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Sample records for ring-opening metathesis polymerization

  1. Catalytic living ring-opening metathesis polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarkar, Amit A.; Kilbinger, Andreas F. M.

    2015-09-01

    In living ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP), a transition-metal-carbene complex polymerizes ring-strained olefins with very good control of the molecular weight of the resulting polymers. Because one molecule of the initiator is required for each polymer chain, however, this type of polymerization is expensive for widespread use. We have now designed a chain-transfer agent (CTA) capable of reducing the required amount of metal complex while still maintaining full control over the living polymerization process. This new method introduces a degenerative transfer process to ROMP. We demonstrate that substituted cyclohexene rings are good CTAs, and thereby preserve the ‘living’ character of the polymerization using catalytic quantities of the metal complex. The resulting polymers show characteristics of a living polymerization, namely narrow molecular-weight distribution, controlled molecular weights and block copolymer formation. This new technique provides access to well-defined polymers for industrial, biomedical and academic use at a fraction of the current costs and significantly reduced levels of residual ruthenium catalyst.

  2. Block copolymer adhesion promoters via ring-opening metathesis polymerization

    DOEpatents

    Kent, Michael S.; Saunders, Randall

    1997-01-01

    Coupling agents based on functionalized block copolymers for bonding thermoset polymers to solid materials. These are polymers which possess at least two types of functional groups, one which is able to attach to and react with solid surfaces, and another which can react with a thermoset resin, which are incorporated as pendant groups in monomers distributed in blocks (typically two) along the backbone of the chain. The block copolymers in this invention are synthesized by living ring-opening metathesis polymerization.

  3. Block copolymer adhesion promoters via ring-opening metathesis polymerization

    DOEpatents

    Kent, M.S.; Saunders, R.

    1997-02-18

    Coupling agents are disclosed based on functionalized block copolymers for bonding thermoset polymers to solid materials. These are polymers which possess at least two types of functional groups, one which is able to attach to and react with solid surfaces, and another which can react with a thermoset resin, which are incorporated as pendant groups in monomers distributed in blocks (typically two) along the backbone of the chain. The block copolymers in this invention are synthesized by living ring-opening metathesis polymerization. 18 figs.

  4. Metal-free ring-opening metathesis polymerization.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kelli A; Goetz, Adam E; Boydston, Andrew J

    2015-02-01

    We have developed a method to achieve ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) mediated by oxidation of organic initiators in the absence of any transition metals. Radical cations, generated via one-electron oxidation of vinyl ethers, were found to react with norbornene to give polymeric species with microstructures essentially identical to those traditionally obtained via metal-mediated ROMP. We found that vinyl ether oxidation could be accomplished under mild conditions using an organic photoredox mediator. This led to high yields of polymer and generally good correlation between M(n) values and initial monomer to catalyst loadings. Moreover, temporal control over reinitiation of polymer growth was achieved during on/off cycles of light exposure. This method demonstrates the first metal-free method for controlled ROMP. PMID:25573294

  5. Organic and composite aerogels through ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohite, Dhairyashil P.

    Aerogels are open-cell nanoporous materials, unique in terms of low density, low thermal conductivity, low dielectric constants and high acoustic attenuation. Those exceptional properties stem from their complex hierarchical solid framework (agglomerates of porous, fractal secondary nanoparticles), but they also come at a cost: low mechanical strength. This issue has been resolved by crosslinking silica aerogels with organic polymers. The crosslinking polymer has been assumed to form a conformal coating on the surface of the skeletal framework by covalent bridging elementary building blocks. However, "assuming" is not enough: for correlating nanostructure with bulk material properties, it is important to know the exact location of the polymer on the aerogel backbone. For that investigation, we synthesized a new norbornene derivative of triethoxysilane (Si-NAD) that can be attached to skeletal silica nanoparticles. Those norbornene-modified silica aerogels were crosslinked with polynorbornene by ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP). The detailed correlation between nanostructure and mechanical strength was probed with a wide array of characterization methods ranging from molecular to bulk through nano. Subsequently, it was reasoned that since the polymer dominates the exceptional mechanical properties of polymer crosslinked aerogels, purely organic aerogels with the same nanostructure and interparticle connectivity should behave similarly. That was explored and confirmed by: (a) synthesis of a difunctional nadimide monomer (bis-NAD), and preparation of robust polyimide aerogels by ROMP of its norbornene end-caps; and, (b) synthesis of dimensionally stable ROMP-derived polydicyclopentadiene aerogels by grafting the nanostructure with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) via free radical chemistry.

  6. First preparation of low band gap fulvene-modified polynorbornene via ring-opening metathesis polymerization.

    PubMed

    Godman, Nicholas P; Balaich, Gary J; Iacono, Scott T

    2016-04-18

    New polymers containing intact pendant-fulvene moieties have been successfully prepared from 1,3-phenyl-6-norbornenylfulvene via ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP). The prepared polyfulvenes have unique electrochemical and photophysical properties which make them interesting candidates for light harvesting materials. PMID:26980553

  7. A General Approach to Sequence-Controlled Polymers Using Macrocyclic Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A new and general strategy for the synthesis of sequence-defined polymers is described that employs relay metathesis to promote the ring opening polymerization of unstrained macrocyclic structures. Central to this approach is the development of a small molecule “polymerization trigger” which when coupled with a diverse range of sequence-defined units allows for the controlled, directional synthesis of sequence controlled polymers. PMID:26053158

  8. Functional Materials from Nanostructured Block Polymers Prepared via Ring-opening Metathesis Polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitet, Louis Marcel

    The structural and molecular versatility afforded to polymeric materials by ruthenium catalysts during ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) cannot be exaggerated. This dissertation describes the synthesis of functionalized polyolefins via ROMP with particular emphasis on designing straightforward approaches to materials in which the molecular structure is meticulously controlled. Moreover, large portions of the body are dedicated to describing functionalized polyolefins as precursors to more complex multicomponent block copolymers. Block copolymers having various components derived from mechanistically incompatible feedstocks were designed with translational targets in mind, including toughening agents for brittle plastics, and free-standing nanoporous membranes. Several fundamental structure-property relationships were also explored for the newly synthesized materials.

  9. Thermoset polymers via ring opening metathesis polymerization of functionalized oils

    DOEpatents

    Larock, Richard C; Henna, Phillip H; Kessier, Michael R

    2012-11-27

    The invention provides a method for producing a thermosetting resin from renewable oils, the method comprising supplying renewable oil molecules containing strained ring alkene moieties; reacting the alkene moieties with cyclic alkenes to create a polymer; and repeating the above two steps until the resin having desired characteristics are obtained. Also provided is a thermoset resin comprising functionalized renewable oil polymerized with a co-monomer.

  10. Preparation of Bottlebrush Polymers via a One-Pot Ring-Opening Polymerization (ROP) and Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP) Grafting-Through Strategy.

    PubMed

    Radzinski, Scott C; Foster, Jeffrey C; Matson, John B

    2016-04-01

    Bottlebrush polymers are synthesized using a tandem ring-opening polymerization (ROP) and ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) strategy. For the first time, ROP and ROMP are conducted sequentially in the same pot to yield well-defined bottlebrush polymers with molecular weights in excess of 10(6) Da. The first step of this process involves the synthesis of a polylactide macromonomer (MM) via ROP of d,l-lactide initiated by an alcohol-functionalized norbornene. ROMP grafting-through is then carried out in the same pot to produce the bottlebrush polymer. The applicability of this methodology is evaluated for different MM molecular weights and bottlebrush backbone degrees of polymerization. Size-exclusion chromatographic and (1)H NMR spectroscopic analyses confirm excellent control over both polymerization steps. In addition, bottlebrush polymers are imaged using atomic force microscopy and stain-free transmission electron microscopy on graphene oxide. PMID:26847467

  11. An Efficient Approach to Surface-Initiated Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization of Cyclooctadiene

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jianxin; Stoddart, Stephanie S.; Weerakoon, Kanchana A.; Chen, Wei

    2008-01-01

    Surface-initiated ring-opening metathesis polymerization of cyclooctadiene (COD), a low ring-strain olefin, is reported for the first time. Polymerization was carried out in the vapor phase, which is advantageous compared to conventional solution methods in terms of minimizing chain transfer by reducing polymer chain mobility at the vapor/solid interface. Attachments of a norbornenyl-containing silane and a Grubbs catalyst to silicon substrates were carried out before samples were exposed to COD vapor. The thickness of grafted 1,4-polybutadiene films was controlled by reaction time and reached ~40 nm after 7 h. The polymer films were further chemically modified to afford a new polymer, head-to-head poly(vinyl alcohol). PMID:17241005

  12. Designing Sequence Selectivity into a Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peter

    2016-05-17

    The development of a chemoselective catalyst for the sequence-selective copolymerization of two cycloolefins by ring-opening metathesis polymerization is described, starting with the mechanistic work that established the structure of the key metallacyclobutane intermediate. Experimental and computational investigations converged to a conclusion that the lowest energy metallacyclobutane intermediate in the ruthenium carbene-catalyzed metathesis reaction had the four-membered ring trans to the phosphine or NHC ligand. The trans-metallacyclobutane structure, for the case of a degenerate metathesis reaction catalyzed by a Grubbs first-generation complex, necessitated a rotation of the 3-fold symmetric tricyclohexylphosphine ligand, with respect to the 2-fold symmetric metallacyclobutane substructure. The degeneracy could be lifted by constraining the rotation. Lifting the degeneracy created the possibility of chemoselectivity. This mechanistic work led to a concept for the "tick-tock" catalyst for a chemoselective, alternating copolymerization of cyclooctene and norbornene from a mixture of the two monomers. The design concept could be post facto elaborated in terms of stereochemistry and topological theory, both viewpoints providing deeper insight into the design of selectivity into the catalytic reaction. The iterative interaction of theory and experiment provided the basis for the rational design and optimization of a new selectivity into an existing catalytic system with decidedly modest structural modifications of the original carbene complex. PMID:27105333

  13. Ring-opening metathesis polymerization-based recyclable magnetic acylation reagents.

    PubMed

    Kainz, Quirin M; Linhardt, Roland; Maity, Pradip K; Hanson, Paul R; Reiser, Oliver

    2013-04-01

    An operationally simple method for the acylation of amines utilizing carbon-coated metal nanoparticles as recyclable supports is reported. Highly magnetic carbon-coated cobalt (Co/C) and iron (Fe/C) nanobeads were functionalized with a norbornene tag (Nb-tag) through a "click" reaction followed by surface activation employing Grubbs-II catalyst and subsequent grafting of acylated N-hydroxysuccinimide ROMPgels (ROMP=ring-opening metathesis polymerization). The high loading (up to 2.6 mmolg(-1) ) hybrid material was applied in the acylation of various primary and secondary amines. The products were isolated in high yields (86-99%) and excellent purities (all >95 % by NMR spectroscopy) after rapid magnetic decantation and simple evaporation of the solvents. The spent resins were successfully re-acylated by acid chlorides, anhydrides, and carboxylic acids and reused for up to five consecutive cycles without considerable loss of activity. PMID:23427021

  14. Ru-Catalyzed Isomerization Provides Access to Alternating Copolymers via Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We describe an isomerization–alternating ROMP protocol that gives linear copolymers with rigorous sequence alternation. Bicyclo[4.2.0]oct-7-ene-7-carboxamides of primary amines are isomerized in the presence of (3-BrPyr)2Cl2(H2IMes)Ru=CHPh to the corresponding bicyclo[4.2.0]oct-1(8)-ene-8-carboxamides in which the olefinic bond is tetrasubstituted. The isomerized amides undergo alternating ring-opening metathesis polymerization with cyclohexene to provide soluble and linear copolymers with molecular weights up to ∼130 kDa. This process provides efficient entry to strictly alternating copolymers that can display diverse functional groups. PMID:26243969

  15. Combining Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization and Cyclic Ester Ring-Opening Polymerization To Form ABA Triblock Copolymers from 1,5-Cyclooctadiene and D,L-Lactide

    SciTech Connect

    Pitet, Louis M.; Hillmyer, Marc A.

    2009-07-31

    ABA triblock copolymers were synthesized by combining ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of 1,5-cyclooctadiene (COD) with ring-opening polymerization of D,L-lactide. Hydroxyl-functionalized telechelic polyCOD was prepared by taking advantage of chain transfer during ROMP of COD using the acyclic chain transfer agent cis-1,4-diacetoxy-2-butene. These hydroxy-terminated macroinitiators were used as initiators for the polymerization of lactide to form a series of triblock copolymers with compositions in the range 0.24 {le} f{sub PLA} {le} 0.89 and molecular weights ranging from 22 to 196 kg mol{sup -1}. The ordered-state morphologies of the triblocks were determined using small-angle X-ray scattering; well-ordered microstructures were observed for several samples, in accordance with the predicted dependence of morphology on composition. The mechanical properties of these materials were also investigated by performing tensile measurements; the triblocks were considerably tougher than poly(D,L-lactide), most markedly in samples with low polyCOD midblock content.

  16. Initiator Control of Conjugated Polymer Topology in Ring-Opening Alkyne Metathesis Polymerization.

    PubMed

    von Kugelgen, Stephen; Bellone, Donatela E; Cloke, Ryan R; Perkins, Wade S; Fischer, Felix R

    2016-05-18

    Molybdenum carbyne complexes [RC≡Mo(OC(CH3)(CF3)2)3] featuring a mesityl (R = Mes) or an ethyl (R = Et) substituent initiate the living ring-opening alkyne metathesis polymerization of the strained cyclic alkyne, 5,6,11,12-tetradehydrobenzo[a,e][8]annulene, to yield fully conjugated poly(o-phenylene ethynylene). The difference in the steric demand of the polymer end-group (Mes vs Et) transferred during the initiation step determines the topology of the resulting polymer chain. While [MesC≡Mo(OC(CH3)(CF3)2)3] exclusively yields linear poly(o-phenylene ethynylene), polymerization initiated by [EtC≡Mo(OC(CH3)(CF3)2)3] results in cyclic polymers ranging in size from n = 5 to 20 monomer units. Kinetic studies reveal that the propagating species emerging from [EtC≡Mo(OC(CH3)(CF3)2)3] undergoes a highly selective intramolecular backbiting into the butynyl end-group. PMID:27120088

  17. Fabrication of supramolecular semiconductor block copolymers by ring-opening metathesis polymerization.

    PubMed

    Elacqua, Elizabeth; Weck, Marcus

    2015-05-01

    ω-Telechelic poly(p-phenylene vinylene) species (PPVs) are prepared by living ring-opening metathesis polymerization of a [2.2]paracyclophane-1,9-diene in the presence of Hoveyda-Grubbs 2nd generation initiator, with terminating agents based on N(1) ,N(3) -bis(6-butyramidopyridin-2-yl)-5-hydroxyisophthalamide (Hamilton wedge), cyanuric acid, Pd(II) -SCS-pincer, or pyridine moieties installing the supramolecular motifs. The resultant telechelic polymers are self-assembled into supramolecular block copolymers (BCPs) via metal coordination or hydrogen bonding and analyzed by (1) H NMR spectroscopy. The optical properties are examined, whereby individual PPVs exhibit similar properties regardless of the nature of the end group. Upon self-assembly, different behaviors emerge: the hydrogen-bonding BCP behaves similarly to the parent PPVs whereas the metallosupramolecular BCP demonstrates a hypsochromic shift and a more intense emission owing to the suppression of aggregation. These results demonstrate that directional self-assembly can be a facile method to construct BCPs with semiconducting networks, while combating solubility and aggregation. PMID:25808543

  18. Versatile Tandem Ring-Opening/Ring-Closing Metathesis Polymerization: Strategies for Successful Polymerization of Challenging Monomers and Their Mechanistic Studies.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyeon; Kang, Eun-Hye; Müller, Laura; Choi, Tae-Lim

    2016-02-24

    Tandem ring-opening/ring-closing metathesis (RO/RCM) results in extremely fast living polymerization; however, according to previous reports, only monomers containing certain combinations of cycloalkenes, terminal alkynes, and nitrogen linkers successfully underwent tandem polymerization. After examining the polymerization pathways, we proposed that the relatively slow intramolecular cyclization might lead to competing side reactions such as intermolecular cross metathesis reactions to form inactive propagating species. Thus, we developed two strategies to enhance tandem polymerization efficiency. First, we modified monomer structures to accelerate tandem RO/RCM cyclization by enhancing the Thorpe-Ingold effect. This strategy increased the polymerization rate and suppressed the chain transfer reaction to achieve controlled polymerization, even for challenging syntheses of dendronized polymers. Alternatively, reducing the reaction concentration facilitated tandem polymerization, suggesting that the slow tandem RO/RCM cyclization step was the main reason for the previous failure. To broaden the monomer scope, we used monomers containing internal alkynes and observed that two different polymer units with different ring sizes were produced as a result of nonselective α-addition and β-addition on the internal alkynes. Thorough experiments with various monomers with internal alkynes suggested that steric and electronic effects of the alkyne substituents influenced alkyne addition selectivity and the polymerization reactivity. Further polymerization kinetics studies revealed that the rate-determining step of monomers containing certain internal alkynes was the six-membered cyclization step via β-addition, whereas that for other monomers was the conventional intermolecular propagation step, as observed in other chain-growth polymerizations. This conclusion agrees well with all those polymerization results and thus validates our strategies. PMID:26878670

  19. Bottlebrush Polymer Synthesis by Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization: The Significance of the Anchor Group.

    PubMed

    Radzinski, Scott C; Foster, Jeffrey C; Chapleski, Robert C; Troya, Diego; Matson, John B

    2016-06-01

    Control over bottlebrush polymer synthesis by ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of macromonomers (MMs) is highly dependent on the competition between the kinetics of the polymerization and the lifetime of the catalyst. We evaluated the effect of anchor group chemistry-the configuration of atoms linking the polymer to a polymerizable norbornene-on the kinetics of ROMP of polystyrene and poly(lactic acid) MMs initiated by (H2IMes)(pyr)2(Cl)2Ru═CHPh (Grubbs third generation catalyst). We observed a variance in the rate of propagation of >4-fold between similar MMs with different anchor groups. This phenomenon was conserved across all MMs tested, regardless of solvent, molecular weight (MW), or repeat unit identity. The observed >4-fold difference in propagation rate had a dramatic effect on the maximum obtainable backbone degree of polymerization, with slower propagating MMs reducing the maximum bottlebrush MW by an order of magnitude (from ∼10(6) to ∼10(5) Da). A chelation mechanism was initially proposed to explain the observed anchor group effect, but experimental and computational studies indicated that the rate differences likely resulted from a combination of varying steric demands and electronic structure among the different anchor groups. The addition of trifluoroacetic acid to the ROMP reaction substantially increased the propagation rate for all anchor groups tested, likely due to scavenging of the pyridine ligands. Based on these data, rational selection of the anchor group is critical to achieve high MM conversion and to prepare pure, high MW bottlebrush polymers by ROMP grafting-through. PMID:27219866

  20. Synthesis of cyclic polybutadiene via ring-opening metathesis polymerization: the importance of removing trace linear contaminants.

    PubMed

    Bielawski, Christopher W; Benitez, Diego; Grubbs, Robert H

    2003-07-16

    The synthesis of cyclic polybutadienes using ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) was accomplished. A cyclic Ru alkylidene catalyst, where a terminal ligand was covalently linked to the Ru alkylidene, was used to polymerize either 1,5-cyclooctadiene (COD) or 1,5,9-trans-cis-trans-cyclododecatriene (CDT). Trace amounts of an acyclic impurity, 4-vinylcyclohexene, found in the COD led to samples which were contaminated with linear polymer. In contrast, CDT, which was free of the impurity, afforded pure cyclic polymer. These results provide a convenient method for discerning samples of pure cyclic polymer from those which contain trace to large amounts of linear polymer. Furthermore, they emphasize the need to use monomers that are free of acyclic impurities when preparing cyclic polymers using ROMP. PMID:12848534

  1. Facile synthesis of brush poly(phosphoamidate)s via one-pot tandem ring-opening metathesis polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization.

    PubMed

    Ding, Liang; Qiu, Jun; Wei, Jun; Zhu, Zhenshu

    2014-09-01

    Poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA)-based brush poly(phosphoamidate)s are successfully synthesized by a combination of ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) following either a commutative two-step procedure or a straightforward one-pot process using Grubbs ruthenium-based catalysts for tandem catalysis. Compared with the traditional polymerization method, combining ROMP and ATRP in a one-pot process allows the preparation of brush copolymers characterized by a relatively moderate molecular weight distribution and quantitative conversion of monomer. Moreover, the surface morphologies and aggregation behaviors of these polymers are studied by AFM and TEM measurements. PMID:24729161

  2. Structure-property relationships in novel polymers and block copolymers from ring-opening metathesis polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, John Paul

    2011-12-01

    The desire to tune macroscopic properties by controlling the underlying microscopic structure is a driving force in many different areas of scientific research, including polymer science. In living ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP), the subject of this dissertation, there are a variety of different ways to alter the microscopic structure through synthesis. This is in part due to the presence of double bonds in the polymeric backbone, which can influence properties both through their isomeric structures (cis vs. trans) and through their removal by catalytic hydrogenation. Here, we demonstrate the ability to tune a variety of microstructural parameters of our ROMP polymers through synthesis, and investigate the resulting effects on macroscopic properties. ROMP and subsequent hydrogenation provide access to crystalline, glassy, and rubbery polymers, representing essentially the entire spectrum of polymer properties. These include hydrogenated polynorbornene (hPN), a highly crystalline polymer with Tm° = 156°C; hydrogenated poly(5-hexylnorbornene) (hPHN), a rubbery amorphous polymer with Tg = -22°C; and hydrogenated polymethyltetracyclododecene (hPMTD), a glassy polymer with Tg = 163°C. The microstructure of block copolymers of hPN, hPHN, and hPMTD can be controlled by varying block sequence, block lengths, and number of blocks. We used this control to design and synthesize thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) containing both crystalline and glassy hard segments, with the aim of capturing the mechanical properties of conventional all-amorphous triblock TPEs, while forming the solid-state structure by crystallization from a single-phase melt. To accomplish this, we synthesized symmetric pentablock copolymers with the architecture crystalline-glassy-rubbery-glassy-crystalline. With this pentablock architecture and appropriate selection of block lengths, crystallization from a single-phase melt causes a layer rich in the glassy block to form around the

  3. A large-molecular-weight polyanion, synthesized via ring-opening metathesis polymerization, as a lubricant for human articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Wathier, Michel; Lakin, Benjamin A; Bansal, Prashant N; Stoddart, Stephanie S; Snyder, Brian D; Grinstaff, Mark W

    2013-04-01

    A large-molecular-weight polyanion is found to possess lubricating properties for cartilage. The polyanion, sodium poly(7-oxanorbornene-2-carboxylate), is synthesized by ring-opening metathesis polymerization of methyl 5-oxanorbornene-2-carboxylate. When dissolved in aqueous solution and applied to the surface of human cartilage it reduces the friction at the interface and acts as a lubricant. Its performance is similar to that of synovial fluid and superior to those of saline and Synvisc in an ex vivo human cartilage plug-on-plug model. The polymer is also not readily degraded by hyaluronidase or cytotoxic to human chondrocytes in vitro. As such, this polymer is a new type of viscosupplement, and the results provide insight into the design requirements for synthesizing highly efficacious synthetic biolubricants. PMID:23496043

  4. Ring-opening metathesis polymerization of 18-e Cobalt(I)-containing norbornene and application as heterogeneous macromolecular catalyst in atom transfer radical polymerization.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yi; Zhang, Jiuyang; Wilbon, Perry; Qiao, Yali; Tang, Chuanbing

    2014-11-01

    In the last decades, metallopolymers have received great attention due to their various applications in the fields of materials and chemistry. In this article, a neutral 18-electron exo-substituted η(4) -cyclopentadiene CpCo(I) unit-containing polymer is prepared in a controlled/"living" fashion by combining facile click chemistry and ring-opening meta-thesis polymerization (ROMP). This Co(I)-containing polymer is further used as a heterogeneous macromolecular catalyst for atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of methyl methacrylate and styrene. PMID:25250694

  5. Pulsed-addition ring-opening metathesis polymerization: catalyst-economical syntheses of homopolymers and block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Matson, John B; Virgil, Scott C; Grubbs, Robert H

    2009-03-11

    Poly(tert-butyl ester norbornene imide) homopolymers and poly(tert-butyl ester norbornene imide-b-N-methyloxanorbornene imide) copolymers were prepared by pulsed-addition ring-opening metathesis polymerization (PA-ROMP). PA-ROMP is a unique polymerization method that employs a symmetrical cis-olefin chain transfer agent (CTA) to simultaneously cap a living polymer chain and regenerate the ROMP initiator with high fidelity. Unlike traditional ROMP with chain transfer, the CTA reacts only with the living chain end, resulting in narrowly dispersed products. The regenerated initiator can then initiate polymerization of a subsequent batch of monomer, allowing for multiple polymer chains with controlled molecular weight and low polydispersity to be generated from one metal initiator. Using the fast-initiating ruthenium metathesis catalyst (H(2)IMes)(Cl)(2)(pyr)(2)RuCHPh and cis-4-octene as a CTA, the capabilities of PA-ROMP were investigated with a Symyx robotic system, which allowed for increased control and precision of injection volumes. The results from a detailed study of the time required to carry out the end-capping/initiator-regeneration step were used to design several experiments in which PA-ROMP was performed from one to ten cycles. After determination of the rate of catalyst death, a single, low polydispersity polymer was prepared by adjusting the amount of monomer injected in each cycle, maintaining a constant monomer/catalyst ratio. Additionally, PA-ROMP was used to prepare nearly perfect block copolymers by quickly injecting a second monomer at a specific time interval after the first monomer injection, such that chain transfer had not yet occurred. Polymers were characterized by gel permeation chromatography with multiangle laser light scattering. PMID:19215131

  6. Amplification of surface-initiated ring-opening metathesis polymerization of 5-(perfluoro-n-alkyl)norbornenes by macroinitiation.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Carlos A; Harl, Robert R; Maxwell, Kathryn E; Mahfuz, Nur N; Rogers, Bridget R; Jennings, G Kane

    2013-10-01

    This article reports the enhanced rate of the surface-initiated polymerization (SIP) of 5-(perfluoro-n-alkyl)norbornenes (NBFn) by combining two SIP techniques, namely surface-initiated atom-transfer polymerization (SI-ATRP) to grow a macroinitiator and surface-initiated ring-opening metathesis polymerization (SI-ROMP) to produce the final coating. This polymerization approach promotes the rapid growth of dense partially fluorinated coatings that are highly hydrophobic and oleophobic and yield thicknesses from 4-12 μm. Specifically, the growth rate and the limiting thickness of pNBFn with different side chain lengths (n = 4, 6, 8, and 10) at various monomer concentrations and temperatures are evaluated through two approaches: growing the polymer from an initiator-terminated monolayer (control) or from a modified poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) macroinitiator. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis shows that 38% of the hydroxyl termini in the macroinitiator react with a norbornenyl diacid chloride (NBDAC) molecule, and 7% of such anchored norbornenyl groups react with a catalyst molecule. The kinetic data have been modeled to determine the propagation velocity and the termination rate constant. The PHEMA macroinitiator provides thicker films and faster growth as compared to the monolayer, achieving a 12 μm thick coating of pNBF8 in 15 min. Increasing the monomer side chain length, n, from 4 to 10 improves the growth rate and the limiting polymer thickness. Performing the polymerization process at higher temperature increases the growth rate and the limiting thickness as evidenced by an increase in the film growth rate constant. Arrhenius plots show that the reactions involved in the macroinitiation process exhibit lower activation energies than those formed from a monolayer. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy reveals that the films exhibit resistance against ion transport in excess of 1 × 10(10) Ω·cm(2). PMID:24024903

  7. Probing Stereoselectivity in Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization Mediated by Cyclometalated Ruthenium-Based Catalysts: A Combined Experimental and Computational Study.

    PubMed

    Rosebrugh, L E; Ahmed, T S; Marx, V M; Hartung, J; Liu, P; López, J G; Houk, K N; Grubbs, R H

    2016-02-01

    The microstructures of polymers produced by ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) with cyclometalated Ru-carbene metathesis catalysts were investigated. A strong bias for a cis,syndiotactic microstructure with minimal head-to-tail bias was observed. In instances where trans errors were introduced, it was determined that these regions were also syndiotactic. Furthermore, hypothetical reaction intermediates and transition structures were analyzed computationally. Combined experimental and computational data support a reaction mechanism in which cis,syndio-selectivity is a result of stereogenic metal control, while microstructural errors are predominantly due to alkylidene isomerization via rotation about the Ru═C double bond. PMID:26726835

  8. Surface-initiated ring-opening metathesis polymerization of 5-(perfluorohexyl)norbornene on carbon paper electrodes.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Christopher J; Payne, P Andrew; Jennings, G Kane

    2010-11-01

    Hydrophobic coatings on carbon paper electrodes are known to provide effective water management, superior gas transfer, and improved mechanical stability of the paper in fuel cell applications. Here, we describe the surface-initiated ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of 5-(perfluorohexyl)norbornene (NBF6) to prepare fluorocarbon-rich films on carbon paper substrates that were pre-treated with O(2) plasma. For our reaction scheme, the growth of the pNBF6 films is dependent on the concentration of hydroxyl groups on the carbon paper substrate. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to determine the required time for O(2) plasma exposure to saturate the surface with hydroxyl-termini. Complete, conformal pNBF6 films were grown on carbon paper electrodes exposed to O(2) plasma for at least 45 s. These films exhibit hydrophobic and oleophobic surface properties and serve as insulative barriers to the diffusion of aqueous ions to the conductive carbon fibers. PMID:20709328

  9. Comparative study on the separation behavior of monolithic columns prepared via ring-opening metathesis polymerization and via electron beam irradiation triggered free radical polymerization for proteins.

    PubMed

    Bandari, Rajendar; Knolle, Wolfgang; Buchmeiser, Michael R

    2008-05-16

    Monolithic columns have been prepared via ring-opening metathesis polymerization using different monomers and crosslinkers, i.e. norborn-2-ene, 1,4,4a,5,8,8a-hexahydro-1,4,5,8-exo,endo-dimethanonaphthalene, cyclooctene and tris(cyclooct-4-en-1-yloxy)methylsilane. 2-Propanol and toluene were used as macro- and microporogens. Alternatively, monolithic supports were realized via electron beam triggered free radical polymerization using trimethylolpropane triacrylate and ethylmethacrylate. Here, 2-propanol, 1-dodecanol and toluene were used as porogens. The three monolithic supports were structurally characterized by inverse size exclusion chromatography and investigated for their separation capabilities for a series of proteins. Separation efficiencies are discussed within the context of the different structural features of the monolithic supports and are compared to the separation data obtained on a commercial silica-based Chromolith RP-18e column. PMID:18037426

  10. Artificial Informational Polymers and Nanomaterials from Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Carrie Rae

    Inspired by naturally occurring polymers (DNA, polypeptides, polysaccharides, etc.) that can self-assemble on the nanoscale into complex, information-rich architectures, we have synthesized nucleic acid based polymers using ROMP. These polymers were synthesized using a graft-through strategy, whereby nucleic acids bearing a strained cyclic olefin were directly polymerized. This is the first example of the graft-through polymerization of nucleic acids. Our approach takes advantage of non-charged peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) as elements to incorporate into ROMP polymer backbones. PNA is a synthetic nucleic acid analogue known for its increased affinity and specificity for complementary DNA or RNA. To accomplish the graft-through polymerization of PNA, we conjugated PNA to strained cyclic olefins using solid phase peptide conjugation chemistry. These PNA monomers were then directly polymerized into homo and block copolymers forming brushes, or comb-like arrangements, of information. Block copolymer amphiphiles of these materials, where the PNA brush served as the hydrophilic portion, were capable of self-assembly into spherical nanoparticles (PNA NPs). These PNA NPs were then studied with respect to their ability to hybridize complementary DNA sequences, as well as their ability to undergo cellular internalization. PNA NPs consisting of densely packed brushes of nucleic acids possessed increased thermal stability when mixed with their complementary DNA sequence, indicating a greater DNA binding affinity over their unpolymerized PNA counterparts. In addition, by arranging the PNA into dense brushes at the surface of the nanoparticle, Cy5.5 labeled PNA NPs were able to undergo cellular internalization into HeLa cells without the need for an additional cellular delivery device. Importantly, cellular internalization of PNA has remained a significant challenge in the literature due to the neutrally charged amino-ethyl glycine backbone of PNA. Therefore, this represents a

  11. Optimal Hydrophobicity in Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization-Based Protein Mimics Required for siRNA Internalization.

    PubMed

    deRonde, Brittany M; Posey, Nicholas D; Otter, Ronja; Caffrey, Leah M; Minter, Lisa M; Tew, Gregory N

    2016-06-13

    Exploring the role of polymer structure for the internalization of biologically relevant cargo, specifically siRNA, is of critical importance to the development of improved delivery reagents. Herein, we report guanidinium-rich protein transduction domain mimics (PTDMs) based on a ring-opening metathesis polymerization scaffold containing tunable hydrophobic moieties that promote siRNA internalization. Structure-activity relationships using Jurkat T cells and HeLa cells were explored to determine how the length of the hydrophobic block and the hydrophobic side chain compositions of these PTDMs impacted siRNA internalization. To explore the hydrophobic block length, two different series of diblock copolymers were synthesized: one series with symmetric block lengths and one with asymmetric block lengths. At similar cationic block lengths, asymmetric and symmetric PTDMs promoted siRNA internalization in the same percentages of the cell population regardless of the hydrophobic block length; however, with 20 repeat units of cationic charge, the asymmetric block length had greater siRNA internalization, highlighting the nontrivial relationships between hydrophobicity and overall cationic charge. To further probe how the hydrophobic side chains impacted siRNA internalization, an additional series of asymmetric PTDMs was synthesized that featured a fixed hydrophobic block length of five repeat units that contained either dimethyl (dMe), methyl phenyl (MePh), or diphenyl (dPh) side chains and varied cationic block lengths. This series was further expanded to incorporate hydrophobic blocks consisting of diethyl (dEt), diisobutyl (diBu), and dicyclohexyl (dCy) based repeat units to better define the hydrophobic window for which our PTDMs had optimal activity. High-performance liquid chromatography retention times quantified the relative hydrophobicities of the noncationic building blocks. PTDMs containing the MePh, diBu, and dPh hydrophobic blocks were shown to have superior

  12. A Bicyclo[4.2.0]octene-Derived Monomer Provides Completely Linear Alternating Copolymers via Alternating Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization (AROMP)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Strained bicyclic carbomethoxy olefins were utilized as substrates in alternating ring-opening metathesis polymerization and found to provide low-dispersity polymers with novel backbones. The polymerization of methyl bicyclo[4.2.0]oct-7-ene-7-carboxylate with cyclohexene in the presence of the fast-initiating Grubbs catalyst (H2IMes)(3-Br-Pyr)2Cl2Ru=CHPh leads to a completely linear as well as alternating copolymer, as demonstrated by NMR spectroscopy, isotopic labeling, and gel permeation chromatography. In contrast, intramolecular chain-transfer reactions were observed with [5.2.0] and [3.2.0] bicyclic carbomethoxy olefins, although to a lesser extent than with the previously reported monocyclic cyclobutenecarboxylic ester monomers [SongA.; ParkerK. A.; SampsonN. S.J. Am. Chem. Soc.2009, 131, 344419275253]. Inclusion of cyclohexyl rings fused to the copolymer backbone minimizes intramolecular chain-transfer reactions and provides a framework for creating alternating functionality in a one-step polymerization. PMID:25328246

  13. Surface-initiated Ring-opening Metathesis Polymerization in the Vapor Phase: An Efficient Method for Grafting Cyclic Olefins of Low Strain Energies

    PubMed Central

    Lerum, Maria Felisa Z.; Chen, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Surface grafting of cyclic olefins with low strain energies, including cyclopentene (CP), 1,4-cyclohexadiene (CHD), cycloheptene (CHP), cis-cyclooctene (CO), cis,cis-1,5-cyclooctadiene (COD), 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene (COT), cyclododecene (CD), and trans,trans,cis-1,5,9-cyclododecatriene (CDT), were explored using ring-opening metathesis polymerization in the vapor phase. These monomers do not polymerize when SiROMP is carried out in solution due to pronounced chain transfer on surfaces where chains are in close proximities. In the vapor phase, however, chain transfer is suppressed at the solid-vapor interfaces, which permits the polymerization of most of these monomers. A minimal required strain energy of 2.2 kcal/mol was determined in this study, which is significantly lower than the estimated 13.3 kcal/mol for SiROMP carried out in solution, indicating that the enhancement in monomer polymerizability is significant using the vapor phase approach. A series of polyalkenamers with controlled fraction of unsaturation from 8% to 50% along the polymer backbone were grafted to solid substrates. It was observed that the logarithm of largest grafted layer thickness obtained before the removal of chain transfer products – which correlates with the extent of polymerization – scales with monomer strain energy. This confirms that the release of ring strain is the thermodynamic driving force for SiROMP. It was also found that although chain transfer is suppressed in the vapor phase, it is important in monomer/polymer systems where the fraction of unsaturated bonds is high. In these cases, grafted polymer thickness is dominated by chain transfer, rather than by monomer strain energy. A quantitative relationship is established for estimating graft thickness of a particular monomer using its strain energy and fraction of unsaturated bonds in the monomer. PMID:21469729

  14. Ring-opening metathesis polymerization-derived large-volume monolithic supports for reversed-phase and anion-exchange chromatography of biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Bandari, Rajendar; Buchmeiser, Michael R

    2012-07-21

    Preparative-scale monolithic columns up to 433.5 mL in volume were prepared via transition metal-catalyzed ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) from norborn-2-ene (NBE) and trimethylolpropane-tris(5-norbornene-2-carboxylate) (CL) using the 1(st)-generation Grubbs initiator RuCl(2)(PCy(3))(2)(CHPh) (Cy = cyclohexyl) (1) in the presence of a macro- and microporogen, i.e. of 2-propanol and toluene. To prepare large-volume monoliths, bulk polymerizations were completed within borosilicate or PEEK column formats with diameters in the range of 3 to 49 mm. The pore structure of the large-volume monoliths was investigated by electron microscopy and inverse-size exclusion chromatography (ISEC), respectively. Monolithic columns with inner diameters (I.D.s) in the range of 10-49 mm were tested for the separation of a mixture of five proteins, i.e., insulin, cytochrome C, lysozyme, conalbumin, and β-lactoglobulin. Preparative separation of these proteins was achieved within less than 12 min in a 433.5 mL monolithic column by applying gradient elution in the RP-HPLC mode. Furthermore, weak and strong anion exchangers were prepared via post-synthesis grafting of bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-en-2-yl-methyl-N,N-dimethylammonium hydrochloride (4) and bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-en-2-ylmethyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium iodide (5), respectively. The weak and strong anion exchangers were used for the preparative-scale separation of 5'-phosphorylated oligodeoxythymidylic acid fragments of d[pT](12-18) at pH values ranging from 5 to 9. PMID:22673214

  15. Statistical Ring Opening Metathesis Copolymerization of Norbornene and Cyclopentene by Grubbs' 1st-Generation Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Nikovia, Christiana; Maroudas, Andreas-Philippos; Goulis, Panagiotis; Tzimis, Dionysios; Paraskevopoulou, Patrina; Pitsikalis, Marinos

    2015-01-01

    Statistical copolymers of norbornene (NBE) with cyclopentene (CP) were prepared by ring-opening metathesis polymerization, employing the 1st-generation Grubbs' catalyst, in the presence or absence of triphenylphosphine, PPh₃. The reactivity ratios were estimated using the Finemann-Ross, inverted Finemann-Ross, and Kelen-Tüdos graphical methods, along with the computer program COPOINT, which evaluates the parameters of binary copolymerizations from comonomer/copolymer composition data by integrating a given copolymerization equation in its differential form. Structural parameters of the copolymers were obtained by calculating the dyad sequence fractions and the mean sequence length, which were derived using the monomer reactivity ratios. The kinetics of thermal decomposition of the copolymers along with the respective homopolymers was studied by thermogravimetric analysis within the framework of the Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Kissinger methodologies. Finally, the effect of triphenylphosphine on the kinetics of copolymerization, the reactivity ratios, and the kinetics of thermal decomposition were examined. PMID:26343620

  16. Reactive triblock polymers from tandem ring-opening polymerization for nanostructured vinyl thermosets

    SciTech Connect

    Amendt, Mark A.; Pitet, Louis M.; Moench, Sarah; Hillmyer, Marc A.

    2013-03-07

    Multiply functional hydroxyl telechelic poly(cyclooctene-s-5-norbornene-2-methylene methacrylate) was synthesized by ring opening metathesis (co)polymerization of cis-cyclooctene and 5-norbornene-2-methylene methacrylate using the second generation Grubbs catalyst in combination with a symmetric chain transfer agent bearing hydroxyl functionality. The resulting hydroxyl-telechelic polymer was used as a macroinitiator for the ring opening transesterification polymerization of d,l-lactide to form reactive poly(lactide)-b-poly(cyclooctene-s-5-norbornene-2-methylene methacrylate)-b-poly(lactide) triblock polymers. Subsequently, the triblocks were crosslinked by free radical copolymerization with several vinyl monomers including styrene, divinylbenzene, methyl methacrylate, and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate. Certain conditions led to optically transparent thermosets with mesoscale phase separation as evidenced by small angle X-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy. Disordered, bicontinuous structures with nanoscopic domains were generated in several cases, rendering the samples attractive for size-selective membrane applications.

  17. Photoacid-mediated ring opening polymerization driven by visible light.

    PubMed

    Fu, Changkui; Xu, Jiangtao; Boyer, Cyrille

    2016-06-01

    A novel methodology of visible light regulated ring opening polymerization in the presence of reversible merocyanine-based photoacid was reported for the first time. In combination with a photoinduced radical polymerization technique, a dual wavelength light controlled orthogonal polymerization system was investigated to switch the polymerization between two different monomers and for the preparation of block and graft copolymers in one pot. PMID:27167862

  18. Photoswitchable NHC-promoted ring-opening polymerizations.

    PubMed

    Neilson, Bethany M; Bielawski, Christopher W

    2013-06-18

    The UV-induced photocyclization of a dithienylethene-annulated N-heterocyclic carbene precatalyst enabled photoswitchable ring-opening polymerizations of ε-caprolactone and δ-valerolactone. The polymerizations proceeded efficiently in ambient light, however UV irradiation attenuated the reaction rate (k(amb)/k(UV) = 59). Subsequent visible light exposure reversed the photocyclization and restored catalytic activity. PMID:23665923

  19. Ring-opening Polymerization of Epoxidized Soybean Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ring opening polymerization of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) initiated by boron trifluoride diethyl etherate, (BF3•OEt2), in methylene chloride was conducted in an effort to develop useful biodegradable polymers. The resulting polymers (PESO) were characterized using Infrared (IR), differential scan...

  20. Precision Synthesis of Alternating Copolymers via Ring-Opening Polymerization of 1-Substituted Cyclobutenes.

    PubMed

    Parker, Kathlyn A; Sampson, Nicole S

    2016-03-15

    Investigation of complex molecular systems depends on our ability to correlate physical measurements with molecular structure. Interpretation of studies that rely on synthetic polymers is generally limited by their heterogeneity; i.e., there is variation in the number and arrangement of the monomeric building blocks that have been incorporated. Superior physics and biology can be performed with materials and tools that exert precise control over the sequence and spacing of functional groups. An interest in functional ligands combined with a desire to control the orientation and stereochemistry of monomer incorporation led to the design of new substrates for ruthenium-catalyzed ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP). We discovered that ROMP of cyclobutene-1-carboxamides provides uniform and translationally invariant polymers. In contrast, cyclobutene-1-carboxylate esters ring open upon treatment with ruthenium catalyst, but they are stable to homopolymerization. However, in the presence of cyclohexene monomers, they undergo alternating ROMP (AROMP or alt-ROMP) to give copolymers with a precisely controlled sequence. The alternating cyclobutene ester/cyclohexene pair provides access to functional group spacing larger than is possible with homopolymers. This can be desirable; for example, polymers with a regular 8-10 Å backbone spacing of cationic charge and with between four and eight cationic groups were the most effective antibacterial agents and had low cytotoxicity. Moreover, the AROMP chemistry allows alternation of two functional moieties: one associated with the cyclohexene and one attached to the cyclobutene. In the case of antibacterial copolymers, the alternating chemistry allowed variation of hydrophobicity via the cyclohexene while maintaining a constant cation spacing through the cyclobutene. In the case of copolymers that bear donor and acceptor groups, strict alternation of the groups increased intrachain charge transfer. Like cyclobutene-1

  1. Precision Synthesis of Alternating Copolymers via Ring-Opening Polymerization of 1-Substituted Cyclobutenes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Conspectus Investigation of complex molecular systems depends on our ability to correlate physical measurements with molecular structure. Interpretation of studies that rely on synthetic polymers is generally limited by their heterogeneity; i.e., there is variation in the number and arrangement of the monomeric building blocks that have been incorporated. Superior physics and biology can be performed with materials and tools that exert precise control over the sequence and spacing of functional groups. An interest in functional ligands combined with a desire to control the orientation and stereochemistry of monomer incorporation led to the design of new substrates for ruthenium-catalyzed ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP). We discovered that ROMP of cyclobutene-1-carboxamides provides uniform and translationally invariant polymers. In contrast, cyclobutene-1-carboxylate esters ring open upon treatment with ruthenium catalyst, but they are stable to homopolymerization. However, in the presence of cyclohexene monomers, they undergo alternating ROMP (AROMP or alt-ROMP) to give copolymers with a precisely controlled sequence. The alternating cyclobutene ester/cyclohexene pair provides access to functional group spacing larger than is possible with homopolymers. This can be desirable; for example, polymers with a regular 8–10 Å backbone spacing of cationic charge and with between four and eight cationic groups were the most effective antibacterial agents and had low cytotoxicity. Moreover, the AROMP chemistry allows alternation of two functional moieties: one associated with the cyclohexene and one attached to the cyclobutene. In the case of antibacterial copolymers, the alternating chemistry allowed variation of hydrophobicity via the cyclohexene while maintaining a constant cation spacing through the cyclobutene. In the case of copolymers that bear donor and acceptor groups, strict alternation of the groups increased intrachain charge transfer. Like

  2. Thermodynamic Presynthetic Considerations for Ring-Opening Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The need for polymers for high-end applications, coupled with the desire to mimic nature’s macromolecular machinery fuels the development of innovative synthetic strategies every year. The recently acquired macromolecular-synthetic tools increase the precision and enable the synthesis of polymers with high control and low dispersity. However, regardless of the specificity, the polymerization behavior is highly dependent on the monomeric structure. This is particularly true for the ring-opening polymerization of lactones, in which the ring size and degree of substitution highly influence the polymer formation properties. In other words, there are two important factors to contemplate when considering the particular polymerization behavior of a specific monomer: catalytic specificity and thermodynamic equilibrium behavior. This perspective focuses on the latter and undertakes a holistic approach among the different lactones with regard to the equilibrium thermodynamic polymerization behavior and its relation to polymer synthesis. This is summarized in a monomeric overview diagram that acts as a presynthetic directional cursor for synthesizing highly specific macromolecules; the means by which monomer equilibrium conversion relates to starting temperature, concentration, ring size, degree of substitution, and its implications for polymerization behavior are discussed. These discussions emphasize the importance of considering not only the catalytic system but also the monomer size and structure relations to thermodynamic equilibrium behavior. The thermodynamic equilibrium behavior relation with a monomer structure offers an additional layer of complexity to our molecular toolbox and, if it is harnessed accordingly, enables a powerful route to both monomer formation and intentional macromolecular design. PMID:26795940

  3. Preparation of Soypolymers by Ring-opening Polymerization of Epoxdized Soybean Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ring opening polymerization of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) initiated by boron trifluoride diethyl etherate in methylene chloride was conducted in an effort to develop useful biodegradable polymers. The resulting polymers (PESO) were characterized using Infrared (IR), differential scanning calorime...

  4. Highly active water-soluble olefin metathesis catalyst.

    PubMed

    Hong, Soon Hyeok; Grubbs, Robert H

    2006-03-22

    A novel water-soluble ruthenium olefin metathesis catalyst supported by a poly(ethylene glycol) conjugated saturated 1,3-dimesityl-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene ligand is reported. The catalyst displays improved activity in ring-opening metathesis polymerization, ring-closing metathesis, and cross-metathesis reactions in aqueous media. PMID:16536510

  5. Organocatalytic ring-opening polymerization of morpholinones: new strategies to functionalized polyesters.

    PubMed

    Blake, Timothy R; Waymouth, Robert M

    2014-07-01

    The oxidative lactonization of N-substituted diethanolamines with the Pd catalyst [LPd(OAc)]2(2+)[OTf(-)]2 generates N-substituted morpholin-2-ones. The organocatalytic ring-opening polymerization of N-acyl morpholin-2-ones occurs readily to generate functionalized poly(aminoesters) with N-acylated amines in the polyester backbone. The thermodynamics of the ring-opening polymerization depends sensitively on the hybridization of the nitrogen of the heterocyclic lactone. N-Acyl morpholin-2-ones polymerize readily to generate polymorpholinones, but the N-aryl or N-alkyl substituted morpholin-2-ones do not polymerize. Experimental and theoretical studies reveal that the thermodynamics of ring opening correlates to the degree of pyramidalization of the endocyclic N-atom. Deprotection of the poly(N-Boc-morpholin-2-one) yields a water-soluble, cationic polymorpholinone. PMID:24946200

  6. Catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of epoxidized soybean oil by hydrated and anhydrous fluoroantimonic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ring-opening polymerization of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) catalyzed by the super acid, fluroantimonic acid hexahydrate (HSbF6-6H2O), and the anhydrous form (HSbF6) in ethyl acetate was conducted in an effort to develop useful biodegradable polymers. The resulting polymerized ESO (SA-RPESO and SAA-...

  7. Ring-Opening Polymerization of Lactide to Form a Biodegradable Polymer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Jennifer L.; Aubrecht, Katherine B.

    2008-01-01

    In this laboratory activity for introductory organic chemistry, students carry out the tin(II) bis(2-ethylhexanoate)/benzyl alcohol mediated ring-opening polymerization of lactide to form the biodegradable polymer polylactide (PLA). As the mechanism of the polymerization is analogous to that of a transesterification reaction, the experiment can be…

  8. Semicrystalline Polymers via Ring-Opening Polymerization: Preparation and Polymerization of Alkylene Phthalate Cyclic Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Brunelle; Bradt; Serth-Guzzo; Takekoshi; Evans; Pearce; Wilson

    1998-07-28

    Preparation of cyclic oligomeric alkylene phthalates via pseudo-high dilution condensation of alkylene diols with iso- and terephthaloyl chlorides and conversion to high molecular weight polyesters via ring-opening polymerization is described. Sterically unhindered amines such as quinuclidine or 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) catalyze the condensation significantly faster than other tertiary amines and are useful for carrying out this conversion in high yield, in the first direct reaction of diol and diacid chloride to form cyclic polyesters. The mixtures of oligomeric cyclics melt at 150-200 degrees C, providing liquids of low viscosity. Ring-opening polymerization using tin or titanate catalysts affords high molecular weight polymers within minutes. Complete polymerization of PBT oligomeric cyclics can be achieved at 180-200 degreesC, significantly below the polymer's melting point of 225 degreesC, and with molecular weights as high as 445 x 10(3). Polymers formed via such a process are more crystalline than conventionally prepared polyesters. PMID:9680414

  9. Lewis Acid Catalyzed Ring-opening Polymerization of Epoxidized Soybean Oil in Liquid Carbon Dioxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ring-opening polymerization of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) catalyzed by boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF3•OEt2), in liquid carbon dioxide, was conducted in an effort to develop useful biobased biodegradable polymers. The resulting polymers (RPESO) were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, diff...

  10. Boron Trifluoride Catalized Ring-Opening Polymerization of Epoxidized Soybean Oil in Liquid Carbon Dioxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF3.OEt2) catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO), in liquid carbon dioxide, was conducted in an effort to develop useful biobased biodegradable polymers. The resulting polymers (RPESO) were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, differ...

  11. Organocatalytic Ring-Opening Polymerization of Trimethylene Carbonate to Yield a Biodegradable Polycarbonate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Julian M. W.; Zhang, Xiangyi; Brennan, Megan K.; Sardon, Haritz; Engler, Amanda C.; Fox, Courtney H.; Frank, Curtis W.; Waymouth, Robert M.; Hedrick, James L.

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, students work in pairs to synthesize a simple aliphatic polycarbonate via ring-opening polymerization of trimethylene carbonate using 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene and thiourea as organocatalysts. Following polymer isolation, students cool the material in a dry ice/acetone bath to observe its glass-transition…

  12. INVESTIGATION OF THE SURFACE PROPERTIES OF POLYMERIC SOAPS OBTAINED BY RING-OPENING POLYMERIZATION OF EPOXIDIZED SOYBEAN OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) was converted to a polysoap via a two-step synthetic procedure of catalytic ring-opening polymerization (PESO), followed by hydrolysis with a base (HPESO). Various molecular weights of PESO and HPESO were prepared by varying the reaction temperature and/or catalyst conc...

  13. Olefin metathesis for chemical biology.

    PubMed

    Binder, Joseph B; Raines, Ronald T

    2008-12-01

    Chemical biology relies on effective synthetic chemistry for building molecules to probe and modulate biological function. Olefin metathesis in organic solvents is a valuable addition to this armamentarium, and developments during the previous decade are enabling metathesis in aqueous solvents for the manipulation of biomolecules. Functional group-tolerant ruthenium metathesis catalysts modified with charged moieties or hydrophilic polymers are soluble and active in water, enabling ring-opening metathesis polymerization, cross metathesis, and ring-closing metathesis. Alternatively, conventional hydrophobic ruthenium complexes catalyze a similar array of metathesis reactions in mixtures of water and organic solvents. This strategy has enabled cross metathesis on the surface of a protein. Continuing developments in catalyst design and methodology will popularize the bioorthogonal reactivity of metathesis. PMID:18935975

  14. Developing Precisely Defined Drug-Loaded Nanoparticles by Ring-Opening Polymerization of a Paclitaxel Prodrug.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinyao; Pang, Yan; Bhattacharyya, Jayanta; Liu, Wenge; Weitzhandler, Isaac; Li, Xinghai; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2016-08-01

    Nanoparticles with high paclitaxel (PTX) loading and low systemic toxicity are prepared in scalable and versatile manner via one-step ring-opening polymerization of a prodrug monomer consisting of PTX that is appended to a cyclic carbonate through a hydrolysable ester linker. Initiating this monomer from a hydrophilic macroinitiator results in an amphiphilic diblock copolymer that spontaneously self-assembles into well-defined nanoparticles with tunable size. PMID:27111757

  15. Lipase-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of lactones to polyesters and its mechanistic aspects.

    PubMed

    Namekawa, S; Suda, S; Uyama, H; Kobayashi, S

    1999-01-01

    Lipase catalysis induced a ring-opening polymerization of lactones with different ring-sizes. Small-size (four-membered) and medium-size lactones (six- and seven-membered) as well as macrolides (12-, 13-, 16-, and 17-membered) were subjected to lipase-catalyzed polymerization. The polymerization behaviors depended primarily on the lipase origin and the monomer structure. The macrolides showing much lower anionic polymerizability were enzymatically polymerized faster than epsilon-caprolactone. The granular immobilized lipase derived from Candida antartica showed extremely efficient catalysis in the polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone. Single-step terminal functionalization of the polyester was achieved by initiator and terminator methods. The enzymatic polymerizability of lactones was quantitatively evaluated by Michaelis-Menten kinetics. PMID:10416661

  16. Modeling of lipase catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone.

    PubMed

    Sivalingam, G; Madras, Giridhar

    2004-01-01

    Enzymatic ring-opening polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone by various lipases was investigated in toluene at various temperatures. The determination of molecular weight and structural identification was carried out with gel permeation chromatography and proton NMR, respectively. Among the various lipases employed, an immobilized lipase from Candida antartica B (Novozym 435) showed the highest catalytic activity. The polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone by Novozym 435 showed an optimal temperature of 65 degrees C and an optimum toluene content of 50/50 v/v of toluene and epsilon-caprolactone. As lipases can degrade polyesters, a maximum in the molecular weight with time was obtained due to the competition of ring opening polymerization and degradation by specific chain end scission. The optimum temperature, toluene content, and the variation of molecular weight with time are consistent with earlier observations. A comprehensive model based on continuous distribution kinetics was developed to model these phenomena. The model accounts for simultaneous polymerization, degradation and enzyme deactivation and provides a technique to determine the rate coefficients for these processes. The dependence of these rate coefficients with temperature and monomer concentration is also discussed. PMID:15003027

  17. L-Lactide Ring-Opening Polymerization with Tris(acetylacetonate)Titanium(IV) for Renewable Material.

    PubMed

    Kim, Da Hee; Yoo, Ji Yun; Ko, Young Soo

    2016-05-01

    A new Ti-type of catalyst for L-lactide polymerization was synthesized by reaction of titanium(IV) isopropoxide (TTIP) with acetylacetone (AA). Moreover, PLA was prepared by the bulk ring-opening polymerization using synthesized Ti catalyst. Polymerization behaviors were examined depending on monomer/catalyst molar ratio, polymerization temperature and time. The structure of synthesized catalysts was verified with FT-IR and 1H NMR and the properties of poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) were examined by GPC, DSC and FT-IR. There existed about 30 minutes of induction time at the monomer/catalyst molar ratio of 300. The molecular weight (MW) increased as monomer/catalyst molar ratio increased. The MW increased almost linearly as polymerization progressed. Increasing polymerization temperature increased the molecular weight of PLLA as well as monomer/catalyst molar ratio. The melting point (T(m)) of polymers was in the range of 142 to 167 degrees C. Lower T(m) was expected to be resulted from relatively lower molecular weight. PMID:27483787

  18. Properties of compositional volume grating formation with photoinitiated cationic-ring-opening polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraschis, Loukas; Sugiyama, Yasuyuki; Akella, Annapoorna; Honda, Tokuyuki; Hesselink, Lambertus

    1998-11-01

    We investigated compositional volume grating formation in the Polaroid medium that utilizes the cationic-ring-opening photoinitiated polymerization process, and compared our conclusions with the current physical model describing polymer holographic recording. We identified the effects of diffusion and polymerization during illumination, as well as significant postexposure grating development. Holographic recording in this medium allows for final strong gratings with high recording sensitivity (S approximately 2 cm/mJ), that were not limited at the higher recording intensities (I less than or equal to 250 mW/cm2) corresponding to photon (exposure) limited recording. The results of the present analysis allow for more comprehensive physical description of grating formation in the photoinitiated CROP process, and evaluation of the polymer recording process in a nonvolatile holographic storage system.

  19. Anionic ring-opening polymerization of beta-alkoxymethyl-substituted beta-lactones.

    PubMed

    Adamus, Grazyna; Kowalczuk, Marek

    2008-02-01

    We report on anionic ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of racemic beta-(methoxymethyl)-beta-propiolactone (MOMPL) and beta-(ethoxymethyl)-beta-propiolactone (EOMPL) initiated by supramolecular complex of potassium acetate and tetrabutylammonium acetate (Bu4N+ Ac) as well as by tetrabutylammonium hydroxide, respectively. Structure of the resulting polymers has been established at the molecular level by electrospray ionization multistage mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)) and has been confirmed by FT-IR, NMR, and GPC analyses. Similar behavior of MOMPL and EOMPL with respect to already-studied beta-alkyl-substituted beta-lactones, e.g., beta-butyrolactone (MPL), has been observed under the conditions of anionic ROP (including observed side reactions leading to unsaturated end groups) and the already-established mechanisms of anionic polymerization of beta-alkyl-substituted beta-lactones are extended on beta-alkoxymethyl-substituted ones. PMID:18179174

  20. New mechanism for the ring-opening polymerization of lactones? Uranyl aryloxide-induced intermolecular catalysis.

    PubMed

    Walshe, Aurora; Fang, Jian; Maron, Laurent; Baker, Robert J

    2013-08-01

    The uranyl aryloxide [UO2(OAr)2(THF)2] (Ar = 2,6-(t)Bu2-C6H2) is an active catalyst for the ring-opening cyclo-oligomerization of ε-caprolactone and δ-valerolactone but not for β-butyrolactone, γ-butyrolactone, and rac-lactide. (1)H EXSY measurements give the thermodynamic parameters for exchange of monomer and coordinated THF, and rates of polymerization have been determined. A comprehensive theoretical examination of the mechanism is discussed. From both experiment and theory, the initiation step is intramolecular and in keeping with the accepted mechanism, while computational studies indicate that propagation can go via an intermolecular pathway, which is the first time this has been observed. The lack of polymerization for the inactive monomers has been investigated theoretically and C-H···π interactions stabilize the coordination of the less rigid monomers. PMID:23879703

  1. Synthesis of Block Copolymers of Varying Architecture Through Suppression of Transesterification during Coordinated Anionic Ring Opening Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Lipik, Vitali T.; Abadie, Marc J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Well-defined di- and triblock copolymers consisting of ε-caprolactone (CL), L-lactide (LA), and trimethylene carbonate (TMC) were synthesized via “PLA first route” in coordinated anionic ring opening polymerization/copolymerization (CAROP) with tin (II) octoate as catalyst. The desired block structure was preserved by use of protective additive α-methylstyrene by preventing the transesterification side-reactions. MALDI-TOF analysis revealed that the protection mechanism is associated with α-methylstyrene and tin (II) octoate complexation. Additionally, it was shown that use of α-methylstyrene in ring opening polymerization allowed the formation of polyesters with high molar mass. PMID:22844286

  2. Drug-Initiated, Controlled Ring-Opening Polymerization for the Synthesis of Polymer-Drug Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Rong; Cheng, Jianjun

    2012-01-01

    Paclitaxel, a polyol chemotherapeutic agent, was covalently conjugated through its 2′-OH to polylactide with 100% regioselectivity via controlled polymerization of lactide mediated by paclitaxel/(BDI-II)ZnN(TMS)2 (BDI-II = 2-((2,6-diisopropylphenyl)amino)-4-((2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imino)-2-pentene). The steric bulk of the substituents on the N-aryl groups of the BDI ligand drastically affected the regiochemistry of coordination of the metal catalysts to paclitaxel and the subsequent ring-opening polymerization of lactide. The drug-initiated, controlled polymerization of lactide was extended, again with 100% regioselectivity, to docetaxel, a chemotherapeutic agent that is even more structurally complex than paclitaxel. Regioselective incorporation of paclitaxel (or docetaxel) to other biopolymers (i.e., poly(δ-valerolactone), poly(trimethylene carbonate), and poly(ε-caprolactone)), was also achieved through drug/(BDI-II)ZnN(TMS)2-mediated controlled polymerization. These drug-polylactide conjugates with precisely controlled structures are expected to be excellent building blocks for drug delivery, coating, and controlled-release applications. PMID:23357880

  3. Cooperative Hydrogen-Bond Pairing in Organocatalytic Ring-Opening Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Thiourea (TU)/amine base cocatalysts are commonly employed for well-controlled, highly active “living” organocatalytic ring-opening polymerizations (ROPs) of cyclic esters and carbonates. In this work, several of the most active cocatalyst pairs are shown by 1H NMR binding studies to be highly associated in solution, dominating all other known noncovalent catalyst/reagent interactions during ROP. One strongly binding catalyst pair behaves kinetically as a unimolecular catalyst species. The high selectivity and activity exhibited by these ROP organocatalysts are attributed to the strong binding between the two cocatalysts, and the predictive utility of these binding parameters is applied for the discovery of a new, highly active cocatalyst pair. PMID:25400295

  4. Bidirectional cross metathesis and ring-closing metathesis/ring opening of a C 2-symmetric building block: a strategy for the synthesis of decanolide natural products

    PubMed Central

    Kunz, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Summary Starting from the conveniently available ex-chiral pool building block (R,R)-hexa-1,5-diene-3,4-diol, the ten-membered ring lactones stagonolide E and curvulide A were synthesized using a bidirectional olefin-metathesis functionalization of the terminal double bonds. Key steps are (i) a site-selective cross metathesis, (ii) a highly diastereoselective extended tethered RCM to furnish a (Z,E)-configured dienyl carboxylic acid and (iii) a Ru–lipase-catalyzed dynamic kinetic resolution to establish the desired configuration at C9. Ring closure was accomplished by macrolactonization. Curvulide A was synthesized from stagonolide E through Sharpless epoxidation. PMID:24367418

  5. Tri- and tetra-dentate imine vanadyl complexes: synthesis, structure and ethylene polymerization/ring opening polymerization capability.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Zhao, Ke-Qing; Walton, Mark; Wright, Joseph A; Hughes, David L; Elsegood, Mark R J; Michiue, Kenji; Sun, Xinsen; Redshaw, Carl

    2014-11-28

    Reaction of the ligand 2,4-tert-butyl-6-[(2-methylquinolin-8-ylimino)methyl]phenol (L(1)H) with [VOCl3] in the presence of triethylamine afforded the complex [VOCl2L(1)] (1), whereas use of [VO(OnPr)3] led to the isolation of [VO2L(1)] (2) or [VO2L(1)]·2/3MeCN (2·2/3MeCN). Reaction of 2-((2-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)quinolin-8-ylimino)methyl)-4,6-R(1),R(2)-phenols (R(1) = R(2) = (t)Bu; L(2)H), (R(1) = R(2) = Me; L(3)H) or (R(1) = Me, R(2) = Ad; L(4)H) with [VO(OnPr)3] afforded complexes of the type [L(2-4)VO] (where L(2) = 3, L(3) = 4, L(4) = 5). The molecular structures of 1 to 3 are reported; the metal centre adopts a distorted octahedral, trigonal bipyramidal or square-based pyramidal geometry respectively. In Schlenk line tests, all complexes have been screened as pre-catalysts for the polymerization of ethylene using diethylaluminium chloride (DEAC) as co-catalyst in the presence of ethyltrichloroacetate (ETA), and for the ring opening polymerization (ROP) of ε-caprolactone in the presence of benzyl alcohol. All pre-catalyst/DEAC/ETA systems are highly active ethylene polymerization catalysts affording linear polyethylene with activities in the range 3000-10,700 g (mol h bar)(-1); the use of methylaluminoxane (MAO) or modified MAO as co-catalyst led to poor or no activity. In a parallel pressure reactor, 3-5 have been screened as pre-catalysts for ethylene polymerization in the presence of either DEAC or DMAC (dimethylaluminium chloride) and ETA at various temperatures and for the co-polymerization of ethylene with propylene. The use of DMAC proved more promising with 3 achieving an activity of 63,000 g (mol h bar)(-1) at 50 °C and affording UHMWPE (M(w) ~ 2,000,000). In the case of the co-polymerization, the incorporation of propylene was 6.9-8.8 mol%, with 3 exhibiting the highest incorporation when using either DEAC or DMAC. In the case of the ring opening polymerization (ROP) of ε-caprolactone, systems employing complexes 1-5 were virtually inactive

  6. Polypeptoids by living ring-opening polymerization of N-substituted N-carboxyanhydrides from solid supports.

    PubMed

    Gangloff, Niklas; Fetsch, Corinna; Luxenhofer, Robert

    2013-06-25

    The nucleophilic living ring-opening polymerization of N-substituted glycine N-carboxyanhydrides using solid-phase synthesis resins is reported. By variation of experimental parameters, products with near Poisson distributions are obtained. As opposed to reversible deactivation radical polymerization, the living polymerization is demonstrated to be viable to high monomer conversion and through multiple monomer addition steps. Successful preparation of a multiblock copolypeptoid is proof for a highly living and robust character of the solid-phase peptoid polymerization. PMID:23661431

  7. Metathesis catalysts and methods thereof

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard Royce; Yuan, Jian

    2016-04-19

    The present application provides, among other things, novel compounds for metathesis reactions, and methods for preparing and using provided compounds. In some embodiments, the present invention provides compounds having the structure of formula I or II. In some embodiments, the present invention provides methods for preparing a compound of formula I or II. In some embodiments, the present invention provides methods for using a provided compound. In some embodiments, a provided compound is useful for stereoselective ring-opening metathesis polymerization. In some embodiments, a provided metathesis method provides cis and/or isotactic polymers.

  8. Bio-reducible polycations from ring-opening polymerization as potential gene delivery vehicles.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qing-Ying; Liu, Yan-Hong; Huang, Zheng; Zhang, Ji; Luan, Chao-Ran; Zhang, Qin-Fang; Yu, Xiao-Qi

    2016-07-01

    Synthetic polycations show great potential for the construction of ideal non-viral gene delivery systems. Several cationic polymers were synthesized by the epoxide ring-opening polymerization between diepoxide and various polyamines. Disulfide bonds were introduced to afford the polymers bio-reducibility, while the oxygen-rich structure might enhance the serum tolerance and biocompatibility. The polycations have much lower molecular weights than PEI 25 kDa, but still could well bind and condense DNA into nano-sized particles. DNA could be released from the polyplexes by addition of reductive DTT. Compared to PEI, the polycations have less cytotoxicity possibly due to their lower molecular weights and oxygen-rich structure. More significantly, these materials exhibit excellent serum tolerance than PEI, and up to 6 times higher transfection efficiency than PEI could be obtained in the presence of serum. The transfection mediated by was seldom affected even at a high concentration of serum. Much lower protein adsorption of polycations than PEI was proved by bovine serum albumin adsorption experiments. Flow cytometry also demonstrates their good serum resistance ability. PMID:27283791

  9. Ring-opening graft polymerization of propylene carbonate onto xylan in an ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueqin; Chen, Mingjie; Liu, Chuanfu; Zhang, Aiping; Sun, Runcang

    2015-01-01

    The amidine organocatalyst 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) is an effective nucleophilic catalyst. Biocomposites with tuneable properties were successfully synthesized by ring-opening graft polymerization (ROGP) of propylene carbonate (PC) onto xylan using DBU as a catalyst in the ionic liquid (IL) 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Amim]Cl). The effects of reaction temperature, reaction time and the molar ratio of PC to anhydroxylose units (AXU) in xylan were investigated. The physico-chemical properties of xylan-graft-poly(propylene carbonate) (xylan-g-PPC) copolymers were characterised by FT-IR, NMR, TGA/DTG, AFM and tensile analysis. The FT-IR and NMR results indicated the successful attachment of PPC onto xylan. TGA/DTG suggested the increased thermal stability of xylan after the attachment of PPC side chains. AFM analysis revealed details about the molecular aggregation of xylan-g-PPC films. The results also showed that with the increased DS of xylan-g-PPC copolymers, the tensile strength and Young's modulus of the films decreased, while the elongation at break increased. PMID:25853319

  10. Bio-Based Polyketones by Selective Ring-Opening Radical Polymerization of α-Pinene-Derived Pinocarvone.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, Hisanari; Satoh, Kotaro; Kamigaito, Masami

    2016-01-22

    The most abundant naturally occurring terpene, α-pinene, which cannot be directly polymerized into high polymers by any polymerization method, was quantitatively converted under visible-light irradiation into pinocarvone, which possesses a reactive exo methylene group. The bicyclic vinyl ketone was quantitatively polymerized in fluoroalcohols by selective (99%) ring-opening radical polymerization of the four-membered ring, which results in unique polymers containing chiral six-membered rings with conjugated ketone units in the main chain. These polymers display good thermal properties, optical activities, and contain reactive conjugated ketone units. Reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization was successfully accomplished by using appropriate trithiocarbonate RAFT agents, enabling the synthesis of thermoplastic elastomers based on controlled macromolecular architectures. PMID:26663490

  11. Spontaneously Healable Thermoplastic Elastomers Achieved through One-Pot Living Ring-Opening Metathesis Copolymerization of Well-Designed Bulky Monomers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji-Xing; Long, Ying-Yun; Pan, Li; Men, Yong-Feng; Li, Yue-Sheng

    2016-05-18

    We report here a series of novel spontaneously healable thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) with a combination of improved mechanical and good autonomic self-healing performances. Hard-soft diblock and hard-soft-hard triblock copolymers with poly[exo-1,4,4a,9,9a,10-hexahydro-9,10(1',2')-benzeno-l,4-methanoanthracene] (PHBM) as the hard block and secondary amide group containing norbornene derivative polymer as the soft block were synthesized via living ring-opening metathesis copolymerization by use of Grubbs third-generation catalyst through sequential monomer addition. The microstructure, mechanical, self-healing, and surface morphologies of the block copolymers were thoroughly studied. Both excellent mechanical performance and self-healing capability were achieved for the block copolymers because of the interplayed physical cross-link of hard block and dynamic interaction formed by soft block in the self-assembled network. Under an optimized hard block (PHBM) weight ratio of 5%, a significant recovery of tensile strength (up to 100%) and strain at break (ca. 85%) was achieved at ambient temperature without any treatment even after complete rupture. Moreover, the simple reaction operations and well-designed monomers offer versatility in tuning the architectures and properties of the resulting block copolymers. PMID:27136676

  12. Z-Selective Ruthenium Metathesis Catalysts: Comparison of Nitrate and Nitrite X-type Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Pribisko, Melanie A.; Ahmed, Tonia S.; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Two new Ru-based metathesis catalysts, 3 and 4, have been synthesized for the purpose of comparing their catalytic properties to those of their cis-selective nitrate analogues, 1 and 2. Although catalysts 3 and 4 exhibited slower initiation rates than 1 and 2, they maintained high cis-selectivity in homodimerization and ring-opening metathesis polymerization reactions. Furthermore, the nitrite catalysts displayed higher cis-selectivity than 2 for ring-opening metathesis polymerizations, and 4 delivered higher yields of polymer. PMID:25484484

  13. Tetraphenolate niobium and tantalum complexes for the ring opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone.

    PubMed

    Al-Khafaji, Yahya; Sun, Xinsen; Prior, Timothy J; Elsegood, Mark R J; Redshaw, Carl

    2015-07-21

    Reaction of the pro-ligand α,α,α',α'-tetra(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxyphenyl-p-)xylene-para-tetraphenol (p-L(1)H4) with two equivalents of [NbCl5] in refluxing toluene afforded, after work-up, the complex {[NbCl3(NCMe)]2(μ-p-L(1))}·6MeCN (1·6MeCN). When the reaction was conducted in the presence of excess ethanol, the orange complex {[NbCl2(OEt)(NCMe)]2(μ-p-L(1))}·3½MeCN·0.614toluene (2·3½MeCN·0.614toluene) was formed. A similar reaction using [TaCl5] afforded the yellow complex {[TaCl2(OEt)(NCMe)]2(μ-p-L(1))}·5MeCN (3·5MeCN). In the case of the meta pro-ligand, namely α,α,α',α'tetra(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxyphenyl-m-)xylene-meta-tetraphenol (m-L(2)H4) only the use of [Nb(O)Cl3(NCMe)2] led to the isolation of crystalline material, namely the orange bis-chelate complex {[Nb(NCMe)Cl(m-L(2)H2)2]}·3½MeCN (4·3½MeCN) or {[Nb(NCMe)Cl(m-L(2)H2)2]}·5MeCN (4·5MeCN). The molecular structures of 1-4 and the tetraphenols L(1)H4 and m-L(2)H4·2MeCN have been determined. Complexes 1-4 have been screened as pre-catalysts for the ring opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone, both with and without benzyl alcohol or solvent present, and at various temperatures; conversion rates were mostly excellent (>96%) with good control either at >100 °C over 20 h (in toluene) or 1 h (neat). PMID:25720336

  14. Ring-Opening Polymerization of Prodrugs: A Versatile Approach to Prepare Well-Defined Drug Loaded Nanoparticles**

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinyao; Liu, Wenge; Weitzhandler, Isaac; Bhattacharyya, Jayanta; Li, Xinghai; Wang, Jing; Qi, Yizhi; Bhattacharjee, Somnath; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    We report a new methodology for the synthesis of polymer-drug conjugates from “compound”—all in one—prodrug monomers that consist of a cyclic polymerizable group that is appended to a drug through a cleavable linker. We show that organocatalyzed ring-opening polymerization can polymerize these monomers into well-defined polymer prodrugs that are designed to self-assemble into nanoparticles and release drug in response to a physiologically relevant stimulus. This method is compatible with structurally diverse drugs and allows different drugs to be copolymerized with quantitative conversion of the monomers. The drug loading can be controlled by adjusting the monomer(s) to initiator feed ratio and drug release can be encoded into the polymer by the choice of linker. Initiating these monomers from a polyethylene glycol macroinitiator yields amphiphilic diblock copolymers that spontaneously self-assemble into micelles with a long plasma circulation, which is useful for systemic therapy. PMID:25427831

  15. Use of over the counter oral relief aids or dietary supplements for the ring-opening polymerization of lactide.

    PubMed

    Balasanthiran, Vagulejan; Beilke, Tamara L; Chisholm, Malcolm H

    2013-07-01

    Over the counter oral relief aids or dietary supplements, namely calcium carbonate, calcium hydroxyapatite, magnesium oxide, zinc oxide, Tums® and Pepto-Bismol® have been investigated in the melt ring-opening polymerization of lactide and a direct comparison with that involving tin(II) octanoate has been made. Of these, Pepto-Bismol® is shown to be the most active and comparable to tin octanoate. The active ingredient in Pepto-Bismol® is bismuth subsalicylate and when this is employed as the initiator similar results are obtained in melt polymerizations which suggests it could be employed as an alternative to the commercially used tin(II) octanoate. PMID:23047812

  16. N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed Ring Opening Polymerization of ε-Caprolactone with and without Alcohol Initiators: Insights from Theory and Experiment.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gavin O; Chang, Young A; Horn, Hans W; Acharya, Ashwin K; Rice, Julia E; Hedrick, James L; Waymouth, Robert M

    2015-04-30

    Computational investigations with density functional theory (DFT) have been performed on the N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone in the presence and in the absence of a methanol initiator. Much like the zwitterionic ring opening (ZROP) of δ-valerolactone which was previously reported, calculations predict that the mechanism of the ZROP of caprolactone that occurs without an alcohol present involves a high-barrier step involving ring opening of the zwitterionic tetrahedral intermediate formed after the initial nucleophilic attack of NHC on caprolactone. However, the operative mechanism by which caprolactone is polymerized in the presence of an alcohol initiator does not involve the analogous mechanism involving initial nucleophilic attack by the organocatalytic NHC. Instead, the NHC activates the alcohol through hydrogen bonding and promotes nucleophilic attack and the subsequent ring-opening steps that occur during polymerization. The largest free energy barrier for the hydrogen-bonding mechanism in alcohol involves nucleophilic attack, while that for both ZROP processes involves ring opening of the initially formed zwitterionic tetrahedral intermediate. The DFT calculations predict that the rate of polymerization in the presence of alcohol is faster than the reaction performed without an alcohol initiator; this prediction has been validated by experimental kinetic studies. PMID:25848823

  17. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of Ag-acidfuchsin nanohybrid system towards the ring opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meenarathi, B.; Palanikumar, S.; Kannammal, L.; Anbarasan, R.

    2015-01-01

    The acidfuchsin (AF) decorated Ag nanoparticle (NP) was synthesized and its ability towards the ring opening polymerization (ROP) of ε-caprolactone (CL) was studied under N2 atmosphere at 160 °C in the presence of stannous octoate (SO) as a catalyst. Both the nanohybrid and nanocomposites were characterized by various analytical tools like Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The number of binding site from the fluorescence spectrum confirmed that all the functional groups present in AF might have been involved in the ROP of CL.

  18. Synthesis of epoxybenzo[d]isothiazole 1,1-dioxides via a reductive-Heck, metathesis-sequestration protocol†‡

    PubMed Central

    Asad, Naeem; Hanson, Paul R.; Long, Toby R.; Rayabarapu, Dinesh K.; Rolfe, Alan

    2011-01-01

    An atom-economical purification protocol, using solution phase processing via ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) has been developed for the synthesis of tricyclic sultams. This chromatography-free method allows for convenient isolation of reductive-Heck products and reclamation of excess starting material via sequestration involving metathesis catalysts and a catalyst-armed Si-surface. PMID:21727956

  19. Bis(phosphinic)diamido yttrium amide, alkoxide, and aryloxide complexes: an evaluation of lactide ring-opening polymerization initiator efficiency.

    PubMed

    Platel, Rachel H; White, Andrew J P; Williams, Charlotte K

    2011-08-15

    The synthesis and characterization of a series of bis(phosphinic)diamido yttrium alkoxide, amide, and aryloxide initiators are reported. The new complexes are characterized using multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and, in some cases, X-ray crystallography. The alkoxide complexes are all dimeric in both the solid state and in solution, as are the amide complexes substituted with iso-propyl or phenyl groups on the phosphorus atoms. On the other hand, increasing the steric hindrance of the phosphorus substituents (tert-butyl), enables isolation of mononuclear yttrium amide complexes with either 2,2-dimethylpropylene or ethylene diamido ligand backbones. The complex of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenoxide is also mononuclear. All the new complexes are efficient initiators for rac-lactide ring-opening polymerization. The polymerization kinetics are compared and pseudo first order rate constants, k(obs), determined. The polymerization control is also discussed, by monitoring the number-averaged molecular weight, M(n), and polydispersity index, PDI, obtained using gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The alkoxide complexes are the most efficient initiators, showing very high rates and good polymerization control, behavior consistent with rapid rates of initiation. The phenoxide and amide complexes are less efficient as manifest by nonlinear regions in the kinetic plots, lower values for k(obs), and reduced polymerization control. One of the mononuclear yttrium amide complexes shows heteroselectivity in the polymerization of rac-lactide; however, this effect is reduced on changing the initiating group to phenoxide or on changing the ancillary ligand diamido backbone group. PMID:21749161

  20. Ring-opening polymerization of epoxidized soybean oil catalyzed by the superacid, Fluroantimonic acid hexahydrate (HSbF6-6H2O)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ring-opening polymerization of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) catalyzed by the super acid, fluroantimonic acid hexahydrate (HSbF6-6H2O), in ethyl acetate was conducted. The resulting polymers, SA-RPESO, were characterized using infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetri...

  1. Directed Growth of Polymer Nanorods Using Surface-Initiated Ring-Opening Polymerization of N-Allyl N-Carboxyanhydride.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Lahasky, Samuel H; Zhang, Donghui; Garno, Jayne C

    2016-02-17

    A stepwise chemistry route was used to prepare arrays of polymer nanostructures of poly(N-allyl glycine) on Si(111) using particle lithography. The nanostructures were used for studying surface reactions with advanced measurements of atomic force microscopy (AFM). In the first step to fabricate the surface platform, isolated nanopores were prepared within a thin film of octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS). The OTS served as a surface resist, and the areas of nanopores provided multiple, regularly shaped sites for further reaction. An initiator, (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES), was grown selectively inside the nanopores to define sites for polymerization. The initiator attached selectively to the sites of nanopores indicating OTS prevented nonspecific adsorption. Surface-initiated ring-opening polymerization of N-allyl N-carboxyanhydride with APTES produced polymer nanorods on the nanodots of APTES presenting amine functional groups. The surface changes for each step were monitored using high resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM). Slight variations in the height of the poly(N-allyl glycine) nanorods were observed which scale correspondingly to the initial dimensions of nanopores. The distance between adjacent polymer nanorods was controlled by the size of mesoparticle masks used in the experiment. This surface platform has potential application in biotechnology for smart coatings or biosensors. PMID:26789943

  2. High activity of an indium alkoxide complex toward ring opening polymerization of cyclic esters.

    PubMed

    Quan, Stephanie M; Diaconescu, Paula L

    2015-06-14

    An indium complex supported by a ferrocene-derived Schiff base ligand has an unprecedented high activity toward ε-caprolactone, δ-valerolactone, and β-butyrolactone. l-Lactide, d,l-lactide, and trimethylene carbonate polymerizations also showed moderate to high activity. PMID:25973852

  3. One-Step Immobilization of Initiators for Surface-Initiated Ring Opening Polymerization and Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization by Poly(norepinephrine) Coating.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sung Min; Lee, Haeshin

    2015-02-01

    We report a facile method for surface-initiated ring opening polymerization (ROP) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) via a poly(norepinephrine) coating. Solid substrates were modified by poly(norepinephrine) under alkaline conditions, with concurrent co-adsorption of an ATRP initiator. The poly(norepinephrine) layer acted as a ROP initiator due to the presence of hydroxyl groups in its side chain, resulting in a surface that was able to initiate ATRP and ROP simultaneously. ε-Caprolactone (ε-CL) and 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) were grafted onto the surface via ROP and ATRP, respectively, and the polymers subsequently grown from the surfaces were characterized in detail using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle goniometry, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). PMID:26353697

  4. Photoswitchable ring-opening polymerization of lactide catalyzed by azobenzene-based thiourea.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhongran; Cui, Yaqin; Chen, Changjuan; Wu, Jincai

    2016-07-01

    The reactivity of a catalytic polymerization system using photoresponsive azobenzene-based thiourea/PMDETA as a catalyst could be switched between slow and fast states by alternating exposure to UV and ambient light, because the active site of azobenzene thiourea is blocked via intramolecular hydrogen bonding when the azobenzene thiourea transfers from the E isomer to the Z isomer under UV irradiation. PMID:27345287

  5. Development of high-speed reactive processing system for carbon fiber-reinforced polyamide-6 composite: In-situ anionic ring-opening polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Seong, Dong Gi; Yi, Jin-Woo; Um, Moon-Kwang

    2016-05-01

    In order to manufacture carbon fiber-reinforced polyamide-6 (PA-6) composite, we optimized the reactive processing system. The in-situ anionic ring-opening polymerization of ɛ-caprolactam was utilized with proper catalyst and initiator for PA-6 matrix. The mechanical properties such as tensile strength, inter-laminar shear strength and compressive strength of the produced carbon fiber-reinforced PA-6 composite were measured, which were compared with the corresponding scanning electron microscope (SEM) images to investigate the polymer properties as well as the interfacial interaction between fiber and polymer matrix. Furthermore, kinetics of in-situ anionic ring-opening polymerization of ɛ-caprolactam will be discussed in the viewpoint of increasing manufacturing speed and interfacial bonding between PA-6 matrix and carbon fiber during polymerization.

  6. A Ruthenium Catalyst for Olefin Metathesis Featuring an Anti-Bredt N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligand

    PubMed Central

    Martin, David; Marx, Vanessa M.

    2016-01-01

    A ruthenium complex bearing an “anti-Bredt” N-heterocyclic carbene was synthesized, characterized and evaluated as a catalyst for olefin metathesis. Good conversions were observed at room temperature for the formation of di- and tri-substituted olefins by ring-closing metathesis. It also allowed for the ring-opening metathesis polymerization of cyclooctadiene, as well as for the cross-metathesis of cis-1,4-diacetoxy-2-butene with allyl-benzene, with enhanced Z/E kinetic selectivity over classical NHC-based catalysts.

  7. Experimental and computational studies on the mechanism of zwitterionic ring-opening polymerization of δ-valerolactone with N-heterocyclic carbenes.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Ashwin K; Chang, Young A; Jones, Gavin O; Rice, Julia E; Hedrick, James L; Horn, Hans W; Waymouth, Robert M

    2014-06-19

    Experimental and computational investigations of the zwitterionic ring-opening polymerization (ZROP) of δ-valerolactone (VL) catalyzed by the N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC) 1,3-diisopropyl-4,5-dimethyl-imidazol-2-ylidene (1) and 1,3,4,5-tetramethyl-imidazol-2-ylidene (2) were carried out. The ZROP of δ-valerolactone generates cyclic poly(valerolactone)s whose molecular weights are higher than predicted from [VL]0/[NHC]0. Kinetic studies reveal the rate of polymerization is first order in [VL] and first order in [NHC]. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out to elucidate the key steps involved in the ring-opening of δ-valerolactone and its subsequent oligomerization. These studies have established that the initial steps of the mechanism involve nucleophilic attack of the NHC on δ-valerolactone to form a zwitterionic tetrahedral intermediate. DFT calculations indicate that the highest activation barrier of the entire mechanism is associated with the ring-opening of the tetrahedral intermediate formed from the NHC and δ-valerolactone, a result consistent with inefficient initiation to generate reactive zwitterions. The large barrier in this step is due to the fact that ring-opening requires a partial positive charge to develop next to the directly attached NHC moiety which already bears a delocalized positive charge. PMID:24702523

  8. Completely recyclable biopolymers with linear and cyclic topologies via ring-opening polymerization of γ-butyrolactone.

    PubMed

    Hong, Miao; Chen, Eugene Y-X

    2016-01-01

    Ring-opening polymerization (ROP) is a powerful synthetic methodology for the chemical synthesis of technologically important biodegradable aliphatic polyesters from cyclic esters or lactones. However, the bioderived five-membered γ-butyrolactone (γ-BL) is commonly referred as 'non-polymerizable' because of its low strain energy. The chemical synthesis of poly(γ-butyrolactone) (PγBL) through the ROP process has been realized only under ultrahigh pressure (20,000 atm, 160 °C) and only produces oligomers. Here we report that the ROP of γ-BL can, with a suitable catalyst, proceed smoothly to high conversions (90%) under ambient pressure to produce PγBL materials with a number-average molecular weight up to 30 kg mol(-1) and with controlled linear and/or cyclic topologies. Remarkably, both linear and cyclic PγBLs can be recycled back into the monomer in quantitative yield by simply heating the bulk materials at 220 °C (linear polymer) or 300 °C (cyclic polymer) for one hour, which thereby demonstrates the complete recyclability of PγBL. PMID:26673263

  9. Ring-opening polymerization of rac-lactide mediated by tetrametallic lithium and sodium diamino-bis(phenolate) complexes.

    PubMed

    Alhashmialameer, Dalal; Ikpo, Nduka; Collins, Julie; Dawe, Louise N; Hattenhauer, Karen; Kerton, Francesca M

    2015-12-14

    Lithium and sodium compounds supported by tetradentate amino-bis(phenolato) ligands, [Li2(N2O2(BuBuPip))] (1), [Na2(N2O2(BuBuPip))] (2) (where [N2O2(BuBuPip)] = 2,2'-N,N'-homopiperazinyl-bis(2-methylene-4,6-tert-butylphenol), and [Li2(N2O2(BuMePip))] (3), [Na2(N2O2(BuMePip))] (4) (where [N2O2(BuMePip)] = 2,2'-N,N'-homopiperazinyl-bis(2-methylene-4-methyl-6-tert-butylphenol) were synthesized and characterized by NMR spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Variable temperature NMR experiments were performed to understand solution-phase dynamics. The solid-state structures of 1 and 4 were determined by X-ray diffraction and reveal tetrametallic species. PGSE NMR spectroscopic data suggests that 1 maintains its aggregated structure in CD2Cl2. The complexes exhibit good activity for controlled ring-opening polymerization of rac-lactide (LA) both solvent free and in solution to yield PLA with low dispersities. Stoichiometric reactions suggest that the formation of PLA may proceed by the typical coordination-insertion mechanism. For example, (7)Li NMR experiments show growth of a new resonance when 1 is mixed with 1 equiv. LA and (1)H NMR data suggests formation of a Li-alkoxide species upon reaction of 1 with BnOH. PMID:26538475

  10. Grafting Poly(ethylene glycol) Onto Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Living Anionic Ring-Opening Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Zhang, Guoxiang; Sheng, Wenbo; Liu, Zhiyong; Jia, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Recent years, many methods have been developed to widen the practical application of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Among them, PEGylation is a general strategy to endow functionality, biocompatibility as well as its good solubility. In this paper, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is successfully grafted onto SWCNTs through living anionic ring-opening polymerization of ethylene oxide (EO). By controlling the amount of monomer and initiator, a series of PEGylated SWCNTs with different PEG molecular weight and density are prepared. Then, the as-prepared SWCNTs have been verified by thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Finally, the protein resistance property of the PEGylated SWCNTs is investigated. It is found that these PEGylated SWCNTs have a good protein resistance property and the higher the content of PEG grafted on the SWCNTs, the less adsorption amount of BSA and the larger capacity to resist protein absorption. This work provides a novel method to prepare PEGylated SWCNTs. PMID:27398490

  11. Completely recyclable biopolymers with linear and cyclic topologies via ring-opening polymerization of γ-butyrolactone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Miao; Chen, Eugene Y.-X.

    2016-01-01

    Ring-opening polymerization (ROP) is a powerful synthetic methodology for the chemical synthesis of technologically important biodegradable aliphatic polyesters from cyclic esters or lactones. However, the bioderived five-membered γ-butyrolactone (γ-BL) is commonly referred as ‘non-polymerizable’ because of its low strain energy. The chemical synthesis of poly(γ-butyrolactone) (PγBL) through the ROP process has been realized only under ultrahigh pressure (20,000 atm, 160 °C) and only produces oligomers. Here we report that the ROP of γ-BL can, with a suitable catalyst, proceed smoothly to high conversions (90%) under ambient pressure to produce PγBL materials with a number-average molecular weight up to 30 kg mol-1 and with controlled linear and/or cyclic topologies. Remarkably, both linear and cyclic PγBLs can be recycled back into the monomer in quantitative yield by simply heating the bulk materials at 220 °C (linear polymer) or 300 °C (cyclic polymer) for one hour, which thereby demonstrates the complete recyclability of PγBL.

  12. Preparation of crystalline and solvent resistant polycarbonates via ring-opening polymerization of cyclic oligomers

    SciTech Connect

    Brunelle, D.J.; Krabbenhoft, H.O.; Bonauto, D.K.

    1993-12-31

    Development of efficient methods for the preparation and polymerization of cyclic oligomeric aromatic carbonates has allowed the facile preparation of a variety of polycarbonates. Because the cyclic oligomers can be converted directly into high molecular weight polycarbonates in the absence of solvent, and without formation of by-products, this route is especially attractive for the fabrication of composite structures. This paper reports that crystalline and/or solvent-resistant polycarbonates can be prepared via the intermediacy of cyclic oligomers. Copolycarbonates of bisphenol A with hydroquinone, resorcinol, or methylhydroquinone were insoluble in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, and showed crystalline melting points in some cases. For example, a 60/40 HQ/BPA polycarbonate had a glass transition temperature of 154{degrees}C, and a melting point of 313{degrees}C, with a heat of melting of 11.0 J/g, while a 100% methylhydroquinone polycarbonate had a Tg of 155{degrees}C and a melting point of 289{degrees}C, with a heat of melting of 31.0 J/g.

  13. Comparative Study of Aluminum Complexes Bearing N,O- and N,S-Schiff Base in Ring-Opening Polymerization of ε-Caprolactone and L-Lactide.

    PubMed

    Chang, Meng-Chih; Lu, Wei-Yi; Chang, Heng-Yi; Lai, Yi-Chun; Chiang, Michael Y; Chen, Hsing-Yin; Chen, Hsuan-Ying

    2015-12-01

    A series of Al complexes bearing Schiff base and thio-Schiff base ligands were synthesized, and their application for the ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone (CL) and l-lactide (LA) was studied. It was found that steric effects of the ligands caused higher polymerization rate and most importantly the Al complexes with N,S-Schiff base showed significantly higher polymerization rate than Al complexes with N,O-Schiff base (5-12-fold for CL polymerization and 2-7-fold for LA polymerization). The reaction mechanism of CL polymerization was investigated by density functional theory (DFT). The calculations predicted a lower activation energy for a process involved with an Al complex bearing an N,S-Schiff base ligand (17.6 kcal/mol) than for that of an Al complex bearing an N,O-Schiff base ligand (19.0 kcal/mol), and this magnitude of activation energy reduction is comparable to the magnitude of rate enhancement observed in the experiment. The reduction of activation energy was attributed to the catalyst-substrate destabilization effect. Using a sulfur-containing ligand to decrease the activation energy in the ring-opening polymerization process may be a new strategy to design a new Al complex with high catalytic activity. PMID:26593231

  14. A Simple and Efficient Synthesis of an Acid-labile Polyphosphoramidate by Organobase-catalyzed Ring-Opening Polymerization and Transformation to Polyphosphoester Ionomers by Acid Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shiyi; Wang, Hai; Shen, Yuefei; Zhang, Fuwu; Seetho, Kellie; Zou, Jiong; Taylor, John-Stephen A.; Dove, Andrew P.; Wooley, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    The direct synthesis of an acid-labile polyphosphoramidate by organobase-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization and an overall two-step preparation of polyphosphodiester ionomers (PPEI) by acid-assisted cleavage of the phosphoramidate bonds along the backbone of the polyphosphoramidate were developed in this study. The ultrafast organobase-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of a cyclic phospholane methoxyethyl amidate monomer initiated by benzyl alcohol allowed for the preparation of well-defined polyphosphoramidates (PPA) with predictable molecular weights, narrow molecular weight distributions (PDI<1.10), and well-defined chain ends. Cleavage of the acid-labile phosphoramidate bonds on the polyphosphoramidate repeat units was evaluated under acidic conditions over a pH range of 1–5, and the complete hydrolysis produced polyphosphodiesters. The thermal properties of the resulting polyphosphoester ionomer acid and polyphosphoester ionomer sodium salt exhibited significant thermal stability. The parent PPA and both forms of the PPEIs showed low cytotoxicities toward HeLa cells and RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells. The synthetic methodology developed here has enriched the family of water-soluble polymers prepared by rapid and convenient organobase-catalyzed ring-opening polymerizations and straightforward chemical medication reactions, which are designed to be hydrolytically degradable and have promise for numerous biomedical and other applications. PMID:23997276

  15. Lanthanum complexes containing a bis(phenolate) ligand with a ferrocene-1,1'-diyldithio backbone: synthesis, characterization, and ring-opening polymerization of rac-lactide.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Catherine; Rong, Weifeng; Spaniol, Thomas P; Okuda, Jun

    2016-05-10

    Lanthanum complexes [(L)LaX] (X = N(SiMe3)2, O(i)Pr , BH4) supported by a ferrocene-based (OSSO)-type ligand LH2 were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, NMR spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The structure of was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. These complexes were highly active initiators for the ring-opening polymerization of rac-lactide (rac-LA). The activity depended on the initiating group in the order of ≈ > . The activities of and during polymerization were controlled in situ with external redox reagents by reversibly switching the oxidation state of the iron center. PMID:27088967

  16. Poly(1,4:2,2-butanetetrayl). A novel polyspirane via metallocenium-catalyzed ring-opening - zipping-up polymerization of methylenecyclopropane

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, L.; Yang, X.; Yang, S.; Marks, T.J.

    1996-02-14

    We wish to communicate here the delineation of a sequential metallocenium-catalyzed ring-opening - `zipping-up` Ziegler polymerization of methylenecyclopropane which yields, in high chemo- and stereoselectivity, a saturated polyspirane having structure B, poly(1,4:2,2-butanetetrayl), as well as some of the interesting structural and thermal properties of this new material. Polymerization of methylenecyclopropane catalyzed by (Me{sub 5}Cp){sub 2}ZrMe{sup +}MeB(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 3}{sup -} was carried out in dilute toluene solutions under rigorously anhydrous/anaerobic conditions. At temperatures from -10{degree}C to -30{degree}C, rapid and complete consumption of the monomer is observed by NMR using the monomer:catalyst ratios shown. Interestingly, at room temperature, the reaction pauses before monomer is completely consumed. That this loss of activity is not due to poisoning of the catalyst by adventitious impurities is confirmed by the observation that activity is completely restored on exposure to H{sub 2}. In summary, these results describe the synthesis of a new polyspirane via the chemo- and stereoselective ring-opening - zipping-up polymerization of methylenecyclopropane catalyzed by a cationic d{sup 0} zirconocenium catalyst. Efforts to obtain additional structural and mechanistic information are underway. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. Group IV complexes containing the benzotriazole phenoxide ligand as catalysts for the ring-opening polymerization of lactides, epoxides and as precatalysts for the polymerization of ethylene.

    PubMed

    Pappuru, Sreenath; Chokkapu, Eswara Rao; Chakraborty, Debashis; Ramkumar, Venkatachalam

    2013-12-14

    A series of Ti(IV), Zr(IV) and Hf(IV) benzotriazole phenoxide (BTP) complexes were synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques, elemental analysis and X-ray crystallography. The monosubstituted Zr(IV) BTP complexes [(μ-L)Zr(O(i)Pr)3]2 1-3 [L = (C1)BTP-H (1), (TCl)BTP-H (2), (pent)BTP-H (3)] and tetrasubstituted Zr(IV), Hf(IV) complexes ZrL4 4-6 [L = (C1)BTP-H (4), (TCl)BTP-H (5), (pent)BTP-H (6)] and HfL4 7-9 [L = (C1)BTP-H (7), (TCl)BTP-H (8), (pent)BTP-H (9)] were prepared by the reaction of Zr(O(i)Pr)4·((i)PrOH) and Hf(O(t)Bu)4 in toluene with the respective ligands in different stoichiometric proportions. The reaction between BTP and TiCl4 and ZrCl4 and HfCl4 in a 2 : 1 stoichiometric reaction resulted in the formation of disubstituted group IV chloride complexes L2MCl2 10-12 [L = (C1)BTP-H, M = Ti, Zr and Hf]. The molecular structures of complexes 1, 4, 7, 10, 11, and 12 were determined by single-crystal X-ray studies. The X-ray structure of 1 reveals a dimeric Zr(IV) complex containing a Zr2O2 core bridged through the oxygen atoms of the phenoxide groups. Each Zr atom is distorted from an octahedral symmetry. These complexes were found to be active towards the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of L-lactide (L-LA) and rac-lactide (rac-LA). Complex 1 produced highly heterotactic poly(lactic acid) (PLA) from rac-LA under melt conditions with narrow molecular weight distributions (MWDs) and well controlled number average molecular weights (M(n)). Additionally, epoxide polymerizations using rac-cyclohexene oxide (CHO), rac-propylene oxide (PO), and rac-styrene oxide (SO) were also carried out with these complexes. The yield and molecular weight of the polymer was found to increase with the extension of reaction time. Compounds 1-12 were activated by methylaluminoxane (MAO) and show good activity for ethylene polymerization and produced high molecular weight polyethylene. PMID:24071827

  18. A facile glovebox-free strategy to significantly accelerate the syntheses of well-defined polypeptides by N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) ring opening polymerizations

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Jiong; Fan, Jingwei; He, Xun; Zhang, Shiyi; Wang, Hai; Wooley, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    A facile N2 flow-accelerated N-carboxyanhydride ring opening polymerization (NCA ROP) is demonstrated, herein, with rigorous kinetic studies to evaluate the methodology in detail. By using n-hexylamine as initiator and γ-benzyl-L-glutamate N-carboxyanhydride (BLG-NCA) as monomer, the NCA ROP via a normal amine mechanism (NAM) reached 90% conversion in 2 h under N2 flow at room temperature in a fume hood, much shorter than the time required for the same polymerization conducted in a glove box (14 h). The efficient removal of CO2 from the reaction by N2 flow drove the carbamic acid-amine equilibrium toward the formation of active nucleophilic amino termini and promoted polymerization. The detailed kinetic studies of the polymerization with different feed ratios and N2 flow rates were conducted, demonstrating the living feature of the NCA ROP and the tuning of the polymerization rate by simply changing the flow rate of N2. Maintenance of the reactivity of the amino ω-chain terminus and control during a subsequent polymerization were confirmed by performing chain extension reactions. The N2 flow method provides a new straightforward strategy to synthesize well-defined polypeptides with predictable molecular weights and narrow molecular weight distributions (PDI < 1.19). PMID:23794753

  19. Highly Tactic Cyclic Polynorbornene: Stereoselective Ring Expansion Metathesis Polymerization of Norbornene Catalyzed by a New Tethered Tungsten-Alkylidene Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Gonsales, Stella A; Kubo, Tomohiro; Flint, Madison K; Abboud, Khalil A; Sumerlin, Brent S; Veige, Adam S

    2016-04-20

    The tungsten alkylidyne [(t)BuOCO]W≡C((t)Bu) (THF)2 (1) reacts with CO2, leading to complete cleavage of one C═O bond, followed by migratory insertion to generate the tungsten-oxo alkylidene 2. Complex 2 is the first catalyst to polymerize norbornene via ring expansion metathesis polymerization to yield highly cis-syndiotactic cyclic polynorbornene. PMID:27043711

  20. Kinetic Studies of the Ring-Opening Bulk Polymerization of ɛ-Caprolactone Using a Novel Tin(II) Alkoxide Initiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleawkla, Achara; Suksomran, Wallika; Charuchinda, Anodar; Molloy, Robert; Naksata, Wimol; Punyodom, Winita

    A novel initiator, tin(II) hexoxide, has been synthesized for use in the bulk ring-opening polymerization of ɛ-caprolactone at 140 °C and the kinetics studied using dilatometry. The effectiveness of the new initiator was compared alongside that of the corresponding conventional system, tin(II) octoate / 1-hexanol. The results showed that tin(II) hexoxide, although effective, took time to dissolve in the monomer due to its molecular aggregation, leading to a prolonged induction period. Despite this, first-order kinetics, a high conversion (>90%) and a polycaprolactone (PCL) molecular weight sufficiently high for melt processing were obtained. The small-scale melt spinning of PCL monofilament fibers and the effect of off-line drawing on their tensile properties is also briefly described. This work highlights the potential for the further development of more soluble tin(II) alkoxides for use as initiators which can offer greater reaction control in cyclic ester polymerization.

  1. The Olefin Metathesis Reactions Combined with Organo-Iron Arene Activation Towards Dendrimers, and Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astruc, Didier; Martinez, Victor

    The subjects treated in the two lectures of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) summer course are (1) the combination of arene activation and perfunctionalization using organo-iron chemistry with olefin metathesis incuding metathesis of dendritic polyolefin molecules; (2) the synthesis of metallodendritic benzylidene complexes that catalyse ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) under ambient conditions and the formation of dendritic stars; (3) the use of stoichiometric and catalytic electron-transfer processes with standard reservoirs of electrons (reductants) or electron holes (oxidants) iron complexes to achieve noteworthy metathesis reactions or synthesize compounds that are useful in metathesis. Only the two first topics are treated in this chapter, and interested readers can find references concerning the third aspect called in the introduction and subsequently cited in the reference list.

  2. Exploring the mechanism of Grignard metathesis polymerization of 3-alkylthiophenes.

    PubMed

    Bahri-Laleh, Naeimeh; Poater, Albert; Cavallo, Luigi; Mirmohammadi, Seyed Amin

    2014-10-28

    In this study we have investigated computationally the mechanism of polymerization of 2,5-dibromo 3-butylthiophene via the GRIM method, with the focus on the origin of the head to tail (HT) selectivity. To this end, first the Grignard reagent underwent oxidative addition to the monomer to afford the 2-bromo-5-chloromagnesio-3-butylthiophene (intermediate I1) or the 2-chloromagnesio 5-bromo-3-butylthiophene (intermediate I2) regioisomers. Then intermediates I1 and I2 were polymerized catalytically to a series of regiospecific poly-3-butylthiophenes using the commonly used Ni(dppp)Cl2 [dppp: 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino) propane] and Pd(dppp)Cl2 catalysts. Due to the asymmetric nature of I1 and I2 that act as the active monomeric species, 6 coupling modes may occur. The whole energy profile of all modes has been studied by considering a three-stage mechanism, including coordination, transmetalation, and reductive elimination, to compare quantitatively the ability of so-called catalysts in selective coupling of desired isomers to produce regioregular poly-3-butylthiophene. Finally, to quantify the steric role of the dppp in regioselectivity, analysis of the buried volume in terms of steric maps was performed. PMID:25178627

  3. pH- and Temperature-Responsive P(DMAEMA-GMA)-Alginate Semi-IPN Hydrogels Formed by Radical and Ring-Opening Polymerization for Aminophylline Release.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chunmei; Liu, Mingzhu; Chen, Jun; Chen, Chen

    2012-01-01

    A novel poly((2-dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate-glycidyl methacrylate)-alginate (P(DMAEMA-GMA)alginate) semi-IPN hydrogel was synthesized via radical polymerization of the double bonds and ring-opening of the epoxy groups without using catalyst and cross-linker. (1)H-NMR, FT-IR and DSC data were consistent with the expected structures for the hydrogels. The interior morphology of the hydrogels was also investigated by SEM. The swelling ratio and compressive strength of the hydrogels were measured. The semi-IPN hydrogel had pH and temperature sensitivity, and pH-sensitive points of all hydrogels were found to be at pH 5.0. The release behavior of the model drug, aminophylline, was found to be dependent on the hydrogel composition and environment pH, which manifests that these materials have potential applications as intelligent drug carriers. PMID:21513583

  4. Amino-Functionalized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Lead to Successful Ring-Opening Polymerization of Poly(ε-caprolactone): Enhanced Interfacial Bonding and Optimized Mechanical Properties.

    PubMed

    Roumeli, Eleftheria; Papageorgiou, Dimitrios G; Tsanaktsis, Vasilios; Terzopoulou, Zoe; Chrissafis, Konstantinos; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N

    2015-06-01

    In this work, the synthesis, structural characteristics, interfacial bonding, and mechanical properties of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocomposites with small amounts (0.5, 1.0, and 2.5 wt %) of amino-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) prepared by ring-opening polymerization (ROP) are reported. This method allows the creation of a covalent-bonding zone on the surface of nanotubes, which leads to efficient debundling and therefore satisfactory dispersion and effective load transfer in the nanocomposites. The high covalent grafting extent combined with the higher crystallinity provide the basis for a significant enhancement of the mechanical properties, which was detected in the composites with up to 1 wt % f-MWCNTs. Increasing filler concentration encourages intrinsic aggregation forces, which allow only minor grafting efficiency and poorer dispersion and hence inferior mechanical performance. f-MWCNTs also cause a significant improvement on the polymerization reaction of PCL. Indeed, the in situ polymerization kinetics studies reveal a significant decrease in the reaction temperature, by a factor of 30-40 °C, combined with accelerated the reaction kinetics during initiation and propagation and a drastically reduced effective activation energy. PMID:25950403

  5. Synthesis and structures of tridentate ketoiminate zinc complexes bearing trifluoromethyl substituents that act as L-lactide ring opening polymerization initiators.

    PubMed

    Rezayee, Nomaan M; Gerling, Kimberly A; Rheingold, Arnold L; Fritsch, Joseph M

    2013-04-21

    A series of NNO ketoimines bearing trifluoromethyl substituents were synthesized from the Schiff base condensation of 1,3-diketones (1,1,1-trifluoro-5,5-dimethyl-2,4-hexanedione, 4,4,4-trifluoro-1-phenyl-1,3-butanedione, and 1,1,1-trifluoro-2,4-pentanedione, 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoroacetylacetone) and 8-aminoquinoline or 8-amino-2-methylquinoline and isolated in 40-70% yield. The ketoimines were combined with zinc bis-(trimethylsilyl)amide to prepare a zinc amide complex in 41% yield or were combined with zinc bis-(trimethylsilyl)amide and 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol to prepare zinc phenoxide complexes in 81-94% yield. The ketoimines and zinc complexes were characterized with (1)H, (13)C, and (19)F NMR, absorbance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, elemental analysis and X-ray crystallography. The mononuclear solid state structures of the zinc amide and phenoxide complexes showed tridentate coordination of the zinc center by the ketoiminate and monodentate coordination by the amide or phenoxide. The zinc complexes were assessed for their ability to catalyze the ring opening polymerization (ROP) of L-lactide into poly-lactic acid (PLA) with some complexes reaching 100% conversion in 3 h. As the monomer to catalyst ratio increased, the molecular weight of the isolated polymeric material increased in a nearly linear fashion while retaining a narrow molecular weight distribution. Homonuclear decoupled (1)H NMR spectra of the isolated polymeric material showed the retention of stereochemistry in the isotactic poly-L-lactic acid. Kinetic studies, where the substituents on the ketoiminate and quinolyl moiety were varied, showed that lower electron density on the Zn metal center yielded lower ROP catalytic activity than their electron rich counterparts. The complexes are proposed to use the coordination-insertion mechanism for living polymerization of L-lactide. PMID:23435405

  6. Highly Stereocontrolled Ring-Opening Polymerization of Racemic Alkyl β-Malolactonates Mediated by Yttrium [Amino-alkoxy-bis(phenolate)] Complexes.

    PubMed

    Jaffredo, Cédric G; Chapurina, Yulia; Kirillov, Evgueni; Carpentier, Jean-François; Guillaume, Sophie M

    2016-05-23

    Yttrium [amino-alkoxy-bis(phenolate)]amido complexes have been used for the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of racemic alkyl β-malolactonates (4-alkoxycarbonyl-2-oxetanones, rac-MLA(R) s) bearing an allyl (All), benzyl (Bz) or methyl (Me) lateral ester function. The nature of the ortho-substituent on the phenolate rings in the metal ancillary dictated the stereocontrol of the ROP, and consequently the syndiotactic enrichment of the resulting polyesters. ROP promoted by catalysts with halogen (Cl, Br)-disubstituted ligands allowed the first reported synthesis of highly syndiotactic PMLA(R) s (Pr ≥ 0.95); conversely, catalysts bearing bulky alkyl and aryl ortho-substituted ligands proved largely ineffective. All polymers have been characterized by (1) H and (13) C{(1) H} NMR spectroscopy, MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry and DSC analyses. Statistical and thermal analyses enabled the rationalization of the chain-end control mechanism. Whereas the stereocontrol of the polymerization obeyed a Markov first-order (Mk1) model for the ROP of rac-MLA(Bz) and rac-MLA(All) , the ROP of rac-MLA(Me) led to a chain end-control of Markov second-order type (Mk2). DFT computations suggest that the high stereocontrol ability featured by catalysts bearing Cl- and Br-substituted ligands does not likely originate from halogen bonding between the halogen substituent and the growing polyester chain. PMID:27080758

  7. Lewis acid catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of natural epoxy oil (Euphorbia oil) in carbon dioxide media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an attempt to build up useful application of plant oil based polymers, natural epoxy oil (euphorbia oil-EuO) was polymerized in liquid carbon dioxide in the presence of Lewis acid catalyst [Boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF3•OEt2)]. The resulting polymers (RPEuO) were characterized by FTIR ...

  8. Simple activation by acid of latent Ru-NHC-based metathesis initiators bearing 8-quinolinolate co-ligands

    PubMed Central

    Wappel, Julia; Fischer, Roland C; Cavallo, Luigi; Slugovc, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Summary A straightforward synthesis utilizing the ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) reaction is described for acid-triggered N,O-chelating ruthenium-based pre-catalysts bearing one or two 8-quinolinolate ligands. The innovative pre-catalysts were tested regarding their behavior in ROMP and especially for their use in the synthesis of poly(dicyclopentadiene) (pDCPD). Bearing either the common phosphine leaving ligand in the first and second Grubbs olefin metathesis catalysts, or the Ru–O bond cleavage for the next Hoveyda-type catalysts, this work is a step forward towards the control of polymer functionalization and living or switchable polymerizations. PMID:26877818

  9. Fluorinated β-Lactones and Poly(β-hydroxyalkanoate)s: Synthesis via Epoxide Carbonylation and Ring-Opening Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, John W.

    2008-01-01

    Efficient and mild reaction conditions were developed for the catalytic carbonylation of fluorinated epoxides to their corresponding β-lactones. Six new lactones with fluorinated side chains were prepared in high isolated yields. These lactones were polymerized to form a series of new poly(β-hydroxyalkanoate)s with fluorinated side chains, and their properties were examined with respect to their hydrocarbon analogs. Finally, copolymerizations were performed with fluorinated lactones and β-butyrolactone, which resulted in tapered copolymers rather than the expected random copolymers. PMID:19606203

  10. Green polymer chemistry: investigating the mechanism of radical ring-opening redox polymerization (R3P) of 3,6-dioxa-1,8-octanedithiol (DODT).

    PubMed

    Rosenthal-Kim, Emily Q; Puskas, Judit E

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of the new Radical Ring-opening Redox Polymerization (R3P) of 3,6-dioxa-1,8-octanedithiol (DODT) by triethylamine (TEA) and dilute H2O2 was investigated. Scouting studies showed that the formation of high molecular weight polymers required a 1:2 molar ratio of DODT to TEA and of DODT to H2O2. Further investigation into the chemical composition of the organic and aqueous phases by 1H-NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry demonstrated that DODT is ionized by two TEA molecules (one for each thiol group) and thus transferred into the aqueous phase. The organic phase was found to have cyclic disulfide dimers, trimers and tetramers. Dissolving DODT and TEA in water before the addition of H2O2 yielded a polymer with Mn = 55,000 g/mol, in comparison with Mn = 92,000 g/mol when aqueous H2O2 was added to a DODT/TEA mixture. After polymer removal, MALDI-ToF MS analysis of the residual reaction mixtures showed only cyclic oligomers remaining. Below the LCST for TEA in water, 18.7 °C, the system yielded a stable emulsion, and only cyclic oligomers were found. Below DODT/TEA and H2O2 1:2 molar ratio mostly linear oligomers were formed, with <20% cyclic oligomers. The findings support the proposed mechanism of R3P. PMID:25871370

  11. Synthesis and characterization of photoluminescent hybrids of poly( ɛ-caprolactone)-grafted-polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane by using a combination of ring-opening polymerization and click chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xuan Thang; Showkat, Ali Md; Bach, Long Giang; Jeong, Yeon Tae; Kim, Jong Soo; Lim, Kwon Taek; Gal, Yeong-Soon

    2015-01-01

    Photoluminescent hybrids of poly( ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (POSS) and terbium ions (Tb3+) were synthesized by using a combination of ring-opening polymerization (ROP), click chemistry and coordination chemistry. Initially, acetylene functionalized PCL (alkyne-PCL-COOH) was prepared by using ROP of ɛ-caprolactone with propargyl alcohol, and azide-substituted POSS (POSS-N3) was prepared by using the reaction of chloropropyl-heptaisobutyl-substituted POSS with NaN3. The click reaction between alkyne-PCL-COOH and POSS-N3 afforded POSS-g-PCL, which was subsequently coordinated with Tb3+ ions in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline to produce POSS-g-PCL-Tb3+-Phen. The structures and compositions of the hybrids were investigated by using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The optical properties of POSS-g-PCL-Tb3+-Phen complexes were characterized by using photoluminescence spectroscopy, which showed four high emission bands centered at 489, 545, 584, and 620 nm with excitation at 330 nm. The emission spectra of the europium-ion-coordinated hybrids, POSS-g-PCL-Eu3+-Phen, had four high-intensity peaks, 594, 617, 652 and 686 nm, for an excitation wavelength of 352 nm.

  12. Thiol-Mediated Controlled Ring-Opening Polymerization of Cysteine-Derived β-Thiolactone and Unique Features of Product Polythioester.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masato; Makimura, Kazumasa; Matsuoka, Shin-ichi

    2016-03-14

    The controlled ring-opening polymerization of the β-thiolactone derived from N-Boc cysteine was achieved using N-Boc-L-cysteine methyl ester as the initiator in NMP at room temperature. The propagating end is the thiol group, which attacks the carbonyl to open the monomer ring by the C(═O)-S bond scission. A thiol-ene click reaction demonstrated the utility of the thiol group at the propagating terminal. The block copolymer was efficiently produced by the terminal coupling of the polythioester with the norbornene terminated PEG. As another interesting reaction, the polythioester underwent the main chain transformation to polycysteine through the intramolecular S-to-N acyl migration, triggered by the deprotection of the pendant Boc groups. The polythioester from L-cysteine showed Cotton effects between 200 and 300 nm in the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum. Although the CD pattern resembled that produced by the α-helix of polypeptide, it was ascribable not to the second structure but to the relative orientation of the thioester and carbamate carbonyls in the repeating unit. PMID:26845398

  13. A Thermo- and Photo-Switchable Ruthenium Initiator For Olefin Metathesis.

    PubMed

    Sashuk, Volodymyr; Danylyuk, Oksana

    2016-05-01

    A ruthenium carbene complex bearing azobenzene functionality is reported. The complex exists in the form of two isomers differing by the size of the chelate ring. Both isomers were isolated by applying kinetic or thermodynamic control during the synthesis and characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis. The isomerization of the complex was studied by UV/Vis spectroscopy. The stable isomer was tested as a catalyst in olefin metathesis. The complex was activated at about 100 °C to promote ring-closing and ring-opening polymerization metathesis reactions. The activation took place also at room temperature under middle ultraviolet radiation. PMID:27004928

  14. Ring-Opening Polymerization of γ-(4-Vinylbenzyl)-L-Glutamate N-Carboxyanhydride for the Synthesis of Functional Polypeptides

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hua; Bai, Yugang; Wang, Jing; Gabrielson, Nathan P.; Wang, Fei; Lin, Yao; Cheng, Jianjun

    2011-01-01

    Introducing various pendant functional groups and building blocks of interest to polypeptides in a highly efficient, controlled manner is crucial to access polypeptide materials with desired structures and functions. In this study, we synthesized γ-(4-vinylbenzyl)-L-glutamate N-carboxyanhydride (VB-Glu-NCA), which was readily obtained and purified in large quantity. VB-Glu-NCA monomer was subsequently used for the synthesis of polypeptides containing conjugation-amenable, pendant vinyl functional groups. Controlled, living polymerizations of VB-Glu-NCA were achieved by using hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) as the initiator, catalytic amounts of 1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene (TBD) as the co-catalyst, and nitrobenzene as the inhibitor of radical-induced side reactions on the vinyl group of VB-Glu-NCA. The resulting poly(γ-(4-vinylbenzyl)-L-glutamate) (PVBLG) gave rise to polypeptides containing pendant functional groups or moieties through various vinyl chemistries. PMID:22121300

  15. Synthesis and polymerization of renewable 1,3-cyclohexadiene using metathesis, isomerization, and cascade reactions with late-metal catalysts.

    PubMed

    Mathers, Robert T; Shreve, Michael J; Meyler, Etan; Damodaran, Krishnan; Iwig, David F; Kelley, Diana J

    2011-09-01

    Synthesis and subsequent polymerization of renewable 1,3-cyclohexadiene (1,3-CHD) from plant oils is reported via metathesis and isomerization reactions. The metathesis reaction required no plant oil purification, minimal catalyst loading, no organic solvents, and simple product recovery by distillation. After treating soybean oil with a ruthenium metathesis catalyst, the resulting 1,4-cyclohexadiene (1,4-CHD) was isomerized with RuHCl(CO)(PPh3)3. The isomerization reaction was conducted for 1 h in neat 1,4-CHD with [1,4-CHD]/[RuHCl(CO)(PPh3)3] ratios as high as 5000. The isomerization and subsequent polymerization of the renewable 1,3-CHD was examined as a two-step sequence and as a one-step cascade reaction. The polymerization was catalyzed with nickel(II)acetylacetonate/methaluminoxane in neat monomer, hydrogenated d-limonene, and toluene. The resulting polymers were characterized by FTIR, DSC, and TGA. PMID:21648003

  16. Thermally Stable, Latent Olefin Metathesis Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Renee M; Fedorov, Alexey; Keitz, Benjamin K; Grubbs, Robert H

    2011-12-26

    Highly thermally stable N-aryl,N-alkyl N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ruthenium catalysts were designed and synthesized for latent olefin metathesis. These catalysts showed excellent latent behavior toward metathesis reactions, whereby the complexes were inactive at ambient temperature and initiated at elevated temperatures, a challenging property to achieve with second generation catalysts. A sterically hindered N-tert-butyl substituent on the NHC ligand of the ruthenium complex was found to induce latent behavior toward cross-metathesis reactions, and exchange of the chloride ligands for iodide ligands was necessary to attain latent behavior during ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP). Iodide-based catalysts showed no reactivity toward ROMP of norbornene-derived monomers at 25 °C, and upon heating to 85 °C gave complete conversion of monomer to polymer in less than 2 hours. All of the complexes were very stable to air, moisture, and elevated temperatures up to at least 90 °C, and exhibited a long catalyst lifetime in solution at elevated temperatures. PMID:22282652

  17. Preparation of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-based hybrid monolith by ring-opening polymerization and post-functionalization via thiol-ene click reaction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhongshan; Ou, Junjie; Lin, Hui; Wang, Hongwei; Dong, Jing; Zou, Hanfa

    2014-05-16

    A polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) hybrid monolith was simply prepared by using octaglycidyldimethylsilyl POSS (POSS-epoxy) and cystamine dihydrochloride as monomers via ring-opening polymerization. The effects of composition of prepolymerization solution and polycondensation temperature on the morphology and permeability of monolithic column were investigated in detail. The obtained POSS hybrid monolithic column showed 3D skeleton morphology and exhibited high column efficiency of ∼71,000 plates per meter in reversed-phase mechanism. Owing to this POSS hybrid monolith essentially possessing a great number of disulfide bonds, the monolith surface would expose thiol groups after reduction with dithiothreitol (DTT), which supplied active sites to functionalize with various alkene monomers via thiol-ene click reaction. The results indicated that the reduction with DTT could not destroy the 3D skeleton of hybrid monolith. Both stearyl methylacrylate (SMA) and benzyl methacrylate (BMA) were selected to functionalize the hybrid monolithic columns for reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC), while [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]-dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl)-ammonium hydroxide (MSA) was used to modify the hybrid monolithic column in hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC). These modified hybrid monolithic columns could be successfully applied for separation of small molecules with high efficiency. It is demonstrated that thiol-ene click reaction supplies a facile way to introduce various functional groups to the hybrid monolith possessing thiol groups. Furthermore, due to good permeability of the resulting hybrid monoliths, we also prepared long hybrid monolithic columns in narrow-bore capillaries. The highest column efficiency reached to ∼70,000 plates using a 1-m-long column of 75μm i.d. with a peak capacity of 147 for isocratic chromatography, indicating potential application in separation and analysis of complex biosamples. PMID:24725471

  18. Syntheses of Group 4 ansa-trovacene complexes and conversion of [1]silatrovacenophanes into paramagnetic metallopolymers by ring-opening polymerization.

    PubMed

    Adams, Christopher J; Braunschweig, Holger; Fuss, Marco; Kraft, Katharina; Kupfer, Thomas; Manners, Ian; Radacki, Krzysztof; Whittell, George R

    2011-09-01

    An improved protocol for the selective dilithiation of [V(η(5)-C(5)H(5))(η(7)-C(7)H(7))] has been developed, which afforded [V(η(5)-C(5)H(4)Li)(η(7)-C(7)H(6)Li)]·PMDTA (5; PMDTA=N,N,N',N'',N''-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine) in almost quantitative yield (98%). In the solid state, the species features a dimeric structure with two terminal and two bridging lithium atoms, with the latter connecting both sandwich subunits. Reaction with suitable Group 4 dihalide compounds enabled the isolation of highly strained silicon- and germanium-bridged [1]trovacenophanes 6 and 7. Similarly, reaction of 5 with Cl(2)Sn(2)tBu(4) afforded the rather unstrained complex [V(η(5)-C(5)H(4))(η(7)-C(7)H(6))Sn(2)tBu(4)] (8), which together with 7 represent the first trovacenophanes to incorporate heavier analogues of silicon in the ansa-bridge. Ring-opening polymerization reactions of [V(η(5)-C(5)H(4))(η(7)-C(7)H(6))SiRR'] (2a: R=R'=Me; 6: R=Me, R'=iPr) were performed by heating in a solution of toluene in the presence of the Karstedt catalyst, which resulted in the formation of the corresponding soluble poly(trovacenylsilanes) in yields of 41 and 33%, respectively. As estimated by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), the macromolecules possess molecular weights of M(n)=10,010 and 5580 g mol(-1) with polydispersity indices of 2.31 and 1.64 for 9 and 10, respectively. ESR spectroscopic studies on 9 and 10 revealed only a single broad resonance in each case without any identifiable (51)V hyperfine coupling. PMID:21812040

  19. Heteroleptic tin(II) initiators for the ring-opening (co)polymerization of lactide and trimethylene carbonate: mechanistic insights from experiments and computations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingfang; Kefalidis, Christos E; Sinbandhit, Sourisak; Dorcet, Vincent; Carpentier, Jean-François; Maron, Laurent; Sarazin, Yann

    2013-09-27

    The tin(II) complexes {LO(x)}Sn(X) ({LO(x)}(-) =aminophenolate ancillary) containing amido (1-4), chloro (5), or lactyl (6) coligands (X) promote the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of cyclic esters. Complex 6, which models the first insertion of L-lactide, initiates the living ROP of L-LA on its own, but the amido derivatives 1-4 require the addition of alcohol to do so. Upon addition of one to ten equivalents of iPrOH, precatalysts 1-4 promote the ROP of trimethylene carbonate (TMC); yet, hardly any activity is observed if tert-butyl (R)-lactate is used instead of iPrOH. Strong inhibition of the reactivity of TMC is also detected for the simultaneous copolymerization of L-LA and TMC, or for the block copolymerization of TMC after that of L-LA. Experimental and computational data for the {LO(x)}Sn(OR)complexes (OR=lactyl or lactidyl) replicating the active species during the tin(II)-mediated ROP of L-LA demonstrate that the formation of a five-membered chelate is largely favored over that of an eight-membered one, and that it constitutes the resting state of the catalyst during this (co)polymerization. Comprehensive DFT calculations show that, out of the four possible monomer insertion sequences during simultaneous copolymerization of L-LA and TMC: 1) TMC then TMC, 2) TMC then L-LA, 3) L-LA then L-LA, and 4) L-LA then TMC, the first three are possible. By contrast, insertion of L-LA followed by that of TMC (i.e., insertion sequence 4) is endothermic by +1.1 kcal mol(-1), which compares unfavorably with consecutive insertions of two L-LA units (i.e., insertion sequence 3) (-10.2 kcal mol(-1)). The copolymerization of L-LA and TMC thus proceeds under thermodynamic control. PMID:23955851

  20. P,O-Phosphinophenolate zinc(II) species: synthesis, structure and use in the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of lactide, ε-caprolactone and trimethylene carbonate.

    PubMed

    Fliedel, Christophe; Rosa, Vitor; Alves, Filipa M; Martins, Ana M; Avilés, Teresa; Dagorne, Samuel

    2015-07-21

    The P,O-type phosphinophenol proligands (1·H, 2-PPh2-4-Me-6-Me-C6H2OH; 2·H, 2-PPh2-4-Me-6-(t)Bu-C6H2OH) readily react with one equiv. of ZnEt2 to afford in high yields the corresponding Zn(II)-ethyl dimers of the type [(κ(2)-P,O)Zn-Et]2 (3 and 4) with two μ-OPh bridging oxygens connecting the two Zn(II) centers, as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies in the case of 3. Based on diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSY), both species 3 and 4 retain their dimeric structures in solution. The alcoholysis reaction of Zn(II) alkyls 3 and 4 with BnOH led to the high yield formation of the corresponding Zn(II) benzyloxide species [(κ(2)-P,O)Zn-OBn]2 (5 and 6), isolated in a pure form as colorless solids. The centrosymmetric and dimeric nature of Zn(II) alkoxides 5 and 6 in solution was deduced from DOSY NMR experiments and multinuclear NMR data. Though the heteroleptic species 5 is stable in solution, its analogue 6 is instable in CH2Cl2 solution at room temperature to slowly decompose to the corresponding homoleptic species 8via the transient formation of (κ(2)-P,O)2Zn2(μ-OBn)(μ–κ(1):κ(1)-P,O) (6′). Crystallization of compound 6 led to crystals of 6′, as established by XRD analysis. The reaction of ZnEt2 with two equiv. of 1·H and 2·H allowed access to the corresponding homoleptic species of the type [Zn(P,O)2] (7 and 8). All gathered data are consistent with compound 7 being a dinuclear species in the solid state and in solution. Data for species 8, which bears a sterically demanding P,O-ligand, are consistent with a mononuclear species in solution. The Zn(II) alkoxide species 5 and the [Zn(P,O)2]-type compounds 7 and 8 were evaluated as initiators of the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of lactide (LA), ε-caprolactone (ε-CL) and trimethylene carbonate (TMC). Species 5 is a well-behaved ROP initiator for the homo-, co- and ter-polymerization of all three monomers with the production of narrow disperse materials under living and immortal

  1. Chromatographic assessment of two hybrid monoliths prepared via epoxy-amine ring-opening polymerization and methacrylate-based free radical polymerization using methacrylate epoxy cyclosiloxane as functional monomer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongwei; Ou, Junjie; Lin, Hui; Liu, Zhongshan; Huang, Guang; Dong, Jing; Zou, Hanfa

    2014-11-01

    Two kinds of hybrid monolithic columns were prepared by using methacrylate epoxy cyclosiloxane (epoxy-MA) as functional monomer, containing three epoxy moieties and one methacrylate group. One column was in situ fabricated by ring-opening polymerization of epoxy-MA and 1,10-diaminodecane (DAD) using a porogenic system consisting of isopropanol (IPA), H2O and ethanol at 65°C for 12h. The other was prepared by free radical polymerization of epoxy-MA and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) using 1-propanol and 1,4-butanediol as the porogenic solvents at 60°C for 12h. Two hybrid monoliths were investigated on the morphology and chromatographic assessment. Although two kinds of monolithic columns were prepared with epoxy-MA, their morphologies looked rather different. It could be found that the epoxy-MA-DAD monolith possessed higher column efficiencies (25,000-34,000plates/m) for the separation of alkylbenzenes than the epoxy-MA-EDMA monolith (12,000-13,000plates/m) in reversed-phase nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC). Depending on the remaining epoxy or methacrylate groups on the surface of two pristine monoliths, the epoxy-MA-EDMA monolith could be easily modified with 1-octadecylamine (ODA) via ring-opening reaction, while the epoxy-MA-DAD monolith could be modified with stearyl methacrylate (SMA) via free radical reaction. The chromatographic performance for the separation of alkylbenzenes on SMA-modified epoxy-MA-DAD monolith was remarkably improved (42,000-54,000 plates/m) when compared with that on pristine epoxy-MA-DAD monolith, while it was not obviously enhanced on ODA-modified epoxy-MA-EDMA monolith when compared with that on pristine epoxy-MA-EDMA monolith. The enhancement of the column efficiency of epoxy-MA-DAD monolith after modification might be ascribed to the decreased mass-transfer resistence. The two kinds of hybrid monoliths were also applied for separations of six phenols and seven basic compounds in nano-LC. PMID:25311483

  2. Introducing "Ynene" Metathesis: Ring-Expansion Metathesis Polymerization Leads to Highly Cis and Syndiotactic Cyclic Polymers of Norbornene.

    PubMed

    Nadif, Soufiane S; Kubo, Tomohiro; Gonsales, Stella A; VenkatRamani, Sudarsan; Ghiviriga, Ion; Sumerlin, Brent S; Veige, Adam S

    2016-05-25

    Tungsten alkylidynes [CF3-ONO]W≡CC(CH3)3(THF)2 (1) and [(t)BuOCO]W≡CC(CH3)3(THF)2 (3) react with ethylene. Complex 1 reacts reversibly with ethylene to give the metallacyclobutene (2). Complex 3 reacts with ethylene to form the tethered alkylidene (4) featuring a tetraanionic pincer ligand. Complexes 1 and 3 initiate the polymerization of norbornene at room temperature. The polymerization of norbornene by 1 is not stereoselective, whereas 3 generates a highly cis and syndiotactic cyclic polynorbornene. Comparison of the intrinsic viscosity, radius of gyration, and elution time of the synthesized cyclic polynorbornene with those of linear analogues provides conclusive evidence for a cyclic topology. PMID:27172120

  3. Light-induced olefin metathesis

    PubMed Central

    Vidavsky, Yuval

    2010-01-01

    Summary Light activation is a most desirable property for catalysis control. Among the many catalytic processes that may be activated by light, olefin metathesis stands out as both academically motivating and practically useful. Starting from early tungsten heterogeneous photoinitiated metathesis, up to modern ruthenium methods based on complex photoisomerisation or indirect photoactivation, this survey of the relevant literature summarises past and present developments in the use of light to expedite olefin ring-closing, ring-opening polymerisation and cross-metathesis reactions. PMID:21160912

  4. Recent applications of ring-rearrangement metathesis in organic synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Meshram, Milind; Khedkar, Priti; Banerjee, Shaibal; Deodhar, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Summary Ring-rearrangement metathesis (RRM) involves multiple metathesis processes such as ring-opening metathesis (ROM)/ring-closing metathesis (RCM) in a one-pot operation to generate complex targets. RRM delivers complex frameworks that are difficult to assemble by conventional methods. The noteworthy point about this type of protocol is multi-bond formation and it is an atom economic process. In this review, we have covered literature that appeared during the last seven years (2008–2014). PMID:26664603

  5. Recent applications of ring-rearrangement metathesis in organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kotha, Sambasivarao; Meshram, Milind; Khedkar, Priti; Banerjee, Shaibal; Deodhar, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Ring-rearrangement metathesis (RRM) involves multiple metathesis processes such as ring-opening metathesis (ROM)/ring-closing metathesis (RCM) in a one-pot operation to generate complex targets. RRM delivers complex frameworks that are difficult to assemble by conventional methods. The noteworthy point about this type of protocol is multi-bond formation and it is an atom economic process. In this review, we have covered literature that appeared during the last seven years (2008-2014). PMID:26664603

  6. Reactions of strained hydrocarbons with alkene and alkyne metathesis catalysts.

    PubMed

    Carnes, Matthew; Buccella, Daniela; Siegrist, Theo; Steigerwald, Michael L; Nuckolls, Colin

    2008-10-29

    Here we describe the metathesis reactions of a strained eight-membered ring that contains both alkene and alkyne functionality. We find that the alkyne metathesis catalyst produces polymer through a ring-opening alkyne metathesis reaction that is driven by the strain release from the monomer. The strained monomer provides unusual reactivity with ruthenium-based alkene metathesis catalysts. We isolate a discrete trimeric species a Dewar benzene derivative that is locked in this form through an unsaturated cyclophane strap. PMID:18826219

  7. Synthesis and characterization of group 4 metal alkoxide complexes containing imine based bis-bidentate ligands: effective catalysts for the ring opening polymerization of lactides, epoxides and polymerization of ethylene.

    PubMed

    Roymuhury, Sagnik K; Chakraborty, Debashis; Ramkumar, Venkatachalam

    2015-06-14

    A series of Ti(iv), Zr(iv) and Hf(iv) complexes containing imine based bis-bidentate ligands were synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques, elemental analysis and X-ray crystallography. The ligands m-xysal-((t)Bu)4 (L(1)((t)Bu)4), m-xysal-(Me)2((t)Bu)2 (L(2)Me2((t)Bu)2) and m-xysal-(Cl)4 (L(3)Cl4) were reacted with Ti(O(i)Pr)4, Zr(O(i)Pr)4·(i)PrOH and Hf(O(t)Bu)4 in a 1 : 1 stoichiometric ratio to form complexes (L2M2(OR)4, where L = m-xysal-((t)Bu)4, m-xysal-(Me)2((t)Bu)2 and m-xysal-(Cl)4, M = Ti and R = (i)Pr, (L2M2(OR)4, where L = m-xysal-((t)Bu)4, m-xysal-(Me)2((t)Bu)2 and m-xysal-(Cl)4, M = Zr and R = (i)Pr and (L3M3(OR)6, where L = m-xysal-((t)Bu)4, m-xysal-(Me)2((t)Bu)2 and m-xysal-(Cl)4, M = Hf and R = (t)Bu respectively. Complex was crystallized from a 1 : 1 : 1 mixture of chloroform, ethanol and toluene to yield an ethoxy substituted complex (L2M2(OR)4, L = m-xysal-(Me)2((t)Bu)2, M = Zr and R = Et. The X-ray structures of , and illustrate that and are binuclear helical complexes, whereas is trinuclear. These complexes were found to be active for the ring opening polymerization (ROP) of lactides (rac-LA, l-LA) and epoxides. All the complexes produced atactic poly(lactic acid) (PLA) with good number average molecular weight (Mn) and narrow molecular weight distributions (MWDs). The magnetic isotropic shielding constants were calculated using the GIAO/B3LYP/LANL2DZ approach and correlated with the experimental values. The HOMO-LUMO energy band gaps and Mulliken charges were calculated using the DFT method to explain the reactivity of these complexes according to the relationship between chemical hardness and reactivity established by Pearson. In addition, complexes , activated by methylaluminoxane (MAO), were used and found to be moderately active for ethylene polymerization. PMID:25970486

  8. Recent advances in metathesis-derived polymers containing transition metals in the side chain.

    PubMed

    Dragutan, Ileana; Dragutan, Valerian; Simionescu, Bogdan C; Demonceau, Albert; Fischer, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    This account critically surveys the field of side-chain transition metal-containing polymers as prepared by controlled living ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of the respective metal-incorporating monomers. Ferrocene- and other metallocene-modified polymers, macromolecules including metal-carbonyl complexes, polymers tethering early or late transition metal complexes, etc. are herein discussed. Recent advances in the design and syntheses reported mainly during the last three years are highlighted, with special emphasis on new trends for superior applications of these hybrid materials. PMID:26877797

  9. Recent advances in metathesis-derived polymers containing transition metals in the side chain

    PubMed Central

    Demonceau, Albert; Fischer, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Summary This account critically surveys the field of side-chain transition metal-containing polymers as prepared by controlled living ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of the respective metal-incorporating monomers. Ferrocene- and other metallocene-modified polymers, macromolecules including metal-carbonyl complexes, polymers tethering early or late transition metal complexes, etc. are herein discussed. Recent advances in the design and syntheses reported mainly during the last three years are highlighted, with special emphasis on new trends for superior applications of these hybrid materials. PMID:26877797

  10. Solvent-free cyclization of linear dienes using olefin metathesis and the Thorpe-Ingold effect

    SciTech Connect

    Forbees, M.D.E.; Myers, T.L.; Maynard, H.D.; Schulz, G.R. ); Patton, J.T.; Smith, D.W. Jr.; Wagener, K.B. )

    1992-12-30

    The olefin metathesis reaction is of great synthetic utility in polymer chemistry. The recent development of ring-opening (ROMP) and acyclic diene (ADMET) metathesis polymerization reactions has opened new avenues for the synthesis of novel polymeric materials. Recently the authors used ADMET to synthesize several photochemically active poly(keto olefins) using the catalyst Mo(CHCMe[sub 2]Ph)(NAr)(OCMe(CF[sub 3])[sub 2])[sub 2] (Ar = 2,6-diisopropylphenyl) (1) developed by Schrock and co-workers in 1990. In the course of that work, they discovered that neat samples of highly substituted dienes will cyclize quantitatively via metathesis to give difunctional five- and seven-membered rings instead of the expected linear polymer. Examples of substituted diene cyclizations by metathesis even in the presence of a solvent are rare. Their systematic exploitation in organic synthesis has therefore been limited to two recent studies by Fu and Grubbs, who cyclized several substituted diene ethers, amines, and amides to unsaturated oxygen and nitrogen heterocycles. Cyclization of unsubstituted dienes in various solvents has been reported, but complete conversion occurred in only a few cases. Formation of cyclic alkene oligomers from back-biting during the ROMP reaction is also known. The reactions reported here are unusual in that they are intermolecular between catalyst and substrate, yet can give 100% yield of product solely from the monomer in the absence of solvent. 13 refs.

  11. The catalytic performance of metal complexes immobilized on SBA-15 in the ring opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone with different metals (Ti, Al, Zn and Mg) and immobilization procedures.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Yolanda; del Hierro, Isabel; Zazo, Lydia; Fernández-Galán, Rafael; Fajardo, Mariano

    2015-03-01

    A family of heterogeneous catalysts has been prepared by employing different strategies: firstly by direct reaction or grafting of titanium, zinc, aluminium and magnesium precursors with dehydrated SBA-15 and secondly by reaction of the metallic derivatives with a hybrid SBA-15 mesoporous material, which possesses a new covalently bonded linker based on an amino alcohol chelate ligand. These materials have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), N2 adsorption-desorption, FT-IR and multi-nuclear NMR spectroscopy. The catalytic performance of the prepared materials has been studied in the ring opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone and compared with that of their homogeneous counterparts. Conversion values obtained by using homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts depend on the metal precursor and the synthetic procedure. The most active heterogeneous Ti-SBA-15, Zn-SBA-15 and Zn-PADO-HMDS-SBA-15 catalysts produced poly(ε-caprolactone) with a narrow molecular weight distribution, close to one. In all cases polymerization was confirmed to proceed via a coordination insertion mechanism after end group analysis by (1)H NMR. PMID:25623360

  12. Functional Degradable Polymers by Radical Ring-Opening Copolymerization of MDO and Vinyl Bromobutanoate: Synthesis, Degradability and Post-Polymerization Modification

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of vinyl bromobutanoate (VBr), a new vinyl acetate monomer derivative obtained by the palladium-catalyzed vinyl exchange reaction between vinyl acetate (VAc) and 4-bromobutyric acid is reported. The homopolymerization of this new monomer using the RAFT/MADIX polymerization technique leads to the formation of novel well-defined and controlled polymers containing pendent bromine functional groups able to be modified via postpolymerization modification. Furthermore, the copolymerization of vinyl bromobutanoate with 2-methylene-1,3-dioxepane (MDO) was also performed to deliver a range of novel functional degradable copolymers, poly(MDO-co-VBr). The copolymer composition was shown to be able to be tuned to vary the amount of ester repeat units in the polymer backbone, and hence determine the degradability, while maintaining a control of the final copolymers’ molar masses. The addition of functionalities via simple postpolymerization modifications such as azidation and the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of a PEG alkyne to an azide is also reported and proven by 1H NMR spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, and SEC analyses. These studies enable the formation of a novel class of hydrophilic functional degradable copolymers using versatile radical polymerization methods. PMID:25997518

  13. Functional Degradable Polymers by Radical Ring-Opening Copolymerization of MDO and Vinyl Bromobutanoate: Synthesis, Degradability and Post-Polymerization Modification.

    PubMed

    Hedir, Guillaume G; Bell, Craig A; O'Reilly, Rachel K; Dove, Andrew P

    2015-07-13

    The synthesis of vinyl bromobutanoate (VBr), a new vinyl acetate monomer derivative obtained by the palladium-catalyzed vinyl exchange reaction between vinyl acetate (VAc) and 4-bromobutyric acid is reported. The homopolymerization of this new monomer using the RAFT/MADIX polymerization technique leads to the formation of novel well-defined and controlled polymers containing pendent bromine functional groups able to be modified via postpolymerization modification. Furthermore, the copolymerization of vinyl bromobutanoate with 2-methylene-1,3-dioxepane (MDO) was also performed to deliver a range of novel functional degradable copolymers, poly(MDO-co-VBr). The copolymer composition was shown to be able to be tuned to vary the amount of ester repeat units in the polymer backbone, and hence determine the degradability, while maintaining a control of the final copolymers' molar masses. The addition of functionalities via simple postpolymerization modifications such as azidation and the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of a PEG alkyne to an azide is also reported and proven by (1)H NMR spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, and SEC analyses. These studies enable the formation of a novel class of hydrophilic functional degradable copolymers using versatile radical polymerization methods. PMID:25997518

  14. Grubbs–Hoveyda type catalysts bearing a dicationic N-heterocyclic carbene for biphasic olefin metathesis reactions in ionic liquids

    PubMed Central

    Koy, Maximilian; Altmann, Hagen J; Autenrieth, Benjamin; Frey, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Summary The novel dicationic metathesis catalyst [(RuCl2(H2ITapMe2)(=CH–2-(2-PrO)-C6H4))2+ (OTf−)2] (Ru-2, H2ITapMe2 = 1,3-bis(2’,6’-dimethyl-4’-trimethylammoniumphenyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene, OTf− = CF3SO3 −) based on a dicationic N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand was prepared. The reactivity was tested in ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) under biphasic conditions using a nonpolar organic solvent (toluene) and the ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [BDMIM+][BF4 −]. The structure of Ru-2 was confirmed by single crystal X-ray analysis. PMID:26664582

  15. Self-healing polymers---The importance of choosing an adequate healing monomer, and the olefin metathesis polymerization of agricultural oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauldin, Timothy C.

    Modern society's immense and ill-fated reliance on petrochemical-based polymeric materials will likely necessitate a shift in polymer production paradigms in the near future. The work presented herein attempts to address this issue via a two-pronged approach. First, efforts to improve the duration of composite materials by incorporation of a self-healing function are discussed, the fruitful application of which can potentially reduce or eliminate the massive carbon footprints associated with the repair/replacement of damaged materials. And second, polymeric materials derived predominately from natural and renewable feedstock---namely vegetable oils---are developed. Early microcapsule-based self-healing materials utilized dicyclopentadiene-filled microcapsules and Grubbs' olefin metathesis catalyst to initiate the healing mechanism. However, the patent-protected catalyst, made from the precious metal ruthenium and sometimes costly ligands, will likely never be inexpensive and therefore limit large-scale applications. Hence, clever approaches to reduce the healing catalyst loading in self-healing polymers are of great interest. To this end, our efforts have revolved around solving the problem of the relatively inefficient use of Grubbs' catalyst during the healing mechanism. Given that the mismatch of the olefin metathesis polymerization and Grubbs' catalyst dissolution (in monomer) kinetics is a known cause of this inefficient use of the catalyst, we attempted to tune the "latency" (i.e. pot life) of the olefin metathesis polymerization to ensure more complete dissolution of catalyst in monomer. In an alternative approach to improving efficient catalyst dissolution, we developed a simple model to predict relative dissolution rates of Grubbs' catalyst in a small library of healing monomers. This model was shown experimentally to be able to aid in the selection of, for example, reactive monomer additives that can yield impressive improvements in catalyst dissolution

  16. Synthesis and characterization of dinuclear rare-earth complexes supported by amine-bridged bis(phenolate) ligands and their catalytic activity for the ring-opening polymerization of l-lactide.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yu-Lai; He, Jia-Xuan; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Jing-Jing; Huang, Yong; Yang, Ying

    2016-06-28

    Reactions of amine-bridged bis(phenolate) protio-ligands N,N-bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzyl)aminoacetic acid (L(1)-H3) and N,N-bis[3,5-bis(α,α'-dimethylbenzyl)-2-hydroxybenzyl]aminoacetic acid (L(2)-H3), with 1 equiv. M[N(SiMe3)2]3 (M = La, Nd, Sm, Gd, Y) in THF at room temperature yielded the neutral rare-earth complexes [M2(L)2(THF)4] (L = L(1), M = La (), Nd (), Sm (), Gd (), Y (); L = L(2), M = La (), Nd (), Sm (), Gd (), Y ()). All of these complexes were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis and in the case of yttrium and lanthanum complexes, (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The molecular structure of revealed dinuclear species in which the eight-coordinate lanthanum centers were bonded to two oxygen atoms of two THF molecules, to three oxygen atoms and one nitrogen atom of one L(1) ligand, and two oxygen atoms of the carboxyl group of another. Complexes were also dinuclear species containing seven-coordinate metal centers similar to , albeit with bonding to one rather than two carboxyl group oxygens of another ligand. Further treatment of with excess benzyl alcohol provided dinuclear complex [La2(L(1))2(BnOH)6] (), in which each lanthanum ion is eight-coordinate, bonded to three oxygen atoms and one nitrogen atom of one ligand, three oxygen atoms of three BnOH molecules, as well as one oxygen atom of bridging carboxyl group of the other ligand. In the presence of BnOH, complexes efficiently catalyzed the ring-opening polymerization of l-lactide in a controlled manner and gave polymers with relatively narrow molecular weight distributions. The kinetic and mechanistic studies associated with the ROP of l-lactide using /BnOH initiating system have been performed. PMID:27294827

  17. Effect of Hydrogenation on the Glass Transition Temperatures of Novel Ring-Opened Polynorbornenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Adam; Li, Sheng; Register, Richard

    2013-03-01

    Ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of norbornene-type monomers has been demonstrated as a facile way to produce block copolymers incorporating semicrystalline, glassy, and rubbery blocks. Of particular interest are block copolymers, made by ROMP, with thermoplastic elastomeric properties. For this application we seek blocks with glass transition temperatures (Tg) in excess of 100 oC. To this end, novel substituted norbornene-type monomers with large, rigid substituents have been investigated. A key consequence of the ROMP mechanism is that unsaturation in the monomer is preserved in the polymer. Unsaturation in the polymer backbone is susceptible to degradation; therefore, hydrogenation is required to enhance the long-term stability of these polymers. Hydrogenation can also have a significant impact on the thermal behavior. To investigate this, we have synthesized ROMP polymers of 5-phenyl-2-norbornene and 5-cyclohexyl-2-norbornene. Hydrogenation yielded derivatives with saturated backbones. This series of polymers provides a systematic study on the influence of hydrogenation on the Tg of glassy ROMP polymers. We find that saturation of the side group increases the Tg by 14 oC, irrespective of backbone saturation. Conversely, saturation of the backbone reduces Tg by 17 oC for both aromatic and cycloaliphatic side groups. When compared to analogous studies on other ROMP polymers, it becomes clear that these trends are difficult to predict, highlighting the importance of experimental measurements.

  18. Comments on the ring-opening polymerization of morpholine-2,5-dione derivatives by various metal catalysts and characterization of the products formed in the reactions involving R2SnX2, where X = OPr(i) and NMe2 and R = Bu(n), Ph and p-Me2NC6H4.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, M H; Galucci, J; Krempner, C; Wiggenhorn, C

    2006-02-14

    (3S,6S)-3-Isopropyl-6-methyl-morpholine-2,5-dione (1), and (3S,6S)-3,6-dimethyl-morpholine-2,5-dione (2), do not enter into ring-opening polymerization reactions with metal catalyst precursors commonly employed for lactides, and with Sn(II) octanoate, only low molecular weight oligomers are obtained. Reactions with R2SnX2 compounds, where R = Ph, Bu(n) and p-Me2NC6H4 and X = OPr(i) or NMe2, reveal that ring-opening of the morpholine-2,5-diones does occur, but that polymerization is terminated by the formation of kinetically-inert products such as {Ph2Sn[mu,eta(3)-OCH(Me)CONCH(Pr(i))COOPr(i)]}2 (3), and {[Bu(n))2Sn[mu,eta(3)-OCH(Me)CONCH(Me)CONMe2]}2 (4), with elimination of HX. Ph3SnOPr(i) is seen to react reversibly with morpholine-2,5-diones in toluene-d8 by 1H NMR spectroscopy while (Bu(n))3SnNMe2 reacts by ring opening to give (Bu(n))3SnOCH(Me)C(O)NHCHMeC(O)NMe2. The new organotin compounds have been characterized by 1H, 13C{1H} and 118Sn NMR spectroscopy and compounds 1, 2, 3 and 4 by single crystal X-ray crystallography. PMID:16437180

  19. Enantioselective Olefin Metathesis with Cyclometalated Ruthenium Complexes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The success of enantioselective olefin metathesis relies on the design of enantioenriched alkylidene complexes capable of transferring stereochemical information from the catalyst structure to the reactants. Cyclometalation of the NHC ligand has proven to be a successful strategy to incorporate stereogenic atoms into the catalyst structure. Enantioenriched complexes incorporating this design element catalyze highly Z- and enantioselective asymmetric ring opening/cross metathesis (AROCM) of norbornenes and cyclobutenes, and the difference in ring strain between these two substrates leads to different propagating species in the catalytic cycle. Asymmetric ring closing metathesis (ARCM) of a challenging class of prochiral trienes has also been achieved. The extent of reversibility and effect of reaction setup was also explored. Finally, promising levels of enantioselectivity in an unprecedented Z-selective asymmetric cross metathesis (ACM) of a prochiral 1,4-diene was demonstrated. PMID:25137310

  20. Synthesis of interlocked molecules by olefin metathesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Paul Gregory

    A large body of work in the Grubbs group has focused on the development of functional-group tolerant ruthenium alkylidene catalysts that perform a number of olefin metathesis reactions. These catalysts have seen application in a wide range of fields, including classic total synthesis as well as polymer and materials chemistry. One particular family of compounds, interlocked molecules, has benefitted greatly from these advances in catalyst stability and activity. This thesis describes several elusive and challenging interlocked architectures whose syntheses have been realized through the utilization of different types of ruthenium-catalyzed olefin metathesis reactions. Ring-closing olefin metathesis has enabled the synthesis of a [c2]daisy-chain dimer with the ammonium binding site near the cap of the dimer. A deprotonated DCD possessing such a structural attribute will more forcefully seek to restore coordinating interactions upon reprotonation, enhancing its utility as a synthetic molecular actuator. Dimer functionalization facilitated incorporation into linear polymers, with a 48% size increase of an unbound, extended analogue of the polymer demonstrating slippage of the dimer units. Ongoing work is directed at further materials studies, in particular, exploring the synthesis of macroscopic networks containing the DCD units and analyzing the correlation between molecular-scale extension-contraction manipulations and resulting macro-scale changes. A "clipping" approach to a polycatenated cyclic polymer, a structure that resembles a molecular "charm bracelet", has been described. The use of ring-opening metathesis polymerization of a carbamate monomer in the presence of a chain transfer agent allowed for the synthesis of a linear polymer that was subsequently functionalized and cyclized to the corresponding cyclic analogue. This cyclic polymer was characterized through a variety of techniques, and subjected to further functionalization reactions, affording a cyclic

  1. In Situ Formation of Pyridyl-Functionalized Poly(3-hexylthiophene)s via Quenching of the Grignard Metathesis Polymerization: Toward Ligands for Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Kochemba, William Michael; Pickel, Deanna L; Sumpter, Bobby G; Chen, Jihua; Kilbey, II, S Michael

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of well-defined, end-functional poly(3-hexylthiophene)s (P3HTs) by in situ quenching of the Grignard metathesis (GRIM) polymerization is complicated by the extreme tendency to favor difunctional products in all but a few cases. A facile one-pot method for preparing 2-pyridyl and 3-pyridyl P3HTs with high abundance of monofunctional products is established via an examination of the kinetics of the end-functionalization quenching reaction with lithium chloride complexes of 2- and 3-pyridyl Grignard reagents. Density functional theory calculations guide the selection of pyridine as the end group, which provides the capacity to ligate cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanocrystals and arrests aggregation upon thermal annealing when dispersed in a P3HT matrix. The relative abundances of various end-functional products, as ascertained by high-resolution matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, can be altered through the use of 1-pentene as an additive: GRIM polymerizations quenched with 3-pyridyl and 2-pyridyl Grignard reagents show 5% and 18% abundances of difunctional, pyridyl-capped P3HTs, respectively, when 1-pentene is present at 1000:1 relative to the nickel catalyst. This represents a significant improvement compared to quenching with aryl Grignard reagents, where difunctional products predominate. The ability to manipulate end group compositions coupled with the propensity of pyridyl-functionalized P3HTs to ligate semiconductor quantum dots (SQDs) opens new possibilities for tuning the morphology of conjugated polymer/SQD blends.

  2. New transition metal complexes and their ring-opened polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apodaca, Paula

    An exciting new class of metallacycle (eta5-C5 H4Fe) (CO)2CH2SiR2 that undergoes ring-opening polymerization was recently reported by Sharma et al. [1]. We are interested in further expanding this research area by synthesizing related cyclopentadienyl derivatives containing Fe, Mo, and W in combination with other elements of the group 14. We report here the synthesis and crystal structure characterization of new germa-metallacyclobutanes of Mo and W. In addition, we have successfully synthesized and characterized new ring-opening polymers of the related germanium systems [(eta5-C5 H4Fe)(CO) 2(CH2GeR2)] n. The new polymers were characterized using various spectroscopic techniques and gel permeation chromatography. The recent report on the synthesis of a new class of siloxane polymers based upon base-catalyzed ring opening of phenylene-bridged cyclic siloxanes [2] encouraged us to investigate the related ferrocenyl (Fc, (C5H 5)Fe(C5H4)) siloxane systems. The incorporation of ferrocene could provide new materials with all the interesting properties usually associated with these groups such as thermal and photochemical stability, electrochemical activity and potentially conducting materials. Thus far a new required organometallic monomer containing Fc-R, where R = disilaoxacyclopentene 5 has been synthesized and completely characterized. Based-induced ring-opening polymerizations of 5 were attempted under different reaction conditions and produced, inter alia: (C5H5)Fe(C 5H4)C(SiMe2OH)=CH(SiMe2R), R = nBu (2), tBu (3), Ph (4). The single crystal X-ray structures and full spectroscopic analysis of such products has been accomplished. Furthermore, the reactivity of the ferrocenyl silanols concerning condensation and their behavior under acidic conditions has been investigated. 1Sharma, H.; Cervantes-Lee, F.; Pannell, K. H. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 1326. 2 Loy, A. D.; Rahimian, K.; Samara, M. Angew. Chem. 1999, 38, 45.

  3. Chain Reaction Polymerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, James E.

    1981-01-01

    The salient features and importance of chain-reaction polymerization are discussed, including such topics as the thermodynamics of polymerization, free-radical polymerization kinetics, radical polymerization processes, copolymers, and free-radical chain, anionic, cationic, coordination, and ring-opening polymerizations. (JN)

  4. Olefin metathesis for effective polymer healing via dynamic exchange of strong carbon-carbon bonds

    DOEpatents

    Guan, Zhibin; Lu, Yixuan

    2015-09-15

    A method of preparing a malleable and/or self-healing polymeric or composite material is provided. The method includes providing a polymeric or composite material comprising at least one alkene-containing polymer, combining the polymer with at least one homogeneous or heterogeneous transition metal olefin metathesis catalyst to form a polymeric or composite material, and performing an olefin metathesis reaction on the polymer so as to form reversible carbon-carbon double bonds in the polymer. Also provided is a method of healing a fractured surface of a polymeric material. The method includes bringing a fractured surface of a first polymeric material into contact with a second polymeric material, and performing an olefin metathesis reaction in the presence of a transition metal olefin metathesis catalyst such that the first polymeric material forms reversible carbon-carbon double bonds with the second polymeric material. Compositions comprising malleable and/or self-healing polymeric or composite material are also provided.

  5. Reproducing superhydrophobic leaves as coatings by micromolding surface-initiated polymerization.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Carlos A; Spellings, Matthew P; Cooksey, Tyler J; Jennings, G Kane

    2014-11-01

    Micromolding surface-initiated polymerization enables the fabrication of polymer coatings that reproduce the microscale surface topography of superhydrophobic leaves onto solid supports. Here, the surfaces of superhydrophobic leaves from Trifolium repens and Aristolochia esperanzae are molded and reproduced as the topography of a partially fluorinated polymer coating through the surface-initiated ring-opening metathesis polymerization of 5-(perfluorooctyl)norbornene (NBF8). The polymer coatings have thicknesses exceeding 100 μm, which can be tailored by the amount of monomer added to the mold. These coatings are robustly bound to the substrate, contain compositions not found in nature, and achieve superhydrophobicity that is comparable to the actual leaf. PMID:25283950

  6. Polymerization of Protecting-Group-Free Peptides via ROMP

    PubMed Central

    Kammeyer, Jacquelin K.; Blum, Angela P.; Adamiak, Lisa; Hahn, Michael E.; Gianneschi, Nathan C.

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to survey the tolerance of ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) with respect to amino acid (a.a) identity of pentapeptide-modified norbornene-based monomers. A library of norbornyl-pentapeptides were prepared with the general structure, norbornyl-GX2PLX5, where residue ‘X’ was changed at each of the two positions (2 or 5) alternately to consist of the natural amino acids F, A, V, R, S, K, N, T, M, Q, H, W, C, Y, E, Q, and D. Each peptide monomer, free of protecting groups, was mixed in turn under a standard set of polymerization conditions with the ROMP initiator (IMesH2)C5H5N)2(Cl)2Ru=CHPh. Two sets of polymerization reactions were performed, one with Monomer:Initiator (M:I) ratio of 20:1, and another with M:I of 200:1. For the nucleophilic amino acids cysteine and lysine, polymerization reactions were quantitatively compared to those of their protected analogues. Furthermore, we describe polymerization of macromonomers containing up to 30 a.a. to test for tolerance of ROMP to peptide molecular weight. These reactions were studied via SEC-MALS and NMR. Finally, with knowledge of sequence scope in hand, we prepared a set of enzyme-substrate containing brush polymers and studied them with respect to their bioactivity. PMID:24015154

  7. Adsorption and ring-opening of lactide on the chiral metal surface Pt(321){sup S} studied by density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Franke, J.-H.; Kosov, D. S.

    2015-01-28

    We study the adsorption and ring-opening of lactide on the naturally chiral metal surface Pt(321){sup S}. Lactide is a precursor for polylactic acid ring-opening polymerization, and Pt is a well known catalyst surface. We study, here, the energetics of the ring-opening of lactide on a surface that has a high density of kink atoms. These sites are expected to be present on a realistic Pt surface and show enhanced catalytic activity. The use of a naturally chiral surface also enables us to study potential chiral selectivity effects of the reaction at the same time. Using density functional theory with a functional that includes the van der Waals forces in a first-principles manner, we find modest adsorption energies of around 1.4 eV for the pristine molecule and different ring-opened states. The energy barrier to be overcome in the ring-opening reaction is found to be very small at 0.32 eV and 0.30 eV for LL- and its chiral partner DD-lactide, respectively. These energies are much smaller than the activation energy for a dehydrogenation reaction of 0.78 eV. Our results thus indicate that (a) ring-opening reactions of lactide on Pt(321) can be expected already at very low temperatures, and Pt might be a very effective catalyst for this reaction; (b) the ring-opening reaction rate shows noticeable enantioselectivity.

  8. Hexacoordinate Ru-based olefin metathesis catalysts with pH-responsive N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) and N-donor ligands for ROMP reactions in non-aqueous, aqueous and emulsion conditions.

    PubMed

    Balof, Shawna L; Nix, K Owen; Olliff, Matthew S; Roessler, Sarah E; Saha, Arpita; Müller, Kevin B; Behrens, Ulrich; Valente, Edward J; Schanz, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Three new ruthenium alkylidene complexes (PCy3)Cl2(H2ITap)Ru=CHSPh (9), (DMAP)2Cl2(H2ITap)Ru=CHPh (11) and (DMAP)2Cl2(H2ITap)Ru=CHSPh (12) have been synthesized bearing the pH-responsive H2ITap ligand (H2ITap = 1,3-bis(2',6'-dimethyl-4'-dimethylaminophenyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene). Catalysts 11 and 12 are additionally ligated by two pH-responsive DMAP ligands. The crystal structure was solved for complex 12 by X-ray diffraction. In organic, neutral solution, the catalysts are capable of performing standard ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) and ring closing metathesis (RCM) reactions with standard substrates. The ROMP with complex 11 is accelerated in the presence of two equiv of H3PO4, but is reduced as soon as the acid amount increased. The metathesis of phenylthiomethylidene catalysts 9 and 12 is sluggish at room temperature, but their ROMP can be dramatically accelerated at 60 °C. Complexes 11 and 12 are soluble in aqueous acid. They display the ability to perform RCM of diallylmalonic acid (DAMA), however, their conversions are very low amounting only to few turnovers before decomposition. However, both catalysts exhibit outstanding performance in the ROMP of dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) and mixtures of DCPD with cyclooctene (COE) in acidic aqueous microemulsion. With loadings as low as 180 ppm, the catalysts afforded mostly quantitative conversions of these monomers while maintaining the size and shape of the droplets throughout the polymerization process. Furthermore, the coagulate content for all experiments stayed <2%. This represents an unprecedented efficiency in emulsion ROMP based on hydrophilic ruthenium alkylidene complexes. PMID:26664616

  9. Hexacoordinate Ru-based olefin metathesis catalysts with pH-responsive N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) and N-donor ligands for ROMP reactions in non-aqueous, aqueous and emulsion conditions

    PubMed Central

    Balof, Shawna L; Nix, K Owen; Olliff, Matthew S; Roessler, Sarah E; Saha, Arpita; Müller, Kevin B; Behrens, Ulrich; Valente, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    Summary Three new ruthenium alkylidene complexes (PCy3)Cl2(H2ITap)Ru=CHSPh (9), (DMAP)2Cl2(H2ITap)Ru=CHPh (11) and (DMAP)2Cl2(H2ITap)Ru=CHSPh (12) have been synthesized bearing the pH-responsive H2ITap ligand (H2ITap = 1,3-bis(2’,6’-dimethyl-4’-dimethylaminophenyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene). Catalysts 11 and 12 are additionally ligated by two pH-responsive DMAP ligands. The crystal structure was solved for complex 12 by X-ray diffraction. In organic, neutral solution, the catalysts are capable of performing standard ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) and ring closing metathesis (RCM) reactions with standard substrates. The ROMP with complex 11 is accelerated in the presence of two equiv of H3PO4, but is reduced as soon as the acid amount increased. The metathesis of phenylthiomethylidene catalysts 9 and 12 is sluggish at room temperature, but their ROMP can be dramatically accelerated at 60 °C. Complexes 11 and 12 are soluble in aqueous acid. They display the ability to perform RCM of diallylmalonic acid (DAMA), however, their conversions are very low amounting only to few turnovers before decomposition. However, both catalysts exhibit outstanding performance in the ROMP of dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) and mixtures of DCPD with cyclooctene (COE) in acidic aqueous microemulsion. With loadings as low as 180 ppm, the catalysts afforded mostly quantitative conversions of these monomers while maintaining the size and shape of the droplets throughout the polymerization process. Furthermore, the coagulate content for all experiments stayed <2%. This represents an unprecedented efficiency in emulsion ROMP based on hydrophilic ruthenium alkylidene complexes. PMID:26664616

  10. Reactivity ratios, and mechanistic insight for anionic ring-opening copolymerization of epoxides.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bongjae F; Wolffs, Martin; Delaney, Kris T; Sprafke, Johannes K; Leibfarth, Frank A; Hawker, Craig J; Lynd, Nathaniel A

    2012-05-01

    Reactivity ratios were evaluated for anionic ring-opening copolymerizations of ethylene oxide (EO) with either allyl glycidyl ether (AGE) or ethylene glycol vinyl glycidyl ether (EGVGE) using a benzyl alkoxide initiator. The chemical shift for the benzylic protons of the initiator, as measured by (1)H NMR spectroscopy, were observed to be sensitive to the sequence of the first two monomers added to the initiator during polymer growth. Using a simple kinetic model for initiation and the first propagation step, reactivity ratios for the copolymerization of AGE and EGVGE with EO could be determined by analysis of the (1)H NMR spectroscopy for the resulting copolymer. For the copolymerization between EO and AGE, the reactivity ratios were determined to be r(AGE) = 1.31 ± 0.26 and r(EO) = 0.54 ± 0.03, while for EO and EGVGE, the reactivity ratios were r(EGVGE) = 3.50 ± 0.90 and r(EO) = 0.32 ± 0.10. These ratios were consistent with the compositional drift observed in the copolymerization between EO and EGVGE, with EGVGE being consumed early in the copolymerization. These experimental results, combined with density functional calculations, allowed a mechanism for oxyanionic ring-opening polymerization that begins with coordination of the Lewis-basic epoxide to the cation to be proposed. The calculated transition-state energies agree qualitatively with the observed relative rates for polymerization. PMID:23226879

  11. Olefin metathesis in air

    PubMed Central

    Piola, Lorenzo; Nahra, Fady

    2015-01-01

    Summary Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance. PMID:26664625

  12. Prosodically Driven Metathesis in Mutsun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Lynnika

    2013-01-01

    Among the many ways in which sounds alternate in the world's languages, changes in the order of sounds (metathesis) are relatively rare. Mutsun, a Southern Costanoan language of California which was documented extensively before the death of its last speaker in 1930, displays three patterns of synchronic consonant-vowel (CV) metathesis. Two of…

  13. Metathesis depolymerizable surfactants

    DOEpatents

    Jamison, Gregory M.; Wheeler, David R.; Loy, Douglas A.; Simmons, Blake A.; Long, Timothy M.; McElhanon, James R.; Rahimian, Kamyar; Staiger, Chad L.

    2008-04-15

    A class of surfactant molecules whose structure includes regularly spaced unsaturation in the tail group and thus, can be readily decomposed by ring-closing metathesis, and particularly by the action of a transition metal catalyst, to form small molecule products. These small molecules are designed to have increased volatility and/or enhanced solubility as compared to the original surfactant molecule and are thus easily removed by solvent extraction or vacuum extraction at low temperature. By producing easily removable decomposition products, the surfactant molecules become particularly desirable as template structures for preparing meso- and microstructural materials with tailored properties.

  14. Organo-Lewis acid as cocatalyst for cationic homogenous metallocene Ziegler-Natta olefin polymerizations

    DOEpatents

    Marks, Tobin J.; Chen, You-Xian

    2000-01-01

    The synthesis of the organo-Lewis acid perfluorobiphenylborane (PBB) and the activation of metallocenes for the formation of a variety of highly active homogeneous Ziegler-Natta metallocene olefin polymerization, copolymerization and ring-opening polymerization catalysts is described.

  15. Catalysts for CO2/epoxide ring-opening copolymerization.

    PubMed

    Trott, G; Saini, P K; Williams, C K

    2016-02-28

    This article summarizes and reviews recent progress in the development of catalysts for the ring-opening copolymerization of carbon dioxide and epoxides. The copolymerization is an interesting method to add value to carbon dioxide, including from waste sources, and to reduce pollution associated with commodity polymer manufacture. The selection of the catalyst is of critical importance to control the composition, properties and applications of the resultant polymers. This review highlights and exemplifies some key recent findings and hypotheses, in particular using examples drawn from our own research. PMID:26755758

  16. Catalysts for CO2/epoxide ring-opening copolymerization

    PubMed Central

    Trott, G.; Saini, P. K.; Williams, C. K.

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes and reviews recent progress in the development of catalysts for the ring-opening copolymerization of carbon dioxide and epoxides. The copolymerization is an interesting method to add value to carbon dioxide, including from waste sources, and to reduce pollution associated with commodity polymer manufacture. The selection of the catalyst is of critical importance to control the composition, properties and applications of the resultant polymers. This review highlights and exemplifies some key recent findings and hypotheses, in particular using examples drawn from our own research. PMID:26755758

  17. Reactive ring-opened aldehyde metabolites in benzene hematotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Witz, G.; Zhang, Zhihua; Goldstein, B.D.

    1996-12-01

    The hematotoxicity of benzene is mediated by reactive benzene metabolites and possibly by other intermediates including reactive oxygen species. We previously hypothesized that ring-opened metabolites may significantly contribute to benzene hematotoxicity. Consistent with this hypothesis, our studies initially demonstrated that benzene is metabolized in vitro to trans-trans-muconaldehyde (MUC), a reactive six-carbon diene dialdehyde, and that MUC is toxic to the bone marrow in a manner similar to benzene. Benzene toxicity most likely involves interactions among several metabolites that operate by different mechanisms to produce more than one biological effect. Our studies indicate that MUC coadministered with hydroquinone is a particularly potent metabolite combination that causes bone marrow damage, suggesting that the involvement of ring-opened metabolites in benzene toxicity may be related to their biological effects in combination with other benzene metabolites. Studies in our laboratory and by others indicate that MUC is metabolized to a variety of compounds by oxidation or reduction of the aldehyde groups. 37 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Ruthenium Vinyl Carbene Intermediates in Enyne Metathesis

    PubMed Central

    Diver, Steven T.

    2009-01-01

    This review provides an overview of ruthenium vinyl carbene reactivity as it relates to enyne metathesis. Methods for the synthesis of metathesis-active and metathesis-inactive complexes are also summarized. Some of the early hypotheses about vinyl carbene intermediates in enyne metatheses were tested in the arena of synthetic chemistry and subsequently led to mechanistic studies. In these two areas, studies from the author's labs are described. There are still many unresolved questions in enyne metathesis that trace back to vinyl carbene reactivity. Hopefully this review will stimulate further investigation into vinyl carbene reactivity which should further refine our understanding of catalytic enyne metathesis. PMID:19590747

  19. Ion-trapping and end-capping in ionic polymerizations

    SciTech Connect

    Penczek, S.

    1993-12-31

    Ion-trapping, developed in this laboratory, involves both vinyl and ring-opening polymerizations, anionic and cationic. Originally it was elaborated for cationic ring-opening polymerization and involved reaction of phosphines (mostly triphenylphosphine) with onium ions, like oxonium ions in the polymerization of cyclic ethers. The same method has more recently been used for the cationic polymerization of vinyl ethers, allowing not only to determine the total concentration of the growing species by {sup 31}P-NMR but also to study the stereochemistry of the chain end by the same method. In the anionic ring-opening polymerization diphenylchlorophosphate was applied. It reacts quantitatively with alcoholate, thiolate, and carboxylate anions. More recently diphenylchlorophosphine was successfully used to determine the concentration and structure of the chain ends in the anionic polymerization of styrene, butadiene, isoprene as well as their mixtures.

  20. Reactive ring-opened aldehyde metabolites in benzene hematotoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Witz, G; Zhang, Z; Goldstein, B D

    1996-01-01

    The hematotoxicity of benzene is mediated by reactive benzene metabolites and possibly by other intermediates including reactive oxygen species. We previously hypothesized that ring-opened metabolites may significantly contribute to benzene hematotoxicity. Consistent with this hypothesis, our studies initially demonstrated that benzene is metabolized in vitro to trans-trans-muconaldehyde (MUC), a reactive six-carbon diene dialdehyde, and that MUC is toxic to the bone marrow in a manner similar to benzene. Benzene toxicity most likely involves interactions among several metabolites that operate by different mechanisms to produce more than one biological effect. Our studies indicate that MUC coadministered with hydroquinone is a particularly potent metabolite combination that causes bone marrow damage, suggesting that the involvement of ring-opened metabolites in benzene toxicity may be related to their biological effects in combination with other benzene metabolites. Studies in our laboratory and by others indicate that MUC is metabolized to a variety of compounds by oxidation or reduction of the aldehyde groups. The aldehydic MUC metabolite 6-hydroxy-trans-trans-2,4-hexadienal (CHO-M-OH), similar to MUC but to a lesser extent, is reactive toward glutathione, mutagenic in V79 cells, and hematotoxic in mice. It is formed by monoreduction of MUC, a process that is reversible and could be of biological significance in benzene bone marrow toxicity. The MUC metabolite 6-hydroxy-trans-trans-2,4-hexadienoic (COOH-M-OH) is an end product of MUC metabolism in vitro. Our studies indicate that COOH-M-OH is a urinary metabolite of benzene in mice, a finding that provides further indirect evidence for the in vivo formation of MUC from benzene. Mechanistic studies showed the formation of cis-trans-muconaldehyde in addition to MUC from benzene incubated in a hydroxyl radical-generating Fenton system. These results suggest that the benzene ring is initially opened to cis

  1. Development of a single-ring OpenPET prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Eiji; Tashima, Hideaki; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Inadama, Naoko; Murayama, Hideo; Ito, Hiroshi; Yamaya, Taiga

    2013-11-01

    One of the challenging applications of PET is implementing it for in-beam PET, which is an in situ monitoring method for charged particle therapy. For this purpose, we have previously proposed an open-type PET scanner, OpenPET. The original OpenPET had a physically opened field-of-view (FOV) between two detector rings through which irradiation beams pass. This dual-ring OpenPET (DROP) had a wide axial FOV including the gap. This geometry was not necessarily the most efficient for application to in-beam PET in which only a limited FOV around the irradiation field is required. Therefore, we have proposed a new single-ring OpenPET (SROP) geometry which can provide an accessible and observable open space with higher sensitivity and a reduced number of detectors than the DROP. The proposed geometry was a cylinder shape with its ends cut at a slant, in which the shape of each cut end became an ellipse. In this work, we developed and evaluated a small prototype of the SROP geometry for proof-of-concept. The SROP prototype was designed with 2 ellipse-shaped detector rings of 16 depth-of-interaction (DOI) detectors each. The DOI detectors consisted of 1024 GSOZ scintillator crystals which were arranged in 4 layers of 16×16 arrays, coupled to a 64-channel FP-PMT. Each ellipse-shaped detector ring had a major axis of 281.6 mm and a minor axis of 207.5 mm. For the slant mode, the rings were placed at a 45-deg slant from the axial direction and for the non-slant mode (used as a reference) they were at 90 deg from the axial direction with no gap. The system sensitivity measured from a 22Na point source was 5.0% for the slant mode. The average spatial resolutions of major and minor axis directions were calculated as 3.8 mm FWHM and 4.9 mm FWHM, respectively for the slant mode. This difference resulted from the ellipsoidal ring geometry and the spatial resolution of the minor axis direction degraded by the parallax error. Comparison between the slant mode and the non-slant mode

  2. The crystal-crystal transition in hydrogenated ring-opened polynorbornenes: Tacticity, crystal thickening, and alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, John P; Register, Richard A

    2013-01-10

    At a temperature Tcc well below its melting point Tm, hydrogenated ring-opened polynorbornene (hPN) is known to exhibit a crystal-crystal transition; above Tcc, the hPN chains are rotationally disordered. This transition is examined in a series of hPNs polymerized with different Mo- and Ru-based catalysts, each of which imparts a slightly different tacticity to the polymer. Tcc is found to correlate well with the ratio of meso to racemo dyads (m:r); small changes in m:r (from 0.8 to 1.1) are sufficient to raise Tcc by nearly 20 °C. For the homogeneous Mo-based 'Schrock-type' catalyst examined, such a change in m:r is easily achieved by simply adding the reversibly binding ligand trimethylphosphine during polymerization. Tcc approaches Tm with increasing m:r, indicating that r dyads stabilize the rotationally disordered structure. When heated above Tcc, hPN crystals thicken at a rate much greater than conventional three-dimensionally ordered crystals, but below the rates shown by the two-dimensional hexagonal (columnar) phase formed by some polymers, reflecting the intermediate level of order and chain mobility present in the high-temperature hPN crystal phase. Solid-state processing of hPN between Tcc and Tm yields highly aligned macroscopic specimens.

  3. Cross-metathesis of polynorbornene with polyoctenamer: a kinetic study

    PubMed Central

    Denisova, Yulia I; Gringolts, Maria L; Peregudov, Alexander S; Krentsel, Liya B; Litmanovich, Ekaterina A; Litmanovich, Arkadiy D; Finkelshtein, Eugene Sh

    2015-01-01

    Summary The cross-metathesis of polynorbornene and polyoctenamer in d-chloroform mediated by the 1st generation Grubbs’ catalyst Cl2(PCy3)2Ru=CHPh is studied by monitoring the kinetics of carbene transformation and evolution of the dyad composition of polymer chains with in situ 1H and ex situ 13C NMR spectroscopy. The results are interpreted in terms of a simple kinetic two-stage model. At the first stage of the reaction all Ru-benzylidene carbenes are transformed into Ru-polyoctenamers within an hour, while the polymer molar mass is considerably decreased. The second stage actually including interpolymeric reactions proceeds much slower and takes one day or more to achieve a random copolymer of norbornene and cyclooctene. Its rate is limited by the interaction of polyoctenamer-bound carbenes with polynorbornene units, which is hampered, presumably due to steric reasons. Polynorbornene-bound carbenes are detected in very low concentrations throughout the whole process thus indicating their higher reactivity, as compared with the polyoctenamer-bound ones. Macroscopic homogeneity of the reacting media is proved by dynamic light scattering from solutions containing the polymer mixture and its components. In general, the studied process can be considered as a new way to unsaturated multiblock statistical copolymers. Their structure can be controlled by the amount of catalyst, mixture composition, and reaction time. It is remarkable that this goal can be achieved with a catalyst that is not suitable for ring-opening metathesis copolymerization of norbornene and cis-cyclooctene because of their substantially different monomer reactivities. PMID:26664599

  4. Cross-metathesis of polynorbornene with polyoctenamer: a kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Denisova, Yulia I; Gringolts, Maria L; Peregudov, Alexander S; Krentsel, Liya B; Litmanovich, Ekaterina A; Litmanovich, Arkadiy D; Finkelshtein, Eugene Sh; Kudryavtsev, Yaroslav V

    2015-01-01

    The cross-metathesis of polynorbornene and polyoctenamer in d-chloroform mediated by the 1(st) generation Grubbs' catalyst Cl2(PCy3)2Ru=CHPh is studied by monitoring the kinetics of carbene transformation and evolution of the dyad composition of polymer chains with in situ (1)H and ex situ (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The results are interpreted in terms of a simple kinetic two-stage model. At the first stage of the reaction all Ru-benzylidene carbenes are transformed into Ru-polyoctenamers within an hour, while the polymer molar mass is considerably decreased. The second stage actually including interpolymeric reactions proceeds much slower and takes one day or more to achieve a random copolymer of norbornene and cyclooctene. Its rate is limited by the interaction of polyoctenamer-bound carbenes with polynorbornene units, which is hampered, presumably due to steric reasons. Polynorbornene-bound carbenes are detected in very low concentrations throughout the whole process thus indicating their higher reactivity, as compared with the polyoctenamer-bound ones. Macroscopic homogeneity of the reacting media is proved by dynamic light scattering from solutions containing the polymer mixture and its components. In general, the studied process can be considered as a new way to unsaturated multiblock statistical copolymers. Their structure can be controlled by the amount of catalyst, mixture composition, and reaction time. It is remarkable that this goal can be achieved with a catalyst that is not suitable for ring-opening metathesis copolymerization of norbornene and cis-cyclooctene because of their substantially different monomer reactivities. PMID:26664599

  5. Organometallic chemistry: A new metathesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennessy, Elisabeth T.; Jacobsen, Eric N.

    2016-08-01

    Carbonyls and alkenes, two of the most common functional groups in organic chemistry, generally do not react with one another. Now, a simple Lewis acid has been shown to catalyse metathesis between alkenes and ketones in a new carbonyl olefination reaction.

  6. Composite fluorocarbon membranes by surface-initiated polymerization from nanoporous gold-coated alumina.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Carlos A; Zulkifli, Ahmad R; Faulkner, Christopher J; Trzeciak, Alex; Jennings, G Kane

    2012-02-01

    This manuscript describes the versatile fabrication and characterization of a novel composite membrane that consists of a porous alumina support, a 100 nm thick nanoporous gold coating, and a selective poly(5-(perfluorohexyl)norbornene) (pNBF6) polymer that can be grown exclusively from the nanoporous gold or throughout the membrane. Integration of the three materials is achieved by means of silane and thiol chemistry, and the use of surface-initiated ring-opening metathesis polymerization (SI-ROMP) to grow the pNBF6. The use of SI-ROMP allows tailoring of the extent of polymerization of pNBF6 throughout the structure by varying polymerization time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicate that the thin polymer films cover the structure entirely. Cross-sectional SEM images of the membrane not only corroborate growth of the pNBF6 polymer within both the porous alumina and the nanoporous gold coating but also show the growth of a pNBF6 layer between these porous substrates that lifts the nanoporous gold coating away from the alumina. Advancing contact angle (θ(A)) measurements show that the surfaces of these composite membranes exhibit both hydrophobic (θ(A) = 121-129)° and oleophobic (θ(A) = 69-74)° behavior due to the fluorocarbon side chains of the pNBF6 polymer that dominate the surface. Results from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) confirm that the membranes provide effective barriers to aqueous ions, as evidenced by a resistive impedance on the order of 1 × 10(7) Ω cm(2). Sulfonation of the polymer backbone substantially enhances ion transport through the composite membrane, as indicated by a 40-60 fold reduction in resistive impedance. Ion transport and selectivity of the membrane change by regulating the polymerization time. The fluorinated nature of the sulfonated polymer renders the membrane selective toward molecules with similar chemical characteristics. PMID:22195729

  7. Ultrafast polyene dynamics: the ring opening of 1,3-cyclohexadiene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Brenden C; Sension, Roseanne J

    2014-03-14

    The light activated ring-opening reaction of the 1,3-cyclohexadiene chromophore finds application in optical control, optical switching, optical memory, light activated molecular machines, photobiology, photochromic materials, and conformation-specific photocatalysts. The development of ultrafast spectroscopic methods and powerful computational methods have accelerated the understanding and facilitated the application of this important chromophore in a wide range of systems. Here we look at the current state of theoretical and experimental understanding for the ring-opening reaction of the isolated cyclohexadiene molecule and the ring-opening reactions of substituted cyclohexadienes, including fulgides, diarylethenes, and provitamin D. PMID:24457943

  8. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products

    SciTech Connect

    Firth, Bruce E.; Kirk, Sharon E.

    2015-10-27

    A method for suppressing isomerization of an olefin metathesis product produced in a metathesis reaction includes adding an isomerization suppression agent that includes nitric acid to a mixture that includes the olefin metathesis product and residual metathesis catalyst from the metathesis reaction under conditions that are sufficient to passivate at least a portion of the residual metathesis catalyst. Methods of refining a natural oil are described.

  9. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products

    SciTech Connect

    Firth, Bruce E.; Kirk, Sharon E.; Gavaskar, Vasudeo S.

    2015-09-22

    A method for suppressing isomerization of an olefin metathesis product produced in a metathesis reaction includes adding an isomerization suppression agent to a mixture that includes the olefin metathesis product and residual metathesis catalyst from the metathesis reaction under conditions that are sufficient to passivate at least a portion of the residual metathesis catalyst. The isomerization suppression agent is phosphorous acid, a phosphorous acid ester, phosphinic acid, a phosphinic acid ester or combinations thereof. Methods of refining natural oils are described.

  10. Diversity-oriented synthesis of acyclic nucleosides via ring-opening of vinyl cyclopropanes with purines.

    PubMed

    Niu, Hong-Ying; Du, Cong; Xie, Ming-Sheng; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Qian; Qu, Gui-Rong; Guo, Hai-Ming

    2015-02-25

    The diversity-oriented synthesis of acyclic nucleosides has been achieved via ring-opening of vinyl cyclopropanes with purines. With Pd2(dba)3·CHCl3 as a catalyst, the 1,5-ring-opening reaction proceeded well and afforded N9 adducts as the major form, in which the C=C bonds in the side chain were exclusively E-form. In the presence of AlCl3, the 1,3-ring-opening reaction occurred smoothly, giving N9 adducts as the dominate products. Meanwhile, when MgI2 was used as the catalyst, the 1,3-ring-opening reaction also worked well to form N7 adducts. PMID:25572827

  11. Efficient Regioselective Ring Opening of Activated Aziridine-2-Carboxylates with [18F]Fluoride

    PubMed Central

    Schjoeth-Eskesen, Christina; Hansen, Paul Robert; Kjaer, Andreas; Gillings, Nic

    2015-01-01

    Aziridines can undergo a range of ring-opening reactions with nucleophiles. The regio- and stereochemistry of the products depend on the substituents on the aziridine. Aziridine ring-opening reactions have rarely been used in radiosynthesis. Herein we report the ring opening of activated aziridine-2-carboxylates with [18F]fluoride. The aziridine was activated for nucleophilic attack by substitution of various groups on the aziridine nitrogen atom. Fluorine-18 radiolabelling was followed by ester hydrolysis and removal of the activation group. Totally regioselective ring opening and subsequent deprotection was achieved with tert-butyloxycarbonyl- and carboxybenzyl-activated aziridines to give α-[18F]fluoro-β-alanine in good radiochemical yield. PMID:25861572

  12. Rheokinetic evaluation of self-healing agents polymerized by Grubbs catalyst embedded in various thermosetting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xing; Sheng, Xia; Lee, Jong Keun; Kessler, Michael R.

    2007-07-01

    In self-healing polymers and composites, the activity of the embedded chemical catalyst within the thermosetting matrix is critical to healing efficiency. Rheological behavior of ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP)-based healing agents, triggered by 1st or 2nd generation Grubbs catalysts that have been suspended in various thermosetting resins, was investigated using an oscillatory parallel plate rheometer. Gel times for various healing agents were determined from the crossover of storage and loss moduli vs. time curves to indicate the activity of the ROMP reaction. Gelation of healing agents initiated by 1st generation Grubbs catalyst occurred faster than those triggered by 2nd generation catalyst. It is suggested that the dissolution rate of the catalyst by the healing agent is an important factor in determining the overall ROMP reaction rate in situ. Optical and scanning electron microscopic observations showed that the finer, rod-like solid particles of the 1st generation catalyst were distributed more homogeneously throughout the cured matrix, which contributed to the faster reaction. Also discussed were effects of different healing agents and thermosetting matrix systems on the ROMP reaction. These results indicate that the self-healing methodology can be expanded to other high performance polymer matrices.

  13. Characterisation of porous silicon/poly(L-lactide) composites prepared using surface initiated ring opening polymerisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInnes, Steven; Thissen, Helmut; Choudhury, Namita R.; Voelcker, Nicolas H.

    2006-01-01

    Inorganic/organic hybrid or composite materials have in the past shown novel and interesting properties, which are not observed for the individual components. In this context, the preparation of inorganic/polymeric composites from biodegradable and biocompatible constituents is a new concept, which may be of interest particularly for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. We describe here the synthesis of nanostructured porous silicon (pSi) and poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) composites. The composites were produced using tin(II) 2-ethylhexanoate catalysed surface initiated ring opening polymerisation of L-lactide onto silanised porous silicon films and microparticles. The subsequent chemical, physiochemical and morphological characterisation was performed using Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Spectroscopy (DRIFTS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Differential Scanning Calorimetery (DSC), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Contact Angle measurements. DRIFT spectra of the composites showed the presence of bands corresponding to ester carbonyl stretching vibrations as well as hydrocarbon stretching vibrations. XPS analysis confirmed that a layer of PLLA had been grafted onto pSi judging by the low Si content (ca. 3%) and O/C ratio close to that found for PLLA homopolymers. Comparison of the sessile drop contact angle produced by silanised pSi and PLLA grafted onto pSi showed an increase of ca. 40°. This is comparable to the increase in contact angle seen between blank silicon and spin-coated PLLA of ca. 44°. The AFM surface roughness after surface initiated polymerisation increased significantly and AFM images showed the formation of PLLA nanobrushes.

  14. Polymerization of Plant Oils in Carbon Dioxide Medium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lewis acid catalyst, boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF3•OEt2), catalyzed polymerization of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) in liquid carbon dioxide was conducted in an effort to develop useful biodegradable polymers. The ring-opening polymerization was employed at mild conditions, such as at room...

  15. Ruthenium-based olefin metathesis catalysts bearing pH-responsive ligands: External control of catalyst solubility and activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balof, Shawna Lynn

    2011-12-01

    Sixteen novel, Ru-based olefin metathesis catalysts bearing pH responsive ligands were synthesized. The pH-responsive groups employed with these catalysts included dimethylamino (NMe2) modified NHC ligands as well as N-donor dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) and 3-(o-pyridyl)propylidene ligands. These pH-responsive ligands provided the means by which the solubility and/or activity profiles of the catalysts produced could be controlled via acid addition. The main goal of this dissertation was to design catalyst systems capable of performing ring opening metathesis (ROMP) and ring closing metathesis (RCM) reactions in both organic and aqueous media. In an effort to quickly gain access to new catalyst structures, a template synthesis for functionalized NHC ligand precursors was designed, in addition to other strategies, to obtain ligand precursors with ancillary NMe2 groups. Kinetic studies for the catalysts produced from these precursors showed external control of catalyst solubility was afforded via protonation of the NMe2 groups of their NHC ligands. Additionally, this protonation afforded external control of catalyst propagation rates for several catalysts. This is the first known independent external control for the propagation rates of ROMP catalysts. The incorporation of pH-responsive N-donor ligands into catalyst structures also provided the means for the external control of metathesis activity, as the protonation of these ligands resulted in an increased initiation rate based on their fast and irreversible dissociation from the metal center. The enhanced external control makes these catalysts applicable to a wide range of applications, some of which have been explored by us and/or through collaboration. Three of the catalysts designed showed remarkable metathesis activity in aqueous media. These catalysts displayed comparable RCM activity in aqueous media to a class of water-soluble catalysts reported by Grubbs et al., considered to be the most active catalyst for

  16. A broadly applicable and practical oligomeric (salen) Co catalyst for enantioselective epoxide ring-opening reactions

    PubMed Central

    White, David E.; Tadross, Pamela M.; Lu, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    The (salen) Co catalyst (4a) can be prepared as a mixture of cyclic oligomers in a short, chromatography-free synthesis from inexpensive, commercially available precursors. This catalyst displays remarkable enhancements in reactivity and enantioselectivity relative to monomeric and other multimeric (salen) Co catalysts in a wide variety of enantioselective epoxide ring-opening reactions. The application of catalyst 4a is illustrated in the kinetic resolution of terminal epoxides by nucleophilic ring-opening with water, phenols, and primary alcohols; the desymmetrization of meso epoxides by addition of water and carbamates; and the desymmetrization of oxetanes by intramolecular ring opening with alcohols and phenols. The favorable solubility properties of complex 4a under the catalytic conditions facilitated mechanistic studies, allowing elucidation of the basis for the beneficial effect of oligomerization. Finally, a catalyst selection guide is provided to delineate the specific advantages of oligomeric catalyst 4a relative to (salen) Co monomer 1 for each reaction class. PMID:25045188

  17. Synthesis of doped graphene nanoribbons from molecular and polymeric precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloke, Ryan Randal

    As electronic devices continue to shrink and energy problems continue to grow, nanoscale materials are becoming increasingly important. Graphene is a material with exceptional promise to complement silicon in next-generation electronics because of its extraordinary charge carrier mobility, while also finding a role in cutting-edge energy solutions due to its high surface area and conductivity. Improving on this material even further by reducing the width of graphene to nanoscale dimensions with atomically-precise dopant patterns is the subject of this thesis. Nanometer-wide strips of graphene, known as graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), offer the advantages of semiconducting behavior, combined with more accessible surface area compared to bulk graphene (Chapter 1). Additionally, it is demonstrated that GNRs can be doped with atomic precision, allowing for intricate modulation of the electronic properties of this material, which was studied by STM, STS, and nc-AFM (Chapter 2). Controlled growth of GNRs on surfaces is still an outstanding challenge within the field, and to this end, a variety of porphyrin-GNR template materials were synthesized (Chapter 3). The GNRs obtained in this work were also synthesized in solution, and it was shown that these materials possess excellent properties for applications in hydrogen storage, carbon dioxide reduction, and Li-ion batteries (Chapter 4). A prerequisite for solution-synthesized GNRs, conjugated aromatic polymers are an important class of materials in their own right. Therefore, Ring-Opening Alkyne Metathesis Polymerization was developed using conjugated, strained diynes (Chapter 5). The resulting conjugated polymers were explored both for their own materials properties due to a remarkable self-assembly process that was discovered, and also as precursors to GNRs (Chapter 6). This work advances the fundamental understanding of carbon-based nanostructures, as well as the large-scale production of GNRs for next-generation energy

  18. Candle and candle wax containing metathesis and metathesis-like products

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Timothy A; Tupy, Michael J; Abraham, Timothy W; Shafer, Andy

    2014-04-01

    A wax comprises a metathesis product and/or a product that resembles, at least in part, a product which may be formed from a metathesis reaction. The wax may be used to form articles, for example, candles (container candles, votive candles, and/or a pillar candles), crayons, fire logs, or tarts. The wax commonly includes other components in addition to the metathesis product.

  19. Candle and candle wax containing metathesis and metathesis-like products

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Timothy A; Tupy, Michael J; Abraham, Timothy W; Shafer, Andy

    2014-12-16

    A wax comprises a metathesis product and/or a product that resembles, at least in part, a product which may be formed from a metathesis reaction. The wax may be used to form articles for example, candles (container candles, votive candles, and/or a pillar candles), crayons, fire logs or tarts. The wax commonly includes other components in addition to the metathesis product.

  20. Palladium-Catalyzed syn-Stereocontrolled Ring-Opening of Oxabicyclic Alkenes with Sodium Arylsulfinates.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Yang, Wen; Cheng, Guo; Yang, Dingqiao

    2016-06-01

    Palladium-catalyzed syn-stereocontrolled ring-opening reactions of oxabenzonorbornadienes with a wide range of sodium arylsulfinates were investigated, affording the desired products in good to excellent yields under an air atmosphere. This protocol provides a low-cost new viable and convenient method toward the synthesis of cis-2-aryl-1,2-dihydronaphthalen-1-ol with good functional group tolerance. In addition, the cis configuration of 3da was established by X-ray diffraction analysis, and a plausible mechanism for the ring-opening reaction was proposed. PMID:27150019

  1. Tandem Electrocyclic Ring Opening/Radical Cyclization: Application to the Total Synthesis of Cribrostatin 6

    PubMed Central

    Knueppel, Daniel; Martin, Stephen F.

    2011-01-01

    A concise total synthesis ofcribrostatin 6 (1), an antimicrobial and antineoplastic agent,was accomplished using a tandem electrocyclic ring opening/radical cyclization sequence. Specifically, intermediate4 underwent a 4π-electrocyclic ring opening, radical cyclization, and homolytic aromatic substitution sequence followed by an oxidation to afford the natural product1in one pot. Owing to the rapid buildup of complexity in the key step, 1 could be synthesized from commercially available starting materials in only four linear steps. Application of this chemistry to the concise syntheses of analogs of cribrostatin 6 (1) is also reported. PMID:22125344

  2. Iridium/Copper Co-catalyzed Anti-Stereoselective Ring Opening of Oxabenzonorbornadienes with Grignard Reagents.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Guo; Yang, Wen; Li, Yue; Yang, Dingqiao

    2016-09-01

    Cooperative catalysis has been widely considered as one of the most powerful strategies to improve synthetic efficiency. A new iridium/copper cocatalyst was developed for the ring-opening reaction of oxabenzonorbornadienes with a wide variety of Grignard reagents, which afforded the corresponding anti-2-substituted 1,2-dihydronaphthalen-1-ols in high yields (up to 99% yield) under mild conditions. The effects of catalyst loading, Lewis acid, Grignard reagent loading, and reaction temperature on the yield were investigated. To the best of our knowledge, it represents the first example of ring-opening reactions of oxabicyclic alkenes with Grignard reagent nucleophiles in a trans-stereoselective manner. PMID:27455165

  3. Metathesis of alkanes and related reactions.

    PubMed

    Basset, Jean-Marie; Copéret, Christophe; Soulivong, Daravong; Taoufik, Mostafa; Cazat, Jean Thivolle

    2010-02-16

    The transformation of alkanes remains a difficult challenge because of the relative inertness of the C-H and C-C bonds. The rewards for asserting synthetic control over unfunctionalized, saturated hydrocarbons are considerable, however, because converting short alkanes into longer chain analogues is usually a value-adding process. Alkane metathesis is a novel catalytic and direct transformation of two molecules of a given alkane into its lower and higher homologues; moreover, the process proceeds at relatively low temperature (ambient conditions or higher). It was discovered through the use of a silica-supported tantalum hydride, ([triple bond]SiO)(2)TaH, a multifunctional catalyst with a single site of action. This reaction completes the story of the metathesis reactions discovered over the past 40 years: olefin metathesis, alkyne metathesis, and ene-yne cyclizations. In this Account, we examine the fundamental mechanistic aspects of alkane metathesis as well as the novel reactions that have been derived from its study. The silica-supported tantalum hydride catalyst was developed as the result of systematic and meticulous studies of the interaction between oxide supports and organometallic complexes, a field of study denoted surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC). A careful examination of this surface-supported tantalum hydride led to the later discovery of alumina-supported tungsten hydride, W(H)(3)/Al(2)O(3), which proved to be an even better catalyst for alkane metathesis. Supported tantalum and tungsten hydrides are highly unsaturated, electron-deficient species that are very reactive toward the C-H and C-C bonds of alkanes. They show a great versatility in various other reactions, such as cross-metathesis between methane and alkanes, cross-metathesis between toluene and ethane, or even methane nonoxidative coupling. Moreover, tungsten hydride exhibits a specific ability in the transformation of isobutane into 2,3-dimethylbutane as well as in the metathesis

  4. An Introductory Organic Chemistry Review Homework Exercise: Deriving Potential Mechanisms for Glucose Ring Opening in Mutarotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdock, Margaret; Holman, R. W.; Slade, Tyler; Clark, Shelley L. D.; Rodnick, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    A unique homework assignment has been designed as a review exercise to be implemented near the end of the one-year undergraduate organic chemistry sequence. Within the framework of the exercise, students derive potential mechanisms for glucose ring opening in the aqueous mutarotation process. In this endeavor, 21 general review principles are…

  5. Selective Ring Opening of 1-Methylnaphthalene Over NiW-Supported Catalyst Using Dealuminated Beta Zeolite.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Sang; Lee, You-Jin; Kim, Jeong-Rang; Kim, Joo-Wan; Kim, Tae-Wan; Chae, Ho-Jeong; Kim, Chul-Ung; Lee, Chang-Ha; Jeong, Soon-Yong

    2016-02-01

    Nanoporous Beta zeolite was dealuminated by weak acid treatment for reducing the acidity. Bi-functional catalysts were prepared using commercial Beta zeolites and the dealuminated zeolites for acidic function, NiW for metallic function. 1-Methylnaphthalene was selected as a model compound for multi-ring aromatics in heavy oil, and its selective ring opening reaction has been investigated using the prepared bi-functional catalysts with different acidity in fixed bed reaction system. The dealuminated Beta zeolites, which crystal structure and nanoporosity were maintained, showed the higher SiO2/Al2O3 ratio and smaller acidity than their original zeolite. NiW-supported catalyst using the dealuminated Beta zeolite with SiO2/Al203 mole ratio of 55 showed the highest performance for the selective ring opening. The acidity of catalyst seemed to play an important role as active sites for the selective ring opening of 1-methylnaphthalene but there should be some optimum catalyst acidity for the reaction. The acidity of Beta zeolite could be controlled by the acid treatment and the catalyst with the optimum acidity for the selective ring opening could be prepared. PMID:27433655

  6. Sulfuric acid as a catalyst for ring-opening of biobased bis-epoxides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils can be relatively and easily transformed into bio-based epoxides. Because of this, the acid-catalyzed epoxide ring-opening has been explored for the preparation of bio-based lubricants and polymers. Detailed model studies are carried out only with mono-epoxide made from methyl oleate,...

  7. Triarylsulfonium hexafluorophosphate salts as photoactivated acidic catalysts for ring-opening polymerisation.

    PubMed

    Barker, Ian A; Dove, Andrew P

    2013-02-11

    Triarylsulfonium hexafluorophosphate salts were shown to be effective catalysts for the ring-opening polymerisation of various cyclic monomers under UV irradiation. A dual basic/acidic catalytic system demonstrated the potential for UV-triggered formation of poly(δ-valerolactone)-b-poly(L-lactide)-b-poly(δ-valerolactone) in a 'one-pot' reaction. PMID:23283246

  8. Graphene oxide as an acid catalyst for the room temperature ring opening of epoxides.

    PubMed

    Dhakshinamoorthy, Amarajothi; Alvaro, Mercedes; Concepción, Patricia; Fornés, Vicente; Garcia, Hermenegildo

    2012-06-01

    The minute amount of hydrogen sulfate groups introduced into the graphene oxide (GO) obtained by Hummers oxidation of graphite renders this material as a highly efficient, recyclable acid catalyst for the ring opening of epoxides with methanol and other primary alcohols as nucleophile and solvent. PMID:22534622

  9. Relative plasma levels of the cardioprotective drug dexrazoxane and its two active ring-opened metabolites in the rat.

    PubMed

    Hasinoff, B B; Aoyama, R G

    1999-02-01

    A postcolumn derivatization reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography method has been developed to detect and separate the one-ring open intermediates of dexrazoxane (ICRF-187) in blood plasma. Dexrazoxane is clinically used as a doxorubicin cardioprotective agent and may act by preventing iron-based oxygen-free radical damage through the iron-chelating ability of its one-ring open intermediates and its fully rings opened hydrolysis product ADR-925. Little is known of the in vivo metabolism of dexrazoxane to its one-ring open intermediates, which may be two of the active forms of dexrazoxane. The one-ring open intermediates were detected within 5 min of i.v. administration of dexrazoxane to rats, suggesting that dexrazoxane is rapidly metabolized in vivo. The plasma concentrations of the one-ring open intermediates varied from 4 to 9% and 6 to 24% of the dexrazoxane concentrations at 5 and 120 min, respectively. The relatively small changes in the levels of the one-ring open intermediates with time suggest that a dynamic steady state is occurring. The ratio of the concentrations of the two one-ring open intermediates was similar to that previously seen for the in vitro dihydropyrimidine amidohydrolase-catalyzed hydrolysis of dexrazoxane. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that dihydropyrimidine amidohydrolase in the liver and kidney is responsible for the metabolism of dexrazoxane in the rat. PMID:9929514

  10. Structural disorder and transformation in crystal growth: direct observation of ring-opening isomerization in a metal–organic solid solution

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ji-Jun; He, Jian-Rong; Lü, Xing-Qiang; Wang, Da-Wei; Li, Guo-Bi; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2014-01-01

    A rare example is reported in which discrete Ag2 L 2 ring and (AgL)∞ chain motifs [L = N,N′-bis(3-imidazol-1-yl-propyl)-pyromellitic diimide] co-crystallize in the same crystal lattice with varying ratios and degrees of disorder. Crystal structures obtained from representative crystals reveal compatible packing arrangements of the cyclic and polymeric isomers within the crystal lattice, which enables them to co-exist within a crystalline solid solution. A feasible pathway for transformation between the isomers is suggested via facile rotation of the coordinating imidazolyl groups. This chemical system could provide a chance for direct observation of ring-opening isomerization at the crystal surface. Mass spectrometry and 1H NMR titration show a dynamic equilibrium between cyclic and oligomeric species in solution, and a potential crystallization process is suggested involving alignment of precursors directed by aromatic stacking interactions between pyromellitic diimide units, followed by ring-opening isomerization at the interface between the solid and the solution. Both cyclic and oligomeric species can act as precursors, with interconversion between them being facile due to a low energy barrier for rotation of the imidazole rings. Thermogravimetric analysis and variable-temperature powder X-ray diffraction indicate a transition to a different crystalline phase around 120°C, which is associated with loss of solvent from the crystal lattice. PMID:25295173

  11. Alkene Metathesis and Renewable Materials: Selective Transformations of Plant Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malacea, Raluca; Dixneuf, Pierre H.

    The olefin metathesis of natural oils and fats and their derivatives is the basis of clean catalytic reactions relevant to green chemistry processes and the production of generate useful chemicals from renewable raw materials. Three variants of alkene metathesis: self-metathesis, ethenolysis and cross-metathesis applied to plant oil derivatives will show new routes to fine chemicals, bifunctional products, polymer precursours and industry intermediates.

  12. Highly Selective Ruthenium Metathesis Catalysts for Ethenolysis

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Renee M.; Keitz, Benjamin K.; Champagne, Timothy M.; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    N-aryl, N-alkyl N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ruthenium metathesis catalysts are highly selective toward the ethenolysis of methyl oleate, giving selectivity as high as 95% for the kinetic, ethenolysis products over the thermodynamic, self-metathesis products. The examples described herein represent some of the most selective NHC-based ruthenium catalysts for ethenolysis reactions to date. Furthermore, many of these catalysts show unusual preference and stability toward propagating as a methylidene species, and provide good yields and turnover numbers (TONs) at relatively low catalyst loading (<500 ppm). A catalyst comparison showed that ruthenium complexes bearing sterically hindered NHC substituents afforded greater selectivity and stability, and exhibited longer catalyst lifetime during reactions. Comparative analysis of the catalyst preference for kinetic versus thermodynamic product formation was achieved via evaluation of their steady-state conversion in the cross-metathesis reaction of terminal olefins. These results coincided with the observed ethenolysis selectivities, in which the more selective catalysts reach a steady-state characterized by lower conversion to cross-metathesis products compared to less selective catalysts, which show higher conversion to cross-metathesis products. PMID:21510645

  13. Ring-opening hydrogenation reactions of monoalkyl-substituted cyclobutanes over Ni/SiO{sub 2} catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Toeroek, B.; Bartok, M.

    1995-02-01

    The hydrogenative ring-opening reactions of methyl- and propylcyclobutane were studied over Ni/SiO{sub 2} catalyst in wide temperature and hydrogen pressure ranges. Firstly, the temperature dependence of ring opening was determined and maximum curves were observed for both reactants. On the basis of the temperature dependence curves, various temperatures were selected for hydrogen pressure studies. At both 523 and 573 K, only hydrogenative ring opening occurred, and the ring opened mostly in the sterically less hindered direction in the case of methylcyclobutane over clean as well as working catalysts. However, for propylcyclobutane the selectivity was close to statistical or opposite to that for methylcyclobutane, especially at lower hydrogen pressures over the initial catalyst. At the lowest temperature at which ring opening occurred at all, exclusive heptane formation (ring opening in the more hindered direction) was observed. The hydrogen pressure dependence curves over the initial and working catalysts were used to draw mechanistic inferences concerning the ring-opening reactions. 25 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Solid-supported cross-metathesis and a formal alkane metathesis for the generation of biologically relevant molecules.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Luciana; Mata, Ernesto G

    2015-02-01

    Solid-phase synthetic strategies toward the generation of libraries of biologically relevant molecules were developed using olefin cross-metathesis as a key step. It is remarkably the formal alkane metathesis based on a one-pot, microwave-assisted, ruthenium-catalyzed cross-metathesis and reduction to obtain Csp3-Csp3 linkages. PMID:25569690

  15. Controlled Ring-Opening of Siloxydifluorocyclopropanes for Carbocyclization: Synthesis of Difluorocyclopentenones.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaoning; Tian, Shuangquan; Zhao, Ziming; Zhu, Dongsheng; Wang, Mang

    2016-07-15

    A highly controlled ring opening of siloxydifluorocyclopropanes, formed by nBuN4Br-catalyzed difluorocyclopropanation of methyl vinyl ketones bearing a β-alkylthio group by using TMSCF2Br as a unique difluorocarbene source, results in metal difluorohomoenolates with assistance of copper or silver followed by an intramolecular addition and elimination reaction leading to α-gem-difluorocyclopentenones efficiently. PMID:27367036

  16. Mechanism of tetralin ring opening and contraction over bifunctional Ir/SiO₂-Al₂O₃ Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, Laurent; Nassreddine, Salim; Toussaint, Guy; Geantet, Christophe

    2012-09-01

    The development of cleaner fuels from conventional resources requires the finding of new hydrotreatment processes able to improve the combustion performances of fuels and limit undesirable emissions. In the context of gas oil upgrading by selective ring opening, we have investigated the hydroconversion of tetralin over iridium nanoparticles supported on amorphous silica-alumina. The conversion of tetralin leads to hydrogenation, ring-contraction, and ring-opening products. The selectivity to ring-opening/-contraction products (ROCPs) increases linearly with the acid-metal site ratio and can be tuned by modifying the metal loading, the metal nanoparticle size, or the support composition. From the combination of catalytic tests at variable conversion and the products identification by two-dimensional gas chromatography, a mechanistic reaction scheme has been established. Aromatic ROCPs are formed through purely acidic steps, whereas the formation of saturated ROCPs mostly involves bifunctional reaction steps. Iridium-catalyzed hydrogenolysis appears to be a minor pathway with respect to iridium-catalyzed hydrogenation and Brønsted acid catalyzed isomerization. PMID:22949005

  17. Mass Spectral Profile for Rapid Differentiating Beta-Lactams from Their Ring-Opened Impurities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hecheng; Huang, Haiwei; Cao, Jin; Chui, Dehua; Xiao, Shengyuan

    2015-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC MS) has been widely used for β-lactam antibiotics determination. However, its application to identify impurities of these frequently used drugs is not sufficient at present. In this job, characteristic profiles of the collision induced dissociation (CID) spectra of both β-lactams and ring-opened β-lactams were extracted from the MS data of six β-lactam antibiotics and their forty-five impurities, and were confirmed by the MS data reported in the literature. These characteristics have been successfully applied to rapid differentiation of β-lactam and ring-opened β-lactam impurities in cefixime, cefdinir, and cefaclor. However, these characteristic profiles can only be obtained under low activating voltage. They did not display in the high energy activated CID spectra. Diagnostic fragmentations for determining the localization of double bond and substituents on the thiazine ring and the side chain were also observed. In addition, several characteristic fragmentations are hopeful to be used to differentiate the configurations of C-2 on the thiazine ring of ring-opened impurities, which is generally disadvantageous of mass spectrometry. Taken together, forty-five impurities were identified from the capsules of cefixime, cefdinir, and cefaclor. PMID:26090434

  18. Ab initio Study of Ultrafast Photochemical Ring-Opening Reaction of 1,3-Cyclohexadiene

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Takao; Murakami, Akinori; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Shiga, Motoyuki

    2007-12-26

    The mechanism of ultrafast photochemical ring-opening reaction of 1,3-cyclohexadiene (CHD), which has been inferred based on CASPT2//CASSCF(6,6) calculations of potential energy surfaces (PESs) by Garavelli et al. (J. Phys. Chem. A, 105, 4458-4469 (2001)), has not been fully understood. The unsolved problem is that within the framework of the CASPT2//CASSCF(6,6) method the S{sub 1}/S{sub 0} conical intersection (CI) is located too far from a pericyclic minimum of the S{sub 1} state (S{sub 1} pmin) for the photochemical ring-opening reaction of CHD to proceed to produce cZc-1,3,5-hexatriene (cZc-HT) on a ultrafast time scale of around 200 fs. In this study, it has been shown that the PESs obtained by the CASPT2//CASPT2 calculations give a reasonable explanation to why the photochemical ring-opening reation of CHD proceeds on the ultrafast time scale. The most important and remarkable feature of the CASPT2//CASPT2 PESs is that both energetic and structural distances between the S{sub 1} pmin and the S{sub 1}/S{sub 0} CI, both of which have structures largely breaking from C{sub 2} symmetry, are small enough for a nonadiabatic transition to occur in the vicinity of the S{sub 1} pmin.

  19. Organo-Lewis acid as cocatalyst for cationic homogeneous metallocene Ziegler-Natta olefin polymerizations

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, T.J.; Chen, Y.X.

    2000-07-11

    The synthesis of the organo-Lewis acid perfluorobiphenylborane (PBB) and the activation of metallocenes are disclosed for the formation of a variety of highly active homogeneous Ziegler-Natta metallocene olefin polymerization, copolymerization and ring-opening polymerization catalysts is described.

  20. Recent Applications of Alkene Metathesis in Fine Chemical Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicchielli, Dario; Borguet, Yannick; Delaude, Lionel; Demonceau, Albert; Dragutan, Ileana; Dragutan, Valerian; Jossifov, Christo; Kalinova, Radostina; Nicks, François; Sauvage, Xavier

    During the last decade or so, the emergence of the metathesis reaction in organic synthesis has revolutionised the strategies used for the construction of complex molecular structures. Olefin metathesis is indeed particularly suited for the construction of small open-chain molecules and macrocycles using crossmetathesis and ring-closing metathesis, respectively. These reactions serve, inter alia, as key steps in the synthesis of various agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals such as macrocyclic peptides, cyclic sulfonamides, novel macrolides, or insect pheromones. The present chapter is aiming at illustrating the great synthetic potential of metathesis reactions. Shortcomings, such as the control of olefin geometry and the unpredictable effect of substituents on the reacting olefins, will also be addressed. Examples to be presented include epothilones, amphidinolides, spirofungin A, and archazolid. Synthetic approaches involving silicon-tethered ring-closing metathesis, relay ring-closing metathesis, sequential reactions, domino as well as tandem metathesis reactions will also be illustrated.

  1. Group 1 and group 2 metal complexes supported by a bidentate bulky iminopyrrolyl ligand: synthesis, structural diversity, and ε-caprolactone polymerization study.

    PubMed

    Kottalanka, Ravi K; Harinath, A; Rej, Supriya; Panda, Tarun K

    2015-12-14

    We report here a series of alkali and alkaline earth metal complexes, each with a bulky iminopyrrolyl ligand [2-(Ph3CN=CH)C4H3NH] (1-H) moiety in their coordination sphere, synthesized using either alkane elimination or silylamine elimination methods or the salt metathesis route. The lithium salt of molecular composition [Li(2-(Ph3CN=CH)C4H3N)(THF)2] (2) was prepared using the alkane elimination method, and the silylamine elimination method was used to synthesize the dimeric sodium and tetra-nuclear potassium salts of composition [(2-(Ph3CN=CH)C4H3N)Na(THF)]2 (3) and [(2-(Ph3CN=CH)C4H3N)K(THF)0.5]4 (4) respectively. The magnesium complex of composition [(THF)2Mg(CH2Ph){2-(Ph3CN=CH)C4H3N}] (5) was synthesized through the alkane elimination method, in which [Mg(CH2Ph)2(OEt2)2] was treated with the bulky iminopyrrole ligand 1-H in 1 : 1 molar ratio, whereas the bis(iminopyrrolyl)magnesium complex [(THF)2Mg{2-(Ph3CN=CH)C4H3N}2] (6) was isolated using the salt metathesis route. The heavier alkaline earth metal complexes of the general formula {(THF)nM(2-(Ph3CN=CH)C4H3N)2} [M = Ca (7), Sr (8), and n = 2; M = Ba (9), n = 3] were prepared in pure form using two synthetic methods: in the first method, the bulky iminopyrrole ligand 1-H was directly treated with the alkaline earth metal precursor [M{N(SiMe3)2}2(THF)n] (where M = Ca, Sr and Ba) in 2 : 1 molar ratio in THF solvent at ambient temperature. The complexes 7-9 were also obtained using the salt metathesis reaction, which involves the treatment of the potassium salt (4) with the corresponding metal diiodides MI2 (M = Ca, Sr and Ba) in 2 : 1 molar ratio in THF solvent. The molecular structures of all the metal complexes (1-H, 2-9) in the solid state were established through single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The complexes 5-9 were tested as catalysts for the ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone. High activity was observed in the heavier alkaline earth metal complexes 7-9, with a very

  2. Polymerization of euphorbia oil in carbon dioxide media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF3•OEt2), Lewis acid, catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of euphorbia oil (EO), a natural epoxy oil, was conducted in carbon dioxide. The resulting polymers (RPEO) were characterized by FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, solid state 13C-NMR spectroscopies, differential sc...

  3. One-Pot Photochemical Ring-Opening/Cleavage Approach for the Synthesis and Decoding of Cyclic Peptide Libraries.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xinxia; Vézina-Dawod, Simon; Bédard, François; Porte, Karine; Biron, Eric

    2016-03-01

    A novel dual ring-opening/cleavage strategy to determine the sequence of cyclic peptides from one bead, one compound libraries is described. The approach uses a photolabile residue within the macrocycle and as a linker to allow a simultaneous ring opening and cleavage from the beads upon UV irradiation and provide linearized molecules. Cyclic peptides of five to nine residues were synthesized and the generated linear peptides successfully sequenced by tandem mass spectrometry. PMID:26914725

  4. Fabrication of surface confined biomolecular, polymeric, and metallic nanostructures using scanning probe and electron beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Woo Kyung

    conformation on pattern foot-print size is described. The fabrication of pCOT brushes on SiO2 nanopatterns by anodization lithography with surface-initiated ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) is described. It is shown that a step-and-repeat process of anodization lithography and ROMP allows the nanopatterned synthesis of two different polymer brushes, pCOT and pENB. Nanopatterned brushes were characterized by electric force microscopy (EFM). Moreover, surface-initiated ROMP on nanopatterns also was achieved by a vapor phase polymerization scheme. Finally, the fabrication of surface-confined gold nanostructures is described. In this approach, small gold clusters (seeds) were deposited directly into SiO2 nanostructures, patterned by electric field-induced scanning probe lithography (E-FISPL). These seeds were subsequently developed in-situ, using a solution of HAuCl4 and reducing agents. The effect of important process variables, such as bias voltage, development time, and reducing agent concentration on Au nanostructure formation are shown.

  5. (Iminophosphoranyl)(thiophosphoranyl)methane rare-earth borohydride complexes: synthesis, structures and polymerization catalysis.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Matthias; Oña-Burgos, Pascual; Guillaume, Sophie M; Roesky, Peter W

    2015-07-21

    The (iminophosphoranyl)(thiophosphoranyl)methanide {CH(PPh2=NSiMe3)(PPh2=S)}(-) ligand has been used for the synthesis of divalent and trivalent rare-earth borohydride complexes. The salt metathesis of the potassium reagent [K{CH(PPh2=NSiMe3)(PPh2=S)}]2 with [Yb(BH4)2(THF)2] resulted in the divalent monoborohydride ytterbium complex [{CH(PPh2=NSiMe3)(PPh2=S)}Yb(BH4)(THF)2]. The 2D (31)P/(171)Yb HMQC-NMR spectrum clearly showed the coupling between both nuclei. The trivalent bisborohydrides [{CH(PPh2=NSiMe3)(PPh2=S)}Ln(BH4)2(THF)] (Ln = Y, Sm, Tb, Dy, Er, Yb and Lu) were obtained by reaction of [K{CH(PPh2=NSiMe3)(PPh2=S)}]2 with [Ln(BH4)3(THF)3]. All new compounds were characterized by single X-ray diffraction. The divalent and trivalent compounds were next used as initiators in the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of ε-caprolactone (CL) and trimethylene carbonate (TMC). All complexes afforded a generally well-controlled ROP of both of these cyclic esters. High molar mass poly(ε-caprolactone) diols (Mn,NMR < 101,300 g mol(-1), ĐM = 1.44), and α,ω-dihydroxy and α-hydroxy,ω-formate telechelic poly(trimethylene carbonate)s (Mn,NMR < 20,000 g mol(-1), ĐM = 1.61) were thus synthesized under mild operating conditions. PMID:25683468

  6. Tandem Catalysis Utilizing Olefin Metathesis Reactions.

    PubMed

    Zieliński, Grzegorz K; Grela, Karol

    2016-07-01

    Since olefin metathesis transformation has become a favored synthetic tool in organic synthesis, more and more distinct non-metathetical reactions of alkylidene ruthenium complexes have been developed. Depending on the conditions applied, the same olefin metathesis catalysts can efficiently promote isomerization reactions, hydrogenation of C=C double bonds, oxidation reactions, and many others. Importantly, these transformations can be carried out in tandem with olefin metathesis reactions. Through addition of one portion of a catalyst, a tandem process provides structurally advanced products from relatively simple substrates without the need for isolation of the intermediates. These aspects not only make tandem catalysis very attractive from a practical point of view, but also open new avenues in (retro)synthetic planning. However, in the literature, the term "tandem process" is sometimes used improperly to describe other types of multi-reaction sequences. In this Concept, a number of examples of tandem catalysis involving olefin metathesis are discussed with an emphasis on their synthetic value. PMID:27203528

  7. Catalytic Asymmetric Ring-Opening Reactions of Aziridines with 3-Aryl-Oxindoles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linqing; Li, Dan; Yang, Dongxu; Wang, Kezhou; Wang, Jie; Wang, Pengxin; Su, Wu; Wang, Rui

    2016-03-01

    A highly enantioselective ring-opening alkylation reaction between 3-aryl-oxindole and N-(2-picolinoyl) aziridine has been realized for the first time. The reaction is efficiently mediated by a simple in-situ-generated magnesium catalyst and 3,3'-fluorinated-BINOL (BINOL=1,1'-binaphthalene-2,2'-diol) has been identified as a powerful chiral ligand. Notably, the fluorine atom on the chiral ligand plays a key role in providing the desired chiral 3-alkyl-3-aryl oxindoles with excellent enantioselectivities. PMID:26763482

  8. Nucleophilic ring opening of bridging thietane ligands in trirhenium carbonyl cluster complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.D.; Cortopassi, J.E.; Falloon, S.B.

    1992-11-01

    The reactions of 3,3-dimethylthietane, SCH{sub 2}CMe{sub 2}CH{sub 2} (3,3-DMT), and thietane, SCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}, with Re{sub 3}(CO){sub 10}[{mu}-SCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}]({mu}-H){sub 3}, 2b. Compound 2a was characterized crystallographically and was found to consist of a trirhenium cluster with three bridging hydride ligands and a bridging thietane ligand coordinated through its sulfur atom. 2a and 2b react with halide ions by ring-opening additions to the 3,3-DMT ligand to yield the complex anions [Re{sub 3}(CO){sub 10}({mu}-SCH{sub 2}CMe{sub 2}CH{sub 2}x)({mu}-h){sub 3}]{sup -} 3A-6A, X = F (71%), Cl(71%), Br(84%), I(87%) and [Re{sub 3}(CO){sub 10}({mu}-SCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}Cl)({mu}-H){sub 3}]{sup -}, 4b (67%). Similarly, addition of NMe{sub 3} to 2a and 2b yielded the ring-opened zwitterions Re{sub 3}(CO){sub 10}({mu}-SCH{sub 2}CMe{sub 2}CH{sub 2}NMe{sub 3})({mu}-H){sub 3}, 7 a crystographically. They are zwitterions positively charged at the nitrogen atoms and negatively charged on the trirhenium clusters. Complex 7b was also obtained in a 48% yield from the reaction of Re{sub 3}(C){sub 12}({mu}-H){sub 3} with Me{sub 3}NO in the presence of thietane, but the corresponding reaction using 3,3-DMT yielded only 2a and Re{sub 3}(CO){sub 11}(SCH{sub 2}CMe{sub 2}CH{sub 2})({mu}-H){sub 3}, 8. Attempts to obtain a ring-opening addition to 2a by reaction with PMe{sub 2}Ph yielded only Re{sub 3}(CO){sub 10}(PMe{sub 2}PH){sub 2}({mu}-H){sub 3} by ligand substitution. Attempts to obtain ring opening addition to 8 by reaction with I{sup -} yielded only [Re{sub 3}(CO){sub 11}I({mu}-H){sub 3}]{sup -} by ligand substitution. 20 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  9. I. Diamino telechelic polybutadienes: Synthesis, characterization and melt coupling. II. Poly(epsilon-caprolactone-beta-poly(ethylene glycol) polymeric nanoparticles for drug delivery. III. Zirconia based cellulosic HPLC chiral stationary phase for enantioseparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Shengxiang

    This thesis is comprised of three parts under the theme of functional specialty polymers. The first project involves the synthesis, characterization, and melt coupling of diamino telechelic polybutadienes. The second part describes the preparation of PCL-PEG polymeric nanoparticles for drug delivery. The third project focuses on the preparation of cellulosic HPLC chiral stationary phases for enantioseparations. Styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) block copolymers (BCPs) are difficult to process due to high order-disorder transition temperature and high viscosity. An attractive strategy for approaching this problem is the use of reactive coupling between diamino telechelic PB (TPB) and anhydride-terminated polystyrene (PS-anh) to generate SBS BCPs during melt processing. Diamino TPBs were synthesized by ring-opening metathesis polymerization of 1,5-cyclooctadiene using 1,8-dicyano-4-octene as a chain transfer agent, followed by lithium aluminum hydride reduction. A 19F NMR method was developed to quantify the primary amine functionality for TPBs. Melt coupling of diamino TPB and PS-anh at 180 °C resulted in formation of SBS triblock copolymers, which was confirmed by SAXS. Maleimide terminated poly(epsilon-caprolactone)- b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PCL-PEG-MAL) nanoparticles are of special interest in biomedical applications. However, the synthesis of PCL-PEG-MAL with high maleimide functionality is difficult. Carboxylic acid functionalized poly(epsilon-caprolactone)s (PCL-COOHs) with narrow polydispersity were prepared by ring-opening polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone. Three PCL-PEG-OHs were, synthesized by coupling of excess HO-PEG-OH with different molecular weight PCL-COCls, The hydroxyl end-groups were transferred to maleimide groups to give PCL-PEG-MALs. Nanoparticles with maleimide functionality were prepared by impingement mixing. Particle sizes and size distributions were determined by dynamic light scattering. The amount of accessible maleimide on the

  10. Methods of making organic compounds by metathesis

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, Timothy W.; Kaido, Hiroki; Lee, Choon Woo; Pederson, Richard L.; Schrodi, Yann; Tupy, Michael John

    2015-09-01

    Described are methods of making organic compounds by metathesis chemistry. The methods of the invention are particularly useful for making industrially-important organic compounds beginning with starting compositions derived from renewable feedstocks, such as natural oils. The methods make use of a cross-metathesis step with an olefin compound to produce functionalized alkene intermediates having a pre-determined double bond position. Once isolated, the functionalized alkene intermediate can be self-metathesized or cross-metathesized (e.g., with a second functionalized alkene) to produce the desired organic compound or a precursor thereto. The method may be used to make bifunctional organic compounds, such as diacids, diesters, dicarboxylate salts, acid/esters, acid/amines, acid/alcohols, acid/aldehydes, acid/ketones, acid/halides, acid/nitriles, ester/amines, ester/alcohols, ester/aldehydes, ester/ketones, ester/halides, ester/nitriles, and the like.

  11. Kinetically Trapped Tetrahedral Cages via Alkyne Metathesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Semin; Yang, Anna; Moneypenny, Timothy P; Moore, Jeffrey S

    2016-02-24

    In dynamic covalent synthesis, kinetic traps are perceived as disadvantageous, hindering the system from reaching its thermodynamic equilibrium. Here we present the near-quantitative preparation of tetrahedral cages from simple tritopic precursors using alkyne metathesis. While the cages are the presumed thermodynamic sink, we experimentally demonstrate that the products no longer exchange their vertices once they have formed. The example reported here illustrates that kinetically trapped products may facilitate high yields of complex products from dynamic covalent synthesis. PMID:26854552

  12. Latent and delayed action polymerization systems.

    PubMed

    Naumann, Stefan; Buchmeiser, Michael R

    2014-04-01

    Various approaches to latent polymerization processes are described. In order to highlight recent advances in this field, the discussion is subdivided into chapters dedicated to diverse classes of polymers, namely polyurethanes, polyamides, polyesters, polyacrylates, epoxy resins, and metathesis-derived polymers. The described latent initiating systems encompass metal-containing as well as purely organic compounds that are activated by external triggers such as light, heat, or mechanical force. Special emphasis is put on the different chemical venues that can be taken to achieve true latency, which include masked N-heterocyclic carbenes, latent metathesis catalysts, and photolatent radical initiators, among others. Scientific challenges and the advantageous application of latent polymerization processes are discussed. PMID:24519912

  13. Catalytic behaviour in the ring-opening polymerisation of organoaluminiums supported by bulky heteroscorpionate ligands.

    PubMed

    Castro-Osma, Jose A; Alonso-Moreno, Carlos; Lara-Sánchez, Agustín; Otero, Antonio; Fernández-Baeza, Juan; Sánchez-Barba, Luis F; Rodríguez, Ana M

    2015-07-21

    A series of alkyl organoaluminium complexes based on bulky heteroscorpionate ligands were designed as catalysts for the ring-opening polymerisation of cyclic esters. Thus, the treatment of AlX3 (X = Me, Et) with bulky acetamide or thioacetamide heteroscorpionate ligands nbptamH (1) [nbptamH = N-naphthyl-2,2-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)thioacetamide], fbpamH (2) [fbpamH = N-fluorenyl-2,2-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)acetamide], ptbptamH (3) [ptbptamH = N-phenyl-2,2-bis(3,5-di-tert-butylpyrazol-1-yl)thioacetamide], ntbptamH (4) [ntbptamH = N-naphthyl-2,2-bis(3,5-di-tert-butylpyrazol-1-yl)thioacetamide], ptbpamH (5) [ptbpamH = N-phenyl-2,2-bis(3,5-di-tert-butylpyrazol-1-yl)acetamide] and (S)-mtbpamH (6) [(S)-mtbpamH = (S)-(−)-N-α-methylbenzyl-2,2-bis(3,5-di-tert-butylpyrazol-1-yl)acetamide] for 1 hour at 0 °C afforded the dialkyl aluminium complexes [AlX2{κ(2)-nbptam}] (X = Me 7, Et 8), [AlX2{κ(2)-fbpam}] (X = Me 9, Et 10), [AlX2{κ(2)-ptbptam}] (X = Me 11, Et 12), [AlX2{κ(2)-ntbptam}] (X = Me 13, Et 14), [AlX2{κ2(-)ptbpam}] (X = Me 15, Et 16) and [AlX2{κ(2)-(S)-mtbpam}] (X = Me 17, Et 18). The structures of the complexes were determined by spectroscopic methods and the X-ray crystal structure of 14 was also established. The alkyl-containing aluminium complexes 7–18 can act as efficient single-component initiators for the ring-opening polymerisation of ε-caprolactone and rac-lactide. The polymerisations are living, as evidenced by the narrow polydispersities of the isolated polymers and the linear nature of the number average molecular weight versus conversion plot. Finally, a comparative study of ring-opening polymerisation for new bulky heteroscorpionate aluminium initiators and the less congested aluminium analogues is reported. PMID:25534594

  14. Conrotatory photochemical ring opening of alkylcyclobutenes in solution. A test of the hot ground-state mechanism.

    PubMed

    Cook, B H; Leigh, W J; Walsh, R

    2001-06-01

    Quantum yields for photochemical ring opening of six alkylcyclobutenes have been measured in hexane solution using 228-nm excitation, which selectively populates the lowest pi,R(3s) excited singlet states of these molecules and has been shown previously to lead to ring opening with clean conrotatory stereochemistry. The compounds studied in this work-1,2-dimethylcyclobutene (1), cis- and trans-1,2,3,4-tetramethylcyclobutene (cis- and trans-5), hexamethylcyclobutene (8), and cis- and trans-tricyclo[6.4.0.0(2,7)]dodec-1(2)-ene (cis- and trans-9)-were selected so as to span a broad range in molecular weight and as broad a range as possible in Arrhenius parameters for thermal (ground-state) ring opening. RRKM calculations have been carried out to provide estimates of the rate constants for ground-state ring opening of each of the compounds over a range of thermal energies from 20 000 to 49 000 cm(-1). These have been used to estimate upper limits for the quantum yields of ring opening via a hot ground-state mechanism, assuming a value of k(deact) = 10(11) s(-1) for the rate constant for collisional deactivation by the solvent, that internal conversion to the ground state from the lowest Rydberg state occurs with close to unit efficiency, and that ergodic behavior is followed. The calculated quantum yields are significantly lower than the experimental values in all cases but one (1). This suggests that the Rydberg-derived ring opening of alkylcyclobutenes is a true excited-state process and rules out the hot ground-state mechanism for the reaction. PMID:11457380

  15. A femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopic study on the oxazine ring opening dynamics of structurally-modified indolobenzoxazines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redeckas, Kipras; Toliautas, Stepas; Steponavičiūtė, Rasa; Šačkus, Algirdas; Sulskus, Juozas; Vengris, Mikas

    2016-06-01

    Steady-state and time-resolved femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering spectroscopic methods were applied to elucidate the photodynamics and the oxazine ring opening contingency in phenyl-substituted indolobenzoxazine systems. Using wavelength- and pulse duration-tunable multi-pulse techniques, we have measured the (static) stimulated Raman spectra of the chemically ring-opened indolobenzoxazines, and the (dynamic) femto-to-nanosecond time- and wavenumber-resolved spectra of their photo-generated species. The two experimental realizations show a notable vibronic disparity, thereby indicating the structural difference between the chemically bond-cleaved and the UV excitation produced species.

  16. Profluorescent substrates for the screening of olefin metathesis catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Reuter, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    Summary Herein we report on a 96-well plate assay based on the fluorescence resulting from the ring-closing metathesis of two profluorophoric substrates. To demonstrate the validity of the approach, four commercially available ruthenium-metathesis catalysts were evaluated in six different solvents. The results from the fluorescent assay agree well with HPLC conversions, validating the usefulness of the approach. PMID:26664607

  17. D-ring-opened phragmalin-type limonoid orthoesters from the twigs of Swietenia macrophylla.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bing-Dong; Zhang, Chuan-Rui; Yang, Sheng-Ping; Zhang, Sheng; Wu, Yan; Yue, Jian-Min

    2009-07-01

    Sixteen new D-ring-opened phragmalin limonoid orthoesters, swietenitins A-M (1-6, 8, 10, 12-16), 2-acetoxyswietenialide D (7), 2,11-diacetoxyswietenialide D (9), and 11-deoxyswietenialide D (11), and four known compounds were isolated from the twigs of Swietenia macrophylla. The structures of 1-16 were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods, and 1 and 2 were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The (1)H NMR-based conformational analysis on the epimeric compounds 1 and 2 provided a general approach to determine the absolute configuration of the 2,3-epoxy-2-methylbutyryloxy unit at C-3 borne by a large group of the known phragmalin-type limonoid orthoesters. PMID:19552385

  18. TDDFT-MD Study on Dynamics in Photoinduced Ring Opening of Benzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki; Oyama, Norihisa; Ohno, Takahisa

    2004-03-01

    Coupled dynamics of ions and electrons in the excited states of molecular and solid benzene is investigated on the femtosecond scale by the efficient simulation scheme recently developed for the time-dependent density functional theory. Within the π arrow π excitations, any out-of-plane motion of ions is not induced in the molecular system basically. In the solid, however, we found that large swing of the C-H bonds and subsequent twist of the carbon ring takes place, leading to sp^3-like bonding of carbon ions. This swing-to-twist motion presents a plausible mechanism underlying the photoinduced ring opening in solid benzene experimentally observed under pressure. This research is partially supported by ACT-JST, and also by FSIS and Special Coordination Funds of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japanese Government.

  19. Reactivity and synthesis inspired by the Zincke ring-opening of pyridines.

    PubMed

    Vanderwal, Christopher D

    2011-12-01

    The century-old Zincke process for ring-opening of pyridinium salts produces 5-amino-2,4-pentadienals, a type of donor-acceptor dienes known as Zincke aldehydes. Inspired by this reasonably general and often efficient process for dearomatization, my laboratory has used pyridines as a starting point for heterocycle synthesis, which resulted in unusual syntheses of indoles, pyrrolines, and a formal synthesis of the natural product porothramycin A. Furthermore, our study of the reactivity of Zincke aldehydes has led to accidental discoveries of pericyclic cascade reactions that produce Z-α,β-unsaturated amides or polycyclic lactams, depending upon the identity of the substituents on nitrogen. Finally, a base-mediated formal cycloaddition reaction of tryptamine-derived Zincke aldehydes has served as the key step in concise syntheses of the indole alkaloids norfluorocurarine and strychnine. PMID:21877712

  20. Creation of localized spins in graphene by ring-opening of epoxy derived hydroxyl

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Zhang, Weili; Sun, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Yongping; Tang, Nujiang; Du, Youwei

    2016-01-01

    Creation of high-density localized spins in the basal plane of graphene sheet by introduction of sp3-type defects is considered to be a potential route for the realization of high-magnetization graphene. Theoretical and experimental studies confirmed that hydroxyl can be an effective sp3-type candidate for inducing robust magnetic moment. However, the artificial generation of hydroxyl groups for creating high-density spins on the basal plane of graphene sheet is very scarce. Here we demonstrate that high-content hydroxyl groups can be generated on the basal plane of graphene oxide (GO) sheet by ring opening of epoxy groups. We show that by introduction of 10.74 at.% hydroxyl groups, the density of localized spins of GO can be significantly increased from 0.4 to 5.17 μB/1000 C. Thus, this study provided an effective method to obtain graphene with high-density localized spins. PMID:27225991

  1. Creation of localized spins in graphene by ring-opening of epoxy derived hydroxyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jie; Zhang, Weili; Sun, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Yongping; Tang, Nujiang; Du, Youwei

    2016-05-01

    Creation of high-density localized spins in the basal plane of graphene sheet by introduction of sp3-type defects is considered to be a potential route for the realization of high-magnetization graphene. Theoretical and experimental studies confirmed that hydroxyl can be an effective sp3-type candidate for inducing robust magnetic moment. However, the artificial generation of hydroxyl groups for creating high-density spins on the basal plane of graphene sheet is very scarce. Here we demonstrate that high-content hydroxyl groups can be generated on the basal plane of graphene oxide (GO) sheet by ring opening of epoxy groups. We show that by introduction of 10.74 at.% hydroxyl groups, the density of localized spins of GO can be significantly increased from 0.4 to 5.17 μB/1000 C. Thus, this study provided an effective method to obtain graphene with high-density localized spins.

  2. Creation of localized spins in graphene by ring-opening of epoxy derived hydroxyl.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Zhang, Weili; Sun, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Yongping; Tang, Nujiang; Du, Youwei

    2016-01-01

    Creation of high-density localized spins in the basal plane of graphene sheet by introduction of sp(3)-type defects is considered to be a potential route for the realization of high-magnetization graphene. Theoretical and experimental studies confirmed that hydroxyl can be an effective sp(3)-type candidate for inducing robust magnetic moment. However, the artificial generation of hydroxyl groups for creating high-density spins on the basal plane of graphene sheet is very scarce. Here we demonstrate that high-content hydroxyl groups can be generated on the basal plane of graphene oxide (GO) sheet by ring opening of epoxy groups. We show that by introduction of 10.74 at.% hydroxyl groups, the density of localized spins of GO can be significantly increased from 0.4 to 5.17 μB/1000 C. Thus, this study provided an effective method to obtain graphene with high-density localized spins. PMID:27225991

  3. Prediction of enhanced solvent-induced enantioselectivity for a ring opening with a bifurcating reaction path

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Carpenter, Barry K.; Harvey, Jeremy N.; Glowacki, David R.

    2014-12-11

    Classical molecular dynamics simulations are reported for the deazetisation and ring opening of meso-2,3-difluoro-2,3-dimethyldiazocyclopropane in three solvents: CHCl3, CHFClBr and CH3CH(OH)CF3 (TFIPA). In this study, the achiral reactant leads to enantiomeric allene products, and the question addressed in the study is whether either of the chiral, enantiomerically pure solvents can induce significant enantiomeric excess in the products. The direct dynamics calculations use an empirical valence bond potential for the solute, with empirical parameters optimised against M06-2X/cc-pVTZ density functional results. The results reveal that the exothermic N2 loss and ring opening promote transient strong solvent–solute interactions within the first ~100 fsmore » of the reaction. Because of the bifurcating reaction path, these interactions occur at time when the “decision” about which enantiomer of the product to form has yet to be made (at least for many of the trajectories). Hence, it is possible in principle that the solvent could exert a larger-than-normal influence on the course of the reaction. In fact, the results reveal no such effect for CHFClBr but do predict that TFIPA should induce 15.2 ± 2.1% enantiomeric excess. This is roughly an order of magnitude larger than solvent-induced enantiomeric excesses found experimentally in reactions where the conversion of reactant(s) to enantiomeric products occur over separate transition states.« less

  4. Prediction of enhanced solvent-induced enantioselectivity for a ring opening with a bifurcating reaction path

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, Barry K.; Harvey, Jeremy N.; Glowacki, David R.

    2014-12-11

    Classical molecular dynamics simulations are reported for the deazetisation and ring opening of meso-2,3-difluoro-2,3-dimethyldiazocyclopropane in three solvents: CHCl3, CHFClBr and CH3CH(OH)CF3 (TFIPA). In this study, the achiral reactant leads to enantiomeric allene products, and the question addressed in the study is whether either of the chiral, enantiomerically pure solvents can induce significant enantiomeric excess in the products. The direct dynamics calculations use an empirical valence bond potential for the solute, with empirical parameters optimised against M06-2X/cc-pVTZ density functional results. The results reveal that the exothermic N2 loss and ring opening promote transient strong solvent–solute interactions within the first ~100 fs of the reaction. Because of the bifurcating reaction path, these interactions occur at time when the “decision” about which enantiomer of the product to form has yet to be made (at least for many of the trajectories). Hence, it is possible in principle that the solvent could exert a larger-than-normal influence on the course of the reaction. In fact, the results reveal no such effect for CHFClBr but do predict that TFIPA should induce 15.2 ± 2.1% enantiomeric excess. This is roughly an order of magnitude larger than solvent-induced enantiomeric excesses found experimentally in reactions where the conversion of reactant(s) to enantiomeric products occur over separate transition states.

  5. Bismuth(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate catalyzed ring opening reaction of mono epoxy oleochemicals to form keto and diketo derivatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a catalytic system, methyl oleate is transformed into long chain keto and diketo derivatives via an epoxide route. Methyl 9(10)-oxooctadecanoate and methyl 9,10-dioxooctadecanoate were made by a ring opening reaction of epoxidized methyl oleate using bismuth triflate catalyst. Lower reaction t...

  6. Flavylium based dual photochromism: addressing cis-trans isomerization and ring opening-closure by different light inputs.

    PubMed

    Gago, Sandra; Basílio, Nuno; Moro, Artur J; Pina, Fernando

    2015-04-30

    The multistate system of 4',7-dihydroxy-3-methoxyflavylium is constituted by a multiequilibrium involving trans-chalcone, cis-chalcone, hemiketal, flavylium cation and quinoidal base. This system possesses two independently addressable inter-connected photochromic systems based on the cis-trans isomerization and ring opening-closure of the hemiketal. PMID:25820365

  7. Enantioselective ring-opening of meso-epoxides by aromatic amines catalyzed by a homochiral metal-organic framework.

    PubMed

    Regati, Sridhar; He, Yabing; Thimmaiah, Muralidhara; Li, Peng; Xiang, Shengchang; Chen, Banglin; Zhao, John Cong-Gui

    2013-10-28

    The enantioselective ring-opening of meso-epoxides by aromatic amines was achieved by using a new chiral metal-organic framework . The corresponding α-hydroxyamines were obtained with good yields and ee values (up to 89% ee). PMID:24030658

  8. A Specific Nucleophilic Ring-Opening Reaction of Aziridines as a Unique Platform for the Construction of Hydrogen Polysulfides Sensors

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A hydrogen polysulfide mediated aziridine ring-opening reaction was discovered. Based on this reaction, a novel H2Sn-specific chemosensor (AP) was developed. AP showed high sensitivity and selectivity for H2Sn. Notably, the fluorescent turn-on product (1) exhibited excellent two-photon photophysical properties, a large Stokes shift, and high solid state luminescent efficiency. PMID:25961957

  9. Cyclopropenimine Superbases: Competitive Initiation Processes in Lactide Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Stukenbroeker, Tyler S.; Bandar, Jeff S.; Zhang, Xiangyi; Lambert, Tristan H.; Waymouth, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclopropenimine superbases were employed to catalyze the ring-opening polymerization of lactide. Polymerization occurred readily in the presence and absence of alcohol initiators. Polymerizations in the absence of alcohol initiators revealed a competitive initiation mechanism involving deprotonation of lactide by the cyclopropenimine to generate an enolate. NMR and MALDI-TOF analysis of the poly(lactides) generated from cyclopropenimines in the absence of alcohol initiators showed acylated lactide and hydroxyl endgroups. Model studies and comparative experiments with guanidine and phosphazene catalysts revealed the subtle influence of the nature of the superbase on competitive initiation processes. PMID:26913218

  10. Polymerization of euphorbia oil with Lewis acid in carbon dioxide media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF3-OEt2) Lewis acid catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of euphorbia oil (EO), a natural epoxy oil, in liquid carbon dioxide was conducted in an effort to develop useful vegetable oil based polymers. The resulting polymers (RPEO) were characterized by FTIR, 1H-...

  11. An imidazole-based organocatalyst designed for bulk polymerization of lactide isomers: inspiration from Nature.

    PubMed

    Coulembier, Olivier; Josse, Thomas; Guillerm, Brieuc; Gerbaux, Pascal; Dubois, Philippe

    2012-12-11

    The design of an imidazole-based salt by enzyme-mimicking allowed controlling the ring-opening polymerization of L- and D-LA monomers in bulk. Kinetic study supports a bifunctional activation process only slightly different from the one occurring in Nature. PMID:23104456

  12. Ring-opening photochemistry in cyclohexadiene derivatives: Ultrafast dynamics in solution and model membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arruda, Brenden C.

    The ultrafast dynamics of molecules in condensed phases is an area of research that has the possibility to inform the design of molecules for functional nano-devices as well as improve on understanding of biological processes. Presented in this thesis are experiments probing the excited and ground state dynamics of molecules based on the 1,3-cyclohexadiene (CHD) chromophore. The reversible photochemistry of these molecules is applicable to the study of photo-switching systems under consideration for molecular memory devices as well as the photobiological synthesis of Vitamin D3. The full reaction mechanism for a number of CHD derivatives is deduced from ultrafast broadband transient absorption spectroscopy and supporting density functional calculations. Steric groups on the cyclohexadiene backbone can affect both the excited state properties as well as the dynamic approach to equilibrium for the hexatriene photoproducts following excitation of CHD. The photoreaction was characterized in multiple solvent environments with a range of viscosity, polarity, hydrogen-bonding capacity, and packing density. The conformational dynamics of the photoproducts depend on the substitution pattern and solvent. The alpha-phellandrene photoproduct relaxes to a fully trans form much like hexatriene, while alpha-terpinene and 7-dehydrocholesterol photoproducts are limited to certain conformations by steric clashes. The solvent affects the relaxation timescales differently for each photoproduct, but all of the dynamics occur within 5 - 10 ps. The ring opening of DHC that occurs in the biological synthesis of Vitamin D3 is also examined in a liposomal model for the cell membrane. In this anisotropic environment, the excited state dynamics are significantly lengthened to ~ 11 -- 50 ps depending on the liposome properties. This suggests significant interaction between DHC and the lipids that affects the ring-opening reaction coordinate. The excited state and photoproduct conformational

  13. Ring opening and carbonylation of 3,3-dimethylthietane ligands in ruthenium carbonyl cluster complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.D.; Belinski, J.A.; Yamamoto, J.H.

    1992-10-01

    When heated to 97{degrees}C, the complex Ru{sub 4}(CO){sub 12}[{mu}-SCH{sub 2}CMe{sub 2}CH{sub 2}]2 (1) was transformed into two new hexaruthenium cluster complexes, Ru{sub 6}(CO){sub 13}({mu}{sub 3}-SCH{sub 2}CMe{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 4} (2) and Ru{sub 6}(CO){sub 12}({mu}-SCH{sub 2}CMe{sub 2}CH{sub 2})({mu}{sub 3}-SCH{sub 2}CMe{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 3}[{mu}{sub 3}-SCH{sub 2}C(Me)(CH{sub 2})CH{sub 2}] ({mu}-H) (3), that contain four and five ring-opened 3,3-dimethylthietane (3,3-DMT) ligands, respectively. In compound 3 one of the ring-opened DMT ligands has also undergone a CH activation on one of the methyl groups. Compound 2 reacts with additional 3,3-DMT at 97{degrees}C to form 3 in 18% yield. When treated with CO at 95{degrees}C (500 psi), compound 2 yielded 4,4-dimethylthiobutyrolactone and Ru{sub 3}(CO){sub 12}. It was also found that the complex Os{sub 3}(CO){sub 11-}(SCH{sub 2}CMe{sub 2}CH{sub 2}C{double_bond}O) (4) yields 4,4-dimethylthiobutyrolactone when treated with CO at 120{degrees}C (1200 psi). Crystal data for 2: space group P2{sub 1}/n, {alpha} = 22.652 (7) A, {beta} = 11.712 (2) A, c = 19.965 (6) A, {Beta} = 115.75 (2){degrees} Z = 4, 3665 reflections, R = 0.021. Crystal data for 3: space group P2{sub 1}/c, {alpha} = 17.332 (8) A, {Beta} = 14.668 (9) A, c = 19.823 (9) A, {Beta} = 91.27 (4){degrees}, Z = 4, 1875 reflections, R = 0.050. 13 refs., 2 figs., 13 refs.

  14. β-Amino Esters from the Reductive Ring Opening of Aziridine-2-carboxylates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A general study is undertaken to examine the scope of the reductive ring opening of aziridine-2-carboxylates with samarium diiodide. The competition between C–C and C–N bond cleavage is examined as a function of the nature of the N-substituent of the aziridine, the nature of the substituent in the 3-position of the aziridine, and whether the substituent in the 3-position is in a cis or trans relationship with the carboxylate in the 2-position. The desired C–N bond cleavage leads to β-amino esters that are the predominant products for most aziridines with an N-activating group. However, C–C cleavage products are observed with an aryl group in the 3-position; this can be particularly pronounced with cis-aziridines where a nearly equal mixture of the two is observed. Exclusive formation of the C–N cleavage product is observed for all aziridines with the strongly N-activating p-toluene sulfonate group. Similarly high selectivity is observed for the 2-trimethylsilylethyl sulfonate group (SES), which is easier to remove. The utility of these methods is illustrated in the synthesis of protected forms of (R)-β3-DOPA and l-DOPA from the same aziridine, the former by SmI2-mediated reductive opening at C-2 and the latter by palladium-mediated reductive opening at C-3. PMID:25329528

  15. Dinuclear Zinc Salen Catalysts for the Ring Opening Copolymerization of Epoxides and Carbon Dioxide or Anhydrides.

    PubMed

    Thevenon, Arnaud; Garden, Jennifer A; White, Andrew J P; Williams, Charlotte K

    2015-12-21

    A series of four dizinc complexes coordinated by salen or salan ligands, derived from ortho-vanillin and bearing (±)-trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane (L1) or 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediamine (L2) backbones, is reported. The complexes are characterized using a combination of X-ray crystallography, multinuclear NMR, DOSY, and MALDI-TOF spectroscopies, and elemental analysis. The stability of the dinuclear complexes depends on the ligand structure, with the most stable complexes having imine substituents. The complexes are tested as catalysts for the ring-opening copolymerization (ROCOP) of CO2/cyclohexene oxide (CHO) and phthalic anhydride (PA)/CHO. All complexes are active, and the structure/activity relationships reveal that the complex having both L2 and imine substituents displays the highest activity. In the ROCOP of CO2/CHO its activity is equivalent to other metal salen catalysts (TOF = 44 h(-1) at a catalyst loading of 0.1 mol %, 30 bar of CO2, and 80 °C), while for the ROCOP of PA/CHO, its activity is slightly higher than other metal salen catalysts (TOF = 198 h(-1) at a catalyst loading of 1 mol % and 100 °C). Poly(ester-block-carbonate) polymers are also afforded using the most active catalyst by the one-pot terpolymerization of PA/CHO/CO2. PMID:26605983

  16. Improvement of Physicochemical Characteristics of Monoepoxide Linoleic Acid Ring Opening for Biolubricant Base Oil

    PubMed Central

    Salimon, Jumat; Salih, Nadia; Abdullah, Bashar Mudhaffar

    2011-01-01

    For environmental reasons, a new class of environmentally acceptable and renewable biolubricant based on vegetable oils is available. In this study, oxirane ring opening reaction of monoepoxide linoleic acid (MEOA) was done by nucleophilic addition of oleic acid (OA) with using p-toluene sulfonic acid (PTSA) as a catalyst for synthesis of 9(12)-hydroxy-10(13)-oleoxy-12(9)-octadecanoic acid (HYOOA) and the physicochemical properties of the resulted HYOOA are reported to be used as biolubricant base oils. Optimum conditions of the experiment using D-optimal design to obtain high yield% of HYOOA and lowest OOC% were predicted at OA/MEOA ratio of 0.30 : 1 (w/w), PTSA/MEOA ratio of 0.50 : 1 (w/w), reaction temperature at 110°C, and reaction time at 4.5 h. The results showed that an increase in the chain length of the midchain ester resulted in the decrease of pour point (PP) −51°C, increase of viscosity index (VI) up to 153, and improvement in oxidative stability (OT) to 180.94°C. PMID:22131799

  17. Alkane metathesis by tandem alkane-dehydrogenation-olefin-metathesis catalysis and related chemistry.

    PubMed

    Haibach, Michael C; Kundu, Sabuj; Brookhart, Maurice; Goldman, Alan S

    2012-06-19

    Methods for the conversion of both renewable and non-petroleum fossil carbon sources to transportation fuels that are both efficient and economically viable could greatly enhance global security and prosperity. Currently, the major route to convert natural gas and coal to liquids is Fischer-Tropsch catalysis, which is potentially applicable to any source of synthesis gas including biomass and nonconventional fossil carbon sources. The major desired products of Fischer-Tropsch catalysis are n-alkanes that contain 9-19 carbons; they comprise a clean-burning and high combustion quality diesel, jet, and marine fuel. However, Fischer-Tropsch catalysis also results in significant yields of the much less valuable C(3) to C(8)n-alkanes; these are also present in large quantities in oil and gas reserves (natural gas liquids) and can be produced from the direct reduction of carbohydrates. Therefore, methods that could disproportionate medium-weight (C(3)-C(8)) n-alkanes into heavy and light n-alkanes offer great potential value as global demand for fuel increases and petroleum reserves decrease. This Account describes systems that we have developed for alkane metathesis based on the tandem operation of catalysts for alkane dehydrogenation and olefin metathesis. As dehydrogenation catalysts, we used pincer-ligated iridium complexes, and we initially investigated Schrock-type Mo or W alkylidene complexes as olefin metathesis catalysts. The interoperability of the catalysts typically represents a major challenge in tandem catalysis. In our systems, the rate of alkane dehydrogenation generally limits the overall reaction rate, whereas the lifetime of the alkylidene complexes at the relatively high temperatures required to obtain practical dehydrogenation rates (ca. 125 -200 °C) limits the total turnover numbers. Accordingly, we have focused on the development and use of more active dehydrogenation catalysts and more stable olefin-metathesis catalysts. We have used thermally

  18. An alkyne metathesis-based route toortho-dehydrobenzannulenes

    SciTech Connect

    Miljanic, Ognjen S.; Vollhardt, Peter C.; Whitener, Glenn D.

    2002-11-07

    An application of alkyne metathesis to 1,2-di(prop-1-ynyl)arenes, producing dehydrobenzannulenes, is described. An efficient method for selective Sonogashira couplings of bromoiodoarenes under conditions of microwave irradiation is also reported.

  19. Nonproductive Events in Ring-Closing Metathesis using Ruthenium Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Ian C.; Keitz, Benjamin K.; Kuhn, Kevin M.; Thomas, Renee M.

    2010-01-01

    The relative TONs of productive and nonproductive metathesis reactions of diethyl diallylmalonate are compared for eight different ruthenium-based catalysts. Nonproductive cross metathesis is proposed to involve a chain-carrying ruthenium methylidene. A second more-challenging substrate (dimethyl allylmethylallylmalonate) that forms a trisubstituted olefin product is used to further delineate the effect of catalyst structure on the relative efficiencies of these processes. A steric model is proposed to explain the observed trends. PMID:20518557

  20. Nucleophile-dependent regio- and stereoselective ring opening of 1-azoniabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane tosylate.

    PubMed

    Ji, Mi-Kyung; Hertsen, Dietmar; Yoon, Doo-Ha; Eum, Heesung; Goossens, Hannelore; Waroquier, Michel; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; D'hooghe, Matthias; De Kimpe, Norbert; Ha, Hyun-Joon

    2014-04-01

    1-[(1R)-(1-Phenylethyl)]-1-azoniabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane tosylate was generated as a stable bicyclic aziridinium salt from the corresponding 2-(3-hydroxypropyl)aziridine upon reaction with p-toluenesulfonyl anhydride. This bicyclic aziridinium ion was then treated with various nucleophiles including halides, azide, acetate, and cyanide in CH3CN to afford either piperidines or pyrrolidines through regio- and stereoselective ring opening, mediated by the characteristics of the applied nucleophile. On the basis of DFT calculations, ring-opening reactions under thermodynamic control yield piperidines, whereas reactions under kinetic control can yield both piperidines and pyrrolidines depending on the activation energies for both pathways. PMID:24488926

  1. δ-Carbolines and their ring-opened analogs: Synthesis and evaluation against fungal and bacterial opportunistic pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Mazu, Tryphon K.; Etukala, Jagan R.; Jacob, Melissa R.; Khan, Shabana I.; Walker, Larry A.; Ablordeppey, Seth Y

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the δ-carboline (2) ring system derived from the natural product cryptolepine (1) may represent a pharmacophore for anti-infective activity. This paper describes the design and synthesis of a small library of substituted δ-carbolines and the evaluation of the antifungal and antibacterial activities. An evaluation of the anti-bacterial activity of a previously reported library of ring-opened analogs was also conducted to provide an opportunity to test the hypothesis that both group of compounds may have the same biological target. Results indicate that against a selected group of fungal pathogens, substituted δ-carbolinium analogs displayed higher potency and several fold lower cytotoxicity than cryptolepine the parent natural product. Both the δ-carbolinium compounds and their ring-opened analogs, exhibited equally high anti-bacterial activity against the selected pathogens and especially against the gram positive bacteria evaluated. PMID:21459492

  2. Iron(III)-catalysed carbonyl-olefin metathesis.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Jacob R; Zimmerman, Paul M; Gianino, Joseph B; Schindler, Corinna S

    2016-05-19

    The olefin metathesis reaction of two unsaturated substrates is one of the most powerful carbon-carbon-bond-forming reactions in organic chemistry. Specifically, the catalytic olefin metathesis reaction has led to profound developments in the synthesis of molecules relevant to the petroleum, materials, agricultural and pharmaceutical industries. These reactions are characterized by their use of discrete metal alkylidene catalysts that operate via a well-established mechanism. While the corresponding carbonyl-olefin metathesis reaction can also be used to construct carbon-carbon bonds, currently available methods are scarce and severely hampered by either harsh reaction conditions or the required use of stoichiometric transition metals as reagents. To date, no general protocol for catalytic carbonyl-olefin metathesis has been reported. Here we demonstrate a catalytic carbonyl-olefin ring-closing metathesis reaction that uses iron, an Earth-abundant and environmentally benign transition metal, as a catalyst. This transformation accommodates a variety of substrates and is distinguished by its operational simplicity, mild reaction conditions, high functional-group tolerance, and amenability to gram-scale synthesis. We anticipate that these characteristics, coupled with the efficiency of this reaction, will allow for further advances in areas that have historically been enhanced by olefin metathesis. PMID:27120158

  3. Iron(III)-catalysed carbonyl–olefin metathesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Jacob R.; Zimmerman, Paul M.; Gianino, Joseph B.; Schindler, Corinna S.

    2016-05-01

    The olefin metathesis reaction of two unsaturated substrates is one of the most powerful carbon–carbon-bond-forming reactions in organic chemistry. Specifically, the catalytic olefin metathesis reaction has led to profound developments in the synthesis of molecules relevant to the petroleum, materials, agricultural and pharmaceutical industries. These reactions are characterized by their use of discrete metal alkylidene catalysts that operate via a well-established mechanism. While the corresponding carbonyl–olefin metathesis reaction can also be used to construct carbon–carbon bonds, currently available methods are scarce and severely hampered by either harsh reaction conditions or the required use of stoichiometric transition metals as reagents. To date, no general protocol for catalytic carbonyl–olefin metathesis has been reported. Here we demonstrate a catalytic carbonyl–olefin ring-closing metathesis reaction that uses iron, an Earth-abundant and environmentally benign transition metal, as a catalyst. This transformation accommodates a variety of substrates and is distinguished by its operational simplicity, mild reaction conditions, high functional-group tolerance, and amenability to gram-scale synthesis. We anticipate that these characteristics, coupled with the efficiency of this reaction, will allow for further advances in areas that have historically been enhanced by olefin metathesis.

  4. Catalytic Enantioselective Ring-Opening and Ring-Closing Reactions of 3-Isothiocyanato Oxindoles and N-(2-Picolinoyl)aziridines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linqing; Yang, Dongxu; Li, Dan; Wang, Rui

    2015-06-19

    3-Isothiocyanato oxindoles have been successfully applied to an asymmetric formal [3 + 3] cycloaddition reaction with aziridines for the first time. The reaction was efficiently mediated by an in situ generated magnesium catalyst employing (R)-3,3'-fluorous-BINOL as a simple chiral ligand. Serials of polycyclic frameworks could be obtained after a ring-closing step. The enantioenriched ring-opening product was also utilized to modified amino acids, peptides, and bifunctional organocatalyst. PMID:26030403

  5. An unexpected 2,3-dihydrofuran derivative ring opening initiated by electrophilic bromination: scope and mechanistic study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yi; Wong, Ying-Chieh; Yeung, Ying-Yeung

    2015-01-01

    An unexpected 2,3-dihydrofuran ring opening process at the C(4)-C(5) bond has been developed. N-Bromosuccinimide and DABCO were used as the electrophilic halogen source and the catalyst, respectively. Mechanistic study indicates that moisture in the solvent might contribute to the reaction. The resulting brominated product could be further oxidized to yield a synthetically valuable 1,2-diketo building block. PMID:25469549

  6. Unexpected lateral-lithiation-induced alkylative ring opening of tetrahydrofurans in deep eutectic solvents: synthesis of functionalised primary alcohols.

    PubMed

    Sassone, Francesca C; Perna, Filippo M; Salomone, Antonio; Florio, Saverio; Capriati, Vito

    2015-06-11

    o-Tolyl-substituted tetrahydrofurans undergo highly regioselective ring opening with the concomitant formation of new C-C bonds as the result of a lateral lithiation reaction. This reaction provides a new method for the synthesis of functionalised primary alcohols and can be run directly in protic eutectic mixtures as benign reaction media at 0 °C and under air, competitively with protonolysis. PMID:25959580

  7. Fluoride-Triggered Ring-Opening of Photochromic Diarylpyrans into Merocyanine Dyes: Naked-Eye Sensing in Subppm Levels.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Arindam; Maka, Vijay Kumar; Moorthy, Jarugu Narasimha

    2016-09-01

    The fluoride-mediated desilylation reaction has been exploited, for the first time, to trigger ring-opening of photochromic diarylbenzo-/naphthopyrans into highly colored anionic merocyanine dyes with high molar absorptivities to permit naked-eye sensing. The absorption spectral shifts, i.e., differences in the absorption maxima of colorless and colored forms, observed for a rationally designed set of silyloxy-substituted diarylpyrans subsequent to fluoride-induced ring opening are remarkably high (330-480 nm), and are unknown for any colorimetric probe. In particular, the disilyloxy-substituted diphenylnaphthopyran and its analog, in which the diphenyl groups are fused in the form of fluorene, allows "naked-eye" detection of fluoride in subppm levels (<1.0 ppm) in THF as well as in DMSO-H2O. The sensing is specific for fluoride among various other anions. This approach for colorimetric sensing of fluoride by ring-opening of the otherwise photochromic benzo-/naphthopyrans is heretofore unprecedented. PMID:27447293

  8. Probing the Biexponential Dynamics of Ring-Opening in 7-Dehydrocholesterol.

    PubMed

    Smith, Broc D; Spears, Kenneth G; Sension, Roseanne J

    2016-08-25

    Our prior discovery of a novel biexponential photochemical ring-opening in 7-dehydrocholesterol (DHC) to previtamin D3 [ Tang J. Chem. Phys. 2011 , 134 , 104503 ] is further explored with ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy, and the results are compared with recently reported high-level theoretical calculations. Three types of experiments are reported. First, variation of the excitation wavelength from 297 to 266 nm leaves the excited state dynamics unaffected. The biexponential decay of the excited state absorption is independent of excitation wavelength with time constants of 0.57 ± 0.06 and 1.88 ± 0.09 ps, in excellent agreement with the results reported earlier (0.56 ± 0.06 and 1.81 ± 0.15 ps) following excitation at 266 nm. Second, variation of the chirp of the excitation pulse influences the relative amplitude of the fast and slow decay components but has no influence on the photoproduct yield. Third, a 545 nm pulse delayed by 0.64 ps with respect to the initial 266 nm pulse was used to perturb the "slow" population and probe the influence of additional electronic or vibrational energy on the reaction process. The results show ultrafast internal conversion Sn → S1 on a ca. 150 fs time scale but no subsequent effect on the reaction dynamics. The experiments reported here are consistent with the recent state averaged complete active space self-consistent field ab initio multiple spawning (SA-CASSCF-AIMS) calculations of Snyder et al. [ J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2016 , 7 , 2444 ] that assign the biexponential decay to nonequilibrium dynamics related to the opening and closing motion of the cyclohexadiene ring moiety on the excited state surface. These new experiments support the model prediction that the biexponential dynamics does not involve multiple minima and demonstrate the direction for new experimental designs to manipulate the product yields and pathways. PMID:27529502

  9. Development of a small single-ring OpenPET prototype with a novel transformable architecture.

    PubMed

    Tashima, Hideaki; Yoshida, Eiji; Inadama, Naoko; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Nakajima, Yasunori; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Shinaji, Tetsuya; Nitta, Munetaka; Kinouchi, Shoko; Suga, Mikio; Haneishi, Hideaki; Inaniwa, Taku; Yamaya, Taiga

    2016-02-21

    The single-ring OpenPET (SROP), for which the detector arrangement has a cylinder shape cut by two parallel planes at a slant angle to form an open space, is our original proposal for in-beam PET. In this study, we developed a small prototype of an axial-shift type SROP (AS-SROP) with a novel transformable architecture for a proof-of-concept. In the AS-SROP, detectors originally forming a cylindrical PET are axially shifted little by little. We designed the small AS-SROP prototype for 4-layer depth-of-interaction detectors arranged in a ring diameter of 250 mm. The prototype had two modes: open and closed. The open mode formed the SROP with the open space of 139 mm and the closed mode formed a conventional cylindrical PET. The detectors were simultaneously moved by a rotation handle allowing them to be transformed between the two modes. We evaluated the basic performance of the developed prototype and carried out in-beam imaging tests in the HIMAC using (11)C radioactive beam irradiation. As a result, we found the open mode enabled in-beam PET imaging at a slight cost of imaging performance; the spatial resolution and sensitivity were 2.6 mm and 5.1% for the open mode and 2.1 mm and 7.3% for the closed mode. We concluded that the AS-SROP can minimize the decrease of resolution and sensitivity, for example, by transforming into the closed mode immediately after the irradiation while maintaining the open space only for the in-beam PET measurement. PMID:26854528

  10. Development of a small single-ring OpenPET prototype with a novel transformable architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashima, Hideaki; Yoshida, Eiji; Inadama, Naoko; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Nakajima, Yasunori; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Shinaji, Tetsuya; Nitta, Munetaka; Kinouchi, Shoko; Suga, Mikio; Haneishi, Hideaki; Inaniwa, Taku; Yamaya, Taiga

    2016-02-01

    The single-ring OpenPET (SROP), for which the detector arrangement has a cylinder shape cut by two parallel planes at a slant angle to form an open space, is our original proposal for in-beam PET. In this study, we developed a small prototype of an axial-shift type SROP (AS-SROP) with a novel transformable architecture for a proof-of-concept. In the AS-SROP, detectors originally forming a cylindrical PET are axially shifted little by little. We designed the small AS-SROP prototype for 4-layer depth-of-interaction detectors arranged in a ring diameter of 250 mm. The prototype had two modes: open and closed. The open mode formed the SROP with the open space of 139 mm and the closed mode formed a conventional cylindrical PET. The detectors were simultaneously moved by a rotation handle allowing them to be transformed between the two modes. We evaluated the basic performance of the developed prototype and carried out in-beam imaging tests in the HIMAC using 11C radioactive beam irradiation. As a result, we found the open mode enabled in-beam PET imaging at a slight cost of imaging performance; the spatial resolution and sensitivity were 2.6 mm and 5.1% for the open mode and 2.1 mm and 7.3% for the closed mode. We concluded that the AS-SROP can minimize the decrease of resolution and sensitivity, for example, by transforming into the closed mode immediately after the irradiation while maintaining the open space only for the in-beam PET measurement.