect. In contrast, Roseobacter and Rheinheimera populations were stable or increased in abundance when challenged by either of the waters, indicating an adjustment effect. Transplants to Bothnian Sea water triggered the initial emergence of particular Burkholderiaceae populations, and transplants to Baltic Proper water triggered Alteromonadaceae populations. Notably, in the subsequent re-transplant experiment, a priming effect resulted in further increases to dominance of these populations. Correlated changes in community composition and metabolic activity were observed only in the transplant experiment and only at relatively high phylogenetic resolution. This suggested an importance of successional progression for interpreting relationships between bacterial community composition and functioning. We infer that priming effects on bacterial community structure by natural episodic events or climate change induced forcing could translate into long-term changes in bacterial ecosystem process rates. PMID

  19. Population genomic evidence for adaptive differentiation in the Baltic Sea herring.

    PubMed

    Guo, Baocheng; Li, Zitong; Merilä, Juha

    2016-06-01

    Detecting and estimating the degree of genetic differentiation among populations of highly mobile marine fish having pelagic larval stages is challenging because their effective population sizes can be large, and thus, little genetic drift and differentiation is expected in neutral genomic sites. However, genomic sites subject to directional selection stemming from variation in local environmental conditions can still show substantial genetic differentiation, yet these signatures can be hard to detect with low-throughput approaches. Using a pooled RAD-seq approach, we investigated genomewide patterns of genetic variability and differentiation within and among 20 populations of Atlantic herring in the Baltic Sea (and adjacent Atlantic sites), where previous low-throughput studies and/or studies based on few populations have found limited evidence for genetic differentiation. Stringent quality control was applied in the filtering of 1 791 254 SNPs, resulting in a final data set of 68 182 polymorphic loci. Clear differentiation was identified between Atlantic and Baltic populations in many genomic sites, while differentiation within the Baltic Sea area was weaker and geographically less structured. However, outlier analyses - whether including all populations or only those within the Baltic Sea - uncovered hundreds of directionally selected loci in which variability was associated with either salinity, temperature or both. Hence, our results support the view that although the degree of genetic differentiation among Baltic Sea herring populations is low, there are many genomic regions showing elevated divergence, apparently as a response to temperature- and salinity-related natural selection. As such, the results add to the increasing evidence of local adaptation in highly mobile marine organisms, and those in the young Baltic Sea in particular. PMID:27093194

  20. Comparison of nematode communities in Baltic and North Sea sublittoral, permeable sands Diversity and environmental control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban-Malinga, Barbara; Hedtkamp, Stefanie I. C.; van Beusekom, Justus E. E.; Wiktor, Józef; Węsławski, Jan Marcin

    2006-10-01

    The structure of free-living nematode communities was investigated seasonally at two sandy locations representing typical shallow sublittoral, permeable environments of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. At the Baltic study site the chlorophyll and organic carbon concentrations in the sediment were, on average, four times lower than at the North Sea. Highest nematode densities (1674-4100 ind. 10 cm -2) and a higher number of free-living nematode genera (66) were recorded in the North Sea (Baltic: 206-1227 ind. 10 cm -2, 30 genera). Despite lower salinity and lower food availability the less dense and less diverse Baltic nematode community was similar in generic composition to the North Sea community. At the North Sea site, all trophic groups according to Wieser's classification were present with omnivores/predators, dominated by Viscosia, prevailing and followed by epistrate-feeders. In the food-limited Baltic community, non-selective deposit feeders (mainly Ascolaimus, Axonolaimus and Daptonema) and omnivores/predators dominated by Enoplolaimus were the most abundant trophic groups while selective deposit feeders were absent or their contribution was negligible. An analysis of the vertical generic distribution revealed highest diversity of the Baltic community in deeper sediment layers, below the sediment surface affected by ripple migration and near the interface of oxic and anoxic conditions. The diversity pattern in the North Sea sediment was more variable but generally showed high diversity in the upper centimetre of the sediment. These observations suggest that food supply and sediment oxygenation are the most important factors influencing the vertical pattern of nematode generic diversity in sublittoral, permeable sands.

  1. NARRAGANSETT BAY: COMPREHENSIVE CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR NARRAGANSETT BAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document sets forth goals and implementation strategies to improve and sustain the health of Narragansett Bay. It is the culmination of six years of research and review of the issues by scientists, planners, interest groups, and legal experts, an endeavor funded by the U.S. ...

  2. Assessment of Marine Mammal Impact Zones for Use of Military Sonar in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Mathias H; Johansson, Torbjörn

    2016-01-01

    Military sonars are known to have caused cetaceans to strand. Navies in shallow seas use different frequencies and sonar pulses, commonly frequencies between 25 and 100 kHz, compared with most studied NATO sonar systems that have been evaluated for their environmental impact. These frequencies match the frequencies of best hearing in the harbor porpoises and seals resident in the Baltic Sea. This study uses published temporary and permanent threshold shifts, measured behavioral response thresholds, technical specifications of a sonar system, and environmental parameters affecting sound propagation common for the Baltic Sea to estimate the impact zones for harbor porpoises and seals. PMID:26610942

  3. Ctenophore population recruits entirely through larval reproduction in the central Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Cornelia; Haraldsson, Matilda; Bolte, Sören; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Thygesen, Uffe H; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2012-10-23

    The comb jelly Mertensia ovum, widely distributed in Arctic regions, has recently been discovered in the northern Baltic Sea. We show that M. ovum also exists in the central Baltic but that the population consists solely of small-sized larvae (less than 1.6 mm). Despite the absence of adults, eggs were abundant. Experiments revealed that the larvae were reproductively active. Egg production and anticipated mortality rates suggest a self-sustaining population. This is the first account of a ctenophore population entirely recruiting through larval reproduction (paedogenesis). We hypothesize that early reproduction is favoured over growth to compensate for high predation pressure. PMID:22535640

  4. Tarpum Bay, Bahamas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this ASTER image the features that look like folded material are carbonate sand dunes in the shallow waters of Tarpum Bay, southwest of Eleuthera Island in the Bahamas. The sand making up the dunes comes from the erosion of limestone coral reefs, and has been shaped into dunes by ocean currents.

    This image was acquired on May 12, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic decision-makers so as to better life here, while developing the

  5. MARYLAND COASTAL BAYS IR 2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Maryland Coastal Bays Program Implementation Review (IR) summarizes the progress and challenges ahead for the Program through examination of its activities in relation to the CCMP. During the CCMP planning phase the stakeholders prioritized the actions and determined the impl...

  6. OPTICAL HETEROGENEITY IN GREEN BAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Differences in light penetration and light attenuating components and processes are documented along 112 km of the major (NE/SW) axis of Green Bay (Lake Michigan) during a three-day cruise (May 25-27, 1982). easurements included diffuse attenuation of downwelling irradiance (kd),...

  7. Tampa Bay Ecosystem Services webpage

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public website describing research on the large-scale physical, chemical, and biological dynamics of coastal wetlands and estuaries, with emphasis on the Gulf of Mexico. Hyperlinks direct users to mapped ecosystem services of interest and value to Tampa Bay area residents, and i...

  8. Allelopathic Effects of Cyanobacterial Filtrates on Baltic Diatom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Śliwińska, Sylwia; Latała, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Allelopathy may be one of the factors affecting the formation of massive and harmful algal blooms in aquatic environments. Recent studies indicate that blooms of cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea has grown significantly in last decades, so it is important to determine the allelopathic interactions between the dominant species of cyanobacteria and microalgae. In this work we investigated the influence of allelopathic compounds on the growth of Skeletonema marinoi by addition of cell-free filtrate of the Baltic cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena cultures grown under different temperature (15-25°C). Additionally the effects of filtrates of both an exponential and a stationary growing culture of N. spumigena were tested on diatom. These studies indicate that high temperature affected the donor species by increasing its production of allelochemicals. The highest drop of growth of analyzed diatom were observed after the addition of cell-free filtrate obtained from N. spumigena grown at 25°C and constituted 70% of their control. N. spumigena was only allelopathic in exponential growth phase, whereas the cyanobacteria filtrate from stationary phase have any effect on S. marinoi. These findings suggest that N. spumigena may reveal allelopathic activity and that the production of allelopathic substances is influenced by the temperature and growth phase of cyanobacteria. Allelopatia może być kluczowym czynnikiem wpływającym na tworzenie się masowych zakwitów sinic w wielu wodnych ekosystemach. Badania pokazują, że zakwity sinic w Morzu Bałtyckim w ostatnich dekadach znacznie się nasiliły, dlatego tak ważne jest określenie stopnia oddziaływania allelopatycznego dominujących w tym akwenie gatunków fitoplanktonu. W przeprowadzonych badaniach określono wpływ związków allelopatycznych produkowanych przez bałtycką sinicę Nodularia spumigena hodowaną w różnych temperaturach (15-25°C) na wzrost okrzemki Skeletonema marinoi. Dodatkowo w niniejszej pracy por

  9. Seabird guano fertilizes Baltic Sea littoral food webs.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Karine; Rothäusler, Eva; Syrjänen, Anneli; Yli-Renko, Maria; Jormalainen, Veijo

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment in coastal marine systems can have profound impacts on trophic networks. In the Baltic Sea, the population of Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) has increased nearly exponentially since the mid-1990 s, and colonies of these seabirds can be important sources of nitrogen enrichment for nearby benthic communities due to guano runoff. In this study we used stable isotope analyses and diet mixing models to determine the extent of nitrogen enrichment from cormorant colonies, as well as to examine any possible changes in herbivore diet preferences due to enrichment. We found significantly higher levels of δ(15)N in samples from colony islands than control islands for producers (the dominant macroalga Fucus vesiculosus, filamentous algae, and periphyton) and herbivores, as well as a positive correlation between enrichment and nest density in colony sites. We also found that enrichment increased over the breeding season of the cormorants, with higher enrichment in late summer than early summer. While the amount of total nitrogen did not differ between colony and control sites, the amount of guano-based nitrogen in algae was >50% in most sites, indicating high nitrogen enrichment from colonies. Herbivores (the isopod Idotea balthica and the gastropod Theodoxus fluviatilis) preferred feeding upon the dominant macroalga Fucus vesiculosus rather than on filamentous algae or periphyton in both control and colony, and there was a significant increase in periphyton consumption near colony sites. Overall, guano from cormorant colonies seems to have effects on both producers and herbivores, as well as the potential to modify algae-herbivore interactions. PMID:23593452

  10. Egg production of turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissling, Anders; Florin, Ann-Britt; Thorsen, Anders; Bergström, Ulf

    2013-11-01

    In the brackish water Baltic Sea turbot spawn at ~ 6-9 psu along the coast and on offshore banks in ICES SD 24-29, with salinity influencing the reproductive success. The potential fecundity (the stock of vitellogenic oocytes in the pre-spawning ovary), egg size (diameter and dry weight of artificially fertilized 1-day-old eggs) and gonad dry weight were assessed for fish sampled in SD 25 and SD 28. Multiple regression analysis identified somatic weight, or total length in combination with Fulton's condition factor, as main predictors of fecundity and gonad dry weight with stage of maturity (oocyte packing density or leading cohort) as an additional predictor. For egg size, somatic weight was identified as main predictor while otolith weight (proxy for age) was an additional predictor. Univariate analysis using GLM revealed significantly higher fecundity and gonad dry weight for turbot from SD 28 (3378-3474 oocytes/g somatic weight) compared to those from SD 25 (2343 oocytes/g somatic weight), with no difference in egg size (1.05 ± 0.03 mm diameter and 46.8 ± 6.5 μg dry weight; mean ± sd). The difference in egg production matched egg survival probabilities in relation to salinity conditions suggesting selection for higher fecundity as a consequence of poorer reproductive success at lower salinities. This supports the hypothesis of higher size-specific fecundity towards the limit of the distribution of a species as an adaptation to harsher environmental conditions and lower offspring survival probabilities. Within SD 28 comparisons were made between two major fishing areas targeting spawning aggregations and a marine protected area without fishing. The outcome was inconclusive and is discussed with respect to potential fishery induced effects, effects of the salinity gradient, effects of specific year-classes, and effects of maturation status of sampled fish.

  11. Suicides in the Baltic countries, 1968-90.

    PubMed

    Värnik, A; Wasserman, D; Eklund, G

    1994-09-01

    Trends of male and female suicides in the Baltic countries--Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania--in the years 1968-90 were studied. As throughout the former USSR, suicide rates declined sharply from 1986, the year marking the onset of turbulent social change. During the "period of stagnation" from 1968 to 1984, the mean value of male suicide rates per 100,000 males were 55.7 in Estonia, 52.5 in Latvia and 51.7 in Lithuania. The figures for female suicide rates were 14.3, 14.3 and 10.4, respectively. Suicide rates remained consistently high in Estonia and Latvia, while in Lithuania the male suicide rate rose gradually from 33.0 to 61.3 and the female rate from 8.0 to 13.1 during the stagnation period. In conjunction with perestroika in the former USSR (including a restrictive alcohol policy and the first tentative steps towards democracy), annual male suicide rates per 100,000 in the years 1986-90 fell considerably below those in the stagnation period. Mean values of male suicide rates decreased by 26.6% in Estonia, 26.6% in Latvia and 14.4% in Lithuania in the period 1986-90 compared with the mean values for the period 1968-84. Female suicide rates were relatively stable and the male-female ratio was accordingly lower in 1986-90 (Estonia and Latvia 3.1, Lithuania 4.2) than in 1968-84 (Estonia 3.9, Latvia 3.7 and Lithuania 5.0). PMID:7846473

  12. Effect on pCO2 by phytoplankton uptake of dissolved organic nutrients in the Central and Northern Baltic Sea, a model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edman, Moa K.; Anderson, Leif G.

    2014-11-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) has been added to an existing biogeochemical model and the phytoplankton were allowed to utilize the dissolved organic nutrients for primary production. The results show typical vertical structures for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and improved or maintained model skill for both mean vertical profiles and mean seasonal variation of biogeochemical variables, evaluated by objective skill metrics. Due to scarce DOM measurements in the Baltic Sea it was hard to validate the new variables, but the model can recreate the general magnitude and distribution of terrestrial and in situ produced DOC, DON, and DOP, as far as we know them. The improvements are especially clear for the total nutrient levels and in recreating the biological drawdown of CO2 in the Eastern Gotland basin. Without phytoplankton uptake of dissolved organic nitrogen and phosphate, CO2 assimilation is lower during the summer months and the partial pressure of CO2 increases by about 200 μatm in the Eastern Gotland Basin, while in the Bothnian Bay, both the duration and magnitude of CO2 assimilation are halved. Thus the phytoplankton uptake of dissolved organic nutrients lowers pCO2 in both basins. Variations in the river transported DOM concentration mainly affect the magnitude of the summer cyanobacteria bloom.

  13. Bimodal variation in mercury wet deposition to the coastal zone of the southern Baltic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siudek, P.; Falkowska, L.; Urba, A.

    2009-10-01

    In the following periods: November 2005-June 2006 and October 2007-January 2009, concentrations and deposition rates of total mercury (THg) and Hg(II) were measured in precipitation over the urbanized and industrialized area of the southern Baltic - the city of Gdynia. Rains over the coastal zone had different concentrations of total mercury, they ranged from 8.6 to 118.0 ng L-1, out of which about 32% were labile, inorganic forms, easily reducible in a SnCl2 solution. Over the southern Baltic two maxima of concentrations were observed: first, in the heating season and second, in the non-heating season. Elevated concentrations of mercury in precipitations during heating seasons were the result of the activity of local emission sources (intensive combustion of fossil fuels in domestic furnaces and individual power and heat generating plants). During the warm season, precipitation over the southern Baltic could clean the air from Hg reemitted from sea and land surfaces. Precipitations, which purified marine and continental air masses were responsible for the comparable input of mercury to the coastal zone. The wet deposition value in 2008 was estimated to be 28.9 μg m-2. In the coastal zone of the southern Baltic, acid precipitations with the elevated Hg concentrations are very frequent.

  14. BIAS: A Regional Management of Underwater Sound in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Sigray, Peter; Andersson, Mathias; Pajala, Jukka; Laanearu, Janek; Klauson, Aleksander; Tegowski, Jaroslaw; Boethling, Maria; Fischer, Jens; Tougaard, Jakob; Wahlberg, Magnus; Nikolopoulos, Anna; Folegot, Thomas; Matuschek, Rainer; Verfuss, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Management of the impact of underwater sound is an emerging concern worldwide. Several countries are in the process of implementing regulatory legislations. In Europe, the Marine Strategy Framework Directive was launched in 2008. This framework addresses noise impacts and the recommendation is to deal with it on a regional level. The Baltic Sea is a semienclosed area with nine states bordering the sea. The number of ships is one of the highest in Europe. Furthermore, the number of ships is estimated to double by 2030. Undoubtedly, due to the unbound character of noise, an efficient management of sound in the Baltic Sea must be done on a regional scale. In line with the European Union directive, the Baltic Sea Information on the Acoustic Soundscape (BIAS) project was established to implement Descriptor 11 of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive in the Baltic Sea region. BIAS will develop tools, standards, and methodologies that will allow for cross-border handling of data and results, measure sound in 40 locations for 1 year, establish a seasonal soundscape map by combining measured sound with advanced three-dimensional modeling, and, finally, establish standards for measuring continuous sound. Results from the first phase of BIAS are presented here, with an emphasis on standards and soundscape mapping as well as the challenges related to regional handling. PMID:26611063

  15. Density and Absolute Salinity of the Baltic Sea 2006-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feistel, R.; Weinreben, S.; Wolf, H.; Seitz, S.; Spitzer, P.; Adel, B.; Nausch, G.; Schneider, B.; Wright, D. G.

    2010-01-01

    The brackish water of the Baltic Sea is a mixture of ocean water from the Atlantic/North Sea with fresh water from various rivers draining a large area of lowlands and mountain ranges. The evaporation-precipitation balance results in an additional but minor excess of fresh water. The rivers carry different loads of salts washed out of the ground, in particular calcium carbonate, which cause a composition anomaly of the salt dissolved in the Baltic Sea in comparison to Standard Seawater. Directly measured seawater density shows a related anomaly when compared to the density computed from the equation of state as a function of Practical Salinity, temperature and pressure. Samples collected from different regions of the Baltic Sea during 2006-2009 were analysed for their density anomaly. The results obtained for the river load deviate significantly from similar measurements carried out forty years ago; the reasons for this decadal variability are not yet fully understood. An empirical formula is derived which estimates Absolute from Practical Salinity of Baltic Sea water, to be used in conjunction with the new Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10), endorsed by IOC/UNESCO in June 2009 as the substitute for the 1980 International Equation of State, EOS-80. Our routine measurements of the samples were accompanied by studies of additional selected properties which are reported here: conductivity, density, chloride, bromide and sulphate content, total CO2 and alkalinity.

  16. Density and Absolute Salinity of the Baltic Sea 2006-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feistel, R.; Weinreben, S.; Wolf, H.; Seitz, S.; Spitzer, P.; Adel, B.; Nausch, G.; Schneider, B.; Wright, D. G.

    2009-08-01

    The brackish water of the Baltic Sea is a mixture of ocean water from the Atlantic/North Sea with fresh water from various rivers draining a large area of lowlands and mountain ranges. The evaporation-precipitation balance results in an additional but minor excess of fresh water. The rivers carry different loads of salts washed out of the ground, in particular calcium carbonate, which cause a composition anomaly of the salt dissolved in the Baltic Sea in comparison to Standard Seawater. Directly measured seawater density shows a related anomaly when compared to the density computed from the equation of state as a function of Practical Salinity, temperature and pressure. Samples collected from different regions of the Baltic Sea during 2006-2009 were analysed for their density anomaly. The results obtained for the river load deviate significantly from similar measurements carried out forty years ago; the reasons for this decadal variability are not yet fully understood. An empirical formula is derived which estimates Absolute from Practical Salinity of Baltic Sea water, to be used in conjunction with the new Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10), endorsed by IOC/UNESCO in June 2009 as the substitute for the 1980 International Equation of State, EOS-80. Our routine measurements of the samples were accompanied by studies of additional selected properties which are reported here: conductivity, density, chloride, bromide and sulphate content, total CO2 and alkalinity.

  17. Diversity of Pico- to Mesoplankton along the 2000 km Salinity Gradient of the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue O O; Karlson, Bengt; Charvet, Sophie; Andersson, Anders F

    2016-01-01

    Microbial plankton form the productive base of both marine and freshwater ecosystems and are key drivers of global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nutrients. Plankton diversity is immense with representations from all major phyla within the three domains of life. So far, plankton monitoring has mainly been based on microscopic identification, which has limited sensitivity and reproducibility, not least because of the numerical majority of plankton being unidentifiable under the light microscope. High-throughput sequencing of taxonomic marker genes offers a means to identify taxa inaccessible by traditional methods; thus, recent studies have unveiled an extensive previously unknown diversity of plankton. Here, we conducted ultra-deep Illumina sequencing (average 10(5) sequences/sample) of rRNA gene amplicons of surface water eukaryotic and bacterial plankton communities sampled in summer along a 2000 km transect following the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. Community composition was strongly correlated with salinity for both bacterial and eukaryotic plankton assemblages, highlighting the importance of salinity for structuring the biodiversity within this ecosystem. In contrast, no clear trends in alpha-diversity for bacterial or eukaryotic communities could be detected along the transect. The distribution of major planktonic taxa followed expected patterns as observed in monitoring programs, but groups novel to the Baltic Sea were also identified, such as relatives to the coccolithophore Emiliana huxleyi detected in the northern Baltic Sea. This study provides the first ultra-deep sequencing-based survey on eukaryotic and bacterial plankton biogeography in the Baltic Sea. PMID:27242706

  18. Persistent organic pollutants in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus)-an aspect of gender.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Sophia; Keddig, Nadia; Gerwinski, Wolfgang; Neukirchen, Jan; Kammann, Ulrike; Haarich, Michael; Hanel, Reinhold; Theobald, Norbert

    2016-06-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are monitored regularly in water, sediment, and biota in the Baltic Sea. Lipophilic substances are measured in remarkable concentrations especially in the fatty parts of fish, such as herring (Clupea harengus). However, less lipophilic POPs, e.g. perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), can also be detected. For the first time to our knowledge, this study provides a broad range of contaminant concentrations simultaneously measured in filet, liver, and gonads of both sexes of Baltic herring. We analysed organochlorines, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and PFCs in mature autumn-spawning individuals and found distinct organ pollutant pattern for all POPs in both sexes. POP concentrations found in the gonads of both sexes indicate that not only females but also males tend to reduce contaminants via reproduction. However, sex-dependent differences could be identified for hexachlorobenzene, PBDEs, and were most remarkable for PFCs. This transfer of contaminants to the gonads in both male and female herring is being underestimated, as it may directly affect the general reproduction success as well as the healthy development of the next generation. Hence, the accumulation of contaminants in the gonads should be considered one possible threat to a healthy wildlife as its achievement is stated by the Baltic Sea Action Plan. Inclusion of a periodic monitoring of POP concentrations in gonads of fish may be an important bioeffect measure to assess the environmental status of biota in the Baltic Sea. PMID:27226172

  19. A new approach to model oxygen dependent benthic phosphate fluxes in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almroth-Rosell, Elin; Eilola, Kari; Kuznetsov, Ivan; Hall, Per O. J.; Meier, H. E. Markus

    2015-04-01

    The new approach to model the oxygen dependent phosphate release by implementing formulations of the oxygen penetration depths (OPD) and mineral bound inorganic phosphorus pools to the Swedish Coastal and Ocean Biogeochemical model (SCOBI) is described. The phosphorus dynamics and the oxygen concentrations in the Baltic proper sediment are studied during the period 1980-2008 using SCOBI coupled to the 3D-Rossby Centre Ocean model. Model data are compared to observations from monitoring stations and experiments. The impact from oxygen consumption on the determination of the OPD is found to be largest in the coastal zones where also the largest OPD are found. In the deep water the low oxygen concentrations mainly determine the OPD. Highest modelled release rate of phosphate from the sediment is about 59 × 103 t P year- 1 and is found on anoxic sediment at depths between 60-150 m, corresponding to 17% of the Baltic proper total area. The deposition of organic and inorganic phosphorus on sediments with oxic bottom water is larger than the release of phosphorus, about 43 × 103 t P year- 1. For anoxic bottoms the release of total phosphorus during the investigated period is larger than the deposition, about 19 × 103 t P year- 1. In total the net Baltic proper sediment sink is about 23.7 × 103 t P year- 1. The estimated phosphorus sink efficiency of the entire Baltic Sea is on average about 83% during the period.

  20. Assessment of undiscovered conventional and continuous oil and gas resources of the Baltic Depression Province, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers, Heidi M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 282 million barrels of conventional oil, 576 billion cubic feet of conventional gas, 1.3 billion barrels of continuous oil, and 4.6 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Baltic Depression Province.

  1. Valuing the commons: An international study on the recreational benefits of the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Czajkowski, Mikołaj; Ahtiainen, Heini; Artell, Janne; Budziński, Wiktor; Hasler, Berit; Hasselström, Linus; Meyerhoff, Jürgen; Nõmmann, Tea; Semeniene, Daiva; Söderqvist, Tore; Tuhkanen, Heidi; Lankia, Tuija; Vanags, Alf; Zandersen, Marianne; Żylicz, Tomasz; Hanley, Nick

    2015-06-01

    The Baltic Sea provides benefits to all of the nine nations along its coastline, with some 85 million people living within the catchment area. Achieving improvements in water quality requires international cooperation. The likelihood of effective cooperation is known to depend on the distribution across countries of the benefits and costs of actions needed to improve water quality. In this paper, we estimate the benefits associated with recreational use of the Baltic Sea in current environmental conditions using a travel cost approach, based on data from a large, standardized survey of households in each of the 9 Baltic Sea states. Both the probability of engaging in recreation (participation) and the number of visits people make are modeled. A large variation in the number of trips and the extent of participation is found, along with large differences in current annual economic benefits from Baltic Sea recreation. The total annual recreation benefits are close to 15 billion EUR. Under a water quality improvement scenario, the proportional increases in benefits range from 7 to 18% of the current annual benefits across countries. Depending on how the costs of actions are distributed, this could imply difficulties in achieving more international cooperation to achieve such improvements. PMID:25846001

  2. Anatomizing one of the largest saltwater inflows into the Baltic Sea in December 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gräwe, Ulf; Naumann, Michael; Mohrholz, Volker; Burchard, Hans

    2015-11-01

    In December 2014, an exceptional inflow event into the Baltic Sea was observed, a so-called Major Baltic Inflow (MBI). Such inflow events are important for the deep water ventilation in the Baltic Sea and typically occur every 3-10 years. Based on first observational data sets, this inflow had been ranked as the third largest since 100 years. With the help of a multinested modeling system, reaching from the North Atlantic (8 km resolution) to the Western Baltic Sea (600 m resolution, which is baroclinic eddy resolving), this event is reproduced in detail. The model gave a slightly lower salt transport of 3.8 Gt, compared to the observational estimate of four Gt. Moreover, by using passive tracers to mark the different inflowing water masses, including an age tracer, the inflowing water masses could be tracked and their paths and timing through the different basins could be reproduced and investigated. The analysis is supported by the recently developed Total Exchange Flow (TEF) to quantify the volume transport in different salinity classes. To account for uncertainties in the modeled velocity and tracer fields, a Monte Carlo Analysis (MCA) is applied to correct possible biases and errors. With the help of the MCA, 95% confidence intervals are computed for the transport estimates. Based on the MCA, the "best guess" of the volume transport is 291.0 ± 13.65 km3 and 3.89 ± 0.18 Gt for the total salt transport.

  3. N/P ratio of nutrient uptake in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Z.; Jonasson, L.; Bi, H.

    2011-06-01

    The N/P ratio of nutrient uptake, i.e., the ratio of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) to dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) taken by primary producers, varies in different basins and in different seasons in the Baltic Sea. The N/P ratio of nutrient alteration fore and after spring blooms is not same as the N/P ratio of nutrient uptake, but the former can be regarded as an indicator for the later in the Baltic Sea. Based on the observed N/P ratio of nutrient alteration, we hypothesize a non-Redfield N/P ratio of nutrient uptake. The 3D-ecosystem model ERGOM coupled with the circulation model DMI-BSHcmod was used to test the hypothesis. When the Redfield ratio was used in the model, the DIP surplus after spring blooms was too high and resulted in the overly growth of cyanobacteria and too much nitrogen fixation. When the non-Redfield ratio was used in the model, the corresponding problem tended to disappear. In summary, we show that: (1) the Redfield N/P ratio of nutrient uptake in the Baltic Sea tends to be too high; (2) a lower N/P ratio 10:1 appears to work better than the Redfield value; and (3) the N/P ratio of nutrient uptake in the Baltic Proper during spring blooms is around 6:1.

  4. Language Policy and the Internationalization of Higher Education in the Baltic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaša, Rita; Mhamed, Ali Ait Si

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the internationalization and globalization of higher education and competition for international students, the paper examines how language policy in higher education shapes the provision of study programs in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. It concludes that study programs in the Baltic states mostly follow the convention of a…

  5. A swarm of whiteflies--the first record of gregarious behavior from Eocene Baltic amber.

    PubMed

    Szwedo, Jacek; Drohojowska, Jowita

    2016-04-01

    A new whitefly Snotra christelae gen. et sp. n. is characterized, illustrated, and described from the Baltic amber. It represents the first record of gregarious behavior of Aleyrodinae (Aleyrodidae) whiteflies in fossil state. Implications of this finding on interpretation of whiteflies and their host-plant relationships and evolutionary traits of the group are discussed. PMID:27023734

  6. A swarm of whiteflies—the first record of gregarious behavior from Eocene Baltic amber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szwedo, Jacek; Drohojowska, Jowita

    2016-04-01

    A new whitefly Snotra christelae gen. et sp. n. is characterized, illustrated, and described from the Baltic amber. It represents the first record of gregarious behavior of Aleyrodinae (Aleyrodidae) whiteflies in fossil state. Implications of this finding on interpretation of whiteflies and their host-plant relationships and evolutionary traits of the group are discussed.

  7. SwingStations: a web-based client tool for the Baltic environmental database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Alexander; Wulff, Fredrik

    1999-08-01

    This paper describes the operation of a web-based computer program designed as a client program for the Baltic Environmental Database. This database contains a large collection of oceanographic data for the Baltic Sea from all Baltic countries, covering observations from 1900 to the present. A database server manages this database allowing user access via the Internet. To investigate the database, a web-based program (SwingStations) was developed. This program works as a client in client/server interaction with the database. It allows data to be selected using graphical user-friendly queries and to analyze the data in numerical and graphical forms. It is also possible to construct vertical profiles of statistics and time series (time-depth graph) of oceanographic parameters for a selected area of the Baltic Sea. SwingStations applet is written in Java™ using Java Foundation Classes Application Programming Interface. This interface is included in the Sun's Java™ Plug-in Virtual Machine that provides complete Java Compatible™ support for all the popular web browsers on major hardware platforms.

  8. PHOTOCHEMICAL MINERALIZATION OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC NITROGEN TO AMMONIUM IN THE BALTIC SEA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solar radiation-induced photochemistry can be considered as a new source of nutrients when photochemical reactions release bioavailable nitrogen from biologically non-reactive dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). Pretreatments of Baltic Sea waters in the dark indicated that >72% of ...

  9. Language and Education Orientations in Lithuania: A Cross-Baltic Perspective Post-EU Accession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulajeva, Tatjana; Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an up-to-date overview of language policies and practices in Lithuania, paying particular attention to the latest developments that have taken place in national educational contexts. Against the background of recent sociodemographic changes in the three Baltic republics, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, it analyzes issues…

  10. Language-in-Education across the Baltic: Policies, Practices and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle

    2007-01-01

    Since their political reorientation that started in the late 1980s, the Baltic states have experienced profound social reforms to rebuild their democratizing societies. Education has featured as a key vehicle to this transformation process of overcoming the limitations of the Soviet past. National legislative frameworks were therefore soon…

  11. Intercultural Education in the Curriculum: Some Comparative Aspects from the Baltic and Nordic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asser, Hiie; Trasberg, Karmen; Vassilchenko, Larissa

    2004-01-01

    During the 1990s, the educational systems of the Baltic countries, newly independent of the Soviet Union, underwent rapid and far-reaching change. National educational traditions were re-established and the countries achieved an internationally recognized quality of education. In the second half of the past decade, however, it came to be…

  12. A new species of Diochus from Baltic amber (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Diochini)

    PubMed Central

    Chatzimanolis, Stylianos; Engel, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The first fossil of the staphylinine tribe Diochini Casey is described and figured from an inclusion in mid-Eocene (Lutetian) Baltic amber. Diochus electrus sp. n. is distinguished from its congeners and the diversity of rove beetles (Staphylinidae s.l.) is summarized briefly. PMID:22144854

  13. Activation of the marine ecosystem model 3D CEMBS for the Baltic Sea in operational mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, Lidia; Jakacki, Jaromir; Janecki, Maciej; Nowicki, Artur

    2013-04-01

    The paper presents a new marine ecosystem model 3D CEMBS designed for the Baltic Sea. The ecosystem model is incorporated into the 3D POPCICE ocean-ice model. The Current Baltic Sea model is based on the Community Earth System Model (CESM from the National Center for Atmospheric Research) which was adapted for the Baltic Sea as a coupled sea-ice model. It consists of the Community Ice Code (CICE model, version 4.0) and the Parallel Ocean Program (version 2.1). The ecosystem model is a biological submodel of the 3D CEMBS. It consists of eleven mass conservation equations. There are eleven partial second-order differential equations of the diffusion type with the advective term for phytoplankton, zooplankton, nutrients, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved and particulate organic matter. This model is an effective tool for solving the problem of ecosystem bioproductivity. The model is forced by 48-hour atmospheric forecasts provided by the UM model from the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling of Warsaw University (ICM). The study was financially supported by the Polish State Committee of Scientific Research (grants: No N N305 111636, N N306 353239). The partial support for this study was also provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBaltyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract no. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09. Calculations were carried out at the Academy Computer Centre in Gdańsk.

  14. Cultural and Linguistic Diversity of the Baltic States in a New Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickien, Ineta; Kaledaite, Violeta

    2005-01-01

    Language questions are increasingly on the agenda in Europe. This paper addresses some problematic aspects of language teaching and learning that have come to the fore in the Baltic states after the European Union enlargement of 2004. First, the paper aims at providing relevant information about language policies in the former USSR and the…

  15. Diversity of Pico- to Mesoplankton along the 2000 km Salinity Gradient of the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yue O. O.; Karlson, Bengt; Charvet, Sophie; Andersson, Anders F.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial plankton form the productive base of both marine and freshwater ecosystems and are key drivers of global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nutrients. Plankton diversity is immense with representations from all major phyla within the three domains of life. So far, plankton monitoring has mainly been based on microscopic identification, which has limited sensitivity and reproducibility, not least because of the numerical majority of plankton being unidentifiable under the light microscope. High-throughput sequencing of taxonomic marker genes offers a means to identify taxa inaccessible by traditional methods; thus, recent studies have unveiled an extensive previously unknown diversity of plankton. Here, we conducted ultra-deep Illumina sequencing (average 105 sequences/sample) of rRNA gene amplicons of surface water eukaryotic and bacterial plankton communities sampled in summer along a 2000 km transect following the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. Community composition was strongly correlated with salinity for both bacterial and eukaryotic plankton assemblages, highlighting the importance of salinity for structuring the biodiversity within this ecosystem. In contrast, no clear trends in alpha-diversity for bacterial or eukaryotic communities could be detected along the transect. The distribution of major planktonic taxa followed expected patterns as observed in monitoring programs, but groups novel to the Baltic Sea were also identified, such as relatives to the coccolithophore Emiliana huxleyi detected in the northern Baltic Sea. This study provides the first ultra-deep sequencing-based survey on eukaryotic and bacterial plankton biogeography in the Baltic Sea. PMID:27242706

  16. STS-90 payload bay door closure in OPF Bay 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The STS-90 Neurolab payload and two of the four Getaway Specials (GAS) await payload bay door closure in the orbiter Columbia today in Orbiter Processing Facility bay 3. Investigations during the Neurolab mission will focus on the effects of microgravity on the nervous system. The GAS container on the left contains the COLLisions Into Dust Experiment, or COLLIDE, which will study low velocity collisions between space-borne particles in an attempt to better understand planetary ring dynamics. The STS-90 mission is a joint venture of six space agencies and seven U.S. research agencies. Agencies participating in this mission include six institutes of the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and the Office of Naval Research, as well as the space agencies of Canada, France, Germany, and Japan, and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  17. STS-90 payload bay door closure in OPF Bay 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The STS-90 Neurolab payload and two of the four Getaway Specials (GAS) await payload bay door closure in the orbiter Columbia today in Orbiter Processing Facility bay 3. Investigations during the Neurolab mission will focus on the effects of microgravity on the nervous system. The mission is a joint venture of six space agencies and seven U.S. research agencies. Investigator teams from nine countries will conduct 31 studies in the microgravity environment of space. Other agencies participating in this mission include six institutes of the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and the Office of Naval Research, as well as the space agencies of Canada, France, Germany, and Japan, and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  18. Long-term trends of hypoxia in the coastal zone, north-western Baltic proper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrén, Thomas; Norbäck Ivarsson, Lena; Andrén, Elinor

    2015-04-01

    The Baltic Sea coastal zone contains over 20 % of all identified hypoxic sites worldwide and shows an increasing trend since 1950 (Conley et al. 2011). In the open Baltic Sea, hypoxia events are recorded during three time periods: about 8000-4000, 2000-800 cal. yr. BP, and from AD 1800 up to present, but in the coastal zone data on long-term trends are lacking (Zillén et al. 2008). Different views have been proposed of what caused the oscillation in the oxygen content at sea bottoms in the open Baltic Sea e.g. changes in agricultural practice, fluctuations in human population density and climate change. The role of humans and climate in driving the eutrophication and hypoxia in the Baltic Sea needs to be understood and there is an urgent need for increased knowledge of the historical extent of hypoxia and the driving forces for formation in the coastal zone. This project aims to disentangle the role of human induced and natural climate-driven processes that have resulted in times of eutrophication and hypoxia in the Baltic Sea during the last 2000 years. Research focus is put on the coastal zone and carefully selected estuaries along the Swedish east coast, where responses to changed human land-use can be expected to be first recorded. Eight sites, from the Stockholm archipelago to Bråviken, have been cored and sediments lithologically described and dated by radiocarbon using preferably terrestrial macrofossils. Preliminary results of age models, sedimentation rates, and lithologies will be presented. Lithological descriptions using laminated sediments as a proxy for hypoxic bottom water conditions will significantly increase the knowledge on the distribution of hypoxia and the extension of areas of laminated sediments in time and space in the coastal area. References: Conley, D.J., Carstensen, J., Aigars, J., Axe, P., Bonsdorff, E., Eremina, T., Haahti, B.-M., Humborg, C., Jonsson, P., Kotta, J., Lännegren, C., Larsson, U., Maximov, A., Rodriguez Medina, M

  19. Tampa Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment: Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkeson, T. D.

    2003-12-01

    The Tampa Bay Estuary Program (TBEP) was formed in 1991 to assist in developing a comprehensive plan to restore and protect Tampa Bay in Florida, USA. An ecological indicator of the health of the Bay is the coverage of seagrasses, historically in decline, which are important to the aquatic habitat and food web of the bay. Seagrass decline is linked to excess of plant-stimulating forms of nitrogen to the bay, promoting algae growth, which shades out light needed to sustain seagrasses. One element of the TBEP is a private-local-state, multi-agency Nitrogen Management Consortium that seeks to limit nitrogen loading to the Bay to the 1992-1994 average. Present estimates suggest atmospheric deposition comprises ~ 30% of the nitrogen budget of the Bay. This estimate was based, however, on limited ambient monitoring data and simple models, typical of such national estuary program efforts nationwide. In the Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Florida DEP joined with TBEP to increase the intensity, sophistication and spatial scope of monitoring and modeling and provide better information on air quality in the Tampa Bay area. The result will be improved estimates of the effects of local and regional emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) on the Bay and the benefits to be gained from implementation of emissions reduction strategies.

  20. Recent estuarine deposits, Chesapeake Bay and Apalachicola Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Donoghue, J.F.

    1985-02-01

    Estuarine facies are not easily discernible in the ancient record, because they represent a transition stage between fluvial and marine deposits. Modern estuarine sediments, nevertheless, are widespread because of the ongoing marine transgression. This widespread occurrence indicates that, during a highstand, estuaries are important centers for deposition of sediments shed from the continents. Sedimentologic studies have been made of 2 major estuaries: Chesapeake Bay (the largest US estuary) and Apalachicola Bay (estuary of the largest river in Florida). A detailed sediment budget for the Chesapeake, using radiotracers, clay mineralogy, magnetic stratigraphy, and other methods, demonstrates that the estuary is filling rapidly with sediment. Its remaining sedimentologic lifetime can be measured in centuries. Most of this filling has come at the expense of shoreline erosion. The rate of sedimentation, as measured by C-14, Pb-210, and Cs-137, has accelerated sharply over the past 2 centuries, from a few millimeters per year to present rates of a few centimeters per year. Sediment trapping effectiveness of the Chesapeake is nearly 100%. For Apalachicola Bay, the filling rate has been slower, although it appears to be nearly as efficient in retaining sediment. It has undergone a comparable change in sedimentation rates and sources over the past few centuries, as shown by magnetic stratigraphy and clay mineralogy. Given favorable conditions, such estuaries might be expected to contribute relatively thin but areally extensive bodies of fine-grained sediment to the rock record.

  1. Long-term variability of extreme waves in the Caspian, Black, Azov and Baltic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipkin, Victor; Dobroliubov, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    In order to study extreme storm waves in the Caspian, Black, Azov and Baltic Sea we used the spectral wave model SWAN. Significant wave height, swell and sea height, direction of propagation, their length and period were calculated with the NCEP/NCAR (1,9°x1,9°, 4-daily) reanalysis wind forcing from 1948 to 2010 in the Caspian, Black and Baltic Seas and with the NCEP/CFSR (0,3°x0,3°, 1 hour) for the period from 1979 to 2010 in the Azov Sea. The calculations were performed on supercomputers of Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU). The spatial resolution of the numerical grid was of order 5 km for the Caspian, Baltic and Black Seas, 2 km for the Azov Sea. These model wave hindcasts were used to calculate interannual and seasonal variability of the storm frequency, location and duration. The Initial Distribution Method and Annual Maxima Series Methods were used to study probable waves of a century reoccurrence. The long-term variability of extreme waves revealed different trends in the investigated seas. The Caspian and Azov seas decreased the storm activity, while in the Baltic Sea the number of storm cases increased and the Black Sea showed no significant trend. The of more than 12 m were observed in two centers in the middle part of the Caspian Sea and in the center of the Baltic Sea. In the Black Sea the extreme waves of the same probability of more than 14 m were found in the region to the south of the Crimean peninsula. In the Azov Sea the highest waves of a century reoccurrence do not exceed 5 m. The work was done in Natural Risk Assessment Laboratory, MSU under contract G.34.31.0007.

  2. Assessing Secchi and photic zone depth in the Baltic Sea from satellite data.

    PubMed

    Kratzer, Susanne; Håkansson, Bertil; Sahlin, Charlotte

    2003-12-01

    Long-term trends in the Secchi depth of the Baltic Sea have been interpreted in terms of eutrophication. The spectral attenuation coefficient Kd (490) can be estimated from remote sensing data. Given the empirical and theoretical relationships between diffuse attenuation and Secchi depth, it is therefore possible to estimate the trophic state from remote sensing data. This paper considers relationships among remotely sensed and in-water measured K (490), and Secchi depth data obtained during dedicated sea-truthing campaigns in the eastern Baltic Proper in 1999 (4) and in the western Baltic Proper/Himmerfjärden area during 2001 and 2002. In-water measurements are used to establish the relationship between the PAR and the spectral attenuation coefficient in the Baltic Sea via regression analysis. The analysis showed that in the area of investigation Kd(490) is about 1.48 times higher than Kd (PAR). This relationship is then used to define the link between the photic zone depth and the remote sensing optical depth, Kd (490)-1. The results show that the depth of the euphotic zone is about 6.8 times Kd (490)-1. The regression analysis between Kd (PAR) and Secchi depth confirmed previous work that Kd (PAR) is about 1.7 of the inverse Secchi depth. Furthermore, an in-water algorithm between Secchi depth and Kd (490) is used to simulate a Secchi depth map of the Baltic Sea from SeaWiFS Kd(490) data. This map is verified against sea-truthing data. Kd (490) data derived from satellite is compared to in situ Kd (490), and the sources of error are discussed. PMID:15049356

  3. Indicator Properties of Baltic Zooplankton for Classification of Environmental Status within Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    PubMed Central

    Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Postel, Lutz; Rubene, Gunta; Amid, Callis; Lesutiene, Jurate; Uusitalo, Laura; Strake, Solvita; Demereckiene, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the EU Member States to estimate the level of anthropogenic impacts on their marine systems using 11 Descriptors. Assessing food web response to altered habitats is addressed by Descriptor 4 and its indicators, which are being developed for regional seas. However, the development of simple foodweb indicators able to assess the health of ecologically diverse, spatially variable and complex interactions is challenging. Zooplankton is a key element in marine foodwebs and thus comprise an important part of overall ecosystem health. Here, we review work on zooplankton indicator development using long-term data sets across the Baltic Sea and report the main findings. A suite of zooplankton community metrics were evaluated as putative ecological indicators that track community state in relation to Good Environmental Status (GES) criteria with regard to eutrophication and fish feeding conditions in the Baltic Sea. On the basis of an operational definition of GES, we propose mean body mass of zooplankton in the community in combination with zooplankton stock measured as either abundance or biomass to be applicable as an integrated indicator that could be used within the Descriptor 4 in the Baltic Sea. These metrics performed best in predicting zooplankton being in-GES when considering all datasets evaluated. However, some other metrics, such as copepod biomass, the contribution of copepods to the total zooplankton biomass or biomass-based Cladocera: Copepoda ratio, were equally reliable or even superior in certain basin-specific assessments. Our evaluation suggests that in several basins of the Baltic Sea, zooplankton communities currently appear to be out-of-GES, being comprised by smaller zooplankters and having lower total abundance or biomass compared to the communities during the reference conditions; however, the changes in the taxonomic structure underlying these trends vary widely across the sea basins due to

  4. Improvement of Baltic proper water quality using large-scale ecological engineering.

    PubMed

    Stigebrandt, Anders; Gustafsson, Bo G

    2007-04-01

    Eutrophication of the Baltic proper has led to impaired water quality, demonstrated by, e.g., extensive blooming of cyanobacteria during the premium summer holiday season and severe oxygen deficit in the deepwater. Sustainable improvements in water quality by the reduction of phosphorus (P) supplies will take several decades before giving full effects because of large P storages both in soils in the watershed and in the water column and bottom sediments of the Baltic proper. In this article it is shown that drastically improved water quality may be obtained within a few years using large-scale ecological engineering methods. Natural variations in the Baltic proper during the last decades have demonstrated how rapid improvements may be achieved. The present article describes the basic dynamics of P, organic matter, and oxygen in the Baltic proper. It also briefly discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different classes of methods of ecological engineering aimed at restoring the Baltic proper from eutrophication effects. Preliminary computations show that the P content might be halved within a few years if about 100 kg O2 s(-1) are supplied to the upper deepwater. This would require 100 pump stations, each transporting about 100 m3 s(-1) of oxygen-rich so-called winter water from about 50 to 125 m depth where the water is released as a buoyant jet. Each pump station needs a power supply of 0.6 MW. Offshore wind power technology seems mature enough to provide the power needed by the pump stations. The cost to install 100 wind-powered pump stations, each with 0.6 MW power, at about 125-m depth is about 200 million Euros. PMID:17520945

  5. Indicator Properties of Baltic Zooplankton for Classification of Environmental Status within Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

    PubMed

    Gorokhova, Elena; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Postel, Lutz; Rubene, Gunta; Amid, Callis; Lesutiene, Jurate; Uusitalo, Laura; Strake, Solvita; Demereckiene, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the EU Member States to estimate the level of anthropogenic impacts on their marine systems using 11 Descriptors. Assessing food web response to altered habitats is addressed by Descriptor 4 and its indicators, which are being developed for regional seas. However, the development of simple foodweb indicators able to assess the health of ecologically diverse, spatially variable and complex interactions is challenging. Zooplankton is a key element in marine foodwebs and thus comprise an important part of overall ecosystem health. Here, we review work on zooplankton indicator development using long-term data sets across the Baltic Sea and report the main findings. A suite of zooplankton community metrics were evaluated as putative ecological indicators that track community state in relation to Good Environmental Status (GES) criteria with regard to eutrophication and fish feeding conditions in the Baltic Sea. On the basis of an operational definition of GES, we propose mean body mass of zooplankton in the community in combination with zooplankton stock measured as either abundance or biomass to be applicable as an integrated indicator that could be used within the Descriptor 4 in the Baltic Sea. These metrics performed best in predicting zooplankton being in-GES when considering all datasets evaluated. However, some other metrics, such as copepod biomass, the contribution of copepods to the total zooplankton biomass or biomass-based Cladocera: Copepoda ratio, were equally reliable or even superior in certain basin-specific assessments. Our evaluation suggests that in several basins of the Baltic Sea, zooplankton communities currently appear to be out-of-GES, being comprised by smaller zooplankters and having lower total abundance or biomass compared to the communities during the reference conditions; however, the changes in the taxonomic structure underlying these trends vary widely across the sea basins due to

  6. Significance of archaeal nitrification in hypoxic waters of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, C.; Vandieken, V.; Thamdrup, B.; Jürgens, K.

    2012-04-01

    Marine oxygen deficient areas are sites of important microbially mediated transformations within the nitrogen cycle. In the Baltic Sea, suboxic waters (oxygen below 5 μmol L-1) are considered to be a major nitrification zone within the water column. Recent evidence indicates that Archaea and not Bacteria are here the major ammonium oxidizers. In a Baltic Sea pelagic redoxcline, the crenarchaeotal subcluster GD2 which is related to the first cultivated ammonia-oxidizing crenarchaeote Candidatus Nitrosopumilus maritimus occurs in high abundance. However, little is known about its function and importance for the nitrogen and carbon cycles in oxygen minimum zones of the Baltic Sea. To approach this question, we sampled pelagic redoxclines in the Baltic Sea and determined the rates of nitrification and light-independent, inorganic carbon fixation via 15N and 14C isotope incubations, and quantified the abundance of putative ammonia-oxidizing Crenarchaeota by catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH). Nitrification was detectable throughout the suboxic zone with maxima of 122-131 nmol L-1 d-1 in layers with 1.8-7.1 μmol oxygen L-1 and ammonium below 0.2 μmol L-1. However, a nitrification potential was detected even in the upper anoxic, sulfidic zone. Crenarchaeotal abundance correlated strongly with nitrification rates and accounted for up to 24% of total prokaryotic cells. In contrast, the CO2 fixation in the suboxic zone was with 1.6-19.6 nmol L-1 d-1 rather low when compared to the subjacent anoxic, sulfidic waters. Our study indicates that ammonia oxidation in the suboxic zone of the Baltic Sea is mainly driven by Crenarchaeota. Their occurrence also in the anoxic, sulfidic water masses and the maintained nitrification potential point to special adaptations in this habitat with a potentially reduced sensitivity against hydrogen sulfide.

  7. Study in 1790 Baltic men: FSHR Asn680Ser polymorphism affects total testes volume

    PubMed Central

    Grigorova, M; Punab, M; Poolamets, O; Sõber, S; Vihljajev, V; Žilaitienė, B; Erenpreiss, J; Matulevičius, V; Tsarev, I; Laan, M

    2013-01-01

    Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) contains two common linked polymorphisms, Thr307Ala (rs6165) and Asn680Ser (rs6166), shown to modulate ovarian function in women. The effect on male fertility and reproductive parameters has been inconclusive. We studied FSHR Asn680Ser polymorphism in a large study group (n = 1790) from the Baltic countries. The population-based Baltic male cohort (Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians; n = 1052) and Estonian oligo-/azoospermic (sperm concentration <20 × 106/mL) idiopathic infertile patients (n = 738) were genotyped for the FSHR Asn680Ser using PCR-RFLP. Genetic associations were tested using linear regression under additive model and results were combined in meta-analysis. No statistical difference was detected in allelic distribution of the FSHR Asn680Ser between the Baltic cohort and Estonian male infertility group. A consistent significant association was detected between the FSHR Ser680 allele and lower total testes volume in both, the Baltic cohort (p = 0.010, effect = −1.16 mL) and Estonian idiopathic infertility group (p = 0.007, effect = −1.77 mL). In meta-analysis, the statistical significance was enhanced (p = 0.000066, effect = −1.40 mL). Meta-analysis supported further associations with moderate effect between the FSHR Ser680 variant and higher serum FSH (p = 0.072), lower Inhibin B (p = 0.037) and total testosterone (p = 0.034). No statistically significant associations were identified with serum LH and estradiol, and sperm parameters. In conclusion, the study in 1790 Baltic men shows statistically highly significant association of the FSHR Asn680Ser with total testes volume and supportive association with serum reproductive hormone levels indicative to the functional effect of the alternative FSHR variants on male reproductive physiology. PMID:23413141

  8. BALTEX—an interdisciplinary research network for the Baltic Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reckermann, Marcus; Langner, Joakim; Omstedt, Anders; von Storch, Hans; Keevallik, Sirje; Schneider, Bernd; Arheimer, Berit; Markus Meier, H. E.; Hünicke, Birgit

    2011-10-01

    BALTEX is an environmental research network dealing with the Earth system of the entire Baltic Sea drainage basin. Important elements include the water and energy cycle, climate variability and change, water management and extreme events, and related impacts on biogeochemical cycles. BALTEX was founded in 1993 as a GEWEX continental-scale experiment and is currently in its second 10 yr phase. Phase I (1993-2002) was primarily dedicated to hydrological, meteorological and oceanographic processes in the Baltic Sea drainage basin, hence mostly dealt with the physical aspects of the system. Scientific focus was on the hydrological cycle and the exchange of energy between the atmosphere, the Baltic Sea and the surface of its catchment. The BALTEX study area was hydrologically defined as the Baltic Sea drainage basin. The second 10 yr phase of BALTEX (Phase II: 2003-12) has strengthened regional climate research, water management issues, biogeochemical cycles and overarching efforts to reach out to stakeholders and decision makers, as well as to foster communication and education. Achievements of BALTEX Phase II have been the establishment of an assessment report of regional climate change and its impacts on the Baltic Sea basin (from hydrological to biological and socio-economic), the further development of regional physical climate models and the integration of biogeochemical and ecosystem models. BALTEX features a strong infrastructure, with an international secretariat and a publication series, and organizes various workshops and conferences. This article gives an overview of the BALTEX programme, with an emphasis on Phase II, with some examples from BALTEX-related research.

  9. The general circulation of the Baltic Sea in the context of climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getzlaff, K.; Lehmann, A.

    2012-04-01

    A detailed assessment of climate variability of the Baltic Sea area for the period 1958-2009 revealed that the recent changes in the warming trend since the mid-1980s are associated with changes in the large-scale atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic. The analysis of winter sea level pressure (SLP) data highlighted considerable changes in the number and pathways of deep cyclones (<980 hPa) in parallel with the eastward shift of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) centres of action. Additionally, a seasonal shift of strong wind events from autumn to winter and early spring exists for the Baltic area. Earlier studies showed that different atmospheric climate regimes force different circulation regimes in the Baltic Sea. The analysis of the winter (DJFM) circulation patterns for the period 1970-2008 reveals changes in the general circulation of the Baltic Sea. While it is difficult to clearly link individual winter circulation patterns to one of the four dominant atmospheric climate regimes for the North Atlantic domain, the comparison of mean winter circulation patterns for 20-year periods (1970-1989 and 1990-2009) highlights that for the later 20-year period an intensified cyclonic circulation exists in the central Baltic Sea. This intensified circulation results from stronger westerly and north-westerly winds and is most likely connected to changes in the large-scale atmospheric circulation. As climate, to a large extent, controls patterns of water circulation and biophysical aspects relevant for biological production, such as the vertical distribution of temperature, salinity and oxygen, alterations in climate may severely impact the trophic structure and functioning of marine food webs.

  10. Assessment of PCDD/F source contributions in Baltic Sea sediment core records.

    PubMed

    Assefa, Anteneh T; Tysklind, Mats; Sobek, Anna; Sundqvist, Kristina L; Geladi, Paul; Wiberg, Karin

    2014-08-19

    Spatial and temporal trends of sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the Baltic Sea were evaluated by positive matrix factorization (PMF) and principal component analysis (PCA). Sediment cores were sampled at eight coastal, one coastal reference, and six offshore sites covering the northern to the southern Baltic Sea. The cores, which covered the period 1919-2010, were sliced into 2-3 cm disks among which 8-11 disks per core (in total 141 disks) were analyzed for all tetra- through octa-CDD/Fs. Identification and apportionment of PCDD/F sources was carried out using PMF. Five stable model PCDD/F congener patterns were identified, which could be associated with six historically important source types: (i) atmospheric background deposition (ABD), (ii) use and production of penta-chlorophenol (PCP), (iii) use and production of tetra-chlorophenol (TeCP), (iv) high temperature processes (Thermal), (v) hexa-CDD-related sources (HxCDD), and (vi) chlorine-related sources (Chl), all of which were still represented in the surface layers. Overall, the last four decades of the period 1920-2010 have had a substantial influence on the Baltic Sea PCDD/F pollution, with 88 ± 7% of the total amount accumulated during this time. The 1990s was the peak decade for all source types except TeCP, which peaked in the 1980s in the northern Baltic Sea and has still not peaked in the southern part. The combined impact of atmospheric-related emissions (ABD and Thermal) was dominant in the open sea system throughout the study period (1919-2010) and showed a decreasing south to north trend (always >80% in the south and >50% in the north). Accordingly, to further reduce levels of PCDD/Fs in the open Baltic Sea ecosystem, future actions should focus on reducing atmospheric emissions. PMID:25103626

  11. 75 FR 67620 - Temporary Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, Delta Ports, Monterey Bay and Humboldt Bay, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing temporary security zones on the navigable waters of San Francisco Bay, Delta Ports, Monterey Bay and Humboldt Bay, CA, in support of increasing the size of security zones currently provided by 33 CFR 165.1183 from 100 yards to 500 yards. These temporary security zones are necessary to effectively protect cruise ships, high interest vessels (HIVs), or tankers, as......

  12. Parasite diversity of sticklebacks from the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Zander, C Dieter

    2007-01-01

    In the brackish Baltic Sea, the species richness and diversity of parasite communities of three- (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and nine-spined sticklebacks (Pungitius pungitius) were investigated. The studies regarded four localities at the Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg coasts, northern Germany, where salinities were between 10 and 18 per thousand. Species richness was relatively high, attaining 15 parasite species in G. aculeatus and 16 in P. pungitius, which are only surpassed by former investigations that lasted a year or more. An analysis of parasite species identity revealed clear differences in diverse localities referring to different supracommunities. The infracommunity comprised maximally of eight species in G. aculeatus and seven in P. pungitius, which corresponds to former investigations. The mean value of infracommunity with 5.3 parasites is the highest value ever found in small-sized fish. An infracommunity index revealed that the digenean Podocotyle atomon and Magnibursatus caudofilamentosa and the copepod Thersitina gasterostei were the most abundant parasites. The relationship of component community to mean infracommunity can judge about the threshold level, which allows parasite to settle successfully. An important factor to form parasite communities is the season of their appearance, which depends also on their reproduction and on the presence of intermediate hosts. In addition, the choice of prey (for passive infection) and quality of habitats (for active infection) influences the constitution of the parasite communities. The diversity values of parasites were low in all hosts, which is due to the brackish milieu and by different levels of eutrophication, which both create extreme environments. These do not mirror in every case the biodiversity of the respective habitats. The parasite community was in a level of early heterotrophic succession where low diversity is combined with high population density, which is characteristic for extreme

  13. Magma mingling in the panozero sanukitoid intrusion, baltic shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollinson, H.

    2003-04-01

    The 2.7 Ga Panozero pluton is a composite intrusion comprising magmas of sanukitoid affinity, intrusive into the ca. 2.75 Ga Segozero greenstone belt in western Karelia in the Baltic Shield. The intrusion is predominantly a monzonite, is elliptical in form (9 x 6 km) and is undeformed. Along the eastern margin of the intrusion a wide variety of cogenetic magmas have been mapped ranging in composition from biotite-hornblendites, through monzo-gabbro and monzonite to quartz-monzonite. The contact relationships between the different phases of the intrusion are complex and imply magma mingling and incomplete mixing between magma types. The monzogabbros show a gradational relationship with the monzodiorites, but occur as inclusions within, and contain inclusions of, the monzonite implying two coexisting melts. Similar relationships exist between the monzonite and quartz monzonite and in places there is a gneissose banding of the darker phase within the lighter phase. The quartz-syenite is intrusive into all earlier phases, although the latest phase is hornblendite. This is present as net veining in gabbro and as irregular veins, dykes and as irregularly shaped xenoliths in monzonite, quartz monzonite and syenite. The irregular form and deformed state of the hornblendite inclusions within the earlier magmas implies that the hornblendite was emplaced whilst the host magma was hot. Also developed along the eastern margin of the intrusion are breccia pipes. These are found in the monzodiorites, monzonites and in quartz monzonites. They contain elliptical fragments up to 20 cm long of hornblendite, tremolitite, epidotised amphibolite and in the monzodiorite euhedral feldspars with felsic reaction rims. The matrix of the breccias is often very similar to the composition of their host rock. Many of the fragments are thought to be derived from the adjacent greenstone belt. However, metabasaltic rocks are not recorded from this part of the greenstone belt and so may be derived

  14. Nelson River and Hudson Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Rivers that empty into large bodies of water can have a significant impact on the thawing of nearshore winter ice. This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 18, 2001, shows the Nelson River emptying spring runoff from the Manitoba province to the south into the southwestern corner of Canada's Hudson Bay. The warmer waters from more southern latitudes hasten melting of ice near the shore, though some still remained, perhaps because in shallow coastal waters, the ice could have been anchored to the bottom. High volumes of sediment in the runoff turned the inflow brown, and the rim of the retreating ice has taken on a dirty appearance even far to the east of the river's entrance into the Bay. The sediment would have further hastened the melting of the ice because its darker color would have absorbed more solar radiation than cleaner, whiter ice. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  15. The Chesapeake Bay impact structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powars, David S.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Gohn, Gregory S.; Horton, Jr., J. Wright

    2015-01-01

    About 35 million years ago, during late Eocene time, a 2-mile-wide asteroid or comet smashed into Earth in what is now the lower Chesapeake Bay in Virginia. The oceanic impact vaporized, melted, fractured, and (or) displaced the target rocks and sediments and sent billions of tons of water, sediments, and rocks into the air. Glassy particles of solidified melt rock rained down as far away as Texas and the Caribbean. Models suggest that even up to 50 miles away the velocity of the intensely hot air blast was greater than 1,500 miles per hour, and ground shaking was equivalent to an earthquake greater than magnitude 8.0 on the Richter scale. Large tsunamis affected most of the North Atlantic basin. The Chesapeake Bay impact structure is among the 20 largest known impact structures on Earth.

  16. Terra Nova Bay Polynya, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In Terra Nova Bay, off the Scott Coast of Victoria Land, Antarctica, a large pocket of open water persists throughout most of the Southern Hemisphere winter, even while most of the rest of the Antarctic coastline is firmly embraced by the frozen Southern Ocean. This pocket of open water--a polynya--results from exceptionally strong winds that blow downslope from the Trans-Antarctic Mountains. These fierce katabatic winds drive the sea ice eastward. Since the dominant ice drift pattern in the area is northward, the Drygalski Ice Tongue prevents the bay from being re-populated with sea ice. This image of the Terra Nova Bay polynya was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite on October 16, 2007. Sea ice sits over the Ross Sea like a cracked and crumbling windshield. Blue-tinged glaciers flow down from the Trans-Antarctic Mountains. Although glaciers can appear blue because of melt water, they can also get that tint when the wind scours and polishes the ice surface. Given the strength of the katabatic winds along this part of the Antarctic coast, it is likely that the blue color of these glaciers is a result of their having been swept clean of snow. The large image has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel.

  17. Lithospheric architecture beneath Hudson Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porritt, Robert W.; Miller, Meghan S.; Darbyshire, Fiona A.

    2015-07-01

    Hudson Bay overlies some of the thickest Precambrian lithosphere on Earth, whose internal structures contain important clues to the earliest workings of plate formation. The terminal collision, the Trans-Hudson Orogen, brought together the Western Churchill craton to the northwest and the Superior craton to the southeast. These two Archean cratons along with the Paleo-Proterozoic Trans-Hudson internides, form the core of the North American craton. We use S to P converted wave imaging and absolute shear velocity information from a joint inversion of P to S receiver functions, new ambient noise derived phase velocities, and teleseismic phase velocities to investigate this region and determine both the thickness of the lithosphere and the presence of internal discontinuities. The lithosphere under central Hudson Bay approaches ˜350 km thick but is thinner (˜200-250 km) around the periphery of the Bay. Furthermore, the amplitude of the LAB conversion from the S receiver functions is unusually large for a craton, suggesting a large thermal contrast across the LAB, which we interpret as direct evidence of the thermal insulation effect of continents on the asthenosphere. Within the lithosphere, midlithospheric discontinuities, significantly shallower than the base of the lithosphere, are often imaged, suggesting the mechanisms that form these layers are common. Lacking time-history information, we infer that these discontinuities reflect reactivation of formation structures during deformation of the craton.

  18. 8 CFR 204.10 - Petitions by, or for, certain scientists of the Commonwealth of Independent States or the Baltic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CFR part 103. (j) Rejection. Petitions filed under this provision on or after September 30, 2006 or... scientist or engineer of the eligible independent states of the former Soviet Union or the Baltic...

  19. 8 CFR 204.10 - Petitions by, or for, certain scientists of the Commonwealth of Independent States or the Baltic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR part 103. (j) Rejection. Petitions filed under this provision on or after September 30, 2006 or... scientist or engineer of the eligible independent states of the former Soviet Union or the Baltic...

  20. 78 FR 45061 - Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski Show, Sister Bay, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Sister Bay near Sister Bay, WI. This safety zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Sister Bay due to a fireworks display and ski show. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect the surrounding public and vessels from the hazards associated with the fireworks display and ski show in Sister Bay on August 31,...

  1. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Although clouds obscure part of the city of San Francisco and the mouth of the Bay (37.5N, 122.0W), many cultural and natural features in the immediate vicinity are obvious. The Bay Bridge which was damaged in the 1989 earthquake, Candlestick Park, San Mateo and Dumbarton Bridges as well as the various colored settling ponds rimming the south end of the Bay, the San Andreas and Calaveras faults and many of the major highways can be seen.

  2. 76 FR 38020 - Safety Zone; Bay Point Fireworks, Bay Point Marina; Marblehead, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Point Fireworks, Bay Point Marina.... This Zone is intended to restrict vessels from portions of Lake Erie for the Bay Point Fireworks. This... fireworks displays. DATES: This regulation is effective from 10 p.m. on July 2, 2011 through 10:20 p.m....

  3. 78 FR 46813 - Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR Temporary Final... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay... of Sturgeon Bay due to a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect...

  4. 78 FR 29289 - Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA... Big Bay Boom Fireworks display from 8:45 p.m. to 10 p.m. on July 4, 2013. These proposed safety zones... Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A....

  5. 78 FR 39610 - Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay; San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay; San Diego, CA... Fourth of July Big Bay Boom Fireworks display on the evening of July 4, 2013. These temporary safety... as being available in the docket, go to http://www.regulations.gov , type the docket number in...

  6. EMPACT PROJECT FOR NARRAGANSETT BAY / MOUNT HOPE BAY,PROVIDENCE, RHODE ISLAND / FALL RIVER, MASSACHUSETTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will provide the public with timely information about water quality in the Narragansett Bay and its tributaries and the effects of natural and man-made influences on the Bay. This project will extend the water quality study of Narragansett Bay into the urban estua...

  7. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207. ... Ship Canal, Wisc. 162.125 Section 162.125 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel...

  8. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207. ... Ship Canal, Wisc. 162.125 Section 162.125 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel...

  9. Substructure view of the Young's Bay Bridge, view looking east, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Substructure view of the Young's Bay Bridge, view looking east, north side of the bascule trusswork - Old Young's Bay Bridge, Spanning Young's Bay at Milepoint 6.89 on Warrenton-Astoria Highway (Highway No. 9), Astoria, Clatsop County, OR

  10. General perspective view of Old Young's Bay Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of Old Young's Bay Bridge, view looking southeast, north side of structure - Old Young's Bay Bridge, Spanning Young's Bay at Milepoint 6.89 on Warrenton-Astoria Highway (Highway No. 9), Astoria, Clatsop County, OR

  11. General perspective view of Old Young's Bay Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of Old Young's Bay Bridge, view looking east - Old Young's Bay Bridge, Spanning Young's Bay at Milepoint 6.89 on Warrenton-Astoria Highway (Highway No. 9), Astoria, Clatsop County, OR

  12. General perspective view of Old Young's Bay Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of Old Young's Bay Bridge, view looking northwest - Old Young's Bay Bridge, Spanning Young's Bay at Milepoint 6.89 on Warrenton-Astoria Highway (Highway No. 9), Astoria, Clatsop County, OR

  13. Role of remote sensing in Bay measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mugler, J. P., Jr.; Godfrey, J. P.; Hickman, G. D.; Hovis, W. G.; Pearson, A. O.; Weaver, K. N.

    1978-01-01

    Remote measurements of a number of surface or near surface parameters for baseline definition and specialized studies, remote measurements of episodic events, and remote measurements of the Bay lithosphere are considered in terms of characterizing and understanding the ecology of the Chesapeake Bay. Geologic processes and features best suited for information enhancement by remote sensing methods are identified. These include: (1) rates of sedimentation in the Bay; (2) rates of erosion of Bay shorelines; (3) spatial distribution and geometry of aquifers; (4) mapping of Karst terrain (sinkholes); and (5) mapping of fracture patterns. Recommendations for studying problem areas identified are given.

  14. Real World: NASA and the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Video Gallery

    Learn how NASA uses Earth observing satellites to monitor conditions in the Chesapeake Bay over time. Information about pollution, eutrophication, land cover and watershed runoff helps water manage...

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in San Francisco Bay.

    PubMed

    Davis, J A; Hetzel, F; Oram, J J; McKee, L J

    2007-09-01

    San Francisco Bay is facing a legacy of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) spread widely across the land surface of the watershed, mixed deep into the sediment of the Bay, and contaminating the Bay food web to a degree that poses health risks to humans and wildlife. In response to this persistent problem, water quality managers are establishing a PCB total maximum daily load (TMDL) and implementation plan to accelerate the recovery of the Bay from decades of PCB contamination. This article provides a review of progress made over the past 15 years in managing PCBs and understanding their sources, pathways, fate, and effects in the Bay, and highlights remaining information needs that should be addressed in the next 10 years. The phaseout of PCBs during the 1970s and the 1979 federal ban on sale and production led to gradual declines from the 1970s to the present. However, 25 years after the ban, PCB concentrations in some Bay sport fish today are still more than ten times higher than the threshold of concern for human health. Without further management action it appears that the general recovery of the Bay from PCB contamination will take many more decades. PCB concentrations in sport fish were, along with mercury, a primary cause of a consumption advisory for the Bay and the consequent classification of the Bay as an impaired water body. Several sources of information indicate that PCB concentrations in the Bay may also be high enough to adversely affect wildlife, including rare and endangered species. The greater than 90% reduction in food web contamination needed to meet the targets for protection of human health would likely also generally eliminate risks to wildlife. PCB contamination in the Bay is primarily associated with industrial areas along the shoreline and in local watersheds. Strong spatial gradients in PCB concentrations persist decades after the release of these chemicals to Bay Area waterways. Through the TMDL process, attention is being more sharply

  16. Effect of major Baltic inflows on the vertical distribution of hydrophysical parameters, oxygen and inorganic nutrients in the Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland: a numerical modelling experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessin, Gennadi; Stips, Adolf

    2013-04-01

    Certain meteorological and oceanographic conditions cause episodic inflows of highly saline and usually oxygen-rich water into the Baltic Sea termed major Baltic inflows (MBI). These events ventilate the deep water of the Central Baltic Sea, but also increase stratification stability and suppress vertical mixing. During stagnation periods the deep water oxygen pool is exhausted and salinity is decreasing due to mixing processes. While the effect of MBIs on the deep area of the Central Baltic received much attention in the recent years, less is known about their influence on hydrophysical and ecological conditions in the Baltic sub-basins. It is a fact, that despite a reduction in nutrient discharge to the Baltic Sea from agricultural runoff and industrial production in the beginning of 1990s, in the Gulf of Finland (GoF) near-bottom oxygen conditions became worse and phosphate concentrations have even increased during the recent decade. This is raising the question of the role that MBIs play in the exchange of water and material between Baltic Proper and the GoF. To improve our understanding of the effects of MBIs on the interaction of the Gulf of Finland and the Baltic Proper, the hydrodynamic model GETM coupled with the ecosystem model ERGOM was applied to the Baltic Sea area for the period 1991-2009. Model performance was validated and showed good agreement with the available measurement data at HELCOM monitoring stations BY15, LL17, LL12, LL7 and LL3A, which represent a transition from the Gotland Deep to the eastern GoF. To exclude the effect of MBIs, an experimental model run without imposed sea-level variations at the open boundary in Kattegat was performed, thus excluding one of the major factors driving the barotropic inflows to the Baltic Sea. Model results have shown that in no-inflow situations, surface salinity is lower by about 1 PSU and near-bottom salinity by about 2 PSU in the Baltic Proper, while in the GoF the difference is about 0.5 and 1.5 PSU

  17. Stable Isotope Evidence for Late Medieval (14th–15th C) Origins of the Eastern Baltic Cod (Gadus morhua) Fishery

    PubMed Central

    Orton, David C.; Makowiecki, Daniel; de Roo, Tessa; Johnstone, Cluny; Harland, Jennifer; Jonsson, Leif; Heinrich, Dirk; Enghoff, Inge Bødker; Lõugas, Lembi; Van Neer, Wim; Ervynck, Anton; Hufthammer, Anne Karin; Amundsen, Colin; Jones, Andrew K. G.; Locker, Alison; Hamilton-Dyer, Sheila; Pope, Peter; MacKenzie, Brian R.; Richards, Michael; O'Connell, Tamsin C.; Barrett, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Although recent historical ecology studies have extended quantitative knowledge of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) exploitation back as far as the 16th century, the historical origin of the modern fishery remains obscure. Widespread archaeological evidence for cod consumption around the eastern Baltic littoral emerges around the 13th century, three centuries before systematic documentation, but it is not clear whether this represents (1) development of a substantial eastern Baltic cod fishery, or (2) large-scale importation of preserved cod from elsewhere. To distinguish between these hypotheses we use stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis to determine likely catch regions of 74 cod vertebrae and cleithra from 19 Baltic archaeological sites dated from the 8th to the 16th centuries. δ13C and δ15N signatures for six possible catch regions were established using a larger sample of archaeological cod cranial bones (n = 249). The data strongly support the second hypothesis, revealing widespread importation of cod during the 13th to 14th centuries, most of it probably from Arctic Norway. By the 15th century, however, eastern Baltic cod dominate within our sample, indicating the development of a substantial late medieval fishery. Potential human impact on cod stocks in the eastern Baltic must thus be taken into account for at least the last 600 years. PMID:22110675

  18. Trend Analysis of Nitrogen Deposition to Baltic Sea and its sub basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semeena, V. S.; Jerzy, Bartnicki

    2009-04-01

    Since the beginning of last century, Baltic Sea has changed from a clear-water sea into a eutrophic marine environment. Eutrophication is the major problem in the Baltic Sea. Excessive nitrogen and phosphorus loads coming from land-based sources within and outside the catchment area of the bordering countries of the Baltic Sea are the main cause of the eutrophication in the sea. Even though a major part of nitrogen(75%) and phosphorus load(95%) enter the sea via rivers or as water-born discharges, 25% of the nitrogen load comes as atmospheric deposition. Numerical models are the best tools to measure atmospheric deposition into sea waters. We have used the latest version of the Unified EMEP model - which has been developed at the EMEP/MSC-W (Meteorological Synthesizing Centre - West of EMEP) for simulating atmospheric transport and deposition of acidifying and eutrophying compounds as well as photo-oxidants in Europe- to study the trends in atmospheric deposition of nitrogen into Baltic Sea for the period 1995-2006. The model domain covers Europe and the Atlantic Ocean. The model grid (of the size 170×133) has a horizontal resolution of 50 km at 60o N, which is consistent with the resolution of emission data reported to CLRTAP. Approximately 10 of these layers are placed below 2 km to obtain high resolution of the boundary layer which is of special importance to the long range transport of air pollution. EMEP model has been thouroughly validated (Fagerli et.al.[1], Simpson et.al.[2], Simpson et.al.[3] ) The contribution of deposition of nitrogen into Baltic Sea from each of the bordering countries of the Baltic Sea and the deposition trends for the period 1995-2006 has been analysed and the results will be presented. References: [1]. Fagerli H., Simpson D. and Aas W.: Model performance for sulphur and nitrogen compounds for the period 1980 to 2000. [In:] L. Tarraśon, (editor), Transboundary Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground Level Ozone in Europe. EMEP

  19. Large spatial variations in coastal 14C reservoir age - a case study from the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lougheed, B. C.; Filipsson, H. L.; Snowball, I.

    2013-05-01

    Coastal locations are highly influenced by input from freshwater river runoff, including sources of terrestrial carbon, which can be expected to modify the 14C reservoir age, or R (t), associated with marine water. In this Baltic Sea case study, pre-bomb museum collection mollusc shells of known calendar age, from 30 locations across a strategic salinity transect of the Baltic Sea, were analysed for 14C, δ13C and δ18O. R (t) was calculated for all 30 locations. Seven locations, of which six are within close proximity of the coast, were found to have relatively higher R (t) values, indicative of hard-water effects. Whenever possible, the Macoma genus of mollusc was selected from the museum collections, in order to exclude species specific reservoir age effects as much as possible. When the Macoma samples are exclusively considered, and samples from hard-water locations excluded, a statistically significant correlation between Macoma R (t) and average salinity is found, indicating a two end-member linear mixing model between 14Cmarine and 14Crunoff. A map of Baltic Sea Macoma aragonite R (t) for the late 19th and early 20th centuries is produced. Such a map can provide an estimate for contemporary Baltic Sea Macoma R (t), although one must exercise caution when applying such estimates back in time or to 14C dates obtained from different sample material. A statistically significant correlation is found between δ18Oaragonite and Macoma R (t), suggesting that δ18Oaragonite can be used to estimate Macoma palaeo-R (t), due to the δ18Oaragonite signal being dominated by the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. A slightly increased correlation can be expected when δ18Oaragonite is corrected for temperature fractionation effects. The results of this Baltic Sea case study, which show that R (t) is affected by hydrographic conditions and local carbon inputs, have important consequences for other coastal and estuarine locations, where R (t) is also likely to significantly

  20. Iceberg ploughmark features on bottom surface of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorokhov, Dmitry; Sivkov, Vadim; Dorokhova, Evgenia; Krechik, Viktor

    2016-04-01

    A detail swath bathymetry, side-scan sonar and acoustic profiling combined with sediment sampling during the 64th cruise of RV "Academic Mstislav Keldysh" (October 2015) allowed to identify new geomorphological features of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea bottom surface. The extended chaotic ploughmarks (furrows) in most cases filled with thin layer of mud were discovered on surface of the Gdansk-Gotland sill glacial deposits. They are observed on the depth of more than 70 m and have depth and width from 1 to 10 m. Most of them are v- or u-shaped stepped depressions. The side-scan records of similar geomorpholoical features are extensively reported from Northern Hemisphere and Antarctica (Goodwin et al., 1985; Dowdeswell et al., 1993). Ploughmarks are attributed to the action of icebergs scouring into the sediment as they touch bottom. We are suggest that furrows discovered in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea are also the result of iceberg scouring during the Baltic Ice Lake stage (more than 11 600 cal yr BP (Bjorck, 2008)). This assumption confirmed by occurrence of fragmental stones and boulders on the sea bottom surface which are good indicators of iceberg rafting (Lisitzin, 2003). Ice ploughmarks at sea bottom surface were not occurred before in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea. The study was financed by Russian Scientific Fund, grant number 14-37-00047. References Bjorck S. The late Quaternary development of the Baltic Sea Basin. In: The BACC Author Team (eds) Assessment of climate change for the Baltic Sea Basin. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. 2008. Dowdeswell J. A., Villinger H., Whittington R. J., Marienfeld P. Iceberg scouring in Scoresby Sund and on the East Greenland continental shelf // Marine Geology. V. 111. N. 1-2. 1993. P. 37-53. Goodwin C. R., Finley J. C., Howard L. M. Ice scour bibliography. Environmental Studies Revolving Funds Report No. 010. Ottawa. 1985. 99 pp. Lisitzin A. P. Sea-Ice and Iceberg Sedimentation in the Ocean: Recent and Past. Springer

  1. To what extent does the salinity flux influence phytoplankton blooms? - Baltic Sea modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieszyńska, Agata; Stramska, Małgorzata

    2016-04-01

    This work is focused on numerical modeling of biological-physical interactions and their influence on phytoplankton production and vertical distribution of biomass and its variability in the surface waters of the Baltic Sea. The area of interest is an inland sea with water salinity much smaller than observed in the global ocean (about one fifth of the open ocean value). Vertical distribution of the salinity has a significant influence on water column density stratification, and therefore influences intensity of mixing and the depth of mixed layer. This, in turn, defines environmental conditions for phytoplankton growth. Vertical distribution of water salinity in the basin is controlled by processes such as evaporation/precipitation, freezing/melting of sea ice and runoff of freshwater from land. There are a lot of different phytoplankton species in the area of the Baltic Sea. Every single one has its own characteristics and is sensitive to distinct complex environmental conditions. Biological-physical interactions controlling these microorganisms' life cycles are multiplicitous and because of their complexity difficult to quantify. The best and probably only way to study presented issue is the usage of numerical modeling tool. The results presented here are based on 1D numerical simulations carried out with Princeton Ocean Model (POM, http://www.ccpo.odu.edu/POMWEB/) merged with the Ecological Regional Ecosystem Model (ERGOM, http://ergom.net/) developed for the Baltic Sea research by German scientists from the Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research in Warnemünde. In model simulations surface salinity flux was determined from the difference between the precipitation and evaporation rate at the air-sea interface. Data for parameterization of atmospheric forcing were defined based on data sets from National Centers of Environmental Prediction (NCEP). We carried out systematic calculations using different values of surface fluxes encompassing the range of

  2. The petroleum system of the lower Palaeozoic strata in the central part of the Baltic basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazauskiene, Jurga; Zdanaviciute, Onyte

    2013-04-01

    The Baltic Basin is an intra-cratonic sedimentary basin with conspicuous Early Palaeozoic sections. In terms of hydrocarbon prospectively, the it has been perceived as a classical oil basin with several tens of relatively small oil and gas fields occur there over a wide stratigraphic interval, ranging from the crystalline basement through the entire Lower Palaeozoic succession. Until now conventional oil has been predominantly produced in the basin, i.e. only few conventional gas accumulations have been found in the Polish Baltic Sea offshore. Petroleum potential within the basin also is associated with Silurian reefogenic and carbonate build-ups. New organic geochemistry data as well revealed the potential for shale gas/oil in the basin. The analysis of the composition of the organic matter and crude oils from Kaliningrad region (Russia) and Lithuanian revealed genesis and the general trends of the migration of hydrocarbons in the Baltic Basin. The organic matter of the source rocks is of similar composition and represents typical marine type II, showing considerable variations of the maturity thought the basin: ranging from immature in the eastern Lithuania and Kaliningrad region of Russia to oil window to the south-west. In some places the anomalously high maturity of organic matter, indicating the lower part of the wet gas/condensate window have been recorded, most probably being related to the locally increased paleo-temperatures. Oils of the Baltic Basin have low densities (< 31,1 API; 790.5-870.0 kg/m3), and low asphaltene (<2.2%) and sulphur (<0.44%) contents. The saturated hydrocarbon content varies from 35.3 to 77.8%, and the ratio of saturate to aromatic hydrocarbons ranges in 2.1-5.2, indicating long-distance hydrocarbons migration or high thermal maturities. Oils of the Baltic Basin are not biodegraded, despite their early emplacement (e.g. by the Lower Palaeozoic age) and the relatively low present reservoir temperatures. Results of biomarker and

  3. Floating along buoyancy levels: Dispersal and survival of western Baltic fish eggs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petereit, C.; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Franke, A.; Köster, F. W.

    2014-03-01

    Vertical distribution is an important feature of pelagic fish eggs and yolk sac larvae impacting their survival and dispersal, especially in heterogeneous and highly variable estuarine environments like the Baltic Sea. Egg densities determining the vertical distribution pattern were experimentally ascertained for cod (Gadus morhua), plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the western Baltic Sea. Plaice eggs floated at lower mean (±standard deviation) density range (1.0136 ± 0.0007 g cm-3) compared to cod (1.0146 ± 0.0009 g cm-3) and flounder eggs (1.0160 ± 0.0015 g cm-3), which floated on the highest density level. In flounder egg diameter was significantly related to egg density and in cod a weak correlation could be found between egg dry weight and density. All other relationships between female size, egg size, egg dry weight and egg density were not significant for any of the species. Available egg density data for Baltic Sea cod, plaice and flounder are summarized considering ICES subdivisions and stock management units. A hydrodynamic drift modeling approach was applied releasing drifters in the Belt Sea continuously from December to May, covering the species’ spawning seasons. The model implemented experimentally derived egg density ranges and included ontogenetic egg density modifications for cod eggs, increasing egg density from a late egg development stage to first hatch. A drifter was removed from the model, i.e. considered dead, when its initially prescribed density value exceeded the density range available at the temporally resolved geographical positions along the drift trajectories. Highest survival occurred during releases in April and May but no cohorts survived if they were drifted east into the central Arkona Basin or the central Baltic Sea, irrespective of whether a major Baltic Inflow (1992/1993) or a stagnation-year (1987/1988) was simulated. The dispersal characteristics of the surviving yolk sac larvae of

  4. What can ARGO's tell us on the processes in Baltic Sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roiha, Petra; Siiriä, Simo-Matti; Nummelin, Aleksi; Aro, Eemeli; Purokoski, Tero

    2014-05-01

    Finnish Meteorological Institute has been testing ARGO floats in the Baltic Sea as a mean for collecting data from the sea areas that are not easily reachable by research vessels or remote sensing. The observational data for Baltic Sea off-shore areas is very sparse and new observational methods are needed to fill the gaps in our knowledge and collect new data for different purposes, such as, operational activities, modelling and ocean science. The ARGO floats have been used successfully in the deep oceans. However, applying the ARGO floats in Baltic Sea is not straight forward, as the conditions differ greatly: the water is brackish, some areas are heavily trafficked and the northern parts freeze during the winter. In addition, the mean depth is only 54 metres, which is only a fraction of depths where ARGO floats have commonly been used. FMI has deployed three ARGO floats in Baltic Sea for different missions. The first ARGO was deployed in 2012 with normal diving algorithm, which checks the pressure hourly. The second float was modified by Aalto University so that the algorithm checks the pressure every 15 minutes. The first float was deployed in the Bothnian Sea in May 2013 and it measured over 200 profiles during its half year mission. The float with faster pressure detection was deployed in the Bothnian Sea in May 2013, and during it's 4 month mission it measured succesfully over 120 profiles. Another, longer test is ongoing on Eastern Gotland basin, where another ARGO float was deployed at Aug 2013, and still measures at Jan 2014. This one differs from earlier experiments as it has additional oxygen and scattering meters, also the area of measurements is deeper (200+ meters). The missions so far indicate, that with proper control and monitoring, ARGO's can be operated, and can measure long series of profiles. In addition to the actual measurements, the movement of ARGO floats gives possibilities to analyse currents in deeper areas of Baltic, and help

  5. 1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire island Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  6. 33 CFR 165.1197 - Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 100 yards of the Shell Terminal, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in San Pablo Bay within a... the Amorco Pier, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in the Carquinez Strait within a line..., Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in Suisun Bay within a line connecting the following...

  7. 33 CFR 165.1197 - Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 100 yards of the Shell Terminal, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in San Pablo Bay within a... the Amorco Pier, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in the Carquinez Strait within a line..., Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in Suisun Bay within a line connecting the following...

  8. 33 CFR 165.1197 - Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 100 yards of the Shell Terminal, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in San Pablo Bay within a... the Amorco Pier, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in the Carquinez Strait within a line..., Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in Suisun Bay within a line connecting the following...

  9. 33 CFR 165.1197 - Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 100 yards of the Shell Terminal, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in San Pablo Bay within a... the Amorco Pier, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in the Carquinez Strait within a line..., Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in Suisun Bay within a line connecting the following...

  10. 33 CFR 165.1197 - Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 100 yards of the Shell Terminal, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in San Pablo Bay within a... the Amorco Pier, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in the Carquinez Strait within a line..., Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in Suisun Bay within a line connecting the following...

  11. 75 FR 29891 - Special Local Regulation; Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Swim, Great South Bay, NY, in the Federal Register (74 FR 32428). We did not receive any comments or... published at 74 FR 32428 on July 8, 2009, is adopted as a final rule with the following changes: PART 100... Coast Guard is establishing a permanent special local regulation on Great South Bay, NY between...

  12. 76 FR 2085 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System; North Inlet-Winyah Bay, SC and San Francisco Bay, CA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... support of the Bay's growing population: Climate change, species interactions, water quality, and habitat...- Winyah Bay such as impacts from coastal and watershed development, climate events on coastal...

  13. The Baltic Sea: Geophysical and geochemical properties of Holocene sediment sequences as indicators of past environmental variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Conny; Reinholdsson, Maja; Zillén, Lovisa; Conley, Daniel J.; Snowball, Ian

    2010-05-01

    The Baltic Sea has undergone large environmental changes since the retreat of the Weischselian Ice-sheet. In the Late Glacial Period and the early Holocene these changes were most likely caused by natural environmental changes (i.e. changes in the morphology and depths of the Baltic basin and the sills). In more recent time anthropogenic impacts have become more important as a possible and likely cause for changes. During the whole Holocene period climate variability played an important role. However, the relative importance between humans and nature is largely unknown. Here we present the results of a combined geophysical and geochemical study on selected sediment sequences from the Baltic Sea within the two BONUS (Baltic Organisations Network For Funding Science) funded projects HYPER (HYPoxia mitigation for Baltic Sea Ecosystem Restoration) and Baltic GAS (GAS storage and effects of climate change and eutrophication). The over-all aim of these projects is to understand large-scale Baltic Sea ecosystem responses to environmental, climate and anthropogenic forcing. During two Baltic Sea research cruises in 2009 long sediment cores from 8 different locations were recovered. We present preliminary results from one site (LL19) located in the north central Baltic Proper at 169 m water depth. The Littorina Sea sediment record (i.e. the last c. 8000 years) is characterised by alternating periods of homogenised sediments (indicative of oxic conditions) and laminated sediments (indicative of hypoxic/anoxic conditions). Mineral magnetic properties illustrate clear changes between laminated and non-laminated sections of the core. The concentration of ferrimagnetic minerals, as revealed by initial magnetic susceptibility (χ) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) is variable. The laminated sections in particular show high concentrations and to reveal the origin of the ferrimagnetic signal additional magnetic properties were measured, specifically the

  14. Towards an improved understanding of Baltic Sea hypoxia during the Holocene: preliminary results from IODP Expedition 347

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slomp, Caroline; Dijkstra, Nikki; Egger, Matthias; Gustafsson, Bo; Ash, Jeanine; Bauersachs, Thorsten; Hardisty, Dalton; Martin, Ellen; Riedinger, Natascha; Andren, Thomas; Barker Jorgensen, Bo

    2015-04-01

    The Baltic Sea is a restricted brackish-marine basin that is highly sensitive to changes in climate and anthropogenic activity. Due to its salinity stratification, the Baltic Sea is particularly vulnerable to hypoxia (oxygen concentrations < 2 ml/L). Besides the modern, human-induced period of hypoxia (since A.D. 1960), there is evidence for two earlier major intervals of hypoxia since the transition of the Baltic Sea from the Ancylus freshwater phase to the Littorina brackish-marine phase. These are the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM), ca. 8-4 ka, and the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), ca. 1-0.7 ka (Zillen et al., 2008; Jilbert and Slomp, 2013). While changes in salinity, temperature and the input and recycling of nutrients all may contribute to the development of hypoxia in the Baltic Sea, their relative importance in driving the hypoxia during the MCA and HTM is still incompletely understood. Here, we use porewater and sediment geochemical data obtained during the IODP Expedition 347: Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment (September 13 - November 1, 2013) to obtain further insight into the role of changes in salinity and phosphorus recycling during the HTM. We focus on three sites along the modern salinity gradient in the Baltic Sea, Sites M0059, M0063 and M0065. Our results indicate that bottom water salinity in the Baltic Proper was higher during the HTM than at present, confirming previous studies that increased salinity stratification may have contributed to the development of hypoxia during the HTM. We also discuss evidence for temporal changes and spatial differences in primary productivity and phosphorus burial and recycling in the Baltic Sea and their potential role in contributing to the development of hypoxia during the HTM and MCA. References: Jilbert, T., and Slomp, C.P. (2013). Rapid high-amplitude variability in Baltic Sea hypoxia during the Holocene. Geology 41, 1183-1186. doi: 10.1130/g34804.1. Zillén, L., Conley, D.J., Andrén, T., Andrén, E., and Bj

  15. Bay Area Fatherhood Initiatives: Portraits and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadsden, Vivian L.; Rethemeyer, R. Karl

    In the past decade, the nature of fathers' involvement with their children and families has become an important topic, with government agencies and nonprofit groups developing programs to help men manage the challenges of fatherhood. This report presents the first set of findings from the Bay Area Fathering Indicators Data System (BAyFIDS)…

  16. JUVENILE BAY SCALLOP (ARGOPECTEN IRRADIANS) HABITAT PREFERENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Habitat quality and quantity are known to be important for maintaining populations of bay scallops (Argopecten irradians), but data linking habitat attributes to bay scallop populations are lacking. This information is essential to understand the role of habitat alteration in th...

  17. Technology evaluation: BAY-50-4798, Bayer.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Gunther

    2004-04-01

    Bayer is developing an IL-2-selective recombinant cytokine, BAY-50-4798, as a potential adjunct to standard chemotherapy in the treatment of various cancers, and for the potential treatment of HIV infection. BAY-50-4798 is currently undergoing phase II clinical trials. PMID:15195935

  18. Turning the tide: Saving the Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, T.; Eichbaum, W.

    1991-07-01

    The Chesapeake Bay is one of the most productive and important ecosystems on earth, and as such is a model for other estuaries facing the demands of commerce, tourism, transportation, recreation, and other uses. This book presents a comprehensive look at two decades of efforts to save the bay, outlining which methods have worked and which have not.

  19. 33 CFR 117.597 - Dorchester Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dorchester Bay. 117.597 Section 117.597 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.597 Dorchester Bay. The draw of the of the William T. Morrisey Boulevard...

  20. MORRO BAY CCMP, TURNING THE TIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Morro Bay National Estuary Program (MBNEP) is a three-year cooperative effort that involved the active participation of diverse environmental, social and economic interests, to promote effective management of the Morro Bay Estuary and to restore and maintain its water quality...

  1. 33 CFR 80.503 - Delaware Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delaware Bay. 80.503 Section 80.503 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Fifth District § 80.503 Delaware Bay. A line drawn from Cape...

  2. PHYTOPLANKTON COMPOSITION AND DISTRIBUTION IN SAGINAW BAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This summarizes studies conducted during 1980 to assess the effects of reductions in phosphorus loading to Saginaw Bay on phytoplankton in the bay and the adjacent waters of Lake Huron. Quantitative estimates of phytoplankton abundance were developed from an array of stations sam...

  3. A 35-year hindcast for the Baltic Sea (1980-2014) - a statistical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gräwe, Ulf; Holtermann, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The Baltic Sea is a semi-enclosed sea with limited water exchange. The most important process that leads to deep water renewal of the Baltic Sea are inflows of dense, saline North Sea water. These water masses have to pass narrow channels and sills in the Danish Straits and three basins with increasing depth. Along this path, the inflowing gravity currents are subject to entrainment, vertical and horizontal mixing. Thus, physical and numerical mixing are crucial for the proper propagation of these inflows. Additionally, a permanent halocline and a summer thermocline are challenging for state of the art ocean models. Moreover, Holtermann et al (2014) could show, that boundary mixing in the deep basins dominates the vertical mixing of tracers. To tackle these challenges, we used the General Estuarine Transport Model (GETM) to give a state estimate for the Baltic Sea for the period 1980-2014. The setup has a horizontal resolution of 1 nm. In the vertical, terain following coordinates are used. A special feature of GETM is that it can run with vertical adaptive coordinates. Here we use an adaptation towards stratification. The minimum layer thickness is limited to 30 cm. We also include the effects of wind waves (by radiation stresses, and changes in the bottom stresses) into our simulations. The atmospheric forcing is taken from the global reanalysis of the NCEP-CFSR (Saha et al 2011) with a spatial resolution of 30 km and hourly values. The model validation at selected stations in the Baltic Sea shows an average Bias of ±0.15 psu and a RMSE of 0.4 psu. These values are similar to the data assimilation runs of Fu et al (2011) or Liu et al (2013). However, one has to note that our simulations are free runs without any nudging or data assimilation. Driven by the good performance of the model, we use the model output to provide a state estimate of the actual climate period (1980-2010). The analysis includes a quantification and estimation of: surge levels with a 30-year

  4. Infusorians as a component of the planktonic community in the Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Mamaeva, N.V.

    1985-09-01

    The authors' investigations of infusorians as a component of the planktonic community in the Baltic Sea coincided with the heterotrophic stage of seasonal succession, and as a result the infusorians were numerous. In the deep troughs of the Sea at a depth of more than 150 m, the water is saturated with hydrogen sulfide. A community of infusorians relating to the saprobionts and capable of living with the minimal amount of oxygen was discovered for the first time--in the upper boundary of the hydrogen sulfide zone. In its level of infusorian abundance, the Baltic Sea must be considered a eutrophic body of water where infusorians serve as one of the leading agents in its self-purification.

  5. Recent trends in Sea ice in the southern and western Baltic and the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holfort, Jürgen; Schmelzer, Natalija; Schwegmann, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed sea ice charts and observations of a 50 year long period starting in 1961 to produce two climatological ice atlases, one for the western and southern Baltic and one for the German Bight and Limfjord. As the year to year variability is large we subdivided the 50 year into three overlapping 30 year periods (1961-1990, 1971-2000 and 1981-2010) to look for trends in the sea ice. In the southern and western Baltic as well as in the North Sea there was a clear decrease in the total frequency of ice occurrence. Other parameters like begin and end of the ice season, ice thickness, etc. did not show such clear signal and also showed larger regional differences. The ice conditions mainly changed in accordance with the changes in air temperature in the same period, although some more regional changes in some parameters were most probably also influenced by other factors like the deepening of fairways.

  6. Actors and arenas in hybrid networks: implications for environmental policymaking in the Baltic Sea region.

    PubMed

    Joas, Marko; Kern, Kristine; Sandberg, Siv

    2007-04-01

    Policymaking within and among states is under pressure for change. One feature of this change is empirically observed as an activation of different network structures in the Baltic Sea Region, especially since the collapse of the Iron Curtain, the initiation of the Rio process, and the enlargement of the European Union. The contemporary theoretical debates about governance highlight the changing conditions for policymaking and implementation on all societal levels. This process of change, especially evident concerning environmental policies, includes new types of networks crossing state borders both at the supranational and the subnational levels. This article illuminates this process of change with empirical data from the project "Governing a Common Sea" (GOVCOM) within the Baltic Sea Research Program (BIREME). PMID:17520939

  7. Model estimates of the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea in the contemporary and future climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabchenko, V. A.; Karlin, L. N.; Isaev, A. V.; Vankevich, R. E.; Eremina, T. R.; Molchanov, M. S.; Savchuk, O. P.

    2016-01-01

    The St. Petersburg Baltic eutrophication model (SPBEM) is used to assess the ecological condition of the sea under possible changes in climate and nutrient loads in the 21st century. According to model estimates, in the future climate water quality will worsen, compared to modern conditions. This deterioration is stronger in the climate warming scenario with a stronger change in future near-surface air temperature. In the considered scenarios of climate change, climate warming will lead to an increase in the area of anoxic and hypoxic zones. Reduction of nutrient loading, estimated in accordance with the Baltic Sea Action Plan, will only be able to partially compensate for the negative effects of global warming.

  8. The use of bathymetric data in society and science: a review from the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Hell, Benjamin; Broman, Barry; Jakobsson, Lars; Jakobsson, Martin; Magnusson, Ake; Wiberg, Patrik

    2012-03-01

    Bathymetry, the underwater topography, is a fundamental property of oceans, seas, and lakes. As such it is important for a wide range of applications, like physical oceanography, marine geology, geophysics and biology or the administration of marine resources. The exact requirements users may have regarding bathymetric data are, however, unclear. Here, the results of a questionnaire survey and a literature review are presented, concerning the use of Baltic Sea bathymetric data in research and for societal needs. It is demonstrated that there is a great need for detailed bathymetric data. Despite the abundance of high-quality bathymetric data that are produced for safety of navigation purposes, the digital bathymetric models publicly available to date cannot satisfy this need. Our study shows that DBMs based on data collected for safety of navigation could substantially improve the base data for administrative decision making as well as the possibilities for marine research in the Baltic Sea. PMID:22396094

  9. Helmintofauna of turbot Scophthalmus maximus (Linnaeus, 1758) from the southern Baltic Sea including new data.

    PubMed

    Skrzypczak, M; Rolbiecki, L

    2015-01-01

    Turbot Scophthalmus maximus (Linnaeus, 1758) is a fish belonging to the Pleuronectiformes order. It is commonly observed in waters of the northern Atlantic, and also in the Baltic Sea. As an economically significant species, it is fished on an industrial scale, and also farmed in some European countries. Seventy-two turbots from the Gulf of Gdańsk (26th ICES zone) were examined for parasite presence in the years 2010-2012. The study revealed the presence of the tapeworm Bothriocephalus scorpii (Müller, 1776) and acanthocephalan Corynosoma semerme (Forssell, 1904). The overall (both parasites) prevalence of turbot infection was 100% with a mean intensity of 18.7. C. semerme is a parasite which has not been noted so far in turbot from the southern Baltic. The presence of C. semerme in turbot was emphasized in the context of possible infection of terrestrial mammals, including humans. PMID:26618593

  10. Simulated sea surface temperature and heat fluxes in different climates of the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Döscher, Ralf; Meier, H E Markus

    2004-06-01

    The physical state of the Baltic Sea in possible future climates is approached by numerical model experiments with a regional coupled ocean-atmosphere model driven by different global simulations. Scenarios and recent climate simulations are compared to estimate changes. The sea surface is clearly warmer by 2.9 degrees C in the ensemble mean. The horizontal pattern of average annual mean warming can largely be explained in terms of ice-cover reduction. The transfer of heat from the atmosphere to the Baltic Sea shows a changed seasonal cycle: a reduced heat loss in fall, increased heat uptake in spring, and reduced heat uptake in summer. The interannual variability of surface temperature is generally increased. This is associated with a smoothed frequency distribution in northern basins. The overall heat budget shows increased solar radiation to the sea surface, which is balanced by changes of the other heat flux components. PMID:15264603

  11. The potential of current- and wind-driven transport for environmental management of the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Soomere, Tarmo; Döös, Kristofer; Lehmann, Andreas; Meier, H E Markus; Murawski, Jens; Myrberg, Kai; Stanev, Emil

    2014-02-01

    The ever increasing impact of the marine industry and transport on vulnerable sea areas puts the marine environment under exceptional pressure and calls for inspired methods for mitigating the impact of the related risks. We describe a method for preventive reduction of remote environmental risks caused by the shipping and maritime industry that are transported by surface currents and wind impact to the coasts. This method is based on characterizing systematically the damaging potential of the offshore areas in terms of potential transport to vulnerable regions of an oil spill or other pollution that has occurred in a particular area. The resulting maps of probabilities of pollution to be transported to the nearshore and the time it takes for the pollution to reach the nearshore are used to design environmentally optimized fairways for the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Proper, and south-western Baltic Sea. PMID:24414808

  12. Effect of ocean acidification on marine fish sperm (Baltic cod: Gadus morhua)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frommel, A. Y.; Stiebens, V.; Clemmesen, C.; Havenhand, J.

    2010-12-01

    Ocean acidification, as a consequence of increasing marine pCO2, may have severe effects on the physiology of marine organisms. However, experimental studies remain scarce, in particular concerning fish. While adults will most likely remain relatively unaffected by changes in seawater pH, early life-history stages are potentially more sensitive - particularly the critical stage of fertilization, in which sperm motility plays a central role. In this study, the effects of ocean acidification (decrease of pHT to 7.55) on sperm motility of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua, were assessed. We found no significant effect of decreased pH on sperm speed, rate of change of direction or percent motility for the population of cod analyzed. We predict that future ocean acidification will probably not pose a problem for sperm behavior, and hence fertilization success, of Baltic cod.

  13. Effect of ocean acidification on marine fish sperm (Baltic cod: Gadus morhua)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frommel, A. Y.; Stiebens, V.; Clemmesen, C.; Havenhand, J.

    2010-08-01

    Ocean acidification, as a consequence of increasing marine pCO2, may have severe effects on the physiology of marine organisms. However, experimental studies remain scarce, in particular concerning fish. While adults will most likely remain relatively unaffected by changes in seawater pH, early life-history stages are potentially more sensitive - particularly the critical stage of fertilization, in which sperm motility plays a central role. In this study, the effects of ocean acidification (decrease of pH to 7.55) on sperm motility of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua, were assessed. We found no significant effect of decreased pH on sperm speed, rate of change of direction or percent motility for the population of cod analyzed. We predict that future ocean acidification will probably not pose a problem for sperm behavior, and hence fertilization success, of Baltic cod.

  14. RES-E Support Policies In The Baltic States: Development Aspect (Part I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobinaite, V.; Priedite, I.

    2015-02-01

    Despite quite similar conditions (natural resources) for electricity production from renewable energy sources (RES-E) in three Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania), significant differences exist in these countries as to the RES-E production volume. In Latvia this volume is the highest, while in Estonia and Lithuania it is half as high. One of the factors that determine the RES-E production volumes is support policies, which in the Baltic States are different. The main objective of this work was to analyze and compare these support policies. The results have shown that for rapid RES-E development the most effective policy is to be market-oriented (as in Estonia), whereas for more stable development such policy should be producer-oriented (as in Lithuania).

  15. On temporal wind variations forcing salt water inflows into the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lass, H. U.; Matthäus, W.

    1996-10-01

    Salt water inflows into the Baltic Sea are important processes for maintaining the general stratification and the ventilation of the bottom water in deep basins of the central Baltic. These events occur randomly during the winter season at intervals from one to several years. This pattern changed in the mid-seventies when only weak or no major inflows were observed. During that period a steady loss of salt together with a steady increase in hydrogen sulphide concentrations was observed in the central Baltic deep water.It is generally assumed that strong westerly winds force a salt water inflow. Long time series of daily wind records at the meteorological station Arkona and sea level observations at Landsort between 1951 and 1990 have been analyzed in order to find characteristic sequences being associated with inflow events. A necessary condition for a salt water inflow is for the wind to blow from west for several tens of days. The weighted mean of the yearly cycle of the wind components for years without and with salt water inflows revealed that this condition happens usually in November and December. However, in years with inflows, a long-lasting easterly wind occurs in October and early November just before the strengthening of westerly winds. A similar sequence is observed in the yearly cycle of the mean sea level of the Baltic Sea, i.e., in years with inflows a lowering of the mean sea level precedes the increase of the sea level in November to December. Hence, major salt water inflows are very likely forced by a sequence of easterly winds in late autumn lasting for 20 30days followed by strong to very strong westerly winds of similar duration.

  16. Satellite mapping of Baltic Sea Secchi depth with multiple regression models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, Andy

    2015-08-01

    Secchi depth is a measure of water transparency. In the Baltic Sea region, Secchi depth maps are used to assess eutrophication and as input for habitat models. Due to their spatial and temporal coverage, satellite data would be the most suitable data source for such maps. But the Baltic Sea's optical properties are so different from the open ocean that globally calibrated standard models suffer from large errors. Regional predictive models that take the Baltic Sea's special optical properties into account are thus needed. This paper tests how accurately generalized linear models (GLMs) and generalized additive models (GAMs) with MODIS/Aqua and auxiliary data as inputs can predict Secchi depth at a regional scale. It uses cross-validation to test the prediction accuracy of hundreds of GAMs and GLMs with up to 5 input variables. A GAM with 3 input variables (chlorophyll a, remote sensing reflectance at 678 nm, and long-term mean salinity) made the most accurate predictions. Tested against field observations not used for model selection and calibration, the best model's mean absolute error (MAE) for daily predictions was 1.07 m (22%), more than 50% lower than for other publicly available Baltic Sea Secchi depth maps. The MAE for predicting monthly averages was 0.86 m (15%). Thus, the proposed model selection process was able to find a regional model with good prediction accuracy. It could be useful to find predictive models for environmental variables other than Secchi depth, using data from other satellite sensors, and for other regions where non-standard remote sensing models are needed for prediction and mapping. Annual and monthly mean Secchi depth maps for 2003-2012 come with this paper as Supplementary materials.

  17. Age dependence of the concentrations of harmful substances in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus)

    SciTech Connect

    Perttila, M.; Tervo, V.; Parmanne, R.

    1982-01-01

    The age dependence of Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Hg, CH/sub 3/-Hg, DDT, DDD, DDE, HCH, HCB and the PCBs have been studied in Baltic herring of 1 to 6 years of age. Lead, cadmium, mercury and the organochlorine concentrations increase significantly with age. In the case of the DDTs and the PCBs, the variations can be attributed almost totally to the combined effect of age and variations in the lipid percentage.

  18. No observed effect of ocean acidification on nitrogen biogeochemistry in a summer Baltic Sea plankton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Allanah J.; Achterberg, Eric P.; Bach, Lennart T.; Boxhammer, Tim; Czerny, Jan; Haunost, Mathias; Schulz, Kai-Georg; Stuhr, Annegret; Riebesell, Ulf

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen fixation by filamentous cyanobacteria supplies significant amounts of new nitrogen (N) to the Baltic Sea. This balances N loss processes such as denitrification and anammox, and forms an important N source supporting primary and secondary production in N-limited post-spring bloom plankton communities. Laboratory studies suggest that filamentous diazotrophic cyanobacteria growth and N2-fixation rates are sensitive to ocean acidification, with potential implications for new N supply to the Baltic Sea. In this study, our aim was to assess the effect of ocean acidification on diazotroph growth and activity as well as the contribution of diazotrophically fixed N to N supply in a natural plankton assemblage. We enclosed a natural plankton community in a summer season in the Baltic Sea near the entrance to the Gulf of Finland in six large-scale mesocosms (volume ˜ 55 m3) and manipulated fCO2 over a range relevant for projected ocean acidification by the end of this century (average treatment fCO2: 365-1231 µatm). The direct response of diazotroph growth and activity was followed in the mesocosms over a 47 day study period during N-limited growth in the summer plankton community. Diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria abundance throughout the study period and N2-fixation rates (determined only until day 21 due to subsequent use of contaminated commercial 15N-N2 gas stocks) remained low. Thus estimated new N inputs from diazotrophy were too low to relieve N limitation and stimulate a summer phytoplankton bloom. Instead, regeneration of organic N sources likely sustained growth in the plankton community. We could not detect significant CO2-related differences in neither inorganic nor organic N pool sizes, or particulate matter N : P stoichiometry. Additionally, no significant effect of elevated CO2 on diazotroph activity was observed. Therefore, ocean acidification had no observable impact on N cycling or biogeochemistry in this N-limited, post-spring bloom

  19. No observed effect of ocean acidification on nitrogen biogeochemistry in a summer Baltic Sea plankton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, A. J.; Achterberg, E. P.; Bach, L. T.; Boxhammer, T.; Czerny, J.; Haunost, M.; Schulz, K.-G.; Stuhr, A.; Riebesell, U.

    2015-10-01

    Nitrogen fixation by filamentous cyanobacteria supplies significant amounts of new nitrogen (N) to the Baltic Sea. This balances N loss processes such as denitrification and anammox and forms an important N source supporting primary and secondary production in N-limited post-spring bloom plankton communities. Laboratory studies suggest that filamentous diazotrophic cyanobacteria growth and N2-fixation rates are sensitive to ocean acidification with potential implications for new N supply to the Baltic Sea. In this study, our aim was to assess the effect of ocean acidification on diazotroph growth and activity as well as the contribution of diazotrophically-fixed N to N supply in a natural plankton assemblage. We enclosed a natural plankton community in a summer season in the Baltic Sea near the entrance to the Gulf of Finland in six large-scale mesocosms (volume ~ 55 m3) and manipulated fCO2 over a range relevant for projected ocean acidification by the end of this century (average treatment fCO2: 365-1231 μatm). The direct response of diazotroph growth and activity was followed in the mesocosms over a 47 day study period during N-limited growth in the summer plankton community. Diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria abundance throughout the study period and N2-fixation rates (determined only until day 21 due to subsequent use of contaminated commercial 15N-N2 gas stocks) remained low. Thus estimated new N inputs from diazotrophy were too low to relieve N limitation and stimulate a summer phytoplankton bloom. Instead regeneration of organic N sources likely sustained growth in the plankton community. We could not detect significant CO2-related differences in inorganic or organic N pools sizes, or particulate matter N : P stoichiometry. Additionally, no significant effect of elevated CO2 on diazotroph activity was observed. Therefore, ocean acidification had no observable impact on N cycling or biogeochemistry in this N-limited, post-spring bloom plankton

  20. Precision and accuracy of spectrophotometric pH measurements at environmental conditions in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Karoline; Schneider, Bernd; Kuliński, Karol; Schulz-Bull, Detlef E.

    2014-06-01

    The increasing uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the oceans has raised an interest in precise and accurate pH measurement in order to assess the impact on the marine CO2-system. Spectrophotometric pH measurements were refined during the last decade yielding a precision and accuracy that cannot be achieved with the conventional potentiometric method. However, until now the method was only tested in oceanic systems with a relative stable and high salinity and a small pH range. This paper describes the first application of such a pH measurement system at conditions in the Baltic Sea which is characterized by a wide salinity and pH range. The performance of the spectrophotometric system at pH values as low as 7.0 (“total” scale) and salinities between 0 and 35 was examined using TRIS-buffer solutions, certified reference materials, and tests of consistency with measurements of other parameters of the marine CO2 system. Using m-cresol purple as indicator dye and a spectrophotometric measurement system designed at Scripps Institution of Oceanography (B. Carter, A. Dickson), a precision better than ±0.001 and an accuracy between ±0.01 and ±0.02 was achieved within the observed pH and salinity ranges in the Baltic Sea. The influence of the indicator dye on the pH of the sample was determined theoretically and is presented as a pH correction term for the different alkalinity regimes in the Baltic Sea. Because of the encouraging tests, the ease of operation and the fact that the measurements refer to the internationally accepted “total” pH scale, it is recommended to use the spectrophotometric method also for pH monitoring and trend detection in the Baltic Sea.

  1. Geodetic observation of sea-level change and crustal deformation in the Baltic Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, A.; Groh, A.; Dietrich, R.

    Based on tide gauge observations spanning almost 200 years, homogeneous time series of the mean relative sea level were derived for nine sites at the southern coast of the Baltic Sea. Our regionally concentrated data were complemented by long-term relative sea-level records retrieved from the data base of the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL). From these records relative sea-level change rates were derived at 51 tide gauge stations for the period between 1908 and 2007. A minimum observation time of 60 years is required for the determination of reliable sea-level rates. At present, no anthropogenic acceleration in sea-level rise is detected in the tide gauge observations in the southern Baltic. The spatial variation of the relative sea-level rates reflects the fingerprint of GIA-induced crustal uplift. Time series of extreme sea levels were also inferred from the tide gauge records. They were complemented by water level information from historic storm surge marks preserved along the German Baltic coast. Based on this combined dataset the incidence and spatial variation of extreme sea levels induced by storm surges were analysed yielding important information for hazard assessments. Permanent GPS observations were used to determine recent crustal deformation rates for 44 stations in the Baltic Sea region. The GPS derived height change rates were applied to reduce the relative sea-level changes observed by tide gauges yielding an estimate for the eustatic sea-level change. For 13 tide gauge-GPS colocation sites a mean eustatic sea-level trend of 1.3 mm/a was derived for the last 100 years.

  2. Investigations of Wind Shear Distribution on the Baltic Shore of Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezrukovs, V.; Zacepins, A.; Bezrukovs, Vl.; Komashilovs, V.

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents a review of wind parameter measurement complexes and investigation methods used for potential wind energy evaluation. Based on results of long-term investigations of wind shear distribution regularities are shown up to 160 m height on the Baltic Sea shore. Distribution of potential wind energy in Latvia is shown as a map and table of average and average cubic wind speed values. Database of wind parameter measurements is available at a public website.

  3. Shelf-to-basin iron shuttling enhances vivianite formation in deep Baltic Sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Daniel C.; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Slomp, Caroline P.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal hypoxia is a growing and persistent problem largely attributable to enhanced terrestrial nutrient (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus) loading. Recent studies suggest phosphorus removal through burial of iron (II) phosphates, putatively vivianite, plays an important role in nutrient cycling in the Baltic Sea - the world's largest anthropogenic dead zone - yet the dynamics of iron (II) phosphate formation are poorly constrained. To address this, a reactive-transport model was used to reconstruct the diagenetic and depositional history of sediments in the Fårö basin, a deep anoxic and sulphidic region of the Baltic Sea where iron (II) phosphates have been observed. Simulations demonstrate that transport of iron from shelf sediments to deep basins enhances vivianite formation while sulphide concentrations are low, but that pyrite forms preferentially over vivianite when sulphate reduction intensifies due to elevated organic loading. Episodic reoxygenation events, associated with major inflows of oxic waters, encourage the retention of iron oxyhydroxides and iron-bound phosphorus in sediments, increasing vivianite precipitation as a result. Results suggest that artificial reoxygenation of the Baltic Sea bottom waters could sequester up to 3% of the annual external phosphorus loads as iron (II) phosphates, but this is negligible when compared to potential internal phosphorus loads due to dissolution of iron oxyhydroxides when low oxygen conditions prevail. Thus, enhancing vivianite formation through artificial reoxygenation of deep waters is not a viable engineering solution to eutrophication in the Baltic Sea. Finally, simulations suggest that regions with limited sulphate reduction and hypoxic intervals, such as eutrophic estuaries, could act as important phosphorus sinks by sequestering vivianite. This could potentially alleviate eutrophication in shelf and slope environments.

  4. Material transport from the near shore to the basinal environment in the southern Baltic Sea. II: Synthesis of data on origin and properties of material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emeis, K.; Christiansen, C.; Edelvang, K.; Jähmlich, S.; Kozuch, J.; Laima, M.; Leipe, T.; Löffler, A.; Lund-Hansen, L. C.; Miltner, A.; Pazdro, K.; Pempkowiak, J.; Pollehne, F.; Shimmield, T.; Voss, M.; Witt, G.

    2002-07-01

    The Pomeranian Bight (southern Baltic Sea) is a mixing zone between waters of the Baltic Proper and the river Oder, which drains a densely populated and highly industrialised catchment of central Europe. The bight is a nondepositional area, and all material produced in its water column, from erosion of strata at the seafloor and cliffs, and delivered by rivers, is transported near the seafloor to the depositional areas of the Arkona, Bornholm and Gdansk basins. In this contribution, we assess the origin, transformation and mass fluxes of material through the bight based on an integrated field study conducted in the period 1996-1998. The transport mechanism is by wave- and current-induced resuspension and settling cycles, which effectively enrich organic-rich material and associated substances (organic pollutants, heavy metals) in deeper water; the estimated transport time is less than 6 months. The phases in which the material is transported are suspended matter in the water column, a particle- and aggregate-rich benthic boundary layer of <1 m above the seafloor and a layer of fluffy material fed from the two other sources that covers the sandy near-shore sediments as a discrete phase; it collects up to 130 g m -2 of particulate material after quiescent periods lasting several days. It is easily resuspended at shear velocities around 5 cm s -1 and is recycled into the suspended matter and benthic boundary layer pools of material. In deeper waters (>20 m water depth), the fluffy layer is not readily distinguished from the underlying soft, organic-rich sediment and the change in physical and chemical properties is gradual. The organic matter passing through the coastal zone in the southern Baltic is unaffected by biological or chemical modifications in composition. We find no evidence for a preferential removal of nitrogen or phosphorus, even if the speciation of phosphorus changes from biological compounds to minerals. The compositional changes which we see, i

  5. Reconstructing ecosystem functions of the active microbial community of the Baltic Sea oxygen depleted sediments.

    PubMed

    Thureborn, Petter; Franzetti, Andrea; Lundin, Daniel; Sjöling, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Baltic Sea deep water and sediments hold one of the largest anthropogenically induced hypoxic areas in the world. High nutrient input and low water exchange result in eutrophication and oxygen depletion below the halocline. As a consequence at Landsort Deep, the deepest point of the Baltic Sea, anoxia in the sediments has been a persistent condition over the past decades. Given that microbial communities are drivers of essential ecosystem functions we investigated the microbial community metabolisms and functions of oxygen depleted Landsort Deep sediments by metatranscriptomics. Results show substantial expression of genes involved in protein metabolism demonstrating that the Landsort Deep sediment microbial community is active. Identified expressed gene suites of metabolic pathways with importance for carbon transformation including fermentation, dissimilatory sulphate reduction and methanogenesis were identified. The presence of transcripts for these metabolic processes suggests a potential for heterotrophic-autotrophic community synergism and indicates active mineralisation of the organic matter deposited at the sediment as a consequence of the eutrophication process. Furthermore, cyanobacteria, probably deposited from the water column, are transcriptionally active in the anoxic sediment at this depth. Results also reveal high abundance of transcripts encoding integron integrases. These results provide insight into the activity of the microbial community of the anoxic sediment at the deepest point of the Baltic Sea and its possible role in ecosystem functioning. PMID:26823996

  6. Microbial metagenomics in the Baltic Sea: Recent advancements and prospects for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ininbergs, Karolina; Bergman, Birgitta; Larsson, John; Ekman, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Metagenomics refers to the analysis of DNA from a whole community. Metagenomic sequencing of environmental DNA has greatly improved our knowledge of the identity and function of microorganisms in aquatic, terrestrial, and human biomes. Although open oceans have been the primary focus of studies on aquatic microbes, coastal and brackish ecosystems are now being surveyed. Here, we review so far published studies on microbes in the Baltic Sea, one of the world's largest brackish water bodies, using high throughput sequencing of environmental DNA and RNA. Collectively the data illustrate that Baltic Sea microbes are unique and highly diverse, and well adapted to this brackish-water ecosystem, findings that represent a novel base-line knowledge necessary for monitoring purposes and a sustainable management. More specifically, the data relate to environmental drivers for microbial community composition and function, assessments of the microbial biodiversity, adaptations and role of microbes in the nitrogen cycle, and microbial genome assembly from metagenomic sequences. With these discoveries as background, prospects of using metagenomics for Baltic Sea environmental monitoring are discussed. PMID:26022326

  7. Turbulence structure of the marine stable boundary layer over the Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Smedman, A.S.; Hoegstroem, U.

    1994-12-31

    For more than half of the year the land surfaces surrounding the Baltic Sea is warmer than the sea surface, and the marine boundary layer over the Baltic is stable. Observations, at various sites in the Baltic Sea area during the last decade. also indicate frequent occurrence of low-level jets at the top of the stable boundary layer. In many cases the marine jet can be considered as an analogy in space to the evolution of the nocturnal jet with time. The frictional decoupling occurs when warm air over the land is flowing out over the sea. Data from two areas together with model simulations are used in this study to characterize turbulence structure in the marine boundary layer. The measurements include profiles of wind and temperature on towers situated at two isolated islands, together with turbulence recordings and aircraft measurements. Also wave height and water surface temperature have been measured. The model simulations are performed with a second-order closure model.

  8. Legacy phosphorus in the Baltic Sea and implications for reversing eutrophication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrackin, M. L.; Gustafsson, B.; Humborg, C.; Hong, B.; Svanbäck, A.; Swaney, D. P.; Viktorsson, L.

    2015-12-01

    Eutrophication has depleted concentrations of dissolved oxygen in bottom waters of the Baltic Sea, resulting in the world's largest "dead" zone. A number of measures have been implemented to reduce nutrient inputs and, indeed, between 1995 and 2012 phosphorus (P) loads to the sea deceased 19%. The long-term accumulation and subsequent release of P from both the catchment and marine sediments combined with 30-year water residence times could significantly delay recovery from eutrophication. We estimated net P accumulation (legacy P) for the Baltic Sea using the Net Anthropogenic Phosphorus Inputs (NAPI) approach and historical records of food and feed trade and riverine fluxes. Net P inputs to the catchment peaked at 0.7 million tons per year during the 1970's and since the political and economical changes in Eastern Europe during the 1990's, decreased to 0.2-0.3 million tons per year. P accumulation on land is ten times greater than accumulation in the sea (20 million and 2 million tons, respectively). Of the P retained on land, the majority (18-19 million tons) is in agricultural lands, with the balance in lake sediments. Of the 2 million tons in the sea, two-thirds are in sediments and one-third in the water column. The success of nutrient management actions in reducing river nutrient fluxes will lead to improvement in the Baltic Sea environment, but the massive accumulation of P on land will complicate efforts to achieve complete recovery.

  9. Deformation of the South-Eastern Baltic Shield from GNSS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorshkov, V.; Petrov, S.; Shcherbakova, N.; Smirnov, S.; Mohnatkin, A.; Trofimov, D.; Guseva, T.; Perederin, V.; Rosenberg, N.

    2015-08-01

    The Pulkovo observatory is situated in a unique geological setting. Within only 300 kilometres from Northern Karelian Isthmus to a few kilometres south from the observatory the Archean, Paleo and Neoproterozoic, Cambrian, Ordovician, Devonian, and Carboniferous rocks are sequentially surfacing. Thus these 300 kilometres in distance correspond to 3 billion years in geologic time. The city of St. Petersburg marks a transition zone from the Baltic Shield to the East European Platform, and the observatory is built on the Baltic Klint that in turn marks a transition from Ediacaran to Devonian. Such a rich geological constitution of the region summons a need for geodynamical studies. The authors have recently gathered the GNSS observations available in the region from 1993 until present, including those made by the authors, with permanent and high quality field GNSS stations. These measurements were processed with the GIPSY software using the PPP strategy. The resulting coordinates were then adjusted for atmospheric loading corrections, and station velocities were computed. The station velocities were then used for estimation of the regional deformation field. The resulting deformation field shows a weak meridional compression and possibly a slow counterclockwise rotation of the Baltic shield with respect to the East European platform.

  10. Reconstructing ecosystem functions of the active microbial community of the Baltic Sea oxygen depleted sediments

    PubMed Central

    Franzetti, Andrea; Lundin, Daniel; Sjöling, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Baltic Sea deep water and sediments hold one of the largest anthropogenically induced hypoxic areas in the world. High nutrient input and low water exchange result in eutrophication and oxygen depletion below the halocline. As a consequence at Landsort Deep, the deepest point of the Baltic Sea, anoxia in the sediments has been a persistent condition over the past decades. Given that microbial communities are drivers of essential ecosystem functions we investigated the microbial community metabolisms and functions of oxygen depleted Landsort Deep sediments by metatranscriptomics. Results show substantial expression of genes involved in protein metabolism demonstrating that the Landsort Deep sediment microbial community is active. Identified expressed gene suites of metabolic pathways with importance for carbon transformation including fermentation, dissimilatory sulphate reduction and methanogenesis were identified. The presence of transcripts for these metabolic processes suggests a potential for heterotrophic-autotrophic community synergism and indicates active mineralisation of the organic matter deposited at the sediment as a consequence of the eutrophication process. Furthermore, cyanobacteria, probably deposited from the water column, are transcriptionally active in the anoxic sediment at this depth. Results also reveal high abundance of transcripts encoding integron integrases. These results provide insight into the activity of the microbial community of the anoxic sediment at the deepest point of the Baltic Sea and its possible role in ecosystem functioning. PMID:26823996

  11. Tracing terrestrial DOC in the Baltic Sea—A 3-D model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fransner, Filippa; Nycander, Jonas; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Humborg, Christoph; Markus Meier, H. E.; Hordoir, Robinson; Gustafsson, Erik; Deutsch, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    The fate of terrestrial organic matter brought to the coastal seas by rivers and its role in the global carbon cycle are still not very well known. Here the degradation rate of terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOCter) is studied in the Baltic Sea, a subarctic semienclosed sea, by releasing it as a tracer in a 3-D circulation model and applying linear decay constants. A good agreement with available observational data is obtained by parameterizing the degradation in two rather different ways: one by applying a decay time on the order of 10 years to the whole pool of DOCter and one by dividing the DOCter into one refractory pool and one pool subject to a decay time on the order of 1 year. The choice of parameterization has a significant effect on where in the Baltic Sea the removal takes place, which can be of importance when modeling the full carbon cycle and the CO2 exchange with the atmosphere. In both cases the biogeochemical decay operates on time scales less than the water residence time. Therefore, only a minor fraction of the DOCter reaches the North Sea, whereas approximately 80% is removed by internal sinks within the Baltic Sea. This further implies that DOCter mineralization is an important link in land-sea-atmosphere cycling of carbon in coastal and shelf seas that are heavily influenced by riverine DOC.

  12. A dinoflagellate cyst record of Holocene climate and hydrological changes along the southeastern Swedish Baltic coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shi-Yong; Berglund, Björn E.

    2007-03-01

    A high-resolution, well-dated dinoflagellate cyst record from a lagoon of the southeastern Swedish Baltic Sea reveals climate and hydrological changes during the Holocene. Marine dinoflagellate cysts occurred initially at about 8600 cal yr BP, indicating the onset of the Littorina transgression in the southeastern Swedish lowland associated with global sea level rise, and thus the opening of the Danish straits. Both the species diversity and the total accumulation rates of dinoflagellate cysts continued to increase by 7000 cal yr BP and then decreased progressively. This pattern reveals the first-order change in local sea level as a function of ice-volume-equivalent sea level rise versus isostatic land uplift. Superimposed upon this local sea level trend, well-defined fluctuations of the total accumulation rates of dinoflagellate cysts occurred on quasi-1000- and 500-yr frequency bands particularly between 7500 and 4000 cal yr BP, when the connection between the Baltic basin and the North Atlantic was broader. A close correlation of the total accumulation rates of dinoflagellate cysts with GISP2 ice core sea-salt ions suggests that fluctuations of Baltic surface conditions during the middle Holocene might have been regulated by quasi-periodic variations of the prevailing southwesterly winds, most likely through a system similar to the dipole oscillation of the modern North Atlantic atmosphere.

  13. Baltic Sea Gastrotricha--one new species and one new record of Chaetonotida from Poland.

    PubMed

    Kolicka, Małgorzata; Jankowska, Emilia; Kotwicki, Lech

    2015-01-01

    Gastrotricha is a cosmopolitan phylum of aquatic and semi-aquatic invertebrates that comprise about 820 described species, which are divided into two orders: Chaetonotida Remane, 1925 [Rao & Clausen, 1970] and Macrodasyida Remane, 1925 [Rao & Clausen, 1970]. They inhabit natural as well as artificial habitats in diverse marine, freshwater, and semi-aquatic ecosystems (e.g. peatbogs, alder woods, riparian forests). Until now, 29 species of gastrotrichs from the Polish Baltic Sea region (including three freshwater species which were found in estuaries) were known. Sixteen species belong to Chaetonotida and thirteen to Macrodasyida. During this study we found two species, Heterolepidoderma sinus spec. nov., and Aspidiophorus lamellophorus Balsamo, Hummon, Todaro et Tongiorgi, 1997 which is new to the Baltic Sea fauna. H. sinus spec. nov. has distinct cuticular reinforcements in the anterior dilatation of the pharynx. Moreover, it is characterized by two kinds of lamellae: one type is represented by small triangular lamellae which aris from lateral scales, the second type is large and clearly visible and arises from ventral scales. None of the Heterolepidoderma species known so far has two types of lamellae. A. lamellophorus was previously known only from the Mediterranean Sea. The finding of two new gastrotrich species in the Baltic Sea shows that the knowledge of these small invertebrates in the area is still far from complete. PMID:26624193

  14. High resolution model studies of transport of sedimentary material in the south-western Baltic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, Torsten; Fennel, Wolfgang; Kuhrts, Christiane

    2009-02-01

    The paper presents high resolution model simulations of transport, deposition and resuspension of sedimentary material in the south-western Baltic, based on an upgrade of the sediment transport model described in the work of Kuhrts et al. [Kuhrts, C., Fennel, W., Seifert, T., 2004. Model studies of transport of sedimentary material in the Western Baltic. Journal of Marine Systems 52, 167.]. In the western Baltic, a grid spacing of at least 1 nautical mile is required to resolve the shallow and narrow bathymetry and the associated current patterns. A series of experimental model simulations is carried out with forcing data for the year 1993, which include a sequence of storms in January. Compared to earlier model versions, a more detailed description of potential deposition areas can be provided. The study quantifies the influence of enhanced bottom roughness caused by biological structures, like mussels and worm holes, provides estimates of the regional erosion risks for fine grained sediments, and analyses scenarios of the settling and spreading of material at dumping sites. Although the effects of changed bottom roughness, as derived from more detailed, re-classified sea floor data, are relatively small, the sediment transport and deposition patterns are clearly affected by the variation of the sea bed properties.

  15. Distribution and sources of organic matter in sediments of the south-eastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remeikaitė-Nikienė, Nijolė; Lujanienė, Galina; Malejevas, Vitalijus; Barisevičiūtė, Rūta; Žilius, Mindaugas; Garnaga-Budrė, Galina; Stankevičius, Algirdas

    2016-05-01

    Temporal and spatial distribution of sedimentary organic matter (SOM) as well as its sources in the south-eastern Baltic Sea were investigated. Organic matter was characterized by the organic carbon content, δ13C and δ15N signatures and C/N ratios. The sampling was performed in the coastal, offshore areas and in the Curonian Lagoon in the period from May 2012 to September 2014. The average elemental (C/N ~ 6.4) and isotopic composition (δ13C from - 29.6‰ to - 24.9‰) of SOM suggested that during most of the year it was composed of both freshwater and marine phytoplanktonic material. Elevated δ15N values (average ranging from 5.6‰ to 6.7‰) were detected in SOM from the Curonian Lagoon. This most likely reflected the increased isotopic signal of the Nemunas River (δ15N ~ 8‰) derived from the anthropogenic input in the basin area. At the Baltic Sea offshore sites, SOM had lower δ15N values (δ15N ~ 3.5‰ on average), indicating phytoplankton blooms. A two-end member mixing model based on the carbon stable isotopic composition showed that a large proportion (~ 90%) of SOM in the northern part of the Curonian Lagoon was of the freshwater origin. The allochthonous organic matter accounted for about 47% of SOM in the studied Baltic Sea area with the highest contribution (about 75%) within the Curonian Lagoon plume zone in the coastal waters.

  16. Sustainable Phosphorus Loadings from Effective and Cost-Effective Phosphorus Management Around the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Bryhn, Andreas C.

    2009-01-01

    Nutrient over-enrichment of the Baltic Sea, accompanied by intensified algal blooms and decreasing water clarity, has aroused widespread concern in the surrounding countries during the last four decades. This work has used a well-tested dynamic mass-balance model to investigate which decrease in total phosphorus loading would be required to meet the environmental goal to restore the trophic state in the Baltic Sea to pre-1960s levels. Furthermore, the extent to which various abatement options may decrease the phosphorus loading in a cost-effective manner has been studied. Upgrading urban sewage treatment in the catchment could, alone or in combination with banning phosphates in detergents, be sufficient to meet the set environmental goal, at an estimated annual basin-wide cost of 0.21–0.43 billion euro. Such a plan would potentially decrease the total phosphorus loading to the Baltic Sea with 6,650–10,200 tonnes per year. PMID:19412551

  17. The hydrodynamic part of the 3D CEMBS model for the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, Lidia; Jakacki, Jaromir; Janecki, Maciej; Nowicki, Artur

    2013-04-01

    The paper presents a hydrodynamic part of the coupled ice-ocean model 3D CEMBS designed for the Baltic Sea. It is based on the Community Earth System Model (CESM from the National Center for Atmospheric Research). It was adopted for the Baltic Sea as a coupled sea-ice model. It consists of the Community Ice Code (CICE model, version 4.0) and the Parallel Ocean Program (version 2.1). The models are linked through the coupler (CPL7) based on the Model Coupling Toolkit library. The ocean model has 21 vertical levels and horizontal grid of 600x640 cells. Horizontal resolution is approximately 2km. It is forced by atmospheric fields from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts and in operational mode from 48-hour atmospheric forecasts provided by the UM model from the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling of Warsaw University (ICM). The study was financially supported by the Polish State Committee of Scientific Research (grants: No N N305 111636, N N306 353239). The partial support for this study was also provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBaltyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract no. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09. Calculations were carried out at the Academy Computer Centre in Gdansk.

  18. Nitrate source identification in the Baltic Sea using its isotopic ratios in combination with a Bayesian isotope mixing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korth, F.; Deutsch, B.; Frey, C.; Moros, C.; Voss, M.

    2014-09-01

    Nitrate (NO3-) is the major nutrient responsible for coastal eutrophication worldwide and its production is related to intensive food production and fossil-fuel combustion. In the Baltic Sea NO3- inputs have increased 4-fold over recent decades and now remain constantly high. NO3- source identification is therefore an important consideration in environmental management strategies. In this study focusing on the Baltic Sea, we used a method to estimate the proportional contributions of NO3- from atmospheric deposition, N2 fixation, and runoff from pristine soils as well as from agricultural land. Our approach combines data on the dual isotopes of NO3- (δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3-) in winter surface waters with a Bayesian isotope mixing model (Stable Isotope Analysis in R, SIAR). Based on data gathered from 47 sampling locations over the entire Baltic Sea, the majority of the NO3- in the southern Baltic was shown to derive from runoff from agricultural land (33-100%), whereas in the northern Baltic, i.e. the Gulf of Bothnia, NO3- originates from nitrification in pristine soils (34-100%). Atmospheric deposition accounts for only a small percentage of NO3- levels in the Baltic Sea, except for contributions from northern rivers, where the levels of atmospheric NO3- are higher. An additional important source in the central Baltic Sea is N2 fixation by diazotrophs, which contributes 49-65% of the overall NO3- pool at this site. The results obtained with this method are in good agreement with source estimates based upon δ15N values in sediments and a three-dimensional ecosystem model, ERGOM. We suggest that this approach can be easily modified to determine NO3- sources in other marginal seas or larger near-coastal areas where NO3- is abundant in winter surface waters when fractionation processes are minor.

  19. Nitrate source identification using its isotopic ratios in combination with a Bayesian isotope mixing model in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korth, F.; Deutsch, B.; Frey, C.; Moros, C.; Voss, M.

    2014-04-01

    Nitrate (NO3-) is the major nutrient responsible for coastal eutrophication worldwide and its production is related to intensive food production and fossil-fuel combustion. In the Baltic Sea NO3-inputs have increased four-fold over the last decades and now remain constantly high. NO3- source identification is therefore an important consideration in environmental management strategies. In this study focusing on the Baltic Sea, we used a method to estimate the proportional contributions of NO3- from atmospheric deposition, N2 fixation, and runoff from pristine soils as well as from agricultural land. Our approach combines data on the dual isotopes of NO3- (δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3-) in winter surface waters with a Bayesian isotope mixing model (Stable Isotope Analysis in R, SIAR). Based on data gathered from 46 sampling locations over the entire Baltic Sea, the majority of the NO3- in the southern Baltic was shown to derive from runoff from agricultural land (30-70%), whereas in the northern Baltic, i.e., the Gulf of Bothnia, NO3- originates from nitrification in pristine soils (47-100%). Atmospheric deposition accounts for only a small percentage of NO3- levels in the Baltic Sea, except for contributions from northern rivers, where the levels of atmospheric NO3- are higher. An additional important source in the central Baltic Sea is N2 fixation by diazotrophs, which contributes 31-62% of the overall NO3- pool at this site. The results obtained with this method are in good agreement with source estimates based upon δ15N values in sediments and a three-dimensional ecosystem model, ERGOM. We suggest that this approach can be easily modified to determine NO3- sources in other marginal seas or larger near-coastal areas where NO3- is abundant in winter surface waters when fractionation processes are minor.

  20. Analysis of the varved clay accumulation in the Pärnu Bay area, Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvans, Andis; Hang, Tiit

    2015-04-01

    Varved clays are commonly found glaciolacustrine sediments representing high-resolution environmental archives of the deglaciation events. We examine varve formation in the Baltic Ice Lake at the Pärnu Bay area, Estonia, during the deglaciation of the last Scandinavian glaciation from the region. The data set of Hang and Kohv (2013) spanning 584 years is used. Analysis of the spatial variation of the seasonal layer thickness distribution based on 26 sediment cores and sub-varve resolution grain size analysis from a single section was performed. The Baltic Ice Lake water level reconstruction indicates that the water depth at the study region was up to 80 m (Rosentau et al., 2009). It is found that during the first ~130 years after the ice retreat the summer sedimentation was dominated by sediment loaded underflows emanating form the ice margin: summer layer thickness is strongly positively correlated with water depth. The winter layer thickness during this period does not demonstrate significant correlation with water depth suggesting that the simple raining-out of the suspended material from a water column was complicated by water circulation. Ice retreat from the Pandivere-Neva line of the marginal formations just north from study area took place during the interval from 96 to 130 local varve years. During the transition marked shift from proglacial to distal sedimentary environment is observed: the summer layer thickens decreased dramatically and it's thickens is markedly higher in the area close to the ice margin. The winter layer thickens becomes strongly correlated to the water depth, suggesting that the simple sedimentation model with no water circulation and addition of no new sediments is valid. The grain size data is used to estimate the "terminal grain size" - the size of the larges particles sedimented at the top of the winter layer. Provided that no significant water circulation took place during the winter, the terminal grain size will be controlled

  1. Structure, age and origin of the bay-mouth shoal deposits, Chesapeake Bay, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, Steven M.; Berquist, C.R., Jr.; Hobbs, C. H., III

    1988-01-01

    The mouth of Chesapeake Bay contains a distinctive shoal complex and related deposits that result from the complex interaction of three different processes: (1) progradation of a barrier spit at the southern end of the Delmarva Peninsula, (2) strong, reversing tidal currents that transport and rework sediment brought to the bay mouth from the north, and (3) landward (bayward) net non-tidal circulation and sediment transport. Together, these processes play a major role in changing the configuration of the estuary and filling it with sediment. The deposits at the mouth of the bay hold keys both to the evolution of the bay during the Holocene transgression and to the history of previous generations of the bay. The deposit associated with the shoals at the mouth of the bay, the bay-mouth sand, is a distinct stratigraphic unit composed mostly of uniform, gray, fine sand. The position and internal structure of the unit shows that it is related to near-present sea level, and thus is less than a few thousand years old. The processes affecting the upper surface of the deposit and the patterns of erosion and deposition at this surface are complex, but the geometry and structure of the deposit indicate that it is a coherent unit that is prograding bayward and tending to fill the estuary. The source of the bay-mouth sand is primarily outside the bay in the nearshore zone of the Delmarva Peninsula and on the inner continental shelf. The internal structure of the deposit, its surface morphology, its heavy-mineral composition, bottom-current studies, comparative bathymetry, and sediment budgets all suggest that sand is brought to the bay mouth by southerly longshore drift along the Delmarva Peninsula and then swept into the bay. In addition to building the southward- and bayward-prograding bay-mouth sand, these processes result in sand deposition tens of kilometers into the bay. ?? 1988.

  2. SARASOTA BAY NATIONAL ESTUARY PROGRAM, A FRAMEWORK FOR ACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sarasota Bay: Framework for Action was produced by the Sarasota Bay National Estuary Program to characterize the condition of Sarasota Bay and present preliminary options for Bay improvement. The publication is a precursor to the CCMP. Past destruction of sea grasses and mangrove...

  3. 33 CFR 80.1150 - Arcata-Humboldt Bay, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arcata-Humboldt Bay, CA. 80.1150... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1150 Arcata-Humboldt Bay, CA. A line drawn from Humboldt Bay Entrance Light 4 to Humboldt Bay Entrance Light 3....

  4. Physical processes in the transition zone between North Sea and Baltic Sea. Numerical simulations and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanev, Emil V.; Lu, Xi; Grashorn, Sebastian

    2015-09-01

    The dynamics in the transition zone between the North Sea and Baltic Sea are analyzed here using data from a 22-year-long climatic simulation with a focus on the periods 1992-1994 and 2001-2003 when two recent major inflow events occurred. Observations from gauges and in situ measurements are used to validate the model. Parameters, which cannot be easily measured, such as water and salt transports through straits, have been compared against similar previous estimates. The good performance of simulations is attributed to the finer resolution of the model compared to earlier set ups. The outflow in the Kattegat, which is an analogue of the tidal outflows, tends to propagate to the North over the shallows without showing a substantial deflection to the right due to the Earth's rotation. The inflow follows the topography. The different inflow and outflow pathways are explained as a consequence of the specific combination of bathymetry, axial and lateral processes. The circulation in Kattegat is persistently clockwise with an eastern intensification during inflow and a western one during outflow regimes. The tidal wave there propagates as Kelvin wave, keeping the coast on its right. The flows in the two main straits reveal very different responses to tides, which are also highly asymmetric during inflow and outflow conditions. The circulation has a typical two-layer structure, the correlation between salinity and velocity tends to increase the salt transport in the salinity conveyor belt. The transversal circulation in the entrance of the Sound enhances the vertical mixing of the saltier North Sea water. The long-term averaged ratio of the water transports through the Great Belt and the Sound is ∼2.6-2.7 but this number changes reaching lower values during the major inflow in 1993. The transports in the straits are asymmetric. During inflow events the repartition of water penetrating the Baltic Sea is strongly in favor of the pathway through the Sound, which provides

  5. Pathways of deep cyclones associated with large volume changes (LVCs) and major Baltic inflows (MBIs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Andreas; Höflich, Katharina; Post, Piia; Myrberg, Kai

    2016-04-01

    Large volume changes (LVCs) and major Baltic inflows (MBIs) are essential processes for the water exchange and renewal of the deep stagnant deep water in the Baltic Sea deep basins. MBIs are considered as subset of LVCs transporting with the large water volume a big amount of highly saline and oxygenated water into the Baltic Sea. Since the early 1980s the frequency of MBIs has dropped drastically from 5 to 7 events to only one inflow per decade, and long lasting periods without MBIs became the usual state. Only in January 1993, 2003 and December 2014 MBIs occurred that were able to interrupt the stagnation periods in the deep basins of the Baltic Sea. However, in spite of the decreasing frequency of MBIs, there is no obvious decrease of LVCs. Large volume changes have been calculated for the period 1887-2014 filtering daily time series of Landsort sea surface elevation anomalies. The Landsort sea level is known to reflect the mean sea level of the Baltic Sea very well. Thus, LVCs can be calculated from the mean sea level variations. The cases with local minimum and maximum difference resulting of at least 100 km³ of water volume change have been chosen for a closer study of characteristic pathways of deep cyclones. The average duration of a LVC is about 40 days. During this time, 5-6 deep cyclones will move along characteristic storm tracks. We obtained three main routes of deep cyclones which were associated with LVCs, but also with the climatology. One is approaching from the west at about 58-62°N, passing the northern North Sea, Oslo, Sweden and the Island of Gotland, while a second, less frequent one, is approaching from the west at about 65°N, crossing Scandinavia south-eastwards passing the Sea of Bothnia and entering Finland. A third very frequent one is entering the study area north of Scotland turning north-eastwards along the northern coast of Scandinavia. Thus, the conditions for a LVC to happen are a temporal clustering of deep cyclones in certain

  6. Large spatial variations in coastal 14C reservoir age - a case study from the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lougheed, B. C.; Filipsson, H. L.; Snowball, I.

    2013-02-01

    Coastal locations are highly influenced by input from freshwater river runoff, including sources of terrestrial carbon, which can be expected to modify the 14C reservoir age, or R(t), associated with marine water. In this Baltic Sea case study, pre-bomb museum collection mollusc shells of known calendar age, from 30 locations across a strategic salinity transect of the Baltic Sea, were analysed for 14C, δ13C and δ18O. R(t) was calculated for all 30 locations. Seven locations, of which six are within close proximity of the coast, were found to have relatively higher R(t) values, indicative of hard-water effects. δ13Caragonite values were found to be indicative of hard-water influence only for certain locations, suggesting the possibility of different sources of old carbon in different locations. Whenever possible, the Macoma genus of mollusc was selected from the museum collections, in order to exclude species specific reservoir age effects as much as possible. When the Macoma samples are exclusively considered, and samples from hard-water locations excluded, a statistically significant correlation between Macoma R(t) and average salinity is found, indicating a two end-member linear mixing model between 14Cmarine and 14Crunoff. A map of Baltic Sea Macoma aragonite R(t) for the late 19th and early 20th centuries is produced. Such a map can provide an estimate for contemporary Baltic Sea Macoma R(t), although one must exercise caution when applying such estimates back in time or to 14C dates obtained from different sample material. A statistically significant correlation is also found between δ18Oaragonite and Macoma R(t), suggesting that δ18Oaragonite can be used to estimate Macoma palaeo-R(t). The results of this Baltic Sea case study, which show that R(t) is affected by hydrographic conditions and local carbon inputs, have important consequences for other coastal and estuarine locations, where R(t) is also likely to significantly vary on spatial and temporal

  7. The ecophysiology of Sprattus sprattus in the Baltic and North Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peck, Myron A.; Baumann, Hannes; Bernreuther, Matthias; Clemmesen, Catriona; Herrmann, Jens-Peter; Haslob, Holger; Huwer, Bastian; Kanstinger, Philipp; Köster, Fritz W.; Petereit, Christoph; Temming, Axel; Voss, Rudi

    2012-09-01

    The European sprat (Sprattus sprattus) was a main target species of the German GLOBEC program that investigated the trophodynamic structure and function of the Baltic and North Seas under the influence of physical forcing. This review summarizes literature on the ecophysiology of sprat with an emphasis on describing how environmental factors influence the life-history strategy of this small pelagic fish. Ontogenetic changes in feeding and growth, and the impacts of abiotic and biotic factors on vital rates are discussed with particular emphasis on the role of temperature as a constraint to life-history scheduling of this species in the Baltic Sea. A combination of field and laboratory data suggests that optimal thermal windows for growth and survival change during early life and are wider for eggs (5-17 °C) than in young (8- to 12-mm) early feeding larvae (5-12 °C). As larvae become able to successfully capture larger prey, thermal windows expand to include warmer waters. For example, 12- to 16-mm larvae can grow well at 16 °C and larger, transitional-larvae and early juveniles display the highest rates of feeding and growth at ∼18-22 °C. Gaps in knowledge are identified including the need for additional laboratory studies on the physiology and behavior of larvae (studies that will be particularly critical for biophysical modeling activities) and research addressing the role of overwinter survival as a factor shaping phenology and setting limits on the productivity of this species in areas located at the northern limits of its latitudinal range (such as the Baltic Sea). Based on stage- and temperature-specific mortality and growth potential of early life stages, our analysis suggests that young-of-the year sprat would benefit from inhabiting warmer, near-shore environments rather than the deeper-water spawning grounds such as the Bornholm Basin (central Baltic Sea). Utilization of warmer, nearshore waters (or a general increase in Baltic Sea temperatures) is

  8. Reprint of: The ecophysiology of Sprattus sprattus in the Baltic and North Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peck, Myron A.; Baumann, Hannes; Bernreuther, Matthias; Clemmesen, Catriona; Herrmann, Jens-Peter; Haslob, Holger; Huwer, Bastian; Kanstinger, Philipp; Köster, Fritz W.; Petereit, Christoph; Temming, Axel; Voss, Rudi

    2012-12-01

    The European sprat (Sprattus sprattus) was a main target species of the German GLOBEC program that investigated the trophodynamic structure and function of the Baltic and North Seas under the influence of physical forcing. This review summarizes literature on the ecophysiology of sprat with an emphasis on describing how environmental factors influence the life-history strategy of this small pelagic fish. Ontogenetic changes in feeding and growth, and the impacts of abiotic and biotic factors on vital rates are discussed with particular emphasis on the role of temperature as a constraint to life-history scheduling of this species in the Baltic Sea. A combination of field and laboratory data suggests that optimal thermal windows for growth and survival change during early life and are wider for eggs (5-17 °C) than in young (8- to 12-mm) early feeding larvae (5-12 °C). As larvae become able to successfully capture larger prey, thermal windows expand to include warmer waters. For example, 12- to 16-mm larvae can grow well at 16 °C and larger, transitional-larvae and early juveniles display the highest rates of feeding and growth at ∼18-22 °C. Gaps in knowledge are identified including the need for additional laboratory studies on the physiology and behavior of larvae (studies that will be particularly critical for biophysical modeling activities) and research addressing the role of overwinter survival as a factor shaping phenology and setting limits on the productivity of this species in areas located at the northern limits of its latitudinal range (such as the Baltic Sea). Based on stage- and temperature-specific mortality and growth potential of early life stages, our analysis suggests that young-of-the year sprat would benefit from inhabiting warmer, near-shore environments rather than the deeper-water spawning grounds such as the Bornholm Basin (central Baltic Sea). Utilization of warmer, nearshore waters (or a general increase in Baltic Sea temperatures) is

  9. Spatial sensitivity of inorganic carbon to model setup: North Sea and Baltic Sea with ECOSMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castano Primo, Rocio; Schrum, Corinna; Daewel, Ute

    2015-04-01

    In ocean biogeochemical models it is critical to capture the key processes adequately so they do not only reproduce the observations but that those processes are reproduced correctly. One key issue is the choice of parameters, which in most cases are estimates with large uncertainties. This can be the product of actual lack of detailed knowledge of the process, or the manner the processes are implemented, more or less complex. In addition, the model sensitivity is not necessarily homogenous across the spatial domain modelled, which adds another layer of complexity to biogeochemical modelling. In the particular case of the inorganic carbon cycle, there are several sets of carbonate constants that can be chosen. The calculated air-sea CO2 flux is largely dependent on the parametrization chosen. In addition, the different parametrizations all the underlying processes that in some way impact the carbon cycle beyond the carbonate dissociation and fluxes give results that can be significantly different. Examples of these processes are phytoplankton growth rates or remineralization rates. Despite their geographical proximity, the North and Baltic Seas exhibit very different dynamics. The North Sea receives important inflows of Atlantic waters, while the Baltic Sea is an almost enclosed system, with very little exchange from the North Sea. Wind, tides, and freshwater supply act very differently, but dominantly structure the ecosystem dynamics on spatial and temporal scales. The biological community is also different. Cyanobacteria, which are important due to their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen, and they are only present in the Baltic Sea. These differentiating features have a strong impact in the biogeochemical cycles and ultimately shape the variations in the carbonate chemistry. Here the ECOSMO model was employed on the North Sea and Baltic Sea. The model is set so both are modelled at the same time, instead of having them run separately. ECOSMO is a 3-D coupled

  10. Recruitment processes in Baltic sprat - A re-evaluation of GLOBEC Germany hypotheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, Rüdiger; Peck, Myron A.; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Clemmesen, Catriona; Baumann, Hannes; Stepputtis, Daniel; Bernreuther, Matthias; Schmidt, Jörn O.; Temming, Axel; Köster, Fritz W.

    2012-12-01

    The GLOBEC Germany program (2002-2007) had the ambitious goal to resolve the processes impacting the recruitment dynamics of Baltic sprat (Sprattus sprattus L.) by examining various factors affecting early life history stages. At the start of the research program, a number of general recruitment hypotheses were formulated, i.e. focusing on (1) predation, (2) food availability, (3) physical parameters, (4) the impact of current systems, and finally (5) the importance of top-down vs bottom-up effects. The present study synthesizes the results of field sampling (2002 and 2003), laboratory experiments, and modeling studies to re-evaluate these hypotheses for the Baltic sprat stock. Recruitment success was quite different in the 2 years investigated. Despite a lower spawning stock biomass in 2003, the total number of recruits was almost 2-fold higher that year compared to 2002. The higher recruitment success in 2003 could be attributed to enhanced survival success during the post-larval/juvenile stage, a life phase that appears to be critical for recruitment dynamics. In the state of the Baltic ecosystem during the period of investigation, we consider bottom-up control (e.g. temperature, prey abundance) to be more important than top-down control (predation mortality). This ranking in importance does not vary seasonally. Prevailing water circulation patterns and the transport dynamics of larval cohorts have a strong influence on sprat recruitment success. Pronounced transport to coastal areas is detrimental for year-class strength particularly at high sprat stock sizes. A suggested mechanism is density-dependant regulation of survival via intra- and inter-specific competition for prey in coastal areas. A documented change in larval vertical migration behavior between the early 1990s and early 2000s increased the transport potential to the coast, strengthening the coupling between inter-annual differences in the magnitude and direction of wind-driven surface currents and

  11. 10. VIEW TO NORTHEAST FROM WITHIN SOUTHWEST BAY, LOOKING THROUGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW TO NORTHEAST FROM WITHIN SOUTHWEST BAY, LOOKING THROUGH CENTER BAY AND INTO NORTHEAST BAY. NOTE TRAVELING BRIDGE CRANE OVERHEAD AND SWINGING BOOM CRANES ATTACHED TO COLUMNS ON RIGHT AND LEFT. NOTE ALSO THE DIFFERENCE IN TRUSSES SUPPORTING CRANEWAY TRACKS FOR SIDE BAYS AND CENTER BAY. TRUSSES SUPPORTING CRANEWAY TRACKS IN SIDE BAYS (CENTER FOREGROUND AND FAR BACKGROUND) ARE HOWE TRUSSES WITH WOOD DIAGONALS AND STEEL VERTICALS. TRUSSES SUPPORTING CRANEWAY TRACKS IN CENTER BAY (MID BACKGROUND) ARE PRATT TRUSSES WITH WOOD VERTICALS AND DIAGONALS. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Auxiliary Plate Shop, 912 Harbour Way, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  12. Baltic Salmon, Salmo salar, from Swedish River Lule Älv Is More Resistant to Furunculosis Compared to Rainbow Trout

    PubMed Central

    Holten-Andersen, Lars; Dalsgaard, Inger; Buchmann, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Background Furunculosis, caused by Aeromonas salmonicida, continues to be a major health problem for the growing salmonid aquaculture. Despite effective vaccination programs regular outbreaks occur at the fish farms calling for repeated antibiotic treatment. We hypothesized that a difference in natural susceptibility to this disease might exist between Baltic salmon and the widely used rainbow trout. Study Design A cohabitation challenge model was applied to investigate the relative susceptibility to infection with A. salmonicida in rainbow trout and Baltic salmon. The course of infection was monitored daily over a 30-day period post challenge and the results were summarized in mortality curves. Results A. salmonicida was recovered from mortalities during the entire test period. At day 30 the survival was 6.2% and 34.0% for rainbow trout and Baltic salmon, respectively. Significant differences in susceptibility to A. salmonicida were demonstrated between the two salmonids and hazard ratio estimation between rainbow trout and Baltic salmon showed a 3.36 higher risk of dying from the infection in the former. Conclusion The finding that Baltic salmon carries a high level of natural resistance to furunculosis might raise new possibilities for salmonid aquaculture in terms of minimizing disease outbreaks and the use of antibiotics. PMID:22276121

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Flavobacterium sp. 316, a Baltic Sea Isolate Exhibiting a High Level of Resistance to Marine Stress Conditions.

    PubMed

    Karczewska-Golec, Joanna; Kochanowska-Łyżen, Maja; Olszewski, Paweł; Bałut, Magdalena; Moskot, Marta; Piotrowski, Arkadiusz; Golec, Piotr; Szalewska-Pałasz, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome sequence ofFlavobacteriumsp. 316, isolated from brackish water of the Gulf of Gdańsk, southern Baltic Sea. The assembly contains 3,971,755 bp in 17 scaffolds. The sequence will facilitate postgenomic studies on bacterial stress responses in the challenging habitat of the Baltic Sea. PMID:27034490

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Flavobacterium sp. 316, a Baltic Sea Isolate Exhibiting a High Level of Resistance to Marine Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kochanowska-Łyżen, Maja; Olszewski, Paweł; Bałut, Magdalena; Moskot, Marta; Piotrowski, Arkadiusz; Golec, Piotr; Szalewska-Pałasz, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Flavobacterium sp. 316, isolated from brackish water of the Gulf of Gdańsk, southern Baltic Sea. The assembly contains 3,971,755 bp in 17 scaffolds. The sequence will facilitate postgenomic studies on bacterial stress responses in the challenging habitat of the Baltic Sea. PMID:27034490

  15. 77 FR 38005 - Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Biloxi Bay Fireworks; Biloxi Bay; Biloxi, MS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Biloxi Bay Fireworks; Biloxi Bay; Biloxi, MS AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. ] SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce a Safety Zone for the Biloxi Bay Fireworks event in Biloxi Bay,...

  16. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The..., Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as he/she may designate....

  17. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The..., Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as he/she may designate....

  18. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The..., Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as he/she may designate....

  19. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The..., Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as he/she may designate....

  20. 33 CFR 167.101 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Precautionary areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Precautionary areas. 167.101 Section 167.101 Navigation and Navigable... the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Precautionary areas. (a) A...

  1. 33 CFR 167.101 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Precautionary areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Precautionary areas. 167.101 Section 167.101 Navigation and Navigable... the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Precautionary areas. (a) A...

  2. 33 CFR 167.101 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Precautionary areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Precautionary areas. 167.101 Section 167.101 Navigation and Navigable... the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Precautionary areas. (a) A...

  3. 33 CFR 167.101 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Precautionary areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Precautionary areas. 167.101 Section 167.101 Navigation and Navigable... the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Precautionary areas. (a) A...

  4. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The..., Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as he/she may designate....

  5. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block...

  6. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block...

  7. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block...

  8. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block...

  9. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block...

  10. 76 FR 37641 - Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks Celebration for the City of Half Moon Bay, Half Moon Bay, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... the City of Half Moon Bay, Half Moon Bay, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone in the navigable waters of Half Moon Bay, off of Pillar Point Harbor beach, Half Moon Bay, CA in support of the Independence Day...

  11. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Although clouds obscure part of the city of San Francisco and the mouth of the Bay (37.5N, 122.0W), many cultural and natural features in the immediate vicinity are obvious. The Bay Bridge which was damaged in the 1989 earthquake, Candlestick Park, San Mateo and Dumbarton Bridges as well as the various colored settling ponds rimming the south end of the Bay, the San Andreas and Calaveras faults and many of the major highways can be seen. Color infrared photography is very useful for haze penetration and greater definition of the imagery as well as vegetation detection, depicted as shades of red.

  12. A pollution history of Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, E.D.; Hodge, V.; Koide, M.; Griffin, J.; Gamble, E.; Bricker, O.P.; Matisoff, G.; Holdren, G.R., Jr.; Braun, R.

    1978-01-01

    Present day anthropogenic fluxes of some heavy metals to central Chesapeake Bay appear to be intermediate to those of the southern California coastal region and those of Narragansett Bay. The natural fluxes, however, are in general higher. On the bases of Pb-210 and Pu-239 + 240 geochronologies and of the time changes in interstitial water compositions, there is a mixing of the upper 30 or so centimeters of the sediments in the mid-Chesapeake Bay area through bioturbation by burrowing mollusks and polychaetes. Coal, coke and charcoal levels reach one percent or more by dry weight in the deposits, primarily as a consequence of coal mining operations. ?? 1978.

  13. The land-sourced pollution in the Jiaozhou Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhenhui; Yang, Dongfang; Qin, Jie; Xiang, Lihong; Zhang, Ke

    2008-05-01

    In recent years, natural environment of the Jiaozhou Bay has been changed largely by fast developing industry and agriculture of the cities around, from which wastewaters were generated. The size of the bay has been continuously shrunk with reduced river flows, resulting in serious contamination to the marine lives in the bay. After analyzing the basic historical data, the authors put forward a suggestion of how to protect the bay ecology for sustaining the resources in the Jiaozhou Bay.

  14. Radionuclides in Chesapeake Bay sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cressy, P. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Natural and manmade gamma-ray emitting radionuclides were measured in Chesapeake Bay sediments taken near the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant site. Samples represented several water depths, at six locations, for five dates encompassing a complete seasonal cycle. Radionuclide contents of dry sediments ranged as follows: Tl-208, 40 to 400 pCi/kg; Bi-214, 200 to 800 pCi/kg; K, 0.04 to 2.1 percent; Cs-137 5 to 1900 pCi/kg; Ru106, 40 to 1000 pCikg Co60, 1 to 27 pCi/kg. In general, radionuclide contents were positively correlated with each other and negatively correlated with sediment grain size.

  15. The Liverpool Bay Coastal Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howarth, Michael John; O'Neill, Clare K.; Palmer, Matthew R.

    2010-05-01

    A pre-operational Coastal Observatory has been functioning since August 2002 in Liverpool Bay, Irish Sea. Its rationale is to develop the science underpinning the ecosystem based approach to marine management, including distinguishing between natural and man-made variability, with particular emphasis on eutrophication and predicting responses of a coastal sea to climate change. Liverpool Bay has strong tidal mixing, receives fresh water principally from the Dee, Mersey and Ribble estuaries, each with different catchment influences, and has enhanced levels of nutrients. Horizontal and vertical density gradients are variable both in space and time. The challenge is to understand and model accurately this variable region which is turbulent, turbid, receives enhanced nutrients and is productive. The Observatory has three components, for each of which the goal is some (near) real-time operation - measurements; coupled 3-D hydrodynamic, wave and ecological models; a data management and web-based data delivery system which provides free access to the data, http://cobs.pol.ac.uk. The integrated measurements are designed to test numerical models and have as a major objective obtaining multi-year records, covering tidal, event (storm / calm / bloom), seasonal and interannual time scales. The four main strands on different complementary space or time scales are:- a) fixed point time series (in situ and shore-based); very good temporal and very poor spatial resolution. These include tide gauges; a meteorological station on Hilbre Island at the mouth of the Dee; two in situ sites, one by the Mersey Bar, measuring waves and the vertical structure of current, temperature and salinity. A CEFAS SmartBuoy whose measurements include surface nutrients is deployed at the Mersey Bar site. b) regular (nine times per year) spatial water column surveys on a 9 km grid; good vertical resolution for some variables, limited spatial coverage and resolution, and limited temporal resolution. The

  16. 'Victoria Crater' from 'Duck Bay'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars rover Opportunity edged 3.7 meters (12 feet) closer to the top of the 'Duck Bay' alcove along the rim of 'Victoria Crater' during the rover's 952nd Martian day, or sol (overnight Sept. 27 to Sept. 28), and gained this vista of the crater. The rover's navigation camera took the seven exposures combined into this mosaic view of the crater's interior. This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months.

    The far side of the crater is about 800 meters (one-half mile) away. The rim of the crater is composed of alternating promontories, rocky points towering approximately 70 meters (230 feet) above the crater floor, and recessed alcoves, such as Duck Bay. The bottom of the crater is covered by sand that has been shaped into ripples by the Martian wind. The rocky cliffs in the foreground have been informally named 'Cape Verde,' on the left, and 'Cabo Frio,' on the right.

    Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. The great lure of Victoria is an expectation that the thick stack of geological layers exposed in the crater walls could reveal the record of past environmental conditions over a much greater span of time than Opportunity has read from rocks examined earlier in the mission.

    This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  17. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... intended passage. (b) The draw of the Maple-Oregon Bridge, mile 4.17 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open on signal... the Maple-Oregon Street drawbridge, shall open simultaneously for larger commercial vessels, as...

  18. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... intended passage. (b) The draw of the Maple-Oregon Bridge, mile 4.17 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open on signal... the Maple-Oregon Street drawbridge, shall open simultaneously for larger commercial vessels, as...

  19. BENTHIC MACROFAUNAL ALIENS IN WILLAPA BAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benthic macrofaunal samples were collected at random stations in Willapa Bay, WA, in four habitats [eelgrass (Zostera marina), Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis), ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)] in 1996 and in seven habitats (Z...

  20. The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhe

    2010-02-01

    The 3x3 PMNS leptonic mixing matrix relates the mass and flavor eigenstates of the 3 known neutrinos. The θ13 mixing angle is the last unknown mixing angle in the PMNS matrix, the parameters of which must be determined experimentally. The Daya Bay experiment will search for the ``disappearance'' of reactor anti-neutrinos from the Daya Bay and Ling Ao Nuclear Power Plants located in Daya Bay, Guangdong, China using multiple identical detectors at different baselines. The disappearance probability of reactor anti-neutrinos at short baselines of 1-2km is directly proportional to 2̂(2 θ13). The goal of the Daya Bay experiment is to reach a sensitivity of 2̂(2 θ13) = 0.01 at the 90 % C.L. The status and prospects of the experiment will be presented. )