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Sample records for rio tinto basin

  1. The magnetic properties of Rio Tinto Basin sediments (Spain): a step towards Martian enviromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, G.; Hernandez, F. M.; Remolar, D. F.; de La Presa, P.; Marin, P.; Marcos, V. V.

    2008-12-01

    Exploration by the NASA rover Opportunity revealed sulphate-and haematite-rich sedimentary rocks exposed in surface features of Meridiani Planum, Mars. Sediments of the Rio Tinto Basin, Spain, provide at least a partial analog of Meridiani rocks, thereby facilitating an understanding of mineral precipitation and diagenesis on the Martian surface. Here we present the results of a mineral magnetic study of river terrace deposits of the Rio Tinto system, the deposits ranging from Modern to Plio-Pleistocene in age. A broad range of temperature- and field-dependent measurements have been made which have identified the presence of goethite, haematite and sulphides. Seasonally driven processes are thought to lead to the precipitation of nano-phase goethite which increases in crystallinity with age, eventually being replaced by haematite. Diverse micro-organism populations inhabit the acidic and seasonally dry environments, although organic matter does not persist in the sediments. However, biosignatures are left as casts and molds in the iron oxide minerals. The potential for recognizing their characteristic magnetic signatures, and their extrapolation to Martian environments, will be discussed.

  2. 76 FR 80430 - Rio Tinto plc and Rio Tinto Limited; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ...Summary of Application: Rio Tinto plc (``RTP'') and Rio Tinto Limited (``RTL'', together with RTP, ``Rio Tinto'' or the ``Group'') seek an order under section 3(b)(2) of the Act declaring Rio Tinto to be primarily engaged in a business other than that of investing, reinvesting, owning, holding or trading in securities. Rio Tinto is a leading international mining group. Applicants also seek an......

  3. The Rio Tinto Basin, Spain: Mineralogy, Sedimentary Geobiology, and Implications for Interpretation of Outcrop Rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez-Remolar, David C.; Morris, Richard V.; Gruener, John E.; Amils, Ricardo; Knoll, Andrew H.

    2005-01-01

    Exploration by the NASA rover Opportunity has revealed sulfate- and hematite-rich sedimentary rocks exposed in craters and other surface features of Meridiani Planum, Mars. Modern, Holocene, and Plio-Pleistocene deposits of the Rio Tinto, southwestern Spain, provide at least a partial environmental analog to Meridiani Planum rocks, facilitating our understanding of Meridiani mineral precipitation and diagenesis, while informing considerations of martian astrobiology. Oxidation, thought to be biologically mediated, of pyritic ore bodies by groundwaters in the source area of the Rio Tinto generates headwaters enriched in sulfuric acid and ferric iron. Seasonal evaporation of river water drives precipitation of hydronium jarosite and schwertmannite, while (Mg,Al,Fe(sup 3+))-copiapite, coquimbite, gypsum, and other sulfate minerals precipitate nearby as efflorescences where locally variable source waters are brought to the surface by capillary action. During the wet season, hydrolysis of sulfate salts results in the precipitation of nanophase goethite. Holocene and Plio-Pleistocene terraces show increasing goethite crystallinity and then replacement of goethite with hematite through time. Hematite in Meridiani spherules also formed during diagenesis, although whether these replaced precursor goethite or precipitated directly from groundwaters is not known. The retention of jarosite and other soluble sulfate salts suggests that water limited the diagenesis of Meridiani rocks. Diverse prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms inhabit acidic and seasonally dry Rio Tinto environments. Organic matter does not persist in Rio Tinto sediments, but biosignatures imparted to sedimentary rocks as macroscopic textures of coated microbial streamers, surface blisters formed by biogenic gas, and microfossils preserved as casts and molds in iron oxides help to shape strategies for astrobiological investigation of Meridiani outcrops.

  4. Scale-integrated spectral characterisation of mineralogical analogues to Mars at Rio Tinto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleeson, D.; Fernandez Remolar, D.; Martin, P.; Moissl, R.; Ruiz, V.

    2012-09-01

    Iron-sulfur and phyllosilicate assemblages within the Rio Tinto basin of Huelva province in Spain show mineralogical similarities to sites on the surface of Mars as determined by orbital and lander datasets. Exploration of Mars surface environments is intermittent and resolution-limited, and additional layers of information available for terrestrial analogue sites may extend incomplete planetary datasets. Characterising mineralogy in satellite, field and laboratory reflectance spectra of Rio Tinto sites can determine how accurately Mars-relevant mineralogies are represented in orbital data. Comparisons with Mars datasets, such as OMEGA and CRISM, will provide insights into planetary surface conditions.

  5. Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE): 2003 Drilling Campaign to Search for a Subsurface Biosphere at Rio Tinto Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol; Dunagan, Stephen; Stevens, Todd; Amils, Ricardo; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Fernandez, David; Hall, James; Lynch, Kennda; Cannon, Howard; Zavaleta, Jhony

    2004-01-01

    The MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment) project, an ASTEP field experiment, is exploring for a hypothesized subsurface anaerobic chemoautotrophic biosphere in the region of the Tinto River- or Rio Tinto- in southwestern Spain. It is also demonstrating technology needed to search for a subsurface biosphere on Mars. The project has three primary objectives: (1) search for and characterize subsurface life at Rio Tinto along with the physical and chemical properties and sustaining energy sources of its environment, (2) perform a high fidelity simulation of a robotic Mars drilling mission to search for life, and (3) demonstrate the drilling, sample handling, and instrument technologies relevant to searching for life on Mars. The simulation of the robotic drilling mission is guided by the results of the aseptic drilling campaign to search for life at Rio Tinto. This paper describes results of the first phase of the aseptic drilling campaign.

  6. Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE): 2003 Drilling Campaign to Search for a Subsurface Biosphere at Rio Tinto Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, C.; Dunagan, S.; Stevens, T.; Amils, R.; Gómez-Elvira, J.; Fernández, D.; Hall, J.; Lynch, K.; Cannon, H.; Zavaleta, J.; Glass, B.; Lemke, L.

    2004-03-01

    The results of an drilling experiment to search for a subsurface biosphere in a pyritic mineral deposit at Rio Tinto, Spain, are described. The experiment provides ground truth for a simulation of a Mars drilling mission to search for subsurface life.

  7. Scale-integrated spectral characterisation of mineralogical analogues to Mars at Rio Tinto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleeson, Damhnait; Fernandez-Remolar, David; Martin, Patrick; Moissl, Richard; Ruiz, Vicente

    2013-04-01

    Iron-sulfur assemblages within the Rio Tinto basin of Huelva province in Spain show mineralogical similarities to sites on the surface of Mars as determined by orbital and lander datasets. Exploration of Mars surface environments is intermittent and resolution-limited, and additional layers of information available for terrestrial analogue sites may extend incomplete planetary datasets. Characterising mineralogy in satellite, field and laboratory reflectance spectra of Rio Tinto sites can determine how accurately Mars-relevant mineralogies are represented in orbital data. Comparisons with Mars datasets, such as OMEGA and CRISM, can provide insights into planetary surface conditions. Interaction between materials in field mixtures can lead to potential interferences between endmembers and/or offsets in spectral features, which can obscure or hinder the identification of certain minerals. Such interactions can be difficult to predict on the basis of library spectra collected using pure materials. Determination of which diagnostic spectral features can be identified in field mixtures is an advantage of collecting data in real world environments, and can be used to aid interpretation of planetary datasets. This study utilizes the dynamic sulfur and iron deposits of Rio Tinto as an analogue of Mars sites such as Meridiani Planum, using the many scales of observation available for the terrestrial sites as a means of extending our view of Mars surface conditions from the orbital view to which we are frequently limited.

  8. Searching for Organics During the Robotic Mars Analog Rio Tinto Drilling Experiment: Ground Truth and Contamination Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorsi, R.; Stoker, C. R.; Marte Project Science Team

    2007-03-01

    The Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE) performed a simulation of a Mars drilling experiment at the Rio Tinto (Spain). Ground-truth and contamination issues during the distribution of bulk organics and their CN isotopic composition in hematite and go

  9. Geomorphic and Aqueous Chemistry of a Portion of the Upper Rio Tinto System, Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osburn, M. R.; Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.; Arvidson, R. E.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Amils, R.; Stein, T. C.; Heil-Chapdelaine, V.; Friedlander, L. R.; Herndon, B.; Marlow, J.; Rosenberg, S.; Scherpker, K.; Steiner, A.

    2007-01-01

    Observations from the two Mars rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, combined with discoveries of extensive hydrated sulfate deposits from OMEGA and CRISM show that aqueous deposition and alteration involving acidic systems and sulfate deposition has been a key contributor to the martian geologic record. Rio Tinto, Spain, provides a process model for formation of sulfates on Mars by evaporation of acidic waters within shallow fluvial pools, particularly during dry seasons. We present results from a detailed investigation of an upper portion of the Rio Tinto, focusing on geomorphology, clastic sediment transport, and acidic aqueous processes. We also lay out lessons-learned for under-standing sulfate formation and alteration on Mars.

  10. Extreme environments as Mars terrestrial analogs: The Rio Tinto case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amils, Ricardo; González-Toril, Elena; Fernández-Remolar, David; Gómez, Felipe; Aguilera, Ángeles; Rodríguez, Nuria; Malki, Mustafá; García-Moyano, Antonio; Fairén, Alberto G.; de la Fuente, Vicenta; Luis Sanz, José

    2007-02-01

    The geomicrobiological characterization of the Río Tinto (Iberian Pyritic Belt) has recently proven the importance of the iron cycle, not only in the generation of the extreme conditions of the habitat (low pH, high concentration of heavy metals), but also in the maintenance of a high level of microbial diversity. The presence of vast deposits of sulfates and iron oxides on Mars, the main products of the bioleaching of iron containing sulfides found in Río Tinto, and the physico-chemical properties of iron as a source of energy, protection from radiation and oxidative stress as well as pH control, make Río Tinto an interesting Mars terrestrial analog.

  11. Fossilization potential of iron-bearing minerals in acidic environments of Rio Tinto, Spain: Implications for Mars exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Remolar, David C.; Knoll, Andrew H.

    2008-03-01

    Acidic waters of the Rio Tinto, southwestern Spain, evaporate seasonally, precipitating a variety of iron sulfide and oxide minerals. Schwertmannite and nanophase goethite form thin laminae on biological and detrital grain surfaces, replicating, among other things, the morphologies of insect cuticle, plant tissues, fungi, algae, and bacteria. Intergrain cements also incorporate bacterial cells and filaments. Other sulfate minerals precipitated in Rio Tinto environments are transient and contribute little to short-term preservation. Because the Rio Tinto has been cutting its current valley for several million years, terrace deposits provide a window on longer term fossil preservation. Early and later diagenesis are recorded in terrace deposits formed about one thousand and two million years ago, respectively. The sedimentary structures and mineralogies of these deposits suggest that they formed under physical and chemical conditions comparable to those of modern Rio Tinto sediments. The terrace deposits show quantitative loss of sulfate minerals, increasing crystallinity of goethite and, in the older terrace, replacement of goethite by hematite. Fossils formed originally by schwertmannite and nanophase goethite replication persist through diagenesis, preserving a long term record of local biological diversity. Fossil preservation by iron oxides in the acidic environment of Rio Tinto suggests that if life was present when sedimentary rocks formed at Meridiani Planum, Mars, precipitated minerals could record their presence.

  12. Identification of Hydrated Sulfates Collected in the Northern Rio Tinto Valley by Reflectance and Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chemtob, S. M.; Arvidson, R. E.; Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.; Amils, R.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Mustard, J. F.; Hutchinson, L.; Stein, T. C.; Donovan, C. E.; Fairchild, G. M.; Friedlander, L. R.; Karas, N. M.; Klasen, N.; Mendenhall, M. P.; Robinson, E. M.; Steinhardt, S. E.; Weber, L. R.

    2006-01-01

    OMEGA recently identified spectral signatures of kieserite, gypsum, and other polyhydrated sulfates at multiple locations on the surface of Mars [1,2]. The presence of sulfates was confirmed through in situ spectroscopy by MER Opportunity [3]. An approach to validate these interpretations is to collect corresponding spectral data from sulfate-rich terrestrial analog sites. The northern Rio Tinto Valley near Nerva, Spain, is a good Martian analog locale because it features extensive seasonal sulfate mineralization driven by highly acidic waters [4]. We report on mineralogical compositions identified by field VNIR spectroscopy and laboratory Raman spectroscopy.

  13. Characterization of a Subsurface Biosphere in a Massive Sulfide Deposit At Rio Tinto, Spain: Implications For Extant Life On Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Stevens, T.; Amils, R.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Rodriguez, N.; Gomez, F.; Gonzalez-Toril, E.; Aguilera, A.; Fernandez-Remolar, D.; Dunagan, S.

    2005-01-01

    The recent discovery of abundant sulfate minerals, particularly Jarosite by the Opportunity Rover at Sinus Merdiani on Mars has been interpreted as evidence for an acidic lake or sea on ancient Mars [1,2], since the mineral Jarosite is soluble in liquid water at pH above 4. The most likely mechanism to produce sufficient protons to acidify a large body of liquid water is near surface oxidation of pyrite rich deposits [3]. The acidic waters of the Rio Tinto, and the associated deposits of Hematite, Goethite, and Jarosite have been recognized as an important chemical analog to the Sinus Merdiani site on Mars [4]. The Rio Tinto is a river in southern Spain that flows 100 km from its source in the Iberian pyrite belt, one of the Earth's largest Volcanically Hosted Massive Sulfide (VHMS) provinces, into the Atlantic ocean. The river originates in artesian springs emanating from ground water that is acidified by the interaction with subsurface pyrite ore deposits. The Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE) has been investigating the hypothesis that a subsurface biosphere exists at Rio Tinto living within the VHMS deposit living on chemical energy derived from sulfur and iron minerals. Reduced iron and sulfur might provide electron donors for microbial metabolism while in situ oxidized iron or oxidants entrained in recharge water might provide electron acceptors.

  14. Characterization of a Subsurface Biosphere in a Massive Sulfide Deposits at Rio Tinto, Spain: Implications for Extant Life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Stevens, T.; Amils, R.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Rodriquez, N.; Gomez, F.; Gonzalez-Toril, E.; Aguilera, A.; Fernandez-Remolar, D.; Dunagan, S.

    2005-01-01

    The recent discovery of abundant sulfate minerals, particularly Jarosite by the Opportunity Rover at Sinus Merdiani on Mars has been interpreted as evidence for an acidic lake or sea on ancient Mars [1,2], since the mineral Jarosite is soluble in liquid water at pH above 4. The most likely mechanism to produce sufficient protons to acidify a large body of liquid water is near surface oxidation of pyrite rich deposits [3]. The acidic waters of the Rio Tinto, and the associated deposits of Hematite, Goethite, and Jarosite have been recognized as an important chemical analog to the Sinus Merdiani site on Mars [4]. The Rio Tinto is a river in southern Spain that flows 100 km from its source in the Iberian pyrite belt, one of the Earth s largest Volcanically Hosted Massive Sulfide (VHMS) provinces, into the Atlantic ocean. The river originates in artesian springs emanating from ground water that is acidified by the interaction with subsurface pyrite ore deposits. The Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE) has been investigating the hypothesis that a subsurface biosphere exists at Rio Tinto living within the VHMS deposit living on chemical energy derived from sulfur and iron minerals. Reduced iron and sulfur might provide electron donors for microbial metabolism while in situ oxidized iron or oxidants entrained in recharge water might provide electron acceptors.

  15. Fast-Turnoff Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) Field Study at the Mars Analog Site of Rio Tinto, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jernsletten, J. A.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes a Fast-Turnoff Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) study at the Peña de Hierro ("Berg of Iron") field area of the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE), near the towns Rio Tinto and Nerva, Andalucia region, Spain.

  16. Microbial sulphur isotope fractionation in a Mars analogue environment at Rio Tinto, SW Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, Esther; Mason, Paul; Gonzalez-Toril, Elena; Zegers, Tanja; Davies, Gareth; Amils, Ricardo

    2010-05-01

    The development of geochemical proxies for possible early life on Mars is important in preparation for future space missions, especially those that will return samples to Earth. Sulfur isotopes are likely to be a key future tool for this purpose since abundant sulphate minerals on the surface of Mars [1], such as jarosite (KFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6), may record the activity of sulphur metabolizing microorganisms. Little is currently known about the sulphur isotope effects associated with sulphate reduction in the acidic environments where jarosite and other minerals are likely to have precipitated. Here we investigate the relationship between sulphate reducing activity and sulphur isotope fractionation in a modern hyper-acidic subareal environment at Rio Tinto, SW Spain [2,3,4]. The geochemical characteristics of Rio Tinto are the consequence of modern weathering of pyrite-rich ores in the Iberian Pyritic Belt, and the metabolism of iron and sulphur compounds by chemolithotrophic microorganisms. This results in a high concentration of ferric iron that is soluble under the acidic conditions generated by the biological activity. These conditions cause the precipitation of ferric-bearing minerals, including amorphous phases and hydronium jarosite. Sulphate reducing bacteria have recently been isolated from Rio Tinto sediments despite the fact that high concentrations of ferrous iron can inhibit microbial sulphate reduction. Flow-through reactor experiments were performed using sediment samples from Río Tinto, in localities where the potential for sulphate-reducing activity was previously identified. Sediments were taken both in the upper part of the river and in the estuary where tidal effects have created a dynamic environment, with mixing between hyperacidic and marine conditions. Sediments were incubated in the laboratory at 30oC, using an artificial input solution with sulphate in excess using techniques developed by Stam et al. [5]. Two sets of experiments were done at

  17. Multidisciplinary integrated field campaign to an acidic Martian Earth analogue with astrobiological interest: Rio Tinto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, F.; Walter, N.; Amils, R.; Rull, F.; Klingelhöfer, A. K.; Kviderova, J.; Sarrazin, P.; Foing, B.; Behar, A.; Fleischer, I.; Parro, V.; Garcia-Villadangos, M.; Blake, D.; Martin Ramos, J. D.; Direito, S.; Mahapatra, P.; Stam, C.; Venkateswaran, K.; Voytek, M.

    2011-07-01

    Recently reported results from latest Mars Orbiters and Rovers missions are transforming our opinion about the red planet. That dry and inhospitable planet reported in the past is becoming a wetter planet with high probabilities of water existence in the past. Nowadays, some results seem to indicate the presence of water beneath the Mars surface. But also mineralogy studies by NASA Opportunity Rover report iron oxides and hydroxides precipitates on Endurance Crater. Sedimentary deposits have been identified at Meridiani Planum. These deposits must have generated in a dune aqueous acidic and oxidizing environment. Similarities appear when we study Rio Tinto, and acidic river under the control of iron. The discovery of extremophiles on Earth widened the window of possibilities for life to develop in the Universe, and as a consequence on Mars and other planetary bodies with astrobiological interest. The compilation of data produced by the ongoing missions offers an interested view for life possibilities to exist: signs of an early wet Mars and rather recent volcanic activity as well as ground morphological characteristics that seem to be promoted by liquid water. The discovery of important accumulations of sulfates and the existence of iron minerals such as jarosite in rocks of sedimentary origin has allowed specific terrestrial models to come into focus. Río Tinto (Southwestern Spain, Iberian Pyritic Belt) is an extreme acidic environment, product of the chemolithotrophic activity of micro-organisms that thrive in the massive pyrite-rich deposits of the Iberian Pyritic Belt. Some particular protective environments should house the organic molecules and bacterial life forms in harsh environments such as Mars surface supporting microniches inside precipitated minerals or inside rocks. Terrestrial analogues could help us to afford the comprehension of habitability (on other planetary bodies). We are reporting here the multidisciplinary study of some endolithic niches

  18. Exploration of a Subsurface Biosphere in a Volcanic Massive Sulfide: Results of the Mars Analog Rio Tinto Drilling Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Stevens, T.; Amils, R.; Fernandez, D.

    2005-12-01

    Biological systems on Earth require three key ingredients-- liquid water, an energy source, and a carbon source, that are found in very few extraterrestrial environments. Previous examples of independent subsurface ecosystems have been found only in basalt aquifers. Such lithotrophic microbial ecosystems (LME) have been proposed as models for steps in the early evolution of Earth's biosphere and for potential biospheres on other planets where the surface is uninhabitable, such as Mars and Europa.. The Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE) has searched in a volcanic massive sulfide deposit in Rio Tinto Spain for a subsurface biosphere capable of living without sunlight or oxygen and found a subsurface ecosystem driven by the weathering of the massive sulfide deposit (VMS) in which the rock matrix provides sufficient resources to support microbial metabolism, including the vigorous production of H2 by water-rock interactions. Microbial production of methane and sulfate occurred in the sulfide orebody and microbial production of methane and hydrogen sulfide continued in an anoxic plume downgradient from the sulfide ore. Organic carbon concentrations in the parent rock were too low to support microbes. The Rio Tinto system thus represents a new type of subsurface ecosystem with strong relevance for exobiological studies. Commercial drilling was used to reach the aquifer system at 100 m depth and conventional laboratory techniques were used to identify and characterize the biosphere. Then, the life search strategy that led to successful identification of this biosphere was applied to the development of a robotic drilling, core handling, inspection, subsampling, and life detection system built on a prototype planetary lander that was deployed in Rio Tinto Spain in September 2005 to test the capability of a robotic drilling system to search for subsurface life. A remote science team directed the simulation and analyzed the data from the MARTE robotic drill. The results

  19. A Crustal Scale Heat and Fluid Flow Model for the Giant Rio Tinto VMS District, Iberian Pyrite Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrie, C.; Cathles, L. M.; Erendi, A.

    2004-05-01

    Paleo - seafloor and sub-seafloor deposits of the Rio Tinto District constitute the largest accumulation of volcanic-associated massive sulfide (VMS) on Earth. The deposits are are the type examples of giant bimodal-siliciclastic VMS deposits. This study presents relatively simple, 2D finite element heat and fluid flow models that explain how such a massive hydrothermal system may have formed. Giant VMS deposits require: 1) crustal scale hydrothermal circulation; 2) deep intrusion heat sources to drive hydrothermal convection; and 3) an optimal crustal permeability that supports large scale convection cells. We consider convection to depths of 10 and 15 km in the crust, a felsic intrusion heat source, and bulk crustal permeabilities of 10-14 to 10-16 m2 (0.1-10 millidarcies). The cases have: 1) a felsic magma heat source that is kept at 900oC for 10,000 years and then allowed to cool; 2) a more permeable, crustal-scale fracture/fault and stockwork zone beneath a 2 km2 Rio Tinto District; and 3) a thermal cracking subroutine with increased permeability from 275-475oC, in keeping with fracture development due to thermal contraction where cool, downwelling seawater interacts with conductively heated rock. Results show that at the higher crustal permeabilities, multiple hydrothermal plumes develop in the subsurface, and hydrothermal venting occurs over broad areas of the paleo - seafloor. At lower crustal permeabilities of 10-16 m2, venting is confined to the Rio Tinto District. An appropriate volume of hydrothermal fluid is vented when the crustal-scale fracture is highly permeable at 10-12 m2; at lower permeabilities, the fracture does not allow enough fluids to rise. The depth to the top of the felsic sill affects venting temperatures in the Rio Tinto District, with higher temperature venting for a shallower sill. In the preferred case, the sill is at 8-10 km depth, and fluids vent at 100-220oC for a period of ~200,000 years. In the absence of tectonic or magmatic

  20. Enzyme-Cascade Analysis of the Rio Tinto Subsurface Environment: A Biosensor Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, David S.; Lynch, Kennda; Wainwright, Norman; Child, Alice; Williams, Kendra; McKay, David; Amils, Ricardo; Gonzalez, Elena; Stoker, Carol

    2004-01-01

    The Portable Test System (PTS), designed & developed by Charles Rivers Laboratories, Inc. (Charleston, SC) is a portable instrument that was designed to perform analysis of enzymatic assays related to rapid assessment of microbial contamination (Wainwright, 2003). The enzymatic cascade of Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) is known to be one of the most sensitive techniques available for microbial detection, enabling the PTS to be evaluated as a potential life detection instrument for in situ Astrobiology missions. In the summer of 2003 the system was tested as a part of the Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) ground truth science campaign in the Rio Tinto Analogue environment near Nerva, Spain. The preliminary results show that the PTS analysis correlates well with the contamination control tests and the more traditional lab-based biological assays performed during the MARTE field mission. Further work will be conducted on this research during a second field campaign in 2004 and a technology demonstration of a prototype instrument that includes autonomous sample preparation will occur in 2005.

  1. Mars Sulfate Formation Sourced in Sulfide-Enriched Subsurface Fluids: The Rio Tinto Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Osburn, M. R.; Gomez-Ortiz, D.; Arvidson, R. E.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D.; Amils, R.; Friendlander, L. R.

    2007-01-01

    The extensive evidence for sulfate deposits on Mars provided by analyses of MER and Mars Express data shows that the sulfur played an essential role in the geochemical cycles of the planet, including reservoirs in the atmosphere, hydro-sphere and geosphere. Overall the data are consistent with a fluvial/lacustrine-evaporative origin of at least some of the sulfate deposits, with mineral precipitation through oversaturation of salty acidic fluids enriched in sulfates. This scenario requires reservoirs of sulfur and associated cations, as well as an acidic and oxidizing hydrochemistry which could be provided by surface and subsurface catching of meteoric waters resulting in the presence of sulfur-bearing gases and steam photochemistry. In this work we suggest a new scenario for the extensive generation of sulfates in Mars based on the observation of seasonal changes in the redox and pH of subsurface waters enriched in sulfur that supply the acidic Mars process analog of Rio Tinto. This model considers the long-term subsurface storage of sulfur during most of Noachian and its release from the late Noachian to Hesperian time through weathering by meteoric fluids that would acidify and oxidize the sulfur bearing compounds stored in the subsurface.

  2. Searching for Life Underground: An Analysis of Remote Sensing Observations of a Drill Core from Rio Tinto, Spain for Mineralogical Indications of Biological Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battler, M.; Stoker, C.

    2005-01-01

    Water is unstable on the surface of Mars, and therefore the Martian surface is not likely to support life. It is possible, however, that liquid water exists beneath the surface of Mars, and thus life might also be found in the subsurface. Subsurface life would most likely be microbial, anaerobic, and chemoautotrophic; these types of biospheres on Earth are rare, and not well understood. Finding water and life are high priorities for Mars exploration, and therefore it is important that we learn to explore the subsurface robotically, by drilling. The Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE), has searched successfully for a subsurface biosphere at Rio Tinto, Spain [1,2,3,4]. The Rio Tinto study site was selected to search for a subsurface biosphere because the extremely low pH and high concentrations of elements such as iron and copper in the Tinto River suggest the presence of a chemoautotrophic biosphere in the subsurface beneath the river. The Rio Tinto has been recognized as an important mineralogical analog to the Sinus Meridiani site on Mars [5].

  3. Scientific results and lessons learned from an integrated crewed Mars exploration simulation at the Rio Tinto Mars analogue site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orgel, Csilla; Kereszturi, Ákos; Váczi, Tamás; Groemer, Gernot; Sattler, Birgit

    2014-02-01

    Between 15 and 25 April 2011 in the framework of the PolAres programme of the Austrian Space Forum, a five-day field test of the Aouda.X spacesuit simulator was conducted at the Rio Tinto Mars-analogue site in southern Spain. The field crew was supported by a full-scale Mission Control Center (MCC) in Innsbruck, Austria. The field telemetry data were relayed to the MCC, enabling a Remote Science Support (RSS) team to study field data in near-real-time and adjust the flight planning in a flexible manner. We report on the experiences in the field of robotics, geophysics (Ground Penetrating Radar) and geology as well as life sciences in a simulated spaceflight operational environment. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) maps had been prepared using Google Earth and aerial images. The Rio Tinto mining area offers an excellent location for Mars analogue simulations. It is recognised as a terrestrial Mars analogue site because of the presence of jarosite and related sulphates, which have been identified by the NASA Mars Exploration Rover "Opportunity" in the El Capitan region of Meridiani Planum on Mars. The acidic, high ferric-sulphate content water of Rio Tinto is also considered as a possible analogue in astrobiology regarding the analysis of ferric sulphate related biochemical pathways and produced biomarkers. During our Mars simulation, 18 different types of soil and rock samples were collected by the spacesuit tester. The Raman results confirm the presence of minerals expected, such as jarosite, different Fe oxides and oxi-hydroxides, pyrite and complex Mg and Ca sulphates. Eight science experiments were conducted in the field. In this contribution first we list the important findings during the management and realisation of tests, and also a first summary of the scientific results. Based on these experiences suggestions for future analogue work are also summarised. We finish with recommendations for future field missions, including the preparation of the experiments

  4. Orbital Evidence for Clay and Acidic Sulfate Assemblages on Mars and Mineralogical Analogs from Rio Tinto, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, H. H.; Milliken, R.; Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.; Amils, R.; Robertson, K.; Knoll, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    A suite of enigmatic near-infrared reflectance spectra with a 'doublet' absorption between 2.2 and 2.3 µm is observed in CRISM (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars) hyperspectral images over Ius and Melas Chasma on Mars. The doublet-bearing deposits are found alongside other hydrated minerals including clays, sulfates, and silica, but the mineral(s) responsible for the spectral signature has yet to be identified. Reflectance spectra of rocks and sediments at Rio Tinto, Spain exhibit similar absorptions at airborne, field, and lab spatial scales. Coupled X-ray diffraction and reflectance spectra of these terrestrial examples indicate the absorption arises from a mixture of jarosite, a ferric sulfate, and Al-phyllosilicates (illite/muscovite). Detailed analysis of CRISM data over Ius and Melas Chasma suggests that these deposits also contain mixtures of jarosite and Al-phyllosilicate, where the latter may include halloysite, kaolinite and/or montmorillonite in addition to illite/muscovite. This interpretation is supported because (1) the two absorptions in the doublet feature vary independently, implying the presence of two or more phases, (2) the position of the absorptions is consistent with Al-OH and Fe-OH vibrations in both the Rio Tinto and CRISM spectra and (3) Al-phyllosilicates and jarosite are identified separately in nearby regions. Multiple formation mechanisms are proposed based on stratigraphy in Ius Chasma, where the strength of absorptions varies within a single stratigraphic unit as well as between different units. Mechanisms include authigenic formation of jarosite, which would indicate locally acidic and oxidizing conditions, mixed with detrial Al-phyllosilicates, or authigenic formation of Al-phyllosilicates and jarosite. Each implies different conditions in terms of aqueous geochemistry, redox, and sediment transport. Results from the field, lab, and CRISM analysis will be presented to discuss how placing these spectral

  5. A Search for Life in the Subsurface At Rio Tinto Spain, An Analog To Searching For Life On Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, C. R.

    2003-12-01

    Most familiar life forms on Earth live in the surface biosphere where liquid water, sunlight, and the essential chemical elements for life are abundant. However, such environments are not found on Mars or anywhere else in the solar system. On Mars, the surface environmental conditions of pressure and temperature prevent formation of liquid water. Furthermore, conditions at the Martian surface are unfavorable to life due to intense ultraviolet radiation and strong oxidizing compounds that destroy organic compounds. However, subsurface liquid water on Mars has been predicted on theoretical grounds. The recent discovery of near surface ground ice by the Mars Odyssey mission, and the abundant evidence for recent Gully features observed by the Mars Global Surveyor mission strengthen the case for subsurface liquid water on Mars. Thus, the strategy for searching for life on Mars points to drilling to the depth of liquid water, bringing samples to the surface and analyzing them with instrumentation to detect in situ organisms and biomarker compounds. The MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment) project is a field experiment focused on searching for a hypothesized subsurface anaerobic chemoautotrophic biosphere in the region of the Rio Tinto, a river in southwestern Spain while also demonstrating technology relevant to searching for a subsurface biosphere on Mars. The Tinto river is located in the Iberian Pyrite belt, one of the largest deposits of sulfide minerals in the world. The surface (river) system is an acidic extreme environment produced and maintained by microbes that metabolize sulfide minerals and produce sulfuric acid as a byproduct. Evidence suggests that the river is a surface manifestation of an underground biochemical reactor. Organisms found in the river are capable of chemoautotrophic metabolism using sulfide and ferric iron mineral substrates, suggesting these organisms could thrive in groundwater which is the source of the Rio Tinto

  6. Mineralogical In-situ Investigation of Acid-Sulfate Samples from the Rio Tinto River, Spain, with a Portable XRD/XRF Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarrazin, P.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Fernandez-Remolar, D.; Amils, R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Blake, D.; Bish, D. L.

    2007-01-01

    A field campaign was organized in September 2006 by Centro de Astobiologica (Spain) and Washington University (St Louis, USA) for the geological study of the Rio Tinto river bed sediments using a suite of in-situ instruments comprising an ASD reflectance spectrometer, an emission spectrometer, panoramic and close-up color imaging cameras, a life detection system and NASA's CheMin 4 XRD/XRF prototype. The primary objectives of the field campaign were to study the geology of the site and test the potential of the instrument suite in an astrobiological investigation context for future Mars surface robotic missions. The results of the overall campaign will be presented elsewhere. This paper focuses on the results of the XRD/XRF instrument deployment. The specific objectives of the CheMin 4 prototype in Rio Tinto were to 1) characterize the mineralogy of efflorescent salts in their native environments; 2) analyze the mineralogy of salts and oxides from the modern environment to terraces formed earlier as part of the Rio Tinto evaporative system; and 3) map the transition from hematite-dominated terraces to the mixed goethite/salt-bearing terraces where biosignatures are best preserved.

  7. The preservation and degradation of filamentous bacteria and biomolecules within iron oxide deposits at Rio Tinto, Spain.

    PubMed

    Preston, L J; Shuster, J; Fernández-Remolar, D; Banerjee, N R; Osinski, G R; Southam, G

    2011-05-01

    One of the keys to understanding and identifying life on other planets is to study the preservation of organic compounds and their precursor micro-organisms on Earth. Rio Tinto in southwestern Spain is a well documented site of microbial preservation within iron sulphates and iron oxides over a period of 2.1 Ma. This study has investigated the preservation of filamentous iron oxidising bacteria and organics through optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, from laboratory cultures of natural samples to contemporary natural materials to million-year old river terraces. Up to 40% elemental carbon and >7% nitrogen has been identified within microbial filaments and cell clusters in all samples through SEM EDS analyses. FTIR spectroscopy identified C-H(x) absorption bands between 2960 and 2800 cm(-1), Amide I and II absorption bands at 1656 and 1535 cm(-1), respectively and functional group vibrations from within nucleic acids at 917, 1016 and 1124 cm(-1). Absorption bands tracing the diagenetic transformation of jarosite to goethite to hematite through the samples are also identified. This combination of mineralogy, microbial morphology and biomolecular evidence allows us to further understand how organic fossils are created and preserved in iron-rich environments, and ultimately will aid in the search for the earliest life on Earth and potential organics on Mars. PMID:21443552

  8. RIO Tinto Faulted Volcanosedimentary Deposits as Analog Habitats for Extant Subsurface Biospheres on Mars: A Synthesis of the MARTE Drilling Project Geobiology Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Rodriquez, N.; Davila, F.; Stevens, T.; Amils, R.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Stoker, C.

    2005-01-01

    Geochemistry and mineralogy on Mars surface characterized by the MER Opportunity Rover suggest that early Mars hosted acidic environments in the Meridiani Planum region [1, 2]. Such extreme paleoenvironments have been suggested to be a regional expression of the global Mars geological cycle that induced acidic conditions by sulfur complexation and iron buffering of aqueous solutions [3]. Under these assumptions, underground reservoirs of acidic brines and, thereby, putative acidic cryptobiospheres, may be expected. The MARTE project [4, 5] has performed a drilling campaign to search for acidic and anaerobic biospheres in R o Tinto basement [6] that may be analogs of these hypothetical communities occurring in cryptic habitats of Mars. This Rio Tinto geological region is characterized by the occurrence of huge metallic deposits of iron sulfides [7]. Late intensive diagenesis of rocks driven by a compressive regimen [8] largely reduced the porosity of rocks and induced a cortical thickening through thrusting and inverse faulting and folding. Such structures play an essential role in transporting and storing water underground as any other aquifers do in the Earth. Once the underground water reservoirs of the Ro Tinto basement contact the hydrothermal pyrite deposits, acidic brines are produced by the release of sulfates and iron through the oxidation of sulfides [9].

  9. Orbital evidence for clay and acidic sulfate assemblages on Mars based on mineralogical analogs from Rio Tinto, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Hannah H.; Milliken, Ralph E.; Fernández-Remolar, David; Amils, Ricardo; Robertson, Kevin; Knoll, Andrew H.

    2016-09-01

    Outcrops of hydrated minerals are widespread across the surface of Mars, with clay minerals and sulfates being commonly identified phases. Orbitally-based reflectance spectra are often used to classify these hydrated components in terms of a single mineralogy, although most surfaces likely contain multiple minerals that have the potential to record local geochemical conditions and processes. Reflectance spectra for previously identified deposits in Ius and Melas Chasma within the Valles Marineris, Mars, exhibit an enigmatic feature with two distinct absorptions between 2.2 and 2.3 μm. This spectral 'doublet' feature is proposed to result from a mixture of hydrated minerals, although the identity of the minerals has remained ambiguous. Here we demonstrate that similar spectral doublet features are observed in airborne, field, and laboratory reflectance spectra of rock and sediment samples from Rio Tinto, Spain. Combined visible-near infrared reflectance spectra and X-ray diffraction measurements of these samples reveal that the doublet feature arises from a mixture of Al-phyllosilicate (illite or muscovite) and jarosite. Analyses of orbital data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) shows that the martian spectral equivalents are also consistent with mixtures of Al-phyllosilicates and jarosite, where the Al-phyllosilicate may also include kaolinite and/or halloysite. A case study for a region within Ius Chasma demonstrates that the relative proportions of the Al-phyllosilicate(s) and jarosite vary within one stratigraphic unit as well as between stratigraphic units. The former observation suggests that the jarosite may be a diagenetic (authigenic) product and thus indicative of local pH and redox conditions, whereas the latter observation may be consistent with variations in sediment flux and/or fluid chemistry during sediment deposition.

  10. How eukaryotic algae can adapt to the Spain's Rio Tinto: a neo-Darwinian proposal for rapid adaptation to an extremely hostile ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Costas, Eduardo; Flores-Moya, Antonio; Perdigones, Nieves; Maneiro, Emilia; Blanco, José Luis; García, Marta Eulalia; López-Rodas, Victoria

    2007-01-01

    Microalgae contributed 60% of the total biomass in the extremely hostile (pH 2 and metal-rich waters) environment of Rio Tinto (which is used as a model for the astrobiology of Mars). These algae are closely related to nonextreme lineages, suggesting that adaptation to Rio Tinto water (RTW) must occur rapidly. Fitness from both the microalga Dictyosphaerium chlorelloides and the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa was inhibited when they were cultured in RTW. After further incubation for several weeks, D. chlorelloides survived, as a result of the growth of a variant that was resistant to RTW, but RTW-resistant cells did not appear in M. aeruginosa. A Luria-Delbrück fluctuation test revealed that D. chlorelloides RTW-resistant cells arose randomly by rare spontaneous mutations before the RTW exposure (1.38 x 10(-6) mutants per cell division). The mutants with a diminished fitness are maintained in nonextreme waters as the result of a balance between new RTW-resistant cells arising by mutation and RTW-resistant mutants eliminated by natural selection (equilibrium at c. 15 RTW-resistant per 10(7) wild-type cells). Rapid adaptation of eukaryotic algae to RTW could be the result of selection of RTW-resistant mutants occurring spontaneously in nonextreme populations that arrived fortuitously at the river in the past, or in the present continuously. PMID:17587381

  11. Organic and Inorganic Carbon in the Rio Tinto (Spain) Deep Subsurface System: a Possible Model for Subsurface Carbon and Lithoautotrophs on Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorsi, R.; Stoker, C. R.; MARTE Science Team

    2007-12-01

    The subsurface is the key environment for searching for life on planets lacking surface life. Subsurface ecosystems are of great relevance to astrobiology including the search for past/present life on Mars. Conditions on the Martian surface do not support biological activity but the subsurface might preserve organics and host subsurface life [1]. A key requirement for the analysis of subsurface samples on Mars is the ability to characterize organic vs. inorganic carbon pools. This information is needed to determine if the sample contains organic material of biological origin and/ or to establish if pools of inorganic carbon can support subsurface biospheres. The Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE) performed deep drilling of cores i.e., down to 165-m depth, in a volcanically-hosted-massive-sulfide deposit at Rio Tinto, Spain, which is considered an important analog of the Sinus Meridiani site on Mars. Results from MARTE suggest the existence of a relatively complex subsurface life including aerobic and anaerobic chemoautotrophs, and strict anaerobic methanogens sustained by Fe and S minerals in anoxic conditions, which is an ideal model analog for a deep subsurface Martian environment. We report here on the distribution of organic (C-org: 0.01-0.3Wt% and inorganic carbon (IC = 0.01-7.0 Wt%) in a subsurface rock system including weathered/oxidized i.e., gossan, and unaltered pyrite stockwork. Cores were analyzed from 3 boreholes (BH-4, BH-7, and BH-8) that penetrated down to a depth of ~165 m into massive sulfide. Nearsurface phyllosilicate rich-pockets contain the highest amounts of organics (0.3Wt%) [2], while the deeper rocks contain the highest amount of carbonates. Assessing the amount of C pools available throughout the RT subsurface brings key insight on the type of trophic system sustaining its microbial ecosystem (i.e., heterotrophs vs. autotrophs) and the biogeochemical relationships that characterize a new type of subsurface biosphere at RT. This

  12. Comparative microbial ecology of the water column of an extreme acidic pit lake, Nuestra Señora del Carmen, and the Río Tinto basin (Iberian Pyrite Belt).

    PubMed

    González-Toril, Elena; Santofimia, Esther; López-Pamo, Enrique; García-Moyano, Antonio; Aguilera, Ángeles; Amils, Ricardo

    2014-12-01

    The Iberian Pyrite Belt, located in Southwestern Spain, represents one of the world's largest accumulations of mine wastes and acid mine drainages. This study reports the comparative microbial ecology of the water column of Nuestra Señora del Carmen acid pit lake with the extreme acidic Río Tinto basin. The canonical correspondence analysis identified members of the Leptospirillum, Acidiphilium, Metallibacterium, Acidithiobacillus, Ferrimicrobium and Acidisphaera genera as the most representative microorganisms of both ecosystems. The presence of archaeal members is scarce in both systems. Only sequences clustering with the Thermoplasmata have been retrieved in the bottom layer of Nuestra Señora del Carmen and one station of Río Tinto. Although the photosynthetically active radiation values measured in this lake upper layer were low, they were sufficient to activate photosynthesis in acidophilic microorganisms. All identified photosynthetic microorganisms in Nuestra Señora del Carmen (members of the Chlamydomonas, Zygnemopsis and Klebsormidium genera) are major members of the photosynthetic eukaryotic community characterized in Río Tinto basin. This study demonstrates a close relationship between the microbial diversity of Nuestra Señora del Carmen pit lake and the diversity detected in the Río Tinto basin, which underlain the influence of the shared mineral substrates in the microbial ecology of these ecosystems. PMID:26421738

  13. Chemical and Isotopic Characterization of Waters in Rio Tinto, Spain, Shows Possible Origin of the Blueberry Haematite Nodules in Meridiani Planum, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, M. L.; Hubbard, C. G.; Mielke, R. E.; Black, S.

    2005-12-01

    Meridiani Planum sediments formed in an acid environment and include jarosite and other evaporitic sulfate minerals. Nodular spheroidal concretions appear to have grown in situ and are predominantly hematite. The source of the Rio Tinto, S. Spain, drains an area of extensive sulfide mineralization and is dominated by acid mine drainage processes. The system is not a Mars analog but potentially similar processes of sulfide oxidation produce sulfate rich waters which feed into the river and precipitate a large range of evaporitic sulfates including jarosite. Iron oxide minerals associated with the evaporites are either dispersed or bedded but not nodular. The water compositions appear to be mixtures of a few discreet end-members: the two most significant occur in undiluted form as inputs to the river and are relevant to many such systems. They both have all sulfur totally oxidized as sulfate. The first is a bright red water, pH ~1.5, Fe/S 0.5 and 23 g/L iron which is greater than 95% Fe3+. Its sulfate oxygen isotope composition is +2‰SMOW and about +7‰, relative to the water O isotope composition. These data indicate pyrite oxidation by Fe3+ with O in sulfate coming mainly from water. The second end-member is a pale green water, pH ~0.7, Fe/S 0.7, 50 g/L iron present mainly as Fe2+ and O isotope composition of sulfate about +6‰SMOW , about +12.5‰ relative to the water O value. Oxygen in sulfate comes mainly from atmospheric oxygen resulting from pyrite oxidation by molecular oxygen dissolved in water. Although the Rio Tinto system reactions probably are microbiologically mediated (relevant genera have been identified there) similar processes could occur abiotically but more slowly. Meridiani Planum sediments and nodules can be described by a plausible set of similar end-member processes. The primary source of sulfate is oxidation of sulfides present in basalt (pyrite, FeS2 or pyrrhotite, FeS) and weathering would have produced oxidized sulfate rich solutions

  14. Underground Habitats in the Río Tinto Basin: A Model for Subsurface Life Habitats on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Remolar, David C.; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Rodríguez, Nuria; Gómez, Felipe; Amils, Ricardo; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R.

    2008-10-01

    A search for evidence of cryptic life in the subsurface region of a fractured Paleozoic volcanosedimentary deposit near the source waters of the Río Tinto River (Iberian pyrite belt, southwest Spain) was carried out by Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) project investigators in 2003 and 2004. This conventional deep-drilling experiment is referred to as the MARTE ground truth drilling project. Boreholes were drilled at three sites, and samples from extracted cores were analyzed with light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Core leachates were analyzed with ion chromatography, and borehole fluids were analyzed with ion and gas chromatography. Key variables of the groundwater system (e.g. , pO2, pH, and salinity) exhibit huge ranges probably due to surficial oxygenation of overall reducing waters, physical mixing of waters, and biologically mediated water-rock interactions. Mineral distribution is mainly driven by the pH of subsurface solutions, which range from highly acidic to neutral. Borehole fluids contain dissolved gases such as CO2, CH4, and H2. SEM-EDS analyses of core samples revealed evidence of microbes attacking pyrite. The Río Tinto alteration mechanisms may be similar to subsurface weathering of the martian crust and provide insights into the possible (bio)geochemical cycles that may have accompanied underground habitats in extensive early Mars volcanic regions and associated sulfide ores.

  15. Searching for an Acidic Aquifer in the Rio Tinto Basin: First Geobiology Results of MARTE Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Stoker, C.

    2004-01-01

    Among the conceivable modern habitats to be explored for searching life on Mars are those potentially developed underground. Subsurface habitats are currently environments that, under certain physicochemical circumstances, have high thermal and hydrochemical stability [1, 2]. In planets like Mars lacking an atmospheric shield, such systems are obviously protected against radiation, which strongly alters the structure of biological macromolecules. Low porosity but fractured aquifers currently emplaced inside ancient volcano/sedimentary and hydrothermal systems act as excellent habitats [3] due to its thermal and geochemical properties. In these aquifers the temperature is controlled by a thermal balance between conduction and advection processes, which are driven by the rock composition, geological structure, water turnover of aquifers and heat generation from geothermal processes or chemical reactions [4]. Moreover, microbial communities based on chemolithotrophy can obtain energy by the oxidation of metallic ores that are currently associated to these environments. Such a community core may sustain a trophic web composed of non-autotrophic forms like heterotrophic bacteria, fungi and protozoa.

  16. Aseptically Sampled Organics in Subsurface Rocks From the Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment: An Analog For The Search for Deep Subsurface Life on Mars.}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorsi, R.; Stoker, C. R.

    2005-12-01

    The subsurface is the key environment for searching for life on planets lacking surface life. Subsurface ecosystems are of great relevance to astrobiology including the search for past/present life on Mars. The surface of Mars has conditions preventing current life but the subsurface might preserve organics and even host some life [1]. The Mars-Analog-Rio-Tinto-Experiment (MARTE) is performing a simulation of a Mars drilling experiment. This comprises conventional and robotic drilling of cores in a volcanically-hosted-massive-pyrite deposit [2] from the Iberian Pyritic Belt (IBP) and life detection experiments applying anti-contamination protocols (e.g., ATP Luminometry assay). The RT is considered an important analog of the Sinus Meridiani site on Mars and an ideal model analog for a deep subsurface Martian environment. Former results from MARTE suggest the existence of a relatively complex subsurface life including aerobic and anaerobic chemoautotrophs and strict anaerobic methanogens sustained by Fe and S minerals in anoxic conditions. A key requirement for the analysis of a subsurface sample on Mars is a set of simple tests that can help determine if the sample contains organic material of biological origin, and its potential for retaining definitive biosignatures. We report here on the presence of bulk organic matter Corg (0.03-0.05 Wt%), and Ntot (0.01-0.04 Wt%) and amount of measured ATP (Lightning MVP, Biocontrol) in weathered rocks (tuffs, gossan, pyrite stockwork from Borehole #8; >166m). This provides key insight on the type of trophic system sustaining the subsurface biosphere (i.e., heterotrophs vs. autotrophs) at RT. ATP data (Relative-Luminosity-Units, RLU) provide information on possible contamination and distribution of viable biomass with core depth (BH#8, and BH#7, ~3m). Avg. 153 RLU, i.e., surface vs. center of core, suggest that cleaness/sterility can be maintained when using a simple sterile protocol under field conditions. Results from this

  17. Organics-bearing Clays from the Rio Tinto (spain): A Novel Analog for the Phyllosilicates Outcrops Seen By Omega-mex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorsi, Rosalba

    2007-12-01

    The Rio Tinto (RT) is considered an important analog of Sinus Meridiani on Mars and an ideal model analog for a subsurface Martian setting [1]. The RT system comprises the upper sequence of an acid rock drainage system where weathered iron -rich rocks, overlain a massive-pyrite deposit. The RT analog site is ideal for testing on the preservation of organics in hematite-rich vs. phyllosilicates-rich environments [3]. It is suggested here that RT near-surface rocks, which embed pockets of Clays, represent also a potential new model analog for the phyllosilicates-rich outcrops seen by OMEGA-MEx on the surface of Mars [5]. Results from the analysis of cores drilled under the 2005 Robotic experiment of the MARTE project (Borehole#7 Site 607cm) [2-3] are presented in this paper. Primary mineral assemblages include hematite, goethite, and Phyllosilicates e.g.,smectite, kaolinite, as quantified by X-ray diffraction [4]. Organic carbon is at low concentration (<0.05%) beneath the soil horizon in most cores dominated by iron minerals but is considerably higher in Phyllosilicate-rich levels i.e., 0.2-0.3Wt% at 385 -550 cm-depth [2-3]. Phyllosilicate-rich terrains have been identified OMEGA/MEx in the Nili Fossae, Mawrth Valles and Candor Chasma regions [e.g., 5]. These outcrops are surrounded by hematite-rich deposits, which are potentially barren in organics [6]. The potential of phyllosilicates to preserve higher amounts of organics/ biosignatures is well known for several Earth environments as well as the RT near subsurface. This potential brings a relevant element for the selection of candidate sites for the MSL mission [e.g., 1]. References: [1]Fernandez-Remolar et al.,2005 EPSL, 240,149-167; [2]Stoker et al., 2007; [3] Bonaccorsi et al., 2007; [4] Sutter et al., 2007 in Astrobiology,MARTE Spec. Issue; [5] Bibring et al., 2006, Science 312, 400-404; [6] Sumner, 2004, JGR 109. Anknowlegments: NASA-Postdoctoral-Program/C.Stoker, B.Sutter, A.F Davila and the MARTE team for

  18. Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE): A Simulated Mars Drilling Mission to Search for Subsurface Life at the Rio Tinto, Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol; Lemke, Larry; Mandell, Humboldt; McKay, David; George, Jeffrey; Gomez-Alvera, Javier; Amils, Ricardo; Stevens, Todd; Miller, David

    2003-01-01

    The MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment) project was selected by the new NASA ASTEP program, which supports field experiments having an equal emphasis on Astrobiology science and technology development relevant to future Astrobiology missions. MARTE will search for a hypothesized subsurface anaerobic chemoautotrophic biosphere in the region of the Tinto River in southwestern Spain while also demonstrating technology needed to search for a subsurface biosphere on Mars. The experiment is informed by the strategy for searching for life on Mars.

  19. Simulations of Precipitation Variability over the Upper Rio Grande Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Costigan, Keeley R.; Bossert, James E.; Langley, David L.

    1997-12-31

    In this research, we study Albuquerque`s water and how it may be affected by changes in the regional climate, as manifested by variations in Rio Grande water levels. To do this, we rely on the use of coupled atmospheric, runoff, and ground water models. Preliminary work on the project has focused on uncoupled simulations of the aquifer beneath Albuquerque and winter precipitation simulations of the upper Rio Grande Basin. The latter is discussed in this paper.

  20. SNOW: THE REAL WATER SUPPLY FOR THE RIO GRANDE BASIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Rio Grande basin in Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, and Mexico is an important drainage in southwestern North America, vital for water consumption by a rapidly growing population, irrigated agriculture, economic development, preservation of endangered species, and energy generation. The most impor...

  1. Lessons learned from thirty years of geomicrobiological studies of Río Tinto.

    PubMed

    Amils, Ricardo

    2016-09-01

    Río Tinto (SW Spain) is an extreme acidic environment with a remarkable concentration of toxic heavy metals. The geomicrobiological characterization of the Tinto basin, carried out over the last thirty years, has proven the importance of the iron cycle in not only generating the river's extreme conditions, but also in maintaining the high level of microbial diversity. This work also shows that the extreme conditions found in the Tinto basin are not, as previously thought, the product of mining activities, but are, in fact, the result of the active subsurface bioreactor that obtains energy from the high concentration of massive sulfide minerals present in the Iberian Pyrite Belt. PMID:27349346

  2. Comparison Between Water Level and Precipitation in Rio Negro Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figliuolo, G. C.; Santos Da Silva, J.; Calmant, S.; Seyler, F.; Correia, F.; Oliveira, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Amazon Basin holds a lot of difficulties for providing data that enable regional researching works, because of its large extension and for having areas, whose access is very difficult. Remote sensing data presents an excellent way for monitoring the Amazon Basin and collecting data for researches. This current study aims matching radar altimetry data from the JASON-2, with the rainfall data from the TRMM satellite in order to analyze the relation between the water level and the precipitation in two different points along the Rio Negro Basin. After data analysis, it was possible noting a difference on the responding process for both regions. Whilst at the NEGRO_089_03 station (located in the city of São Gabriel da Cachoeira) the graphic of precipitation and water level were very similar, in NEGRO_063 station (located in the city of Manaus) the graphic showed a two month discrepancy due to the difference of the river's bottom size in both regions, at NEGRO_089_03's area for having a smaller river and the water level rises faster, whereas in NEGRO_063 the water level takes about two months to respond to precipitation.

  3. Extreme Drought Conditions in the Rio Grande/Bravo Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, F.; Dracup, J. A.

    2001-12-01

    The Treaty of February 3, 1944 entitled "Utilization of Waters of the Colorado and Tijuana Rivers and of the Rio Grande" between the U.S. and Mexico regulates the distribution of flows of the rivers between these two countries. The treaty is based on hydrological data available up to 1944. Using new (historical and paleoclimatological) data, the water balance presented in the Treaty is re-examinated and the 431,721,000 m3/year allocation for USA during "extreme drought conditions" is re-evaluated. The authors define "extreme drought conditions" for this basin and a hydrological drought analysis is carried out using a streamflow simulation model. The analysis is complemented with an analysis of the effects of the El Niño - Southern Oscillation and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation on precipitation and streamflow. The results of this research will be applicable to potential changes in the current water resources management policies on the basin. Given the social, economical and political importance of this basin, the findings of this research potentially will have significant impacts. This research is founded by the NSF fund SAHRA (Science and Technology Center to study and promote the "Sustainability of Water Resources in Semi-Arid Regions" at the University of Arizona).

  4. Toward a Cultural Advancement of Tinto's Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiffrida, Douglas A.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the broad appeal of Tinto's (1993) theory, it is not well supported by empirical research, especially when applied to minority students. While prior critiques of the theory indicate the need to modify Tinto's concept of "breaking away" when applying the theory to diverse students, research suggests a need for additional refinements. In…

  5. Campano-Maastrichtian foraminifera from onshore sediments in the Rio del Rey Basin, Southwest Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njoh, Oliver Anoh; Victor, Obiosio; Christopher, Agyingi

    2013-03-01

    Campanian-Maastrichtian marine sediments outcrop in five genetically linked sedimentary basins along the West African coast in the Gulf of Guinea, from the Douala Basin in Cameroon to the Anambra Basin in Nigeria. These sediments in the more centrally located Rio del Rey Basin have been the least studied. Therefore, the geologic history of this region has merely been speculative. The Rio del Rey Basin like the adjacent Niger Delta is producing hydrocarbon from the offshore Tertiary sedimentary interval in which all studies have been focused, neglecting the onshore Cretaceous sediments. Outcrops in the basin are rare, small and highly weathered. Samples from some of these sediments have yielded a few Planktonic and dominantly benthonic foraminiferal assemblages. The long-ranging heterohelix and hedbergellids characterized the planktics while the species Afrobolivina afra which is a well known diagnostic taxon for Campanian-Maastrichtian sediments in West African basins clearly dominate the benthic assemblage. Its occurrence in association with other Upper Cretaceous forms such as Bolivina explicata, Praebulimina exiqua, Gabonita lata, Ammobaculites coprolithiformis amongst others, formed the basis on which this age was assigned to the sediments sampled from the Rio del Rey Basin. Hence, this work has undoubtedly established the much needed link in this regional geologic history and correlates these sediments with the Logbaba and Nkporo Formations in the Douala Basin in Cameroon and the southeastern Nigerian Sedimentary Basins. Thus, these units were all deposited during this same geologic period and probably controlled by the same geologic event.

  6. Reconnaissance of sedimentation in the Rio Pilcomayo Basin, May 1975, Argentina, Bolivia, and Paraguay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ritter, John R.

    1977-01-01

    The Rio Pilcomayo ' Alto ' (Bolivia) and ' Superior ' (Bolivia, Argentina, and Paraguay) transport large quantities of sediment for the size of the basin. The Rio Pilcomayo ' Inferior ' (Argentina and Paraguay) carries little sediment. The large loads of the ' Alto ' and ' Superior ' must be considered before dams or irrigation projects are started. The shifting channel and flooding of the Rio Pilcomayo ' Superior ' also are problems to be considered before development. The Rio Pilcomayo ' Alto ' basin has relatively little sediment deposition whereas the ' Superior ' basin has considerable deposition. A part of the ' Superior ' channel is filled with sediment to the top of its banks. The upstream limit of filling is moving farther upstream each year causing the place of overbank flooding to move upstream also. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. Trace elements and organic compounds associated with riverbed sediments in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo basin, Mexico and Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, R.W.; Wilson, J.T.

    1997-01-01

    In 1991, the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC) was mandated by the Texas Clean Rivers Act (Senate Bill 818) to assess water quality of rivers in Texas. Recent efforts to collect information for the assessment of water quality in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin have involved Federal agencies on both sides of the 1,248-mile U.S.-Mexico border?U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Secretaria de Desarollo Social (Secretary for Social Development, Mexico), National Water Commission of Mexico, and International Boundary and Water Commission?as well as State and local agencies in a spirit of international cooperation. Substantial efforts have been made to gather data needed to determine the quality of water and ecological status of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo, especially at sites along the border (fig. 1). The purpose of this report is to assess selected historical data of trace elements and organic compounds in riverbed sediments of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo, and of the Pecos River and the Arroyo Colorado in Texas.

  8. Economic impact of alternative policy responses to prolonged and severe drought in the Rio Grande Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booker, James F.; Michelsen, Ari M.; Ward, Frank A.

    2005-02-01

    In the Rio Grande Basin, water is overallocated, demands are growing, and river flows and uses are vulnerable to drought and climate change. Currently, the basin is in the third year of severe drought; irrigation and municipal water diversions have been severely curtailed; extensive diversions threaten endangered species, and reservoir volumes are nearly depleted. A central challenge is development of policies that efficiently and equitably allocate the basin's water resources among competing uses across political and institutional jurisdictions. A basin-wide, nonlinear programming model optimizes resource allocations and water use levels for the upper part of the Rio Grande Basin to test whether institutional adjustments can reduce damages caused by drought. Compared to existing institutions, we find that future drought damages could be reduced by 20 and 33% per year through intracompact and interstate water markets, respectively, that would allow water transfers across water management jurisdictions. Results reveal economic tradeoffs among water uses, regions, and drought control strategies.

  9. Río Tinto: A Geochemical and Mineralogical Terrestrial Analogue of Mars

    PubMed Central

    Amils, Ricardo; Fernández-Remolar, David

    2014-01-01

    The geomicrobiological characterization of the water column and sediments of Río Tinto (Huelva, Southwestern Spain) have proven the importance of the iron and the sulfur cycles, not only in generating the extreme conditions of the habitat (low pH, high concentration of toxic heavy metals), but also in maintaining the high level of microbial diversity detected in the basin. It has been proven that the extreme acidic conditions of Río Tinto basin are not the product of 5000 years of mining activity in the area, but the consequence of an active underground bioreactor that obtains its energy from the massive sulfidic minerals existing in the Iberian Pyrite Belt. Two drilling projects, MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment) (2003–2006) and IPBSL (Iberian Pyrite Belt Subsurface Life Detection) (2011–2015), were developed and carried out to provide evidence of subsurface microbial activity and the potential resources that support these activities. The reduced substrates and the oxidants that drive the system appear to come from the rock matrix. These resources need only groundwater to launch diverse microbial metabolisms. The similarities between the vast sulfate and iron oxide deposits on Mars and the main sulfide bioleaching products found in the Tinto basin have given Río Tinto the status of a geochemical and mineralogical Mars terrestrial analogue. PMID:25370383

  10. Río Tinto: A Geochemical and Mineralogical Terrestrial Analogue of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amils, Ricardo; Fernández-Remolar, David

    2014-09-01

    The geomicrobiological characterization of the water column and sediments of Río Tinto (Huelva, Southwestern Spain) have proven the importance of the iron and the sulfur cycles, not only in generating the extreme conditions of the habitat (low pH, high concentration of toxic heavy metals), but also in maintaining the high level of microbial diversity detected in the basin. It has been proven that the extreme acidic conditions of Río Tinto basin are not the product of 5000 years of mining activity in the area, but the consequence of an active underground bioreactor that obtains its energy from the massive sulfidic minerals existing in the Iberian Pyrite Belt. Two drilling projects, MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment) (2003-2006) and IPBSL (Iberian Pyrite Belt Subsurface Life Detection) (2011-2015), were developed and carried out to provide evidence of subsurface microbial activity and the potential resources that support these activities. The reduced substrates and the oxidants that drive the system appear to come from the rock matrix. These resources need only groundwater to launch diverse microbial metabolisms. The similarities between the vast sulfate and iron oxide deposits on Mars and the main sulfide bioleaching products found in the Tinto basin have given Río Tinto the status of a geochemical and mineralogical Mars terrestrial analogue.

  11. Río tinto: a geochemical and mineralogical terrestrial analogue of Mars.

    PubMed

    Amils, Ricardo; Fernández-Remolar, David; The Ipbsl Team

    2014-01-01

    The geomicrobiological characterization of the water column and sediments of Río Tinto (Huelva, Southwestern Spain) have proven the importance of the iron and the sulfur cycles, not only in generating the extreme conditions of the habitat (low pH, high concentration of toxic heavy metals), but also in maintaining the high level of microbial diversity detected in the basin. It has been proven that the extreme acidic conditions of Río Tinto basin are not the product of 5000 years of mining activity in the area, but the consequence of an active underground bioreactor that obtains its energy from the massive sulfidic minerals existing in the Iberian Pyrite Belt. Two drilling projects, MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment) (2003-2006) and IPBSL (Iberian Pyrite Belt Subsurface Life Detection) (2011-2015), were developed and carried out to provide evidence of subsurface microbial activity and the potential resources that support these activities. The reduced substrates and the oxidants that drive the system appear to come from the rock matrix. These resources need only groundwater to launch diverse microbial metabolisms. The similarities between the vast sulfate and iron oxide deposits on Mars and the main sulfide bioleaching products found in the Tinto basin have given Río Tinto the status of a geochemical and mineralogical Mars terrestrial analogue. PMID:25370383

  12. Biological Control of Saltcedar and Giant Reed in the Lower Rio Grande Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) and giant reed (Arundo donax L.) are exotic invasive weeds along the banks of rivers and reservoirs throughout the western U.S. In the Rio Grande Basin of Texas and Mexico, these weeds compete for water resources that are critical for agricultural and urban users and that s...

  13. The topographic distribution of annual incoming solar radiation in the Rio Grande River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubayah, R.; van Katwijk, V.

    1992-11-01

    We model the annual incoming solar radiation topoclimatology for the Rio Grande River basin in Colorado, U.S.A. Hourly pyranometer measurements are combined with satellite reflectance data and 30 m digital elevation models within a topographic solar radiation algorithm. Our results show that there is large spatial variability within the basin, even at an annual integration length, but the annual, basin-Wide mean is close to that measured by the pyranometers. The variance within 16 km2 and 100 km2 regions is a linear function of the average slope in the region, suggesting a possible parameterization for sub-grid cell variability.

  14. The topographic distribution of annual incoming solar radiation in the Rio Grande River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Dubayah, R.; Van Katwijk, V. USDA, Hydrology Lab., Beltsville, MD )

    1992-11-01

    We model the annual incoming solar radiation topoclimatology for the Rio Grande River basin in Colorado, U.S.A. Hourly pyranometer measurements are combined with satellite reflectance data and 30-m digital elevation models within a topographic solar radiation algorithm. Our results show that there is large spatial variability within the basin, even at an annual integration length, but the annual, basin-wide mean is close to that measured by the pyranometers. The variance within 16 sq km and 100 sq km regions is a linear function of the average slope in the region, suggesting a possible parameterization for sub-grid-cell variability. 13 refs.

  15. The topographic distribution of annual incoming solar radiation in the Rio Grande River basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubayah, R.; Van Katwijk, V.

    1992-01-01

    We model the annual incoming solar radiation topoclimatology for the Rio Grande River basin in Colorado, U.S.A. Hourly pyranometer measurements are combined with satellite reflectance data and 30-m digital elevation models within a topographic solar radiation algorithm. Our results show that there is large spatial variability within the basin, even at an annual integration length, but the annual, basin-wide mean is close to that measured by the pyranometers. The variance within 16 sq km and 100 sq km regions is a linear function of the average slope in the region, suggesting a possible parameterization for sub-grid-cell variability.

  16. A new species of Hisonotus (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) from rio São Francisco basin, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Roxo, Fábio F.; Silva, Gabriel S. C.; Oliveira, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Hisonotus is described from the rio São Francisco basin. The new species can be distinguished from congeners by having (1) a unique coloration pattern of caudal fin with one black spot extending from its origin to the ventral lobe and two dark spots at the end of the lobe’s rays; (2) odontodes forming longitudinally aligned rows on head and trunk; (3) a functional V-shaped spinelet; (4) a single rostral plate at the tip of the snout; (5) by lacking contrasting dark geometric spots on the anterodorsal region of the body; (6) a lower caudal-peduncle depth; and (7) lower counts of the lateral median plates and (8) higher premaxillary and dentary teeth. The new species is the second described species of the genus Hisonotus in the rio São Francisco basin. It was found inhabiting the marginal vegetation of the rio São Francisco and three of its tributary, rio das Velhas, rio Paraopeba and rio Formoso. PMID:25931967

  17. Short to Medium-Range Hydrometeorological Forecasts in the Rio Grijalva Basin, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uribe, E. M.; Shuttleworth, W. J.; Gupta, H. V.; Mullen, S. L.; Zeng, X.

    2007-05-01

    This paper describes research in support of a project to enable the interpretation of modeled meteorological fields in terms of streamflow in the Rio Grijalva basin, located in southern Mexico. The Rio Grijalva basin is the most important basin in terms of hydropower production, and one of the basins most affected by floods in Mexico. So establishing a short to medium-range hydrometeorological forecasting system is recommended. A physical, distributed, hydrological model (MMS-PRMS) is established through the following steps: 1) basin parameterization, 2) parameter optimization, and 3) implementation of modeled meteorological fields into the resulting hydrological model. Most datasets for topographic, soil and vegetation parameter derivation for the MMS- PRMS are only available in the United States so an alternative derivation methodology from global, publicly available, surrogate datasets is proposed. Parameter optimization is performed through the Shuffled Complex Evolution method with the use of a local hydrometeorological network. The documentation of these initial steps is considered relevant for other hydrological modelers in Mexico and other countries where hydrological models, parameterization datasets, and optimization tools are limited. The short-term predictive capabilities of the resulting model are tested using modeled rainfall and temperature from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR). A relevant bias in NARR-rainfall is identified. Methodologies for a probabilistic bias-correction and uncertainty estimation in the meteorological fields are proposed. The bias-identification and correction are perhaps the most important results. Thus suggesting NARR fields should be should follow a similar process previous to their analysis.

  18. IRBM for the Rio Conchos Basin as a Restoration and Conservation Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrios, E.; Rodriguez, J. A.; de La Maza, M.

    2007-12-01

    The Rio Conchos basin is the main water supply for the people of the State of Chihuahua and the middle and lower Rio Bravo in northern Mexico. Flowing for about 850 km from the highlands of the Sierra Tarahumara towards the wide valleys of the Chihuahuan Desert, the river presents recurrent periods of water stress and its basin of 6.7 million of hectares experiences a wide spectrum of problems such us long drought periods, water over allocation and extraction, water pollution, severe soil use changes. Besides, drastic soil moisture reduction is forecasted by effects of climate change. These natural and anthropological harmful situations impose a serious stress for this important and beautiful river and the rest of the basin hydrological resources. The WWF-Gonzalo Rio Arronte Alliance and its partners USAID, The Coca Cola Company and RICOH are implementing since 2004 an Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM) strategy to recover the natural integrity of the Rio Conchos in the form of environmental flow. The strategy includes the five basic working lines: i) development of river basin scientific knowledge, ii) strengthen of local institutional capacities, iii) development of demonstrative projects, iv) strengthen of indigenous communities, v) education and communication. Although the implementation of the IRBM program is expected to show main results until the year 2050, some interesting results have been obtained. The strategy has provided i) new basic knowledge about the basin dynamic events such as soil change use rates, baseline values of biological integrity, water economic values, among others; ii) strong program acceptance by government and main water users (farmers), and the integration of a working group formed by government, academia and NGO's; iii) local acceptance and understanding of benefits about basin management (soil recovery, reforestation, ecological sanitation) through demonstrative projects; iv) social organization; v) few advances in education

  19. Water resources simulation in the Rio Grande basin using coupled models

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, E.P.; Winter, C.L.; Bossert, J.E.

    1999-04-01

    Regional assessments of water resources under global climate change require models that can resolve management, land use, and climate effects. Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing a coupled model of water resources that places a river basin in its global context. The upper Rio Grande basin above El Paso, Texas is the testbed for this model. The model structure and computational approach are emphasize and issues such as nonlinear feedback between components and spatial and temporal scaling of processes are discussed. Using simulations of regional meteorology, the effects of high spatial resolution simulations on the distribution of precipitation are demonstrated.

  20. Tinto's Model and Successful College Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, John E.

    1999-01-01

    Compares the themes of academic and social integration in Tinto's model of college student attrition with the themes of "vision" and "sense of community" as described in a recent ethnographic study. It is argued that vision and sense of community are more useful theoretical considerations in helping address college student retention than is…

  1. A new species of Centromochlus (Siluriformes, Auchenipteridae, Centromochlinae) from the middle Rio Tocantins basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Birindelli, J L O; Sarmento-Soares, L M; Lima, F C T

    2015-10-01

    A new species of the catfish genus Centromochlus (Auchenipteridae, Centromochlinae) is described. The new species is diagnosed by having numerous dark rounded blotches over the body and fins, dorsal-fin spine with serrations anteriorly and smooth posteriorly, anal fin of mature males with three unbranched and seven branched rays, anterior nuchal plate absent and posterior nuchal plate not extended ventrally. The new species is described from a small stream in the Estação Ecológica Serra Geral de Tocantins, a natural reserve in the centre of the Brazilian Cerrado, close to the watershed between the Rio Tocantins and the Rio São Francisco basins. The new species is possibly the sister taxon to the recently described Centromochlus meridionalis from the upper Rio Tapajós. Those two species share with Centromochlus perugiae, from the upper Amazon and upper Paraguay, derived features associated with the modified anal fin in sexually mature males. PMID:26287270

  2. A Coupled Modeling System to Simulate Water Resources in the Rio Grande Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Bossert, J.E.; Breshears, D.D.; Campbell, K.; Costigan, K.R.; Greene, R.K.; Keating, E.H.; Kleifgen, L.M.; Langley, D.L.; Martens, S.N.; Sanderson, J.G.; Springer, E.P.; Stalker, J.R.; Tartakovsky, D.M.; Winter, C.L.; Zyvoloski, G.A.

    1999-01-11

    Limited availability of fresh water in arid and semi-arid regions of the world requires prudent management strategies from accurate, science-based assessments. These assessments demand a thorough understanding of the hydrologic cycle over long time periods within the individual water-sheds that comprise large river basins. Measurement and simulation of the hydrologic cycle is a tremendous challenge, involving a coupling between global to regional-scale atmospheric precipitation processes with regional to local-scale land surface and subsurface water transport. Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing a detailed modeling system of the hydrologic cycle and applying this tool at high resolution to assess the water balance within the upper Rio Grande river basin. The Rio Grande is a prime example of a river system in a semiarid environment, with a high demand from agricultural, industrial, recreational, and municipal interests for its water supply. Within this river basin, groundwater supplies often augment surface water. With increasing growth projected throughout the river basin, however, these multiple water users have the potential to significantly deplete groundwater resources, thereby increasing the dependence on surface water resources.

  3. Significant cenozoic faulting, east margin of the Espanola basin, Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, J.H. ); Riecker, R.E.

    1989-03-01

    Tectonic interpretation of the east margin of the Espanola Basin, Rio Grande rift, New Mexico, has been controversial. Previous authors have disagreed as to whether significant faulting defines the boundary between the basin and the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. A more recent geophysical basin transect that suggests no significant faulting and field observation of faceted spurs along the western Sangre de Cristo Mountain front indicating a faulted margin motivate our study. The east margin of the Espanola Basin for about 37 km north of Santa Fe, New Mexico, is marked by a complex array of significant, late Cenozoic high-angle faults. Locally, three parallel, north-trending, high-angle faults cut Precambrian basement and Tertiary basin-full rocks along the basin margin. Elsewhere along the margin, tilted fault blocks and intersecting faults occur. Fault area, fault attitude with depth, magnitude of fault motion, and timing of fault motion remain uncertain. However, faults studied in detail are 1-2 km long, have minimum dip-slip motion of 33-100 m, and underwent movement during the late Cenozoic. Potentially significant tectonic and seismic hazard implications arise from the possibility of post-150 ka fault motion.

  4. Gravity-driven structures and rift basin evolution: Rio Muni Basin, offshore equatorial West Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.P.

    1995-08-01

    Offshore Equatorial Guinea, west Africa, gravity-driven nappes, more than 1 km thick and 15 km from head to toe, provide key evidence in reconstructing the late synrift: evolution of this part of the South Atlantic margin basin system. Furthermore, Aptian-Cenomanian carbonate and clastic rocks in the nappes` allochthonous hanging walls are attracting interest as a new exploration play in west Africa. The nappes exhibit a range of geometries that suggest they share many of the same deformation processes as thin-skin thrust and linked extensional fault systems. Not only are these structures significant in their own right, representing a rare example of gravity tectonics in the virtual absence of major halokinesis, but their presence may record an other-wise undetectable process active during the transition from a rift basin to a passive continental margin. A review of Equatorial Guinea in its pre-Atlantic configuration, alongside neighboring basins in Brazil (the Sergipe-Alagoas basin) and Gabon, suggests that gravity gliding was sustained by a relatively steep, westward paleoslope promoted by east-ward offset of the locus of thermal uplift from the rift basin (i.e., a simple shear model of basin formation). In contrast to gravity-driven structures in most postrift settings, the Equatorial Guinea nappes developed at the close of the Aptian-Albian synrift episode in response to a growing bathymetric deep caused by rapid subsidence outpacing restricted sedimentation.

  5. A regional perspective on arsenic in waters of the Middle Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Chapin, C.E.; Dunbar, N.W.

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this paper are to provide a concise summary and a regional perspective on the geochemical characteristics and occurrence of arsenic in waters of the Middle Rio Grande Basin. The initial intent was to discuss arsenic in groundwater, but, because of interrelationships between ground and surface waters, the need to research arsenic variations in both soon became apparent. To develop a regional perspective on natural variations in arsenic in ground and surface waters of the western US the author obtained all the arsenic analyses in the STORET data base of the US Environmental Improvement Agency for the Rio grande, Colorado and Snake rivers, and a more limited data set for some of their tributaries, some wastewater treatment plants along their drainages, and for some springs and wells.

  6. Radionuclide concentrations in bed sediment and fish tissue within the Rio Grande drainage basin

    SciTech Connect

    Booher, J.L.; Fresquez, P.R.; Carter, L.F.; Gallaher, B.M.; Mullen, M.A.

    1998-02-01

    In 1992-93, Los Alamos National Laboratory collaborated with the U.S. Geological Survey in an effort to characterize radionuclide concentrations in bed sediment and fish tissue within the Rio Grande drainage basin from Colorado to Texas. Bed sediment was sampled from 18 locations for cesium ({sup 137}Cs), tritium ({sup 3}H), strontium ({sup 90}Sr), plutonium ({sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu), americium ({sup 241}Am), total uranium ({sup tot}U) and alpha, beta, and gamma activity. Fish tissue was sampled from 12 locations for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu and {sup tot}U.

  7. Historic interrelationships of humans and the ecosystems of the Middle Rio Grande Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Scurlock, D.

    1995-12-31

    An ongoing study of the environmental history of the Middle Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico, is revealing major impacts on and changes to ecosystems over the past 455 years. Various land uses, such as grazing, irrigation farming, logging, and constructing flood control features, combined with climatic fluctuations have adversely produced changes in stream flow-morphology, ground water levels, topsoils, biotic communities, and individual species. Indigenous human populations have been adversely impacted by these modifications as well. Continued land-water use-impacts from a rapidly increasing regional population portend continuing changes and major challenges for natural and human resource management agencies and organizations.

  8. Sustainable Groundwater and Surface Water Management in the Rio Yaqui Basin, Sonora, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz-Hernandez, A.; Mayer, A. S.

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to focus on a coastal basin located primarily in Northwest Mexico, the Rio Yaqui Basin. The basin has roughly 72,000 square kilometers of land and it is classified as a semi-arid climate with an average rainfall of 527 mm per year. The water to meet user demands comes from three reservoirs, in series, constructed along the river. Agriculture is the main user of water in the basin. The farmers use groundwater as a buffer when the surface water is insufficient to meet irrigation demands. However, if the extractions become greater than the natural recharge, the aquifer could suffer irreversible damage caused by overexploitation and salt water intrusion. A rainfall-runoff model for the Rio Yaqui Basin has been created and calibrated on a monthly basis for a period of thirty years. A node link network that includes the main reservoirs and the river reaches is the conceptual basis for the surface water model. A MATLAB code was developed to estimate the monthly storage in the reservoirs by solving a water balance. The program reproduces the water allocation within the basin based on water rights and also includes the maximum groundwater usage allowed to the farmers. The rainfall-runoff model was coupled with a groundwater model of the Yaqui Valley developed by Addams (2004) and modified by Schoups (2006). This model includes flow in the main canals and infiltration to the aquifer. The impacts of climate change and climate variability on the surface water and groundwater storage are assessed. A sensitivity analysis was explored in order to assess the sustainability of the basin under various water management practices. Addams L. 2004. Water resource policy evaluation using a combined hydrologic-economic-agronomic modeling framework: Yaqui Valley, Sonora, Mexico. Ph.D.dissertation, Stanford University. Schoups G., C.L.Addams, J.L.Minjares, and S.M.Gorelick. 2006. Sustainable conjunctive water management in irrigated agriculture: Model formulation

  9. Short to medium range hydrometeorological forecasting in the Rio Grijalva basin, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uribe Alcantara, Edgar Misael

    The Rio Grijalva basin is the most important basin in Mexico in terms of hydropower production and damages related to extreme rainfall events. This study investigates establishing a short- to medium-range hydrometeorological forecasting system for this basin which comprises a hydrological model and a regional Numerical Weather Prediction Model (NWPM). A physical, distributed, hydrological model (MMS-PRMS) is implemented through the following steps: (1) basin parameterization; (2) interfacing to observed meteorological fields, and (3) parameter optimization. The datasets normally used to parameterize the MMS-PRMS are only available in the US so an alternative methodology for deriving parameters from globally available public datasets was devised. Modeled streamflow calculated by model with the initial parameters was in good agreement with observed streamflow, and optimization yielded even better agreement. The predictive capabilities of the hydrological model was then tested by implementing modeled rainfall and temperature from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), these data being used as a surrogate for those that would be available from a regional NWPM. A significant bias in NARR-rainfall was identified and a novel probabilistic correction procedure devised. This procedure was then extended to provide estimates of uncertainty in the modeled streamflow. Within the calculated uncertainty, the modeled streamflow calculated with these corrected NARR data is in good agreement with modeled streamflow calculated using local meteorological data.

  10. Evaluation of MODIS snow cover products in the Upper Rio Grande River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, A.; Barnett, A.; Lee, S.

    2003-04-01

    Snow cover is an important water resource for the Upper Rio Grande River Basin of Colorado and New Mexico. Global daily snow cover maps currently are produced from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data and are freely distributed by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). The classification accuracy of these daily snow maps was assessed by comparing MODIS snow cover maps with operational snow cover maps produced by the National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center (NOHRSC) and against in situ SNOTEL (Snowpack Telemetry) measurements for the 2000-2001 snow season. For days during the 2000-2001 snow season where both MODIS and NOHRSC snow maps exist the overall snow classification agreement is 86 percent. Comparisons of both snow maps against in situ SNOTEL measurements for the same days indicate snow mapping accuracies of 94 percent and 76 percent for MODIS and NOHRSC, respectively. A lengthened comparison of MODIS against SNOTEL measurements which increases the number of comparisons for snow-free conditions indicates a slightly lower overall classification accuracy of 88 percent. In addition, assessment of the usefulness of these two snow cover products as inputs into the Snowmelt Runoff Model (SRM) for streamflow prediction in the Upper Rio Grande River Basin is ongoing.

  11. Hydrogeochemical characteristics of the Tinto and Odiel Rivers (SW Spain). Factors controlling metal contents.

    PubMed

    Cánovas, C R; Olías, M; Nieto, J M; Sarmiento, A M; Cerón, J C

    2007-02-01

    The Tinto and Odiel Rivers are strongly affected by acid mine drainage (AMD) due to the intense sulphide mining developed in their basins over the past 5000 years. In this study the results obtained from a weekly sampling in both rivers, before their mouth in the Ría of Huelva, over three and a half years of control are analysed. In the Tinto River, the concentrations of sulphates, Al, Cd, Co, Li and Zn are double to those of the Odiel as a consequence of lower dilution. However, the concentration of Fe in the Odiel River is 20 times lower, since the precipitation of Fe oxyhydroxysulphates caused by neutralisation processes is more intense. Lower As, Cr, Cu and Pb concentrations are also found in the Odiel River as, to a greater or lesser extent, they are sorbed and/or coprecipitated with Fe. Other elements such as Be, Mn, Ni and Mg show similar values in both systems, which is ascribed to lithological factors. The seasonal evolution of contaminants is typical of rivers affected by AMD, reaching a maximum in autumn due to the dissolution of evaporitic salts precipitated during the summer. Nevertheless, in the Tinto River, Ca, Na and Sr show a strong increase during the summer, probably due to a greater water interaction with marly materials, through which the last reach of the river flows. Barium has a different behaviour from the rest of the metals and its concentration seems to be controlled by the solubility of barite. Iron, As and Pb show different behaviours in both rivers, those for Fe and As possibly linked to the prevalence of different dissolved species of Fe. The different Pb pattern is probably due to the control of Pb solubility by anglesite or other minerals rich in Pb in the Tinto River. PMID:17207846

  12. Petroleum geology of the deltaic sequence, Rio Del Rey basin, offshore Cameroon

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, R.M.; Bement, W.O.; Maloney, W.V. )

    1993-09-01

    The Rio Del Rey Basin of offshore Cameroon comprises the easternmost portion of the Niger delta complex. In the delta flank setting, the overall package is thinner and stratigraphic correlation simpler than in the depocenter to the west so the distribution of reservoirs and seals is well defined. Productive reservoirs are shallow, typically less than 2000 m, and mostly hydropressured to slightly overpressured. Reservoir properties generally are excellent and seismic bright-spot technology has played a major role in exploration and development efforts. Rio Del Rey is characterized by three main structural styles from north to south: (1) detachment-based growth faults, (2) highly faulted, mobile shale cored domes and ridges, and (3) toe thrusts and folds. Virtually all individual traps are fault dependent and lack of sufficient internal seals in sand-rich wave-dominated deltaic sequences can limit the objective window. Most fields are downthrown fault traps in which hanging-wall reservoirs are effectively sealed against older prodelta and marine shales. All large oil fields are located in the dome and ridge province and are potential analogs for similar structures now being explored on the upper slope off Nigeria. The best quality source rocks identified thus far are Paleocene to Eocene marine shales. Oil vs. gas distribution in the basin is a function of variations in the kerogen type, organic richness, and maturity of these source rocks. A significant quantity of the gas found to date in Rio Del Rey is biogenic in origin. The Cameroon charge model may aid in better understanding hydrocarbon distribution on offshore Nigeria, where the Miocene deltaic section is much thicker and potential Paleocene-Eocene source rocks likely are unpenetrated. The shallow deltaic play in Cameroon is relatively mature. Future exploration likely will focus on identifying deeper, nonbright-spot-supported opportunities including potential stratigraphic traps.

  13. New species of Moenkhausia Eigenmann (Characiformes: Characidae) from Rio Xingu and Rio Tapajós basins, Brazil, with comments on a putative case of polymorphic Batesian mimicry.

    PubMed

    Zanata, A M; Birindelli, J L O; Moreira, C R

    2009-12-01

    A new species of Moenkhausia is described from Rio Xingu and Rio Tapajós basins, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from its congeners, except from Moenkhausia moisae, by having more scales in the lateral series, 43-47 (v. 23-41 in the remaining congeners). The new species is distinguished from M. moisae by its colour pattern, which consists of a dark midlateral stripe, and an asymmetrical caudal blotch (inconspicuous or faded in specimens from the Rio Arinos) continuous with the midlateral stripe (v. narrow dark midlateral line and conspicuous, regularly rounded and symmetrical blotch not continuous with the midlateral line). The new species is putatively assumed to be mimetic to Jupiaba apenima, in the Rio Xingu and Rio Teles Pires drainages, and to Jupiaba yarina in the Rio Arinos. The two species of Jupiaba are sympatric and remarkably similar in size, general external morphology and colouration to the new species. A small difference occurs in the colouration between the two species of Jupiaba and is also observed in the two respectively sympatric morphotypes of the new species of Moenkhausia. The occurrence of polymorphic Batesian mimicry is therefore discussed for neotropical freshwater fishes. PMID:20738511

  14. A Physical Assessment of the Opportunities for Improved Management of the Water Resources of the Bi-National Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparicio, J.; McKinney, D.; Valdes, J.; Guitron, A.; Thomas, G.

    2007-05-01

    The hydro-physical opportunities for expanding the beneficial uses of the fixed water supply in the Rio Grande/Bravo Basin to better satisfy an array of water management goals are examined. These include making agriculture more resilient to periodic conditions of drought, improving the reliability of supplies to cities and towns, and restoring lost environmental functions in the river system. This is a comprehensive, outcome-neutral, model- based planning exercise performed by some 20 technical, primarily non-governmental institutions from both countries, aimed at proposing strategies that can reduce future conflicts over water throughout the entire basin. The second track consists in generating a set of future water management scenarios that respond to the needs and objectives of the basin stakeholders in each segment and each country. An array of scenarios for improved water management has been developed for the lower Rio Grande/Rio Bravo basin in Texas and the Mexican state of Tamaulipas. Another set under development will focus on the Rio Conchos and the El Paso/Juarez region. Eventually, scenarios will be generated such that will comprehend the entire basin on both sides of the border. These scenarios are the product of consultations with agricultural water districts, governmental organizations and environmental NGOs. They include strategies for reducing the physical losses of water in the system, conservation transfers, improvements in the operations of the Mexican and international reservoirs, improvements in environmental flow conditions, improvements in reliability of water supplies, and drought coping strategies.These scenarios will be evaluated for hydrologic feasibility by the basin-wide model and the gaming exercises. Modeling is necessary to understand how these options will affect the entire system and how they can be crafted to maximize the benefits and avoid unintended or uncompensated effects. The scenarios that have the potential to provide large

  15. A Decision Support System for Demand Management of the Rio Conchos Basin, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, S.; Valdes, J.; Gastelum, J.; Brookshire, D.; Aparicio, J.; Hidalgo, J.; Velazco, I.

    2003-12-01

    There is a need for integrated models of transboundary watersheds such as that of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo (RGRB) along the US/Mexico border. We present the first stage an interdisciplinary effort to develop a semi-distributed regional dynamic simulation model (DSM) for examining water issues in the Lower RGRB basin. The RGRB serves as the border between the U.S. and Mexico. We focus first on the Conchos River basin, which contributes approximately 70-80% of the surface flow in the lower RGRB basin. Irrigated agriculture has historically been the major user of water and irrigated acreage continues to expand, but it faces increasing competition from industrial development, maquiladoras, and increasing residential water demand. International agreements such as the Treaty of 1944 between the US and Mexico stipulate that the flows in the RGRB are equally split. Yet uncertainties remain due to vagaries in the legislation. For example, Mexico is required to provide an average of 350,000 AF/yr over a five-year cycle, unless "extraordinary drought" occurs, although the Treaty does not define extraordinary. The characterization of droughts poses a significant problem for hydrometeorologists and water resource engineers. Our simulation model incorporates drought indices developed to characterize droughts in semi-arid and arid regions and statistical approaches to examine the spatial influence of droughts. To examine the effects of various structural and institutional changes to water use in the basin to meet the requirements of the Treaty and simulate climactic issues, we model agricultural, municipal, and industrial water demands that are directly linked to sectors of the regional economy using input output (IO) models. IO models can be used to examine how changes in water deliveries to the agricultural or manufacturing sectors affect the level of output, employment, and wages in the regional economy. All model outputs will be incorporated into a decision support system

  16. Deformation in the Basin & Range Province and Rio Grande Rift using InSAR Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, H.; Pisaniello, M.; Pritchard, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    High heat flow in the Basin and Range Province and Rio Grande Rift has been attributed to partial melting in the crust and upper mantle as a result of ongoing extension (e.g. Lachenbruch 1978). We would then expect to observe surface deformation in areas with actively moving magmatic fluids. The distribution of these magmatic fluids has implications for the rheology of the crust and upper mantle. For this study, we use InSAR to locate deformation due to magmatic sources as well as localized hydrologic deformation. While our focus is magmatic deformation, hydrologic signals are important for correcting geodetic data used to monitor tectonic activity. InSAR is a suitable technique for a large study in the Basin and Range and Rio Grande Rift since SAR acquisitions are both numerous and temporally extensive in these regions. We use ERS-1, ERS-2, and ENVISAT SAR images from 1992-2010 to create time series' with interferograms up to 1800km long from both ascending and descending satellite tracks. Each time series has an average of 100 interferograms reducing the atmospheric noise that masks small deformation signals in single interferograms. The time series' results are validated using overlapping tracks and are further compared to signals identified in previous geophysical studies (e.g. Reilinger and Brown 1980, Massonnet et al 1997, Finnegan and Pritchard 2009). We present results for several areas of deformation in the Basin & Range Province and Rio Grande Rift. An agricultural area near Roswell, NM exhibits seasonal uplift and subsidence of ±3.5cm/yr between 1992 and 1999. Results indicate subsidence on the order of 1cm/yr and uplift of 2cm/yr at the Raft River power plant, ID that is likely related to the start of geothermal fluid production and injection. Just north of the Raft River plant, we detect what appears to be rapid agricultural subsidence in an area extending for 50km. We discuss subsidence of ~2cm/yr in Escalante Valley, UT that is comparable to

  17. Using QuickBird satellite imagery to estimate giant reed infestations in the Rio Grande Basin of Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Giant reed (Arundo donax L.) is a perennial invasive weed that presents a severe threat to agroecosystems and riparian areas in the Texas and Mexican portions of the Rio Grande Basin. The objective of this study was to use QuickBird satellite imagery to map giant reed infestations and estimate infes...

  18. 78 FR 16569 - Iowa Pacific Holdings, LLC, Permian Basin Railways, and San Luis & Rio Grande Railroad-Corporate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... Holdings, LLC (IPH), its wholly owned subsidiaries Permian Basin Railways (PBR) and San Luis & Rio Grande..., IPH is a noncarrier that wholly owns PBR, which directly controls seven Class III railroads.\\1\\ PBR... (Saratoga). In addition, PBR controls 80% of Cape Rail, Inc. (Cape Rail), a noncarrier railroad...

  19. Case study Middle Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico, USA: Chapter 12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plummer, L.N.; Sanford, W.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical and isotopic patterns in groundwater can record characteristics of water sources, flow directions, and groundwater-age information. This hydrochemical information can be useful in refining conceptualization of groundwater flow, in calibration of numerical models of groundwater flow, and in estimation of paleo and modern recharge rates. This case study shows how chemical and isotopic data were used to characterize sources and flow of groundwater in the Middle Rio Grande Basin (MRGB) of New Mexico, USA. The 14C model ages of the groundwater samples are on the tens of thousands of year timescale. These data changed some of the prevailing ideas about flow in the MRGB, and were used to improve a numerical model of the aquifer system.

  20. Description of a new species of Pareiorhina (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the rio São Francisco basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Gabriel S C; Roxo, Fábio F; Oyakawa, Osvaldo T

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper we describe a new species of Pareiorhina from Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following characters: the dorsal surface of caudal peduncle strongly concave, 30 vertebrae, bicuspid teeth, a conspicuous cylindrical shaped papilla between the oral valve and premaxilla, smaller odontodes along the snout margin, a small orbital diameter, a higher head width, a shorter interorbital width, a shorter predorsal length, a shorter cleithral width, and a shorter caudal peduncle depth. The new species is known from four small streams of the rio São Francisco basin: one tributary of the rio Maranhão, one tributary of the rio Paraopeba and two tributaries of the Rio das Velhas. This species is found in fast-flowing streams associated with rocks and sand in the bottom of the rivers. PMID:27394827

  1. Heavy metal anomalies in the Tinto and Odiel River and estuary system, Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, C.H.; Lamothe, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Tinto and Odiel rivers drain 100 km from the Rio Tinto sulphide mining district, and join at a 20-km long estuary entering the Atlantic Ocean. A reconnaissance study of heavy metal anomalies in channel sand and overbank mud of the river and estuary by semi-quantitative emission dc-arc spectrographic analysis shows the following upstream to downstream ranges in ppm (??g g-1): As 3,000 to <200, Cd 30 to <0.1, Cu 1,500 to 10, Pb 2,000 to <10, Sb 3000 to <150, and Zn 3,000 to <200. Organic-rich (1.3-2.6% total organic carbon, TOC), sandysilty overbank clay has been analyzed to represent suspended load materials. The high content of heavy metals in the overbank clay throughout the river and estuary systems indicates the importance of suspended sediment transport for dispersing heavy metals from natural erosion and anthropogenic mining activities of the sulfide deposit. The organic-poor (0.21-0.37% TOC) river bed sand has been analyzed to represent bedload transport of naturally-occurring sulfide minerals. The sand has high concentrations of metals upstream but these decrease an order of magnitude in the lower estuary. Although heavy metal contamination of estuary mouth beach sand has been diluted to background levels estuary mud exhibits increased contamination apparently related to finer grain size, higher organic carbon content, precipitation of river-borne dissolved solids, and input of anthropogenic heavy metals from industrial sources. The contaminated estuary mud disperses to the inner shelf mud belt and offshore suspended sediment, which exhibit metal anomalies from natural erosion and mining of upstream Rio Tinto sulphide lode sources (Pb, Cu, Zn) and industrial activities within the estuary (Fe, Cr, Ti). Because heavy metal contamination of Tinto-Odiel river sediment reaches or exceeds the highest levels encountered in other river sediments of Spain and Europe, a detailed analysis of metals in water and suspended sediment throughout the system, and

  2. Gravity and Seismic Investigations of the Santo Domingo Basin, Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braile, L. W.; Ferguson, J. F.; Boucher, C.; Novitsky, C. G.; O'Shea, P. M.; Daves, J.; Marzen, R.; Mendoza, K.; Rasmussen, T.; Wei, W.; Baldridge, W. S.; Biehler, S.; Claytor, J. M.; Bischoff, S. H.; Ranasinghe, N. R.; Corredor, A.

    2014-12-01

    The SAGE (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience) program collected new gravity, seismic, electromagnetic and down-hole temperature data in 2014 in the Santo Domingo Basin and adjacent areas of the Rio Grande Rift (RGR) area of northern New Mexico. The SAGE 2014 data collection was part of an integrated geophysical study of the area initiated in 2010 and adds data and interpretations to a W to E transect of the RGR. The transect includes previous SAGE seismic refraction and CMP reflection profiles recorded in 2010 and 2011, some industry seismic reflection data, and detailed gravity observations. Seismic data consisted of a 4.8 km NW to SE profile (120 three-component stations in four overlapping deployments, 20 m station spacing, using a Vibroseis source - 20 m spacing for reflection VPs; 800 m spacing for refraction VPs) along the Borrego Canyon road with both refraction and CMP reflection coverage. About 50,000 seismograms were recorded. The surface conditions (dry unconsolidated sediments) increased surface wave energy and limited the signal-to-noise level of reflection arrivals although some wide-angle reflections with two-way times as great as 1.8 s were visible. The refraction data were modeled with first arrival travel time methods and mainly helped identify the velocity and minimum thickness of the Tertiary Santa Fe group sedimentary rocks in the Santo Domingo Basin. Interpretation of the seismic and gravity data along the transect was aided by refraction velocities, the existence of a nearby regional seismic reflection profile from industry, and lithologies and well-logs from a deep well. Gravity modeling, with significant control on depths of interfaces and densities from the seismic and drill hole data, indicates that the Santo Domingo sedimentary basin has a total depth of about 6 km.

  3. Cretaceous intracontinental rifting and post-rift inversion in NE Brazil: Insights from the Rio do Peixe Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, Francisco C. C.; Marques, Fernando O.; Bezerra, Francisco H. R.; de Castro, David L.; Fuck, Reinhardt A.

    2015-03-01

    The breakup of Pangea in the Mesozoic placed the South American and African plates under horizontal extension, which triggered rifting and the formation of intracontinental basins in NE Brazil. The subsequent geodynamic evolution changed the forces acting upon the South American plate because of the simultaneous development of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and the Andes. The problem we address in this work is the effect of the changing stress field on intracontinental deformation in NE Brazil, and we used the intracontinental Rio do Peixe Basin (RPB) as case study. We used remote sensing, shuttle radar topography, geophysical data, and detailed structural geology to address this problem. Based on the integrated analysis of brittle deformation within the basin, at the basin boundaries, and in the host basement, we conclude the following: (1) In the Cretaceous, the Rio do Peixe Basin formed from an approximately NW-SE tension, as deduced from brittle deformation in sedimentary rocks within the RPB and bounding master faults. (2) Subsequently, the maximum compressive stress that acted upon the study area shifted from vertical to horizontal, and was oriented approximately ENE-WSW. The new compressive stress field inverted the RPB, which is recorded in the basin at all scales. (3) The inversion of the RPB is consistent with the stress field imposed by the MAR push (to the west) and the Andean push (to the east), which have kept the South American plate under ENE-WSW horizontal compression since the late Cretaceous.

  4. Rhinolekos capetinga: a new cascudinho species (Loricariidae, Otothyrinae) from the rio Tocantins basin and comments on its ancestral dispersal route

    PubMed Central

    Roxo, Fábio F.; Ochoa, Luz E.; Silva, Gabriel S. C.; Oliveira, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present study deals with the description of a new species of Rhinolekos. It can be distinguished from its congeners by having 31 vertebrae, the anterior portion of the compound supraneural-first dorsal-fin proximal radial contacting the neural spine of the 9th vertebra, the absence of transverse dark bands in the pectoral, pelvic and anal-fin rays, 24–28 plates in the dorsal series, the lack of odontodes on the ventral tip of the snout, the absence of accessory teeth, a greater prenasal length, a smaller head length, and by a greater snout length. Rhinolekos capetinga is restricted to the headwaters of the rio Tocantins and it is the first species of this genus in the Amazon basin. Additionally, we present a brief discussion of a biogeographic scenario that may explain the dispersal of the new species from the rio Paranaíba to the rio Tocantins basin. We suggest that the ancestral lineage of Rhinolekos capetinga reached the rio Tocantins from portions of the rio Paranaíba at the end of the Miocene, about 6.3 Mya (4.1–13.9 Mya 95% HPD), probably as a result of headwater capture processes among adjacent drainages. PMID:25685034

  5. Rhinolekoscapetinga: a new cascudinho species (Loricariidae, Otothyrinae) from the rio Tocantins basin and comments on its ancestral dispersal route.

    PubMed

    Roxo, Fábio F; Ochoa, Luz E; Silva, Gabriel S C; Oliveira, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The present study deals with the description of a new species of Rhinolekos. It can be distinguished from its congeners by having 31 vertebrae, the anterior portion of the compound supraneural-first dorsal-fin proximal radial contacting the neural spine of the 9(th) vertebra, the absence of transverse dark bands in the pectoral, pelvic and anal-fin rays, 24-28 plates in the dorsal series, the lack of odontodes on the ventral tip of the snout, the absence of accessory teeth, a greater prenasal length, a smaller head length, and by a greater snout length. Rhinolekoscapetinga is restricted to the headwaters of the rio Tocantins and it is the first species of this genus in the Amazon basin. Additionally, we present a brief discussion of a biogeographic scenario that may explain the dispersal of the new species from the rio Paranaíba to the rio Tocantins basin. We suggest that the ancestral lineage of Rhinolekoscapetinga reached the rio Tocantins from portions of the rio Paranaíba at the end of the Miocene, about 6.3 Mya (4.1-13.9 Mya 95% HPD), probably as a result of headwater capture processes among adjacent drainages. PMID:25685034

  6. Implementation of MAR within the Rio Grande Basin of Central New Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, Robert; Blandford, T. Neil; Ewing, Amy; Webb, Larry; Yuhas, Katherine

    2014-05-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation has identified the Rio Grande basin within Central New Mexico as one of several regions where water supplies are over-allocated and future conflicts over the inadequate resource are highly likely. Local water providers have consistently identified managed aquifer recharge (MAR) as an important tool to provide conjunctive management of surface-water, groundwater, and reclaimed water sources in order to extend the useful life of existing water sources. However, MAR projects have been slow to take root partly due to rigorous demonstration requirements, groundwater quality protection concerns, and ongoing water right uncertainties. At first glance the several thousand meters of unconsolidated basin-fill sediments hosting the regional aquifer appear to provide an ideal environment for the subsurface storage of surplus water. However, the basin has a complex structural and depositional history that impacts the siting and overall effectiveness of MAR systems. Several recharge projects are now in various stages of implementation and are overcoming site specific challenges including source water and ambient groundwater compatibility, low-permeability sediments and compartmentalization of the aquifer by extensive faulting, well clogging, and overall water quality management. This presentation will highlight ongoing efforts of these water providers to develop full-scale recharge facilities. The performance of natural in-channel infiltration, engineered infiltration galleries, and direct injection systems designed to introduce from 500 to 5,000 mega-liters per annum to target intervals present from 150 to 600 meters below ground surface will be described. Source waters for recharge operations include inter-basin transferred surface water and highly treated reclaimed water sources requiring from minor to extensive treatment pre-recharge and post-recovery. Operational complexities have raised concerns related to long-term operation and maintenance

  7. Seismic and Gravity Investigations of the Western Espanola Basin, Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braile, L. W.; Coldren, B. G.; Baca, A.; Fontana, J.; Olheiser, M.; Ziff, M.; Keske, A.; Rhode, A.; Martin-Short, R.; Allen, W.; Denton, K. M.; Harper, C.; Baldridge, W.; Biehler, S.; Ferguson, J. F.; McPhee, D.; Snelson, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    The SAGE (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience) program collected new seismic, gravity, electromagnetic and down-hole temperature data in 2013 in the western Espanola basin of the Rio Grande rift area of northern New Mexico. The location, about 25 km NW of Santa Fe, has been identified as a potential geothermal resources area based on relatively high temperature gradients in drill holes. The SAGE 2013 data collection was part of an integrated geophysical study of the area initiated in 2011. Seismic data consisted of a 4.8 km W to E profile (120 three-component stations in four overlapping deployments, 20 m station spacing, using a Vibroseis source - 20 m spacing for reflection VPs; 800 m spacing for refraction VPs) with both refraction and CMP reflection coverage. About 55,000 seismograms were recorded. The surface conditions (dry unconsolidated sediments) increased surface wave energy and limited the signal-to-noise level of the refraction and reflection arrivals. Utilizing longer source-receiver offsets improved the shot-gather record sections by emphasizing wider angle reflections which are very strong and coherent. The refraction data were modeled with first arrival travel time methods. The reflection data were processed to produce a CMP stacked record section. Strong reflectors from basin-filling sedimentary rocks (mostly Tertiary in age) are visible above reflections from a thin section of Paleozoic rocks and the basement. The lower reflections have an apparent dip to the west of about 12 degrees. Eighty-one new gravity measurements (detailed data at 200 m spacing along the seismic profile, and regional stations) were collected and combined with existing regional data for modeling. Interpretation of the seismic and gravity data was aided by refraction velocities, the existence of a nearby regional seismic reflection profile from industry, and lithologies and well-logs from a deep well. The sedimentary basin interpreted from the seismic and gravity data

  8. Reconnaissance of sediment transport and channel morphology in the Lower Rio Bermejo Basin, Argentina - with a section on reconnaissance of the lower Rio Pilcomayo Basin, Argentina and Paraguay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ritter, John R.

    1976-01-01

    Sediment transport conditions are described for the Lower Rio Bermejo and the Rio Pilcomayo in the Gran Chaco region of northern Argentina and southern Paraguay. The Lower Rio Bermejo is in many ways atypical, as its channel narrows downstream. Also its flow decreases downstream even though average annual rainfall at its mouth is twice that at its head (1,200 mm vs. 600 mm) and its suspended-sediment at El Yacare was about 41 million metric tonnes per year during 1970-73 and 82 million metric tonnes per year at El Colorado. The Rio Pilcomayo ' Superior ' disappears near Laguna Escalante, owing to plugging of its channel by sediment, into a network of shallow lakes and marshes. Another stream known as the Rio Pilcomayo ' Inferior ' appears about 160 km to the southeast and meanders downstream to the Rio Paraguay. The Rio Pilcomayo ' Superior ' carries about 100 million metric tonnes of sediment per year. The average annual concentration of sediment is more than 6 kg per cubic meter of flow. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. Annual suspended sediment and trace element fluxes in the Mississippi, Columbia, Colorado, and Rio Grande drainage basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, A.J.; Elrick, K.A.; Smith, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Suspended sediment, sediment-associated, total trace element, phosphorus (P), and total organic carbon (TOC) fluxes were determined for the Mississippi, Columbia, Rio Grande, and Colorado Basins for the study period (the 1996, 1997, and 1998 water years) as part of the US Geological Survey's redesigned National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) programme. The majority (??? 70%) of Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Ba, P, As, Fe, Mn, and Al are transported in association with suspended sediment; Sr transport seems dominated by the dissolved phase, whereas the transport of Li and TOC seems to be divided equally between both phases. Average dissolved trace element levels are markedly lower than reported during the original NASQAN programme; this seems due to the use of 'clean' sampling, processing, and analytical techniques rather than to improvements in water quality. Partitioning between sediment and water for Ag, Pb, Cd, Cr, Co, V, Be, As, Sb, Hg, and Ti could not be estimated due to a lack of detectable dissolved concentrations in most samples. Elevated suspended sediment-associated Zn levels were detected in the Ohio River Basin and elevated Hg levels were detected in the Tennessee River, the former may affect the mainstem Mississippi River, whereas the latter probably do not. Sediment-associated concentrations of Ag, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Co, Ba, Mo, Sb, Hg, and Fe are markedly elevated in the upper Columbia Basin, and appear to be detectable (Zn, Cd) as far downstream as the middle of the basin. These elevated concentrations seem to result from mining and/or mining-related activities. Consistently detectable concentrations of dissolved Se were found only in the Colorado River Basin. Calculated average annual suspended sediment fluxes at the mouths of the Mississippi and Rio Grande Basins were below, whereas those for the Columbia and Colorado Basins were above previously published annual values. Downstream suspended sediment-associated and total trace element fluxes

  10. A new large species of Myloplus (Characiformes, Serrasalmidae) from the Rio Madeira basin, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Marcelo C.; Jégu, Michel; Giarrizzo, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Myloplus zorroi sp. n. is described from the Rio Madeira Basin in Amazonia. The new species had been treated as an undescribed Tometes species because of the absence of a marked abdominal keel and few small spines forming its prepelvic serrae, features commonly found in the species of the Myleus clade of the Serrasalmidae (species of genera Myleus, Mylesinus, Ossubtus and Tometes) and also in species of Utiaritichthys. Myloplus zorroi sp. n. shares the following characters with its congeners and Utiaritichthys: molariform teeth (versus incisiform teeth in Myleus clade members); a labial row of premaxillary teeth separated from lingual row by an internal gap (versus absence of internal gap between premaxillary teeth rows); and an ascending process of premaxilla wide from its base to the tip (versus ascending process tapering from its base to the tip). Like other Myloplus species, Myloplus zorroi sp. n. differs from Utiariticthys by having a deeper body, approximately 60% of standard length (versus usually less than 50% of standard length). Considering all the morphological evidence, including the presence of 13–19 low spines forming the prepelvic serrae in Myloplus zorroi sp. n. versus more than 20 high spines forming a marked prepelvic keel in other species of Mylopus, the new species is here assigned to Myloplus. Comparisons of the new species with nominal species of Myloplus, representatives of the Myleus clade, and other related taxa are provided. PMID:27110164

  11. A new large species of Myloplus (Characiformes, Serrasalmidae) from the Rio Madeira basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Marcelo C; Jégu, Michel; Giarrizzo, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    Myloplus zorroi sp. n. is described from the Rio Madeira Basin in Amazonia. The new species had been treated as an undescribed Tometes species because of the absence of a marked abdominal keel and few small spines forming its prepelvic serrae, features commonly found in the species of the Myleus clade of the Serrasalmidae (species of genera Myleus, Mylesinus, Ossubtus and Tometes) and also in species of Utiaritichthys. Myloplus zorroi sp. n. shares the following characters with its congeners and Utiaritichthys: molariform teeth (versus incisiform teeth in Myleus clade members); a labial row of premaxillary teeth separated from lingual row by an internal gap (versus absence of internal gap between premaxillary teeth rows); and an ascending process of premaxilla wide from its base to the tip (versus ascending process tapering from its base to the tip). Like other Myloplus species, Myloplus zorroi sp. n. differs from Utiariticthys by having a deeper body, approximately 60% of standard length (versus usually less than 50% of standard length). Considering all the morphological evidence, including the presence of 13-19 low spines forming the prepelvic serrae in Myloplus zorroi sp. n. versus more than 20 high spines forming a marked prepelvic keel in other species of Mylopus, the new species is here assigned to Myloplus. Comparisons of the new species with nominal species of Myloplus, representatives of the Myleus clade, and other related taxa are provided. PMID:27110164

  12. Endocrine disruptors in water filters used in the Rio dos Sinos Basin region, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Furtado, C M; von Mühlen, C

    2015-05-01

    The activated carbon filter is used in residences as another step in the treatment of drinking water, based on a physical-chemical process to absorb pollutants that are not removed in conventional treatment. Endocrine disruptors (EDCs) are exogenous substances or mixtures of substances that acts on the endocrine system similarly to the endogenously produced hormones, triggering malfunctions and harmful changes to human and animal health. The objective of the present work was to study EDCs through semi-quantitative analysis of residential water filters collected in the region of Rio dos Sinos basin, focusing on two specific classes: hormones and phenols. The solid phase extraction principle was used for the extraction of compounds and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for the separation and characterization of EDCs. Four samples of residential filters collected from public water distribution and artesian wells, from the cities of Novo Hamburgo and São Leopoldo were analysed. Using the developed methodology, it was possible to detect and comparatively quantify selected EDCs in all studied samples, which indicates the presence of these contaminants in drinking water from different sources. PMID:26270219

  13. Hisonotus acuen, a new and phenotypically variable cascudinho (Siluriformes, Loricariidae, Hypoptopomatinae) from the upper rio Xingu basin, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Gabriel S. C.; Roxo, Fábio F.; Oliveira, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Hisonotus is described from the headwaters of the rio Xingu. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by having a functional V-shaped spinelet, odontodes not forming longitudinal aligned rows on the head and trunk, lower counts of the lateral and median series of abdominal figs, presence of a single rostral fig at the tip of the snout, absence of the unpaired figlets at typical adipose fin position, yellowish-tipped teeth, absence of conspicuous dark saddles and stripe on the body and higher number of teeth on the premaxillary and dentary. The new species, Hisonotus acuen, is restricted to headwaters of the rio Xingu basin, and is the first species of the genus Hisonotus described from the rio Xingu basin. Hisonotus acuen is highly variable in aspects of external body proportions, including body depth, snout length, and abdomen length. This variation is partly distributed within and among populations, and is not strongly correlated with body size. PCA of 83 adult specimens from six allopatric populations indicates the presence of continuous variation. Therefore, the available morphological data suggest that the individuals inhabiting the six localities of rio Xingu represent different populations of a single species. Low intraspecific variation in mitochondrial Cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) provides corroborative evidence. PMID:25349492

  14. Development and impact of biological control of giant reed, Arundo donax, in the Rio Grande Basin of the U.S. and Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Giant reed (Arundo donax L.) also known as giant cane or carrizo cane, is an exotic perennial grass that has infested over 60,000 hectares along riparian corridors in the southwestern U.S. The most severe infestations are in the Lower Rio Grande Basin, where giant reed along the Rio Grande and Mexic...

  15. Depositional cyclicity and paleoecological variability in an outcrop of Rio Bonito formation, Early Permian, Paraná Basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasper, André; Menegat, Rualdo; Guerra-Sommer, Margot; Cazzulo-Klepzig, Miriam; de Souza, Paulo Alves

    2006-07-01

    This article integrates faciological, paleobotanical, and palynological analyses to establish the relationship between depositional cyclicity and paleoecological patterns for the (Early Permian) Quitéria outcrop, Rio Bonito Formation, southern Paraná Basin, Rio Grande do Sul state. The basal section of this outcrop represents a coastal lagoon depositional system protected by barriers in microtide conditions, where peat-forming conditions developed in lowlands with ingression of distal alluvial fan deposits. The upper clastic section represents different environmental conditions, originated by the barrier sectioning brought by washover fans. The palynoflora identified in the basal section present a dominance of spores produced by arborescent and herbaceous lycophytes, as well as by sphenophytes and filicophytes, complementary forms of gymnosperm pollen grains. Algae or algae-elements, indicative of fresh, brackish, or marine water, are recorded together with terrestrial spores and pollen grains. The palynological content of matrix-supported conglomerates suggests a close, qualitative similarity with the coaly facies; however, the increase in gymnosperm pollen grains accompanied by a decrease in spores produced by pteridophyte vegetation is remarkable. The autochthonous roof-shale flora related to the clastic upper section is composed of basal stumps of arborescent cormose lycophytes ( Brasilodendron pedroanum), understory vegetation ( Botrychiopsis valida, Lycopodites sp.), small trees ( Coricladus quiteriensis), undetermined filicoid rodheopterid fronds, and parautochthonous elements ( Rubidgea sp., Cordaites sp.). Palynofloras point to floristic similarity between the roof-shale floras and the subjacent coal-forming parautochthonous floras. Correlations between the floristic data and those from high-resolution sequence stratigraphic methods indicate that this interval is associated with the final parasequences of the transgressive tract of Rio Bonito Formation

  16. Water-quality trends in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin using sediment cores from reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Mahler, B.J.; Callender, Edward C.

    1997-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began full implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program (Leahy and others, 1990). Also in 1991, the State of Texas established the Clean Rivers Program (CRP) administered by the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC). The coring study reported here was a collaborative effort between the NAWQA Program and the CRP Rio Grande Border Environmental Assessment Team, with additional funding support from the El Paso County Water Improvement District No. 1.

  17. DDE mercury, and selenium in Biota, sediments, and water of the Rio Grande-Rio Bravo Basin, 1965-1995.

    PubMed

    Mora, M A; Wainwright, S E

    1998-01-01

    An assessment of contaminant stressors on biota of the Rio Grande was conducted to identify relevant contaminant issues, assess exposure and ecological effects, identify data gaps, and determine potential risks. Most contaminant data were from studies conducted during 1965-1995 in the Lower Rio Grande, on the Texas side of the river, within a 100-km boundary from Falcon Dam to the mouth. Contaminants most frequently reported were organochlorine compounds (OCs) and trace elements. The number of records for OCs and trace elements was at least twofold greater for fish than for birds, mammals, or reptiles. Of the OCs, p,p'-DDE was the most commonly reported. Among the trace elements, Hg was one of the most frequently reported; however, Se, As, Pb, Cu, and Zn were also common. The highest concentrations of OCs and trace elements were reported predominantly from Lower Rio Grande Valley locations, with approximately 68% of the highest values detected from Falcon Dam to the mouth of the river. Twenty-six (20%) of the locations with maximum concentrations corresponded to portions of Llano Grande Lake and the Arroyo Colorado. Recent analyses of birds and fish indicate that levels of DDE are currently much lower than in the 1970s or 1980s in Rio Grande wildlife. This apparent decline does not apply to Hg and Se levels in birds and fish, which have remained more or less constant, but may have increased over the years in some locations. Hg was of particular concern because of high levels found recently in addled eggs of aplomado falcons and in their potential prey. Hg was elevated in fish from the Big Bend area. Also, Se in fish sampled in 1993 and 1994 was near or above the threshold for potential effects in fish-eating wildlife. Future investigations should evaluate the potential impacts of Hg and Se on aquatic and terrestrial species from selected sites of concern. PMID:9751032

  18. Data collection for cooperative water resources modeling in the Lower Rio Grande Basin, Fort Quitman to the Gulf of Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Passell, Howard David; Pallachula, Kiran; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Villalobos, Joshua; Piccinni, Giovanni; Brainard, James Robert; Gerik, Thomas; Morrison, Wendy; Serrat-Capdevila, Aleix; Valdes, Juan; Sheng, Zhuping; Lovato, Rene; Guitron, Alberto; Ennis, Martha Lee; Aparicio, Javier; Newman, Gretchen Carr; Michelsen, Ari M.

    2004-10-01

    Water resource scarcity around the world is driving the need for the development of simulation models that can assist in water resources management. Transboundary water resources are receiving special attention because of the potential for conflict over scarce shared water resources. The Rio Grande/Rio Bravo along the U.S./Mexican border is an example of a scarce, transboundary water resource over which conflict has already begun. The data collection and modeling effort described in this report aims at developing methods for international collaboration, data collection, data integration and modeling for simulating geographically large and diverse international watersheds, with a special focus on the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo. This report describes the basin, and the data collected. This data collection effort was spatially aggregated across five reaches consisting of Fort Quitman to Presidio, the Rio Conchos, Presidio to Amistad Dam, Amistad Dam to Falcon Dam, and Falcon Dam to the Gulf of Mexico. This report represents a nine-month effort made in FY04, during which time the model was not completed.

  19. Hydrochemical tracers in the middle Rio Grande Basin, USA: 1. Conceptualization of groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plummer, L. Niel; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.; Sanford, Ward E.; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    Chemical and isotopic data for groundwater from throughout the Middle Rio Grande Basin, central New Mexico, USA, were used to identify and map groundwater flow from 12 sources of water to the basin, evaluate radiocarbon ages, and refine the conceptual model of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. Hydrochemical zones, representing groundwater flow over thousands to tens of thousands of years, can be traced over large distances through the primarily siliciclastic aquifer system. The locations of the hydrochemical zones mostly reflect the ``modern'' predevelopment hydraulic-head distribution, but are inconsistent with a trough in predevelopment water levels in the west-central part of the basin, indicating that this trough is a transient rather than a long-term feature of the aquifer system. Radiocarbon ages adjusted for geochemical reactions, mixing, and evapotranspiration/dilution processes in the aquifer system were nearly identical to the unadjusted radiocarbon ages, and ranged from modern to more than 30 ka. Age gradients from piezometer nests ranged from 0.1 to 2 year cm-1 and indicate a recharge rate of about 3 cm year-1 for recharge along the eastern mountain front and infiltration from the Rio Grande near Albuquerque. There has been appreciably less recharge along the eastern mountain front north and south of Albuquerque. Des données sur les éléments chimiques et les isotopes présents dans l'eau souterraine prélevée à divers endroits dans le bassin moyen du Rio Grande, au centre du Nouveau-Mexique (É-U), ont permis de déterminer l'existence et l'étendue de douze sources d'eau régionales dans le bassin, d'évaluer les âges radiocarbones et de raffiner le modèle conceptuel du système aquifère du groupe de Santa Fe. Des zones hydro-chimiques qui représentent l'écoulement de l'eau souterraine depuis des dizaines de milliers d'années peuvent être suivies sur de longues distances à travers l'aquifère principalement siliclastique. La position des

  20. Faulting, volcanism, and basin development along the western margin of the southern San Luis Basin segment of the Rio Grande rift, New Mexico and Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, K. J.; Thompson, R. A.; Cosca, M. A.; Drenth, B.; Lee, J.; Budahn, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    The San Luis Basin segment of the northern Rio Grande rift, straddling the Colorado-New Mexico border, is an asymmetrical graben where the major basin-bounding fault is on the east side. In contrast, the west side is a basin-directed dip slope surface cut by north to northwest trending faults with predominantly down-to-southwest displacement. Around 26 Ma, initial rift-related faulting formed broad, shallow basins coincident with basaltic volcanism of the Hinsdale Formation. Later episodes of rifting produced deep and narrow sub-basins generally along the eastern boundary. Basin-fill deposits along the western margin are generally thin. However, in the northern Tusas Mountains, gravity data identifies a small, yet deep, sub-basin that may contain 750 m of basin-filling Los Pinos Formation based on thickness projections derived from mapping. The Los Pinos Formation is overlain by early rift-related Hinsdale Formation basalt flows indicating this sub-basin formed as part of early rifting; the sub-basin may be a southern extension of the Monte Vista graben to the north. The stratigraphic section along the western boundary includes Precambrian basement up to volcanic rocks of the Taos Plateau volcanic field (~5-2Ma). Dips on the early-rift Miocene to Oligocene Hinsdale Formation lavas (3-5 degrees) reflect the cumulative eastward tilting corresponding to continued basin subsidence. Shallower dips (1-2 degrees) on early Pliocene volcanic rocks suggest continued subsidence up to about 3 Ma, or younger. Down-to-southwest faults accommodating eastward tilting are mostly in areas west of Pliocene volcanic rocks; individual faults offset Hinsdale Formation and older rocks by up to 200 m. The few observed faults in the Pliocene volcanic rocks have minor offset. Numerous volcanic vents are in close proximity to the faults along the western boundary. Volcanoes are commonly low to medium relief shield volcanoes with basaltic andesite composition capped by late stage cinder cones

  1. A Conceptual Framework for SAHRA Integrated Multi-resolution Modeling in the Rio Grande Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Gupta, H.; Springer, E.; Wagener, T.; Brookshire, D.; Duffy, C.

    2004-12-01

    The sustainable management of water resources in a river basin requires an integrated analysis of the social, economic, environmental and institutional dimensions of the problem. Numerical models are commonly used for integration of these dimensions and for communication of the analysis results to stakeholders and policy makers. The National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center for Sustainability of semi-Arid Hydrology and Riparian Areas (SAHRA) has been developing integrated multi-resolution models to assess impacts of climate variability and land use change on water resources in the Rio Grande Basin. These models not only couple natural systems such as surface and ground waters, but will also include engineering, economic and social components that may be involved in water resources decision-making processes. This presentation will describe the conceptual framework being developed by SAHRA to guide and focus the multiple modeling efforts and to assist the modeling team in planning, data collection and interpretation, communication, evaluation, etc. One of the major components of this conceptual framework is a Conceptual Site Model (CSM), which describes the basin and its environment based on existing knowledge and identifies what additional information must be collected to develop technically sound models at various resolutions. The initial CSM is based on analyses of basin profile information that has been collected, including a physical profile (e.g., topographic and vegetative features), a man-made facility profile (e.g., dams, diversions, and pumping stations), and a land use and ecological profile (e.g., demographics, natural habitats, and endangered species). Based on the initial CSM, a Conceptual Physical Model (CPM) is developed to guide and evaluate the selection of a model code (or numerical model) for each resolution to conduct simulations and predictions. A CPM identifies, conceptually, all the physical processes and engineering and socio

  2. Shelf-edge sedimentary systems off Rio de Janeiro State, northern Santos basin-Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maia, R. M. C.; Dos Reis, A. T.; Gorini, C.; Silva, C. G.; Rabineau, M.; Granjeon, D.

    2012-04-01

    The sedimentary record of the continental shelf off Rio de Janeiro State is related to the opening and evolution of Atlantic Ocean. The combined analysis of high resolution seismic acquired in the early 80's (Geomar cruises) and 2D seismic lines of petroleum industry, coupled with chronostratigraphic data from oil industry's exploratory wells, allowed us to observe two different orders of sequences: of 3-4th order, that represents sedimentary units related of the Milankovitch cycles (100/40/20ky), and of 2nd order (10-100my). High resolution seismic allowed us to outline a first architectural framework for the actual shelf that is composed of stacked seismic units making up the major seismic sequences bounded by angular unconformities. According to the intern and extern configuration of their clinoforms, the seismic sequences were grouped into two distinctive stratigraphic sets, identified as Set I (Pliocene) and Set II (Upper Quaternary). Some architectural components of note include: (1) the characteristic upbuilt-outbuilt geometry of sequences that compose Set I (SqA, SqB and SqC), indicating that deposition has probably been favoured by a combination of prevailing subsidence regime (upbuilt pattern) accompanied by forced regressive deposits (outbuilt pattern); (2) the majority of sequences that make up Set II outbuilts as a composite seaward-thickening progradational wedge formed under dominant forced regression conditions, implying that the generation of accommodation space was less important than during the build-up of Set I. However, these sequences consistently pinch out in a progressively landward direction, suggesting a prevailing and increasing subsidence regime able to induce the progressive seaward tilting of the margin during the middle-late Pleistocene, and the subsequent partial preservation of regressive sequences of about 100-200 m thick at the level of the present-day mid-shelf, that prograded seaward for circa 15-25 km. These architectural

  3. Mountain-front recharge along the eastern side of the Middle Rio Grande Basin, central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderholm, Scott K.

    2000-01-01

    Mountain-front recharge, which generally occurs along the margins of alluvial basins, can be a large part of total recharge to the aquifer system in such basins. Mountain-front recharge occurs as the result of infiltration of flow from streams that have headwaters in the mountainous areas adjacent to alluvial basins and ground- water flow from the aquifers in the mountainous areas to the aquifer in the alluvial basin. This report presents estimates of mountain-front recharge to the basin-fill aquifer along the eastern side of the Middle Rio Grande Basin in central New Mexico. The basin is a structural feature that contains a large thickness of basin-fill deposits, which compose the main aquifer in the basin. The basin is bounded along the eastern side by mountains composed of crystalline rocks of Precambrian age and sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age. Precipitation is much larger in the mountains than in the basin; many stream channels debouch from the mountainous area to the basin. Chloride-balance and water-yield regression methods were used to estimate mountain-front recharge. The chloride-balance method was used to calculate a chloride balance in watersheds in the mountainous areas along the eastern side of the basin (subareas). The source of chloride to these watersheds is bulk precipitation (wet and dry deposition). Chloride leaves these watersheds as mountain-front recharge. The water-yield regression method was used to determine the streamflow from the mountainous watersheds at the mountain front. This streamflow was assumed to be equal to mountain-front recharge because most of this streamflow infiltrates and recharges the basin-fill aquifer. Total mountain-front recharge along the eastern side of the Middle Rio Grande Basin was estimated to be about 11,000 acre- feet per year using the chloride-balance method and about 36,000 and 38,000 acre-feet per year using two water-yield regression equations. There was a large range in the recharge estimates in a

  4. Effects of charging on the chromophores of dissolved organic matter from the Rio Negro basin.

    PubMed

    Yan, Mingquan; Korshin, Gregory V; Claret, Francis; Croué, Jean-Philippe; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; Gallard, Hervé; Schäfer, Thorsten; Benedetti, Marc F

    2014-08-01

    This study demonstrates that the deprotonation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) originating from a small creek characteristic for DOM-rich waters located in the Rio Negro basin can be quantified based on measurements of pH effects on its absorbance spectra. The method was ascertained by the data of Near-Edge X-Ray Absorbance Spectroscopy (NEXAFS), potentiometric titration to quantify the structural and compositional differences between the colloidal and hydrophobic fractions that contribute 91% of black-water creek DOM. Changes in the absorbance spectra of the DOM fractions caused by deprotonation quantified via numeric deconvolution which indicated the presence of six well-resolved Gaussian bands in the differential spectra. The emergence of these bands was determined to be associated with the engagement of carboxylic and phenolic functionalities and changes of inter-chromophore interactions in DOM molecules. Interpretation of the data based on the NICA-Donnan approach showed that behavior of DOM chromophores was consistent with results of potentiometric titrations. Similar trends were observed for changes of the spectral slope of the DOM absorbance spectra in the range of wavelengths 325-375 nm (DSlope325-375). The behavior of DSlope325-375 values was modeled based on the NICA-Donnan approach and correlated with potentiometrically-estimated charges attributed to the carboxylic and phenolic groups. The correlations between DSlope325-375 and charges of low- and high-affinity protonation-active groups in DOM were monotonic but not linear and had important differences between the colloidal and hydrophobic fractions. PMID:24793113

  5. Quantifying Salinization of the Upper-Middle Rio Grande Using a Basin-Scale Water and Chloride Mass Balance Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, S. K.; Phillips, F. M.; Hogan, J. F.; Hendrickx, J. M.

    2002-12-01

    The Rio Grande is clearly undergoing salinization, manifested by a 50-fold increase in total dissolved solids content between its headwaters in Colorado and the U.S.-Mexico border. To elucidate the causes of this salinization, we conducted an eight-day synoptic sampling campaign in August 2001. This sampling included the river, its major tributaries, and major irrigation drain inflows. Along 1200 km between the river headwaters in Colorado and Fort Quitman, Texas, we collected 110 water samples with an average interval of ~10 km between sampling locales. In the laboratory, samples were analyzed for major constituents including chloride, as well as for bromide and the 36Cl/Cl ratio. Isotopic fingerprinting using the 36Cl/Cl ratio indicates that meteoric waters and deep sedimentary brines respectively account for most of the water and most of the salt inflow to the Rio Grande. The meteoric end member has a 36Cl/Cl ratio of 1100 and a Cl/Br ratio of 30; the brine end member has a 36Cl/Cl ratio of 35 and a Cl/Br ratio of 1150. Using these end member chemistries with USGS stream flow gauging data, we constructed a water- and salt- instantaneous mass balance model of the Rio Grande for the eight-day sampling interval. This model indicates that most water losses from the Rio Grande are due to evaporation from Elephant Butte reservoir, open water evaporation from irrigation ditches, and evapotranspiration of riparian and ditch-bank vegetation. The model also emphasizes the significance of salt input due to deep brine discharge to the river, particularly at the downstream ends of local sedimentary basins of the Rio Grande rift. The Rio Grande receives a smaller amount of salt from saline drains near El Paso, which may be acquiring salt from deep brine discharge as they cross over faults or other structural fluid conduits.

  6. A multi-tracer approach to delineate groundwater dynamics in the Rio Actopan Basin, Veracruz State, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Quezadas, Juan; Heilweil, Victor M.; Cortés Silva, Alejandra; Araguas, Luis; Salas Ortega, María del Rocío

    2016-07-01

    Geochemistry and environmental tracers were used to understand groundwater resources, recharge processes, and potential sources of contamination in the Rio Actopan Basin, Veracruz State, Mexico. Total dissolved solids are lower in wells and springs located in the basin uplands compared with those closer to the coast, likely associated with rock/water interaction. Geochemical results also indicate some saltwater intrusion near the coast and increased nitrate near urban centers. Stable isotopes show that precipitation is the source of recharge to the groundwater system. Interestingly, some high-elevation springs are more isotopically enriched than average annual precipitation at higher elevations, indicating preferential recharge during the drier but cooler winter months when evapotranspiration is reduced. In contrast, groundwater below 1,200 m elevation is more isotopically depleted than average precipitation, indicating recharge occurring at much higher elevation than the sampling site. Relatively cool recharge temperatures, derived from noble gas measurements at four sites (11-20 °C), also suggest higher elevation recharge. Environmental tracers indicate that groundwater residence time in the basin ranges from 12,000 years to modern. While this large range shows varying groundwater flowpaths and travel times, ages using different tracer methods (14C, 3H/3He, CFCs) were generally consistent. Comparing multiple tracers such as CFC-12 with CFC-113 indicates piston-flow to some discharge points, yet binary mixing of young and older groundwater at other points. In summary, groundwater within the Rio Actopan Basin watershed is relatively young (Holocene) and the majority of recharge occurs in the basin uplands and moves towards the coast.

  7. Palaeobotanical evidence of wildfires in the Late Palaeozoic of South America - Early Permian, Rio Bonito Formation, Paraná Basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasper, André; Uhl, Dieter; Guerra-Sommer, Margot; Mosbrugger, Volker

    2008-12-01

    Fossil charcoal, as direct evidence of palaeowildfires, has repeatedly been reported from several plant-bearing deposits from the Late Palaeozoic of the Northern Hemisphere. In contrast charcoal reports from the Late Palaeozoic deposits of the Southern Hemisphere are relatively rare in comparison to the Northern Hemisphere. Although the presence of pyrogenic coal macerals has repeatedly been reported from Late Palaeozoic coals from South America, no detailed anatomical investigations of such material have been published so far. Here is presented an anatomical analysis of charcoal originating from Early Permian sediments of the Quitéria Outcrop, Rio Bonito Formation, Paraná Basin, located in the central-eastern portion of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This charcoal comes from two different coaly facies, and it was possible to scrutinize between three types, based on anatomical characters of the charcoal. Two of these charcoal types can be correlated to gymnosperm woods, and the other type corresponds to strongly permineralized bark with characteristic features of lycopsids. The presence of charcoal in different facies, ranging from parautochtonous to allochtonous origin, indicates that different vegetation types, i.e. plants which grew under wet conditions in the lowland as well as in the more dry hinterland, have experienced wildfires. Taking into account previous petrographic and lithological analyses from the facies in which the charcoal occurs and from the conditions of the wood and bark fragments, it was possible to speculate that the intensity of such wildfires most probably corresponds to forest-crown fires. Moreover, it is possible to state that wildfires have been a more or less common element in distinct Late Palaeozoic terrestrial ecosystems in the South American part of Gondwana. The data support previous assumptions on the occurrence of wildfires in the Early Permian of the Paraná Basin which were based solely on coal-petrographic data.

  8. Infrastructure Improvements for Snowmelt Runoff Forecasting and Assessments of Climate Change Impacts on Water Supplies in the Rio Grande Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rango, A.; Steele, C. M.; Demouche, L.

    2009-12-01

    In the Southwest US, the southern Rocky Mountains provide a significant orographic barrier to prevailing moisture-laden Westerly winds, which results in snow accumulation and melt, both vitally important to the region’s water resources. The inherent variability of meteorological conditions in the Southwest, during both snowpack buildup and depletion, requires improved spatially-distributed data. The population of ground-based networks (SNOTEL, SCAN, and weather stations) is sparse and does not satisfactorily represent the variability of snow accumulation and melt. Remote sensing can be used to supplement data from ground networks, but the most frequently available remotely sensed product with the highest temporal and spatial resolution, namely snow cover, only provides areal data and not snow volume. Fortunately, the Snowmelt Runoff Model(SRM), which was developed in mountainous regions of the world, including the Rio Grande basin, accepts snow covered area as one of its major input variables along with temperature and precipitation. With the growing awareness of atmospheric warming and the southerly location of Southwest watersheds, it has become apparent that the effects of climate change will be especially important for Southwestern water users. The NSF-funded EPSCoR project “Climate Change Impacts on New Mexico’s Mountain Sources of Water” (started in 2009) has focused on improving hydrometeorological measurements, developing basin-wide and sub-basin snow cover mapping methods, generating snowmelt runoff simulations, forecasts, and long-term climate change assessments, and informing the public of the results through outreach and educational activities. Five new SNOTEL and four new SCAN sites are being installed in 2009-2010 and 12 existing basic SNOTEL sites are being upgraded. In addition, 30 automated precipitation gages are being added to New Mexico measurement networks. The first phase of snow mapping and modeling has focused on four sub basins

  9. Water resources during drought conditions and postfire water quality in the upper Rio Hondo Basin, Lincoln County, New Mexico, 2010-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherson, Lauren R.; Rice, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in climate and increased groundwater and surface-water use are likely to affect the availability of water in the upper Rio Hondo Basin. Increased drought probably will increase the potential for wildfires, which can affect downstream water quality and increase flood potential. Climate-research predicted decreases in winter precipitation may have an adverse effect on the amount of groundwater recharge that occurs in the upper Rio Hondo Basin, given the predominance of winter precipitation recharge as indicated by the stable isotope results. Decreases in surface-water supplies because of persistent drought conditions and reductions in the quality of water because of the effects of wildfire may lead to a larger reliance on groundwater reserves in the upper Rio Hondo Basin. Decreasing water levels because of increasing groundwater withdrawal could reduce base flows in the Rio Bonito and Rio Ruidoso. Well organized and scientifically supported regional water-resources management will be necessary for dealing with the likely scenario of increases in demand coupled with decreases in supply in the upper Rio Hondo Basin.

  10. Chemistry and age of groundwater in the Piceance structural basin, Rio Blanco county, Colorado, 2010-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, Peter B.; Thomas, Judith C.; Hunt, Andrew G.

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen monitoring wells were sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, to better understand the chemistry and age of groundwater in the Piceance structural basin in Rio Blanco County, Colorado, and how they may relate to the development of underlying natural-gas reservoirs. Natural gas extraction in the area has been ongoing since at least the 1950s, and the area contains about 960 producing, shut-in, and abandoned natural-gas wells.

  11. Cooperation on Climate Services in the Binational Rio Grande/Bravo Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfin, G. M.; Shafer, M. A.; Brown, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Rio Grande/Bravo River Basin (RGB) of the United States and México is exposed to tornadoes, severe storms, hurricanes, winter storms, wildfire, and drought. The combination of these weather and climate-related hazards has resulted in impacts, such as wildfire, crop loss, water supply reduction, and flooding, with exceedingly high economic costs ($13 billion in 2011). In order to contribute to increased binational information flow and knowledge exchange in the region, we have developed a prototype quarterly bilingual RGB Climate Outlook, in PDF, supplemented by Twitter messages and Facebook posts. The goal of the project is to improve coordination between institutions in the U.S. and Mexico, increase awareness about climate variations, their impacts and costs to society, and build capacity for enhanced hazard preparedness. The RGB Outlook features a synthesis of climate products, impact data and analysis, is expressed in user-friendly language, and relies substantially on visual communication in contrast to text. The RGB Outlook is co-produced with colleagues in the U.S. and Mexico, in conjunction with the North American Climate Services Partnership (NACSP) and NOAA's regional climate services program. NACSP is a tri-national initiative to develop and deliver drought-based climate services in order to assist water resource managers, agricultural interests, and other constituents as they prepare for future drought events and build capacity to respond to other climate extremes. The RGB Climate Outlook builds on lessons learned from the Climate Assessment for the Southwest (CLIMAS) Southwest Climate Outlook (PDF, html), La Niña Drought Tracker (PDF, html), the Southern Climate Impacts Policy Program (SCIPP) Managing Drought in the Southern Plains webinar series, the Border Climate Summary (PDF), and Transborder Climate newsletter (PDF) and webinar series. The latter two have been the only regularly occurring bilingual climate information products in the U

  12. Trace Perchlorate in Background Ground Water and Local Precipitation, Northern Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, M.; Longmire, P.; Granzow, K. P.; Englert, D.; Yanicak, S.; Larson, T.; Rearick, M.; Heikoop, J.; Perkins, G.

    2007-12-01

    Perchlorate occurs at detectable concentrations of 0.07 to 0.45 parts per billion (ppb) in ground water of background quality within the northern Rio Grande basin, New Mexico. Ground-water samples were collected from 47 wells and springs near Los Alamos, Santa Fe, and Taos, New Mexico. Analytical methods consisted of liquid and ion chromatography-mass spectrometry mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS and IC/MS/MS). An upper tolerance limit (mean plus two standard deviations) of 0.40 ppb was calculated from 184 analytical results for the background samples. Six distinguishable ground-water zones were sampled based on location, age, and hydrochemistry. In the Los Alamos area, ground water within the mountain-front and mountain-block region is mostly young or modern (less than 50 years). The regional aquifer including the White Rock Canyon springs are of sub-modern age (greater than 50 years). Tritium data from springs north of Taos indicate ground water of modern and sub-modern ages. Background perchlorate concentrations within the Los Alamos area were consistently higher than those measured in the Taos area. Ground water from the Taos area contains less perchlorate and has lower δ18O and δ2H values than ground water from the Los Alamos area. The elevation at which precipitation occurs with respect to recharge and/or the amount of evapotranspiration may play a role in perchlorate concentration in ground water. Natural variability, hydrogeology, and atmospheric inputs may also affect perchlorate concentration in ground water. A linear regression through perchlorate and chloride concentrations for all stations resulted in an r2 = 0. However, the r2 value of the Los Alamos regional aquifer for perchlorate versus chloride was 0.66. Thirteen precipitation samples were collected in the Los Alamos area. Results from eleven of these samples showed no perchlorate greater than 0.05 and 0.009 ppb, the method detection limit (MDL). Two precipitation samples analyzed using the IC

  13. Assessing climate change impacts on water availability of snowmelt-dominated basins of the Upper Rio Grande Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Study Region- Upper Rio Grande, Colorado and New Mexico, USA: Climate change is predicted to further limit the water availability of the arid southwestern U.S. In this study, the Snowmelt Runoff Model is used to evaluate impacts of increased temperature and altered precipitation on snow covered are...

  14. Competing Interests and Concerns in the Rio Grande Basin: Mountain Hydrology, Desert Ecology, Climate Change, and Population Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rango, A.

    2004-12-01

    In the mountainous American Southwest, the Rio Grande basin is a prime example of how conflicts, misconceptions, and competition regarding water can arise in arid and semi-arid catchments. Much of the Rio Grande runoff originates from snow fields in the San Juan Mountains of southern Colorado and the Sangre De Cristo Mountains of northern New Mexico, far from population centers. Large and rapidly growing cities, like Albuquerque, Las Cruces, El Paso, and Juarez, are located along the Rio Grande where it flows through the Chihuahuan Desert, the largest desert in North America(two NSF Long Term Ecological Research sites are located in the desert portion of the basin). As a result, the importance of snowmelt, which makes up 50-75% or more of the total streamflow in sub-basins above Elephant Butte Reservoir(in south central New Mexico) is hardly known to the general public. Streamflow below Elephant Butte Reservoir is rainfall driven and very limited, with the lower basin receiving only 170-380 mm of precipitation annually, most of it occurring during the months of July-September. Extreme events, such as drought and flooding, are not unusual in arid basins, and they are of increasing concern with regard to changes in frequency of such events under the impending conditions of climate change. Current water demands in the basin already exceed the water supply by 15% or more, so streamflow forecasts(especially from snowmelt runoff) are extremely valuable for efficient water management as well as for proper apportionment of water between Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas under the Rio Grande Compact of 1938 and between the U.S. and Mexico under the Treaty of 1906. Other demands on the water supply include Indian water rights, flood regulation, irrigated agriculture, municipal and industrial demands, water quality, riverine and riparian habitat protection, endangered and threatened species protection, recreation, and hydropower. To assess snow accumulation and cover and to

  15. Description of piezometers installed in the middle Rio Grande basin area, 1997-99, central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartolino, J.R.; Rankin, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1993, the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Middle Rio Grande Basin, and particularly in the Albuquerque area, has been the focus of studies to further define the extent of the most productive parts of the aquifer and to gain a better understanding of how ground- water levels are changing over time. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer, installed nine piezometers during 1998-99 at five sites in and near the margin of the Middle Rio Grande Basin in central New Mexico. In addition, the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer installed another nine piezometers at three sites during 1997. These piezometers allow for collection of ground-water-level data in areas for which little information is available. Most of the piezometers were constructed of 2.5-inch-diameter flush-joint polyvinyl chloride (PVC) schedule 80 casing with 10-foot stainless steel screens; the shallow piezometer at the Tome site has a 40-foot screen, and the single piezometers at the Dome Road and Phoenix Road sites have steel casing with welded joints and a 10- and a 20-foot screen, respectively. Steel casing with a locking lid covers the uppermost 2 feet of the piezometer casing. Drillers' logs and petrophysical logs were collected from the deepest borehole at each site.

  16. Synoptic Sampling of the Rio Grande: A River Basin-Scale View of Hydrologic Processes and Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, J. F.; Phillips, F. M.

    2005-12-01

    The Rio Grande, like many arid region rivers, exhibits reductions in streamflow and degrading water quality with distance downstream as a result of decreasing inflows, increasing evapotranspiration, and the addition of natural and anthropogenic solutes. Since 2000 we have conducted biannual synoptic sampling of the Rio Grande from its headwaters in Colorado to ~150 km south of El Paso, Texas to evaluate how these processes result in the observed basin-scale water and solute balances. This period coincides with a severe regional drought, allowing us to further basin response to periods of increasing water stress. We employed multiple environmental tracers, including O/H isotopes, Cl-, and the Cl/Br ratio to help identify dominant hydrological processes and the causes of salinization. Our O and H isotopic results indicate that runoff from high-elevation areas in Colorado and northern New Mexico -primarily as snowmelt - is the source of river water. This water then exhibits progressive evaporation with distance downstream, with the greatest evaporation occurring at Elephant Butte Reservoir. At the same time, the total dissolved solids content (TDS) increases from less than 50 mg/L in headwaters of Colorado to over 2000 mg/L south of El Paso, Texas. These salinity increases have previously been attributed to evapotranspirative concentration and to flushing by irrigation water of salts accumulated by pre-irrigation evapotranspiration. Water balance estimates and our O and H isotope results indicate that evapotranspiration alone is not sufficient to explain the salinization. Furthermore, increases in salinity were not a simple function of distance downriver, but rather occurred in a series of steps. Many of these increases are localized at the southern ends of the sedimentary basins comprising the Rio Grande Rift, suggesting that the salts are from discharge of deep, saline, ground water where it is forced to the surface by bedrock highs, rather than due to flushing by

  17. Structure of the Espanola Basin, Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico, from SAGE seismic and gravity data

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, J.F.; Baldridge, W.S.; Braile, L.W.; Biehler, S.; Gilpin, B.; Jiracek, G.R.

    1995-04-01

    Seismic and gravity data, acquired by the SAGE program over the past twelve years, are used to define the geometry of the Espanola basin and the extent of pre-Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The Paleozoic and Mesozoic units have been thinned and removed during Laramide uplift in an area now obscured by the younger rift basin. The Espanola basin is generally a shallow, asymmetric transitional structure between deeper, better developed basins to the northeast and southwest. The gravity data indicate the presence of three narrow, but deep, structural lows arrayed along the Embudo/Pajarito fault system. These sub-basins seem to be younger than the faults on the basin margins. This apparent focussing of deformation in the later history of the basin may be a response to changes in regional stress or more local accommodation of the rift extension. Future work is planned to develop seismic data over one of these sub-basins, the Velarde graben, and to better define the gravity map in order to facilitate three-dimensional modeling.

  18. Hydrology, water quality, and potential alternatives for water-resources development in the Rio Majada and Rio Lapa basins near the Albergue Olimpico, southern Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramos-Gines, Orlando

    1994-01-01

    A water-resources investigation was conducted during 1989 in the Rio Lapa mountain basins in southern Puerto Rico, to define the hydrology, water quality, and to describe alternatives for additional water- resources supply. The total water budget for both surface- and ground-water resources in the study area was estimated to be 7,530 acre-feet per year for 1989. The water budget for the ground-water system, from which water needs are supplied in the study area, was estimated to be 2,760 acre-feet per year for 1989. Concentration of dissolved solids and fecal bacteria increased during the dry season as both streamflow and ground-water levels decreased. Water samples collected at two stream sites exceeded the recommended U.S. Environmental Protection Agency fecal bacteria concentration for natural water of 2,000 colonies per 100 milliliters during June to November 1989. Water samples obtained from a well in the Rio Lapa Valley exceeded the secondary drinking-water standard for dissolved solids of 500 milligrams per liter during four dry months. In addition, fecal bacteria concentrations at this water-supply well exceeded the primary fecal- bacteria drinking-water standard of 1 colony per 100 milliliter during June to October 1989. Existing water resources can probably be developed to meet additional demands of 110 acre-feet per year pro- jected for 1995. Storage of the surface-water runoff during the wet season and its gradual release to the study area could offset ground-water declines during the dry season. Ground-water withdrawals can be increased by the construction and use of low- capacity wells to reduce the amount of water lowing out of the study area.

  19. A new species of Ituglanis from the Rio Xingu Basin, Brazil, and the evolution of pelvic fin loss in trichomycterid catfishes (Teleostei: Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae).

    PubMed

    Datovo, Aléssio

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the trichomycterid catfish genus Ituglanis is described from the Rio Curuá, Rio Xingu basin, Rio Amazonas drainage, Brazil. Ituglanis apteryx, new species, is promptly distinguished from congeners, except some specimens of I. parahybae (Eigenmann), by the absence of pelvic fins, girdle, and muscles. The new species differs from I. parahybae in the pattern of the cephalic laterosensory system; the absence of a posterior cranial fontanel; the presence of an epural; and the number of branchiostegal rays, ribs, and vertebrae. Ituglanis apteryx is one among the several trichomycterids lacking pelvic fins. Analysis reveals that pelvic fin loss independently evolved several times during the trichomycterid radiation. PMID:24869879

  20. Simulation of Ground-Water Flow in the Middle Rio Grande Basin Between Cochiti and San Acacia, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAda, Douglas P.; Barroll, Peggy

    2002-01-01

    This report describes a three-dimensional, finite difference, ground-water-flow model of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system within the Middle Rio Grande Basin between Cochiti and San Acacia, New Mexico. The aquifer system is composed of the Santa Fe Group of middle Tertiary to Quaternary age and post-Santa Fe Group valley and basin-fill deposits of Quaternary age. Population increases in the basin since the 1940's have caused dramatic increases in ground-water withdrawals from the aquifer system, resulting in large ground-water-level declines. Because the Rio Grande is hydraulically connected to the aquifer system, these ground-water withdrawals have also decreased flow in the Rio Grande. Concern about water resources in the basin led to the development of a research plan for the basin focused on the hydrologic interaction of ground water and surface water (McAda, D.P., 1996, Plan of study to quantify the hydrologic relation between the Rio Grande and the Santa Fe Group aquifer system near Albuquerque, central New Mexico: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 96-4006, 58 p.). A multiyear research effort followed, funded and conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and other agencies (Bartolino, J.R., and Cole, J.C., 2002, Ground-water resources of the Middle Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1222, 132 p.). The modeling work described in this report incorporates the results of much of this work and is the culmination of this multiyear study. The purpose of the model is (1) to integrate the components of the ground-water-flow system, including the hydrologic interaction between the surface-water systems in the basin, to better understand the geohydrology of the basin and (2) to provide a tool to help water managers plan for and administer the use of basin water resources. The aquifer system is represented by nine model layers extending from the water table to the pre-Santa Fe Group basement rocks, as much as 9,000 feet

  1. Use of System Thinking Software for Determining Climate Change Impacts in Water Balance for the Rio Yaqui Basin, Sonora, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapia, E. M.; Minjarez, J. I.; Espinoza, I. G.; Sosa, C. M.

    2013-05-01

    Climate change in Northwestern Mexico and its hydrological impact on water balance, water scarcity and flooding events, has become a matter of increasing concern over the past several decades due to the region's semiarid conditions. Changes in temperature, precipitation, and sea level will affect agriculture, farming, and aquaculture, in addition to compromising the quality of water resources for human consumption. According to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007), Global Circulation Models (GCMs) can provide reliable estimations of future climate conditions in addition to atmospheric processes that cause them, based on different input scenarios such as A2 (higher emission of greenhouse gases) and B1 (lower emission of GHG), among others. However, GCM`s resolution results to coarse in regions which have high space and time climate variability. To remediate this, several methods based on dynamical, statistical and empirical analysis have been proposed for downcaling. In this study, we evaluate possible changes in precipitation and temperature for the "Rio Yaqui Basin" in Sonora, Mexico and assess the impact of such changes on runoff, evapotranspiration and aquifer recharge for the 2010-2099 period of time. For this purpose, we analyzed the results of a Bias Corrected and Downscaled Climate Projection from the World Climate Research Programme's (WCRP's) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3) multi-model dataset: UKMO-HADCM3 from the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction. Northwest Mexico is under the influence of the North American Monsoon (NAM), a system affecting the states of Sinaloa and Sonora where the precipitation regimes change drastically during the summer months of June, July and August. It is associated to the sharp variations of topography, precipitation and temperature regimes in the region, so the importance of analyzing the downscaled climate projections. The Rio Yaqui Basin is one of

  2. Economic implications for the biological control of Arundo donax: Rio Grande Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Giant reed, Arundo donax L., is a large bamboo-like plant native to the Mediterranean region. It has invaded several thousand hectares of the Rio Grande riparian habitat in Texas and Mexico. The United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) is investigating four ...

  3. Metal uptake and distribution in cultured seedlings of Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae) from the Río Tinto (Huelva, Spain).

    PubMed

    Franco, Alejandro; Rufo, Lourdes; Zuluaga, Javier; de la Fuente, Vicenta

    2013-10-01

    Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae) is a micro-nano phanerophyte that grows in the riverbanks of the Río Tinto basin (Southwest Iberian Peninsula). The waters and soils of the Río Tinto area are highly acidic and have high concentrations of heavy metals. In this environment, N. oleander naturally grows in both extreme acidic (EA) and less extreme acidic (LEA) water courses, excluding, and bioindicating certain metals. In this work, we compared and evaluated the accumulation preferences and capacities, the distribution and processes of biomineralization of metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Mg, Ca) in the first stages of growth of EA and LEA oleanders by means of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray analyzer analysis. Seeds from both environments were grown and treated with a self-made solution simulating the most extreme red waters from the Río Tinto. LEA plants drastically reduces the metal uptake at the beginning, but later reactivates the uptake reaching concentration values in the same range as the EA plants. The results showed high Mn, Zn and Mg concentrations, accumulation of Fe and Cu in plants from both environments, differing from the metal concentrations of field-grown oleanders. Iron bioformations with traces of other metals were present inside and over epidermal cells and inside vascular cells of stems and roots. They were absent of leaves. The accumulation properties of N. oleander in its early stages of development make it a species to take in consideration in phytoremediation processes but optimized conditions are needed to ensure enough biomass production. PMID:23892697

  4. On the tectonics of the Neocomian Rio do Peixe Rift Basin, NE Brazil: Lessons from gravity, magnetics, and radiometric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro, David Lopes; de Oliveira, Diógenes Custódio; Gomes Castelo Branco, Raimundo Mariano

    2007-09-01

    A geophysical perspective based on well-acquired gravity, magnetic, and radiometric data provides good insights into the basin architectural elements and tectonic evolution of the Rio do Peixe Basin (RPB), an Early Cretaceous intracontinental basin in the northeast Brazilian rift system, which developed during the opening of the South Atlantic. NW-SE-trending extensional forces acting over an intensively deformed Precambrian basement yielded a composite basin architecture strongly controlled by preexisting, mechanically weak fault zones in the upper crust. Reactivated NE-SW and E-W ductile shear zones of Brasiliano age (˜0.6 Ga) divided the RPB into three asymmetrical half-grabens (Brejo das Freiras, Sousa, and Pombal subbasins), separated by basement highs of granite bodies that seem to anchor and distinguish the mechanical subsidence of the subbasins. Radiometric and geopotential field data highlight the relationship between the tectonic stress field and the role of a preexisting structural framework inserted in the final rift geometry. The up-to-2000 m thick half-grabens are sequentially located at the inflexion of sigmoidal-shaped shear zones and acquire a typical NE-SW-oriented elliptic shape. The Sousa Subbasin is the single exception. Because of its uncommon E-W elongated form, three-dimensional gravity modeling reveals an E-W axis of depocenters within the Sousa Subbasin framework, in which the eastern shoulders are controlled by NE-SW-trending faults. These faults belong to the Precambrian structural fabric, as is well illustrated by the gamma ray and magnetic signatures of the basement grain. Release faults were identified nearly perpendicular or oblique to master faults, forming marginal strike ramps and horst structures in all subbasins. The emplacement mechanism of Brasiliano granites around the RPB was partially oriented by the same structural framework, as is indicated by the gravity signature of the granitic bodies after removal of the gravity

  5. Development of Semi-distributed ecohydrological model in the Rio Grande De Manati River Basin, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setegn, S. G.; Ortiz, J.; Melendez, J.; Barreto, M.; Torres-Perez, J. L.; Guild, L. S.

    2015-12-01

    There are limited studies in Puerto Rico that shows the water resources availability and variability with respect to changing climates and land use. The main goal of the HICE-PR (Human Impacts to Coastal Ecosystems in Puerto Rico (HICE-PR): the Río Loco Watershed (southwest coast PR) project which was funded by NASA is to evaluate the impacts of land use/land cover changes on the quality and extent of coastal and marine ecosystems (CMEs) in two priority watersheds in Puerto Rico (Manatí and Guánica).The main objective of this study is to set up a physically based spatially distributed hydrological model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for the analysis of hydrological processes in the Rio Grande de Manati river basin. SWAT (soil and water assessment tool) is a spatially distributed watershed model developed to predict the impact of land management practices on water, sediment and agricultural chemical yields in large complex watersheds. For efficient use of distributed models for hydrological and scenario analysis, it is important that these models pass through a careful calibration and uncertainty analysis. The model was calibrated and validated using Sequential Uncertainty Fitting (SUFI-2) calibration and uncertainty analysis algorithms. The model evaluation statistics for streamflows prediction shows that there is a good agreement between the measured and simulated flows that was verified by coefficients of determination and Nash Sutcliffe efficiency greater than 0.5. Keywords: Hydrological Modeling; SWAT; SUFI-2; Rio Grande De Manati; Puerto Rico

  6. Application of a Distributed, Physically Based, Hydrologic Model to Improve Streamflow Forecasts in the Upper Rio Grande Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorham, T. A.; Boyle, D. P.; McConnell, J. R.; Lamorey, G. W.; Markstrom, S.; Viger, R.; Leavesley, G.

    2001-12-01

    Approximately two-thirds of the runoff in the Rio Grande begins as seasonal snowpack in the headwaters above the USGS stream gaging stations at several points (nodes) above Albuquerque, New Mexico. Resource managers in the Rio Grande Basin rely on accurate short and long term forecasts of water availability and flow at these nodes to make important decisions aimed at achieving a balance among many different and competing water uses such as municipal, fish and wildlife, agricultural, and water quality. In this study, a distributed, physically based hydrologic model is used to investigate the degree of spatial and temporal distribution of snow and the processes that control snowmelt necessary to accurately simulate streamflow at seven of these nodes. Specifically, snow distribution and surface runoff are estimated using a combination of the USGS Modular Modeling System (MMS), GIS Weasel, Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), and XYZ snow distribution model. This highly collaborative work between researchers at the Desert Research Institute and the USGS is an important part of SAHRA (Sustainability of semi-Arid Hydrology and Riparian Areas) efforts aimed at improving models of snow distribution and snowmelt processes.

  7. An integrated geophysical study of basin structure in the Van Horn segment of the Rio Grande rift

    SciTech Connect

    Maciejewski, T.J.; Whitelaw, J.L. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-02-01

    The Rio Grande Rift is a major late Cenozoic continental rift which trends north-south from Colorado to West Texas where it takes an abrupt south-west turn. A series of basins then follow the Texas-Mexico border passing through the Big Bend Area into Mexico. This rifting zone produced a series of bolsons: Hueco Bolson, Red Light Bolson, Eagle Flat, Green River Bolson, and Ryan Flat being the most predominant of the area. The target of this study was the area southeast of the Hueco Bolson; the Red Light and Green River Bolson is an intermontane basin being bounded on the west by the Eagle Mountains and on the east by the Van Horn Mountains. The Red Light Bolson is nested between the Quitman and Eagle Mountains. Through the use of gravity data, drill hole information and other related geophysical information, the subsurface structure of this region was investigated. A broad gravity low dominates the region, but does not correlate well with late Cenozoic features. Drilling data suggest that this low is due to thick Cretaceous strata. The Green River Bolson is associated with a north-south trending gravity low suggesting it contains considerable Cenozoic fill.

  8. Magnetic Fabric Associated with Faulting of Poorly Consolidated Basin Sediments of the Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, M. R.; Minor, S. A.; Caine, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Permanent strain in sediments associated with shallow fault zones can be difficult to characterize. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data were obtained from 120 samples at 6 sites to assess the nature of fault-related AMS fabrics for 4 faults cutting Miocene-Pliocene basin fill sediments of the Rio Grande rift of north-central New Mexico. The San Ysidro (3 sites), Sand Hill, and West Paradise faults within the northern Albuquerque basin have normal offset whereas an unnamed fault near Buckman in the western Española basin has oblique strike-slip offset. Previous studies have shown that detrital magnetite controls magnetic susceptibility in rift sandstones, and in a 50-m-long hanging wall traverse of the San Ysidro fault, non-gouge samples have typical sedimentary AMS fabrics with Kmax and Kint axes (defining magnetic foliation) scattered within bedding. For the 5 normal-fault sites, samples from fault cores or adjacent mixed zones that lie within 1 m of the principal slip surface developed common deformation fabrics with (1) magnetic foliation inclined in the same azimuth but more shallowly dipping than the fault plane, and (2) magnetic lineation plunging down foliation dip with nearly the same trend as the fault striae, although nearer for sand versus clay gouge samples. These relations suggest that the sampled fault materials deformed by particulate flow with alignment of magnetite grains in the plane of maximum shortening. For a 2-m-long traverse at the Buckman site, horizontal sedimentary AMS foliation persists to < 15 cm to the fault slip surface, wherein foliation in sand and clay gouge rotates toward the steeply dipping fault plane in a sense consistent with sinistral offset. Collectively these data suggest permanent deformation fabrics were localized within < 1 m of fault surfaces and that AMS fabrics from gouge samples can provide kinematic information for faults in unconsolidated sediments which may lack associated slickenlines.

  9. Oblique transfer of extensional strain between basins of the middle Rio Grande rift, New Mexico: fault kinematic and paleostress constraints

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minor, Scott A.; Hudson, Mark R.; Caine, Jonathan Saul; Thompson, Ren A.

    2013-01-01

    The structural geometry of transfer and accommodation zones that relay strain between extensional domains in rifted crust has been addressed in many studies over the past 30 years. However, details of the kinematics of deformation and related stress changes within these zones have received relatively little attention. In this study we conduct the first-ever systematic, multi-basin fault-slip measurement campaign within the late Cenozoic Rio Grande rift of northern New Mexico to address the mechanisms and causes of extensional strain transfer associated with a broad accommodation zone. Numerous (562) kinematic measurements were collected at fault exposures within and adjacent to the NE-trending Santo Domingo Basin accommodation zone, or relay, which structurally links the N-trending, right-stepping en echelon Albuquerque and Española rift basins. The following observations are made based on these fault measurements and paleostresses computed from them. (1) Compared to the typical northerly striking normal to normal-oblique faults in the rift basins to the north and south, normal-oblique faults are broadly distributed within two merging, NE-trending zones on the northwest and southeast sides of the Santo Domingo Basin. (2) Faults in these zones have greater dispersion of rake values and fault strikes, greater dextral strike-slip components over a wide northerly strike range, and small to moderate clockwise deflections of their tips. (3) Relative-age relations among fault surfaces and slickenlines used to compute reduced stress tensors suggest that far-field, ~E-W–trending σ3 stress trajectories were perturbed 45° to 90° clockwise into NW to N trends within the Santo Domingo zones. (4) Fault-stratigraphic age relations constrain the stress perturbations to the later stages of rifting, possibly as late as 2.7–1.1 Ma. Our fault observations and previous paleomagnetic evidence of post–2.7 Ma counterclockwise vertical-axis rotations are consistent with increased

  10. Benthic macroinvertebrate community in the Sinos river drainage basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barros, M P; Gayeski, L M; Tundisi, J G

    2016-06-27

    Aquatic macroinvertebrate fauna is a relevant component of limnic continental aquatic ecosystems, playing an important role in several processes with relevant biocomplexity. The present study characterized the benthic macroinvertebrate fauna found in three hydric bodies in the Sinos river drainage basin regarding community structure. Sample was collected from January to December 2013 in three locations in the basin: the city of Caraá (29 °45'45.5"S/50°19'37.3"W), the city of Rolante (29°38'34.4"S/50°32'33.2"W) and the city of Igrejinha (29°36'10.84"S/50°48'49.3"W). Abiotic components (pH, dissolved oxygen and temperature) were registered and collected samples were identified up to family type. Average annual pH, dissolved oxygen and temperature were similar in all locations. A total of 26,170 samples were collected. Class Insecta (Arthropods) represented 85.5% of total sample. Platyhelmintes, Mollusca and Annelida samples were also registered. A total of 57 families were identified for the drainage basin and estimators (Chao-1, Chao-2 and jackknife 2) estimated richness varying from 60 to 72 families. PMID:27355982

  11. Fine-Resolution Hydrologic Modeling of Semiarid River Basins: Preliminary Results from the Upper Rio Grande

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyckoff, R.; Vivoni, E. R.; Rinehart, A.

    2004-12-01

    Water resources management and decision making in arid and semiarid regions require scientific knowledge and predictive capability of the physical processes occurring within hydrologic systems at scales sufficient to capture the variability inherent in the resource and its utilization. Our understanding of the interaction between water supply and demand is aided through numerical models that best represent our current knowledge of the hydrologic, ecological and meteorological processes in river basins. To this end, advances in distributed hydrologic modeling over large regional watersheds can aid in providing estimates of water availability and its susceptibility to climate variations, land-cover change and population growth. In this study, we utilize the TIN-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS) model to simulate continuous hydrological processes within subbasins of the Upper Río Grande in north-central New Mexico. First, we introduce the distributed model by highlighting the following salient features: (1) coupled unsaturated and saturated zones through a dynamic water table, (2) coupled energy and hydrologic balance at the land surface and (3) topographically-driven soil moisture redistribution, radiation and evapotranspiration. Accurate terrain representation at fine-resolution is achieved through the use of a triangulated irregular network (TIN) terrain model. Second, we present semiarid case studies in model setup, parameterization and continuous operation for the Upper Río Puerco and Jemez River. These river basins provide test cases for the calibration and validation of the tRIBS model through the use of in-situ measurement networks and long-term rainfall and stream gauging records. We will present the catchment hydrological response and its spatial organization by integrating geospatial data on topography, land-surface properties and precipitation obtained from geographic information systems, gauging networks and remote sensing. Although

  12. Water quality and amphibian health in the Big Bend region of the Rio Grande Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharma, Bibek; Hu, F.; Carr, J.A.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2011-01-01

    Male and female Rio Grande leopard frogs (Rana berlandieri) were collected in May 2005 from the main stem and tributaries of the Rio Grande in the Big Bend region of Texas. Frogs were examined for (1) incidence of testicular ovarian follicles in males; (2) thyroid epithelial cell height, a potential index of exposure to thyroid-disrupting contaminants; and (3) incidence of liver melanomacrophage aggregates, a general index of exposure to contaminants. Standard parameters of surface water quality and concentrations of selected elements, including heavy metals, were determined at each frog collection site. Heavy metals also were measured in whole-frog composite extracts. Water cadmium concentrations in most sites and chloride concentrations in the main stem exceeded federal criteria for freshwater aquatic life. Mercury was detected in frogs from the two collection sites in Terlingua Creek. There was a seventeen percent incidence of testicular ovarian follicles in male frogs. Mean thyroid epithelial cell height was greater in frogs from one of the Terlingua Creek sites (Terlingua Abajo). No differences were observed in the incidence of hepatic macrophage aggregates among sites. In conclusion, although potential cause-effect relationships between indices of habitat quality and amphibian health could not be established, the results of this study raise concerns about the general quality of the aquatic habitat and the potential long-term consequences to the aquatic biota of the Big Bend region. The presence of ovarian follicles in male frogs is noteworthy but further study is necessary to determine whether this phenomenon is natural or anthropogenically induced.

  13. Trace-element accumulation by Hygrohypnum ochraceum in the upper Rio Grande Basin, Colorado and New Mexico, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, L.F.; Porter, S.D.

    1997-12-01

    Accumulation of 12 trace elements by transplanted aquatic bryophytes (Hygrohypnum ochraceum) was determined at 13 sites in the Rio Grande and tributary streams in southern Colorado and northern New Mexico as part of the US Geological Survey`s National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The purposes of the study were to determine the spatial distribution of trace elements in relation to land-use practices in the upper Rio Grande Basin, compare accumulation rates of metals in bryophytes at sites contaminated by trace elements, and evaluate transplanted aquatic bryophytes as a tool for examining the bioavailability of trace elements in relation to concentrations in water and bed sediment. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in bryophytes, water, and bed sediment were significantly higher at sites that receive drainage from mining areas than at sites near agricultural or urban activities. Concentrations of most trace elements were lower in a tributary stream below an urban source than at sites near mining or agricultural use. Concentrations of Cu and Zn in bryophytes correlated with concentrations in water and bed sediment. In addition, bryophyte concentrations of As, Cd, and Pb correlated with concentrations in bed sediment. Transplanted bryophytes can provide an indication of bioavailability. Rates of accumulation were related to the magnitude of ambient trace-element concentrations; maximal uptake occurred during the first 10 d of exposure. Trace-element concentrations in transplanted bryophytes could potentially be used to predict water and sediment concentrations that represent an integration of conditions over short to intermediate lengths of time, rather than instantaneous conditions as measured using water samples.

  14. Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental Contaminants and Their Effects on Fish in the Rio Grande Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, Christopher J.; Dethloff, Gail M.; Hinck, Jo Ellen; Bartish, Timothy M.; Blazer, Vicki; Coyle, James J.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2004-01-01

    We collected, examined, and analyzed 368 fish of seven species from 10 sites in the Rio Grande Basin (RGB) during late 1997 and early 1998. Four sites were National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program (NCBP) stations where organochlorine and elemental contaminants in fish had been monitored from 1969 through 1986. The other six were USGS-National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations where water quality is monitored. The objectives were to document temporal and geographic trends in the concentrations of accumulative organic and inorganic contaminants in RGB fish and the effects of contaminants on the fish; to continue testing the feasibility of incorporating biomarkers (that is, biochemical, histopathological, and other biological indicators of contaminant exposure or effects) into a monitoring program for large U.S. rivers; and to evaluate the compatibility of monitoring methods based on the analysis of fish with those used to monitor water by NASQAN. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio; carp) and black basses (Micropterus sp.; bass) were the targeted species; together, they represented 77% of the fish collected. Each fish was examined in the field for externally and internally visible gross lesions, selected organs were weighed to compute various ponderal and organosomatic indices, and samples of tissues and fluids were obtained and preserved for analysis of fish health and reproductive biomarkers. Composite samples of whole fish from each station were grouped by species and gender and analyzed by instrumental methods for persistent organic and inorganic contaminants and for dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ) using H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. Overall, fish from stations in the lower RGB contained greater concentrations of some contaminants and appeared to be less healthy than those from sites in the central and upper parts of the basin, as indicated by general gradient of pesticide concentrations and biomarker responses from upstream to downstream. In the

  15. Improvements in Snow Mapping of the Rio Grande Basin using MODIS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    G¢mez-Landesa, E.; Rango, A.

    2002-12-01

    Snow covered area data is valuable for assessing watershed condition. Additionally it is being used as an input for the Snowmelt Runoff Model (SRM), which provides simulations and forecasts of a basin's daily streamflow. A visible and a near infrared channel of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are being used to generate snow maps, replacing the traditional Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data, and therefore improving the spatial resolution of the snow maps from 1 km to 250 m. In order to implement the MODIS data, a geometric correction algorithm was developed to remove the so called "Bowtie Effect" from the MODIS scenes. Radiances from pixels located on shaded slopes of the basin are strongly diminished because the two channels used in this method receive radiation from the solar reflective region of the spectrum. To correct this problem, an algorithm was developed to simulate the shaded areas on a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). This effect was found to be dependent on the altitude of the pixel, so an empirical second-order polynomial was applied. In order to make the snow mapping system as automated as possible, new methods were studied to retrieve snow albedo using bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDF). Albedo retrieval can also be used as a criterium to infer the start of the snowmelt season, due to the decrease in reflectance of the snowpack as it ages.

  16. Proposed expansion of the City of Albuquerque/U.S. Geological Survey ground-water-level monitoring network for the middle Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bexfield, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Middle Rio Grande Basin in central New Mexico, extending from Cochiti Lake on the north to San Acacia on the south, covers an area of about 3,060 square miles. Ground-water withdrawals in the basin are concentrated in and around the city of Albuquerque. Because of rapid increases in population and associated ground-water pumpage, a network of wells was established cooperatively by the City of and the U.S. Geological Survey between April 1982 and September 1983 to monitor changes in ground-water levels throughout the basin. Expansion of this network has been identified as an essential element in plans to study the relation between surface water and ground water in the basin. An inventory of existing wells in the Albuquerque metropolitan area has brought together information on about 400 wells that either are being monitored for water levels or would be good candidates for monitoring. About 115 wells or well sites are proposed as additions to the current 128-well ground-water-level monitoring network for the Middle Rio Grande Basin. Despite the extensive network that would be created by the addition of the proposed existing wells, however, certain parts of the Albuquerque metropolitan area would remain without adequate coverage areally and/or with depth in the Santa Fe Group aquifer until the installation of the proposed new monitoring wells.

  17. Participatory Water Resources Modeling in a Water-Scarce Basin (Rio Sonora, Mexico) Reveals Uncertainty in Decision-Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, A. S.; Vivoni, E. R.; Halvorsen, K. E.; Kossak, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Rio Sonora Basin (RSB) in northwest Mexico has a semi-arid and highly variable climate along with urban and agricultural pressures on water resources. Three participatory modeling workshops were held in the RSB in spring 2013. A model of the water resources system, consisting of a watershed hydrology model, a model of the water infrastructure, and groundwater models, was developed deliberatively in the workshops, along with scenarios of future climate and development. Participants were asked to design water resources management strategies by choosing from a range of supply augmentation and demand reduction measures associated with water conservation. Participants assessed water supply reliability, measured as the average daily supply divided by daily demand for historical and future periods, by probing with the climate and development scenarios. Pre- and post-workshop-surveys were developed and administered, based on conceptual models of workshop participants' beliefs regarding modeling and local water resources. The survey results indicate that participants believed their modeling abilities increased and beliefs in the utility of models increased as a result of the workshops. The selected water resources strategies varied widely among participants. Wastewater reuse for industry and aquifer recharge were popular options, but significant numbers of participants thought that inter-basin transfers and desalination were viable. The majority of participants indicated that substantial increases in agricultural water efficiency could be achieved. On average, participants chose strategies that produce reliabilities over the historical and future periods of 95%, but more than 20% of participants were apparently satisfied with reliabilities lower than 80%. The wide range of strategies chosen and associated reliabilities indicate that there is a substantial degree of uncertainty in how future water resources decisions could be made in the region.

  18. Mercury levels in muscle of six species of turtles eaten by people along the Rio Negro of the Amazon basin.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Larissa; Belger, Lauren; Burger, Joanna; Vogt, Richard C; Ferrara, Camila R

    2010-02-01

    Mercury levels in the Amazon River are generally high, but there are no published studies on Hg levels in turtles from the region. In this study, levels of Hg were examined in the muscle of six species of turtles in the Rio Negro in the Amazon basin of Brazil, including Podocnemis unifilis, Podocnemis expansa, Podocnemis erythrocephala, Podocnemis sextuberculata, Peltocephalus dumerilianus, and Chelus fimbriatus. It is important to analyze Hg levels in chelonians in this region because of the potential health risk to humans and other receptors that eat them, as well as their potential use as bioindicators. The effect of sex, weight, and carapace length on Hg concentrations in turtle muscle was examined to determine if the levels represent a health risk to riverine people. There was a significant interspecific difference in Hg levels but no differences as a function of size or gender. The highest Hg level was found in Chelus fimbriatus (mean = 432 ppb, standard deviation +/- 196 ppb), followed by Peltocephalus dumerilianus (106 +/- 41 ppb), Podocnemis expansa (62 +/- 49 ppb), P. sextuberculata (61 +/- 40 ppb), P. unilifis (35 +/- 17 ppb), and P. erythrocephala (33.1 +/- 17 ppb). Of the species studied, the piscivorous C. fimbriatus had the highest Hg level. Hg levels in turtles were similar to the levels found in fish from the same basin. Levels of Hg in the muscle of C. fimbriatus are sufficiently high to pose a potential risk to humans who consume them. This study represents the first comparative study of Hg levels in muscle of six species of turtles. PMID:19621205

  19. A new species of Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from rio Itapicuru basin, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zanata, Angela M; Pitanga, Bruno R

    2016-01-01

    A small-bodied new species of Hypostomus is described from the rio Itapicuru basin, Bahia, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from most congeners mainly by having the lower caudal-fin lobe distinctly longer than the upper lobe and absence of conspicuous dark spots on posterior half of body. It differs particularly from congeners occurring in northeastern coastal Brazilian drainages and the rio São Francisco basin by having the anterior portion of the abdomen completely plated and the posterior portion plated only on a narrow median line, leaving large lateral areas naked, dark spots on anterior portion of trunk similar in size or slightly larger than those on head, absence of conspicuous spots on posterior half of trunk and caudal fin, and absence of keels on head and trunk. PMID:27470717

  20. Synoptic Sampling of Dissolved Nitrogen Species and Organic Carbon in the Rio Grande Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villinski, J. E.; Hogan, J. F.; Brooks, P. D.; Haas, P. A.; Mills, S. K.

    2002-12-01

    Synoptic sampling has been performed along the Rio Grande from the headwaters in Colorado to Fort Quitman, Texas, south of El Paso. Samples from August 2001 and January 2002 were analyzed for nitrate (NO3-), ammonium (NH_{4}$+), total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). DOC concentrations increase slowly between Colorado and southern New Mexico and then approximately double in Texas. Large sources of N during both sampling periods were the urban areas around Albuquerque and El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, and agricultural regions in the Rincon and Mesilla valleys of southern New Mexico. Nitrate-N concentrations remained high south of Albuquerque to Elephant Butte reservoir in the summer, presumably due to lack of primary production. Inorganic N concentrations generally are higher in the winter than in the summer. During the summer, ammonium concentrations were greater than 100 mg N/l only at the outlet of Elephant Butte Reservoir, and in Texas. However, winter concentrations were on average an order of magnitude greater, again with the largest ammonium values (5000 \\mug N/l) in Texas. These patterns are consistent with a reduction in biological nutrient demand during the non-growing season.

  1. Rock magnetic characterization of faulted sediments with associated magnetic anomalies in the Albuquerque Basin, Rio Grande rift, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, M.R.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Minor, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Variations in rock magnetic properties are responsible for the many linear, short-wavelength, low-amplitude magnetic anomalies that are spatially associated with faults that cut Neogene basin sediments in the Rio Grande rift, including the San Ysidro normal fault, which is well exposed in the northern part of the Albuquerque Basin. Magnetic-susceptibility measurements from 310 sites distributed through a 1200-m-thick composite section of rift-filling sediments of the Santa Fe Group and prerift Eocene and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks document large variations of magnetic properties juxtaposed by the San Ysidro fault. Mean volume magnetic susceptibilities generally increase upsection through eight map units: from 1.7 to 2.2E-4 in the prerift Eocene and Cretaceous rocks to 9.9E-4-1.2E-3 in three members of the Miocene Zia Formation of the Santa Fe Group to 1.5E-3-3.5E-3 in three members of the Miocene-Pleistocene Arroyo Ojito Formation of the Santa Fe Group. Rock magnetic measurements and petrography indicate that the amount of detrital magnetite and its variable oxidation to maghemite and hematite within the Santa Fe Group sediments are the predominant controls of their magnetic property variations. Magnetic susceptibility increases progressively with sediment grain size within the members of the Arroyo Ojito Formation (deposited in fluvial environments) but within members of the Zia Formation (deposited in mostly eolian environments) reaches highest values in fine to medium sands. Partial oxidation of detrital magnetite is spatially associated with calcite cementation in the Santa Fe Group. Both oxidation and cementation probably reflect past flow of groundwater through permeable zones. Magnetic models for geologic cross sections that incorporate mean magnetic susceptibilities for the different stratigraphic units mimic the aeromagnetic profiles across the San Ysidro fault and demonstrate that the stratigraphic level of dominant magnetic contrast changes with

  2. Hydrochemical tracers in the middle Rio Grande Basin, USA: 2. Calibration of a groundwater-flow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, Ward E.; Plummer, L. Niel; McAda, Douglas P.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.

    The calibration of a groundwater model with the aid of hydrochemical data has demonstrated that low recharge rates in the Middle Rio Grande Basin may be responsible for a groundwater trough in the center of the basin and for a substantial amount of Rio Grande water in the regional flow system. Earlier models of the basin had difficulty reproducing these features without any hydrochemical data to constrain the rates and distribution of recharge. The objective of this study was to use the large quantity of available hydrochemical data to help calibrate the model parameters, including the recharge rates. The model was constructed using the US Geological Survey's software MODFLOW, MODPATH, and UCODE, and calibrated using 14C activities and the positions of certain flow zones defined by the hydrochemical data. Parameter estimation was performed using a combination of nonlinear regression techniques and a manual search for the minimum difference between field and simulated observations. The calibrated recharge values were substantially smaller than those used in previous models. Results from a 30,000-year transient simulation suggest that recharge was at a maximum about 20,000 years ago and at a minimum about 10,000 years ago. Le calibrage d'un modèle hydrogéologique avec l'aide de données hydrochimiques a démontré que la recharge relativement faible dans le Grand Bassin du Middle Rio est vraisemblablement responsable d'une dépression des eaux souterraines dans le centre du bassin et de la présence d'une quantité substantielle d'eau du Rio Grande dans l'aquifère du Groupe de Santa Fe. Les modèles antérieurs avaient des difficultés à reproduire ses conclusions sans l'aide de données hydrochimiques pour contraindre les taux et la distribution de la recharge. L'objectif de cette étude était d'utiliser une grande quantité de données hydrochimiques permettant de calibrer les paramètres du modèle, et notamment les taux de recharge. Le modèle a

  3. Hydrochemical tracers in the middle Rio Grande Basin, USA: 2. Calibration of a groundwater-flow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, Ward E.; Plummer, L. Niel; McAda, Douglas P.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.

    The calibration of a groundwater model with the aid of hydrochemical data has demonstrated that low recharge rates in the Middle Rio Grande Basin may be responsible for a groundwater trough in the center of the basin and for a substantial amount of Rio Grande water in the regional flow system. Earlier models of the basin had difficulty reproducing these features without any hydrochemical data to constrain the rates and distribution of recharge. The objective of this study was to use the large quantity of available hydrochemical data to help calibrate the model parameters, including the recharge rates. The model was constructed using the US Geological Survey's software MODFLOW, MODPATH, and UCODE, and calibrated using 14C activities and the positions of certain flow zones defined by the hydrochemical data. Parameter estimation was performed using a combination of nonlinear regression techniques and a manual search for the minimum difference between field and simulated observations. The calibrated recharge values were substantially smaller than those used in previous models. Results from a 30,000-year transient simulation suggest that recharge was at a maximum about 20,000 years ago and at a minimum about 10,000 years ago. Le calibrage d'un modèle hydrogéologique avec l'aide de données hydrochimiques a démontré que la recharge relativement faible dans le Grand Bassin du Middle Rio est vraisemblablement responsable d'une dépression des eaux souterraines dans le centre du bassin et de la présence d'une quantité substantielle d'eau du Rio Grande dans l'aquifère du Groupe de Santa Fe. Les modèles antérieurs avaient des difficultés à reproduire ses conclusions sans l'aide de données hydrochimiques pour contraindre les taux et la distribution de la recharge. L'objectif de cette étude était d'utiliser une grande quantité de données hydrochimiques permettant de calibrer les paramètres du modèle, et notamment les taux de recharge. Le modèle a

  4. Mercury in sediments from shelf and continental slope at Campos Basin near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, Beatriz; Hintelmann, Holger; Dimock, Brian; Gomes de Almeida, Marcelo; Falcão, Ana Paula; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant due to its ability to undergo long-range transport from source regions to remote parts of the world, and its ubiquitous presence in aquatic ecosystems. The Hg isotope ratios could be an effective tool for tracing the sources and process of Hg in the environment. This study aimed to establish the distribution of mercury in surface sediments of three transects (25- 3000m water depth) in continental shelf and slope in Campos Basin-RJ-Brazil, using the Hg isotopes to understand the geochemical processes relating to Hg cycling that occur in a subtropical coastal environment. The study area was divided into three transects: A (located to the south and close to a upwelling area), D (located opposite the mouth of the Paraiba do Sul River) and I (located north near the top of Vitória-ES). Sampling isobaths were 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 400, 700, 1000, 1300, 1900, 2500 and 3000m. The Total Hg, MMHg and Hg stable isotopes were determined based on EPA Method 1631, EPA method 1630 and Foucher and Hintelmann (2006), respectively. The silt/clay ranged from 0.05 to 95%, and the organic carbon (OC) from 0.07 to 1.43 % for all transects. THg and MMHg concentrations in the shelf were 11.9 ± 7.2 (1.7- 22.2) ng.g‑1 and 0.15 ± 0.12 (0.02 - 0.40) ng.g‑1; in the slope 30.3 ± 9.2 (11.6 - 51.6) ng.g‑1 and 0.13 ± 0.06 (0.03 -0.29) ng.g‑1 , respectively. The δ202Hg and Δ199Hg varied from -0.32 to -1.85 ‰ (-0.79 ± 0.44‰) and -0.41 to 0.09 ‰ (-0.03 ± 0.12 ‰) for all transects, respectively. The delta values between both regions are significantly different, the shelf region showed δ202Hg from -0.59 to -2.19 ‰ (mean: -1.52 ±0.65) and Δ199Hg from - 0.53 to 0.08 ‰ (mean: -0.27 ±0.55) and the slope region were observed δ202Hg values from -0.32 to -1.82 ‰ (mean: -0.73 ±0.39 ‰ n=18) and gΔ199Hg from -0.23 to 0.09‰ (mean: -0.02 ±0.08‰ n=5). The slope appears to be enriched with heavier isotopes compared to the shelf, however

  5. Using Pacific and Atlantic Ocean Climate Variability for Improving Streamflow Estimates in the Rio Grande River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalra, A.; Ahmad, S.

    2013-12-01

    Over the years, hydrologist and climatologist have been engaged in developing relationship between oceanic-atmospheric oscillations and hydroclimatology within a region. Several modes of oceanic-atmospheric climate phenomena are available that have periodicity ranging from annual-to decadal-to multidecadal and can provide predictive information that can be used to improve forecast lead time of hydrologic variables. The most commonly understood and studied oceanic-atmospheric oscillations representing the variability in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, El Niño-Southern Oscillation, and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Although, these climate patterns are indicative of SST variability, spatial bias is introduced as these oscillations represent specific predetermined regions. The exploitation of entire Pacific and Atlantic Ocean SST eliminates the ocean or region specific bias impacting the hydroclimatology. With this motivation, we propose a time lagged analyses between the Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean SSTs and 500 mbar geopotential height (Z500) values with spring-summer streamflow volume for improving the forecast lead time. Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) statistical technique is used to identify coupled regions of SST/Z500 and six unimpaired streamflow gages in Rio Grande River Basin, located in the western United States, for a 63-year period (1949-2011). The significant SST/ Z500 regions are utilized as predictors in non-parametric model to develop continuous exceedance probability forecasts for 3-6 months lead times. The SST/Z500 1st mode temporal expansion series explained 90% of the variability in streamflow. Additionally, the results indicated improved streamflow forecasts using only significant SST/Z500 regions compared to using predefine climate indices. The improved skill found over basic climatology forecasts will be useful to water managers when trying to predict and manage expected streamflow volumes

  6. Development of a Hydrologic Model to Assess the Feasibility of Water Leasing in the Middle Rio Grande Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garner, C. B.; Boyle, D. P.; Lamorey, G. W.; Bassett, S. D.

    2007-12-01

    The demand for water in the southwestern United States has increased in tandem with a rapid growth of population over the past 50 years. With ever increasing demands being placed on available water supplies, improving water management becomes crucial to the sustainability of the region's water resources. The National Science Foundation (NSF) Science and Technology Center (STC) for the Sustainability of semi-Arid Hydrology and Riparian Areas (SAHRA) is interested in the feasibility of water leasing as a method for more efficiently distributing water among competing users. Economists working on the project will run water leasing simulations in an auction-type environment to understand the pros and cons of water leasing in a free market system. To include hydrologic processes in the water leasing simulations, an MMS-PRMS hydrologic model was developed for a portion of the Middle Rio Grande Basin (MRGB) near Albuquerque, New Mexico. This portion of the MRGB contains a detailed network of diversions, canals, and drains that transport water through the system. In order to capture the complexity of the system, the model was developed using the highest resolution information available. In the model, each Hydrologic Response Unit (HRU) is represented as a trader. To achieve the 15 trader limit desired by economists, the model structure was simplified using two basic constraints; 1) HRUs having a common source and point of return to the river were lumped; and 2) HRUs with less than 20% agricultural land use were omitted from the auction simulations. A new Evapotranspiration (ET) module was implemented in the model to better estimate ET associated with different crops. Modules were also developed so that the end user has the flexibility to manipulate water deliveries based on crop type and land use. The MMS- PRMS model for the MRGB should help economists determine if the incentive to profit by selling or buying water can make more efficient use of the available water supply.

  7. Web application to access U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Civil Works and Restoration Projects information for the Rio Grande Basin, southern Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Archuleta, Christy-Ann M.; Eames, Deanna R.

    2009-01-01

    The Rio Grande Civil Works and Restoration Projects Web Application, developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Albuquerque District, is designed to provide publicly available information through the Internet about civil works and restoration projects in the Rio Grande Basin. Since 1942, USACE Albuquerque District responsibilities have included building facilities for the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force, providing flood protection, supplying water for power and public recreation, participating in fire remediation, protecting and restoring wetlands and other natural resources, and supporting other government agencies with engineering, contracting, and project management services. In the process of conducting this vast array of engineering work, the need arose for easily tracking the locations of and providing information about projects to stakeholders and the public. This fact sheet introduces a Web application developed to enable users to visualize locations and search for information about USACE (and some other Federal, State, and local) projects in the Rio Grande Basin in southern Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas.

  8. An Evaluation of Real-Time Streamflow Forecasts From a Distributed, Physically Based, Hydrologic Model Applied in the Upper Rio Grande Basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorham, T. A.; Boyle, D. P.; McConnell, J. R.; Hobson, A. N.

    2002-12-01

    Different uses compete for the water resources of the Upper Rio Grande Basin including agriculture, municipalities, industry, recreation, ecology and water quality. For water operations management in the Upper Rio Grande, resource managers rely on accurate forecasts (both short and long term) of streamflow at several locations, or nodes on the river. In this study, the USGS Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) is used to predict quantity of runoff in the headwater basin above the USGS streamflow gage near Del Norte, Colorado. Because fine-tuning of the PRMS can result in improved forecasts, predictions were made using three adaptations of the model: 1) low-spatial resolution, 2) high-spatial resolution, 3) using an alternate method of distributing climate variables throughout the basin. A post-forecast evaluation of the real-time streamflow forecasts is made via comparisons with forecasts made by the National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). This study is highly collaborative between researchers at the Desert Research Institute (DRI) and the USGS as part of the NSF funded Center for Sustainability of semi-Arid Hydrology and Riparian Areas (SAHRA) efforts to improve models of snow distribution and snowmelt processes.

  9. Río Tinto sedimentary mineral assemblages: A terrestrial perspective that suggests some formation pathways of phyllosilicates on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Remolar, D. C.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Gómez-Ortíz, D.; Fernández-Sampedro, M.; Sarrazin, P.; Gailhanou, M.; Amils, R.

    2011-01-01

    The presence of extensive phyllosilicate deposits from the early Noachian of Mars are often interpreted as having formed from neutral to subalkaline solutions. In this paper we examine the Río Tinto fluvial basin, an early Mars analog, that hosts clay production and sedimentation along the entire course of the river. At Río Tinto, phyllosilicate minerals including clays and micas are sourced by volcanosedimentary bedrock of rhyolitic and andesitic composition affected by Carboniferous hydrothermal alteration. Pleistocene to modern acidic weathering of those materials chemically altered the volcanic and sedimentary materials to K/Na-clay-(montmorillonite/smectites)-kaolinite assemblages in paleosoils and fractures while physical weathering degrades phyllosilicates more resistant to acidic attack. During the wet season, phyllosilicates are eroded, transported and deposited from both acidic headwaters and neutral tributaries. During the dry season, sulfates and nanophase oxyhydroxides co-precipitate. Late summer storms that cause fast flooding events mix illite, quartz, feldspars, iron oxides and other minerals in fluvial deposits where these minerals are stabilized and aggrade until the following wet season. As a result, chemical precipitates, primary phyllosilicates and secondary clays form mineral admixtures that explain the compositional diversity of the fluvial deposits. These deposits reveal the persistence of smectites, whose occurrence is explained given that the reaction kinetics under acidic conditions of degradation is lowered by seasonal discharges of the river. The longevity of phyllosilicate minerals within fluvial deposits depends on climatic and geochemical conditions and processes which are in turn are correlated to temperature, persistence of water, hydrological cycling, hydrogeochemistry and composition of the source materials in the basement. These parameters are universal and have to be characterized in order to understand the distribution of

  10. A Conceptual Model to Link Anomalously High Temperature Gradients in the Cerros del Rio Volcanic Field to Regional Flow in the Espanola Basin, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingham, E. J.; Keller, S. N.; McCullough, K. R.; Watters, J.; Weitering, B.; Wilce, A. M.; Folsom, M.; Kelley, S.; Pellerin, L.

    2015-12-01

    Temperature-depth well data along with electromagnetic (EM) data were collected by students of the Summer of Applied Geophysics Experience (SAGE) 2015 field season in the Espanola Basin, New Mexico. The data from this year, in addition to data acquired since 2013, were used to construct a conceptual east-west cross-section of the Espanola Basin and the adjacent highlands in order to evaluate the regional flow system. Vertical geothermal gradients from several monitoring wells were measured using a thermistor. Anomalously warm geothermal gradients were mapped in the Cerros del Rio volcanic field in the basin just east of the Rio Grande. Temperature gradients are up to 70℃/km, while the background geothermal gradients in the Rio Grande rift zone generally show 28℃-35℃/km. This anomaly extends to the Buckman well field, which supplies water to the city of Santa Fe. Overpumping of this well field has led to subsidence in the past. However, discharge temperature plots indicate that the temperature gradients of the Buckman field may be rebounding as pumping is reduced. Audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) and transient electromagnetic (TEM) data were acquired in the vicinity of three monitoring wells. TEM and AMT methods complement each other with the former having depths of investigation of less than ten to hundreds of meters and AMT having depths of investigation comparable to the wells deeper than 500m. These datasets were used collectively to image the subsurface stratigraphy and, more specifically, the hydrogeology related to shallow aquifers. The EM data collected at these wells showed a trend indicating a shallow aquifer with a shallower resistive layer of approximately 100 ohm-m at 70-100 meters depth. Beneath this resistive layer we resolved a more conductive, clay-rich layer of 10 ohm-m. These resistivity profiles compliment the electrical logs provided by Jet West, which indicate shallower sandstone interbedded with silt on top of more silt-dominant layers. Our

  11. Eigenmannia besouro, a new species of the Eigenmannia trilineata species-group (Gymnotiformes: Sternopygidae) from the rio São Francisco basin, northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Luiz Antônio W; Wosiacki, Wolmar B

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the Eigenmannia trilineata species-group is described from the rio São Francisco basin, Brazil. It is distinguished from closely related species by a unique set of characters, including a subterminal mouth, the presence of ii,13-14 pectoral-fin rays, a coronomeckelian bone that is 30% the length of Meckel's cartilage, the specific pattern of the dentition of the premaxilla and dentary, and the more anterior origin of the superior midlateral stripe. Comments on species of the E. trilineata species-group are presented. PMID:27395586

  12. Comparison of evapotranspiration estimates from the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm (SEBAL) and flux tower data, middle Rio Grande Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, H.; Hendrickx, J.; Kurc, S.; Small, E.

    2002-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is one of the most important components of the water balance, but also one of the most difficult to measure. Field techniques such as soil water balances and Bowen ratio or eddy covariance techniques are local, ranging from point to field scale. SEBAL (Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land) is an image-processing model that calculates ET and other energy exchanges at the earth's surface. SEBAL uses satellite image data (TM/ETM+, MODIS, AVHRR, ASTER, and so on) measuring visible, near-infrared, and thermal infrared radiation. SEBAL algorithms predict a complete radiation and energy balance for the surface along with fluxes of sensible heat and aerodynamic surface roughness (Bastiaanssen et al, 1998; and Allen et al. 2001). We are constructing a GIS based database that includes spatially-distributed estimates of ET from remote-sensed data at a resolution of about 30 m. The SEBAL code will be optimized for this region via comparison of surface based observations of ET, reference ET (from windspeed, solar radiation, humidity, air temperature, and rainfall records), surface temperature, albedo, and so on. The observed data is collected at a series of tower in the middle Rio Grande Basin. The satellite image provides the instantaneous ET (ET_inst) only. Therefore, estimating 24 hour ET (ET_24) requires some assumptions. Two of these assumptions, which are (1) by assuming the instantaneous evaporative fraction (EF) is equal to the 24-hour averaged value, and (2) by assuming the instantaneous ETrF (same as `crop coefficient', and equal to instantaneous ET divided by instantaneous reference ET) is equal to the 24 hour averaged value, will be evaluated for the study area. Seasonal ET will be estimated by expanding the 24-hour ET proportionally to a reference ET that is derived from weather data. References: Bastiaanssen,W.G.M., M.Menenti, R.A. Feddes, and A.A.M. Holtslag, 1998, A remote sensing surface energy balance algorithm for land (SEBAL): 1

  13. Rapid assessment of soil erosion in the Rio Lempa Basin, Central America, using the universal soil loss equation and geographic information systems.

    PubMed

    Kim, John B; Saunders, Peter; Finn, John T

    2005-12-01

    Soil erosion is a severe problem for many developing regions that lack adequate infrastructure to combat the problem. The authors established a first-order method for prioritizing areas to be examined and remediated using preexisting data and expert knowledge where data are lacking. The Universal Soil Loss Equation was applied to the Rio Lempa Basin in Central America using geographic information systems and remote sensing technologies, and the estimated erosion rates were compared with sediment delivery ratios. Spatial analysis indicates that agriculture on very steep slopes contributes only a small fraction to the total estimated soil erosion, whereas agriculture on gentle and moderately steep slopes contributes a large fraction of the erosion. Although much of the basin is in El Salvador, the greatest estimated amount of erosion is from Honduras. Data quality and availability were impaired by a lack of coordination among agencies and across countries. Several avenues for improving the authors' methods are described. PMID:16328680

  14. Microbial Diversity in Anaerobic Sediments at Río Tinto, a Naturally Acidic Environment with a High Heavy Metal Content▿†

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Andrea, Irene; Rodríguez, Nuria; Amils, Ricardo; Sanz, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    The Tinto River is an extreme environment located at the core of the Iberian Pyritic Belt (IPB). It is an unusual ecosystem due to its size (100 km long), constant acidic pH (mean pH, 2.3), and high concentration of heavy metals, iron, and sulfate in its waters, characteristics that make the Tinto River Basin comparable to acidic mine drainage (AMD) systems. In this paper we present an extensive survey of the Tinto River sediment microbiota using two culture-independent approaches: denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and cloning of 16S rRNA genes. The taxonomic affiliation of the Bacteria showed a high degree of biodiversity, falling into 5 different phyla: Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria; meanwhile, all the Archaea were affiliated with the order Thermoplasmatales. Microorganisms involved in the iron (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Sulfobacillus spp., Ferroplasma spp., etc.), sulfur (Desulfurella spp., Desulfosporosinus spp., Thermodesulfobium spp., etc.), and carbon (Acidiphilium spp., Bacillus spp., Clostridium spp., Acidobacterium spp., etc.) cycles were identified, and their distribution was correlated with physicochemical parameters of the sediments. Ferric iron was the main electron acceptor for the oxidation of organic matter in the most acid and oxidizing layers, so acidophilic facultative Fe(III)-reducing bacteria appeared widely in the clone libraries. With increasing pH, the solubility of iron decreases and sulfate-reducing bacteria become dominant, with the ecological role of methanogens being insignificant. Considering the identified microorganisms—which, according to the rarefaction curves and Good's coverage values, cover almost all of the diversity—and their corresponding metabolism, we suggest a model of the iron, sulfur, and organic matter cycles in AMD-related sediments. PMID:21724883

  15. Iron world and its astrobiological implications: The Tinto River case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, F.; Amils, A.

    2007-08-01

    Extreme ecosystems have recently attracted considerable interest, not only because they prove that life is robust and adaptable, but also because their existence increases the probability of finding life elsewhere in the universe. Most of the best characterized extreme habitats on Earth correspond to geophysical constraints to which opportunistic microorganisms have adapted. However, some extreme acidic environments are unique in that they are the product of biological activity (chemolithotrophy). The Tinto River (Huelva, Southwestern Spain) is an unusual acidic ecosystem (100 km long, mean pH of 2.3) containing a high concentration of heavy metals and an unexpected level of microbial diversity (1,2). In the past, the extreme conditions of the river were considered the result of intense mining activity. The geomicrobiological analysis of the Tinto ecosystem strongly suggests that these conditions are the result of the metabolic activity of chemolithotrophic prokaryotes, mainly iron-oxidizers (3). The system seems to be controlled by iron, which is not only used as an electron donor, but also as an electron acceptor, allowing a full iron cycle to operate. Furthermore, ferric iron is responsible for the maintenance of the constant pH of the ecosystem and can protect the different organisms thriving in its waters from radiation. Laminar, iron-rich stromatolitic formations are generated by the precipitation of different iron minerals on the surface of the biofilms that cover most of the rocks in the river and the riverbed. These structures are similar to ancient massive bioinduced laminated iron bioformations formed long before the first mining activities started in the area 5000 years ago. The existence of these ancient iron-rich deposits formed prior to any known mining activity, under hydrochemical conditions similar to modern deposits, is considered a strong argument in favor of a natural origin of the river (4,5). Recently, the source area of the Tinto ecosystem

  16. Combined land use and climate change impact on Surface and Ground water resources in the Rio Cobre and Great River basin, Jamaica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setegn, S. G.; Melesse, A. M.; Grey, O.; Webber, D.

    2011-12-01

    Possible adverse impacts of land use and climate change on one hand and population pressure, extended droughts, and environmental degradation on the other hand are major factors limiting water resources availability in the watersheds of Jamaica. The main objective of this study is to analyze the combined impact of land use/ land cover changes as well as climate change on the hydrological processes and water recourses availability in the Rio Cobre and Great River basins. A spatially distributed model SWAT was calibrated and validated in the basin and used for the study of land use and climate change impacts in the watersheds. Different land cover types were tested to analyze its impact on the hydrology of the watershed. The main land cover parameters considered within the Great and Rio Cobre River Watershed includes Agriculture, Tourism, Water, Road Infrastructure, Population, Forestry and land cover Information. The outputs of different Global climate model (GCM) were downscaled to the watershed level and used for assessing the impact of climate change on water resources availability in the area. The analysis of climate change impact on the surface and ground water resources of the basin indicated that the basin will experience a change in water balance due to changes in the major climate variables in the forthcoming decades. The direction of streamflow change follows mainly the direction of changes in rainfall. Many of the models show statistically-significant declines in mean annual streamflow (up to 60% reduction in streamflow) for the different time-periods and scenarios. The combined effect of climate and land-use/land-cover change on the hydrological processes and water recourses variability is an important step to develop sustainable adaptation strategy.

  17. Temporal and spatial constraints on the evolution of a Rio Grande rift sub-basin, Guadalupe Mountain area, northern New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, R. A.; Turner, K. J.; Cosca, M. A.; Drenth, B.; Hudson, M. R.; Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Taos Plateau volcanic field (TPVF) in the southern San Luis Valley of northern New Mexico is the most voluminous of the predominantly basaltic Neogene (6-1 Ma) volcanic fields of the Rio Grande rift. Volcanic deposits of the TPVF are intercalated with alluvial deposits of the Santa Fe Group and compose the N-S-trending San Luis Basin, the largest basin of the northern rift (13,500 km2 in area). Pliocene volcanic rocks of the Guadalupe Mountain area of northern New Mexico are underlain by the southern end of one of the larger sub-basins of the San Luis Valley, the Sunshine sub-basin (~ 450 km2 in area) juxtaposed against the down-to-west frontal fault of the Precambrian-cored Sangre de Cristo Range. The sub-basin plunges northward and extends to near the Colorado-New Mexico border. The western margin (~15 km west of the Sangre de Cristo fault) is constrained by outcrops of Oligocene to Miocene volcanic rocks of the Latir volcanic field, interpreted here as a broad pre-Pliocene intra-rift platform underlying much of the northern TPVF. The southern sub-basin border is derived, in part, from modeling of gravity and aeromagnetic data and is interpreted as a subsurface extension of this intra-rift platform that extends southeastward to nearly the Sangre de Cristo range front. Broadly coincident with this subsurface basement high is the northwest-trending, curvilinear terminus of the down-to-northeast Red River fault zone. South of the gravity high, basin-fill alluvium and ~3.84 Ma Servilleta basalt lava flows thicken along a poorly exposed, down-to-south, basin-bounding fault of the northern Taos graben, the largest of the San Luis Valley sub-basins. The uppermost, western sub-basin fill is exposed along steep canyon walls near the confluence of the Rio Grande and the Red River. Unconformity-bound, lava flow packages are intercalated with paleo Red River fan alluvium and define six eruptive sequences in the Guadalupe Mountain area: (1) Guadalupe Mtn. lavas (dacite ~5

  18. An Empirical Test of Tinto's Integration Framework for Community Colleges Using Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos-George, Arlene A.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation empirically tested Tinto's student integration theory through structural equation modeling using a national sample of 2,847 first-time entering community college students. Tinto theorized that the more academically and socially integrated a student is to the college environment, the more likely the student will persist…

  19. New Sakmarian ages for the Rio Bonito formation (Paraná Basin, southern Brazil) based on LA-ICP-MS U-Pb radiometric dating of zircons crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagliari, Joice; Lavina, Ernesto Luiz Correa; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; Tognoli, Francisco Manoel Wohnrath; Basei, Miguel Angelo Stipp; Faccini, Ubiratan Ferrucio

    2014-12-01

    Two ash fall beds (tonstein) sampled from the post-glacial Permian deposits of the Paraná Basin have provided new U-Pb radiometric age constraints for this stratigraphic interval. The zircon grains were recovered from tonstein layers interbedded with fine-grained and carbonaceous lithologies in the middle portion of the Rio Bonito Formation. In both samples, the dominant population is interpreted as generated by explosive volcanism, as having formed immediately before the eruption. Based on 238U/206Pb, the selected zircon grains from the dominant population have weighted mean ages of 290.6 ± 2.8 Ma and 281.7 ± 3.2 Ma, corresponding to the Sakmarian and Kungurian ages in the Cisuralian epoch, respectively. These ages constrain the time of the deposition of the tonstein horizons and have important stratigraphic implications for the Late Paleozoic evolution of both the Paraná Basin and the southwestern region of Gondwana. The results presented here and the radiometric data already published suggest that deposition of the post-glacial coal-bearing deposits of the Rio Bonito Formation was probably initiated before the Early Permian. Thus, we infer that the climate had already ameliorated by this period in order to allow for the formation and accumulation of peat in this region of Gondwana.

  20. Quality of Water and Sediment in Streams Affected by Historical Mining, and Quality of Mine Tailings, in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin, Big Bend Area of the United States and Mexico, August 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambert, Rebecca B.; Kolbe, Christine M.; Belzer, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the International Boundary and Water Commission - U.S. and Mexican Sections, the National Park Service, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, the Secretaria de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales in Mexico, the Area de Proteccion de Flora y Fauna Canon de Santa Elena in Mexico, and the Area de Proteccion de Flora y Fauna Maderas del Carmen in Mexico, collected samples of stream water, streambed sediment, and mine tailings during August 2002 for a study to determine whether trace elements from abandoned mines in the area in and around Big Bend National Park have affected the water and sediment quality in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin of the United States and Mexico. Samples were collected from eight sites on the main stem of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo, four Rio Grande/Rio Bravo tributary sites downstream from abandoned mines or mine-tailing sites, and 11 mine-tailing sites. Mines in the area were operated to produce fluorite, germanium, iron, lead, mercury, silver, and zinc during the late 1800s through at least the late 1970s. Moderate (relatively neutral) pHs in stream-water samples collected at the 12 Rio Grande/Rio Bravo main-stem and tributary sites indicate that water is well mixed, diluted, and buffered with respect to the solubility of trace elements. The highest sulfate concentrations were in water samples from tributaries draining the Terlingua mining district. Only the sample from the Rough Run Draw site exceeded the Texas Surface Water Quality Standards general-use protection criterion for sulfate. All chloride and dissolved solids concentrations in water samples were less than the general-use protection criteria. Aluminum, copper, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc were detected in all water samples for which each element was analyzed. Cadmium, chromium, and lead were detected in samples less frequently, and silver was not detected in any of the samples. None of the sample concentrations of

  1. Mobility of Po and U-isotopes under acid mine drainage conditions: an experimental approach with samples from Río Tinto area (SW Spain).

    PubMed

    Barbero, L; Gázquez, M J; Bolívar, J P; Casas-Ruiz, M; Hierro, A; Baskaran, M; Ketterer, M E

    2014-12-01

    Under acid mine drainage (AMD) conditions, the solubilities and mobilities of many elements are vastly different from conditions prevailing in most natural waters. Studies are underway in the Río Tinto area (Iberian Pyrite Belt), in order to understand the behavior and mobility of long-lived U-series radionuclides under AMD conditions. A set of leaching experiments utilizing typical country rocks from the Tinto River basin, waste rock pile composite materials, iron-rich riverbed sediments and gossan (weathered naturally rock) were performed towards this purpose. Initial leaching experiments using distilled water kept in contact with solid material for 300, 100, 50 and 1 h resulted in very low concentrations of U with (234)U/(238)U activity ratios close to equilibrium and activity concentrations of (210)Po < 0.03 mBq/g. Leaching experiments performed with sulfuric acid media (0.1 and 0.01 M), and contact times between the solid and solution for 24 h were conducted to quantify the amount of U-isotopes and (210)Po leached, and the radioactive disequilibria generated between the radionuclides in the leachate. These experiments show that Po mobility in acidic conditions (pH around 1-2) is very low, with (210)Po activity in the leachate to be 6% in average for the solid sample. By contrast, mobility of U-isotopes is higher than that of Po, around 1.2%. PMID:24308958

  2. Design and Compilation of a Geodatabase of Existing Salinity Information for the Rio Grande Basin, from the Rio Arriba-Sandoval County Line, New Mexico, to Presidio, Texas, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Sachin D.; Maltby, David R., II

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, compiled salinity-related water-quality data and information in a geodatabase containing more than 6,000 sampling sites. The geodatabase was designed as a tool for water-resource management and includes readily available digital data sources from the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, New Mexico Interstate Stream Commission, Sustainability of semi-Arid Hydrology and Riparian Areas, Paso del Norte Watershed Council, numerous other State and local databases, and selected databases maintained by the University of Arizona and New Mexico State University. Salinity information was compiled for an approximately 26,000-square-mile area of the Rio Grande Basin from the Rio Arriba-Sandoval County line, New Mexico, to Presidio, Texas. The geodatabase relates the spatial location of sampling sites with salinity-related water-quality data reported by multiple agencies. The sampling sites are stored in a geodatabase feature class; each site is linked by a relationship class to the corresponding sample and results stored in data tables.

  3. Using cosmogenic nuclides to contrast rates of erosion and sediment yield in a semi-arid, arroyo-dominated landscape, Rio Puerco Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bierman, P.R.; Reuter, J.M.; Pavich, M.; Gellis, A.C.; Caffee, M.W.; Larsen, J.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of in-situ-produced 10Be and 26Al in 52 fluvial sediment samples shows that millennial-scale rates of erosion vary widely (7 to 366 m Ma-1) through the lithologically and topographically complex Rio Puerco Basin of northern New Mexico. Using isotopic analysis of both headwater and downstream samples, we determined that the semi-arid, Rio Puerco Basin is eroding, on average, about 100 m Ma-1. This rapid rate of erosion is consistent with estimates made using other techniques and is likely to result from a combination of easily eroded lithologies, sparse vegetation, and monsoon-dominated rainfall. Data from 331 stream water samples collected by the US Geological Survey between 1960 and 1995 are consistent with basin-wide, average chemical denudation rates of only about 1??4 m Ma-1; thus, the erosion rates we calculate may be considered rates of sediment generation because physical weathering accounts for almost 99 per cent of mass loss. The isotopic data reveal that sediment is generally well mixed downstream with the area-weighted average sediment generation rate for 16 headwater samples (234 ton km-2 a-1 for basin area 170 to 1169 km2) matching well that estimated from a single sample collected far downstream (238 ton km-2 a-1, basin area = 14 225 km2). A series of 15 samples, collected from an arroyo wall and representing deposition through the late Holocene, indicates that 10Be concentration in sediment delivered by the fluvial system has not changed appreciably over the last 1200 years despite at least two cycles of arroyo cutting and filling. Other samples (n = 21) were collected along the drainage network. Rio Puerco erosion rates scale directly with a variety of metrics describing vegetation, precipitation, and rock erodibility. Using the headwater basins for calibration, the erosion rates for both the downstream samples and also the data set as a whole, are best modelled by considering a combination of relief and vegetation metrics, both of which co

  4. Understanding Changes in Water Availability in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte Basin Under the Influence of Large-Scale Circulation Indices Using the Noah Land Surface Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khedun, C. Prakash; Mishra, Ashok K.; Bolten, John D.; Beaudoing, Hiroko K.; Kaiser, Ronald A.; Giardino, J. Richard; Singh, Vijay P.

    2012-01-01

    Water availability plays an important role in the socio-economic development of a region. It is however, subject to the influence of large-scale circulation indices, resulting in periodic excesses and deficits. An assessment of the degree of correlation between climate indices and water availability, and the quantification of changes with respect to major climate events is important for long-term water resources planning and management, especially in transboundary basins as it can help in conflict avoidance. In this study we first establish the correlation of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) with gauged precipitation in the Rio Grande basin, and quantify the changes in water availability using runoff generated from the Noah land surface model. Both spatial and temporal variations are noted, with winter and spring being most influenced by conditions in the Pacific Ocean. Negative correlation is observed at the headwaters and positive correlation across the rest of the basin. The influence of individual ENSO events, classified using four different criteria, is also examined. El Ninos (La Ninas) generally cause an increase (decrease) in runoff, but the pattern is not consistent; percentage change in water availability varies across events. Further, positive PDO enhances the effect of El Nino and dampens that of La Nina, but during neutral/transitioning PDO, La Nina dominates meteorological conditions. Long El Ninos have more influence on water availability than short duration high intensity events. We also note that the percentage increase during El Ninos significantly offsets the drought-causing effect of La Ninas.

  5. Usage and administration manual for a geodatabase compendium of water-resources data-Rio Grande Basin from the Rio Arriba-Sandoval County line, New Mexico, to Presidio, Texas, 1889-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burley, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Interstate Stream Commission, developed a geodatabase compendium (hereinafter referred to as the 'geodatabase') of available water-resources data for the reach of the Rio Grande from Rio Arriba-Sandoval County line, New Mexico, to Presidio, Texas. Since 1889, a wealth of water-resources data has been collected in the Rio Grande Basin from Rio Arriba-Sandoval County line, New Mexico, to Presidio, Texas, for a variety of purposes. Collecting agencies, researchers, and organizations have included the U.S. Geological Survey, Bureau of Reclamation, International Boundary and Water Commission, State agencies, irrigation districts, municipal water utilities, universities, and other entities. About 1,750 data records were recently (2010) evaluated to enhance their usability by compiling them into a single geospatial relational database (geodatabase). This report is intended as a user's manual and administration guide for the geodatabase. All data available, including water quality, water level, and discharge data (both instantaneous and daily) from January 1, 1889, through December 17, 2009, were compiled for the study area. A flexible and efficient geodatabase design was used, enhancing the ability of the geodatabase to handle data from diverse sources and helping to ensure sustainability of the geodatabase with long-term maintenance. Geodatabase tables include daily data values, site locations and information, sample event information, and parameters, as well as data sources and collecting agencies. The end products of this effort are a comprehensive water-resources geodatabase that enables the visualization of primary sampling sites for surface discharges, groundwater elevations, and water-quality and associated data for the study area. In addition, repeatable data processing scripts, Structured Query Language queries for loading prepared data sources, and a detailed process for refreshing all data in the

  6. a Microgravity Survey to Determine the Extent of AN Andesitic Sill that Intrudes across the Rio Grande River Basin, Rio Grande Rift Valley, Sunland Park, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, L. A.; Shinagel, S.; Villalobos, J. I.; Avila, V.; Montana, C. J.; Kaip, G.

    2012-12-01

    In Sunland Park, NM, there is an andesite outcrop near the bank of the Rio Grande (called the River Andesite) which does not match the surrounding sedimentary deposition. Studies of the River Andesite by Garcia (1970) indicate the outcrop is petrologically similar to the Muleros Andesite of Mt. Cristo Rey located several km to the south. A limited GPR and magnetic survey conducted by UTEP students in 2008 suggested the River Andesite was part of a dike, although Garcia mapped smaller outcrops of andesite ~300 m west of the river that may be part of the same body. We have recently (June 2012) found large andesite boulders that may be the outcrops Garcia mapped, although it is uncertain whether these boulders are in-situ. We initially collected microgravity and magnetic data in a small region near the river outcrop in December 2011 to determine the extent of the outcrop. Our preliminary modeling of these data showed the river outcrop appeared to merge with a more extensive igneous body at depth. Ground conductivity data collected near the river outcrop in March 2012 suggested that the outcrop impacts groundwater flow and sediment deposition adjacent to the river. From May through July 2012 we have been collecting additional microgravity data on a grid with 100-200 m spacing extending ~ 500 m from both sides of the river outcrop to better determine the extent of the buried andesite body. We also plan to conduct GPR and magnetic surveys near the recently discovered andesite boulders to determine if these are truly in-situ and part of the same igneous body as the river outcrop. Our eventual goal is to determine how extensive the andesite unit is and how it may impact groundwater flow and flooding in this area of growing urbanization.

  7. Biological studies and field observations in Europe of Lasioptera donacis potential biological control agent of giant reed, Arundo donax, an invasive weed of the Rio Grande Basin of Texas and Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Giant reed, Arundo donax L. (Poaceae; Arundinoideae), is a clonal reed grass that is native from the western Mediterranean to India and invasive in North America and other arid temperate/subtropical parts of the world, including the Rio Grande Basin of Texas and Mexico. A biological control of gian...

  8. Investigating the relationship between climate teleconnection patterns and soil moisture variability in the Rio Grande/Río Bravo del Norte basin using the NOAH land surface model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khedun, C. P.; Mishra, A. K.; Bolten, J. D.; Giardino, J. R.; Singh, V. P.

    2010-12-01

    Soil moisture is an important component of the hydrological cycle. Climate variability patterns, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) are determining factors on surface water availability and soil moisture. Understanding this complex relationship and the phase and lag times between climate events and soil moisture variability is important for agricultural management and water planning. In this study we look at the effect of these climate teleconnection patterns on the soil moisture across the Rio Grande/Río Bravo del Norte basin. The basin is transboundary between the US and Mexico and has a varied climatology - ranging from snow dominated in its headwaters in Colorado, to an arid and semi-arid region in its middle reach and a tropical climate in the southern section before it discharges into the Gulf of Mexico. Agricultural activities in the US and in northern Mexico are highly dependent on the Rio Grande and are extremely vulnerable to climate extremes. The treaty between the two countries does not address climate related events. The soil moisture is generated using the community NOAH land surface model (LSM). The LSM is a 1-D column model that runs in coupled or uncoupled mode, and it simulates soil moisture, soil temperature, skin temperature, snowpack depth, snow water equivalent, canopy water content, and energy flux and water flux of the surface energy and water balance. The North American Land Data Assimilation Scheme 2 (NLDAS2) is used to drive the model. The model is run for the period 1979 to 2009. The soil moisture output is validated against measured values from the different Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) sites within the basin. The spatial and temporal variability of the modeled soil moisture is then analyzed using marginal entropy to investigate monthly, seasonal, and annual variability. Wavelet transform is used to determine the relation, phase

  9. Reassessing Tinto's Concepts of Social and Academic Integration in Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Cody; Wilson, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to trace the development of the Tinto framework for student integration and to critically analyze the application of the framework with nontraditional student populations. Specifically, the terms "academic" and "social integration" have become synonymous with student retention and, by extension,…

  10. Environmental evolution of the Rio Grande drainage basin and Nasca region (Peru) in 2003-2007 using ENVISAT ASAR and ASTER time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cigna, Francesca; Tapete, Deodato; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola

    2013-04-01

    Recent palaeo-environmental studies and remote sensing investigations demonstrated that the Rio Grande drainage basin in Southern Peru is a still evolving landscape, and impacts due to its changes have implications for the preservation of both the natural and cultural features of the Nasca region, well-known for the evidences of the ancient Paracas and Nasca Civilizations, who flourished from the 4th century BC to the 6th century AD. To image the modifications occurred in the last decade, we exploited the entire 4year-long stack of ENVISAT ASAR C-band archive imagery available over the region, which was provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) via the Cat-1 project 11073. The latter supports the activities of the Italian mission of heritage Conservation and Archaeogeophysics (ITACA), which directly involve researchers from the Institute for Archaeological and Monumental Heritage (IBAM) and the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis (IMAA), National Research Council (CNR) of Italy. With the aim of reconstructing the temporal evolution of the Rio Grande drainage basin and its effects and implications for the heritage of the region, we processed 8 ASAR Image Mode IS2 scenes acquired in descending mode between 04/02/2003 and 15/11/2005 and 5 images in ascending mode between 24/07/2005 and 11/11/2007, and focused on SAR backscattering information, amplitude change detection methods and extraction of ASAR-derived time series of the backscattering coefficient over target areas of interest. The ASAR 2003-2007 analysis was coupled and integrated with NDVI-based soil moisture and vegetation change assessment performed by using ASTER multi-spectral data acquired during the same time frame of the ASAR stacks, on 30/05/2003, 01/06/2004 and 10/06/2007. The research was performed both at the regional scale over the entire Rio Grande drainage basin, with particular focus on its tributaries Rio Ingenio, Rio Nazca and Rio Taruga, and at the local scale over the

  11. Molecular signature of the D-loop in the brown pencilfish Nannostomus eques (Characiformes, Lebiasinidae) reveals at least two evolutionary units in the Rio Negro basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Terencio, M L; Schneider, C H; Porto, J I R

    2012-07-01

    The genetic variability of the brown pencilfish Nannostomus eques was studied, based on an analysis of sequences from the control region (1084 bp) of mitochondrial (mt)DNA in 125 individuals collected from eight tributaries along the upper (Açaituba, Miuá, Jaradi and Arixanã), middle (Demini), and lower (Jacundá, Maguari and Catalão) Rio Negro (Brazil). Phylogenetic inferences using mtDNA data from N. eques revealed two evolutionary units. Genetic distance between them ranged from 5.5 to 8.3% and differed by 8.5-11.8% from the sister species pencilfish Nannostomus unifasciatus. The time of divergence between the two evolutionary units was estimated to be the Middle Pliocene (c. 2.99 million years before present). Population genetic analysis (DNA polymorphism, AMOVA and Mantel test) showed high haplotype diversity (HD, >0.90) in each evolutionary unit, a strong population genetic structure in the Demini River that formed a monophyletic group and a correlation between genetic divergence and geographical distance in only one of these units (evolutionary unit 1). On the basis of molecular data, the rapids and waterfalls near São Gabriel da Cachoeira (Upper Rio Negro) were the main barriers to gene flow within evolutionary unit 1 in some localities. The emergences of the Branco River and the Anavilhanas Archipelago were apparently responsible for the discrepancy in distribution of the two evolutionary units, except at Jacundá, where the evolutionary units were sympatric. In view of the differences between the evolutionary units, N. eques cannot be treated as a single stock in the Rio Negro basin. These results may have important implications for the fishery management of this ornamental fish. PMID:22747807

  12. Holocene landscape evolution and geoarcheology of low-order streams in the Rio Grande basin, San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carver, Daniel P.; Beeton, Jared M.

    2014-09-01

    This geoarcheological study investigates soil stratigraphy and geochronology of alluvial deposits to determine Holocene landscape evolution within the Hot Creek, La Jara Creek, and Alamosa River drainage basins in the San Juan Mountains of Colorado. Geomorphic mapping and radiocarbon dating indicate synchronicity in patterns of erosion, deposition, and stability between drainage basins. In all three basins, the maximum age of mapped alluvial terraces and fans is ~ 3300 cal yr BP. A depositional period seen at both Hot Creek and the Alamosa River begins ~ 3300 to 3200 cal yr BP. Based on soil development, short periods of stability followed by alluvial fan aggradation occur in the Alamosa River basin ~ 2200 cal yr BP. A period of landscape stability at Hot Creek before ~ 1100 cal yr BP is followed by a period of rapid aggradation within all three drainages between ~ 1100 and 850 cal yr BP. A final aggradation event occurred between ~ 630 and 520 cal yr BP at La Jara Creek. These patterns of landscape evolution over the past ~ 3300 yr provide the framework for an archeological model that predicts the potential for buried and surficial cultural materials in the research area.

  13. Identifying ephemeral and perennial stream reaches using apparent thermal inertia for an ungauged basin: The Rio Salado, Central New Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Night and day temperature images from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) remote sensing images are used to identify ephemeral and perennial stream reaches for use in the calibration of an integrated hydrologic model of an ungauged basin. The concept is based on a...

  14. IMPROVED SATELLITE SNOW MAPPING, SNOWMELT RUNOFF FORECASTING, AND CLIMATE CHANGE SIMULATIONS IN THE UPPER RIO GRANDE BASIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The knowledge of snow water resources is a major concern in high elevation basins where snowmelt streamflow can make a significant contribution to the total discharge. This information is especially useful for irrigation, hydropower and water supply management. In this paper, we present a system f...

  15. Infrastructure improvements for snowmelt runoff assessments of climate change impacts on water supplies in the Rio Grande basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has become apparent that the effects of climate change will be especially important for Southwestern US water users. The NSF-funded EPSCoR project “Climate Change Impacts on New Mexico’s Mountain Sources of Water” focuses on improving hydrometeorological measurements, developing basin-wide and s...

  16. Evaluation of geothermal potential of Rio Grande rift and Basin and Range province, New Mexico. Final technical report, January 1, 1977-May 31, 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Callender, J.F.

    1985-04-01

    A study was made of the geological, geochemical and geophysical characteristics of potential geothermal areas in the Rio Grande rift and Basin and Range province of New Mexico. Both regional and site-specific information is presented. Data was collected by: (1) reconnaissance and detailed geologic mapping, emphasizing Neogene stratigraphy and structure; (2) petrologic studies of Neogene igneous rocks; (3) radiometric age-dating; (4) geochemical surveying, including regional and site-specific water chemistry, stable isotopic analyses of thermal waters, whole-rock and mineral isotopic studies, and whole-rock chemical analyses; and (5) detailed geophysical surveys, using electrical, gravity and magnetic techniques, with electrical resistivity playing a major role. Regional geochemical water studies were conducted for the whole state. Integrated site-specific studies included the Animas Valley, Las Cruces area (Radium Springs and Las Alturas Estates), Truth or Consequences region, the Albuquerque basin, the San Ysidro area, and the Abiquiu-Ojo Caliente region. The Animas Valley and Las Cruces areas have the most significant geothermal potential of the areas studied. The Truth or Consequences and Albuquerque areas need further study. The San Ysidro and Abiquiu-Ojo Caliente regions have less significant geothermal potential. 78 figs., 16 tabs.

  17. Natural and human forcing in recent geomorphic change; case studies in the Rio de la Plata basin.

    PubMed

    Bonachea, Jaime; Bruschi, Viola M; Hurtado, Martín A; Forte, Luis M; da Silva, Mario; Etcheverry, Ricardo; Cavallotto, José L; Dantas, Marcilene F; Pejon, Osni J; Zuquette, Lázaro V; Bezerra, Maria Angélica de O; Remondo, Juan; Rivas, Victoria; Gómez-Arozamena, José; Fernández, Gema; Cendrero, Antonio

    2010-06-01

    An analysis of geomorphic system's response to change in human and natural drivers in some areas within the Río de la Plata basin is presented. The aim is to determine whether an acceleration of geomorphic processes has taken place in recent years and, if so, to what extent it is due to natural (climate) or human (land-use) drivers. Study areas of different size, socio-economic and geomorphic conditions have been selected: the Río de la Plata estuary and three sub-basins within its watershed. Sediment cores were extracted and dated ((210)Pb) to determine sedimentation rates since the end of the 19th century. Rates were compared with time series on rainfall as well as human drivers such as population, GDP, livestock load, crop area, energy consumption or cement consumption, all of them related to human capacity to disturb land surface. Data on river discharge were also gathered. Results obtained indicate that sedimentation rates during the last century have remained essentially constant in a remote Andean basin, whereas they show important increases in the other two, particularly one located by the São Paulo metropolitan area. Rates in the estuary are somewhere in between. It appears that there is an intensification of denudation/sedimentation processes within the basin. Rainfall remained stable or varied very slightly during the period analysed and does not seem to explain increases of sedimentation rates observed. Human drivers, particularly those more directly related to capacity to disturb land surface (GDP, energy or cement consumption) show variations that suggest human forcing is a more likely explanation for the observed change in geomorphic processes. It appears that a marked increase in denudation, of a "technological" nature, is taking place in this basin and leading to an acceleration of sediment supply. This is coherent with similar increases observed in other regions. PMID:20381129

  18. Potential impacts of climate warming on runoff from snowmelt: a case study of two mountainous basins in the Upper Rio Grande

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rango, A.; Steele, C. M.; Elias, E.; Mejia, J.; Fernald, A.

    2013-12-01

    We used historical climate, snow cover and streamflow data in the Snowmelt Runoff Model (SRM) to drive simulations of runoff from two mountainous basins in the Upper Rio Grande. The basins selected for this study are El Rito and Santa Fe. With climate warming, both have been shown to be at risk of losing annual snowpack and the associated peak in the spring hydrograph caused by snowmelt. Historical flow simulations supplied model parameters specific to each basin (runoff coefficients, degree day factors, temperature lapse rates, critical temperature and recession coefficients). These parameters were then used in applying SRM under changed climate conditions (scenario A2, ECHAM-5 general circulation model, 2046-2100). Although there is some interannual variability, under the A2 scenario the SRM simulations imply (i) a profound loss of annual snowpack at all but the highest elevations; (ii) decline in springtime streamflow (fraction of flow occurring between April and July) and (iii) earlier occurrence of winter-spring center of volume (half total runoff volume for January 1 to May 31). Our results have profound implications for the rural acequia community in El Rito for whom the annual snowpack acts as a natural reservoir releasing water to the acequias (irrigation canals) concurrent with the beginning of the growing season. In El Rito, the only alternative to water from snowmelt runoff is groundwater, but this source of water will also be affected by the accumulation, quantity and duration of annual snowpack. With two reservoirs, the urban area of Santa Fe is less dependent on the timing of snowmelt than El Rito. Additionally, Santa Fe has access to alternate sources of surface water (e.g., from the San Juan-Chama Project). Nevertheless, climate-change induced scarcity of water throughout the region will also have important socio-economic and political impacts on the City of Santa Fe.

  19. Effect of environmental quality and mesohabitat structure on a Biotic Integrity Index based on fish assemblages of cerrado streams from Rio Cuiabá basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Ng; Venticinque, Em; Penha, J

    2011-08-01

    Over the last 30 years, the Cerrado has been experiencing various antropic impacts that have brought about alterations to species composition, structure and functioning of aquatic habitats. Therefore, studies on negative impacts are useful to prevent future damage and restore environmental quality. The objectives of our study were: i) to adapt an index of biotic integrity of streams in the Rio Cuiabá Basin and ii) to analyze if the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) correlated with the environmental quality measured by the Index of Environmental Quality (IEQ) and with the mesohabitat structure. We sampled 26 streams in sub-basins of the Cuiabá River. In each stream, we closed a stretch of 50 m with blockage nets and used electrofishing to capture fish. To obtain a measure of environmental quality in sampled units, we characterized the stream and its micro basin. For the analyses, we used the Spearman Correlation, Kruskal-Wallis test and Analysis of Multiple Regression. We collected 697 individuals distributed into 6 orders, 15 families and 49 species. The IBI followed changes on environmental quality measured by IEQ when we removed streams that present natural barriers from the analysis (r² = 0.4; r² = 0.58). Types of land use did not affect the biotic integrity (n = 26; df = 4; H = 4,860; p = 0.302), but natural and artificial barriers affected it (n = 26; df = 4; H = 11,027; p = 0.026). The IBI was not sensitive to variations in mesohabitat structure (F₂,₂₃ = 0.373; r² = 0.031; Axe 1 p = 0.620; Axe 2 p = 0.490). The IBI is certainly a reasonable instrument for evaluating changes in the environment, but we cannot ignore the fact that we were able to obtain the same result with any combinations of metrics. This makes its analysis and interpretation difficult. PMID:21881781

  20. Integration of Complex Models Into a System Dynamics Based Basin Scale Planning Model for the Upper Rio Grande

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roach, J.; Tidwell, V.; Lansey, K.

    2004-12-01

    As the finite, and often over-allocated water resources of the western United States are challenged by a myriad of growing demands, computer based simulations can be a powerful tool for evaluation of potential water use scenarios for hydrologic decision making and water policy analysis. To maximize their usefulness for policy analysis, such simulations should accurately represent the physical system as well as its interconnectedness to the socio-economic systems relevant to water planning without losing user accessibility or run speed. One solution to these constraints is system dynamics (SD) modeling at a relatively coarse spatial and temporal resolution. The challenge of this approach is in maintaining sufficient physical accuracy despite coarse resolution and SD's simple modeling framework. In this paper, the development of a reach-based monthly time-step system dynamics model of the upper Rio Grande River (from the headwaters in Colorado to Elephant Butte Reservoir in New Mexico) is discussed. Within this SD model, temporally and spatially coarse physical and operational relationships are abstracted from a variety of existing models with higher resolutions, including an operations model (Upper Rio Grande Water Operations Model (URGWOM)), a land surface rainfall-runoff model, an evapotranspiration model, and two groundwater models. Abstraction and calibration methods and implications of information loss associated with this scaling are considered.

  1. Evaluation of particle dispersal from mining and milling operations using lead isotopic fingerprinting techniques, Rio Pilcomayo Basin, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jerry R; Lechler, Paul J; Mackin, Gail; Germanoski, Dru; Villarroel, Lionel F

    2007-10-01

    Mining and milling of ores from the Cerro Rico de Potosí precious metal-polymetallic tin deposits of Bolivia have led to severe contamination of water and sediments of the Rio Pilcomayo drainage system. Lead (Pb) isotopic data were used in this study to first document downstream dispersal patterns of Pb contaminated sediment within the channel of the Rio Pilcomayo, and then to determine the relative contribution of Pb from Cerro Rico within alluvial terrace soils that are used for agriculture. The concentration and isotopic composition of Pb within channel bed sediments differed significantly between 2000, 2002, and 2004. These differences presumably reflect changes in the type of ore mined and milled at Cerro Rico, and alterations in dispersal and grain-size dilution mechanisms associated with interannual variations in rainfall and runoff. Within agricultural terrace soils, both Pb concentrations and the percentage of Pb from Cerro Rico: (1) semi-systematically decrease downstream, (2) were found to decrease with terrace height above the channel, and (3) reflect the use of contaminated irrigation water. In upstream reaches (within 30 km of the mills), Pb from mining represents the most significant Pb source, accounting for more than 80% of Pb in the examined agricultural fields. At Sotomayor, located approximately 170 km from the mills, the relative contribution of Pb from Cerro Rico is highly variable between fields, but can be significant, ranging from approximately 15% to 35%. The analysis demonstrates that Pb isotopic ratios can be used to effectively trace contaminated particles through river systems and into adjacent alluvial soils, even where multiple Pb sources exist and Pb concentrations are similar to background values. PMID:17590419

  2. Integrated Environmental Assessment of streams in the Sinos River basin in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kieling-Rubio, M A; Benvenuti, T; Costa, G M; Petry, C T; Rodrigues, M A S; Schmitt, J L; Droste, A

    2015-05-01

    The deterioration of environmental quality in the Sinos River basin is directly associated with the impacts of intense industrialization and urbanization. An integrated environmental assessment (IEA) was conducted in July and September of 2012, in areas along the sources of the EstânciaVelha/Portão, Pampa and Schmidt streams using physical, chemical and biological methods. The water in the three sampling sites was not proper for human consumption, presented a low toxic contamination index (TCI) and mesotrophic characteristics. One site was included in Class 4, and two, in Class 3, according to current legislation. The rapid assessment protocol (RAP) indicated a natural environmental condition for habitat diversity and environmental impact in the three sites. The Tradescantia pallida (Rose) D.R. Hunt var. purpurea Boom biomarker showed water genotoxicity in two of the sites. The integrated diagnosis of water quality in these streams is fundamentally important to ensure the sustainable management of water resources and their multiple uses, as well to estimate their contribution to pollution in this river basin. PMID:26270222

  3. Modeling the transfer of land and water from agricultural to urban uses in the Middle Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Jarratt, Janet; Passell, Howard David; Kelly, Susan; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Chermak, Janie; Van Bloeman Waanders, Paul; McNamara, Laura A.; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Pallachula, Kiran; Turnley, Jessica Glicken; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Newman, Gretchen Carr

    2004-11-01

    Social and ecological scientists emphasize that effective natural resource management depends in part on understanding the dynamic relationship between the physical and non-physical process associated with resource consumption. In this case, the physical processes include hydrological, climatological and ecological dynamics, and the non-physical process include social, economic and cultural dynamics among humans who do the resource consumption. This project represents a case study aimed at modeling coupled social and physical processes in a single decision support system. In central New Mexico, individual land use decisions over the past five decades have resulted in the gradual transformation of the Middle Rio Grande Valley from a primarily rural agricultural landscape to a largely urban one. In the arid southwestern U.S., the aggregate impact of individual decisions about land use is uniquely important to understand, because scarce hydrological resources will likely limit the viability of resulting growth and development trajectories. This decision support tool is intended to help planners in the area look forward in their efforts to create a collectively defined 'desired' social landscape in the Middle Rio Grande. Our research question explored the ways in which socio-cultural values impact decisions regarding that landscape and associated land use. Because of the constraints hydrological resources place on land use, we first assumed that water use, as embodied in water rights, was a reasonable surrogate for land use. We thought that modeling the movement of water rights over time and across water source types (surface and ground) would provide planners with insight into the possibilities for certain types of decisions regarding social landscapes, and the impact those same decisions would have on those landscapes. We found that water rights transfer data in New Mexico is too incomplete and inaccurate to use as the basis for the model. Furthermore, because of its

  4. Digital model of ground-water flow in the Piceance Basin, Rio Blanco and Garfield Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weeks, John B.

    1978-01-01

    The digital model used to simulate ground-water flow in the aquifer system in the basin drained by Piceance and Yellow Creeks in northwestern Colorado is described in detail. The model is quasi three-dimensional in that it simulates ground-water flow in a multiaquifer system by assuming horizontal flow in the aquifers and vertical flow through the confining layers separating the aquifers. The model uses the iterative alternating-direction implicit procedure to solve the finite-difference flow equations. The digital model is documented by a program listing and flow charts. Data used in the model and sample output are presented to document the simulation of steady-state flow in the aquifer system. The variables used in the computer program and program options are discussed in detail. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. Screening of anaerobic activities in sediments of an acidic environment: Tinto River.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Andrea, Irene; Rojas-Ojeda, Patricia; Amils, Ricardo; Sanz, José Luis

    2012-11-01

    The Tinto River (Huelva, Spain) is a natural acidic rock drainage environment produced by the bio-oxidation of metallic sulfides from the Iberian Pyritic Belt. A geomicrobiological model of the different microbial cycles operating in the sediments was recently developed through molecular biological methods, suggesting the presence of iron reducers, methanogens, nitrate reducers and hydrogen producers. In this study, we used a combination of molecular biological methods and targeted enrichment incubations to validate this model and prove the existence of those potential anaerobic activities in the acidic sediments of Tinto River. Methanogenic, sulfate-reducing, denitrifying and hydrogen-producing enrichments were all positive at pH between 5 and 7. Methanogenic enrichments revealed the presence of methanogenic archaea belonging to the genera Methanosarcina and Methanobrevibacter. Enrichments for sulfate-reducing microorganisms were dominated by Desulfotomaculum spp. Denitrifying enrichments showed a broad diversity of bacteria belonging to the genera Paenibacillus, Bacillus, Sedimentibacter, Lysinibacillus, Delftia, Alcaligenes, Clostridium and Desulfitobacterium. Hydrogen-producing enrichments were dominated by Clostridium spp. These enrichments confirm the presence of anaerobic activities in the acidic sediments of the Tinto River that are normally assumed to take place exclusively at neutral pH. PMID:22956355

  6. Effects of the El Niño-southern oscillation on temperature, precipitation, snow water equivalent and resulting streamflow in the Upper Rio Grande river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Songweon; Klein, Andrew; Over, Thomas

    2004-04-01

    Snowmelt runoff dominates streamflow in the Upper Rio Grande (URG) basin of New Mexico and Colorado. Annual variations in streamflow timing and volume at most stations in the region are strongly influenced by the El Niño-southern oscillation (ENSO) through its modulation of the seasonal cycles of temperature and precipitation, and hence on snow accumulation and melting. After removing long-term trends over the study period (water years 1952-99), the dependence of monthly temperature, precipitation, snow water equivalent (SWE) at snowcourse stations, and streamflow throughout the URG on ENSO was investigated using composite analyses of the detrended residuals and through dependence of the residuals on the Climate Prediction Center southern oscillation index during the preceding summer and fall. The climate of La Niña years was found to differ significantly from either El Niño or neutral years. Moreover, significant climatological ENSO-related effects are confined to certain months, predominantly at the beginning and end of the winter season. In particular, March of La Niña years is significantly warmer and drier than during either El Niño or neutral years, and November of El Niño years is significantly colder and wetter. Differences in temperature and precipitation lead to significant differences in SWE and streamflow in the URG between the three ENSO phases.

  7. Description of two new species of Hisonotus Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889 (Ostariophysi, Loricariidae) from the rio Paraná-Paraguay basin, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Roxo, Fábio F.; Zawadzki, Cláudio H.; Troy, Waldo P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Hisonotus are described from the rio Paraná-Paraguay basin in Brazil. The most remarkable features of the new species are the odontodes forming longitudinally aligned rows (one odontode after the other, but not necessarily forming parallel series) on the head and trunk (vs. odontodes not forming longitudinally aligned rows), a pair of rostral plates at the tip of the snout (vs. a single rostral plate), the functional v-shaped spinelet (vs. spinelet non-functional, square-shaped, or absent). These features suggest close phylogenetic relationships with Hisonotus bockmanni, H. insperatus, H. luteofrenatus and H. piracanjuba. Additionally, both new species are distinguished from their congeners by characters related to head length and depth, orbital diameter, suborbital depth, caudal peduncle depth, pectoral-fin spine length, snout length and counts of teeth. Hisonotus paresi sp. n. further differs from its congeners by having contrasting dark geometric spots on the anterodorsal region of the body, a character lacking in H. oliveirai sp. n. The variation in number and shape of the rostral plate, posterior rostrum plates, infraorbitals and the preopercle in both new species and in H. insperatus are discussed. PMID:24715789

  8. Sensitivity Analysis and Validation of SWAT Model for Prediction of Stream Flow and Sediment Yield in the Rio De La Plata Basin, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melesse, A. M.; Setegn, S. G.; McClain, M. E.; Wang, X.

    2009-12-01

    Many reservoirs of Puerto Rico are rapidly losing their water storage capacity because of high rates of sediment influx from the upstream watersheds and accumulation. The main reasons for high sedimentation in the reservoirs are land use changes, steep mountainous topography, and most importantly, the humid tropical environment, magnitude and frequencies of rain fall and other climatic variables. Moreover, major floods associated with hurricanes and tropical disturbances causes extensive land erosion and sediment transport that rapidly deplete the storage capacity of reservoirs. The main objective of this study is to examine the influence of topographic, land use, soil and climatic condition on stream flow and sediment yield in the Rio de la Plata Basin, Puerto Rico using a physically based SWAT model. The main weather, flow and sediment yield data were obtained from the Southeast Regional Climate Center and USGS National Water Information System. In this study, sensitive flow and sediment parameters were indentified and the most sensitive parameters were used for calibration using SUFI2 calibration and uncertainty algorithm. The model was successfully calibrated and validated in the watershed which was verified by higher values of Nash Sutcliffe efficiency and coefficient of determination. The calibrated model can be used for analyzing different management scenarios for better land and water conservation planning and management.

  9. Geochemical behavior and dissolved species control in acid sand pit lakes, Sepetiba sedimentary basin, Rio de Janeiro, SE - Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Eduardo D.; Sella, Sílvia M.; Bidone, Edison D.; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel V.

    2010-12-01

    This work shows the influence of pluvial waters on dissolved components and mineral equilibrium of four sand pit lakes, located in the Sepetiba sedimentary basin, SE Brazil. The sand mining activities promote sediment oxidation, lowering pH and increasing SO 4 contents. The relatively high acidity of these waters, similar to ore pit lakes environment and associated acid mine drainage, increases weathering rate, especially of silicate minerals, which produces high Al concentrations, the limiting factor for fish aquaculture. During the dry season, basic cations (Ca, Mg, K and Na), SiO 2 and Al show their higher values due to evapoconcentration and pH are buffered. In the beginning of the wet season, the dilution factor by rainwater increases SO 4 and decreases pH values. The aluminum monomeric forms (Al(OH) 2+ and Al(OH) 2+), the most toxic species for aquatic organisms, occur during the dry season, while AlSO 4+ species predominate during the wet season. Gibbsite, allophane, alunite and jurbanite are the reactive mineral phases indicated by PHREEQC modeling. During the dry season, hydroxialuminosilicate allophane is the main phase in equilibrium with the solution, while the sulphate salts alunite and jurbanite predominate in the rainy season due to the increasing of SO 4 values. Gibbsite is also in equilibrium with sand pit lakes waters, pointing out that hydrolysis reaction is a constant process in the system. Comparing to SiO 2, sulphate is the main Al retriever in the pit waters because the most samples (alunite and jurbanite) are in equilibrium with the solution in both seasons. This Al hydrochemical control allied to some precaution, like pH correction and fertilization of these waters, allows the conditions for fishpond culture. Equilibrium of the majority samples with kaolinite (Ca, Mg, Na diagrams) and primary minerals (K diagram) points to moderate weathering rate in sand pit sediments, which cannot be considered for the whole basin due to the anomalous

  10. Holocene Environmental Changes from the Rio Curuá Record in the Caxiuanã Region, Eastern Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behling, Hermann; da Costa, Marcondes Lima

    2000-05-01

    Holocene environments have been reconstructed by multiproxy studies of an 850-cm-long core from Rio Curuá dating to >8000 14C yr B.P. The low-energy river lies in the eastern Amazon rain forest in the Caxiuanã National Forest Reserve, 350 km west of Belém in northern Brazil. Sedimentological, mineralogical, and geochemical dates demonstrate that the deposits correspond to two different environments, sediments of an active river before 8000 14C yr B.P. and later a passive river system. The pollen analytical results indicate four different local and regional Holocene paleoenvironmental periods: (1) a transition to a passive fluvial system and a well-drained terra firme (unflooded upland) Amazon rain forest with very limited development of inundated forests (várzea and igapó) (>7990-7030 14C yr B.P.); (2) a sluggish river with a local Mauritia palm-swamp and similar regional vegetation, as before (7030-5970 14C yr B.P.); (3) a passive river, forming shallow lake conditions and with still-abundant terra firme forest in the study region (5970-2470 14C yr B.P.); and (4) a blocked river with high water levels and marked increase of inundated forests during the last 2470 14C yr B.P. Increased charcoal during this last period suggests the first strong presence of humans in this region. The Atlantic sea level rise was probably the major factor in paleoenvironmental changes, but high water stands might also be due to greater annual rainfall during the late Holocene.

  11. Water quality and diversity of yeasts from tropical lakes and rivers from the Rio Doce basin in Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Adriana O.; Missagia, Beatriz S.; Brandão, Luciana R.; Callisto, Marcos; Barbosa, Francisco A. R.; Rosa, Carlos A.

    2012-01-01

    Yeast communities were assessed in 14 rivers and four lakes from the Doce River basin in Brazil, during the rainy and dry seasons of the years 2000 and 2001. Water samples were collected at the subsurface in all sites. The following physical and chemical parameters were measured: temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity, total phosphorus, ortho-phosphate, ammonium, nitrate, nitrite and total nitrogen and the counts of faecal coliforms and heterotrophic bacteria were carried out to characterize the aquatic environmental sampled. The yeast counts were higher in aquatic environments with the highest counts of coliform and heterotrophic bacteria. These environments receive a high influx of domestic and industrial waste. A total of 317 isolates identified in forty eight yeast species were recorded in the sites sampled and the specie Aureobasidium pullulans were found in eleven out of eighteen sites sampled and some opportunistic pathogens such as the yeast species Candida krusei were isolated only in the polluted rivers with a positive correlation with the biotic and abiotic parameters that indicate sewage contamination. PMID:24031990

  12. An integrated geological and geophysical study of the Uinta Mountains, Utah, Colorado and a geophysical study on Tamarix in the Rio Grande River basin, West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatun, Salma

    2008-07-01

    comprehensive picture of the structures in the study area. These models show that the Uinta uplift is a single sedimentary block with numerous thrust faults on the northern and southern flanks of the uplift. These models also reveal the fact that the thickness of the crust is quite variable in the study area. This is also supported by the crustal thickness map constructed for this study from seismic and receiver function information. Magnetic maps show that the Proterozoic sedimentary package known as Uinta Mountain Group extends into the Basin and Range and indicates its link with the ancient rift margin in the Western United States. Findings of this research are correlated to earlier studies and placed in a broader context. Finally an analogy is made between the Uinta aulacogen, the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen and the Dniepr-Donets aulacogen in Ukraine. This discussion focuses light on the mechanism that led to the Uinta's development from a failed rift to an uplift. Part two of this research examined the effect of saltcedar (Tamarix sp) on water and soil properties in the Rio Grande River valley in West Texas. Tamarix is a woody phreatophyte (water-loving plant) common in riparian habitats. The presence of Tamarix in a river system raises concerns about its effect on water quality because it can increase the salinity of water and surrounding soil and it reduces stream flow. Geophysical electrical techniques were used to track soil salinity and moisture changes caused by Tamarix, as well as to determine how soil salinity and moisture properties are altered when Tamarix is eradicated from the region. These techniques allowed more rapid in-situ assessment of the soil properties than the conventional method of removing soil and water samples for analysis. This study was focused on the influence of Tamarix on soil properties and hydrology at the subsurface at four sites in the Rio Bosque Wetlands Park, El Paso, Texas Two sites had flourishing Tamarix and two others were areas

  13. An integrated geological and geophysical study of the Uinta Mountains, Utah, Colorado and a geophysical study on Tamarix in the Rio Grande River basin, West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatun, Salma

    2008-07-01

    comprehensive picture of the structures in the study area. These models show that the Uinta uplift is a single sedimentary block with numerous thrust faults on the northern and southern flanks of the uplift. These models also reveal the fact that the thickness of the crust is quite variable in the study area. This is also supported by the crustal thickness map constructed for this study from seismic and receiver function information. Magnetic maps show that the Proterozoic sedimentary package known as Uinta Mountain Group extends into the Basin and Range and indicates its link with the ancient rift margin in the Western United States. Findings of this research are correlated to earlier studies and placed in a broader context. Finally an analogy is made between the Uinta aulacogen, the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen and the Dniepr-Donets aulacogen in Ukraine. This discussion focuses light on the mechanism that led to the Uinta's development from a failed rift to an uplift. Part two of this research examined the effect of saltcedar (Tamarix sp) on water and soil properties in the Rio Grande River valley in West Texas. Tamarix is a woody phreatophyte (water-loving plant) common in riparian habitats. The presence of Tamarix in a river system raises concerns about its effect on water quality because it can increase the salinity of water and surrounding soil and it reduces stream flow. Geophysical electrical techniques were used to track soil salinity and moisture changes caused by Tamarix, as well as to determine how soil salinity and moisture properties are altered when Tamarix is eradicated from the region. These techniques allowed more rapid in-situ assessment of the soil properties than the conventional method of removing soil and water samples for analysis. This study was focused on the influence of Tamarix on soil properties and hydrology at the subsurface at four sites in the Rio Bosque Wetlands Park, El Paso, Texas Two sites had flourishing Tamarix and two others were areas

  14. Geological record of an acidic environment driven by iron hydrochemistry: The Tinto River system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Remolar, David C.; Rodriguez, Nuria; Gómez, Felipe; Amils, Ricardo

    2003-07-01

    The existence of possible hematitic strata on the surface of Mars demands a search for terrestrial analogues formed in unusual environments. This will help us to recognize and interpret environmental and, perhaps, biological signatures preserved in Mars' hematites. Such an analogue would allow us to establish valid reference systems based on geomicrobial and biogeochemical signatures. Two different aspects place the Tinto River inside the boundaries of a natural extreme system: its high level of biological diversity and the presence of fluvial rocks formed in the same acidic conditions as in the modern system, which could predate the Tertiary. Study of both the modern system and the ancient system is necessary to understand the formation of biosignatures. A chemolithotrophic community that biooxidizes the Iberian Pyritic Belt, acidifying water (pH between 0.9 and 3.0) and favoring high concentrations of ferric iron in solution (up to 20 g.L-1), maintains this iron-driven system. In spite of these extreme conditions, high microbial diversity was found. Its acidic bacteria, archaea, and eukarya constitute a complex community supported by algal biomass in highly stable hydrochemical conditions, which are achieved through iron buffering. The pH is maintained at constant low levels even at very high water dilution. In these conditions, iron minerals as oxyhydroxides, hydroxides, and sulfates are formed. The modern and recent parageneses contrast with the ancient Tinto River terrace mineral associations, which show dehydrated and desulfated iron oxides. If this dehydration process is considered, these Tinto River ironstones may be a key for knowing some aquatic habitats, which may have hosted a part of the early Mars biosphere.

  15. Rock magnetic characteristics of faulted sediments with magnetic anomalies: A case study from the Albuquerque Basin, Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, M. R.; Grauch, V. J.

    2009-12-01

    High-resolution airborne surveys in the Rio Grande rift have documented abundant short-wavelength, low-amplitude magnetic anomalies generated at faults within basin sediments. We present a rock magnetic study bearing on the source of a10-20-nT linear anomaly over the San Ysidro normal fault, which is well exposed in outcrop in the northern part of the Albuquerque Basin. Magnetic susceptibility (MS) values (SI vol) from 310 sites distributed through a 1200-m-thick composite section of rift-filling sediments of Santa Fe Group and pre-rift sedimentary rocks juxtaposed by the San Ysidro fault have lognormal distributions with well-defined means. These averages generally increase up section through eight map units: from 1.7E-4 to 2.2E-4 in the pre-rift Cretaceous and Eocene rocks, from 9.9E-4 to 1.2E-3 in three units of the Miocene Zia and Cerro Conejo Formations of the Santa Fe Group, and from 1.5E-3 to 3.5E-3 in three units of the Miocene-Pliocene Arroyo Ojito and Ceja Formations of the Santa Fe Group. Remanent magnetization is not important; Koenigsberger ratios are less than 0.3 for Santa Fe Group samples. Rock magnetic parameters (e.g., ARM/MS and S ratios) and petrography indicate that detrital magnetite content and its variable oxidation to maghemite and hematite are the predominant controls of magnetic property variations within the Santa Fe Group sediments. Magnetite is present in rounded detrital grains (including both homogeneous and subdivided types) and as fine inclusions in volcanic rock fragments. Santa Fe Group sediments with highest magnetic susceptibility have greatest magnetic-grain size as indicated by lowest ARM/MS ratios. Magnetic susceptibility increases progressively with sediment grain size to pebbly sand within the fluvial Arroyo Ojito Formation. In contrast, MS reaches highest values in fine to medium sands in eolian Zia Formation. Partial oxidation of detrital magnetite and resultant lower MS is spatially associated with calcite cementation

  16. Digital data and derivative products from a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey of the central San Luis basin, covering parts of Alamosa, Conejos, Costilla, and Rio Grande counties, Colorado, and Taos county, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bankey, Viki; Grauch, V.J.S.; Webbers, Ank; PRJ, Inc

    2005-01-01

    This report describes data collected from a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey flown over the central San Luis basin during October, 2004, by PRJ, Inc., on contract to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The survey extends from just north of Alamosa, Colorado, southward to just northwest of Taos, New Mexico. It covers large parts of the San Luis Valley in Alamosa, Conejos, Costilla, and Rio Grande Counties, southern Colorado, and the Taos Plateau in Taos County, northern New Mexico. The survey was designed to complement two surveys previously acquired along the eastern borders of the San Luis Basin over the vicinities of Taos, New Mexico (Bankey and others, 2004a) and Blanca, Colorado (Bankey and others, 2004b). Our overall objective in conducting these surveys is to improve knowledge of the subsurface geologic framework in order to understand ground-water systems in populated alluvial basins along the Rio Grande. These USGS efforts are conducted in collaboration with other federal, state, and local governmental entities where possible.

  17. The formation of early settled villages and the emergence of leadership: A test of three theoretical models in the Rio Ilave, Lake Titicaca Basin, southern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Nathan Mcdonald

    Despite obvious necessities for understanding later developments in the region, Preceramic cultures in the Titicaca Basin are poorly understood due to lacking empirical data. This dissertation focuses on examination of two processes occurring in the Rio Ilave drainage during the Late 5000--3100 B.C.E. (6000--4400 B.P.) and Terminal 3100--1500 B.C.E. Archaic (4400--3200 B.P.): the formation of settled villages and the emergence of leadership. These processes are tested against theoretical predictions derived from: population resource imbalance, human behavioral ecology, and agency theories. Resource imbalance theory predicts appearance of density dependent adaptive problems prior to major cultural transformations. Human behavioral ecology predicts increased dietary diversity and incorporation of greater processing costs occuring coincidentally with reduced residential mobility. Symbolic mate value advertising is a predicted leadership strategy. Agency theory predicts internal sources of social tension, potentially independent of external forces, as primary causes of cultural change. Feast hosting and the formation political economy are expected to be central to both social processes investigated from this perspective. Local paleoclimatic proxies suggest aridity from ca 4000--2000 B.C.E. Reanalysis of pedestrian survey data indicate population growth during the Late Archaic. Excavation and ground penetrating radar survey at Pirco and Jiskairumoko demonstrate reduced residential mobility and increased evidence for social differentiation appearing during the Late Archaic's (before 3000 B.C.E.) end. New cultural patterns include: pithouses, more groundstone, internal storage, costly non-local artifacts, domesticated plants and animals, costly grave goods, and use of ochre in symbolic contexts. No clear cut evidence for inter-community promotional feasting was identified but some finds suggest intra-community alliance feasts. By the end of the Terminal Archaic ca. 1500 B

  18. A water quality index model using stepwise regression and neural networks models for the Piabanha River basin in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villas Boas, M. D.; Olivera, F.; Azevedo, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    The evaluation of water quality through 'indexes' is widely used in environmental sciences. There are a number of methods available for calculating water quality indexes (WQI), usually based on site-specific parameters. In Brazil, WQI were initially used in the 1970s and were adapted from the methodology developed in association with the National Science Foundation (Brown et al, 1970). Specifically, the WQI 'IQA/SCQA', developed by the Institute of Water Management of Minas Gerais (IGAM), is estimated based on nine parameters: Temperature Range, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Fecal Coliforms, Nitrate, Phosphate, Turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen, pH and Electrical Conductivity. The goal of this study was to develop a model for calculating the IQA/SCQA, for the Piabanha River basin in the State of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), using only the parameters measurable by a Multiparameter Water Quality Sonde (MWQS) available in the study area. These parameters are: Dissolved Oxygen, pH and Electrical Conductivity. The use of this model will allow to further the water quality monitoring network in the basin, without requiring significant increases of resources. The water quality measurement with MWQS is less expensive than the laboratory analysis required for the other parameters. The water quality data used in the study were obtained by the Geological Survey of Brazil in partnership with other public institutions (i.e. universities and environmental institutes) as part of the project "Integrated Studies in Experimental and Representative Watersheds". Two models were developed to correlate the values of the three measured parameters and the IQA/SCQA values calculated based on all nine parameters. The results were evaluated according to the following validation statistics: coefficient of determination (R2), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Final Prediction Error (FPE). The first model was a linear stepwise regression between three independent variables

  19. The Influence of Active Learning on the College Student Departure Process: Toward a Revision of Tinto's Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braxton, John M.; Milem, Jeffrey F.; Sullivan, Anna Shaw

    2000-01-01

    Examined the influence of faculty active-learning practices on student departure decisions in the context of Tinto's Theory of College Student Departure. Path analysis results of three surveys of 718 first-time, full-time, first-year students at a highly selective private research university found that active learning exerts statistically reliable…

  20. Influence of releases from a fresh water reservoir on the hydrochemistry of the Tinto River (SW Spain).

    PubMed

    Cánovas, Carlos Ruiz; Olias, Manuel; Vazquez-Suñé, Enric; Ayora, Carlos; Miguel Nieto, Jose

    2012-02-01

    The Tinto River is an extreme case of pollution by acid mine drainage (AMD), with pH values below 3 and high sulphate, metal and metalloid concentrations along its main course. This study evaluates the impact of releases from a freshwater reservoir on the Tinto River, identifying the metal transport mechanisms. This information is needed to understand the water quality evolution in the long term, and involves the comprehension of interactions between AMD sources, freshwaters, particulate matter and sediments. This work proposes a methodology for quantifying the proportions in which the different sources are contributing. The method is based on the mass balance of solutes and accounts for the uncertainty of end-members. The impact of the releases from the Corumbel Reservoir on the hydrochemistry of the Tinto River was significant, accounting up to a 92% of river discharge. These releases provoked a sharp decrease in dissolved metal concentrations, especially for Fe (approximately 1000 fold) due to dilution and precipitation. Cadmium, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni and Al suffered a dilution to a 12-16 fold decrease while Ca, Sr, Na, Pb and Si were less affected (2-4 folds decrease). However, these releases also gave rise to an increase in particulate transport, mainly Fe, As, Cr, Ba, Pb and Ti, due to sediment remobilisation and Fe precipitation. Aluminium, Li, K, Si, Al, Ni and Sr, together with Cu were present in the particulate phase during the discharge peak. The proposed 2-component mixing model revealed the existence of non-conservative behaviour for Al, Ca, Li, Mn, Ni and Si as a consequence of the interactions between the acidic Tinto waters and the clay-rich reservoir sediments during the bottom outlet opening. These results were improved by a 3-component mixing model, introducing a new end-member to account the chemical dissolution of clay-rich sediments by acidic Tinto waters. PMID:22221869

  1. Identification of the subsurface sulfide bodies responsible for acidity in Río Tinto source water, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Ortiz, David; Fernández-Remolar, David C.; Granda, Ángel; Quesada, Cecilio; Granda, Teresa; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Molina, Antonio; Amils, Ricardo

    2014-04-01

    The acidic waters of the Río Tinto rise from several acidic springs that emerge in the area surrounding Peña de Hierro (Fernández-Remolar et al., 2005). These springs are located above minor normal faults that act as natural conduits for the water from the underlying deep aquifer. Although it has been suggested that the acidity of the river originates from the biooxidation of massive and stockwork sulfides (Fernández-Remolar et al., 2008a), the location of the source for these acidic solutions has not previously been established. This lack of evidence has been used to suggest that the acidity of the Río Tinto may be the product of the most conspicuous of the possible source, the extensive mining of the area over approximately the last 5000 years (Davis et al., 2000). In this paper, we report resistivity and time-domain electromagnetic sounding data from the Río Tinto aquifer to a depth of ∼600 m, revealing the locations for the acidic sources. Both types of data support the presence of two distinct geological units that we interpret as thrust sheets emplaced onto each other during the Variscan orogeny of the Carboniferous. These units, both of which contain massive and stockwork sulfides, act as the aquifer for the acidic waters of the Río Tinto. Under this scenario, which is in agreement with the geological record of the Río Tinto fluvial system for the past 6 Ma (Moreno et al., 2003), our results imply that mining activity had little influence on the generation of the acidic river waters.

  2. Subsurface geomicrobiology in a Mars terrestrial analogue, Río Tinto (SW, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amils, R.; Fernández-Remolar, D.; Gómez, F.; González-Toril, E.; Rodríguez, N.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Sanz, J. L.; Díaz, E.; Stoker, C.

    2008-09-01

    Since its discovery, only few years ago, subsurface geomicrobiology is a matter of growing interest [1]. From a fundamental point of view, it seeks to determine whether life can be sustained in the absence of radiation. From an astrobiological point of view, it is an interesting model for life in other planetary bodies, e.g., Mars, as well as early life on Earth. Río Tinto is an unusual extreme acidic environment due to its size (around 100 km), constant acidic pH (mean pH 2.3), high concentrations of heavy metals and high level of microbial diversity [2]. Río Tinto rises in the core of the Iberian Pyritic Belt, one of the biggest sulfidic ore deposits in the world [3]. Today it is well stablished that the extreme characteristics of Río Tinto are not due to acid mine drainage from mining activity, as has been suggested in the past. To explore the hypothesis that a continuous underground reactor of chemolithotrophic microorganisms thriving in the rich sulfidic minerals of the Iberian Pyritic Belt is responsible for the extreme conditions found in the system, a drilling project has been developed to detect evidence of subsurface microbial activity and potential resources to support these microbial communities in situ (MARTE project) [4]. Here we report a search for subsurface life in volcanically hosted massive sulfidic deposits from the Iberian Pyritic Belt. Aseptic core samples were obtained within and down-gradient from the massive sulfide deposits and formation water was sampled within the resulting bore holes. Microbial activity was detected in un-contaminated samples by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Aerobic iron- and sulfide- oxidizing bacteria, and anaerobic denitrifying thiosulfate-oxidizing bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea have been identified. Potential energy fluxes detected in the system include oxidation of reduced iron and sulfur, or hydrogen gas coupled to nitrite, sulfate, ferric iron, inorganic

  3. The Rio Chagres, Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, Russell S.

    This book calls the attention of the scientific community, government organizations and non-government agencies, and the general public to arguably one of the most important and complex of the world's tropical rainforest regions -- the greater Panama Canal Watershed. The Rio Chagres basin is the primary source for water to operate the Panama Canal, and also supplies water for electricity generation and potable water for municipal use, but this important national resource is largely unstudied from a scientific point of view.

  4. Preliminary report on the geology, geophysics and hydrology of USBM/AEC Colorado core hole No. 2, Piceance Creek Basin, Rio Blanco County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ege, J.R.; Carroll, R.D.; Welder, F.A.

    1967-01-01

    Approximately 1,400 feet of continuous core was taken .between 800-2,214 feet in depth from USBM/AEC Colorado core hole No. 2. The drill, site is located in the Piceance Creek basin, Rio Blanco County, Colorado. From ground surface the drill hole penetrated 1,120 feet of the Evacuation Creek Member and 1,094 feet of oil shale in the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation. Oil shale yielding more than 20 gallons per ton occurs between 1,260-2,214 feet in depth. A gas explosion near the bottom of the hole resulted in abandonment of the exploratory hole which was still in oil shale. The top of the nahcolite zone is at 1,693 feet. Below this depth the core contains common to abundant amounts of sodium bicarbonate salt intermixed with oil shale. The core is divided into seven structural zones that reflect changes in joint intensity, core loss and broken core due to natural causes. The zone of poor core recovery is in the Interval between 1,300-1,450 feet. Results of preliminary geophysical log analyses indicate that oil yields determined by Fischer assay compare favorably with yields determined by geophysical log analyses. There is strong evidence that analyses of complete core data from Colorado core holes No. 1 and No. 2 reveal a reliable relationship between geophysical log response and oil yield. The quality of the logs is poor in the rich shale section and the possibility of repeating the logging program should be considered. Observations during drilling, coring, and hydrologic testing of USBM/AEC Colorado core hole No. 2 reveal that the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation is the principal aquifer water in the Parachute Creek Member is under artesian pressure. The upper part of the aquifer has a higher hydrostatic head than, and is hydrologically separated from the lower part of the aquifer. The transmissibility of the aquifer is about 3500 gpd per foot. The maximum water yield of the core hole during testing was about 500 gpm. Chemical

  5. Application of MSS/LANDSAT images to the structural study of recent sedimentary areas: Campos Sedimentary Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Barbosa, M. P.

    1983-01-01

    Visual and computer aided interpretation of MSS/LANDSAT data identified linear and circular features which represent the ""reflexes'' of the crystalline basement structures in the Cenozoic sediments of the emergent part of the Campos Sedimentary Basin.

  6. A new Permian bivalve-dominated assemblage in the Rio do Rasto Formation, Paraná Basin, Brazil: Faunal turnover driven by regional-scale environmental changes in a vast epeiric sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simões, Marcello Guimarães; Matos, Suzana Aparecida; Anelli, Luiz Eduardo; Rohn, Rosemarie; Warren, Lucas Veríssimo; David, Juliana Machado

    2015-12-01

    The basal portion of the Permian Rio do Rasto Formation (Serrinha Member), Passa Dois Group, Paraná Basin, Brazil, records an entirely new bivalve fauna intercalated between the underlying Pinzonella neotropica assemblage (uppermost portion of the Teresina Formation) and the overlying Leinzia similis assemblage (Rio do Rasto Formation). Mollusks of these assemblages lived in marginal shallow-water habitats of an immense epeiric sea and were dominated by endemic bivalve species. Taxonomic analysis revealed the presence of Terraia curvata (60.61%), Astartellopsis prosoclina (19.70%), Cowperesia emerita (10.61%), Leinzia curta (4.55%), Terraia bipleura (3.03%) and Beurlenella elongatella (1.52%), which are associated with conchostracans and plant remains. Species composition, abundance, and dominance in this novel assemblage differ notably from the preceding ones, suggesting a substantial evolutionary turnover. Regional-scale environmental changes recognized based on taphonomy, facies analysis, and geochemical data consist of progressive freshening of the marginal habitats of the Paraná Basin and taxic changes that include the following: (a) loss of genera, (b) decrease in bivalve abundance and ecological guilds, (c) disappearance of the dominant bivalve group (Pinzonellinae) and (d) diversification of Terrainae bivalves. The ecological signature also changed notably because only infaunal suspension-feeding bivalves are present, indicating a significant loss of functional diversity at the regional scale. Likely stressor factors (among others) are tied to freshening events, suggesting profound changes in (a) salinity, (b) primary productivity and (c) a lack of coarse, stable substrates coupled with high bioturbation rates. Hence, our regional example could offer valuable clues to benthic (bivalve) community responses in a habitat subjected to (a) rapid climate changes and (b) freshening events in shallow-water settings. Finally, the stratigraphic range of the

  7. Application of a systemic approach to the study of pollution of the Tinto and Odiel rivers (Spain).

    PubMed

    Sainz, A; Grande, J A; De La Torre, M L

    2005-03-01

    The province of Huelva in the SW of Spain presents high environmental contrasts: together with the great abundance of natural spaces, it shows the impacts of historical natural resources exploitation processes. In the Ria of Huelva, the effluents of the chemical industries must be added to the contaminating inputs of the Tinto and Odiel rivers, coming from the acid drainage of the mines located in the Iberian Pyrite Belt. This forced the Environmental Agency (AMA) to elaborate in 1987 an Effluent Remediation Plan in order to negate unacceptable environmental impacts. The application of a "grey box" systemic analysis to the AMD pollution, undergone by the Tinto and Odiel rivers has allowed to set a conclusive explanation of the sampling results observed for a period of 11 years, thus making available an overall view of the polluting process and, above all, an explanation of its partial aspects. PMID:15869201

  8. A tapinocephalid dinocephalian (Synapsida, Therapsida) from the Rio do Rasto Formation (Paraná Basin, Brazil): Taxonomic, ontogenetic and biostratigraphic considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boos, A. D. S.; Kammerer, C. F.; Schultz, C. L.; Paes Neto, V. D.

    2015-11-01

    Permian tetrapod fossils have been recovered from the Rio do Rasto Formation of Brazil since the 1970s. Previous studies of this fauna indicated strong affinities with the Guadalupian-Lopingian vertebrates of South Africa and Eastern Europe, suggesting biostratigraphic correlations between these areas. Here, a new dinocephalian specimen from the Rio do Rasto Formation in the Serra do Cadeado area (Paraná State, Brazil) is described based on fragmentary skull remains and an associated left lower jaw ramus. Despite the fragmentary nature of these remains, they represent the most complete tapinocephalid specimen known from South America. Comparison with other tapinocephalids indicates that the material described herein represents a juvenile or sub-adult specimen. Although it is not possible to identify this material to the genus level, it most closely resembles the 'moschopines' Moschops and Moschognathus from the Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone of South Africa. As dinocephalians are known to be restricted to the Guadalupian, they are one of the best tetrapod biostratigraphic markers for the Rio do Rasto Formation, indicating that at least some of the strata in the areas where they occur [Serra do Cadeado (Paraná State), Fagundes farm and Boqueirão farm (Rio Grande do Sul State)] are Guadalupian. Vertebrate fossils from Rio do Rasto Formation occur in disperse, isolated and discontinuous outcrops, so that they have been grouped in 'local faunas'. However, most of the specimens lack precise stratigraphic provenance data and even occurring in locations near each other they are not necessarily contemporary. Thus, until a more robust stratigraphic framework is developed, we suggest discontinuing use of 'local faunas' to this stratigraphic unit.

  9. The Search for Subsurface Life on Mars: Results from the MARTE Analog Drill Experiment in Rio Tinto, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Lemke, L. G.; Cannon, H.; Glass, B.; Dunagan, S.; Zavaleta, J.; Miller, D.; Gomez-Elvira, J.

    2006-03-01

    The Mars Analog Research and Technology (MARTE) experiment has developed an automated drilling system on a simulated Mars lander platform including drilling, sample handling, core analysis and down-hole instruments relevant to searching for life in the Martian subsurface.

  10. Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE): An Experimental Demonstration of Key Technologies for Searching for Life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of near surface ground ice by the Mars Odyssey mission and the abundant evidence for recent Gulley features observed by the Mars Global Surveyor mission support longstanding theoretical arguments for subsurface liquid water on Mars. Thus, implementing the Mars program goal to search for life points to drilling on Mars to reach liquid water, collecting samples and analyzing them with instrumentation to detect in situ organisms and biomarker compounds. Searching for life in the subsurface of Mars will require drilling, sample extraction and handling, and new technologies to find and identify biomarker compounds and search for living organisms.

  11. Application of cluster analysis to the geochemistry zonation of the estuary waters in the Tinto and Odiel rivers (Huelva, Spain).

    PubMed

    Grande, José Antonio; Borrego, José; de la Torre, Maria Luisa; Sáinz, A

    2003-06-01

    The combination of acid water from mines, industrial effluents and sea water plays a determining role in the evolutionary process of the chemical makeup of the water in the estuary of the Tinto and Odiel rivers. This estuary is in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula and is one of the estuarine systems on the northwest coast of the Gulf of Cádiz. From the statistical treatment of data obtained by analyzing samples of water from this system, which is affected by industrial and mining pollution processes, we can see how the sampling points studied form two large groups depending on whether they receive tidal or fluvial influences. Fluvial input contributes acid water with high concentrations of heavy metal, whereas industrial effluents are responsible for the presence of phosphates, silica and other nutrients. The estuarine system of the Tinto and Odiel Rivers can be divided into three areas--the Tinto estuary, the Odiel estuary and the area of confluence--based on the physical--chemical characteristics of the water. PMID:12901168

  12. Raman spectroscopy of the system iron(III)-sulfuric acid-water: an approach to Tinto River's (Spain) hydrogeochemistry.

    PubMed

    Sobron, P; Rull, F; Sobron, F; Sanz, A; Medina, J; Nielsen, C J

    2007-12-15

    Acid mine drainage is formed when pyrite (FeS(2)) is exposed and reacts with air and water to form sulfuric acid and dissolved iron. Tinto River (Huelva, Spain) is an example of this phenomenon. In this study, Raman spectroscopy has been used to investigate the speciation of the system iron(III)-sulfuric acid-water as an approach to Tinto River's aqueous solutions. The molalities of sulfuric acid (0.09 mol/kg) and iron(III) (0.01-1.5 mol/kg) were chosen to mimic the concentration of the species in Tinto River waters. Raman spectra of the solutions reveal a strong iron(III)-sulfate inner-sphere interaction through the nu(1) sulfate band at 981 cm(-1) and its shoulder at 1005 cm(-1). Iron(III)-sulfate interaction may also be facilitated by hydrogen bonds and monitored in the Raman spectra through the symmetric stretching band of bisulfate at 1052 cm(-1) and a shoulder at 1040 cm(-1). Other bands in the low-frequency region of the Raman spectra are attributed to the hydrogen-bonded complexes formation as well. PMID:17869164

  13. Using new approaches to environmental decision-making: An application of integrated assessment methods to water resource issues in the binational Lower Rio Grande basin

    SciTech Connect

    Mathis, M.L.

    1999-12-31

    This article examines a unique application of integrated assessment methodologies to analyze water scarcity, development and the environment in the semi-arid Lower Rio Grande/Rio Bravo watershed. US and Mexican data are analyzed to produce an integrated baseline report of current socio-economic, ecological, water supply and demand, water quality, and management conditions and trends. The baseline report provides the basis for subsequent analysis of alternative future scenarios for the region. Scenarios are developed by combining demographic projections with alternatives for future water availability, irrigation technologies, and management practices. The integrated assessment methodology is evaluated as a general tool for environmental decision-making. Problems encountered in applying the methodology are discussed, as are possibilities for improvements. The article concludes that, despite inherent difficulties, integrated assessments can provide a powerful framework by which to analyze complex environmental issues involving different disciplines and large amounts of information.

  14. Remanence of lead pollution in an urban river system: a multi-scale temporal and spatial study in the Seine River basin, France.

    PubMed

    Ayrault, S; Le Pape, P; Evrard, O; Priadi, C R; Quantin, C; Bonté, P; Roy-Barman, M

    2014-03-01

    Total lead (Pb) concentration and Pb isotopic ratio ((206)Pb/(20)7Pb) were determined in 140 samples from the Seine River basin (France), covering a period of time from 1945 to 2011 and including bed sediments (bulk and size fractionated samples), suspended particulate matter (SPM), sediment cores, and combined sewer overflow (CSO) particulate matter to constrain the spatial and temporal variability of the lead sources at the scale of the contaminated Seine River basin. A focus on the Orge River subcatchment, which exhibits a contrasted land-use pattern, allows documenting the relation between hydrodynamics, urbanization, and contamination sources. The study reveals that the Pb contamination due to leaded gasoline that peaked in the 1980s has a very limited impact in the river nowadays. In the upstream Seine River, the isotopic ratio analysis suggests a pervasive contamination which origin (coal combustion and/or gasoline lead) should be clarified. The current SPM contamination trend follows the urbanization/industrialization spatial trend. Downstream of Paris, the lead from historical use originating from the Rio Tinto mine, Spain ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.1634 ± 0.0001) is the major Pb source. The analysis of the bed sediments (bulk and grain size fractionated) highlights the diversity of the anthropogenic lead sources in relation with the diversity of the human activities that occurred in this basin over the years. The "urban" source, defined by waste waters including the CSO samples ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.157 ± 0.003), results of a thorough mixing of leaded gasoline with "historical" lead over the years. Finally, a contamination mixing scheme related to hydrodynamics is proposed. PMID:24234814

  15. The water future of Albuquerque and Middle Rio Grande Basin: Proceedings of the 39. annual New Mexico water conference. WRRI report number 290

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Included in the 57 presentations contained within these proceedings are papers relating to the following: water resources of the Los Alamos County; resource management; surface and ground water resource assessment; Rio Grande flooding, sediment loads, and water quality; waste water reclamation; hydrology of watersheds and aquifers; groundwater recharge; drinking water supplies; water pollution by arsenic; water demand; radon availability; Clean Water Acts; health hazards of pollutants; and water conservation programs. Approximately half of the papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  16. The relationship among variables in Tinto's conceptual model and attrition of bachelor's degree nursing students.

    PubMed

    Benda, E J

    1991-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among the constructs in Tinto's model of college student retention in a sample of 188 freshmen, 141 sophomores, and 236 junior bachelor's degree nursing students. Data for the independent variables, labeled pre-entry, academic and social institutional, and commitment, were gathered from subjects' American College Testing (ACT) assessments and the 104-item Student Attitude Questionnaire. Data for retention were gathered during a subsequent semester. Results of the t tests and chi 2 analyses determined that there were significant differences between retained and departed students, eg, retained freshmen scored higher than departees on the ACT subscores, Mathematics and Composite, two measures of high school grades, and high school class rank. Retained freshmen were also more likely to choose a major other than nursing at the time of the ACT assessment, perceived more external control from institutional rules and regulations, and were more certain of their ability to pay for their education. Eight pre-entry, four academic, four social-institutional, and nine commitment variables differed significantly in retained and departed freshmen. Subsequently, these variables were examined across academic classes to ascertain whether there were significant differences in retained students. Twelve of the variables differed significantly in retained students, and 13 did not. PMID:2005297

  17. Impact of millennial mining activities on sediments and microfauna of the Tinto River estuary (SW Spain).

    PubMed

    Ruiz, F; Borrego, J; González-Regalado, M L; López González, N; Carro, B; Abad, M

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, we analyze two short cores collected in the Tinto estuary (SW Spain), and describe the palaeoenvironmental evolution of this area during the last two millennia, along with the influence of historical mining activities and recent industrial pollution on sediments and microfauna (foraminifera and ostracoda). Although there were no significant changes in the distribution of microorganisms, a first pollution period (0-150 AD) was recorded in high sediment pollution by Cu in the shallow palaeochannels of the middle estuary. During this period and the following 1700 years, tolerant pioneer species of both foraminifera and ostracoda were found predominantly in the inner, protected areas of the estuary, while the bottom sediments were subjected to high hydrodynamic gradients, and consequently showed lower density and diversity of organisms. In the last 150 years, acid mine drainage processes, introduction of a new mining period, and the polluted inputs derived from two industrial processes resulted in increased heavy metal contamination of the bottom sediments, and corresponding extirpation of ostracodes and restriction of foraminifers to the inner zones of the estuary. PMID:18538354

  18. Novel acid resistance genes from the metagenome of the Tinto River, an extremely acidic environment.

    PubMed

    Guazzaroni, María-Eugenia; Morgante, Verónica; Mirete, Salvador; González-Pastor, José E

    2013-04-01

    Microorganisms that thrive in acidic environments are endowed with specialized molecular mechanisms to survive under this extremely harsh condition. In this work, we performed functional screening of six metagenomic libraries from planktonic and rhizosphere microbial communities of the Tinto River, an extremely acidic environment, to identify genes involved in acid resistance. This approach has revealed 15 different genes conferring acid resistance to Escherichia coli, most of which encoding putative proteins of unknown function or previously described proteins not known to be related to acid resistance. Moreover, we were able to assign function to one unknown and three hypothetical proteins. Among the recovered genes were the ClpXP protease, the transcriptional repressor LexA and nucleic acid-binding proteins such as an RNA-binding protein, HU and Dps. Furthermore, nine of the retrieved genes were cloned and expressed in Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis and, remarkably, most of them were able to expand the capability of these bacteria to survive under severe acid stress. From this set of genes, four presented a broad-host range as they enhance the acid resistance of the three different organisms tested. These results expand our knowledge about the different strategies used by microorganisms to survive under extremely acid conditions. PMID:23145860

  19. Eukaryotic Organisms in Extreme Acidic Environments, the Río Tinto Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeles Aguilera, Angeles

    2013-07-01

    A major issue in microbial ecology is to identify the limits of life for growth and survival, and to understand the molecular mechanisms that define these limits. Thus, interest in the biodiversity and ecology of extreme environments has grown in recent years for several reasons. Some are basic and revolve around the idea that extreme environments are believed to reflect early Earth conditions. Others are related to the biotechnological potential of extremophiles. In this regard, the study of extremely acidic environments has become increasingly important since environmental acidity is often caused by microbial activity. Highly acidic environments are relatively scarce worldwide and are generally associated with volcanic activity or mining operations. For most acidic environments, low pH facilitates metal solubility, and therefore acidic waters tend to have high concentrations of heavy metals. However, highly acidic environments are usually inhabited by acidophilic and acidotolerant eukaryotic microorganisms such as algae, amoebas, ciliates, heliozoan and rotifers, not to mention filamentous fungi and yeasts. Here, we review the general trends concerning the diversity and ecophysiology of eukaryotic acidophilic microorganims, as well as summarize our latest results on this topic in one of the largest extreme acidic rivers, Río Tinto (SW, Spain).

  20. The retention of first-generation college students in STEM: An extension of Tinto's longitudinal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uche, Ada Rosemary

    In the current technologically advanced global economy, the role of human capital and education cannot be over-emphasized. Since almost all great inventions in the world have a scientific or technological foundation, having a skilled workforce is imperative for any nation's economic growth. Currently, large segments of the United States' population are underrepresented in the attainment of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) degrees, and in the STEM professions. Scholars, educators, policy-makers, and employers are concerned about the decline in student enrollment and graduation from STEM disciplines. This trend is especially problematic for first-generation college students. This study uses both quantitative and qualitative methods to assess the factors that predict the retention of first-generation college students in the STEM majors. It employs Tinto's longitudinal model (1993) as a conceptual framework to predict STEM retention for first-generation college students. The analysis uses the Beginning Post-secondary Students study (BPS 04/09) data and Roots of STEM qualitative data to investigate the role of first-generation status in STEM major retention. Results indicate that upper levels of achievement in high school math have a significant effect on first-generation status in STEM outcomes.

  1. Field rates for natural attenuation of arsenic in Tinto Santa Rosa acid mine drainage (SW Spain).

    PubMed

    Asta, Maria P; Ayora, Carlos; Acero, Patricia; Cama, Jordi

    2010-05-15

    Reactive transport modelling of the main processes related to the arsenic natural attenuation observed in the acid mine drainage (AMD) impacted stream of Tinto Santa Rosa (SW Spain) was performed. Despite the simplicity of the kinetic expressions used to deal with arsenic attenuation processes, the model reproduced successfully the major chemical trends observed along the acid discharge. Results indicated that the rate of ferrous iron oxidation was similar to the one obtained in earlier field studies in which microbial catalysis is reported to occur. With regard to the scaled arsenic oxidation rate, it is one order of magnitude faster than the values obtained under laboratory conditions suggesting the existence of a catalytic agent in the natural system. Schwertmannite precipitation rate, which was represented by a simple kinetic expression relying on Fe(III) and pH, was in the range calculated for other AMD impacted sites. Finally, the obtained distribution coefficients used for representing arsenic sorption onto Fe(III) precipitates were lower than those deduced from reported laboratory data. This discrepancy is attributed to a decrease in the schwertmannite arsenate sorption capacity as sulphate increases in the solution. PMID:20153577

  2. Location of potential interest for fracturing oil shale with nuclear explosives for in situ retorting, Piceance Creek Basin, Rio Blanco County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ege, J.R.

    1967-01-01

    Analysis of oil assays, structure sections, and isopach maps of the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation indicates that numerous locations in the western part of the Piceance Creek basin could be selected with an oil shale section at least 500 feet thick that contains not less than 20 gallons per ton of shale oil, and has at least 800 feet of overburden.

  3. Irrigation canals in Melo creek basin (Rio Espera and Capela Nova municipalities, Minas Gerais, Brazil): habitats to Biomphalaria (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) and potential spread of schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Leite, M G P; Pimenta, E C; Fujaco, M A G; Eskinazi-Sant'Anna, E M

    2016-04-19

    This study analyzed the presence of Biomphalaria in Melo creek basin, Minas Gerais state, and its relationship to irrigation canals. Seventeen of these canals were used to determine a limnological, morphological and hydrological characterization during an annual seasonal cycle. Biomphalaria samples were sent to René Rachou Research Center/FIOCRUZ for identification and parasitological examination. Six canals were identified as breeding areas for mollusks and in one of them it was registered the coexistence of B. tenagophila (first report to this basin) and B. glabrata species. Results indicated that the low flow rate and speed of water flow were the main characteristics that contributed to this specific growth of the mollusks in the area. These hydraulic characteristics were created due to anthropogenic action through the canalization of lotic areas in Melo creek, which allowed ideal ecological conditions to Biomphalaria outbreak. The results emphasize the need of adequate handling and constant monitoring of the hydrographic basin, subject to inadequate phytosanitary conditions, aiming to prevent the occurrence and propagation of schistosomiasis. PMID:27097093

  4. Paleobiology of a unique vertebrate coprolites concentration from Rio do Rasto Formation (Middle/Upper Permian), Paraná Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dentzien-Dias, Paula C.; de Figueiredo, Ana Emilia Q.; Horn, Bruno; Cisneros, Juan Carlos; Schultz, Cesar L.

    2012-12-01

    A large number of coprolites were collected in one outcrop in the lacustrine facies of Rio do Rasto Formation (Middle/Upper Permian) in Southern Brazil. The material ranges from 0.6 cm to 11 cm in length. Their mineralogy, inclusions and morphology were studied to infer their biological source and taphonomy. All of them contain fragments of bones and fish scales, as well as crystalline apatite, and therefore are assigned to carnivores. A wide variety of morphotypes is described, including the knots and the well-known spiral coprolites (heteropolar and amphipolar), as well as a new kind of heteropolar coprolite we called as "edge", that has the whorls grouped in the very end of one pole. These data allow us to instead that a wide variety of vertebrates lived in the lakes of the Middle/Upper Permian in southern Brazil.

  5. A new species of Astyanax Baird & Girard (Characiformes: Characidae) from the Rio Paraguaçu basin, Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil, with comments on bony hooks on all fins.

    PubMed

    Camelier, P; Zanata, A M

    2014-02-01

    A new species of Astyanax from the Rio Paraguaçu basin, Bahia, Brazil, is described. This new species is distinguished from its congeners known to occur in Brazilian drainages by the presence of small bony hooks on all fins of mature males. Furthermore, the new species can be diagnosed by its colour pattern, which consists of a unique vertically elongated humeral blotch, a conspicuous dark drop-shaped horizontal blotch over the caudal peduncle, tapering anteriorly and not extending to the median caudal-fin rays, and by the absence of a conspicuous broad dark midlateral stripe. The new species differs further by having the greatest body depth just anterior to the dorsal-fin origin, 32-35 perforated scales in the lateral line and a reduced number of branched anal-fin rays (16-20). Apparently, the new species does not fit into any species complex of Astyanax. The occurrence of bony hooks on all fins of Astyanax is discussed. PMID:24446730

  6. Ichnology of deglaciation deposits from the Upper Carboniferous Rio do Sul Formation (Itararé Group, Paraná Basin) at central-east Santa Catarina State (southern Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, João Henrique Dobler; Netto, Renata Guimarães; Corrêa, Camila Graziele; Lavina, Ernesto Luiz Corrêa

    2015-11-01

    Trace fossil assemblages dominated by arthropod trackways are common in sediments deposited during the Late Paleozoic Ice Age. Ichnofaunas preserved in glacially-influenced sedimentary successions were previously reported from Paraná Basin in southern Brazil. The ichnofauna of the Rio do Sul Formation preserved in the rhythmites exposed in Trombudo Central quarries (Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil) is revised in this paper. Cruziana problematica, Diplichnites gouldi, Diplopodichnus biformis, Glaciichnium liebegastensis, Gluckstadtella elongata isp. nov., Helminthoidichnites tenuis, Mermia carickensis, Protovirgularia dichotoma, Treptichnus pollardi and Umfolozia sinuosa were recorded. Two trace fossil suites were recognized. The undermat miners suite is dominated by H. tenuis, indicating the presence of surface grazers (insect larvae, isopods and amphipods). C. problematica, D. gouldi and U. sinuosa dominate the overmat grazers suite, as result of displacement of terrestrial and aquatic arthropods. The integrated sedimentological and ichnological data from Trombudo Central region suggests colonization of ephemeral, shallow water bodies filled by freshwater from glacier melting. The deposition of the rhythmites took place in a glaciolacustrine context represented by shallow ponds in marginal marine settings.

  7. Hydrologic analysis of the U.S. Bureau of Mines' underground oil-shale research-facility site, Piceance Creek Basin, Rio Blanco County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dale, R.H.; Weeks, John B.

    1978-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines plans to develop an underground oil-shale research facility near the center of Piceance Creek basin in Colorado. The oil-shale zone, which is to be penetrated by a shaft, is overlain by 1,400 feet of sedimentary rocks, primarily sandstone and marlstone, consisting of two aquifers separated by a confining layer. Three test holes were drilled by the U.S. Bureau of Mines to obtain samples of the oil shale, and to test the hydraulic properties of the two aquifers. The data collected during construction of the test holes were used to update an existing ground-water-flow computer model. The model was used to estimate the maximum amount of water that would have to be pumped to dewater the shaft during its construction. It is estimated that it would be necessary to pump as much as 3,080 gallons per minute to keep the shaft dry. Disposal of waste water and rock are the principal hydrologic problems associated with constructing the shaft. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. Bottom water throughflows at the Rio de Janeiro and Rio Grande Fracture Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, Herlé; Weatherly, Georges L.; Arhan, Michel

    2000-05-01

    Bottom water throughflows at the Rio de Janeiro Fracture Zone (22°S) and Rio Grande Fracture Zone (26°S) of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge are identified from hydrographic anomalies observed along 9°W in the Angola Basin. The throughflow water is supplied by a meridional band of cold and fresh water lying against the western flank of the Ridge.

  9. Brazil: Rio Branco

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    article title:  Deforestation near Rio Branco, Brazil     View Larger Image Settlement and deforestation surrounding the Brazilian town of Rio Branco are seen here in the striking "herring bone" deforestation patterns that cut through the rainforest. Rio Branco is the ...

  10. Classification of Modern and Old Río Tinto Sedimentary Deposits Through the Biomolecular Record Using a Life Marker Biochip: Implications for Detecting Life on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parro, Victor; Fernández-Remolar, David; Rodríguez-Manfredi, José A.; Cruz-Gil, Patricia; Rivas, Luis A.; Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; García-Villadangos, Miriam; Gómez-Ortiz, David; Blanco-López, Yolanda; Menor-Salván, César; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Gómez-Elvira, Javier

    2011-01-01

    The particular mineralogy formed in the acidic conditions of the Río Tinto has proven to be a first-order analogue for the acid-sulfate aqueous environments of Mars. Therefore, studies about the formation and preservation of biosignatures in the Río Tinto will provide insights into equivalent processes on Mars. We characterized the biomolecular patterns recorded in samples of modern and old fluvial sediments along a segment of the river by means of an antibody microarray containing more than 200 antibodies (LDCHIP200, for Life Detector Chip) against whole microorganisms, universal biomolecules, or environmental extracts. Samples containing 0.3-0.5g of solid material were automatically analyzed in situ by the Signs Of LIfe Detector instrument (SOLID2), and the results were corroborated by extensive analysis in the laboratory. Positive antigen-antibody reactions indicated the presence of microbial strains or high-molecular-weight biopolymers that originated from them. The LDCHIP200 results were quantified and subjected to a multivariate analysis for immunoprofiling. We associated similar immunopatterns, and biomolecular markers, to samples with similar sedimentary age. Phyllosilicate-rich samples from modern fluvial sediments gave strong positive reactions with antibodies against bacteria of the genus Acidithiobacillus and against biochemical extracts from Río Tinto sediments and biofilms. These samples contained high amounts of sugars (mostly polysaccharides) with monosaccharides like glucose, rhamnose, fucose, and so on. By contrast, the older deposits, which are a mix of clastic sands and evaporites, showed only a few positives with LDCHIP200, consistent with lower protein and sugar content. We conclude that LDCHIP200 results can establish a correlation between microenvironments, diagenetic stages, and age with the biomarker profile associated with a sample. Our results would help in the search for putative martian biomarkers in acidic deposits with similar

  11. Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE): A Simulated Mars Drilling Mission to Search for Subsurface Life at the Rio Tinto, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Lemke, L. G.; Mandell, H.; McKay, D.; George, J.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Amils, R.; Stevens, T.; Miller, D.

    2003-03-01

    MARTE is a Mars analog drilling experiment to search for subsurface life on Mars while also characterizing a sulfide-based subsurface biosphere. MARTE is among the first set of field experiments supported by the ASTEP program.

  12. Agriculture, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The large field patterns in this view of the Rio Sao Francisco basin, Brazil, South America, (11.5S, 43.5W) indicate a commercial agriculture venture; family subsistence farms are much smaller and laid out in different patterns. Land clearing in Brazil has increased at an alarming rate in recent years and preliminary estimates suggest a 25 to 30% increase in deforestation since 1984. The long term impact on the ecological processes are still unknown.

  13. Eukaryotic Community Distribution and Its Relationship to Water Physicochemical Parameters in an Extreme Acidic Environment, Río Tinto (Southwestern Spain)†

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Angeles; Manrubia, Susanna C.; Gómez, Felipe; Rodríguez, Nuria; Amils, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    The correlation between water physicochemical parameters and eukaryotic benthic composition was examined in Río Tinto. Principal component analysis showed a high inverse relationship between pH and most of the heavy metals analyzed as well as Dunaliella sp., while Chlamydomonas sp. abundance was positively related. Zn, Cu, and Ni clustered together and showed a strong inverse correlation with the diversity coefficient and most of the species analyzed. These eukaryotic communities seem to be more influenced by the presence of heavy metals than by the pH. PMID:16885283

  14. Acid-sulfate mixtures from Río Tinto, Spain: Spectral masking relationships and implications for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cull-Hearth, Selby; van Venrooy, Alexis; Caroline Clark, M.; Cvitkovic, Adriana

    2016-06-01

    Most sulfate minerals form only in specific pH conditions, making them useful markers of past environmental conditions on Mars. However, interpreting past environments requires a full understanding of the suite of minerals present, a task which is complicated by the fact that some minerals can spectrally mask others in the visible- to near-infrared (VNIR, 0.4-2.5 μm). Here, we report VNIR spectra of two-phase mineral combinations obtained from the Río Tinto acid mine drainage system of southern Spain. Our results show that in VNIR reflectance spectroscopy: (1) copiapite masks rhomboclase and partially masks melanterite; (2) coquimbite masks copiapite, jarosite, and rhomboclase; (3) at wavelengths <1.2 μm, gypsum is consistently masked by copiapite, jarosite, and melanterite, though at wavelengths >1.2 μm, gypsum masks these minerals; (4) unlike copiapite, jarosite, or melanterite, halotrichite masks gypsum completely; (5) in two-phase mixtures of copiapite and jarosite, both phases are evident. No consistent VNIR relationship is observed in two-phase mixtures of melanterite and halotrichite, suggesting that microtextures are likely more important than optical properties in determining VNIR reflectance. We also show that the shorter wavelengths are more sensitive to the presence of both phases: even in mixtures where one phase is masking another, both phases usually impact absorptions in the 0.75-0.95 μm region. This region may therefore be useful in remotely identifying mineral mixtures on Mars. These results have implications for several regions on Mars: most notably, they imply that the jarosite exposures reported at Mawrth Vallis may be jarosite-copiapite mixtures.

  15. Science results from a Mars drilling simulation (Río Tinto, Spain) and ground truth for remote science observations.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    Science results from a field-simulated lander payload and post-mission laboratory investigations provided "ground truth" to interpret remote science observations made as part of the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) drilling mission simulation. The experiment was successful in detecting evidence for life, habitability, and preservation potential of organics in a relevant astrobiological analogue of Mars. SCIENCE RESULTS: Borehole 7 was drilled near the Río Tinto headwaters at Peña de Hierro (Spain) in the upper oxidized remnant of an acid rock drainage system. Analysis of 29 cores (215 cm of core was recovered from 606 cm penetrated depth) revealed a matrix of goethite- (42-94%) and hematite-rich (47-87%) rocks with pockets of phyllosilicates (47-74%) and fine- to coarse-grained loose material. Post-mission X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the range of hematite:goethite mixtures that were visually recognizable (approximately 1:1, approximately 1:2, and approximately 1:3 mixtures displayed a yellowish-red color whereas 3:1 mixtures displayed a dark reddish-brown color). Organic carbon was poorly preserved in hematite/goethite-rich materials (C(org) <0.05 wt %) beneath the biologically active organic-rich soil horizon (C(org) approximately 3-11 wt %) in contrast to the phyllosilicate-rich zones (C(org) approximately 0.23 wt %). GROUND TRUTH VS. REMOTE SCIENCE ANALYSIS: Laboratory-based analytical results were compared to the analyses obtained by a Remote Science Team (RST) using a blind protocol. Ferric iron phases, lithostratigraphy, and inferred geologic history were correctly identified by the RST with the exception of phyllosilicate-rich materials that were misinterpreted as weathered igneous rock. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) luminometry, a tool available to the RST, revealed ATP amounts above background noise, i.e., 278-876 Relative Luminosity Units (RLUs) in only 6 cores, whereas organic carbon was detected in all

  16. Science Results from a Mars Drilling Simulation (Río Tinto, Spain) and Ground Truth for Remote Science Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Stoker, Carol R.

    2008-10-01

    Science results from a field-simulated lander payload and post-mission laboratory investigations provided "ground truth" to interpret remote science observations made as part of the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) drilling mission simulation. The experiment was successful in detecting evidence for life, habitability, and preservation potential of organics in a relevant astrobiological analogue of Mars. Science results. Borehole 7 was drilled near the Río Tinto headwaters at Peña de Hierro (Spain) in the upper oxidized remnant of an acid rock drainage system. Analysis of 29 cores (215 cm of core was recovered from 606 cm penetrated depth) revealed a matrix of goethite- (42-94%) and hematite-rich (47-87%) rocks with pockets of phyllosilicates (47-74%) and fine- to coarse-grained loose material. Post-mission X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the range of hematite:goethite mixtures that were visually recognizable (˜1:1, ˜1:2, and ˜1:3 mixtures displayed a yellowish-red color whereas 3:1 mixtures displayed a dark reddish-brown color). Organic carbon was poorly preserved in hematite/goethite-rich materials (Corg <0.05 wt %) beneath the biologically active organic-rich soil horizon (Corg ˜3-11 wt %) in contrast to the phyllosilicate-rich zones (Corg ˜0.23 wt %). Ground truth vs. remote science analysis. Laboratory-based analytical results were compared to the analyses obtained by a Remote Science Team (RST) using a blind protocol. Ferric iron phases, lithostratigraphy, and inferred geologic history were correctly identified by the RST with the exception of phyllosilicate-rich materials that were misinterpreted as weathered igneous rock. Adenosine 5‧-triphosphate (ATP) luminometry, a tool available to the RST, revealed ATP amounts above background noise, i.e., 278-876 Relative Luminosity Units (RLUs) in only 6 cores, whereas organic carbon was detected in all cores. Our manned vs. remote observations based on automated

  17. Development and application of a simple hydrologic model for water simulation for a Brazilian Headwater Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physically based hydrologic models for watershed are important tools to support water resources management and predicting hydrologic impacts produced by land-use change. Rio Grande Basin is located in south of Minas Gerais State, and the Rio Grande is the main tributary of basin which has 2080 km2 d...

  18. Modeling streamflow from snowmelt in the upper Rio Grande

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annual snowpack in the high elevation snowsheds of the Upper Rio Grande (URG) Basin is a vital source of surface water for irrigated agriculture in New Mexico. Maximum streamflow from the annual snowpack usually occurs in early May for the southernmost snowsheds (e.g., Ojo Caliente) and at the end o...

  19. A description of how metal pollution occurs in the Tinto-Odiel rias (Huelva-Spain) through the application of cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Grande, J A; Borrego, J; Morales, J A; de la Torre, M L

    2003-04-01

    In the last few decades, the study of space-time distribution and variations of heavy metals in estuaries has been extensively studied as an environmental indicator. In the case described here, the combination of acid water from mines, industrial effluents and sea water plays a determining role in the evolutionary process of the chemical makeup of the water in the estuary of the Tinto and Odiel Rivers, located in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula. Based on the statistical treatment of the data from the analysis of the water samples from this system, which has been affected by processes of industrial and mining pollution, the 16 variables analyzed can be grouped into two large families. Each family presents high, positive Pearson r values that suggest common origins (fluvial or sea) for the pollutants present in the water analyzed and allow their subsequent contrast through cluster analysis. PMID:12705921

  20. Upper Rio Grande Simulation Model (URGSIM)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-08-05

    URGSIM estimates the location of surface water and groundwater resources in the upper Rio Grande Basin between the Colorado-New Mexico state line, and Caballo Reservoir from 1975 - 2045. It is a mass balance hydrology model of the Upper Rio Grande surface water, groundwater, and water demand systems which runs at a monthly timestep from 1975-1999 in calibration mode, 2000 – 2004 in validation mode, and 2005 – 2045 in scenario analysis mode.

  1. Some Ecological Mechanisms to Generate Habitability in Planetary Subsurface Areas by Chemolithotrophic Communities: The Ro Tinto Subsurface Ecosystem as a Model System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Remolar, David C.; Gómez, Felipe; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Schelble, Rachel T.; Rodríguez, Nuria; Amiols, Ricardo

    2008-02-01

    Chemolithotrophic communities that colonize subsurface habitats have great relevance for the astrobiological exploration of our Solar System. We hypothesize that the chemical and thermal stabilization of an environment through microbial activity could make a given planetary region habitable. The MARTE project ground-truth drilling campaigns that sampled cryptic subsurface microbial communities in the basement of the Ro Tinto headwaters have shown that acidic surficial habitats are the result of the microbial oxidation of pyritic ores. The oxidation process is exothermic and releases heat under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. These microbial communities can maintain the subsurface habitat temperature through storage heat if the subsurface temperature does not exceed their maximum growth temperature. In the acidic solutions of the Ro Tinto, ferric iron acts as an effective buffer for controlling water pH. Under anaerobic conditions, ferric iron is the oxidant used by microbes to decompose pyrite through the production of sulfate, ferrous iron, and protons. The integration between the physical and chemical processes mediated by microorganisms with those driven by the local geology and hydrology have led us to hypothesize that thermal and chemical regulation mechanisms exist in this environment and that these homeostatic mechanisms could play an essential role in creating habitable areas for other types of microorganisms. Therefore, searching for the physicochemical expression of extinct and extant homeostatic mechanisms through physical and chemical anomalies in the Mars crust (i.e., local thermal gradient or high concentration of unusual products such as ferric sulfates precipitated out from acidic solutions produced by hypothetical microbial communities) could be a first step in the search for biological traces of a putative extant or extinct Mars biosphere.

  2. Some ecological mechanisms to generate habitability in planetary subsurface areas by chemolithotrophic communities: the Río Tinto subsurface ecosystem as a model system.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Remolar, David C; Gómez, Felipe; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Schelble, Rachel T; Rodríguez, Nuria; Amils, Ricardo

    2008-02-01

    Chemolithotrophic communities that colonize subsurface habitats have great relevance for the astrobiological exploration of our Solar System. We hypothesize that the chemical and thermal stabilization of an environment through microbial activity could make a given planetary region habitable. The MARTE project ground-truth drilling campaigns that sampled cryptic subsurface microbial communities in the basement of the Río Tinto headwaters have shown that acidic surficial habitats are the result of the microbial oxidation of pyritic ores. The oxidation process is exothermic and releases heat under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. These microbial communities can maintain the subsurface habitat temperature through storage heat if the subsurface temperature does not exceed their maximum growth temperature. In the acidic solutions of the Río Tinto, ferric iron acts as an effective buffer for controlling water pH. Under anaerobic conditions, ferric iron is the oxidant used by microbes to decompose pyrite through the production of sulfate, ferrous iron, and protons. The integration between the physical and chemical processes mediated by microorganisms with those driven by the local geology and hydrology have led us to hypothesize that thermal and chemical regulation mechanisms exist in this environment and that these homeostatic mechanisms could play an essential role in creating habitable areas for other types of microorganisms. Therefore, searching for the physicochemical expression of extinct and extant homeostatic mechanisms through physical and chemical anomalies in the Mars crust (i.e., local thermal gradient or high concentration of unusual products such as ferric sulfates precipitated out from acidic solutions produced by hypothetical microbial communities) could be a first step in the search for biological traces of a putative extant or extinct Mars biosphere. PMID:18237256

  3. The Libraries of Rio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Barbara

    1988-01-01

    Describes aspects of several libraries in Rio de Janeiro. Topics covered include library policies, budgets, periodicals and books in the collections, classification schemes used, and literary areas of interest to patrons. (6 references) (CLB)

  4. 75 FR 34156 - United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Terrace, London, W2 6LG, United Kingdom, and Alcan Corporation, 8770 West Bryn Mawr Avenue, Chicago, IL...''), Rio Tinto plc (``Rio Tinto''), and Alcan Corporation to enjoin Amcor's proposed acquisition from Rio... sales totaled approximately $44 billion. Rio Tinto acquired Alcan Corporation in 2007. 6....

  5. Rio Grande rift: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Kenneth H.; Scott Baldridge, W.; Callender, Jonathan F.

    1987-11-01

    The Rio Grande rift of the southwestern United States is one of the world's principal continental rift systems. It extends as a series of asymmetrical grabens from central Colorado, through New Mexico, to Presidio, Texas, and Chihuahua, Mexico—a distance of more than 1000 km. Although the Rio Grande rift is closely related in timing and structural style to the contiguous Basin and Range extensional province, the two can be distinguished by a variety of geological and geophysical signatures. Rifts (both oceanic and continental) can be defined as elongate depressions overlying places where the entire lithosphere has ruptured in extension. The lithosphere of the Rio Grande rift conforms to this definition, in that: (1) the crust is moderately thinned—Moho depths range from about 45 km under the flanks to about 33 km beneath the rift axis. (2) anomalously low P n velocities (7.6-7.8 km s -1) beneath the rift and a long wavelength gravity low suggest that the asthenosphere is in contact with the base of the crust. The P-velocity is abnormally low (6.4-6.5 km s -1) in the lower half of the crust beneath the rift, suggesting high crustal temperatures. However, associated seismic and volcanologic data indicate the sub-rift lower crust is not dominated by a massive composite mafic intrusion such as is sometimes inferred for the East African rifts. Seismic and magnetotelluric data suggest the presence of a thin (< 1 km) sill-like contemporary midcrustal magma body which may perhaps extend intermittently along much of the length of the rift. Seismic and structural studies indicate a dominant horizontal fabric in the upper and middle crust. The brittle-ductile transition is at depths -15 km except for the major volcanic fields, where it rises to 2-3 km. Structural development of the rift occurred mainly during two time intervals: the early phase beginning at -30 Ma. and lasting 10-12 m.y., and the late phase extending from -10 to 3 Ma. The early phase involved extensive

  6. Rio de Janeiro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A dengue fever outbreak has plagued Rio de Janeiro since January 2002. Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne disease. The elimination of standing water, which is a breeding ground for the mosquitoes, is a primary defense against mosquito-borne diseases like dengue. Removing such water remains a difficult problem in many urban regions. The International Space Station astronauts took this image (ISS001-ESC-5418) of Rio de Janeiro in December 2000. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  7. Monitoring The Water Quality of the Nation's Large Rivers: Rio Grande NASQAN Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.; Reutter, David C.; Wells, Frank C.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has monitored the water quality in the Rio Grande Basin as part of the redesigned National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) since 1995 (Hooper and others, 1997). The NASQAN program was designed to characterize the concentrations and transport of sediment and selected chemical constituents found in the Nation's large rivers-including the Mississippi, Colorado, and Columbia in addition to the Rio Grande. In these four basins, the USGS currently (1998) operates a network of 40 NASQAN sites, with an emphasis on quantifying the mass flux for each constituent (the amount of material moving past the site, expressed in tons per day). By applying a consistent flux-based approach in the Rio Grande Basin, the NASQAN program is generating the information needed to identify regional sources for a variety of constituents, including agricultural chemicals and trace elements, in the basin. The effect of the large reservoirs on the Rio Grande can be observed as constituent fluxes are routed downstream. The analysis of constituent fluxes on a basin-wide scale will provide the means to assess the influence of human activity on water-quality conditions in the Rio Grande.

  8. Effects of reservoir installation, San Juan-Chama Project water, and reservoir operations on streamflow and water quality in the Rio Chama and Rio Grande, northern and central New Mexico, 1938-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langman, Jeff B.; Anderholm, Scott K.

    2004-01-01

    The coordinated operation of Heron, El Vado, and Abiquiu Dams on the Rio Chama and Cochiti Dam on the Rio Grande and the importation of Colorado River Basin water by the San Juan-Chama Project have altered streamflow and water quality of the Rio Chama and Rio Grande in northern and central New Mexico. The coordinated retention of streamflow in the four reservoirs increased median streamflows, decreased extreme flows, and decreased periods of small streamflow; inflow of San Juan-Chama Project water increased overall streamflow in the Rio Chama and Rio Grande. These changes to streamflow decreased specific conductance and suspended-sediment concentration and increased pH in the Rio Chama and the Rio Grande. Following construction of Heron and Cochiti Dams and integration of reservoir operations on the Rio Chama and the Rio Grande, the inflow of San Juan-Chama Project water and retention of snowmelt runoff influenced water quality. These influences varied by season because reservoir releases fluctuated according to downstream user needs and annual streamflow variation. The influences of San Juan-Chama Project water and retained snowmelt on water quality diminished with downstream flow as the Rio Grande was subjected to various natural and anthropogenic inflows. Because of the variability and type of seasonal influences, streamflow did not have a strong annual correlation with water quality in the Rio Chama or the Rio Grande.

  9. A groundwater convection model for Rio Grande rift geothermal resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, P.; Harder, V.; Daggett, P. H.; Swanberg, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    It has been proposed that forced convection, driven by normal groundwater flow through the interconnected basins of the Rio Grande rift is the primary source mechanism for the numerous geothermal anomalies along the rift. A test of this concept using an analytical model indicates that significant forced convection must occur in the basins even if permeabilities are as low as 50-200 millidarcies at a depth of 2 km. Where groundwater flow is constricted at the discharge areas of the basins forced convection can locally increase the gradient to a level where free convection also occurs, generating surface heat flow anomalies 5-15 times background. A compilation of groundwater data for the rift basins shows a strong correlation between constrictions in groundwater flow and hot springs and geothermal anomalies, giving strong circumstantial support to the convection model.

  10. Influence of the very polluted inputs of the Tinto-Odiel system on the adjacent littoral sediments of southwestern Spain: a statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Sainz, A; Ruiz, F

    2006-03-01

    A spatial and temporal analysis (period 1990-2003) of 15 sampling points distributed along the southwestern Spanish coast permits to delimitate the influence area of the extremely polluted discharges coming from the Tinto-Odiel system in the bottom sediments of the adjacent littoral area. As, Cu, Pb and Zn are the main heavy metals transported by the freshwater runoffs toward the shallow shelf and present very high negative (r < -0.7) and significant (p < 0.001) correlations with the distance to the estuarine mouth. The statistical analysis (index of geoaccumulation, Pearson correlation matrix, cluster analysis) of their concentrations in the littoral sediments located between the Guadiana and Guadalquivir mouths delimitates three zones: (a) Zone 1 (from the estuarine mouth to 6 km to the east), characterized by moderate to strongly polluted bottom sediments and main responsible of the mean annual variations of the former heavy metals in the area studied; (b) Zone 2 (from 21.2 km to the west to 29 km to the east), characterized by moderate pollution levels; and (c) Zone 3, located near the Guadiana and Guadalquivir mouths, with very low As-Cu-Pb contents and unpolluted to moderately levels of Zn due to urban sewages or the presence of local low mobility areas for this element. PMID:16122777

  11. The Subsurface Geology of Río Tinto: Material Examined During a Simulated Mars Drilling Mission for the Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Schutt, John; Sutter, Brad; Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Bell Johnson, Mary Sue; Battler, Melissa; Cannon, Howard; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R.

    2008-10-01

    The 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) project conducted a simulated 1-month Mars drilling mission in the Río Tinto district, Spain. Dry robotic drilling, core sampling, and biological and geological analytical technologies were collectively tested for the first time for potential use on Mars. Drilling and subsurface sampling and analytical technologies are being explored for Mars because the subsurface is the most likely place to find life on Mars. The objectives of this work are to describe drilling, sampling, and analytical procedures; present the geological analysis of core and borehole material; and examine lessons learned from the drilling simulation. Drilling occurred at an undis closed location, causing the science team to rely only on mission data for geological and biological interpretations. Core and borehole imaging was used for micromorphological analysis of rock, targeting rock for biological analysis, and making decisions regarding the next day's drilling operations. Drilling reached 606 cm depth into poorly consolidated gossan that allowed only 35% of core recovery and contributed to borehole wall failure during drilling. Core material containing any indication of biology was sampled and analyzed in more detail for its confirmation. Despite the poorly consolidated nature of the subsurface gossan, dry drilling was able to retrieve useful core material for geological and biological analysis. Lessons learned from this drilling simulation can guide the development of dry drilling and subsurface geological and biological analytical technologies for future Mars drilling missions.

  12. The 2005 MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment in Río Tinto, Spain: Objectives, Approach, and Results of a Simulated Mission to Search for Life in the Martian Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, Carol R.; Cannon, Howard N.; Dunagan, Stephen E.; Lemke, Lawrence G.; Glass, Brian J.; Miller, David; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Davis, Kiel; Zavaleta, Jhony; Winterholler, Alois; Roman, Matt; Rodriguez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Bell, Mary Sue; Brown, Adrian; Battler, Melissa; Chen, Bin; Cooper, George; Davidson, Mark; Fernández-Remolar, David; Gonzales-Pastor, Eduardo; Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Martínez-Frías, Jesus; Parro, Victor; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Sutter, Brad; Schuerger, Andrew C.; Schutt, John; Rull, Fernando

    2008-10-01

    The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) simulated a robotic drilling mission to search for subsurface life on Mars. The drill site was on Peña de Hierro near the headwaters of the Río Tinto river (southwest Spain), on a deposit that includes massive sulfides and their gossanized remains that resemble some iron and sulfur minerals found on Mars. The mission used a fluidless, 10-axis, autonomous coring drill mounted on a simulated lander. Cores were faced; then instruments collected color wide-angle context images, color microscopic images, visible near infrared point spectra, and (lower resolution) visible-near infrared hyperspectral images. Cores were then stored for further processing or ejected. A borehole inspection system collected panoramic imaging and Raman spectra of borehole walls. Life detection was performed on full cores with an adenosine triphosphate luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay and on crushed core sections with SOLID2, an antibody array-based instrument. Two remotely located science teams analyzed the remote sensing data and chose subsample locations. In 30 days of operation, the drill penetrated to 6 m and collected 21 cores. Biosignatures were detected in 12 of 15 samples analyzed by SOLID2. Science teams correctly interpreted the nature of the deposits drilled as compared to the ground truth. This experiment shows that drilling to search for subsurface life on Mars is technically feasible and scientifically rewarding.

  13. The subsurface geology of Río Tinto: material examined during a simulated Mars drilling mission for the Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE).

    PubMed

    Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Schutt, John; Sutter, Brad; Heldmann, Jennifer L; Bell, Mary Sue; Battler, Melissa; Cannon, Howard; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    The 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) project conducted a simulated 1-month Mars drilling mission in the Río Tinto district, Spain. Dry robotic drilling, core sampling, and biological and geological analytical technologies were collectively tested for the first time for potential use on Mars. Drilling and subsurface sampling and analytical technologies are being explored for Mars because the subsurface is the most likely place to find life on Mars. The objectives of this work are to describe drilling, sampling, and analytical procedures; present the geological analysis of core and borehole material; and examine lessons learned from the drilling simulation. Drilling occurred at an undisclosed location, causing the science team to rely only on mission data for geological and biological interpretations. Core and borehole imaging was used for micromorphological analysis of rock, targeting rock for biological analysis, and making decisions regarding the next day's drilling operations. Drilling reached 606 cm depth into poorly consolidated gossan that allowed only 35% of core recovery and contributed to borehole wall failure during drilling. Core material containing any indication of biology was sampled and analyzed in more detail for its confirmation. Despite the poorly consolidated nature of the subsurface gossan, dry drilling was able to retrieve useful core material for geological and biological analysis. Lessons learned from this drilling simulation can guide the development of dry drilling and subsurface geological and biological analytical technologies for future Mars drilling missions. PMID:19105757

  14. The 2005 MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment in Río Tinto, Spain: objectives, approach, and results of a simulated mission to search for life in the Martian subsurface.

    PubMed

    Stoker, Carol R; Cannon, Howard N; Dunagan, Stephen E; Lemke, Lawrence G; Glass, Brian J; Miller, David; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Davis, Kiel; Zavaleta, Jhony; Winterholler, Alois; Roman, Matt; Rodriguez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Bell, Mary Sue; Brown, Adrian; Battler, Melissa; Chen, Bin; Cooper, George; Davidson, Mark; Fernández-Remolar, David; Gonzales-Pastor, Eduardo; Heldmann, Jennifer L; Martínez-Frías, Jesus; Parro, Victor; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Sutter, Brad; Schuerger, Andrew C; Schutt, John; Rull, Fernando

    2008-10-01

    The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) simulated a robotic drilling mission to search for subsurface life on Mars. The drill site was on Peña de Hierro near the headwaters of the Río Tinto river (southwest Spain), on a deposit that includes massive sulfides and their gossanized remains that resemble some iron and sulfur minerals found on Mars. The mission used a fluidless, 10-axis, autonomous coring drill mounted on a simulated lander. Cores were faced; then instruments collected color wide-angle context images, color microscopic images, visible-near infrared point spectra, and (lower resolution) visible-near infrared hyperspectral images. Cores were then stored for further processing or ejected. A borehole inspection system collected panoramic imaging and Raman spectra of borehole walls. Life detection was performed on full cores with an adenosine triphosphate luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay and on crushed core sections with SOLID2, an antibody array-based instrument. Two remotely located science teams analyzed the remote sensing data and chose subsample locations. In 30 days of operation, the drill penetrated to 6 m and collected 21 cores. Biosignatures were detected in 12 of 15 samples analyzed by SOLID2. Science teams correctly interpreted the nature of the deposits drilled as compared to the ground truth. This experiment shows that drilling to search for subsurface life on Mars is technically feasible and scientifically rewarding. PMID:19032053

  15. Rare earth elements in the Amazon basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerard, M.; Seyler, P.; Benedetti, M. F.; Alves, V. P.; Boaventura, G. R.; Sondag, F.

    2003-05-01

    The rare earth element (REE) concentrations of the dissolved and particulate fractions and bed sediment between Manaus and Santarém in the Amazon River, and in some major tributaries, were evaluated. A very important zone in the Amazon basin, the encontro das aguas area where the Rio Solimões and the Rio Negro meet, was especially sampled. Different size fractions were isolated by ultrafiltration. Water samples were collected at different stages of the mixing. Three groups of waters are distinguished: group I has a low pH (<5·5) and is represented by the Negro basin rivers; group II has alkalinity less than 0·2 meq l-1 and is represented by the Rios Tapajós and Trombetas; group III has high alkalinity (>0·2 meq l-1) and higher pH (>6·5) and is represented by the Madeira basin rivers, the Solimões and the Amazon. The highest dissolved REE concentration is in the Rio Negro and the lowest in the Rio Tapajós (dissolved REEs vary by more than a factor of ten). The solubility of REEs is pH dependent: in river waters with a pH < 6 the Ce concentration is twice that of La, whereas in rivers with a higher pH the concentrations of Ce and La are similar. Dissolved REE concentrations are positively correlated with the dissolved organic carbon. Correlations between Fe, Al, and La suggest that La is associated with Al (Fe)-rich organic matter and/or related to dissolved Fe-rich inorganic material. Dissolved REEs normalized to North American shale composite show an enrichment in intermediate/heavy REEs (from Eu to Er), except for the shields rivers (such as Rio Negro and Rio Trombetas). Both of them are depleted in heavy REEs and show a relative Ce enrichment. In contrast, for the Andeans rivers (such as Rio Solimões), light REEs are slightly depleted and a negative Ce relative anomaly occurs. The pattern of the Amazon River at Óbidos confirms the major influence of the Rios Negro and Solimões with REE fractionation. For the Rio Negro, 60 to 70% of REEs are

  16. Simulated effects of alternative withdrawal strategies on groundwater flow in the unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system, the Rio Grande water-bearing zone, and the Atlantic City 800-foot sand in the Great Egg Harbor and Mullica River Basins, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Daryll A.; Carleton, Glen B.; Buxton, Debra E.; Walker, Richard L.; Shourds, Jennifer L.; Reilly, Pamela A.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater is essential for water supply and plays a critical role in maintaining the environmental health of freshwater and estuarine ecosystems in the Atlantic Coastal basins of New Jersey. The unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system and the confined Atlantic City 800-foot sand are major sources of groundwater in the area, and each faces different water-supply concerns. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP), conducted a study to simulate the effects of withdrawals in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system, the Atlantic City 800-foot sand, and the Rio Grande water-bearing zone and to evaluate potential scenarios. The study area encompasses Atlantic County and parts of Burlington, Camden, Gloucester, Ocean, Cape May, and Cumberland Counties. The major hydrogeologic units affecting water supply in the study area are the surficial Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system, a thick diatomaceous clay confining unit in the upper part of Kirkwood Formation; the Rio Grande water-bearing zone; and the Atlantic City 800-foot sand of the Kirkwood Formation. Hydrogeologic data from 18 aquifer tests and specific capacity data from 230 wells were analyzed to provide horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the aquifers. Groundwater withdrawals are greatest from the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system, and 65 percent of the water is used for public supply. Groundwater withdrawals from the Atlantic City 800-foot sand are about half those from the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system. Ninety-five percent of the withdrawals from the Atlantic City 800-foot sand is used for public supply. Data from six streamgaging stations and 51 low-flow partial record sites were used to estimate base flow in the area. Base flow ranges from 60 to 92 percent of streamflow. A groundwater flow model of the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system, the Rio Grande water-bearing zone, and the Atlantic City 800-foot sand was developed and calibrated

  17. Geographic distribution of genetic diversity in populations of Rio Grande Chub Gila pandora

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galindo, Rene; Wilson, Wade; Caldwell, Colleen A.

    2016-01-01

    In the southwestern United States (US), the Rio Grande chub (Gila pandora) is state-listed as a fish species of greatest conservation need and federally listed as sensitive due to habitat alterations and competition with non-native fishes. Characterizing genetic diversity, genetic population structure, and effective number of breeders will assist with conservation efforts by providing a baseline of genetic metrics. Genetic relatedness within and among G. pandora populations throughout New Mexico was characterized using 11 microsatellite loci among 15 populations in three drainage basins (Rio Grande, Pecos, Canadian). Observed heterozygosity (HO) ranged from 0.71–0.87 and was similar to expected heterozygosity (0.75–0.87). Rio Ojo Caliente (Rio Grande) had the highest allelic richness (AR = 15.09), while Upper Rio Bonito (Pecos) had the lowest allelic richness (AR = 6.75). Genetic differentiation existed among all populations with the lowest genetic variation occurring within the Pecos drainage. STRUCTURE analysis revealed seven genetic clusters. Populations of G. pandora within the upper Rio Grande drainage (Rio Ojo Caliente, Rio Vallecitos, Rio Pueblo de Taos) had high levels of admixture with Q-values ranging from 0.30–0.50. In contrast, populations within the Pecos drainage (Pecos River and Upper Rio Bonito) had low levels of admixture (Q = 0.94 and 0.87, respectively). Estimates of effective number of breeders (N b ) varied from 6.1 (Pecos: Upper Rio Bonito) to 109.7 (Rio Grande: Rio Peñasco) indicating that populations in the Pecos drainage are at risk of extirpation. In the event that management actions are deemed necessary to preserve or increase genetic diversity of G. pandora, consideration must be given as to which populations are selected for translocation.

  18. Cenozoic thermal, mechanical and tectonic evolution of the Rio Grande rift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, P.; Seager, W. R.; Golombek, M. P.

    1986-01-01

    Two areas of New Mexico which exhibit complex but similar Cenozoic histories of extensional tectonism are analyzed. The first study area is the Basin and Range province and southern Rio Gande rift in southern New Mexico; the second study area is the central Rio Grande rift in central and northern New Mexico, the southern San Luis basin, the Espanola basin, and the Albuquerque basin. Two phases of extension were identified: the first phase which began in mid-Oligocene was characterized by local high-strain extension events, low-angle faulting, and the development of broad, shallow basins, all indicating an approximately NE-SW + or - 25 deg extension direction; the later phase which occurred primarily in the late Miocene, was characterized by synchronous, high-angle faulting, resulting in large vertical strains which produced the modern Rio Grande rift morphology. Extension direction was approximately E-W. Geotherms were estimated and lithospheric strength curves were calculated for these two phases of extension. A high geotherm was deduced for the early phase resulting in a shallow crustal brittle transition, and insignificant mantle strength. The lithosphere subsequently cooled, resulting in a significant zone of mantle strength beneath the Moho. It is concluded that the interrelationship among regional and local prerifting, synrifting, and postrifting events in the Rio Grande rift attests to the fact that the rifting (in the region studied) should be considered in the context of other geologic events.

  19. Parana basin

    SciTech Connect

    Zalan, P.V.; Wolff, S.; Conceicao, J.C.J.; Vieira, I.S.; Astolfi, M.A.; Appi, V.T.; Zanotto, O.; Neto, E.V.S.; Cerqueira, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    The Parana basin is a large intracratonic basin in South America, developed entirely on continental crust and filled with sedimentary and volcanic rocks ranging in age from Silurian to Cretaceous. It occupies the southern portion of Brazil (1,100,000 km/sup 2/ or 425,000 mi/sup 2/) and the eastern half of Paraguay (100,000 km/sup 2/ or 39,000 mi/sup 2/); its extension into Argentina and Uruguay is known as the Chaco-Parana basin. Five major depositional sequences (Silurian, Devonian, Permo-Carboniferous, Triassic, Juro-Cretaceous) constitute the stratigraphic framework of the basin. The first four are predominantly siliciclastic in nature, and the fifth contains the most voluminous basaltic lava flows of the planet. Maximum thicknesses are in the order of 6000 m (19,646 ft). The sequences are separated by basin wide unconformities related in the Paleozoic to Andean orogenic events and in the Mesozoic to the continental breakup and sea floor spreading between South America and Africa. The structural framework of the Parana basin consists of a remarkable pattern of criss-crossing linear features (faults, fault zones, arches) clustered into three major groups (N45/sup 0/-65/sup 0/W, N50/sup 0/-70/sup 0/E, E-W). The northwest- and northeast-trending faults are long-lived tectonic elements inherited from the Precambrian basement whose recurrent activity throughout the Phanerozoic strongly influenced sedimentation, facies distribution, and development of structures in the basin. Thermomechanical analyses indicate three main phases of subsidence (Silurian-Devonian, late Carboniferous-Permian, Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous) and low geothermal gradients until the beginning of the Late Jurassic Permian oil-prone source rocks attained maturation due to extra heat originated from Juro-Cretaceous igneous intrusions. The third phase of subsidence also coincided with strong tectonic reactivation and creation of a third structural trend (east-west).

  20. The passage from Rio.

    PubMed

    Strong, M F

    1992-01-01

    The Secretary-General of the UN Conference on Environment and Development notes that after the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro discussions about the environment and development will differ from those prior to the Summit. These discussions must now incorporate problems of developing countries, poverty, inequalities, flow of resources to developing countries, and terms of trade. The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development consists of important tenets, but it must evolve into an Earth Charter to be endorsed on the 50th anniversary of the UN in 1965. The Summit's Plan of Action, Agenda 21, must also continue to evolve and, despite its shortcomings, is the most extensive and, if implemented, most effective international action ever approved by the international community. Financing the Agenda 21 initiatives remains to be decided. New possible sources of funding must be based n the polluter pays principle and may include new taxes, user charges, emission permits, and citizen funding. Even though the most serious problem in the 1990s is stabilization of atmospheric gases, the Rio agreement does not include targets or timetables. Governments must take united action immediately to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by at least 60%. 1 nation has not yet approved the convention on biological diversity. Governments also need to move forward on conventions on decertification and deforestation. They need to incorporate the global objectives of Agenda 21 into their own national policies and practices. This must also be done at the global, regional, organizational, local, and individual levels. The global community must also begin technology capacity building. The participatory process should also include nongovernmental organizations. Population growth must also slow dramatically to achieve sustainable development. The various participatory levels must consider elimination of poverty. PMID:12343938

  1. Quantification of Tinto River Sediment Microbial Communities: Importance of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria and Their Role in Attenuating Acid Mine Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Andrea, Irene; Knittel, Katrin; Amann, Rudolf; Amils, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Tinto River (Huelva, Spain) is a natural acidic rock drainage (ARD) environment produced by the bio-oxidation of metallic sulfides from the Iberian Pyritic Belt. This study quantified the abundance of diverse microbial populations inhabiting ARD-related sediments from two physicochemically contrasting sampling sites (SN and JL dams). Depth profiles of total cell numbers differed greatly between the two sites yet were consistent in decreasing sharply at greater depths. Although catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization with domain-specific probes showed that Bacteria (>98%) dominated over Archaea (<2%) at both sites, important differences were detected at the class and genus levels, reflecting differences in pH, redox potential, and heavy metal concentrations. At SN, where the pH and redox potential are similar to that of the water column (pH 2.5 and +400 mV), the most abundant organisms were identified as iron-reducing bacteria: Acidithiobacillus spp. and Acidiphilium spp., probably related to the higher iron solubility at low pH. At the JL dam, characterized by a banded sediment with higher pH (4.2 to 6.2), more reducing redox potential (−210 mV to 50 mV), and a lower solubility of iron, members of sulfate-reducing genera Syntrophobacter, Desulfosporosinus, and Desulfurella were dominant. The latter was quantified with a newly designed CARD-FISH probe. In layers where sulfate-reducing bacteria were abundant, pH was higher and redox potential and levels of dissolved metals and iron were lower. These results suggest that the attenuation of ARD characteristics is biologically driven by sulfate reducers and the consequent precipitation of metals and iron as sulfides. PMID:22544246

  2. Field Studies of Geothermal Reservoirs Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    James C Witcher

    2002-07-30

    The Rio Grande rift provides an excellent field laboratory to study the nature of geothermal systems in an extensional environment. Much of the geologic complexity that is found in the Basin and Range is absent because the rift is located on cratonic crust with a thin and well-characterized Phanerozoic stratigraphy and tectonic history. On the other hand, the Neogene thermo-tectonic history of the rift has many parallels with the Basin and Range to the west. The geology of the southern Rio Grande rift is among the best characterized of any rift system in the world. Also, most geologic maps for the region are rather unique in that detailed analyses of Quaternary stratigraphic and surficial unit are added in concert with the details of bedrock geology. Pleistocene to Holocene entrenchment of the Rio Grande and tributaries unroofs the alteration signatures and permeability attributes of paleo outflow plumes and upflow zones, associated with present-day, but hidden or ''blind,'' hydrothermal systems at Rincon and San Diego Mountain.

  3. Geology, hydrocarbon potential of Rio Muni area, Equatorial Guinea

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, D.; Hempstead, N. )

    1993-08-30

    The Republic of Equatorial Guinea, located in the oil producing province of West Africa, consists of three islands and an enclave in continental Africa with a total surface area of about 28,000 sq km. The islands are in the Gulf of Guinea. The largest, Bioko, lies off Nigeria and Cameroon. The continental enclave, Rio Muni, is bounded to the north by Cameroon and to the east and south by Gabon. The coastal basin of Rio Muni, which is the subject of this article, contributes the major portion of areas offered in the current exploration licensing round. Some 5,275 km of seismic data have been recorded the past 10 years covering most of the offshore and onshore areas of Rio Muni. The quality of seismic data is generally good. Data from all size wells drilled in the area and an aeromagnetic survey of the whole onshore and offshore are also available. The paper describes the West African setting, exploration history, basin development, presalt play, postsalt Aptian play, Albian play, clastic play, Senonian/Paleogene play, and the current licensing round.

  4. A SIMPLE HYDROLOGIC MODEL FOR WATER RESOURCES SIMULATION ON GRANDE RIVER BASIN, MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hydrological simulation on watersheds is one of the most important tools for water resources management due to possibility of flow regime prediction. Grande River Basin is located in south of Minas Gerais State, and the Rio Grande is the main tributary of basin which has 2080 km2 draining into t...

  5. Estimating water use by giant reed along the Rio Grande River using a large aperture scintillometer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Giant reed (Arundo donax L.) is a bamboo-like perennial invasive weed from Eurasia presenting a severe threat to agroecosystems and riparian areas in Texas and Mexican portions of the Rio Grande River Basin. It is known to consume excessive amounts of water to support its rapid vegetative growth rat...

  6. Mapping giant reed along the Rio Grande using airborne and satellite imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Giant reed (Arundo donax L.) is a perennial invasive weed that presents a severe threat to agroecosystems and riparian areas in the Texas and Mexican portions of the Rio Grande Basin. The objective of this presentation is to give an overview on the use of aerial photography, airborne multispectral a...

  7. Water Resources Data, Texas Water Year 1998, Volume 3. Colorado River Basin, Lavaca River Basin, Guadalupe River Basin, Nueces River Basin, Rio Grande Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Andrews, F.L.; Barbie, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1998 water year for Texas are presented in four volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3 contains records for water discharge at 126 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; stage and contents at 15 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 62 gaging stations; and data for 35 partial-record stations comprised of 8 flood-hydrograph, 14 low-flow, and 18 creststage, and 5 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  8. Evaluating Mantle-to-Surface Hydrologic Connections in the Rio Grande Rift using Mathematical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolsey, E. E.; Person, M. A.; Crossey, L. J.; Phillips, F. M.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Williams, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    The southern terminus of the Albuquerque Basin along the Rio Grande Rift (RGR) is characterized by high river salinity (200-700 mg/L), temperature (29°C at 155 m depth), and mantle helium (0.26-0.37 RC/A) anomalies, which are clear indications of complex mixing of mantle and crustal fluids. The zone of maximum uplift of the Socorro Magma Body (SMB) is also localized at the southern end of the Albuquerque Basin. Two end member hypotheses have been proposed to account for salt loading in the Rio Grande: 1) basin constriction forcing brines and warm water to the surface and 2) fault-controlled fluid flow from deep mantle/magmatic sources. A better understanding of the hydrologic controls is necessary to assess the degradation of water quality along the Rio Grande. The role of basin constriction and fault-controlled fluid flow in explaining observed fluxes of salinity, enthalpy and primordial helium is examined in this study using mathematical modeling. A basin-scale, cross-sectional hydrologic model was constructed along the RGR in the Albuquerque and Socorro Basins drawn to a depth of 19 km to incorporate deeply derived inputs related to the SMB. The finite element model used is capable of representing heat, brine and noble gas transport. Geologic maps, well bore lithologic logs, as well as gravity and seismic-surveys were used to construct the general N-S cross-section on which the model is based. The model follows the longitudinal profile of the Rio Grande through the Albuquerque Basin and into the Socorro Basin. Multiple versions of the model were created based on two working hypotheses to better understand the structural and hydrologic controls at the basin boundary. One model assumes that the Tertiary dike exposed at the boundary acts as a conduit for deeply sourced fluids and primordial 3He related to the SMB. An alternate version assumes all the units down to the Precambrian basement rock decrease in depth significantly at the basin boundary due to the

  9. Basement structures in the northern Tularosa Basin, central New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Whitebread, M.W.; Adams, D.C. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-02-01

    A variety of geophysical data consisting of gravity and magnetic measurements, drill holes, and other geologic information have provided an analysis of basement structures within the northern Tularosa Basin of central New Mexico. Both the Laramide and Ancestral Rockies orogenies and the extension associated with the Rio Grande rift affected the structural development of this area. This area is significant in that it is the region in which the eastern boundary of the Rio Grande rift shifts 115 km eastward to the bounding fault between the Tularosa basin and the Sacramento uplift. The Tularosa basin is a large, complex structure consisting of two grabens and a horst block. At this latitude, it is probably the major Rio Grande rift structure. In fact, gravity modeling has determined that the thinnest crust (above 32 km) in the region lies beneath the north Tularosa basin. Analysis of gravity and magnetic anomaly maps identify gravity lows associated with Paleozoic or Precambrian basins. Gravity lows northeast of the Oscura uplift form a semi-continuous regional depression eastward to the late Paleozoic Pedernal uplift, a topographic feature believed to be a remnant of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains.

  10. [World deliberations in Rio].

    PubMed

    Annis, B

    1991-01-01

    The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) was held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992 and dealt with world trade, environmental education, environmental emergencies, the transfer of technology and financial resources, and the restructuring of international systems for tackling environmental problems. Other issues on the agenda were the protection of the atmosphere, the ozone shield, deforestation, the conservation of biological diversity, sustainable urban and rural development, and the safeguarding of human health and quality of life. The preparation for the conference took place through a series of meetings, which also featured the problems of rural areas in the Americas. Some environmental organizations based in Washington, D.C. had become impassive over the years and promoted bipartisan and apolitical issues in order to obtain funds. Nonetheless, some groups criticized the projects of the World Bank. In 1990 the World Bank established the World Environmental Program for developing countries, which envisioned the execution of 15 projects and 11 technical assistance proposals. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) were also active in this effort. The Interamerican Development Bank also launched a forest policy for preserving forest resources. This was the consequence of the 1982 scheme that aimed at protecting forest populations and promoting sustainable forest industries. At another conference of development specialists the discrimination against women was cited as a major factor in the deleterious use of natural resources. A new development concept was urged that would incorporate the rights and participation of women as a central strategy in solving the global environmental crisis. The global population is growing at a rate of 95 million people per year, which underlines the need for better representation of women, poor people, and rural areas in state agencies and multilateral and environmental organizations for promoting sustainable

  11. Effect of channelization of Rio Puerto Nuevo on ground-water levels in the San Juan metropolitan area, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Padilla, Ingrid

    1991-01-01

    Channelization and concrete lining of the Rio Puerto Nuevo and its tributaries in the San Juan Metropolitan area has been proposed to control flooding in low lying areas adjacent to the stream. Concern about the effect of these channel modifications on the ground-water system prompted the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to conduct an investigation of surface-water and ground-water interactions in the Rio Puerto Nuevo basin in 1988. A principal objective of this investigation was to determine the potential effect of channelization of the Rio Puerto Nuevo on ground-water levels.

  12. Sedimentation in Rio La Venta Canyon in Netzahualcoyotl Reservoir, Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Fuente, J. A.; Lisle, T.; Velasquez, J.; Allison, B. L.; Miller, A.

    2002-12-01

    Sedimentation of Rio La Venta as it enters the Netzahualcoyotl Reservoir in Chiapas, Mexico, threatens a unique part of the aquatic ecosystem. Rio La Venta enters the reservoir via a narrow canyon about 16 km long with spectacular, near-vertical limestone bluffs up to 320 m high and inhabited by the flora and fauna of a pristine tropical forest. Karst terrain underlies most of the Rio La Venta basin in the vicinity of the reservoir, while deeply weathered granitic terrain underlies the Rio Negro basin, and the headwaters of the Rio La Venta to the south. The Rio Negro joins Rio La Venta 3 km downstream of the upper limit of the reservoir and delivers the bulk of the total clastic sediment (mostly sand and finer material). The canyon and much of the contributing basin lie within the Reserva de la Biosfera, Selva El Ocote, administered by the Comision Nacional de Areas Naturales Protegidas, part of the Secretaria de Medioambiente y Recursos Naturales. The Klamath National Forest Forest has cooperated with its Mexican counterparts since 1993 in natural resource management, neo-tropical bird inventories, wildfire management, and more recently in watershed analyses. Rates of sedimentation are estimated from bathymetric surveys conducted in March, 2002. A longitudinal profile down the inundated canyon during a high reservoir level shows an inflection from a slope of 0.0017 to one of 0.0075 at 7.2 km downstream of the mouth of Rio Negro. The bed elevation at this point corresponds to the lowest reservoir level, suggesting that the gentler sloping bed upstream is formed by fluvial processes during drawdown and that downstream by pluvial processes. Using accounts that boats could access Rio Negro during low water levels in 1984, we estimate an annual sedimentation rate of roughly 3 million cubic meters per year. This suggests that boats might no longer be able to access the most spectacular section of canyon upstream of Rio Negro within a decade, depending on how the

  13. Moenkhausia celibela: a new species from the Amazon basin, Brazil (Characiformes: Characidae).

    PubMed

    Marinho, M M F; Langeani, F

    2010-09-01

    A new species of Characidae, Moenkhausia celibela, is described from the Rio Amazonas at Santarém, Rio Maraú, several localities in the Rio Tapajós, Rio Curuá-Una, Rio Xingu and Rio Jari, all from the Amazon basin, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from its congeners, except species included in Géry's 1992 Moenkhausia lepidura group, by presenting a dark blotch on the upper caudal-fin lobe, and the lower lobe is hyaline or light grey. Moenkhausia celibela is distinguished from the species of the M. lepidura group by the absence of a humeral spot and the presence of a roughly triangular and dark spot at the caudal-fin base, extending posteriorly along the middle caudal-fin rays, and distinctly separate from the spot on the upper caudal-fin lobe. PMID:20840617

  14. The road from Rio.

    PubMed

    Fornos, W

    1992-12-01

    The UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED in Rio de Janeiro has passed and future plans and expectations are forming for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. UNCED did not come up with a miracle cure. Some argued that population control should have been included in the agenda; actually the population issue was not ignored entirely, as both the UNCED Secretary-General and chair of the World Commission on Environment and Development population growth affect both economics and environment. Population must be stabilized. The interrelationships between poverty, population, and environment must be recognized in the formulation of policies. A human rights approach with increased educational opportunities for women, increased women's status, and improved public health and family planning is needed. The UNCED principal document, Agenda 21, devoted an entire chapter to the dynamics of population growth and sustainability. The implications of national demographic trends must be assessed and demographic features included in policies and plans. Debating the accomplishments of UNCED is secondary to planning for the 1994 conference and dealing with the issues: family planning (FP) and well-being, women's status, urbanization and migration, and population policies and programs. The delivery of FP information, education, and services must be expedited by all agencies and organizations; there must be universal availability of maternal and child health care. 500 million women are currently in need of FP. Research is needed to improve contraceptive safety, efficiency, and effectiveness. More than 500,000 maternal deaths occur each year; many could be prevented. 15 million births/year are spaced too closely and infant health is jeopardized. Education and employment of women holds the hope for eliminating some of the social and cultural barriers to women's rights. 45 out of 100 people living in cities today are not experiencing upward mobility

  15. Deforestation near Rio Branco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Settlement and deforestation surrounding the Brazilian town of Rio Branco are seen here in the striking 'herring bone' deforestation patterns that cut through the rainforest. Rio Brancois the capital of the Brazilian state of Acre and is situated near the border with northeastern Bolivia. The town is a center for the distribution of goods, including rubber, metals, medicinal plants, Brazil nuts and timber. Colonization projects in the region are supported by farming, logging activities, and extensive cattle ranching. Much of the surrounding terrain is of a poorly-draining clay hardpan soil, and heavy rainfall periodically converts parts of the forested region to swamp.

    The large overview image was acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on July 28, 2000, and covers an area of 336 kilometers x 333 kilometers. A plume of smoke is visible north of the Rio Branco road, which roughly parallels the slender, twisting Rio Abuna. Most of the major rivers in the image provide reference points for state or international (Bolivia-Brazil) boundaries, and flow northeast to the Rio Madeira (east of the smoke plume). The border between Acre and the Bolivian department of Pando is marked by the Rio Abuna. Pando's southern boundary with the department of Beni is marked by the Rio Madre de Dios, the large river in the lower half of the image.

    The two higher-resolution inset images highlight a settled area north of the town of Rio Branco. These nadir views cover an area of 60 kilometers x 67 kilometers, and were acquired eleven months apart during Terra orbits 3251 and 8144. In the later image, more haze is present, possibly due to smoke from fires on that day. Comparing the two images provides a method of measuring the changes and expansion in the area of cleared land. One newly cleared patch is apparent near the middle of the later image, slightly off to the right. This polygon represents an area of about 16 square kilometers, or

  16. Five new species of genus Astyanax Baird & Girard, 1854 from Rio Iguaçu, Paraná, Brazil (Ostariophysi, Characiformes, Characidae).

    PubMed

    Garavello, J C; Sampaio, F A A

    2010-10-01

    Five new species of the Neotropical characiform genus Astyanax Baird & Girard are described from Rio Iguaçu at the border of Paraná and Santa Catarina states, southeastern Brazil and Astyanax gymnogenis Eigenmann is redescribed. Each new species can be distinguished from all other Astyanax species from the upper Rio Paraná basin by exclusive combinations of: tooth shape, number of dental cuspids, distance between third infraorbital and preopercle, number of lateral line scales, longitudinal series of scales, number of gill-rakers and differences from shape of body and head traits. This study proposes the species of genus Astyanax from Rio Iguaçu as probably endemic, since all of them are absent from tributaries of the Rio Paraná hydrographic system. The high degree of diversification acquired by those Astyanax species in the Iguaçu basin may perhaps be allied to the long isolation period of this river from the Rio Paraná basin caused by the Iguaçu waterfalls. This barrier probably isolated those basins resulting in original groups of Characiformes and then Astyanax species, both isolated from one another and both different from their relatives in neighbouring basins. PMID:21085790

  17. Focus on safety and project management make for model launch of P&H 9020 twins

    SciTech Connect

    2007-03-15

    Hail Creek Mine in the Bowen Basin has been supplied with two P&H 9020 draglines which have exceptional maintainability and an optimised dragline operator environment, not to mention shear digging power and proven operating performance. The manufacture's (P&H MinePro Services) very comprehensive safety system was a major contributing factor in Rio Tinto's decision to purchase a second 9020. 2 photos.

  18. Structure of the southern Rio Grande rift from gravity interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daggett, P. H.; Keller, G. R.; Wen, C.-L.; Morgan, P.

    1986-05-01

    Regional Bouguer gravity anomalies in southern New Mexico have been analyzed by two-dimensional wave number filtering and poly-nomial trend surface analysis of the observed gravity field. A prominent, regional oval-shaped positive gravity anomaly was found to be associated with the southern Rio Grande rift. Computer modeling of three regional gravity profiles suggests that this anomaly is due to crustal thinning beneath the southern Rio Grande rift. These models indicate a 25 to 26-km minimum crustal thickness within the rift and suggest that the rift is underlain by a broad zone of anomalously low-density upper mantle. The southern terminus of the anomalous zone is approximately 50 km southwest of El Paso, Texas. A thinning of the rifted crust of 2-3 km relative to the adjacent Basin and Range province indicates an extension of about 9 percent during the formation of the modern southern Rio Grande rift. This extension estimate is consistent with estimates from other data sources. The crustal thinning and anomalous mantle is thought to result from magmatic activity related to surface volcanism and high heat flow in this area.

  19. ESD and the Rio Conventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarabhai, Kartikeya V.; Ravindranath, Shailaja; Schwarz, Rixa; Vyas, Purvi

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 36 of Agenda 21, a key document of the 1992 Earth Summit, emphasised reorienting education towards sustainable development. While two of the Rio conventions, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), developed communication, education and public awareness (CEPA)…

  20. Geologic map of the Ojo Caliente Quadrangle, Rio Arriba and Taos Counties, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Stix, J.

    1986-11-01

    The Ojo Caliente area forms part of the western limb of the Espanola basin within the Rio Grande rift of northern New Mexico (Manley, 1979; May, 1979). The geology consists of Miocene basin-fill sedimentary rocks that rest unconformably on, or are faulted against, Proterozoic crystalline metamorphic rocks. The Miocene rocks dip gently to the southeast, except where the attitudes are controlled by faulting or by the underlying basement topography. The Precambrian and Miocene rocks are unconformably overlain by Quaternary pediment and river gravels, loess, travertine, landslide debris, and alluvium. The Precambrian rocks are faulted into horsts in several areas by north - northeast - trending normal faults.

  1. Rio Grande Wetbacks: Mexican Migrant Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norquest, Carrol

    Farmers in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas saw a rise of wetback labor in the 1930s and 40s. The wetback laborers were Mexicans who had crossed the Rio Grande and were in the United States illegally to work. Carrol Norquest, a farmer in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, employed wetbacks regularly. In this book, Mr. Norquest writes about the…

  2. Advancements in understanding the aeromagnetic expressions of basin-margin faults—An example from San Luis Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grauch, V. J.; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Drenth, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we summarize and expand on an investigation of the sources of aeromagnetic anomalies related to faults along the eastern margin of the San Luis Basin, northern Rio Grande Rift, Colorado (Grauch et al., 2010). Similar to the faults examined in the central Rio Grande Rift, magnetic sources can be completely explained by tectonic juxtaposition and produce multiple, vertically stacked magnetic contrasts at individual faults. However, the geologic sources are different. They arise from both the sedimentary cover and the underlying bedrock rather than from stratified sediments. In addition, geologic evidence for secondary growth or destruc

  3. Creating a standardized watersheds database for the lower Rio Grande/Rio Bravo, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Julie R.; Ulery, Randy L.; Parcher, Jean W.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the creation of a large-scale watershed database for the lower Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin in Texas. The watershed database includes watersheds delineated to all 1:24,000-scale mapped stream confluences and other hydrologically significant points, selected watershed characteristics, and hydrologic derivative datasets. Computer technology allows generation of preliminary watershed boundaries in a fraction of the time needed for manual methods. This automated process reduces development time and results in quality improvements in watershed boundaries and characteristics. These data can then be compiled in a permanent database, eliminating the time-consuming step of data creation at the beginning of a project and providing a stable base dataset that can give users greater confidence when further subdividing watersheds. A standardized dataset of watershed characteristics is a valuable contribution to the understanding and management of natural resources. Vertical integration of the input datasets used to automatically generate watershed boundaries is crucial to the success of such an effort. The optimum situation would be to use the digital orthophoto quadrangles as the source of all the input datasets. While the hydrographic data from the digital line graphs can be revised to match the digital orthophoto quadrangles, hypsography data cannot be revised to match the digital orthophoto quadrangles. Revised hydrography from the digital orthophoto quadrangle should be used to create an updated digital elevation model that incorporates the stream channels as revised from the digital orthophoto quadrangle. Computer-generated, standardized watersheds that are vertically integrated with existing digital line graph hydrographic data will continue to be difficult to create until revisions can be made to existing source datasets. Until such time, manual editing will be necessary to make adjustments for man-made features and changes in the natural landscape

  4. The BDS iGMAS RIOS station at Observatório Nacional, Rio de Janeiro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humberto Andrei, Alexandre; Song, Shuli; Junqueira, Selma; Beauvalet, Laurene

    2016-07-01

    GNSS navigation satellites are currently being developed by all major players in the science and technology scene, to compete with the GPS system. Because their applications span many different areas, from traffic and cargo control, to geodesy and seismic monitoring, it is required to assess the coherence between the different constellations. BDS is the GNSS system currently developed in China. Its first generation of satellites consisted of 3 geostationnary satellites allowing geolocalisation in China only. In addition to these satellites, other satellites have been launched in geostationnary and geosynchronous orbits, as well as satellites orbiting with a classical GNSS semi-major axis. With these additions, the BDS system possesses 19 operating satellites, and though the system is mostly efficient for geolocalisation in Asia, the satellites are also visible in other parts of the globe. In parallel to the development of the BDS constellation, China has launched the iGMAS (International GNSS Monitoring and Assessment Service) project to develop a global tracking network of multi-GNSS geodetic receivers. One of the goals of this project is to evaluate the efficiency of the BDS constellation as well as the efficiency of the receivers developed by the Chinese laboratories. As part of the Brazilian program COSBAN leaded by the Foreign Affairs Ministry to foster up the science and technology partnership with China, materialized by the collaboration between the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory/CAS and the Observatório Nacional/MCTI, in Rio de Janeiro. Through it the RIOS-iGMAS station was installed at Observatório Nacional, where the RJEP GNSS station already operates as part of the Brazilian reference system. Thus at the Observatório Nacional can be observed satellites from any constellation with both systems of reception, leading to a direct, efficient way to compare the results obtained for each network. In this communication we focus on the determination of the

  5. Investigation of rifting processes in the Rio Grande Rift using data from unusually large earthquake swarms

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, A.; Balch, R.; House, L.; Hartse, H.

    1995-12-01

    San Acacia Swarm in the Rio Grande Rift. Because the Rio Grande rift is one of the best seismically instrumented rift zones in the world, studying its seismicity provides an exceptional opportunity to explore the active tectonic processes within continental rifts. We have been studying earthquake swarms recorded near Socorro in an effort to link seismicity directly to the rifting process. For FY94, our research has focused on the San Acacia swarm, which occurred 25 km north of Socorro, New Mexico, along the accommodation zone between the Albuquerque-Belen and Socorro basins of the central Rio Grande rift. The swarm commenced on 25 February 1983, had a magnitude 4.2 main shock on 2 March and ended on 17 March, 1983.

  6. Evolution and hydrocarbon prospectivity of the Douala Basin, Cameroon

    SciTech Connect

    Batupe, M.; Tampu, S.; Aboma, R.S.

    1995-08-01

    The Douala Basin is a stable Atlantic-type, predominantly offshore basin and forms the northern terminal of a series of divergent passive margin basins located on the Southwest coast of Africa that resulted from the rifting of Africa from South America. An integration of new studies including detailed well, biostratigraphic, sedimentological, geochemical and seismic data has confirmed that the tectonostratigraphic evolution in the basin can be broadly divided into three developmental phases: the Syn-rift, Transitional and Drift phases. This basis has been explored intermittently for hydrocarbon for the past 40 years with two important gas fields discovered and no commercial oil found as yet. This early gas discovery and a corresponding lack of any significant oil discovery, led early operators to term this basin as essentially a gas province. However, recent geochemical analyses of various oil-seeps and oil samples from various localities in the basin, using state-of-the-art techniques have demonstrated that this basin is a potential oil prone basin. The results show that two models of oil sourcing are possible: a Lower Cretaceous lacustrine saline source, similar to the presalt basins of Gabon or a marine Upper Cretaceous to lower Tertiary source, similar to the neighbouring Rio del Rey/Niger Delta Complex. Additionally, seismic reflection data also demonstrate a variety of reservoir horizons, including submarine fans, channel-like features and buried paleohighs, all interbedded within regionally extensive, uniformity bounded mudstone units. Hence, it is now quite evident that within this basin, there exist a vast potential for a wide variety of stratigraphic, structural and combined traps. These features, which are considered to have significantly enhanced the prospectivity of this basin, will be discussed in this paper.

  7. Water Resources Data, Colorado, Water Year 1995--Volume 1. Missouri River Basin, Arkansas River Basin, and Rio Grande Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowfoot, R.M.; Ugland, R.C.; Maura, W.S.; Steger, R.D.; O'Neill, G. B.

    1995-01-01

    Water-resources data for Colorado for the 1995 water year consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of wells and springs. This report (Volumes 1 and 2) contains discharge records for 335 gaging stations, stage and contents of 26 lakes and reservoirs, 1 partial-record low-flow station, peak-flow information for 37 crest-stage partial-record stations; water quality for 134 gaging stations and for 9 lakes and reservoirs, supplemental water quality for 186 gaged sites; water quality for 29 miscellaneous sites, and 15 observation wells, and meteorological data for 30 sites. Nine pertinent stations operated by bordering States also are included in this report. The records were collected and computed by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey under the direction of D.J. Lystrom, District Chief. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies.

  8. Water Resources Data, Colorado, Water Year 2001--Volume 1. Missouri River Basin, Arkansas River Basin, and Rio Grande Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowfoot, R.M.; Steger, R.D.; Payne, W.F.; O'Neill, G. B.

    2002-01-01

    Water-resources data for Colorado for the 2001 water year consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; meteorological data; and water levels and water quality of wells and springs. This report (Volumes 1 and 2) contains discharge records for 313 gaging stations, stage and contents of 16 lakes and reservoirs, discharge measurements for 1 partial-record low-flow station and 1 miscellaneous site, peak-flow information for 22 crest-stage partial-record stations; water quality for 125 gaging stations and for 10 lakes and reservoirs, supplemental water quality for 181 gaged sites; water quality for 77 miscellaneous sites and 14 observation wells; water levels for 3 observation wells, and meteorological data for 55 sites. Three pertinent stations operated by bordering States also are included in this report. The records were collected and computed by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey under the direction of W.F. Horak, District Chief. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies.

  9. Water Resources Data, Colorado, Water Year 2002--Volume 1. Missouri River Basin, Arkansas River Basin, and Rio Grande Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowfoot, R.M.; Payne, W.F.; O'Neill, G. B.

    2003-01-01

    Water-resources data for Colorado for the 2002 water year consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; meteorological data; and water levels and water quality of wells and springs. This report (Volumes 1 and 2) contains discharge records for 319 gaging stations, stage and contents of 16 lakes and reservoirs, discharge measurements for 1 partial-record low-flow station and 1 miscellaneous site, peak-flow information for 22 crest-stage partial-record stations; water quality for 118 gaging stations and for 8 lakes and reservoirs, supplemental water quality for 183 gaged sites; water quality for 65 miscellaneous sites and 14 observation wells; water levels for 2 observation wells, and meteorological data for 57 sites. Three pertinent stations operated by bordering States also are included in this report. The records were collected and computed by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey under the direction of W.F. Horak, District Chief. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies.

  10. Water Resources Data, Colorado, Water Year 2000--Volume 1. Missouri River Basin, Arkansas River Basin, and Rio Grande Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowfoot, R.M.; Unruh, J.W.; Steger, R.D.; O'Neill, G. B.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data for Colorado for the 2000 water year consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; meteorological data; and water levels and water quality of wells and springs. This report (Volumes 1 and 2) contains discharge records for 305 gaging stations, stage and contents of 15 lakes and reservoirs, discharge measurements for 1 partial-record low-flow station and 1 miscellaneous site, peak-flow information for 22 crest-stage partial-record stations; water quality for 102 gaging stations and for 7 lakes and reservoirs, supplemental water quality for 185 gaged sites; water quality for 141 miscellaneous sites and 14 observation wells; water levels for 4 observation wells, and meteorological data for 45 sites. Three pertinent stations operated by bordering States also are included in this report. The records were collected and computed by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey under the direction of W.F. Horak, District Chief. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies.

  11. Water Resources Data, Colorado, Water Year 1999--Volume 1. Missouri River Basin, Arkansas River Basin, and Rio Grande Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowfoot, R.M.; Unruh, J.W.; Ritz, G.F.; Steger, R.D.; O'Neill, G. B.

    2000-01-01

    Water-resources data for Colorado for the 1999 water year consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of wells and springs. This report (Volumes 1 and 2) contains discharge records for 306 gaging stations, stage and contents of 15 lakes and reservoirs, discharge measurements for 1 partial-record low-flow station and 1 miscellaneous site, peak-flow information for 28 crest-stage partial-record stations; water quality for 109 gaging stations and for 8 lakes and reservoirs, supplemental water quality for 186 gaged sites; water quality for 53 miscellaneous sites and 14 observation wells; water levels for 2 observation wells, and meteorological data for 19 sites. Three pertinent stations operated by bordering States also are included in this report. The records were collected and computed by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey under the direction of W.F. Horak, District Chief. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies.

  12. Water resources data, Colorado, water year 2003; Volume 1. Missouri River basin, Arkansas River basin, and Rio Grande basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowfoot, R.M.; Payne, W.F.; O'Neill, G. B.

    2004-01-01

    Water-resources data for Colorado for water year 2003 consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; meteorological data; and water levels and water quality of wells and springs. This report (volumes 1 and 2) contains discharge records for 329 gaging stations, stage and contents of 19 lakes and reservoirs, discharge measurements for 1 partial-record low-flow station and 1 miscellaneous site, peak-flow information for 23 crest-stage partial-record stations, water-quality data for 128 gaging stations and 8 lakes and reservoirs, supplemental water-quality data for 182 gaged sites, water-quality data for 61 miscellaneous sites and 15 observation wells, water levels for 3 observation wells; and meteorological data for 62 sites. Three pertinent stations operated by bordering States also are included in this report. The records were collected and computed by the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey under the direction of W.F. Horak, District Chief. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and by cooperating State and Federal agencies.

  13. Water Resources Data, Colorado, Water Year 1998--Volume 1. Missouri River Basin, Arkansas River Basin, and Rio Grande Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowfoot, R.M.; Bruce, N.L.; Unruh, J.W.; Steinheimer, J.T.; Ritzz, G.F.; Smith, M.E.; Steger, R.D.; O'Neill, G. B.

    1998-01-01

    Water-resources data for Colorado for the 1998 water year consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of wells and springs. This report (Volumes 1 and 2) contains discharge records for 316 gaging stations, stage and contents of 26 lakes and reservoirs, discharge measurements for 1 partial-record low-flow station and 1 miscellaneous site, peak-flow information for 29 crest-stage partial-record stations; water quality for 118 gaging stations and for 8 lakes and reservoirs, supplemental water quality for 192 gaged sites; water quality for 72 miscellaneous sites and 14 observation wells; water levels for 3 observation wells, and meteorological data for 25 sites. Seven pertinent stations operated by bordering States also are included in this report. The records were collected and computed by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey under the direction of W.F. Horak, District Chief. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies.

  14. Water Resources Data, Colorado, Water Year 1996--Volume 1. Missouri River Basin, Arkansas River Basin, and Rio Grande Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowfoot, R.M.; Paillet, A.V.; Ritz, G.F.; Smith, M.E.; Steger, R.D.; O'Neill, G. B.

    1996-01-01

    Water-resources data for Colorado for the 1996 water year consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of wells and springs. This report (Volumes 1 and 2) contains discharge records for 321 gaging stations, stage and contents of 26 lakes and reservoirs, 1 partial-record low-flow station, peak-flow information for 30 crest-stage partial-record stations; water quality for 135 gaging stations and for 11 lakes and reservoirs, supplemental water quality for 175 gaged sites; water quality for 34 miscellaneous sites and 14 observation wells; water levels for 2 observation wells, and meteorological data for 30 sites. Nine pertinent stations operated by bordering States also are included in this report. The records were collected and computed by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey under the direction of W.F. Horak, District Chief. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies.

  15. Water Resources Data, Colorado, Water Year 1997--Volume 1. Missouri River Basin, Arkansas River Basin, and Rio Grande Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowfoot, R.M.; Paillet, A.V.; Ritz, G.F.; Smith, M.E.; Steger, R.D.; O'Neill, G. B.

    1997-01-01

    Water-resources data for Colorado for the 1997 water year consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of wells and springs. This report (Volumes 1 and 2) contains discharge records for 327 gaging stations, stage and contents of 26 lakes and reservoirs, discharge measurements for 1 partial-record low-flow station and 1 miscellaneous site, peak-flow information for 30 crest-stage partial-record stations; water quality for 129 gaging stations and for 7 lakes and reservoirs, supplemental water quality for 186 gaged sites; water quality for 25 miscellaneous sites and 14 observation wells; water levels for 3 observation wells, and meteorological data for 34 sites. Eight pertinent stations operated by bordering States also are included in this report. The records were collected and computed by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey under the direction of W.F. Horak, District Chief. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies.

  16. Geologic Map of the Abiquiu Quadrangle, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maldonado, Florian

    2008-01-01

    The Abiquiu 1:24,000-scale quadrangle is located along the Colorado Plateau-Rio Grande rift margin in north-central New Mexico. The map area lies within the Abiquiu embayment, an early (pre-Miocene) extensional basin of the Rio Grande rift. Rocks exposed include continental Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks of the Colorado Plateau and Cenozoic basin-fill deposits and volcanic rocks of the Rio Grande rift. Paleozoic units include the Late Pennsylvanian to Early Permian Cutler Group, undivided. Mesozoic units are Upper Triassic Chinle Group, undivided, middle Jurassic Entrada Sandstone, and Todilto Limestone Member of the Wanakah Formation. Mesozoic rocks are folded in some areas and overlain disconformably by Cenozoic rocks. Cenozoic sedimentary rocks are composed of the Eocene El Rito Formation, Oligocene Ritito Conglomerate, Oligocene-Miocene Abiquiu Formation, and Miocene Chama-El Rito and Ojo Caliente Sandstone Members of the Tesuque Formation of the Santa Fe Group. Volcanic rocks include the Lobato Basalt, the El Alto Basalt, and dacite of the Tschicoma Formation. Quaternary deposits consist of inset ancestral axial and tributary Rio Chama deposits and Holocene floodplain alluvium, fan and pediment alluvium, and landslide colluvium.

  17. From the Cordillera Blanca to the Pacific Ocean: hydrological changes and consequences across the Rio Santa watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraer, M.; Mark, B. G.; Wigmore, O.; Fernandez-Rivera, A.; McKenzie, J. M.; Walsh, E.

    2012-12-01

    The Rio Santa, Peru, drains the western slopes of the glacierized Cordillera Blanca and provides water resources for intense and diversified purposes. The Rio Santa basin sustains one of the most important hydropower plants in Peru, several middle-sized cities, high-elevation slope agriculture and mining industries. Glaciers in the Cordillera Blanca are rapidly retreating, modifying the hydrology of the upper Rio Santa watershed. Previous results show that the upper Rio Santa watershed has passed peak-water, the moment of maximum water availability, and now exhibit decreasing dry season discharge as a consequence of glacial retreat. We present results from data collected in July of 2011 and 2012, including discharge measurements using acoustic Doppler current profiling and major dissolved ion concentrations and stable isotopes of water. The hydrochemical data were analysed using the Hydrochemical Basin Characterization Method and the results are used to map the dry-season specific discharge variations across the entire Rio Santa watershed. Measurements from 2011 suggest that around 80% of current lower Rio Santa dry-season flows are diverted to supply water to major cities, intensive agriculture and hydro-electricity projects situated in the dry coastal area. Glacier retreat simulations are used to localize future hydrological changes and evaluate the downstream repercussions. Results show that glacierized catchments have higher specific discharge compared to non-glacierized catchments but the contribution of the glaciers during the dry season represent less than 30% of the Rio Santa discharge. As the glaciers further retreat, the Rio Santa dry-season outflows are going to progressively decrease to a level below the actual freshwater demand. These changes will adversely impact the socioeconomic vulnerability to water scarcity in the entire watershed while deepening the upstream/downstream disparity in water availability.

  18. Solutions for North American Water Security Challenge: Colorado and Bravo transboundary basins cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Pérez, M.

    2013-12-01

    The transboundary basins of Colorado (Baja California) and Rio Bravo (Grande) have low water availability figures and water will be appreciated as a highly valued good. In the Rio Grande basin, the strategies and actions have been developed with the River Basin Council: a new surface water management, new water allocation rules for different rainfall and runoff scenarios (climate change included), new sources of water and establishment of water reserves for human consumption and for environmental purposes. In the Colorado River, with an integrated watershed management vision, Mexican and US federal, state and non-governmental organizations representatives signed Minute 319 for 5 years without changing the 1944 Water Treaty. Concepts and rules for surplus, shortage, Intentionally Created Mexican Water (ICMA), salinity, water for the environment and international projects were included and are been implemented. Parallel drinking water and sanitation services in both sides of the border through the Joint Investment Program, EPA-CONAGUA invested 979.2 million dollars from grants to improve the quality of the environment and the inhabitants. Accomplishments are high and the reduction in river health is a good indicator. The implementation of this binational cooperation actions under the framework of the 1944 Water Treaty are considered global solutions in the field of integrated water management in transboundary basins and for creating water security in highly pressured basins. Keywords: Colorado River, Rio Grande or Bravo River, water security, Transboundary basins, environmental water reserves

  19. Basin-scale recharge in the Southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, J. F.; Duffy, C.; Eastoe, C.; Ferre, T. P. A.; Goodrich, D.; Hendrickx, J.; Hibbs, B.; Phillips, F.; Small, E.; Wilson, J.

    2003-04-01

    The major domestic water source in the arid southwestern United States is groundwater from alluvial basin aquifers. Accurate estimates of basin-scale groundwater recharge rates are a critical need for developing sustainable or "safe yield" groundwater pumping. Basin-scale recharge rates are typically estimated using inverse hydrologic modeling or geochemical tracers (e.g. chloride mass balance). These methods, while useful, have a high level of uncertainty and provide no information about the mechanisms of groundwater recharge. SAHRA - an NSF Science and Technology Center focused on the Sustainability of semi-Arid Hydrology and Riparian Areas - has developed an integrated research plan to address this problem. Our approach is two-fold. First we are investigating the "input" components that comprise basin-scale recharge: basin floor recharge, alluvial channel recharge, mountain front recharge, and mountain block recharge. Each component has unique spatial and temporal scales and thus requires distinct methods. Our research is aimed at understanding the factors (e.g. vegetation type, bedrock lithology, soil structure) that control recharge rates in each of these locations. With such an understanding one could then scale from point measurements to the basin-scale using remote sensing data. Our second approach is to employ isotopic tracers to determine water sources, groundwater ages and residence times of the groundwater and surface water "outputs"; these values can then be used to better calibrate recharge rates in groundwater models. By focusing our studies on two basins, the San Pedro River Basin in Arizona and the Rio Grande in New Mexico, we hope to develop a better understanding of the importance of different recharge pathways for basin-scale recharge and which methods are best suited for estimating basin-scale recharge.

  20. Reserves in western basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1992-06-01

    This project requires generation of producible tight gas sand reserve estimates for three western basins. The requirement is to perform such reserve estimates using industry accepted practices so that results will have high credibility and acceptance by the oil and gas industry. The ultimate goal of the project is to encourage development of the tight gas formation by industry through reduction of the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial gas wells. The three geological basins selected for study are the Greater Green River Basin, Uinta Basin and Piceance Basin, located in the Colorado, Utah and Wyoming Rocky Mountain region.

  1. Reserves in western basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1992-01-01

    This project requires generation of producible tight gas sand reserve estimates for three western basins. The requirement is to perform such reserve estimates using industry accepted practices so that results will have high credibility and acceptance by the oil and gas industry. The ultimate goal of the project is to encourage development of the tight gas formation by industry through reduction of the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial gas wells. The three geological basins selected for study are the Greater Green River Basin, Uinta Basin and Piceance Basin, located in the Colorado, Utah and Wyoming Rocky Mountain region.

  2. Evaluation of gridded snow water equivalent and satellite snow cover products for mountain basins in a hydrologic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressler, K. A.; Leavesley, G. H.; Bales, R. C.; Fassnacht, S. R.

    2006-03-01

    The USGS precipitation-runoff modelling system (PRMS) hydrologic model was used to evaluate experimental, gridded, 1 km2 snow-covered area (SCA) and snow water equivalent (SWE) products for two headwater basins within the Rio Grande (i.e. upper Rio Grande River basin) and Salt River (i.e. Black River basin) drainages in the southwestern USA. The SCA product was the fraction of each 1 km2 pixel covered by snow and was derived from NOAA advanced very high-resolution radiometer imagery. The SWE product was developed by multiplying the SCA product by SWE estimates interpolated from National Resources Conservation Service snow telemetry point measurements for a 6 year period (1995-2000). Measured SCA and SWE estimates were consistently lower than values estimated from temperature and precipitation within PRMS. The greatest differences occurred in the relatively complex terrain of the Rio Grande basin, as opposed to the relatively homogeneous terrain of the Black River basin, where differences were small. Differences between modelled and measured snow were different for the accumulation period versus the ablation period and had an elevational trend. Assimilating the measured snowfields into a version of PRMS calibrated to achieve water balance without assimilation led to reduced performance in estimating streamflow for the Rio Grande and increased performance in estimating streamflow for the Black River basin. Correcting the measured SCA and SWE for canopy effects improved simulations by adding snow mostly in the mid-to-high elevations, where satellite estimates of SCA are lower than model estimates.

  3. Gravity and Seismic Investigations of the Northern Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biehler, S.; Braile, L. W.; Harper, C.; Bartz, R.; Donnelly, W.; Haga, L.; Keithline, N.; McBride, K.; Miller, D.; Oberle, J.; Wahl, J.; Castrejon-Martinez, R.; Lee, R. F.; Saez Berrios, P.; Ferguson, J. F.; Baldridge, W. S.

    2015-12-01

    Participants in the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE) program have collected gravity data at over 7000 locations in the northern Rio Grande rift (RGR) area of New Mexico in the past thirty-three years. In recent years, the SAGE program has focused on the western edge of the Española basin and the transition into the Santo Domingo basin of the RGR. During this time, we have collected about 40 km of seismic reflection and refraction data along approximately East-West profiles using a 120 channel data acquisition system with a 20 m station interval and a Vibroseis source. Refraction travel time modeling and Common Midpoint (CMP) stacked reflection sections have imaged basin boundary faults and stratigraphy. We also have access to several energy-industry seismic reflection record sections from the 1970s in the study area. These data and some deep drill hole information have allowed detailed interpretation of basin structures along segments of three regional transects across the RGR in northern New Mexico. The interpreted seismic velocities and fault images from the seismic record sections, and lithologies and well logs from drill holes, have also provided important constraints on modeling and interpretation of the regional gravity data along the three transects. The gravity modeling along these transects reveals key structures within the basin including the eastern bounding fault of the Los Alamos graben, eastern boundary faults of the Santo Domingo basin, the Agua Fria fault system near the eastern boundary of the Española basin and interpreted depths to basement of the Española and Santo Domingo basins. Boundary fault offsets are as large as 3 km and maximum basin depths range from 3 to 6 km.

  4. Visible-Near Infrared Point Spectrometry of Drill Core Samples from Río Tinto, Spain: Results from the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) Drilling Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutter, Brad; Brown, Adrian J.; Stoker, Carol R.

    2008-10-01

    Sampling of subsurface rock may be required to detect evidence of past biological activity on Mars. The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) utilized the Río Tinto region, Spain, as a Mars analog site to test dry drilling technologies specific to Mars that retrieve subsurface rock for biological analysis. This work examines the usefulness of visible-near infrared (VNIR) (450-1000 nm) point spectrometry to characterize ferric iron minerals in core material retrieved during a simulated Mars drilling mission. VNIR spectrometry can indicate the presence of aqueously precipitated ferric iron minerals and, thus, determine whether biological analysis of retrieved rock is warranted. Core spectra obtained during the mission with T1 (893-897 nm) and T2 (644-652 nm) features indicate goethite-dominated samples, while relatively lower wavelength T1 (832-880 nm) features indicate hematite. Hematite/goethite molar ratios varied from 0 to 1.4, and within the 880-898 nm range, T1 features were used to estimate hematite/goethite molar ratios. Post-mission X-ray analysis detected phyllosilicates, which indicates that examining beyond the VNIR (e.g., shortwave infrared, 1000-2500 nm) will enhance the detection of other minerals formed by aqueous processes. Despite the limited spectral range of VNIR point spectrometry utilized in the MARTE Mars drilling simulation project, ferric iron minerals could be identified in retrieved core material, and their distribution served to direct core subsampling for biological analysis.

  5. Visible-near infrared point spectrometry of drill core samples from Río Tinto, Spain: results from the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) drilling exercise.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Brad; Brown, Adrian J; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    Sampling of subsurface rock may be required to detect evidence of past biological activity on Mars. The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) utilized the Río Tinto region, Spain, as a Mars analog site to test dry drilling technologies specific to Mars that retrieve subsurface rock for biological analysis. This work examines the usefulness of visible-near infrared (VNIR) (450-1000 nm) point spectrometry to characterize ferric iron minerals in core material retrieved during a simulated Mars drilling mission. VNIR spectrometry can indicate the presence of aqueously precipitated ferric iron minerals and, thus, determine whether biological analysis of retrieved rock is warranted. Core spectra obtained during the mission with T1 (893-897 nm) and T2 (644-652 nm) features indicate goethite-dominated samples, while relatively lower wavelength T1 (832-880 nm) features indicate hematite. Hematite/goethite molar ratios varied from 0 to 1.4, and within the 880-898 nm range, T1 features were used to estimate hematite/goethite molar ratios. Post-mission X-ray analysis detected phyllosilicates, which indicates that examining beyond the VNIR (e.g., shortwave infrared, 1000-2500 nm) will enhance the detection of other minerals formed by aqueous processes. Despite the limited spectral range of VNIR point spectrometry utilized in the MARTE Mars drilling simulation project, ferric iron minerals could be identified in retrieved core material, and their distribution served to direct core subsampling for biological analysis. PMID:19105759

  6. Application of nonlinear-regression methods to a ground-water flow model of the Albuquerque Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiedeman, C.R.; Kernodle, J.M.; McAda, D.P.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the application of nonlinear-regression methods to a numerical model of ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin, New Mexico. In the Albuquerque Basin, ground water is the primary source for most water uses. Ground-water withdrawal has steadily increased since the 1940's, resulting in large declines in water levels in the Albuquerque area. A ground-water flow model was developed in 1994 and revised and updated in 1995 for the purpose of managing basin ground- water resources. In the work presented here, nonlinear-regression methods were applied to a modified version of the previous flow model. Goals of this work were to use regression methods to calibrate the model with each of six different configurations of the basin subsurface and to assess and compare optimal parameter estimates, model fit, and model error among the resulting calibrations. The Albuquerque Basin is one in a series of north trending structural basins within the Rio Grande Rift, a region of Cenozoic crustal extension. Mountains, uplifts, and fault zones bound the basin, and rock units within the basin include pre-Santa Fe Group deposits, Tertiary Santa Fe Group basin fill, and post-Santa Fe Group volcanics and sediments. The Santa Fe Group is greater than 14,000 feet (ft) thick in the central part of the basin. During deposition of the Santa Fe Group, crustal extension resulted in development of north trending normal faults with vertical displacements of as much as 30,000 ft. Ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin occurs primarily in the Santa Fe Group and post-Santa Fe Group deposits. Water flows between the ground-water system and surface-water bodies in the inner valley of the basin, where the Rio Grande, a network of interconnected canals and drains, and Cochiti Reservoir are located. Recharge to the ground-water flow system occurs as infiltration of precipitation along mountain fronts and infiltration of stream water along tributaries to the Rio Grande; subsurface

  7. Quantifying Saline Groundwater Discharge to the Rio Grande using 87Sr/86Sr and [Ca]/[Sr] Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, J. F.; Phillips, F. M.; Mills, S. K.; Ruiz, J.; Chesley, J. T.

    2002-12-01

    Issues of water quality, especially salinity, limit the use of water resources from the Rio Grande. Identification and quantification of salinity sources is critical for improved river management. We have conducted winter and summer synoptic sampling of the Rio Grande from the headwaters in Colorado to south of El Paso, Texas. The total dissolved solids content (TDS) of the Rio Grande increases from less than 50 mg/L in headwater regions of Colorado to greater than 2000 mg/L south of El Paso, Texas. Increases in salinity are not a simple function of distance downriver, but rather occur in a series of steps. Many of these increases are located at the lower end of sedimentary basins leading to the hypothesis that they are the result of discharge of deep, saline, groundwaters. Of particular interest is the Albuquerque and Socorro basins where, in three distinct steps, the TDS of the river doubles from ~ 150 mg/L to ~ 300 mg/L. With little change in river discharge for this reach, this represents a significant increase in the solute burden of the river. We have used 87Sr/86Sr and [Ca]/[Sr] ratios to "fingerprint" and quantify saline groundwater discharge. The Rio Grande entering the Albuquerque basin has an 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7096and a [Ca]/[Sr] ratio of 80. These values are consistent with a mixture of atmospheric deposition and weathering of basalt rock found upstream. Traveling through the Albuquerque and Socorro basin the Rio Grande shifts to a 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7102 and a [Ca]/[Sr] ratio of 30, values which are consistent with saline groundwater discharge. Mixing relationships indicate only two solute sources are required, and that a total saline groundwater discharge rate of ~ 50 cfs is sufficient to explain the observed salinity increases.

  8. The onshore northeast Brazilian rift basins: An early Neocomian aborted rift system

    SciTech Connect

    Matos, R. )

    1990-05-01

    Early Cretaceous rift basins of northeastern Brazil illustrate key three-dimensional geometries of intracontinental rift systems, controlled mainly by the basement structures. These basins were formed and then abandoned during the early extension associated with the north-south-propagating separation of South America and Africa. During the early Neocomian, extensional deformation jumped from the easternmost basins (group 1: Sergipe Alagoas and Gabon basins; group 2: Reconcavo, Tucano, and Jatoba basins) to the west, forming a series of northeast-trending intracratonic basins (group 3: Araripe, Rio do Peixe, Iguatu, Malhada Vermelha, Lima Campos, and Potiguar basins). The intracratonic basins of groups 2 and 3 consist of asymmetric half-grabens separated by basement highs, transfer faults, and/or accommodation zones. These basins are typically a few tens of kilometers wide and trend northeast-southwest, roughly perpendicular to the main extension direction during the early Neocomian. Preexisting upper crustal weakness zones, like the dominantly northeast-southwest-trending shear zones of the Brazilian orogeny, controlled the development of intracrustal listric normal faults. Internal transverse structures such as transfer faults (Reconcavo basin and onshore Potiguar basin) and accommodation zones (onshore Potiguar basin and Araripe basin) were also controlled by the local basement structural framework. Transverse megafaults and lithostructural associations controlled the three main rift trends. The megashear zones of Pernanbuco (Brazil)-Ngaundere (Africa) apparently behaved like a huge accommodation zone, balancing extensional deformation along the Reconcavo-Jatoba/Sergipe Alagoas-Gabon trends with simultaneous extension along the Araripe-Potiguar trend. The Sergipe Alagoas-Gabon trend and the Potiguar basin represent the site of continued evolution into a marginal open basin following early Neocomian deformation.

  9. Divergent/passive margin basins

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.D. ); Santogrossi, P.A. )

    1989-01-01

    This book discusses the detailed geology of the four divergent margin basins and establishes a set of analog scenarios which can be used for future petroleum exploration. The divergent margin basins are the Campos basin of Brazil, the Gabon basin, the Niger delta, and the basins of the northwest shelf of Australia. These four petroleum basins present a wide range of stratigraphic sequences and structural styles that represent the diverse evolution of this large and important class of world petroleum basins.

  10. Social, political, and institutional setting: Water management problems of the Rio Grande

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Douglas, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses various water management issues facing federal, state, and local agencies charged with managing the water resources of the Rio Grande River Basin and its major tributaries. The Rio Grande - 3,058 km (=1,900 mi) long - is the fourth longest river in the United States. The river's basin is 870,236 km2 (=336,000 mi2) and for roughly two-thirds of its length it forms the United States-Mexican border. It is a major recreational resource providing world class trout fishing near its headwaters in Colorado's San Juan Mountains and shoreline, angling, and boating opportunities near the Colorado-New Mexico border. The Rio Grande is the principal tourist attraction of Big Bend National Park and flows through downtown Albuquerque and El Paso. Many reaches are wide and broad, but almost all are relatively shallow and not navigable by commercial ships. Nevertheless, it is one of the most important renewable water resources of the southwestern United States and North America. The issue of the "manageability" of the river in the face of social forces and disparate administrative jurisdictions that adversely impact Rio Grande flows is a thread linking various sections of the paper together. The length of the river; the fact that major reaches lie in Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas; and its unique role as an international boundary pose complex management problems. The allocation status quo formed by the complex nexus of existing river laws make it difficult to reshape Rio Grande management. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  11. Water Management for Competing Uses: Environmental Flows in the Transboundary Rio Grande/Rio Bravo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval Solis, S.; McKinney, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    Introduction Due to high water demand, the scarcity of water, and the complexity of water allocation, environmental flows have not been considered as an integral part of the water management in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo transboundary basin. The Big Bend reach is located between the cities of Presidio/Ojinaga to Amistad international reservoir, along the main stream (Fig. 1). Important environmental habitats such as the Big Bend National and State Park in the U.S., the Maderas del Carmen, Cañon de Santa Elena and Ocampo natural reserved areas in Mexico are ecologically threatened because of the lack of environmental water management policies. Several efforts have been undertaken by scientists, government agencies and NGOs to determine the environmental flows for this reach and water management policies that can provide these flows. Objective The objective of this research is to describe a water management policy that can conciliate environmental and human water uses in the Big Bend region. In other words, define a policy that can provide environmental flows without harming water supply for stakeholders or increasing flood risk, within legal and physical constraints of the system. Methodology First, the system was characterized identifying water users, hydraulic infrastructure, and water allocation according to state, federal and international regulations. Second, a hydrograph for environmental flows was proposed that mimics the hydrologic characteristics of the prior dam alteration. Third, a water planning model was constructed to evaluate alternative policies. Fourth, the water management is proposed to provide environmental restoration flows from Luis L. Leon reservoir. This policy considers mechanisms that reduce flooding and drought risks, while meting national and international water regulations. Results Three types of natural flow regimes are considered: (1) median flows aimed to provide the base flow in the region, (2) high flows to provide transversal

  12. Mercury biomagnification in a tropical black water, Rio Negro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, A C; de Souza, J; Dórea, J G; Jardim, W F; Fadini, P S

    2003-08-01

    The population living along the riverbanks of the Amazon basin depends heavily on fish for nutritional support. Mono-methyl-mercury (MMHg) concentrates in fish, which can contaminate humans, the risk depending not only on fish MMHg concentration but also on the amount of fish consumed. We sampled nine locations of the Rio Negro basin, differing in water pH, Hg concentrations, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and determined total Hg from 951 fish samples of species representative of the food web: herbivorous, detritivorous, omnivorous, and piscivorous. Mercury concentrations varied widely in all species but showed a trend that depended on fish feeding strategies. The highest mean concentration was found in the piscivorous species (688.90 ng/g(-1)), followed by omnivorous (190.30 ng/g(-1)), detritivorous (136.04 ng/g(-1)), and herbivorous (70.39 ng/g(-1)). Fish Hg concentrations exceeding current safe limits (500 ng/g(-1)) for human consumption were found mainly in the piscivorous species (60%). Significant positive correlation between fish weight and Hg concentration was seen for the piscivorous Serrasalmus spp. (n = 326; r = 0.3977; p < 0.0001), Cichla spp. (n = 125; r = 0.4600; p < 0.0001), and Pimelodus spp. (n = 12; r = 0.8299; p = 0.0008), known locally as Piranha, Tucunaré, and Mandi, respectively. However, a negative correlation was seen for non-piscivorous Potamorhina latior (n = 30; r -0.3763; p = 0.0404) and Leporinus spp. (n = 44; r = -3987; p = 0.0073), known as Branquinha (detritivorous) and Aracu (omnivorous). Fish-Hg concentrations in the acidic waters (pH range, 4.09-6.31) of the Rio Negro habitat, with its wide gradient of Hg concentrations (3.4-11.9 microg/L(-1)) and DOC (1.85-15.3 mg/L(-1))--but no history of gold mining activity-are comparable to other Amazonian rivers. Opportunity fish catches in the Rio Negro habitat show high muscle-Hg derived from natural sources, but no systematic association with site-dependent geochemistry. PMID

  13. 27 CFR 9.175 - Dos Rios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dos Rios. 9.175 Section 9.175 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.175 Dos Rios. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...

  14. Basin and range-age reactivation of the ancestral Rocky Mountains in Texas Panhandle: evidence from Ogallala Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Budnik, R.T.

    1984-04-01

    The Ogallala Formation (Neogene) is a widespread syntectonic alluvial apron that was shed eastward from the Rio Grande rift and related uplifts in Colorado and New Mexico during Basin and Range extension. In the Texas Panhandle, the Ogallala completely buried Ancestral Rocky Mountain (Pennsylvanian) structures. Renewed movement on these older structures during the Neogene influenced the thickness and facies distribution of the Ogallala. The Ogallala thickens into the Palo Duro, Dalhart, and Anadarko basins. Major distributary channels on Ogallala alluvial fans coincide with the axes of these basins, whereas major interchannel areas overlie intervening uplifts. Second-order structures subtly influenced the unit as well. For example, the Carson basin, a Pennsylvanian rhomb graben along the Amarillo uplift, the Ogallala is over 250 m (820 ft) thick compared with 90 m (275 ft) in adjacent areas. Within the Palo Duro basin, local highs controlled the distribution of thin, interchannel flood-basin and lacustrine deposits. Thicker, braided-stream channel deposits follow local lows. Later movement on the Amarillo uplift broadly folded the Ogallala. The southern high plains surface subtly reflects basement structure, with topographic highs overlying basement highs, suggesting post-Ogallala deformation within the Palo Duro basin. The Amarillo uplift is approximately perpendicular to the Rio Grande rift and parallel to the direction of Basin and Range extension. Thus, the stress field that produced the rift may have caused strike-slip movement and reactivation of the Carson basin along the Amarillo uplift.

  15. Application of scintillometry to estimate water use by giant reed (Arndo Donax L.)- A perennial invasive weed along the Rio Grande River near Laredo, Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Giant reed (Arundo donax L.) is a bamboo-like perennial invasive weed from Eurasia presenting a severe threat to agroecosystems and riparian areas in Texas and Mexican portions of the Rio Grande River Basin. It is spreading rapidly by displacing native vegetation. Giant reeds are expected to consume...

  16. Hyacinths Choke the Rio Grande

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These images acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, demonstrate the potential of satellite-based remote sensors to monitor infestations of non-native plant species. These images show the vigorous growth of water hyacinths along a stretch of the Rio Grande River in Texas. The infestation had grown so dense in some places it was impeding the flow of water and rendered the river impassible for boats. The hyacinth is an aquatic weed native to South America. The plant is exotic looking and, when it blooms, the hyacinth produces a pretty purple flower, which is why it was introduced into North America. However, it has the capacity to grow and spread at astonishing rates so that in the wild it can completely clog the flow of rivers and waterways in a matter of days or weeks. The top image was acquired on March 30, 2002, and the bottom image on May 9, 2002. In the near-infrared region of the spectrum, photosynthetically-active vegetation is highly reflective. Consequently, vegetation appears bright to the near-infrared sensors aboard ASTER; and water, which absorbs near-infrared radiation, appears dark. In these false-color images produced from the sensor data, healthy vegetation is shown as bright red while water is blue or black. Notice a water hyacinth infestation is already apparent on March 30 near the center of the image. By May 9, the hyacinth population has exploded to cover more than half the river in the scene. Satellite-based remote sensors can enable scientists to monitor large areas of infestation like this one rather quickly and efficiently, which is particularly useful for regions that are difficult to reach from on the ground. (For more details, click to read Showdown in the Rio Grande.) Images courtesy Terrametrics; Data provided by the ASTER Science Team

  17. Average areal water equivalent of snow in a mountain basin using microwave and visible satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, Albert; Van Katwijk, Victor F.; Martinec, Jaroslav; Chang, Alfred T. C.; Foster, James L.

    1989-01-01

    Satellite microwave data were used to evaluate the average areal water equivalent of snow cover in the mountainous Rio Grande basin of Colorado. Areal water equivalent data for the basin were obtained from contoured values of point measurements and from zonal water volume values generated by a snowmelt runoff model. Comparison of these snow water equivalent values shows the model values to consistently exceed the contoured values, probably because of the narrow elevation range in the lower part of the basin where the point measurements are concentrated. A significant relationship between the difference in microwave brightness temperatures at two different wavelengths and a basin-wide average snow water equivalent value is obtained. The average water equivalent of the snow cover in the basin was derived from differences of the microwave brightness temperatures.

  18. Average areal water equivalent of snow in a mountain basin using microwave and visible satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.; Martinec, J.; Chang, A. T. C.; Foster, J. L.; Vankatwijk, V.

    1988-01-01

    Satellite microwave data were used to evaluate the average areal water equivalent of snow cover in the mountainous Rio Grande basin of Colorado. Areal water equivalent data for the basin were obtained from contoured values of point measurements and from zonal water volume values generated by a snowmelt runoff model. Comparison of these snow water equivalent values shows the model values to consistently exceed the contoured values, probably because of the narrow elevation range in the lower part of the basin where the point measurements are concentrated. A significant relationship between the difference in microwave brightness temperatures at two different wavelengths and a basin-wide average snow water equivalent value is obtained. The average water equivalent of the snow cover in the basin was derived from differences of the microwave brightness temperatures.

  19. A new species of Pareiorhaphis (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the headwaters of the Arroio Garapiá, coastal drainage of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Edson H L; Lehmann, Pablo A; Schvambach, Lucas J; Reis, Roberto E

    2015-01-01

    Pareiorhaphis garapia, new species, is described based on specimens collected in the headwaters of the Arroio Garapiá, Rio Maquiné basin, a coastal drainage of Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil. The new species is distinguished from all other Pareiorhaphis species in having the nuchal plate covered by thick skin, the exposed posterior process of the cleithrum comparatively narrow, and the last segment of the preopercular ramus of the latero-sensory canal reduced to an ossified tubule. The absence of a dorsal-fin spinelet, the reduced number of plates in the dorsal and mid-dorsal series of lateral plates, and morphometric traits also distinguish the new species from its congeners. The restricted geographic distribution of P. garapia, endemic to a headwater stream of the Rio Maquiné basin, and the syntopic occurrence of P. nudulus are discussed. PMID:26624457

  20. Origin of cratonic basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev. Klein, George; Hsui, Albert T.

    1987-12-01

    Tectonic subsidence curves show that the Illinois, Michigan, and Williston basins formed by initial fault-controlled mechanical subsidence during rifting and by subsequent thermal subsidence. Thermal subsidence began around 525 Ma in the Illinois Basin, 520 460 Ma in the Michigan Basin, and 530 500 Ma in the Williston Basin. In the Illinois Basin, a second subsidence episode (middle Mississippian through Early Permian) was caused by flexural foreland subsidence in response to the Alleghanian-Hercynian orogeny. Resurgent Permian rifting in the Illinois Basin is inferred because of intrusion of well-dated Permian alnoites; such intrusive rocks are normally associated with rifting processes. The process of formation of these cratonic basins remains controversial. Past workers have suggested mantle phase changes at the base of the crust, mechanical subsidence in response to isostatically uncompensated excess mass following igneous intrusions, intrusion of mantle plumes into the crust, or regional thermal metamorphic events as causes of basin initiation. Cratonic basins of North America, Europe, Africa, and South America share common ages of formation (around 550 to 500 Ma), histories of sediment accumulation, temporal volume changes of sediment fills, and common dates of interregional unconformities. Their common date of formation suggests initiation of cratonic basins in response to breakup of a late Precambrian super-continent. This supercontinent acted as a heat lens that caused partial melting of the lower crust and upper mantle followed by emplacement of anorogenic granites during extensional tectonics in response to supercontinent breakup. Intrusion of anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks weakened continental lithosphere, thus providing a zone of localized regional stretching and permitting formation of cratonic basins almost simultaneously over sites of intrusion of these anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks.

  1. The Oquirrh basin revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, M.C.

    1997-04-01

    The upper Paleozoic succession in the Oquirrh basin in unusually thick, up to 9300 m, and consists mainly of a Pennsylvanian-middle Permian miogeocline of northwestern Utah. Previous workers have suggested a tectonic origin for the Oquirrh basin that is incompatible with the basin location in both time and space. There is no evidence for Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian tectonism in the middle of the miogeocline. Thermal evidence from the Mississippian Mission Canyon shale does no support the implied deep burial of the crustal sag models of basin formation. Stratigraphic and facies evidence indicates a growth fault origin for the basin. Regional isopach maps and facies maps are powerful tools in interpreting depositional environments and in reconstructing fold-and-thrust belts. However, the location of measured sections relative to the location of the growth fault basin. The Charleston-Nebo thrust may have essentially reversed the movement on a growth fault. Thick Oquirrh basin sedimentary rocks may not be required to balance structural sections across this thrust fault. A thin-skinned, extensional growth fault origin for the Oquirrh basin implies that the Cordilleran miogeocline did not participate in the Pennsylvanian north-vergent uplifts of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains.

  2. Tectonic rotations within the Rio Grande rift - Evidence from paleomagnetic studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, L. L.; Golombek, M. P.

    1985-01-01

    Paleomagnetic studies on Miocene Pliocene volcanic rocks from the Espanola basin of the Rio Grande rift, New Mexico, reveal directions discordant form the expected mean direction for North America. The Paliza Canyon Formation, Tschicoma Formation, and Lobato Basalt, all sampled in the Jemez Mountains west of the Pajarito fault zone, have mean declinations east of the expected mean. The Cerros del Rio volcanics, lying east of the Pajarito fault zone, have a westerly declination. Combined with published data on the Santa Fe Group sediments east of the fault zone, and the Valles Rhyolite, west of the fault zone, distinct rotations of the two areas are evident. The western block has rotated clockwise 12 deg, while the eastern block shows 16 deg of conter-clockwise motion. Differential rotations of 25-30 deg are calculated between the two blocks; 4 deg/m.y. is the minimum differential rotation for the past 5 m.y. Geologic explanations for these rotations include the opening of the Rio Grande rift in response to clockwise rotation of the Colorado Plateau and significant left slip along the Rio Grande rift.

  3. K Basin safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.

    1994-12-16

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall.

  4. Solar astrometry with Rio Astrolabe & Heliometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, C.; Boscardin, S.; Andrei, A. H.; Reis-Neto, E.; Penna, J. L.; D'Ávila, V. A.

    2014-10-01

    Monitoring the micro-variations of the solar diameter helps to better understand local and secular trends of solar activity and Earth climate. The instant measurements with the Reflecting Heliometer of Observatório Nacional in Rio de Janeiro (RHRJ) have minimized optical and thermal distortion, statistically reducing air turbulence effects down to 0.01 arcsec. Contrarily to satellites RHRJ has unlimited lifetime, and it bridges and extends the measures made with drift-scan timings across altitude circles with 0.1 arcsec rms with Astrolabes. The Astrolabe in Rio (ARJ) operated from 1998 to 2009 to measure the solar diameter and the detected variations have statistical significance.

  5. Laimosemion leticia (Teleostei: Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae), a new species from the upper Rio Amazonas, Southern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Valdesalici, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Laimosemion leticia is described from the Rio Tacana drainage, upper Rio Amazonas basin, Southern Colombia. The new species was found in a shallow swamp within a tropical rainforest in the vicinity of Leticia, capital of the department of Amazonas and southernmost municipality of Colombia. This miniature species is considered to be a member of the Owiyeye subgenus, which is diagnosed by a unique frontal squamation. Laimosemion leticia can be distinguished from all other species of the genus by the unique colour pattern on the unpaired fins. The new species appears related to L. jauaperi, L. uatuman and L. ubim due to the similar flank colour pattern in males, but is easy distinguished by coloration of the unpaired fins and morphological characters. PMID:27394304

  6. Needs of Rio street children.

    PubMed

    Filgueiras, A

    1993-01-01

    Millions of children and adolescents live on the streets of urban Brazil and are being bypassed by existing social services. In the state of Rio de Janeiro, for example, there are only 2 shelters for street children. Many of these children are from single-parent households that could not produce enough income to support them; others are the victims of intrafamilial sexual abuse or violence. Early initiation into sexual activity is nearly universal among these street children, and provides gratification in an atmosphere of deprivation and a source of emotional connectedness. Many are forced into prostitution as a means of survival. The absence of familial support leads these marginalized adolescents vulnerable to pregnancy and illegal abortion; their illiteracy and non-school attendance isolates them from sources of information about sexuality and birth control. Government agencies must assume responsibility for providing these citizens with shelter, food, access to the public school system with a culturally sensitive curriculum, and health services that address the special needs of this population. Nongovernmental organizations, on the other hand, are urged to develop innovative programs for street children, including outreach programs, educational strategies and materials, legal advocacy, hot-lines, and itinerant van units. PMID:12345365

  7. Water resources data - Texas water year 2002 : Volume 5. Guadalupe River basin, Nueces River basin, Rio Grande basin, and intervening coastal basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.

    2003-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 5 contains records for water discharge at 82 gaging stations; stage only at 6 gaging stations; stage and contents at 8 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 25 gaging stations; and data for 30 partial-record stations comprised of 2 flood-hydrograph, 6 low-flow, 4 crest-stage, and 18 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  8. Water Resources Data Texas Water Year 2003, Volume 5. Guadalupe River Basin, Nueces River Basin, Rio Grande Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 5 contains records for water discharge at 84 gaging stations; stage only at 6 gaging stations; stage and contents at 6 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 28 gaging stations; and data for 18 partial-record stations comprised of 1 flood-hydrograph, 10 low-flow, 4 crest-stage, and 3 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  9. Water resources data - Texas water year 2001 : Volume 5. Guadalupe River basin, Nueces River basin, Rio Grande basin, and intervening coastal basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.

    2002-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2001 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 5 contains records for water discharge at 77 gaging stations; stage only at 4 gaging stations; stage and contents at 5 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 27 gaging stations; and data for 23 partial-record stations comprised of 3 flood-hydrograph, 8 low-flow, 4 crest-stage, and 3 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  10. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 2000, Volume 5. Guadalupe River Basin, Nueces River Basin, Rio Grande Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 5 contains records for water discharge at 71 gaging stations; stage only at 4 gaging stations; stage and contents at 4 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 29 gaging stations; and data for 23 partial-record stations comprised of 3 flood-hydrograph, 10 low-flow, 6 crest-stage, and 4 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  11. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 1999, Volume 5. Guadalupe River Basin, Nueces River Basin, Rio Grande Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.; Jones, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1999 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 5 contains records for water discharge at 76 gaging stations; stage only at 1 gaging stations; stage and contents at 4 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 38 gaging stations; and data for 30 partial-record stations comprised of 3 flood-hydrograph, 14 low-flow, and 8 crest-stage, and 5 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  12. Water resources data Texas, water year 2004, volume 5. Guadalupe River basin, Nueces River basin, Rio Grande basin, and intervening coastal basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Susan C. Aragon; Reece, Brian D.; Eames, Deanna R.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 5 contains records for water discharge at 86 gaging stations; stage only at 5 gaging stations; elevation at 3 lakes and reservoirs; content at 4 lakes and reservoirs;and water quality at 24 gaging stations. Also included are data for 16 partial-record stations comprised of 1 flood-hydrograph, 11 low-flow, and 4 crest-stage stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  13. Reserves in western basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of tight gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins: the Greater Green River (GGRB), Uinta and Piceance basins. The basins contain vast gas resources that have been estimated in the thousands of Tcf hosted in low permeability clastic reservoirs. This study documents the productive characteristics of these tight reservoirs, requantifies gas in place resources, and characterizes the reserves potential of each basin. The purpose of this work is to promote understanding of the resource and to encourage its exploitation by private industry. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and a final report published. Work is well underway in the Uinta and Piceance basins which are being handled concurrently, with reports on these basins being scheduled for the middle of this year. Since the GGRB portion of the project has been completed, this presentation win focus upon that basin. A key conclusion of this study was the subdivision of the resource, based upon economic and technological considerations, into groupings that have distinct properties with regard to potential for future producibility, economics and risk profile.

  14. Three-dimensional model simulation of transient ground-water flow in the Albuquerque-Belen Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kernodle, J.M.; Miller, Ryan S.; Scott, W.B.

    1987-01-01

    A three-dimensional digital model that simulates transient flow in the alluvial aquifer system underlying the Albuquerque-Belen Basin, New Mexico, was constructed as part of a regional aquifer study of the southwest alluvial basins. The model simulates hydraulic heads and changes in hydraulic heads for 1907 to 1979. Hydraulic-conductivity values used in the accepted model range from 0.25 ft/day in part of the Santa Fe Group to 50 ft/day in the fluvial deposits in the Rio Grande flood plain. The majority of the basin-fill material of the Santa Fe group of Tertiary and Quaternary age was modeled as having a horizontal hydraulic conductivity of either 30 or 40 ft/day. The simulated specific storage of the aquifer was 0.000001/ft and the simulated specific yield was 0.10. The aquifer was simulated as being vertically anisotropic with a ratio of vertical to horizontal hydraulic conductivity of 1:500. Simulations for 1976-79 indicated that of the 100,000 acre-ft of groundwater withdrawn annually from the basin-fill deposits outside of the Rio Grande flood plain, 68% was obtained from recharge around the basin margin, depletion of streams that are tributary to the Rio Grande, and the stream-aquifer system in the Rio Grande flood plain. Depletion of aquifer storage accounted for 25% of the groundwater supply to wells outside of the flood plain, and the remaining 7% was obtained by induced groundwater inflow from the Santo Domingo Basin. The model displayed an acceptable performance throughout the period of simulation. However, by the end of the simulation period, 1979, the portrayal of the Rio Grande flood-plain system as a specified hydraulic-head boundary was having adverse effects on the simulation. (Author 's abstract)

  15. Magnetotelluric pilot study in the Rio Grande Rift, southwest USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feucht, D. W.; Bedrosian, P. A.; Sheehan, A. F.

    2012-12-01

    A magnetotelluric (MT) pilot study consisting of approximately 25 stations distributed in and around the Rio Grande Rift of the southwest United States was carried out in the summer of 2012. Both broadband (100 Hz to 1000 s) and long-period (up to 10 000 s) MT data were collected across two profiles that run perpendicular to the rift axis near Denver, Colorado and Taos, New Mexico, respectively. Time-domain EM data was also collected at each site to account for galvanic distortion in the near-surface. The tectonic forces and rheologic properties behind the initiation and propagation of the rift are poorly understood. Surface mapping of volcanism, normal faulting and sedimentary basins reveals a narrow band of crustal deformation confined to a region in close proximity to the rift axis while geophysical results suggest that deformation is distributed across a much broader and deeper region of the lithosphere. In particular, seismic tomography shows low seismic wave speeds into the lower crust and upper mantle. The magnetotelluric technique is a well-proven passive electromagnetic method that allows for the detection of apparent resistivity at a wide range of depth scales. Complimenting the seismic results with MT data will provide important new information on the geologic and geophysical properties that control the rifting process in this low-strain rate environment. Properties to which the MT method is particular sensitive include temperature, fluid content, and mineral alteration. Preliminary results from this most recent survey are encouraging, showing good data quality up to 10 000 s. In an important precursor to full 2D modeling, the magnetotelluric phase tensor has been used to assess the dimensionality of the electrical resistivity structure at depth. This pilot study provides proof of concept for a much larger magnetotelluric experiment planned to take place in the Rio Grande Rift in 2013.

  16. Surface water and groundwater for growth in the Albuquerque Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Balleau, W.P.

    1995-12-31

    The current situation is one of increasing water demand for municipal, industrial, recreational and environmental maintenance. Municipal use is increasing at about 25,000 a-f/y per decade. Each new purpose of use is bidding to obtain water used by existing purposes. Agricultural water is susceptible to transfer. The theme of this conference, The Water Future of Albuquerque and Middle Rio Grande Basin, arises from concern about the aquifer`s capacity and longevity, the limitations on Rio Grande impacts, and access to water rights for future consumption. The author`s perspective on managing these three components of the situation is presented, while acknowledging other important issues about water quality, environmental goals, land subsidence, Bosque preservation and economic burdens and benefits.

  17. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  18. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-12-29

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  19. Selected hydrologic data for the Mesilla ground-water basin, 1987 through 1992 water years, Dona Ana County, New Mexico, and El Paso County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nickerson, Edward L.

    1995-01-01

    The Mesilla ground-water basin monitoring program was established in 1987 to document hydrologic conditions and establish a long-term, continuous data base to permit future quantitative evaluation of the ground-water flow system and stream/aquifer relations. Data collection is divided into three program elements. These are the (1) Mesilla ground- water basin observation-well program; (2) Mesilla Valley hydrologic sections; and (3) Rio Grande seepage investigations. This report is a compilation of hydrologic data collected for the Mesilla ground- water basin monitoring program during the 1987 through 1992 water years. Hydrologic data presented in the report include well records and water levels for 181 wells; mean daily river stage and ground- water levels at 37 sites; seepage investigations of the Rio Grande from Radium Springs, New Mexico, to El Paso, Texas; and chemical analyses of 29 water samples collected from the Rio Grande.

  20. Magnetic Investigation of Ancestral Puebloan Rio Grande (New Mexico) Glaze Wares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyer, J. B.; Geissman, J. W.; Ramenofsky, A. F.

    2007-12-01

    In geologically heterogeneous regions, such as the Rio Grande, archaeologists typically rely on petrographic analyses to determine ceramic provenance and reconstruct prehistoric trade patterns. Even in these regions, other methods are useful for elucidating trade patterns and/or resolving ambiguities from the petrographic data. Magnetic properties of Ancestral central Rio Grande Puebloan ceramics are being acquired to assess their use in identifying provenance, trade patterns, composition, manufacturing techniques, and firing conditions of ceramics, before and during the early European contact period (ca. A.D. 1325-1700) in New Mexico. Similar to the study of Moskowitz et al. (1987), we use a combination of bulk susceptibility, NRM, ARM, and SIRM intensity, AF response by NRM, ARM, and SIRM, thermal demagnetization of NRM and SIRM, and coercivity of remanence, to study temporal change in Rio Grande glaze wares from four archaeological sites in the northern Rio Grande (approximately 90 sherds per site). Rio Grande glaze wares were widely traded among Ancestral Puebloan groups before and during the European contact period. The ceramics are from the two earliest Spanish administrative centers in New Mexico, San Gabriel del Yungue and Palace of the Governors, and two mission pueblos, Pecos Pueblo and San Marcos Pueblo. Magnetic property data are being compared with petrographic observations to test the effectiveness of several magnetic measurements to identify, among other things, ceramic provenance. A tentative observation in our study is that bulk susceptibility values correlate with different ceramic provenances. The mean bulk susceptibility values for Galisteo Basin ceramics, tempered with augite monzonite and hornblende latite, are significantly higher (5.56E-04 and 4.91E-04 SI mass, respectively) than those for Pajarito Plateau ceramics, tempered with glassy tuff, tuff rocks, and andesite, (1.79E-04, 2.53E-04, and 2.58E-04 SI mass, respectively). This study is

  1. 77 FR 11155 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement on the Pojoaque Basin Regional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... and water treatment facilities at San Ildefonso Pueblo on the Rio Grande and storage tanks... Regional Water System, Santa Fe County, NM AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... statement (EIS) on the Pojoaque Basin Regional Water System. Reclamation will serve as the lead...

  2. Water quality, discharge, and groundwater levels in the Palomas, Mesilla, and Hueco Basins in New Mexico and Texas from below Caballo Reservoir, New Mexico, to Fort Quitman, Texas, 1889-2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKean, Sarah E.; Matherne, Anne Marie; Thomas, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, compiled data from various sources to develop a dataset that can be used to conduct an assessment of the total dissolved solids in surface water and groundwater of the Palomas, Mesilla, and Hueco Basins in New Mexico and Texas, from below Caballo Reservoir, N. Mex., to Fort Quitman, Tex. Data include continuous surface-water discharge records at various locations on the Rio Grande; surface-water-quality data for the Rio Grande collected at selected locations in the Palomas, Mesilla, and Hueco Basins; groundwater levels and groundwater-quality data collected from selected wells in the Palomas and Mesilla Basins; and data from several seepage investigations conducted on the Rio Grande and selected drains in the Mesilla Basin.

  3. How Pecten Brazil drilled the Amazon basin

    SciTech Connect

    Bleakley, W.B.

    1983-09-01

    Pecten Brazil overcame numerous obstacles to drill two exploratory wells in the Amazon Basin last year. These included: The threat of low water in normally navigable rivers. Dense jungle growth at both locations. Lack of suitable roads for heavy hauling. Inconvenient distances from supply points. An unusual basalt formation responsible for unique drilling problems. Hundreds of helicopter lifts to move drilling rigs, supplies, and personnel. Pecten contracted with Petrobras, the Brazilian national oil company, to evaluate three blocks in the Amazon jungle, each about 68 miles (110 km) on a side, through seismic study and ultimate drilling. Planning for the drilling phase got started on March 17, 1981 with December 1 targeted as spud date for the first well. Actual spud date was November 25, 5 days ahead of schedule, in spite of all obstacles. Pecten has a mid-Amazonas block now under seismic investigation for possible exploratory drilling. Logistics problems in this one provide new difficulties, as the area is extremely wet. Most work is carried on by boat. The company is also looking offshore Bahia, testing the possible extension of the Renconcavo basin. Two wells have already provided good shows of a high pour point oil, with flow rates from 400 to 1,000 b/d. Another area of interest to Pecten is offshore Rio Grande do Norte.

  4. Availability of fresh and slightly saline ground water in the basins of westernmost Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gates, Joseph Spencer; Stanley, W.D.; Ackermann, H.D.

    1978-01-01

    Significant quantities of fresh ground water occur in the basin fill of the northern Hueco bolson and lower Mesilla Valley and in the Wildhorse Flat, Michigan Flat, Lobo Flat, and Ryan Flat areas of the Salt Basin; and may occur in Red Light Draw, Presidio bolson, and Green River valley. More than 20 million acre-feet of freshwater is estimated to be in storage in the basin fill of westernmost Texas. About 12 million acre-feet, or more than half, is in El Paso County in the Hueco bolson and Mesilla Valley. In addition, the basins contain about 7 million acre-feet of slightly saline water in basin fill, in Rio Grande alluvium in the Hueco bolson and lower Mesilla Valley, and in the Capitan Limestone in the northern Salt Basin. Ground-water pumping for municipal supply and industrial use in the El Paso area caused water-level declines of as much as 74 feet during 1903-73, and pumping for irrigation in the Salt Basin caused a maximum decline of 150 feet at Lobo Flat during 1949-73. Additional development of ground water in westernmost Texas will be accompanied by further declines in water levels, and will probably induce local migration of slightly saline or poorer quality water into freshwater areas. Land-surface subsidence could occur in local areas where water-level declines are large and the basin fill contains large amounts of compressible clay. (Kosco-USGS)

  5. Geologic and hydrogeologic framework of the Espanola Basin -- proceedings of the 4th annual Espanola Basin Workshop, Santa Fe, New Mexico, March 1-3, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, Kevin C.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents abstracts of technical studies that pertain to the hydrogeologic framework of the Espa?ola basin, a major subbasin of the Cenozoic Rio Grande rift. Sediments and interbedded volcanic rocks that fill the Espa?ola basin comprise an aquifer system that is an important source of water for many residents of the basin, including people in the cities of Santa Fe, Espa?ola, and Los Alamos as well as Native Americans in eleven Pueblos. The abstracts describe results of technical studies that were presented either as poster exhibits or oral presentations at the forth-annual Espa?ola basin workshop, held March 1-2 of 2005 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The principal goal of this workshop was to share information about ongoing studies. The Espa?ola basin workshop was hosted by the Espa?ola basin technical advisory group (EBTAG) and sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey, the New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, and both the Water Research Technical Assistance Office and the Groundwater Protection Program of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Abstracts in this report have been grouped into six information themes: Basic Water Data, Water Quality and Water Chemistry, Water Balance and Stream/Aquifer Interaction, Data Integration and Hydrologic Model Testing, Three-Dimensional Hydrogeological Architecture, and Geologic Framework. Taken together, the abstracts in this report provide a view of the current status of hydrogeologic research within the Espa?ola basin.

  6. [Life and work at the petroleum industry in Campos Basin].

    PubMed

    Leite, Rose Mery dos Santos Costa

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we detach the subject of confinement as a central axle in the activity at maritime oil platforms of Campos Basin, in north region of the Rio de Janeiro state. This work reality that determines for offshore workers, as they are known, a rupture between two different moments in there lives: the period of fourteen days in the sea and the life in land per twenty one days. We adopt as material empiricist, the research carried out on this universe, detaching here the way as these professionals understand the conditions of confined work in which they are submitted. PMID:20069186

  7. Geologic and hydrogeologic framework of the Espa?ola basin -- Proceedings of the 5th annual Espa?ola basin workshop, Santa Fe, New Mexico, March 7-8, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, Kevin C.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents abstracts of technical studies that are focused on the hydrogeologic framework of the Espa?ola basin, a major subbasin of the Cenozoic Rio Grande rift. The Rio Grande, Rio Chama, Santa Fe River, and their tributaries carry important surface water in the Espa?ola basin. Sediments and interbedded volcanic rocks fill the Espa?ola basin and form extensive aquifer systems for ground water. Surface and ground water provide the principal sources of water for most residents of the basin, including people in the cities of Santa Fe, Espa?ola, and Los Alamos as well as Native Americans in several Pueblos. The abstracts describe results of technical studies that were presented either as poster exhibits or oral presentations at the fifth-annual Espa?ola basin workshop, held March 7-8 of 2006 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The principal goal of this workshop was to share information about ongoing studies. The Espa?ola basin workshop was hosted by the Espa?ola basin technical advisory group (EBTAG) and sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey, the New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, and the Water Research Technical Assistance Office of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Abstracts in this report have been grouped into six information themes: Basic Water Data, Water Quality and Water Chemistry, Water Balance and Stream/Aquifer Interaction, Data Integration and Hydrologic Model Testing, Three-Dimensional Hydrogeological Architecture, and Geologic Framework. Abstracts submitted by U.S. Geological Survey authors in this report have had their technical content peer reviewed before they were included in the report. Technical reviews were not required for abstracts submitted by authors outside the USGS, although most did receive peer reviews within their originating agencies. Taken together, the abstracts in this report provide a view of the current status of hydrogeologic research within the Espa?ola basin.

  8. Rio Grande sediment study -- Supply and transport

    SciTech Connect

    Diniz, E.; Eidson, D.; Bourgeois, M.

    1995-12-31

    The 1992 New Mexico State Legislature directed the Interstate Stream Commission (ISC) to study the feasibility of clearing and deepening the channel of the Rio Grande between Albuquerque and Elephant Butte to improve water conveyance and water conservation. The ISC requested the US Army Corps of Engineers-Albuquerque District (COE) to undertake this study under the Planning Assistance to States Program. The study was divided into two phases. Phase 1 consisted of an analysis of the sediment contribution to the Rio grande from the tributaries and an evaluation of the existing US Geological Survey (USGS) sediment gage data. Phase 2 will be an analysis, through the use of an HEC-6, Scour and Deposition in Rivers and Reservoirs, computer model, to determine the long-term performance of any Rio Grande channel improvements. This narrative presents the Phase 1 methods and results.

  9. Nam Con Son Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Tin, N.T.; Ty, N.D.; Hung, L.T.

    1994-07-01

    The Nam Con Son basin is the largest oil and gas bearing basin in Vietnam, and has a number of producing fields. The history of studies in the basin can be divided into four periods: Pre-1975, 1976-1980, 1981-1989, and 1990-present. A number of oil companies have carried out geological and geophysical studies and conducted drilling activities in the basin. These include ONGC, Enterprise Oil, BP, Shell, Petro-Canada, IPL, Lasmo, etc. Pre-Tertiary formations comprise quartz diorites, granodiorites, and metamorphic rocks of Mesozoic age. Cenozoic rocks include those of the Cau Formation (Oligocene and older), Dua Formation (lower Miocene), Thong-Mang Cau Formation (middle Miocene), Nam Con Son Formation (upper Miocene) and Bien Dong Formation (Pliocene-Quaternary). The basement is composed of pre-Cenozoic formations. Three fault systems are evident in the basin: north-south fault system, northeast-southwest fault system, and east-west fault system. Four tectonic zones can also be distinguished: western differentiated zone, northern differentiated zone, Dua-Natuna high zone, and eastern trough zone.

  10. A new scheme for the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean and the dissection of an Aptian salt basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torsvik, Trond H.; Rousse, Sonia; Labails, Cinthia; Smethurst, Mark A.

    2009-06-01

    We present a revised model for the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean founded on a remapping of the continent-ocean boundaries and Aptian salt basins, the chronology of magmatic activity in and around the ocean basin and on the timing and character of associated intraplate deformation in Africa and South America. The new plate tectonic model is internally consistent and consistent with globally balanced plate motion solutions. The model includes realistic scenarios for intraplate deformation, pre-drift extension and seafloor spreading. Within the model, Aptian salt basins preserved in the South American (Brazilian) and African (Angola, Congo, Gabon) continental shelves are reunited in their original positions as parts of a single syn-rift basin in near subtropical latitudes (10°S-27°S). The basin was dissected at around 112 Ma (Aptian-Albian boundary) when the model suggests that seafloor spreading commenced north of the Walvis Ridge-Rio Grande Rise.

  11. Upwarp of anomalous asthenosphere beneath the Rio Grande rift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, E.C.; Davis, P.M.; Evans, J.R.; Iyer, H.M.; Olsen, K.H.

    1984-01-01

    Continental rifts are possible analogues of mid-ocean ridges, although major plate tectonic features are less clearly observed1. Current thermal models of mid-ocean ridges2-4 consist of solid lithospheric plates overlying the hotter, less viscous asthenosphere, with plate thickness increasing away from the ridge axis. The lithospheric lower boundary lies at or near the melting point isotherm, so that at greater depths higher temperatures account for lower viscosity, lower seismic velocities and possibly partial melting. Upwarp of this boundary at the ridge axis concentrates heat there, thus lowering densities by expansion and raising the sea floor to the level of thermal isostatic equilibrium. At slow spreading ridges, a major central graben forms owing to the mechanics of magma injection into the crust5. Topography, heat flow, gravity and seismic studies support these models. On the continents, a low-velocity channel has been observed, although it is poorly developed beneath ancient cratons6-9. Plate tectonic models have been applied to continental basins and margins10-12, but further similarities to the oceanic models remain elusive. Topographic uplift is often ascribed to Airy type isostatic compensation caused by crustal thickening, rather than thermal compensation in the asthenosphere. Here we discuss the Rio Grande rift, in southwestern United States. Teleseismic P-wave residuals show that regional uplift is explained by asthenosphere uplift rather than crustal thickening. ?? 1984 Nature Publishing Group.

  12. Crustal structure of the Southern Rio Grande rift determined from seismic refraction profiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinno, Y. A.; Keller, G. R.; Harder, S. H.; Daggett, P. H.; Morgan, P.

    1986-01-01

    As part of a major cooperative seismic experiment, a series of seismic refraction profiles have been recorded in south-central New Mexico with the goal of determining the crustal structure in the southern Rio Grande rift. The data gathered greatly expand the seismic data base in the area, and consist of three interlocking regional profiles: a reversed E-W line across the rift, an unreversed N-S axial line, and an unreversed SW-SE line. The reversed E-W line shows no significant dip along the Moho (32 km thick crust) and a 7.7 km/s Pn velocity. Results from the N-S axial line and the NW-SE line indicate an apparent Pn velocity of 7.95 km/s and significant dip along the Moho with crustal thinning toward the south and southeast. When interpreted together, these data indicate a crustal thinning in the southern rift of 4-6 km with respect to the northern rift and the adjacent Basin and Range province, and establish the regional Pn velocity to be approximately 7.7 km/s. These results suggest that the Rio Grande rift can be identified as a crustal feature separate and distinct from the Basin and Range province.

  13. SURVEY OF CROSS-BASIN BOAT TRAFFIC, ATCHAFALAYA BASIN, LOUISIANA

    EPA Science Inventory

    For flood control and for the preservation and enhancement of environmental quality of overflow swamp habitats, introduction of sediment from the Atchafalaya Basin Main Channel into backwater areas of the Atchafalaya Basin Floodway should be minimized. This introduction occurs ma...

  14. Four new species of Polycirrus Grube, 1850 (Polychaeta: Terebellidae) from Campos Basin, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carrerette, Orlemir; Nogueira, João Miguel De Matos

    2013-01-01

    Four new species of Polycirrus were collected at the Campos Basin, state of Rio de Janeiro, during a survey coordinated by CENPES/PETROBRAS under the scope of the project, "Environmental Heterogeneity in the Campos Basin". These species are P. nonatoi sp. nov., P. papillosus sp. nov., P. breviuncinatus sp. nov., and P. habitats sp. nov. All these species are herein described and compared with the morphologically most similar congeners. In addition, a key is provided for the identification of the species of Polycirrus which have been originally described for the Brazilian coast. PMID:26176130

  15. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Astrobiology: Analogs and Applications to the Search for Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Astrobiology: Analogs and Applications to the Search for Life" included the folowing reports:The Search for Life on Mars Using Macroscopically Visible Microbial Mats (Stromatolites) in 3.5/3.3 Ga Cherts from the Pilbara in Australia and Barberton in South Africa as Analogues; Life in a Mars Analog: Microbial Activity Associated with Carbonate Cemented Lava Breccias from NW Spitsbergen; Groundwater-fed Iron-rich Microbial Mats in a Freshwater Creek: Growth Cycles and Fossilization Potential of Microbial Features; Episodic Fossilization of Microorganisms on an Annual Timescale in an Anthropogenically Modified Natural Environment: Geochemical Controls and Implications for Astrobiology; Proterozoic Microfossils and Their Implications for Recognizing Life on Mars; Microbial Alteration of Volcanic Glass in Modern and Ancient Oceanic Crust as a Proxy for Studies of Extraterrestrial Material ; Olivine Alteration on Earth and Mars; Searching for an Acidic Aquifer in the R!o Tinto Basin. First Geobiology Results of MARTE Project; In-Field Testing of Life Detection Instruments and Protocols in a Mars Analogue Arctic Environment; Habitability of the Shallow Subsurface on Mars: Clues from the Meteorites; Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE): 2003 Drilling Campaign to Search for a Subsurface Biosphere at Rio Tinto Spain; Characterization of the Organic Matter in an Archean Chert (Warrawoona, Australia); and The Solfatara Crater, Italy: Characterization of Hydrothermal Deposits, Biosignatures and Their Astrobiological Implication.

  16. River basin management

    SciTech Connect

    Newsome, D.H.; Edwards, A.M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The quality of water is of paramount importance in the management of water resources - including marine waters. A quantitative knowledge of water quality and the factors governing it is required to formulate and implement strategies requiring an inter-disciplinary approach. The overall purpose of this conference was to bring together the latest work on water quality aspects of river basin management. These proceedings are structured on the basis of five themes: problems in international river basins; the contribution of river systems to estuarial and marine pollution; the setting of standards; monitoring; and practical water quality management including use of mathematical models. They are followed by papers from the workshop on advances in the application of mathematical modelling to water quality management, which represent some of the current thinking on the problems and concepts of river basin management.

  17. Geology, exploration status of Uruguay's sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Goso, C.; Santa Ana, H. de )

    1994-02-07

    This article attempts to present the geological characteristics and tectonic and sedimentary evolution of Uruguayan basins and the extent to which they have been explored. Uruguay is on the Atlantic coast of South America. The country covers about 318,000 sq km, including offshore and onshore territories corresponding to more than 65% of the various sedimentary basins. Four basins underlie the country: the Norte basin, the Santa Lucia basin, the offshore Punta del Este basin, and the offshore-onshore Pelotas-Merin basin. The Norte basin is a Paleozoic basin while the others are Mesozoic basins. Each basin has been explored to a different extent, as this paper explains.

  18. Assimilation of Gridded Snow Water Equivalent and Satellite Snowcover Products for Semi- arid Mountain Basins in a Hydrologic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressler, K. A.; Moradkhani, H.

    2006-12-01

    This study examines the Particle Filter (PF) assimilation technique for distributed estimates of snow covered area (SCA) and snow-water equivalent (SWE) to update hydrologic model states. PF is a class of Bayesian filtering algorithms derived from a discrete description of Bayes rule well-suited for updating the nonlinear model states, resulting in improved model outputs. Assimilation runs are applied to the USGS Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) hydrologic model using 1-km2 SCA derived from NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer imagery and 1-km2 SWE estimates interpolated from National Resources Conservation Service Snow Telemetry (SNOTEL) point measurements for a six-year period (1995-2000). Two headwater basins within the Rio Grande (i.e. upper Rio Grande River basin) and Salt River (i.e. Black River basin) drainages in the Southwestern United States are contrasted. Base runs indicate measured SCA and SWE estimates were consistently lower than values estimated from temperature and precipitation within PRMS. The greatest differences occurred in the relatively complex terrain of the Rio Grande basin, as opposed to the relatively homogeneous terrain of the Black River basin, where differences were small. Differences between modeled and measured snow were different for the accumulation period versus the ablation period and had an elevational trend. Direct insertion of measured snowfields into a version of PRMS calibrated to achieve water balance led to reduced performance in estimating streamflow for the Rio Grande and increased performance in estimating streamflow for the Black River basin. However, PF as a sequential Monte Carlo technique is able to take the most advantage of information content in the data which relaxes the need for restrictive assumptions in direct insertion and even other assimilation techniques. Therefore, in this study we demonstrate the features of such a filtering technique with the potential to estimate the uncertainty of

  19. Evaluation of gridded snow water equivalent and satellite snow cover products for mountain basins in a hydrologic model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dressler, K.A.; Leavesley, G.H.; Bales, R.C.; Fassnacht, S.R.

    2006-01-01

    The USGS precipitation-runoff modelling system (PRMS) hydrologic model was used to evaluate experimental, gridded, 1 km2 snow-covered area (SCA) and snow water equivalent (SWE) products for two headwater basins within the Rio Grande (i.e. upper Rio Grande River basin) and Salt River (i.e. Black River basin) drainages in the southwestern USA. The SCA product was the fraction of each 1 km2 pixel covered by snow and was derived from NOAA advanced very high-resolution radiometer imagery. The SWE product was developed by multiplying the SCA product by SWE estimates interpolated from National Resources Conservation Service snow telemetry point measurements for a 6 year period (1995-2000). Measured SCA and SWE estimates were consistently lower than values estimated from temperature and precipitation within PRMS. The greatest differences occurred in the relatively complex terrain of the Rio Grande basin, as opposed to the relatively homogeneous terrain of the Black River basin, where differences were small. Differences between modelled and measured snow were different for the accumulation period versus the ablation period and had an elevational trend. Assimilating the measured snowfields into a version of PRMS calibrated to achieve water balance without assimilation led to reduced performance in estimating streamflow for the Rio Grande and increased performance in estimating streamflow for the Black River basin. Correcting the measured SCA and SWE for canopy effects improved simulations by adding snow mostly in the mid-to-high elevations, where satellite estimates of SCA are lower than model estimates. Copyright ?? 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. O, H and S Isotopes as Tracers of Groundwater Discharge Into the Rio Grande and the Gila River, Southwest USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastoe, C. J.; Hibbs, B. J.; Hogan, J. F.; Harris, R. C.

    2004-05-01

    In the semi-arid Basin-and-Range province, large rivers commonly enter and exit basins through hard-rock barriers impermeable to groundwater. Isotopic contrasts characteristically exist between river water entering a basin and locally-derived groundwater in basin-fill sediment. Basin aquifers must discharge to the river near the river exit point, and may contribute significantly to river water and solute load. O, H and S isotopes can potentially indicate the location of discharge zones. At times of low river flow, the Gila River enters Safford Basin with isotope delta values, here presented as [d18O‰ , dD‰ , d34S‰ ], of [-8.5, -65, +4.5]. Deep basin water has values [-11.5, -85, +11], the d34S reflecting gypsum evaporite. Values in river water change by km 50 to [-7.5, -60, +4.5] and between km 50 and 80 to [-8.5, -65, +7.5]. The increase in d18O and dD from 0-50 km indicates irrigation water discharge; the change from 50-80 km is accompanied by doubling of sulfate content and requires addition of deep basin water. The Rio Grande enters the Hueco Bolson with isotope composition [-6.5 to -8.5, -65 to -75, +2 to +4], the d18O and dD values defining an evaporation line (RGEL) resulting from passage of water through upstream reservoirs. Basin groundwater is sulfate-rich and has variable isotope composition: [-9 to -11, -66 to -76, +5 to +10]; it includes both evaporated and non-evaporated types. Groundwater discharge is generally insufficient to shift water away from the RGEL, but d34S values in river water increase to +5 to +9‰ with increasing sulfate content downstream of Fabens, TX, indicating discharge of high-d34S groundwater. Variable sewage discharge from Ciudad Juàrez limits the possibility of detecting isotope shifts in Rio Grande water.

  1. Trinity river basin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulery, Randy L.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Crossfield, Allison S.

    1993-01-01

    In 1991 the Trinity River Basin National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) will include assessments of surface-water and ground-water quality. Initial efforts have focused on identifying water-quality issues in the basin and on the environmental factors underlying those issues. Physical characteristics described include climate, geology, soils, vegetation, physiography, and hydrology. Cultural characteristics discussed include population distribution, land use and land cover, agricultural practices, water use, an reservoir operations. Major water-quality categories are identified and some of the implications of the environmental factors for water quality are presented.

  2. Trends of grain sizes on gravel bars in the Rio Chagres, Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rengers, Francis; Wohl, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    We examined the trends of grain sizes along the upper 414 km 2 of the mountainous Rio Chagres drainage basin in Panama. Gravel bars were sampled along 40 km of the Rio Chagres and five major tributary streams using a transect pebble count of median diameter, lithology, and clast rounding. Although previous investigators have found that downstream fining can be obscured by inputs of colluvial sediment and other local controls in mountain drainages, we decided to examine the trends of grain sizes along a tropical mountain river where rapid weathering and high capability of transport might be capable of overriding the input effects of colluvium. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that downstream fining would be present as a result of selective sorting, and that weak felsic particles would decrease in size preferentially to strong mafic particles because of abrasion. Statistical analyses reveal a weak downstream decrease of sediment size on gravel bars along the study reach of the Rio Chagres, with a Sternberg diminution coefficient ( α) for felsic and mafic grains of - 0.013 and - 0.017, respectively. Felsic clasts have thicker weathering rinds and become rounded downstream faster than mafic particles, but tumbling-mill tests of abrasion show no significant differences in rate of mass loss in relation to lithology, and downstream decreases in grain size are similar between lithologies. Dividing the study reach into six sub-reaches bounded by major tributary junctions, we further tested the hypothesis that downstream trends in fining might be obscured at the basin scale by sediment input from tributaries, but that trends in grain sizes might be more visible at the reach scale between tributaries. We did not find any consistent trends in grain size between tributaries. Stream width appears to assert a local control on grain size; coarse particles are associated with narrow channel reaches, whereas smaller particles are associated with wide channel reaches.

  3. Two new species of Pseudancistrus (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) from the Amazon basin, northern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Gabriel S. C.; Roxo, Fábio F.; Oliveira, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Pseudancistrus, a genus diagnosed by non-evertible cheek plates and hypertrophied odontodes along the snout margin, are described from two drainages of the Brazilian Shield: Pseudancistrus kayabi from the rio Teles Pires (rio Tapajós basin) and Pseudancistrus asurini from the rio Xingu. The new species are distinguished from congeners (Pseudancistrus barbatus, Pseudancistrus corantijniensis, Pseudancistrus depressus, Pseudancistrus nigrescens, Pseudancistrus reus, and Pseudancistrus zawadzkii) by the coloration pattern. Pseudancistrus kayabi has dark bars on the dorsal and caudal fins which are similar to that of Pseudancistrus reus from the Caroní River, Venezuela. Pseudancistrus asurini is unique among Pseudancistrus in having whitish tips of the dorsal and caudal fins in juveniles to medium-sized adults. PMID:25709528

  4. Two new species of Pseudancistrus (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) from the Amazon basin, northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Gabriel S C; Roxo, Fábio F; Oliveira, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Pseudancistrus, a genus diagnosed by non-evertible cheek plates and hypertrophied odontodes along the snout margin, are described from two drainages of the Brazilian Shield: Pseudancistruskayabi from the rio Teles Pires (rio Tapajós basin) and Pseudancistrusasurini from the rio Xingu. The new species are distinguished from congeners (Pseudancistrusbarbatus, Pseudancistruscorantijniensis, Pseudancistrusdepressus, Pseudancistrusnigrescens, Pseudancistrusreus, and Pseudancistruszawadzkii) by the coloration pattern. Pseudancistruskayabi has dark bars on the dorsal and caudal fins which are similar to that of Pseudancistrusreus from the Caroní River, Venezuela. Pseudancistrusasurini is unique among Pseudancistrus in having whitish tips of the dorsal and caudal fins in juveniles to medium-sized adults. PMID:25709528

  5. 27 CFR 9.175 - Dos Rios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Geological Survey 1:24,000 scale topographic maps. They are titled: (1) Dos Rios, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; (2) Laytonville, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; (3) Iron Peak, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; and (4) Covelo...

  6. 27 CFR 9.175 - Dos Rios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Geological Survey 1:24,000 scale topographic maps. They are titled: (1) Dos Rios, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; (2) Laytonville, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; (3) Iron Peak, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; and (4) Covelo...

  7. 27 CFR 9.175 - Dos Rios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Geological Survey 1:24,000 scale topographic maps. They are titled: (1) Dos Rios, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; (2) Laytonville, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; (3) Iron Peak, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; and (4) Covelo...

  8. 27 CFR 9.175 - Dos Rios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Geological Survey 1:24,000 scale topographic maps. They are titled: (1) Dos Rios, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; (2) Laytonville, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; (3) Iron Peak, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; and (4) Covelo...

  9. Rio Grande rift: problems and perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Baldridge, W.S.; Olsen, K.H.; Callender, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    Topics and ideas addressed include: (1) the regional extent of the Rio Grande rift; (2) the structure of the crust and upper mantle; (3) whether the evidence for an axile dike in the lower crust is compelling; (4) the nature of faulting and extension in the crust; and (5) the structural and magmatic development of the rift. 88 references, 5 figures.

  10. Middle Rio Grande Cooperative Water Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-11-01

    This is computer simulation model built in a commercial modeling product Called Studio Expert, developed by Powersim, Inc. The simulation model is built in a system dynamics environment, allowing the simulation of the interaction among multiple systems that are all changing over time. The model focuses on hydrology, ecology, demography, and economy of the Middle Rio Grande, with Water as the unifying feature.

  11. Substance Abuse in the Rio Grande Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zavaleta, Anthony N.

    1979-01-01

    In the Mexican American barrios of Texas' Lower Rio Grande Valley, existence is complicated by the interactive forces of culture, society, and economy. These three factors act in unison to create an etiology of alcohol and drug use and abuse which is poorly understood by persons outside the barrio's grasp. (Author/NQ)

  12. Tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Eastern Maturin Foreland basin (Eastern Venezuela)

    SciTech Connect

    Azavache, A.; Flinch, J.; Giffuni, G.; Martinez, R.

    1996-08-01

    The Eastern Venezuelan Basin is a classical foreland basin related to the loading of the Serrania del Interior thrust-sheets. The flexure of the basin started during Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene time and is evidenced by a major unconformity between the Cretaceous and the Lower Miocene Oficina Formation (Basal Foredeep Unconformity). The sedimentary-filling of the Basin commences with coastal transgressive sandstones of the Oficina Formation (Lower Miocene) that constitute the main reservoir of this petroleum province. The overlying deposits of the basin can be subdivided into: (1) Deep-water stage represented by the upper Oficina shales and the Freites Formation in the south and the Carapita Formation in the north (Middle Miocene). This shale interval constitutes the main seal of the region. This stage is characterized by major onlap and a major flooding surface. (2) Progradational stage characterized by shelf-slope deposits of the Lower-Middle La Pica Formation (Upper Miocene). Siliciclastic shelf wedges consisting of deltaic facies. (3) Aggradational stage fluvial-alluvial delta plain deposits represented by the Upper La Pica, Mesa and Las Piedras Formations (Pliocene-Pleistocene). In the northern part of the basin, southward-vergent thrusting deformed the basement and its thin Cretaceous-Lower Miocene cover. South of the Rio Tigre area compressional structures are combined with normal faults related to flexural extension. The boundary between basement-involved thrusting and flexural extension controls the type of structural traps within the basin.

  13. Regional comparison of syn- and post-rift sequences in salt and salt-free basins offshore Brazil and Angola/Namibia, South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strozyk, Frank; Back, Stefan; Kukla, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The large South Atlantic basins offshore South America and Africa record a highly variable syn- to post-breakup tectono-stratigraphic development. The present-day diversity in the structural and sedimentary architecture of the conjugate margins offshore southern Brazil, Namibia and Angola reflects variations in the interplay of a number of controlling factors, of which the most important are i) the structural configuration of each margin segment at the time of break-up, ii) the post break-up geodynamic history including tectonics and magmatism, and iii) variations in the type, quantity and distribution of sediment input to the respective margin segment. Particularly the basins around the Rio Grande Rise - Walvis Ridge volcanic complex show a pronounced tectono-stratigraphic asymmetry both along the respective continental margin and across the Atlantic. Only a few attempts exist to establish a regional tectono-stratigraphic correlation framework across the South Atlantic Ocean, mainly because of the lack of data across entire margin segments and limited resolution of basin wide geophysics. Still unresolved issues particularly concern the explanation of the basin-specific geological evolution of respective margin segments along the same continental margin, as well as the correlation of conjugate basins and margin segments across the Atlantic Ocean. In our study we present interpretations and first-pass restorations of regional 2D seismic-reflectivity data from the large basins offshore Brazil (Pelotas Basin, Santos Basin, Campos Basin, Espirito Santo Basin), and offshore Namibia and Angola (Walvis Basin, Namibe Basin, Benguela Basin, Kwanza Basin), which represent four adjacent pairs of conjugate basins on both sides of the South Atlantic. Results are used to document and compare on a basin-scale the contrasting styles of rift and post-rift settings during and after the continental breakup.

  14. 'East Basin' Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for 'East Basin' Panorama (QTVR)

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its panoramic camera to obtain this view of the impact feature called 'East Basin' to the northeast of 'Husband Hill.' The images combined into this mosaic were taken during Spirit's 653rd Martian day, or sol (Nov. 3, 2005), just before Spirit descended eastward onto 'Haskin Ridge.' The view is about 150 degrees wide. It is an approximately true-color rendering generated using the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer, and 480-nanometer filters.

    Dark features on the far side of the basin, just left of center in this view, are basaltic sand deposits that were emplaced on the lee sides of hills by northwesterly winds. Haskin Ridge is visible along the right margin of the image, capped by a light-toned layer of rock. Spirit investigated the light-toned rock unit after taking this image. The basaltic plains located east of the 'Columbia Hills' can be seen in the distance beyond 'East Basin.' The rim of Thira crater is just visible on the distant horizon some 15 kilometers (9.3 miles) away.

  15. SAGE 2010 Magnetotelluric Soundings Provide New Constraints on Rio Grande Rift Mid-Crustal Conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strader, A. E.; Martin, C. L.; Thomas, T.; Bedrosian, P. A.; Pellerin, L.; Jiracek, G. R.

    2010-12-01

    Since the inception of the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE) program in 1983, long-period magnetotelluric (MT) soundings have imaged a pronounced mid-crustal conductor at 10-20 km depth within the central Rio Grande rift. Wideband MT soundings (0.01 to over 1000 s period) collected in 2010 extended the detection of this feature to nearly 100 km length along the rift axis in the vicinity of Santa Fe, New Mexico. The conductive anomaly is clearly defined in the longest periods of the mode identified as the transverse electric (TE) in the recently acquired MT data. The spatially-limited 2010 soundings in the Santo Domingo Basin do not allow two-dimensional (2-D) inversions; however, one-dimensional (1-D) inversion of TE mode measurements in conductive rift basins can yield good depth estimates of deep conductive layers as has been shown by 2-D rift MT modeling. Such 1-D inversions of the 2010 MT soundings yield ~20 km depth to the top of the mid-crustal conductor, 5-10 km deeper than 90 km to the north if 3-D effects are negligible. Estimated conductance of the Santo Domingo basin conductor is 2000 S with resistivities in the range of 2-10 ohm-m. An interpretation of the ubiquitous, mid-crustal conductor in the Rio Grande rift is interconnected, saline, aqueous fluid trapped in the ductile crust below the ~10 km-deep seismogenic zone after fluid release and upward ascent from an upwarped mantle.

  16. 27 CFR 9.119 - Middle Rio Grande Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Middle Rio Grande Valley... Middle Rio Grande Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Middle Rio Grande Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundaries of...

  17. Interaction of a river with an alluvial basin aquifer: Stable isotopes, salinity and water budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastoe, Christopher J.; Hutchison, William R.; Hibbs, Barry J.; Hawley, John; Hogan, James F.

    2010-12-01

    SummaryDetailed sets of tracer data (isotopes, salinity) and the results of MODFLOW modeling of water budgets provide an unprecedented opportunity for comparing modeling with field data in the area where the Rio Grande enters the Hueco Bolson basin of Texas and Chihuahua. Water from the Rio Grande has recharged the Hueco Bolson aquifer to a depth of 300 m below the surface in the El Paso-Ciudad Juárez area, the depth of infiltration corresponding to the depth of ancestral Rio Grande fluvial sediments. Groundwater beneath the river exhibits complex isotope and salinity stratification. Post-dam (post -1916, type A) river water has infiltrated to depths up to 80 m. Pre-dam (type B) river water has infiltrated to 300 m depth near downtown El Paso, and has mixed with, or been displaced further downstream by high-salinity native Hueco Bolson groundwater (type C, present in the basin north of the river). Salinity and isotope boundaries do not correspond precisely. Isotope stratification corresponds to water residence time and (for type C) to degree of evaporation; the highest salinities are associated with the most evaporated water. Modeling of water budgets in the basin fill beneath the river predicts present-day mixing of water types B and C where changing rates of pumping have caused a reversal of groundwater flow direction between El Paso and Ciudad Juárez, and deep recharge of type B water under conditions prevailing in the 1960s.

  18. Bransfield Basin and Cordilleran Orogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalziel, I. W.; Austin, J. A.; Barker, D. H.; Christensen, G. L.

    2003-12-01

    Tectonic uplift of the Andean Cordillera was initiated in the mid-Cretaceous with inversion of a composite marginal basin along 7500 km of the continental margin of South America, from Peru to Tierra del Fuego and the North Scotia Ridge. In the southernmost Andes, from 50-56 degrees S, the quasi-oceanic floor of this basin is preserved in the obducted ophiolitic rocks of the Rocas Verdes (Green Rocks) basin. We suggest that the basin beneath Bransfield Strait, 61-64 degrees S, separating the South Shetland Islands from the Antarctic Peninsula, constitutes a modern analog for the Rocas Verdes basin. Marine geophysical studies of Bransfield basin have been undertaken over the past 12 years by the Institute for Geophysics, University of Texas at Austin, under the auspices of the Ocean Sciences Division and United States Antarctic Program, National Science Foundation. These studies have elucidated the structure and evolution of Bransfield basin for comparison with the Rocas Verdes basin, with a view to eventual forward modeling of the evolution of a hypothetical cordilleran orogen by compression and inversion of the basin. These are the processes that can be observed in the tectonic transformation of the Rocas Verdes basin into the southernmost Andean cordillera, as South America moved rapidly westward in an Atlantic-Indian ocean hot-spot reference frame during the mid-Cretaceous. Multi-channel reflection seismic data from the Bransfield basin reveal an asymmetric structural architecture characterized by steeply-dipping normal faults flanking the South Shetlands island arc and gently dipping listric normal faults along the Antarctic Peninsula margin. Normal fault polarity reversals appear to be related to distributed loci of magmatic activity within the basin. This architecture is remarkably similar to that deduced from field structural studies of the Rocas Verdes basin. Notably, the oceanward-dipping, low angle normal faults along the Antarctic Peninsula margin

  19. Distribution and partition of trace metals in the Amazon basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyler, Patrick T.; Boaventura, Geraldo R.

    2003-05-01

    The distribution of trace metals (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, U) was investigated in surface waters and associated particulates in the Amazon mainstream (Solimões and Amazon rivers). Dissolved V, Cu, As, Sr, Ba, U correlate with major ions and appear to be predominantly derived from soluble rocks occurring in the Amazon upper basin. These elements appear conservative in waters and are progressively diluted by less-concentrated waters coming from the lowland and shield areas. A monthly time series obtained at the Óbidos gauging station shows that temporal variability of trace element concentrations reflects the source, remobilization and/or biological processes occurring in the channel or in the surrounding floodplain lakes. The trace element concentrations in the particulate matter show a clear relationship with the location of the samples. V, Co, Cr, Mn, Sr, Cs and Ba concentrations are higher in the Solimões and the Rio Negro is enriched in Fe, Al and Zn. In the Rio Solimões, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn, Cs and Pb are almost entirely carried by the river particulate matter; Cu, Rb, Sr, Ba and U are transported mainly by the suspended particles, but a dissolved phase contributes to the transport. In the Rio Negro, the proportion of elements transported by the dissolved phase is higher for the whole set of elements. The implications of these results allow us to compute the fluxes from the Amazon River to the Atlantic Ocean.

  20. Hydrochemistry and weathering rates on Corumbataí River basin, São Paulo State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; Lima, Jorge Luis Nepomuceno de

    2010-03-01

    SummaryThis work was held at the Corumbataí River basin that is inserted within the giant Paraná sedimentary basin (Paleozoic-Cenozoic) in South America. The Corumbataí River is the major river draining the area and its water is extensively used by water supply systems in the basin. Its surface waters were collected at two sampling points, upstream and downstream from Rio Claro city, the principal municipality within the basin. We report chemical and radionuclides ( 222Rn and 210Po) analyses for rainwater and river water samples in order to estimate chemical weathering fluxes. All major chemical data indicated poorer conditions of the water quality in Corumbataí River after reaching Rio Claro city. However, one very important finding was that the weighted mean of the 210Po activity concentration is the same (0.21 dpm/L) upstream and downstream from Rio Claro city, indicating that 210Po is a conservative nuclide. The net output flux in Corumbataí River basin estimated from the difference between the total discharge flux and the input flux based on wet precipitation yielded a negative value for polonium as it is a very particle-reactive radionuclide, tending to accumulate into fluvial sediments. The chemical weathering rate (removed material quantity) corresponded to 76.5 t/km 2 yr when Po data in sediments and rocks were utilized in the calculations. This rate is compatible with others determined elsewhere, indicating the usefulness of Po in studies of weathering processes, even in areas characterized by anthropogenic inputs.

  1. Estimated natural streamflow in the Rio San Jose upstream from the pueblos of Acoma and Laguna, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risser, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    The development of surface and ground water, which began about 1870 in the upper Rio San Jose drainage basin, has decreased the flow of the Rio San Jose on the Pueblo of Acoma and the Pueblo of Laguna. The purpose of this study was to estimate the natural streamflow in the Rio San Jose that would have entered the pueblos if no upstream water development had taken place. Estimates of natural flow were based upon streamflow and precipitation records, historical accounts of streamflow, records of irrigated acreage, and empirically-derived estimates of the effects on streamflow of Bluewater Lake, groundwater withdrawals, and irrigation diversions. Natural streamflow in the Rio San Jose at the western boundary of the Pueblo of Acoma is estimated to be between 13,000 and 15,000 acre-feet per year, based on 55 years of recorded and reconstructed streamflow data from water years 1913 to 1972. Natural streamflow at the western boundary of the Pueblo of Laguna is estimated to be between 17 ,000 and 19,000 acre-feet per year for the same period. The error in these estimates of natural streamflow is difficult to assess accurately, but it probably is less than 25 percent. (USGS)

  2. Newly Discovered Martian Impact Basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stam, M.

    1985-01-01

    Three previously unrecognized Martian impact basins were discovered through detailed mapping of landforms, structures and terrains near Cassini and Al Qahira basins. Al Qahira A lies on the Martian dichotomy boundary and intersects the older basin, Al Qahira. It has four rings that are expressed by a variety of landforms. Southwestward Al Qahira A is out by a younger Basin, Al Qahira B. Al Qahira B is a highly degraded basin with one identifiable ring. Its ring is expressed by a few massifs, knobs and inward-facing scarps, but is recognized by the distributions of wrinkle ridges and plains units. Cassini A lies southward of the younger Cassini Basin and is intersected by it. It probably has four rings. The importance of detailed mapping of various types of landforms and terrains to the discovery of basins on Mars are demonstrated.

  3. Natural frequency of regular basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjandra, Sugih S.; Pudjaprasetya, S. R.

    2014-03-01

    Similar to the vibration of a guitar string or an elastic membrane, water waves in an enclosed basin undergo standing oscillatory waves, also known as seiches. The resonant (eigen) periods of seiches are determined by water depth and geometry of the basin. For regular basins, explicit formulas are available. Resonance occurs when the dominant frequency of external force matches the eigen frequency of the basin. In this paper, we implement the conservative finite volume scheme to 2D shallow water equation to simulate resonance in closed basins. Further, we would like to use this scheme and utilizing energy spectra of the recorded signal to extract resonant periods of arbitrary basins. But here we first test the procedure for getting resonant periods of a square closed basin. The numerical resonant periods that we obtain are comparable with those from analytical formulas.

  4. Global analysis of intraplate basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, C.; Mueller, D. R.; Dyksterhuis, S.

    2005-12-01

    Broad intraplate sedimentary basins often show a mismatch of lithospheric extension factors compared to those inferred from sediment thickness and subsidence modelling, not conforming to the current understanding of rift basin evolution. Mostly, these basins are underlain by a very heterogeneous and structurally complex basement which has been formed as a product of Phanerozoic continent-continent or terrane/arc-continent collision and is usually referred to as being accretionary. Most likely, the basin-underlying substrate is one of the key factors controlling the style of extension. In order to investigate and model the geodynamic framework and mechanics controlling formation and evolution of these long-term depositional regions, we have been analysing a global set of more than 200 basins using various remotely sensed geophysical data sets and relational geospatial databases. We have compared elevation, crustal and sediment thickness, heatflow, crustal structure, basin ages and -geometries with computed differential beta, anomalous tectonic subsidence, and differential extension factor grids for these basins. The crust/mantle interactions in the basin regions are investigated using plate tectonic reconstructions in a mantle convection framework for the last 160 Ma. Characteristic parameters and patterns derived from this global analysis are then used to generate a classification scheme, to estimate the misfit between models derived from either crustal thinning or sediment thickness, and as input for extension models using particle-in-cell finite element codes. Basins with high differential extension values include the ``classical'' intraplate-basins, like the Michigan Basin in North America, the Zaire Basin in Africa, basins of the Arabian Penisula, and the West Siberian Basin. According to our global analysis so far, these basins show, that with increasing basin age, the amount of crustal extension vs. the extension values estimated from sediment thickness

  5. Buried-euxenic-basin model sets Tarim basin potential

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, K.J. )

    1994-11-28

    The Tarim basin is the largest of the three large sedimentary basins of Northwest China. The North and Southwest depressions of Tarim are underlain by thick sediments and very thin crust. The maximum sediment thickness is more than 15 km. Of the several oil fields of Tarim, the three major fields were discovered during the last decade, on the north flank of the North depression and on the Central Tarim Uplift. The major targets of Tarim, according to the buried-euxenic-basin model, should be upper Paleozoic and lower Mesozoic reservoirs trapping oil and gas condensates from lower Paleozoic source beds. The paper describes the basin and gives a historical perspective of exploration activities and discoveries. It then explains how this basin can be interpreted by the buried-euxenic-basin model. The buried-euxenic-basin model postulates four stages of geologic evolution: (1) Sinian and early Paleozoic platform sedimentation on relic arcs and deep-marine sedimentation in back-arc basins in Xinjiang; (2) Late Paleozoic foreland-basin sedimentation in north Tarim; (3) Mesozoic and Paleogene continental deposition, subsidence under sedimentary load; and (4) Neogene pull-apart basin, wrench faulting and extension.

  6. Canada Basin revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Chian, D; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Jackson, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    More than 15,000 line-km of new regional seismic reflection and refraction data in the western Arctic Ocean provide insights into the tectonic and sedimentologic history of Canada Basin, permitting development of new geologic understanding in one of Earth's last frontiers. These new data support a rotational opening model for southern Canada Basin. There is a central basement ridge possibly representing an extinct spreading center with oceanic crustal velocities and blocky basement morphology characteristic of spreading centre crust surrounding this ridge. Basement elevation is lower in the south, mostly due to sediment loading subsidence. The sedimentary succession is thickest in the southern Beaufort Sea region, reaching more than 15 km, and generally thins to the north and west. In the north, grabens and half-grabens are indicative of extension. Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge is a large igneous province in northern Amerasia Basin, presumably emplaced synchronously with basin formation. It overprints most of northern Canada Basin structure. The seafloor and sedimentary succession of Canada Basin is remarkably flat-lying in its central region, with little bathymetric change over most of its extent. Reflections that correlate over 100s of kms comprise most of the succession and on-lap bathymetric and basement highs. They are interpreted as representing deposits from unconfined turbidity current flows. Sediment distribution patterns reflect changing source directions during the basin’s history. Initially, probably late Cretaceous to Paleocene synrift sediments sourced from the Alaska and Mackenzie-Beaufort margins. This unit shows a progressive series of onlap unconformities with a younging trend towards Alpha and Northwind ridges, likely a response to contemporaneous subsidence. Sediment source direction appeared to shift to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago margin for the Eocene and Oligocene, likely due to uplift of Arctic islands during the Eurekan Orogeny. The final

  7. Streamflow Forecasts in Poorly Documented Basins from Meteorological Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uribe, E. M.; Shuttleworth, J. W.; Gupta, H. V.; Mullen, S. L.; Zeng, X.

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes research undertaken in support of a project that seeks to enable the interpretation of predicted meteorological fields in terms of the streamflow in poorly documented catchments. The focus in this presentation is on addressing the issues involved in parameterizing and calibrating the hydrological model to do this in basins where available local data is limited. Hydrological modeling depends on the information available for basin characterization and model validation and calibration and most publicly available models require information not readily available in many regions of the world. Therefore, alternative approaches to the characterization of a basin are required so that stakeholders can benefit from climate forecasts via model estimates of streamflow. An alternative methodology for the parameterization of a basin using globally and publicly available data is proposed for the Modular Modeling System Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (MMS-PRMS). The methodology is based on deriving topography, soil and vegetation parameters from remote sensing and processed digital maps. In this study this model was forced with daily rainfall observations from a local rain gauge network between 1948 and 1978 and the resulting streamflow predictions evaluated and the model calibrated against long records of daily observations. The short-term predictive capabilities of the calibrated model are then tested using daily rainfall forecasts derived from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) from 1979 to 1990. The methodology is tested in the basin of the "Rio Grijalva", which is located in southern Mexico. Use of the model in this basin benefits from the alternative characterization methods described because the local information available for this basin is not sufficient to parameterize physically-based hydrological models. Additionally, the events responsible for the rainfall variability during the wet-season in this basin include diverse weather

  8. Geohydrology and water resources of the Papago Farms-Great Plain area, Papago Indian Reservation, Arizona, and the upper Rio Sonoyta area, Sonora, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollett, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Papago Farms-Great Plain and upper Rio Sonoyta study area includes about 490 square miles in south-central Arizona and north-central Sonora, Mexico. In the study area 23,700 acre-feet of ground water from the basin-fill deposits was used to irrigate more than 5,000 acres in 1981. Surface water is not a reliable source for irrigation or public supply. Ground water enters the area as underflow from the north and east and as recharge from the montains, moves through basin-margin sediments , around the basin-center clays, and exits the area to the west beneath the Rio Sonoyta. Ground-water withdrawals in the upper Rio Sonoyta area do not appear to have an effect on water levels in the Papago Farms-Great Plain area. Depth to water ranges from 500 feet near the southern boundary to 150 feet in the center of study area. About 10 million acre-feet of recoverable ground water is stored in the upper 400 feet of the aquifer. Storage is being depleted at a rate of 19,000 acre-feet per year. The ground water is a sodium and bicarbonate type and has an anomalously high content of arsenic and fluoride. (USGS)

  9. Structural evolution of the Abiquiu embayment, Rio Grande Rift: Implications for the development of transfer zones.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, R. T.; Murphy, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    The Abiquiu embayment is located along the boundary between the Colorado Plateau and the Rio Grande rift in north central New Mexico. It is an early rift basin bordered by the Canones fault system on its west side that is oblique to the regional trend of the Rio Grande rift and lies within a region where the polarity of the rift changes. Knowledge of the geometry, kinematics, and slip history of the basin-bounding faults is important in understanding segmentation of the Rio Grande rift and may shed light on the development of transform zones in general. We present geologic mapping, stratigraphic analysis and structural analyses of geologic features in the Abiquiu area to assess the role of Abiquiu embayment in the development of the Rio Grande rift. Our mapping shows that the Canones fault system is an east-dipping, oblique normal fault system that strikes northeast for approximately 20 km. It juxtaposes Permian and Triassic age formations in its footwall against upper Jurassic rocks and 300 m of Tertiary basin fill in its hanging wall. Attitudes of pre-rift strata in the hanging wall define a basin-scale rollover structure, which implies the fault system is listric at depth. Fault slip data collected from the Canones fault system shows the mean slip direction is ENE, which yields nearly equal components of left- slip and normal dip-slip. Mode 1 fractures adjacent to the fault system strike between N20E and N47E, an orientation similar to the strike of basaltic dikes several kilometers east of the surface trace of the Canones fault system. Restoration of the contact between Permian and Triassic-age rocks in a direction parallel to the mean slip direction yields slip estimates that show along strike changes. In the southern part of the study area we estimate 300 m of net slip. In the north, we estimate approximately 425 m. The majority of the total slip occurred before deposition of the 8-10 Ma Lobato basalt. Offset of this basalt unit is less than 50 m, implying

  10. Vigilando la Calidad del Agua de los Grandes Rios de la Nacion: El Programa NASQAN del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.; Reutter, David C.; Wells, Frank C.; Rivera, M.C., (translator); Munoz, A.

    1998-01-01

    La Oficina del Estudio Geologico de los Estados Unidos (U.S. Geological Survey, 0 USGS) ha monitoreado la calidad del agua de la cuenca del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte) desde 1995 como parte de la rediseiiada Red Nacional para Contabilizar la Calidad del Agua de los Rios (National Stream Quality Accounting Network, o NASOAN) (Hooper and others, 1997). EI programa NASOAN fue diseiiado para caracterizar las concentraciones y el transporte de sedimento y constituyentes quimicos seleccionados, encontrados en los grandes rios de los Estados Unidos - incluyendo el Misisipi, el Colorado y el Columbia, ademas del Rio Grande. En estas cuatro cuencas, el USGS opera actualmente (1998) una red de 40 puntos de muestreo pertenecientes a NASOAN, con un enfasis en cuantificar el flujo en masa (la cantidad de material que pasa por la estacion, expresado en toneladas por dial para cada constituyente. Aplicacando un enfoque consistente, basado en la cuantificacion de flujos en la cuenca del Rio Grande, el programa NASOAN esta generando la informacion necesaria para identificar fuentes regionales de diversos contaminantes, incluyendo sustancias qui micas agricolas y trazas elementos en la cuenca. EI efecto de las grandes reservas en el Rio Grande se puede observar segun los flujos de constituyentes discurren a 10 largo del rio. EI analisis de los flujos de constituyentes a escala de la cuenca proveera los medios para evaluar la influencia de la actividad humana sobre las condiciones de calidad del agua del Rio Grande.

  11. Synthesis of national reports for Rio+20

    SciTech Connect

    2013-01-15

    In the lead up to the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), which took place in Brazil in June 2012, there were numerous efforts in countries around the world to help governments, civil society organizations and individuals prepare for the event. One of the more significant efforts led by UNDP in collaboration with the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA) was a support programme to 72 countries across all regions to build a consensus on national views around the themes and objectives of the Rio+20 Conference. This report highlights significant advances in sustainable development from almost 60 country reports and underscores the challenges and bottlenecks to moving beyond the economic-led growth strategies of the past 20 years.

  12. History of leprosy in Rio de Janeiro*

    PubMed Central

    Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi; Bernardes, Fred; Quaresma, Maria Victória; Vianna, Francisco Reis

    2014-01-01

    The record of the first cases of leprosy in Rio de Janeiro dates from the seventeenth century. The first local host of leprosy patients was created from 1741, and the first colonies hospitals were built in the early twentieth century, in order to avoid contagion of the population. The first structures dedicated to research also date from this time: the Leprosy International Institute, the Leprology Institute, and the Leprosy Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, where the most prestigious leprologists of Rio de Janeiro worked. Currently, investigations are focused on the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation; additionally, leprosy patients are treated at municipal health centers and state hospitals, and former colony hospitals only accept patients with severe disabilities. PMID:24937834

  13. Mercury's Caloris Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Mercury: Computer Photomosaic of the Caloris Basin

    The largest basin on Mercury (1300 km or 800 miles across) was named Caloris (Greek for 'hot') because it is one of the two areas on the planet that face the Sun at perihelion.

    The Image Processing Lab at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory produced this photomosaic using computer software and techniques developed for use in processing planetary data. The Mariner 10 spacecraft imaged the region during its initial flyby of the planet.

    The Mariner 10 spacecraft was launched in 1974. The spacecraft took images of Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury in March and September 1974 and March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 images of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon during its mission.

    The Mariner 10 Mission was managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science in Washington, D.C.

  14. ADVANCED CHEMISTRY BASINS MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    William Goddard III; Lawrence Cathles III; Mario Blanco; Paul Manhardt; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang

    2004-05-01

    The advanced Chemistry Basin Model project has been operative for 48 months. During this period, about half the project tasks are on projected schedule. On average the project is somewhat behind schedule (90%). Unanticipated issues are causing model integration to take longer then scheduled, delaying final debugging and manual development. It is anticipated that a short extension will be required to fulfill all contract obligations.

  15. Petroleum basin studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, P.M. ); Naylor, D. )

    1989-01-01

    This book reviews the tectonic setting, basin development and history of exploration of a number of selected petroleum provinces located in a variety of settings in the Middle East, North Sea, Nigeria, the Rocky Mountains, Gabon and China. This book illustrates how ideas and models developed in one area may be applied to other regions. Regional reviews and the reassessment of petroleum provinces are presented.

  16. Albuquerque Basin seismic network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaksha, Lawrence H.; Locke, Jerry; Thompson, J.B.; Garcia, Alvin

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has recently completed the installation of a seismic network around the Albuquerque Basin in New Mexico. The network consists of two seismometer arrays, a thirteen-station array monitoring an area of approximately 28,000 km 2 and an eight-element array monitoring the area immediately adjacent to the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory. This report describes the instrumentation deployed in the network.

  17. Dimension of fractal basin boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Park, B.S.

    1988-01-01

    In many dynamical systems, multiple attractors coexist for certain parameter ranges. The set of initial conditions that asymptotically approach each attractor is its basin of attraction. These basins can be intertwined on arbitrary small scales. Basin boundary can be either smooth or fractal. Dynamical systems that have fractal basin boundary show final state sensitivity of the initial conditions. A measure of this sensitivity (uncertainty exponent {alpha}) is related to the dimension of the basin boundary d = D - {alpha}, where D is the dimension of the phase space and d is the dimension of the basin boundary. At metamorphosis values of the parameter, there might happen a conversion from smooth to fractal basin boundary (smooth-fractal metamorphosis) or a conversion from fractal to another fractal basin boundary characteristically different from the previous fractal one (fractal-fractal metamorphosis). The dimension changes continuously with the parameter except at the metamorphosis values where the dimension of the basin boundary jumps discontinuously. We chose the Henon map and the forced damped pendulum to investigate this. Scaling of the basin volumes near the metamorphosis values of the parameter is also being studied for the Henon map. Observations are explained analytically by using low dimensional model map.

  18. Isotope hydrology of karst drainage basins in Jamaica and Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Ellins, K.K.

    1988-01-01

    The findings of the study can be considered in three parts: (1) the characterization of the stable isotopic composition of precipitation recharging the White Limestone aquifer in the Martha Brae River Basin; (2) the identification of groundwater masses, patterns of groundwater movement, and recharge conditions in the Martha Brae River Basin, using {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O; and (3) the examination of groundwater/surface flow relationships in the Martha Brae River and the Rio Manati, using {sup 222}Rn. Mean {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O values weighted by precipitation amount and geographic area were developed to characterize recharge to subareas of the Martha Brae River Basin. Using differences in isotopic composition of the waters sampled and their respective positions on the local meteoric water line (MWL), two distinct groundwater types were recognized. The isotopic data indicate that the groundwater in the Martha Brae Basin is recharged by rainfall from a mean elevation of 645 meters. The source of recharge to the Deeside-Bunkers Hill portion of the aquifer was identified as partially evaporated pondwater and local precipitation. The value of {sup 222}Rn as a geochemical tool in hydrologic research was unequivocally demonstrated for the first time in this study. {sup 222}Rn measurements made in the Martha Brae River and the Rio Manati permitted the location of groundwater inputs, quantification of the magnitude of groundwater influx, and estimation of stream losses to aquifer recharged.

  19. Geologic map of the Rio Puerco quadrangle, Bernalillo and Valencia Counties, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maldonado, Florian

    2003-01-01

    The Rio Puerco quadrangle is located southwest of Albuquerque in central New Mexico and covers part of the western part of the Isleta Reservation. The U.S. Geological Survey, the New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, and the University of New Mexico have conducted geologic mapping on the Isleta Reservation and vicinity as part of the Middle Rio Grande Basin Project. The map area contains surficial deposits, calcic soils, fluvial deposits of the Rio Puerco, deposits of the Santa Fe Group, and three volcanic fields. The area is characterized by predominantly north-trending normal faults with generally down-to-the-east movement. Post-Santa Fe Group deposits are composed of surficial deposits (Pleistocene-Holocene) and fluvial deposits of the Rio Puerco (Pleistocene-Holocene). The surficial deposits are divided into eolian, alluvial, colluvial, and landslide deposits. The fluvial deposits of the Rio Puerco consist of four terrace and present channel deposits. The Santa Fe Group is divided into lower and upper parts. The lower part of the Santa Fe Group is exposed near the southwestern corner of the study area where deposits consist of reddish-brown mudstone and sandstone correlated to the Popotosa Formation (Unit 1) of Lozinsky and Tedford (1991). They interpreted deposition of the unit in a basin-floor playa setting. The Popotosa Formation is in fault contact to the east with deposits of the upper Santa Fe Group. The upper Santa Fe Group is derived from major tributary fluvial systems (ancestral Rio Puerco Puerco and possibly the Rio San Jose drainages) draining the adjacent Colorado Plateau and Sierra Nacimiento and correlated to parts of Kelley's (1977) Ceja Formation of the Santa Fe Group and equivalent to Machette's (1978) Sierra Ladrones Formation, Connell's Arroyo Ojito Formation (Connell and others, 1999, and Maldonado's lithofacies of the Isleta Reservation (Maldonado and Atencio,1998a, b). The group also locally includes a fine- grained unit

  20. Advanced Chemistry Basins Model

    SciTech Connect

    William Goddard; Mario Blanco; Lawrence Cathles; Paul Manhardt; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang

    2002-11-10

    The DOE-funded Advanced Chemistry Basin model project is intended to develop a public domain, user-friendly basin modeling software under PC or low end workstation environment that predicts hydrocarbon generation, expulsion, migration and chemistry. The main features of the software are that it will: (1) afford users the most flexible way to choose or enter kinetic parameters for different maturity indicators; (2) afford users the most flexible way to choose or enter compositional kinetic parameters to predict hydrocarbon composition (e.g., gas/oil ratio (GOR), wax content, API gravity, etc.) at different kerogen maturities; (3) calculate the chemistry, fluxes and physical properties of all hydrocarbon phases (gas, liquid and solid) along the primary and secondary migration pathways of the basin and predict the location and intensity of phase fractionation, mixing, gas washing, etc.; and (4) predict the location and intensity of de-asphaltene processes. The project has be operative for 36 months, and is on schedule for a successful completion at the end of FY 2003.

  1. Great Basin Paleontological Bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, Robert B.; Zhang, Ning; Hofstra, Albert H.; Morrow, Jared R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This work was conceived as a derivative product for 'The Metallogeny of the Great Basin' project of the Mineral Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. In the course of preparing a fossil database for the Great Basin that could be accessed from the Internet, it was determined that a comprehensive paleontological bibliography must first be compiled, something that had not previously been done. This bibliography includes published papers and abstracts as well as unpublished theses and dissertations on fossils and stratigraphy in Nevada and adjoining portions of California and Utah. This bibliography is broken into first-order headings by geologic age, secondary headings by taxonomic group, followed by ancillary topics of interest to both paleontologists and stratigraphers; paleoecology, stratigraphy, sedimentary petrology, paleogeography, tectonics, and petroleum potential. References were derived from usage of Georef, consultation with numerous paleontologists and geologists working in the Great Basin, and literature currently on hand with the authors. As this is a Web-accessible bibliography, we hope to periodically update it with new citations or older references that we have missed during this compilation. Hence, the authors would be grateful to receive notice of any new or old papers that the readers think should be added. As a final note, we gratefully acknowledge the helpful reviews provided by A. Elizabeth J. Crafford (Anchorage, Alaska) and William R. Page (USGS, Denver, Colorado).

  2. Raptor Use of the Rio Grande Gorge

    SciTech Connect

    Ponton, David A.

    2015-03-20

    The Rio Grande Gorge is a 115 km long river canyon located in Southern Colorado (15 km) and Northern New Mexico (100 km). The majority of the canyon is under the administration of the Bureau of Land Management {BLM), and 77 km of the canyon south of the Colorado/New Mexico border are designated Wild River under the National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968. Visits I have made to the Rio Grande Gorge over the past 15 .years disclosed some raptor utilization. As the Snake River Birds of Prey Natural Area gained publicity, its similarity to the Rio Grande Gorge became obvious, and I was intrigued by the possibility of a high raptor nesting density in the Gorge. A survey in 1979 of 20 km of the northern end of the canyon revealed a moderately high density of red-tailed hawks and prairie falcons. With the encouragement of that partial survey, and a need to assess the impact of river-running on nesting birds of prey, I made a more comprehensive survey in 1980. The results of my surveys, along with those of a 1978 helicopter survey by the BLM, are presented in this report, as well as general characterization of the area, winter use by raptors, and an assessment of factors influencing the raptor population.

  3. Rio Grande pipeline introduces LPG to Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Rio Grande Pipeline, a joint venture between Mid-America Pipeline Co., Amoco Pipeline Co. and Navajo Pipeline Co., has broken new ground in the energy industry as the first LPG pipeline to cross the US-Mexico border. Plans for the project were announced in November 1995 and first deliveries started three months ago on March 21, 1997. The 8-inch, 265-mile pipeline originates near Odessa, TX, where it receives an 85-15 propane-butane mix via a connection to Mid-America Pipeline. From Odessa, product moves west through the Texas desert and crosses the Rio Grande River about 15 miles south of El Paso near Clint, TX and extends 20 miles into Mexico. Capacity of the line is 24,000 bpd and it has been averaging about 22,000 bpd since line-fill. All in all, it sounded like a reasonably feasible, routine project. But perceptions can be deceiving, or at least misleading. In other words, the project can be summarized as follows: one river, two cultures and a world of difference. The official border crossing for pipeline construction took place on Dec. 2, 1996, with a directional drill under the Rio Grande River, but in actuality, the joint venture partners were continually bridging differences in language, laws, customs and norms with Pemex and contracted workers from Mexico.

  4. The Rio Scale Applied to Fictional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shostak, Seth; Almar, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    Almar and Tarter (2000)1, and Almar (2001)2 have proposed a scale for quantifying the credibility of claimed detections of extraterrestrial presence, either via signals or via direct physical evidence. The proposed Rio Scale was developed by borrowing from the more widely known Torino scale used by scientists studying the potential consequences of predicted impacts by near-Earth objects, and it is intended to provide the media and the public some indication from the science community of how seriously to regard such claims of detected ETI. In order to provide an illustrative set of examples, the authors have applied the criteria of the Rio Scale to a set of selected fictional extraterrestrial "encounters" from the cinema, as well as to some less dramatic "claims." It is the authors' hope that these examples will both clarify and enhance the usefulness of this important metric. References: 1. Almar, I. and Tarter, J., "The Discovery of ETI as a High-Consequence, Low-Probability Event," 2. Almar, I., "How the Rio Scale Should be Improved," Paper #IAA-01-IAA.9.2.03, presented at the

  5. Caribbean basin framework, 3: Southern Central America and Colombian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Kolarsky, R.A.; Mann, P. )

    1991-03-01

    The authors recognize three basin-forming periods in southern Central America (Panama, Costa Rica, southern Nicaragua) that they attempt to correlate with events in the Colombian basin (Bowland, 1984): (1) Early-Late Cretaceous island arc formation and growth of the Central American island arc and Late Cretaceous formation of the Colombian basin oceanic plateau. During latest Cretaceous time, pelagic carbonate sediments blanketed the Central American island arc in Panama and Costa Rica and elevated blocks on the Colombian basin oceanic plateau; (2) middle Eocene-middle Miocene island arc uplift and erosion. During this interval, influx of distal terrigenous turbidites in most areas of Panama, Costa Rica, and the Colombian basin marks the uplift and erosion of the Central American island arc. In the Colombian basin, turbidites fill in basement relief and accumulate to thicknesses up to 2 km in the deepest part of the basin. In Costa Rica, sedimentation was concentrated in fore-arc (Terraba) and back-arc (El Limon) basins; (3) late Miocene-Recent accelerated uplift and erosion of segments of the Central American arc. Influx of proximal terrigenous turbidites and alluvial fans in most areas of Panama, Costa Rica, and the Colombian basin marks collision of the Panama arc with the South American continent (late Miocene early Pliocene) and collision of the Cocos Ridge with the Costa Rican arc (late Pleistocene). The Cocos Ridge collision inverted the Terraba and El Limon basins. The Panama arc collision produced northeast-striking left-lateral strike-slip faults and fault-related basins throughout Panama as Panama moved northwest over the Colombian basin.

  6. COMPARATIVE SATELLITE CAPABILITIES FOR REMOTE SENSING OF SNOW COVER IN THE RIO GRANDE BASIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From 1972 until near the end of the 20th century, the use of satellite data for snow cover mapping was a viable approach under certain conditions. The spatial resolution of Landsat and the temporal frequency of NOAA-AVHRR (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - Advanced Very High Resolut...

  7. Arundo Donax - giant reed; an invasive weed of the Rio Grande Basin.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arundo donax L., giant reed is an exotic and invasive weed of riparian habitats, irrigation canals and transportation drainages of the southwestern U.S. and northern Mexico. Giant reed dominates these habitats, which leads to: loss of biodiversity; catastrophic stream bank erosion; damage to bridge...

  8. Evaluation of water quality at the source of streams of the Sinos River Basin, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Benvenuti, T; Kieling-Rubio, M A; Klauck, C R; Rodrigues, M A S

    2015-05-01

    The Sinos River Basin (SRB) is located in the northeastern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (29º20' to 30º10'S and 50º15' to 51º20'W), southern Brazil, and covers two geomorphologic provinces: the southern plateau and the central depression. It is part of the Guaíba basin, has an area of approximately 800 km 2 and contains 32 counties. The basin provides drinking water for 1.6 million inhabitants in one of the most important industrial centres in Brazil. This study describes different water quality indices (WQI) used for the sub-basins of three important streams in the SRB: Pampa, Estância Velha/Portão and Schmidt streams. Physical, chemical and microbiological parameters assessed bimonthly using samples collected at each stream source were used to calculate the Horton Index (HI), the Dinius Index (DI) and the water quality index adopted by the US National Sanitation Foundation (NSF WQI) in the additive and multiplicative forms. These indices describe mean water quality levels at the streams sources. The results obtained for these 3 indexes showed a worrying scenario in which water quality has already been negatively affected at the sites where three important sub-basins in the Sinos River Basin begin to form. PMID:26270221

  9. Habitat of petroleum in the Paleozoic basins of Brazil: A look back, a comparison, a look forward

    SciTech Connect

    Meister, E.M.; Campos, J.N.P.; Filho, C.B.; Brazil, I.R.; Neves, C.A.O.; Goes, A.M.O.; Milani, E.J. )

    1991-03-01

    It took almost a century of intermittent petroleum exploration in Brazil's vast Paleozoic basins before continuous production of about 5000 bbl per day of light oil, together with gas, could be established in one of them. Proved volumes of oil equivalent in place so far discovered in Paleozoic reservoirs amount to only 0.6% of the domestic total, but hopes of substantial new finds are great. In the Rio Urucu field of Solimoes basin (Upper Amazon), hydrocarbons are being produced from Early Carboniferous Monte Alegre formation sandstones roofed by evaporites and carbonates of the Carboniferous Itaituba formation which were intruded by thick Juro-Triassic igneous sills and folded during a Cretaceous reactivation event into the present-day shape of gentle anticlinal trends controlled by reverse faulting. The widespread occurrence of igneous intrusions and extrusions in the Solimoes, Amazonas, Parnaiba, and Parana basins is a major problem met by explorationists throughout the years but can be faced with presently available technology, seismic and other. Further investigations in these four basins are needed in order to better define details of basin architecture, configuration of basement, location of the oil kitchens, main carrier beds, windows in the dyke walls through which hydrocarbons could find their way to the traps, etc. Examples from the various basins, along with a comparison to some successful exploration cases in the USA, suggest that the habitat of other commercial oil and gas in the Paleozoic basins of Brazil may be localized in the deeper basinal positions - like in the Rio Urucu trend - but also in the shallow flank areas, where igneous rocks tend to be scarcer and exploration baroquely started.

  10. Salt tectonics and structural styles in the deep-water province of the Cabo Frio Region, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Mohriak, W.U.; Macedo, J.M.; Castellani, R.T.

    1996-12-31

    The Cabo Frio region, offshore Rio de Janeiro, lies between two of the most prolific Brazilian oil provinces, the Campos and Santos basins. Major geologic features have been identified using a multidisciplinary approach integrating seismic, gravity, petrographic, and borehole data. The Cabo Frio frontier region is characterized by marked changes in stratigraphy and structural style and is unique among the Brazilian marginal basins. Major geologic features include the deflection of the coastline and pre-Aptian hings line from northeast to east; a large east-striking offshore graben related to salt tectonics; a northwest-trending lineament extending from oceanic crust to the continent; basement-involved landward-dipping (antithetic) normal faults in shallow water; a stable platform in the southern Campos Basin; a thick sequence of postbreakup intrusive and extrusive rocks; and, near the Santos Basin, a mobilized sequence of deep-water postrift strata affected by landward-dipping listric normal faults. These faults are unusual in salt-related passive margins in that they dip landward, apparently detach on the Aptian salt, and show large late Tertiary offsets. Locally, the older sequences do not show substantial growth in the downthrown blocks. South of the Rio de Janeiro coast, a phenomenal landward-dipping fault system detaches blocks of the Albian platform to the north and, to the south, coincides with the depositional limit of the Albian platform. Two end-member processes of salt tectonics in the Cabo Frio region result in either synthetic or antithetic basal shear along the fault weld under the overburden: (1) thin-skinned processes, in which the listric faults were caused by salt flow in response to gravity forces related to massive clastic progradation from the continent; and (2) thick-skinned processes, in which faulting was indirectly triggered by diastrophic causes or disequilibrium in the basement topography.

  11. Permeability alteration in small-displacement faults in poorly lithified sediments: Rio Grande Rift, Central New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigda, John M.; Goodwin, Laurel B.; Mozley, Peter S.; Wilson, John L.

    Faults in clastic rocks influence fluid flow by juxtaposition of different lithologic units and by localized alteration of petrophysical properties through cataclasis, cementation, or other deformational and diagenetic processes. Extensional tectonic settings, such as the Basin and Range Province and the Rio Grande rift, are characterized by numerous faults in both sedimentary rocks and poorly lithified basin-fill sediments. Faults in poorly lithified sediments have received little attention; our study is the first to examine their permeability. We tested whether faulting of poorly lithified sediments significantly affects permeability by comparing two uncemented, small-displacement, normal faults in New Mexico's central Rio Grande rift: one with a clay-rich core (displacement > bed thickness) and one without a clay-rich core (displacement < bed thickness). Using in situ permeametry and thin section analysis, permeability, porosity, and clay size fraction were mapped across undeformed and faulted sediments. Both fault zones display permeability values two to three orders of magnitude lower than those for undeformed sand. Clay size fraction increased four to five-fold over undeformed sand, even in the fault without a clay-rich core, and is inversely correlated with permeability. Our results indicate that small-displacement faults are much less permeable than their poorly lithified parent sediments and that permeability reduction is associated with an increase in clay size fraction, but does not depend solely on formation of a clay-rich core. Under saturated conditions these faults impede fluid flow, but may act as preferential flow paths through thick, dry vadose zones common in the arid Southwest. Numerous in extensional basins but typically not included on most geologic maps, such faults could significantly influence flow through basin-fill sediments.

  12. Great Basin paleontological database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, N.; Blodgett, R.B.; Hofstra, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has constructed a paleontological database for the Great Basin physiographic province that can be served over the World Wide Web for data entry, queries, displays, and retrievals. It is similar to the web-database solution that we constructed for Alaskan paleontological data (www.alaskafossil.org). The first phase of this effort was to compile a paleontological bibliography for Nevada and portions of adjacent states in the Great Basin that has recently been completed. In addition, we are also compiling paleontological reports (Known as E&R reports) of the U.S. Geological Survey, which are another extensive source of l,egacy data for this region. Initial population of the database benefited from a recently published conodont data set and is otherwise focused on Devonian and Mississippian localities because strata of this age host important sedimentary exhalative (sedex) Au, Zn, and barite resources and enormons Carlin-type An deposits. In addition, these strata are the most important petroleum source rocks in the region, and record the transition from extension to contraction associated with the Antler orogeny, the Alamo meteorite impact, and biotic crises associated with global oceanic anoxic events. The finished product will provide an invaluable tool for future geologic mapping, paleontological research, and mineral resource investigations in the Great Basin, making paleontological data acquired over nearly the past 150 yr readily available over the World Wide Web. A description of the structure of the database and the web interface developed for this effort are provided herein. This database is being used ws a model for a National Paleontological Database (which we am currently developing for the U.S. Geological Survey) as well as for other paleontological databases now being developed in other parts of the globe. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

  13. Water Resources Data, New Mexico, Water Year 1998. Volume 1. The Rio Grande Basin; the Mimbres River Basin; and the Tularosa Valley Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, David; Lange, Kathy M.; Beal, Linda

    1999-01-01

    for 26 lakes and reservoirs; water quality for 34 gaging stations, 23 wells, and 41 partial-record stations and miscellaneous sites;and water levels at 122 observation wells. Also included are 36 crest-stage, partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data- collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in New Mexico.

  14. Water Resources Data, New Mexico, Water Year 1999. Volume 1. The Rio Grande Basin; the Mimbres River Basin; and the Tularosa Valley Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, David; Lange, Kathy; Beal, Linda

    2000-01-01

    wells. Also included are 80 crest-stage, partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in New Mexico.

  15. Apollo Basin, Moon: Estimation of Impact Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echaurren, J. C.

    2015-07-01

    The Apollo Basin is a, pre-Nectarian, multi-ring basin located within the large South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA). Multispectral data from both Galileo and Clementine showed that the composition of materials in Apollo is distinct…

  16. Streamflow Estimation from Hydrologic Model Assimilation of Remotely Sensed Snow Information in Snowmelt Dominated Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressler, K. A.; Leavesley, G.; Bales, R.; Fassnacht, S.

    2004-12-01

    The USGS Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) hydrological model was used to evaluate the utility of experimental, gridded, 1-km2 snow covered area (SCA) and snow water equivalent (SWE) products in improving the modeling of snowmelt runoff from three headwater basins in the Southwestern United Sates. The SCA product was the fraction of each 1-km2 pixel covered by snow and was derived from NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer imagery. The SWE product was developed by combining the SCA product with SWE estimates interpolated from National Resources Conservation Service Snow Telemetry (SNOTEL) point measurements. An eight-year period (1995-2002) was used to compare PRMS simulated streamflow generated with and without the use of the SCA and SWE products. The test basins were the Upper Rio Grande (3,397 km2) in Colorado, and the White (1,634 km2) and Black (1,441 km2) which are tributaries to the Salt River in Arizona. In model runs using the SCA and SWE products, PRMS simulated SCA and SWE values were replaced with the SCA and SWE product values each time step the products were available. The simulated energy and mass balance states of PRMS were also adjusted based on the difference between the current model state and the assimilated estimate. The largest differences between PRMS simulations of SCA and SWE, and those estimated in the SCA and SWE products, occurred in the complex, higher elevation terrain. Simulated streamflow using the assimilated products were as much as 50% less than observed streamflow over the eight year period. The largest differences between observed streamflow and that simulated using the assimilated products occurred in the topographically complex Upper Rio Grande. Differences were smaller in the White and Black basins. Use of an averaging filter to smooth the SCA and SWE products prior to assimilation improved simulated streamflow volume, especially for the Upper Rio Grande basin

  17. Further analyses of Rio Cuarto impact glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Peter H.; Bunch, T. E.; Koeberl, C.; Collins, W.

    1993-01-01

    Initial analyses of the geologic setting, petrology, and geochemistry of glasses recovered from within and around the elongate Rio Cuarto (RC) craters in Argentina focused on selected samples in order to document the general similarity with impactites around other terrestrial impact craters and to establish their origin. Continued analysis has surveyed the diversity in compositions for a range of samples, examined further evidence for temperature and pressure history, and compared the results with experimentally fused loess from oblique hypervelocity impacts. These new results not only firmly establish their impact origin but provide new insight on the impact process.

  18. 77 FR 60904 - Safety Zone; Rio Vista Bass Derby Fireworks, Sacramento River, Rio Vista, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ...'' W (NAD 83). Upon commencement of the 15 minute fireworks display, scheduled to take place from 8:30... 38 09'18'' N, 121 41'15'' W (NAD 83) for the Rio Vista Bass Derby Fireworks in 33 CFR 165.1191....

  19. Advanced Chemistry Basins Model

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, Mario; Cathles, Lawrence; Manhardt, Paul; Meulbroek, Peter; Tang, Yongchun

    2003-02-13

    The objective of this project is to: (1) Develop a database of additional and better maturity indicators for paleo-heat flow calibration; (2) Develop maturation models capable of predicting the chemical composition of hydrocarbons produced by a specific kerogen as a function of maturity, heating rate, etc.; assemble a compositional kinetic database of representative kerogens; (3) Develop a 4 phase equation of state-flash model that can define the physical properties (viscosity, density, etc.) of the products of kerogen maturation, and phase transitions that occur along secondary migration pathways; (4) Build a conventional basin model and incorporate new maturity indicators and data bases in a user-friendly way; (5) Develop an algorithm which combines the volume change and viscosities of the compositional maturation model to predict the chemistry of the hydrocarbons that will be expelled from the kerogen to the secondary migration pathways; (6) Develop an algorithm that predicts the flow of hydrocarbons along secondary migration pathways, accounts for mixing of miscible hydrocarbon components along the pathway, and calculates the phase fractionation that will occur as the hydrocarbons move upward down the geothermal and fluid pressure gradients in the basin; and (7) Integrate the above components into a functional model implemented on a PC or low cost workstation.

  20. Atlantic marginal basins of Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G.T.

    1988-02-01

    The over 10,000-km long Atlantic margin of Africa is divisible into thirty basins or segments of the margin that collectively contain over 18.6 x 10/sup 6/ km/sup 3/ of syn-breakup and post-breakup sediments. Twenty of these basins contain a sufficiently thick volume of sediments to be considered prospects. These basins lie, at least partially, within the 200 m isobath. The distribution of source rocks is broad enough to give potential to each of these basins. The sedimentation patterns, tectonics, and timing of events differ from basin to basin and are related directly to the margin's complex history. Two spreading modes exist: rift and transform. Rifting dates from Late Triassic-Early Jurassic in the northwest to Early Cretaceous south of the Niger Delta. A complex transform fault system separated these two margins. Deep-water communication between the two basins became established in the middle Cretaceous. This Mesozoic-Cenozoic cycle of rifting and seafloor spreading has segmented the margin and where observable, basins tend to be bounded by these segments.

  1. MASSACHUSETTS DRAINAGE SUB-BASINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    MassGIS has produced a statewide digital datalayer of the approximately 2300 sub-basins as defined and used by the USGS Water Resources Division and the Mass Water Resources Commission and as modified by Executive Office of Environmental Affairs (EOEA) agencies. These sub-basins...

  2. Silviculture of eucaliptus plantations in the Paraiba do Sul basin, Brazil, and its potential implication on the basin ecohydrology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carriello, Felix; Andres Rodriguez, Daniel; Marques Neves, Otto; Vicens, Raul

    2014-05-01

    Silviculture of eucaliptus plantations is an important driver of the Mata Atlântica biome conversion into another land use in the Paraíba do Sul basin, in the southeastern of Brazil. This region is located in one of the most developed areas in Brazil, between Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, the most important cities in Brazil, linked by Presidente Dutra highway. Between both cities there are another cities that produce a variety of goods - from meat to planes, cars and mobile phones. This area is, at the same time, one the most important hot spot for the Mata Atlântica biome. Here we have a large Mata Atlântica fragment protected by law and others fragments being conversed to pasture, agriculture, silviculture and urban areas. Paraiba do Sul river drains the region and runs into Rio de Janeiro State. The basin is highly anthropized, with multiple approaches of its waters resources. Its waters also serve Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area. Because land use and land cover changes impact the water yield in a basin, the study of its dynamic its of great importance for water resources management. We study the land use and land cover change in the region between 1986 and 2010, focusing in the development of silviculture of eucaliptus plantations. We used the HAND (Height Above Nearest Drainage) approach that uses the height above the nearest water body, acquired from SRTM Data and transformed into a Terrain Numeric Mode, to classify the landscape into three different ecohydrological environments: floodplain, mountain top and hillslope. This classes were intersected with 1986 and 2010 land use and cover change classification obtained from Landsat imagery. Results show that silviculture has increased in the region from 1986 to 2010. In both years, silviculture areas are mainly located at the hillslope (47%), while floodplain and mountain top share 28 % and 23 % respectively. Available census data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, IBGE, for 1995 and

  3. Changes on the fine sediment dynamics after the Port of Rio Grande expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, P. D.; Lisboa, P. V.; Fernandes, E. H.

    2015-01-01

    The Patos Lagoon estuary is a reservoir of fine sediments derived from the continental basin, which is exported to the coastal area through a narrow channel with average discharge of 2000 m3 s-1. The Port of Rio Grande is located in this connection channel between the Patos Lagoon and the Atlantic Ocean, and recently received investments from the Brazilian Government to expand its draft and modify the configuration of the breakwaters located at the mouth. The objective of this study is to investigate changes in the fine sediment dynamics in the estuarine and coastal region, after the modernization work carried out at the Port of Rio Grande. The study was conducted using a three-dimensional numerical model (TELEMAC-3D) coupled with a sediment in suspension and morphological model (SediMorph). Results were analyzed in a comparative way in relation to the deposition pattern observed in these regions before and after the construction work. Results indicate that there was a change in the deposition pattern and redistribution of sediment at the bottom due to hydrodynamic changes resulting from the new configuration of the breakwaters and progressive deepening of the access channel.

  4. Paleomagnetism and tectonic interpretations of the Taos Plateau volcanic field, Rio Grande rift, New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Laurie L.; Caffall, Nancy M.; Golombek, Matthew P.

    1993-01-01

    The tectonic response of the Taos Plateau volcanic field in the southern San Luis basin to late stage extensional environment of the Rio Grande rift was investigate using paleomagnetic techniques. Sixty-two sites (533 samples) of Pliocene volcanic units were collected covering four major rock types with ages of 4.7 to 1.8 Ma. Twenty-two of these sites were from stratigraphic sections of the lower, middle and upper Servilleta Basalt collected in the Rio Grande gorge at two locations 19 km apart. Flows from the lower and middle members in the southern gorge record reversed polarities, while those in Garapata Canyon are normal with an excursion event in the middle of the sequence. The uppermost flows of the upper member at both sites display normal directions. Although these sections correlate chemically, they seem to represent different magnetic time periods during the Gilbert Reversed-Polarity Chron. The data suggest the Taos Plateau volcanic field, showing no rotation and some flattening in the south and east, has acted as a stable buttress and has been downwarped by overriding of the southeastern end of the plateau by the Picuris Mountains, which make up the northern corner of the counter-clockwise rotating Espanola block.

  5. Hydrologic budget of the late Oligocene Lake Creede and the evolution of the upper Rio Grande drainage system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Paul B.; Steven, Thomas A.; Hayba, Daniel O.

    2000-01-01

    The filling history, hydrologic budget, and geomorphic development of ancient Lake Creede and its tributary basin are evaluated to determine the factors that controlled its character. The lake filled the Creede caldera that formed in the late Oligocene as a consequence of the eruption of the Snowshoe Mountain Tuff. The caldera's sedimentary fill accumlated to a depth of about 1.26 km and had a volume of about 89 km3. The highest lake level was ~3300 m (10,800 ft) present altitude before it drained eastward across a broad volcanic plateau as the ancestral Rio Grande. A tributary canyon several hundred meters deep was cut into hard rhyolite in the north wall of the caldera before the lake was more than half full; its presence demonstrates that ancient Lake Creede filled slowly and thus occupied a long-lived, closed basin. The slow filling rate is incompatible with the present water flux through the Creede caldera basin, because such a flow would fill the basin geologically instantaneously. This mismatch, together with the recognition that the Oligocene climate was similar to that of today, forces the reexamination of the hydrologic and geomorphic history of the caldera. That appraisal shows that the caldera cannot have resurged rapidly immediately after caldera collapse, and that ancient watershed must have been lass than half as large as the present upper Rio Grande basin. The ancient lake had a more or less constant surface area of about 200 km2 that approximated a steady-state condition between inflow and evaporation. Although the lake level fluctuated with climatic variations, its surface elevation steadily climbed as sediment accumulated, accelerating as resurgance and dome growth usurped spacewithin the basin. It could have had one playa stage early in its development and another after the basin had nearly filled with sediment, but there is no direct evidence for either. At least the lower half of the sedimentary column (the part sampled by the scientific

  6. Estancia Basin dynamic water budget.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Richard P.

    2004-09-01

    The Estancia Basin lies about 30 miles to the east of Albuquerque, NM. It is a closed basin in terms of surface water and is somewhat isolated in terms of groundwater. Historically, the primary natural outlet for both surface water and groundwater has been evaporation from the salt lakes in the southeastern portion of the basin. There are no significant watercourses that flow into this basin and groundwater recharge is minimal. During the 20th Century, agriculture grew to become the major user of groundwater in the basin. Significant declines in groundwater levels have accompanied this agricultural use. Domestic and municipal use of the basin groundwater is increasing as Albuquerque population continues to spill eastward into the basin, but this use is projected to be less than 1% of agricultural use well into the 21st Century. This Water Budget model keeps track of the water balance within the basin. The model considers the amount of water entering the basin and leaving the basin. Since there is no significant surface water component within this basin, the balance of water in the groundwater aquifer constitutes the primary component of this balance. Inflow is based on assumptions for recharge made by earlier researchers. Outflow from the basin is the summation of the depletion from all basin water uses. The model user can control future water use within the basin via slider bars that set values for population growth, water system per-capita use, agricultural acreage, and the types of agricultural diversion. The user can also adjust recharge and natural discharge within the limits of uncertainty for those parameters. The model runs for 100 years beginning in 1940 and ending in 2040. During the first 55 years model results can be compared to historical data and estimates of groundwater use. The last 45 years are predictive. The model was calibrated to match to New Mexico Office of State Engineer (NMOSE) estimates of aquifer storage during the historical period by

  7. Paleomobility in the Tiwanaku diaspora: biogeochemical analyses at Rio Muerto, Moquegua, Peru.

    PubMed

    Knudson, Kelly J; Goldstein, Paul S; Dahlstedt, Allisen; Somerville, Andrew; Schoeninger, Margaret J

    2014-11-01

    Paleomobility has been a key element in the study of the expansion of ancient states and empires, including the Tiwanaku polity of the South Central Andes (AD 500-1000). We present radiogenic strontium and oxygen isotope data from human burials from three cemeteries in the Tiwanaku-affiliated Middle Horizon archaeological site complex of Rio Muerto in the Moquegua Valley of southern Peru. At Rio Muerto, archaeological human enamel and bone values range from (87) Sr/(86) Sr = 0.70657-0.72018, with a mean of (87) Sr/(86) Sr = 0.70804 ± 0.00207 (1σ, n = 55). For the subset of samples analyzed for oxygen isotope values (n = 48), the data ranges from δ(18) Ocarbonate(VSMOW)  = +18.1 to +27.0‰. When contextualized with other lines of archaeological evidence, we interpret these data as evidence for an archaeological population in which the majority of individuals had "local" origins, and were likely second-generation, or more, immigrants from the Tiwanaku heartland in the altiplano. Based on detailed life history data, we argue a smaller number of individuals came at different ages from various regions within the Tiwanaku polity. We consider whether these individuals with isotopic values consistent with "nonlocal" geographic origins could represent first-generation migrants, marriage exchange partners, or occupationally mobile herders, traders or other travelers. By combining isotopic life history studies with mortuary treatment data, we use a person-centered migration history approach to state integration and expansion. Isotopic analyses of paleomobility at the Rio Muerto site complex contribute to the role of diversity in ancient states by demonstrating the range of geographic origins rather than simply colonists from the Lake Titicaca Basin. PMID:25066931

  8. Stratigraphic modeling of sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Aigner, T. ); Lawrence, D.T. )

    1990-11-01

    A two-dimensional stratigraphic forward model has been successfully applied and calibrated in clastic, carbonate, and mixed clastic/carbonate regimes. Primary input parameters are subsidence, sea level, volume of clastics, and carbonate growth potential. Program output includes sequence geometries, facies distribution lithology distribution, chronostratigraphic plots, burial history plots, thermal and maturity histories, and crossplots. The program may be used to predict reservoir distribution, to constrain interpretations of well and seismic data, to rapidly test exploration scenarios in frontier basins, and to evaluate the fundamental controls on observed basin stratigraphy. Applications to data sets from Main Pass (US Gulf Coast), Offshore Sarawak (Malaysia), Rub'al Khali basin (Oman), Paris basin (France), and Baltimore Canyon (US East Coast) demonstrate that the program can be used to simulate stratigraphy on a basin-wide scale as well as on the scale of individual prospects.

  9. Knowledge and understanding of dissolved solids in the Rio Grande–San Acacia, New Mexico, to Fort Quitman, Texas, and plan for future studies and monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyer, Douglas; Anderholm, Scott K.; Hogan, James F.; Phillips, Fred M.; Hibbs, Barry J.; Witcher, James C.; Matherne, Anne Marie; Falk, Sarah E.

    2013-01-01

    Availability of water in the Rio Grande Basin has long been a primary concern for water-resource managers. The transport and delivery of water in the basin have been engineered by using reservoirs, irrigation canals and drains, and transmountain-water diversions to meet the agricultural, residential, and industrial demand. In contrast, despite the widespread recognition of critical water-quality problems, there have been minimal management efforts to improve water quality in the Rio Grande. Of greatest concern is salinization (concentration of dissolved solids approaching 1,000 mg/L), a water-quality problem that has been recognized and researched for more than 100 years because of the potential to limit both agricultural and municipal use. To address the issue of salinization, water-resource managers need to have a clear conceptual understanding of the sources of salinity and the factors that control storage and transport, identify critical knowledge gaps in this conceptual understanding, and develop a research plan to address these gaps and develop a salinity management program. In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), New Mexico Interstate Stream Commission (NMISC), and New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) initiated a project to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the transport of dissolved solids in the Rio Grande between San Acacia, New Mexico, and Fort Quitman, Texas. The primary objective is to provide hydrologic information pertaining to the spatial and temporal variability present in the concentrations and loads of dissolved solids in the Rio Grande, the source-specific budget for the mass of dissolved solids transported along the Rio Grande, and the locations at which dissolved solids enter the Rio Grande. Dissolved-solids concentration data provide a good indicator of the general quality of surface water and provide information on the factors governing salinization within

  10. The deep Ionian Basin revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tugend, Julie; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Arsenikos, Stavros; Frizon de Lamotte, Dominique; Blanpied, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The deep Eastern Mediterranean Basins (Ionian and Herodotus) are characterized by thick sedimentary sequences overlying an extremely thinned basement evidenced from different geophysical methods. Yet, the nature of the crust (continental or oceanic) and the timing of the extreme crustal and lithosphere thinning in the different sub-basins remain highly controversial, casting doubts on the tectonic setting related to the formation of this segment of the North Gondwana paleo-margin. We focus on the Ionian Basin located at the western termination of the Eastern Mediterranean with the aim of identifying, characterizing and mapping the deepest sedimentary sequences. We present tentative age correlations relying on calibrations and observations from the surrounding margins and basins (Malta shelf and Escarpment, Cyrenaica margin, Sirte Basin, Apulian Platform). Two-ship deep refraction seismic data (Expanding Spread Profiles from the PASIPHAE cruise) combined with reprocessed reflection data (from the ARCHIMEDE survey) enabled us to present a homogeneous seismic stratigraphy across the basin and to investigate the velocity structure of its basement. Based on our results, and on a review of geological and geophysical observations, we suggest an Upper Triassic-Early Dogger age for the formation of the deep Ionian Basin. The nature of the underlying basement remains uncertain, both highly-thinned continental and slow-spreading type oceanic crust being compatible with the available constraints. The narrow size and relatively short-lived evolution of the Ionian Basin lead us to suggest that it is more likely the remnant of an immature oceanic basin than of a stable oceanic domain. Eventually, upscaling these results at the scale of the Eastern Mediterranean Basins highlights the complex interaction observed between two propagating oceans: The Central Atlantic and Neo-Tethys.

  11. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1): Basin Characteristics, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    -Red-Rainy River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 4, 5, 7 and 9. MRB4, covering the Missouri River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 10-lower and 10-upper. MRB5, covering the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 8, 11 and 12. MRB6, covering the Rio Grande, Colorado and Great Basin River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 13, 14, 15 and 16. MRB7, covering the Pacific Northwest River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Unit 17. MRB8, covering California River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Unit 18.

  12. RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Caldwell

    1998-04-01

    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies to

  13. Dissolved Solids in Basin-Fill Aquifers and Streams in the Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anning, David W.; Bauch, Nancy J.; Gerner, Steven J.; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Hamlin, Scott N.; Moore, Stephanie J.; Schaefer, Donald H.; Anderholm, Scott K.; Spangler, Lawrence E.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program performed a regional study in the Southwestern United States (Southwest) to describe the status and trends of dissolved solids in basin-fill aquifers and streams and to determine the natural and human factors that affect dissolved solids. Basin-fill aquifers, which include the Rio Grande aquifer system, Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers, and California Coastal Basin aquifers, are the most extensively used ground-water supplies in the Southwest. Rivers, such as the Colorado, the Rio Grande, and their tributaries, are also important water supplies, as are several smaller river systems that drain internally within the Southwest, or drain externally to the Pacific Ocean in southern California. The study included four components that characterize (1) the spatial distribution of dissolved-solids concentrations in basin-fill aquifers, and dissolved-solids concentrations, loads, and yields in streams; (2) natural and human factors that affect dissolved-solids concentrations; (3) major sources and areas of accumulation of dissolved solids; and (4) trends in dissolved-solids concentrations over time in basin-fill aquifers and streams, and the relation of trends to natural or human factors. Dissolved-solids concentrations of ground water in the basin-fill aquifers of the Southwest ranged from less than 500 milligrams per liter near basin margins where ground water is recharged from nearby mountains to more than 10,000 milligrams per liter in topographically low areas of some basins or in areas adjacent to specific streams or rivers in the Basin and Range and Rio Grande aquifer systems. The area of the basin-fill aquifer systems with dissolved-solids concentrations less than or equal to 500 milligrams per liter was about 57 percent for the Rio Grande aquifer system, 63 percent for the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers, and 44 percent for the California Coastal Basin aquifers. At least 70 percent of the

  14. Golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) distribution in the main hydrographical basins of Uruguay: update and predictions.

    PubMed

    Brugnoli, Ernesto; Clemente, Juan; Boccardi, Lucía; Borthagaray, Ana; Scarabino, Fabrizio

    2005-06-01

    Limnoperna fortunei, an Asiatic rivers bivalve has become a worldwide problematic invasive species causing several water quality and macrofouling problems. In the Neotropical region it was first recorded in 1991 in the Rio de la Plata coast, Buenos Aires province. Since this, it showed a quick upstream invasion into the principals aquatic systems of the Plata Basin. Nevertheless, there is not a study about its invasion and distribution process in aquatic systems of Uruguay. We describe the new records of Limnoperna fortunei in Uruguayan coast of Rio de la Plata, Santa Lucia, Negro and Uruguay Rivers. With these results we aim to estimate its distributional limits for Uruguay main hydrographical basins. We also deal with the role of salinity as the main abiotic factor in limiting the east distribution of this mussel in Uruguayan coast of Rio de la Plata and as a potential determinant of the "new" colonization on the Atlantic and the Merin Lagoon Basins. Its presence in the ecosystems not only can cause changes at the ecosystem level but also endanger the associated community, favoring the displacement and the disappearance of endemic species. PMID:15895160

  15. A lithospheric investigation of the Southern Rio Grande Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averill, Matthew George

    2007-12-01

    The crustal structure of the Rio Grande Rift is an important link to the understanding of mantle, crustal and surface processes associated with continental rift environments. We present a model for the crustal velocity structure of the rift derived from the analysis of seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection data acquired during the Potrillo Volcanic Field (PVF) experiment in May 2003. The 205 km long profile, consisting of 8 shots and 793 receivers across southern New Mexico and Far West Texas, was designed as a detailed seismic investigation of the structure and composition of the Southern Rio Grande Rift (SRGR) and the Potrillo Volcanic field, a very recent and well-known xenolith locale. Our results provide several new insights into the structure of the SRGR, including: (1) A new detailed cross-section of the basins and range structure across southern New Mexico into Far West Texas; (2) evidence for slightly thicker crust (˜30--31 km) in the SRGR than previously modeled with little overall topography on the Moho; (3) a highly complex upper-crustal velocity structure underlying the PVF, that includes several high velocity bodies between 5 and 10 km depth; (4) increased seismic reflectivity within the crust and at the Moho interface concentrated below the PVF and; (5) a dramatic step in a mid-crustal interface from west to east indicating a thickening of the mid-crust below the PVF. Interpretation of our velocity results is complimented by use gravity modeling, magnetic and heat flow data and xenolith studies. Furthermore, the resolution of our model has been analyzed using a new approach to determine velocity uncertainty in tomographic modeling. Along the profile, the velocity structure of the upper 3--5 km reflects the basins and ranges of this recently extended area. Basin fill ranges in velocity from 2.5 to 4.5 km/s. In the ranges, velocities are 4.7 to 5.3 km/s and reflect uplifted Paleozoic sedimentary rock. A middle crust interface marks the transition

  16. Equilibrium and Disequilibrium of River Basins: Effects on Stream Captures in Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DA Silva, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Landscapes are mainly driven by river processes that control the dynamic reorganization of networks. Discovering and identifying whether river basins are in geometric equilibrium or disequilibrium requires an analysis of water divides, channels that shift laterally or expand upstream and river captures. Issues specifically discussed include the variation of drainage area change and erosion rates of the basins. In southeastern Brazil there are two main escarpments with extensive geomorphic surfaces: Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira Mountains. These landscapes are constituted of Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic rocks, presenting steep escarpments with low-elevation coastal plains and higher elevation interior plateaus. To identify whether river basins and river profiles are in equilibrium or disequilibrium in Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira Mountains, we used the proxy (χ), evaluating the effect of drainage area change and erosion rates. We selected basins that drain both sides of these two main escarpments (oceanic and continental sides) and have denudation rates derived from pre-existing cosmogenic isotopes data (Rio de Janeiro, Paraná and Minas Gerais). Despite being an ancient and tectonically stable landscape, part of the coastal plain of Serra do Mar Mountain in Rio de Janeiro and Paraná is in geometric disequilibrium, with water divides moving in the direction of higher χ values. To achieve equilibrium, some basins located in the continental side are retracting and disappearing, losing area to the coastal basins. On the contrary, there are some adjacent sub-basins that are close to equilibrium, without strong contrasts in χ values. The same pattern was observed in Serra da Mantiqueira (Minas Gerais state), with stream captures and river network reorganization in its main rivers. The initial results suggest a strong contrast between erosion rates in the continental and the oceanic portions of the escarpments.

  17. Aleutian basin oceanic crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christeson, Gail L.; Barth, Ginger A.

    2015-01-01

    We present two-dimensional P-wave velocity structure along two wide-angle ocean bottom seismometer profiles from the Aleutian basin in the Bering Sea. The basement here is commonly considered to be trapped oceanic crust, yet there is a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features within the basin that might reflect later processes. Line 1 extends ∼225 km from southwest to northeast, while Line 2 extends ∼225 km from northwest to southeast and crosses the observed change in magnetic lineation orientation. Velocities of the sediment layer increase from 2.0 km/s at the seafloor to 3.0–3.4 km/s just above basement, crustal velocities increase from 5.1–5.6 km/s at the top of basement to 7.0–7.1 km/s at the base of the crust, and upper mantle velocities are 8.1–8.2 km/s. Average sediment thickness is 3.8–3.9 km for both profiles. Crustal thickness varies from 6.2 to 9.6 km, with average thickness of 7.2 km on Line 1 and 8.8 km on Line 2. There is no clear change in crustal structure associated with a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features. The velocity structure is consistent with that of normal or thickened oceanic crust. The observed increase in crustal thickness from west to east is interpreted as reflecting an increase in melt supply during crustal formation.

  18. The Role of Climatic Variability on Rio Grande Salinity and Water Balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, J. F.; Phillips, F. M.

    2008-12-01

    The upper Rio Grande/ Rio Bravo extends ~1,200 km between its headwaters in southern Colorado (USA) and the USA/Mexico border region. Like many arid region rivers, it exhibits reductions in streamflow and degrading water quality with distance downstream as a result of decreasing inflows, increasing evapotranspiration, and the addition of natural and anthropogenic solutes. From 2000 to 2007 we conducted detailed biannual synoptic sampling of the Rio Grande from its headwaters in Colorado to ~150 km south of El Paso, Texas to evaluate how these processes result in the observed basin-scale water and solute balances. This period coincides with a severe regional drought, as well as the 8th wettest summer monsoon in the region, allowing us to assess how basin processes which control water quality respond to periods of climatic variability. We employed multiple environmental tracers to help identify dominant hydrological processes and the causes of salinization. Our O and H isotopic results indicate that runoff from high-elevation areas in Colorado and northern New Mexico - primarily as snowmelt - is the dominant source of river water, although runoff from summer precipitation can be locally and seasonally significant. This water then exhibits progressive evaporation with distance downstream, with the greatest evaporation occurring at Elephant Butte Reservoir. At the same time, the total dissolved solids content (TDS) increases from less than 50 mg/L in headwaters of Colorado to over 2000 mg/L south of El Paso, Texas. Water balance estimates and our O and H isotope results indicate that evapotranspiration alone is not sufficient to explain the salinization. The results of our synoptic surveys found that salinity did not increase as a simple function of distance downriver but rather occurred in a series of steps, identified as discharge of deep, saline, ground water. During the course of the drought we observed a progressive increase in salt concentrations and more

  19. K-Basins design guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Roe, N.R.; Mills, W.C.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the design guidelines is to enable SNF and K Basin personnel to complete fuel and sludge removal, and basin water mitigation by providing engineering guidance for equipment design for the fuel basin, facility modifications (upgrades), remote tools, and new processes. It is not intended to be a purchase order reference for vendors. The document identifies materials, methods, and components that work at K Basins; it also Provides design input and a technical review process to facilitate project interfaces with operations in K Basins. This document is intended to compliment other engineering documentation used at K Basins and throughout the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. Significant provisions, which are incorporated, include portions of the following: General Design Criteria (DOE 1989), Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Engineering Practices Guidelines (WHC 1994b), Hanford Plant Standards (DOE-RL 1989), Safety Analysis Manual (WHC-CM-4-46), and Radiological Design Guide (WHC 1994f). Documents (requirements) essential to the engineering design projects at K Basins are referenced in the guidelines.

  20. 75 FR 32359 - Upper Rio Grande Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Forest Service Upper Rio Grande Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Upper Rio Grande Resource Advisory Committee will meet in South Fork... members and Forest Service personnel. (2) Selection of a chairperson by the committee members. (3)...

  1. GO RIO: Achieving Universal Access to Mass Transit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Ted, Jr.; Castaneda-Calleros, Russell

    2009-01-01

    GO RIO is a universal access, mass-transit program that has been offered to all students who are registered full-time at Rio Hondo College. Through an agreement with five local transit agencies, full-time students can obtain a pass that provides full access seven days a week throughout the entire semester.

  2. Dust-on-snow and the Timing of Peak Streamflow in the Upper Rio Grande

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, C. M.; Elias, E.; Moffitt, A.; Beltran, I.; Rango, A.

    2015-12-01

    Dust radiative forcing on high elevation snowpack is well-documented in the southern Rockies. Various field studies show that dust deposits decrease snow albedo and increase absorption of solar radiation, leading to earlier snowmelt and peak stream flows. These findings have implications for the use of temperature-index snow runoff models (such as the Snowmelt Runoff Model [SRM]) for predicting streamflow. In previous work, we have used SRM to simulate historical streamflow from 26 Upper Rio Grande sub-basins. Because dust radiative forcing can alter the relation between temperature and snowmelt, we wanted to find out if there is evidence of dust radiative forcing and earlier snowmelt in our study basins, particularly for those years where SRM was less successful in simulating streamflow. To accomplish this we have used openly-available data such as EPA air quality station measurements of particulate matter up to 10 micrometers (PM10); streamflow data from the USGS National Water Information System and Colorado Division of Water Resources; temperature, precipitation and snow water equivalent (SWE) from NRCS SNOTEL stations and remotely sensed data products from the MODIS sensor. Initial analyses indicate that a connection between seasonal dust concentration and streamflow timing (date of onset of warm-season snowmelt, date of streamflow center-of-volume) can be detected. This is further supported by time series analysis of MODIS-derived estimates of snow albedo and dust radiative-forcing in alpine and open subalpine snow fields.

  3. Ground-Water Temperature, Noble Gas, and Carbon Isotope Data from the Espanola Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, Andrew H.

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water samples were collected from 56 locations throughout the Espanola Basin and analyzed for general chemistry (major ions and trace elements), carbon isotopes (delta 13C and 14C activity) in dissolved inorganic carbon, noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, and 3He/4He ratio), and tritium. Temperature profiles were measured at six locations in the southeastern part of the basin. Temperature profiles suggest that ground water generally becomes warmer with distance from the mountains and that most ground-water flow occurs at depths 50 years old, consistent with the 14C ages. Terrigenic He (Heterr) concentrations in ground water are high (log Delta Heterr of 2 to 5) throughout much of the basin. High Heterr concentrations are probably caused by in situ production in the Tesuque Formation from locally high concentrations of U-bearing minerals (Northeast zone only), or by upward diffusive/advective transport of crustal- and mantle-sourced He possibly enhanced by basement piercing faults, or by both. The 3He/4He ratio of Heterr (Rterr) is commonly high (Rterr/Ra of 0.3-2.0, where Ra is the 3He/4He ratio in air) suggesting that Espanola Basin ground water commonly contains mantle-sourced He. The 3He/4He ratio of Heterr is generally the highest in the western and southern parts of the basin, closest to the western border fault system and the Quaternary to Miocene volcanics of the Jemez Mountains and Cerros del Rio.

  4. Glacial geologic confirmation of an intraplate boundary, in the Paraná basin of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyles, N.; Eyles, C. H.

    1993-05-01

    The predrift fit of South America and Africa remains problematic given the inability to match all parts of the coastlines simultaneously. Early opening of the South Atlantic Ocean may have been facilitated by intraplate deformation in either South America or Africa, but the location of such deformation is controversial and poorly constrained. Broad-scale remote sensing has suggested an intraplate boundary in South America, stretching from the Cochabamba bend in the Andes to the Rio Grande-Walvis rise, but the inferred boundary crosses the Paranaá basin of Brazil where any evidence of deformation is obscured by Late Jurassic flood basalts. A subsurface study of the upper Paleozoic glaciogenic infill of the Paranaá basin (the 1300-m-thick Itarare Group; ca. 300-260 Ma) identifies repeated episodes of intracratonic rifting on either side of an accommodation zone crossing the basin along the trend of the inferred intraplate boundary. Renewed influence of this zone during the opening of the South Atlantic is suggested by the asymmetric distribution of successive magma units within the Serra Geral lava pile and by the trend of dike swarms. The intraplate boundary identified within the Paranaá basin may extend westward along the northern margin of the Chaco basin in Bolivia.

  5. Solute Sources and Budget for the Rio Grande above El Paso, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, J. F.; Phillips, F. M.; Hendrickx, J. M.

    2001-12-01

    Issues of water quality, especially salinity, limit the use of water resources from the Rio Grande. Identification and quantification of salinity sources is critical for improved river management. In the headwater region salts are typically derived from atmospheric deposition and chemical weathering reactions. Salinity increases during transit may result from both natural (saline groundwater, hydrothermal springs and dissolution of evaporite deposits) and anthropogenic (agricultural return flow and wastewater from sewage treatment plants) sources. These increases are magnified by evapotranspiration (this includes evaporation from open water, transpiration from irrigated agriculture and transpiration from natural riparian areas). With multiple salinity sources and evapotranspiration acting simultaneously, understanding the solute balance for the Rio Grande at a level needed for improved river management is difficult. We have conducted synoptic sampling of the Rio Grande from the headwaters in Colorado to south of El Paso, Texas. Sampling was conducted in January and August of 2000 and 2001. The total dissolved solids content (TDS) of the Rio Grande increases from < 50 mg/L in headwater regions of Colorado to > 2000 mg/L south of El Paso, Texas. The Cl/Br (wt/wt) ratio for river water increases from ~50 in the headwaters (typical for atmospheric deposition) to ~700 in the lower basin. This increase in Cl/Br ratio demonstrates the importance of additional salinity sources. Three end-members are recognized using Cl/Br mixing plots for winter samples: atmospheric deposition, a hydrothermal end-member localized around Truth of Consequences, NM, and a third end-member that may represent groundwater. Samples collected during the summer months are shifted off the winter mixing lines indicating concentration through ET. Increases in salinity were not a simple function of distance downriver, but rather occurred in a series of steps. Some of these steps are correlated with

  6. Basin development and petroleum potential of offshore Otway basin, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, P.E.; O'Brien, G.W.; Swift, M.G.; Scherl, A.S.; Marlow, M.S.; Exon, N.F.; Falvey, D.A.; Lock, J.; Lockwood, K.

    1987-05-01

    The Bass Strait region in southeastern Australia contains three sedimentary basins, which are, from east to west, the Gippsland, Bass, and Otway basins. The offshore Gippsland basin is Australia's most prolific petroleum-producing province and supplies over 90% of the country's production. In contrast, exploration has been unsuccessful in the offshore portion of the Otway basin; 17 wells have been drilled, and although shows of oil and gas have been common, no commercial discoveries have been made. Many of these wells, drilled in the 1960s and 1970s, were sited using poor-quality seismic data and, as a consequence, were frequently off structure. Seismic data quality has, however, improved significantly in recent years. The present study by the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources (BMR) involved the collection, in the offshore Otway basin, of 3700 km of high-quality, 48-channel seismic reflection data by the BMR research vessel R/V Rig Seismic. These data have been integrated with existing industry seismic data, well data, limited dredged material, and geohistory analyses in a framework study of basin development and hydrocarbon potential in this under-explored area. The offshore Otway basin extends 500 km along the southern coastline and is typically 50 km wide in water depths of less than 200 m. It contains up to 10 km of predominantly late Mesozoic to early Cenozoic sediments, which are overlain by a thin sequence of middle to late Tertiary shelf carbonates. It has been divided into three main structural elements: the Mussel Platform in the east, the central Voluta Trough, and the Crayfish Platform in the west. The basin was initiated at the end of the Jurassic as part of the Bassian rift. Up to 6 km of Lower Cretaceous sediments were deposited prior to breakup at the end of the Early Cretaceous and the onset of sea-floor spreading between Australia and Antarctica.

  7. Chemodiversity of dissolved organic matter in the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonsior, Michael; Valle, Juliana; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Hertkorn, Norbert; Bastviken, David; Luek, Jenna; Harir, Mourad; Bastos, Wanderley; Enrich-Prast, Alex

    2016-07-01

    Regions in the Amazon Basin have been associated with specific biogeochemical processes, but a detailed chemical classification of the abundant and ubiquitous dissolved organic matter (DOM), beyond specific indicator compounds and bulk measurements, has not yet been established. We sampled water from different locations in the Negro, Madeira/Jamari and Tapajós River areas to characterize the molecular DOM composition and distribution. Ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) combined with excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) revealed a large proportion of ubiquitous DOM but also unique area-specific molecular signatures. Unique to the DOM of the Rio Negro area was the large abundance of high molecular weight, diverse hydrogen-deficient and highly oxidized molecular ions deviating from known lignin or tannin compositions, indicating substantial oxidative processing of these ultimately plant-derived polyphenols indicative of these black waters. In contrast, unique signatures in the Madeira/Jamari area were defined by presumably labile sulfur- and nitrogen-containing molecules in this white water river system. Waters from the Tapajós main stem did not show any substantial unique molecular signatures relative to those present in the Rio Madeira and Rio Negro, which implied a lower organic molecular complexity in this clear water tributary, even after mixing with the main stem of the Amazon River. Beside ubiquitous DOM at average H / C and O / C elemental ratios, a distinct and significant unique DOM pool prevailed in the black, white and clear water areas that were also highly correlated with EEM-PARAFAC components and define the frameworks for primary production and other aspects of aquatic life.

  8. 78 FR 35639 - Establishment of the Rio Mora National Wildlife Refuge and Rio Mora Conservation Area, Colfax...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... Conservation Area, Colfax, Mora, and San Miguel Counties, NM AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior...) has established the Rio Mora National Wildlife Refuge and Conservation Area as a unit of the National Wildlife Refuge System. The Service established the Rio Mora National Wildlife Refuge and Conservation...

  9. Martian lake basins and lacustrine plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Hon, R. A.

    1992-02-01

    A classification of Martian lake basins based on the location of the basin in respect to water sources is proposed. The classes are type 1: valley-head basins; type 2: intravalley basins; type 3: valley-terminal basins; and type 4: isolated basins. Martian lakes are ephemeral features. Many craters and irregular depressions impounded water only until the basins filled and overflowed. Water escaping by spillover rapidly cut crevasses in the downstream side of basins and drained the ponds. Clastic lacustrine sediments collected in the lakes as flowing water lost velocity and turbulence. Evaporitic deposits may be significant in those basins that were not rapidly drained. Sediments deposited in lake basins form smooth, featureless plains. Lacustrine plains are potentially candidate sites for Mars landings and for the search for evidence of ancient life.

  10. Remnants of the late Eocene erosion surface in the region between the Kaibab uplift and the Rio Grande rift

    SciTech Connect

    Ely, R.W. )

    1993-04-01

    A widespread low-relief erosion surface is thought to have formed in the Colorado Plateau region during the late Eocene between the end of the Laramide orogeny and the beginning of widespread Oligocene volcanism. The present configuration of the late-Eocene surface (LES) is depicted on east-west cross sections that extend from the Kaibab uplift to the Rio Grande rift. The LES is best preserved underneath the Oligocene Chuska Sandstone on the Defiance uplift at about 8,000 ft. MSL. The Chuska is an aeolian arkose that contains rhyolitic ash beds, and was eroded to hilly surface by 30 my ago prior to eruption of the Navajo volcanic field. To the north, the Paleocene Carrizo Mtns. intrusive appear to have been an isolated upland that stood above surrounding plains during the late Eocene. To the west, the north rim of Black Mesa is close to the elevation of the LES on the Defiance Plateau. Siliceous lag-gravels on the rim of Black Mesa may have been derived from sediments originally deposited on the LES. Farther west the Kaibab uplift rises above 9,000 ft. MSL for 14 miles along its crest. The Kaibab uplift probably was a karst plateau that stood above alluviated late Eocene lowlands to the east, north and west. East of the Defiance Plateau, the early Eocene San Jose Formation of the San Juan basin is preserved at elevations as high as 7,500 ft. under the eastern part of the basin, and as high as 8,450 ft. along the deformed eastern flank of the basin. Several thousand feet of middle Eocene deposits probably were once present in the basin. Several thousand feet of middle Eocene deposits probably were once present in the basin, putting the LES at about 9,000--10,000 ft MSL along the eastern side.

  11. Tectonic framework of Turkish sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, P.O. )

    1988-08-01

    Turkey's exploration potential primarily exists in seven onshore (Southeast Turkey platform, Tauride platform, Pontide platform, East Anatolian platform, Interior, Trace, and Adana) basins and four offshore (Black Sea, Marmara Sea, Aegean Sea, and Mediterranean Sea) regional basins formed during the Mesozoic and Tertiary. The Mesozoic basins are the onshore basins: Southeast Turkey, Tauride, Pontide, East Anatolian, and Interior basins. Due to their common tectonic heritage, the southeast Turkey and Tauride basins have similar source rocks, structural growth, trap size, and structural styles. In the north, another Mesozoic basin, the Pontide platform, has a much more complex history and very little in common with the southerly basins. The Pontide has two distinct parts; the west has Paleozoic continental basement and the east is underlain by island-arc basement of Jurassic age. The plays are in the upper Mesozoic rocks in the west Pontide. The remaining Mesozoic basins of the onshore Interior and East Anatolian basins are poorly known and very complex. Their source, reservoir, and seal are not clearly defined. The basins formed during several orogenic phases in mesozoic and Tertiary. The Cenozoic basins are the onshore Thrace and Adana basins, and all offshore regional basins formed during Miocene extension. Further complicating the onshore basins evolution is the superposition of Cenozoic basins and Mesozoic basins. The Thrace basin in the northwest and Adana basin in the south both originate from Tertiary extension over Tethyan basement and result in a similar source, reservoir, and seal. Local strike-slip movement along the North Anatolian fault modifies the Thrace basin structures, influencing its hydrocarbon potential.

  12. Gravity and Magnetotelluric Modeling of the Santo Domingo Basin, Northern New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamudio, K. D.; Keithline, N.; Blum, C.; Cunningham, E.; Fromont, A.; Jorgensen, M.; Lee, R.; McBride, K.; Saez Berrios, P.; Harper, C.; Pellerin, L.; McPhee, D.; Ferguson, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Santo Domingo Basin, one of a series of basins within the Rio Grande Rift, is located between Santa Fe and Albuquerque, NM, and has been the focus of research by the Summer of Geophysical Experience (SAGE) program since 2000. Gravity, magnetotelluric (MT), and seismic data have been collected throughout the region, although we are concentrating on gravity and MT data collected during SAGE 2014 and 2015. The study area is located in the center of the Santo Domingo basin, an extensional, Miocene age, rift basin, in an area that was minimally involved in the preceding local Laramide orogenic activity. Rift sediments (~3.5 km thick) are underlain by Eocene age sediments that were shed from adjacent uplifts. Up to 3 km of Mesozoic and Paleozoic sediments are preserved above the Precambrian basement. Geologic outcrop, borehole and seismic reflection data, and known density values were used in the construction of a ~100 km-long, generalized geologic cross section from which a gravity response was calculated. The modeled gravity response makes fairly definitive predictions about the geometry of the basin as well as the stratigraphy and faulting within and bounding the basin. MT data was collected at ten stations within the basin. The MT sounding curves exhibit one-dimensional behavior at short periods (<10 s), not surprisingly considering the relatively flat local structure in the area. Layered-earth MT models, without geologic constraints, show a conductive (<10 ohm-m) layer at ~1.5 km above a more resistive layer (>1000 ohm-m) at ~ 3.5-4 km. Conductivities of the major stratigraphic units have been determined from well logs and previous MT modeling. Forward and inverse MT models constrained by the gravity-modeled geologic cross section are used to develop a conductivity model consistent with the geology, and are a step towards a better unified treatment of MT, seismic and gravity data.

  13. Composition and spectra of copper-carotenoid sediments from a pyrite mine stream in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Guinea, Javier; Furio, Marta; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Jurado, Valme; Correcher, Virgilio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2015-01-01

    Mine drainages of La Poderosa (El Campillo, Huelva, Spain), located in the Rio Tinto Basin (Iberian Pyrite Belt) generate carotenoid complexes mixed with copper sulfates presenting good natural models for the production of carotenoids from microorganisms. The environmental conditions of Rio Tinto Basin include important environmental stresses to force the microorganisms to accumulate carotenoids. Here we show as carotenoid compounds in sediments can be analyzed directly in the solid state by Raman and Luminescence spectroscopy techniques to identify solid carotenoid, avoiding dissolution and pre-concentration treatments, since the hydrous copper-salted paragenesis do not mask the Raman emission of carotenoids. Raman spectra recorded from one of these specimens' exhibit major features at approximately 1006, 1154, and 1520 cm-1. The bands at 1520 cm-1 and 1154 cm-1 can be assigned to in-phase Cdbnd C (γ-1) and Csbnd C stretching (γ-2) vibrations of the polyene chain in carotenoids. The in-plane rocking deformations of CH3 groups linked to this chain coupled with Csbnd C bonds are observed in the 1006 cm-1 region. X-irradiation pretreatments enhance the cathodoluminescence spectra emission of carotenoids enough to distinguish organic compounds including hydroxyl and carboxyl groups. Carotenoids in copper-sulfates could be used as biomarkers and useful proxies for understanding remote mineral formations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to mine drainage contamination including biological activity and photo-oxidation processes.

  14. Biomarkers of exposure and effects of environmental contaminants on swallows nesting along the Rio Grande, Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mora, M.A.; Musquiz, D.; Bickham, J.W.; MacKenzie, D.S.; Hooper, M.J.; Szabo, J.K.; Matson, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    We collected adult cave swallows (Petrochelidon fulva) and cliff swallows (P. pyrrhonota) during the breeding seasons in 1999 and 2000 from eight locations along the Rio Grande from Brownsville to El Paso (unless otherwise specified, all locations are Texas, USA) and an out-of-basin reference location. Body mass, spleen mass, hepatosomatic index (HSI), gonadosomatic index (GSI), thyroxine (T4) in plasma, DNA damage measured as the half-peak coefficient of variation of DNA content (HPCV) in blood cells, as well as acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase in brain were compared with concentrations of organochlorines, metals, and metalloids in carcasses to determine potential effects of contaminants on swallows during the breeding season. Concentrations of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p???-DDE) were significantly greater in swallows from El Paso than in those from most locations, except for Pharr and Llano Grande. All swallows from these three locations had p,p???-DDE concentrations of 3 ??g/g wet weight or greater. Swallows from El Paso either had or shared the highest concentrations of p,p???-DDE, polychlorinated biphenyls, and 13 inorganic elements. Swallows from El Paso exhibited greater spleen mass and HPCV values as well as lower T4 values compared with those from other locations. Thyroxine was a potential biomarker of contaminant exposure in swallows of the Rio Grande, because it was negatively correlated with p,p???-DDE and Se. Spleen mass was positively correlated with selenium and HSI and negatively correlated with body mass, GSI, Mn, and Ni. Overall, the present study suggests that insectivorous birds living in areas of high agricultural and industrial activity along the Rio Grande bioaccumulate environmental contaminants. These contaminants, particularly p,p???-DDE, may be among multiple factors that impact endocrine and hematopoietic function in Rio Grande swallows. ?? 2006 SETAC.

  15. Provenance and basin evolution, Zhada basin, southwestern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, J.; Decelles, P.; Gehrels, G.; Kapp, P.

    2007-12-01

    The Zhada basin is a late Miocene - Pliocene intermontane basin situated at high elevations in the Himalayan hinterland. The fluvial and lacustrine sediments of the Zhada formation are undeformed and sit in angular unconformity above the deformed Tethyan Sedimentary Sequence (TSS). The basin sits just south of the Indus suture in a structural position occupied elsewhere in the Himalayan orogen by some of the highest mountains on earth, including Everest. The occurrence of a basin at this location demands explanation. Currently, the Sutlej River flows parallel to the structural grain of the Himalaya, westward through the basin, towards the Leo Pargil (Qusum) range. Near the range front it takes a sharp southward turn, cuts across the structural grain of the Himalaya and out into the Gangetic foreland. Palaeocurrent indicators in the lower part of the Zhada formation show that the basin originated as a northwest flowing axial river. Palaeocurrent indicators are consistently northwest oriented, even to within to within 10 km of the Leo Pargil range front in the north-western end of the basin. This implies that at the onset of sedimentation in Zhada basin the Leo Pargil range was not a barrier as it is today. In the upper part of the Zhada formation, palaeocurrent indicators are generally directed towards the centre of the basin. In the central and southern portions of the basin this indicates a transition from an axial, northwest flowing river to prograding fluvial and alluvial fans. However, in the north-western part of the basin the change between lower and upper Zhada formation involves a complete drainage reversal. This change in palaeocurrent orientation is also reflected in the detrital zircon signal from basin sediments. Low in the Zhada formation the detrital zircon signal is dominated by zircons from the Kailash (Gangdese) batholith (or associated extrusives, see below). However, higher in the sections, a local source, either from the TSS or the core of the

  16. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water... on the structure, implementation, and oversight of the Yakima River Basin Water Conservation Program... of the Water Conservation Program, including the applicable water conservation guidelines of...

  17. Discovery of selective RIO2 kinase small molecule ligand.

    PubMed

    Varin, Thibault; Godfrey, Alexander G; Masquelin, Thierry; Nicolaou, Christos A; Evans, David A; Vieth, Michal

    2015-10-01

    We report the discovery and initial optimization of diphenpyramide and several of its analogs as hRIO2 kinase ligands. One of these analogs is the most selective hRIO2 ligand reported to date. Diphenpyramide is a Cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 inhibitor that was used as an anti-inflammatory agent. The RIO2 kinase affinity of diphenpyramide was discovered by serendipity while profiling of 13 marketed drugs on a large 456 kinase assay panel. The inhibition values also suggested a relative selectivity of diphenpyramide for RIO2 against the other kinases in the panel. Subsequently three available and eight newly synthesized analogs were assayed, one of which showed a 10 fold increased hRIO2 binding affinity. Additionally, this compound shows significantly better selectivity over assayed kinases, when compared to currently known RIO2 inhibitors. As RIO2 is involved in the biosynthesis of the ribosome and cell cycle regulation, our selective ligand may be useful for the delineation of the biological role of this kinase. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Inhibitors of Protein Kinases. PMID:25891899

  18. Flexural analysis of two broken foreland basins; Late Cenozoic Bermejo basin and Early Cenozoic Green River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Flemings, P.B.; Jordan, T.E.; Reynolds, S.

    1986-05-01

    Lithospheric flexure that generates basin in a broke foreland setting (e.g., the Laramide foreland of Wyoming) is a three-dimensional system related to shortening along basin-bounding faults. The authors modeled the elastic flexure in three dimensions for two broken foreland basins: the early Cenozoic Green River basin and the analogous late Cenozoic Bermejo basin of Argentina. Each basin is located between a thrust belt and a reverse-fault-bounded basement uplift. Both basins are asymmetric toward the basement uplifts and have a central basement high: the Rock Springs uplift and the Pie de Palo uplift, respectively. The model applies loads generated by crustal thickening to an elastic lithosphere overlying a fluid mantle. Using the loading conditions of the Bermejo basin based on topography, limited drilling, and reflection and earthquake seismology, the model predicts the current Bermejo basin geometry. Similarly, flexure under the loading conditions in the Green River basin, which are constrained by stratigraphy, well logs, and seismic profiling and summed for Late Cretaceous (Lance Formation) through Eocene (Wasatch Formation), successfully models the observed geometry of the pre-Lance surface. Basin depocenters (> 4 km for the Green River basin; > 7 km for the Bermejo basin) and central uplifts are predicted to result from constructive interference of the nonparallel applied loads. Their Bermejo model implies that instantaneous basin geometry is successfully modeled by crustal loading, whereas the Green River basin analysis suggests that basin evolution can be modeled over large time steps (e.g., 20 Ma). This result links instantaneous basin geometry to overall basin evolution and is a first step in predicting stratigraphic development.

  19. The 'WaterWare' decision-support system for river-basin planning. 3. Example applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, D. G.; Fedra, K.

    1996-04-01

    Having outlined the conceptual design and planning capability in the previous two papers, the final contribution in this trilogy describes the application of WaterWare to the River Thames basin in England and Rio Lerma in Mexico. Examples are given of the real-world problems that can be addressed using this system. These include water-resource assessment, reservoir site selection, decontamination of groundwater, estimation of sustainable irrigation abstractions and derivation of required effluent-quality standards. The requirement in both cases is to provide the analytical tools to be used by the agency staff themselves for planning purposes.

  20. Tectonic control on the distribution on calcic paleosols in the Plio-Pleistocene Palomas half graben, southern Rio Grande Rift

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, G.H. . Dept. Earth Sciences); James, W.C. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The number and degree of development of calcic paleosols in the Palomas Formation, which was deposited during Pliocene to middle Pleistocene time in the Palomas half graben of south-central New Mexico, are related to position within the basin and asymmetrical subsidence. Numerous stage 2 morphology calcic paleosols, characterized by an argillic B horizon (Bt) overlying a horizon of distinct calcic nodules and tubules (Bk), developed on intermittently inactive parts of the broad (up to 20 km wide) bajada deposited on the hanging wall dip slope. During periods of movement of the basin-bounding fault, the gradient of the hanging wall dip slope increased resulting in channel incision and transportation of coarse detritus to the toe of the bajada. Stage 3 and 4 morphology calcic paleosols, which consist of Bt-K profiles up to 2 m thick, formed on terraces adjacent to the incised channels. In contrast, only a few stage 2 morphology calcic paleosols are present within footwall-derived alluvial-fan sediment, as the result of relatively rapid lateral shifting of depocenters on the small (less than 3 km[sup 2]) fans. However, some paleosols within footwall-derived by shallow phreatic cementation by coarse calcite. Rapid channel avulsion across the narrow (less than 5 km) axial-fluvial plain of the Ancestral Rio Grande inhibited development of paleosols except for a few rhizolith horizons. The spatial distribution of paleosols in the Palomas half graben may provide a predictive tool in interpreting ancient basin symmetry.

  1. Viscoelastic Relaxation of Lunar Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohit, P. S.; Phillips, R. J.

    2004-12-01

    The large lunar impact basins provide a unique glimpse into early lunar history. Here we investigate the possibility that the relief of the oldest lunar basins (with the exception of South-Pole Aitken) has decayed through viscous relaxation. We identify nine ancient multi-ring basins with very low relief and low-amplitude Bouguer and free-air gravity anomalies. The characteristics of these basins are consistent with either 1) relaxation of topographic relief by ductile flow (e.g. Solomon et al., 1982) or 2) obliteration of basin topography during crater collapse immediately following impact. Both scenarios require that the basins formed early in lunar history, when the Moon was hot. The latter possibility appears to be unlikely due to the great topographic relief of South Pole-Aitken basin (SPA), the largest and oldest impact basin on the Moon (with the possible exception of the putative Procellarum basin; Wilhelms, 1987). On the other hand, the thin crust beneath SPA may not have allowed ductile flow in its lower portions, even for a hot Moon, implying that a thicker crust is required beneath other ancient basins for the hypothesis of viscous relaxation to be tenable. Using a semi-analytic, self-gravitating viscoelastic model, we investigate the conditions necessary to produce viscous relaxation of lunar basins. We model topographic relaxation for a crustal thickness of 30 km, using a dry diabase flow law for the crust and dry olivine for the mantle. We find that the minimum temperature at the base of the crust (Tb) permitting nearly complete relaxation of topography by ductile flow on a timescale < 108 yrs is 1400 K, corresponding to a heat flow of 55mW/m2, into the crust. Ductile flow in the lower crust becomes increasingly difficult as the crustal thickness decreases. The crust beneath SPA, thinned by the impact, is only 15-20 km thick and would require Tb ≥ 1550 K for relaxation to occur. The fact that SPA has maintained high-amplitude relief suggests that

  2. Monitoring water level in large trans-boundary ungauged basins with altimetry: the example of ENVISAT over the Amazon basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyler, Frederique; Calmant, Stephane; da Silva, Joecila; Filizola, Naziano; Roux, Emmanuel; Cochonneau, Gerard; Vauchel, Philippe; Bonnet, Marie-Paule

    2009-01-01

    Brasil and Bolivia have water plans projects on the Beni-Madeira river, a major tributary of the Amazon. There are four main tributaries to the Rio Madeira: the Guapore, the Mamore and the Beni rivers into the Bolivian territory, and the Madre de Dios River crossing the North of Bolivia, coming from Peru. Most parts of these rivers are very far from the Andean capital cities of Bolivia and Peru, unreachable for long periods of time. Very few gauging stations are in operation, either for the Bolivian or the Peruvian part, most of them being located at the Andes piedmont or near the confluence at the Brazilian border as they form the Madeira river. This situation is exemplary of large transboundary basins in the tropical part of the world. We have computed 39 water level time series using ENVISAT altimetry data over the four tributaries of the Madeira and the Madeira itself. We present a preliminary study mostly conducted onto the Guapore river, in order to assess the quality of these time series for a variety of situations, but mostly narrow and meandering riverbeds. Comparison between water levels variation in the mainstream and within the inundations plains and lakes are drawn. We conclude by the perspectives offered by the combined use of radar altimetry and SAR imagery for the global monitoring of water resources, in large tropical transboundary basins.

  3. Paleothermometry of the Sydney Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, M.F.; Schmidt, P.W.

    1982-07-10

    Evidence from overprinting of magnetizations of Late Permian and Mesozoic rocks and from the rank of Permian coals and Mesozoic phytoclasts (coal particles) suggests that surface rocks in the Sydney Basin, eastern Australia, have been raised to temperatures of the order of 200 /sup 0/C or higher. As vitrinite reflectance, an index of coal rank or coalification, is postulated to vary predictably with temperature and time, estimates of the paleotemperatures in the Sydney Basin based on observed vitrinite reflectance measurements can be made in conjunction with reasonable assumptions about the tectonic and thermal histories of the basin. These estimates give maximum paleotemperatures of present day surface rocks in the range 60--249 /sup 0/C, depending on factors such as location in the basin, the thickness of the sediment eroded, and the maximum paleogeothermal gradient. Higher coal rank and, consequently, larger eroded thicknesses and paleogeothermal gradients occur along the eastern edge of the basin and may be related to seafloor spreading in the Tasman Sea on the basin's eastern margin. A theory of thermal activation of magnetization entailing the dependence of magnetic viscosity on the size distribution of the magnetic grains is used to obtain an independent estimate of the maximum paleotemperatures in the Sydney Basin. This estimate places the maximum paleotemperature in the range 250--300 /sup 0/C along the coastal region. Both coalification and thermal activation of magnetization models provide strong evidence of elevated paleotemperatures, which in places exceed 200 /sup 0/C, and the loss of sediment thicknesses in excess of 1 km due to erosion.

  4. Incentive pricing and cost recovery at the basin scale.

    PubMed

    Ward, Frank A; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Incentive pricing programs have potential to promote economically efficient water use patterns and provide a revenue source to compensate for environmental damages. However, incentive pricing may impose disproportionate costs and aggravate poverty where high prices are levied for basic human needs. This paper presents an analysis of a two-tiered water pricing system that sets a low price for subsistence needs, while charging a price equal to marginal cost, including environmental cost, for discretionary uses. This pricing arrangement can promote efficient and sustainable water use patterns, goals set by the European Water Framework Directive, while meeting subsistence needs of poor households. Using data from the Rio Grande Basin of North America, a dynamic nonlinear program, maximizes the basin's total net economic and environmental benefits subject to several hydrological and institutional constraints. Supply costs, environmental costs, and resource costs are integrated in a model of a river basin's hydrology, economics, and institutions. Three programs are compared: (1) Law of the River, in which water allocations and prices are determined by rules governing water transfers; (2) marginal cost pricing, in which households pay the full marginal cost of supplying treated water; (3) two-tiered pricing, in which households' subsistence water needs are priced cheaply, while discretionary uses are priced at efficient levels. Compared to the Law of the River and marginal cost pricing, two-tiered pricing performs well for efficiency and adequately for sustainability and equity. Findings provide a general framework for formulating water pricing programs that promote economically and environmentally efficient water use programs while also addressing other policy goals. PMID:18241978

  5. The Rio conference a view from India

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, B.N. )

    1993-02-01

    Although the achievements of the Rio Conference were quite significant and will have far-reaching consequences as far as the global environment is concerned, there were many shortcomings in it as well. The Earth Summit failed to obtain the necessary financial resources needed to safeguard people from environmental degradation. The summit acknowledged the need for a radical change in attitude on the part of the developed countries toward economic growth and development as well as toward the problems of underdevelopment in countries of the Southern Hermisphere. It also emphasized that unless the rich nations of the Northern Hemisphere change their lifestyle of lavishly and selfishly using natural resources, their own future will be in grave peril. Developing countries have diverse problems, including lack of education, malnutrition, worm infestation, anemia, and poor health. The industrial policy of developing countries needs reorientation. It should be modified to provide for value-added, decentralized production. Deforestation is another serious problem in India and some of the other developing countries.

  6. Basin Overflow Floods on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, R. P.

    2006-12-01

    On Earth, the most intense recognized historical and paleofloods have been ice dambursts or overflows of large basins, often initiated by abundant runoff or meltwater from the contributing watersheds. Many impact craters and other basins also overflowed in the Martian cratered highlands, and some of their incised outlet valleys similarly record evidence of erosive floods. Otherwise, the commonly small, enclosed watersheds on Mars contain poorly developed valley networks and relatively simple depositional landforms, which record little evidence of intense (by terrestrial standards) meteorological floods. For these reasons, basin overflows may have been disproportionately important mechanisms for incision of large valleys on Mars. Many of the Martian outflow channels head in topographic settings that favored ponding, including large canyons, impact or intercrater basins, chaotic terrain basins, and grabens. This topography may have accumulated somewhat slower groundwater discharges from the subsurface to support peak channel discharges of 106-108 m3/s. To yield a discharge of 106, 107, and 108 m3/s from a dam failure with a width/depth ratio of 5, the model predicts that a breach of ~100, 250, and 640 m, respectively, must form rapidly with respect to the decline of lake level. Terrestrial damburst floods have not exceeded ~106 m3/s for earthen dams and ~107 m3/s for ice dams, but brecciation of the Martian surface by impact cratering may have allowed larger damburst failures, whereas solid bedrock was exposed at shallower depths in the terrestrial examples. Moreover, many of the Martian basins were much larger than enclosed continental basins on Earth, so long-lived overflows may have facilitated entrenchment of deeper channels. Some large, mid-latitude basins overflowed to carve Ma'adim Vallis and the Uzboi-Ladon-Margaritifer Valles system, which are similar in scale to the terrestrial Grand Canyon but record much larger formative discharges. Models of damburst

  7. Little Threat of Zika Spread from Rio Olympics

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160051.html Little Threat of Zika Spread From Rio Olympics: Study Because it's winter ... in Brazil are not likely to contract the Zika virus during their stay or bring it back ...

  8. View towards west from across Rio Cerrillos of coffee processing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View towards west from across Rio Cerrillos of coffee processing structure (on left) with the Santaella residence (on right) - Santaella Coffee Processing Site, Highway 139, Kilometer 10.6, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  9. View looking from the Ariel Rios Federal Building across the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking from the Ariel Rios Federal Building across the great plaza to the Fourteenth Street facade - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. Hydrogeologic framework of sedimentary deposits in six structural basins, Yakima River basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, M.A.; Vaccaro, J.J.; Watkins, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogeologic framework was delineated for the ground-water flow system of the sedimentary deposits in six structural basins in the Yakima River Basin, Washington. The six basins delineated, from north to south are: Roslyn, Kittitas, Selah, Yakima, Toppenish, and Benton. Extent and thicknesses of the hydrogeologic units and total basin sediment thickness were mapped for each basin. Interpretations were based on information from about 4,700 well records using geochemical, geophysical, geologist's or driller's logs, and from the surficial geology and previously constructed maps and well interpretations. The sedimentary deposits were thickest in the Kittitas Basin reaching a depth of greater than 2,000 ft, followed by successively thinner sedimentary deposits in the Selah basin with about 1,900 ft, Yakima Basin with about 1,800 ft, Toppenish Basin with about 1,200 ft, Benton basin with about 870 ft and Roslyn Basin with about 700 ft.

  11. Stormwater detention basin sediment removal

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, W.E.

    1995-12-31

    In the past, stormwater runoff from landfills has been treated mainly by focusing on reducing the peak storm discharge rates so as not to hydraulically impact downstream subsheds. However, with the advent of stricter water quality regulations based on the Federal Clean Water Act, and the related NPDES and SPDES programs, landfill owners and operators are now legally responsible for the water quality of the runoff once it leaves the landfill site. At the Fresh Kills Landfill in New York City, the world`s largest covering over 2000 acres, landfilling activities have been underway since 1945. With the main objective at all older landfill sites having focused on maximizing the available landfill footprint in order to obtain the most possible airspace volume, consideration was not given for the future siting of stormwater basin structures. Therefore, when SCS Engineers began developing the first comprehensive stormwater management plan for the site, the primary task was to locate potential sites for all the stormwater basins in order to comply with state regulations for peak stormwater runoff control. The basins were mostly constructed where space allowed, and were sized to be as large as possible given siting and subshed area constraints. Seventeen stormwater basins have now been designed and are being constructed to control the peak stormwater runoff for the 25-year, 24-hour storm as required by New York State. As an additional factor of safety, the basins were also designed for controlled discharge of the 100-year, 24 hour storm.

  12. Water Accounting from Ungauged Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastiaanssen, W. G.; Savenije, H.

    2014-12-01

    Water scarcity is increasing globally. This requires a more accurate management of the water resources at river basin scale and understanding of withdrawals and return flows; both naturally and man-induced. Many basins and their tributaries are, however, ungauged or poorly gauged. This hampers sound planning and monitoring processes. While certain countries have developed clear guidelines and policies on data observatories and data sharing, other countries and their basin organization still have to start on developing data democracies. Water accounting quantifies flows, fluxes, stocks and consumptive use pertaining to every land use class in a river basin. The objective is to derive a knowledge base with certain minimum information that facilitates decision making. Water Accounting Plus (WA+) is a new method for water resources assessment reporting (www.wateraccounting.org). While the PUB framework has yielded several deterministic models for flow prediction, WA+ utilizes remote sensing data of rainfall, evaporation (including soil, water, vegetation and interception evaporation), soil moisture, water levels, land use and biomass production. Examples will be demonstrated that show how remote sensing and hydrological models can be smartly integrated for generating all the required input data into WA+. A standard water accounting system for all basins in the world - with a special emphasis on data scarce regions - is under development. First results of using remote sensing measurements and hydrological modeling as an alternative to expensive field data sets, will be presented and discussed.

  13. Inversion of Extensional Sedimentary Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buiter, Susanne J. H.; Pfiffner, O. Adrian

    The evolution of extensional sedimentary basins is governed by the surrounding stress field and can, therefore, be expected to be highly sensitive to variations in these stresses. Important changes in basin geometry are to be expected in the case of an even short-lived reversal from extension to compression. We investigate the evolu- tion of fold and thrust structures which form in compression after extension, when basin forming processes have come to a complete stop. To this purpose, we use a two- dimensional, viscoplastic model and start our experiments from a pre-existing exten- sional geometry. We illustrate the sensitivity of the evolving structures to inherited extensional geometry, sedimentary and erosional processes, and material properties. One series of our model experiments involves the upper- to middle crust only in order to achieve a high detail in the basin area. We find that our results agree with examples from nature and analogue studies in, among others, the uplift and rotation of syn-rift sediments, the propagation of shear zones into the post-rift sediments and, in specific cases, the development of back-thrusts or basement short-cut faults. We test the out- come of these models by performing a second series of model simulations in which basins on a continental margin are inverted through their progressive approach of a subduction zone. These latter models are on the scale of the whole upper mantle.

  14. 77 FR 8275 - Notice of Meeting, Rio Grande Natural Area Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Meeting, Rio Grande Natural Area Commission AGENCY: Bureau of Land.... Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Rio Grande Natural Area Commission will meet as.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Rio Grande Natural Area Commission was established in the Rio Grande Natural...

  15. 76 FR 73657 - Notice of Meeting, Rio Grande Natural Area Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Meeting, Rio Grande Natural Area Commission AGENCY: Bureau of Land.... Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management ] (BLM) Rio Grande Natural Area Commission will meet as.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Rio Grande Natural Area Commission was established in the Rio Grande Natural...

  16. 77 FR 21584 - Notice of Meeting, Rio Grande Natural Area Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Meeting, Rio Grande Natural Area Commission AGENCY: Bureau of Land.... Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Rio Grande Natural Area Commission will meet as.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Rio Grande Natural Area Commission was established in the Rio Grande Natural...

  17. 78 FR 9729 - Notice of Meeting, Rio Grande Natural Area Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Meeting, Rio Grande Natural Area Commission AGENCY: Bureau of Land... Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Rio Grande Natural Area Commission will meet as indicated below.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Rio Grande Natural Area Commission was established in the Rio Grande Natural...

  18. Biology of the Rio Grande border region : a bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Lynne E.; Jacobs, Linda J.; Papoulias, Diana

    1997-01-01

    This bibliography includes 1,913 references to the literature of the Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte). The specific geographic area covered extends 100 km on either side of the river from Elephant Butte Dam in New Mexico to the Gulf of Mexico. The bibliography focuses on the biological literature, divided into major subject areas, and also includes supporting literature from the physical and environmental sciences.

  19. Bedload Yield and Sediment Budget In The Instrumented Catchment of The Rio Cordon (northeastern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenzi, M. A.

    Bedload yield may have large seasonal or interannual variations as a result of changes in sediment supply or sediment storage. Sediment supply along mountain rivers is strongly influenced by both drainage basin and channel processes. Drainage basin sediment inputs include hillslope, valley bottom and tributary channel sources that may be gradual (e.g. slope wash, average tributary inflows, soil creep) or abrupt (e.g. debris flow, rockfalls, tributary flash floods). These inputs may be seasonally driven (e.g. Wetzel, 1994) or aperiodic. The paper illustrates the results of 16 years research conducted on the Rio Cordon catchment (5 km2), where an experimental sta- tion has been operating for the integral and continuous automatic recording of water discharge and sediment transport (Lenzi et al., 1999). The device operates by separat- ing bedload from water discharge and fine sediment and subsequently measuring the two solid components. The 15 recorded floods (1986-2001) are grouped in two dis- tinct categories according to the bedload transport rates: SordinaryT and exceptionalT & cedil;floods (with return times exceeding 30-50 years). Supply-limited conditions of sed- iment transport prevail in the period 1986-1994, before the exceptional flash flood of September 14, 1994. During this cycle, bed armouring is the dominant sediment transport response: the amount of material of a given size range in transport is lim- ited by its availability and not by the competence of the flow. During the subsequent cycle 1995-2001, conditions of bedload transport change a lot given an increases of the sediment budget. An abrupt and aperiodic input of fine-medium grain size material occured to the main Rio Cordon stream during the snowmelt-induced flood of May 11, 2001, by means of a tributary mud flow contribution. This input influenced the bed- load transport by altering the proportion of the bed material which can be moved by the competent flow. The injection of these relatively

  20. Memory effect triggered by exceptional event: the Rio Cordon study case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainato, Riccardo; Mao, Luca; Picco, Lorenzo; Garcia-Rama, Adriana; Aristide Lenzi, Mario

    2016-04-01

    In the mountain environment, the steep channels play a key-role in the drainage networks. Notably, the sediment transport processes that here occur, can affect aspects as the geomorphic changes, channel evolution, reservoir management, infrastructure design and hazard assessment. Due to the complex and changeable hydraulic and morphological features that characterize the mountain environment, the steep channels can exhibit fluvial and/or debris-flow transport with magnitude of sediment delivery that, in the same basin, may strongly vary from event to event. In the light of these challenging conditions, appears clear as an accurate monitoring and investigation of sediment dynamics is of critical importance in the steep mountain channels. Such monitoring has even more significance if it is maintained over long-period, enabling to investigate even the role of high magnitude/low frequency events. Using a dataset 29 years-wide, this work aims to investigate the temporal trend of sediment dynamic in the Rio Cordon (Eastern Italian Alps). The Rio Cordon is a steep mountain channel (mean slope = 13%) characterized by step-pool and riffle-pool morphology. The basin (5 km2)exhibits a prevalent nivo-pluvial runoff regime. Since 1986, the catchment is equipped with a monitoring station, that continuously records water discharge, bedload and suspended load (at 1 hr intervals, and 5 min intervals during floods). In September 1994 an exceptional event (RI > 100 years) occurred in the study site, mobilizing about 4000 tons of material. Currently, the structure is managed by ARPA Veneto - Regional Department for Land Safety. In terms of magnitude, the 31 floods recorded by the monitoring station show a wide range of hydraulic forcing (i.e. peak discharge and effective runoff) and amount transported. Specifically, Qpeak ranges within one order of magnitude (1.02 - 10.42 m3 s‑1), while the amount of bedload and suspended load varies by more than 3 orders (i.e. 0.9 t < BL < 1541.7 t

  1. Testing for Basins of Wada

    PubMed Central

    Daza, Alvar; Wagemakers, Alexandre; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.; Yorke, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear systems often give rise to fractal boundaries in phase space, hindering predictability. When a single boundary separates three or more different basins of attraction, we say that the set of basins has theWada property and initial conditions near that boundary are even more unpredictable. Many physical systems of interest with this topological property appear in the literature. However, so far the only approach to study Wada basins has been restricted to two-dimensional phase spaces. Here we report a simple algorithm whose purpose is to look for the Wada property in a given dynamical system. Another benefit of this procedure is the possibility to classify and study intermediate situations known as partially Wada boundaries. PMID:26553444

  2. Reevaluation of Stevens sand potential - Maricopa depocenter, southern San Joaquin basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, M.M.; Parks, S.L. )

    1991-02-01

    During the upper Miocene in the Southern San Joaquin basin surrounding highlands contributed coarse material to a deep marine basin dominated by fine grained silicious bioclastic deposition. these coarse deposits became reservoirs isolated within the silicious Antelope Shale Member of the Monterey Formation. In the southern Maricopa depocenter these Stevens sands are productive at Yowlumne, Landslide, Aqueduct, Rio Viejo, San Emidio Nose, Paloma, and Midway-Sunset fields, and are major exploration targets in surrounding areas. In the ARCO Fee lands area of the southern Maricopa depocenter, Stevens sands occur as rapidly thickening lens-shaped bodies that formed as channel, levee, and lobe deposits of deep-marine fan systems. These fans were fed from a southerly source, with apparent transport in a north-northwesterly direction. Sands deflect gently around present-day structural highs indicating that growth of structures influenced depositional patterns. Correlations reveal two major fan depositional intervals bounded by regional N, O, and P chert markers. Each interval contains numerous individual fan deposits, with many lobes and channels recognizable on three-dimensional seismic data. In addition to these basinal sand plays presently being evaluated, ARCO is pursuing a relatively new trend on Fee lands along the southern basin margin, where correlation to mountain data reveals Stevens sands trend into the steeply dipping beds of the mountain front. This area, the upturned Stevens,' has large reserve potential and producing analogies at Metson, Leutholtz, Los Lobos, and Pleito Ranch fields.

  3. Seasonality of Groundwater Recharge in the Basin and Range Province, Western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, K.; Meixner, T.; De La Cruz, L.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater recharge is the primary source of aquifer replenishment, an important source of freshwater for human consumption and riparian area sustainability in semi-arid regions. It is critical to understand the current groundwater recharge regimes in groundwater basins throughout the Western U.S. and how those regimes might shift in the face of climate change, land use change and management manipulations that impact the availability and composition of groundwater resources. Watersheds in the Basin and Range Province are characterized by a variable precipitation regime of wet winters, and variable summer precipitation. The horst-graben structure of these basins lends itself to orographic and continental precipitation effects that make mountain block and mountain front recharge critical components of annual recharge. The current assumption is that the relative contributions to groundwater recharge by summer and winter precipitation vary throughout the province, with winter precipitation dominating in the northern parts of the region, and summer monsoonal precipitation playing a more significant role in the south, where the North American Monsoon extends its influence. To test this hypothesis, stable water isotope data of groundwater and precipitation from sites in Sonora, Mexico and the U.S. states of California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas were examined to characterize and compare groundwater recharge regimes throughout the region. Preliminary stable water isotope results from the southernmost Rio San Miguel Basin in Sonora, Mexico indicate that groundwater is composed of 64%±14% summer monsoon precipitation, in contrast to more northern basins where winter precipitation is the source of 79-90% of basin groundwater.

  4. Oil in the Malvinas Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Galeazzi, J.S.

    1996-08-01

    The Malvinas Basin is petroliferous. The main source rocks are Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous outer shelf to basinal shales known as the Pampa Rincon and Lower Inoceramus formations. Main reservoirs are fluvial and shallow-marine sandstones of the coeval Springhill Formation. On the western flank of the basin, 17 wells drilled the Cenozoic and Mesozoic column. Three of these wells discovered hydrocarbons within the Springhill Formation, and one discovered oil in Early Paleogene sandstones. Additionally, some wells recorded shows at different levels within the stratigraphic succession. A detailed overview of the drilled portion of the basin permitted the construction of a sequence stratigraphic framework, and yielded clues on a complex history of deformation. Interpretation of facies and stratal stacking and termination patterns determined that the main reservoir and source rocks were deposited in a ramp-style depositional setting. They represent the lower transgressive phase of a Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous megasequence deposited during the early sag stage of the basin. Alternative reservoirs to the Springhill sandstones include early Paleogene glauconitic sandstones and carbonates, and Miocene deep-water turbidites. Structural trap styles include normal fault features of Jurassic to Early Cretaceous age, and compressional and inverted positive structures due to Neogene compression. Possible combination and stratigraphic traps include: little tested onlap pinchout of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous and Paleogene sandstones and untested erosionally truncated Paleogene sandstones; Early Paleogene carbonate buildups and Miocene deep-water turbidite mounds. The understanding of the geology of the western Malvinas Basin is the key to success of exploration in the huge frontier surrounding areas.

  5. Birth and evolution of the Rio Grande-Rio Chama fluvial system: The influence of magma-driven dynamic topography on fluvial systems over the last 8 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repasch, M. N.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Heizler, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    The Rio Grande-Rio Chama (RG-RC) fluvial system of southern Colorado and northern New Mexico preserves a record of southern Rocky Mountain erosion and sediment transport over the last 8 Ma. During this time the two rivers have evolved wildly, undergoing channel migrations, drainage capture and integration events, carving and refilling of paleocanyons, lake spill-overs, and reshaping of drainage divides. New 40Ar/39Ar basalt ages coupled with new detrital grain age population data for fluvial sediments are beginning to reconstruct the birth of the RG-RC fluvial system and elucidate the processes that drove its evolution over the last ~8 Ma. Twenty-three detrital grain samples have been collected from RG-RC river deposits ranging in age from ~8 Ma (RC) and 4.5 Ma (RG) to modern fluvial sediment. Detrital zircon age spectra for the RG reveal peaks at 25 Ma, 28 Ma, 30-35 Ma (San Juan volcanic), and 70-90Ma (San Juan Basin) in sediments deposited from 4.5 to 0 Ma. RC spectra are richer in San Juan Basin and San Juan volcanic detritus. A 2.6 Ma Totavi Lentil deposit downstream of today's RG-RC confluence is similar to the ancestral RG, while a 1.6 Ma Totavi Lentil is similar to the combined RG-RC, suggesting northward shift of the RG-RC confluence by 1.6 Ma due to Jemez Mountain volcanism. A 4.5 Ma basalt age from Black Mesa and occurrence of San Juan volcanic detritus in 3 to 5 Ma sediment suggests birth of an ancestral RG as early as 4.5 Ma. There is no record of an ancestral RG north of the Red River confluence for the 3.0 to 0.5 Ma time period, supporting prior work that northern San Luis Basin became integrated after 0.5 Ma spill-over of Lake Alamosa. We plan to add detrital sanidine dating to refine the age spectra and help further delineate drainage patterns. The RG-RC system drains a highly tectonically active region. Changes in the fluvial regime suggest: 1) long-lived source of detritus (some recycled) from the San Juan volcanic field, 2) downstream integration

  6. Two new species of Cyphocharax (Teleostei: Characiformes: Curimatidae) from headwaters of the Jequitinhonha and São Francisco river basins, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Guilherme Moreira; Penido, Iago De Souza; Mello, Gabriel Caetano Guimarães De; Pessali, Tiago Casarim

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of Cyphocharax from southeastern Brazil are described. Both new species share with C. punctatus, and C. vanderi the presence of a midlateral series of irregular patches of dark pigmentation along the lateral line. Cyphocharax jagunco, new species, from Rio Jequitinhonha basin, is distinguished from C. lundi, C. punctatus, and C. vanderi by the number of patches of dark pigmentation along lateral line; the number of pored scales posterior to the hypural joint; the number of scales in the lateral line; and the number of scales rows above lateral line. Cyphocharax lundi, new species, from Rio São Francisco basin, is distinguished from C. jagunco, C. punctatus, and C. vanderi by the presence of dark spots above the lateral line; and the number of scales in the lateral line. Comments on the relationships of the new species within Cyphocharax are presented. PMID:27394625

  7. H-Area Seepage Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Stejskal, G.

    1990-12-01

    During the third quarter of 1990 the wells which make up the H-Area Seepage Basins (H-HWMF) monitoring network were sampled. Laboratory analyses were performed to measure levels of hazardous constituents, indicator parameters, tritium, nonvolatile beta, and gross alpha. A Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) scan was performed on all wells sampled to determine any hazardous organic constituents present in the groundwater. The primary contaminants observed at wells monitoring the H-Area Seepage Basins are tritium, nitrate, mercury, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and total radium.

  8. Pliocene volcanism of the Taos Plateau, Rio Grande Rift-New constraints on eruptive cycles, compositional trends and links to rift tectonism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, R. A.; Cosca, M. A.; Turner, K. J.; Condit, C. B.; Lee, J.; Budahn, J. R.; Drenth, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Taos Plateau volcanic field (TPVF) in the southern San Luis Basin of northern New Mexico and southern Colorado is the most voluminous of the predominantly basaltic Neogene (6-1 Ma) volcanic fields of the Rio Grande rift. Coincident with extensional tectonism, volcanic deposits of the TPVF are intercalated with alluvial deposits of the Santa Fe Group and reflect the time-integrated magmatic response to basin- and sub basin-scale structural accommodation of regional extension. New data constraining the eruptive history of mafic to intermediate composition Pliocene volcanic rocks of the Taos Plateau volcanic field are presented based on integrated geologic mapping (1:24,000 to 1:50,000 scale), 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, geochemistry and aeromagnetic data. Mapped stratigraphy and faulting is linked to new gravity model interpretations to establish the location of deeper basin and sub basin geometry relative to mapped eruptive centers. Three representative clusters of eruptive centers in the San Luis Basin (San Antonio Mtn., Ute Mtn., and Guadalupe Mtn./Red River areas) range in composition from basaltic andesite to dacite but are volumetrically dominated by high-silica andesite to dacite. Eruptive cycles fo