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Sample records for riptortus clavatus thunberg

  1. Presence of Porocephalus clavatus (Arthropoda: Porocephalidae) in Peruvian Boidae snakes.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Lopez-Urbina, María T; Gonzalez, Armando E

    2011-09-27

    The pentastome species, Porocephalus clavatus, has been found to infect the lungs of two species of snakes in the family Boidae family (Boa constrictor and Epicrates cenchria). The individual of B. constrictor was collected in the Amazonian rainforest of Departamento Loreto, Peru. The E. cenchria was recovered from the pet trade in Lima, Peru's capital city. A total of 22 P. clavatus were collected and examined from these two snakes. This is the first report of P. clavatus in Peru. The morphology of the parasites and the possible importance in public and animal health are discussed. PMID:21531511

  2. The symbiotic role of O-antigen of Burkholderia symbiont in association with host Riptortus pedestris.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Park, Ha Young; Lee, Bok Luel

    2016-07-01

    Riptortus pedestris harboring Burkholderia symbiont is a useful symbiosis model to study the molecular interactions between insects and bacteria. We recently reported that the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen is absent in the Burkholderia symbionts isolated from Riptortus guts. Here, we investigated the symbiotic role of O-antigen comprehensively in the Riptortus-Burkholderia model. Firstly, Burkholderia mutant strains deficient of O-antigen biosynthesis genes were generated and confirmed for their different patterns of the lipopolysaccharide by electrophoretic analysis. The O-antigen-deficient mutant strains initially exhibited a reduction of infectivity, having significantly lower level of symbiont population at the second-instar stage. However, both the wild-type and O-antigen mutant symbionts exhibited a similar level of symbiont population from the third-instar stage, indicating that the O-antigen deficiency did not affect the bacterial persistence in the host midgut. Taken together, we showed that the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen of gut symbiont plays an exclusive role in the initial symbiotic association. PMID:26875632

  3. Aspergillus clavatus tremorgenic neurotoxicosis in cattle fed sprouted grains.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, R A; Kelly, M A; Shivas, R G; Gibson, J A; Cook, P J; Widderick, K; Guilfoyle, A F

    2004-10-01

    Beef and dairy cattle from four different herds in southern and central Queensland fed hydroponically-produced sprouted barley or wheat grain heavily infested with Aspergillus clavatus developed posterior ataxia with knuckling of fetlocks, muscular tremors and recumbency, but maintained appetite. A few animals variously had reduced milk production, hyperaesthesia, drooling of saliva, hypermetria of hind limbs or muscle spasms. Degeneration of large neurones was seen in the brain stem and spinal cord grey matter. The syndrome was consistent with A clavatus tremorgenic mycotoxicosis of ruminants. The cases are the earliest known to be associated with this fungus in Australia. They highlight a potential hazard of hydroponic fodder production systems, which appear to favour A clavatus growth on sprouted grain, exacerbated in some cases by equipment malfunctions that increase operating temperatures. PMID:15887390

  4. Understanding regulation of the host-mediated gut symbiont population and the symbiont-mediated host immunity in the Riptortus-Burkholderia symbiosis system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Lee, Jun Beom; Jang, Ho Am; Han, Yeon Soo; Fukatsu, Takema; Lee, Bok Luel

    2016-11-01

    Valuable insect models have tremendously contributed to our understanding of innate immunity and symbiosis. Bean bug, Riptortus pedestris, is a useful insect symbiosis model due to harboring cultivable monospecific gut symbiont, genus Burkholderia. Bean bug is a hemimetabolous insect whose immunity is not well-understood. However, we recently identified three major antimicrobial peptides of Riptortus and examined the relationship between gut symbiosis and host immunity. We found that the presence of Burkholderia gut symbiont positively affects Riptortus immunity. From studying host regulation mechanisms of symbiont population, we revealed that the symbiotic Burkholderia cells are much more susceptible to Riptortus immune responses than the cultured cells. We further elucidated that the immune-susceptibility of the Burkholderia gut symbionts is due to the drastic change of bacterial cell envelope. Finally, we show that the immune-susceptible Burkholderia symbionts are able to prosper in host owing to the suppression of immune responses of the symbiotic midgut. PMID:26774501

  5. The First Case of Total Dystrophic Onychomycosis Caused by Aspergillus clavatus Resistant to Antifungal Drugs.

    PubMed

    Falahati, Mehraban; Ghojoghi, Aynaz; Abastabar, Mahdi; Ghasemi, Zeinab; Farahyar, Shirin; Roudbary, Maryam; Hedayati, Mohammad Taghi; Taghizadeh Armaki, Mojtaba; Hoseinnejad, Akbar

    2016-04-01

    Onychomycosis is a common fungal infection of nails which is mainly caused by dermatophyte species and less often by yeasts and non-dermatophyte molds. We present a case of onychomycosis due to Aspergillus clavatus for the first time worldwide. The patient was an immunocompetent 32-year-old woman who identified with Psoriasis of the nail. The presence of A. clavatus in a nail sample was confirmed using microscopic and culture analysis followed by PCR of the β-tubulin gene. After antifungal susceptibility test, it is revealed that the isolate was resistant to the majority of common antifungal drugs, but finally the patient was treated with itraconazole 200 mg daily. A. clavatus and drug-resistant A. clavatus have not previously been reported from onychomycosis. PMID:26474550

  6. Types of species of Apionidae (Coleoptera) described by Carl Peter Thunberg (1743–1828) with description of a new genus

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The type specimens of species of Apionidae described by Carl Peter Thunberg are reviewed and lecto- and paralectotypes are designated for Apion craccae Thunberg, 1813, Apion limbatum Thunberg, 1813, Apion punctigerum Thunberg, 1815 and Apion astragali Thunberg, 1815. A new genus Thunbergapion (type species Apion limbatum Thunberg, 1813) is described, figured and placed in the tribe Aplemonini Kissinger, 1968. The new combination Thunbergapion limbatum (Thunberg, 1813) is proposed. A key to the known South African genera of the tribe is given. The following new synonymies are established: Oxystoma craccae (Linnaeus, 1767) = Apion craccae Thunberg, 1813 syn. n., Ischnopterapion (Ischnopterapion) loti (Kirby, 1808) = Apion punctigerum Thunberg, 1815, syn. n., and Pseudoprotapion astragali (Paykull, 1800) = Apion astragali Thunberg, 1815, syn. n. PMID:23950673

  7. Morphology and Distribution of Antennal Sensilla of the Bean Bug Riptortus pedestris (Hemiptera: Alydidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongmin; Park, Kye Chung; Roh, Hyun Sik; Kim, Junheon; Oh, Hyun Woo; Kim, Ji-Ae; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2016-06-01

    The bean bug, Riptortus pedestris is a major pest of bean pods and some tree fruits in north-east Asian countries. Scanning electron microscopy was conducted to investigate the morphology and distribution of antennal sensilla of R. pedestris to help in understanding the sensory mechanisms of the bug. Average antennal lengths of male and female R. pedestris were 11.00 mm and 9.84 mm, respectively, consisting of four distinct segments, scape, pedicel, basiflagellum, and distiflagellum. Based on the gross appearance, the antennal sensilla were classified into four major types (trichodea, basiconica, chaetica, and coeloconica), which could be further classified into four trichoid, three basiconic, four chaotic, and two coeloconic subtypes, based on their size, tip shape, presence of socket, and surface structure. Among them, two subtypes of trichoid sensilla, all three subtypes of basiconic sensilla, four subtypes of chaetic sensilla and two subtypes of coeloconic sensilla had numerous pores along the surface, suggesting their olfactory function. Nine subtypes (2 trichoid, 1 basiconic, 4 chaetic, and 2 coeloconic subtypes) showed a distinct socket structure at the base. Among the four antennal segments, the distiflagellum possessed highest number of sensilla. Trichoid sensilla were most abundant, followed by basiconic, chaetic, and coeloconic sensilla. Each subtype of sensilla exhibited distinct distribution profile along the four antennal segments. Two subtypes of trichoid sensilla, one subtype of basiconic sensilla and one subtype of chaetica sensilla were distributed on scape, pedicel, and basiflagellum, whereas distribution of other subtypes of sensilla was confined to basiflagellum and distiflagellum. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:501-511, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27087138

  8. Microsatellite primers in the weedy annual herb Anacyclus clavatus (Asteraceae) and four closely related species1

    PubMed Central

    Agudo, Alicia; Picó, F. Xavier; Álvarez, Inés

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Nuclear microsatellite primers were developed for the weedy herb Anacyclus clavatus to study the genetic structure of hybrid zones with closely related taxa in the western Mediterranean Basin, where different floral phenotypes are present. • Methods and Results: We obtained two microsatellite libraries using next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing of cloned restriction fragments. A total of 13 polymorphic and 11 monomorphic loci were identified in three Iberian populations of A. clavatus. The primers amplified di- and trinucleotide repeats with 1–8 alleles per locus. Most primers also amplified in A. homogamos, A. monanthos, A. radiatus, and A. valentinus. • Conclusions: These results indicate the utility of these markers in A. clavatus for population genetic and hybridization studies as well as their applicability across the genus. PMID:25202498

  9. Aspergillus clavatus as the probable cause of a lethal mass neurotoxicosis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Shlosberg, A; Zadikov, I; Perl, S; Yakobson, B; Varod, Y; Elad, D; Rapoport, E; Handji, V

    1991-04-01

    Sprouted barley grains, the waste product of malt extract production, were incriminated as the cause of a lethal (96% mortality) neurotoxic syndrome in sheep fed the grains. Clinical manifestations, comprising tremors, lameness, abnormal gait, paralysis and death indicated a tremorgenic mycotoxicosis. Whilst 50% of the flock died within 17 days, mortality continued over more than 5 months. Pathological findings were limited to neuronal degeneration and necrosis in the midbrain. Germinating grains were shown to be contaminated with growth of Aspergillus clavatus. PMID:1857399

  10. Structure elucidation, anticancer and antioxidant activities of a novel polysaccharide from Gomphus clavatus Gray.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiang; Hou, Yiling; Zhu, Yuanxiu; Wang, Panpan; Fu, Lei; Zhu, Hongqing; Zhang, Nan; Qin, Hang; Qu, Wei; Wang, Fang; Hou, Wanru

    2015-06-01

    A novel heteropolysaccharide from the fruiting bodies of Gomphus clavatus Gray was isolated through Sephadex G-200 and DEAE-cellulose columns. The Gomphus clavatus Gray polysaccharide (GCG-1) was mainly composed of β-D-glucosepyranose (β-D-Glu) and α-D-galactopyranose (α-D-Gal) in a ratio of 3:2 and had a molecular weight of ~50,000 Da. The structure of GCG-1 was investigated by a combination of total hydrolysis, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, methylation analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and infrared spectra. The results indicated that GCG-1 had a backbone of (1 → 4)-β-D-glucosepyranose residues with branches at O-6 and the branches consisted of two with (1 → 3)-α-D-galactopyranose residue. Antioxidation test in vitro showed that it possessed strong free radical scavenging activity, which may be comparable to vitamin C and butylated hydroxytoluene. GCG-1 also induced the apoptosis of HepG-2 cells and affected the mRNA expression of various housekeeping genes in the HepG-2 cells. The results indicated that Gomphus clavatus Gray may be an ideal sources for antioxidant and anticancer agents. PMID:25901792

  11. Identification and Engineering of the Cytochalasin Gene Cluster from Aspergillus clavatus NRRL 1

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Kangjian; Chooi, Yit-Heng; Tang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Cytochalasins are a group of fungal secondary metabolites with diverse structures and bioactivities, including cytochalasin E produced by Aspergillus clavatus, which is a potent anti-angiogenic agent. Here, we report the identification and characterization of the cytochalasin gene cluster from A. clavatus NRRL 1. As a producer of cytochalasin E and K, the genome of A. clavatus was analyzed and the ~30 kb ccs gene cluster was identified based on the presence of a polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthetases (PKS-NRPS) and a putative Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (BVMO). Deletion of the central PKS-NRPS gene, ccsA, abolished the production of cytochalasin E and K, confirming the association between the natural products and the gene cluster. Based on bioinformatic analysis, a putative biosynthetic pathway is proposed. Furthermore, overexpression of the pathway specific regulator ccsR elevated the titer of cytochalasin E from 25 mg/L to 175 mg/L. Our results not only shed light on the biosynthesis of cytochalasins, but also provided genetic tools for increasing and engineering the production. PMID:21983160

  12. Live imaging of symbiosis: spatiotemporal infection dynamics of a GFP-labelled Burkholderia symbiont in the bean bug Riptortus pedestris.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Fukatsu, Takema

    2014-03-01

    Many insects possess endosymbiotic bacteria inside their body, wherein intimate interactions occur between the partners. While recent technological advancements have deepened our understanding of metabolic and evolutionary features of the symbiont genomes, molecular mechanisms underpinning the intimate interactions remain difficult to approach because the insect symbionts are generally uncultivable. The bean bug Riptortus pedestris is associated with the betaproteobacterial Burkholderia symbiont in a posterior region of the midgut, which develops numerous crypts harbouring the symbiont extracellularly. Distinct from other insect symbiotic systems, R. pedestris acquires the Burkholderia symbiont not by vertical transmission but from the environment every generation. By making use of the cultivability and the genetic tractability of the symbiont, we constructed a transgenic Burkholderia strain labelled with green fluorescent protein (GFP), which enabled detailed observation of spatiotemporal dynamics and the colonization process of the symbiont in freshly prepared specimens. The symbiont live imaging revealed that, at the second instar, colonization of the symbiotic midgut M4 region started around 6 h after inoculation (hai). By 24 hai, the symbiont cells appeared in the main tract and also in several crypts of the M4. By 48 hai, most of the crypts were colonized by the symbiont cells. By 72 hai, all the crypts were filled up with the symbiont cells and the symbiont localization pattern continued during the subsequent nymphal development. Quantitative PCR of the symbiont confirmed the infection dynamics quantitatively. These results highlight the stinkbug-Burkholderia gut symbiosis as an unprecedented model for comprehensive understanding of molecular mechanisms underpinning insect symbiosis. PMID:24103110

  13. First record of Porocephalus cf. clavatus (Pentastomida: Porocephalida) as a parasite on Bothrops asper (Squamata: Viperidae) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, G; Sánchez-Monge, A

    2015-11-01

    Pentastomids are parasites that infect respiratory cavities of vertebrates, they are pretty common but poorly known in wildlife veterinary. A Bothrops asper snake (Garman, 1884) was captured in the Caribbean region of Costa Rica and had its lung infested with pentastomids, identified as ca Porocephalus clavatus (Wyman, 1845). This represents the first record of Porocephalus (Humboldt, 1812) on B. asper as well as P. cf. clavatus in Costa Rica. Further studies are needed to clarify their taxonomic position, images and scanning electron microscopy photographs (SEM) of the specimens are given. PMID:26628232

  14. Small Chemical Chromatin Effectors Alter Secondary Metabolite Production in Aspergillus clavatus

    PubMed Central

    Zutz, Christoph; Gacek, Agnieszka; Sulyok, Michael; Wagner, Martin; Strauss, Joseph; Rychli, Kathrin

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus clavatus is known to produce a variety of secondary metabolites (SM) such as patulin, pseurotin A, and cytochalasin E. In fungi, the production of most SM is strongly influenced by environmental factors and nutrients. Furthermore, it has been shown that the regulation of SM gene clusters is largely based on modulation of a chromatin structure. Communication between fungi and bacteria also triggers chromatin-based induction of silent SM gene clusters. Consequently, chemical chromatin effectors known to inhibit histone deacetylases (HDACs) and DNA-methyltransferases (DNMTs) influence the SM profile of several fungi. In this study, we tested the effect of five different chemicals, which are known to affect chromatin structure, on SM production in A. clavatus using two growth media with a different organic nitrogen source. We found that production of patulin was completely inhibited and cytochalasin E levels strongly reduced, whereas growing A. clavatus in media containing soya-derived peptone led to substantially higher pseurotin A levels. The HDAC inhibitors valproic acid, trichostatin A and butyrate, as well as the DNMT inhibitor 5-azacytidine (AZA) and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, which was used as a proxy for bacterial fungal co-cultivation, had profound influence on SM accumulation and transcription of the corresponding biosynthetic genes. However, the repressing effect of the soya-based nitrogen source on patulin production could not be bypassed by any of the small chemical chromatin effectors. Interestingly, AZA influenced some SM cluster genes and SM production although no Aspergillus species has yet been shown to carry detectable DNA methylation. PMID:24105402

  15. First isolation of a novel thermostable antifungal peptide secreted by Aspergillus clavatus.

    PubMed

    Skouri-Gargouri, Houda; Gargouri, Ali

    2008-11-01

    A novel antifungal peptide produced by an indigenous fungal strain (VR) of Aspergillus clavatus was purified. The antifungal peptide was enriched in the supernatant after heat treatment at 70 degrees C. The thermostable character was exploited in the first purification step, as purified peptide was obtained after ultrafiltration and reverse phase-HPLC on C18 column application. The purified peptide named "AcAFP" for A. clavatus antifungal peptide, has molecular mass of 5773Da determined by MALDI-ToF spectrometry. The N-terminal sequence showed a notable identity to the limited family of antifungal peptides produced by ascomycetes fungi. The AcAFP activity remains intact even after heat treatment at 100 degrees C for 1h confirming its thermostability. It exhibits a strong inhibitory activity against mycelial growth of several serious human and plant pathogenic fungi: Fusariuym oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, whereas AcAFP did not affect yeast and bacterial growth. PMID:18687373

  16. A highly fatal tremorgenic mycotoxicosis of cattle caused by Aspergillus clavatus.

    PubMed

    Kellerman, T S; Pienaar, J G; van der Westhuizen, G C; Anderson, G C; Naude, T W

    1976-09-01

    During February 1975, a tremorgenic neurotoxicosis decimated a herd of cattle in the northern Transvaal. This hitherto unidentified disease was characterized by hypersensitivity, incoordination, a peculiar stiff-legged gait of the hind legs, severe generalized tumors of the sketetal muscles, progressive paresis, paralysis and constipation. The most notable gross pathological lesions were degenerative and necrotic changes in certain skeletal muscles, haemorrhages on the serosal surfaces, especially on the dorsal aspect of the rumen, and gastro-intestinal stasis. Microscopical examination of the central nervous system revealed cytopathological changes consisting of degeneration and necrosis of the large motor cells in the ventral horns of the spinal cord and bigger neurones in numerous nuclei of the medulla oblongata, midbrain and thalamus. By feeding the suspect ration and its component parts to cattle and sheep, it was possible to identify mouldy sorghum beer residue as the toxic component in the ration. A. clavatus, the dominant fungus on the toxic residue, was readily isolated in pure culture. The entire syndrome was then reproduced in a yearling Friesland steer dosed with pure cultures of the A. clavatus isolate grown on autoclaved non-toxic sorghum beer residue. The toxic principle is not known, but it does not appear to be patulin, tryptoquivalone, tryptoquivaline, or any other known tremorgen. PMID:1012654

  17. Multitoxin analysis of Aspergillus clavatus-infected feed samples implicated in two outbreaks of neuromycotoxicosis in cattle in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Botha, Christo J; Legg, Matthew J; Truter, Mariëtte; Sulyok, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus clavatus intoxication is a highly fatal neuromycotoxicosis of ruminants, especially cattle. It is caused by the ingestion of infected sprouting grain and sorghum beer residue. Locomotor disturbances, tremors and paralysis are observed. Histologically, degeneration and necrosis of larger neurons in the medulla oblongata, the midbrain, the thalamus and the ventral horns of the spinal cord are observed. Although a range of mycotoxins such as patulin, cytochalasin E and pseurotin A have been isolated, there is limited information on which specific mycotoxin or group of mycotoxins are involved during outbreaks of intoxication in livestock. In the present study, two outbreaks of A. clavatus poisoning in cattle are briefly described. Feed samples were collected for fungal identification, and culture and multitoxin analysis. A range of fungal metabolites were detected, and the estimated concentrations (μg/kg) are provided. Both the sprouting barley and brewer's grain were predominantly infected with A. clavatus and, to a lesser extent, Rhizopus arrhizus. The only common Aspergillus secondary metabolite present in all the samples was pseurotin A. Patulin and cytochalasin E were present in the sprouting barley samples, as well as the A. clavatus isolates cultured on malt extract agar for 2 weeks; however, neither of these mycotoxins could be detected in the brewer's grain sample. PMID:25685962

  18. Histopathological effects of Aspergillus clavatus (Ascomycota: Trichocomaceae) on larvae of the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Bawin, Thomas; Seye, Fawrou; Boukraa, Slimane; Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Raharimalala, Fara Nantenaina; Ndiaye, Mady; Compere, Philippe; Delvigne, Frank; Francis, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Aspergillus clavatus (Ascomycota: Trichocomaceae) was previously found to be an opportunistic pathogen of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). In the present study, the mechanism leading to its insecticidal activity was investigated regarding histological damages on Culex quinquefasciatus larvae exposed to A. clavatus spores. Multiple concentration assays using spore suspensions (0.5-2.5 × 10(8) spores ml(-1)) revealed 17.0-74.3 % corrected mortalities after 48 h exposure. Heat-deactivated spores induced a lower mortality compared to nonheated spores suggesting that insecticidal effects are actively exerted. Spore-treated and untreated larvae were prepared for light microscopy as well as for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Spores failed to adhere to the external body surface (except the mouth parts) of these aquatic immature stages but progressively filled the digestive tract where their metabolism seemed to activate. In parallel, the internal tissues of the larvae, i.e. the midgut wall, the skeletal muscles, and the cuticle-secreting epidermis, were progressively destroyed between 8 and 24 h of exposure. These observations suggest that toxins secreted by active germinating spores of A. clavatus in the digestive tract altered the larval tissues, leading to their necrosis and causing larval death. Fungal proliferation and sporulation then occurred during a saprophytic phase. A. clavatus enzymes or toxins responsible for these pathogenic effects need to be identified in further studies before any use of this fungus in mosquito control. PMID:27020151

  19. Biomass-to-bio-products application of feruloyl esterase from Aspergillus clavatus.

    PubMed

    Damásio, André R L; Braga, Cleiton Márcio Pinto; Brenelli, Lívia B; Citadini, Ana Paula; Mandelli, Fernanda; Cota, Junio; de Almeida, Rodrigo Ferreira; Salvador, Victor Hugo; Paixao, Douglas Antonio Alvaredo; Segato, Fernando; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; de Oliveira Neto, Mario; do Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Squina, Fabio M

    2013-08-01

    The structural polysaccharides contained in plant cell walls have been pointed to as a promising renewable alternative to petroleum and natural gas. Ferulic acid is a ubiquitous component of plant polysaccharides, which is found in either monomeric or dimeric forms and is covalently linked to arabinosyl residues. Ferulic acid has several commercial applications in food and pharmaceutical industries. The study herein introduces a novel feruloyl esterase from Aspergillus clavatus (AcFAE). Along with a comprehensive functional and biophysical characterization, the low-resolution structure of this enzyme was also determined by small-angle X-ray scattering. In addition, we described the production of phenolic compounds with antioxidant capacity from wheat arabinoxylan and sugarcane bagasse using AcFAE. The ability to specifically cleave ester linkages in hemicellulose is useful in several biotechnological applications, including improved accessibility to lignocellulosic enzymes for biofuel production. PMID:23229566

  20. Neurological disorder in dairy cattle associated with consumption of beer residues contaminated with Aspergillus clavatus.

    PubMed

    Loretti, Alexandre Paulino; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Driemeier, David; Corrêa, André Mendes; Bangel, Jorge José; Ferreiro, Laerte

    2003-03-01

    A neurological syndrome in dairy cattle associated with consumption of moldy beer residues is described. The disease occurred on 1 farm in late June 2001, during winter. Six heifers and 1 cow out of 45 cattle were affected during a 3-week period. The affected animals died spontaneously or were euthanized approximately 2-14 days after the onset of clinical signs. The clinical signs were characterized by flaccid paralysis and gait abnormalities. Clinical signs were more pronounced after exercise and included stiff and unsteady gait, knuckling at the fetlocks of the hind limbs, frequent falling, inability to rise, muscular tremors, especially of the head and the hindquarters, and drooling. Main necropsy findings included degenerative and necrotic changes of the larger medial muscle groups of the hindquarters, i.e., adductor, pectineus, quadriceps femoris, rectus femuris, sartorius, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, and vastus medialis, and of the forequarters, including pectoralis descendens, pectoralis ascendens, and transversus pectoralis. The main histologic findings consisted of degenerative and necrotic neuronal changes (chromatolysis) of varying severity and extent affecting selected nuclei of the brainstem and neurons of the ventral horns of the spinal cord. Similar microscopic lesions were observed in the neurons of the spinal cord of 1 experimental sheep force-fed for 35 days with 1 kg/day of the same batch of foodstuff that was originally fed to the cattle. Coarse white or gray lumps, interpreted as mycelia, were observed in the beer by-product. Aspergillus clavatus was the dominant fungus isolated. Deaths ceased after the consumption of beer residue was discontinued. Recovery from illness was observed in 1 animal. The diagnosis was based on epidemiological data, clinical signs, necropsy findings, histological lesions, dosing trial, and mycology. A similar condition caused by consumption of barley by-products, sprouted wheat, corn sprouts, and beetroot

  1. Consumer-producer relationships for trace metals in Chorthippus brunneus (Thunberg. )

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.S.

    1986-08-01

    The behavior of trace metals in terrestrial food chains is a subject of ecological interest, particularly in polluted environments where the potential exists for bioconcentration of metals known to be essential in trace amounts for normal plant and animal metabolism, as well as those with no known metabolic function but recognized toxicological properties. Laboratory studies of food chain relationships afford a means by which direct comparisons can be made between trace metals as a basis for interpretation of data collected from wild plant and animal populations. This study compares the behavior of three trace elements, copper, zinc and cadmium, in terms of their assimilation under experimental conditions by the herbivorous common field grasshopper, Chorthippus brunneus (Thunberg.). This voracious orthopteran is widely distributed in Britain and is particularly prominent in the restricted invertebrate community of some metal smelter-affected grasslands where it forms important seasonal prey for insectivorous small mammals.

  2. Preferential bivalent formation in tetraploid male of pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas Thunberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhengrui; Wang, Xinglian; Zhang, Quanqi; Allen, Standish

    2013-11-01

    Artificially induced tetraploid Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas Thunberg, produces more aneuploid gametes than normal diploid one, although they showed a comparable fecundity to diploidy. The meiotic chromosome configuration of 3 tetraploid and 1 tetraploid/triploid mosaic males were analyzed through direct chromosome observation. A majority of metaphase I spermatocytes contained both bivalents and quadrivalents. The chromosome configuration of these males was characterized by preferential formation of bivalents to quadrivalents. Bivalents appeared in all spermatocytes and consisted of 86% of all chromosome aggregates. In comparison, quadrivalents occurred in 91% spermatocytes and consisted of only 12.6% of all chromosome aggregates. The mean bivalent frequency per spermatocyte varied between 14.4 and 17.2; while that of quadrivalents varied between 2.2 and 2.7. Most quadrivalents were tandemly chained (58%) or circled (39%). The total number of chromosome aggregates per spermatocyte ranged from 13 to 20 with an average of 17.6; while 18 (16 bivalents and 2 quadrivalents) was the most frequent. Univalents and trivalents appeared in very low frequency. Aneuploid (hypotetraploid) spermatocytes were observed in a low frequency. The chromosome configuration of in the mosaic individual was similar to that of tetraploid individuals. The percentage of triploid spermatocytes (2%) of the mosaic individual was significantly lower (χ2 =30, P < 0.01) than that of triploid cells (46%) in its somatic tissue.

  3. A fraction of methylene chloride from Geum japonicum Thunberg inhibits tumor metastatic and angiogenic potential.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jin-Chul; Son, Minsik; Woo, Sang-Uk; Kweon, Mi-Ae; Yoon, Eun Kyung; Lee, Hee Kyung; Choi, Won-Sik; Cho, Kang-Jin; Lee, Sang-Han

    2008-06-01

    The plant Geum japonicum Thunberg (GjT) has been used as a diuretic in traditional medicine. Herein, we report that the GjT extract blocks both the spread of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) on matrigel and the migration of B16 cells. We used various assays to test for cell attachment, spreading, wound healing and angiogenesis. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) assay were also carried out for the mechanistic study of GjT. Our results showed that a fraction of methylene chloride fraction from GjT inhibited B16 cells during cell attachment and migration and suppressed tube formation in a dose-dependent manner. An RT-PCR analysis showed that the methylene chloride extract decreased the mRNA expression of CD44 and TIMP-2. A Western blot analysis of the phosphorylation of MAPK kinases (ERK, JNK and p38) showed that the GjT fraction increased the expression of phospho-JNK, suggesting that GjT has the potential to alleviate metastatic and angiogenic activity, via a phospho-JNK signaling pathway. PMID:18497943

  4. Properties of Pseudomonas enalia, a Marine Bacterium Pathogenic for the Invertebrate Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg)1

    PubMed Central

    Colwell, R. R.; Sparks, A. K.

    1967-01-01

    Bacteriological investigations of dead and dying oysters in populations of Crassostrea gigas grown in Hood Canal, Oyster Bay, and Willapa Bay, Washington, were undertaken. Living, and presumably normal, oysters within the same sample set were also examined. Results indicated that the natural flora of Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg) is composed of organisms representing the genera Pseudomonas, Achromobacter, Flavobacterium, and Vibrio. Pollution indicator organisms such as Escherichia coli were not found. The flora of dead or dying oysters included a somewhat greater incidence of Pseudomonas sp.; a seawater-requiring organism isolated on several occasions from oyster gapers which had been collected from different geographical areas was identified as P. enalia. A description of the organism has been provided, and the characteristics are listed to facilitate identification by other workers encountering the organism in future studies of a similar kind. The seawater requirement exhibited by P. enalia was deduced to be a requirement for sodium chloride for growth of the organism. Experiments to determine the pathogenicity of Pseudomonas enalia were performed by use of experimentally infected animals maintained in aerated seawater tanks. Death of C. gigas occurred when the animal body tissue was injected with viable bacterial cell suspension. Results of histological studies of the normal and infected oyster tissue suggest that bacterial invasion of the tissue occurred. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6053175

  5. Patulin produced by an Aspergillus clavatus isolated from feed containing malting residues associated with a lethal neurotoxicosis in cattle.

    PubMed

    Sabater-Vilar, Monica; Maas, Roel F M; De Bosschere, Hendrik; Ducatelle, Richard; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2004-11-01

    A severe neurotoxicosis, comprising tremors, ataxia, paresis, recumbency and death, occurred simultaneously among several herds of beef cattle in the region of Flanders (Belgium). After a first multi-toxin screening of some suspected diet elements, verruculogen was detected in a sample of a common feed ingredient. However, when the first animal necropsies revealed serious nervous lesions, including neuronal degeneration of the central nervous system and axonal degeneration in the peripheral nervous system, further investigations focused on fungal isolation. As expected from the pathological lesions, Aspergillus clavatus was found to be the dominant fungal species in a sample of compacted fodder, containing malting residues, consumed by all the affected herds. The isolated fungus appeared to produce patulin in culture medium. Traces of patulin were also detected in the fodder. These findings and their possible role in the intoxication are discussed. PMID:15702266

  6. The preimaginal stages of Pnigalio gyamiensis Myartseva & Kurashev, 1990 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), a parasitoid associated with Chrysoesthia sexguttella (Thunberg) (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Yegorenkova, Ekaterina; Yefremova, Zoya

    2012-01-01

    The larval instars of Pnigalio gyamiensis Myartseva and Kurashev are described in detail for the first time. This species is a larval-pupal ectoparasitoid of Chrysoesthia sexguttella (Thunberg) (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae), which forms leaf mines in the plant Chenopodium album L. (Caryophyllales: Amaranthaceae). The female of Pnigalio gyamiensis lays a single egg on the skin of the host larva or nearby it, without any significant preference for a particular variant. The presence of long hairs on its body provides the newly-hatched first larval instar with high mobility. Some peculiarities in this parasitoid-host relationship are described. PMID:22936867

  7. Biofabrication of Anisotropic Gold Nanotriangles Using Extract of Endophytic Aspergillus clavatus as a Dual Functional Reductant and Stabilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Vijay C.; Singh, Santosh K.; Solanki, Ravindra; Prakash, Satya

    2011-12-01

    Biosynthesis of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles using microorganisms has emerged as a more eco-friendly, simpler and reproducible alternative to the chemical synthesis, allowing the generation of rare forms such as nanotriangles and prisms. Here, we report the endophytic fungus Aspergillus clavatus, isolated from surface sterilized stem tissues of Azadirachta indica A. Juss., when incubated with an aqueous solution of chloroaurate ions produces a diverse mixture of intracellular gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), especially nanotriangles (GNT) in the size range from 20 to 35 nm. These structures (GNT) are of special interest since they possess distinct plasmonic features in the visible and IR regions, which equipped them with unique physical and optical properties exploitable in vital applications such as optics, electronics, catalysis and biomedicine. The reaction process was simple and convenient to handle and was monitored using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). The morphology and crystalline nature of the GNTs were determined from transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force spectroscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. This proposed mechanistic principal might serve as a set of design rule for the synthesis of anisotropic nanostructures with desired architecture and can be amenable for the large scale commercial production and technical applications.

  8. Effect of extraction technique on the content and antioxidant activity of crude extract of Anacyclus clavatus flowers and their essential oil composition.

    PubMed

    Aliboudhar, Hamza; Tigrine-Kordjani, Nacéra

    2014-01-01

    Anacyclus clavatus is a plant used as food and remedy. The objective of this work was to study the effect of extraction technique on the antioxidant property, total phenol and flavonoid contents of crude extracts from A. clavatus flowers and their essential oil composition. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, ferric-reducing power, β-carotene and total antioxidant capacity assays have demonstrated the significant antioxidant ability of different crude extracts obtained by using the following extraction methods: Soxhlet, microwave heating, heat reflux (HRE) and maceration. The activity of the extract obtained by HRE was the highest (112.06 ± 2.89 μg/mL) evaluated by the DPPH assay. Extraction of essential oil was performed by microwave-assisted hydro-distillation (MAHD) and by hydro-distillation (HD). A significant difference was observed in both essential oils, despite the common main family and major constituents, such as artemisia ketone (10.0 ± 0.8% for MAHD vs. 6.5 ± 0.5 for HD) and pinocarvone (4.1 ± 0.4% for MAHD vs. 1.1 ± 0.1% for HD). PMID:25115624

  9. Isolation of 4,5-O-Dicaffeoylquinic Acid as a Pigmentation Inhibitor Occurring in Artemisia capillaris Thunberg and Its Validation In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Nadia; Lee, Ji-Hyung; Yim, Soon-Ho; Batkhuu, Galzad Javzan; Jung, Da-Woon; Williams, Darren R

    2016-01-01

    There is a continual need to develop novel and effective melanogenesis inhibitors for the prevention of hyperpigmentation disorders. The plant Artemisia capillaris Thunberg (Oriental Wormwood) was screened for antipigmentation activity using murine cultured cells (B16-F10 malignant melanocytes). Activity-based fractionation using HPLC and NMR analyses identified the compound 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid as an active component in this plant. 4,5-O-Dicaffeoylquinic acid significantly reduced melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner in the melanocytes. In addition, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid treatment reduced the expression of tyrosinase-related protein-1. Significantly, we could validate the antipigmentation activity of this compound in vivo, using a zebrafish model. Moreover, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid did not show toxicity in this animal model. Our discovery of 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid as an inhibitor of pigmentation that is active in vivo shows that this compound can be developed as an active component for formulations to treat pigmentation disorders. PMID:27528883

  10. Isolation of 4,5-O-Dicaffeoylquinic Acid as a Pigmentation Inhibitor Occurring in Artemisia capillaris Thunberg and Its Validation In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tabassum, Nadia; Lee, Ji-Hyung; Yim, Soon-Ho; Batkhuu, Galzad Javzan

    2016-01-01

    There is a continual need to develop novel and effective melanogenesis inhibitors for the prevention of hyperpigmentation disorders. The plant Artemisia capillaris Thunberg (Oriental Wormwood) was screened for antipigmentation activity using murine cultured cells (B16-F10 malignant melanocytes). Activity-based fractionation using HPLC and NMR analyses identified the compound 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid as an active component in this plant. 4,5-O-Dicaffeoylquinic acid significantly reduced melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner in the melanocytes. In addition, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid treatment reduced the expression of tyrosinase-related protein-1. Significantly, we could validate the antipigmentation activity of this compound in vivo, using a zebrafish model. Moreover, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid did not show toxicity in this animal model. Our discovery of 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid as an inhibitor of pigmentation that is active in vivo shows that this compound can be developed as an active component for formulations to treat pigmentation disorders. PMID:27528883

  11. De novo sequencing-based transcriptome and digital gene expression analysis reveals insecticide resistance-relevant genes in Propylaea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptea: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Tang, Liang-De; Wang, Xing-Min; Jin, Feng-Liang; Qiu, Bao-Li; Wu, Jian-Hui; Ren, Shun-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    The ladybird Propylaea japonica (Thunberg) is one of most important natural enemies of aphids in China. This species is threatened by the extensive use of insecticides but genomics-based information on the molecular mechanisms underlying insecticide resistance is limited. Hence, we analyzed the transcriptome and expression profile data of P. japonica in order to gain a deeper understanding of insecticide resistance in ladybirds. We performed de novo assembly of a transcriptome using Illumina's Solexa sequencing technology and short reads. A total of 27,243,552 reads were generated. These were assembled into 81,458 contigs and 33,647 unigenes (6,862 clusters and 26,785 singletons). Of the unigenes, 23,965 (71.22%) have putative homologues in the non-redundant (nr) protein database from NCBI, using BLASTX, with a cut-off E-value of 10(-5). We examined COG, GO and KEGG annotations to better understand the functions of these unigenes. Digital gene expression (DGE) libraries showed differences in gene expression profiles between two insecticide resistant strains. When compared with an insecticide susceptible profile, a total of 4,692 genes were significantly up- or down- regulated in a moderately resistant strain. Among these genes, 125 putative insecticide resistance genes were identified. To confirm the DGE results, 16 selected genes were validated using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). This study is the first to report genetic information on P. japonica and has greatly enriched the sequence data for ladybirds. The large number of gene sequences produced from the transcriptome and DGE sequencing will greatly improve our understanding of this important insect, at the molecular level, and could contribute to the in-depth research into insecticide resistance mechanisms. PMID:24959827

  12. Differential response of benthic macrofauna to the formation of novel oyster reefs ( Crassostrea gigas, Thunberg) on soft and rocky substrate in the intertidal of the Bay of Brest, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejart, Morgane; Hily, Christian

    2011-01-01

    When the Pacific oyster ( Crassostrea gigas, Thunberg) was introduced into France for aquaculture in the mid-sixties, it was initially confined to the sites where it was farmed. Subsequent global warming most likely facilitated the establishment of wild populations throughout the French coastline. This phenomenon of spread has become so great that oyster reefs have recently appeared in sheltered estuaries, on both soft and hard substrate. The present study examined two such sites in the Bay of Brest, Brittany. It is the first to investigate the impacts of this new substrate on the biocoenosis of uncolonised intertidal habitats in France. Increased species richness and abundance of intertidal macrofauna were observed in the presence of oyster reefs on both, mud (4 and 20 fold respectively) and rock (5 fold for both). The dominance of suspension feeders in mud changed to carnivores in reefs and their underlying sediment. Calculation of biotic coefficients (BC) of the soft-bottom fauna revealed only a slight organic enrichment, and the organic and silt composition in the sediment beneath oyster reefs were not significantly different from that on bare sites. On rock, the dominance of grazers remained unchanged between bare rock and oyster reef, while reef on rock was also characterised by deposit and detritic feeders. C. gigas is suspected to cause a homogenisation of coastal habitats with an impoverishment of overall quality but we detected only 11 common species between reefs on mud (60 species) and those on rock (55 species).

  13. Comparative assessment of feeding damage by pod-sucking bugs (Heteroptera: Coreoidea) associated with cowpea, Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Soyelu, O L; Akingbohungbe, A E

    2007-02-01

    Feeding trials were conducted on three (young, mid-fill and mature) developmental stages of cowpea Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata pods in the screenhouse using fourth instar nymphs and adults of Anoplocnemis curvipes (Fabricius), Riptortus dentipes (Fabricius), Mirperus jaculus (Thunberg), Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål and C. shadabi Dolling. Anoplocnemis curvipes was observed to be the most damaging coreoid species causing a yield reduction of 26.4-51.7% followed by R. dentipes (24.4-29.4%), M. jaculus (21.9-26.9%), C. tomentosicollis (17.9-22.4%) and C. shadabi (15.9-20.4%). The fourth instar nymphs of each pod-sucking bug species caused a significantly higher cowpea yield reduction than their respective adults. Similarly, infestation on young pods compared to mid-fill and mature stages resulted in significantly higher yield reduction. The results suggest that infestation levels of two fourth instar nymphs of A. curvipes or three fourth instar nymphs of the other four pod-sucking bug species per young pod should be adequate for screening of cowpea varieties for resistance to the coreoid bugs. PMID:17298676

  14. Cytochemical characterization of yolk granule acid phosphatase during early development of the oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiyan; Sun, Hushan; Wang, Yanjie; Yan, Dongchun; Wang, Lei

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a cytochemical method and transmission electron microscopy was used to examine acid phosphatase activities of yolk granules throughout the early developmental stages of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. This study aimed to investigate the dynamic change of yolk granule acid phosphatase, and the mechanisms underlying its involvement in yolk degradation during the early developmental stages of molluscs. Three types of yolk granules (YGI, YGII, and YGIII) that differed in electron density and acid phosphatase reaction were identified in early cleavage, morula, blastula, gastrula, trochophore, and veliger stages. The morphological heterogeneities of the yolk granules were related to acid phosphatase activity and degrees of yolk degradation, indicating the association of acid phosphatase with yolk degradation in embryos and larvae of molluscs. Fusion of yolk granules was observed during embryogenesis and larval development of C. gigas. The fusion of YGI (free of acid phosphatase reaction) with YGII (rich in acid phosphatase reaction) could be the way by which yolk degradation is triggered.

  15. Status of insecticide resistance and selection for imidacloprid resistance in the ladybird beetle Propylaea japonica (Thunberg).

    PubMed

    Tang, Liang-De; Qiu, Bao-Li; Cuthbertson, Andrew G S; Ren, Shun-Xiang

    2015-09-01

    Field populations or strains of Propylaea japonica collected from four places in southern China (Guangzhou, Nanning, Guilin, and Yuxi) were tested for susceptibility to four insecticides (abamectin, imidacloprid, beta-cypermethrin, and chlorpyrifos) by the Petri-dish Potter tower method and compared with an insecticide-susceptible strain. Concentrations that proved lethal for 50% of the tested individuals (LC50) were estimated by probit analysis, and resistance factors (RF) were calculated at the LC50 level, which ranged from 1.6 to 10.1, depending on the insecticide. In addition, the Guangzhou strain formed the original population for imidacloprid resistance selection. After selection for 20 generations, the resistance had increased 39.3-fold. Fitness analysis in terms of such traits as fecundity, days to maturity, and survival showed that although both resistant and susceptible populations developed at comparable rates, the resistant strain was less fecund (it laid fewer eggs and a smaller proportion of those eggs hatched and resulted in adults), attaining a fitness score of only 0.56 relative to the susceptible strain. These observations suggest that it is possible to detect strains of P. japonica highly resistant to insecticides under laboratory conditions, and that resistance to imidacloprid carries considerable fitness costs to P. japonica. The study served to expand our understanding of the impact of imidacloprid resistance on biological parameters of P. japonica in more detail and to facilitate the deployment of natural enemies resistant to insecticides in integrated pest management. PMID:26267056

  16. Ommexecha virens (Thunberg, 1824) and Descampsacris serrulatum (Serville, 1831) (Orthoptera, Ommexechidae): karyotypes, constitutive heterochromatin and nucleolar organizing regions

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, D.B.; Rocha, M.F.; Loreto, V.; Silva, A.E.B.; Souza, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Chromosomes of Ommexecha virens and Descampsacris serrulatum (Ommexechidae) were analyzed through conventional staining, C-banding, base specific fluorochromes, silver nitrate impregnation (AgNO3), and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with probe for 45S rDNA. The two species presented diploid number 2n= 23,X0 in males and acrocentric autosomes, except the pair one that presented submetacentric morphology. The X chromosome has distinct morphology in the two analyzed species, being a medium acrocentric in Ommexecha virens and large submetacentric in Descampsacris serrulatum. The C-banding revealed pericentromeric blocks of constitutive heterochromatin (CH) in all the chromosomes of Descampsacris serrulatum. For Ommexecha virens it was evidenced that the blocks of CH are preferentially located in the pericentromeric area (however some bivalents presents additional blocks) or in different positions. The staining with CMA3/DA/DAPI showed GC rich CH blocks (CMA3+) in some chromosomes of the two species. The nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) were located in the bivalents L2, S9, S10 of Ommexecha virens and M5, M6, M7, S11 of Descampsacris serrulatum. The FISH for rDNA showed coincident results with the pattern of active NORs revealed by AgNO3. This work presents the first chromosomal data, obtained through differential cytogenetics techniques in Ommexechidae, contributing to a better characterization of karyotypic evolution for this grasshopper family. PMID:24260624

  17. Maize Benefits the Predatory Beetle, Propylea japonica (Thunberg), to Provide Potential to Enhance Biological Control for Aphids in Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Fang; Men, Xingyuan; Yang, Bing; Su, Jianwei; Zhang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Zihua; Ge, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Background Biological control provided by natural enemies play an important role in integrated pest management. Generalist insect predators provide an important biological service in the regulation of agricultural insect pests. Our goal is to understand the explicit process of oviposition preference, habitat selection and feeding behavior of predators in farmland ecosystem consisting of multiple crops, which is central to devising and delivering an integrated pest management program. Methodology The hypotheses was that maize can serve as habitat for natural enemies and benefits predators to provide potential to enhance biological control for pest insects in cotton. This explicit process of a predatory beetle, Propylea japonica, in agricultural ecosystem composed of cotton and maize were examined by field investigation and stable carbon isotope analysis during 2008–2010. Principal Finding Field investigation showed that P. japonica adults will search host plants for high prey abundance before laying eggs, indicating indirectly that P. japonica adults prefer to inhabit maize plants and travel to cotton plants to actively prey on aphids. The δ13C values of adult P. japonica in a dietary shift experiment found that individual beetles were shifting from a C3- to a C4-based diet of aphids reared on maize or cotton, respectively, and began to reflect the isotope ratio of their new C4 resources within one week. Approximately 80–100% of the diet of P. japonica adults in maize originated from a C3-based resource in June, July and August, while approximately 80% of the diet originated from a C4-based resource in September. Conclusion/Significance Results suggest that maize can serve as a habitat or refuge source for the predatory beetle, P. japonica, and benefits predators to provide potential to enhance biological control for insect pests in cotton. PMID:22984499

  18. Consumption of Bt rice pollen containing Cry1C or Cry2A does not pose a risk to Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunhe; Zhang, Xiaojie; Chen, Xiuping; Romeis, Jörg; Yin, Xinming; Peng, Yufa

    2015-01-01

    As a pollen feeder, Propylea japonica would be directly exposed to Cry proteins in Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-transgenic rice fields. The effect of Cry1C- or Cry2A-containing transgenic rice pollen on the fitness of P. japonica was assessed using two dietary-exposure experiments in the laboratory. In the first experiment, larval developmental time of P. japonica was significantly longer when fed pollen from Bt rice lines rather than control pollen but other life table parameters were not significantly affected. In the second experiment, P. japonica was not affected when fed a rapeseed pollen-based diet containing purified Cry1C or Cry2A at concentrations that were >10-times higher than in pollen, but P. japonica was affected when the diet contained E-64 as a positive control. In both experiments, the stability and bioactivity of the Cry proteins in the food sources and the uptake of the proteins by P. japonica were confirmed. The results show that P. japonica is not sensitive to Cry1C or Cry2A proteins; the effect observed in the first experiment was likely attributable to unknown differences in the nutritional composition of Bt rice pollen. Overall, the data indicate that the growing of Cry1C- or Cry2A-transgenic rice should pose a negligible risk to P. japonica. PMID:25567127

  19. Consumption of Bt rice pollen containing Cry1C or Cry2A does not pose a risk to Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Yunhe; Zhang, Xiaojie; Chen, Xiuping; Romeis, Jörg; Yin, Xinming; Peng, Yufa

    2015-01-01

    As a pollen feeder, Propylea japonica would be directly exposed to Cry proteins in Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-transgenic rice fields. The effect of Cry1C- or Cry2A-containing transgenic rice pollen on the fitness of P. japonica was assessed using two dietary-exposure experiments in the laboratory. In the first experiment, larval developmental time of P. japonica was significantly longer when fed pollen from Bt rice lines rather than control pollen but other life table parameters were not significantly affected. In the second experiment, P. japonica was not affected when fed a rapeseed pollen-based diet containing purified Cry1C or Cry2A at concentrations that were >10-times higher than in pollen, but P. japonica was affected when the diet contained E-64 as a positive control. In both experiments, the stability and bioactivity of the Cry proteins in the food sources and the uptake of the proteins by P. japonica were confirmed. The results show that P. japonica is not sensitive to Cry1C or Cry2A proteins; the effect observed in the first experiment was likely attributable to unknown differences in the nutritional composition of Bt rice pollen. Overall, the data indicate that the growing of Cry1C- or Cry2A-transgenic rice should pose a negligible risk to P. japonica. PMID:25567127

  20. Mercury in cultured oysters (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg, 1793 and C. corteziensis Hertlein, 1951) from four coastal lagoons of the SE Gulf of California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Osuna-Martínez, C C; Páez-Osuna, F; Alonso-Rodríguez, R

    2010-09-01

    In order to determine the mercury concentrations in cultured oysters from coastal lagoons (SE Gulf of California), several individuals of Crassostrea gigas and C. corteziensis were collected and their mercury levels were measured with a cold vapor analyzer. The mean concentrations during the rainy and dry seasons, respectively, were 0.70 and 0.15 microg g(-1) in C. gigas and 0.56 and 0.18 microg g(-1) in C. corteziensis. During the rainy season, elevated mercury contents are apparently related to terrigen transport from the watershed, while during the dry season, the moderate levels are related to upwellings. PMID:20697884

  1. In vivo effects of LCO soluble fraction on immune-related functions and gene transcription in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg).

    PubMed

    Bado-Nilles, Anne; Renault, Tristan; Faury, Nicole; Le Floch, Stéphane; Quentel, Claire; Auffret, Michel; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène

    2010-05-01

    The effects of a soluble fraction of light cycle oil (LCO) on haemocyte parameters, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and mRNA expression of immune-related genes, in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, were tested after seven days of exposure and two weeks of recovery period. Five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) out of ten detected in tank water had bioaccumulated at the end of the contamination period. The concentration of PAHs in oyster tissues decreased during the recovery period and 14 days after the exposure, 69% of bioaccumulated PAHs were detected in contaminated oysters. The exposure induced severe oyster mortality (21%), external and internal green colouration of the shell and a significant decrease of PO activity. The mRNA expression of several genes was altered. As a conclusion, a modulation of immune-related parameters was demonstrated using three different approaches, namely cellular (flow cytometry), biochemical (spectrophotometry) and genomics (gene transcription) in oysters after contact with soluble fraction of LCO. PMID:19800699

  2. Fixation, Segregation and Linkage of Allozyme Loci in Inbred Families of the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea Gigas (Thunberg): Implications for the Causes of Inbreeding Depression

    PubMed Central

    McGoldrick, D. J.; Hedgecock, D.

    1997-01-01

    The effect that inbreeding has on the fixation and segregation of genes has rarely been confirmed by direct observation. Here, fixation, segregation, and linkage of allozymes is investigated in the progeny of self-fertilized hermaphrodites of the normally outcrossing Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The estimate of fixation pooled over loci, individuals, and families, F = 0.462, is significantly lower than the expected value of 0.5. Log-likelihood ratios reveal significant heterogeneity in fixation among individuals, among families, and among loci. In addition, the grand pooled segregation ratio, 127:243:54, deviates significantly from 1:2:1, with a bias against homozygotes for alleles of lesser frequency in the natural population. Segregation ratios for 11 of 14 loci are significantly heterogeneous among families, and exact tests for segregation within families reveal 16 significant results out of 51 tests. Thus, fixation and segregation of allozyme markers in inbred oyster families deviates from the expectations of neutral inbreeding theory. Di-genic disequilibria are significant for four of 74 di-locus pairs revealing two linkage groups. Strong viability selection is apparently conditional on the genotype of the hermaphrodite-founders and is largely focused on these two linkage groups. These genetic effects are explained by interaction between cis-linked factors and polymorphic regulatory backgrounds. PMID:9136021

  3. Insect Gut Symbiont Susceptibility to Host Antimicrobial Peptides Caused by Alteration of the Bacterial Cell Envelope*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Son, Dae Woo; Kim, Chan-Hee; Cho, Jae Hyun; Marchetti, Roberta; Silipo, Alba; Sturiale, Luisa; Park, Ha Young; Huh, Ye Rang; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Fukatsu, Takema; Molinaro, Antonio; Lee, Bok Luel

    2015-01-01

    The molecular characterization of symbionts is pivotal for understanding the cross-talk between symbionts and hosts. In addition to valuable knowledge obtained from symbiont genomic studies, the biochemical characterization of symbionts is important to fully understand symbiotic interactions. The bean bug (Riptortus pedestris) has been recognized as a useful experimental insect gut symbiosis model system because of its cultivatable Burkholderia symbionts. This system is greatly advantageous because it allows the acquisition of a large quantity of homogeneous symbionts from the host midgut. Using these naïve gut symbionts, it is possible to directly compare in vivo symbiotic cells with in vitro cultured cells using biochemical approaches. With the goal of understanding molecular changes that occur in Burkholderia cells as they adapt to the Riptortus gut environment, we first elucidated that symbiotic Burkholderia cells are highly susceptible to purified Riptortus antimicrobial peptides. In search of the mechanisms of the increased immunosusceptibility of symbionts, we found striking differences in cell envelope structures between cultured and symbiotic Burkholderia cells. The bacterial lipopolysaccharide O antigen was absent from symbiotic cells examined by gel electrophoretic and mass spectrometric analyses, and their membranes were more sensitive to detergent lysis. These changes in the cell envelope were responsible for the increased susceptibility of the Burkholderia symbionts to host innate immunity. Our results suggest that the symbiotic interactions between the Riptortus host and Burkholderia gut symbionts induce bacterial cell envelope changes to achieve successful gut symbiosis. PMID:26116716

  4. [Occurrence of indole alkaloids among secondary metabolites of soil Aspergillus].

    PubMed

    Vinokurova, N G; Khmel'nitskaia, I I; Baskunov, B P; Arinbasarov, M U

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence of indole alkaloids among secondary fungal metabolites was studied in species of the genus Aspergillus, isolated from soils that were sampled in various regions of Russia (a total of 102 isolates of the species A. niger, A. phoenicis, A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. versicolor, A. ustus, A. clavatus, and A. ochraceus). Clavine alkaloids were represented by fumigaclavine, which was formed by A. fumigatus. alpha-Cyclopiazonic acid was formed by isolates of A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. versicolor, A. phoenicis, and A. clavatus. The occurrence of indole-containing diketopiperazine alkaloids was documented for isolates of A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. clavatus, and A. ochraceus. No indole-containing metabolites were found among the metabolites of A. ustus or A. niger. PMID:12722658

  5. Genomic Islands in Pathogenic Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We present the genome sequences of a new clinical isolate, CEA10, of an important human pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus, and two closely related, but rarely pathogenic species, Neosartorya fischeri NRRL181 and Aspergillus clavatus NRRL1. Comparative genomic analysis of CEA10 with the recently sequen...

  6. Variation in complex mating signals in an "island" hybrid zone between Stenobothrus grasshopper species.

    PubMed

    Sradnick, Jan; Klöpfel, Anja; Elsner, Norbert; Vedenina, Varvara

    2016-07-01

    Two grasshopper species Stenobothrus rubicundus and S. clavatus were previously shown to meet in a narrow hybrid zone on Mount Tomaros in northern Greece. The species are remarkable for their complex courtship songs accompanied by conspicuous movements of antennae and wings. We analyzed variations in forewing morphology, antenna shape, and courtship song across the hybrid zone using a geographic information system, and we documented three contact zones on Mount Tomaros. All male traits and female wings show abrupt transitions across the contact zones, suggesting that these traits are driven by selection rather than by drift. Male clines in antennae are displaced toward S. clavatus, whereas all clines in wings are displaced toward S. rubicundus. We explain cline discordance as depending on sexual selection via female choice. The high covariance between wings and antennae found in the centers of all contact zones results from high levels of linkage disequilibria among the underlying loci, which in turn more likely results from assortative mating than from selection against hybrids. The covariance is found to be higher in clavatus-like than rubicundus-like populations, which implies asymmetric assortative mating in parental-like sites of the hybrid zone and a movement of the hybrid zone in favor of S. clavatus. PMID:27547333

  7. Neomusotima fuscolinealis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) an unsuitable biological control agent of Lygodium japonicum.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neomusotima fuscolinealis Yoshiyasu was discovered to feed on and damage the leaves of Lygodium japonicum (Thunberg ex Murray) Swartz, an invasive weed in Florida and the southeastern U.S., in its native Japan. Larvae and pupae of the moth were imported into the quarantine facility at the Florida B...

  8. Combining Reflective Mulch and Host Plant Resistance for Sweetpotato Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Management in Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the use of reflective mulch and host plant resistance for the management of the B-biotype sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus (Thunberg) Matsum & Nakai]. Whitefly abundance data were collected under both g...

  9. Descriptions of new species of the genera Sarima Melichar and Sarimodes Matsumura from southern China (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Issidae)

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Rui; Wang, Yinglun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two Issini genera, Sarima Melichar, 1903 and Sarimodes Matsumura, 1916, are examined. One new Sarima species: Sarima bifurcus sp. n. and two new Sarimodes species Sarimodes clavatus sp. n. and Sarimodes parallelus sp. n. are added from South China. A checklist of species in the genus Sarima with data on distribution is provided. The distribution and morphological peculiarities of the genera Sarima and Sarimodes are briefly discussed. PMID:26877702

  10. Disparate Proteome Responses of Pathogenic and Non-pathogenic Aspergilli to Human Serum Measured by Activity-Based Protein Profiling (ABPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedner, Susan D.; Ansong, Charles; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pederson, Leeanna M.; Fortuin, Suereta; Hofstad, Beth A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Panisko, Ellen A.; Smith, Richard D.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2013-07-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the primary pathogen causing the devastating pulmonary disease Invasive Aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals. Genomic analysis shows high synteny between A. fumigatus and closely related rarely pathogenic Neosartorya fischeri and Aspergillus clavatus genomes. To investigate the presence of unique or highly inducible protein reactivity in the pathogen, we applied activity-based protein profiling to compare protein reactivity of all three fungi over time in minimal media growth and in response to human serum. We found 350 probe-reactive proteins exclusive to A. fumigatus, including known virulence associated proteins, and 13 proteins associated with stress response exclusive to A. fumigatus culture in serum. Though the fungi are highly orthologous, A. fumigatus has significantly more activity across varied biological process. Only 50% of expected orthologs of measured A. fumigatus reactive proteins were observed in N. fischeri and A. clavatus. Human serum induced processes uniquely or significantly represented in A. fumigatus include actin organization and assembly, transport, and fatty acid, cell membrane, and cell wall synthesis. Additionally, signaling proteins regulating vegetative growth, conidiation, and cell wall integrity, required for appropriate cellular response to external stimuli, had higher reactivity over time in A. fumigatus and N. fisheri, but not in A. clavatus. Together, we show that measured proteins and physiological processes identified solely or significantly over-represented in A. fumigatus reveal a unique adaptive response to human protein not found in closely related, but rarely aspergilli. These unique protein reactivity responses may reveal how A. fumigatus initiates pulmonary invasion leading to Invasive Aspergillosis.

  11. Photoperiod regulates growth of male accessory glands through juvenile hormone signaling in the linden bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus.

    PubMed

    Urbanová, Veronika; Bazalová, Olga; Vaněčková, Hanka; Dolezel, David

    2016-03-01

    Adult reproductive diapause is characterized by lower behavioral activity, ceased reproduction and absence of juvenile hormone (JH). The role of JH receptor Methoprene-tolerant (Met) in female reproduction is well established; however, its function in male reproductive development and behavior is unclear. In the bean bug, Riptortus pedestris, circadian genes are essential for mediating photoperiodically-dependent growth of the male accessory glands (MAGs). The present study explores the role of circadian genes and JH receptor in male diapause in the linden bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus. These data indicate that circadian factors Clock, Cycle and Cry2 are responsible for photoperiod measurement, whereas Met and its partner protein Taiman participate in JH reception. Surprisingly, knockdown of the JH receptor neither lowered locomotor activity nor reduced mating behavior of males. These data suggest existence of a parallel, JH-independent or JH-upstream photoperiodic regulation of reproductive behavior. PMID:26826599

  12. Polyester synthesis genes associated with stress resistance are involved in an insect–bacterium symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Won, Yeo Jin; Nikoh, Naruo; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Han, Sang Heum; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Rhee, Young Ha; Park, Ha Young; Kwon, Jeong Yun; Kurokawa, Kenji; Dohmae, Naoshi; Fukatsu, Takema; Lee, Bok Luel

    2013-01-01

    Many bacteria accumulate granules of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) within their cells, which confer resistance to nutritional depletion and other environmental stresses. Here, we report an unexpected involvement of the bacterial endocellular storage polymer, PHA, in an insect–bacterium symbiotic association. The bean bug Riptortus pedestris harbors a beneficial and specific gut symbiont of the β-proteobacterial genus Burkholderia, which is orally acquired by host nymphs from the environment every generation and easily cultivable and genetically manipulatable. Biochemical and cytological comparisons between symbiotic and cultured Burkholderia detected more PHA granules consisting of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate and associated phasin (PhaP) protein in the symbiotic Burkholderia. Among major PHA synthesis genes, phaB and phaC were disrupted by homologous recombination together with the phaP gene, whereby ΔphaB, ΔphaC, and ΔphaP mutants were generated. Both in culture and in symbiosis, accumulation of PHA granules was strongly suppressed in ΔphaB and ΔphaC, but only moderately in ΔphaP. In symbiosis, the host insects infected with ΔphaB and ΔphaC exhibited significantly lower symbiont densities and smaller body sizes. These deficient phenotypes associated with ΔphaB and ΔphaC were restored by complementation of the mutants with plasmids encoding a functional phaB/phaC gene. Retention analysis of the plasmids revealed positive selection acting on the functional phaB/phaC in symbiosis. These results indicate that the PHA synthesis genes of the Burkholderia symbiont are required for normal symbiotic association with the Riptortus host. In vitro culturing analyses confirmed vulnerability of the PHA gene mutants to environmental stresses, suggesting that PHA may play a role in resisting stress under symbiotic conditions. PMID:23757494

  13. Review of the Mexican species of Erythmelus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae),
    with description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Larralde, Adriana J; Triapitsyn, Serguei V; Huber, John T; González-Hernández, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Mexican species of Erythmelus Enock (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) are revised. A key to females of 13 species is provided in both English and Spanish. Two new taxa are described-E. maya Guzmán-Larralde & Triapitsyn, sp. n. and E. tigres Guzmán-Larralde & Triapitsyn, sp. n. Six species are newly recorded from Mexico-E. angustatus Ogloblin, E. cingulatus Ogloblin, E. clavatus Ogloblin, E. gracilis (Howard), E. nanus Dozier, and E. noeli (Dozier), besides new geographic records for E. miridiphagus Dozier, E. picinus (Girault), E. psallidis Gahan, and E. rex (Girault) which were previously known from the country. PMID:26248908

  14. New male pelecinid wasps (Hymenoptera: Pelecinidae) from the Yixian Formation of western Liaoning (China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Hua; Shih, Chungkun; Ren, Dong; Liu, Chenxi

    2010-12-01

    Two new genera and species Abropelecinus annulatus gen. et sp. nov. and Azygopelecinus clavatus gen. et sp. nov., placed in the subfamily Iscopininae of the family Pelecinidae, are described and illustrated. Sinopecinus viriosus Zhang, Rasnitsyn & Zhang, 2002 are re-described. All these male specimens were collected from the Yixian Formation of Beipiao City, Liaoning Province, northeastern China. A key to the male species of the subfamily Iscopininae is given. In addition, sexual dimorphism in Pelecinidae and the paleoclimate of the Yixian Formation are briefly discussed.

  15. The Geometrinae of Ethiopia II: Tribus Hemistolini, genus Prasinocyma
    (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Geometrinae).

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Axel; Sciarretta, Andrea; Parisi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a checklist and integrative revision for the genus Prasinocyma (Geometridae, Geometrinae, Hemistolini). With this contribution the checklist for the genus Prasinocyma in Ethiopia increases from eight to 40 species. Nineteen species and five subspecies are described as new for the science: Prasinocyma pedicata aethiopica subsp. n., Prasinocyma angolica pseudopedicata subsp. n., Prasinocyma bongaensis sp. n., Prasinocyma getachewi sp. n., Prasinocyma baumgaertneri sp. n., Prasinocyma robusta sp. n., Prasinocyma shoa yabellensis subsp. n., Prasinocyma amharensis sp. n., Prasinocyma magica sp. n., Prasinocyma batesi distans subsp. n., Prasinocyma monikae sp. n., Prasinocyma fusca sp. n., Prasinocyma leveneorum sp. n., Prasinocyma aquamarina sp. n., Prasinocyma beryllaria sp. n., Prasinocyma lutulenta sp. n., Prasinocyma septentrionalis sp. n., Prasinocyma fallax sp. n., Prasinocyma trematerrai sp. n., Prasinocyma trematerrai simienensis subsp. n., Prasinocyma angulifera sp. n., Prasinocyma stefani sp. n., Prasinocyma gemmifera sp. n., Prasinocyma discipuncta sp. n. Prasinocyma thiaucourti Herbulot, 1993 is downgraded from species rank to subspecies of P. immaculata (Thunberg, 1784) (stat. n.). Prasinocyma unipuncta Warren, 1897 is downgraded from species rank to synonymy of P. immaculata (Thunberg, 1784) (syn. n.). Prasinocyma nereis Townsend, 1952 (comb.n.) is transferred from genus Eretmopus to Prasinocyma. Thalassodes camerunalta Herbulot, 1986 (comb.n.) is transferred from genus Thalassodes to Prasinocyma. Thalassodini (syn.n.) are downgraded to synonymy of Hemistolini, here. PMID:27395526

  16. Gene Expression in Gut Symbiotic Organ of Stinkbug Affected by Extracellular Bacterial Symbiont

    PubMed Central

    Futahashi, Ryo; Tanaka, Kohjiro; Tanahashi, Masahiko; Nikoh, Naruo; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Lee, Bok Luel; Fukatsu, Takema

    2013-01-01

    The bean bug Riptortus pedestris possesses a specialized symbiotic organ in a posterior region of the midgut, where numerous crypts harbor extracellular betaproteobacterial symbionts of the genus Burkholderia. Second instar nymphs orally acquire the symbiont from the environment, and the symbiont infection benefits the host by facilitating growth and by occasionally conferring insecticide resistance. Here we performed comparative transcriptomic analyses of insect genes expressed in symbiotic and non-symbiotic regions of the midgut dissected from Burkholderia-infected and uninfected R. pedestris. Expression sequence tag analysis of cDNA libraries and quantitative reverse transcription PCR identified a number of insect genes expressed in symbiosis- or aposymbiosis-associated patterns. For example, genes up-regulated in symbiotic relative to aposymbiotic individuals, including many cysteine-rich secreted protein genes and many cathepsin protease genes, are likely to play a role in regulating the symbiosis. Conversely, genes up-regulated in aposymbiotic relative to symbiotic individuals, including a chicken-type lysozyme gene and a defensin-like protein gene, are possibly involved in regulation of non-symbiotic bacterial infections. Our study presents the first transcriptomic data on gut symbiotic organ of a stinkbug, which provides initial clues to understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying the insect-bacterium gut symbiosis and sheds light on several intriguing commonalities between endocellular and extracellular symbiotic associations. PMID:23691247

  17. Revision of the Western Palaearctic Diplazontinae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae).

    PubMed

    Klopfstein, Seraina

    2014-01-01

    I revise the subfamily Diplazontinae to include 99 Western Palaearctic species, review morphological characters useful for species delimitation and identification, and clarify the status of some morphologically similar taxa using molecular approaches. Illustrated, dichotomous keys to the Western Palaearctic genera and species of the subfamily are presented, and the utility of the molecular markers CO1 and ITS2 for species delimitation in Diplazontinae is discussed. Seven new species are described, Diplazon flixi sp. nov., Diplazon nordicus sp. nov., Diplazon parvus sp. nov., Diplazon zetteli sp. nov., Eurytyloides umbrinus sp. nov., Sussaba roberti sp. nov., and Woldstedtius bauri sp. nov. The Nearctic Sussaba cultriformis (Ashmead), formerly a subspecies of Sussaba dorsalis (Holmgren), is raised to species rank. The following taxa are valid species and hereby removed from synonymy: Episemura ensata (Bauer), stat. rev.; Homotropus frontorius (Thunberg), stat. rev.; Syrphoctonus desvignesii (Marshall), stat. rev.; Syrphophilus scabriculus (Holmgren), stat. rev.; and Tymmophorus suspiciosus (Brischke), stat. rev. Nineteen new synonyms are established: Bioblapsis mallochi Rotheray of Bioblapsis cultiformis (Davis), syn. nov.; Bioblapsis tricincta Ashmead of Syrphophilus scabriculus (Holmgren), syn. nov.; Diplazon bachmaieri Diller of Diplazon angustus Dasch, syn. nov.; Diplazon fechteri Diller of Diplazon cascadensis Dasch, syn. nov.; Homocidus brevis Hedwig of Homotropus pictus (Gravenhorst); Homocidus rubiginosum Schmiedeknecht of Enizemum scutellare (Lange), syn. nov.; Homocidus simulans Stelfox of Homotropus collinus (Stelfox), syn. nov.; Homotropus crassicrus Thomson and Homotropus nudus Dasch of Homotropus dimidiatus (Schrank), syn. nov.; Homocidus asyntactus Schmiedeknecht of Homotropus crassicornis Thomson, syn. nov.; Homocidus subopacus Stelfox and Homotropus quadrangularis Dasch of Homotropus frontorius (Thunberg), syn. nov.; Homocidus impolitus Stelfox of

  18. Genomic Islands in the Pathogenic Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Fedorova, Natalie D.; Khaldi, Nora; Joardar, Vinita S.; Maiti, Rama; Amedeo, Paolo; Anderson, Michael J.; Crabtree, Jonathan; Silva, Joana C.; Badger, Jonathan H.; Albarraq, Ahmed; Angiuoli, Sam; Bussey, Howard; Bowyer, Paul; Cotty, Peter J.; Dyer, Paul S.; Egan, Amy; Galens, Kevin; Fraser-Liggett, Claire M.; Haas, Brian J.; Inman, Jason M.; Kent, Richard; Lemieux, Sebastien; Malavazi, Iran; Orvis, Joshua; Roemer, Terry; Ronning, Catherine M.; Sundaram, Jaideep P.; Sutton, Granger; Turner, Geoff; Venter, J. Craig; White, Owen R.; Whitty, Brett R.; Youngman, Phil; Wolfe, Kenneth H.; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Wortman, Jennifer R.; Jiang, Bo; Denning, David W.; Nierman, William C.

    2008-01-01

    We present the genome sequences of a new clinical isolate of the important human pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus, A1163, and two closely related but rarely pathogenic species, Neosartorya fischeri NRRL181 and Aspergillus clavatus NRRL1. Comparative genomic analysis of A1163 with the recently sequenced A. fumigatus isolate Af293 has identified core, variable and up to 2% unique genes in each genome. While the core genes are 99.8% identical at the nucleotide level, identity for variable genes can be as low 40%. The most divergent loci appear to contain heterokaryon incompatibility (het) genes associated with fungal programmed cell death such as developmental regulator rosA. Cross-species comparison has revealed that 8.5%, 13.5% and 12.6%, respectively, of A. fumigatus, N. fischeri and A. clavatus genes are species-specific. These genes are significantly smaller in size than core genes, contain fewer exons and exhibit a subtelomeric bias. Most of them cluster together in 13 chromosomal islands, which are enriched for pseudogenes, transposons and other repetitive elements. At least 20% of A. fumigatus-specific genes appear to be functional and involved in carbohydrate and chitin catabolism, transport, detoxification, secondary metabolism and other functions that may facilitate the adaptation to heterogeneous environments such as soil or a mammalian host. Contrary to what was suggested previously, their origin cannot be attributed to horizontal gene transfer (HGT), but instead is likely to involve duplication, diversification and differential gene loss (DDL). The role of duplication in the origin of lineage-specific genes is further underlined by the discovery of genomic islands that seem to function as designated “gene dumps” and, perhaps, simultaneously, as “gene factories”. PMID:18404212

  19. The Elemental Composition of Demospongiae from the Red Sea, Gulf of Aqaba

    PubMed Central

    Mayzel, Boaz; Aizenberg, Joanna; Ilan, Micha

    2014-01-01

    Trace elements are vital for the growth and development of all organisms. Little is known about the elemental content and trace metal biology of Red Sea demosponges. This study establishes an initial database of sponge elemental content. It provides the necessary foundation for further research of the mechanisms used by sponges to regulate the uptake, accumulation, and storage of metals. The metal content of 16 common sponge species was determined using ICP measurements. A combination of statistical methods was used to determine the correlations between the metals and detect species with significantly high or low concentrations of these metals. Bioaccumulation factors were calculated to compare sponge metal content to local sediment. Theonella swinhoei contained an extremely high concentration of arsenic and barium, much higher (at least 200 times) than all other species and local sediment. Hyrtios erecta had significantly higher concentration of Al, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ti and V than all other species. This is due to sediment accumulation and inclusion in the skeleton fibers of this sponge species. Suberites clavatus was found to contain significantly higher concentration of Cd, Co, Ni and Zn than all other species and local sediment, indicating active accumulation of these metals. It also has the second highest Fe concentration, but without the comparably high concentrations of Al, Mn and Ti that are evident in H. erecta and in local sediment. These differences indicate active uptake and accumulation of Fe in S. clavatus, this was also noted in Niphates rowi. A significantly higher B concentration was found in Crella cyatophora compared to all other species. These results indicate specific roles of trace elements in certain sponge species that deserve further analysis. They also serve as a baseline to monitor the effects of anthropogenic disturbances on Eilat's coral reefs. PMID:24759635

  20. A revision and phylogenetic analysis of Stoiba Spaeth 1909 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Chulwoo; Chaboo, Caroline S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Stoiba Spaeth, 1909 is revised with a phylogenetic analysis of 38 adult morphological characters for nine Stoiba species and 11 outgroup species (Mesomphaliini, Ischyrosonychini, and Hemisphaerotini). Four Cuban species of Stoiba were not sampled. Parsimony analysis located the four most parsimonious trees. The strict consensus (CI=0.59, RI=0.78, Steps=83) resolved the monophyly of Stoiba. The monophyly of Stoiba is supported by pale yellow antennae, antennomere VII broader than its length, and rounded basal line of pronotum. An illustrated key to ten species of Stoiba is provided along with a distribution map of 11 species. Stoiba rufa Blake is synonymized with Stoiba swartzii (Thunberg) by a morphological comparison which includes female genitalia. PMID:23129988

  1. Seawater ecotoxicity of monoethanolamine, diethanolamine and triethanolamine.

    PubMed

    Libralato, G; Volpi Ghirardini, A; Avezzù, F

    2010-04-15

    Monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA) and triethanolamine (TEA) are compounds with potential acute, sub-chronic and chronic toxicity effects towards aquatic species. A literature review highlighted the existence of a gap in the knowledge on their toxicity with saltwater testing species. A battery of toxicity tests including the alga Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin, the bivalve molluscs Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg) and Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lmk), and the crustacean Artemia franciscana, was considered to update and improve the existing ecotoxicological information. Data were provided as the Effective Concentration that induces a 50% effect in the observed population (EC50), Lowest Observed Effect Concentration (LOEC) and No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC). EC50, LOEC and NOEC values were compared with a reviewed database containing the existing ecotoxicological data from saltwater organisms. PMID:20022426

  2. Morphometric Variations in the Grasshopper, Chromacris speciosa from Two Localities of Pernambuco in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cisneiros, Roberta Araújo; de Almeida, Argus Vasconcelos; de Melo, Gabriel Rivas; da Câmara, Cláudio Augusto Gomes

    2012-01-01

    The present study describes morphometric variations in the grasshopper, Chromacris speciosa (Thunberg, 1824) (Orthoptera: Acridoidea: Romaleidae) from two locations in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The distance between the sites chosen for collections (Recife and São Lourenço da Mata) is approximately 16 km. The investigation was based on a comparative study of external morphological characteristics of the grasshoppers. Morphometric measurements took into account the different body parts and appendages. Statistical analysis of the measurements revealed significant differences in the size of the specimens between the two locations. Homogeneity tests of the covariance and equality matrices between mean vectors of the results revealed that the grasshopper populations in Recife and São Lourenço da Mata are distinctly different. These findings provide morphological evidence for intraspecific variation in morphological characteristics of the C. speciosa populations from the two locations. PMID:23421530

  3. The genus Anthia Weber in the Republic of South Africa, Identification, distribution, biogeography, and behavior (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mawdsley, Jonathan R.; Erwin, Terry L.; Sithole, Hendrik; Mawdsley, James L.; Mawdsley, Alice S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A key is presented for the identification of the four species of Anthia Weber (Coleoptera: Carabidae) recorded from the Republic of South Africa: Anthia cinctipennis Lequien, Anthia circumscripta Klug, Anthia maxillosa (Fabricius), and Anthia thoracica (Thunberg). For each of these species, illustrations are provided of adult beetles of both sexes as well as illustrations of male reproductive structures, morphological redescriptions, discussions of morphological variation, annual activity histograms, and maps of occurrence localities in the Republic of South Africa. Maps of occurrence localities for these species are compared against ecoregional and vegetation maps of southern Africa; each species of Anthia shows a different pattern of occupancy across the suite of ecoregions and vegetation types in the Republic of South Africa. Information about predatory and foraging behaviors, Müllerian mimicry, and small-scale vegetation community associations is presented for Anthia thoracica based on field and laboratory studies in Kruger National Park, South Africa. PMID:22144866

  4. New Coleoptera records from New Brunswick, Canada: Trogossitidae, Cleridae, and Melyridae, with an addition to the fauna of Nova Scotia

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Sweeney, Jon D.; DeMerchant, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Grynocharis quadrilineata (Melsheimer) and Tenebroides corticalis (Melsheimer) of the family Trogossitidae are newly recorded for New Brunswick, Canada. Additional records of the recently reported Calitys scabra (Thunberg)and Ostoma fraterna (Randall) are presented for the province. The record of Ostoma fraterna is the first recent record of this species from New Brunswick. Additional New Brunswick records of the thaneroclerine, Zenodosus sanguineus (Say), are given, indicting that this species is common and widespread in the province. One species of Cleridae, Cymatodera bicolor (Say),is newly reported from New Brunswick, and the adventive Thanasimus formicarius Linnaeus is newly recorded from Nova Scotia and the Maritime provinces. Attalus morulus (LeConte) and Dolichosoma foveicolle (Kirby), family Melyridae, are reported for the first time for New Brunswick and the Maritime provinces. Collection, habitat data, and distribution maps are presented for these species. PMID:22539891

  5. New Coleoptera records from New Brunswick, Canada: Megalopodidae and Chrysomelidae

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; LeSage, Laurent; DeMerchant, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Zeugophora varians Crotch and the family Megalopodidae are newly recorded for New Brunswick, Canada. Twenty-eight species of Chrysomelidae are newly recorded for New Brunswick, including Acalymma gouldi Barber, Altica knabii Blatchley, Altica rosae Woods, Altica woodsi Isely, Bassareus mammifer (Newman), Chrysolina marginata (Linnaeus), Chrysomela laurentia Brown, Crepidodera violacea Melsheimer, Cryptocephalus venustus Fabricius, Neohaemonia melsheimeri (Lacordaire), Neohaemonia nigricornis (Kirby), Pachybrachis bivittatus (Say), Pachybrachis m-nigrum (Melsheimer), Phyllobrotica limbata (Fabricius), Psylliodes affinis (Paykull), Odontota dorsalis (Thunberg), Ophraella communa (LeSage), Ophraella cribrata (LeConte), Ophraella notata (Fabricius), Systena hudsonias (Forster), Tricholochmaea ribicola (Brown), and Tricholochmaea rufosanguinea (Say), which are also newly recorded for the Maritime provinces. Collection data, habitat data, and distribution maps are presented for all these species. PMID:22539900

  6. Insect's intestinal organ for symbiont sorting.

    PubMed

    Ohbayashi, Tsubasa; Takeshita, Kazutaka; Kitagawa, Wataru; Nikoh, Naruo; Koga, Ryuichi; Meng, Xian-Ying; Tago, Kanako; Hori, Tomoyuki; Hayatsu, Masahito; Asano, Kozo; Kamagata, Yoichi; Lee, Bok Luel; Fukatsu, Takema; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo

    2015-09-15

    Symbiosis has significantly contributed to organismal adaptation and diversification. For establishment and maintenance of such host-symbiont associations, host organisms must have evolved mechanisms for selective incorporation, accommodation, and maintenance of their specific microbial partners. Here we report the discovery of a previously unrecognized type of animal organ for symbiont sorting. In the bean bug Riptortus pedestris, the posterior midgut is morphologically differentiated for harboring specific symbiotic bacteria of a beneficial nature. The sorting organ lies in the middle of the intestine as a constricted region, which partitions the midgut into an anterior nonsymbiotic region and a posterior symbiotic region. Oral administration of GFP-labeled Burkholderia symbionts to nymphal stinkbugs showed that the symbionts pass through the constricted region and colonize the posterior midgut. However, administration of food colorings revealed that food fluid enters neither the constricted region nor the posterior midgut, indicating selective symbiont passage at the constricted region and functional isolation of the posterior midgut for symbiosis. Coadministration of the GFP-labeled symbiont and red fluorescent protein-labeled Escherichia coli unveiled selective passage of the symbiont and blockage of E. coli at the constricted region, demonstrating the organ's ability to discriminate the specific bacterial symbiont from nonsymbiotic bacteria. Transposon mutagenesis and screening revealed that symbiont mutants in flagella-related genes fail to pass through the constricted region, highlighting that both host's control and symbiont's motility are involved in the sorting process. The blocking of food flow at the constricted region is conserved among diverse stinkbug groups, suggesting the evolutionary origin of the intestinal organ in their common ancestor. PMID:26324935

  7. Bacterial Cell Wall Synthesis Gene uppP Is Required for Burkholderia Colonization of the Stinkbug Gut

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Lee, Ho Jin; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Kitagawa, Wataru; Nikoh, Naruo

    2013-01-01

    To establish a host-bacterium symbiotic association, a number of factors involved in symbiosis must operate in a coordinated manner. In insects, bacterial factors for symbiosis have been poorly characterized at the molecular and biochemical levels, since many symbionts have not yet been cultured or are as yet genetically intractable. Recently, the symbiotic association between a stinkbug, Riptortus pedestris, and its beneficial gut bacterium, Burkholderia sp., has emerged as a promising experimental model system, providing opportunities to study insect symbiosis using genetically manipulated symbiotic bacteria. Here, in search of bacterial symbiotic factors, we targeted cell wall components of the Burkholderia symbiont by disruption of uppP gene, which encodes undecaprenyl pyrophosphate phosphatase involved in biosynthesis of various bacterial cell wall components. Under culture conditions, the ΔuppP mutant showed higher susceptibility to lysozyme than the wild-type strain, indicating impaired integrity of peptidoglycan of the mutant. When administered to the host insect, the ΔuppP mutant failed to establish normal symbiotic association: the bacterial cells reached to the symbiotic midgut but neither proliferated nor persisted there. Transformation of the ΔuppP mutant with uppP-encoding plasmid complemented these phenotypic defects: lysozyme susceptibility in vitro was restored, and normal infection and proliferation in the midgut symbiotic organ were observed in vivo. The ΔuppP mutant also exhibited susceptibility to hypotonic, hypertonic, and centrifugal stresses. These results suggest that peptidoglycan cell wall integrity is a stress resistance factor relevant to the successful colonization of the stinkbug midgut by Burkholderia symbiont. PMID:23747704

  8. Insecticide applications to soil contribute to the development of Burkholderia mediating insecticide resistance in stinkbugs.

    PubMed

    Tago, Kanako; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Nakaoka, Sinji; Katsuyama, Chie; Hayatsu, Masahito

    2015-07-01

    Some soil Burkholderia strains are capable of degrading the organophosphorus insecticide, fenitrothion, and establish symbiosis with stinkbugs, making the host insects fenitrothion-resistant. However, the ecology of the symbiotic degrading Burkholderia adapting to fenitrothion in the free-living environment is unknown. We hypothesized that fenitrothion applications affect the dynamics of fenitrothion-degrading Burkholderia, thereby controlling the transmission of symbiotic degrading Burkholderia from the soil to stinkbugs. We investigated changes in the density and diversity of culturable Burkholderia (i.e. symbiotic and nonsymbiotic fenitrothion degraders and nondegraders) in fenitrothion-treated soil using microcosms. During the incubation with five applications of pesticide, the density of the degraders increased from less than the detection limit to around 10(6)/g of soil. The number of dominant species among the degraders declined with the increasing density of degraders; eventually, one species predominated. This process can be explained according to the competitive exclusion principle using V(max) and K(m) values for fenitrothion metabolism by the degraders. We performed a phylogenetic analysis of representative strains isolated from the microcosms and evaluated their ability to establish symbiosis with the stinkbug Riptortus pedestris. The strains that established symbiosis with R. pedestris were assigned to a cluster including symbionts commonly isolated from stinkbugs. The strains outside the cluster could not necessarily associate with the host. The degraders in the cluster predominated during the initial phase of degrader dynamics in the soil. Therefore, only a few applications of fenitrothion could allow symbiotic degraders to associate with their hosts and may cause the emergence of symbiont-mediated insecticide resistance. PMID:26059639

  9. Insect’s intestinal organ for symbiont sorting

    PubMed Central

    Ohbayashi, Tsubasa; Takeshita, Kazutaka; Kitagawa, Wataru; Nikoh, Naruo; Koga, Ryuichi; Meng, Xian-Ying; Tago, Kanako; Hori, Tomoyuki; Hayatsu, Masahito; Asano, Kozo; Kamagata, Yoichi; Lee, Bok Luel; Fukatsu, Takema; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo

    2015-01-01

    Symbiosis has significantly contributed to organismal adaptation and diversification. For establishment and maintenance of such host–symbiont associations, host organisms must have evolved mechanisms for selective incorporation, accommodation, and maintenance of their specific microbial partners. Here we report the discovery of a previously unrecognized type of animal organ for symbiont sorting. In the bean bug Riptortus pedestris, the posterior midgut is morphologically differentiated for harboring specific symbiotic bacteria of a beneficial nature. The sorting organ lies in the middle of the intestine as a constricted region, which partitions the midgut into an anterior nonsymbiotic region and a posterior symbiotic region. Oral administration of GFP-labeled Burkholderia symbionts to nymphal stinkbugs showed that the symbionts pass through the constricted region and colonize the posterior midgut. However, administration of food colorings revealed that food fluid enters neither the constricted region nor the posterior midgut, indicating selective symbiont passage at the constricted region and functional isolation of the posterior midgut for symbiosis. Coadministration of the GFP-labeled symbiont and red fluorescent protein-labeled Escherichia coli unveiled selective passage of the symbiont and blockage of E. coli at the constricted region, demonstrating the organ’s ability to discriminate the specific bacterial symbiont from nonsymbiotic bacteria. Transposon mutagenesis and screening revealed that symbiont mutants in flagella-related genes fail to pass through the constricted region, highlighting that both host’s control and symbiont’s motility are involved in the sorting process. The blocking of food flow at the constricted region is conserved among diverse stinkbug groups, suggesting the evolutionary origin of the intestinal organ in their common ancestor. PMID:26324935

  10. Chloroform Extract of Solanum lyratum Induced G0/G1 Arrest via p21/p16 and Induced Apoptosis via Reactive Oxygen Species, Caspases and Mitochondrial Pathways in Human Oral Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chiz-Hao; Chou, Yu-Cheng; Lin, Jing-Pin; Kuo, Chao-Lin; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Huang, Yi-Ping; Yu, Chien-Chih; Lin, Meng-Liang; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2015-01-01

    Solanum lyratum (SLEC) Thunberg (Solanaceae) has been used as a traditional herbal medicine in China for centuries. Numerous studies have shown that SLEC Thunberg (Solanaceae) extract inhibited cancer cell growth in vitro. Herein, we investigated cell death-induced by EcoAc, water, chloroform, butanol extract of SLEC in human oral cancer cell lines (HSC-3, SAS, and CAL-27) in vitro. Different SLEC extract induced cytotoxic effects in human oral cancer cells were examined by contrast phase microscopy. We selected the chloroform extract of SLEC to examine the cytotoxic effects by using DAPI staining, comet assays, flow cytometric assay, Western blotting and examination of confocal laser microscopy. SLEC decreased the percentage of viable cells, induced G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis. These effects were concentration- and time-dependent manners. SLEC increased protein levels of p21, p16, CDK2, and cyclin D1 in HSC-3, SAS, and CAL-27 cells. Also, SLEC increased CDK6 in HSC-3 and CAL-27 cells, but inhibited CDK6 in SAS cells. Cyclin E in HSC-3 and SAS cells was increased by SLEC, but it was inhibited in CAL-27 cells. SLEC suppressed the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, but increased the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bad in HSC-3, SAS, and CAL-27 cells. SLEC promoted the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca²⁺, decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and stimulated NO production in HSC-3, SAS, and CAL-27 cells. Specific caspase inhibitors (caspase-8 inhibitor: Z-IETD-FMK; caspase-9 inhibitor: Z-LEHD-FMK and caspase-3 inhibitor: Z-DEVD-FMK) for caspase-8, -9, and -3 blocked SLE-activated caspase-8, -9, and -3 activities which were associated with an increase in the percentage of viable cells. Taken together, SLE induced G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis via extrinsic- and intrinsic-dependent pathways in HSC-3, SAS, and CAL-27 cells. PMID:26477797

  11. In vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of Cassia fistula Linn. fruit pulp extracts

    PubMed Central

    Bhalodia, N. R.; Nariya, P. B.; Acharya, R. N.; Shukla, V. J.

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study is to assess the antimicrobial activity Cassia fistula fruit pulp extracts on some bacterial and fungal strains. Hydro alcohol and chloroform extracts of Cassia fistula fruit pulp were evaluated for the potential antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity was determined in both the extracts using the agar disc diffusion method. Extracts were effective on tested microorganisms. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of solvent extracts (5, 25, 50, 100, 250 μg/mL) of C. fistula were tested against two gram positive, two gram negative human pathogenic bacteria and three fungi, respectively. Crude extracts of C. fistula exhibited moderate to strong activity against most of the bacteria tested. The tested bacterial strains were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coil, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and fungal strains were Aspergillus. niger, Aspergillus. clavatus, Candida albicans. The antibacterial potential of the extracts were found to be dose dependent. The antibacterial activities of the C. fistula were due to the presence of various secondary metabolites. Hence, these plants can be used to discover bioactive natural products that may serve as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals research activities. PMID:23049197

  12. Mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses.

    PubMed

    Riet-Correa, Franklin; Rivero, Rodolfo; Odriozola, Ernesto; Adrien, Maria de Lourdes; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Schild, Ana Lucia

    2013-11-01

    In the current study, mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses are reviewed, with an emphasis on the occurrence of these diseases in South America. The main mycotoxicoses observed in grazing cattle include intoxications by indole-diterpenoid mycotoxins (Paspalum spp. contaminated by Claviceps paspali, Lolium perenne infected by Neotyphodium lolii, Cynodon dactylon infected by Claviceps cynodontis, and Poa huecu), gangrenous ergotism and dysthermic syndrome (hyperthermia) caused by Festuca arundinacea (syn. Festuca elatior) infected by Neotyphodium coenophialum (syn. Acremonium coenophialum), and photosensitization in pastures contaminated by toxigenic Pithomyces chartarum. Other mycotoxicoses in grazing cattle include slaframine toxicity in clover pastures infected by Rhizoctonia leguminicola and diplodiosis in cattle grazing in corn stubbles. The mycotoxicoses caused by contaminated concentrated food or byproducts in cattle include poisoning by toxins of Aspergillus clavatus, which contaminate barley or sugar beetroot by-products, gangrenous ergotism or dysthermic syndrome caused by wheat bran or wheat screenings contaminated with Claviceps purpurea, and acute respiratory distress caused by damaged sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas). The main mycotoxicosis of horses is leukoencephalomalacia caused by the fumonisins B1 and B2 produced by Fusarium spp. Poisoning by C. purpurea and F. elatior infected by N. coenophialum has also been reported as a cause of agalactia and neonatal mortality in mares. Slaframine toxicosis caused by the ingestion of alfalfa hay contaminated by R. leguminicola has also been reported in horses. PMID:24091682

  13. Purification and biochemical characterization of an extracellular serine peptidase from Aspergillus terreus.

    PubMed

    Biaggio, Rafael Tage; Silva, Ronivaldo Rodrigues da; Rosa, Nathalia Gonsales da; Leite, Rodrigo Simões Ribeiro; Arantes, Eliane Candiani; Cabral, Tatiana Pereira de Freitas; Juliano, Maria A; Juliano, Luiz; Cabral, Hamilton

    2016-04-01

    Peptidases are important because they play a central role in pharmaceutical, food, environmental, and other industrial processes. A serine peptidase from Aspergillus terreus was isolated after two chromatography steps that showed a yield of 15.5%. Its molecular mass was determined to be 43 kD, by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). This peptidase was active between pH 5.0 to 8.0 and had maximum activity at pH 7.0, at 45°C. When exposited with 1 M of urea, the enzyme maintained 100% activity and used azocasein as substrate. The N-terminal (first 15 residues) showed 33% identity with the serine peptidase of Aspergillus clavatus ES1. The kinetics assays showed that subsite S2 did not bind polar basic amino acids (His and Arg) nonpolar acidic amino acids (Asp and Glu). The subsite S1 showed higher catalytic efficiency than the S2 and S3 subsites. PMID:25830777

  14. New taxa of angiosperm pollen, miospores and associated palynomorphs from the early Late Cretaceous of Egypt (Maghrabi Formation, Kharga Oasis).

    PubMed

    Schrank; Mahmoud

    2000-10-01

    A palynological investigation of samples from various boreholes in the Maghrabi Formation (Kharga Oasis, southern Egypt) resulted in the recovery of pollen and spore assemblages associated with rare marine palynofossils (dinoflagellates, foraminiferal linings) and freshwater algae (e.g. Botryococcus, Ovoidites parvus, Pediastrum, Scenedesmus). The general composition of the assemblages is largely consistent with the estuarine and tidal flat conditions characteristic of the Maghrabi Formation.The formal descriptions of the following new taxa are given: Cicatricosisporites kedvesii Schrank, sp. nov., Equisetosporites lawalii Schrank, sp. nov., Dettmannaepollenites clavatus Schrank, sp. nov., and Integritetradites porosus Schrank and Mahmoud, gen. nov. and sp. nov. Combined scanning electron microscopic and light microscopic techniques have been applied to hand-picked grains to illustrate the new taxa. The palynological ages assigned to the Maghrabi samples are mainly based on angiosperm pollen and range from undifferentiated Cenomanian for an Integritetradites porosus assemblage without triporates to Late Cenomanian-Early Turonian for another assemblage which has I. porosus associated with rare triporate pollen grains (Proteacidites/'Triorites' spp.). PMID:11042331

  15. Terrestrial arthropods of Steel Creek, Buffalo National River, Arkansas. I. Select beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae, Carabidae, Cerambycidae, Curculionoidea excluding Scolytinae)

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Danielle M.; Schnepp, Kyle E.; Dowling, Ashley P.G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The Ozark Mountains are a region with high endemism and biodiversity, yet few invertebrate inventories have been made and few sites extensively studied. We surveyed a site near Steel Creek Campground, along the Buffalo National River in Arkansas, using twelve trap types – Malaise traps, canopy traps (upper and lower collector), Lindgren multifunnel traps (black, green, and purple), pan traps (blue, purple, red, white, and yellow), and pitfall traps – and Berlese-Tullgren extraction for eight and half months. New information We provide collection records of beetle species belonging to eight families collected at the site. Thirty one species represent new state records: (Buprestidae) Actenodes acornis, Agrilus cephalicus, Agrilus ohioensis, Agrilus paracelti, Taphrocerus nicolayi; (Carabidae) Agonum punctiforme, Synuchus impunctatus; (Curculionidae) Acalles clavatus, Acalles minutissimus, Acoptus suturalis, Anthonomus juniperinus, Anametis granulata, Idiostethus subcalvus, Eudociminus mannerheimii, Madarellus undulatus, Magdalis armicollis, Magdalis barbita, Mecinus pascuorum, Myrmex chevrolatii, Myrmex myrmex, Nicentrus lecontei, Otiorhynchus rugosostriatus, Piazorhinus pictus, Phyllotrox ferrugineus, Plocamus hispidulus, Pseudobaris nigrina, Pseudopentarthrum simplex, Rhinoncus pericarpius, Sitona lineatus, Stenoscelis brevis, Tomolips quericola. Additionally, three endemic carabids, two of which are known only from the type series, were collected. PMID:26752967

  16. Taxonomic revision of Aspergillus section Clavati based on molecular, morphological and physiological data

    PubMed Central

    Varga, J.; Due, M.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Aspergillus section Clavati has been revised using morphology, secondary metabolites, physiological characters and DNA sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of β-tubulin, ITS and calmodulin sequence data indicated that Aspergillus section Clavati includes 6 species, A. clavatus (synonyms: A. apicalis, A. pallidus), A. giganteus, A. rhizopodus, A. longivesica, Neocarpenteles acanthosporus and A. clavatonanicus. Neocarpenteles acanthosporus is the only known teleomorph of this section. The sister genera to Neocarpenteles are Neosartorya and Dichotomomyces based on sequence data. Species in Neosartorya and Neocarpenteles have anamorphs with green conidia and share the production of tryptoquivalins, while Dichotomomyces was found to be able to produce gliotoxin, which is also produced by some Neosartorya species, and tryptoquivalines and tryptoquivalones produced by members of both section Clavati and Fumigati. All species in section Clavati are alkalitolerant and acidotolerant and they all have clavate conidial heads. Many species are coprophilic and produce the effective antibiotic patulin. Members of section Clavati also produce antafumicin, tryptoquivalines, cytochalasins, sarcins, dehydrocarolic acid and kotanins (orlandin, desmethylkotanin and kotanin) in species specific combinations. Another species previously assigned to section Clavati, A. ingratus is considered a synonym of Hemicarpenteles paradoxus, which is phylogenetically very distantly related to Neocarpenteles and section Clavati. PMID:18490946

  17. Taxonomic revision of Leucascus Dendy, 1892 (Porifera: Calcarea) with revalidation of Ascoleucetta Dendy & Frederick, 1924 and description of three new species.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Fernanda F; Rapp, Hans Tore; Klautau, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Sponges of the genus Leucascus are frequently recognised as possessing anastomosed tubes with choanocytes, and cortical and atrial membranes with pinacocytes. In the last years, five species of other genera were transferred to Leucascus, and several other species were suggested but not formally included in this genus. In the present work, all these species accepted or suggested as Leucascus were revised. According to our results, Leucascus is now composed of nine species: L. clavatus, L. leptoraphis comb. nov., L. lobatus, L. neocaledonicus, L. protogenes comb. nov., L. roseus, L. simplex (type species), L. albus sp. nov., and L.flavus sp. nov. The presence of spines in the apical actine of the tetractines had never been observed in Leucascus, but it was found in all species with tetractines in their skeletons. Some species were transferred from Leucascus to the genus Ascoleucetta, which is revalidated here based on important differences in the cortex. Modifications are also proposed in the definition of both genera. Based on our results, the family Leucascidae is now composed of Ascaltis, Leucascus and Ascoleucetta. PMID:26131477

  18. Synthesis, characterization, and antipathogenic studies of some transition metal complexes with N,O-chelating Schiff's base ligand incorporating azo and sulfonamide Moieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaghaz, Abdel-Nasser M. A.; Bayoumi, Hoda A.; Ammar, Yousry A.; Aldhlmani, Sharah A.

    2013-03-01

    Chromium(III), Manganese(II), Cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and cadmium(II) complexes of 4-[4-hydroxy-3-(phenyliminomethyl)-phenylazo]benzenesulfonamide, were prepared and characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, spectral, magnetic, molar conductance and thermal analysis. Square planar, tetrahedral and octahedral geometries have been assigned to the prepared complexes. Dimeric complexes are obtained with 2:2 molar ratio except chromium(III) complex is monomeric which is obtained with 1:1 molar ratios. The IR spectra of the prepared complexes were suggested that the Schiff base ligand(HL) behaves as a bi-dentate ligand through the azomethine nitrogen atom and phenolic oxygen atom. The crystal field splitting, Racah repulsion and nepheloauxetic parameters and determined from the electronic spectra of the complexes. Thermal studies suggest a mechanism for degradation of HL and its metal complexes as function of temperature supporting the chelation modes. Also, the activation thermodynamic parameters, such as ΔE*, ΔH*, ΔS* and ΔG* for the different thermal decomposition steps of HL and its metal complexes were calculated. The pathogenic activities of the synthesized compounds were tested in vitro against the sensitive organisms Staphylococcus aureus (RCMB010027), Staphylococcus epidermidis (RCMB010024) as Gram positive bacteria, Klebsiella pneumonia (RCMB 010093), Shigella flexneri (RCMB 0100542), as Gram negative bacteria and Aspergillus fumigates (RCMB 02564), Aspergillus clavatus (RCMB 02593) and Candida albicans (RCMB05035) as fungus strain, and the results are discussed.

  19. Mycotoxins in South African traditionally brewed beers.

    PubMed

    Odhav, B; Naicker, V

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally brewed alcoholic beverages are regularly consumed by most ethnic black South Africans. Maize and barley, both of which are used for producing locally brewed alcoholic beer, are frequently contaminated by mycotoxin-producing moulds. The study was undertaken to investigate whether these toxins are present in raw grains and the traditional beers imbibed by the local black African population. It was established that the raw ingredients (sorghum, sorghum malt grains, maize grits), commercially produced traditional beers (Utshwala and Utshwala special) and home-brewed beers (Umqombotha, Isiqatha, Imfulamfula) were contaminated by bacteria and fungi (both yeasts and moulds). The contaminating moulds were isolated and identified. The contaminated samples were analysed for aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, zearalenone, citrinin, deoxynivalenol, and ochratoxin A using a multi-mycotoxin thin-layer chromatography screening method and the toxins were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Grain samples were infected by. Aspergillus flavus, A. alliaceus, A. clavatus, Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp. and Mucor spp. Sorghum malt grain samples contained the toxin zear alenone. No mycotoxin-producing fungi were present in the fermented beers but two of six commercial beer samples contained aflatoxins (200 and 400 microg l(-1) and 45% (13 of 29) of the home-brewed beers had zear alenone (range 2.6-426 microg l(-1) and/or ochratoxin A (3-2340 microg l(-1). PMID:11811766

  20. [Aspergillus spp. in risk areas of transplant patients in a university hospital].

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, María Ximena; Cortes, Jorge Alberto; Parra, Claudia Marcela

    2008-12-31

    As a consequence of the increase in the number of immunocompromised patients, cases of aspergillosis, due to the opportunist character of this fungus, have increased considerably. Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus niger have been found in air and water samples of the majority of investigated hospitals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of aspergilli in transplant patients areas at the Hospital Universitario of Bogotá, Colombia. Samples of air were collected using the MAS-100 Air Sampler from each of the investigated areas. A sample of 100 ml of water was also recovered from these areas. All samples were taken for triplicate and were cultured in 2% Sabouraud Dextrose Agar. The average of aspergilli in air samples was 2.8 CFU/l corresponding to A. flavus, A. niger, Aspergillus versicolor and Aspergillus terreus. In water samples, the average was 17.1 CFU/l corresponding to A. flavus and Aspergillus clavatus. Because potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species were found in the hospital areas were transplant patients are usually kept, active surveillance and a high clinical suspicion should be considered in those patients. Since Aspergillus infections haven't been found so far, a higher fungal load and other host factors might be needed to facilitate the infection. PMID:19071892

  1. Spontaneous degenerative polioencephalomyelopathy in feeder pigs--a new motor neuron disease?

    PubMed

    Wohlsein, Peter; Brügmann, Michael; Pfeiffer, Ina; Ammer, Hermann; Wolf, Petra; Baumgartner, Wolfgang; Peters, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A central nervous disorder occurred spontaneously in a herd of feeder pigs characterized by muscle fasciculations, convulsions, squealing, and acute death in numerous animals. Histopathology revealed a degenerative poliomyeloencephalopathy of brain stem and spinal cord consisting of neuronal hypertrophy, chromatolysis, neuronophagia, and satellitosis associated with Wallerian degeneration of ventral rootlets and neurogenic muscle atrophy of limb musculature. The sudden onset of clinical signs and the pattern of morphological findings were suggestive of intoxication. Though parathion was found in two animals, serum acetylcholine esterase activity and morphological findings were not compatible with an organophosphate poisoning. A hereditary disorder was excluded by genetic analysis. Summarized findings in the present cases are reminiscent of changes observed in ruminants suffering from patulin poisoning, a neuromycotoxicosis caused by Aspergillus clavatus. However, toxicological and microbiological investigations failed to identify the cause of this unusual and so far not described disease in pigs. Morphologically, lesion distribution and alterations of motor neurons resemble changes observed in equine motor neuron disease, spinal muscular atrophy of certain canine breeds, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease) in man. Therefore, the term spontaneous porcine motor neuron disease (SPMND) is proposed for this new and unique entitiy. PMID:23227771

  2. Green synthesis and structural characterization of selenium nanoparticles and assessment of their antimicrobial property.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Nishant; Mukhopadhyay, Mausumi

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, selenium nanoparticles were biologically synthesized by non-pathogenic, economic and easy to handle bacterium Ralstonia eutropha. The selenium oxo anion was reduced to selenium nanoparticles in the presence of the bacterium. The bacterium was grown aerobically in the reaction mixture. An extracellular, stable, uniform, spherical selenium nanoparticle was biosynthesized. The TEM analysis revealed that the biosynthesized selenium nanoparticles were spherical in shape with size range of 40-120 nm. XRD and SAED analysis showed that nanocrystalline selenium of pure hexagonal phase was synthesized. The formation of actinomorphic trigonal selenium nanorods was also observed. A mechanism of biosynthesis of selenium nanoparticles by R. eutropha was proposed. The biosynthesized selenium nanoparticles were investigated for their antimicrobial activity against potential pathogens. Selenium nanoparticles showed excellent antimicrobial activity. The 100, 100, 250 and 100 µg/ml selenium nanoparticles were found to inhibit 99 % growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pyogenes, respectively. Similarly, the 500 µg/ml of selenium nanoparticles was found to inhibit the growth of pathogenic fungi Aspergillus clavatus. The antimicrobial efficacy of selenium nanoparticle was comparable with commercially available antibiotic drug Ampicillin. PMID:25972036

  3. Free Radical Scavenging Fingerprints of Selected Aromatic and Medicinal Tunisian Plants Assessed by Means of TLC-DPPH(•) Test and Image Processing.

    PubMed

    El Euch, Salma Kammoun; Cieśla, Łukasz; Bouzouita, Nabiha

    2014-01-01

    Aqueous-methanol extracts prepared from 10 Tunisian plant species were analyzed for the presence of potent direct antioxidants. The analyzed species included: Anacyclus clavatus Desf., Erica multiflora L., Cistus salvifolius L., Centaurium erythraea Rafn., Marrubium vulgare L., Lavandula stoechas L., Artemisia campestris L., Origanum majorana L., Salvia officinalis L., and Pistacia lentiscus L. All the extracts were chromatographed on the RP18 W plates with methanol-water-acetic acid (48 + 47 + 5, v/v/v) mobile phase. Upon completion of the chromatographic development and the drying step, the plates were stained with a chloroform solution of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(•)). An image processing protocol, with use of Sorbfil TLC Videodensitometer, was applied to quantitatively measure the activity of polyphenols and to screen complex samples for the presence of free radical scavengers. The activity of the individual compounds was compared with that of rutin, used as a standard. The TLC-DPPH(•) test showed that C. salvifolius had the most potent antioxidant activity, as it possessed the highest activity coefficient (calculated as the sum of the areas under the peaks of all active compounds/area under peak of rutin). The proposed procedure may be used to differentiate potent chain-breaking antioxidants and compounds propagating radical chain reactions. PMID:25902978

  4. Compatibility of endoparasitoid Hyposoter didymator (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) protected stages with five selected insecticides.

    PubMed

    Medina, P; Morales, J J; Budia, F; Adan, A; Del Estal, P; Viñuela, E

    2007-12-01

    Hyposoter didymator (Thunberg) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) is a koinobiont endoparasitoid that emerges from the parasitization of economically important noctuid pests. H. didymator also is considered one of the most important native biocontrol agents of noctuids in Spain. Side effects of five insecticides with very different modes of action (fipronil, imidacloprid, natural pyrethrins + piperonyl butoxide, pymetrozine, and triflumuron) at the maximum field recommended rate in Spain were evaluated on H. didymator parasitizing Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) larvae and pupae of the endoparasitoid. Parasitized larvae were topically treated or ingested treated artificial diet. Parasitoid cocoons were topically treated. Host mortality when parasitized larvae were treated, as well as further development of the parasitoid surviving (e.g., percentage of cocoons spun, adult emergence, hosts attacked, and numbered progeny) were determined. Toxicity after treatment of parasitized larvae differed depending on the mode of exposure and insecticide. Fipronil was always highly toxic; imidacloprid killed all host insects by ingestion, but it was less toxic to both host and parasitoids, when administered topically; natural pyrethrins + piperonyl butoxide and triflumuron showed differing degrees of toxicity, and pymetrozine was harmless. Parasitoid cocoons provided effective protection against all the insecticides, except fipronil. PMID:18232395

  5. Insects in relation to black locust culture on surface-mine spoil in Kentucky, with emphasis on the locust twig borer, Ecdytolopha insiticiana Zell. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Thoeny, W.T.

    1986-01-01

    This research evaluated the impacts of herbivorous insects, emphasizing the locust twig borer, Ecdytolopha insiticiana Zeller, on black locust, Robinia pseudoacacia L., coppice production on a coal surface-mine spoil site in southeastern Kentucky. The natural history of E. insiticiana was also studied. The locust twig borer was a persistent and damaging pest in first-year coppice, which provided suitable larval habitat throughout the growing season. The locust leafminer, Odontota dorsalis (Thunberg), fed minimally on first-year coppice foliage except during 1983, when trees were severely drought-stressed. Soil-applied granular carbofuran significantly reduced infestations. Lindane stem treatments were not effective, but entire-tree applications did reduce herbivory. Stump sprouts with reduced levels of herbivory grew significantly taller than controls at both spacings in 1983, but only at the more dense spacing in 1984. Blacklight trap collections revealed two generations/year, and adults were present from early May until late August. Four species of hymenopterous and two species of dipterous parasitoids were recovered from E. insiticiana larvae.

  6. Humidity sensation requires both mechanosensory and thermosensory pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Joshua; Vidal-Gadea, Andrés G.; Makay, Alex; Lanam, Carolyn; Pierce-Shimomura, Jonathan T.

    2014-01-01

    All terrestrial animals must find a proper level of moisture to ensure their health and survival. The cellular-molecular basis for sensing humidity is unknown in most animals, however. We used the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to uncover a mechanism for sensing humidity. We found that whereas C. elegans showed no obvious preference for humidity levels under standard culture conditions, worms displayed a strong preference after pairing starvation with different humidity levels, orienting to gradients as shallow as 0.03% relative humidity per millimeter. Cell-specific ablation and rescue experiments demonstrate that orientation to humidity in C. elegans requires the obligatory combination of distinct mechanosensitive and thermosensitive pathways. The mechanosensitive pathway requires a conserved DEG/ENaC/ASIC mechanoreceptor complex in the FLP neuron pair. Because humidity levels influence the hydration of the worm’s cuticle, our results suggest that FLP may convey humidity information by reporting the degree that subcuticular dendritic sensory branches of FLP neurons are stretched by hydration. The thermosensitive pathway requires cGMP-gated channels in the AFD neuron pair. Because humidity levels affect evaporative cooling, AFD may convey humidity information by reporting thermal flux. Thus, humidity sensation arises as a metamodality in C. elegans that requires the integration of parallel mechanosensory and thermosensory pathways. This hygrosensation strategy, first proposed by Thunberg more than 100 y ago, may be conserved because the underlying pathways have cellular and molecular equivalents across a wide range of species, including insects and humans. PMID:24843133

  7. Grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae) Community Composition in the Rangeland of the Northern Slopes of the Qilian Mountains in Northwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, T.; Liu, Z. Y.; Qin, L. P.; Long, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    In order to describe grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae) species composition, diversity, abundance, and density of four rangelands types, we compared the grasshopper community composition and dynamics in the rangeland of the northern slopes of the Qilian Mountains. In total, 55 grasshopper species were collected from 2007 to 2009, representing three families and six subfamilies. The subfamily Oedipodinae was dominant, followed by Gomphocerinae and Catantopinae. Species abundance varied among rangeland types (RTs). The greatest abundance of grasshoppers was found in mountain rangeland, while the lowest abundance of grasshoppers was caught in alpine shrublands. Three species (Chorthippus cf. brunneus (Thunberg) (Acrididae), Chorthippus Dubius (Zubovski), and Gomphocerus licenti (Chang) were broadly distributed in the four RTs and constituted 7.5% of all grasshoppers collected. Ch. dubius was very abundant in desert rangeland and alpine shrubland. Bryodema dolichoptera Yin et Feng Eremippus qilianshanensis Lian and Zheng, and Filchnerella qilianshanensis Xi and Zheng (Pamphagidae) were endemic to the region of the Qilian Mountains. Species similarity between RTs ranged from 17.8 to 51.6 based on the Renkonen index. Similarly, the Sörensen index indicated a wide separation in species composition among RTs. The abundance of the eight most common species showed obvious differences among RTs and years. On average, mountain rangeland had the highest density values in 2007 and 2008, and alpine shrubland supported the smallest density. The densities in desert and mountain rangeland in 2007 were significantly higher than in 2008, while alpine rangeland and shrublands did not present obvious differences among years. PMID:25688084

  8. Autotetraploid Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) obtained using normal diploid eggs: induction and impact on cytogenetic stability.

    PubMed

    Benabdelmouna, Abdellah; Ledu, Christophe

    2015-07-01

    We describe two methods of producing viable and fertile autotetraploid Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg) based on the use of normal-sized oocytes produced by normal diploid females. Our methods showed that the oocyte size is not a limiting factor for the success of the induction to autotetraploidy. These methods offer means of direct introgression of genetic progress from elite diploid lines to tetraploids used as broodstock, avoiding a triploid step with the risk of transferring undesirable traits from highly fecund triploids. High variability in the level of cytogenetic stability was found among the different tetraploid oysters tested, showing that induction method has an important impact on the long-term cytogenetic stability of the tetraploids. It appears that induction method based on the use of triploid females induces a greater cytogenetic instability among tetraploids so obtained, and this compared to tetraploids originating from the two methods described in our present study. As the aneuploidies and reversions observed in tetraploids can have serious consequences for the sustainability of tetraploid broodstock itself, as well as their triploid offspring, the two tetraploid induction methods described in the present work offer means to produce tetraploids with optimal cytogenetic, genetic, and zootechnical performances. PMID:26230146

  9. Differential consumption of four aphid species by four lady beetle species.

    PubMed

    Finlayson, Christy; Alyokhin, Andrei; Gross, Serena; Porter, Erin

    2010-01-01

    The acceptability of four different aphid species Macrosiphum albifrons (Essig), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), Macrosiphum pseudorosae Patch, and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), as prey for four lady beetle species, one native species Coccinella trifasciata L, and three non-native Coccinella septempunctata L, Harmonia axyridis Pallas, Propylea quatuordecimpunctata L (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were tested in the laboratory. The relative field abundance of adults of the same lady beetle species on host vegetation, Lupinus polyphyllus Lindley (Fabales: Fabaceae), Solanum tuberosum L (Solanales: Solanaceae), and Rosa multiflora Thunberg (Rosales: Rosaceae), both with and without aphids present was also observed. In the laboratory, H. axyridis generally consumed the most aphids, while P. quatuordecimpunctata consumed the fewest. The exception was P. quatuordecimpunctata, which consumed a greater number of M. albifrons nymphs, and C. trifasciata, which consumed a greater number of M. albifrons nymphs and adults, compared with the other two beetle species. Lady beetles consumed fewer M. albifrons compared with the other three aphid species, likely because of deterrent compounds sequestered by this species from its host plant. In the field, P. quatuordecimpunctata was the most abundant species found on L. polyphyllus and S. tuberosum. PMID:20578952

  10. Humidity sensation requires both mechanosensory and thermosensory pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Russell, Joshua; Vidal-Gadea, Andrés G; Makay, Alex; Lanam, Carolyn; Pierce-Shimomura, Jonathan T

    2014-06-01

    All terrestrial animals must find a proper level of moisture to ensure their health and survival. The cellular-molecular basis for sensing humidity is unknown in most animals, however. We used the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to uncover a mechanism for sensing humidity. We found that whereas C. elegans showed no obvious preference for humidity levels under standard culture conditions, worms displayed a strong preference after pairing starvation with different humidity levels, orienting to gradients as shallow as 0.03% relative humidity per millimeter. Cell-specific ablation and rescue experiments demonstrate that orientation to humidity in C. elegans requires the obligatory combination of distinct mechanosensitive and thermosensitive pathways. The mechanosensitive pathway requires a conserved DEG/ENaC/ASIC mechanoreceptor complex in the FLP neuron pair. Because humidity levels influence the hydration of the worm's cuticle, our results suggest that FLP may convey humidity information by reporting the degree that subcuticular dendritic sensory branches of FLP neurons are stretched by hydration. The thermosensitive pathway requires cGMP-gated channels in the AFD neuron pair. Because humidity levels affect evaporative cooling, AFD may convey humidity information by reporting thermal flux. Thus, humidity sensation arises as a metamodality in C. elegans that requires the integration of parallel mechanosensory and thermosensory pathways. This hygrosensation strategy, first proposed by Thunberg more than 100 y ago, may be conserved because the underlying pathways have cellular and molecular equivalents across a wide range of species, including insects and humans. PMID:24843133

  11. Grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae) community composition in the rangeland of the northern slopes of The Qilian Mountains in northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Sun, T; Liu, Z Y; Qin, L P; Long, R J

    2015-01-01

    In order to describe grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae) species composition, diversity, abundance, and density of four rangelands types, we compared the grasshopper community composition and dynamics in the rangeland of the northern slopes of the Qilian Mountains. In total, 55 grasshopper species were collected from 2007 to 2009, representing three families and six subfamilies. The subfamily Oedipodinae was dominant, followed by Gomphocerinae and Catantopinae. Species abundance varied among rangeland types (RTs). The greatest abundance of grasshoppers was found in mountain rangeland, while the lowest abundance of grasshoppers was caught in alpine shrublands. Three species (Chorthippus cf. brunneus (Thunberg) (Acrididae), Chorthippus Dubius (Zubovski), and Gomphocerus licenti (Chang) were broadly distributed in the four RTs and constituted 7.5% of all grasshoppers collected. Ch. dubius was very abundant in desert rangeland and alpine shrubland. Bryodema dolichoptera Yin et Feng Eremippus qilianshanensis Lian and Zheng, and Filchnerella qilianshanensis Xi and Zheng (Pamphagidae) were endemic to the region of the Qilian Mountains. Species similarity between RTs ranged from 17.8 to 51.6 based on the Renkonen index. Similarly, the Sörensen index indicated a wide separation in species composition among RTs. The abundance of the eight most common species showed obvious differences among RTs and years. On average, mountain rangeland had the highest density values in 2007 and 2008, and alpine shrubland supported the smallest density. The densities in desert and mountain rangeland in 2007 were significantly higher than in 2008, while alpine rangeland and shrublands did not present obvious differences among years. PMID:25688084

  12. Ostreid herpesvirus in wild oysters from the Huelva coast (SW Spain).

    PubMed

    López-Sanmartín, M; López-Fernández, J R; Cunha, M E; De la Herrán, R; Navas, J I

    2016-08-01

    This is the first report of ostreid herpesvirus 1 microvariant (OsHV-1 µVar) infecting natural oyster beds located in Huelva (SW Spain). The virus was detected in 3 oyster species present in the intertidal zone: Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793), C. angulata (Lamarck, 1819) and, for the first time, in Ostrea stentina Payraudeau, 1826. Oysters were identified by a specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and posterior restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis based on cytochrome oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial DNA. Results confirmed that C. angulata still remains the dominant oyster population in SW Spain despite the introduction of C. gigas for cultivation in the late 1970s, and its subsequent naturalization. C. angulata shows a higher haplotype diversity than C. gigas. OsHV-1 virus was detected by PCR with C2/C6 pair primers. Posterior RFLP analyses with the restriction enzyme MfeI were done in order to reveal the OsHV-1 µVar. Detections were confirmed by DNA sequencing, and infections were evidenced by in situ hybridization in C. gigas, C. angulata and O. stentina samples. The prevalence was similar among the 3 oyster species but varied between sampling locations, being higher in areas with greater harvesting activities. OsHV-1 µVar accounted for 93% of all OsHV-1 detected. PMID:27503919

  13. Intraspecific Variation of Eysarcoris guttigerus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Japanese Southwest Population Based on Mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Yamaji, Takuya; Ishikawa, Tadashi; Nomura, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The white-spotted globular bug Eysarcoris guttigerus (Thunberg) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is widely distributed in East Asia and the Pacific region. In Japan, the species is found in grassy or composite weeds in the western area of the main islands and Ryukyu Islands of Japan. One notable characteristic of the Eysarcoris genus is the two white spots on the scutellum. This is not the case with the Ishigaki Island population, however, which sports red spots instead of white, suggesting that intraspecific variation exists in the species. Therefore, we investigated intraspecific variation in E. guttigerus using mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2), cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), cytochrome b (Cytb), tRNA-Serine (tRNA(ser)), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1), and 16S ribosomal RNA (16SrRNA) genes from 13 populations of Japan. The obtained maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree was divided into three groups--Group 1: Mainland, Group 2: Central Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa-Amamioshima Islands), and Group 3: South Ryukyu Islands (Ishigaki Island). The Ishigaki population was significantly separated from the other populations with consistent differences in spot color. The estimated period of divergence between the Ishigaki population and the other populations was consistent with the period of formation of the Kerama Gap in the Ryukyu arc. Thus, the process of formation of the Kerama Gap may have influenced the intraspecific variation of E. guttigerus. PMID:26798143

  14. Transcriptional response of two metallothionein genes (OcMT1 and OcMT2) and histological changes in Oxya chinensis (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) exposed to three trace metals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaoming; Wu, Haihua; Yu, Zhitao; Guo, Yaping; Zhang, Jianzhen; Zhu, Kun Yan; Ma, Enbo

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the transcriptional responses of two metallothionein (MT) genes (OcMT1 and OcMT2) in various tissues (brain, optic lobe, Malpighian tubules, fat bodies, foregut, gastric caeca, midgut and hindgut) of Oxya chinensis (Thunberg) (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) after exposed to the trace metals cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) for 48h. The study revealed that the exposure of O. chinensis to each of the three metals at the median lethal concentration (LC50) or lower concentration(s) up-regulated the transcriptions of both OcMT1 and OCMT2 in the eight tissues except for OcMT1 and OcMT2 with Cd in brain and gastric caeca, respectively, and OcMT2 with Cu in gastric caeca. These results suggested that the exposure of O. chinensis to the metals may enhance MT biosynthesis that protects tissues by binding these metals in various tissues. To examine possible histopathological effect of the metals, we examined the histological changes in the fat bodies after O. chinensis was exposed to each of these metals at LC50. The exposure of Cd significantly reduced the size and number of adipocytes as compared with the control. However, such an effect was not observed in O. chinensis exposed to either Cu or Zn. These results suggested that fat bodies might be either significantly affected by Cd or play a crucial role in detoxification of excessive trace metals. PMID:26159299

  15. PMC-12, a traditional herbal medicine, enhances learning memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee Ra; Kim, Ju Yeon; Lee, Yujeong; Chun, Hye Jeong; Choi, Young Whan; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Choi, Byung Tae; Kim, Cheol Min; Lee, Jaewon

    2016-03-23

    The beneficial effects of traditional Korean medicine are recognized during the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions, such as, Alzheimer's disease and neurocognitive dysfunction, and recently, hippocampal neurogenesis has been reported to be associated with memory function. In this study, the authors investigated the beneficial effects of polygonum multiflorum Thunberg complex composition-12 (PMC-12), which is a mixture of four medicinal herbs, that is, Polygonum multiflorum, Polygala tenuifolia, Rehmannia glutinosa, and Acorus gramineus, on hippocampal neurogenesis, learning, and memory in mice. PMC-12 was orally administered to male C57BL/6 mice (5 weeks old) at 100 or 500 mg/kg daily for 2 weeks. PMC-12 administration significantly was found to increase the proliferation of neural progenitor cells and the survival of newly-generated cells in the dentate gyrus. In the Morris water maze test, the latency times of PMC-12 treated mice (100 or 500 mg/kg) were shorter than those of vehicle-control mice. In addition, PMC-12 increased the levels of BDNF, p-CREB, and synaptophysin, which are known to be associated with neural plasticity and hippocampal neurogenesis. These findings suggest PMC-12 enhances hippocampal neurogenesis and neurocognitive function and imply that PMC-12 ameliorates memory impairment and cognitive deficits. PMID:26917101

  16. Differential recruitment of introduced Pacific oysters and native mussels at the North Sea coast: coexistence possible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diederich, Susanne

    2005-04-01

    Pacific oysters ( Crassostrea gigas Thunberg 1793) have been introduced into the Wadden Sea (North Sea), where they settle on native mussel beds ( Mytilus edulis L.), which represent the only extensive insular hard substrata in this soft-sediment environment. As abundances of C. gigas rose, some mussel beds became increasingly overgrown with oysters, whereas others did not. Field experiments revealed that recruitment of C. gigas was higher in the lower intertidal than in the upper subtidal zone, that it was higher on conspecifics than on mussels, and that it was not affected by barnacle epigrowth except when settling on mussels. Mussel recruitment is known from inter- and subtidal zones. It occurred equally on oyster and mussel shells but showed a clear preference for barnacle epigrowth over clean shells. Assuming that settlement and recruitment are key processes for species abundances on the North Sea coast, it is predicted that the positive feedback in oyster settlement will lead to rapid reef formation of this invader at the expense of mussel beds. Mussels, however, may escape competitive exclusion by settling between or on the larger oysters especially when barnacles are abundant. Experimental patches with mussels were more often covered by fucoid algae ( Fucus vesiculosus forma mytili Nienburg) than patches with oysters, and oyster recruitment was poor underneath such algal canopies. Thus, fucoids may provide the native mussels with a refuge from the invading oysters and the two bivalves may coexist, provided food is not limiting.

  17. Basement-membrane heparan sulphate with high affinity for antithrombin synthesized by normal and transformed mouse mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Pejler, G; David, G

    1987-01-01

    Basement-membrane proteoglycans, biosynthetically labelled with [35S]sulphate, were isolated from normal and transformed mouse mammary epithelial cells. Proteoglycans synthesized by normal cells contained mainly heparan sulphate and, in addition, small amounts of chondroitin sulphate chains, whereas transformed cells synthesized a relatively higher proportion of chondroitin sulphate. Polysaccharide chains from transformed cells were of lower average Mr and of lower anionic charge density compared with chains isolated from the untransformed counterparts, confirming results reported previously [David & Van den Berghe (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 7338-7344]. A large proportion of the chains isolated from normal cells bound with high affinity to immobilized antithrombin, and the presence of 3-O-sulphated glucosamine residues, previously identified as unique markers for the antithrombin-binding region of heparin [Lindahl, Bäckström, Thunberg & Leder (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77, 6551-6555], could be demonstrated. A significantly lower proportion of the chains derived from transformed cells bound with high affinity to antithrombin, and a corresponding decrease in the amount of incorporated 3-O-sulphate was observed. PMID:2963617

  18. Innate positive chemotaxis to pollen from crops and banker plants in predaceous biological control agents: towards new field lures?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shu; Tan, Xiaoling; Desneux, Nicolas; Benelli, Giovanni; Zhao, Jing; Li, Xinhai; Zhang, Fan; Gao, Xiwu; Wang, Su

    2015-01-01

    Predator-prey interactions form the core of biological control of arthropod pests. Which tools can be used to monitor and collect carnivorous arthropods in natural habitats and targeted crops? Eco-friendly and effective field lures are urgently needed. In this research, we carried out olfactometer experiments assess innate positive chemotaxis to pollen of seven crop and banker plant by two important predatory biological control agents: the coccinellid Propylea japonica (Thunberg) and the anthocorid Orius sauteri (Poppius). We compared the attractiveness of pollens from crops and banker plants to that of common prey homogenates (aphids and thrips, respectively). Attractiveness of the tested odor sources was checked via field trapping experiments conducted in organic apple orchards and by release-recapture assays in organic greenhouse tomato crops. Maize and canola pollen were attractive to both P. japonica and O. sauteri, in laboratory and field assays. P. japonica was highly attracted by balm mint pollen, whereas O. sauteri was attracted by alfalfa pollen. Our results encourage the use of pollen from crops and banker plants as low-cost and eco-friendly attractors to enhance the monitoring and attraction of arthropod predators in biological control programs. PMID:26235136

  19. Ingestion of Bt corn pollen containing Cry1Ab/2Aj or Cry1Ac does not harm Propylea japonica larvae

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanmin; Liu, Qingsong; Wang, Yanan; Chen, Xiuping; Song, Xinyuan; Romeis, Jörg; Li, Yunhe; Peng, Yufa

    2016-01-01

    Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a prevalent pollen consumer in corn fields and is therefore exposed to insecticidal proteins contained in the pollen of insect-resistant transgenic corn cultivars expressing Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). In the present study, the potential effect of Cry1Ab/2Aj- or Cry1Ac-containing transgenic Bt corn pollen on the fitness of P. japonica larvae was evaluated. The results show that the larval developmental time was significantly shorter when P. japonica larvae were fed pollen from Bt corn cultivars rather than control pollen but that pupation rate, eclosion rate, and adult fresh weight were not significantly affected. In the feeding experiments, the stability of the Cry proteins in the food sources was confirmed. When Bt corn pollen passed through the gut of P. japonica, 23% of Cry1Ab/2Aj was digested. The results demonstrate that consumption of Bt corn pollen containing Cry1Ab/2Aj or Cry1Ac has no detrimental effect on P. japonica larvae; the shortened developmental time of larvae that consumed these proteins was likely attributable to unknown differences in the nutritional composition between the Bt-transgenic and control corn pollen. PMID:27005950

  20. Revision of the stag beetle genus Ryssonotus MacLeay (Coleoptera: Lucanidae), with descriptions of a new genus and three new species.

    PubMed

    Reid, C A M; Beatson, M

    2016-01-01

    The Australian lucanid genus Ryssonotus MacLeay, 1819 is redefined and reduced to one species: R. nebulosus (Kirby, 1819). The supposed senior synonym of this species, Lucanus foveolatus Thunberg, 1806 is a junior synonym of the North American species Lucanus capreolus (Linnaeus, 1763) (new synonym). Safrina new genus, is described for the remaining species formerly in Ryssonotus and three new species: S. dekeyzeri new species, S. grandis (Lea, 1915) new combination, S. jaedoni new species, S. jugularis (Westwood, 1863) new combination, S. laticeps (Macleay, 1885) new combination, S. moorei new species, S. parallela (Deyrolle, 1881) new combination, and S. polita (Carter, 1921) new combination. Safrina grandis is a senior synonym of S. costata (Carter, 1929) new synonym. The type species of Safrina is Rhyssonotus laticeps Macleay, 1885. All species of Safrina are described and a key is provided to the adults of Ryssonotus and Safrina. The species are confined to the ranges of eastern mainland Australia. Diagnostic descriptions of the larvae of Ryssonotus and Safrina are provided. Safrina and Ryssonotus are placed in the tribe Chiasognathini and their systematic position is discussed. PMID:27515643

  1. Aphid Transmission of the Ontario Isolate of Plum Pox Virus.

    PubMed

    Lowery, D Thomas; Vickers, Patricia M; Bittner, Lori A; Stobbs, Lorne W; Foottit, Robert G

    2015-10-01

    Utilization of timed virus acquisition access probes in studies of plum pox virus (PPV) transmission by aphids demonstrated that endemic species transmitted the virus readily from plum, Prunus domestica (L.) Batsch; peach, P. persica (L.); or dwarf flowering almond, P. glandulosa Thunberg., to peach seedlings. The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), was shown to be the most efficient vector. Acquisition of virus by green peach aphids from infected peach leaves resulted in 18-28% infected peach seedlings, while aphids previously fed on infected leaves of plum transferred virus to 36% of peach seedlings. Although the spirea aphid, Aphis spiraecola (Patch), was a less efficient vector than M. persicae it is perhaps more important for the spread of PPV due to its greater abundance and occurrence earlier in the season when peach trees are thought to be more susceptible to infection. Virus transmission rates varied depending on the virus source and healthy test plant species. In contrast to many previous studies, aphid inoculation of the experimental host Nicotiana benthamiana Domin occurred at a low rate, never exceeding 4%. Acquisition of PPV by M. persicae from infected peach fruit was greatly reduced compared with acquisition from leaves. The results of this research indicate that the Ontario isolate of PPV-D is readily transmissible by aphids to peach and natural spread of the virus needs to be considered in future management or eradication programs. PMID:26453705

  2. Beta-amyrin from Ardisia elliptica Thunb. is more potent than aspirin in inhibiting collagen-induced platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Ching, Jianhong; Chua, Tung-Kian; Chin, Lee-Cheng; Lau, Aik-Jiang; Pang, Yun-Keng; Jaya, Johannes Murti; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Koh, Hwee-Ling

    2010-03-01

    Ardisia elliptica Thunberg (Myrsinaceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used for alleviating chest pains, treatment of fever, diarrhoea, liver poisoning and parturition complications. The objectives of the study were to investigate the effect of A. elliptica on collagen induced platelet aggregation and to isolate and purify potential antiplatelet components. Fresh A. elliptica leaves were extracted using methanol (70% v/v) by Soxhlet extraction and the extract was analysed for its inhibition of collagen-induced platelet aggregation. Inhibition of platelet aggregation was assessed by incubating the extracts with rabbit blood and collagen in a whole blood aggregometer and measuring the impedance. The leaf extract was found to inhibit platelet aggregation with an IC50 value of 167 microg/ml. Using bioassay guided fractionation, beta-amyrin was isolated and purified. The IC50 value of beta-amyrin was found to be 4.5 microg/ml (10.5 microM) while that of aspirin was found to be 11 microg/ml (62.7 microM), indicating that beta-amyrin was six times as active as aspirin in inhibiting platelet aggregation. This paper is the first report that beta-amyrin isolated from A. elliptica is more potent than aspirin in inhibiting collagen-induced platelet aggregation. In conclusion, A. elliptica leaves were found to inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation and one of the bioactive components responsible for the observed effect was determined to be beta-amyrin. PMID:21046981

  3. Taxonomic identity of a tetrodotoxin-accumulating ribbon-worm Cephalothrix simula (Nemertea: Palaeonemertea): a species artificially introduced from the Pacific to Europe.

    PubMed

    Kajihara, Hiroshi; Sun, Shi-Chun; Chernyshev, Alexei V; Chen, Hai-Xia; Ito, Katsutoshi; Asakawa, Manabu; Maslakova, Svetlana A; Norenburg, Jon L; Strand, Malin; Sundberg, Per; Iwata, Fumio

    2013-11-01

    We compared the anatomy of the holotype of the palaeonemertean Cephalothrix simula ( Iwata, 1952 ) with that of the holotypes of Cephalothrix hongkongiensis Sundberg, Gibson and Olsson, 2003 and Cephalothrix fasciculus ( Iwata, 1952 ), as well as additional specimens from Fukue (type locality of C. simula) and Hiroshima, Japan. While there was no major morphological discordance between these specimens, we found discrepancies between the actual morphology and some statements in the original description of C. simula with respect to supposedly species-specific characters. Our observation indicates that these three species cannot be discriminated by the anatomical characters so far used to distinguish congeners. For objectivity of scientific names, topogenetypes of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences are designated for C. simula, C. hongkongiensis, and C. fasciculus. Analysis of COI sequence showed that the Hiroshima population can be identified as C. simula, which has been found in previous studies from Trieste, Italy, and also from both the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts of the Iberian Peninsula, indicating an artificial introduction via (1) ballast water, (2) ship-fouling communities, or (3) the commercially cultured oyster Crassostrea gigas ( Thunberg, 1793 ) brought from Japan to France in 1970s. Cephalothrix simula is known to be toxic, as it contains large amounts of tetrodotoxin (TTX). We report here that the grass puffer Takifugu niphobles ( Jordan and Snyder, 1901 )-also known to contain TTX- consumes C. simula. We suggest that the puffer may be able to accumulate TTX by eating C. simula. PMID:24199864

  4. Exposure Effects on the Productivity of Commercial Bombus impatiens (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Quads During Bloom in Watermelon Fields.

    PubMed

    Marchese, J I; Johnson, G J; Delaney, D A

    2015-08-01

    In light of population declines of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.), research has refocused attention on alternative pollinators and their potential to fulfill pollination services within economically important agricultural crops. Bumble bees are one such alternative, and within the past 20 yr, these pollinators have been reared and sold as commercial pollinators. Investigation into their use has been limited and more research is needed to improve pollinator effectiveness in field settings. Quad pollination units of the commercially reared native bumble bee species, the common eastern bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson), were monitored and evaluated for productivity during peak watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunberg) Matsumura & Nakai] bloom in southern Delaware. Differing colony exposures including various shade structure designs and natural shade were compared to assess the quality of the shade in regards to bumble bee activity during watermelon bloom. Quads receiving different nest treatments were evaluated on the basis of foraging activity and colony weight gain. Results indicated that colonies within quads provided with artificial or natural shade had significantly more foraging activity, weighed more, and produced more cells than colonies in quads placed in the field with no shade. Colonies within quads provided with artificial and natural shade peaked later in terms of foraging and weight gain, suggesting that growers could extend harvest to take advantage of later markets and possible movement into fields that were planted later. PMID:26470323

  5. Moderate establishment success of Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, on a sheltered intertidal mussel bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, Mark Wejlemann; Davids, Jens Kristian; Dolmer, Per; Vismann, Bent; Hansen, Benni Winding

    2015-10-01

    The Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg 1793) is introduced into marine ecosystems worldwide. In Denmark, C. gigas was introduced into the micro tidal Limfjord, around 1972 for aquaculture. This study describes the population structure of C. gigas at Agger Tange in 2007, 2009, 2010 and 2011. Here, C. gigas use beds of Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) as primary habitat. The mean abundance (± 1 SD) of C. gigas was unchanged during our study (45 ± 2 indv. m- 2), while it increased for M. edulis from 2010 to 2011 (934 ± 610 to 1434 ± 750 indv. m- 2, respectively). In 2009, a newly settled cohort of C. gigas was present, but in the succeeding years no or negligible recruitment was recorded. However, age cohort analyses, based on individual shell size at different ages, suggest successful recruitment in three out of seven years. A comparison with the course of the bioinvasion in List Tidal Basin, suggests that the population at Agger Tange is not in the expansion phase of the bioinvasion, despite of frequent settlement, high shell growth rates and relatively high abundance. So far, C. gigas has had moderate establishment success. We conclude that C. gigas is still in the establishment phase, but that this is prolonged, presumably due to low food availability.

  6. Intraspecific Variation of Eysarcoris guttigerus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Japanese Southwest Population Based on Mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Yamaji, Takuya; Ishikawa, Tadashi; Nomura, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The white-spotted globular bug Eysarcoris guttigerus (Thunberg) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is widely distributed in East Asia and the Pacific region. In Japan, the species is found in grassy or composite weeds in the western area of the main islands and Ryukyu Islands of Japan. One notable characteristic of the Eysarcoris genus is the two white spots on the scutellum. This is not the case with the Ishigaki Island population, however, which sports red spots instead of white, suggesting that intraspecific variation exists in the species. Therefore, we investigated intraspecific variation in E. guttigerus using mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2), cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), cytochrome b (Cytb), tRNA-Serine (tRNAser), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1), and 16S ribosomal RNA (16SrRNA) genes from 13 populations of Japan. The obtained maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree was divided into three groups—Group 1: Mainland, Group 2: Central Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa-Amamioshima Islands), and Group 3: South Ryukyu Islands (Ishigaki Island). The Ishigaki population was significantly separated from the other populations with consistent differences in spot color. The estimated period of divergence between the Ishigaki population and the other populations was consistent with the period of formation of the Kerama Gap in the Ryukyu arc. Thus, the process of formation of the Kerama Gap may have influenced the intraspecific variation of E. guttigerus. PMID:26798143

  7. Epimedium koreanum Nakai Water Extract Exhibits Antiviral Activity against Porcine Epidermic Diarrhea Virus In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Won-Kyung; Kim, Hyunil; Choi, Yu Jeong; Yim, Nam-Hui; Yang, Hye Jin; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2012-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes diarrhea of pigs age-independently and death of young piglets, resulting in economic loss of porcine industry. We have screened 333 natural oriental herbal medicines to search for new antiviral candidates against PEDV. We found that two herbal extracts, KIOM 198 and KIOM 124, contain significant anti-PED viral effect. KIOM 198 and KIOM 124 were identified as Epimedium koreanum Nakai and Lonicera japonica Thunberg, respectively. The further plaque and CPE inhibition assay in vitro showed that KIOM 198 has much stronger antiviral activity than KIOM 124. Additionally, KIOM 198 exhibited a similar extent of antiviral effect against other subtypes of Corona virus such as sm98 and TGE viruses. Cytotoxicity results showed that KIOM 198 is nontoxic on the cells and suggest that it can be delivered safely for therapy. Furthermore, when we orally administered KIOM 198 to piglets and then infected them with PEDV, the piglets did not show any disease symptoms like diarrhea and biopsy results showed clean intestine, whereas control pigs without KIOM 198 treatment exhibited PED-related severe symptoms. These results imply that KIOM 198 contains strong antiviral activity and has a potential to be developed as an antiviral phytomedicine to treat PEDV-related diseases in pigs. PMID:23259003

  8. Ingestion of Bt corn pollen containing Cry1Ab/2Aj or Cry1Ac does not harm Propylea japonica larvae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanmin; Liu, Qingsong; Wang, Yanan; Chen, Xiuping; Song, Xinyuan; Romeis, Jörg; Li, Yunhe; Peng, Yufa

    2016-01-01

    Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a prevalent pollen consumer in corn fields and is therefore exposed to insecticidal proteins contained in the pollen of insect-resistant transgenic corn cultivars expressing Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). In the present study, the potential effect of Cry1Ab/2Aj- or Cry1Ac-containing transgenic Bt corn pollen on the fitness of P. japonica larvae was evaluated. The results show that the larval developmental time was significantly shorter when P. japonica larvae were fed pollen from Bt corn cultivars rather than control pollen but that pupation rate, eclosion rate, and adult fresh weight were not significantly affected. In the feeding experiments, the stability of the Cry proteins in the food sources was confirmed. When Bt corn pollen passed through the gut of P. japonica, 23% of Cry1Ab/2Aj was digested. The results demonstrate that consumption of Bt corn pollen containing Cry1Ab/2Aj or Cry1Ac has no detrimental effect on P. japonica larvae; the shortened developmental time of larvae that consumed these proteins was likely attributable to unknown differences in the nutritional composition between the Bt-transgenic and control corn pollen. PMID:27005950

  9. Anuretes grandis sp. n., a caligid copepod (Siphonostomatoida) parasitic on Diagramma pictum (Pisces) in Taiwan, with discussion of Anuretes Heller, 1865.

    PubMed

    Ho, J; Lin, C L

    2000-01-01

    A new species of caligid copepod (Siphonostomatoida), Anuretes grandis sp. n., parasitic on the painted sweetlips [Diagramma pictum (Thunberg)] in Taiwan is described. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by having: (1) free margin of cephalothorax not covering fourth pediger, (2) large genital complex longer than 2/3 of the cephalic shield, (3) no maxillary whip, (4) leg 3 with 9 setae on the terminal segment of exopod and 8 plumose setae on the terminal segment of endopod, and (5) armature of I,III on leg 4 exopod. Genus Anuretes Heller, 1865 is reviewed and redefined. Based on the new diagnosis three species (A. chelatus Prabha et Pillai, A. fedderni Price and A. parvulus Wilson) were transferred to Pseudanuretes, and two species (A. furcatus Capart and A. renalis Heegaard) were transferred to Lepeophtheirus. In addition, the following three species of caligids were transferred to Anuretes: Lepeophtheirus fallolunulus Lewis, Heniochophilus indicus Pillai, and Lepeophtheirus rotundigenitalis Prabha et Pillai. The latter is renamed Anuretes occultus nom. n. due to the homonym encountered through this transfer. "Anuretes plectorhynchi Yamaguti" reported by Prabha and Pillai (1986) is renamed Anuretes similis sp. n. and Anuretes yamagutii Prabha et Pillai is relegated to the synonym of Anuretes anomalus Pillai. A key to the 18 species of Anuretes is provided. PMID:11104151

  10. Insects associated with Jatropha curcas Linn. (Euphorbiaceae) in west Niger.

    PubMed

    Habou, Zakari Abdoul; Adam, Toudou; Haubruge, Eric; Mergeai, Guy; Verheggen, François J

    2014-01-01

    Jatropha curcas has been introduced into Niger since 2004 by International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT). This plant is cultivated for its oil, which can be used as a Biofuel. Through direct and indirect insect collection methods, an inventory of the insect associated with J. curcas has been conducted in Western Niger during two rainy seasons (from June to October) in 2010 and 2011. We have identified insects belonging to the following families: Acrididae (Oedaleus senegalensis Krauss, Oedaleus nigeriensis Uvarov, Heteracris leani Uvarov, Catantops stramineus Walker, Parga cyanoptera Uvarov, and Acanthacris ruficornis citrina Audinet-Serville), Pyrgomorphidae (Poekilocerus bufonius hieroglyphicus Klug), Cetoniidae (Pachnoda interrupta Olivier, Pachnoda marginata aurantia Herbst, Pachnoda sinuata Heinrich and McClain, and Rhabdotis sobrina Gory and Percheron), Meloidae (Decapotoma lunata Pallas), Pentatomidae (Agonoscelis versicoloratus Dallas, Nezara viridula Linn, and Antestia sp. Kirkaldy), Coreidae (Leptoglossus membranaceus Fabricius and Cletus trigonus Thunberg), and Scutelleridae (Calidea panaethiopica Kirkaldy). Origin and potential impact on J. curcas of all these insect species are presented and discussed. The lower insect's diversity indexes are observed in 2010 and 2011 for Niamey, Saga, and Gaya because of semi-arid character of the Sahelian area. PMID:25528746

  11. Manganese toxicity to fungi: influence of pH

    SciTech Connect

    Babich, H.; Stotzky, G.

    1981-10-01

    The effects of Mn on mycelial proliferation of fungi and the effect of pH on Mn toxicity were evaluated. Results indicated that the fungi exhibited wide differences in their sensitivities to Mn. Incipient inhibition (i.e., the level of Mn at which growth inhibition was noted initially, P < 0.05) for Scopulariopsis brevicaulis and Aspergillus giganteus occurred at 100 ppM Mn; for Rhizopus stolonifer, Arthrobotrys conoides, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Trichoderma viride, and Penicillium vermiculatum at 500 ppM Mn; for Cephalosporium sp. at 1000 ppM Mn; and for Gliocladium sp. at 1000 to 1500 ppM Mn; growth of Aspergillus clavatus was not inhibited even at 2000 ppM Mn. No growth of S. brevicaulis occurred at 500 ppM Mn and of R. stolonifer at 1500 ppM Mn. The levels of Mn causing incipient and/or total inhibition of mycelial growth of the fungi studied were comparable to the levels reported to inhibit mycelial proliferation of some phylloplane fungi. Only A. conoides showed significant (P < 0.5) stimulation of mycelial growth by Mn; 10, 50, and 100 ppM Mn increased growth rates over control (0 ppM Mn) values. There was no consistent trend in the effect of pH on Mn toxicity to the fungi. However, each fungus showed a definitive response to Mn at the different pH levels. Thus, increasing the pH from 5.5 to 8.5 did not significantly affect the toxicity of Mn to Gliocladium sp., P. vermiculatum, or A. niger. The toxicity of Mn to R. stolonifer and T. viride was not different at pH 5.5 and 6.5, but increasing the pH to 7.5 or 8.5 significantly enhanced the toxicity.

  12. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of sardinelle (Sardinella aurita) by-products protein hydrolysates obtained by treatment with microbial and visceral fish serine proteases.

    PubMed

    Bougatef, Ali; Nedjar-Arroume, Naima; Ravallec-Plé, Rozenn; Leroy, Yves; Guillochon, Didier; Barkia, Ahmed; Nasri, Moncef

    2008-11-15

    The angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of protein hydrolysates prepared from heads and viscera of sardinelle (Sardinella aurita) by treatment with various proteases were investigated. Protein hydrolysates were obtained by treatment with Alcalase(®), chymotrypsin, crude enzyme preparations from Bacillus licheniformis NH1 and Aspergillus clavatus ES1, and crude enzyme extract from sardine (Sardina pilchardus) viscera. All hydrolysates exhibited inhibitory activity towards ACE. The alkaline protease extract from the viscera of sardine produced hydrolysate with the highest ACE inhibitory activity (63.2±1.5% at 2mg/ml). Further, the degrees of hydrolysis and the inhibitory activities of ACE increased with increasing proteolysis time. The protein hydrolysate generated with alkaline proteases from the viscera of sardine was then fractionated by size exclusion chromatography on a Sephadex G-25 into eight major fractions (P1-P8). Biological functions of all fractions were assayed, and P4 was found to display a high ACE inhibitory activity. The IC50 values for ACE inhibitory activities of sardinelle by-products protein hydrolysates and fraction P4 were 1.2±0.09 and 0.81±0.013mg/ml, respectively. Further, P4 showed resistance to in vitro digestion by gastrointestinal proteases. The amino acid analysis by GC/MS showed that P4 was rich in phenylalanine, arginine, glycine, leucine, methionine, histidine and tyrosine. The added-value of sardinelle by-products may be improved by enzymatic treatment with visceral serine proteases from sardine. PMID:26047434

  13. Synthesis, antifungal activity and docking study of 2-amino-4H-benzochromene-3-carbonitrile derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirjalili, BiBi Fatemeh; Zamani, Leila; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Khabnadideh, Soghra; Haghighijoo, Zahra; Malakotikhah, Zahra; Ayatollahi Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Khojasteh, Shaghayegh

    2016-07-01

    Pathogenic fungi are associated with diseases ranging from simple dermatosis to life-threatening infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients. During the past two decades, resistance to established antifungal drugs has increased dramatically and has made it crucial to identify novel antimicrobial compounds. Here, we selected 12 new compounds of 2-amino-4H-benzochromene-3-carbonitrile drivetives (C1-C12) for synthesis by using nano-TiCl4.SiO2 as efficient and green catalyst, then nine of synthetic compounds were evaluated against different species of fungi, positive gram and negative gram of bacteria. Standard and clinical strains of antibiotics sensitive and resistant fungi and bacteria were cultured in appropriate media. Biological activity of the 2-amino-4H-benzochromene-3-carbonitrile derivatives against fungi and bacteries were estimated by the broth micro-dilution method as recommended by clinical and laboratory standard institute (CLSI). In addition minimal fangicidal and bactericial concenteration of the compounds were also determined. Considering our results showed that compound 2-amino-4-(4-methyl benzoate)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C9) had the most antifungal activity against Aspergillus clavatus, Candida glabarata, Candida dubliniensis, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis at concentrations ranging from 8 to ≤128 μg/mL. Also compounds 2-amino-4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C4) and 2-amino-4-(4-isopropylphenyl)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C3) had significant inhibitory activities against Epidermophyton floccosum following 2-amino-4-(4-methylbenzoate)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C9), respectively. Docking simulation was performed to insert compounds C3, C4 and C9 in to CYP51 active site to determine the probable binding model.

  14. Multi-proxy approach detects heterogeneous habitats for primates during the Miocene climatic optimum in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Merceron, Gildas; Costeur, Loïc; Maridet, Olivier; Ramdarshan, Anusha; Göhlich, Ursula B

    2012-07-01

    The present study attempts to characterize the environmental conditions that prevailed along the western shores of the Central Paratethys and its hinterland during the early middle Miocene at the same time t primates reached their peak in species diversity in Central Europe. Based on faunal structure (using cenograms), paleotemperature reconstruction (using cricetid diversity), and dietary reconstruction of ruminants (using molar micro-wear analyses), four faunal assemblages are used to characterize the regional environmental context. The cenograms for Göriach and Devínska Novà Ves Zapfe's fissure site support the presence of mosaic environments with open areas under rather humid conditions. This is also supported by the dental micro-wear analyses of ruminants. The species of Palaeomerycidae were most probably the only predominant browsers. Surprisingly, the three cervids, Dicrocerus, Heteroprox, and Euprox, were highly involved in grazing. Pseudoeotragus seegrabensis was likely a generalist and the two specimens assigned to the second bovid, Eotragus clavatus, were browsers. The two species of tragulids plot between fruit browsers and generalists. Moreover, paleotemperatures based on cricetid diversity estimate mean annual temperature at about 18 °C with potential high seasonal variations. These data support the predominance of mosaic landscapes along the western shores of the Central Paratethys and its hinterland during the Miocene Climatic Optimum as primates reach a peak in species diversity. This result lends credence to the hypothesis that environmental heterogeneity favours radiation among mammals, and that the specific environmental context of the Central Paratethys western border might explain the high diversity of the middle Miocene primates. PMID:22658333

  15. Linker Flexibility Facilitates Module Exchange in Fungal Hybrid PKS-NRPS Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Maria Lund; Isbrandt, Thomas; Petersen, Lene Maj; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Hoof, Jakob Blæsbjerg; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2016-01-01

    Polyketide synthases (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) each give rise to a vast array of complex bioactive molecules with further complexity added by the existence of natural PKS-NRPS fusions. Rational genetic engineering for the production of natural product derivatives is desirable for the purpose of incorporating new functionalities into pre-existing molecules, or for optimization of known bioactivities. We sought to expand the range of natural product diversity by combining modules of PKS-NRPS hybrids from different hosts, hereby producing novel synthetic natural products. We succeeded in the construction of a functional cross-species chimeric PKS-NRPS expressed in Aspergillus nidulans. Module swapping of the two PKS-NRPS natural hybrids CcsA from Aspergillus clavatus involved in the biosynthesis of cytochalasin E and related Syn2 from rice plant pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae lead to production of novel hybrid products, demonstrating that the rational re-design of these fungal natural product enzymes is feasible. We also report the structure of four novel pseudo pre-cytochalasin intermediates, niduclavin and niduporthin along with the chimeric compounds niduchimaeralin A and B, all indicating that PKS-NRPS activity alone is insufficient for proper assembly of the cytochalasin core structure. Future success in the field of biocombinatorial synthesis of hybrid polyketide-nonribosomal peptides relies on the understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of inter-modular polyketide chain transfer. Therefore, we expressed several PKS-NRPS linker-modified variants. Intriguingly, the linker anatomy is less complex than expected, as these variants displayed great tolerance with regards to content and length, showing a hitherto unreported flexibility in PKS-NRPS hybrids, with great potential for synthetic biology-driven biocombinatorial chemistry. PMID:27551732

  16. Bivalent transition metal complexes of ONO donor hydrazone ligand: Synthesis, structural characterization and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, Ravindra; Salunkhe, Nilesh; Yaul, Amit; Aswar, Anand

    2015-12-01

    Mononuclear transition metal complexes of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) with a new hydrazone ligand derived from pyrazine-2-carbohydrazide and 2-hydroxyacetophenone have been synthesized. The isolated complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, spectral and analytical methods including elemental analyses, IR, diffuse reflectance, (1)H-NMR, mass spectra, molar conductance, magnetic moment, ESR, XRD, TG and SEM analysis. From the elemental analyses data, the stoichiometry of the complexes was found to be 1:1 (metal:ligand) having the general formulae [M(HL)(Cl)(H2O)2], [M=Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II)] and [M(L)(H2O)], [M=Zn(II) and Cd(II)]. The molar conductance values indicate the nonelectrolytic nature of metal complexes. The IR spectral data suggest that the ligand behaves as tridentate moiety with ONO donor atoms sequence towards central metal ion. The Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes have been assigned a monomeric octahedral geometry whereas tetrahedral to Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the ligand and its metal complexes were studied against bacterial species Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus pyogenes and fungi Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus clavatus. The activity data show that the metal complexes have a promising biological activity comparable with the parent ligand against all bacterial and fungal species. PMID:26163785

  17. Synthesis, antifungal activity and docking study of 2-amino-4H-benzochromene-3-carbonitrile derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirjalili, BiBi Fatemeh; Zamani, Leila; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Khabnadideh, Soghra; Haghighijoo, Zahra; Malakotikhah, Zahra; Ayatollahi Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Khojasteh, Shaghayegh

    2016-07-01

    Pathogenic fungi are associated with diseases ranging from simple dermatosis to life-threatening infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients. During the past two decades, resistance to established antifungal drugs has increased dramatically and has made it crucial to identify novel antimicrobial compounds. Here, we selected 12 new compounds of 2-amino-4H-benzochromene-3-carbonitrile drivetives (C1-C12) for synthesis by using nano-TiCl4.SiO2 as efficient and green catalyst, then nine of synthetic compounds were evaluated against different species of fungi, positive gram and negative gram of bacteria. Standard and clinical strains of antibiotics sensitive and resistant fungi and bacteria were cultured in appropriate media. Biological activity of the 2-amino-4H-benzochromene-3-carbonitrile derivatives against fungi and bacteries were estimated by the broth micro-dilution method as recommended by clinical and laboratory standard institute (CLSI). In addition minimal fangicidal and bactericial concenteration of the compounds were also determined. Considering our results showed that compound 2-amino-4-(4-methyl benzoate)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C9) had the most antifungal activity against Aspergillus clavatus, Candida glabarata, Candida dubliniensis, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis at concentrations ranging from 8 to ≤128 μg/mL. Also compounds 2-amino-4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C4) and 2-amino-4-(4-isopropylphenyl)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C3) had significant inhibitory activities against Epidermophyton floccosum following 2-amino-4-(4-methylbenzoate)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C9), respectively. Docking simulation was performed to insert compounds C3, C4 and C9 in to CYP51 active site to determine the probable binding model.

  18. Synthesis, spectroscopic, molecular orbital calculation, cytotoxic, molecular docking of DNA binding and DNA cleavage studies of transition metal complexes with N-benzylidene-N'-salicylidene-1,1-diaminopropane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Mogren, Muneerah M.; Alaghaz, Abdel-Nasser M. A.; Elbohy, Salwa A. H.

    2013-10-01

    Eight mononuclear chromium(III), manganese(II), iron(III), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II) and cadmium(II) complexes of Schiff's base ligand were synthesized and determined by different physical techniques. The complexes are insoluble in common organic solvents but soluble in DMF and DMSO. The measured molar conductance values in DMSO indicate that the complexes are non-electrolytic in nature. All the eight metal complexes have been fully characterized with the help of elemental analyses, molecular weights, molar conductance values, magnetic moments and spectroscopic data. The analytical data helped to elucidate the structure of the metal complexes. The Schiff base is found to act as tridentate ligand using N2O donor set of atoms leading to an octahedral geometry for the complexes around all the metal ions. Quantum chemical calculations were performed with semi-empirical method to find the optimum geometry of the ligand and its complexes. Additionally in silico, the docking studies and the calculated pharmacokinetic parameters show promising futures for application of the ligand and complexes as high potency agents for DNA binding activity. The interaction of the complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) has been investigated by UV absorption method, and the mode of CT-DNA binding to the complexes has been explored. Furthermore, the DNA cleavage activity by the complexes was performed. The Schiff base and their complexes have been screened for their antibacterial activity against bacterial strains [Staphylococcus aureus (RCMB010027), Staphylococcus epidermidis (RCMB010024), Bacillis subtilis (RCMB010063), Proteous vulgaris (RCMB 010085), Klebsiella pneumonia (RCMB 010093) and Shigella flexneri (RCMB 0100542)] and fungi [(Aspergillus fumigates (RCMB 02564), Aspergillus clavatus (RCMB 02593) and Candida albicans (RCMB05035)] by disk diffusion method. All the metal complexes have potent biocidal activity than the free ligand.

  19. Dysbiosis of Gut Fungal Microbiota is Associated With Mucosal Inflammation in Crohn’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenyang; Tang, Chun; He, Qin; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2014-01-01

    Goals: We aim to characterize the fungal microbiota in the intestinal mucosa and feces in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). Background: Fungi represent a diverse microbial community in the human intestine and might play a role in the pathogenesis of CD; however, little is known about the structure and composition of the fungal microbiota especially adhering to the intestinal mucosa in CD patient. Study: Nineteen patients with active CD and 7 healthy individuals were recruited in this study. The mucosa-associated and fecal fungal microbiotas in CD patients were analyzed using culture-independent community fingerprint techniques. Results: The fungal richness and diversity were significantly elevated in the inflamed mucosa compared with the noninflamed mucosa. The predominant fungal composition in the inflamed mucosa was strikingly altered, mainly characterized by expansion in the proportions of Candida spp., Gibberella moniliformis, Alternaria brassicicola, and Cryptococcus neoformans. The fecal fungal community was perturbed in CD patients as accompanied by increased fungal diversity and prevalence in Candida albicans, Aspergillus clavatus, and C. neoformans. The species richness and diversity of the mucosal fungal community were associated with the expression of TNF-α, IFN-γ, or IL-10 (P<0.05). The diversity of the fecal fungal microbiota positively correlated with serum C-reactive protein and CD activity index (P<0.05). Conclusions: This study first demonstrates that the fungal microbiota in the inflamed mucosa is distinguishable from that of the noninflamed area. Shifts of gut fungal microbiota composition may be associated with mucosal inflammation and disease activity of CD. Our data would provide novel insights into understanding the potential of gut fungal microbiota in the pathogenesis of CD. PMID:24275714

  20. Biochemical Characterization of Indole Prenyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xia; Liu, Yan; Xie, Xiulan; Zheng, Xiao-Dong; Li, Shu-Ming

    2012-01-01

    The putative prenyltransferase gene ACLA_031240 belonging to the dimethylallyltryptophan synthase superfamily was identified in the genome sequence of Aspergillus clavatus and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The soluble His-tagged protein EAW08391 was purified to near homogeneity and used for biochemical investigation with diverse aromatic substrates in the presence of different prenyl diphosphates. It has shown that in the presence of dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), the recombinant enzyme accepted very well simple indole derivatives with l-tryptophan as the best substrate. Product formation was also observed for tryptophan-containing cyclic dipeptides but with much lower conversion yields. In contrast, no product formation was detected in the reaction mixtures of l-tryptophan with geranyl or farnesyl diphosphate. Structure elucidation of the enzyme products by NMR and MS analyses proved unequivocally the highly regiospecific regular prenylation at C-5 of the indole nucleus of the simple indole derivatives. EAW08391 was therefore termed 5-dimethylallyltryptophan synthase, and it filled the last gap in the toolbox of indole prenyltransferases regarding their prenylation positions. Km values of 5-dimethylallyltryptophan synthase were determined for l-tryptophan and DMAPP at 34 and 76 μm, respectively. Average turnover number (kcat) at 1.1 s−1 was calculated from kinetic data of l-tryptophan and DMAPP. Catalytic efficiencies of 5-dimethylallyltryptophan synthase for l-tryptophan at 25,588 s−1·m−1 and for other 11 simple indole derivatives up to 1538 s−1·m−1 provided evidence for its potential usage as a catalyst for chemoenzymatic synthesis. PMID:22123822

  1. Understanding the function of conserved variations in the catalytic loops of fungal glycoside hydrolase family 12.

    PubMed

    Damásio, André R L; Rubio, Marcelo V; Oliveira, Leandro C; Segato, Fernando; Dias, Bruno A; Citadini, Ana P; Paixão, Douglas A; Squina, Fabio M

    2014-08-01

    Enzymes that cleave the xyloglucan backbone at unbranched glucose residues have been identified in GH families 5, 7, 12, 16, 44, and 74. Fungi produce enzymes that populate 20 of 22 families that are considered critical for plant biomass deconstruction. We searched for GH12-encoding genes in 27 Eurotiomycetes genomes. After analyzing 50 GH12-related sequences, the conserved variations of the amino acid sequences were examined. Compared to the endoglucanases, the endo-xyloglucanase-associated YSG deletion at the negative subsites of the catalytic cleft with a SST insertion at the reducing end of the substrate-binding crevice is highly conserved. In addition, a highly conserved alanine residue was identified in all xyloglucan-specific enzymes, and this residue is substituted by arginine in more promiscuous glucanases. To understand the basis for the xyloglucan specificity displayed by certain GH12 enzymes, two fungal GH12 endoglucanases were chosen for mutagenesis and functional studies: an endo-xyloglucanase from Aspergillus clavatus (AclaXegA) and an endoglucanase from A. terreus (AtEglD). Comprehensive molecular docking studies and biochemical analyses were performed, revealing that mutations at the entrance of the catalytic cleft in AtEglD result in a wider binding cleft and the alteration of the substrate-cleavage pattern, implying that a trio of residues coordinates the interactions and binding to linear glycans. The loop insertion at the crevice-reducing end of AclaXegA is critical for catalytic efficiency to hydrolyze xyloglucan. The understanding of the structural elements governing endo-xyloglucanase activity on linear and branched glucans will facilitate future enzyme modifications with potential applications in industrial biotechnology. PMID:24578305

  2. Linker Flexibility Facilitates Module Exchange in Fungal Hybrid PKS-NRPS Engineering.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Maria Lund; Isbrandt, Thomas; Petersen, Lene Maj; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Hoof, Jakob Blæsbjerg; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2016-01-01

    Polyketide synthases (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) each give rise to a vast array of complex bioactive molecules with further complexity added by the existence of natural PKS-NRPS fusions. Rational genetic engineering for the production of natural product derivatives is desirable for the purpose of incorporating new functionalities into pre-existing molecules, or for optimization of known bioactivities. We sought to expand the range of natural product diversity by combining modules of PKS-NRPS hybrids from different hosts, hereby producing novel synthetic natural products. We succeeded in the construction of a functional cross-species chimeric PKS-NRPS expressed in Aspergillus nidulans. Module swapping of the two PKS-NRPS natural hybrids CcsA from Aspergillus clavatus involved in the biosynthesis of cytochalasin E and related Syn2 from rice plant pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae lead to production of novel hybrid products, demonstrating that the rational re-design of these fungal natural product enzymes is feasible. We also report the structure of four novel pseudo pre-cytochalasin intermediates, niduclavin and niduporthin along with the chimeric compounds niduchimaeralin A and B, all indicating that PKS-NRPS activity alone is insufficient for proper assembly of the cytochalasin core structure. Future success in the field of biocombinatorial synthesis of hybrid polyketide-nonribosomal peptides relies on the understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of inter-modular polyketide chain transfer. Therefore, we expressed several PKS-NRPS linker-modified variants. Intriguingly, the linker anatomy is less complex than expected, as these variants displayed great tolerance with regards to content and length, showing a hitherto unreported flexibility in PKS-NRPS hybrids, with great potential for synthetic biology-driven biocombinatorial chemistry. PMID:27551732

  3. Phylogenetic and Structural Analysis of Polyketide Synthases in Aspergilli

    PubMed Central

    Bhetariya, Preetida J.; Prajapati, Madhvi; Bhaduri, Asani; Mandal, Rahul Shubhra; Varma, Anupam; Madan, Taruna; Singh, Yogendra; Sarma, P. Usha

    2016-01-01

    Polyketide synthases (PKSs) of Aspergillus species are multidomain and multifunctional megaenzymes that play an important role in the synthesis of diverse polyketide compounds. Putative PKS protein sequences from Aspergillus species representing medically, agriculturally, and industrially important Aspergillus species were chosen and screened for in silico studies. Six candidate Aspergillus species, Aspergillus fumigatus Af293, Aspergillus flavus NRRL3357, Aspergillus niger CBS 513.88, Aspergillus terreus NIH2624, Aspergillus oryzae RIB40, and Aspergillus clavatus NRRL1, were selected to study the PKS phylogeny. Full-length PKS proteins and only ketosynthase (KS) domain sequence were retrieved for independent phylogenetic analysis from the aforementioned species, and phylogenetic analysis was performed with characterized fungal PKS. This resulted into grouping of Aspergilli PKSs into nonreducing (NR), partially reducing (PR), and highly reducing (HR) PKS enzymes. Eight distinct clades with unique domain arrangements were classified based on homology with functionally characterized PKS enzymes. Conserved motif signatures corresponding to each type of PKS were observed. Three proteins from Protein Data Bank corresponding to NR, PR, and HR type of PKS (XP_002384329.1, XP_753141.2, and XP_001402408.2, respectively) were selected for mapping of conserved motifs on three-dimensional structures of KS domain. Structural variations were found at the active sites on modeled NR, PR, and HR enzymes of Aspergillus. It was observed that the number of iteration cycles was dependent on the size of the cavity in the active site of the PKS enzyme correlating with a type with reducing or NR products, such as pigment, 6MSA, and lovastatin. The current study reports the grouping and classification of PKS proteins of Aspergilli for possible exploration of novel polyketides based on sequence homology; this information can be useful for selection of PKS for polyketide exploration and

  4. The estimation of DEB parameters for various Northeast Atlantic bivalve species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Veer, Henk W.; Cardoso, Joana F. M. F.; van der Meer, Jaap

    2006-08-01

    Dynamic energy budgets are used for the description of the energy flow through individual organisms from the assimilation of food to the utilisation for maintenance, growth, development and reproduction. In this paper, a procedure for estimation of the parameters of Kooijman's Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model is introduced and subsequently parameters are estimated for the following Northeast Atlantic bivalve species: the Baltic clam Macoma balthica (L.), the sandgaper Mya arenaria L., the cockle Cerastoderma edule (L.), the blue mussel Mytilus edulis L. and the Pacifc oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793). For none of the species, a complete set of parameters could be compiled. A special protocol was developed to account for missing values and to achieve consistency between parameters. Species were similar in their optimal temperature range, as reflected in a common Arrhenius temperature of 5800 K, which corresponds with a Q 10 of 2. Differences between species were observed in width of the optimal temperature range. The taxonomic relatedness between species was reflected in similar volume-specific maintenance costs, costs for growth and almost similar maximum storage density of energy. Species differed in their maximum surface area-specific assimilation rate by a factor of 6 and in the fraction of energy allocated to reproduction (ranging from 0.15 to 0.50). These differences are reflected in the maximum theoretical total shell length of the species, which varied from about 3 cm in M. balthica, 6 cm in C. edule, 15 cm in M. arenaria and M. edulis and 45 cm in C. gigas.

  5. Exploitable Lipids and Fatty Acids in the Invasive Oyster Crassostrea gigas on the French Atlantic Coast.

    PubMed

    Dagorn, Flore; Couzinet-Mossion, Aurélie; Kendel, Melha; Beninger, Peter G; Rabesaotra, Vony; Barnathan, Gilles; Wielgosz-Collin, Gaëtane

    2016-06-01

    Economic exploitation is one means to offset the cost of controlling invasive species, such as the introduced Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg) on the French Atlantic coast. Total lipid and phospholipid (PL) fatty acids (FAs) and sterols were examined in an invasive population of C. gigas in Bourgneuf Bay, France, over four successive seasons, with a view to identify possible sources of exploitable substances. The total lipid level (% dry weight) varied from 7.1% (winter) to 8.6% (spring). Of this, PLs accounted for 28.1% (spring) to 50.4% (winter). Phosphatidylcholine was the dominant PL throughout the year (up to 74% of total PLs in winter). Plasmalogens were identified throughout the year as a series of eleven dimethylacetals (DMAs) with chain lengths between C16 and C20 (up to 14.5% of PL FAs + DMAs in winter). Thirty-seven FAs were identified in the PL FAs. Eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3 EPA/7.53% to 14.5%) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3 DHA/5.51% to 9.5%) were the dominant polyunsaturated FAs in all seasons. Two non-methylene-interrupted dienoic (NMID) FAs were identified in all seasons: 7,13-docosadienoic and 7,15-docosadienoic acids, the latter being present at relatively high levels (up to 9.6% in winter). Twenty free sterols were identified, including cholesterol at 29.9% of the sterol mixture and about 33% of phytosterols. C. gigas tissues thus contained exploitable lipids for health benefits or as a potential source of high-quality commercial lecithin. PMID:27231919

  6. Spatial pattern and sequential sampling of squash bug (Heteroptera: Coreidae) adults in watermelon.

    PubMed

    Dogramaci, Mahmut; Shrefler, James W; Giles, Kristopher; Edelson, J V

    2006-04-01

    Spatial distribution patterns of adult squash bugs were determined in watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Thunberg) Matsumura and Nakai, during 2001 and 2002. Results of analysis using Taylor's power law regression model indicated that squash bugs were aggregated in watermelon. Taylor's power law provided a good fit with r2 = 0.94. A fixed precision sequential sampling plan was developed for estimating adult squash bug density at fixed precision levels in watermelon. The plan was tested using a resampling simulation method on nine and 13 independent data sets ranging in density from 0.15 to 2.52 adult squash bugs per plant. Average estimated means obtained in 100 repeated simulation runs were within the 95% CI of the true means for all the data. Average estimated levels of precision were similar to the desired level of precision, particularly when the sampling plan was tested on data having an average mean density of 1.19 adult squash bugs per plant. Also, a sequential sampling for classifying adult squash bug density as below or above economic threshold was developed to assist in the decision-making process. The classification sampling plan is advantageous in that it requires smaller sample sizes to estimate the population status when the population density differs greatly from the action threshold. However, the plan may require excessively large sample sizes when the density is close to the threshold. Therefore, an integrated sequential sampling plan was developed using a combination of a fixed precision and classification sequential sampling plans. The integration of sampling plans can help reduce sampling requirements. PMID:16686160

  7. Spreading of heterochromatin and karyotype differentiation in two Tropidacris Scudder, 1869 species (Orthoptera, Romaleidae)

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Marília de França; Pine, Mariana Bozina; Oliveira, Elizabeth Felipe Alves dos Santos; Loreto, Vilma; Gallo, Raquel Bozini; da Silva, Carlos Roberto Maximiano; de Domenico, Fernando Campos; da Rosa, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Tropidacris Scudder, 1869 is a genus widely distributed throughout the Neotropical region where speciation was probably promoted by forest reduction during the glacial and interglacial periods. There are no cytogenetic studies of Tropidacris, and information allowing inference or confirmation of the evolutionary events involved in speciation within the group is insufficient. In this paper, we used cytogenetic markers in two species, Tropidacris collaris (Stoll, 1813) and Tropidacris cristata grandis (Thunberg, 1824), collected in different Brazilian biomes. Both species exhibited 2n=24,XX for females and 2n=23,X0 for males. All chromosomes were acrocentric. There were some differences in the karyotype macrostructure, e.g. in the chromosome size. A wide interspecific variation in the chromosome banding (C-banding and CMA3/DAPI staining) indicated strong differences in the distribution of repetitive DNA sequences. Specifically, Tropidacris cristata grandis had a higher number of bands in relation to Tropidacris collaris. FISH with 18S rDNA revealed two markings coinciding with the NORs in both species. However, two analyzed samples of Tropidacris collaris revealed a heterozygous condition for the rDNA site of S10 pair. In Tropidacris collaris, the histone H3 genes were distributed on three chromosome pairs, whereas in Tropidacris cristata grandis, these genes were observed on 14 autosomes and on the X chromosome, always in terminal regions. Our results demonstrate that, although the chromosome number and morphology are conserved in the genus, Tropidacris cristata grandis substantially differs from Tropidacris collaris in terms of the distribution of repetitive sequences. The devastation and fragmentation of the Brazilian rainforest may have led to isolation between these species, and the spreading of these repetitive sequences could contribute to speciation within the genus. PMID:26312132

  8. The assassin bug subfamily Harpactorinae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from Vietnam: an annotated checklist of species.

    PubMed

    Lam, Truong Xuan; Cai, Wanzhi; Tomokuni, Masaaki; Ishikawa, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    A checklist of all known Vietnamese species of the assassin bug subfamily Harpactorinae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae) is presented with distributional and taxonomic notes. Sixty-five species in 35 genera of the subfamily are recognized in Vietnam. Eleven genera and 32 species are reported herein for the first time from this country. Newly recorded genera are Henricohahnia Breddin, 1900, Kalonotocoris Miller, 1941, Lingnania China, 1940, Lopodytes Stål, 1853, Macracanthopsis Reuter, 1881, Sclomina Stål, 1861, Serendiba Distant, 1906, Serendus Hsiao, 1979, Vesbius Stål, 1866, Villanovanus Distant, 1904, and Yolinus Amyot & Serville, 1843. New record species are Biasticus confusus Hsiao, 1979, B. flavinotus (Matsumura, 1913), Cosmolestes annulipes Distant, 1879, C. pulcher Hsiao, 1979, Cydnocoris fasciatus Reuter, 1881, C. gilvus (Burmeister, 1838), Endochus nigricornis Stål, 1859, Henricohahnia vittata Miller, 1954, Isyndus heros (Fabricius, 1803), I. pilosipes Reuter, 1881, Kalonotocoris curvipes Miller, 1941, Lingnania braconiformis China, 1940, Lopodytes spectabilis Miller, 1941, Macracanthopsis nodipes Reuter, 1881, Sclomina erinacea Stål, 1861, Serendiba nigrospina Hsiao, 1979, S. staliana (Horváth, 1879), Serendus geniculatus Hsiao, 1979, Sphedanolestes annulipes Distant, 1903, S. gularis Hsiao, 1979, S. impressicollis (Stål, 1861), S. pubinotus Reuter, 1881, S. trichrous Stål, 1874, S. xiongi Cai & Cai, 2004, Sycanus croceus Hsiao, 1979, Velinus annulatus Distant, 1879, V. malayus (Stål, 1863), V. rufiventris Hsiao, 1979, Vesbius purpureus (Thunberg, 1784), V. sanguinosus Stål, 1874, Villanovanus nigrorufus Hsiao, 1979, and Yolinus albopustulatus China, 1940. All the species are examined with Vietnamese materials except for Agriosphodrus dohrni (Signoret, 1862), Cydnocoris russatus Stål, 1867, and Sycanus atrocoeruleus Signoret, 1862. PMID:25781817

  9. Identification of top-down forces regulating cotton aphid population growth in transgenic Bt cotton in central China.

    PubMed

    Han, Peng; Niu, Chang-ying; Desneux, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover is the main aphid pest in cotton fields in the Yangtze River Valley Cotton-planting Zone (YRZ) in central China. Various natural enemies may attack the cotton aphid in Bt cotton fields but no studies have identified potential specific top-down forces that could help manage this pest in the YRZ in China. In order to identify possibilities for managing the cotton aphid, we monitored cotton aphid population dynamics and identified the effect of natural enemies on cotton aphid population growth using various exclusion cages in transgenic Cry1Ac (Bt)+CpTI (Cowpea trypsin inhibitor) cotton field in 2011. The aphid population growth in the open field (control) was significantly lower than those protected or restricted from exposure to natural enemies in the various exclusion cage types tested. The ladybird predator Propylaea japonica Thunberg represented 65% of Coccinellidae predators, and other predators consisted mainly of syrphids (2.1%) and spiders (1.5%). The aphid parasitoids Aphidiines represented 76.7% of the total count of the natural enemy guild (mainly Lysiphlebia japonica Ashmead and Binodoxys indicus Subba Rao & Sharma). Our results showed that P. japonica can effectively delay the establishment and subsequent population growth of aphids during the cotton growing season. Aphidiines could also reduce aphid density although their impact may be shadowed by the presence of coccinellids in the open field (likely both owing to resource competition and intraguild predation). The implications of these results are discussed in a framework of the compatibility of transgenic crops and top-down forces exerted by natural enemy guild. PMID:25170907

  10. Exploitable Lipids and Fatty Acids in the Invasive Oyster Crassostrea gigas on the French Atlantic Coast

    PubMed Central

    Dagorn, Flore; Couzinet-Mossion, Aurélie; Kendel, Melha; Beninger, Peter G.; Rabesaotra, Vony; Barnathan, Gilles; Wielgosz-Collin, Gaëtane

    2016-01-01

    Economic exploitation is one means to offset the cost of controlling invasive species, such as the introduced Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg) on the French Atlantic coast. Total lipid and phospholipid (PL) fatty acids (FAs) and sterols were examined in an invasive population of C. gigas in Bourgneuf Bay, France, over four successive seasons, with a view to identify possible sources of exploitable substances. The total lipid level (% dry weight) varied from 7.1% (winter) to 8.6% (spring). Of this, PLs accounted for 28.1% (spring) to 50.4% (winter). Phosphatidylcholine was the dominant PL throughout the year (up to 74% of total PLs in winter). Plasmalogens were identified throughout the year as a series of eleven dimethylacetals (DMAs) with chain lengths between C16 and C20 (up to 14.5% of PL FAs + DMAs in winter). Thirty-seven FAs were identified in the PL FAs. Eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3 EPA/7.53% to 14.5%) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3 DHA/5.51% to 9.5%) were the dominant polyunsaturated FAs in all seasons. Two non-methylene-interrupted dienoic (NMID) FAs were identified in all seasons: 7,13-docosadienoic and 7,15-docosadienoic acids, the latter being present at relatively high levels (up to 9.6% in winter). Twenty free sterols were identified, including cholesterol at 29.9% of the sterol mixture and about 33% of phytosterols. C. gigas tissues thus contained exploitable lipids for health benefits or as a potential source of high-quality commercial lecithin. PMID:27231919

  11. Late Pliocene and Quaternary Eurasian locust infestations in the Canary Archipelago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meco, J.; Muhs, D.R.; Fontugne, M.; Ramos, A.J.; Lomoschitz, A.; Patterson, D.

    2011-01-01

    The Canary Archipelago has long been a sensitive location to record climate changes of the past. Interbedded with its basalt lavas are marine deposits from the principal Pleistocene interglacials, as well as aeolian sands with intercalated palaeosols. The palaeosols contain African dust and innumerable relict egg pods of a temperate-region locust (cf. Dociostaurus maroccanusThunberg 1815). New ecological and stratigraphical information reveals the geological history of locust plagues (or infestations) and their palaeoclimatic significance. Here, we show that the first arrival of the plagues to the Canary Islands from Africa took place near the end of the Pliocene, ca. 3Ma, and reappeared with immense strength during the middle Late Pleistocene preceding MIS (marine isotope stage) 11 (ca. 420ka), MIS 5.5 (ca. 125ka) and probably during other warm interglacials of the late Middle Pleistocene and the Late Pleistocene. During the Early Holocene, locust plagues may have coincided with a brief cool period in the current interglacial. Climatically, locust plagues on the Canaries are a link in the chain of full-glacial arid-cold climate (calcareous dunes), early interglacial arid-sub-humid climate (African dust inputs and locust plagues), peak interglacial warm-humid climate (marine deposits with Senegalese fauna), transitional arid-temperate climate (pedogenic calcretes), and again full-glacial arid-cold climate (calcareous dunes) oscillations. During the principal interglacials of the Pleistocene, the Canary Islands recorded the migrations of warm Senegalese marine faunas to the north, crossing latitudes in the Euro-African Atlantic. However, this northward marine faunal migration was preceded in the terrestrial realm by interglacial infestations of locusts. ??? Locust plagues, Canary Islands, Late Pliocene, Pleistocene, Holocene, palaeoclimatology. ?? 2010 The Authors, Lethaia ?? 2010 The Lethaia Foundation.

  12. Overview of mitochondrial bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Vitor M C

    2012-01-01

    Bioenergetic Science started in seventh century with the pioneer works by Joseph Priestley and Antoine Lavoisier on photosynthesis and respiration, respectively. New developments were implemented by Pasteur in 1860s with the description of fermentations associated to microorganisms, further documented by Buchner brothers who discovered that fermentations also occurred in cell extracts in the absence of living cells. In the beginning of twentieth century, Harden and Young demonstrated that orthophosphate and other heat-resistant compounds (cozymase), later identified as NAD, ADP, and metal ions, were mandatory in the fermentation of glucose. The full glycolysis pathway has been detailed in 1940s with the contributions of Embden, Meyeroff, Parnas, Warburg, among others. Studies on the citric acid cycle started in 1910 (Thunberg) and were elucidated by Krebs et al. in the 1940s. Mitochondrial bioenergetics gained emphasis in the late 1940s and 1950s with the works of Lenhinger, Racker, Chance, Boyer, Ernster, and Slater, among others. The prevalent "chemical coupling hypothesis" of energy conservation in oxidative phosphorylation was challenged and replaced by the "chemiosmotic hypothesis" originally formulated in 1960s by Mitchell and later substantiated and extended to energy conservation in bacteria and chloroplasts, besides mitochondria, with clear-cut identification of molecular proton pumps. After identification of most reactive mechanisms, emphasis has been directed to structure resolution of molecular complex clusters, e.g., cytochrome c oxidase, complex III, complex II, ATP synthase, photosystem I, photosynthetic water splitting center, and energy collecting antennæ of several photosynthetic systems. Modern trends concern to the reactivity of radical and other active species in association with bioenergetic activities. A promising trend concentrates on the cell redox status quantified in terms of redox potentials. In spite of significant development and

  13. Identification of Top-Down Forces Regulating Cotton Aphid Population Growth in Transgenic Bt Cotton in Central China

    PubMed Central

    Han, Peng; Niu, Chang-ying; Desneux, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover is the main aphid pest in cotton fields in the Yangtze River Valley Cotton-planting Zone (YRZ) in central China. Various natural enemies may attack the cotton aphid in Bt cotton fields but no studies have identified potential specific top-down forces that could help manage this pest in the YRZ in China. In order to identify possibilities for managing the cotton aphid, we monitored cotton aphid population dynamics and identified the effect of natural enemies on cotton aphid population growth using various exclusion cages in transgenic Cry1Ac (Bt)+CpTI (Cowpea trypsin inhibitor) cotton field in 2011. The aphid population growth in the open field (control) was significantly lower than those protected or restricted from exposure to natural enemies in the various exclusion cage types tested. The ladybird predator Propylaea japonica Thunberg represented 65% of Coccinellidae predators, and other predators consisted mainly of syrphids (2.1%) and spiders (1.5%). The aphid parasitoids Aphidiines represented 76.7% of the total count of the natural enemy guild (mainly Lysiphlebia japonica Ashmead and Binodoxys indicus Subba Rao & Sharma). Our results showed that P. japonica can effectively delay the establishment and subsequent population growth of aphids during the cotton growing season. Aphidiines could also reduce aphid density although their impact may be shadowed by the presence of coccinellids in the open field (likely both owing to resource competition and intraguild predation). The implications of these results are discussed in a framework of the compatibility of transgenic crops and top-down forces exerted by natural enemy guild. PMID:25170907

  14. Antioxidant responses of Propylaea japonica (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) exposed to high temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shize; Fu, Wenyan; Li, Ning; Zhang, Fan; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2015-02-01

    Temperature is one of the most important environmental factors, and is responsible for a variety of physiological stress responses in organisms. Induced thermal stress is associated with elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation leading to oxidative damage. The ladybeetle, Propylaea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is considered a successful natural enemy because of its tolerance to high temperatures in arid and semi-arid areas in China. In this study, we investigated the effect of high temperatures (35, 37, 39, 41 and 43 °C) on the survival and activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidases (POD), glutathione-S-transferases (GST), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in P. japonica adults. The results indicated that P. japonica adults could not survive at 43 °C. CAT, GST and TAC were significantly increased when compared to the control (25 °C), and this played an important role in the process of antioxidant response to thermal stress. SOD and POD activity, as well as MDA, did not differ significantly at 35 and 37 °C compared to the control; however, there were increased levels of SOD, POD and MDA when the temperature was above 37 °C. These results suggest that thermal stress leads to oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes play important roles in reducing oxidative damage in P. japonica adults. This study represents the first comprehensive report on the antioxidant defense system in predaceous coccinellids (the third trophic level). The findings provide useful information for predicting population dynamics and understanding the potential for P. japonica as a natural enemy to control pest insects under varied environmental conditions. PMID:25614965

  15. Understanding cultural significance, the edible mushrooms case

    PubMed Central

    Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Caballero, Javier; Estrada-Torres, Arturo; Cifuentes, Joaquín

    2007-01-01

    Background Cultural significance is a keystone in quantitative ethnobiology, which offers the possibility to make inferences about traditional nomenclature systems, use, appropriation and valuing of natural resources. In the present work, using as model the traditional mycological knowledge of Zapotecs from Oaxaca, Mexico, we analyze the cultural significance of wild edible resources. Methods In 2003 we applied 95 questionnaires to a random sample of informants. With this data we integrated the Edible Mushroom Cultural Significance Index. This index included eight variables: frequency of mention, perceived abundance, use frequency, taste, multifunctional food use, knowledge transmission, health and economy. Data were analyzed in an inductive perspective using ordination and grouping techniques to reveal the behavior of species in a cultural multivariate dimension. Results In each variable the species had different conducts. Cantharellus cibarius s.l. was the species with most frequency of mention. Pleurotus sp. had the highest perceived abundance. C. cibarius s.l. was the most frequently consumed species. Gomphus clavatus was the most palatable species and also ranked highest in the multifunctional food index. Cortinarius secc.Malacii sp. had the highest traditional importance. Only Tricholoma magnivelare was identified as a health enhancer. It also had the most economic importance. According to the compound index, C. cibarius s.l., the Amanita caesarea complex, Ramaria spp. and Neolentinus lepideus were the mushrooms with highest cultural significance. Multivariate analysis showed that interviewees identify three main groups of mushrooms: species with high traditional values, frequent consumption and known by the majority; species that are less known, infrequently consumed and without salient characteristics; and species with low traditional values, with high economic value and health enhancers. Conclusion The compound index divided the cultural significance into

  16. Karyotypes of some medium-sized Dytiscidae (Agabinae and Colymbetinae) (Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Angus, Robert B.; Clery, Molly J.; Carter, Jodie C.; Wenczek, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An account is given of the karyotypes of 29 species of medium sized Dytiscidae (Coleoptera). Of the 20 species of Agabus Leach, 1817, 18 have karyotypes comprising 21 pairs of autosomes and sex chromosomes which are either X0(♂) or XX (♀). These species are Agabus serricornis (Paykull, 1799), Agabus labiatus (Brahm, 1791), Agabus congener (Thunberg, 1794), Agabus lapponicus (Thomson, 1867), Agabus thomsoni (J. Sahlberg, 1871), Agabus confinis (Gyllenhal, 1808), Agabus sturmii (Gyllenhal, 1808), Agabus bipustulatus (Linnaeus, 1767), Agabus nevadensis Håkan Lindberg, 1939, Agabus wollastoni Sharp, 1882, Agabus melanarius Aubé, 1837, Agabus biguttatus (Olivier, 1795), Agabus binotatus Aubé, 1837, Agabus affinis (Paykull, 1798), Agabus unguicularis (Thomson, 1867), Agabus ramblae Millan & Ribera, 2001, Agabus conspersus (Marsham, 1802) and Agabus nebulosus (Forster, 1771). However two species, Agabus infuscatus Aubé, 1838 and Agabus adpressus Aubé, 1837, have developed a neo-XY system, with karyotypes comprising 21 pairs of autosomes and XY sex chromosomes (♂). No chromosomal differences have been detected between typical Agabus bipustulatus and Agabus bipustulatus var. solieri Aubé, 1837, nor have any been found between the three species of the Agabus bipustulatus complex (Agabus bipustulatus, Agabus nevadensis and Agabus wollastoni). The four species of Colymbetes Clairville, 1806, Colymbetes fuscus (Linnaeus, 1758), Colymbetes paykulli Erichson, 1837, Colymbetes piceus Klug, 1834 and Colymbetes striatus (Linnaeus, 1758) have karyotypes comprising 20 pairs of autosomes and sex chromosomes which are X0 (♂), XX (♀). Two of the species of Rhantus Dejean, 1833, Rhantus exsoletus (Forster, 1771) and Rhantus suturellus (Harris, 1828) have karyotypes comprising 20 pairs of autosomes and X0/XX sex chromosomes, but the other three species, Rhantus grapii (Gyllenhal, 1808), Rhantus frontalis (Marsham, 1802) and Rhantus suturalis (Macleay, 1825) have 22

  17. A review of the research on Canary Islands praying mantises (Mantodea).

    PubMed

    Wieland, Frank; Schütte, Kai; Goldberg, Julia

    2014-01-01

    For many years researchers studying the fauna of the Canary Islands have only sparsely treated the charismatic insect order of praying mantises (Mantodea). By studying the known literature it becomes obvious that there are several inconsistencies regarding mantodean taxonomy as well as the number of actual species and their distribution within the archipelago. In the present contribution, the literature treating the Canary Island Mantodea fauna is thoroughly reviewed, and the distribution of the ten known Mantodea species is presented with additional comments on the taxonomic problems. The taxonomy and distribution of the Canary Island Amelinae has been causing some confusion in the literature and is therefore discussed for a better understanding of the composition of this group. So far, seven species of Amelinae (two species of Ameles Burmeister and five species of Pseudoyersinia Kirby) are recognized for the Canary Islands. A careful survey of the taxonomic literature indicates that there is a substantial degree of variability in this group, which may have led to frequent misidentifications. This is reflected by the inconsistent literature data on the distribution of several Pseudoyersinia species within the archipelago. A crucial amendment and clarification is provided regarding the date of description (1838) of Ameles gracilis (Brullé) and Ameles limbata (Brullé) as it varies in the literature. Nomenclatural changes regarding the homonymy of Mantis limbata Brullé and Mantis limbata Hahn, previously proposed by Koçak & Kemal (2008), are rejected and discussed in detail. One of the Mantodea species, Empusa pennata (Thunberg), is frequently mentioned in the literature to be present on the Canary Islands, but after carefully reviewing the literature data it is evident that this species has never actually been found on any of the islands. The aim of this publication is to lay a basis for future research on the Mantodea fauna of the Canary Islands, their

  18. New Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) records for Canada

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Hume; Bouchard, Patrice; Anderson, Robert S.; de Tonnancour, Pierre; Vigneault, Robert; Webster, Reginald P.

    2013-01-01

    ; Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902; Tyloderma foveolatum (Say, 1832); (all Curculionidae); Ontario – Trichapion nigrum (Herbst, 1797); Nanophyes marmoratus marmoratus (Goeze, 1777) (both Brentidae); Asperosoma echinatum (Fall, 1917); Micracis suturalis LeConte, 1868; Orchestes alni (Linnaeus, 1758); Phloeosinus pini Swaine, 1915; Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902; Xyleborinus attenuatus (Blandford, 1894) (all Curculionidae); Quebec – Trigonorhinus alternatus (Say, 1826); Trigonorhinus tomentosus tomentosus (Say, 1826) (both Anthribidae); Trichapion nigrum (Herbst, 1797); Trichapion porcatum (Boheman, 1839); Nanophyes marmoratus marmoratus (Goeze, 1777) (all Brentidae); Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, 1952 (Brachyceridae); Acalles carinatus LeConte, 1876; Ampeloglypter ampelopsis (Riley, 1869); Anthonomus rufipes LeConte, 1876; Anthonomus suturalis LeConte, 1824; Ceutorhynchus hamiltoni Dietz, 1896; Curculio pardalis (Chittenden, 1908); Cyrtepistomus castaneus (Roelofs, 1873); Larinus planus (Fabricius, 1792); Mecinus janthinus (Germar, 1821); Microhyus setiger LeConte, 1876; Microplontus campestris (Gyllenhal, 1837); Orchestes alni (Linnaeus, 1758); Otiorhynchus ligustici (Linnaeus, 1758); Rhinusa neta (Germar, 1821); Trichobaris trinotata (Say, 1832); Tychius liljebladi Blatchley, 1916; Xyleborinus attenuatus (Blandford, 1894); Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, 1868 (all Curculionidae); Sphenophorus incongruus Chittenden, 1905 (Dryophthoridae); New Brunswick – Euparius paganus Gyllenhal, 1833; Allandrus populi Pierce, 1930; Gonotropis dorsalis (Thunberg, 1796); Euxenus punctatus LeConte, 1876 (all Anthribidae); Loborhynchapion cyanitinctum (Fall, 1927) (Brentidae); Pseudanthonomus seriesetosus Dietz, 1891; Curculio sulcatulus (Casey, 1897); Lignyodes bischoffi (Blatchley, 1916); Lignyodes horridulus (Casey, 1892); Dietzella zimmermanni (Gyllenhal, 1837); Parenthis vestitus Dietz, 1896; Pelenomus squamosus LeConte, 1876; Psomus armatus Dietz