Science.gov

Sample records for right-ascension interval 7h

  1. A comparison between the precession-nutation variations in right ascension referred to the CIO and the equinox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husar, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    The article analyzes the precession-nutation variations in right ascension of stars after the introduction Celestial Intermediate Origin (CIO) as a new origin of the right ascensions. It points out that changes in right ascension depend not only on the motion of the origin, but also on the changes of the pole and hour circles, depending on the position of stars. This explains the apparent paradox that, for certain groups of stars, despite the almost complete elimination of the precession and nutation motion of the CIO on the equator, the magnitude of the variations in right ascension related to the CIO can exceed the magnitude of the classic variations referred to the equinox.

  2. New high proper motion stars with declinations between -5(deg) and -30(deg) , and right ascensions between 13h 30m and 24h

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wroblewski, H.; Costa, E.

    1999-10-01

    Proper motions, positions, finding charts and magnitudes are given for 293 newly discovered stars with proper motions larger than 0.15 arcsec/year. They are located between -5(deg) and -30(deg) in declination, and 13h 30m and 24h in right ascension. Their blue photographic magnitudes range from approximately 13.0 to 18.5. Six stars of the above sample have proper motions larger than 0.4 (0.401 to 0.534) arcsec/year. An estimated precision level between 7 and 13 mas/year was achieved for the proper motions. Table~2 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp 130.79.128.5 or http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html and figures~2 are available in the on-line edition of the journal at http://www.edpsciences.com

  3. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 7E: Right ascension range 20h 00m to 23h 59m

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images. The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentation describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers, and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  4. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 4E: Right ascension range 08h 00m to 11h 59m

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images, The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentaion describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers, and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  5. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 3E: Right ascension range 04h 00m to 07h 59m

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images. The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentation describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  6. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 5E: Right ascension range 12h 00m to 15h 59m

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics, which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images. The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentation describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers, and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  7. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 6E: Right ascension range 16h 00m to 19h 59m

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2 launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics, which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images. The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentation describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers, and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  8. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 2E: Right ascension range 00h 00m to 03h 59m

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images. The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentation describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  9. Coordinator's Report: Chromosome 7H

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report summarizes published research across the world in 2006 that placed additional markers, genes and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on barley chromosome 7H. Some of the traits located include those affecting agronomic traits, root system size, vernalization, and cold tolerance. Studies conti...

  10. Coordinator’s report: Chromosome 7H

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report summarizes published research across the world in 2009 that placed additional markers, genes, and quantitative trait loci (QTL) on barley chromosome 7H. An extensive single nucleotide polymorphism marker map was created and additional gene-specific markers were developed. Mapping researc...

  11. Coordinator’s Report: Chromosome 7H

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report summarizes published research across the world in 2007 that placed additional markers, genes and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on barley chromosome 7H. Five additional consensus maps were published. Some of the traits located include those affecting disease resistance, malting quality, ...

  12. Coordinator’s Report: Chromosome 7H

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report summarizes published research across the world in 2008 that placed additional markers, genes and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on barley chromosome 7H. An extensive expression marker map was created and additional single nucleotide polymorphism markers were developed. Mapping research l...

  13. B7-H1 Expression in Vestibular Schwannomas

    PubMed Central

    Archibald, David J.; Neff, Brian A.; Voss, Stephen G.; Splinter, Patrick L.; Driscoll, Colin L. W.; Link, Michael J.; Dong, Haidong; Kwon, Eugene D.

    2014-01-01

    Hypothesis B7-H1 is expressed in vestibular schwannomas. Background Little is known about how benign human vestibular schwannomas interact with antibody-mediated or cell-mediated immunity. We report on the aberrant expression of a novel T-cell coregulatory molecule, B7 homolog 1 (B7-H1), in vestibular schwannomas and discuss the implications of B7-H1 expression and tumor aggressiveness and a potential regulator of B7-H1 expression. Methods Immunohistochemical staining for B7-H1, CD8+, CD3+, and CD4+ lymphocytes were performed on 48 fresh-frozen vestibular schwannoma tissue specimens. A clinical review of patient presenting symptoms and tumor characteristics was performed. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine if there was differential expression of B7-H1 messenger RNA and microRNA-513, a known regulator of B7-H1, in several strongly positive and negative B7-H1 vestibular schwannomas. Results Nine (19%) of 48 tumors were negative, 23 (48%) tumors were 1+ mildly positive (<20% section area), and 16 (33%) stained 2+ strongly positive (≥20% section area) for B7-H1. The average number of CD8+ cells per high-power field was 2.1 for positive-staining tumors and 1.0 for negative tumors (p = 0.16). Failure of tumor control with stereotactic radiation (p = 0.029) was significantly greater in the strongly positive B7-H1 tumors. Real-time polymerase chain reaction did not show significant differential expression of microRNA-513 (p = 0.62) or B7-H1 messenger RNA (p = 0.35) between the tumors showing strong and negative immunohistochemical staining for B7-H1 protein. Conclusion Vestibular schwannoma tumors express B7-H1, which has been associated with immune tolerance and adverse disease characteristics in several malignancies. Growing tumors that were surgically removed after failed stereotactic radiation therapy were significantly more likely to strongly express B7-H1 protein, which lends some credibility to the hypothesis that immuno-evasion may play

  14. Clinical relevance of expression of B7-H1 and B7-H4 in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    XU, MEI; ZHANG, BEI; ZHANG, MENG; LIU, YANG; YIN, FENG-LING; LIU, XIA; ZHUO, SHI-CHAO

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of B7-H1 and B7-H4 in ovarian neoplasm tissues and to examine their clinical relevance. A total of 112 ovarian biopsies were collected from patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and 10 were taken from ovarian benign neoplasms. The samples were processed in paraffin tissue chips, and subjected to immunohistochemical staining and analysis. Associations of B7-H1 and B7-H4 expression with patients' clinical parameters, such as histological typing, cell grading, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging, tumor size, and metastatic status, were examined by statistical analysis. Survival curves were constructed using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test. Independent prognostic factors were evaluated using the Cox regression model. The results showed an extremely low or negative expression of B7-H1 and B7-H4 in the 10 benign ovarian neoplasm tissues (control): By contrast, a positive expression of B7-H1 and B7-H4 was observed in 55.4% (62/112) and 37.5% (42/112) of the EOC tissues, respectively. The differences between the two groups were significant. In addition, the co-expression of B7-H1 and B7-H4 was found in 31.3% (35/112) of the EOC cases. Furthermore, the progression-free survival and overall survival were significantly lower in EOC patients with a high expression of B7-H1 and B7-H4 (χ2=45.60 and 37.99, respectively). These results demonstrated that the expression of B7-H1 and B7-H4 in EOC tissues was significantly associated with poor prognosis and high relapse rate of EOC. The findings suggest that B7-H1 and B7-H4 is a negative prognostic marker for EOC and a potential immunotherapeutic target for patients with EOC. PMID:27073557

  15. Interval Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    Regardless of the type of physical activity used, interval training is simply repeated periods of physical stress interspersed with recovery periods during which activity of a reduced intensity is performed. During the recovery periods, the individual usually keeps moving and does not completely recover before the next exercise interval (e.g.,…

  16. Prognostic investigations of B7-H1 and B7-H4 expression levels as independent predictor markers of renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Safaei, Hamid Reza; Rostamzadeh, Ayoob; Rahmani, Omid; Mohammadi, Mohsen; Ghaderi, Omar; Yahaghi, Hamid; Ahmadi, Koroosh

    2016-06-01

    In order to evaluate the correlation of B7-H4 and B7-H1 with renal cell carcinoma (RCC), we analyzed B7-H1 and B7-H4 expressions and their clinical significance by immunohistochemical method. Our result indicated that B7-H4-positive staining was detected in 58.13 % of RCC tissues (25 tissues tumors), and there were 18 tissues of patients without detectable B7-H4. Furthermore, 21 cases (48.83 %) were B7-H1-positive. Positive tumor expressions of B7-H4 and B7-H1 were markedly related to advanced TNM stage (P = 0.001; P = 0.014), high grade (P = 0.001; P = 002), and larger tumor size (P = 0.002; P = 024) in RCC tissues than patients with B7-H4-negative and B7-H1-negative in RCC tissues. The patients with B7-H1 and B7-H4-positive expressions were found to be markedly correlated with the overall survival of the patients (P < 0.05) and tended to have an increased risk of death when compared with negative expression groups. Univariate analysis showed that B7-H4 and B7-H1 expressions, TNM stage, high grade, and tumor size were significantly related to the prognosis of RCC. Furthermore, multivariate analysis showed that B7-H4 and B7-H1 expressions decreased overall survival. The adjusted HR for B7-H1 was 2.83 (95 % CI 1.210-2.971; P = 0.031) and also was 2.918 (95 % CI 1.243-3.102; P = 0.006) for B7-H4 that showed these markers were independent prognostic factors in RCC patients. The expressions of B7-H1 and B7-H4 in RCC patients indicate that these markers may be as a predictor of tumor development and death risk. Further investigations can be helpful to confirm B7-H1 and B7-H4 roles as an independent predictor of clinical RCC outcome. PMID:26687644

  17. Interbirth intervals

    PubMed Central

    Haig, David

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives: Interbirth intervals (IBIs) mediate a trade-off between child number and child survival. Life history theory predicts that the evolutionarily optimal IBI differs for different individuals whose fitness is affected by how closely a mother spaces her children. The objective of the article is to clarify these conflicts and explore their implications for public health. Methodology: Simple models of inclusive fitness and kin conflict address the evolution of human birth-spacing. Results: Genes of infants generally favor longer intervals than genes of mothers, and infant genes of paternal origin generally favor longer IBIs than genes of maternal origin. Conclusions and implications: The colonization of maternal bodies by offspring cells (fetal microchimerism) raises the possibility that cells of older offspring could extend IBIs by interfering with the implantation of subsequent embryos. PMID:24480612

  18. The interaction of MMP-2/B7-H3 in human osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ping; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Zhuqiu; Dai, Xiaoli; Mao, Ting; Fan, Yinyin; Xie, Xiaofang; Wen, Huiyan; Yu, Peijuan; Hu, Yae; Yan, Ruhong

    2016-01-01

    The immune costimulatory molecule B7-H3 has been shown to be involved in the regulation of murine bone formation. However, the role of B7-H3 in bone metabolic diseases remains unknown. In our study, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and soluble B7-H3 (sB7-H3) were found to be correlatively up-regulated in the sera of osteoporosis patients. Furthermore, our results showed that MG63 cells treated with MMP-2 inhibitors produced lower amounts of sB7-H3 while cells with recombinant MMP-2 had an increased membrane B7-H3 (mB7-H3) shedding. Therefore, elevated MMP-2 levels resulted in an elevation of serum sB7-H3 and reduction of osteoblastic mB7-H3. B7-H3 knockdown in MG63 cells significantly decreased osteoblastic markers and substantially decreased the number of mineralized nodules after 21days. Thus, B7-H3-deficient MG63 cells exhibited impaired bone formation. These results suggest that mB7-H3 is required for the later phases of osteoblast differentiation and that MMP-2/B7-H3 plays a negative regulatory role in osteoporosis. PMID:26631755

  19. MicroRNA-513 Regulates B7-H1 Translation and Is Involved in IFN-γ-Induced B7-H1 Expression in Cholangiocytes1,2

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Ai-Yu; Zhou, Rui; Hu, Guoku; Li, Xiaoqing; Splinter, Patrick L.; O’Hara, Steven P.; LaRusso, Nicholas F.; Soukup, Garrett A.; Dong, Haidong; Chen, Xian-Ming

    2009-01-01

    Biliary epithelial cells (cholangiocytes) respond to proinflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ and actively participate in the regulation of biliary inflammatory response in the liver. B7-H1 (also known as CD274 or PD-L1) is a member of the B7 costimu-latory molecules and plays a critical immunoregulatory role in cell-mediated immune responses. In this study, we show that resting human cholangiocytes in culture express B7-H1 mRNA, but not B7-H1 protein. IFN-γ induces B7-H1 protein expression and alters the microRNA (miRNA) expression profile in cholangiocytes. Of those IFN-γ-down-regulated miRNAs, we identified microRNA-513 (miR-513) with complementarity to the 3′-untranslated region of B7-H1 mRNA. Targeting of the B7-H1 3′-untranslated region by miR-513 results in translational repression. Transfection of cholangiocytes with an antisense oligonucleotide to miR-513 induces B7-H1 protein expression. Additionally, transfection of miR-513 precursor decreases IFN-γ-induced B7-H1 protein expression and consequently influences B7-H1-associated apoptotic cell death in cocultured Jurkat cells. Thus, miR-513 regulates B7-H1 translation and is involved in IFN-γ-induced B7-H1 expression in human cholangiocytes, suggesting a role for miRNA-mediated gene silencing in the regulation of cholangiocyte response to IFN-γ. PMID:19155478

  20. Magnetic phase structure of Saturn's 10.7 h oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, J. N.; Southwood, D. J.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2015-04-01

    A source of Saturn's magnetic 10.7 h period oscillations has yet to be identified. The oscillations are known to consist of signals with slightly different periods from separate northern and southern sources. Here we present a novel way of examining observations, focusing on signal phase. We show that although the signals are highly periodic they are usually not sinusoidal and that there are differences in both phase structure and polarization between the outer magnetosphere (on the nightside) and the inner dipolar region. Paying particular attention to the deep midtail passes of 2006, the contrasting behavior between the inner and outer regions is clear with approximate sinusoidal behavior in the dipolar region and a pulse-like signal once per cycle in the tail. The latter structure seems to indicate that tail magnetic stress is released impulsively once per cycle in the tail. After equinox, in 2010-2011, we find a different picture in the premidnight sector. The predetermined northern and southern frequencies are closer together and apparently show sudden shifts. Our signal reconstruction approach finds instances where it is likely that the narrow band filtering is not able to track completely the basic north and south periods as we find phase jumps indicating unpredicted beats.

  1. [Construction of anti-B7-H4-scFv library and screening and identification of anti-B7-H4-scFv].

    PubMed

    Shao, Luanluan; Xu, Chaochao; Ji, Hongshuai; Mao, Weiping; Wang, Yingying; Liu, Xiaoqian; Zhu, Yanyan

    2016-09-01

    Objective To construct the ribosome display library of anti-B7-H4 extracellular domain, and select the antibody with high specificity. Methods The cDNA of B7-H4 extracellular domain was amplified from A549 cells by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). To express ectodomains of B7-H4, the sequence of B7-H4 gene, which encodes the B7-H4 extracellular domains, was inserted into plasmid pET-28a(+). The purified recombinant protein of B7-H4 extracellular domain was used to immunize BALB/c mice. The total RNA was extracted from the spleen of BALB/c mice which had been immunized with B7-H4 recombinant protein. The genes of VH, Vκ and VH/Vκ were amplified separately by RT-PCR and splicing by overlap extension PCR (SOE-PCR). The gene of VH/ Vκ was ligated into pUM19-T vector and the ligated sample was transformed into competent E.coli DH5α. The resulting plasmid was isolated and then subjected to sequencing to verify the gene sequence. TNT(R)T7 Quick for PCR DNA kit was used to translate and screen the anti-B7-H4-scFv in vitro from the ribosome display library. Western blotting and an indirect ELISA were performed to detect the specificity of anti-B7-H4-scFv. Results The right sequences of VH, Vκ and VH/Vκ were acquired, which were 439, 680 and 1098 bp in length, respectively. The analysis of specificity demonstrated that the anti-B7-H4-scFv screened from the ribosome display library had a high specific combining ability with B7-H4. Conclusion The experiment has successively constructed the ribosome display library of anti-B7-H4 extracellular domain, and selected the anti-B7-H4-scFv which has a high specific binding ability with recombinant protein of B7-H4 extracelluar domain. PMID:27609584

  2. Possible involvement of soluble B7-H4 in T cell-mediated inflammatory immune responses.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Yosuke; Kobori, Hiroko; Piao, Jinhua; Hashiguchi, Masaaki; Matsumoto, Koichiro; Hirose, Sachiko; Azuma, Miyuki

    2009-11-13

    B7-H4, a newly identified B7 family molecule, is reported to regulate T cell activation. However, the expression and function of B7-H4 remain controversial. Here, we demonstrated that B7-H4 expression in immune cells was undetectable at both the transcription and cell-surface protein levels. B7-H4 transfectants augmented anti-CD3 mAb-induced re-directed cytotoxicity and this was inhibited by anti-B7-H4 mAb. In a hapten-induced contact hypersensitivity model, treatment with anti-B7-H4 mAb at sensitization, but not at challenge, efficiently suppressed the ear swelling and CD8(+) T cell activation assessed by CD25 expression and IFN-gamma production. We found that cells expressing B7-H4 secreted soluble B7-H4 and the serum B7-H4 level increased with disease progression in lupus-prone and collagen-induced arthritis autoimmune mice and after the antigen challenge in allergic inflammatory diseases. Our results suggest a different action of B7-H4 in T cell-mediated inflammatory responses and the possible involvement of soluble B7-H4 in inflammatory immune responses. PMID:19723502

  3. Could B7-H4 serve as a target to activate anti-cancer immunity?

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijuan; Heng, Xueyuan; Lu, Yong; Cai, Zhen; Yi, Qing; Che, Fengyuan

    2016-09-01

    It has been over 13years since the identification of B7-H4, the co-stimulatory molecule of B7 family members. While B7-H4 mRNA is widely distributed protein expression seems to be limited on tissues. Various cytokines and inflammatory mediators induce the expression of B7-H4. However, the specific regulatory mechanisms of B7-H4 remain to be defined. Recently, it has been shown that B7-H4 executes an inhibitory function in the T-cell response via reduced expansion, cell cycle arrest, decreased cytokine secretion and induced apoptosis of activated T-cells. Furthermore, B7-H4 suppresses the function of antigen presenting cells (APCs) and promotes the proliferation and development of regulatory T-cells (Treg). Moreover, a growing body of literature demonstrates that various cancers express B7-H4 and that the expression levels of B7-H4 correlate with cancer size, histological type, pathologic stage, grade, infiltration, lymph node metastasis, cancer progression, recurrence and death. The over-expression of B7-H4 in cancer may be related to an increased resistance to immune responses. The aim of this review is to supply an overview of the advances in the regulation and function of B7-H4. Additionally, many studies have suggested that B7-H4 is a molecular target for therapeutic intervention in cancer and that targeting B7-H4 may have promising potential for improving the efficacy of immunotherapy for cancer patients. PMID:27258187

  4. Clinical significance of B7-H6 protein expression in astrocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jian-gui; Guo, Cheng-cheng; He, Zhen-qiang; Liu, Zhi-gang; Wang, Yang; Mou, Yong-gao

    2016-01-01

    Currently, immunotherapy by blocking the immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as anti-PD-1, has been carried out in many clinical studies on recurrent glioma, and the preliminary results are satisfactory, which provides a rationale for the exploration of immune checkpoint inhibitors in glioma. B7-H6 is a newly discovered member of the B7 family, which triggers antitumor of natural killer cell cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion by binding the NKp30 receptor. B7-H6 mRNA and protein expressions, which are not detected in normal tissues, are expressed mainly on the cell surface of various primary tumors and cell lines. However, up until now, there is no data about the clinical significance of B7-H6 expression in astrocytoma patients. The present study provides an investigation on the relationship between prognostic and clinical value of B7-H6 protein in astrocytoma tissues. All the astrocytic glioma tissues were stained for B7-H6. Immunohistochemistry stain of 122 astrocytoma samples showed that immunoreactivity of B7-H6 was seen predominantly in the cytoplasm. The B7-H6 expression did not show significant relevance with patient age, sex distribution, Karnofsky performance status score, extent of resection, and tumor location in astrocytoma patients, but B7-H6 positive expression is significantly associated with World Health Organization grade (P=0.046). However, the survival rate after operation presented no significant difference of B7-H6 expression in astrocytoma patients. Kaplan–Meier analysis and the log-rank test revealed that B7-H6 expression cannot predict the overall survival. In all, it seems that the B7-H6 expression might be a marker to differentiate the World Health Organization grade level of astrocytoma, but the prognosis value of B7-H6 in astrocytoma should be studied in detail. PMID:27330308

  5. [Research Progress on Co-stimulating Molecule B7-H3 in Hematological Malignancies].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jing; Ke, Xiao-Yan

    2015-12-01

    Costimulatory molecule B7-H3 is a new member of the B7 immunoregulatory family identified in 2001. Although B7-H3 mRNA is widely detected in a variety of lymphoid and nonlymphoid organs, but the B7-H3 protein is distributed limitedly, generally absent or low expressed in normal tissues. The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell (TREM)-like transcript 2 (TLT-2) is a possible receptor for B7-H3, but it is not confirmed. B7-H3 has an important immunologic function having costimulatory or coinhibitory immunoregulatory effects in adaptive immune responses, but its exact mechanism remains contentious. The recent studies reported that aberrant overexpression of B7-H3 was found in a wide range of solid cancer tissues and cells, and associated with more advanced disease and poor prognosis, and directly performed nonimmunological functions in oncogenesis. However, more and more studies demonstrate that B7-H3 also plays an important role in progression of hematologic malignancies. The overexpression of B7-H3 is significantly associated with the malignant degree, relapse, progression and prognosis in haematological malignancies. Thus, B7-H3 represents a novel diagnostic marker and potential therapeutic target for cancers. The immunotherapy targeting to B7-H3 become one of the hotspots of recent researches, and some monoclonal antibodies have already entered into clinical trials. This review summarizes the available data on the relationship between B7-H3 and hematologic malignancies, and further focusing on B7-H3 as a potential therapeutic target in these tumors. PMID:26708906

  6. B7-H4 expression indicates poor prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Deng, Wei-Wei; Yu, Guang-Tao; Mao, Liang; Bu, Lin-Lin; Ma, Si-Rui; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Sun, Zhi-Jun

    2016-09-01

    Checkpoint blockade therapy utilizing monoclonal antibodies to reactivate T cells and recover their antitumor activity makes an epoch in cancer immunotherapy. The role of B7-H4, a novel negative immune checkpoint, in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has still not been elucidated. In this study, tissue samples from human OSCC, which contains 165 primary OSCC, 48 oral epithelial dysplasia and 43 normal oral mucosa specimens, and Tgfbr1/Pten 2cKO mice OSCC model were stained with B7-H4 antibody to analyze the correlations between B7-H4 expression and clinicopathological characteristics. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to compare the survival of patients with high B7-H4 expression and patients with low B7-H4 expression. We found B7-H4 is highly expressed in human OSCC tissue, and the B7-H4 expression level was associated with the clinicopathological parameters containing pathological grade and lymph node status. Moreover, we confirmed that B7-H4 was overexpressed in Tgfbr1/Pten 2cKO mice OSCC model. Our data also indicated that patients with high B7-H4 expression had poor overall survival compared with those with low B7-H4 expression. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that B7-H4 was positively associated with PD-L1, CD11b, CD33, PI3Kα p110, and p-S6 (S235/236). Taken together, these findings suggest B7-H4 is a potential target in the treatment of OSCC. PMID:27383830

  7. B7-H4 overexpression correlates with a poor prognosis for cervical cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenting; Shibata, Kiyosumi; Koya, Yoshihiro; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Senga, Takeshi; Yamashita, Mamoru; Kikkawa, Fumitaka

    2014-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a major global public health care concern and the second most commonly diagnosed malignancy among females worldwide. B7-H4 is an immunoregulatory protein that has been shown to be overexpressed in several types of cancer and is often associated with more advanced disease and poor prognosis. We investigated whether B7-H4 is a prognostic maker for cervical cancer by detecting its expression in cervical cancer specimens. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks from cervical cancer were evaluated for B7-H4 expression by immunohistochemistry with free R software analysis. The intensity of B7-H4 immunoexpression was evaluated according to age, histological type, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI) and lymph node status. We investigated the distribution and expression of B7-H4 in 102 cervical cancer specimens and determined the association between its expression and clinicopathological characteristics, including patient outcomes. Of the 102 specimens, 31 were found to be negative for B7-H4 immunoexpression, whereas 71 were B7-H4-positive. When classified by negative vs. positive expression, B7-H4 was not found to be associated with any of the clinicopathological parameters investigated. A positive B7-H4 expression significantly predicted poor overall survival (OS) when compared to negative expression (P<0.05). In the multivariate analysis, positive B7-H4 expression was identified as an independent prognostic factor for OS (P<0.05). Our data suggested that positive B7-H4 expression may be a useful biomarker in patients with cervical cancer likely to have an unfavorable clinical outcome. PMID:24649336

  8. Expression of B7-H3 in cancer tissue during osteosarcoma progression in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Yin, S J; Wang, W J; Zhang, J Y

    2015-01-01

    Immune cells might participate in the ontogenesis of osteosarcoma. B7-H3 is a new discovered T cell co-stimulatory molecule that was found to be overexpressed in malignant tumors. We aimed to investigate the dynamic expression level of B7-H3 in nude mice with osteosarcoma. A nude mouse osteosarcoma model was successfully established. B7-H3 expression and distribution changes in the early, middle, and late phases of osteosarcoma formation after tumor implantation were observed. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses were applied to measure the B7-H3 mRNA and protein dynamic changes. Confocal microscopy and immunohistochemistry were used to determine B7-H3 localization and CD3+ T cell expression, respectively, in osteosarcoma tissue. B7-H3 mRNA and protein levels fluctuated during the process of osteosarcoma formation in the nude mouse model. Expression levels were lower in the early and middle phases, while B7-H3 mRNA and protein were overexpressed in the late stage. Accordingly, CD3+ T cell numbers in the early, middle, and late phases in osteosarcoma tissue were 93 ± 13, 92 ± 12, and 46 ± 15, respectively; they can be seen to have decreased significantly in the late stage (P < 0.05). Overall, our results indicated that the B7-H3 expression level is correlated with tumor volume and severity; therefore, it might serve as a tumor biomarker for osteosarcoma. PMID:26600483

  9. The complete genome sequence of the Arcobacter butzleri cattle isolate 7h1h

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arcobacter butzleri strain 7h1h was isolated in the UK from a clinically healthy dairy cow. The genome of this isolate was sequenced to completion. Here we present the annotation and analysis of the completed 7h1h genome, as well as comparison of this genome to the existing A. butzleri RM4018 and ED...

  10. Molecular Pathways: Targeting B7-H3 (CD276) for Human Cancer Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Picarda, Elodie; Ohaegbulam, Kim C; Zang, Xingxing

    2016-07-15

    B7-H3 (CD276) is an important immune checkpoint member of the B7 and CD28 families. Induced on antigen-presenting cells, B7-H3 plays an important role in the inhibition of T-cell function. Importantly, B7-H3 is highly overexpressed on a wide range of human solid cancers and often correlates with both negative prognosis and poor clinical outcome in patients. Challenges remain to identify the receptor(s) of B7-H3 and thus better elucidate the role of the B7-H3 pathway in immune responses and tumor evasion. With a preferential expression on tumor cells, B7-H3 is an attractive target for cancer immunotherapy. Based on the clinical success of inhibitory immune checkpoint blockade (CTLA-4, PD-1, and PD-L1), mAbs against B7-H3 appear to be a promising therapeutic strategy worthy of development. An unconventional mAb against B7-H3 with antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity is currently being evaluated in a phase I clinical trial and has shown encouraging preliminary results. Additional therapeutic approaches in targeting B7-H3, such as blocking mAbs, bispecific mAbs, chimeric antigen receptor T cells, small-molecule inhibitors, and combination therapies, should be evaluated, as these technologies have already shown positive results in various cancer settings. A better understanding of the B7-H3 pathway in humans will surely help to further optimize associated cancer immunotherapies. Clin Cancer Res; 22(14); 3425-31. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27208063

  11. Evaluation of B7-H3 Expression as a Biomarker of Biochemical Recurrence After Salvage Radiation Therapy for Recurrent Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Alexander S.; Heckman, Michael G.; Sheinin, Yuri; Wu, Kevin J.; Hilton, Tracy W.; Diehl, Nancy N.; Pisansky, Thomas M.; Schild, Steven E.; Kwon, Eugene D.; Buskirk, Steven J.

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: The ability to predict which men will experience biochemical recurrence (BCR) after salvage radiation therapy (SRT) for recurrent prostate cancer (PCa) remains less than optimal. Related to this, novel targets for adjuvant therapies are also lacking. Here, we evaluate the association of B7-H3 expression in primary PCa tumors and BCR after SRT. Methods and Materials: We identified 148 patients who received SRT between July 1987 and July 2003. Expression of B7-H3 in primary PCa tumors was detected using a monoclonal antibody. The staining levels were quantified via visual assessment and categorized as weak, moderate, or marked. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between B7-H3 staining and BCR. Results: With a median follow-up of 6.2 years (minimum, 0.6; maximum, 14.7), 78 patients (53%) experienced BCR. In single-variable analysis, there was evidence of an increased risk of BCR for patients with moderate (RR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.24-4.09, p = 0.008) and marked (RR, 4.40, 95% CI, 2.29-8.43, p < 0.001) B7-H3 staining compared with weak staining. This evidence remained, albeit weaker, after adjustment for additional clinicopathologic covariates (RR, 1.82, p = 0.068 [moderate vs. weak]; RR, 2.87, p = 0.003 [marked vs. weak]). Conclusion: This is the first report that higher tumor B7-H3 staining in primary PCa tumors is associated with increased risk of BCR after SRT. Future studies involving larger numbers of patients are required to validate these results and also to explore possible means of targeting B7-H3 in an adjuvant setting.

  12. B7-H3 upregulates BRCC3 expression, antagonizing DNA damage caused by 5-Fu.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhang Zhang; Zhang, Ting; Ning, Kuan; Zhu, Ruan; Liu, Fen; Tang, Shou-Ching; Jiang, Bo; Hua, Dong

    2016-07-01

    5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) is still recognized as the mainstay in colorectal cancer chemotherapy, but the response rate of 5-Fu in colorectal cancer is less than 50%. Our previous mRNA microarray data revealed that BRCC3, a component of the BRCA1-BRCA2-BRCC3 DNA repair complex, had a direct relationship with B7-H3, an immunoglobulin that is upregulated in tumor tissue and associated with metastasis and poor prognosis. Real-time PCR and western blot analysis confirmed that the expression of both BRCC3 mRNA and protein, respectively, were elevated following B7-H3 overexpression in SW480 cells; likewise, BRCC3 expression decreased after B7-H3 was knocked down in HCT-8 cells. DNA comet assay results indicate an inverse correlation between the extent of 5-Fu-induced DNA damage and the expression level of B7-H3 in both SW480- and HCT-8-based cell lines. In SW480 cells that overexpress B7-H3, knockdown of BRCC3 similarly permitted greater 5-Fu-induced DNA damage. Altogether, results suggest that BRCC3 may play a role in B7-H3-induced 5-Fu resistance, such that B7-H3 upregulates BRCC3 expression, enhancing DNA repair in colorectal cancer cells. PMID:27175567

  13. Tissue-expressed B7-H1 Critically Controls Intestinal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Scandiuzzi, Lisa; Ghosh, Kaya; Hofmeyer, Kimberly A.; Abadi, Yael M.; Lázár-Molnár, Eszter; Lin, Elaine Y.; Liu, Qiang; Jeon, Hyungjun; Almo, Steven C.; Chen, Lieping; Nathenson, Stanley G.; Zang, Xingxing

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY B7-H1 (PD-L1) on immune cells plays an important role in T cell coinhibition by binding its receptor PD-1. Here we show that both human and mouse intestinal epithelium expressed B7-H1 and that B7-H1-deficient mice were highly susceptible to dextran sodium sulfate- or trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced gut injury. B7-H1 deficiency during intestinal inflammation led to high mortality and morbidity, which were associated with severe pathological manifestations in the colon, including loss of epithelial integrity and overgrowth of commensal bacteria. Results from bone marrow chimeric and knock-out mice showed B7-H1 expressed on intestinal parenchyma, but not on hematopoietic cells, controlled intestinal inflammation in an adaptive immunity-independent fashion. Finally, we demonstrated that B7-H1 dampened intestinal inflammation by inhibiting TNF-α production and by stimulating IL-22 from CD11c+CD11b+ lamina propria cells. Thus, our data uncover a new mechanism by which intestinal tissue-expressed B7-H1 functions as an essential ligand for innate immune cells to prevent gut inflammation. PMID:24529703

  14. B7-H1 Expression in Wilms Tumor: Correlation With Tumor Biology and Disease Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Routh, Jonathan C.; Ashley, Richard A.; Sebo, Thomas J.; Lohse, Christine M.; Husmann, Douglas A.; Kramer, Stephen A.; Kwon, Eugene D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Despite tremendous gains in improving prognosis, 10% of patients with Wilms tumor will ultimately experience disease recurrence. The identification of novel prognostic markers and tumor associated targets for patients at risk could enable clinicians to treat recurrences more aggressively and, thus, optimize outcomes. We have previously shown that tumor expression of the T cell coregulatory ligand B7-H1 portends a poor prognosis for adults with renal cell carcinoma and represents a promising target to improve therapy. We hypothesize that this finding may be true for Wilms tumor. Materials and Methods We identified 81 patients with Wilms tumor treated at 1 institution between 1968 and 2004. Histopathological features, including Wilms tumor B7-H1 expression, were correlated with clinical observations and outcome. Results Tumor recurrences were noted in 22% of patients with Wilms tumor and 14% died. B7-H1 was expressed in 11 tumors (14%) and was more likely to occur in anaplastic Wilms tumor (p = 0.03). Tumor B7-H1 expression was associated with a 2.7-fold increased risk of recurrence, although this difference did not achieve statistical significance (p = 0.06). However, in favorable histology tumors B7-H1 expression was associated with a 3.7-fold increased risk of recurrence (p = 0.03). Conclusions B7-H1 is expressed by Wilms tumor, correlates with tumor biology and is associated with an increased risk of recurrence in patients with favorable histology tumors. B7-H1 may prove useful in identifying high risk patients who could benefit from more aggressive initial treatment regimens, and may represent a promising therapeutic target. Multi-institutional studies to elucidate the role of B7-H1 in the treatment of Wilms tumor are warranted. PMID:18355839

  15. Cryptosporidium parvum Induces B7-H1 Expression in Cholangiocytes by Downregulating MicroRNA-513

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Ai-Yu; Zhou, Rui; Hu, Guoku; Liu, Jun; Sosnowska, Danuta; Drescher, Kristen M.; Dong, Haidong; Chen, Xian-Ming

    2009-01-01

    Expression of B7 costimulatory molecules represents an important compartment of immune response of epithelial cells following microbial infection. We reported here that the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum induced B7-H1 expression in cultured human cholangiocytes. Induced expression of B7-H1 was identified in cells after exposure to infective C. parvum parasite or parasite lysate. Interestingly, microRNA-513 (miR-513) level was reduced in cells after exposure to C. parvum, resulting in a relief of 3′-untranslated region-mediated translational suppression of B7-H1. Overexpression of miR-513 through transfection of miR-513 precursor inhibited C. parvum-induced B7-H1 protein expression. Moreover, enhanced apoptotic cell death was identified in activated human T cells following co-culture with C. parvum-infected cholangiocytes. The apoptosis of activated T cells was partially blocked by a neutralizing antibody to B7-H1 or transfection of cholangiocytes with miR-513 precursor. These data suggest a role of miR-513 in regulating B7-H1 expression by cholangiocytes in response to C. parvum infection. PMID:19916867

  16. Breast Cancer Detection by B7-H3 Targeted Ultrasound Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bachawal, Sunitha V.; Jensen, Kristin C.; Wilson, Katheryne E.; Tian, Lu; Lutz, Amelie M.; Willmann, Jürgen K.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound complements mammography as an imaging modality for breast cancer detection, especially in patients with dense breast tissue, but its utility is limited by low diagnostic accuracy. One emerging molecular tool to address this limitation involves contrast-enhanced ultrasound using microbubbles targeted to molecular signatures on tumor neovasculature. In this study, we illustrate how tumor vascular expression of B7-H3 (CD276), a member of the B7 family of ligands for T cell co-regulatory receptors, can be incorporated into an ultrasound method that can distinguish normal, benign, precursor and malignant breast pathologies for diagnostic purposes. Through an immunohistochemical analysis of 248 human breast specimens, we found that vascular expression of B7-H3 was selectively and significantly higher in breast cancer tissues. B7-H3 immunostaining on blood vessels distinguished benign/precursors from malignant lesions with high diagnostic accuracy in human specimens. In a transgenic mouse model of cancer, the B7-H3-targeted ultrasound imaging signal was increased significantly in breast cancer tissues and highly correlated with ex vivo expression levels of B7-H3 on quantitative immunofluorescence. Our findings offer a preclinical proof of concept for the use of B7-H3-targeted ultrasound molecular imaging as a tool to improve the diagnostic accuracy of breast cancer detection in patients. PMID:25899053

  17. Helicobacter pylori cag pathogenicity island's role in B7-H1 induction and immune evasion.

    PubMed

    Lina, Taslima T; Alzahrani, Shatha; House, Jennifer; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Sharpe, Arlene H; Rampy, Bill A; Pinchuk, Irina V; Reyes, Victor E

    2015-01-01

    During Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection CD4+ T cells in the gastric lamina propria are hyporesponsive and polarized by Th1/Th17 cell responses controlled by Treg cells. We have previously shown that H. pylori upregulates B7-H1 expression on GEC, which, in turn, suppress T cell proliferation, effector function, and induce Treg cells in vitro. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanisms and the functional relevance of B7-H1 induction by H. pylori infection to chronic infection. Using H. pylori wild type (WT), cag pathogenicity island (cag PAI-) and cagA- isogenic mutant strains we demonstrated that H. pylori requires its type 4 secretion system (T4SS) as well as its effector protein CagA and peptidoglycan (PG) fragments for B7-H1 upregulation on GEC. Our study also showed that H. pylori uses the p38 MAPK pathway to upregulate B7-H1 expression in GEC. In vivo confirmation was obtained when infection of C57BL/6 mice with H. pylori PMSS1 strain, which has a functional T4SS delivery system, but not with H. pylori SS1 strain lacking a functional T4SS, led to a strong upregulation of B7-H1 expression in the gastric mucosa, increased bacterial load, induction of Treg cells in the stomach, increased IL-10 in the serum. Interestingly, B7-H1-/- mice showed less Treg cells and reduced bacterial loads after infection. These studies demonstrate how H. pylori T4SS components activate the p38 MAPK pathway, upregulate B7-H1 expression by GEC, and cause Treg cell induction; thus, contribute to establishing a persistent infection characteristic of H. pylori. PMID:25807464

  18. Glycoprotein B7-H3 overexpression and aberrant glycosylation in oral cancer and immune response

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jung-Tsu; Chen, Chein-Hung; Ku, Ko-Li; Hsiao, Michael; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Hsu, Tsui-Ling; Chen, Min-Huey; Wong, Chi-Huey

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and mortality rate of oral cancer continue to rise, partly due to the lack of effective early diagnosis and increasing environmental exposure to cancer-causing agents. To identify new markers for oral cancer, we used a sialylation probe to investigate the glycoproteins differentially expressed on oral cancer cells. Of the glycoproteins identified, B7 Homolog 3 (B7-H3) was significantly overexpressed in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and its overexpression correlated with larger tumor size, advanced clinical stage, and low survival rate in OSCC patients. In addition, knockdown of B7-H3 suppressed tumor cell proliferation, and restoration of B7-H3 expression enhanced tumor growth. It was also found that the N-glycans of B7-H3 from Ca9-22 oral cancer cells contain the terminal α-galactose and are more diverse with higher fucosylation and better interaction with DC-SIGN [DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 (ICAM-3)–grabbing nonintegrin] and Langerin on immune cells than that from normal cells, suggesting that the glycans on B7-H3 may also play an important role in the disease. PMID:26438868

  19. B7-H3 protein expression in a murine model of osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, JIA-LI; CHEN, FENG-LI; ZHOU, QUAN; PAN, WEI; WANG, XIN-HONG; XU, JIN; ZHANG, SHAO-XIAN; NI, LI; YANG, HUI-LIN

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is an aggressive type of bone tumor that commonly occurs in pediatric age groups. The complete molecular mechanisms behind osteosarcoma formation and progression require elucidation. B7-H3 is a protein of the B7 family that acts as a co-stimulatory molecule with a significant role in adaptive immune responses. The link between B7-H3 expression and its role in different types of cancer remains unclear. B7-H3 protein exhibits different functional roles in in vivo and in vitro conditions that remain controversial. In the present study, a murine model of osteosarcoma was successfully established using a modified protocol so as to easily obtain a low grade and metastatic form of osteosarcoma tissue without complication. Histological data showed that a less organized and highly proliferative mass of cells was observed in the osteosarcoma tissue. A higher expression level of B7-H3 protein was also observed at each advanced stage of osteosarcoma, which indicated the contributory role of the protein in the development of the primary and metastatic forms of osteosarcoma. Immunohistochemistry was performed, which showed that the overexpression of B7-H3 protein in the metastatic form of osteosarcoma may be associated with its migration and invasion. PMID:27347155

  20. Programming with Intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsakis, Nicholas D.; Gross, Thomas R.

    Intervals are a new, higher-level primitive for parallel programming with which programmers directly construct the program schedule. Programs using intervals can be statically analyzed to ensure that they do not deadlock or contain data races. In this paper, we demonstrate the flexibility of intervals by showing how to use them to emulate common parallel control-flow constructs like barriers and signals, as well as higher-level patterns such as bounded-buffer producer-consumer. We have implemented intervals as a publicly available library for Java and Scala.

  1. Preferential Induction of the T Cell Auxiliary Signaling Molecule B7-H3 on Synovial Monocytes in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Bo Ruem; Chung, Yeon-Ho; Yoo, Su-Jin; Kawara, Kenji; Kim, Jinhyun; Yoo, In Seol; Park, Chung-Gyu; Kang, Seong Wook; Lee, Won-Woo

    2016-02-19

    B7-H3, a newly identified B7 family member, has functional duality as a co-stimulator and co-inhibitor that fine-tunes T cell-mediated immune responses. Given that B7-H3 expression on human monocytes and dendritic cells is enhanced by inflammatory cytokines, its potential inmmunoregulatory role at sites of inflammation has been suggested. Further, monocytes play crucial roles in the pathophysiology of various inflammatory disorders including autoimmune diseases; however, the immunological role of B7-H3 in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has not been defined. Thus, we aimed to investigate the possible roles of monocyte B7-H3 in the pathogenesis of RA. Synovial monocytes, but not peripheral monocytes, in RA patients predominantly express surface B7-H3. The 4Ig isoform of B7-H3 is exclusively induced on the cell surface, whereas the 2Ig B7-H3 isoform is constitutively expressed in the intracytoplasmic region of both peripheral and synovial monocytes. B7-H3 knockdown experiments reveal that surface B7-H3 has an inhibitory effect on IFN-γ production in CD4 memory cells. Moreover, surface B7-H3 expression on synovial monocytes inversely correlates with RA clinical parameters. Our findings demonstrate that activation-induced B7-H3 expression on synovial monocytes has the potential to inhibit Th1-mediated immune responses and immunomodulatory roles affecting RA pathogenesis. PMID:26702052

  2. Turbulence in Supercritical O2/H2 and C7H16/N2 Mixing Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Josette; Harstad, Kenneth; Okong'o, Nora

    2003-01-01

    This report presents a study of numerical simulations of mixing layers developing between opposing flows of paired fluids under supercritical conditions, the purpose of the study being to elucidate chemical-species-specific aspects of turbulence. The simulations were performed for two different fluid pairs O2/H2 and C7H16/N2 at similar reduced initial pressures (reduced pressure is defined as pressure divided by critical pressure). Thermodynamically, O2/H2 behaves more nearly like an ideal mixture and has greater solubility, relative to C7H16/N2, which departs strongly from ideality. Because of a specified smaller initial density stratification, the C7H16/N2 layers exhibited greater levels of growth, global molecular mixing, and turbulence. However, smaller density gradients at the transitional state for the O2/H2 system were interpreted as indicating that locally, this system exhibits enhanced mixing as a consequence of its greater solubility and closer approach to ideality. These thermodynamic features were shown to affect entropy dissipation, which was found to be larger for O2/H2 and concentrated in high-density-gradient-magnitude regions that are distortions of the initial density-stratification boundary. In C7H16/N2, the regions of largest dissipation were found to lie in high-density-gradient-magnitude regions that result from mixing of the two fluids.

  3. MUTAGENICITY OF 7H-DIBENZO(C,G)CARBAZOLE AND METABOLITES IN SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    7H-Dibenzo(c,g)carbazole (DBC) is a potent carcinogen of environmental import. Reverse-mutation plate-incorporation assays for mutagenicity were undertaken in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. esults were negative when no exogenous activation system was used, as well...

  4. B7h triggering inhibits the migration of tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Dianzani, Chiara; Minelli, Rosalba; Gigliotti, Casimiro Luca; Occhipinti, Sergio; Giovarelli, Mirella; Conti, Laura; Boggio, Elena; Shivakumar, Yogesh; Baldanzi, Gianluca; Malacarne, Valeria; Orilieri, Elisabetta; Cappellano, Giuseppe; Fantozzi, Roberto; Sblattero, Daniele; Yagi, Junji; Rojo, Josè Maria; Chiocchetti, Annalisa; Dianzani, Umberto

    2014-05-15

    Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) and several cancer cells express B7h, which is the ligand of the ICOS T cell costimulatory molecule. We have previously shown that B7h triggering via a soluble form of ICOS (ICOS-Fc) inhibits the adhesion of polymorphonuclear and tumor cell lines to HUVECs; thus, we suggested that ICOS-Fc may act as an anti-inflammatory and antitumor agent. Because cancer cell migration and angiogenesis are crucial for metastasis dissemination, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of ICOS-Fc on the migration of cancer cells and ECs. ICOS-Fc specifically inhibited the migration of HUVECs, human dermal lymphatic ECs, and the HT29, HCT116, PC-3, HepG2, JR8, and M14 tumor cell lines expressing high levels of B7h, whereas it was ineffective in the RPMI7932, PCF-2, LM, and BHT-101 cell lines expressing low levels of B7h. Furthermore, ICOS-Fc downmodulated hepatocyte growth factor facilitated the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in HepG2 cells. Moreover, ICOS-Fc downmodulated the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and the expression of β-Pix in both HUVECs and tumor cell lines. Finally, treatment with ICOS-Fc inhibited the development of lung metastases upon injection of NOD-SCID-IL2Rγnull mice with CF-PAC1 cells, as well as C57BL/6 mice with B16-F10 cells. Therefore, the B7h-ICOS interaction may modulate the spread of cancer metastases, which suggests the novel use of ICOS-Fc as an immunomodulatory drug. However, in the B16-F10-metastasized lungs, ICOS-Fc also increased IL-17A/RORc and decreased IL-10/Foxp3 expression, which indicates that it also exerts positive effects on the antitumor immune response. PMID:24729612

  5. Interval polynomial positivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, N. K.; Kim, K. D.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that a univariate interval polynomial is globally positive if and only if two extreme polynomials are globally positive. It is shown that the global positivity property of a bivariate interval polynomial is completely determined by four extreme bivariate polynomials. The cardinality of the determining set for k-variate interval polynomials is 2k. One of many possible generalizations, where vertex implication for global positivity holds, is made by considering the parameter space to be the set dual of a boxed domain.

  6. Comparison of the recovery of Mycobacterium bovis isolates using the BACTEC MGIT 960 system, BACTEC 460 system, and Middlebrook 7H10 and 7H11 solid media.

    PubMed

    Hines, Nichole; Payeur, Janet B; Hoffman, Lorraine J

    2006-05-01

    The BACTEC Microbacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) 960 system was evaluated to determine how it compares with the BACTEC 460 radiometric system and solid media for recovery of Mycobacterium bovis from tissue samples. A total of 506 bovine lymph node samples were collected from abattoirs in the United States and Mexico between November 2003 and September 2004. Processed samples were inoculated into an MGIT 960 tube, BACTEC 460 vial, and Middlebrook 7H10 and Middlebrook 7H11 solid media. Ziehl-Neelsen slides were prepared to check for contaminants and confirm the presence of acid-fast positive bacilli. Samples containing acid-fast bacilli were confirmed as members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by a nucleic acid assay. Niacin and nitrate biochemical tests were used to distinguish M. bovis from M. tuberculosis isolates. Statistical analyses were performed to compare recovery rate, mean time to detection, contamination rates, as well as pair-wise comparisons in each category. The results showed that the MGIT 960 system had a higher recovery rate of M. bovis (122/129) than did the BACTEC 460 (102/129) and solid media system (96/129). The average time to detection was 15.8 days for the MGIT 960 system, 28.2 days for the BACTEC 460 system, and 43.4 days for solid media. Contamination rates were 6.9% for the MGIT 960 system, 3.4% for the BACTEC 460 system, and 21.7% for solid media. These results indicate the MGIT 960 system can be used as an alternative to the BACTEC 460 system for recovering M. bovis from tissue samples. PMID:16789711

  7. Anti-B7-H3 monoclonal antibody ameliorates the damage of acute experimental pancreatitis by attenuating the inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xiaohui; Shen, Jiaqing; Jia, Zhengyu; Wu, Airong; Xu, Ting; Shi, Yuqi; Xu, Chunfang

    2016-06-01

    B7-H3, a recently discovered B7 family member, is documented as a regulator in the inflammatory response as well as T cell-mediated immune responses. In this paper, we find that patients with acute pancreatitis revealed overwhelming levels of serum soluble B7-H3 (sB7-H3) associated with the clinical outcomes. Furthermore, B7-H3 protein was marked increased in l-arginine-induced acute experimental pancreatitis. Anti-B7-H3 monoclonal antibody treatment attenuated the proinflammatory cytokine production, downregulated the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway, and ameliorated the pancreas disruption in l-arginine-induced pancreatitis. In addition, although l-arginine alone failed to induce the production of proinflammatory cytokine and anti-B7-H3 mAb had no effect on the proinflammatory cytokine production of acinar cells, administration of anti-B7-H3 mAb in the coculture model of acinar cells and macrophages stimulated by l-arginine displayed the similar effects. On the whole, B7-H3 participates in the development of acute pancreatitis, and anti-B7-H3 monoclonal antibody ameliorates severity of acute experimental pancreatitis via attenuation of the inflammatory response. PMID:27003113

  8. B7H6-specific chimeric antigen receptors lead to tumor elimination and host anti-tumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ming-Ru; Zhang, Tong; DeMars, Leslie R.; Sentman, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapies have demonstrated durable and potentially curative therapeutic efficacy against B cell leukemia in clinical trials. A CAR strategy can target any tumor surface antigens as long as an antigen-binding receptor can be generated. New CARs which target solid tumors and have the potential to target multiple tumor types are needed. In this study, B7H6, a ligand for the NK cell activating receptor NKp30, was targeted to create a CAR which targets multiple tumor types. B7H6 is expressed on various primary human tumors, including leukemia, lymphoma, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), but it is not constitutively expressed on normal tissues. B7H6-specific CAR T cells have robust cellular cytotoxicity and IFN-γ secretion when co-cultured with B7H6+ tumor cells, and they exhibit little self-reactivity to immature dendritic cells (iDCs) or pro-inflammatory monocytes. In vivo, B7H6-specific CAR T cells greatly enhanced the survival of RMA/B7H6 lymphoma bearing mice. The long-term survivor mice were protected against a B7H6-deficient tumor re-challenge. This CAR therapy also decreased tumor burden in a murine ovarian cancer model. In conclusion, B7H6-specific CARs have the potential to treat B7H6+ hematologic and solid tumors. PMID:25830550

  9. Helicity in Supercritical O2/H2 and C7H16/N2 Mixing Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okongo, Nora; Bellan, Josette

    2004-01-01

    This report describes a study of databases produced by direct numerical simulation of mixing layers developing between opposing flows of two fluids under supercritical conditions, the purpose of the study being to elucidate chemical-species-specific aspects of turbulence, with emphasis on helicity. The simulations were performed for two different fluid pairs -- O2/H2 and C7H16/N2 -- at similar values of reduced pressure.

  10. Search for resonances in 4n, 7H and 9He via transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Fortier, S.; Tryggestad, E.; Rich, E.; Beaumel, D.; Becheva, E.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Delaunay, F.; Frascaria, N.; Guillot, J.; Hammache, F.; Khan, E.; Lima, V.; Scarpaci, J. A.

    2007-05-22

    Investigation of unbound nuclear systems 9He, 7H and 4n was performed at GANIL-SPIRAL using the 8He beam at 15.3 A MeV and a CD2 target. The missing mass spectra were deduced from kinetic energies and emission angles of light ejectiles detected by the Silicon array MUST. In addition to previously known low-lying narrow resonant states in 9He, the d(8He,p) reaction displays a structure just above neutron emission threshold, identified with the 'true' ground state of 9He. The analysis of angular distributions shows that the inversion of s1/2 and p1/2 neutron shells previously observed in 11Be and 10Li also exists in the lightest N=7 isotone 9He. The d(8He,3He) and d(8He,6Li) reactions were used to search for resonant states in the t+4n (7H) and 4n systems, respectively. The missing mass spectrum of the 4n system does not give evidence for the existence of a bound 'tetraneutron'. However the comparison with the results of 5-body phase-space calculations emphasizes the existence of correlations in the 4n system. The broad structure observed at {approx_equal}2 MeV above the t+4n emission threshold is proposed to be the ground state of 7H.

  11. Thermal Decomposition of C7H7 Radicals; Benzyl, Tropyl, and Norbornadienyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckingham, Grant; Ellison, Barney; Daily, John W.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2015-06-01

    Benzyl radical (C6H5CH2) and two other C7H7 radicals are commonly encountered in the combustion of substituted aromatic compounds found in biofuels and gasoline. High temperature pyrolysis of benzyl radical requires isomerization to other C7H7 radicals that may include cycloheptatrienyl (tropyl) radical (cyc-C7H7) and norbornadienyl radical. The thermal decomposition of all three radicals has now been investigated using a micro-reactor that heats dilute gas-phase samples up to 1600 K and has a residence time of about 100 μ-sec. The pyrolysis products exit the reactor into a supersonic expansion and are detected using synchrotron-based photoionization mass spectrometry and matrix-isolation IR spectroscopy. The products of the pyrolysis of benzyl radical (C6H5CH2) along with three isotopomers (C6H513CH2, C6D5CH2, and C6H5CD2) were detected and identified. The distribution of 13C atoms and D atoms indicate that multiple different decomposition pathways are active. Buckingham, G. T., Ormond, T. K., Porterfield, J. P., Hemberger, P., Kostko, O., Ahmed, M., Robichaud, D. J., Nimlos, M. R., Daily, J. W., Ellison, G. B. 2015, Journal of Chemical Physics 142 044307

  12. Interval neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, R.B.

    1995-05-01

    Traditional neural networks like multi-layered perceptrons (MLP) use example patterns, i.e., pairs of real-valued observation vectors, ({rvec x},{rvec y}), to approximate function {cflx f}({rvec x}) = {rvec y}. To determine the parameters of the approximation, a special version of the gradient descent method called back-propagation is widely used. In many situations, observations of the input and output variables are not precise; instead, we usually have intervals of possible values. The imprecision could be due to the limited accuracy of the measuring instrument or could reflect genuine uncertainty in the observed variables. In such situation input and output data consist of mixed data types; intervals and precise numbers. Function approximation in interval domains is considered in this paper. We discuss a modification of the classical backpropagation learning algorithm to interval domains. Results are presented with simple examples demonstrating few properties of nonlinear interval mapping as noise resistance and finding set of solutions to the function approximation problem.

  13. Spectroscopic characterization of C7H3(+) and C7H3˙: electronic absorption and fluorescence in 6 K neon matrices.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Arghya; Fulara, Jan; Dietsche, Rainer; Maier, John P

    2014-04-21

    Mass selective deposition of C7H3(+) (m/z = 87) into solid neon reveals the 1(1)A1←X(1)A1 electronic absorption system of hepta-1,2,3,4,5,6-heptahexaenylium cation B(+) [H2CCCCCCCH](+) with an origin band at 441.3 nm, 1(1)A'←X(1)A' transition of 2,4-pentadiynylium,1-ethynyl cation C(+) [HCCCHCCCCH](+) starting at 414.6 nm and the 1(1)A1←X(1)A1 one of cyclopropenylium,1,3-butadiynyl cation A(+) [HCCCCC<(CH=CH)](+) with an onset at 322.2 nm. Vibrationally resolved fluorescence was observed for isomer B(+) upon laser excitation of the absorption bands in the 1(1)A1←X(1)A1 transition. After neutralization of the cations in the matrix five absorption systems of the C7H3 neutral radicals starting at 530.3, 479.4, 482.3, 325.0 and 302.5 nm were detected. These were identified as the 1(2)A'←X(2)A' and 2(2)A'←X(2)A' electronic transitions of 2-(buta-1,3-diynyl)cycloprop-2yl-1-1ylidene E˙ [HCCCCC<(C=CH2)]˙, 1(2)B1←X(2)B1 of 1,2,3,4,5,6-heptahexaenyl B˙ [H2CCCCCCCH]˙, 3(2)B1←X(2)B1 of 3-buta-1,3-diynyl-cyclopropenyl A˙ [HCCCCC<(CH=CH)]˙ and 2(2)B1←X(2)A2 transition of 1,2-divinylidene-cyclopropanyl radical F˙ [HCC-cyc-(CCHC)-CCH]˙, respectively. The assignment is based on calculated vertical excitation energies using the CASPT2 method. Comparison of the calculated harmonic vibrational frequencies with those inferred from the spectra supports the assignment. PMID:24603977

  14. ILT4 drives B7-H3 expression via PI3K/AKT/mTOR signalling and ILT4/B7-H3 co-expression correlates with poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pei; Yu, Shuwen; Li, Hongyu; Liu, Chuanyong; Li, Juan; Lin, Wenli; Gao, Aiqin; Wang, Linlin; Gao, Wei; Sun, Yuping

    2015-08-01

    Immunoglobulin-like transcript (ILT) 4 is critical for the inhibitory function of certain immune cells. We previously demonstrated that ILT4 is over-expressed in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and is involved in tumour evasion via an unknown mechanism. In this report, we demonstrate that ILT4 increases the expression of the co-inhibitory molecule B7-H3 through PI3K/AKT/mTOR signalling. In primary human NSCLC tissues, a significant positive relationship is observed between ILT4 and B7-H3 expression. ILT4/B7-H3 co-expression is significantly associated with a reduction in T infiltrating lymphoid cells and lower overall survival. In summary, ILT4 increases B7-H3 expression and ILT4/B7-H3 co-expression may be involved in NSCLC progression. PMID:26149216

  15. Proper Interval Vertex Deletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanger, Yngve

    Deleting a minimum number of vertices from a graph to obtain a proper interval graph is an NP-complete problem. At WG 2010 van Bevern et al. gave an O((14k + 14) k + 1 kn 6) time algorithm by combining iterative compression, branching, and a greedy algorithm. We show that there exists a simple greedy O(n + m) time algorithm that solves the Proper Interval Vertex Deletion problem on \\{claw,net,allowbreak tent,allowbreak C_4,C_5,C_6\\}-free graphs. Combining this with branching on the forbidden structures claw,net,tent,allowbreak C_4,C_5, and C 6 enables us to get an O(kn 6 6 k ) time algorithm for Proper Interval Vertex Deletion, where k is the number of deleted vertices.

  16. B7H1/CD80 interaction augments PD-1-dependent T cell apoptosis and ameliorates graft versus host disease

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Ruishu; Cassady, Kaniel; Li, Xiaofan; Yao, Sheng; Zhang, Mingfeng; Racine, Jeremy; Lin, Jeffrey; Chen, Lieping; Zeng, Defu

    2014-01-01

    Interactions of B7H1 (PD-L1) with its two ligands, PD-1 and CD80, on T cells play a pivotal role in controlling T cell activation, proliferation, anergy, and apoptosis. However, the interactions between the two pathways remain unknown. Using an alloimmune response model of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), we report here that: 1) Comparison of proliferation and apoptosis of wild-type (WT) and PD-1−/− CD4+ conventional T (Tcon) cells in WT and B7H1−/− recipients has revealed that B7H1/CD80 interaction per se augments T cell proliferation, and this interaction augments T cell apoptosis mediated by B7H1/PD-1 interaction. This observation was recapitulated in an in vitro mixed lymphocyte reaction assay. 2) Specific blockade of the B7H1/CD80 axis by anti-B7H1 mAb reduces WT-alloreactive Tcon cell proliferation, IL-2 production, expression of PD-1, and apoptosis, resulting in worsening GVHD. In contrast, specific blockade of B7H1/CD80 interaction reduces donor PD-1−/− Tcon cell proliferation without impact on apoptosis, resulting in ameliorating GVHD. 3) B7H1 fused to an immunoglobulin Fc domain (B7H1-Ig), when produced in vivo by hydrodynamic injection of B7H1-Ig plasmid, ameliorates GVHD by augmenting proliferation and apoptosis of WT- alloreactive Tcon cells. Conversely, B7H1-Ig treatment has no impact on apoptosis but augments PD-1−/− T cell proliferation and worsens GVHD. These results indicate that B7H1/CD80 interaction augments Tcon cell proliferation, IL-2 production, and expression of PD-1, which leads to increased apoptosis mediated by the B7H1/PD1 pathway. Additionally, by engaging both PD-1 and CD80, B7H1-Ig can be a powerful therapeutic reagent for down-regulating the T cell immune response. PMID:25488990

  17. Preparation and application of a novel monoclonal antibody specific for human B7-H3.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jian; Zhang, Dong-Lei; Cui, Zhi-Chu; Wang, Hui-Min

    2016-07-01

    Human B7-H3 (CD276), as a new member of the B7 family has been demonstrated to mediate T cell proliferation and the production of interferon‑γ. Two isoforms of B7-H3 have been identified in humans, 2IgB7‑H3 and 4IgB7‑H3. Since the costimulatory functions of the two isoforms remains to be fully elucidated, there are disagreements regarding their expression patterns as well as the T cell responses. In the present study, a single mouse anti‑human monoclonal antibody (mAb), specific for 2IgB7‑H3 and 4IgB7‑H3 was established, termed 11F4. Using this antibody, the expression of B7‑H3 was observed extensively in tumor cell lines, with the exception of certain human hematopoietic cell lines. Subsequently, the fusion proteins of the two B7‑H3 isoforms were produced to analyze the biological function of 4IgB7‑H3 and 2IgB7‑H3 using a Cell Counting Kit‑8 assay, and the data revealed that the two isoforms exhibited a similar function in promoting T cell proliferation. In addition, the effect of B7‑H3 on the T cells was inhibited by the 11F4 mAb. Overall, the novel antibody produced was observed to exhibit an inhibitory effect offering a useful tool in further investigations of the function of B7-H3 isoforms. PMID:27222007

  18. B7-H1/PD-1 blockade therapy in urological malignancies: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lun; Wang, Yonghua; Shao, Shixiu; Yang, Meng; Niu, Haitao; Yu, Qinchao; Wang, Xinshen

    2015-01-01

    The stimulatory and inhibitory coreceptors expressed by T lymphocytes are known to play critical roles in regulating cancer immunity. An array of inhibitory coreceptors involved in the inhibition of T-cell functions and the blockade of immune activation have been discovered in recent years, the most important of which are cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), programmmed death-1 (PD-1), and B7 homolog 1 (B7-H1). Immunotherapies targeting T-cell coinhibitory molecules have proved to be effective in cancer treatment. Several kinds of monoclonal antibodies have been tested in preclinical studies, with better outcomes than conventional therapies in many malignancies. Common urological malignancies including renal cell carcinoma, bladder cancer and prostate cancer are supposed to be immunogenic cancer types and not so sensitive to conventional therapies as other malignancies. This review will focus on B7-H1/PD-1 blockade therapy in urological malignancies, summarizing the results of clinical trials as well as the challenges and prospects of this emerging immunotherapy. PMID:26045125

  19. B7H3 ameliorates LPS-induced acute lung injury via attenuation of neutrophil migration and infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Huang, Jie; Foley, Niamh M.; Xu, Yunyun; Li, Yi Ping; Pan, Jian; Redmond, H. Paul; Wang, Jiang Huai; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are characterized by an excessive inflammatory response within the lungs and severely impaired gas exchange resulting from alveolar-capillary barrier disruption and pulmonary edema. The costimulatory protein B7H3 functions as both a costimulator and coinhibitor to regulate the adaptive and innate immune response, thus participating in the development of microbial sepsis and pneumococcal meningitis. However, it is unclear whether B7H3 exerts a beneficial or detrimental role during ALI. In the present study we examined the impact of B7H3 on pulmonary inflammatory response, polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) influx, and lung tissue damage in a murine model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced direct ALI. Treatment with B7H3 protected mice against LPS-induced ALI, with significantly attenuated pulmonary PMN infiltration, decreased lung myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, reduced bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) protein content, and ameliorated lung pathological changes. In addition, B7H3 significantly diminished LPS-stimulated PMN chemoattractant CXCL2 production by inhibiting NF-κB p65 phosphorylation, and substantially attenuated LPS-induced PMN chemotaxis and transendothelial migration by down-regulating CXCR2 and Mac-1 expression. These results demonstrate that B7H3 substantially ameliorates LPS-induced ALI and this protection afforded by B7H3 is predominantly associated with its inhibitory effect on pulmonary PMN migration and infiltration. PMID:27515382

  20. B7H3 ameliorates LPS-induced acute lung injury via attenuation of neutrophil migration and infiltration.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Huang, Jie; Foley, Niamh M; Xu, Yunyun; Li, Yi Ping; Pan, Jian; Redmond, H Paul; Wang, Jiang Huai; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are characterized by an excessive inflammatory response within the lungs and severely impaired gas exchange resulting from alveolar-capillary barrier disruption and pulmonary edema. The costimulatory protein B7H3 functions as both a costimulator and coinhibitor to regulate the adaptive and innate immune response, thus participating in the development of microbial sepsis and pneumococcal meningitis. However, it is unclear whether B7H3 exerts a beneficial or detrimental role during ALI. In the present study we examined the impact of B7H3 on pulmonary inflammatory response, polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) influx, and lung tissue damage in a murine model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced direct ALI. Treatment with B7H3 protected mice against LPS-induced ALI, with significantly attenuated pulmonary PMN infiltration, decreased lung myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, reduced bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) protein content, and ameliorated lung pathological changes. In addition, B7H3 significantly diminished LPS-stimulated PMN chemoattractant CXCL2 production by inhibiting NF-κB p65 phosphorylation, and substantially attenuated LPS-induced PMN chemotaxis and transendothelial migration by down-regulating CXCR2 and Mac-1 expression. These results demonstrate that B7H3 substantially ameliorates LPS-induced ALI and this protection afforded by B7H3 is predominantly associated with its inhibitory effect on pulmonary PMN migration and infiltration. PMID:27515382

  1. B7-H3 Promotes Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Disease and Inflammation by Regulating the Activity of Different T Cell Subsets.

    PubMed

    Luo, Liqun; Zhu, Gefeng; Xu, Haiying; Yao, Sheng; Zhou, Gang; Zhu, Yuwen; Tamada, Koji; Huang, Lanqing; Flies, Andrew D; Broadwater, Megan; Ruff, William; van Deursen, Jan M A; Melero, Ignacio; Zhu, Zhou; Chen, Lieping

    2015-01-01

    B7-H3 is a cell surface molecule in the immunoglobulin superfamily that is frequently upregulated in response to autoantigens and pathogens during host T cell immune responses. However, B7-H3's role in the differential regulation of T cell subsets remains largely unknown. Therefore, we constructed a new B7-H3 deficient mouse strain (B7-H3 KO) and evaluated the functions of B7-H3 in the regulation of Th1, Th2, and Th17 subsets in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), experimental asthma, and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA); these mouse models were used to predict human immune responses in multiple sclerosis, asthma, and rheumatoid arthritis, respectively. Here, we demonstrate that B7-H3 KO mice have significantly less inflammation, decreased pathogenesis, and limited disease progression in both EAE and CIA mouse models when compared with littermates; these results were accompanied by a decrease in IFN-γ and IL-17 production. In sharp contrast, B7-H3 KO mice developed severe ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma with characteristic infiltrations of eosinophils in the lung, increased IL-5 and IL-13 in lavage fluid, and elevated IgE anti-OVA antibodies in the blood. Our results suggest B7-H3 has a costimulatory function on Th1/Th17 but a coinhibitory function on Th2 responses. Our studies reveal that B7-H3 could affect different T cell subsets which have important implications for regulating pathogenesis and disease progression in human autoimmune disease. PMID:26065426

  2. Interval arithmetic operations for uncertainty analysis with correlated interval variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chao; Fu, Chun-Ming; Ni, Bing-Yu; Han, Xu

    2016-08-01

    A new interval arithmetic method is proposed to solve interval functions with correlated intervals through which the overestimation problem existing in interval analysis could be significantly alleviated. The correlation between interval parameters is defined by the multidimensional parallelepiped model which is convenient to describe the correlative and independent interval variables in a unified framework. The original interval variables with correlation are transformed into the standard space without correlation, and then the relationship between the original variables and the standard interval variables is obtained. The expressions of four basic interval arithmetic operations, namely addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, are given in the standard space. Finally, several numerical examples and a two-step bar are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Interval-valued random functions and the kriging of intervals

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, P.

    1988-04-01

    Estimation procedures using data that include some values known to lie within certain intervals are usually regarded as problems of constrained optimization. A different approach is used here. Intervals are treated as elements of a positive cone, obeying the arithmetic of interval analysis, and positive interval-valued random functions are discussed. A kriging formalism for interval-valued data is developed. It provides estimates that are themselves intervals. In this context, the condition that kriging weights be positive is seen to arise in a natural way. A numerical example is given, and the extension to universal kriging is sketched.

  4. Expression of B7-H4 and hepatitis B virus X in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Bo; Qian, Yun; Zhang, Hong; Sang, Yi-Wen; Cheng, Lin-Fang; Wang, Qi; Gao, Song; Zheng, Min; Yao, Hang-Ping

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression and clinical significance of B7-H4 and hepatitis B virus X (HBx) protein in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HBV-HCC). METHODS: The expression of B7-H4 in the human HCC cell lines HepG2 and HepG2.2.15 were detected by western blot, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence. The expression of B7-H4 and HBx in 83 HBV-HCC was detected by immunohistochemistry, and the relationship with clinicopathological features was analyzed. Paraffin sections were generated from 83 HBV-HCC patients (22 females and 61 males) enrolled in this study. The age of these patients ranged from 35 to 77 years, with an average of 52.5 ± 11.3 years. All experiments were approved by the Ethics Committees of the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine. RESULTS: B7-H4 was significantly upregulated in HepG2.2.15 cells compared to HepG2 cells. Specifically, the protein expression of B7-H4 in the lysates of HepG2 cells was more than that in HepG2.2.15 cells. In addition, HBx was expressed only in HepG2.2.15 cells. Similar data were obtained by flow cytometry. The positive rates of B7-H4 and HBx in the tissues of 83 HBV-HCC patients were 68.67% (57/83) and 59.04% (49/83), respectively. The expression of HBx was correlated with tumor node metastases (TNM) stage, and the expression of B7-H4 was positively correlated with HBx (rs = 0.388; P < 0.01). The expression level of B7-H4 in HBx-positive HBV-HCC tissues was substantially higher than that in HBx-negative HBV-HCC tissues. The expression level of B7H4 was negatively related to tumor TNM stage. CONCLUSION: Higher expression of HBx and B7-H4 was correlated with tumor progression of HBV-HCC, suggesting that B7-H4 may be involved in facilitating HBV-related hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:27182163

  5. A planetary wave model for Saturn's 10.7-h periodicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C. G. A.; Ray, L. C.; Achilleos, N. A.

    2016-04-01

    A proposed resolution of the unexplained 10.7-h periodicities in Saturn's magnetosphere is a system of atmospheric vortices in the polar regions of the planet. We investigate a description of such vortices in terms of planetary-scale waves. Approximating the polar regions as flat, we use theory developed originally by Haurwitz (Haurwitz, B. [1975]. Geophys. Bioklimatol. 24, 1-18) to find circumpolar Rossby wave solutions for Saturn's upper stratosphere and lower thermosphere. We find vertically propagating twin vortex solutions that drift slowly westwards at <1% of the deep planetary angular velocity and are thus ideal candidates for explaining the observed periodicities. To produce integrated field-aligned currents of the order of 1 MA we require wind velocities of ∼ 70ms-1 . A particular class of vertically propagating solutions are potentially consistent with wave energy being 'trapped' between the deep atmosphere and lower thermosphere, at altitudes suited to the production of the necessary field-aligned current systems.

  6. Hepatocellular carcinomas promote tumor-associated macrophage M2-polarization via increased B7-H3 expression.

    PubMed

    Kang, Fu-Biao; Wang, Ling; Li, Dong; Zhang, Yin-Ge; Sun, Dian-Xing

    2015-01-01

    B7 family members are aberrantly expressed on the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell surface, and induce local and systemic immunosuppression. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are a significant immune cell subpopulation in HCC and may be induced to express co-inhibitory molecules including B7 homologue 3 (B7-H3). In the present study, 79.3% of the HCC tissue samples showed high expression of B7-H3 which was positively correlated with the number of TAMs in the evaluated cancer tissues. Furthermore, high levels of TAMs or B7-H3 were associated with a shorter survival time of the HCC patients. In vitro, B7-H3 expression was upregulated at both the mRNA and protein levels in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced THP-1 cells cocultured with HepG2 cells in a Transwell system. In addition, B7-H3 promoted PMA-induced THP-1 cells to differentiate into the M2 phenotype, with evidence of increases in arginase 1 (Arg1), vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) and macrophage-derived chemokine (CCL22) mRNA following coculture with HepG2 cells. However, this phenomenon was abrogated through knockdown of B7-H3 by RNA interference or by blocking the signal transducer and activator of trans-cription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway. Overall, these results suggest that the B7-H3-mediated STAT3 signaling pathway is an important mechanism for inducing M2-type polarization of TAMs, which accelerates HCC development. Our findings may support the development of novel therapeutic strategies for HCC patients through the skewing of the TAM phenotype by targeting the B7-H3 signaling pathway. PMID:25370943

  7. Clinical impact of the NKp30/B7-H6 axis in high-risk neuroblastoma patients.

    PubMed

    Semeraro, Michaela; Rusakiewicz, Sylvie; Minard-Colin, Véronique; Delahaye, Nicolas F; Enot, David; Vély, Frédéric; Marabelle, Aurélien; Papoular, Benjamin; Piperoglou, Christelle; Ponzoni, Mirco; Perri, Patrizia; Tchirkov, Andrei; Matta, Jessica; Lapierre, Valérie; Shekarian, Tala; Valsesia-Wittmann, Sandrine; Commo, Frédéric; Prada, Nicole; Poirier-Colame, Vichnou; Bressac, Brigitte; Cotteret, Sophie; Brugieres, Laurence; Farace, Françoise; Chaput, Nathalie; Kroemer, Guido; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique; Zitvogel, Laurence

    2015-04-15

    The immunosurveillance mechanisms governing high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NB), a major pediatric malignancy, have been elusive. We identify a potential role for natural killer (NK) cells, in particular the interaction between the NK receptor NKp30 and its ligand, B7-H6, in the metastatic progression and survival of HR-NB after myeloablative multimodal chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation. NB cells expressing the NKp30 ligand B7-H6 stimulated NK cells in an NKp30-dependent manner. Serum concentration of soluble B7-H6 correlated with the down-regulation of NKp30, bone marrow metastases, and chemoresistance, and soluble B7-H6 contained in the serum of HR-NB patients inhibited NK cell functions in vitro. The expression of distinct NKp30 isoforms affecting the polarization of NK cell functions correlated with 10-year event-free survival in three independent cohorts of HR-NB in remission from metastases after induction chemotherapy (n = 196, P < 0.001), adding prognostic value to known risk factors such as N-Myc amplification and age >18 months. We conclude that the interaction between NKp30 and B7-H6 may contribute to the fate of NB patients and that both the expression of NKp30 isoforms on circulating NK cells and the concentration of soluble B7-H6 in the serum may be clinically useful as biomarkers for risk stratification. PMID:25877893

  8. Experimenting with musical intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presto, Michael C.

    2003-07-01

    When two tuning forks of different frequency are sounded simultaneously the result is a complex wave with a repetition frequency that is the fundamental of the harmonic series to which both frequencies belong. The ear perceives this 'musical interval' as a single musical pitch with a sound quality produced by the harmonic spectrum responsible for the waveform. This waveform can be captured and displayed with data collection hardware and software. The fundamental frequency can then be calculated and compared with what would be expected from the frequencies of the tuning forks. Also, graphing software can be used to determine equations for the waveforms and predict their shapes. This experiment could be used in an introductory physics or musical acoustics course as a practical lesson in superposition of waves, basic Fourier series and the relationship between some of the ear's subjective perceptions of sound and the physical properties of the waves that cause them.

  9. Structure of the Human Activating Natural Cytotoxicity Receptor NKp30 Bound to its Tumor Cell Ligand B7-H6

    SciTech Connect

    Y Li; Q Wang; R Mariuzza

    2011-12-31

    Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that participate in the elimination of tumor cells. In humans, the activating natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs) NKp30, NKp44, and NKp46 play a major role in NK cell-mediated tumor cell lysis. NKp30 recognizes B7-H6, a member of the B7 family which is expressed on tumor, but not healthy, cells. To understand the basis for tumor surveillance by NCRs, we determined the structure of NKp30, a member of the CD28 family which includes CTLA-4 and PD-1, in complex with B7-H6. The overall organization of the NKp30-B7-H6-activating complex differs considerably from those of the CTLA-4-B7 and PD-1-PD-L T cell inhibitory complexes. Whereas CTLA-4 and PD-1 use only the front {beta}-sheet of their Ig-like domain to bind ligands, NKp30 uses both front and back {beta}-sheets, resulting in engagement of B7-H6 via the side, as well as face, of the {beta}-sandwich. Moreover, B7-H6 contacts NKp30 through the complementarity-determining region (CDR) - like loops of its V-like domain in an antibody-like interaction that is not observed for B7 or PD-L. This first structure of an NCR bound to ligand provides a template for designing molecules to stimulate NKp30-mediated cytolytic activity for tumor immunotherapy.

  10. Subverting the B7-H1/PD-1 Pathway in Advanced Melanoma and Kidney Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Harshman, Lauren C.; Choueiri, Toni K.; Drake, Charles; Hodi, F. Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Ligands for inhibitory immune receptors on T cells may be constitutively expressed on tumor cells or host cells in tumor microenvironment as a consequence of adaptive immunity. Programmed death 1 (PD-1) is 1 such receptor on T cells, which functions as a negative regulator of T cell activity. Tumors that up-regulate programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) (B7-H1) may abrogate the host’s effector T cell antitumor response. Higher tumoral PD-L1 expression has been linked with inferior clinical outcomes. Multiple cancers including renal cell cancers (RCCs) and melanomas have relatively high levels of PD-L1 on the cell surface. Early evaluations of antibodies that block the interaction of PD-1 and PD-L1 have shown efficacy and a favorable tolerability profile with notable inflammatory toxicities that are generally manageable. Upward of 30% of RCC patients and 50% of melanoma patients achieve objective responses. Durable responses can occur, even in some patients who have discontinued treatment. The developing investigation of PD-1/PD-L1 pathway–blocking agents in RCC and melanoma will likely alter our approaches to the treatment of these 2 deadly diseases. PMID:25098288

  11. Decreased expression of B7-H3 reduces the glycolytic capacity and sensitizes breast cancer cells to AKT/mTOR inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Nunes-Xavier, Caroline E.; Karlsen, Karine Flem; Tekle, Christina; Pedersen, Cathrine; Øyjord, Tove; Hongisto, Vesa; Nesland, Jahn M.; Tan, Ming; Sahlberg, Kristine Kleivi; Fodstad, Øystein

    2016-01-01

    B7 family proteins are important immune response regulators, and can mediate oncogenic signaling and cancer development. We have used human triple-negative breast cancer cell lines with different expression levels of B7-H3 to evaluate its effects on the sensitivity to 22 different anticancer compounds in a drug screen. API-2 (triciribidine) and everolimus (RAD-001), two inhibitors that target the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, showed enhanced inhibition of cell viability and proliferation in B7-H3 knockdown tumor cells compared to their B7-H3 expressing counterparts. Similar inhibition was seen in control cells treated with an anti-B7-H3 monoclonal antibody. In B7-H3 overexpressing cells, the effects of the two drugs were reduced, supported also by in vivo experiments in which B7-H3 overexpressing xenografts were less sensitive to everolimus than control tumors. In API-2 and everolimus-treated B7-H3 overexpressing cells, phospho-mTOR levels were decreased. However, phosphorylation of p70S6K was differentially regulated in B7-H3 cells treated with API-2 or everolimus, suggesting a different B7-H3-mediated mechanism downstream of mTOR. Both API-2 and everolimus decreased the glycolysis of the cells, whereas knockdown of B7-H3 decreased and B7-H3 overexpression increased the glycolytic capacity. In conclusion, we have unveiled a previously unknown relationship between B7-H3 expression and glycolytic capacity in tumor cells, and found that B7-H3 confers resistance to API-2 and everolimus. The results provide novel insights into the function of B7-H3 in cancer, and suggest that targeting of B7-H3 may be a novel alternative to improve current anticancer therapies. PMID:26771843

  12. An interval model updating strategy using interval response surface models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Sheng-En; Zhang, Qiu-Hu; Ren, Wei-Xin

    2015-08-01

    Stochastic model updating provides an effective way of handling uncertainties existing in real-world structures. In general, probabilistic theories, fuzzy mathematics or interval analyses are involved in the solution of inverse problems. However in practice, probability distributions or membership functions of structural parameters are often unavailable due to insufficient information of a structure. At this moment an interval model updating procedure shows its superiority in the aspect of problem simplification since only the upper and lower bounds of parameters and responses are sought. To this end, this study develops a new concept of interval response surface models for the purpose of efficiently implementing the interval model updating procedure. The frequent interval overestimation due to the use of interval arithmetic can be maximally avoided leading to accurate estimation of parameter intervals. Meanwhile, the establishment of an interval inverse problem is highly simplified, accompanied by a saving of computational costs. By this means a relatively simple and cost-efficient interval updating process can be achieved. Lastly, the feasibility and reliability of the developed method have been verified against a numerical mass-spring system and also against a set of experimentally tested steel plates.

  13. B7-H4 expression in human infiltrating ductal carcinoma‑associated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Li, Dalin; Chen, Shuang; Zhao, Ran; Pang, Da; Li, Dianjun; Fu, Zhenkun

    2016-09-01

    B7-H4 is a co‑inhibitory molecule of the B7 family, which is expressed on antigen‑presenting cells (APCs) and is able to limit the T‑cell immune response. Macrophages act as professional APCs and are important for immunoregulation of the tumor microenvironment in breast cancer. In order to identify the association between the presence of B7‑H4 on macrophages and infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC), the present study investigated the expression of B7‑H4 on macrophages with different polarizations. The expression levels of B7‑H4 in IDC tissues were determined using immunohistochemistry, and the expression of B7‑H4 on macrophages in the breast IDC microenvironment were determined using western blot analysis and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR). The expression levels of interleukin (IL)‑6 and IL‑10 were detected in IDC tissues and the supernatants of polarized macrophages using an enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay and RT‑qPCR. The present study demonstrated that B7‑H4 was overexpressed in IDC tissues and macrophages. In vitro, M1 and M2 macrophages exhibited different expression levels of B7‑H4. IL‑6 and ‑10 exhibited higher expression in the IDC tissues compared with in distal pericarcinomatous tissues. In conclusion, B7‑H4 exhibited overexpression in IDC tissues and cultured macrophage cells. Furthermore, M2 macrophages exhibited higher expression levels of B7‑H4 compared with the M1 subtype. In addition, IL‑6 and ‑10 may be associated with B7‑H4 expression on macrophages of different polarizations in the IDC microenvironment. PMID:27430170

  14. B7H6-specific bispecific T cell engagers (BiTEs) lead to tumor elimination and host anti-tumor immunity1,2

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ming-Ru; Zhang, Tong; Gacerez, Albert T.; Coupet, Tiffany A.; DeMars, Leslie R.; Sentman, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    Substantial evidence showed that T cells are the key effectors in immune-mediated tumor eradication. However, most T cells do not exhibit anti-tumor specificity. In this study, a bispecific T cell engager (BiTE) approach was utilized to direct T cells to recognize B7H6+ tumor cells. B7H6 is a specific ligand for the NK cell activating receptor, NKp30. B7H6 is expressed on various types of primary human tumors, including leukemia, lymphoma, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), but it is not constitutively expressed on normal tissues. In this study, data show that B7H6-specific BiTEs direct T cells to mediate cellular cytotoxicity and IFN-γ secretion upon co-culturing with B7H6+ tumors. Furthermore, B7H6-specific BiTE exhibited no self-reactivity to pro-inflammatory monocytes. In vivo, B7H6-specific BiTE greatly enhanced the survival benefit of RMA/B7H6 lymphoma bearing mice through perforin and IFN-γ effector mechanisms. In addition, long term survivor mice were protected against a RMA lymphoma tumor re-challenge. The B7H6-specific BiTE therapy also decreased tumor burden in murine melanoma and ovarian cancer models. In conclusion, B7H6-specific BiTE activates host T cells and has the potential to treat various B7H6+ hematological and solid tumors. PMID:25911747

  15. Effect Sizes, Confidence Intervals, and Confidence Intervals for Effect Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The present article provides a primer on (a) effect sizes, (b) confidence intervals, and (c) confidence intervals for effect sizes. Additionally, various admonitions for reformed statistical practice are presented. For example, a very important implication of the realization that there are dozens of effect size statistics is that "authors must…

  16. Uncertainty analysis of integrated gasification combined cycle systems based on Frame 7H versus 7F gas turbines.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yunhua; Frey, H Christopher

    2006-12-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology is a promising alternative for clean generation of power and coproduction of chemicals from coal and other feedstocks. Advanced concepts for IGCC systems that incorporate state-of-the-art gas turbine systems, however, are not commercially demonstrated. Therefore, there is uncertainty regarding the future commercial-scale performance, emissions, and cost of such technologies. The Frame 7F gas turbine represents current state-of-practice, whereas the Frame 7H is the most recently introduced advanced commercial gas turbine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risks and potential payoffs of IGCC technology based on different gas turbine combined cycle designs. Models of entrained-flow gasifier-based IGCC systems with Frame 7F (IGCC-7F) and 7H gas turbine combined cycles (IGCC-7H) were developed in ASPEN Plus. An uncertainty analysis was conducted. Gasifier carbon conversion and project cost uncertainty are identified as the most important uncertain inputs with respect to system performance and cost. The uncertainties in the difference of the efficiencies and costs for the two systems are characterized. Despite uncertainty, the IGCC-7H system is robustly preferred to the IGCC-7F system. Advances in gas turbine design will improve the performance, emissions, and cost of IGCC systems. The implications of this study for decision-making regarding technology selection, research planning, and plant operation are discussed. PMID:17195484

  17. Uncertainty analysis of integrated gasification combined cycle systems based on Frame 7H versus 7F gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Yunhua Zhu; H. Christopher Frey

    2006-12-15

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology is a promising alternative for clean generation of power and coproduction of chemicals from coal and other feedstocks. Advanced concepts for IGCC systems that incorporate state-of-the-art gas turbine systems, however, are not commercially demonstrated. Therefore, there is uncertainty regarding the future commercial-scale performance, emissions, and cost of such technologies. The Frame 7F gas turbine represents current state-of-practice, whereas the Frame 7H is the most recently introduced advanced commercial gas turbine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risks and potential payoffs of IGCC technology based on different gas turbine combined cycle designs. Models of entrained-flow gasifier-based IGCC systems with Frame 7F (IGCC-7F) and 7H gas turbine combined cycles (IGCC-7H) were developed in ASPEN Plus. An uncertainty analysis was conducted. Gasifier carbon conversion and project cost uncertainty are identified as the most important uncertain inputs with respect to system performance and cost. The uncertainties in the difference of the efficiencies and costs for the two systems are characterized. Despite uncertainty, the IGCC-7H system is robustly preferred to the IGCC-7F system. Advances in gas turbine design will improve the performance, emissions, and cost of IGCC systems. The implications of this study for decision-making regarding technology selection, research planning, and plant operation are discussed. 38 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Evaluation of the kriging method to predict 7-h seasonal mean ozone concentrations for estimating crop losses

    SciTech Connect

    Lefohn, A.S.; Knudsen, H.P.; Logan, J.A.; Simpson, J.; Bhumralkar, C.

    1987-05-01

    Using kriging, a statistical technique, the National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN) program estimated growing season 5-month (May-September) ambient 7-h mean O3 concentrations for each of the major crop growing areas of the US for 1978-1982. The O3 estimates were used to predict economic benefits anticipated by lowering O3 levels in the US. This paper reviews NCLAN's use of kriging to estimate 7-h seasonal mean O3 concentrations for crop growing regions. Although the original kriging program used by NCLAN incorrectly calculated the diagonal elements of the kriging equations, this omission did not result in significant errors in the predicted estimates. Most of the data used in estimating the 7-h seasonal values were obtained from urban areas; the use of these data tended to underestimate the 7-h seasonal O3 concentrations in rural areas. It is recommended that only O3 data that are representative of agricultural areas and have been collected under accepted quality assurance programs be used in future kriging efforts.

  19. Evaluation of the kriging method to predict 7-h seasonal mean ozone concentrations for estimating crop losses (journal version)

    SciTech Connect

    Lefohn, A.S.; Knudsen, H.P.; Logan, J.A.; Simpson, J.; Bhumralkar, C.

    1987-01-01

    Using kriging, a statistical technique, the National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN) program estimated growing season 5-month (May-September) ambient 7-h mean O/sub 3/ concentrations for each of the major crop growing areas of the United States for 1978-1982. The O/sub 3/ estimates were used to predict economic benefits anticipated by lowering O/sub 3/ levels in the United States. This paper reviews NCLAN's use of kriging to estimate 7-h seasonal mean O/sub 3/ concentrations for crop growing regions. Although the original kriging program used by NCLAN incorrectly calculated the diagonal elements of the kriging equations, this omission did not result in significant errors in the predicted estimates. Most of the data used in estimating the 7-h seasonal values were obtained from urban areas; the use of these data tended to underestimate the 7-h seasonal O/sub 3/ concentrations in rural areas. It is recommended that only O/sub 3/ data that are representative of agricultural areas and have been collected under accepted quality-assurance programs be used in future kriging efforts.

  20. [Birth interval differentials in Rwanda].

    PubMed

    Ilinigumugabo, A

    1992-01-01

    Data from the 1983 Rwanda Fertility Survey are the basis for this study of variations in birth intervals. An analysis of the quality of the Rwandan birth data showed it to be relatively good. The life table technique utilized in this study is explained in a section on methodology, which also describes the Rwanda Fertility Survey questionnaires. A comparison of birth intervals in which live born children died before their first birthday or survived the first birthday shows that infant mortality shortens birth intervals by an average of 5 months. The first birth interval was almost 28 months when the oldest child survived, but declined to 23 months when the oldest child died before age 1. The effect of mortality on birth intervals increased with parity, from 5 months for the first birth interval to 5.5 months for the second and third and 6.4 months for subsequent intervals. The differences amounted to 9 or 10 months for women separating at parities under 4 and over 14 months for women separating at parities of 4 or over. Birth intervals generally increased with parity, maternal age, and the duration of the union. But women entering into unions at higher ages had shorter birth intervals. In the absence of infant mortality and dissolution of the union, women attending school beyong the primary level had first birth intervals 6 months shorter on average than other women. Controlling for infant mortality and marital dissolution, women working for wages had average birth intervals of under 2 years for the first 5 births. Father's occupation had a less marked influence on birth intervals. Urban residence was associated with a shortening of the average birth interval by 6 months between the first and second birth and 5 months between the second and third births. In the first 5 births, Tutsi women had birth intervals 1.5 months longer on average than Hutu women. Women in polygamous unions did not have significantly different birth intervals except perhaps among older women

  1. Teaching Confidence Intervals Using Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagtvedt, Reidar; Jones, Gregory Todd; Jones, Kari

    2008-01-01

    Confidence intervals are difficult to teach, in part because most students appear to believe they understand how to interpret them intuitively. They rarely do. To help them abandon their misconception and achieve understanding, we have developed a simulation tool that encourages experimentation with multiple confidence intervals derived from the…

  2. Children's Discrimination of Melodic Intervals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Trehub, Sandra E.

    1996-01-01

    Adults and children listened to tone sequences and were required to detect changes either from intervals with simple frequency ratios to intervals with complex ratios or vice versa. Adults performed better on changes from simple to complex ratios than on the reverse changes. Similar performance was observed for 6-year olds who had never taken…

  3. Automatic Error Analysis Using Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, E. J.; Cloud, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    A technique for automatic error analysis using interval mathematics is introduced. A comparison to standard error propagation methods shows that in cases involving complicated formulas, the interval approach gives comparable error estimates with much less effort. Several examples are considered, and numerical errors are computed using the INTLAB…

  4. Explorations in Statistics: Confidence Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This third installment of "Explorations in Statistics" investigates confidence intervals. A confidence interval is a range that we expect, with some level of confidence, to include the true value of a population parameter…

  5. A Review of Confidence Intervals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauk, Anne-Marie Kimbell

    This paper summarizes information leading to the recommendation that statistical significance testing be replaced, or at least accompanied by, the reporting of effect sizes and confidence intervals. It discusses the use of confidence intervals, noting that the recent report of the American Psychological Association Task Force on Statistical…

  6. VARIABLE TIME-INTERVAL GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Gross, J.E.

    1959-10-31

    This patent relates to a pulse generator and more particularly to a time interval generator wherein the time interval between pulses is precisely determined. The variable time generator comprises two oscillators with one having a variable frequency output and the other a fixed frequency output. A frequency divider is connected to the variable oscillator for dividing its frequency by a selected factor and a counter is used for counting the periods of the fixed oscillator occurring during a cycle of the divided frequency of the variable oscillator. This defines the period of the variable oscillator in terms of that of the fixed oscillator. A circuit is provided for selecting as a time interval a predetermined number of periods of the variable oscillator. The output of the generator consists of a first pulse produced by a trigger circuit at the start of the time interval and a second pulse marking the end of the time interval produced by the same trigger circuit.

  7. Downregulation of B7-H4 in the MHCC97-H hepatocellular carcinoma cell line by arsenic trioxide

    PubMed Central

    CUI, LIMING; GAO, BO; CAO, ZHIGANG; CHEN, XIAOYING; ZHANG, SHIDE; ZHANG, WEIZHE

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As2O3; ATO), a compound which is characterized by its ability to function as a potent anticancer agent, has been investigated in a variety of carcinomas. B7-H4, a transmembrane protein, may inhibit the function of the T cell effector, and therefore, may be useful in investigating different types of tumor therapies. However, few studies have been published previously associated with the roles of ATO and B7-H4 in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-invasive role of ATO in HCC, to determine the effect of ATO treatment on the expression of B7-H4 and to further assess the possible underlying mechanisms. Following treatment of the cells with 2, 4 and 8 µM ATO for 48 h, cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), Transwell and western blot assays were used to determine the extent of human MHCC97-H HCC cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and B7-H4 expression, respectively. The results revealed that 1 µM ATO markedly decreased cellular proliferation, and ATO administered at concentrations of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 µM markedly inhibited the migration and invasion of the human MHCC97-H HCC cell line. The expression of B7-H4 in the treatment groups was markedly reduced. Signal transduction mediated via the Janus kinase 2/signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 pathway was inhibited upon treatment with 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 µM ATO. Additionally, the protein expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and vascular endothelial growth factor were markedly reduced in HCC cells upon treatment with ATO. In conclusion, ATO may reduce the protein expression levels of B7-H4 in MHCC97-H HCC cells, and further affected HCC tumorigenesis and progression. ATO may be a putative agent for the development of therapeutic strategies against human liver cancer. PMID:26781180

  8. Image magnification using interval information.

    PubMed

    Jurio, Aranzazu; Pagola, Miguel; Mesiar, Radko; Beliakov, Gleb; Bustince, Humberto

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, a simple and effective image-magnification algorithm based on intervals is proposed. A low-resolution image is magnified to form a high-resolution image using a block-expanding method. Our proposed method associates each pixel with an interval obtained by a weighted aggregation of the pixels in its neighborhood. From the interval and with a linear K(α) operator, we obtain the magnified image. Experimental results show that our algorithm provides a magnified image with better quality (peak signal-to-noise ratio) than several existing methods. PMID:21632304

  9. Inducible Expression of B7-H1 (PD-L1) and Its Selective Role in Tumor Site Immune Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Sanmamed, Miguel F.; Chen, Lieping

    2015-01-01

    Immune evasion is an important hallmark of cancer, and a better understanding of this mechanism is essential for the development of effective strategies against cancer. The B7 homolog 1 (B7-H1)/programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) pathway has been demonstrated as a major mechanism of immune evasion in tumor site, and its blockade therapy shows very encouraging results in clinical trials. Inducible B7-H1 expression in tumor microenvironment is complex, with multidimensional interactions and expression by different subsets of hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells. Understanding these interactions and how tumors take advantage of this pathway can help us design future strategies for better therapeutic efficacy and to overcome resistances. PMID:25098285

  10. Searches for the superheavy hydrogen isotope {sup 7}H in the absorption of stopped {pi}{sup -} mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Gurov, Yu. B.; Aleshkin, D. V.; Lapushkin, S. V.; Laukhin, I. V.; Pechkurov, V. A.; Poroshin, N. O.; Sandukovsky, V. G.; Tel'kushev, M. V.; Chernyshev, B. A.

    2006-09-15

    Experimental searches for the superheavy hydrogen isotope {sup 7}H were performed in reactions involving the absorption of stopped {pi}{sup -} mesons on {sup 9}Be and {sup 11}B nuclei. In the reaction {sup 9}Be({pi}{sup -}, pp)X, the missing-mass spectrum shows evidence for the formation of {sup 7}H states, that of E{sub r} = 16 {+-} 1 MeV and {gamma} {approx_equal} 2 MeV and that of E{sub r} = 21 {+-} 1 MeV and {gamma} {approx_equal} 5 MeV (E{sub r} is the resonance energy with respect to breakup into a trition and four neutrons, and {gamma} is the observed level width)

  11. Immunoregulatory Protein B7-H3 Reprograms Glucose Metabolism in Cancer Cells by ROS-Mediated Stabilization of HIF1α.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sangbin; Liu, Hao; Madeira da Silva, Luciana; Arora, Ritu; Liu, Zixing; Phillips, Joshua B; Schmitt, David C; Vu, Tung; McClellan, Steven; Lin, Yifeng; Lin, Wensheng; Piazza, Gary A; Fodstad, Oystein; Tan, Ming

    2016-04-15

    B7-H3 is a member of B7 family of immunoregulatory transmembrane glycoproteins expressed by T cells. While B7-H3 overexpression is associated with poor outcomes in multiple cancers, it also has immune-independent roles outside T cells and its precise mechanistic contributions to cancer are unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of B7-H3 in metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo We found that B7-H3 promoted the Warburg effect, evidenced by increased glucose uptake and lactate production in B7-H3-expressing cells. B7-H3 also increased the protein levels of HIF1α and its downstream targets, LDHA and PDK1, key enzymes in the glycolytic pathway. Furthermore, B7-H3 promoted reactive oxygen species-dependent stabilization of HIF1α by suppressing the activity of the stress-activated transcription factor Nrf2 and its target genes, including the antioxidants SOD1, SOD2, and PRX3. Metabolic imaging of human breast cancer xenografts in mice confirmed that B7-H3 enhanced tumor glucose uptake and tumor growth. Together, our results illuminate the critical immune-independent contributions of B7-H3 to cancer metabolism, presenting a radically new perspective on B7 family immunoregulatory proteins in malignant progression. Cancer Res; 76(8); 2231-42. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197253

  12. Interval estimates and their precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marek, Luboš; Vrabec, Michal

    2015-06-01

    A task very often met in in practice is computation of confidence interval bounds for the relative frequency within sampling without replacement. A typical situation includes preelection estimates and similar tasks. In other words, we build the confidence interval for the parameter value M in the parent population of size N on the basis of a random sample of size n. There are many ways to build this interval. We can use a normal or binomial approximation. More accurate values can be looked up in tables. We consider one more method, based on MS Excel calculations. In our paper we compare these different methods for specific values of M and we discuss when the considered methods are suitable. The aim of the article is not a publication of new theoretical methods. This article aims to show that there is a very simple way how to compute the confidence interval bounds without approximations, without tables and without other software costs.

  13. TIME-INTERVAL MEASURING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Gross, J.E.

    1958-04-15

    An electronic device for measuring the time interval between two control pulses is presented. The device incorporates part of a previous approach for time measurement, in that pulses from a constant-frequency oscillator are counted during the interval between the control pulses. To reduce the possible error in counting caused by the operation of the counter gating circuit at various points in the pulse cycle, the described device provides means for successively delaying the pulses for a fraction of the pulse period so that a final delay of one period is obtained and means for counting the pulses before and after each stage of delay during the time interval whereby a plurality of totals is obtained which may be averaged and multplied by the pulse period to obtain an accurate time- Interval measurement.

  14. Simple Interval Timers for Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, M.; Burgess, G.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses simple interval timers for microcomputers, including (1) the Jiffy clock; (2) CPU count timers; (3) screen count timers; (4) light pen timers; and (5) chip timers. Also examines some of the general characteristics of all types of timers. (JN)

  15. Triggering of B7h by the ICOS modulates maturation and migration of monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Occhipinti, Sergio; Dianzani, Chiara; Chiocchetti, Annalisa; Boggio, Elena; Clemente, Nausicaa; Gigliotti, Casimiro Luca; Soluri, Maria Felicia; Minelli, Rosalba; Fantozzi, Roberto; Yagi, Jungi; Rojo, Josè Maria; Sblattero, Daniele; Giovarelli, Mirella; Dianzani, Umberto

    2013-02-01

    B7h, expressed by several cell types, binds ICOS expressed by activated T cells. We have previously shown that B7h triggering by ICOS-Fc inhibits human endothelial cell adhesiveness. This work investigated the effect of ICOS-Fc on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs). We found that DCs matured with LPS in the presence of ICOS-Fc (mDCs(ICOS)) produced greater amounts of IL-23 and IL-10, and promoted a higher secretion of IL-17A and IL-17F in MLCs than did those DCs matured with LPS alone (mDCs). Moreover, mDCs(ICOS) pulsed with the keyhole limpet hemocyanin Ag during the maturation phase were better stimulators of Ag-specific MHC class I-, but not class II-restricted T cells than mDCs. This was probably due to promotion of cross-presentation because it was not detected when the Flu-MA(58-66) Ag was directly loaded on already matured DCs and mDCs(ICOS). Finally, ICOS-Fc inhibited the adhesion of both immature DCs and mDCs to vascular and lymphoid endothelial cells, their migratory activity, and the expression of the Rac-1 activator β-Pix involved in cell motility. These data suggest that B7h stimulation modulates DC function with effects on their maturation and recruitment into tissues. This opens a novel view on the use of interactors of the ICOS:B7h system as immunomodulatory drugs. PMID:23275603

  16. Optimization of modified Middlebrook 7H11 agar for isolation of Mycobacterium bovis from raw milk cheese.

    PubMed

    Forgrave, R; Donaghy, J A; Fisher, A; Rowe, M T

    2014-10-01

    Reports have highlighted the absence of contemporary peer reviewed publications pertaining to Mycobacterium bovis culture from raw milk and cheese. By replicating traditional methods, cheese-making methodology and equipment were devised to produce Cheddar (n = 6) and Caerphilly (n = 3) artificially contaminated with M. bovis (three genotypes) under stringent laboratory-containment guidelines for handling hazardous microbiological material. Middlebrook 7H11, modified for M. bovis isolation, was assessed for capacity to enumerate M. bovis despite changing cheese microflora and prolonged M. bovis exposure to the cheese matrix using maturing cheese test portions (n = 63; up to 16 weeks). Malachite green (MG) containing media isolated M. bovis at significantly (P < 0·05) lower levels than unmodified Middlebrook 7H11 agar despite MG being a common adjunct of Middlebrook 7H11 agar modified for M. bovis growth. Subsequently, a selective MG-free Middlebrook 7H11 agar modified using haemolysed red cells and calf serum was demonstrated as the best performing (P < 0·05) medium for recovery of M. bovis from typical UK cheese types, Cheddar and Caerphilly. Significance and impact of the study: Following increased M. bovis infection of UK cattle, the risk posed to consumers from consumption of unpasteurized milk and dairy products has changed. Furthermore, published methods for the culture and molecular detection of M. bovis in raw milk products are limited. Cheese-making protocols and M. bovis culture media reported here provide tools for further investigation of M. bovis survival during all stages of cheese manufacture and could inform future assessment of the risk to consumers from M. bovis contamination of unpasteurized dairy products. PMID:24888395

  17. B7-H6-mediated downregulation of NKp30 in NK cells contributes to ovarian carcinoma immune escape

    PubMed Central

    Pesce, Silvia; Tabellini, Giovanna; Cantoni, Claudia; Patrizi, Ornella; Coltrini, Daniela; Rampinelli, Fabio; Matta, Jessica; Vivier, Eric; Moretta, Alessandro; Parolini, Silvia; Marcenaro, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    In this study the phenotype and function of tumor-associated NK cells from peritoneal fluids of a selected cohort of patients with seropapillary ovarian carcinoma were analyzed. In > 50% of these patients, the expression of the activating receptor NKp30 in tumor-associated NK cells was substantially reduced as compared to autologous peripheral blood (PB) NK cells. The impaired expression of this receptor was associated with the presence of one of its cellular ligands (B7-H6), which was detectable as a surface/cytosolic molecule in tumor cells and as a soluble molecule in the peritoneal fluid. NK cells from patients expressing this NKp30low phenotype displayed an impaired interferon-gamma (IFNγ) production and cytolytic function when tested against target cells expressing surface B7-H6. Our data also suggest that in these patients, the defective expression and function of NKp30 may be induced by the chronic engagement of this receptor by soluble B7-H6 or by tumor cells expressing this ligand. The impairment of NK cell functions described herein could represent a novel mechanism by which the tumor microenvironment may contribute to the escape from immune surveillance. PMID:26137398

  18. Sinomenine inhibits B7-H1 and B7-DC expression on human renal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongwen; Li, Jingyi; Zhang, Jingbo; Zhao, Tingting; Zou, Liyun; Tang, Yan; Zhang, Xiaoping; Wu, Yuzhang

    2005-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that sinomenine possesses potent immunoregulatory properties. However, little is known about its exact mechanisms of action. Increasing recognition of the importance of renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs) in renal diseases raises the question whether sinomenine can regulate TEC activity. In this study, cultured human TECs were exposed to proinflammatory factors interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrotic factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in presence or absence of sinomenine for 72 h, followed by analysis of surface expression of costimulatory molecules. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that various costimulatory molecules were expressed on TECs and that they were significantly up-regulated by the simulation of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. However, sinomenine especially down-regulated B7-H1 and B7-DC expression on TECs at both mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, the significant damping effect of sinomenine on B7-H1 and B7-DC signals could promote IL-2 and IFN-gamma production by co-cultured CD4(+) T cell. Our results indicated that sinomenine could regulate TECs activity via B7-H1 and B7-DC, in addition to previously reported its effects on some pro-inflammatory factors production by macrophages and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. PMID:15953571

  19. QT interval in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, R A; Chambers, J B; Singh, R; Todd, G J; Smeeton, N C; Treasure, J; Treasure, T

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To determine the incidence of a long QT interval as a marker for sudden death in patients with anorexia nervosa and to assess the effect of refeeding. To define a long QT interval by linear regression analysis and estimation of the upper limit of the confidence interval (95% CI) and to compare this with the commonly used Bazett rate correction formula. DESIGN--Prospective case control study. SETTING--Tertiary referral unit for eating disorders. SUBJECTS--41 consecutive patients with anorexia nervosa admitted over an 18 month period. 28 age and sex matched normal controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--maximum QT interval measured on 12 lead electrocardiograms. RESULTS--43.6% of the variability in the QT interval was explained by heart rate alone (p < 0.00001) and group analysis contributed a further 5.9% (p = 0.004). In 6 (15%) patients the QT interval was above the upper limit of the 95% CI for the prediction based on the control equation (NS). Two patients died suddenly; both had a QT interval at or above the upper limit of the 95% CI. In patients who reached their target weights the QT interval was significantly shorter (median 9.8 ms; p = 0.04) relative to the upper limit of the 60% CI of the control regression line, which best discriminated between patients and controls. The median Bazett rate corrected QT interval (QTc) in patients and controls was 435 v 405 ms.s-1/2 (p = 0.0004), and before and after refeeding it was 435 v 432 ms.s1/2 (NS). In 14(34%) patients and three (11%) controls the QTc was > 440 ms.s-1/2 (p = 0.053). CONCLUSIONS--The QT interval was longer in patients with anorexia nervosa than in age and sex matched controls, and there was a significant tendency to reversion to normal after refeeding. The Bazett rate correction formula overestimated the number of patients with QT prolongation and also did not show an improvement with refeeding. PMID:8068473

  20. Soluble B7-H3 promotes the invasion and metastasis of pancreatic carcinoma cells through the TLR4/NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chao; Liu, Danqing; Chen, Qijun; Yang, Chong; Wang, Bo; Wu, Heshui

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated a relationship between soluble B7-H3 (sB7-H3) and the poor prognosis of patients with malignant tumors, and increasing evidence has shown a connection between sB7-H3 and NF-κB in tumor progression. In the present study, we demonstrate for the first time that sB7-H3 promotes the invasion and metastasis of pancreatic carcinoma cells through the TLR4/NF-κB pathway. In this study, we observed that sB7-H3 was highly expressed in mB7-H3-positive pancreatic carcinoma (PCa) cells. Exogenous sB7-H3 significantly increased NF-κB activity and promoted the migration and invasion of PCa cells. Further studies proved that sB7-H3 first up-regulated TLR4 expression, then activated NF-κB signaling and finally promoted IL-8 and VEGF expression. In contrast, the silencing of TLR4 using a stable short hairpin RNA significantly decreased the sB7-H3-induced activity of NF-κB and the expression of IL-8 and VEGF in PCa cells. In vivo animal experiments further demonstrated that TLR4-knock-down tumor cells displayed a decreased ability to metastasize compared with the control tumor cells after being induced by sB7-H3. Collectively, these results demonstrate that sB7-H3 promotes invasion and metastasis through the TLR4/NF-κB pathway in pancreatic carcinoma cells. PMID:27273624

  1. Effects of lung cancer cell-associated B7-H1 on T-cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chen, K.; Huang, H.T.; Hang, W.J.; Pan, L.B.; Ma, H.T.

    2016-01-01

    B7 homolog 1 (B7-H1) is the most potent immunoinhibitory molecule in the B7 family. In this study, we examined the effects of tumor-associated B7-H1 on T-cell proliferation in lung cancer. The expression of B7-H1 in human adenocarcinoma A549 and mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells were examined by flow cytometry. To assess the in vitro effect of tumor-associated B7-H1 on T-cell proliferation, we isolated T cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy individuals, labeled them with carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester, and co-cultured them with A549 cells in the absence or presence of anti-B7-H1 antibody. For in vivo analysis, LLC cells were subcutaneously injected into mice treated or not with anti-B7-H1 antibody. T-cell proliferation in both in vitro and in vivo assays was analyzed by flow cytometry. In vitro, co-culturing T cells with A549 cells significantly inhibited the proliferation of the former compared with the proliferation of T cells alone (P<0.01), and the addition of B7-H1 blocking antibody dramatically reversed the inhibition of T-cell proliferation by A549 cells. Similarly, in mice bearing LLC-derived xenograft tumors, in vivo administration of anti-B7-H1 antibody significantly increased the total number of spleen and tumor T cells compared to levels in control mice that did not receive anti-B7-H1 antibody. Functionally, in vivo administration of anti-B7-H1 antibody markedly reduced tumor growth. Tumor-associated B7-H1 may facilitate immune evasion by inhibiting T-cell proliferation. Targeting of this mechanism offers a promising therapy for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27332773

  2. Soluble B7-H3 promotes the invasion and metastasis of pancreatic carcinoma cells through the TLR4/NF-κB pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Chao; Liu, Danqing; Chen, Qijun; Yang, Chong; Wang, Bo; Wu, Heshui

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated a relationship between soluble B7-H3 (sB7-H3) and the poor prognosis of patients with malignant tumors, and increasing evidence has shown a connection between sB7-H3 and NF-κB in tumor progression. In the present study, we demonstrate for the first time that sB7-H3 promotes the invasion and metastasis of pancreatic carcinoma cells through the TLR4/NF-κB pathway. In this study, we observed that sB7-H3 was highly expressed in mB7-H3-positive pancreatic carcinoma (PCa) cells. Exogenous sB7-H3 significantly increased NF-κB activity and promoted the migration and invasion of PCa cells. Further studies proved that sB7-H3 first up-regulated TLR4 expression, then activated NF-κB signaling and finally promoted IL-8 and VEGF expression. In contrast, the silencing of TLR4 using a stable short hairpin RNA significantly decreased the sB7-H3-induced activity of NF-κB and the expression of IL-8 and VEGF in PCa cells. In vivo animal experiments further demonstrated that TLR4-knock-down tumor cells displayed a decreased ability to metastasize compared with the control tumor cells after being induced by sB7-H3. Collectively, these results demonstrate that sB7-H3 promotes invasion and metastasis through the TLR4/NF-κB pathway in pancreatic carcinoma cells. PMID:27273624

  3. Generalized Confidence Intervals and Fiducial Intervals for Some Epidemiological Measures.

    PubMed

    Bebu, Ionut; Luta, George; Mathew, Thomas; Agan, Brian K

    2016-01-01

    For binary outcome data from epidemiological studies, this article investigates the interval estimation of several measures of interest in the absence or presence of categorical covariates. When covariates are present, the logistic regression model as well as the log-binomial model are investigated. The measures considered include the common odds ratio (OR) from several studies, the number needed to treat (NNT), and the prevalence ratio. For each parameter, confidence intervals are constructed using the concepts of generalized pivotal quantities and fiducial quantities. Numerical results show that the confidence intervals so obtained exhibit satisfactory performance in terms of maintaining the coverage probabilities even when the sample sizes are not large. An appealing feature of the proposed solutions is that they are not based on maximization of the likelihood, and hence are free from convergence issues associated with the numerical calculation of the maximum likelihood estimators, especially in the context of the log-binomial model. The results are illustrated with a number of examples. The overall conclusion is that the proposed methodologies based on generalized pivotal quantities and fiducial quantities provide an accurate and unified approach for the interval estimation of the various epidemiological measures in the context of binary outcome data with or without covariates. PMID:27322305

  4. Generalized Confidence Intervals and Fiducial Intervals for Some Epidemiological Measures

    PubMed Central

    Bebu, Ionut; Luta, George; Mathew, Thomas; Agan, Brian K.

    2016-01-01

    For binary outcome data from epidemiological studies, this article investigates the interval estimation of several measures of interest in the absence or presence of categorical covariates. When covariates are present, the logistic regression model as well as the log-binomial model are investigated. The measures considered include the common odds ratio (OR) from several studies, the number needed to treat (NNT), and the prevalence ratio. For each parameter, confidence intervals are constructed using the concepts of generalized pivotal quantities and fiducial quantities. Numerical results show that the confidence intervals so obtained exhibit satisfactory performance in terms of maintaining the coverage probabilities even when the sample sizes are not large. An appealing feature of the proposed solutions is that they are not based on maximization of the likelihood, and hence are free from convergence issues associated with the numerical calculation of the maximum likelihood estimators, especially in the context of the log-binomial model. The results are illustrated with a number of examples. The overall conclusion is that the proposed methodologies based on generalized pivotal quantities and fiducial quantities provide an accurate and unified approach for the interval estimation of the various epidemiological measures in the context of binary outcome data with or without covariates. PMID:27322305

  5. High resolution time interval meter

    DOEpatents

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring the time interval between two events to a higher resolution than reliability available from conventional circuits and component. An internal clock pulse is provided at a frequency compatible with conventional component operating frequencies for reliable operation. Lumped constant delay circuits are provided for generating outputs at delay intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution. An initiation START pulse is input to generate first high resolution data. A termination STOP pulse is input to generate second high resolution data. Internal counters count at the low frequency internal clock pulse rate between the START and STOP pulses. The first and second high resolution data are logically combined to directly provide high resolution data to one counter and correct the count in the low resolution counter to obtain a high resolution time interval measurement.

  6. Updating representations of temporal intervals.

    PubMed

    Danckert, James; Anderson, Britt

    2015-12-01

    Effectively engaging with the world depends on accurate representations of the regularities that make up that world-what we call mental models. The success of any mental model depends on the ability to adapt to changes-to 'update' the model. In prior work, we have shown that damage to the right hemisphere of the brain impairs the ability to update mental models across a range of tasks. Given the disparate nature of the tasks we have employed in this prior work (i.e. statistical learning, language acquisition, position priming, perceptual ambiguity, strategic game play), we propose that a cognitive module important for updating mental representations should be generic, in the sense that it is invoked across multiple cognitive and perceptual domains. To date, the majority of our tasks have been visual in nature. Given the ubiquity and import of temporal information in sensory experience, we examined the ability to build and update mental models of time. We had healthy individuals complete a temporal prediction task in which intervals were initially drawn from one temporal range before an unannounced switch to a different range of intervals. Separate groups had the second range of intervals switch to one that contained either longer or shorter intervals than the first range. Both groups showed significant positive correlations between perceptual and prediction accuracy. While each group updated mental models of temporal intervals, those exposed to shorter intervals did so more efficiently. Our results support the notion of generic capacity to update regularities in the environment-in this instance based on temporal information. The task developed here is well suited to investigations in neurological patients and in neuroimaging settings. PMID:26303026

  7. Increased B7H4 tissue expression correlates with high CA19.9 serum levels and a worse prognosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tsiaousidou, Anastasia; Tsaroucha, A K; Lambropoulou, M; Pitiakoudis, M; Polychronidis, A; Chatzitheoklitos, E; Romanidis, K; Simopoulos, C

    2016-08-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide, especially in Western societies. Its aggressive nature and poor prognosis increase the need for identifying new and more accurate diagnostic and prognostic tools. We studied 41 patients who had undergone radical surgical resection for PC, investigated B7H4 protein expression in the PC tissue specimens of these patients by immunohistochemistry and analyzed several clinical and pathological features. The positive expression of the B7H4 antigen was associated with a negative impact of chemotherapy with gemcitabine on patient survival and also correlated with high CA19.9 serum levels and poorly differentiated tumors. Moreover, patients that overexpressed B7H4 antigen had worse prognosis compared to the ones that did not overexpress B7H4. B7H4 antigen is a negative prognostic marker for PC patients and also seems to express resistance of PC patients to chemotherapy with gemcitabine. PMID:25924930

  8. B7-H3 expression in donor T cells and host cells negatively regulates acute graft-versus-host disease lethality.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Rachelle G; Flynn, Ryan; Kreymborg, Katharina; McDonald-Hyman, Cameron; Saha, Asim; Taylor, Patricia A; Osborn, Mark J; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Schmitt-Graeff, Annette; Lieberknect, Elisabeth; Murphy, William J; Serody, Jonathan S; Munn, David H; Freeman, Gordon J; Allison, James P; Mak, Tak W; van den Brink, Marcel; Zeiser, Robert; Blazar, Bruce R

    2015-05-21

    Members of the B7 family have been shown to be important for regulating immune responses by providing either positive or negative costimulatory signals. The function of B7-H3 has been controversial. We show that B7-H3 is upregulated in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) target organs, including the colon, liver, and lung. Infusion of allogeneic donor T cells into B7-H3(-/-) vs wild-type (WT) recipients resulted in increased GVHD lethality associated with increased T-cell proliferation, colonic inflammatory cytokines, and destruction of epithelial barriers. Allogeneic B7-H3(-/-) vs WT donor T cells also had increased T-cell proliferation and GVHD lethality associated with increased proliferation and cytokine secretion in the spleen, intraepithelial lymphocyte inflammatory cytokines, and intestinal permeability. Both resting and activated regulatory T cells (Tregs) lack B7-H3 messenger RNA. Consistent with these data, GVHD was augmented in recipients of B7-H3(-/-) Treg-depleted grafts. In two delayed lymphocyte infusion (DLI) models, T cells lacking B7-H3 are capable of providing graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effects. We conclude that B7-H3 is responsible for providing a negative costimulatory signal. Our studies provide support for developing and testing new therapies directed toward the B7-H3 pathway, including approaches to augment host B7-H3 early after bone marrow transplantation to prevent GVHD and to develop potent antagonistic antibodies later after transplant to facilitate DLI-mediated GVL without GVHD complications. PMID:25814530

  9. Synthesis and Anti-HCV Activity of 4-Methoxy-7H-Pyrrolo[2,3-d] Pyrimidine Carbocyclic Nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Thiyagarajan, Anandarajan; Toyama, Masaaki; Baba, Masanori; Sharon, Ashoke; Bal, Chandralata

    2016-06-01

    The present study includes the exploration of new possible nucleoside mimetics based on 4-methoxy-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine carbocyclic nucleosides (4a-g), which were synthesized by 10-15 synthetic steps and characterized adequately. We report the anti-HCV activities and cytotoxicities of 4a-g. Compound 4a was analyzed by single crystal X-ray diffraction which showed some puckering in the cyclopentene ring with a 2'-endo conformation and anti-base disposition (χ = -125.7°). PMID:27152477

  10. Uniform Continuity on Unbounded Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouso, Rodrigo Lopez

    2008-01-01

    We present a teaching approach to uniform continuity on unbounded intervals which, hopefully, may help to meet the following pedagogical objectives: (i) To provide students with efficient and simple criteria to decide whether a continuous function is also uniformly continuous; and (ii) To provide students with skill to recognize graphically…

  11. [Elevated expression of B7-H6 in U87 cells-derived glioma stem like cells is associated with biological characteristics].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hanqing; Shi, Zhengpeng; Gao, Bing; Fu, Fengqing; Zhang, Xueguang

    2016-09-01

    Objective To investigate the expression and biological significance of costimulatory molecule B7-H6, a member of B7 family, in glioma stem like cells (GSLCs). Methods In virtue of the ability of forming neurospheres in vitro , GSLCs were isolated from U87 cells by cell sub-cloning. Real-time quantitative PCR and flow cytometry were performed to detect the expressions of stem cell related markers (c-myc, Sox2, CD133, nestin, and CXCR4), as well as the expressions of B7 family molecules. The different doses of adriamycin, carboplatin, cisplatin, were used to treat GSLCs for testing their chemotherapy-resistance. After the expression of B7-H6 in GSLCs was knockdown by siRNA, CCK-8 method was used to detect cell proliferation. Results GSLCs were successfully isolated from U87 cells, which formed neurospheres in vitro . The expressions of multiple stem cell markers were up-regulated and the GSLCs showed enhanced chemo therapy-resistance. B7 family members, B7-H1, B7-H3, B7-H4 and B7-H6 were expressed in GSLCs. Compared with primary U87 cells, GSLCs presented with a remarkably increased expression of B7-H6 on cell membrane. When B7-H6 was silenced by siRNA, cell proliferation was inhibited along with the decrease of c-myc expression. Conclusion The expression of B7-H6 is up-regulated in U87-derived GSLCs, which is associated with the biological characteristics of GSLCs. PMID:27609569

  12. B7-H3 in combination with regulatory T cell is associated with tumor progression in primary human non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yingjie; Zhang, Pei; Li, Juan; Zhao, Jianqiang; Liu, Chuanyong; Yang, Fei; Yang, Dong; Gao, Aiqin; Lin, Wenli; Ma, Xiaoxia; Sun, Yuping

    2015-01-01

    B7-H3 belongs to the co-inhibitory B7 family and plays an important role in the adaptive immune response in regulating T cells. In human malignancies, B7-H3 is reported to be involved in tumor immune evasion. However, the detailed molecular mechanism of B7-H3 in tumor evasion remains unclear, particularly in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are known as a key player in the inhibition of immune mechanisms. The study demonstrated the correlation between B7-H3 on tumor cells and the number of Tregs in the tumor microenvironment in NSCLC. B7-H3 was examined in tumor tissues from 110 patients with NSCLC by immunohistochemical analysis. Forkhead box P3+ (FOXP3+) Tregs in those spencimens were also detected and numbered. Survival curves were drawn using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by the log-rank test. High B7-H3 expression in tumor cells significantly correlated with male gender, squamous NSCLC, advanced stage and shorter overall survival (OS) (P = 0.035, P = 0.004, P = 0.037, P = 0.014, respectively). Meanwhile, FOXP3 expression in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) was associated with male gender, regional lymph node involvement, advanced stage and worse OS (P = 0.009, P = 0.015, P = 0.014, P = 0.034, respectively). Significant correlation was identified between the expression of B7-H3 and the number of FOXP3+ TILs (P = 0.013). Patients with B7-H3 high/FOXP3 high had poorer OS (P = 0.006), suggesting that B7-H3 and Tregs may play a cooperatively role in tumor immune evasion, leading to poor outcomes for NSCLC patients. PMID:26823710

  13. Human decidual macrophages suppress IFN-γ production by T cells through costimulatory B7-H1:PD-1 signaling in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sayama, Seisuke; Nagamatsu, Takeshi; Schust, Danny J; Itaoka, Naoko; Ichikawa, Mayuko; Kawana, Kei; Yamashita, Takahiro; Kozuma, Shiro; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2013-12-01

    In human pregnancy, CD14⁺ decidual macrophages (DMs) are the dominant professional antigen-presenting cells in the decidua, comprising 20-30% of the local leukocyte population. Although the relevance of DMs to feto-maternal immune tolerance has been described, the molecular mechanisms underlying these functions have not been fully elucidated. B7-H1, a costimulatory ligand in the B7 family, negatively modulates T cell activity by binding to its corresponding receptor, PD-1. The present study aimed to investigate the functional significance of costimulatory interactions between DMs and T cells, with a particular focus on B7-H1:PD-1 signaling. An analysis of the expression profile of B7 ligands on human DMs revealed that B7-H1 was present on DMs isolated from early but not term pregnancies. B7-H1 was not expressed on the peripheral monocytes (PMs) of pregnant women. In response to IFN-γ, B7-H1 expression was induced on PMs and was enhanced on DMs, suggesting that this cytokine might be a key factor in the control of B7-H1 expression in the decidua. The majority of decidual T cells were noted to exhibit robust expression of PD-1, whereas the expression was limited to a small subpopulation of circulating T cells. Functional assays demonstrated that DMs are able to suppress T cell IFN-γ production via B7-H1:PD-1 interactions. This suppressive property was not observed for PMs, which lack B7-H1. B7-H1 on DMs may function as a key regulator of local IFN-γ production and thereby contribute to the development of appropriate maternal immune responses to the fetus in early pregnancy. PMID:24045115

  14. Fourier Analysis of Musical Intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2008-11-01

    Use of a microphone attached to a computer to capture musical sounds and software to display their waveforms and harmonic spectra has become somewhat commonplace. A recent article in The Physics Teacher aptly demonstrated the use of MacScope2 in just such a manner as a way to teach Fourier analysis.3 A logical continuation of this project is to use MacScope not just to analyze the Fourier composition of musical tones but also musical intervals.

  15. An Event Restriction Interval Theory of Tense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beamer, Brandon Robert

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents a novel theory of tense and tense-like constructions. It is named after a key theoretical component of the theory, the event restriction interval. In Event Restriction Interval (ERI) Theory, sentences are semantically evaluated relative to an index which contains two key intervals, the evaluation interval and the event…

  16. The proto-oncogene Myc drives expression of the NK cell-activating NKp30 ligand B7-H6 in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Textor, Sonja; Bossler, Felicitas; Henrich, Kai-Oliver; Gartlgruber, Moritz; Pollmann, Julia; Fiegler, Nathalie; Arnold, Annette; Westermann, Frank; Waldburger, Nina; Breuhahn, Kai; Golfier, Sven; Witzens-Harig, Mathias; Cerwenka, Adelheid

    2016-07-01

    Natural Killer (NK) cells are innate effector cells that are able to recognize and eliminate tumor cells through engagement of their surface receptors. NKp30 is a potent activating NK cell receptor that elicits efficient NK cell-mediated target cell killing. Recently, B7-H6 was identified as tumor cell surface expressed ligand for NKp30. Enhanced B7-H6 mRNA levels are frequently detected in tumor compared to healthy tissues. To gain insight in the regulation of expression of B7-H6 in tumors, we investigated transcriptional mechanisms driving B7-H6 expression by promoter analyses. Using luciferase reporter assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation we mapped a functional binding site for Myc, a proto-oncogene overexpressed in certain tumors, in the B7-H6 promoter. Pharmacological inhibition or siRNA/shRNA-mediated knock-down of c-Myc or N-Myc significantly decreased B7-H6 expression on a variety of tumor cells including melanoma, pancreatic carcinoma and neuroblastoma cell lines. In tumor cell lines from different origin and primary tumor tissues of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), lymphoma and neuroblastoma, mRNA levels of c-Myc positively correlated with B7-H6 expression. Most importantly, upon inhibition or knock-down of c-Myc in tumor cells impaired NKp30-mediated degranulation of NK cells was observed. Thus, our data imply that Myc driven tumors could be targets for cancer immunotherapy exploiting the NKp30/B7-H6 axis. PMID:27622013

  17. Triptolide inhibits B7-H1 expression on proinflammatory factor activated renal tubular epithelial cells by decreasing NF-kappaB transcription.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongwen; Zhang, Jingbo; Li, Jingyi; Zhao, Tingting; Zou, Liyun; Tang, Yan; Zhang, Xiaoping; Wu, Yuzhang

    2006-03-01

    Triptolide has been used extensively in China for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and tumor for many centuries. Nevertheless, little is known about its exact immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties. Increasing recognition of the importance of renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs) in renal diseases raises the question whether triptolide can regulate TEC activity. In this study, various cultured human and murine TECs were exposed to tumor necrotic factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and triptolide, followed to examine the expression of B7-H1 and B7-DC. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that B7-H1 but not B7-DC constitutively expresses on TECs, and the B7-H1 protein expression was profoundly up-regulated by the stimulation of TNF-alpha with a dose-dependent manner. However, triptolide under non-cytotoxic concentration could down-regulate B7-H1 expression on activated TECs at both mRNA and protein level. This effect was transcription factor NF-kappaB dependent. Interestingly, the significant damping effect of triptolide on B7-H1 signal could promote interleukin-2 production by T cell hybridoma (C10) after antigen presentation and enhance cytokine (IFN-gamma and IL-2) secretion by anti-CD3 activated T cells. Our results indicated that triptolide could regulate TEC activity via B7-H1, in addition to previously reported it directly affects the production of some inflammatory factors by T cells, tumor cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. PMID:16129490

  18. High resolution time interval counter

    DOEpatents

    Condreva, Kenneth J.

    1994-01-01

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured.

  19. High resolution time interval counter

    DOEpatents

    Condreva, K.J.

    1994-07-26

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured. 3 figs.

  20. Orders on Intervals Over Partially Ordered Sets: Extending Allen's Algebra and Interval Graph Results

    SciTech Connect

    Zapata, Francisco; Kreinovich, Vladik; Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.

    2013-08-01

    To make a decision, we need to compare the values of quantities. In many practical situations, we know the values with interval uncertainty. In such situations, we need to compare intervals. Allen’s algebra describes all possible relations between intervals on the real line, and ordering relations between such intervals are well studied. In this paper, we extend this description to intervals in an arbitrary partially ordered set (poset). In particular, we explicitly describe ordering relations between intervals that generalize relation between points. As auxiliary results, we provide a logical interpretation of the relation between intervals, and extend the results about interval graphs to intervals over posets.

  1. Pigeons' Choices between Fixed-Interval and Random-Interval Schedules: Utility of Variability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrzejewski, Matthew E.; Cardinal, Claudia D.; Field, Douglas P.; Flannery, Barbara A.; Johnson, Michael; Bailey, Kathleen; Hineline, Philip N.

    2005-01-01

    Pigeons' choosing between fixed-interval and random-interval schedules of reinforcement was investigated in three experiments using a discrete-trial procedure. In all three experiments, the random-interval schedule was generated by sampling a probability distribution at an interval (and in multiples of the interval) equal to that of the…

  2. The PD-1/B7-H1 Pathway Modulates the Natural Killer Cells versus Mouse Glioma Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Wen Jing; Yu, Chun Jiang; Li, Jun Fa; Qu, Yan Ming; Han, Song

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant primary type of brain tumor in adults. There has been increased focus on the immunotherapies to treat GBM patients, the therapeutic value of natural killer (NK) cells is still unknown. Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is a major immunological checkpoint that can negatively regulate the T-cell-mediated immune response. We tested the combination of the inhibiting the PD-1/B7H1 pathway with a NK-cell mediated immune response in an orthotopic mouse model of GBM. Methods and Materials Mouse glioma stem cells (GL261GSCs) and mouse NK cells were isolated and identified. A lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay was perfomed to detect the cytotoxicity of NK cells against GL261GSCs. GL261GSCs were intracranially implanted into mice, and the mice were stratified into 3 treatment groups: 1) control, 2) NK cells treatment, and 3) PD-1 inhibited NK cells treatment group. Overall survival was quantified, and animal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to determine tumor growth. The brains were harvested after the mice were euthanized, and immunohistochemistry against CD45 and PCNA was performed. Results The mouse NK cells were identified as 90% CD3- NK1.1+CD335+ by flow cytometric analysis. In the LDH assay, the ratios of the damaged GL261GSCs, with the E:T ratios of 2.5:1, 5:1, and 10:1, were as follows: 1) non-inhibited group: 7.42%, 11.31%, and 15.1%, 2) B7H1 inhibited group: 14.75%, 18.25% and 29.1%, 3) PD-1 inhibited group: 15.53%, 19.21% and 29.93%, 4) double inhibited group: 33.24%, 42.86% and 54.91%. In the in vivo experiments, the mice in the PD-1 inhibited NK cells treatment group and IL-2-stimulated-NK cells treatment group displayed a slowest tumor growth (F = 308.5, P<0.01) and a slower tumor growth compared with control group (F = 118.9, P<0.01), respectively. The median survival of the mice in the three groups were as follows: 1) conrol group: 29 days, 2) NK cells treatment group: 35 days (P = 0.0012), 3) PD

  3. Inactivation of FBXW7/hCDC4-β expression by promoter hypermethylation is associated with favorable prognosis in primary breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Mutational inactivation of the FBXW7/hCDC4 tumor suppressor gene (TSG) is common in many cancer types, but infrequent in breast cancers. This study investigates the presence and impact of FBXW7/hCDC4 promoter methylation in breast cancer. Methods FBXW7/hCDC4-β expression and promoter methylation was assessed in 161 tumors from two independent breast cancer cohorts. Associations between methylation status and clinicopathologic characteristics were assessed by Fisher's exact test. Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method in addition to modeling the risk by use of a multivariate proportional hazard (Cox) model adjusting for possible confounders of survival. Results Methylation of the promoter and loss of mRNA expression was found both in cell lines and primary tumors (43% and 51%, respectively). Using Cox modeling, a trend was found towards decreased hazard ratio (HR) for death in women with methylation of FBXW7/hCDC4-β in both cohorts (HR 0.53 (95% CI 0.23 to 1.23) and HR 0.50 (95% CI 0.23 to 1.08), respectively), despite an association between methylation and high-grade tumors (P = 0.017). Interestingly, in subgroups of patients whose tumors are p53 mutated or lymph-node positive, promoter methylation identified patients with significantly improved survival (P = 0.048 and P = 0.017, respectively). Conclusions We demonstrate an alternative mechanism for inactivation of the TSG FBXW7/hCDC4, namely promoter specific methylation. Importantly, in breast cancer, methylation of FBXW7/hCDC4-β is related to favorable prognosis despite its association with poorly differentiated tumors. Future work may define whether FBXW7/hCDC4 methylation is a biomarker of the response to chemotherapy and a target for epigenetic modulation therapy. PMID:21122106

  4. Comparison of the Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube with MB Redox, Löwenstein-Jensen, and Middlebrook 7H11 Media for Recovery of Mycobacteria in Clinical Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Somoskövi, Ákos; Magyar, Pál

    1999-01-01

    The rate of recovery and the mean time to detection of mycobacteria in clinical specimens were evaluated with two nonradiometric broth-based systems, the Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) and MB Redox systems. The data obtained for each system were compared with each other and with those obtained with the Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) and Middlebrook 7H11 reference media. A total of 117 mycobacterial isolates (Mycobacterium tuberculosis, n = 112; nontuberculous mycobacteria, n = 5) were detected in 486 clinical specimens. The recovery rates for M. tuberculosis were 91 of 112 (81.3%) isolates with MGIT and 81 of 112 (72.3%) isolates with MB Redox. The combination of MGIT plus MB Redox recovered 104 of the 112 (92.9%) M. tuberculosis isolates. MGIT plus LJ plus Middlebrook 7H11 recovered 106 of the 112 (94.6%) isolates, MB Redox plus LJ plus Middlebrook 7H11 recovered 99 of the 112 (88.4%) isolates, and LJ plus Middlebrook 7H11 recovered 84 of the 112 (75.0%) isolates. The mean time to detection of M. tuberculosis in smear-positive specimens was 7.2 days with MGIT, 6.9 days with MB Redox, 20.4 days with LJ, and 17.6 days with Middlebrook 7H11. The mean time to detection of M. tuberculosis in smear-negative specimens was 19.1 days with MGIT, 15.5 days with MB Redox, 25.8 days with LJ, and 21.6 days with Middlebrook 7H11. The contamination rates were 4.4, 3.8, 2.1, and 2.7% for MGIT, MB Redox, LJ, and Middlebrook 7H11, respectively. In conclusion, MGIT and MB Redox can be viable tools in the routine mycobacteriology laboratory. PMID:10203488

  5. Identifying microRNAs regulating B7-H3 in breast cancer: the clinical impact of microRNA-29c

    PubMed Central

    Nygren, M K; Tekle, C; Ingebrigtsen, V A; Mäkelä, R; Krohn, M; Aure, M R; Nunes-Xavier, C E; Perälä, M; Tramm, T; Alsner, J; Overgaard, J; Nesland, J M; Borgen, E; Børresen-Dale, A-L; Fodstad, Ø; Sahlberg, K K; Leivonen, S-K

    2014-01-01

    Background: B7-H3, an immunoregulatory protein, is overexpressed in several cancers and is often associated with metastasis and poor prognosis. Here, our aim was to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) regulating B7-H3 and assess their potential prognostic implications in breast cancer. Methods: MicroRNAs targeting B7-H3 were identified by transfecting two breast cancer cell lines with a library of 810 miRNA mimics and quantifying changes of B7-H3 protein levels using protein lysate microarrays. For validations we used western immunoblotting and 3′-UTR luciferase assays. Clinical significance of the miRNAs was assayed by analysing whether their expression levels correlated with outcome in two cohorts of breast cancer patients (142 and 81 patients). Results: We identified nearly 50 miRNAs that downregulated B7-H3 protein levels. Western immunoblotting validated the impact of the 20 most effective miRNAs. Thirteen miRNAs (miR-214, miR-363*, miR-326, miR-940, miR-29c, miR-665, miR-34b*, miR-708, miR-601, miR-124a, miR-380-5p, miR-885-3p, and miR-593) targeted B7-H3 directly by binding to its 3′-UTR region. Finally, high expression of miR-29c was associated with a significant reduced risk of dying from breast cancer in both cohorts. Conclusions: We identified miRNAs efficiently downregulating B7-H3 expression. The expression of miR-29c correlated with survival in breast cancer patients, suggesting a tumour suppressive role for this miRNA. PMID:24577056

  6. PI3K-delta mediates double-stranded RNA-induced upregulation of B7-H1 in BEAS-2B airway epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kan-o, Keiko; Matsumoto, Koichiro; Asai-Tajiri, Yukari; Fukuyama, Satoru; Hamano, Saaka; Seki, Nanae; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Inoue, Hiromasa

    2013-05-31

    Highlights: •Double-stranded RNA upregulates B7-H1 on BEAS-2B airway epithelial cells. •The upregulation of B7-H1 is attenuated by inhibition of PI3Kδ isoform. •PI3Kδ-mediated upregulation of B7-H1 is independent of NF-κB activation. •Inhibition of PI3Kδ may prevent persistent viral infection induced by B7-H1. -- Abstract: Airway viral infection disturbs the health-related quality of life. B7-H1 (also known as PD-L1) is a coinhibitory molecule associated with the escape of viruses from the mucosal immunity, leading to persistent infection. Most respiratory viruses generate double-stranded (ds) RNA during replication. The stimulation of cultured airway epithelial cells with an analog of viral dsRNA, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly IC) upregulates the expression of B7-H1 via activation of the nuclear factor κB(NF-κB). The mechanism of upregulation was investigated in association with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks). Poly IC-induced upregulation of B7-H1 was profoundly suppressed by a pan-PI3K inhibitor and partially by an inhibitor or a small interfering (si)RNA for PI3Kδ in BEAS-2B cells. Similar results were observed in the respiratory syncytial virus-infected cells. The expression of p110δ was detected by Western blot and suppressed by pretreatment with PI3Kδ siRNA. The activation of PI3Kδ is typically induced by oxidative stress. The generation of reactive oxygen species was increased by poly IC. Poly IC-induced upregulation of B7-H1 was attenuated by N-acetyl-L-cysteine, an antioxidant, or by oxypurinol, an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase. Poly IC-induced activation of NF-κB was suppressed by a pan-PI3K inhibitor but not by a PI3Kδ inhibitor. These results suggest that PI3Kδ mediates dsRNA-induced upregulation of B7-H1 without affecting the activation of NF-κB.

  7. Raman Spectroscopy of a-C:H Films Deposited Using Ar + H2 + C7H8 Plasma CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiao; Koga, Kazunori; Yamashita, Daisuke; Seo, Hyunwoong; Itagaki, Naho; Shiratani, Masaharu; Setsuhara, Yuichi; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the effects of ion energy on Raman spectra of a-C:H films prepared by Ar + H2 + C7H8 plasma CVD. Raman spectra were measured with a laser Raman spectrometer (JASCO NRS-3100). Both the D-peak position and G-peak position shift toward higher wavenumbers as ion energy increases. The intensity ratio of the D-peak and G-peak, ID/IG increases with increasing the ion energy, indicating that the amount of ring-like sp2 clusters increases. The H content in a-C:H derived from photoluminescence (PL) background decreases with increasing the ion energy. The full width at half maximum of the G-peak, FWHMG related to the C-C sp3 content and H content increases with increasing the ion energy to 100 eV, whereas it decreases with increasing further the ion energy to 105 eV. The variation of FWHMG is consistent with that of mass density. There results indicate that the structure of a-C:H films transforms from polymer-like carbon to diamond-like one with increasing the ion energy above the threshold value of ~ 100 eV.

  8. Min and Max Extreme Interval Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jance, Marsha L.; Thomopoulos, Nick T.

    2011-01-01

    The paper shows how to find the min and max extreme interval values for the exponential and triangular distributions from the min and max uniform extreme interval values. Tables are provided to show the min and max extreme interval values for the uniform, exponential, and triangular distributions for different probabilities and observation sizes.

  9. Familiarity-Frequency Ratings of Melodic Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffries, Thomas B.

    1972-01-01

    Objective of this study was to determine subjects' reliability in rating randomly played ascending and descending melodic intervals within the octave on the basis of their familiarity with each type of interval and the frequency of their having experienced each type of interval in music. (Author/CB)

  10. Confidence Intervals in Qtl Mapping by Bootstrapping

    PubMed Central

    Visscher, P. M.; Thompson, R.; Haley, C. S.

    1996-01-01

    The determination of empirical confidence intervals for the location of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) was investigated using simulation. Empirical confidence intervals were calculated using a bootstrap resampling method for a backcross population derived from inbred lines. Sample sizes were either 200 or 500 individuals, and the QTL explained 1, 5, or 10% of the phenotypic variance. The method worked well in that the proportion of empirical confidence intervals that contained the simulated QTL was close to expectation. In general, the confidence intervals were slightly conservatively biased. Correlations between the test statistic and the width of the confidence interval were strongly negative, so that the stronger the evidence for a QTL segregating, the smaller the empirical confidence interval for its location. The size of the average confidence interval depended heavily on the population size and the effect of the QTL. Marker spacing had only a small effect on the average empirical confidence interval. The LOD drop-off method to calculate empirical support intervals gave confidence intervals that generally were too small, in particular if confidence intervals were calculated only for samples above a certain significance threshold. The bootstrap method is easy to implement and is useful in the analysis of experimental data. PMID:8725246

  11. Immune evasion of mantle cell lymphoma: expression of B7-H1 leads to inhibited T-cell response to and killing of tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijuan; Qian, Jianfei; Lu, Yong; Li, Haiyan; Bao, Hanying; He, Donghua; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Yuhuan; He, Jin; Li, Yi; Neelapu, Sattva; Yang, Jing; Kwak, Larry W.; Yi, Qing; Cai, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Clinical trials of immunotherapy in mantle cell lymphoma have not yet delivered desirable results, partly because of the inhibitory machinery of the tumor and its microenvironment. Here we investigated the role of B7-H1, a member of the B7 family of co-stimulatory/co-inhibitory ligands, in mantle cell lymphoma-mediated immunosuppression. Allogeneic CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were purified and co-cultured with irradiated mantle cell lymphoma cells. Mantle cell lymphoma-reactive T-cell lines from HLA-A*0201+ healthy blood donors were generated after in vitro restimulation, and were subjected to functional tests. We found that B7-H1 expressed on mantle cell lymphoma cells was able to inhibit T-cell proliferation induced by the tumor cells, impair the generation of antigen-specific T-cell responses, and render mantle cell lymphoma cells resistant to T-cell-mediated cytolysis. Blocking or knocking down B7-H1 on mantle cell lymphoma cells enhanced T-cell responses and restored tumor-cell sensitivity to T-cell-mediated killing in vitro and in vivo. Knocking down B7-H1 on mantle cell lymphoma cells primed more CD4+ or CD8+ memory effector T cells. Our study demonstrates for the first time that lymphoma cell-expressed B7-H1 may lead to the suppression of host anti-tumor immune responses in mantle cell lymphoma and targeting tumor cell B7-H1 may represent a novel approach to improve the efficacy of immunotherapy in patients with mantle cell lymphoma. PMID:23508008

  12. B7-H1 Selectively Controls TH17 Differentiation and Central Nervous System Autoimmunity via a Novel Non-PD-1-Mediated Pathway.

    PubMed

    Herold, Martin; Posevitz, Vilmos; Chudyka, Daria; Hucke, Stephanie; Groß, Catharina; Kurth, Frank; Leder, Christoph; Loser, Karin; Kurts, Christian; Knolle, Percy; Klotz, Luisa; Wiendl, Heinz

    2015-10-15

    It is currently acknowledged that TH17 cells are critically involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). In this article, we demonstrate that signals delivered by the coinhibitory molecule B7-homologue 1 (B7-H1) via a B7-homologue 1 mouse-IgG2aFc (B7-H1-Ig) fusion protein nearly abolish TH17, but not TH1 and TH2, differentiation via direct interaction with the T cell. These effects were equally pronounced in the absence of programmed death-1 or B7.1 and B7.2 on the T cell side, thus providing clear evidence that B7-H1 modulates T cell differentiation via a novel receptor. Mechanistically, B7-H1 interfered with early TCR-mediated signaling and cytokine-mediated induction of the TH17-determining transcription factors retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γ t and IFN regulator factor-4 in a programmed death-1 and B7-independent fashion. In an animal model of MS, active myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, B7-H1-Ig exhibited a significant and long-lasting effect on disease severity upon administration during the first 5 d of the priming phase, which was accompanied by reduced TH17 responses in the periphery and within the CNS. Importantly, B7-H1-Ig was even capable of interfering with T cell encephalitogenicity when interaction with the T cells occurred after priming using an adoptive transfer experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model. In line with this, both naive human CD4(+) T cells and differentiated TH17 effector cells from MS patients were highly sensitive toward B7-H1-Ig-mediated TH17 suppression. Together, we propose the existence of a novel B7-H1-mediated immune-regulatory pathway in T cells, which selectively limits murine and human TH17 cell responses and might be therapeutically exploited to control TH17-mediated autoimmunity. PMID:26378076

  13. DETERMINING TITAN'S SPIN STATE FROM CASSINI RADAR IMAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Stiles, Bryan W.; Hensley, Scott; Ostro, Steven J.; Callahan, Philip S.; Gim, Yonggyu; Hamilton, Gary; Johnson, William T. K.; West, Richard D.; Kirk, Randolph L.; Lee, Ella; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Allison, Michael D.; Iess, Luciano; Del Marmo, Paolo Perci

    2008-05-15

    For some 19 areas of Titan's surface, the Cassini RADAR instrument has obtained synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images during two different flybys. The time interval between flybys varies from several weeks to two years. We have used the apparent misregistration (by 10-30 km) of features between separate flybys to construct a refined model of Titan's spin state, estimating six parameters: north pole right ascension and declination, spin rate, and these quantities' first time derivatives We determine a pole location with right ascension of 39.48 degrees and declination of 83.43 degrees corresponding to a 0.3 degree obliquity. We determine the spin rate to be 22.5781 deg day{sup -1} or 0.001 deg day{sup -1} faster than the synchronous spin rate. Our estimated corrections to the pole and spin rate exceed their corresponding standard errors by factors of 80 and 8, respectively. We also found that the rate of change in the pole right ascension is -30 deg century{sup -1}, ten times faster than right ascension rate of change for the orbit normal. The spin rate is increasing at a rate of 0.05 deg day{sup -1} per century. We observed no significant change in pole declination over the period for which we have data. Applying our pole correction reduces the feature misregistration from tens of km to 3 km. Applying the spin rate and derivative corrections further reduces the misregistration to 1.2 km.

  14. Determining titan's spin state from cassini radar images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stiles, B.W.; Kirk, R.L.; Lorenz, R.D.; Hensley, S.; Lee, E.; Ostro, S.J.; Allison, M.D.; Callahan, P.S.; Gim, Y.; Iess, L.; Del Marmo, P.P.; Hamilton, G.; Johnson, W.T.K.; West, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    For some 19 areas of Titan's surface, the Cassini RADAR instrument has obtained synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images during two different flybys. The time interval between flybys varies from several weeks to two years. We have used the apparent misregistration (by 10-30 km) of features between separate flybys to construct a refined model of Titan's spin state, estimating six parameters: north pole right ascension and declination, spin rate, and these quantities' first time derivatives We determine a pole location with right ascension of 39.48 degrees and declination of 83.43 degrees corresponding to a 0.3 degree obliquity. We determine the spin rate to be 22.5781 deg day -1 or 0.001 deg day-1 faster than the synchronous spin rate. Our estimated corrections to the pole and spin rate exceed their corresponding standard errors by factors of 80 and 8, respectively. We also found that the rate of change in the pole right ascension is -30 deg century-1, ten times faster than right ascension rate of change for the orbit normal. The spin rate is increasing at a rate of 0.05 deg day -1 per century. We observed no significant change in pole declination over the period for which we have data. Applying our pole correction reduces the feature misregistration from tens of km to 3 km. Applying the spin rate and derivative corrections further reduces the misregistration to 1.2 km. ?? 2008. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Intervals in evolutionary algorithms for global optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, R.B.

    1995-05-01

    Optimization is of central concern to a number of disciplines. Interval Arithmetic methods for global optimization provide us with (guaranteed) verified results. These methods are mainly restricted to the classes of objective functions that are twice differentiable and use a simple strategy of eliminating a splitting larger regions of search space in the global optimization process. An efficient approach that combines the efficient strategy from Interval Global Optimization Methods and robustness of the Evolutionary Algorithms is proposed. In the proposed approach, search begins with randomly created interval vectors with interval widths equal to the whole domain. Before the beginning of the evolutionary process, fitness of these interval parameter vectors is defined by evaluating the objective function at the center of the initial interval vectors. In the subsequent evolutionary process the local optimization process returns an estimate of the bounds of the objective function over the interval vectors. Though these bounds may not be correct at the beginning due to large interval widths and complicated function properties, the process of reducing interval widths over time and a selection approach similar to simulated annealing helps in estimating reasonably correct bounds as the population evolves. The interval parameter vectors at these estimated bounds (local optima) are then subjected to crossover and mutation operators. This evolutionary process continues for predetermined number of generations in the search of the global optimum.

  16. Interval velocity analysis using wave field continuation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhusheng, Z. )

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the author proposes a new interval velocity inversion method which, based on wave field continuation theory and fuzzy decision theory, uses CMP seismic gathers to automatically estimate interval velocity and two-way travel time in layered medium. The interval velocity calculated directly from wave field continuation is not well consistent with that derived from VSP data, the former is usually higher than the latter. Three major factors which influence the accuracy of interval velocity from wave field continuation are corrected, so that the two kinds of interval velocity are well consistent. This method brings better interval velocity, adapts weak reflection waves and resists noise well. It is a feasible method.

  17. Tumor Therapeutics Work as Stress Inducers to Enhance Tumor Sensitivity to Natural Killer (NK) Cell Cytolysis by Up-regulating NKp30 Ligand B7-H6.

    PubMed

    Cao, Guoshuai; Wang, Jian; Zheng, Xiaodong; Wei, Haiming; Tian, Zhigang; Sun, Rui

    2015-12-11

    Immune cells are believed to participate in initiating anti-tumor effects during regular tumor therapy such as chemotherapy, radiation, hyperthermia, and cytokine injection. One of the mechanisms underlying this process is the expression of so-called stress-inducible immunostimulating ligands. Although the activating receptor NKG2D has been proven to play roles in tumor therapy through targeting its ligands, the role of NKp30, another key activating receptor, is seldom addressed. In this study, we found that the NKp30 ligand B7-H6 was widely expressed in tumor cells and closely correlated to their susceptibility to NK cell lysis. Further studies showed that treatment of tumor cells with almost all standard tumor therapeutics, including chemotherapy (cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil), radiation therapy, non-lethal heat shock, and cytokine therapy (TNF-α), could up-regulate the expression of B7-H6 in tumor cells and enhance tumor sensitivity to NK cell cytolysis. B7-H6 shRNA treatment effectively dampened sensitization of tumor cells to NK-mediated lysis. Our study not only reveals the possibility that tumor therapeutics work as stress inducers to enhance tumor sensitivity to NK cell cytolysis but also suggests that B7-H6 could be a potential target for tumor therapy in the future. PMID:26472927

  18. Capacitated max -Batching with Interval Graph Compatibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonner, Tim

    We consider the problem of partitioning interval graphs into cliques of bounded size. Each interval has a weight, and the weight of a clique is the maximum weight of any interval in the clique. This natural graph problem can be interpreted as a batch scheduling problem. Solving a long-standing open problem, we show NP-hardness, even if the bound on the clique sizes is constant. Moreover, we give a PTAS based on a novel dynamic programming technique for this case.

  19. A note on the path interval distance.

    PubMed

    Coons, Jane Ivy; Rusinko, Joseph

    2016-06-01

    The path interval distance accounts for global congruence between locally incongruent trees. We show that the path interval distance provides a lower bound for the nearest neighbor interchange distance. In contrast to the Robinson-Foulds distance, random pairs of trees are unlikely to be maximally distant from one another under the path interval distance. These features indicate that the path interval distance should play a role in phylogenomics where the comparison of trees on a fixed set of taxa is becoming increasingly important. PMID:27040521

  20. Interval and Contour Processing in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    High functioning children with autism and age and intelligence matched controls participated in experiments testing perception of pitch intervals and musical contours. The finding from the interval study showed superior detection of pitch direction over small pitch distances in the autism group. On the test of contour discrimination no group…

  1. SINGLE-INTERVAL GAS PERMEABILITY ESTIMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Single-interval, steady-steady-state gas permeability testing requires estimation of pressure at a screened interval which in turn requires measurement of friction factors as a function of mass flow rate. Friction factors can be obtained by injecting air through a length of pipe...

  2. Optimal Approximation of Quadratic Interval Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshelev, Misha; Taillibert, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    Measurements are never absolutely accurate, as a result, after each measurement, we do not get the exact value of the measured quantity; at best, we get an interval of its possible values, For dynamically changing quantities x, the additional problem is that we cannot measure them continuously; we can only measure them at certain discrete moments of time t(sub 1), t(sub 2), ... If we know that the value x(t(sub j)) at a moment t(sub j) of the last measurement was in the interval [x-(t(sub j)), x + (t(sub j))], and if we know the upper bound D on the rate with which x changes, then, for any given moment of time t, we can conclude that x(t) belongs to the interval [x-(t(sub j)) - D (t - t(sub j)), x + (t(sub j)) + D (t - t(sub j))]. This interval changes linearly with time, an is, therefore, called a linear interval function. When we process these intervals, we get an expression that is quadratic and higher order w.r.t. time t, Such "quadratic" intervals are difficult to process and therefore, it is necessary to approximate them by linear ones. In this paper, we describe an algorithm that gives the optimal approximation of quadratic interval functions by linear ones.

  3. Constructing Confidence Intervals for Qtl Location

    PubMed Central

    Mangin, B.; Goffinet, B.; Rebai, A.

    1994-01-01

    We describe a method for constructing the confidence interval of the QTL location parameter. This method is developed in the local asymptotic framework, leading to a linear model at each position of the putative QTL. The idea is to construct a likelihood ratio test, using statistics whose asymptotic distribution does not depend on the nuisance parameters and in particular on the effect of the QTL. We show theoretical properties of the confidence interval built with this test, and compare it with the classical confidence interval using simulations. We show in particular, that our confidence interval has the correct probability of containing the true map location of the QTL, for almost all QTLs, whereas the classical confidence interval can be very biased for QTLs having small effect. PMID:7896108

  4. Interval colorectal carcinoma: An unsolved debate

    PubMed Central

    Benedict, Mark; Neto, Antonio Galvao; Zhang, Xuchen

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC), as the third most common new cancer diagnosis, poses a significant health risk to the population. Interval CRCs are those that appear after a negative screening test or examination. The development of interval CRCs has been shown to be multifactorial: location of exam-academic institution versus community hospital, experience of the endoscopist, quality of the procedure, age of the patient, flat versus polypoid neoplasia, genetics, hereditary gastrointestinal neoplasia, and most significantly missed or incompletely excised lesions. The rate of interval CRCs has decreased in the last decade, which has been ascribed to an increased understanding of interval disease and technological advances in the screening of high risk individuals. In this article, we aim to review the literature with regard to the multifactorial nature of interval CRCs and provide the most recent developments regarding this important gastrointestinal entity. PMID:26668498

  5. Interval colorectal carcinoma: An unsolved debate.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Mark; Galvao Neto, Antonio; Zhang, Xuchen

    2015-12-01

    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC), as the third most common new cancer diagnosis, poses a significant health risk to the population. Interval CRCs are those that appear after a negative screening test or examination. The development of interval CRCs has been shown to be multifactorial: location of exam-academic institution versus community hospital, experience of the endoscopist, quality of the procedure, age of the patient, flat versus polypoid neoplasia, genetics, hereditary gastrointestinal neoplasia, and most significantly missed or incompletely excised lesions. The rate of interval CRCs has decreased in the last decade, which has been ascribed to an increased understanding of interval disease and technological advances in the screening of high risk individuals. In this article, we aim to review the literature with regard to the multifactorial nature of interval CRCs and provide the most recent developments regarding this important gastrointestinal entity. PMID:26668498

  6. CONFIDENCE INTERVALS AND STANDARD ERROR INTERVALS: WHAT DO THEY MEAN IN TERMS OF STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigate the use of confidence intervals and standard error intervals to draw conclusions regarding tests of hypotheses about normal population means. Mathematical expressions and algebraic manipulations are given, and computer simulations are performed to assess the usefulness of confidence ...

  7. Physiology and its Importance for Reference Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Sikaris, Kenneth A

    2014-01-01

    Reference intervals are ideally defined on apparently healthy individuals and should be distinguished from clinical decision limits that are derived from known diseased patients. Knowledge of physiological changes is a prerequisite for understanding and developing reference intervals. Reference intervals may differ for various subpopulations because of differences in their physiology, most obviously between men and women, but also in childhood, pregnancy and the elderly. Changes in laboratory measurements may be due to various physiological factors starting at birth including weaning, the active toddler, immunological learning, puberty, pregnancy, menopause and ageing. The need to partition reference intervals is required when there are significant physiological changes that need to be recognised. It is important that laboratorians are aware of these changes otherwise reference intervals that attempt to cover a widened inter-individual variability may lose their usefulness. It is virtually impossible for any laboratory to directly develop reference intervals for each of the physiological changes that are currently known, however indirect techniques can be used to develop or validate reference intervals in some difficult situations such as those for children. Physiology describes our life’s journey, and it is only when we are familiar with that journey that we can appreciate a pathological departure. PMID:24659833

  8. Interval Estimates of Multivariate Effect Sizes: Coverage and Interval Width Estimates under Variance Heterogeneity and Nonnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Melinda R.; Hogarty, Kristine Y.; Ferron, John M.; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.

    2007-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods were used to examine techniques for constructing confidence intervals around multivariate effect sizes. Using interval inversion and bootstrapping methods, confidence intervals were constructed around the standard estimate of Mahalanobis distance (D[superscript 2]), two bias-adjusted estimates of D[superscript 2], and Huberty's…

  9. Crystal structure of a new amine nitrate: 4-dimethylaminopyridinium nitrate (C{sub 7}H{sub 11}N{sub 2})NO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Benhassan, D. Rekik, W.; Naïli, H.; Ślepokura, Katarzyna

    2015-12-15

    The title compound (C{sub 7}H{sub 11}N{sub 2})NO{sub 3} (I) was obtained by the slow evaporation method at room temperature. Its crystal structure consists of organic cations (C{sub 7}H{sub 11}N{sub 2}){sup +} and nitrate anions (NO{sub 3}){sup –} linked by two types of hydrogen bonds. Each monoprotonated nitrogen atom, called bifurcated, is engaged in two N–H···O hydrogen bonds with two symmetric oxygen atoms. In addition, the crystal structure stability is established by C–H···O hydrogen bonds that ensure the formation of infinite layers, parallel to (001) plane. These layers are related together through π···π interactions established between aromatic amines.

  10. Apoptosis induced by the Tibetan herbal remedy PADMA 28 in the T cell-derived lymphocytic leukaemia cell line CEM-C7H2

    PubMed Central

    Jenny, Marcel; Schwaiger, Wolfgang; Bernhard, David; Wrulich, Oliver A; Cosaceanu, Daria; Fuchs, Dietmar; Ueberall, Florian

    2005-01-01

    The Tibetan herbal remedy PADMA 28 revealed promising results to support treatment of atherosclerosis, Charot syndrome (intermittent claudication), chronic active hepatitis and infection of the respiratory tract. The remedy was confirmed to be closely linked with anti- and pro-oxidative properties in vitro. In this study, apoptogenic and survival effects of PADMA 28 were investigated in the T cell-derived lymphocytic leukaemia cell line CEM-C7H2. PADMA 28 led to a concentration-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation accompanied by the accumulation of CEM-C7H2 cells in subG1 phase, fragmentation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and nuclear body formation. Treatment with PADMA 28 rescued to some extent cells over-expressing Bcl-2 from apoptosis. This finding suggests that the mechanism of action of PADMA 28 may be via interference with Bcl-2 triggered survival pathways. PMID:16138918

  11. Importance of QT interval in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Ambhore, Anand; Teo, Swee-Guan; Bin Omar, Abdul Razakjr; Poh, Kian-Keong

    2014-12-01

    Long QT interval is an important finding that is often missed by electrocardiogram interpreters. Long QT syndrome (inherited and acquired) is a potentially lethal cardiac channelopathy that is frequently mistaken for epilepsy. We present a case of long QT syndrome with multiple cardiac arrests presenting as syncope and seizures. The long QTc interval was aggravated by hypomagnesaemia and drugs, including clarithromycin and levofloxacin. Multiple drugs can cause prolongation of the QT interval, and all physicians should bear this in mind when prescribing these drugs. PMID:25630313

  12. Short Interval Leaf Movements of Cotton 12

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Charles S.

    1975-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Lankart plants exhibited three different types of independent short interval leaf movements which were superimposed on the circadian movements. The different types were termed SIRV (short interval rhythmical vertical), SIHM (short interval horizontal movements), and SHAKE (short stroked SIRV). The 36-minute period SIRV movements occurred at higher moisture levels. The 176-minute period SIHM occurred at lower moisture levels and ceased as the stress increased. The SHAKE movements were initiated with further stresses. The SLEEP (circadian, diurnal) movements ceased with further stress. The last to cease just prior to permanent wilting were the SHAKE movements. PMID:16659123

  13. Development and Validation of a Liquid Medium (M7H9C) for Routine Culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis To Replace Modified Bactec 12B Medium

    PubMed Central

    Whittington, Ann-Michele; Waldron, Anna; Begg, Douglas J.; de Silva, Kumi; Purdie, Auriol C.; Plain, Karren M.

    2013-01-01

    Liquid culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from clinical samples, such as feces, is the most sensitive antemortem test for the diagnosis of Johne's disease in ruminants. In Australia, New Zealand, the United States, and some other countries, the Bactec 460 system with modified Bactec 12B medium (Becton, Dickinson) has been the most commonly used liquid culture system, but it was discontinued in 2012. In this study, a new liquid culture medium, M7H9C, was developed. It consists of a Middlebrook 7H9 medium base with added Casitone, albumin, dextrose, catalase, egg yolk, mycobactin J, and a cocktail of antibiotics. We found that polyoxyethylene stearate (POES) was not essential for the cultivation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in either the Bactec 12B or the M7H9C medium. The limit of detection determined using pure cultures of the C and S strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was 7 bacilli per 50 μl inoculum in the two media. The new medium was validated using 784 fecal and tissue samples from sheep and cattle, >25% of which contained viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Discrepant results for the clinical samples between the two media were mostly associated with samples that contained <10 viable bacilli per gram, but these results were relatively uncommon, and the performances of the two media were not significantly different. M7H9C medium was less than half the cost of the Bactec 12B medium and did not require regular examination during incubation, but a confirmatory IS900 PCR test had to be performed on every culture after the predetermined incubation period. PMID:24048541

  14. Development and validation of a liquid medium (M7H9C) for routine culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis to replace modified Bactec 12B medium.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Richard J; Whittington, Ann-Michele; Waldron, Anna; Begg, Douglas J; de Silva, Kumi; Purdie, Auriol C; Plain, Karren M

    2013-12-01

    Liquid culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from clinical samples, such as feces, is the most sensitive antemortem test for the diagnosis of Johne's disease in ruminants. In Australia, New Zealand, the United States, and some other countries, the Bactec 460 system with modified Bactec 12B medium (Becton, Dickinson) has been the most commonly used liquid culture system, but it was discontinued in 2012. In this study, a new liquid culture medium, M7H9C, was developed. It consists of a Middlebrook 7H9 medium base with added Casitone, albumin, dextrose, catalase, egg yolk, mycobactin J, and a cocktail of antibiotics. We found that polyoxyethylene stearate (POES) was not essential for the cultivation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in either the Bactec 12B or the M7H9C medium. The limit of detection determined using pure cultures of the C and S strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was 7 bacilli per 50 μl inoculum in the two media. The new medium was validated using 784 fecal and tissue samples from sheep and cattle, >25% of which contained viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Discrepant results for the clinical samples between the two media were mostly associated with samples that contained <10 viable bacilli per gram, but these results were relatively uncommon, and the performances of the two media were not significantly different. M7H9C medium was less than half the cost of the Bactec 12B medium and did not require regular examination during incubation, but a confirmatory IS900 PCR test had to be performed on every culture after the predetermined incubation period. PMID:24048541

  15. Comparison of the automated nonradiometric Bactec MGIT 960 system with Löwenstein-Jensen, Coletsos, and Middlebrook 7H11 solid media for recovery of mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Idigoras, P; Beristain, X; Iturzaeta, A; Vicente, D; Pérez-Trallero, E

    2000-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of as well as the time to detection of mycobacteria by three procedures: solid media with traditional reading, microscopy on solid media, and liquid culture using the automated nonradiometric Bactec MGIT 960 system. A total of 2832 respiratory specimens were tested, 315 of which were positive for mycobacteria. The most frequently isolated species was Mycobacterium tuberculosis (201 isolates). One hundred twenty mycobacteria other than tuberculosis were isolated, 72 of which were Mycobacterium xenopi strains. Sensitivity of each of the different media compared to all media combined for growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was 93%, 76.1%, 79.6%, and 75.1% for Bactec MGIT 960, Middlebrook 7H11 plates, Löwenstein-Jensen, and Coletsos, respectively. Sensitivity of the Bactec MGIT 960 for detection of all mycobacterial isolates was 75.1%. When this automated system was supplemented with visual inspection, the sensitivity increased to 89.4%. The sensitivity of Middlebrook 7H11 plates, Löwenstein-Jensen, and Coletsos was 50.8%, 60.7%, and 52.3%, respectively. Time to detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using the Bactec MGIT 960 system and Middlebrook 7H11 plates with microscopic reading was 12.7 and 13 days, respectively; using the traditional Löwenstein-Jensen and Coletsos media, time to detection was 22.8 and 22.7 days, respectively. PMID:10898135

  16. Crystal structure of magnesium selenate hepta­hydrate, MgSeO4·7H2O, from neutron time-of-flight data

    PubMed Central

    Fortes, A. Dominic; Gutmann, Matthias J.

    2014-01-01

    MgSeO4·7H2O is isostructural with the analogous sulfate, MgSO4·7H2O, consisting of isolated [Mg(H2O)6]2+ octa­hedra and [SeO4]2− tetra­hedra, linked by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, with a single inter­stitial lattice water mol­ecule. As in the sulfate, the [Mg(H2O)6]2+ coordination octa­hedron is elongated along one axis due to the tetra­hedral coordination of the two apical water mol­ecules; these have Mg—O distances of ∼2.10 Å, whereas the remaining four trigonally coordinated water mol­ecules have Mg—O distances of ∼2.05 Å. The mean Se—O bond length is 1.641 Å and is in excellent agreement with other selenates. The unit-cell volume of MgSeO4·7H2O at 10 K is 4.1% larger than that of the sulfate at 2 K, although this is not uniform; the greater part of the expansion is along the a axis of the crystal. PMID:25309161

  17. Environmental, Health and Safety Assessment: ATS 7H Program (Phase 3R) Test Activities at the GE Power Systems Gas Turbine Manufacturing Facility, Greenville, SC

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-17

    International Technology Corporation (IT) was contracted by General Electric Company (GE) to assist in the preparation of an Environmental, Health and Safety (HI&3) assessment of the implementation of Phase 3R of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) 7H program at the GE Gas Turbines facility located in Greenville, South Carolina. The assessment was prepared in accordance with GE's contractual agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (GE/DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-95MC3 1176) and supports compliance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1970. This report provides a summary of the EH&S review and includes the following: General description of current site operations and EH&S status, Description of proposed ATS 7H-related activities and discussion of the resulting environmental, health, safety and other impacts to the site and surrounding area. Listing of permits and/or licenses required to comply with federal, state and local regulations for proposed 7H-related activities. Assessment of adequacy of current and required permits, licenses, programs and/or plans.

  18. Calibration intervals at Bendix Kansas City

    SciTech Connect

    James, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    The calibration interval evaluation methods and control in each calibrating department of the Bendix Corp., Kansas City Division is described, and a more detailed description of those employed in metrology is provided.

  19. Intact Interval Timing in Circadian CLOCK Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Cordes, Sara; Gallistel, C. R.

    2008-01-01

    While progress has been made in determining the molecular basis for the circadian clock, the mechanism by which mammalian brains time intervals measured in seconds to minutes remains a mystery. An obvious question is whether the interval timing mechanism shares molecular machinery with the circadian timing mechanism. In the current study, we trained circadian CLOCK +/− and −/− mutant male mice in a peak-interval procedure with 10 and 20-s criteria. The mutant mice were more active than their wild-type littermates, but there were no reliable deficits in the accuracy or precision of their timing as compared with wild-type littermates. This suggests that expression of the CLOCK protein is not necessary for normal interval timing. PMID:18602902

  20. Combination of structural reliability and interval analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Zhiping; Yang, Di; Elishakoff, Isaac

    2008-02-01

    In engineering applications, probabilistic reliability theory appears to be presently the most important method, however, in many cases precise probabilistic reliability theory cannot be considered as adequate and credible model of the real state of actual affairs. In this paper, we developed a hybrid of probabilistic and non-probabilistic reliability theory, which describes the structural uncertain parameters as interval variables when statistical data are found insufficient. By using the interval analysis, a new method for calculating the interval of the structural reliability as well as the reliability index is introduced in this paper, and the traditional probabilistic theory is incorporated with the interval analysis. Moreover, the new method preserves the useful part of the traditional probabilistic reliability theory, but removes the restriction of its strict requirement on data acquisition. Example is presented to demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the proposed theory.

  1. Almost primes in almost all short intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TERÄVÄINEN, JONI

    2016-09-01

    Let $E_k$ be the set of positive integers having exactly $k$ prime factors. We show that almost all intervals $[x,x+\\log^{1+\\varepsilon} x]$ contain $E_3$ numbers, and almost all intervals $[x,x+\\log^{3.51} x]$ contain $E_2$ numbers. By this we mean that there are only $o(X)$ integers $1\\leq x\\leq X$ for which the mentioned intervals do not contain such numbers. The result for $E_3$ numbers is optimal up to the $\\varepsilon$ in the exponent. The theorem on $E_2$ numbers improves a result of Harman, which had the exponent $7+\\varepsilon$ in place of $3.51$. We will also consider general $E_k$ numbers, and find them on intervals whose lengths approach $\\log x$ as $k\\to \\infty$.

  2. Analysis of regression confidence intervals and Bayesian credible intervals for uncertainty quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Dan; Ye, Ming; Hill, Mary C.

    2012-09-01

    Confidence intervals based on classical regression theories augmented to include prior information and credible intervals based on Bayesian theories are conceptually different ways to quantify parametric and predictive uncertainties. Because both confidence and credible intervals are used in environmental modeling, we seek to understand their differences and similarities. This is of interest in part because calculating confidence intervals typically requires tens to thousands of model runs, while Bayesian credible intervals typically require tens of thousands to millions of model runs. Given multi-Gaussian distributed observation errors, our theoretical analysis shows that, for linear or linearized-nonlinear models, confidence and credible intervals are always numerically identical when consistent prior information is used. For nonlinear models, nonlinear confidence and credible intervals can be numerically identical if parameter confidence regions defined using the approximate likelihood method and parameter credible regions estimated using Markov chain Monte Carlo realizations are numerically identical and predictions are a smooth, monotonic function of the parameters. Both occur if intrinsic model nonlinearity is small. While the conditions of Gaussian errors and small intrinsic model nonlinearity are violated by many environmental models, heuristic tests using analytical and numerical models suggest that linear and nonlinear confidence intervals can be useful approximations of uncertainty even under significantly nonideal conditions. In the context of epistemic model error for a complex synthetic nonlinear groundwater problem, the linear and nonlinear confidence and credible intervals for individual models performed similarly enough to indicate that the computationally frugal confidence intervals can be useful in many circumstances. Experiences with these groundwater models are expected to be broadly applicable to many environmental models. We suggest that for

  3. Probability Distribution for Flowing Interval Spacing

    SciTech Connect

    S. Kuzio

    2004-09-22

    Fracture spacing is a key hydrologic parameter in analyses of matrix diffusion. Although the individual fractures that transmit flow in the saturated zone (SZ) cannot be identified directly, it is possible to determine the fractured zones that transmit flow from flow meter survey observations. The fractured zones that transmit flow as identified through borehole flow meter surveys have been defined in this report as flowing intervals. The flowing interval spacing is measured between the midpoints of each flowing interval. The determination of flowing interval spacing is important because the flowing interval spacing parameter is a key hydrologic parameter in SZ transport modeling, which impacts the extent of matrix diffusion in the SZ volcanic matrix. The output of this report is input to the ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). Specifically, the analysis of data and development of a data distribution reported herein is used to develop the uncertainty distribution for the flowing interval spacing parameter for the SZ transport abstraction model. Figure 1-1 shows the relationship of this report to other model reports that also pertain to flow and transport in the SZ. Figure 1-1 also shows the flow of key information among the SZ reports. It should be noted that Figure 1-1 does not contain a complete representation of the data and parameter inputs and outputs of all SZ reports, nor does it show inputs external to this suite of SZ reports. Use of the developed flowing interval spacing probability distribution is subject to the limitations of the assumptions discussed in Sections 5 and 6 of this analysis report. The number of fractures in a flowing interval is not known. Therefore, the flowing intervals are assumed to be composed of one flowing zone in the transport simulations. This analysis may overestimate the flowing interval spacing because the number of fractures that contribute to a flowing interval cannot be

  4. Natural frequencies of structures with interval parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofi, A.; Muscolino, G.; Elishakoff, I.

    2015-07-01

    This paper deals with the evaluation of the lower and upper bounds of the natural frequencies of structures with uncertain-but-bounded parameters. The solution of the generalized interval eigenvalue problem is pursued by taking into account the actual variability and dependencies of uncertain structural parameters affecting the mass and stiffness matrices. To this aim, interval uncertainties are handled by applying the improved interval analysis via extra unitary interval (EUI), recently introduced by the first two authors. By associating an EUI to each uncertain-but-bounded parameter, the cases of mass and stiffness matrices affected by fully disjoint, completely or partially coincident uncertainties are considered. Then, based on sensitivity analysis, it is shown that the bounds of the interval eigenvalues can be evaluated as solution of two appropriate deterministic eigenvalue problems without requiring any combinatorial procedure. If the eigenvalues are monotonic functions of the uncertain parameters, then the exact bounds are obtained. The accuracy of the proposed method is demonstrated by numerical results concerning truss and beam structures with material and/or geometrical uncertainties.

  5. Sunspot Time Series: Passive and Active Intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zięba, S.; Nieckarz, Z.

    2014-07-01

    Solar activity slowly and irregularly decreases from the first spotless day (FSD) in the declining phase of the old sunspot cycle and systematically, but also in an irregular way, increases to the new cycle maximum after the last spotless day (LSD). The time interval between the first and the last spotless day can be called the passive interval (PI), while the time interval from the last spotless day to the first one after the new cycle maximum is the related active interval (AI). Minima of solar cycles are inside PIs, while maxima are inside AIs. In this article, we study the properties of passive and active intervals to determine the relation between them. We have found that some properties of PIs, and related AIs, differ significantly between two group of solar cycles; this has allowed us to classify Cycles 8 - 15 as passive cycles, and Cycles 17 - 23 as active ones. We conclude that the solar activity in the PI declining phase (a descending phase of the previous cycle) determines the strength of the approaching maximum in the case of active cycles, while the activity of the PI rising phase (a phase of the ongoing cycle early growth) determines the strength of passive cycles. This can have implications for solar dynamo models. Our approach indicates the important role of solar activity during the declining and the rising phases of the solar-cycle minimum.

  6. Pigeons' choices between fixed-interval and random-interval schedules: utility of variability?

    PubMed

    Andrzejewski, Matthew E; Cardinal, Claudia D; Field, Douglas P; Flannery, Barbara A; Johnson, Michael; Bailey, Kathleen; Hineline, Philip N

    2005-03-01

    Pigeons' choosing between fixed-interval and random-interval schedules of reinforcement was investigated in three experiments using a discrete-trial procedure. In all three experiments, the random-interval schedule was generated by sampling a probability distribution at an interval (and in multiples of the interval) equal to that of the fixed-interval schedule. Thus the programmed delays to reinforcement on the random alternative were never shorter and were often longer than the fixed interval. Despite this feature, the fixed schedule was not strongly preferred. Increases in the probability used to generate the random interval resulted in decreased preferences for the fixed schedule. In addition, the number of consecutive choices on the preferred alternative varied directly with preference, whereas the consecutive number of choices on the nonpreferred alternative was fairly constant. The probability of choosing the random alternative was unaffected by the immediately prior interval encountered on that schedule, even when it was very long relative to the average value. The results loosely support conceptions of a "preference for variability" from foraging theory and the "utility of behavioral variability" from human decision-making literatures. PMID:15828591

  7. Perceptual interference decays over short unfilled intervals.

    PubMed

    Schulkind, M D

    2000-09-01

    The perceptual interference effect refers to the fact that object identification is directly related to the amount of information available at initial exposure. The present article investigated whether perceptual interference would dissipate when a short, unfilled interval was introduced between exposures to a degraded object. Across three experiments using both musical and pictorial stimuli, identification performance increased directly with the length of the unfilled interval. Consequently, significant perceptual interference was obtained only when the interval between exposures was relatively short (< 500 msec for melodies; < 300 msec for pictures). These results are consistent with explanations that attribute perceptual interference to increased perceptual noise created by exposures to highly degraded objects. The data also suggest that perceptual interference is mediated by systems that are not consciously controlled by the subject and that perceptual interference in the visual domain decays more rapidly than perceptual interference in the auditory domain. PMID:11105520

  8. Intervality and coherence in complex networks.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-García, Virginia; Johnson, Samuel; Muñoz, Miguel A

    2016-06-01

    Food webs-networks of predators and prey-have long been known to exhibit "intervality": species can generally be ordered along a single axis in such a way that the prey of any given predator tend to lie on unbroken compact intervals. Although the meaning of this axis-usually identified with a "niche" dimension-has remained a mystery, it is assumed to lie at the basis of the highly non-trivial structure of food webs. With this in mind, most trophic network modelling has for decades been based on assigning species a niche value by hand. However, we argue here that intervality should not be considered the cause but rather a consequence of food-web structure. First, analysing a set of 46 empirical food webs, we find that they also exhibit predator intervality: the predators of any given species are as likely to be contiguous as the prey are, but in a different ordering. Furthermore, this property is not exclusive of trophic networks: several networks of genes, neurons, metabolites, cellular machines, airports, and words are found to be approximately as interval as food webs. We go on to show that a simple model of food-web assembly which does not make use of a niche axis can nevertheless generate significant intervality. Therefore, the niche dimension (in the sense used for food-web modelling) could in fact be the consequence of other, more fundamental structural traits. We conclude that a new approach to food-web modelling is required for a deeper understanding of ecosystem assembly, structure, and function, and propose that certain topological features thought to be specific of food webs are in fact common to many complex networks. PMID:27368797

  9. Intervality and coherence in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-García, Virginia; Johnson, Samuel; Muñoz, Miguel A.

    2016-06-01

    Food webs—networks of predators and prey—have long been known to exhibit "intervality": species can generally be ordered along a single axis in such a way that the prey of any given predator tend to lie on unbroken compact intervals. Although the meaning of this axis—usually identified with a "niche" dimension—has remained a mystery, it is assumed to lie at the basis of the highly non-trivial structure of food webs. With this in mind, most trophic network modelling has for decades been based on assigning species a niche value by hand. However, we argue here that intervality should not be considered the cause but rather a consequence of food-web structure. First, analysing a set of 46 empirical food webs, we find that they also exhibit predator intervality: the predators of any given species are as likely to be contiguous as the prey are, but in a different ordering. Furthermore, this property is not exclusive of trophic networks: several networks of genes, neurons, metabolites, cellular machines, airports, and words are found to be approximately as interval as food webs. We go on to show that a simple model of food-web assembly which does not make use of a niche axis can nevertheless generate significant intervality. Therefore, the niche dimension (in the sense used for food-web modelling) could in fact be the consequence of other, more fundamental structural traits. We conclude that a new approach to food-web modelling is required for a deeper understanding of ecosystem assembly, structure, and function, and propose that certain topological features thought to be specific of food webs are in fact common to many complex networks.

  10. Children's artistic responses to musical intervals.

    PubMed

    Smith, L D; Williams, R N

    1999-01-01

    In one experiment, White South African boys drew pictures in response to four musical intervals. In the second, the subjects were of both sexes and drawn from White, urban Black, and rural Black populations. Six intervals were used. Drawing content was similar cross-culturally. Consonances were perceived as generally positive; dissonances, generally negative. There was also an activity dimension. Children in a lower grade drew more concrete pictures than did those in a higher grade, regardless of age. Even young listeners were fairly consistent in their responses. This suggests that perception of musical meaning is a universal rather than culturally based phenomenon. PMID:10696271

  11. Optimal Colonoscopy Surveillance Interval after Polypectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Oh

    2016-01-01

    The detection and removal of adenomatous polyps and postpolypectomy surveillance are considered important for the control of colorectal cancer (CRC). Surveillance using colonoscopy is an effective tool for preventing CRC after colorectal polypectomy, especially if compliance is good. In current practice, the intervals between colonoscopies after polypectomy are variable. Different recommendations for recognizing at risk groups and defining surveillance intervals after an initial finding of colorectal adenomas have been published. However, high-grade dysplasia and the number and size of adenomas are known major cancer predictors. Based on this, a subgroup of patients that may benefit from intensive surveillance colonoscopy can be identified. PMID:27484812

  12. Classical-spin approach to a magnetic comb-like chain: application to the two-sublattice chain compound MnMn(CDTA)·7H 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrás-Almenar, Juan J.; Coronado, Eugenio; Georges, Roland; Gómez-Garcia, Carlos J.; Muñoz-Roca, Carmen

    1991-11-01

    We report on the magnetic properties of the two-sublattice manganese chain MnMn(CDTA)·7H 2O. In view of the structural features, this compound may give rise to a novel type of one-dimensional magnetic network formed by a chain of exchange coupled triangles. A classical-spin model that considers two magnetic sites coupled through two different and isotropic exchange interactions is developed and used in order to analyze the magnetic properties of this compound. The possibility of having a spinfrustration is also examined.

  13. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1111, LB4914_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1111, LB4914_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  14. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB4929_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB4929_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  15. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1211, LB4553_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1211, LB4553_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  16. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB4921_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB4921_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  17. Heat of Mixing and Solution of 5-Dimethylaminopentan-2-one C7H15NO + C16H34 Hexadecane (HMSD1111, LB4131_H)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Heat of Mixing and Solution of 5-Dimethylaminopentan-2-one C7H15NO + C16H34 Hexadecane (HMSD1111, LB4131_H)' providing data from direct low-pressure calorimetric measurement of molar excess enthalpy at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  18. Heat of Mixing and Solution of 1-Diethylaminopropan-2-one C7H15NO + C16H34 Hexadecane (HMSD1111, LB4124_H)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Heat of Mixing and Solution of 1-Diethylaminopropan-2-one C7H15NO + C16H34 Hexadecane (HMSD1111, LB4124_H)' providing data from direct low-pressure calorimetric measurement of molar excess enthalpy at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  19. A vibrational spectroscopic study of a hydrated hydroxy-phosphate mineral fluellite, Al2(PO4)F2(OH)·7H2O.

    PubMed

    Cejka, Jiří; Sejkora, Jiří; Macek, Ivo; Frost, Ray L; López, Andrés; Scholz, Ricardo; Xi, Yunfei

    2014-05-21

    Raman and infrared spectra of two well-defined fluellite samples, Al2(PO4)F2(OH)·7H2O, from the Krásno near Horní Slavkov (Czech Republic) and Kapunda, South Australia (Australia) were studied and tentatively interpreted. Observed bands were assigned to the stretching and bending vibrations of phosphate tetrahedra, aluminum oxide/hydroxide/fluoride octahedra, water molecules and hydroxyl ions. Approximate O-H⋅⋅⋅O hydrogen bond lengths were inferred from the Raman and infrared spectra. PMID:24594888

  20. An Empirical Method for Establishing Positional Confidence Intervals Tailored for Composite Interval Mapping of QTL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved genetic resolution and availability of sequenced genomes have made positional cloning of moderate-effect QTL (quantitative trait loci) realistic in several systems, emphasizing the need for precise and accurate derivation of positional confidence intervals (CIs). Support interval (SI) meth...

  1. Gauss-Laguerre interval quadrature rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovanovic, Gradimir V.; Cvetkovic, Aleksandar S.

    2005-10-01

    In this paper we prove the existence and uniqueness of the Gaussian interval quadrature formula with respect to the generalized Laguerre weight function. An algorithm for numerical construction has also investigated and some suitable solutions are proposed. A few numerical examples are included.

  2. Coefficient Omega Bootstrap Confidence Intervals: Nonnormal Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the normal theory bootstrap (NTB), the percentile bootstrap (PB), and the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient omega was assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation under conditions not previously investigated. Of particular interests were nonnormal Likert-type and binary items.…

  3. Interval scanning photomicrography of microbial cell populations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A single reproducible area of the preparation in a fixed focal plane is photographically scanned at intervals during incubation. The procedure can be used for evaluating the aerobic or anaerobic growth of many microbial cells simultaneously within a population. In addition, the microscope is not restricted to the viewing of any one microculture preparation, since the slide cultures are incubated separately from the microscope.

  4. Duration perception in crossmodally-defined intervals.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Katja M; Di Luca, Massimiliano; Ernst, Marc O

    2014-03-01

    How humans perform duration judgments with multisensory stimuli is an ongoing debate. Here, we investigated how sub-second duration judgments are achieved by asking participants to compare the duration of a continuous sound to the duration of an empty interval in which onset and offset were marked by signals of different modalities using all combinations of visual, auditory and tactile stimuli. The pattern of perceived durations across five stimulus durations (ranging from 100 ms to 900 ms) follows the Vierordt Law. Furthermore, intervals with a sound as onset (audio-visual, audio-tactile) are perceived longer than intervals with a sound as offset. No modality ordering effect is found for visualtactile intervals. To infer whether a single modality-independent or multiple modality-dependent time-keeping mechanisms exist we tested whether perceived duration follows a summative or a multiplicative distortion pattern by fitting a model to all modality combinations and durations. The results confirm that perceived duration depends on sensory latency (summative distortion). Instead, we did not find evidence for multiplicative distortions. The results of the model and the behavioural data support the concept of a single time-keeping mechanism that allows for judgments of durations marked by multisensory stimuli. PMID:23953664

  5. Sensory superstition on multiple interval schedules.

    PubMed

    Starr, B C; Staddon, J E

    1982-03-01

    Pigeons were exposed to multiple schedules in which an irregular repeating sequence of five stimulus components was correlated with the same reinforcement schedule throughout. Stable, idiosyncratic, response-rate differences developed across components. Components were rank-ordered by response rate; an approximately linear relation was found between rank order and the deviation of mean response rate from the overall mean rate. Nonzero slopes of this line were found for multiple fixed-interval and variable-time schedules and for multiple variable-interval schedules both when number of reinforcements was the same in all components and when it varied. The steepest function slopes were found in the variable schedules with relatively long interfood intervals and relatively short component durations. When just one stimulus was correlated with all components of a multiple variable-interval schedule, the slope of the line was close to zero. The results suggest that food-rate differences may be induced initially by different reactions to the stimuli and subsequently maintained by food. PMID:7069361

  6. Sensory superstition on multiple interval schedules.

    PubMed Central

    Starr, B C; Staddon, J E

    1982-01-01

    Pigeons were exposed to multiple schedules in which an irregular repeating sequence of five stimulus components was correlated with the same reinforcement schedule throughout. Stable, idiosyncratic, response-rate differences developed across components. Components were rank-ordered by response rate; an approximately linear relation was found between rank order and the deviation of mean response rate from the overall mean rate. Nonzero slopes of this line were found for multiple fixed-interval and variable-time schedules and for multiple variable-interval schedules both when number of reinforcements was the same in all components and when it varied. The steepest function slopes were found in the variable schedules with relatively long interfood intervals and relatively short component durations. When just one stimulus was correlated with all components of a multiple variable-interval schedule, the slope of the line was close to zero. The results suggest that food-rate differences may be induced initially by different reactions to the stimuli and subsequently maintained by food. PMID:7069361

  7. MEETING DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES WITH INTERVAL INFORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunoassay test kits are promising technologies for measuring analytes under field conditions. Frequently, these field-test kits report the analyte concentrations as falling in an interval between minimum and maximum values. Many project managers use field-test kits only for scr...

  8. Precise Interval Timer for Software Defined Radio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A precise digital fractional interval timer for software defined radios which vary their waveform on a packet-by-packet basis. The timer allows for variable length in the preamble of the RF packet and allows to adjust boundaries of the TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) Slots of the receiver of an SDR based on the reception of the RF packet of interest.

  9. Coefficient Alpha Bootstrap Confidence Interval under Nonnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin; Newton, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Three different bootstrap methods for estimating confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient alpha were investigated. In addition, the bootstrap methods were compared with the most promising coefficient alpha CI estimation methods reported in the literature. The CI methods were assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation utilizing conditions…

  10. Happiness Scale Interval Study. Methodological Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmijn, W. M.; Arends, L. R.; Veenhoven, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Happiness Scale Interval Study deals with survey questions on happiness, using verbal response options, such as "very happy" and "pretty happy". The aim is to estimate what degrees of happiness are denoted by such terms in different questions and languages. These degrees are expressed in numerical values on a continuous [0,10] scale, which are…

  11. Frustrated magnetism in doped quasi-triangular lattice materials, Cu2(1-x)Zn2x(OH)3NO3/(C7H15COO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Werner, Fletcher; Gangopadhyay, Anup K.; Solin, S. A.

    2010-03-01

    We have performed DC and AC magnetic susceptibility measurements on the spin S=1/2 quasi-triangular lattice materials Cu2(1-x)Zn2x(OH)3NO3/(C7H15COO). The X-ray diffraction experiments reveal that this class of materials has a crystal structure in P21/m space group, in which Cu^2+ and Zn^2+ ions are arranged on a slightly distorted triangular lattice [1]. Cu2(1-)Zn2x(OH)3NO3 with a short inorganic intercalation NO3 group, have a long-range antiferromagnetic order at low temperature. The Neel temperature TN decreases from 11K to 5.6K while the Curie-Weiss temperature increases from -5.1K to +2.8K as the Zn concentration increases from 0 to 65%. After a longer alkanecarboxylate C7H15COO group was introduced into the interlayer space, a spin-glass like behavior in magnetic properties was observed [2]. The value |θcw /TN| is approximately 20, indicating the materials are in a medium level frustrated state. The onset of a ferromagnetic correlation was found in both DC and AC susceptibility data. The interplay of geometrical frustration and the coexistence of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic couplings has driven the materials into a glassy ground state. [1] G. Linder, et al., Journal of Solid State Chemistry (1995) [2] M. A. Girtu et al, Phys Rev B 61,4117(2000).

  12. Aspects of Supercritical Turbulence: Direct Numerical Simulation of O2/H2 and C7H16/N2 Temporal Mixing Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, J.; Okongo, N. A.; Harstad, K. G.; Hutt, John (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Results from Direct Numerical Simulations of temporal, supercritical mixing layers for two species systems are analyzed to elucidate species-specific turbulence aspects. The two species systems, O2/H2 and C7HG16/N2, have different thermodynamic characteristics; thus, although the simulations are performed at similar reduced pressure (ratio of the pressure to the critical pressure), the former system is dose to mixture ideality and has a relatively high solubility with respect to the latter, which exhibits strong departures from mixture ideality Due to the specified, smaller initial density stratification, the C7H16/N2 layers display higher growth and increased global molecular mixing as well as larger turbulence levels. However, smaller density gradients at the transitional state for the O2/H2 system indicate that on a local basis, the layer exhibits an enhanced mixing, this being attributed to the increased solubility and to mixture ideality. These thermodynamic features are shown to affect the irreversible entropy production (i.e. the dissipation), which is larger for the O2/H2 layer and is primarily concentrated in high density-gradient magnitude regions that are distortions of the initial density stratification boundary. In contrast, the regions of largest dissipation in the C7H16/N2 layer are located in high density-gradient magnitude regions resulting from the mixing of the two fluids.

  13. Efficient computation of parameter confidence intervals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.

    1987-01-01

    An important step in system identification of aircraft is the estimation of stability and control derivatives from flight data along with an assessment of parameter accuracy. When the maximum likelihood estimation technique is used, parameter accuracy is commonly assessed by the Cramer-Rao lower bound. It is known, however, that in some cases the lower bound can be substantially different from the parameter variance. Under these circumstances the Cramer-Rao bounds may be misleading as an accuracy measure. This paper discusses the confidence interval estimation problem based on likelihood ratios, which offers a more general estimate of the error bounds. Four approaches are considered for computing confidence intervals of maximum likelihood parameter estimates. Each approach is applied to real flight data and compared.

  14. The Rotator Interval of the Shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Rachel M.; Taylor, Dean; Verma, Nikhil N.; Romeo, Anthony A.; Mologne, Timothy S.; Provencher, Matthew T.

    2015-01-01

    Biomechanical studies have shown that repair or plication of rotator interval (RI) ligamentous and capsular structures decreases glenohumeral joint laxity in various directions. Clinical outcomes studies have reported successful outcomes after repair or plication of these structures in patients undergoing shoulder stabilization procedures. Recent studies describing arthroscopic techniques to address these structures have intensified the debate over the potential benefit of these procedures as well as highlighted the differences between open and arthroscopic RI procedures. The purposes of this study were to review the structures of the RI and their contribution to shoulder instability, to discuss the biomechanical and clinical effects of repair or plication of rotator interval structures, and to describe the various surgical techniques used for these procedures and outcomes. PMID:26779554

  15. Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jonsson, Ari; Frank, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning (CAIP), a paradigm for representing and reasoning about plans. The paradigm enables the description of planning domains with time, resources, concurrent activities, mutual exclusions among sets of activities, disjunctive preconditions and conditional effects. We provide a theoretical foundation for the paradigm, based on temporal intervals and attributes. We then show how the plans are naturally expressed by networks of constraints, and show that the process of planning maps directly to dynamic constraint reasoning. In addition, we de ne compatibilities, a compact mechanism for describing planning domains. We describe how this framework can incorporate the use of constraint reasoning technology to improve planning. Finally, we describe EUROPA, an implementation of the CAIP framework.

  16. Partitioned-Interval Quantum Optical Communications Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.

    2013-01-01

    The proposed quantum receiver in this innovation partitions each binary signal interval into two unequal segments: a short "pre-measurement" segment in the beginning of the symbol interval used to make an initial guess with better probability than 50/50 guessing, and a much longer segment used to make the high-sensitivity signal detection via field-cancellation and photon-counting detection. It was found that by assigning as little as 10% of the total signal energy to the pre-measurement segment, the initial 50/50 guess can be improved to about 70/30, using the best available measurements such as classical coherent or "optimized Kennedy" detection.

  17. One-way ANOVA based on interval information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesamian, Gholamreza

    2016-08-01

    This paper deals with extending the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to the case where the observed data are represented by closed intervals rather than real numbers. In this approach, first a notion of interval random variable is introduced. Especially, a normal distribution with interval parameters is introduced to investigate hypotheses about the equality of interval means or test the homogeneity of interval variances assumption. Moreover, the least significant difference (LSD method) for investigating multiple comparison of interval means is developed when the null hypothesis about the equality of means is rejected. Then, at a given interval significance level, an index is applied to compare the interval test statistic and the related interval critical value as a criterion to accept or reject the null interval hypothesis of interest. Finally, the method of decision-making leads to some degrees to accept or reject the interval hypotheses. An applied example will be used to show the performance of this method.

  18. Systolic Time Intervals and New Measurement Methods.

    PubMed

    Tavakolian, Kouhyar

    2016-06-01

    Systolic time intervals have been used to detect and quantify the directional changes of left ventricular function. New methods of recording these cardiac timings, which are less cumbersome, have been recently developed and this has created a renewed interest and novel applications for these cardiac timings. This manuscript reviews these new methods and addresses the potential for the application of these cardiac timings for the diagnosis and prognosis of different cardiac diseases. PMID:27048269

  19. Quantifying chaotic dynamics from interspike intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, A. N.; Pavlova, O. N.; Mohammad, Y. K.; Shihalov, G. M.

    2015-03-01

    We address the problem of characterization of chaotic dynamics at the input of a threshold device described by an integrate-and-fire (IF) or a threshold crossing (TC) model from the output sequences of interspike intervals (ISIs). We consider the conditions under which quite short sequences of spiking events provide correct identification of the dynamical regime characterized by the single positive Lyapunov exponent (LE). We discuss features of detecting the second LE for both types of the considered models of events generation.

  20. Fluctuations of healthy and unhealthy heartbeat intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Boon Leong; Toda, Mikito

    2013-04-01

    We show that the RR-interval fluctuations, defined as the difference between successive natural-logarithm of the RR interval, for healthy, congestive-heart-failure (CHF) and atrial-fibrillation (AF) subjects are well modeled by non-Gaussian stable distributions. Our results suggest that healthy or unhealthy RR-interval fluctuation can generally be modeled as a sum of a large number of independent physiological effects which are identically distributed with infinite variance. Furthermore, we show for the first time that one indicator —the scale parameter of the stable distribution— is sufficient to robustly distinguish the three groups of subjects. The scale parameters for healthy subjects are smaller than those for AF subjects but larger than those for CHF subjects —this ordering suggests that the scale parameter could be used to objectively quantify the severity of CHF and AF over time and also serve as an early warning signal for a healthy person when it approaches either boundary of the healthy range.

  1. New Madrid seismic zone recurrence intervals

    SciTech Connect

    Schweig, E.S. Center for Earthquake Research and Information, Memphis, TN ); Ellis, M.A. )

    1993-03-01

    Frequency-magnitude relations in the New Madrid seismic zone suggest that great earthquakes should occur every 700--1,200 yrs, implying relatively high strain rates. These estimates are supported by some geological and GPS results. Recurrence intervals of this order should have produced about 50 km of strike-slip offset since Miocene time. No subsurface evidence for such large displacements is known within the seismic zone. Moreover, the irregular fault pattern forming a compressive step that one sees today is not compatible with large displacements. There are at least three possible interpretations of the observations of short recurrence intervals and high strain rates, but apparently youthful fault geometry and lack of major post-Miocene deformation. One is that the seismological and geodetic evidence are misleading. A second possibility is that activity in the region is cyclic. That is, the geological and geodetic observations that suggest relatively short recurrence intervals reflect a time of high, but geologically temporary, pore-fluid pressure. Zoback and Zoback have suggested such a model for intraplate seismicity in general. Alternatively, the New Madrid seismic zone is geologically young feature that has been active for only the last few tens of thousands of years. In support of this, observe an irregular fault geometry associated with a unstable compressive step, a series of en echelon and discontinuous lineaments that may define the position of a youthful linking fault, and the general absence of significant post-Eocene faulting or topography.

  2. [Zn(C 7H 3O 5N)] n · nH 2O: A third-order NLO Zn coordination polymer with spiroconjugated structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guo-Wei; Lan, You-Zhao; Zheng, Fa-Kun; Zhang, Xin; Lin, Meng-Hai; Guo, Guo-Cong; Huang, Jin-Shun

    2006-08-01

    [Zn(C 7H 3O 5N)] n · nH 2O ( 1) possesses an anticlockwise windmill-like framework structure and formats spiroconjugation over the infinite molecular layer that is predicted to have large static third-order polarizability and the convergence value of γxxxx reaches 6.86 × 10 -33 esu in the case of zero input photon energy. The third-order NLO properties of 1 were investigated via Z-scan techniques at wavelength of 532 nm. It showed strong third-order NLO absorptive properties, and its n2 value was calculated to be 4.15 × 10 -11 esu. The relationship between the spiroconjugated structure and the NLO property has been discussed, which supposed to be more valuable for the NLO research.

  3. Time- and frequency-resolved photoionization of the C (2)A(2) state of the benzyl radical, C(7)H(7).

    PubMed

    Margraf, Markus; Noller, Bastian; Schröter, Christian; Schultz, Thomas; Fischer, Ingo

    2010-08-21

    The structure and dynamics of the C (2)A(2) electronically excited state of the benzyl radical, C(7)H(7), were investigated by nanosecond and femtosecond pump-probe photoionization. A free jet of benzyl radicals was generated by flash pyrolysis from the precursors 2-phenylethyl nitrite and toluene. Nanosecond multiphoton ionization spectra show a number of vibronic bands that are excited in the wavelength range of 290-310 nm. At excitation wavelengths of 305, 301, and 298 nm, rapid biexponential decay of the excited states was observed. Lifetimes at the C-state origin (305 nm excitation) are 400 fs and 4.5 ps. The lifetimes decrease with increasing excitation energy. The dynamics can be understood within a two-step internal conversion to the electronic ground state. PMID:20726639

  4. Neutron and X-ray structural characterization of the hexaaquavanadium(II) compound VSO{sub 4}{center_dot}7H{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect

    Cotton, F.A.; Falvello, L.R.; Pascual, I.; Tomas, M.; Murillo, C.A. |; Schultz, A.J.

    1994-11-23

    The title compound, for which crystals are more reactive toward oxygen than the chemically similar compound VSO{sub 4}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O, has been prepared as large single crystals and characterized by both X-ray diffraction at room temperature and neutron diffraction at 11-16 K. VSO{sub 4}{center_dot}7H{sub 2}O crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/c, Z = 4, with the following cell dimensions, where in each case the room temperature X-ray value is given first followed by the 11-16 K neutron value: a = 14.130(3), 14.013(2) {angstrom}; b = 6.501(1), 6.481(1) {angstrom}; c = 11.017(2), 10.981(2) {angstrom}; {beta} = 105.64(2), 105.39(1){degrees}; V = 974.5(3), 961.5(3) {angstrom}{sup 3}. The structure was refined to residuals of R = 0.0289 and 0.0766 and quality of fit = 1.047 and 1.427 for X-ray and neutron data, respectively. It consists of two independent centrosymmetric V(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}{sup 2+} ions connected to a sulfate ion and an interstitial water molecule by an extensive network of hydrogen bonds. The room temperature and low-temperature structures are qualitatively identical. Each hydrogen atom is involved in a hydrogen bond. The network of hydrogen bonds is implicated in the stability of VSO{sub 4}{center_dot}7H{sub 2}O in the solid state in dry surroundings.

  5. Coevolution of MHC genes (LMP/TAP/class Ia; NKT-class Ib; NKp30-B7H6): Lessons from cold-blooded vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Yuko; Flajnik, Martin F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Comparative immunology provides the long view of what is conserved across all vertebrate taxa versus what is specific to particular organisms or group of organisms. Regarding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and coevolution, three striking cases have been revealed in cold-blooded vertebrates: lineages of class Ia antigen-processing and -presenting genes, evolutionary conservation of NKT-class Ib recognition, and the ancient emergence of the natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp30 and its ligand B7H6. While coevolution of transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) and class Ia has been documented in endothermic birds and two mammals, lineages of LMP7 are restricted to ectotherms. The unambiguous discovery of natural killer T (NKT) cells in Xenopus demonstrated that NKT cells are not restricted to mammals and are likely to have emerged at the same time in evolution as classical α/β and γ/δ T cells. NK cell receptors evolve at a rapid rate, and orthologues are nearly impossible to identify in different vertebrate classes. By contrast, we have detected NKp30 in all gnathostomes, except in species where it was lost. The recently discovered ligand of NKp30, B7H6, shows strong signs of coevolution with NKp30 throughout evolution, i.e. coincident loss or expansion of both genes in some species. NKp30 also offers an attractive IgSF candidate for the invasion of the RAG transposon, which is believed to have initiated T-cell receptor/immunoglobulin adaptive immunity. Besides reviewing these intriguing features of MHC evolution and coevolution, we offer suggestions for future studies and propose a model for the primordial or proto MHC. PMID:26284468

  6. Coevolution of MHC genes (LMP/TAP/class Ia, NKT-class Ib, NKp30-B7H6): lessons from cold-blooded vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Yuko; Flajnik, Martin F

    2015-09-01

    Comparative immunology provides the long view of what is conserved across all vertebrate taxa versus what is specific to particular organisms or group of organisms. Regarding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and coevolution, three striking cases have been revealed in cold-blooded vertebrates: lineages of class Ia antigen-processing and -presenting genes, evolutionary conservation of NKT-class Ib recognition, and the ancient emergence of the natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp30 and its ligand B7H6. While coevolution of transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) and class Ia has been documented in endothermic birds and two mammals, lineages of LMP7 are restricted to ectotherms. The unambiguous discovery of natural killer T (NKT) cells in Xenopus demonstrated that NKT cells are not restricted to mammals and are likely to have emerged at the same time in evolution as classical α/β and γ/δ T cells. NK cell receptors evolve at a rapid rate, and orthologues are nearly impossible to identify in different vertebrate classes. By contrast, we have detected NKp30 in all gnathostomes, except in species where it was lost. The recently discovered ligand of NKp30, B7H6, shows strong signs of coevolution with NKp30 throughout evolution, i.e. coincident loss or expansion of both genes in some species. NKp30 also offers an attractive IgSF candidate for the invasion of the RAG transposon, which is believed to have initiated T-cell receptor/immunoglobulin adaptive immunity. Besides reviewing these intriguing features of MHC evolution and coevolution, we offer suggestions for future studies and propose a model for the primordial or proto MHC. PMID:26284468

  7. Easy identification of generalized common and conserved nested intervals.

    PubMed

    de Montgolfier, Fabien; Raffinot, Mathieu; Rusu, Irena

    2014-07-01

    In this article we explain how to easily compute gene clusters, formalized by classical or generalized nested common or conserved intervals, between a set of K genomes represented as K permutations. A b-nested common (resp. conserved) interval I of size |I| is either an interval of size 1 or a common (resp. conserved) interval that contains another b-nested common (resp. conserved) interval of size at least |I|-b. When b=1, this corresponds to the classical notion of nested interval. We exhibit two simple algorithms to output all b-nested common or conserved intervals between K permutations in O(Kn+nocc) time, where nocc is the total number of such intervals. We also explain how to count all b-nested intervals in O(Kn) time. New properties of the family of conserved intervals are proposed to do so. PMID:24650221

  8. Automatic Abstraction for Intervals Using Boolean Formulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauer, Jörg; King, Andy

    Traditionally, transfer functions have been manually designed for each operation in a program. Recently, however, there has been growing interest in computing transfer functions, motivated by the desire to reason about sequences of operations that constitute basic blocks. This paper focuses on deriving transfer functions for intervals - possibly the most widely used numeric domain - and shows how they can be computed from Boolean formulae which are derived through bit-blasting. This approach is entirely automatic, avoids complicated elimination algorithms, and provides a systematic way of handling wrap-arounds (integer overflows and underflows) which arise in machine arithmetic.

  9. Optimal ABC inventory classification using interval programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Jafar; Salimi, Negin

    2015-08-01

    Inventory classification is one of the most important activities in inventory management, whereby inventories are classified into three or more classes. Several inventory classifications have been proposed in the literature, almost all of which have two main shortcomings in common. That is, the previous methods mainly rely on an expert opinion to derive the importance of the classification criteria which results in subjective classification, and they need precise item parameters before implementing the classification. While the problem has been predominantly considered as a multi-criteria, we examine the problem from a different perspective, proposing a novel optimisation model for ABC inventory classification in the form of an interval programming problem. The proposed interval programming model has two important features compared to the existing methods: it provides optimal results instead of an expert-based classification and it does not require precise values of item parameters, which are not almost always available before classification. Finally, by illustrating the proposed classification model in the form of numerical example, conclusion and suggestions for future works are presented.

  10. Happiness Scale Interval Study. Methodological Considerations.

    PubMed

    Kalmijn, W M; Arends, L R; Veenhoven, R

    2011-07-01

    The Happiness Scale Interval Study deals with survey questions on happiness, using verbal response options, such as 'very happy' and 'pretty happy'. The aim is to estimate what degrees of happiness are denoted by such terms in different questions and languages. These degrees are expressed in numerical values on a continuous [0,10] scale, which are then used to compute 'transformed' means and standard deviations. Transforming scores on different questions to the same scale allows to broadening the World Database of Happiness considerably. The central purpose of the Happiness Scale Interval Study is to identify the happiness values at which respondents change their judgment from e.g. 'very happy' to 'pretty happy' or the reverse. This paper deals with the methodological/statistical aspects of this approach. The central question is always how to convert the frequencies at which the different possible responses to the same question given by a sample into information on the happiness distribution in the relevant population. The primary (cl)aim of this approach is to achieve this in a (more) valid way. To this end, a model is introduced that allows for dealing with happiness as a latent continuous random variable, in spite of the fact that it is measured as a discrete one. The [0,10] scale is partitioned in as many contiguous parts as the number of possible ratings in the primary scale sums up to. Any subject with a (self-perceived) happiness in the same subinterval is assumed to select the same response. For the probability density function of this happiness random variable, two options are discussed. The first one postulates a uniform distribution within each of the different subintervals of the [0,10] scale. On the basis of these results, the mean value and variance of the complete distribution can be estimated. The method is described, including the precision of the estimates obtained in this way. The second option assumes the happiness distribution to be described

  11. Short-interval estimations of trigonometric parallaxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatewood, G.; Stein, J.; Difatta, C.; Kiewiet De Jonge, J.; Prosser, J.; Reiland, T.

    1985-01-01

    A technique for estimating trigonometric parallaxes in a matter of days or weeks is presented. The technique relies on the discrepancy between the instantaneous proper motion and the proper motion of a star. The main sources of error in the method are the standard error of the individual observations (0.004 arcsec) and the arbitrary limit placed on the observation interval. The parallactic motion of an MO dwarf of known parallax and a blue magnitude of 11.2 is determined. The slope inferred is within 10 percent of the value (0.555 arcsec) derived from a 1.5-year study of Barnard's star. It is concluded that the technique, if used on the same time scale as conventional techniques, would yield results of much higher accuracy.

  12. The effect of instrumental timbre on interval discrimination.

    PubMed

    Zarate, Jean Mary; Ritson, Caroline R; Poeppel, David

    2013-01-01

    We tested non-musicians and musicians in an auditory psychophysical experiment to assess the effects of timbre manipulation on pitch-interval discrimination. Both groups were asked to indicate the larger of two presented intervals, comprised of four sequentially presented pitches; the second or fourth stimulus within a trial was either a sinusoidal (or "pure"), flute, piano, or synthetic voice tone, while the remaining three stimuli were all pure tones. The interval-discrimination tasks were administered parametrically to assess performance across varying pitch distances between intervals ("interval-differences"). Irrespective of timbre, musicians displayed a steady improvement across interval-differences, while non-musicians only demonstrated enhanced interval discrimination at an interval-difference of 100 cents (one semitone in Western music). Surprisingly, the best discrimination performance across both groups was observed with pure-tone intervals, followed by intervals containing a piano tone. More specifically, we observed that: 1) timbre changes within a trial affect interval discrimination; and 2) the broad spectral characteristics of an instrumental timbre may influence perceived pitch or interval magnitude and make interval discrimination more difficult. PMID:24066179

  13. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of 7H-thiazolo-[3,2-b]-1,2,4-triazin-7-one derivatives as dual binding site acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sijie; Shang, Ruofeng; Shi, Lanxiang; Zhou, Ran; He, Jingyu; Wan, David Chi-Cheong

    2014-08-01

    New dual binding site acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors have been designed and synthesized as a new drug candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) through the binding to both catalytic and peripheral sites of the enzyme. Therefore, a series of 7H-thiazolo[3,2-b]-1,2,4-triazin-7-one derivatives 6a-j were synthesized and investigated for their ability to inhibit the activity of human AChE (hAChE) in comparison with huperzine-A. All the compounds were found to inhibit AChE activity, especially compounds 6c and 6i with the inhibition value of 76.10% and 77.82%, respectively. The molecular docking study indicated that they were nicely accommodated by AChE. The molecular docking study revealed that 6c and 6i possessed a more optimal binding conformation than 6a and can perfectly fit into the active and peripheral site of hAChE, and consequently exhibited highly improved inhibitor potency to hAChE. PMID:24890706

  14. Synthesis, crystal structure, and spectroscopic studies of organic-inorganic hybrid material: [C7H10NO]2BiBr5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloui, Z.; Ferretti, V.; Abid, S.; Lefebvre, F.; Rzaigui, M.; Ben Nasr, C.

    2016-08-01

    A novel organic-inorganic hybrid compound, 2-methoxyanilinium pentabromobismuthate(III), [C7H10NO]2BiBr5, was synthesized and its structure determined by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction studies at room temperature. The molecule crystallizes in the orthorhombic C2221 space group with cell parameters a = 11.8870(4), b = 23.4775(8), c = 8.1232(3) Å, V = 2267.0(1) Å3 and four molecules in the unit cell. The structure of the title compound is built up from one-dimensional [BiBr5]2n-n polyanionic zig-zag chains composed of deformed BiBr6 octahedra share Br(2) apex and 2-methoxyanilinium cations. The assignment of the vibrational bands was based on comparison with vibrational mode frequencies of homologous compounds. Theoretical calculations were performed using density functional theory (DFT) for studying the vibrational spectrum of the investigated molecule in its ground state. The 13C CP-MAS NMR spectrum is in agreement with the X-ray structure.

  15. Serological evidence of H7, H5 and H9 avian influenza virus co-infection among herons in a city park in Jiangxi, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guirong; Zhang, Tao; Li, Xiaowen; Jiang, Zhiben; Jiang, Qian; Chen, Quanjiao; Tu, Xiaobin; Chen, Ze; Chang, Jianyu; Li, Laixing; Xu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Extensive surveillance of influenza A viruses in different avian species is critical for understanding its transmission. Here, a breeding colony of Little Egrets and Black-crowned Night Herons was monitored both serologically and virologically in a city park of Jiangxi in 2009. A portion of herons had antibodies against H7 (52%), H5 (55%) and H9 (6%) subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) in egg yolk samples, and 45% had antibodies against different AIV serotypes (H5, H7 or H9) simultaneously. Greater numbers of samples with anti-AIV H5N1 recombination-4 (Re-4, clade 7) antibodies were measured compared with those containing anti-H5N1 Re-1 (clade 0) and Re-5 (clade 2.3.4) antibodies. Eight strains of H5 and 9 strains of H9 were isolated from poultry of nearby markets. These results indicate wild birds are at risk from infection and co-infection with H7, H5, and H9 subtypes. Investigation of wild bird infection might provide an early warning sign of potential novel AIVs circulating in the nearby poultry industry and even in human society. PMID:25242001

  16. Serological evidence of H7, H5 and H9 avian influenza virus co-infection among herons in a city park in Jiangxi, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guirong; Zhang, Tao; Li, Xiaowen; Jiang, Zhiben; Jiang, Qian; Chen, Quanjiao; Tu, Xiaobin; Chen, Ze; Chang, Jianyu; Li, Laixing; Xu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Extensive surveillance of influenza A viruses in different avian species is critical for understanding its transmission. Here, a breeding colony of Little Egrets and Black-crowned Night Herons was monitored both serologically and virologically in a city park of Jiangxi in 2009. A portion of herons had antibodies against H7 (52%), H5 (55%) and H9 (6%) subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) in egg yolk samples, and 45% had antibodies against different AIV serotypes (H5, H7 or H9) simultaneously. Greater numbers of samples with anti-AIV H5N1 recombination-4 (Re-4, clade 7) antibodies were measured compared with those containing anti-H5N1 Re-1 (clade 0) and Re-5 (clade 2.3.4) antibodies. Eight strains of H5 and 9 strains of H9 were isolated from poultry of nearby markets. These results indicate wild birds are at risk from infection and co-infection with H7, H5, and H9 subtypes. Investigation of wild bird infection might provide an early warning sign of potential novel AIVs circulating in the nearby poultry industry and even in human society. PMID:25242001

  17. Triplet energies and the singlet oxygen quenching mechanism for 7H-pyrazolo[5,1-c]-1,2,4-triazole azomethine dyes.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Peter; Thomas, Jonathan D; Strohm, Holger; Winscom, Chris; Clarke, Dave; Garley, Michael S

    2003-05-01

    Analysis of triplet energy transfer rate constants gives the triplet energies of six 7H-pyrazolo[5,1-c]-1,2,4-triazole azomethine dyes, with lambda max values in the range 546-633 nm in ethanol, to lie in the range 115-88 kJ mol-1. Energy transfer rates from porphyrin and phthalocyanine sensitisers can be well approximated using the Balzani equation with a zero or small reorganization energy, and a transmission coefficient ca. 1/1000 that of the fully adiabatic value. A comparison of data on triplet energies of azomethine dyes suggests a relationship between the dye absorption energies and triplet energies of the form: ET = 0.69(+/- 0.04)(E lambda max)-33(+/- 9) kJ mol-1. A detailed study of the quenching of 1O2* by one of the dyes shows that this reaction is accompanied by isomerisation of the dye. This is interpreted as strong indirect evidence for an energy transfer mechanism for the process, a conclusion which is supported in a general way by the value of the 1O2* quenching rate constant. PMID:12803079

  18. Confidence Intervals Make a Difference: Effects of Showing Confidence Intervals on Inferential Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoekstra, Rink; Johnson, Addie; Kiers, Henk A. L.

    2012-01-01

    The use of confidence intervals (CIs) as an addition or as an alternative to null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) has been promoted as a means to make researchers more aware of the uncertainty that is inherent in statistical inference. Little is known, however, about whether presenting results via CIs affects how readers judge the…

  19. Pigeons' Memory for Number of Events: Effects of Intertrial Interval and Delay Interval Illumination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Chris; Santi, Angelo

    2004-01-01

    In Experiment 1, pigeons were trained at a 0-s baseline delay to discriminate sequences of light flashes (illumination of the feeder) that varied in number but not time (2f/4s and 8f/4s). During training, the intertrial interval was illuminated by the houselight for Group Light, but it was dark for Group Dark. Testing conducted with dark delay…

  20. Pitch strength of regular-interval click trains with different length “runs” of regular intervals

    PubMed Central

    Yost, William A.; Mapes-Riordan, Dan; Shofner, William; Dye, Raymond; Sheft, Stanley

    2009-01-01

    Click trains were generated with first- and second-order statistics following Kaernbach and Demany [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 104, 2298–2306 (1998)]. First-order intervals are between successive clicks, while second-order intervals are those between every other click. Click trains were generated with a repeating alternation of fixed and random intervals which produce a pitch at the reciprocal of the duration of the fixed interval. The intervals were then randomly shuffled and compared to the unshuffled, alternating click trains in pitch-strength comparison experiments. In almost all comparisons for the first-order interval stimuli, the shuffled-interval click trains had a stronger pitch strength than the unshuffled-interval click trains. The shuffled-interval click trains only produced stronger pitches for second-order interval stimuli when the click trains were unfiltered. Several experimental conditions and an analysis of runs of regular and random intervals in these click trains suggest that the auditory system is sensitive to runs of regular intervals in a stimulus that contains a mix of regular and random intervals. These results indicate that fine-structure regularity plays a more important role in pitch perception than randomness, and that the long-term autocorrelation function or spectra of these click trains are not good predictors of pitch strength. PMID:15957774

  1. 46 CFR 176.675 - Extension of examination intervals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Extension of examination intervals. 176.675 Section 176... 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 176.675 Extension of examination intervals. The intervals between drydock examinations and internal structural...

  2. Application of Sequential Interval Estimation to Adaptive Mastery Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yuan-chin Ivan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we apply sequential one-sided confidence interval estimation procedures with beta-protection to adaptive mastery testing. The procedures of fixed-width and fixed proportional accuracy confidence interval estimation can be viewed as extensions of one-sided confidence interval procedures. It can be shown that the adaptive mastery…

  3. About Hemispheric Differences in the Processing of Temporal Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grondin, S.; Girard, C.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify differences between cerebral hemispheres for processing temporal intervals ranging from .9 to 1.4s. The intervals to be judged were marked by series of brief visual signals located in the left or the right visual field. Series of three (two standards and one comparison) or five intervals (four…

  4. Central Difference Interval Method for Solving the Wave Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Szyszka, Barbara

    2010-09-30

    This paper presents path of construction the interval method of second order for solving the wave equation. Taken into consideration is the central difference interval method for one-dimensional partial differential equation. Numerical results, obtained by two presented algorithms, in floating-point interval arithmetic are considered.

  5. High-intensity interval training: Modulating interval duration in overweight/obese men

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Ryan, Abbie E.; Melvin, Malia N.; Wingfield, Hailee L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient strategy shown to induce various cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations. Little is known about the optimal tolerable combination of intensity and volume necessary for adaptations, especially in clinical populations. Objectives In a randomized controlled pilot design, we evaluated the effects of two types of interval training protocols, varying in intensity and interval duration, on clinical outcomes in overweight/obese men. Methods Twenty-five men [body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg·m2] completed baseline body composition measures: fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM) and percent body fat (%BF) and fasting blood glucose, lipids and insulin (IN). A graded exercise cycling test was completed for peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and power output (PO). Participants were randomly assigned to high-intensity short interval (1MIN-HIIT), high-intensity interval (2MIN-HIIT) or control groups. 1MIN-HIIT and 2MIN-HIIT completed 3 weeks of cycling interval training, 3 days/week, consisting of either 10 × 1 min bouts at 90% PO with 1 min rests (1MIN-HIIT) or 5 × 2 min bouts with 1 min rests at undulating intensities (80%–100%) (2MIN-HIIT). Results There were no significant training effects on FM (Δ1.06 ± 1.25 kg) or %BF (Δ1.13% ± 1.88%), compared to CON. Increases in LM were not significant but increased by 1.7 kg and 2.1 kg for 1MIN and 2MIN-HIIT groups, respectively. Increases in VO2peak were also not significant for 1MIN (3.4 ml·kg−1·min−1) or 2MIN groups (2.7 ml·kg−1·min−1). IN sensitivity (HOMA-IR) improved for both training groups (Δ −2.78 ± 3.48 units; p < 0.05) compared to CON. Conclusion HIIT may be an effective short-term strategy to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and IN sensitivity in overweight males. PMID:25913937

  6. The Interval approach to braneworld gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Carena, Marcela; Lykken, Joseph D.; Park, Minjoon; /Chicago U., EFI

    2005-06-01

    Gravity in five-dimensional braneworld backgrounds may exhibit extra scalar degrees of freedom with problematic features, including kinetic ghosts and strong coupling behavior. Analysis of such effects is hampered by the standard heuristic approaches to braneworld gravity, which use the equations of motion as the starting point, supplemented by orbifold projections and junction conditions. Here we develop the interval approach to braneworld gravity, which begins with an action principle. This shows how to implement general covariance, despite allowing metric fluctuations that do not vanish on the boundaries. We reproduce simple Z{sub 2} orbifolds of gravity, even though in this approach we never perform a Z{sub 2} projection. We introduce a family of ''straight gauges'', which are bulk coordinate systems in which both branes appear as straight slices in a single coordinate patch. Straight gauges are extremely useful for analyzing metric fluctuations in braneworld models. By explicit gauge fixing, we show that a general AdS{sub 5}/AdS{sub 4} setup with two branes has at most a radion, but no physical ''brane-bending'' modes.

  7. Statistical Properties of Extreme Solar Activity Intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lioznova, A. V.; Blinov, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    A study of long-term solar variability reflected in indirect indices of past solar activity leads to stimulating results. We compare the statistics of intervals of very low and very high solar activity derived from two cosmogenic radionuclide records and look for consistency in their timing and physical interpretation. According to the applied criteria, the numbers of minima and of maxima are 61 and 68, respectively, from the 10Be record, and 42 and 46 from the 14C record. The difference between the enhanced and depressed states of solar activity becomes apparent in the difference in their statistical distributions. We find no correlation between the level or type (minimum or maximum) of an extremum and the level or type of the predecessor. The hypothesis of solar activity as a periodic process on the millennial time scale is not supported by the existing proxies. A new homogeneous series of 10Be measurements in polar ice covering the Holocene would be of great value for eliminating the existing discrepancy in the available solar activity reconstructions.

  8. Function approximation using adaptive and overlapping intervals

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, R.B.

    1995-05-01

    A problem common to many disciplines is to approximate a function given only the values of the function at various points in input variable space. A method is proposed for approximating a function of several to one variable. The model takes the form of weighted averaging of overlapping basis functions defined over intervals. The number of such basis functions and their parameters (widths and centers) are automatically determined using given training data and a learning algorithm. The proposed algorithm can be seen as placing a nonuniform multidimensional grid in the input domain with overlapping cells. The non-uniformity and overlap of the cells is achieved by a learning algorithm to optimize a given objective function. This approach is motivated by the fuzzy modeling approach and a learning algorithms used for clustering and classification in pattern recognition. The basics of why and how the approach works are given. Few examples of nonlinear regression and classification are modeled. The relationship between the proposed technique, radial basis neural networks, kernel regression, probabilistic neural networks, and fuzzy modeling is explained. Finally advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  9. An Investigation of Interval Management Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swieringa, Kurt A.; Wilson, Sara R.; Shay, Rick

    2015-01-01

    NASA's first Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration (ATD-1) was created to transition the most mature ATM technologies from the laboratory to the National Airspace System. One selected technology is Interval Management (IM), which uses onboard aircraft automation to compute speeds that help the flight crew achieve and maintain precise spacing behind a preceding aircraft. Since ATD-1 focuses on a near-term environment, the ATD-1 flight demonstration prototype requires radio voice communication to issue an IM clearance. Retrofit IM displays will enable pilots to both enter information into the IM avionics and monitor IM operation. These displays could consist of an interface to enter data from an IM clearance and also an auxiliary display that presents critical information in the primary field-of-view. A human-in-the-loop experiment was conducted to examine usability and acceptability of retrofit IM displays, which flight crews found acceptable. Results also indicate the need for salient alerting when new speeds are generated and the desire to have a primary field of view display available that can display text and graphic trend indicators.

  10. Statistical Coding and Decoding of Heartbeat Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Lucena, Fausto; Barros, Allan Kardec; Príncipe, José C.; Ohnishi, Noboru

    2011-01-01

    The heart integrates neuroregulatory messages into specific bands of frequency, such that the overall amplitude spectrum of the cardiac output reflects the variations of the autonomic nervous system. This modulatory mechanism seems to be well adjusted to the unpredictability of the cardiac demand, maintaining a proper cardiac regulation. A longstanding theory holds that biological organisms facing an ever-changing environment are likely to evolve adaptive mechanisms to extract essential features in order to adjust their behavior. The key question, however, has been to understand how the neural circuitry self-organizes these feature detectors to select behaviorally relevant information. Previous studies in computational perception suggest that a neural population enhances information that is important for survival by minimizing the statistical redundancy of the stimuli. Herein we investigate whether the cardiac system makes use of a redundancy reduction strategy to regulate the cardiac rhythm. Based on a network of neural filters optimized to code heartbeat intervals, we learn a population code that maximizes the information across the neural ensemble. The emerging population code displays filter tuning proprieties whose characteristics explain diverse aspects of the autonomic cardiac regulation, such as the compromise between fast and slow cardiac responses. We show that the filters yield responses that are quantitatively similar to observed heart rate responses during direct sympathetic or parasympathetic nerve stimulation. Our findings suggest that the heart decodes autonomic stimuli according to information theory principles analogous to how perceptual cues are encoded by sensory systems. PMID:21694763

  11. NKP30-B7-H6 Interaction Aggravates Hepatocyte Damage through Up-Regulation of Interleukin-32 Expression in Hepatitis B Virus-Related Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xingfei; Lu, Ying; Liao, Sihong; Wang, Xicheng; Wang, Guoying; Lin, Dongjun

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Previous work conducted by our group has shown that the accumulation of hepatic natural killer (NK) cells and the up-regulation of natural cytotoxicity receptors (NKP30 and NKP46) on NK cells from patients with hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) were correlated with disease progression in HBV-ACLF. The natural cytotoxicity receptors expressed on NK cells are believed to be probable candidates involved in the NK cell-mediated hepatocyte damage in HBV-ACLF. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we aimed to discover the role of NKP30-B7-H6 interaction in NK cells-mediated hepatocyte damage in HBV-ACLF. Methods Hepatic expressions of B7-H6 and interleukin-32 (IL-32) were examined by immunochemistry staining in samples from patients with HBV-ACLF or mild chronic hepatitis B (CHB). The cytotoxicity of NK-92 cell against target cells (Huh-7 and LO2) was evaluated by CCK8 assay. Expression of IL-32 in liver NK cell, T cells and NK-92 cell line was detected by the flow cytometric analysis. The effect of IL-32 on the apoptosis of Huh7 cells was evaluated using Annexin V/PI staining analysis. Results An enhancement of hepatic B7-H6 and IL-32 expression was associated with the severity of liver injury in HBV-ACLF. And there was a positive association between hepatic B7-H6 and IL-32 expression. Expressions of IL-32 in liver NK cells and T cells were increased in HBV-ACLF patients. In vitro NK-92 cells are highly capable of killing the high B7-H6 expressing Huh7 cells and B7-H6-tansfected hepatocyte line LO2 cells dependent on NKP30 and B7-H6 interaction. Furthermore, NK-92 cells exhibited elevated IL-32 expression when stimulated with anti-NKP30 antibodies or when co-cultured with Huh7 cells. IL-32 can induce the apoptosis of Huh7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion Our results suggest that NKP30-B7-H6 interaction can aggravate hepatocyte damage, probably through up

  12. Prevalence and molecular characterization of sorbitol fermenting and non-fermenting Escherichia coli O157:H7(+)/H7(-) isolated from cattle at slaughterhouse and slaughterhouse wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ayaz, Naim Deniz; Gencay, Yilmaz Emre; Erol, Irfan

    2014-03-17

    The prevalence and seasonal distribution of E. coli O157:H7(+)/H7(-) in an array of aged cattle at slaughter and its dissemination with slaughterhouse wastewater over a two year period in Turkey were investigated. For this purpose, a total of 720 samples (240 rectoanal mucosal swap [RAMS], 240 carcass sponge and 240 bile samples) of 240 cattle categorized according to age, gender, breed and sampling site were collected along with additional 24 wastewater samples and were subjected to immunomagnetic separation based cultivation technique to efficiently isolate E. coli O157 from the background flora. Identification (rfbEO157, fliCh7), detection of major virulence factors (stx1, stx2, eaeA, hly, lpfA1-3 and espA), intimin variants (eae-α1, eae-α2, eae-β, eae-β1, eae-β2, eae-γ1 and eae-γ2/θ) and shiga toxin variants (stx1c, stx1d, stx2c, stx2d, stx2e, stx2f and stx2g) of all the isolates were assessed by PCR. From 10 (4.2%) of RAMS and 11 (4.6%) of carcass sponge samples and 5 (20.8%) of slaughterhouse wastewater samples, a total of 102 colonies (99 sorbitol negative and 3 sorbitol positive) were isolated. Overall, 17 (7.1%) and 15 (6.3%) of 240 sampled cattle were shown to harbor E. coli O157 and E. coli O157:H7, respectively either in their RAMS or carcass sponge samples analyzed. Statistically significant differences between categories; season, age, gender and breed of cattle were not observed (p>0.05). None of the isolated E. coli O157:H7(+)/H7(-) strains harbored any of the investigated intimin types other than eaeγ1 or shiga toxin variants stx1d, stx2e, stx2f or stx2g while all were lpfA1-3(+) except 5 E. coli O157:H7(-) strains. Intimin variant eaeγ1 and shiga toxin 1 variant stx1c were detected from all of the eaeA(+) (97/102, 95.1%) and stx1(+) (32/102, 31.3%) strains, respectively while from stx2(+) (80/102, 78.4%) isolates, both stx2c (68/80, 85.0%) and stx2d (12/80, 15.0%) variants were determined. In the last decade, prevalence of E. coli O157:H7

  13. The mixed anion mineral parnauite Cu 9[(OH) 10|SO 4|(AsO 4) 2]·7H 2O—A Raman spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Ray L.; Keeffe, Eloise C.

    2011-10-01

    The mixed anion mineral parnauite Cu 9[(OH) 10|SO 4|(AsO 4) 2]·7H 2O from two localities namely Cap Garonne Mine, Le Pradet, France and Majuba Hill mine, Pershing County, Nevada, USA has been studied by Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectrum of the French sample is dominated by an intense band at 975 cm -1 assigned to the ν1 (SO 4) 2- symmetric stretching mode and Raman bands at 1077 and 1097 cm -1 may be attributed to the ν3 (SO 4) 2- antisymmetric stretching mode. Two Raman bands 1107 and 1126 cm -1 are assigned to carbonate CO 32- symmetric stretching bands and confirms the presence of carbonate in the structure of parnauite. The comparatively sharp band for the Pershing County mineral at 976 cm -1 is assigned to the ν1 (SO 4) 2- symmetric stretching mode and a broad spectral profile centered upon 1097 cm -1 is attributed to the ν3 (SO 4) 2- antisymmetric stretching mode. Two intense bands for the Pershing County mineral at 851 and 810 cm -1 are assigned to the ν1 (AsO 4) 3- symmetric stretching and ν3 (AsO 4) 3- antisymmetric stretching modes. Two Raman bands for the French mineral observed at 725 and 777 cm -1 are attributed to the ν3 (AsO 4) 3- antisymmetric stretching mode. For the French mineral, a low intensity Raman band is observed at 869 cm -1 and is assigned to the ν1 (AsO 4) 3- symmetric stretching vibration. Chemical composition of parnauite remains open and the question may be raised is parnauite a solid solution of two or more minerals such as a copper hydroxy-arsenate and a copper hydroxy sulphate.

  14. Amniotic fluid stem cells provide considerable advantages in epidermal regeneration: B7H4 creates a moderate inflammation microenvironment to promote wound repair

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qing; Li, Fang; Li, Hong; Chen, Rui-Hua; Gu, Yan-Zheng; Chen, Ying; Liang, Han-Si; You, Xin-Ran; Ding, Si-Si; Gao, Ling; Wang, Yun-Liang; Qin, Ming-De; Zhang, Xue-Guang

    2015-01-01

    The current treatments for severe skin injury all involve skin grafting. However, there is a worldwide shortage of donor skin tissue. In this study, we examined the advantages of using human amniotic fluid stem (hAFS) cells in skin wound healing. In vitro, hAFS cells differentiate into keratinocytes (termed hAFS-K). Like keratinocytes, hAFS-K cells express the markers K5, K14, K10 and involucrin; display typical cellular structure, including a tonofibril-rich cytoplasm; and construct a completely pluristratified epithelium in 3D culture. In vivo, in a mouse excisional wound model, GFP-positive hAFS cells participate in wound repair. Co-localization of GFP/K14 and GFP/K10 in the repaired epidermis demonstrated that hAFS cells can differentiate into keratinocytes. Real-time PCR results confirmed that hAFS cells can initiate and promote early-stage repair of skin damage. During wound repair, hAFS cells did not directly secrete repair-related factors, such as bFGF, VEGF, CXCL12, TGF-β1 and KGF, and provided a moderate inflammation reaction with lower expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, Cox2 and Mac3. In hAFS cells, the negative co-stimulatory molecule B7H4 regulates low immunogenicity, which can provide a modest inflammatory reaction microenvironment for wound repair. Furthermore, with their uniquely high proliferation rate, hAFS cells offer a promising alternative for epidermal regeneration. PMID:26101181

  15. Ultraviolet A radiation potentiates the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of 7 H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole and its methyl derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sedlačková, Eva; Bábelová, Andrea; Kozics, Katarína; Šelc, Michal; Srančíková, Annamária; Frecer, Vladimír; Gábelová, Alena

    2015-05-01

    7H-Dibenzo[c,g]carbazole (DBC) is a heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that is carcinogenic in many species and tissues. DBC is a common environmental pollutant, and is therefore constantly exposed to sunlight. However, there are limited data exploring the toxicity of DBC photoexcitation products. Here, we investigated the impact of ultraviolet (UV) A radiation on the biological activity of DBC and its methyl derivatives, 5,9-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole and N-methyl dibenzo[c,g]carbazole, on human skin HaCaT keratinocytes. Co-exposure of HaCaT cells to UVA and DBC derivatives resulted in a sharp dose-dependent decrease in cell survival and apparent changes in cell morphology. Under the same treatment conditions, significant increases in DNA strand breaks, intracellular reactive oxygen species, and oxidative damage to DNA were observed in HaCaT cells. Consistent with these results, an apparent inhibition in superoxide dismutase, but not glutathione peroxidase activity, was detected in cells treated with DBC and its derivatives under UVA irradiation. The photoactivation-induced toxicity of individual DBC derivatives correlated with the electron excitation energies approximately expressed as the energy difference between the highest occupied and the lowest vacant molecular orbital. Our data provide the first evidence that UVA can enhance the toxicity of DBC and its derivatives. Photoactivation-induced conversion of harmless chemical compounds to toxic photoproducts associated with reactive oxygen species generation may substantially amplify the adverse health effects of UVA radiation and contribute to increased incidence of skin cancer. PMID:25421724

  16. A vibrational spectroscopic study of the borate mineral ezcurrite Na4B10O17·7H2O - Implications for the molecular structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Ray L.; López, Andrés; Theiss, Frederick L.; Scholz, Ricardo; Belotti, Fernanda M.

    2014-07-01

    We have studied the boron containing mineral ezcurrite Na4B10O17·7H2O using electron microscopy and vibrational spectroscopy. Both tetrahedral and trigonal boron units are observed. The nominal resolution of the Raman spectrometer is of the order of 2 cm-1 and as such is sufficient enough to identify separate bands for the stretching bands of the two boron isotopes. The Raman band at 1037 cm-1 is assigned to BO stretching vibration. Raman bands at 1129, 1163, 1193 cm-1 are attributed to BO stretching vibration of the tetrahedral units. The Raman band at 947 cm-1 is attributed to the antisymmetric stretching modes of tetrahedral boron. The sharp Raman peak at 1037 cm-1 is from the 11-B component such a mode, then it should have a smaller 10-B satellite near (1.03) × (1037) = 1048 cm-1, and indeed a small peak at 1048 is observed. The broad Raman bands at 3186, 3329, 3431, 3509, 3547 and 3576 cm-1 are assigned to water stretching vibrations. Broad infrared bands at 3170, 3322, 3419, 3450, 3493, 3542, 3577 and 3597 cm-1 are also assigned to water stretching vibrations. Infrared bands at 1330, 1352, 1389, 1407, 1421 and 1457 cm-1 are assigned to the antisymmetric stretching vibrations of trigonal boron. The observation of so many bands suggests that there is considerable variation in the structure of ezcurrite. Infrared bands at 1634, 1646 and 1681 cm-1 are assigned to water bending modes. The number of water bending modes is in harmony with the number of water stretching vibrations.

  17. Dissimilar Physiological and Perceptual Responses Between Sprint Interval Training and High-Intensity Interval Training.

    PubMed

    Wood, Kimberly M; Olive, Brittany; LaValle, Kaylyn; Thompson, Heather; Greer, Kevin; Astorino, Todd A

    2016-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) and sprint interval training (SIT) elicit similar cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations vs. endurance training. No study, however, has investigated acute physiological changes during HIIT vs. SIT. This study compared acute changes in heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration (BLa), oxygen uptake (VO2), affect, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during HIIT and SIT. Active adults (4 women and 8 men, age = 24.2 ± 6.2 years) initially performed a VO2max test to determine workload for both sessions on the cycle ergometer, whose order was randomized. Sprint interval training consisted of 8 bouts of 30 seconds of all-out cycling at 130% of maximum Watts (Wmax). High-intensity interval training consisted of eight 60-second bouts at 85% Wmax. Heart rate, VO2, BLa, affect, and RPE were continuously assessed throughout exercise. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a significant difference between HIIT and SIT for VO2 (p < 0.001), HR (p < 0.001), RPE (p = 0.03), and BLa (p = 0.049). Conversely, there was no significant difference between regimens for affect (p = 0.12). Energy expenditure was significantly higher (p = 0.02) in HIIT (209.3 ± 40.3 kcal) vs. SIT (193.5 ± 39.6 kcal). During HIIT, subjects burned significantly more calories and reported lower perceived exertion than SIT. The higher VO2 and lower BLa in HIIT vs. SIT reflected dissimilar metabolic perturbation between regimens, which may elicit unique long-term adaptations. If an individual is seeking to burn slightly more calories, maintain a higher oxygen uptake, and perceive less exertion during exercise, HIIT is the recommended routine. PMID:26691413

  18. Volatility return intervals analysis of the Japanese market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, W.-S.; Wang, F. Z.; Havlin, S.; Kaizoji, T.; Moon, H.-T.; Stanley, H. E.

    2008-03-01

    We investigate scaling and memory effects in return intervals between price volatilities above a certain threshold q for the Japanese stock market using daily and intraday data sets. We find that the distribution of return intervals can be approximated by a scaling function that depends only on the ratio between the return interval τ and its mean <τ>. We also find memory effects such that a large (or small) return interval follows a large (or small) interval by investigating the conditional distribution and mean return interval. The results are similar to previous studies of other markets and indicate that similar statistical features appear in different financial markets. We also compare our results between the period before and after the big crash at the end of 1989. We find that scaling and memory effects of the return intervals show similar features although the statistical properties of the returns are different.

  19. Working memory for time intervals in auditory rhythmic sequences

    PubMed Central

    Teki, Sundeep; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    The brain can hold information about multiple objects in working memory. It is not known, however, whether intervals of time can be stored in memory as distinct items. Here, we developed a novel paradigm to examine temporal memory where listeners were required to reproduce the duration of a single probed interval from a sequence of intervals. We demonstrate that memory performance significantly varies as a function of temporal structure (better memory in regular vs. irregular sequences), interval size (better memory for sub- vs. supra-second intervals), and memory load (poor memory for higher load). In contrast memory performance is invariant to attentional cueing. Our data represent the first systematic investigation of temporal memory in sequences that goes beyond previous work based on single intervals. The results support the emerging hypothesis that time intervals are allocated a working memory resource that varies with the amount of other temporal information in a sequence. PMID:25477849

  20. Hemodynamics of distal revascularization-interval ligation.

    PubMed

    Illig, Karl A; Surowiec, Scott; Shortell, Cynthia K; Davies, Mark G; Rhodes, Jeffrey M; Green, Richard M

    2005-03-01

    Distal revascularization-interval ligation (DRIL) empirically corrects steal after arteriovenous fistula (AVF) creation in most cases, but because there is no topologic alteration in anatomy, it is unclear as to why it is effective. To explore this issue, nine symptomatic patients underwent intravascular pressure and flow measurements before and after DRIL following upper arm autologous AVFs. Mean pre-DRIL systolic pressure (mmHg; mean +/- SD) in the proximal brachial artery (PROX) was 102 +/- 17, while that at the AV anastomosis (AV ANAST) was 47 +/- 38 (p < 0.0006). Flow (mL/min) distal to AV ANAST was retrograde with the fistula open (-21 +/- 64) but became antegrade (58 +/- 29; p < 0.03) with occlusion of the fistula. Following DRIL, pressures at both PROX and AV ANAST sites did not change (104 +/- 24 and 51 +/- 43, respectively). However, pressure at the point at which the blood flow split to supply the hand or the fistula, now PROX, increased from 47 +/- 38 (pre-DRIL AV ANAST) to 104 +/- 24 (p < 0.0001). Pressure in the brachial artery distal to the ligature increased to 104 +/- 27 (p < 0.0001), flow at this point (to the hand) became antegrade (51 +/- 39; p < 0.03), and occlusion of the fistula did not significantly change pressure at this site. We hypothesize that improvement in hand perfusion following DRIL is due to a higher pressure at the point at which the blood flow splits to supply both hand and fistula (pre-DRIL: AV ANAST; post-DRIL: PROX), allowing antegrade flow down the new bypass to the lower pressure forearm. This increased pressure must be due to the increased resistance of the fistula created by interposing the arterial segment between the original AV ANAST and new PROX ANAST. As such, DRIL is schematically equivalent to banding, but resistance is increased in a fashion that is physiologically and empirically acceptable. PMID:15770367

  1. Using Confidence Intervals and Recurrence Intervals to Determine Precipitation Delivery Mechanisms Responsible for Mass Wasting Events.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulizio, T. P.; Bilbrey, C.; Stoyanoff, N.; Dixon, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Mass wasting events are geologic hazards that impact human life and property across a variety of landscapes. These movements can be triggered by tectonic activity, anomalous precipitation events, or both; acting to decrease the factor of safety ratio on a hillslope to the point of failure. There exists an active hazard landscape in the West Boulder River drainage of Park Co., MT in which the mechanisms of slope failure are unknown. It is known that region has not seen significant tectonic activity within the last decade, leaving anomalous precipitation events as the likely trigger for slope failures in the landscape. Precipitation can be delivered to a landscape via rainfall or snow; it was the aim of this study to determine the precipitation delivery mechanism most likely responsible for movements in the West Boulder drainage following the Jungle Wildfire of 2006. Data was compiled from four SNOTEL sites in the surrounding area, spanning 33 years, focusing on, but not limited to; maximum snow water equivalent (SWE) values in a water year, median SWE values on the date which maximum SWE was recorded in a water year, the total precipitation accumulated in a water year, etc. Means were computed and 99% confidence intervals were constructed around these means. Recurrence intervals and exceedance probabilities were computed for maximum SWE values and total precipitation accumulated in a water year to determine water years with anomalous precipitation. It was determined that the water year 2010-2011 received an anomalously high amount of SWE, and snow melt in the spring of this water year likely triggered recent mass waste movements. This data is further supported by Google Earth imagery, showing movements between 2009 and 2011. Return intervals for the maximum SWE value in 2010-11 for the Placer Basin SNOTEL site was 34 years, while return intervals for the Box Canyon and Monument Peak SNOTEL sites were 17.5 and 17 years respectively. Max SWE values lie outside the

  2. Tuning for temporal interval in human apparent motion detection.

    PubMed

    Bours, Roger J E; Stuur, Sanne; Lankheet, Martin J M

    2007-01-01

    Detection of apparent motion in random dot patterns requires correlation across time and space. It has been difficult to study the temporal requirements for the correlation step because motion detection also depends on temporal filtering preceding correlation and on integration at the next levels. To specifically study tuning for temporal interval in the correlation step, we performed an experiment in which prefiltering and postintegration were held constant and in which we used a motion stimulus containing coherent motion for a single interval value only. The stimulus consisted of a sparse random dot pattern in which each dot was presented in two frames only, separated by a specified interval. On each frame, half of the dots were refreshed and the other half was a displaced reincarnation of the pattern generated one or several frames earlier. Motion energy statistics in such a stimulus do not vary from frame to frame, and the directional bias in spatiotemporal correlations is similar for different interval settings. We measured coherence thresholds for left-right direction discrimination by varying motion coherence levels in a Quest staircase procedure, as a function of both step size and interval. Results show that highest sensitivity was found for an interval of 17-42 ms, irrespective of viewing distance. The falloff at longer intervals was much sharper than previously described. Tuning for temporal interval was largely, but not completely, independent of step size. The optimal temporal interval slightly decreased with increasing step size. Similarly, the optimal step size decreased with increasing temporal interval. PMID:17461670

  3. Alternative Confidence Interval Methods Used in the Diagnostic Accuracy Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gülhan, Orekıcı Temel

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. It is necessary to decide whether the newly improved methods are better than the standard or reference test or not. To decide whether the new diagnostics test is better than the gold standard test/imperfect standard test, the differences of estimated sensitivity/specificity are calculated with the help of information obtained from samples. However, to generalize this value to the population, it should be given with the confidence intervals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the confidence interval methods developed for the differences between the two dependent sensitivity/specificity values on a clinical application. Materials and Methods. In this study, confidence interval methods like Asymptotic Intervals, Conditional Intervals, Unconditional Interval, Score Intervals, and Nonparametric Methods Based on Relative Effects Intervals are used. Besides, as clinical application, data used in diagnostics study by Dickel et al. (2010) has been taken as a sample. Results. The results belonging to the alternative confidence interval methods for Nickel Sulfate, Potassium Dichromate, and Lanolin Alcohol are given as a table. Conclusion. While preferring the confidence interval methods, the researchers have to consider whether the case to be compared is single ratio or dependent binary ratio differences, the correlation coefficient between the rates in two dependent ratios and the sample sizes. PMID:27478491

  4. Characteristics of supercritical turbulence from Direct Numerical Simulations of C(sub 7)H(sub 16)/N(sub 2) and O(sub 2)/H(sub 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okong'o, N. A.; Bellan, J.

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) transitional states of temporal, supercritical mixing layers for C7H16/N2 and O2/H2 shows that the evolution of all layers is characterized by the formation of high-density-gradient magnitude (HDGM) regions.

  5. COMPARISON OF BLOOD PROTEIN AND TARGET ORGAN DNA AND PROTEIN BINDING FOLLOWING TOPICAL APPLICATION OF BENZO[A]PYRENE AND 7H-DIBENZO[C,G]CARBAZOLE TO MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    7H-Dibenzo[c,g]carbazole (DBC) induces skin and liver tumors in mice following topical application, whereas benzo[a]pyrene (BP) induces only skin tumors. DBC also binds to liver DNA to a much greater extent than does BP. The present study examined factors that might account for t...

  6. FBXW7/hCDC4 controls glioma cell proliferation in vitro and is a prognostic marker for survival in glioblastoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Hagedorn, Martin; Delugin, Maylis; Abraldes, Isabelle; Allain, Nathalie; Belaud-Rotureau, Marc-Antoine; Turmo, Michelle; Prigent, Claude; Loiseau, Hugues; Bikfalvi, Andréas; Javerzat, Sophie

    2007-01-01

    Background In the quest for novel molecular mediators of glioma progression, we studied the regulation of FBXW7 (hCDC4/hAGO/SEL10), its association with survival of patients with glioblastoma and its potential role as a tumor suppressor gene in glioma cells. The F-box protein Fbxw7 is a component of SCFFbxw7, a Skp1-Cul1-F-box E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that tags specific proteins for proteasome degradation. FBXW7 is mutated in several human cancers and functions as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor in mice. Any of the identified targets, Cyclin E, c-Myc, c-Jun, Notch1/4 and Aurora-A may have oncogenic properties when accumulated in tumors with FBXW7 loss. Results We tested the expression of FBXW7 in human glioma biopsies by quantitative PCR and compared the transcript levels of grade IV glioma (glioblastoma, G-IV) with those of grade II tumors (G-II). In more than 80% G-IV, expression of FBXW7 was significantly reduced. In addition, levels of FBXW7 were correlated with survival indicating a possible implication in tumor aggressiveness. Locus 4q31.3 which carries FBXW7 was investigated by in situ hybridization on biopsy touchprints. This excluded allelic loss as the principal cause for low expression of FBXW7 in G-IV tumors. Two targets of Fbxw7, Aurora-A and Notch4 were preferentially immunodetected in G-IV biopsies. Next, we investigated the effects of FBXW7 misregulation in glioma cells. U87 cells overexpressing nuclear isoforms of Fbxw7 lose the expression of the proliferation markers PCNA and Ki-67, and get counterselected in vitro. This observation fits well with the hypothesis that Fbxw7 functions as a tumor suppressor in astroglial cells. Finally, FBXW7 knockdown in U87 cells leads to defects in mitosis that may promote aneuploidy in progressing glioma. Conclusion Our results show that FBXW7 expression is a prognostic marker for patients with glioblastoma. We suggest that loss of FBXW7 plays an important role in glioma malignancy by allowing the

  7. The role of human cytochrome P4503A4 in biotransformation of tissue-specific derivatives of 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole

    SciTech Connect

    Mesarosova, Monika; Valovicova, Zuzana; Srancikova, Annamaria; Krajcovicova, Zdenka; Milcova, Alena; Sokolova, Romana; Schmuczerova, Jana; Topinka, Jan; Gabelova, Alena

    2011-09-15

    The environmental pollutant 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole (DBC) and its derivative, 5,9-dimethylDBC (DiMeDBC), produced significant and dose-dependent levels of micronuclei followed by a substantial increase in the frequency of apoptotic cells in the V79MZh3A4 cell line stably expressing the human cytochrome P450 (hCYP) 3A4. In contrast, neither micronuclei nor apoptosis were found in cells exposed to the sarcomagenic carcinogen, N-methylDBC (N-MeDBC). A slight but significant level of gene mutations and DNA adducts detected in V79MZh3A4 cells treated with N-MeDBC, only at the highest concentration (30 {mu}M), revealed that this sarcomagenic carcinogen was also metabolized by hCYP3A4. Surprisingly, DBC increased the frequency of 6-thioguanine resistant (6-TG{sup r}) mutations only at the highest concentration (30 {mu}M), while DiMeDBC failed to increase the frequency of these mutations. The resistance to 6-thioguanine is caused by the mutations in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (Hprt) gene. The molecular analysis of the coding region of Hprt gene showed a deletion of the entire exon 8 in DiMeDBC-induced 6-TG{sup r} mutants, while no changes in the nucleotide sequences were identified in 6-TG{sup r} mutants produced by DBC and N-MeDBC. Based on our results, we suggest that hCYP3A4 is involved in the metabolism of DBC and its tissue-specific derivatives. While hCYP3A4 probably plays an important role in biotransformation of the liver carcinogens, DBC and DiMeDBC, it might only have a marginal function in N-MeDBC metabolism. - Highlights: > DBC activation via CYP3A4 resulted in micronuclei, DNA adduct formation and mutations in V79MZh3A4 cells. > The CYP3A4-mediated DiMeDBC activation caused micronuclei followed by apoptosis in V79MZh3A4 cells. > The genotoxic effects produced by N-MeDBC in V79MZh3A4 cells were negligible. > The hCYP3A4 may play an important role in DBC and DiMeDBC metabolism. > The CYP3A4 might only have a marginal function in N

  8. Tissue distribution of DNA adducts of 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole and its derivatives in mice following topical application

    SciTech Connect

    Talaska, G.; Reilman, R.; Schamer, M.; Xue, W.; Fremont, S.L.; Warshawsky; Roh, J.H.

    1994-05-01

    7H-Dibenzo[c,g]carbazole (DBC) is a potent liver and skin carcinogen following topical administration. The objective was to determine the pattern of DBC-DNA adducts produced in both target and nontarget tissues when DBC and its metabolites were applied topically at carcinogenic doses. DBC phenolic derivatives 1-hydroxy-DBC, 2-hydroxy-DBC, 3-hydroxy-DBC, 4-hydroxy-DBC, 5-hydroxy-DBC, 6-hydroxy-DBC, 13-c-hydroxy-DBC, and N-methyl-DBC were applied dermally to Hsd:ICR (Br) mice. Tissues were harvested 24 h later, and DBC-DNA adduct levels were determined by {sup 32}P-postlabeling. The levels of DBC-DNA adducts were about 25 times greater in liver than in any other tissue. Total DBC-DNA adducts were seen in skin and lung at about equal levels, while adduct levels in kidney and other tissues were no more than one fourth that of lung and skin. Adduct 6 was the predominant adduct in liver, adducts 2 and 3 were formed preferentially in skin, and adduct 3 was formed preferentially in lung. 3-Hydroxy-DBC and 4-hydroxy-DBC produced higher levels of DNA adducts in skin, lung, and liver than did the parent compound or 2-hydroxy-DBC. DNA adducts were not seen in any tissue for the 1-, 5-, 6-, or 13-c-hydroxy compounds. In addition, hepatic DNA adducts were not seen when the nitrogen of DBC was methylated. In lung and skin, N-methyl-DBC induced DNA adducts at levels comparable to DBC, although the adduct profile in these tissues was different from that of DBC itself. The data indicate that the 2,3, and 4 phenolic metabolites of DBC are involved in the activation pathway(s) of DBC, that specific DBC-DNA adducts are associated with specific target organs, and that the position of the substituent on DBC rather than its chemical structure may be more important in DBC activation. 33 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. MicroRNA-187, down-regulated in clear cell renal cell carcinoma and associated with lower survival, inhibits cell growth and migration though targeting B7-H3

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jun; Lei, Ting; Xu, Congjie; Li, Huan; Ma, Wenmin; Yang, Yunxia; Fan, Shuming; Liu, Yuchen

    2013-08-23

    Highlights: •miR-187 is down-regulated in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). •Down-regulation of miR-187 is associated with poor outcomes in patients with ccRCC. •miR-187 inhibits cell growth and migration though targeting B7-H3 in ccRCC. -- Abstract: Aberrantly expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) are frequently associated with the aggressive malignant behavior of human cancers, including clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Based on the preliminary deep sequencing data, we hypothesized that miR-187 may play an important role in ccRCC development. In this study, we found that miR-187 was down-regulated in both tumor tissue and plasma of ccRCC patients. Lower miR-187 expression levels were associated with higher tumor grade and stage. All patients with high miR-187 expression survived 5 years, while with low miR-187 expression, only 42% survived. Suppressed in vitro proliferation, inhibited in vivo tumor growth, and decreased motility were observed in cells treated with the miR-187 expression vector. Further studies showed that B7 homolog 3 (B7-H3) is a direct target of miR-187. Over-expression of miR-187 decreased B7-H3 mRNA level and repressed B7-H3-3′-UTR reporter activity. Knockdown of B7-H3 using siRNA resulted in similar phenotype changes as that observed for overexpression of miR-187. Our data suggest that miR-187 is emerging as a novel player in the disease state of ccRCC. miR-187 plays a tumor suppressor role in ccRCC.

  10. Extended flowering intervals of bamboos evolved by discrete multiplication.

    PubMed

    Veller, Carl; Nowak, Martin A; Davis, Charles C

    2015-07-01

    Numerous bamboo species collectively flower and seed at dramatically extended, regular intervals - some as long as 120 years. These collective seed releases, termed 'masts', are thought to be a strategy to overwhelm seed predators or to maximise pollination rates. But why are the intervals so long, and how did they evolve? We propose a simple mathematical model that supports their evolution as a two-step process: First, an initial phase in which a mostly annually flowering population synchronises onto a small multi-year interval. Second, a phase of successive small multiplications of the initial synchronisation interval, resulting in the extraordinary intervals seen today. A prediction of the hypothesis is that mast intervals observed today should factorise into small prime numbers. Using a historical data set of bamboo flowering observations, we find strong evidence in favour of this prediction. Our hypothesis provides the first theoretical explanation for the mechanism underlying this remarkable phenomenon. PMID:25963600