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1

Maternal risk factors for neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between maternal hypertensive disease and other risk factors and the neonatal development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Methods: This was a retrospective case-control study of infants with NEC from 2008 to 2012. The primary exposure of interest was maternal hypertensive disease, which has been hypothesized to put infants at risk for NEC. Other variables collected included demographics, pregnancy complications, medications and neonatal hospital course. Data were abstracted from medical records. Results: Twenty-eight cases of singleton neonates with NEC and 81 matched controls were identified and analyzed. There was no significant difference in the primary outcome. Fetuses with an antenatal diagnosis of growth restriction were more likely to develop NEC (p?=?0.008). Infants with NEC had lower median birth weight than infants without NEC (p?=?0.009). Infants with NEC had more late-onset sepsis (p?=?0.01) and mortality before discharge (p?=?0.001). Conclusions: The factors identified by this case-control study that increased the risk of neonatal NEC included intrauterine growth restriction and lower neonatal birth weight. The primary exposure, hypertensive disease, did not show a significantly increased risk of neonatal NEC; however, there was a nearly two-fold difference observed. Our study was underpowered to detect the observed difference. PMID:25162307

March, Melissa I; Gupta, Munish; Modest, Anna M; Wu, Lily; Hacker, Michele R; Martin, Camilia R; Rana, Sarosh

2014-08-27

2

Maternal Risk Factors for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Gathering information about drinking during pregnancy is one of the most difficult aspects of studying fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). This information is critical to linking specific risk factors to any particular diagnosis within the FASD continuum. This article reviews highlights from the literature on maternal risk factors for FASD and illustrates that maternal risk is multidimensional, including factors related to quantity, frequency, and timing of alcohol exposure; maternal age; number of pregnancies; number of times the mother has given birth; the mother’s body size; nutrition; socioeconomic status; metabolism; religion; spirituality; depression; other drug use; and social relationships. More research is needed to more clearly define what type of individual behavioral, physical, and genetic factors are most likely to lead to having children with FASD. PMID:23580036

May, Philip A.; Gossage, J. Phillip

2011-01-01

3

Maternal lifestyle and environmental risk factors for autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Background: Over the past 10 years, research into environmental risk factors for autism has grown dramatically, bringing evidence that an array of non-genetic factors acting during the prenatal period may influence neurodevelopment. Methods: This paper reviews the evidence on modifiable preconception and/or prenatal factors that have been associated, in some studies, with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including nutrition, substance use and exposure to environmental agents. This review is restricted to human studies with at least 50 cases of ASD, having a valid comparison group, conducted within the past decade and focusing on maternal lifestyle or environmental chemicals. Results: Higher maternal intake of certain nutrients and supplements has been associated with reduction in ASD risk, with the strongest evidence for periconceptional folic acid supplements. Although many investigations have suggested no impact of maternal smoking and alcohol use on ASD, more rigorous exposure assessment is needed. A number of studies have demonstrated significant increases in ASD risk with estimated exposure to air pollution during the prenatal period, particularly for heavy metals and particulate matter. Little research has assessed other persistent and non-persistent organic pollutants in association with ASD specifically. Conclusions: More work is needed to examine fats, vitamins and other maternal nutrients, as well as endocrine-disrupting chemicals and pesticides, in association with ASD, given sound biological plausibility and evidence regarding other neurodevelopmental deficits. The field can be advanced by large-scale epidemiological studies, attention to critical aetiological windows and how these vary by exposure, and use of biomarkers and other means to understand underlying mechanisms. PMID:24518932

Lyall, Kristen; Schmidt, Rebecca J; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

2014-01-01

4

Timing and risk factors of maternal complications of cesarean section  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To investigate the timing and risk factors of maternal complications of cesarean section (CS).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Review of the files of all women who underwent CS at a tertiary medical center between September 2007 and December 2008 yielded\\u000a 100 patients with postpartum complications. Their clinical and surgery-related characteristics were compared with 100 women\\u000a with uncomplicated CS operated in January 2009. Complications were

Eran Hadar; Nir Melamed; Keren Tzadikevitch-Geffen; Yariv Yogev

2011-01-01

5

Syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors associated with neural tube defects (I).  

PubMed

Fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs) may be associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, such as acrocallosal syndrome, autosomal dominant brachydactyly-clinodactyly syndrome, Manouvrier syndrome, short rib-polydactyly syndrome, Disorganization ( Ds )-like human malformations, isolated hemihyperplasia, X-linked NTDs, meroanencephaly, schisis association, diprosopus, fetal valproate syndrome, DiGeorge syndrome/velocardiofacial syndrome, Waardenburg syndrome, folic acid antagonists, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors are a rare but important cause of NTDs. The recurrence risk and the preventive effect of maternal folic acid intake in NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors may be different from those of non-syndromic multifactorial NTDs. Perinatal identification of NTDs should alert one to the syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt a thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling. PMID:18400576

Chen, Chih-Ping

2008-03-01

6

Maternal and perinatal risk factors for childhood leukemia  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an exploratory population-based study of maternal and perinatal risk factors for childhood leukemia in Sweden. The Swedish National Cancer Registry ascertained 411 cases in successive birth cohorts from 1973 through 1984 recorded in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry. Using the latter, we matched five controls without cancer to each case by sex and month and year of birth. Mothers of children with leukemia were more likely to have been exposed to nitrous oxide anesthesia during delivery than mothers of controls (odds ratio (OR) = 1.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0, 1.6). Children with leukemia were more likely than controls to have Down's syndrome (OR = 32.5; 95% CI = 7.3, 144.0) or cleft lip or cleft palate (OR = 5.0; 95% CI = 1.0, 24.8); to have had a diagnosis associated with difficult labor but unspecified complications (OR = 4.5; 95% CI = 1.1, 18.2) or with other conditions of the fetus or newborn (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1, 2.1), specifically, uncomplicated physiological jaundice (OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.2, 2.9); or to have received supplemental oxygen (OR = 2.6; 95% CI = 1.3, 1.3, 4.9). Because multiple potential risk factors were analyzed in this study, future studies need to check these findings. The authors did not confirm the previously reported higher risks for childhood leukemia associated with being male, having a high birth weight, or being born to a woman of advanced maternal age.

Zack, M.; Adami, H.O.; Ericson, A. (Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA (USA))

1991-07-15

7

Risk Factors Linking Maternal Depressed Mood to Growth in Adolescent Substance Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maternal depression has been implicated in the development of adolescent substance use. Conceptualizing depression as a continuum, the aims of this study are to (a) understand the relationship between maternal depressed mood and risk factors associated with adolescent substance use; (b) understand the relationship between maternal depressed mood…

Cortes, Rebecca C.; Fleming, Charles B.; Mason, W. Alex; Catalano, Richard F.

2009-01-01

8

Shoulder dystocia: risk factors and maternal and perinatal outcome.  

PubMed

Shoulder dystocia (S.D.) is an obstetric emergency which may be catastrophic for both mother and baby. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence of S.D., the maternal and perinatal outcome, and which risk factors were important. This was a retrospective review of all cases of S.D. during 1997 and 1998. Controls were selected as the next vaginal delivery following the S.D. case, matched for age, parity and gestation at delivery. Risk factors were compared between the two groups. There were 54 cases of S.D. over the study period, an incidence of 0.57% of 9541 vaginal deliveries. There were significant differences between cases and controls in birth weight, active phase of 1st stage of labour, 2nd stage of labour, episiotomy rate, third-degree tear rate, admission to SCBU and trauma to the baby at delivery. There were two infants with fractured clavicle and two with Erb's palsy. PMID:12521824

Al Hadi, M; Geary, M; Byrne, P; McKenna, P

2001-07-01

9

Analysis of Maternal Risk Factors Associated With Congenital Vertebral Malformations  

PubMed Central

Study Design A retrospective chart review of cases with congenital vertebral malformations (CVM) and controls with normal spine morphology. Objective To determine the relative contribution of maternal environmental factors (MEF) during pregnancy including maternal insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, valproic acid, alcohol, smoking, hyperthermia, twin gestation, assisted reproductive technology, in-vitro fertilization and maternal clomiphene usage to CVM development. Summary of Background Data Congenital vertebral malformations (CVM) represent defects in formation and segmentation of somites occurring with an estimated incidence of between 0.13–0.50 per 1000 live births. CVM may be associated with congenital scoliosis, Klippel-Feil syndrome, hemifacial microsomia and VACTERL syndromes, and represent significant morbidity due to pain and cosmetic disfigurement. Methods A multicenter retrospective chart review of 229 cases with CVM and 267 controls with normal spine morphology between the ages of 1–50 years was performed in order to obtain the odds ratio (OR) of MEF related to CVM among cases vs. controls. CVM due to an underlying syndrome associated with a known gene mutation or chromosome etiology were excluded. An imputation based analysis was performed in which subjects with no documentation of MEF history were treated as no maternal exposure.” Univariate and multivariate analysis was conducted to calculate the OR. Results Of the 229 total cases, 104 cases had single or multiple CVM without additional congenital malformations (CM) (Group 1) and 125 cases had single or multiple CVM and additional CM (Group 2). Nineteen percent of total cases had an identified MEF. The OR (95% CI, P-value) for MEF history for Group 1 was 6.0 (2.4–15.1, P<0.001) in the univariate analysis. The OR for MEF history in Group 2 was 9.1 (95%CI, P-value) (3.8–21.6, P<0.001) in the univariate analysis. The results were confirmed in the multivariate analysis, after adjusting for age, gender, and institution. Discussion These results support a hypothesis for an association between the above MEF during pregnancy and CVM and have implications for development of prevention strategies. Further prospective studies are needed to quantify association between CVM and specific MEF. PMID:23446706

Hesemann, Jennifer; Lauer, Emily; Ziska, Stephen; Noonan, Kenneth; Nemeth, Blaise; Scott-Schwoerer, Jessica; McCarty, Catherine; Rasmussen, Kristen; Goldberg, Jacob M.; Sund, Sarah; Eickhoff, Jens; Raggio, Cathleen L.; Giampietro, Philip F.

2014-01-01

10

Maternal Depressive Symptoms as a Risk Factor for the Development of Children in Poverty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher rates of mental health problems, including depression, have consistently been documented among lower-income samples, and the highest rates of depression have been found among low-income mothers with young children. This study examined maternal depressive symptoms as a risk factor for the development of children who are already at risk by…

Coiro, Mary Jo

11

Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: maternal characteristics and risk factors.  

PubMed

Nausea with or without vomiting (NVP) is probably the most frequently reported medical complaint of pregnancy, but few studies have considered risk factors for its development. We used data from an ongoing epidemiological study of pregnancies in four regional centres. Mothers of infants with congenital malformations (n = 17,158) and a sample of normal infants (n = 5,329) were interviewed within 6 months of delivery by trained nurse-interviewers using a standardised questionnaire. For all risk factors investigated, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using multiple logistic regression, controlling for potential confounders. The cumulative incidence (risk) of NVP was 67%. The risk of NVP and its timing during pregnancy were similar for mothers of malformed and normal infants, so data were combined. No changes in the NVP risk were observed over the 20-year study period. The risk decreased with increasing age, but increased with increasing gravidity. The risk also increased with increasing number of prior miscarriages. Further, within each gravidity category, the risk was higher for twin births than for singletons. Women who reported onset of NVP after the first trimester differed demographically from women whose NVP began earlier: they were less-well educated, had lower incomes, and were more likely to be black. The finding that the number of prior pregnancies, both complete and incomplete, and number of fetuses independently appear to increase the risk of NVP suggests a fetal 'dose' effect. Together with selected demographic characteristics that differentiate early- vs. late-onset NVP, these findings warrant further investigation. PMID:16879499

Louik, Carol; Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia; Werler, Martha M; Mitchell, Allen A

2006-07-01

12

Advanced maternal age as a risk factor for stress urinary incontinence: a review of the literature.  

PubMed

The pathophysiology of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is multifactorial and evidence supports a critical role of pregnancy and vaginal delivery. This review dissects epidemiologic literature to determine the weight of evidence on the role of advanced maternal age (AMA) as a risk factor for the development of subsequent or persistent SUI. We conducted a Medline search using the keywords postpartum, SUI, maternal age, pregnancy, and incontinence. The published literature was critically analyzed. Evidence supports that childbirth trauma contributes to the development and severity of SUI. Yet, there is contradicting evidence as to whether AMA increases the risk. AMA clearly represents an independent risk factor for postpartum SUI. However, long-term studies did not confirm this observation. Whether this finding is suggestive of a true biologic signal that is lost with competing risk factors over time warrants further research. PMID:21901435

Hijaz, Adonis; Sadeghi, Zhina; Byrne, Lauren; Hou, Jack Cheng-Tsung; Daneshgari, Firouz

2012-04-01

13

Polymorphisms in Genes Involved in Folate Metabolism as Maternal Risk Factors for Down Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Down syndrome is a complex genetic and metabolic disorder attributed to the presence of three copies of chro- mosome 21. The extra chromosome derives from the mother in 93% of cases and is due to abnormal chromosome segregation during meiosis (nondisjunction). Except for advanced age at conception, maternal risk factors for meiotic nondisjunction are not well established. A recent preliminary

Charlotte A. Hobbs; Stephanie L. Sherman; Ping Yi; Sarah E. Hopkins; Claudine P. Torfs; R. Jean Hine; Marta Pogribna; Rima Rozen; S. Jill James

2000-01-01

14

Risk factors for maternal mortality in the west of Iran: a nested case-control study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: With a gradual decline in maternal mortality in recent years in Iran, this study was conducted to identify the remaining risk factors for maternal death. METHODS: This 8-year nested case-control study was conducted in Hamadan Province, in the west of Iran, from April 2006 to March 2014. It included 185 women (37 cases and 148 controls). All maternal deaths that occurred during the study period were considered cases. For every case, four women with a live birth were selected as controls from the same area and date. Conditional logistic regression analysis was performed and the odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were obtained for each risk factor. RESULTS: The majority of cases were aged 20-34 years, died in hospital, and lived in urban areas. The most common causes of death were bleeding, systemic disease, infection, and pre-eclampsia. The OR estimate of maternal death was 8.48 (95% CI=1.26-56.99) for advanced maternal age (?35 years); 2.10 (95% CI=0.07-65.43) for underweight and 10.99 (95% CI=1.65-73.22) for overweight or obese women compared to those with normal weight; 1.56 (95% CI=1.08-2.25) for every unit increase in gravidity compared to those with one gravidity; 1.73 (95% CI=0.34-8.88) for preterm labors compared to term labors; and 17.54 (95% CI= 2.71-113.42) for women with systemic diseases. CONCLUSIONS: According to our results, advanced maternal age, abnormal body mass index, multiple gravidity, preterm labor, and systemic disease were the main risk factors for maternal death. However, more evidence based on large cohort studies in different settings is required to confirm our results. PMID:25381997

Poorolajal, Jalal; Alafchi, Behnaz; Najafi Vosoogh, Roya; Hamzeh, Sahar; Ghahramani, Masoomeh

2014-01-01

15

Maternal and family factors and child eating pathology: risk and protective relationships  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have found associations between maternal and family factors and child eating disorder symptoms. However, it is not clear whether family factors predict eating disorder symptoms specifically, or relate to more general child psychopathology, of which eating disorder symptoms may be one component. This study aimed to identify maternal and family factors that may predict increases or decreases in child eating disorder symptoms over time, accounting for children’s body mass index z-scores and levels of general psychological distress. Methods Participants were 221 mother-child dyads from the Childhood Growth and Development Study, a prospective cohort study in Western Australia. Participants were assessed at baseline, 1-year follow-up and 2-year follow-up using interview and self-report measures. Children had a mean age of 10 years at baseline and 46% were male. Linear mixed models and generalised estimating equations were used to identify predictors of children’s eating disorder symptoms, with outcome variables including a global index of eating disorder psychopathology, levels of dietary restraint, levels of emotional eating, and the presence of loss of control (‘binge’) eating. Results Children of mothers with a current or past eating disorder reported significantly higher levels of global eating disorder symptoms and emotional eating than other children, and mothers with a current or past eating disorder reported significantly more concern about their children’s weight than other mothers. Maternal concern about child weight, rather than maternal eating disorder symptoms, was significant in predicting child eating disorder symptoms over time. Family exposure to stress and low maternal education were additional risk factors for eating disorder symptoms, whilst child-reported family satisfaction was a protective factor. Conclusions After adjusting for relevant confounding variables, maternal concern about child weight, children’s level of family satisfaction, family exposure to stress, and maternal education are unique predictors of child eating disorder symptoms. PMID:24808944

2014-01-01

16

Maternal Tuberculosis: A Risk Factor for Mother-to-Child Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

PubMed Central

Background.?Maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA load, CD4 cell count, breast-feeding, antiretroviral use, and malaria are well-established factors associated with mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV; the role of maternal tuberculosis (TB), however, has not been well established. Methods.?The study population was 783 HIV-infected Indian mother-infant pair participants in randomized and ancillary HIV-infected cohorts of the Six Week Extended-Dose Nevirapine (SWEN) Study, a study comparing extended nevirapine versus single-dose nevirapine, to reduce MTCT of HIV among breast-fed infants. Using multivariable logistic regression, we assessed the impact of maternal TB occurring during pregnancy and through 12 months after delivery on risk of MTCT. Results.?Of 783 mothers, 3 had prevalent TB and 30 had incident TB at 12 months after delivery. Of 33 mothers with TB, 10 (30%) transmitted HIV to their infants in comparison with 87 of 750 mothers without TB (12%; odds ratio [OR], 3.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.53–7.29; P?=?.02). In multivariable analysis, maternal TB was associated with 2.51-fold (95% CI, 1.05–6.02; P?=?.04) increased odds of HIV transmission adjusting for maternal factors (viral load, CD4 cell count, and antiretroviral therapy) and infant factors (breast-feeding duration, infant nevirapine administration, gestational age, and birth weight) associated with MTCT of HIV. Conclusions.?Maternal TB is associated with increased MTCT of HIV. Prevention of TB among HIV-infected mothers should be a high priority for communities with significant HIV/TB burden. PMID:21208928

Bhosale, Ramesh; Kinikar, Arti; Gupte, Nikhil; Bharadwaj, Renu; Kagal, Anju; Joshi, Suvarna; Khandekar, Medha; Karmarkar, Alaka; Kulkarni, Vandana; Sastry, Jayagowri; Mave, Vidya; Suryavanshi, Nishi; Thakar, Madhuri; Kulkarni, Smita; Tripathy, Srikanth; Sambarey, Pradeep; Patil, Sandesh; Paranjape, Ramesh; Bollinger, Robert C.; Jamkar, Arun

2011-01-01

17

Identifying maternal risk factors associated with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: a systematic review.  

PubMed

To identify the demographic, psychological, and social maternal risk factors associated with the development of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). A bibliographic search was conducted in PubMed, SciELO, Lilacs, Web of Knowledge, and PsycINFO. The Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (NOS) was used to evaluate the quality of the studies with case-control design. Articles were selected based on their relevance and presentation of data related to statistical comparisons of at least one or more demographic, psychological, or social maternal risk factors for FASD. 738 references were identified, of which 15 met the criteria to be included in the present review. Mothers of FASD children tend to: be older at the time of birth of the affected child, present lower educational level, have other family relatives with alcohol abuse, have other children with FASD, present a pattern of little prenatal care and a distinguishing pattern of alcohol consumption (alcohol use before and during pregnancy, failure to reduce alcohol use during pregnancy, and frequent episodes of binge drinking). Application of the NOS scale of methodological quality indicated that 8 studies (53 %) met the criterion for selection, 4 (27 %) were suitable for the criterion for comparability and only 4 studies were suitable for the exposition criterion. Mothers of FASD children have a distinctive pattern of drinking and accumulate several social risk factors. Maternal age at birth of the child seems to accentuate the risk. There are, however, few controlled studies that are adequate according to the NOS requirements for methodological quality. Fewer are based on the verification of a theoretical model. Clinicians should be aware of the relevance of preventive assessment of FASD risk mothers. PMID:25164262

Esper, Larissa Horta; Furtado, Erikson Felipe

2014-10-01

18

Maternal fumonisin exposure as a risk factor for neural tube defects.  

PubMed

Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by the fungus F. verticillioides, a common contaminant of maize (corn) worldwide. Maternal consumption of fumonisin B(1)-contaminated maize during early pregnancy has recently been associated with increased risk for neural tube defects (NTDs) in human populations that rely heavily on maize as a dietary staple. Experimental administration of purified fumonisin to mice early in gestation also results in an increased incidence of NTDs in exposed offspring. Fumonisin inhibits the enzyme ceramide synthase in de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis, resulting in an elevation of free sphingoid bases and depletion of downstream glycosphingolipids. Increased sphingoid base metabolites (i.e., sphinganine-1-phosphate) may perturb signaling cascades involved in embryonic morphogenesis by functioning as ligands for sphingosine-1-P (S1P) receptors, a family of G-protein-coupled receptors that regulate key biological processes such as cell survival/proliferation, differentiation and migration. Fumonisin-induced depletion of glycosphingolipids impairs expression and function of the GPI-anchored folate receptor (Folr1), which may also contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes. NTDs appear to be multifactorial in origin, involving complex gene-nutrient-environment interactions. Vitamin supplements containing folic acid have been shown to reduce the occurrence of NTDs, and may help protect the developing fetus from environmental teratogens. Fumonisins appear to be an environmental risk factor for birth defects, although other aspects of maternal nutrition and genetics play interactive roles in determining pregnancy outcome. Minimizing exposures to mycotoxins through enhanced agricultural practices, identifying biomarkers of exposure, characterizing mechanisms of toxicity, and improving maternal nutrition are all important strategies for reducing the NTD burden in susceptible human populations. PMID:19389609

Gelineau-van Waes, J; Voss, K A; Stevens, V L; Speer, M C; Riley, R T

2009-01-01

19

Maternal hookworm modifies risk factors for childhood eczema: results from a birth cohort in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Worms may protect against allergy. Early-life worm exposure may be critical, but this has not been fully investigated. Objectives To investigate whether worms in pregnancy and in early childhood are associated with childhood eczema incidence. Methods The Entebbe Mother and Baby Study, an anthelminthic treatment trial, enrolled pregnant women between 2003 and 2005 in Uganda. Mothers were investigated for worms during pregnancy and children annually. Eczema was doctor-diagnosed from birth to age five years. A planned observational analysis was conducted within the trial cohort to investigate associations between worms and eczema. Results Data for 2345 live-born children were analysed. Hookworm was the most prevalent maternal worm (45%). Childhood worms were less prevalent. Eczema incidence was 4.68/100 person-years. Maternal hookworm was associated with reduced eczema incidence [adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval), p-value: 0.71(0.51–0.99), 0.04] and modified effects of known risk factors for eczema: Dermatophagoides-specific IgE in children was positively associated with eczema incidence if the mother had no hookworm [2.72(1.11–6.63), 0.03], but not if the mother had hookworm [0.41(0.10–1.69), 0.22], interaction p-value = 0.03. Similar interactions were seen for maternal history of eczema {[2.87(1.31–6.27, 0.008) vs. [0.73(0.23–2.30), 0.60], interaction p-value = 0.05}, female gender {[1.82(1.22–2.73), 0.004 vs. [0.96(0.60–1.53), 0.87], interaction p-value = 0.04} and allergen-specific IgE. ChildhoodTrichuris trichiura and hookworm were inversely associated with eczema. Conclusions Maternal hookworm modifies effects of known risk factors for eczema. Mechanisms by which early-life worm exposures influence allergy need investigation. Worms or worm products, and intervention during pregnancy have potential for primary prevention of allergy. PMID:25171741

Mpairwe, Harriet; Ndibazza, Juliet; Webb, Emily L; Nampijja, Margaret; Muhangi, Lawrence; Apule, Barbara; Lule, Swaib; Akurut, Hellen; Kizito, Dennison; Kakande, Mohammed; Jones, Frances M; Fitzsimmons, Colin M; Muwanga, Moses; Rodrigues, Laura C; Dunne, David W; Elliott, Alison M

2014-01-01

20

"Polymorphisms in folate metabolism genes as maternal risk factor for neural tube defects: an updated meta-analysis".  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between maternal methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, A1298C and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G polymorphisms and risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring. However, the results from the published studies on the association between these three polymorphisms and NTD risk are conflicting. To derive a clearer picture of association between these three maternal polymorphisms and risk of NTD, we performed meta-analysis. A comprehensive search was conducted to identify all case-control studies of maternal MTHFR and MTRR polymorphisms and NTD risk. We used odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the strength of the association. Overall, we found that maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism (OR(TvsC) =1.20; 95% CI = 1.13-1.28) and MTRR A66G polymorphism (OR(GvsA) = 1.21; 95% CI = 0.98-1.49) were risk factors for producing offspring with NTD but maternal MTHFR A1298C polymorphism (OR(CvsA) = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.78-1.07) was not associated with NTD risk. However, in stratified analysis by geographical regions, we found that the maternal C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with the risk of NTD in Asian (OR(TvsC)?= 1.43; 95% CI: 1.05-1.94), European (OR(TvsC)?= 1.13; 95% CI: 1.04-1.24) and American (OR(TvsC)?= 1.26; 95% CI: 1.13-1.41) populations. In conclusion, present meta-analysis supports that the maternal MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G are polymorphisms contributory to risk for NTD. PMID:25005003

Yadav, Upendra; Kumar, Pradeep; Yadav, Sushil Kumar; Mishra, Om Prakash; Rai, Vandana

2015-02-01

21

Maternal Obesity and Energy Intake as Risk Factors of Pregnancy-induced Hypertension among Iranian Women  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Pregnancy-induced hypertension is causing striking maternal, foetal and neonatal mortality and morbidity in the world. A case-control study was conducted on 113 women with gestational hypertension and 150 healthy pregnant women at Shahid Akbarabadi Hospital of obstetrics and gynaecology in south of Tehran. Women who were obese (OR 4.44; 95% CI 1.84-10.72) before pregnancy were more likely to develop gestational hypertension. Proportion of having excessive gestational weight gain was positively and significantly associated with development of gestational hypertension (OR 2.70; 95% CI 1.19-6.13). Furthermore, findings revealed that women who were in the highest quartile of mid-arm-circumference had a 3-fold increased risk of gestational hypertension compared to women in the lowest quartile (OR 8.93; 95% CI 2.16-36.93). We found that having been in the highest quartile of energy intake positively correlated with increased risk of gestational hypertension (OR 9.66; 95% CI 3.30-28.21). The results suggest pre-pregnancy obesity, excessive gestational weight gain, and increased intake of energy as potential risk factors of developing gestational hypertension. PMID:25395911

Kazemian, Elham; Dorosty-Motlagh, Ahmad Reza; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Bagheri, Minoo

2014-01-01

22

Combined folate gene MTHFD and TC polymorphisms as maternal risk factors for Down syndrome in China.  

PubMed

We examined whether polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD) and transcobalamin (TC) genes, which are involved in folate metabolism, affect maternal risk for Down syndrome. We investigated 76 Down syndrome mothers and 115 control mothers from Bengbu, China. Genomic DNA was isolated from the peripheral lymphocytes. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism were used to examine the polymorphisms of MTHFD G1958A and TC C776G. The frequencies of the polymorphic alleles were 24.3 and 19.1% for MTHFD 1958A, 53.9 and 54.2% for TC 776G, in the case and control groups, respectively. No significant differences were found between two groups in relation to either the allele or the genotype frequency for both polymorphisms. However, when gene-gene interactions between these two polymorphisms together with previous studied C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene were analyzed, the combined MTHFR 677CT/TT and MTHFD 1958AA/GA genotype was found to be significantly associated with the risk of having a Down syndrome child [odds ratio (OR) = 3.11; 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 1.07-9.02]. In addition, the combined TC 776CG and MTHFR 677TT genotype increased the risk of having a child with Down syndrome 3.64-fold (OR = 3.64; 95%CI = 1.28-10.31). In conclusion, neither MTHFD G1958A nor TC C776G polymorphisms are an independent risk factor for Down syndrome. However, the combined MTHFD/MTHFR, TC/MTHFR genotypes play a role in the risk of bearing a Down syndrome child in the Chinese population. PMID:24668664

Liao, Y P; Zhang, D; Zhou, W; Meng, F M; Bao, M S; Xiang, P; Liu, C Q

2014-01-01

23

Maternal fumonisin exposure as a risk factor for neural tube defects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by the fungus F. verticillioides, a common contaminant of maize (corn) worldwide. Maternal consumption of fumonisin B1-contaminated maize during early pregnancy has recently been associated with increased risk for neural tube defects (NTDs) in human populations th...

24

Paternal, perceived maternal, and youth risk factors as predictors of youth stage of substance use a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

This longitudinal study examined paternal, perceived maternal, and youth risk factors at Time 1 (T1) (e.g., substance use, violent victimization, parental rules) as predictors of the stage of substance use in the adolescent child at Time 2 (T2). Participants (N = 296) consisted of drug-abusing fathers and one of their adolescent children, aged 12 to 20 years. Fathers and youths were each administered structured interviews separately and in private. Adolescents were re-interviewed approximately one year later. Pearson correlation analyses showed that the paternal, perceived maternal, and youth risk factors were significantly related to adolescent stage of substance use at T2. With an increase in risk factors, there was an increase in T2 stage of substance use in the child. Findings imply that father-oriented treatment programs should focus on how paternal behaviors, such as illegal drug use, inadequate parenting skills, and a poor father-child relationship contribute to youth problem behaviors, including alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use. PMID:16785222

Castro, Felipe González; Brook, Judith S; Brook, David W; Rubenstone, Elizabeth

2006-01-01

25

Intrauterine exposure to maternal enterovirus infection as a risk factor for development of autoimmune thyroiditis during childhood and adolescence.  

PubMed

Maternal intrauterine enterovirus infection during pregnancy increases the risk for the offspring to develop type 1 diabetes mellitus. Type 1 diabetes mellitus and autoimmune thyroiditits (AIT) are closely linked. A common pathogenetic factor is possible. The objective of this study was to investigate a possible association between maternal enterovirus infection during pregnancy and the development of AIT in the offspring. Sera taken at delivery from 31 mothers whose children subsequently developed AIT was analyzed for immunoglobulin (Ig)A, IgG, and IgM antibodies against enterovirus, and compared to a control group comprising 233 randomly selected maternal sera. Of the mothers whose children developed AIT, 5 of 31 (16%) were enterovirus IgM-positive, compared to 17 of 233 (7%) in the control group (p = 0.16). The age at diagnosis of AIT was significantly lower in the group of children with IgM-positive mothers compared to children with IgM-negative mothers (p < 0.05). In addition, 3 children (60%) in the IgM-positive group were overtly hypothyroid at diagnosis of AIT, compared to no child (0%) in the IgM-negative group (p < 0.01). No significant differences were found in IgA and IgG antibody titers between the mothers whose children developed AIT and the control group. Although this study did not have enough power to reveal intrauterine exposure to maternal enterovirus infection during pregnancy as a risk factor for development of AIT during childhood and adolescence, it suggested an association with earlier onset of clinical disease in children to enterovirus IgM-seropositive mothers. PMID:15186614

Svensson, Johan; Lindberg, Bengt; Jonsson, Björn; Ericsson, Ulla-Britt; Olofsson, Per; Hyöty, Heikki; Ivarsson, Sten-A

2004-05-01

26

National Origin and Behavioural Problems of Toddlers: The Role of Family Risk Factors and Maternal Immigration Characteristics  

PubMed Central

In many societies the prevalence of behavioural problems in school-aged children varies by national origin. We examined the association between national origin and behavioural problems in 1½-year-old children. Data on maternal national origin and the Child Behavior Checklist for toddlers (n?=?4943) from a population-based cohort in the Netherlands were used. Children from various non-Dutch backgrounds all had a significantly higher mean behavioural problem score. After adjustment for family risk factors, like family income and maternal psychopathology, the differences attenuated, but remained statistically significant. Non-Dutch mothers with immigration risk factors, such as older age at immigration or no good Dutch language skills, reported significantly more behavioural problems in their offspring. In conclusion, the present study indicated more behavioural problems in immigrant toddlers from various backgrounds. Researchers and policymakers aiming to tackle disparities in behavioural problems should take into account that risks associated with national origin are intertwined with unfavourable family and immigration characteristics. PMID:20495955

Jansen, Pauline W.; Raat, Hein; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; van Oort, Floor V.; Verhulst, Frank C.

2010-01-01

27

Maternal risk factors in fetal alcohol syndrome: Provocative and permissive influences  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an hypothesis integrating epidemiological, clinical case, and basic biomedical research to explain why only relatively few women who drink alcohol during pregnancy give birth to children with alcohol-related birth defects (ARBDs), in particular, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). We argue that specific sociobehavioral risk factors, e.g., low socioeconomic status, are permissive for FAS in that they provide the context

Ernest L. Abel; John H. Hannigan

1995-01-01

28

Maternal overweight and smoking: prenatal risk factors for caries development in offspring during the teenage period  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to investigate pre- and perinatal determinants as risk factors for caries development in offspring. In this\\u000a longitudinal register-based cohort study, we included all children (n = 18,142), of 13 years of age who resided in the county of Stockholm, Sweden, in 2000. The cohort was followed until individuals\\u000a were 19 years of age. In total, 15,538 subjects were examined. Dental caries

Annika Julihn; Anders Ekbom; Thomas Modéer

2009-01-01

29

Maternal Risk Factors for Oral Clefts: A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: A cleft lip with or without a cleft palate is one of the major congenital anomalies observed in newborns. This study explored the risk factors for oral clefts in Gorgan, Northern Iran. Materials and Methods: This hospital-based case-control study was performed in three hospitals in Gorgan, Northern Iran between April 2006 and December 2009. The case group contained 33 newborns with oral clefts and the control group contained 63 healthy newborns. Clinical and demographic factors, including date of birth, gender of the newborns, type of oral cleft, consanguinity of the parents, parental ethnicity, and the mother's parity, age, education and intake of folic acid were recorded for analysis. Results: A significant association was found between parity higher than 2 and the risk of an oral cleft (OR= 3.33, CI 95% [1.20, 9.19], P> 0.02). According to ethnicity, the odds ratio for oral clefts was 0.87 in Turkmens compared with Sistani people (CI 95% [0.25, 2.96]) and 1.11 in native Fars people compared with Sistani people (CI 95% [0.38, 3.20]). A lack of folic acid consumption was associated with an increased risk of oral clefts but this was not statistically significant (OR = 1.42, CI 95% [0.58, 3.49]). There were no significant associations between sex (OR boy/girl = 0.96, CI 95% [0.41, 2.23]), parent familial relations (OR = 1.07, CI 95% [0.43, 2.63]), mother's age and oral clefts. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that higher parity is significantly associated with an increased risk of an oral cleft, while Fars ethnicity and a low intake of folic acid increased the incidence of oral clefts but not significantly. PMID:24303408

Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar; Kaviany, Nafiseh; Qorbani, Mostafa; Mobasheri, Elham

2012-01-01

30

Consanguinity and advanced maternal age as risk factors for reproductive losses in Alexandria, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Consanguinity has been a long-standing social habit among Egyptians. Estimates of consanguinity ratios in different parts of Egypt ranged from 29 to 50%. This study aimed at delineating the role of consanguinity and advanced maternal age on reproductive losses in Alexandria, Egypt. Methods: A case-control study, on 730 couples with history of reproductive losses and 2081 normal couples, was

Mohamed M. Mokhtar; Moataz M. Abdel-Fattah

2001-01-01

31

Maternal Early Life Factors Associated with Hormone Levels and the Risk of Having a Child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Nurses Health Study II  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is not known whether reproductive factors early in the mother's life influence risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We assessed maternal age at menarche, menstrual cycle characteristics during adolescence, oral contraceptive use prior to first birth, body shape, and body mass index (BMI) in association with ASD using binomial regression in…

Lyall, Kristen; Pauls, David L.; Santangelo, Susan; Spiegelman, Donna; Ascherio, Alberto

2011-01-01

32

Maternal prenatal distress and poor nutrition – mutually influencing risk factors affecting infant neurocognitive development  

PubMed Central

Background Accumulating data from animal and human studies indicate that the prenatal environment plays a significant role in shaping children’s neurocognitive development. Clinical, epidemiologic, and basic science research suggests that two experiences relatively common in pregnancy — an unhealthy maternal diet and psychosocial distress — significantly affect children’s future neurodevelopment. These prenatal experiences exert their influence in the context of one another and yet, almost uniformly, are studied independently. Scope and Method of Review In this review, we suggest that studying neurocognitive development in children in relation to both prenatal exposures is ecologically most relevant, and methodologically most sound. To support this approach, we selectively review two research topics that demonstrate the need for dual exposure studies, including exemplar findings on (1) the associations between pregnant women’s inadequate maternal intake of key nutrients – protein, fat, iron, zinc, and choline – as well as distress in relation to overlapping effects on children’s neurocognitive development; and (2) cross-talk between the biology of stress and nutrition that can amplify each experience for the mother and fetus,. We also consider obstacles to this kind of study design, such as questions of statistical methods for ‘disentangling’ the exposure effects, and aim to provide some answers. Conclusion Studies that specifically include both exposures in their design can begin to determine the relative and/or synergistic impact of these prenatal experiences on developmental trajectories — and thereby contribute most fully to the understanding of the early origins of health and disease. PMID:23039359

Monk, Catherine; Georgieff, Michael K.; Osterholm, Erin A.

2012-01-01

33

Maternal and Early Childhood Risk Factors for Overweight and Obesity among Low-Income Predominantly Black Children at Age Five Years: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. To identify maternal and early childhood risk factors for obesity and overweight among children at age 5 in the state of Alabama. Methods. We recruited 740 mothers during early pregnancy from University of Alabama Prenatal Clinics in a prospective cohort study and followed them throughout pregnancy. We followed their children from birth until 5 years of age. The main outcome measure was obesity (BMI for age and sex ? 95th percentile) at 5 years of age. We used poisson regression with robust variance estimation to compute risk ratio (RR). Results. At the 5th year of followup, 71 (9.6%) of the children were obese and 85 (11.5%) were overweight (BMI ? 85th–<95th percentile). In multivariable analysis, maternal prepregnancy overweight (RR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.29–4.11) and obesity (RR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.49–4.31), and child's birth weight >85th percentile (RR: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.13–3.68) were associated with childhood obesity. Maternal prepregnancy BMI, birth weight, and maternal smoking were associated with the child being overweight 1–12 cigarettes/day versus 0 cigarettes/day (RR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.02–1.91). Conclusion. Children of overweight and obese mothers, and children with higher birth weight, are more likely to be obese and overweight at age 5. Maternal smoking 1–12 cigarettes per day is associated with the child being overweight. PMID:23056928

Janjua, Naveed Zafar; Mahmood, Bushra; Islam, M. Aminul; Goldenberg, Robert L.

2012-01-01

34

Fathers and Maternal Risk for Physical Child Abuse  

PubMed Central

This study set out to examine father-related factors predicting maternal physical child abuse risk in a national birth cohort of 1,480 families. In-home and phone interviews were conducted with mothers when index children were 3 years old. Predictor variables included the mother–father relationship status; father demographic, economic, and psychosocial variables; and key background factors. Outcome variables included both observed and self-reported proxies of maternal physical child abuse risk. At the bivariate level, mothers married to fathers were at lower risk for most indicators of maternal physical child abuse. However, after accounting for specific fathering factors and controlling for background variables, multivariate analyses indicated that marriage washed out as a protective factor, and on two of three indicators was linked with greater maternal physical abuse risk. Regarding fathering factors linked with risk, fathers’ higher educational attainment and their positive involvement with their children most discernibly predicted lower maternal physical child abuse risk. Fathers’ economic factors played no observable role in mothers’ risk for physical child maltreatment. Such multivariate findings suggest that marriage per se does not appear to be a protective factor for maternal physical child abuse and rather it may serve as a proxy for other father-related protective factors. PMID:19581432

Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Yookyong; Lee, Shawna J.; Waldfogel, Jane; Rathouz, Paul J.

2010-01-01

35

Invited commentary: Parental smoking as a risk factor for adult tobacco use: can maternal smoking during pregnancy be distinguished from the social environmental influence during childhood?  

PubMed

Parental smoking is known to have prenatal health effects on developing fetuses, and postnatal exposure to secondhand smoke causes adverse health effects during childhood and beyond. Further, there is solid evidence that parental smoking during childhood is a potent risk factor for smoking in offspring. In this issue of the Journal, Rydell et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2014;179(12):1409-1417) add to a growing body of evidence showing that maternal smoking during pregnancy is statistically associated with the long-term risk of tobacco use in offspring. The data revealed a strong signal between maternal smoking during pregnancy and tobacco use in young adulthood, an association that was largely concentrated in snus use but not cigarette smoking. This new study adds to a growing body of epidemiologic evidence that consistently points toward maternal smoking during pregnancy being associated with an increased risk of offspring tobacco use in later life. There is also evidence from animal models indicating that fetal exposure to maternal nicotine use in utero can have a durable impact on the neural pathways that affect lifetime sensitivity to nicotine. This is an important research topic that continues to yield a consistent signal despite an array of inferential challenges. PMID:24761006

Alberg, Anthony J; Korte, Jeffrey E

2014-06-15

36

Alcohol consumption and other maternal risk factors for fetal alcohol syndrome among three distinct samples of women before, during, and after pregnancy: the risk is relative.  

PubMed

Data were obtained from three samples of women of childbearing age. One sample of women is from prenatal clinics serving Plains Indian women. The second sample is of women from the Plains whose children were referred to special diagnostic developmental clinics, as their children were believed to have developmental issues consistent with prenatal alcohol consumption. The third sample is of women from South Africa, each of whom has given birth to a child diagnosed with full fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Data across samples conform to expected trends on many variables. For example, the maternal age at time of pregnancy, a major risk factor for FAS, ranged from a mean of 23.5 years for the prenatal clinic sample, to 23.8 years for the developmental clinic sample, to 27.6 for the sample of women who have delivered children with FAS. Other variables of maternal risk for FAS expected from the extant literature, such as high gravidity and parity, binge drinking, heavy intergenerational drinking in the mother's extended family and immediate social network, and length of drinking career, were compared across the three samples with variable results. However, normative measures of drinking problems are unreliable when reported across cultures. An unexpected finding from this three-sample comparison was the differential risk found when comparing U.S. women to South African women. Women in the U.S. Plains Indian samples report a high consumption of alcohol in a binge pattern of drinking, yet there is less detectable damage to the fetus than among the South African women. Body mass index (BMI) and lifelong and current nutrition may have a substantial impact, along with the above factors, in relative risk for an FAS birth. The level of risk for producing a child with FAS is influenced by environmental and behavioral conditions that vary between populations and among individual women. Also, because many syndromes are genetically based, there is a need for full behavioral and genetic histories of the mother, family, and child being studied. Collecting extensive behavioral information as well as genetic histories will provide the requisite information for making an accurate diagnosis of FAS. PMID:15095467

May, Philip A; Gossage, J Phillip; White-Country, Mary; Goodhart, Karen; Decoteau, Sara; Trujillo, Phyllis M; Kalberg, Wendy O; Viljoen, Denis L; Hoyme, H Eugene

2004-05-15

37

Maternal serum interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 concentrations as risk factors for preterm birth <32 weeks and adverse neonatal outcomes.  

PubMed

Elevated concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in fetal and neonatal compartments have been associated with an increased risk for preterm birth (PTB) and/or neonatal morbidity. The purpose of this study was to determine if the maternal serum concentration of IL-6, CRP, and MMP-9 in women at risk for PTB, who are not in labor and have intact membranes, are associated with an increased risk for PTB <32 weeks and/or neonatal morbidity. Maternal serum samples collected from 475 patients enrolled in a multicenter randomized controlled trial of single versus weekly corticosteroids for women at increased risk for preterm delivery were assayed. Serum was collected at randomization (24 to 32 weeks' gestation). Maternal serum concentrations of IL-6, CRP, and MMP-9 were subsequently determined using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to explore the relationship between maternal serum concentrations of IL-6, CRP, and MMP-9 and PTB <32 weeks, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), chronic lung disease (CLD), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and any sepsis. Maternal serum concentrations of IL-6 and CRP, but not MMP-9, above the 90th percentile at the time of randomization were associated with PTB <32 weeks. In contrast, there was no significant relationship between RDS and NEC and the maternal serum concentration of IL-6, CRP, or MMP-9 (univariate analysis). The development of CLD was associated with a high (above 90th percentile) IL-6 and CRP in maternal serum, even after adjustment for gestational age (GA) at randomization and treatment group. However, when GA at delivery was added to the model, this finding was nonsignificant. Neonatal sepsis was more frequent in neonates born to mothers with a high maternal serum concentration of CRP (>90th percentile). However, there was no significant association after adjustment for GA at randomization and treatment group. Logistic regression analysis for each analyte indicated that high maternal serum concentrations of IL-6 and CRP, but not MMP-9, were associated with an increased risk of IVH (odds ratio [OR] 4.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.86 to 10.68; OR 4.07, 95% CI 1.63 to 9.50) after adjusting for GA at randomization and treatment group. Most babies (25/30) had grade I IVH. When GA at delivery was included, elevated IL-6 remained significantly associated with IVH (OR 2.77, 95% CI 1.02 to 7.09). An elevated maternal serum concentration of IL-6 and CRP are risk factors for PTB <32 weeks and subsequent development of neonatal IVH. An elevated maternal serum IL-6 appears to confer additional risk for IVH even after adjusting for GA at delivery. PMID:20195952

Sorokin, Yoram; Romero, Roberto; Mele, Lisa; Wapner, Ronald J; Iams, Jay D; Dudley, Donald J; Spong, Catherine Y; Peaceman, Alan M; Leveno, Kenneth J; Harper, Margaret; Caritis, Steve N; Miodovnik, Menachem; Mercer, Brian M; Thorp, John M; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo; Ramin, Susan M; Carpenter, Marshall W; Rouse, Dwight J; Sibai, Baha

2010-09-01

38

Testing the fetal overnutrition hypothesis; the relationship of maternal and paternal adiposity to adiposity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in Indian children  

PubMed Central

Objective We aimed to test the fetal overnutrition hypothesis by comparing the associations of maternal and paternal adiposity (sum of skinfolds) with adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors in children. Design Children from a prospective birth cohort had anthropometry, fat percentage (bio-impedance), plasma glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations and blood pressure measured at 9·5 years of age. Detailed anthropometric measurements were recorded for mothers (at 30 ± 2 weeks’ gestation) and fathers (5 years following the index pregnancy). Setting Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India. Subjects Children (n 504), born to mothers with normal glucose tolerance during pregnancy. Results Twenty-eight per cent of mothers and 38 % of fathers were overweight/obese (BMI ? 25·0 kg/m2), but only 4 % of the children were overweight/obese (WHO age- and sex-specific BMI ? 18·2 kg/m2). The children’s adiposity (BMI, sum of skinfolds, fat percentage and waist circumference), fasting insulin concentration and insulin resistance increased with increasing maternal and paternal sum of skinfolds adjusted for the child’s sex, age and socio-economic status. Maternal and paternal effects were similar. The associations with fasting insulin and insulin resistance were attenuated after adjusting for the child’s current adiposity. Conclusions In this population, both maternal and paternal adiposity equally predict adiposity and insulin resistance in the children. This suggests that shared family environment and lifestyle, or genetic/epigenetic factors, influence child adiposity. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that there is an intrauterine overnutrition effect of maternal adiposity in non-diabetic pregnancies, although we cannot rule out such an effect in cases of extreme maternal obesity, which is rare in our population. PMID:22895107

Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Karat, Samuel C; Osmond, Clive; Fall, Caroline HD

2012-01-01

39

Risk Factors  

MedlinePLUS

... Delicious Reddit StubmleUpon Print About Heart Disease & Stroke Risk Factors We're all at risk for heart ... are in the southeastern United States. Americans at Risk Approximately 49% of adults have at least one ...

40

Child Health, Maternal Marital and Socioeconomic Factors, and Maternal Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children's future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse…

Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.

2013-01-01

41

Adolescent motherhood and developmental outcomes of children in early head start: the influence of maternal parenting behaviors, well-being, and risk factors within the family setting.  

PubMed

This longitudinal study examined the influence of parenting behaviors, well-being, and risk factors of low-income adolescent mothers on the cognitive and language abilities of children from infancy to age 3. Participants consisted of 1,240 mother-child dyads enrolled in the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project. Data were collected using structured interviews with the mothers and from videotaped mother-child interactions during play activities when children were approximately 14 months old and again at 36 months of age. Positive parenting behaviors exhibited toward the 14-month-old children predicted gains in both cognitive and language abilities more so than did maternal well-being, risk factors within the family setting, and demographic risk factors. Gains in cognitive abilities from infancy to age 3 were predicted by supportive parenting, higher family resources, and lower family conflict when children were infants. Gains in language abilities were predicted by supportive parenting, support for language and learning in the home environment, and higher family resources when children were infants. Finally, path analyses showed that maternal age had an indirect effect on child cognitive and language abilities at age 3 through effects on parenting behaviors. Older mothers were more likely to be supportive during play at age 14 months, which in turn promoted enhanced developmental outcomes at age 3. Implications for intervention and future research are discussed. PMID:21486265

Rafferty, Yvonne; Griffin, Kenneth W; Lodise, Michelle

2011-04-01

42

Associations of maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D in pregnancy with offspring cardiovascular risk factors in childhood and adolescence: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children  

PubMed Central

Objective Lower maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy may be associated with increased offspring cardiovascular risk in later life, but evidence for this is scant. We examined associations of maternal total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in pregnancy with offspring cardiovascular risk factors assessed in childhood and adolescence. Design A longitudinal, prospective study. Setting The study was based on data from mother–offspring pairs in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a UK prospective population-based birth cohort (N=4109). Outcome measures Offspring cardiovascular risk factors were measured in childhood (mean age 9.9?years) and in adolescence (mean age 15.4?years): blood pressure, lipids, apolipoproteins (at 9.9?years only), glucose and insulin (at 15.4?years only), C reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin 6 (at 9.9?years only) were measured. Results After adjustments for potential confounders (maternal age, education, body mass index (BMI), smoking, physical activity, parity, socioeconomic position, ethnicity, and offspring gestational age at 25(OH)D sampling; gender, age, and BMI at outcome assessment), maternal 25(OH)D was inversely associated with systolic blood pressure (?0.48?mm?Hg difference per 50?nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D; 95% CI ?0.95 to ?0.01), Apo-B (?0.01?mg/dL difference; 95% CI ?0.02 to ?0.001), and CRP (?6.1% difference; 95% CI ?11.5% to ?0.3%) at age 9.9?years. These associations were not present for risk factors measured at 15.4?years, with the exception of a weak inverse association with CRP (?5.5% difference; 95% CI ?11.4% to 0.8%). There was no strong evidence of associations with offspring triglycerides, glucose or insulin. Conclusions Our findings suggest that fetal exposure to 25(OH)D is unlikely to influence cardiovascular risk factors of individuals later in life. PMID:24125739

Williams, Dylan M; Fraser, Abigail; Fraser, William D; Hyppönen, Elina; Davey Smith, George; Deanfield, John; Hingorani, Aroon; Sattar, Naveed; Lawlor, Debbie A

2013-01-01

43

Maternal early life factors associated with hormone levels and the risk of having a child with an autism spectrum disorder in the nurses health study II.  

PubMed

It is not known whether reproductive factors early in the mother's life influence risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We assessed maternal age at menarche, menstrual cycle characteristics during adolescence, oral contraceptive use prior to first birth, body shape, and body mass index (BMI) in association with ASD using binomial regression in a cohort study of 61,596 women, including 743 cases. Overall, early life factors were not associated with ASD, though early age at menarche (RR for age 10 or less = 1.54, 95% CI 1.18, 2.02, p = 0.0002) and BMI at age 18 of ?30 (RR 2.03, 95% CI 1.34, 3.08, p = 0.0008) were significantly associated with increased risk of ASD. Further work should investigate the potential influence of these factors. PMID:20700638

Lyall, Kristen; Pauls, David L; Santangelo, Susan L; Santangelo, Susan; Spiegelman, Donna; Ascherio, Alberto

2011-05-01

44

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MATERNAL AND CHILD CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS: ETHNIC DIFFERENCES AND LACK OF INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objectives of the study were to obtain information about the relationship between cardiovascular and diabetic risk factors of mothers and their children and to determine whether these relationships differ by physical activity or ethnicity. Prospective study. The Texas site of the Studies of Chil...

45

Maternal Risk Factors for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in the Western Cape Province of South Africa: A Population-Based Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We defined risk factors for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in a region with the highest documented prevalence of FAS in the world. Methods. We compared mothers of 53 first-grade students with FAS (cases) with 116 randomly selected mothers of first-grade students without FAS (controls). Results. Differences between case and control mothers in our study population existed regarding socioeconomic status,

Philip A. May; J. Phillip Gossage; Lesley E. Brooke; Cudore L. Snell; Anna-Susan Marais; Loretta S. Hendricks; Julie A. Croxford; Denis L. Viljoen

2005-01-01

46

Maternal and Neonatal Risk Factors Associated with Vertical Transmission of Ophthalmia Neonatorum in Neonates Receiving Health Care in Blantyre, Malawi  

PubMed Central

Context: Neonatal conjunctivitis is associated with poor prenatal care worldwide. Purpose: Data on neonatal conjunctivitis is scarce in Malawi. This study describes risk factors associated with conjunctivitis in neonates born in a large tertiary care hospital in Blantyre, Malawi. Materials and Methods: Medical records of a retrospective cohort of 231 neonates diagnosed with conjunctivitis from January 2006 to December 2009 at a large tertiary hospital in Malawi were reviewed. All subjects were clinically diagnosed with ophthalmia neonatorum. Data were collected on patient demographics and clinical features. The frequencies were calculated of various risk factors in neonates with ophthalmia neonatorum and their mothers as well as the treatments administered. Results: Mean age of the mother was 23.45 years (range, 15-40 years), and the mean number of previous deliveries was 2.3 (range, 1-7) children. Nearly, 80% of mothers delivered preterm infants via spontaneous vaginal delivery. The mean birth weight of neonates was 2869.6 grams (1100-5000 grams). Among mothers, premature rupture of membranes was the leading risk factor (24%) followed by sepsis during labor (9%), and history of sexually transmitted infections (STI) (7%). Neonates presented with low Apgar scores (19%), fever (8%), and/or meconium aspiration (5%). Providers treated patients empirically with a varied combination of benzyl penicillin, gentamicin, tetracycline eye ointment, and saline eye wash. Tetracycline with a saline eyewash was used frequently (34%) compared with combinations of benzyl penicillin and gentamicin. Conclusions: Improving prenatal care to reduce sepsis, traumatic deliveries, and early diagnosis of STI with appropriate treatment may potentially reduce vertical transmission of neonatal conjunctivitis in this understudied population. PMID:25100909

Ranjit, Roshni; Menezes, Lynette; Drucker, Mitchell; Msukwa, Gerald; Batumba, Nkume

2014-01-01

47

Maternal risk factors associated with increased dioxin concentrations in breast milk in a hot spot of dioxin contamination in Vietnam.  

PubMed

This study looked to identify determinants of exposure to dioxin in breast milk from breast-feeding women in a hot spot of dioxin exposure in Vietnam. Breast milk was collected from 140 mothers 1 month after delivery. The risk factors investigated included length of residency, drinking of well water and the frequency of animal food consumption. Cluster analysis was performed to identify dietary patterns of fish and meat portions, fish variety and egg variety. Residency, age and parity were clearly associated with increased dioxin levels. Drinking well water and the consumption of marine crab and shrimps were related to higher levels of furans in breast milk. The consumption of quail eggs also appeared to be associated with increased levels of some dioxin isomers in this area. Some mothers who ate no or less meat than fish and mothers who consumed more freshwater fish than marine fish had lower levels of dioxins in their breast milk. However, the type of water and the eating habits of mothers contributed only partly to the increased dioxin levels in their breast milk; the length of residency was the most important risk factor associated with increased dioxin body burdens of mothers. PMID:24149970

Anh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Nishijo, Muneko; Tai, Pham The; Maruzeni, Shoko; Morikawa, Yuko; Anh, Tran Hai; Van Luong, Hoang; Dam, Pham Minh; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Son, Le Ke; Nishijo, Hisao

2014-01-01

48

Maternal Factors and Disparities Associated with Oral Clefts  

PubMed Central

Introduction The epidemiology of oral clefts continually unfolds. Researchers have not reached consensus concerning the significance of maternal smoking, weight gain, diabetes, age, and education and the risk of oral clefts. The purpose of this study was to examine these factors associated with oral clefts in the US population. Methods The 2005 US Natality Data File was utilized for this study. Bivariate analyses compared the characteristics of mothers of infants with and without oral clefts. Multivariate analysis calculated adjusted odds ratios for various maternal characteristics overall and for each race/ethnic group. Results Significant bivariate associations with oral clefts were found for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, tobacco use, and pregnancy-associated hypertension. Multivariate models found maternal age (OR=0.98), race/ethnicity (OR=0.36) for non-Hispanic Blacks (OR=0.79 for Hispanics), and tobacco use (OR=1.66) significant after adjustment for covariates. Across all race/ethnic groups maternal age (OR=0.98) and smoking (OR=1.66) were significantly associated with increased risk for oral cleft (OC). Non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics were at lower risk for OC regardless of the presence or absence of pregnancy-associated hypertension. Conclusions Consistent with previous studies, maternal smoking was found to be associated with an increased risk of oral clefts. This association was significant for non-Hispanic Whites but not for non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics. A small inverse association was observed between maternal age, pregnancy-associated hypertension and the risk of oral clefts. This study confirms relationships found in previous studies but cannot establish causality. Further investigations of the risk factors for oral clefts would benefit from the study of gene-environment interactions. PMID:20521404

Lebby, Kimberly D.; Tan, Fei; Brown, C. Perry

2010-01-01

49

Research Review: Maternal Prenatal Distress and Poor Nutrition--Mutually Influencing Risk Factors Affecting Infant Neurocognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Accumulating data from animal and human studies indicate that the prenatal environment plays a significant role in shaping children's neurocognitive development. Clinical, epidemiologic, and basic science research suggests that two experiences relatively common in pregnancy--an unhealthy maternal diet and psychosocial…

Monk, Catherine; Georgieff, Michael K.; Osterholm, Erin A.

2013-01-01

50

Impact of a Kentucky Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home-Visitation Program on Parental Risk Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As public health organizations continue to implement maternal and child health home-visitation programs, more evaluation of these efforts is needed, particularly as it relates to improving parental behaviors. The purpose of our study was to assess the impact of families' participation in a home-visitation program offered by a central Kentucky…

Ferguson, Jonnisa M.; Vanderpool, Robin C.

2013-01-01

51

Digitization of clinical and epidemiological data from the Kyoto Collection of Human Embryos: maternal risk factors and embryonic malformations.  

PubMed

Understanding the causes of congenital anomalies is of prime importance to develop management and/or prevention strategies. It is widely accepted that the occurrence of congenital malformations in fetuses and neonates is heavily correlated with maternal genetic makeup and lifestyle. However, very few epidemiologic analyses have been conducted on the embryonic developmental period because of the rarity of data available. Instigated in 1961, the Kyoto Collection of Human Embryos comprises approximately 45,000 specimens of embryos and fetuses. The collection's most unique feature is that most specimens were added to the collection along with epidemiologic information on the respective mothers. This is the first report on the digitization of data from the collection. A total of 22,262 embryonic specimens were selected on the basis of data integrity. Data related to the embryos were then classified according to the following criteria: developmental stage, sampling period, geographical area, maternal determinant, and external malformation. Results indicate that 7.8% of the embryos exhibit external anomalies and 92.2% are without anomalies. The three most common anomalies were nuchal bleb, holoprosencephaly and spina bifida. A special emphasis was placed on the potential association between maternal determinants and embryonic external anomalies, allowing for statistical analyses. The present study provides further evidence that this collection represents a unique source of information to conduct epidemiological analyses, not only to further the understanding of congenital anomalies but also to help establish preventive health guidelines for pregnant women. PMID:22348783

Kameda, Tomomi; Yamada, Shigehito; Uwabe, Chigako; Suganuma, Nobuhiko

2012-03-01

52

Maternal Smoking, Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Gene Variants, and Gastroschisis Risk  

PubMed Central

Maternal smoking during pregnancy is one proposed risk factor for gastroschisis, but reported associations have been modest, suggesting that differences in genetic susceptibility might play a role. We included 108 non-Hispanic white and 62 Hispanic families who had infants with gastroschisis, and 1147 non-Hispanic white and 337 Hispanic families who had liveborn infants with no major structural birth defects (controls) in these analyses. DNA was extracted from buccal cells collected from infants and mothers, and information on periconceptional smoking history was obtained from maternal interviews, as part of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. We analyzed five polymorphisms in three genes that code for enzymes involved in metabolism of some cigarette smoke constituents (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and NAT2). Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) independently for maternal smoking and maternal and infant gene variants, and to assess joint associations of maternal smoking and maternal or infant gene variants with gastroschisis. In analyses adjusted for maternal age at delivery and stratified by maternal race-ethnicity, we identified three suggestive associations among 30 potential associations with sufficient numbers to calculate ORs: CYP1A1*2A for non-Hispanic white mothers who smoked periconceptionally (aOR=0.38, 95% CI 0.15-0.98), and NAT2*6 for Hispanic non-smoking mothers (aOR=2.17, 95% CI 1.12-4.19) and their infants (aOR=2.11, 95% CI 1.00-4.48). This analysis does not support the occurrence of effect modification between periconceptional maternal smoking and most of the xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme gene variants assessed. PMID:24668907

Jenkins, Mary M.; Reefhuis, Jennita; Gallagher, Margaret L.; Mulle, Jennifer G.; Hoffmann, Thomas J.; Koontz, Deborah A.; Sturchio, Cynthia; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Witte, John S.; Richter, Patricia; Honein, Margaret A.

2015-01-01

53

Maternal smoking, xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme gene variants, and gastroschisis risk.  

PubMed

Maternal smoking during pregnancy is one proposed risk factor for gastroschisis, but reported associations have been modest, suggesting that differences in genetic susceptibility might play a role. We included 108 non-Hispanic white and 62 Hispanic families who had infants with gastroschisis, and 1,147 non-Hispanic white and 337 Hispanic families who had liveborn infants with no major structural birth defects (controls) in these analyses. DNA was extracted from buccal cells collected from infants and mothers, and information on periconceptional smoking history was obtained from maternal interviews, as part of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. We analyzed five polymorphisms in three genes that code for enzymes involved in metabolism of some cigarette smoke constituents (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and NAT2). Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) independently for maternal smoking and maternal and infant gene variants, and to assess joint associations of maternal smoking and maternal or infant gene variants with gastroschisis. In analyses adjusted for maternal age at delivery and stratified by maternal race-ethnicity, we identified three suggestive associations among 30 potential associations with sufficient numbers to calculate ORs: CYP1A1*2A for non-Hispanic white mothers who smoked periconceptionally (aOR = 0.38, 95% CI 0.15-0.98), and NAT2*6 for Hispanic non-smoking mothers (aOR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.12-4.19) and their infants (aOR = 2.11, 95% CI 1.00-4.48). This analysis does not support the occurrence of effect modification between periconceptional maternal smoking and most of the xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme gene variants assessed. PMID:24668907

Jenkins, Mary M; Reefhuis, Jennita; Gallagher, Margaret L; Mulle, Jennifer G; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Koontz, Deborah A; Sturchio, Cynthia; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Witte, John S; Richter, Patricia; Honein, Margaret A

2014-06-01

54

First-trimester maternal factors and biomarker screening for preeclampsia.  

PubMed

Preeclampsia (PE), which affects about 2% of pregnancies, is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. PE can be subdivided into early onset PE with delivery <34?weeks' gestation and late onset PE with delivery ?34?weeks. Early onset PE is associated with a higher incidence of adverse outcome. This review illustrates that effective screening for the development of early onset PE can be provided in the first-trimester of pregnancy. Screening by a combination of maternal risk factors, mean arterial pressure, uterine artery Doppler, maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and placental growth factor can identify about 95% of cases of early onset PE for a false-positive rate of 10%. PMID:24764257

Poon, Leona C; Nicolaides, Kypros H

2014-07-01

55

Maternal and infant use of erythromycin and other macrolide antibiotics as risk factors for infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To evaluate the risk for infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) among infants prescribed systemic erythromycin, infants prescribed a course of erythromycin ophthalmic ointment, and infants whose mothers were prescribed a macrolide antibiotic during pregnancy. Study design: Retrospective cohort study of infants born at an urban hospital from June 1993 through December 1999. Results: Of 14,876 eligible infants, 43 (0.29%)

Barbara E. Mahon; Marc B. Rosenman; Martin B. Kleiman

2001-01-01

56

Advancing maternal age: the actual risks.  

PubMed

A growing number of US women are delaying childbirth until their late 30s. Pregnant women 35 years old face various risks including genetic disorders, prenatal medical and obstetric complications, intrapartum complications, and perinatal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. With each passing year, the risk of chromosomal abnormality such as Down's syndrome increases. Physicians perform chorionic villus sampling (CVS) between 9-11 weeks gestation and amniocentesis between 16-18 weeks to detect chromosomal abnormalities. CVS carries the higher risk of spontaneous abortion (1-2%). 35-year old pregnant women are more likely to suffer from hypertension and gestational diabetes than younger women. Yet their incidence remains at an acceptable level. Older pregnant women tend to also be at risk of several antepartum obstetric complications such as gestational bleeding, abruptio placentae, and placenta previa. The likelihood of cesarean section and dysfunctional labor is greater among 35-year old pregnant women. Between 1974 and 1978, older mothers were 4 times more likely to die than young mothers, but by 1982 the overall maternal mortality rate fell by 50%. The main causes of death among older mothers were hemorrhage, embolism, and hypertensive conditions. Positive effects of advanced maternal age were less worry about and better adjustment to pregnancy, cautiousness, and more likely to consult their physicians. Advanced maternal age tends not to effect neonatal outcome other than chromosomal anomalies. Physicians should not allow the pregnancy of 35-year old mothers to go beyond 42 weeks' gestation. Despite the minimal increased risks, 35-year old women should not allow their advanced age to be an absolute barrier to reproductive decisions. Obstetricians should conduct thorough and appropriate antepartum testing and surveillance, however. PMID:12317779

Chervenak, J L; Kardon, N B

1991-11-01

57

Mental Health of Early Adolescents from High-risk Neighborhoods: The Role of Maternal HIV and Other Contextual, Self-Regulation, and Family Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To examine the effect of maternal HIV infection, as well as other individual, family, and contextual factors on the mental health of inner-city, ethnic minority early adolescents. Methods Participants included 220 HIV-negative early adolescents (10-14 years) and their mothers, half of whom were HIV-infected. Individual interviews were conducted regarding youth depression, anxiety, externalizing and internalizing behaviour problems, as well

Claude A. Mellins; Elizabeth Brackis-Cott; Curtis Dolezal; Cheng Shiun Leu; C. Valentin; H. F. L. Meyer-Bahlburg

2008-01-01

58

Association of aberrant neural synchrony and altered GAD67 expression following exposure to maternal immune activation, a risk factor for schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

A failure of integrative processes within the brain, mediated via altered GABAergic inhibition, may underlie several features of schizophrenia. The present study examined, therefore, whether maternal immune activation (MIA), a risk factor for schizophrenia, altered inhibitory markers in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), while also altering electroencephalogram (EEG) coherence between these regions. Pregnant rats were treated with saline or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid mid-gestation. EEG depth recordings were made from the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and mPFC of male adult offspring. Glutamic decarboxylase (GAD67) levels were separately assayed in these regions using western blot. GAD67 expression was also assessed within parvalbumin-positive cells in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus using immunofluorescence alongside stereological analysis of parvalbumin-positive cell numbers. EEG coherence was reduced between the dorsal hippocampus and mPFC, but not the ventral hippocampus and mPFC, in MIA animals. Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses revealed that GAD67 expression within parvalbumin-positive cells was also reduced in the dorsal hippocampus relative to ventral hippocampus in MIA animals when compared with controls. This reduction was observed in the absence of parvalbumin-positive neuronal loss. Overall, MIA produced a selective reduction in EEG coherence between the dorsal hippocampus and mPFC that was paralleled by a similarly specific reduction in GAD67 within parvalbumin-positive cells of the dorsal hippocampus. These results suggest a link between altered inhibitory mechanisms and synchrony and, therefore point to potential mechanisms via which a disruption in neurodevelopmental processes might lead to pathophysiology associated with schizophrenia. PMID:25072323

Dickerson, D D; Overeem, K A; Wolff, A R; Williams, J M; Abraham, W C; Bilkey, D K

2014-01-01

59

Maternal substance use and HIV status: adolescent risk and resilience.  

PubMed

We examined the risk and protective factors and mental health problems of 105 low SES, urban adolescents whose mothers were coping with alcohol abuse and other drug problems. Approximately half of the mothers were also HIV-infected. As hypothesized, there were few differences between adolescents of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers in background characteristics, mental health issues and current substance use risk behaviors. In addition to maternal substance abuse, youth in both groups experienced similar risk factors including early foster care placement and high levels of maltreatment. Current patterns of emerging risk behaviors were evident among youth in both groups as well as signs of resiliency including high levels of school attendance. These results underscore the importance of interventions for youth of substance abusing mothers, particularly those living in urban poverty. PMID:17707902

Leonard, Noelle R; Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Cleland, Charles M; Vekaria, Pooja C; Ferns, Bill

2008-06-01

60

Risk Assessment of Adverse Birth Outcomes in Relation to Maternal Age  

PubMed Central

Background Although a number of studies have investigated correlations of maternal age with birth outcomes, an extensive assessment using age as a continuous variable is lacking. In the current study, we estimated age-specific risks of adverse birth outcomes in childbearing women. Method National population-based data containing maternal and neonatal information were derived from the Health Promotion Administration, Taiwan. A composite adverse birth outcome was defined as at least anyone of stillbirth, preterm birth, low birth weight, macrosomia, neonatal death, congenital anomaly, and small for gestational age (SGA). Singletons were further analyzed for outcomes of live birth in relation to each year of maternal age. A log-binomial model was used to adjust for possible confounders of maternal and neonatal factors. Results In total, 2,123,751 births between 2001 and 2010 were utilized in the analysis. The risk of a composite adverse birth outcome was significantly higher at extreme maternal ages. In specific, risks of stillbirth, neonatal death, preterm birth, congenital anomaly, and low birth weight were higher at the extremes of maternal age. Furthermore, risk of macrosomia rose proportionally with an increasing maternal age. In contrast, risk of SGA declined proportionally with an increasing maternal age. The log-binomial model showed greater risks at the maternal ages of <26 and > 30 years for a composite adverse birth outcome. Conclusions Infants born to teenagers and women at advanced age possess greater risks for stillbirth, preterm birth, neonatal death, congenital anomaly, and low birth weight. Pregnancies at advanced age carry an additional risk for macrosomia, while teenage pregnancies carry an additional risk for SGA. The data suggest that the optimal maternal ages to minimize adverse birth outcomes are 26?30 years. PMID:25494176

Weng, Yi-Hao; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Chiu, Ya-Wen

2014-01-01

61

Risk Factors and Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and ... Blood Pressure , high cholesterol, diabetes, and thyroid disease. Risk Factors For Arrhythmias and Heart Disease The following ...

62

Risk Factors for Scleroderma  

MedlinePLUS

... You are here: Home For Patients Risk Factors Risk Factors for Scleroderma The cause of scleroderma is ... what biological factors contribute to scleroderma pathogenesis. Genetic Risk Scleroderma does not tend to run in families ...

63

Does maternal psychopathology increase the risk of pre-schooler obesity? A systematic review.  

PubMed

The preschool years may be a critical period for child obesity onset; however, literature examining obesity risk factors to date has largely focused on school-aged children. Several links have been made between maternal depression and childhood obesity risks; however, other types of maternal psychopathology have been widely neglected. The aim of the present review was to systematically identify articles that examined relationships between maternal psychopathology variables, including depressive and anxiety symptoms, self-esteem and body dissatisfaction, and risks for pre-schooler obesity, including weight outcomes, physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels, and nutrition/diet variables. Twenty articles meeting review criteria were identified. Results showed positive associations between maternal depressive symptoms and increased risks for pre-schooler obesity in the majority of studies. Results were inconsistent depending on the time at which depression was measured (i.e., antenatal, postnatal, in isolation or longitudinally). Anxiety and body dissatisfaction were only measured in single studies; however, both were linked to pre-schooler obesity risks; self-esteem was not measured by any studies. We concluded that maternal depressive symptoms are important to consider when assessing risks for obesity in preschool-aged children; however, more research is needed examining the impact of other facets of maternal psychopathology on obesity risk in pre-schoolers. PMID:25572134

Benton, Pree M; Skouteris, Helen; Hayden, Melissa

2015-04-01

64

Maternal Exposure to Amoxicillin and the Risk of Oral Clefts  

PubMed Central

Background Prior studies have suggested an increased risk of oral clefts after exposure to amoxicillin in early pregnancy, but findings have been inconsistent. Methods Among participants in the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study from 1994 to 2008, we identified 877 infants with cleft lip with/without cleft palate (CL/P) and 471 with cleft palate alone (CP). Controls included 6952 non-malformed infants. Mothers were interviewed about demographic, reproductive and medical factors, and details of medication use. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with use of amoxicillin in the first trimester using conditional logistic regression and adjusting for known risk factors for oral clefts, as well as for infections, fever, and concomitant treatments. Results In the control group, 3% of women had used amoxicillin in the first trimester. Maternal use of amoxicillin was associated with an increased risk of CL/P (adjusted OR= 2.0 [95% CI= 1.0–4.1]), with an OR of 4.3 (1.4–13.0) for third-gestational-month use. Risks were not elevated for use of other penicillins or cephalosporins. For CP, the OR for first-trimester amoxicillin was 1.0 (0.4–2.3), with an OR of 7.1 (1.4–36.4) for third-gestational-month use. Conclusions Amoxicillin use in early pregnancy may be associated with an increased risk of oral clefts. PMID:22766750

Lin, Kueiyu Joshua; Mitchell, Allen A.; Yau, Wai-Ping; Louik, Carol; Hernández-Díaz, Sonia

2013-01-01

65

Prenatal risk factors for childhood CKD.  

PubMed

Development of CKD may be programmed prenatally. We sought to determine the association of childhood CKD with prenatal risk factors, including birth weight, maternal diabetes mellitus (DM), and maternal overweight/obesity. We conducted a population-based, case-control study with 1994 patients with childhood CKD (<21 years of age at diagnosis) and 20,032 controls in Washington state. We linked maternal and infant characteristics in birth records from 1987 to 2008 to hospital discharge data and used logistic regression analysis to assess the association of prenatal risk factors with childhood CKD. The prevalence of CKD was 126.7 cases per 100,000 births. High birth weight and maternal pregestational DM associated nominally with CKD, with respective crude odds ratios (ORs) of 1.17 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.03 to 1.34) and 1.97 (95% CI, 1.15 to 3.37); however, adjustment for maternal confounders attenuated these associations to 0.97 (95% CI, 0.79 to 1.21) and 1.19 (95% CI, 0.51 to 2.81), respectively. The adjusted ORs for CKD associated with other prenatal factors were 2.88 (95% CI, 2.28 to 3.63) for low birth weight, 1.54 (95% CI, 1.13 to 2.09) for maternal gestational DM, 1.24 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.48) for maternal overweight, and 1.26 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.52) for maternal obesity. In subgroup analysis by CKD subtype, low birth weight and maternal pregestational DM associated significantly with increased risk of renal dysplasia/aplasia. Low birth weight, maternal gestational DM, and maternal overweight/obesity associated significantly with obstructive uropathy. These data suggest that prenatal factors may impact the risk of CKD. Future studies should aim to determine if modification of these factors could reduce the risk of childhood CKD. PMID:24744441

Hsu, Christine W; Yamamoto, Kalani T; Henry, Rohan K; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Flynn, Joseph T

2014-09-01

66

The prevalence of severe maternal morbidity and near miss and associated factors in Sergipe, Northeast Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background The investigation of severe maternal morbidity (SAMM) and maternal near miss (NM) and associated risk factors is important for the global reduction of maternal mortality. This study investigated the prevalence of SAMM and NM cases and the associated risk factors in two reference maternity hospitals in a capital city in Northeast-Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study with a nested case–control component was conducted from June-2011 to May-2012. Case identification was prospective and data collection was performed according to WHO criteria and definitions. Odds ratio with confidence intervals and multivariate analysis were used whenever possible. Results There were 16,243 deliveries, 1,102 SAMM cases, 77 NM cases and 17 maternal deaths. The maternal NM outcome ratio was 5.8 cases/1,000 live births (LB); the total prevalence of SAMM?+?NM was 72.6 cases/1,000 LB, the maternal near miss: mortality ratio was 4.5cases/1 maternal death (18% of mortality index). Management-based criteria were the most common events for NM (87.1%) and hypertensive disorders for SAMM (67.5%). Higher age, previous abortion and caesarean delivery, the non-adhesion to antenatal care, current caesarean delivery and bad perinatal results were associated with SAMM/NM. In the multivariate analysis, patient’s status, previous caesarian and abortion and level of consciousness were significant when analyzed together. Conclusions SAMM and NM situations were prevalent in the studied population and some risk factors seem to be associated with the event, particularly previous gestational antecedents. Protocols based on SAMM/NM situations can save lives and decrease maternal mortality. PMID:24433516

2014-01-01

67

The maternal-age-associated risk of congenital heart disease is modifiable.  

PubMed

Maternal age is a risk factor for congenital heart disease even in the absence of any chromosomal abnormality in the newborn. Whether the basis of this risk resides with the mother or oocyte is unknown. The impact of maternal age on congenital heart disease can be modelled in mouse pups that harbour a mutation of the cardiac transcription factor gene Nkx2-5 (ref. 8). Here, reciprocal ovarian transplants between young and old mothers establish a maternal basis for the age-associated risk in mice. A high-fat diet does not accelerate the effect of maternal ageing, so hyperglycaemia and obesity do not simply explain the mechanism. The age-associated risk varies with the mother's strain background, making it a quantitative genetic trait. Most remarkably, voluntary exercise, whether begun by mothers at a young age or later in life, can mitigate the risk when they are older. Thus, even when the offspring carry a causal mutation, an intervention aimed at the mother can meaningfully reduce their risk of congenital heart disease. PMID:25830876

Schulkey, Claire E; Regmi, Suk D; Magnan, Rachel A; Danzo, Megan T; Luther, Herman; Hutchinson, Alayna K; Panzer, Adam A; Grady, Mary M; Wilson, David B; Jay, Patrick Y

2015-04-01

68

MATERNAL PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF ANGIOGENIC/ANTI-ANGIOGENIC FACTORS IN THE THIRD TRIMESTER OF PREGNANCY TO IDENTIFY THE PATIENT AT RISK FOR STILLBIRTH AT OR NEAR TERM AND SEVERE LATE PREECLAMPSIA  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To determine if maternal plasma concentrations of placental growth factor (PlGF), soluble endoglin (sEng), and soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1) at 30–34 weeks can identify mothers at risk for preeclampsia (PE), stillbirth and small-for-gestational-age neonates (SGA). STUDY DESIGN A prospective cohort study included 1269 singleton pregnant women who had blood samples obtained at 30–34 weeks and delivered after 34 weeks of gestation. Plasma concentrations of PlGF, sEng, and sVEGFR-1 were determined by ELISA. RESULTS The prevalence of late (>34 weeks) PE, severe late PE, stillbirth and SGA was 3.2% (n=40), 1.8% (n=23), 0.4% (n=5) and 8.5% (n=108), respectively. A plasma concentration of PlGF/sEng <0.3 MoM was associated with severe late PE [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 16]; addition of PlGF/sEng to clinical risk factors increased the area under the ROC curve (AUC) from 0.76 to 0.88 (p=0.03). The ratio of PlGF/sEng or PlGF/sVEGFR-1 in the third trimester outperformed those obtained in the first or second trimester and uterine artery Doppler velocimetry at 20–25 weeks for the prediction of severe late PE (comparison of AUC; each p?0.02). Both PlGF/sEng and PlGF/sVEGFR-1 ratios achieved a sensitivity of 74% with a fixed false positive rate of 15% for the identification of severe late PE. A plasma concentration of PlGF/sVEGFR-1 <0.12 MoM at 30–34 weeks had a sensitivity of 80%, a specificity of 94%, and a likelihood ratio of a positive test of 14 for the identification of subsequent stillbirth. Similar findings (sensitivity 80% and specificity 93%) were observed in a separate case-control study. Integrating these biomarkers with clinical data did not improve the prediction of SGA. CONCLUSIONS Risk assessment for severe late PE and stillbirth in the third trimester is possible with the determination of maternal plasma concentrations of angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors at 30–34 weeks of gestation. PMID:23333542

CHAIWORAPONGSA, Tinnakorn; ROMERO, Roberto; KORZENIEWSKI, Steven J; KUSANOVIC, Juan Pedro; SOTO, Eleazar; LAM, Jennifer; DONG, Zhong; THAN, Nandor G; YEO, Lami; HERNANDEZ-ANDRADE, Edgar; CONDE-AGUDELO, Agustín; HASSAN, Sonia S

2014-01-01

69

Risk Factors and Adverse Perinatal Outcomes among Term and Preterm Infants Born Small-for-Gestational-Age: Secondary Analyses of the WHO Multi-Country Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health  

PubMed Central

Background Small for gestational age (SGA) is not only a major indicator of perinatal mortality and morbidity, but also the morbidity risks in later in life. We aim to estimate the association between the birth of SGA infants and the risk factors and adverse perinatal outcomes among twenty-nine countries in Africa, Latin America, the Middle East and Asia in 359 health facilities in 2010–11. Methods We analysed facility-based, cross-sectional data from the WHO Multi-country Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health. We constructed multilevel logistic regression models with random effects for facilities and countries to estimate the risk factors for SGA infants using country-specific birthweight reference standards in preterm and term delivery, and SGA’s association with adverse perinatal outcomes. We compared the risks and adverse perinatal outcomes with appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants categorized by preterm and term delivery. Results A total of 295,829 singleton infants delivered were analysed. The overall prevalence of SGA was highest in Cambodia (18.8%), Nepal (17.9%), the Occupied Palestinian Territory (16.1%), and Japan (16.0%), while the lowest was observed in Afghanistan (4.8%), Uganda (6.6%) and Thailand (9.7%). The risk of preterm SGA infants was significantly higher among nulliparous mothers and mothers with chronic hypertension and preeclampsia/eclampsia (aOR: 2.89; 95% CI: 2.55–3.28) compared with AGA infants. Higher risks of term SGA were observed among sociodemographic factors and women with preeclampsia/eclampsia, anaemia and other medical conditions. Multiparity (>?=?3) (AOR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.83–0.92) was a protective factor for term SGA. The risk of perinatal mortality was significantly higher in preterm SGA deliveries in low to high HDI countries. Conclusion Preterm SGA is associated with medical conditions related to preeclampsia, but not with sociodemographic status. Term SGA is associated with sociodemographic status and various medical conditions. PMID:25119107

Ota, Erika; Ganchimeg, Togoobaatar; Morisaki, Naho; Vogel, Joshua P.; Pileggi, Cynthia; Ortiz-Panozo, Eduardo; Souza, João P.; Mori, Rintaro

2014-01-01

70

Maternal and infant factors influencing infant feeding – a longitudinal study   

E-print Network

Introduction: There has been a lack of longitudinal studies on maternal and infant factors associated with feeding difficulties. Feeding difficulties are common, cause much anxiety for parents, and are associated with a ...

Mills, Suzanne Barbara

2012-06-26

71

Children’s Experiences of Maternal Incarceration-Specific Risks: Predictions to Psychological Maladaptation  

PubMed Central

Children of incarcerated mothers are at increased risk for social and emotional difficulties, yet few studies have investigated potential mechanisms of risk within this population. This research simultaneously examined the association of children’s experience of incarceration-specific risk factors (e.g., witness mother’s arrest) and environmental risks (e.g., low educational attainment) to children’s psychological maladaptation using a multi-informant design and a latent variable analytic approach. Participants were 117 currently incarcerated mothers (64.1% African American), their 151 children (53.6% boys, M age =9.8 years, range =6–12 years, 61.7% African American), and the 118 caregivers (74.8% female, 61.9% grandparents, 62.2% African American) of the children. Mothers, children, and caregivers each provided accounts of children’s experiences related to maternal incarceration and children’s internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Mothers and caregivers each supplied information about 10 environmental risk factors. Findings from structural equation modeling indicate that children’s incarceration-specific risk experiences predict internalizing and externalizing behavior problems whereas the influence of environmental risks was negligible. Follow-up analyses examining the contribution of specific risks indicate that significant predictors differ by reporter and separate into effects of family incarceration history and direct experiences of maternal incarceration. Incarceration-specific experiences place children at higher risk for maladjustment than exposure to general environmental risk factors. These findings indicate the need to critically examine children’s exposure to experiences related to maternal incarceration and family incarceration history to help to clarify the multifaceted stressor of maternal incarceration. PMID:24871820

Dallaire, Danielle H.; Zeman, Janice L.; Thrash, Todd M.

2014-01-01

72

Maternal, not paternal PTSD, is related to increased risk for PTSD in offspring of Holocaust survivors  

PubMed Central

Background A significant association between parental PTSD and the occurrence of PTSD in offspring has been noted, consistent with the idea that risk for PTSD is transmitted from parent to child. Two recent reports linking maternal PTSD and low cortisol in offspring prompted us to examine the relative contributions of maternal vs. paternal PTSD in the prediction of PTSD and other psychiatric diagnoses. Methods 117 men and 167 women, recruited from the community, were evaluated using a comprehensive psychiatric battery designed to identify traumatic life experiences and lifetime psychiatric diagnoses. 211 of the subjects were the adult offspring of Holocaust survivors and 73 were demographically comparable Jewish controls. Participants were further subdivided based on whether their mother, father, neither, or both parents met the diagnostic criteria for lifetime PTSD. Results A higher prevalence of lifetime PTSD, mood, anxiety disorders, and to a lesser extent, substance abuse disorders, was observed in offspring of Holocaust than controls. The presence of maternal PTSD was specifically associated with PTSD in adult offspring. However, the other diagnoses did not show specific effects associated with maternal PTSD. Conclusion The tendency for maternal PTSD to make a greater contribution to PTSD risk suggests that classic genetic mechanisms are not the sole model of transmission, and pave way for the speculation that epigenetic factors may be involved. In contrast, PTSD in any parent contributes to risk for depression, and parental traumatization is associated with increased anxiety disorders in offspring. PMID:18281061

Yehuda, Rachel; Bell, Amanda; Bierer, Linda M.; Schmeidler, James

2008-01-01

73

Maternal Stressful Life Events and Risks of Birth Defects  

PubMed Central

Background Several previous studies suggest that maternal stress may be associated with increased risk of certain birth defects. This study examined the association of maternal stressful life events with risks of several birth defects. Methods The data are from a recent, population-based case-control study. Telephone interviews were conducted with 1355 eligible case mothers and 700 control mothers. Maternal stress was measured by responses to 18 yes/no questions about life events that occurred from 2 months before through 2 months after conception. Results An increase in the stressful life events index (ie, number of “yes” responses to the 18 life-events questions) was associated with increased risk of cleft palate, cleft lip with or without cleft palate, d-transposition of the great arteries, and tetralogy of Fallot, after adjustment for maternal race-ethnicity, education, obesity, age, smoking, drinking, intake of folic acid-containing supplements, neighborhood crime, and food insecurity. For example, the odds ratio for a 3-unit change in the stress index was 1.45 (95% confidence interval = 1.03-2.06) for cleft palate. Increased stress was associated with an increased risk of spina bifida and anencephaly particularly among women who did not take folic acid supplements. A 3-unit change in stress was associated with a 2.35-fold increased risk of anencephaly among women who did not take supplements (CI =1.47-3.77) and a 1.42-fold increased risk among women who did (CI = 0.89-2.25). Conclusion The adverse health effects of stress may include increased risks of certain birth defects. PMID:17435445

Carmichael, Suzan L.; Shaw, Gary M.; Yang, Wei; Abrams, Barbara; Lammer, Edward J.

2007-01-01

74

Maternal mental disorders in pregnancy and the puerperium and risks to infant health  

PubMed Central

Prenatal and postnatal period presents the highest prevalence of mental disorders in women’s lives and depression is the most frequent one, affecting approximately one in every five mothers. The aggravating factor here is that during this period psychiatric symptoms affect not only women’s health and well-being but may also interfere in the infant’s intra and extra-uterine development. Although the causes of the relationship between maternal mental disorders and possible risks to a child’s health and development remain unknown, it is suspected that these risks may be related to the use of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy, to substance abuse and the mother’s lifestyle. Moreover, after delivery, maternal mental disorders may also impair the ties of affection (bonding) with the newborn and the maternal capacity of caring in the post-partum period thus increasing the risk for infant infection and malnutrition, impaired child growth that is expressed in low weight and height for age, and even behavioral problems and vulnerability to presenting mental disorders in adulthood. Generally speaking, research on this theme can be divided into the type of mental disorder analyzed: studies that research minor mental disorders during pregnancy such as depression and anxiety find an association between these maternal disorders and obstetric complications such as prematurity and low birth weight, whereas studies that evaluate severe maternal mental disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have found not only an association with general obstetric complications as well as with congenital malformations and perinatal mortality. Therefore, the success of infant growth care programs also depends on the mother’s mental well being. Such findings have led to the need for new public policies in the field of maternal-infant care geared toward the population of mothers. However, more research is necessary so as to confirm the association between all factors with greater scientific rigor. PMID:25254163

Pereira, Priscila Krauss; Lima, Lúcia Abelha; Legay, Letícia Fortes; de Cintra Santos, Jacqueline Fernandes; Lovisi, Giovanni Marcos

2012-01-01

75

Maternal mental disorders in pregnancy and the puerperium and risks to infant health.  

PubMed

Prenatal and postnatal period presents the highest prevalence of mental disorders in women's lives and depression is the most frequent one, affecting approximately one in every five mothers. The aggravating factor here is that during this period psychiatric symptoms affect not only women's health and well-being but may also interfere in the infant's intra and extra-uterine development. Although the causes of the relationship between maternal mental disorders and possible risks to a child's health and development remain unknown, it is suspected that these risks may be related to the use of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy, to substance abuse and the mother's lifestyle. Moreover, after delivery, maternal mental disorders may also impair the ties of affection (bonding) with the newborn and the maternal capacity of caring in the post-partum period thus increasing the risk for infant infection and malnutrition, impaired child growth that is expressed in low weight and height for age, and even behavioral problems and vulnerability to presenting mental disorders in adulthood. Generally speaking, research on this theme can be divided into the type of mental disorder analyzed: studies that research minor mental disorders during pregnancy such as depression and anxiety find an association between these maternal disorders and obstetric complications such as prematurity and low birth weight, whereas studies that evaluate severe maternal mental disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have found not only an association with general obstetric complications as well as with congenital malformations and perinatal mortality. Therefore, the success of infant growth care programs also depends on the mother's mental well being. Such findings have led to the need for new public policies in the field of maternal-infant care geared toward the population of mothers. However, more research is necessary so as to confirm the association between all factors with greater scientific rigor. PMID:25254163

Pereira, Priscila Krauss; Lima, Lúcia Abelha; Legay, Letícia Fortes; de Cintra Santos, Jacqueline Fernandes; Lovisi, Giovanni Marcos

2012-12-01

76

An Analysis of Factors Linked to the Decline in Maternal Mortality in Nepal  

PubMed Central

Nepal experienced a steep decline in maternal mortality between 1996 and 2006, which had again dropped by 2010. The aim of this study was to investigate any trends in factors that may be responsible for this decline. The study was based on a secondary data analysis of maternity care services and socio-demographic variables extracted from the Nepal Demographic Health Surveys (1996, 2001, 2006 and 2011). Complex sample analysis was performed to determine the trends in these variables across the four surveys. Univariate logistic regression was performed for selected maternity care service variables to calculate the average change in odds ratio for each survey. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the trends in the health service uptake adjusting for socio-demographic variables. There were major demographic and socio-economic changes observed between 1996 and 2011: notably fewer women delivering at ‘high risk’ ages, decreased fertility, higher education levels and migration to urban areas. Significant trends were observed for improved uptake of all maternity care services. The largest increase was observed in health facility delivery (odds ratio?=?2.21; 95% confidence interval?=?1.92, 2.34) and women making four or more antenatal visits (odds ratio?=?2.24; 95% confidence interval?=?2.03, 2.47). After adjusting for all socio-demographic factors, the trends were still significant but disparities become more pronounced at the extremes of the socio-economic spectrum. The odds ratios for each maternity care service examined decreased slightly after adjusting for education, indicating that improved levels of education could partly explain these trends. The improved utilisation of maternity care services seems essential to the decline in maternal mortality in Nepal. These findings have implications for policy planning in terms of government resources for maternity care services and the education sector. PMID:24705366

Shrestha, Sanu; Bell, Jacqueline S.; Marais, Debbi

2014-01-01

77

Is Hearing Loss in Infants Associated With Risk Factors? Evaluation of the Frequency of Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the frequency of risk factors and their influence on the evoked otoacoustic emission (OAE) of infants. Methods All newborns between November 2009 and June 2012 in Haydarpa?a Numune Education and Research Hospital were tested on distortion evoked OAE screening test. Total of 2,284 infants were examined. Sex, maternal infectious disease, birth type (vaginal birth or caesarean sectio), birth weight, familial hearing loss, intermarriage of parents, hyperbilirubinemia, intensive care were analyzed as risk factors. Results Total of 2,284 neonates were screened (1,220 males and 1,064 females) for the presence of OAE in both ears. Vaginal delivery, maternal infections during pregnancy, intermarriage of parents relative, low birth weight(<1,500 g) are related risk factors to failure of screening with OAE in our study. There was no statistically significant difference in sex ratios, birth weight, familial hearing loss, hyperbilirubinemia, and intensive care stay. Conclusion Risk factors are only as useful as their predictive power. Not enough is known about which risk factors are relevant, which babies have the risk factors, or which babies will fail to attend follow-up, the effectiveness of targeted hearing loss testing is questionable at this point in time. A system needs to be developed to clarify which risk factors are discoverable, predictive and useful. PMID:25436043

Oysu, Ça?atay; Toros, Sema Zer; Naibo?lu, Bar??; Verim, Ay?egül

2014-01-01

78

Cumulative Effects of Mothers' Risk and Promotive Factors on Daughters' Disruptive Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about the ways in which the accumulation of maternal factors increases or reduces risk for girls' disruptive behavior during preadolescence. In the current study, maternal risk and promotive factors and the severity of girls' disruptive behavior were assessed annually among girls' ages 7-12 in an urban community sample (N = 2043).…

van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

2012-01-01

79

Developmental trajectories of attention and executive functioning in infants born preterm: The influence of perinatal risk factors and maternal interactive styles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infants born preterm (born before 37 weeks of gestation) are at a heightened risk for developmental delay and learning disabilities. Even children born preterm who have intellectual abilities within the normal range at school age often require special educational services. The preterm population is a heterogeneous one, however, and not all infants born preterm develop such problems. Current developmental screening

E. van de Weijer-Bergsma

2009-01-01

80

Risk factors and effective management of preeclampsia  

PubMed Central

Preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy is estimated to complicate 2%–8% of pregnancies and remains a principal cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Preeclampsia may present at any gestation but is more commonly encountered in the third trimester. Multiple risk factors have been documented, including: family history, nulliparity, egg donation, diabetes, and obesity. Significant progress has been made in developing tests to predict risk of preeclampsia in pregnancy, but these remain confined to clinical trial settings and center around measuring angiogenic profiles, including placental growth factor or newer tests involving metabolomics. Less progress has been made in developing new treatments and therapeutic targets, and aspirin remains one of the few agents shown to consistently reduce the risk of developing preeclampsia. This review serves to discuss recent advances in risk factor identification, prediction techniques, and management of preeclampsia in antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal patients.

English, Fred A; Kenny, Louise C; McCarthy, Fergus P

2015-01-01

81

Risk factors and effective management of preeclampsia.  

PubMed

Preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy is estimated to complicate 2%-8% of pregnancies and remains a principal cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Preeclampsia may present at any gestation but is more commonly encountered in the third trimester. Multiple risk factors have been documented, including: family history, nulliparity, egg donation, diabetes, and obesity. Significant progress has been made in developing tests to predict risk of preeclampsia in pregnancy, but these remain confined to clinical trial settings and center around measuring angiogenic profiles, including placental growth factor or newer tests involving metabolomics. Less progress has been made in developing new treatments and therapeutic targets, and aspirin remains one of the few agents shown to consistently reduce the risk of developing preeclampsia. This review serves to discuss recent advances in risk factor identification, prediction techniques, and management of preeclampsia in antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal patients. PMID:25767405

English, Fred A; Kenny, Louise C; McCarthy, Fergus P

2015-01-01

82

Relationship between placental traits and maternal intrinsic factors in sheep.  

PubMed

The relationship between maternal intrinsic factors and placental traits was investigated on three Southern Mediterranean breed of sheep; Cukurova Assaf (CA), Cukurova (C) and Cukurova Meat Sheep (CMS). The effect of parity and birth type were also considered in the study as a potential influencing factor. Our hypothesis was to show that while differences in placental traits between breed, parity and birth type affected lamb condition and survivability, its correlation to maternal intrinsic behavioral factors may also be a strong indicator. The study found breed related differences of maternal behavioral factors and also showed significant correlation of these behavioral patterns to various placental traits. It confirmed earlier findings that parity played a major role in the refinement of these behavioral patterns. Significant differences in birth weight (P<0.05), placental weight (P<0.05), number of cotyledons (P<0.01) and cotyledon length (P<0.05) was seen between breeds. Cotyledon weight (P<0.05), width (P<0.01) and length (P<0.05) were found to differ by parity. Breed and parity interaction significantly influenced cotyledon quantity. While we detected breed specific differences in relation to maternal intrinsic factors we also noticed significant variance within breeds to these behavioral patterns when linked to placental traits. Further study is required on the correlation between placental traits and postnatal behavior on not just the ewes but also on their lambs. This could have a significant bearing on how producers manage and maximize lamb survivability. PMID:23602010

Ocak, S; Ogun, S; Onder, H

2013-06-01

83

Maternal well-being and its association to risk of developmental problems in children at school entry  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Children at highest risk of developmental problems benefit from early identification and intervention. Investigating factors affecting child development at the time of transition to school may reveal opportunities to tailor early intervention programs for the greatest effectiveness, social benefit and economic gain. The primary objective of this study was to identify child and maternal factors associated with children who

Suzanne C Tough; Jodi E Siever; Karen Benzies; Shirley Leew; David W Johnston

2010-01-01

84

Maternal pre-pregnancy risk drinking and toddler behavior problems: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.  

PubMed

Maternal risk drinking may be a risk factor for child behavior problems even if the mother has discontinued this behavior. Whether pre-pregnancy risk drinking is an independent predictor of child behavior problems, or whether a potential effect may be explained by maternal alcohol use during and after pregnancy or other adverse maternal characteristics, is not known. Employing data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), longitudinal associations between maternal pre-pregnancy risk drinking and behavior problems in toddlers aged 18 and 36 months were examined. Included in the study was mothers answering MoBa questionnaires when the child was 18 (N = 56,682) and 36 months (N = 46,756), and who had responded to questions regarding pre-pregnancy risk drinking at gestation week 17/18, using the screening instrument T-ACE. Toddler behavior problems were measured with items from Child Behavior Checklist. Associations were analyzed with multivariate logistic regression, controlling for pre and postnatal alcohol use, as well as other relevant covariates. Pre-pregnancy risk drinking was associated with child behavior problems at 18 and 36 months, even after controlling for pre and postnatal alcohol use. Maternal ADHD and anxiety and depression were the only covariates that had any substantial impact on the associations. When all covariates were included in the model, the associations were weak for internalizing behavior problems and non-significant for externalizing behavior problems. Pre-pregnancy risk drinking may predict early development of behavior problems in the offspring. This increased risk may be due to other adverse maternal characteristics associated with risk drinking, in particular co-occurring maternal psychopathology. PMID:25053124

Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Ystrom, Eivind; Sivertsen, Børge; Tell, Grethe S; Torgersen, Leila

2014-10-01

85

Original article The effect of maternal and litter factors  

E-print Network

Original article The effect of maternal and litter factors on piglet mortality rate Argimiro Dazaa - This investigation includes a total of1 O51 piglets, originating from 95 litters, who were offspring of 39 Large of lactation were 3.2 and 28.3 %, respectively. The number of stillbirths per litter was increased (P

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

86

Causes and Risk Factors  

MedlinePLUS

... risk factor is repeated exposure to the chemical benzene, which damages the DNA of stem cells. Benzene is found in cigarette smoke, the most common known cause of exposure to this toxin. Benzene is also found in certain industrial settings. Strict ...

87

Maternal mortality in rural Gambia: levels, causes and contributing factors.  

PubMed Central

A demographic study carried out in a rural area of the Gambia between January 1993 and December 1998 recorded 74 deaths among women aged 15-49 years. Reported here is an estimation of maternal mortality among these 74 deaths based on a survey of reproductive age mortality, which identified 18 maternal deaths by verbal autopsy. Over the same period there were 4245 live births in the study area, giving a maternal mortality ratio of 424 per 100,000 live births. This maternal mortality estimate is substantially lower than estimates made in the 1980s, which ranged from 1005 to 2362 per 100,000 live births, in the same area. A total of 9 of the 18 deaths had a direct obstetric cause--haemorrhage (6 deaths), early pregnancy (2), and obstructed labour (1). Indirect causes of obstetric deaths were anaemia (4 deaths), hepatitis (1), and undetermined (4). Low standards of health care for obstetric referrals, failure to recognize the severity of the problem at the community level, delays in starting the decision-making process to seek health care, lack of transport, and substandard primary health care were identified more than once as probable or possible contributing factors to these maternal deaths. PMID:10859854

Walraven, G.; Telfer, M.; Rowley, J.; Ronsmans, C.

2000-01-01

88

Maternal well-being and its association to risk of developmental problems in children at school entry  

PubMed Central

Background Children at highest risk of developmental problems benefit from early identification and intervention. Investigating factors affecting child development at the time of transition to school may reveal opportunities to tailor early intervention programs for the greatest effectiveness, social benefit and economic gain. The primary objective of this study was to identify child and maternal factors associated with children who screened at risk of developmental problems at school entry. Methods An existing cohort of 791 mothers who had been followed since early pregnancy was mailed a questionnaire when the children were aged four to six years. The questionnaire included a screening tool for developmental problems, an assessment of the child's social competence, health care utilization and referrals, and maternal factors, including physical health, mental health, social support, parenting morale and sense of competence, and parenting support/resources. Results Of the 491 mothers (62%) who responded, 15% had children who were screened at high risk of developmental problems. Based on a logistic regression model, independent predictors of screening at high risk for developmental problems at age 5 were male gender (OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.3, 4.1), maternal history of abuse at pregnancy (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.3, 4.4), and poor parenting morale when the child was 3 years old (OR: 3.9; 95% CI: 2.1, 7.3). A child with all of these risk factors had a 35% predicted probability of screening at high risk of developmental problems, which was reduced to 13% if maternal factors were favourable. Conclusions Risk factors for developmental problems at school entry are related to maternal well being and history of abuse, which can be identified in the prenatal period or when children are preschool age. PMID:20338052

2010-01-01

89

Maternal diet and risk of astrocytic glioma in children: a report from the Childrens Cancer Group (United States and Canada)  

Microsoft Academic Search

N-nitroso compounds and their precursors, nitrites and nitrates, have been hypothesized as risk factors, and vitamins C and E, which inhibit N-nitroso formation, as protective factors for brain tumors. A case-control study of maternal diet during pregnancy and risk of astrocytoma, the most common childhood brain tumor, was conducted by the Childrens Cancer Group. The study included 155 cases under

Greta R. Bunin; René R. Kuijten; Carl P. Boesel; Jonathan D. Buckley; Anna T. Meadows

1994-01-01

90

No risk of maternal EBV infection for childhood leukemia.  

PubMed

We performed a large nested case-control study within the Finnish and Icelandic maternity cohorts to verify/falsify the association of maternal EBV infection with an increased risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in the offspring found in previous studies. All hematologic malignancies diagnosed among children born during 1983 to 2006 in Finland and 1997 to 2005 in Iceland were identified through national cancer registries. For each index mother of a leukemia case, three matched control mothers with cancer-free offspring were identified. First trimester sera from 561 ALL and 144 non-ALL index mothers and from 2,105 control mothers were analyzed for antibodies to EBV viral capsid antigen (IgG and IgM), early antigen (IgG) and ZEBRA protein (IgG). Conditional logistic regression-based estimates of odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for birth order and sib-ship size were calculated. Overall, there was no evidence of increased risk of ALL associated to EBV viral capsid antigen IgM (odds ratio, 0.9; 95% confidence interval, 0.5-1.8). The early antigen and ZEBRA antibodies (EBV reactivation markers) were also not associated with risk. The data argue against a role of EBV in ALL. PMID:19755652

Tedeschi, Rosamaria; Luostarinen, Tapio; Marus, Alessia; Bzhalava, Davit; Ogmundsdottir, Helga M; Dillner, Joakim; De Paoli, Paolo; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Pukkala, Eero; Lehtinen, Matti; Lehtinen, Tuula

2009-10-01

91

Prenatal and Perinatal Risk Factors for Autism in China  

PubMed Central

We conducted a case–control study using 190 Han children with and without autism to investigate prenatal and perinatal risk factors for autism in China. Cases were recruited through public special education schools and controls from regular public schools in the same region (Tianjin), with frequency matching on sex and birth year. Unadjusted analyses identified seven prenatal and seven perinatal risk factors significantly associated with autism. In the adjusted analysis, nine risk factors showed significant association with autism: maternal second-hand smoke exposure, maternal chronic or acute medical conditions unrelated to pregnancy, maternal unhappy emotional state, gestational complications, edema, abnormal gestational age (<35 or >42 weeks), nuchal cord, gravidity >1, and advanced paternal age at delivery (>30 year-old). PMID:20358271

Zhang, Xin; Lv, Cong-Chao; Tian, Jiang; Miao, Ru-Juan; Xi, Wei; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

2010-01-01

92

Risk Factors for Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…

Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

2007-01-01

93

W?hine hauora: linking local hospital and national health information datasets to explore maternal risk factors and obstetric outcomes of New Zealand M?ori and non-M?ori women in relation to infant respiratory admissions and timely immunisations  

PubMed Central

Background Significant health inequities exist around maternal and infant health for M?ori, the indigenous people of New Zealand. The infants of M?ori are more likely to die in their first year of life and also have higher rates of hospital admission for respiratory illnesses, with the greatest burden of morbidity being due to bronchiolitis in those under one year of age. Timely immunisations can prevent some respiratory related hospitalisations, although for M?ori, the proportion of infants with age appropriate immunisations are lower than for non-M?ori. This paper describes the protocol for a retrospective cohort study that linked local hospital and national health information datasets to explore maternal risk factors and obstetric outcomes in relation to respiratory admissions and timely immunisations for infants of M?ori and non-M?ori women. Methods/Design The study population included pregnant women who gave birth in hospital in one region of New Zealand between 1995 and 2009. Routinely collected local hospital data were linked via a unique identifier (National Health Index number) to national health information databases to assess rates of post-natal admissions and access to health services for M?ori and non-M?ori mothers and infants. The two primary outcomes for the study are: 1. The rates of respiratory hospitalisations of infants (? 1 yr of age) calculated for infants of both M?ori and non-M?ori women (for mothers under 20 years of age, and overall) accounting for relationship to parity, maternal age, socioeconomic deprivation index, maternal smoking status. 2. The proportion of infants with age appropriate immunisations at six and 12 months, calculated for both infants born to M?ori women and infants born to non-M?ori women, accounting for relationship to parity, maternal age, socioeconomic deprivation index, smoking status, and other risk factors. Discussion Analysis of a wide range of routinely collected health information in which maternal and infant data are linked will allow us to directly explore the relationship between key maternal factors and infant health, and provide a greater understanding of the causes of health inequalities that exist between the infants of M?ori and non-M?ori mothers. PMID:23837612

2013-01-01

94

Factors associated with maternal depressive symptoms among low-income, African American smokers enrolled in a secondhand smoke reduction programme  

PubMed Central

Introduction Maternal depressive symptoms increase the risk of poor maternal and child health outcomes, and are a primary barrier to health behaviour change. Social cognitive theory can guide our understanding of risk factors that may have an impact on maternal depressive symptoms. The aim of this paper was to understand the correlates of maternal depressive symptoms among low-income African American smokers completing a 16-week intervention trial to reduce young children's second-hand smoke exposure (SHSe). Methods This study presents a secondary analysis of depression symptoms among 227 maternal smokers completing the SHSe-reduction trial. The end-of-treatment Center of Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score was used to assess depressive symptoms (dichotomised as 0 = score of < 16 and 1 = score of ? 16). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to test the one-way hypothesis that odds of significant depressive symptoms would be associated with greater total number of household smokers, greater number of paediatric sick visits, greater daily exposure of child to cigarette smoke by their mother, greater life-event stress, and lower social support, marital status, employment status and level of educational attainment. Results Number of household smokers (OR = 1.57, P = 0.049), social support (OR = 0.88, P < 0.001) and life-event stress (OR = 1.04, P = 0.001) predicted significant maternal depressive symptoms; all other variables were not significant predictors in the model. Conclusion Number of household smokers is a novel risk factor for understanding significant maternal depressive symptoms in the context of a childhood SHSe-reduction trial. Improving our understanding of the household-level social milieu in the context of SHSe-reduction interventions will assist in reducing the risk of maternal depressive symptoms. PMID:24294302

2012-01-01

95

Examining Resource and Protective Factors in the Adjustment of Latino Youth in Low Income Families: What Role Does Maternal Acculturation Play?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This longitudinal study examined whether the risk and positive factors contributing to the delinquent behaviors and internalizing\\u000a problems of 454 Latino adolescents varied across maternal linguistic acculturation and adolescent gender. Although the level\\u000a of cumulative risk to which the 10-to-14-year old adolescents were exposed did not vary by maternal linguistic acculturation,\\u000a the factors contributing to their subsequent adjustment 16 months

Alexandra Loukas; Marie-Anne Suizzo; Hazel M. Prelow

2007-01-01

96

Maternal and neonatal individual risks and benefits associated with caesarean delivery: multicentre prospective study  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the risks and benefits associated with caesarean delivery compared with vaginal delivery. Design Prospective cohort study within the 2005 WHO global survey on maternal and perinatal health. Setting 410 health facilities in 24 areas in eight randomly selected Latin American countries; 123 were randomly selected and 120 participated and provided data Participants 106?546 deliveries reported during the three month study period, with data available for 97?095 (91% coverage). Main outcome measures Maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality associated with intrapartum or elective caesarean delivery, adjusted for clinical, demographic, pregnancy, and institutional characteristics. Results Women undergoing caesarean delivery had an increased risk of severe maternal morbidity compared with women undergoing vaginal delivery (odds ratio 2.0 (95% confidence interval 1.6 to 2.5) for intrapartum caesarean and 2.3 (1.7 to 3.1) for elective caesarean). The risk of antibiotic treatment after delivery for women having either type of caesarean was five times that of women having vaginal deliveries. With cephalic presentation, there was a trend towards a reduced odds ratio for fetal death with elective caesarean, after adjustment for possible confounding variables and gestational age (0.7, 0.4 to 1.0). With breech presentation, caesarean delivery had a large protective effect for fetal death. With cephalic presentation, however, independent of possible confounding variables and gestational age, intrapartum and elective caesarean increased the risk for a stay of seven or more days in neonatal intensive care (2.1 (1.8 to 2.6) and 1.9 (1.6 to 2.3), respectively) and the risk of neonatal mortality up to hospital discharge (1.7 (1.3 to 2.2) and 1.9 (1.5 to 2.6), respectively), which remained higher even after exclusion of all caesarean deliveries for fetal distress. Such increased risk was not seen for breech presentation. Lack of labour was a risk factor for a stay of seven or more days in neonatal intensive care and neonatal mortality up to hospital discharge for babies delivered by elective caesarean delivery, but rupturing of membranes may be protective. Conclusions Caesarean delivery independently reduces overall risk in breech presentations and risk of intrapartum fetal death in cephalic presentations but increases the risk of severe maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in cephalic presentations. PMID:17977819

Carroli, Guillermo; Zavaleta, Nelly; Donner, Allan; Wojdyla, Daniel; Faundes, Anibal; Velazco, Alejandro; Bataglia, Vicente; Langer, Ana; Narváez, Alberto; Valladares, Eliette; Shah, Archana; Campodónico, Liana; Romero, Mariana; Reynoso, Sofia; de Pádua, Karla Simônia; Giordano, Daniel; Kublickas, Marius; Acosta, Arnaldo

2007-01-01

97

Screening in high-risk group of gestational diabetes mellitus with its maternal and fetal outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a metabolic disorder defined as glucose intolerance with the onset or first recognition during pregnancy. Women with GDM are at increased risk for adverse obstetric and perinatal outcome. The complications associated with GDM can be prevented by early recognition, intense monitoring and proper treatment. Aims: The present study was done to screen the high-risk pregnancy group for GDM, to find the incidence of abnormal results on screening and to correlate the abnormal results with the maternal and fetal outcomes. The study was done in a tertiary care hospital and teaching institute. It was a prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: Selective screening for GDM was done in 150 pregnant women with high-risk factors. Screening was done with 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT) after 18 weeks, and if GCT was negative then the test was repeated after 28 weeks of pregnancy. The patients who were having an abnormal GCT were subjected to 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). All GDM patients were followed up and treated with diet and/or insulin therapy till delivery to know maternal and fetal outcomes. The period of study was from April 2008 to March 2009. Results: 7.3% of study population was OGCT positive. 6% of the study population was OGTT positive. Age >25 years, obesity, family history of DM, and past history of GDM were the risk factors significantly associated with GDM. One newborn had hypoglycemia and one had hyperbilirubinemia. The fetal and maternal outcome in GDM patients was good in our study due to early diagnosis and intervention. Conclusion: Women with GDM are at an increased risk for adverse obstetric and perinatal outcome. The increased morbidity in GDM is preventable by meticulous antenatal care. PMID:22701851

Nilofer, Angadi Rajasab; Raju, V. S.; Dakshayini, B. R.; Zaki, Syed Ahmed

2012-01-01

98

Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors  

MedlinePLUS

... Request Permissions Print to PDF Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 04/ ... menu on the side of your screen. A risk factor is anything that increases a person’s chance of ...

99

Modifiable Risk Factors Branch (MRFB)  

Cancer.gov

The Modifiable Risk Factors Branch (MRFB) focuses on factors to reduce cancer risk in humans, including exposures to nutritional components; physical activity and energy balance; alcohol and tobacco; and infectious, physical, and chemical agents.

100

A thematic analysis of factors influencing recruitment to maternal and perinatal trials  

PubMed Central

Background Recruitment of eligible participants remains one of the biggest challenges to successful completion of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Only one third of trials recruit on time, often requiring a lengthy extension to the recruitment period. We identified factors influencing recruitment success and potentially effective recruitment strategies. Methods We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE from 1966 to December Week 2, 2006, the Cochrane Library Methodology Register in December 2006, and hand searched reference lists for studies of any design which focused on recruitment to maternal/perinatal trials, or if no studies of maternal or perinatal research could be identified, other areas of healthcare. Studies of nurses' and midwives' attitudes to research were included as none specifically about trials were located. We synthesised the data narratively, using a basic thematic analysis, with themes derived from the literature and after discussion between the authors. Results Around half of the included papers (29/53) were specific to maternal and perinatal healthcare. Only one study was identified which focused on factors for maternal and perinatal clinicians and only seven studies considered recruitment strategies specific to perinatal research. Themes included: participant assessment of risk; recruitment process; participant understanding of research; patient characteristics; clinician attitudes to research and trials; protocol issues; and institutional or organisational issues. While no reliable evidence base for strategies to enhance recruitment was identified in any of the review studies, four maternal/perinatal primary studies suggest that specialised recruitment staff, mass mailings, physician referrals and strategies targeting minority women may increase recruitment. However these findings may only be applicable to the particular trials and settings studied. Conclusion Although factors reported by both participants and clinicians which influence recruitment were quite consistent across the included studies, studies comparing different recruitment strategies were largely missing. Trials of different recruitment strategies could be embedded in large multicentre RCTs, with strategies tailored to the factors specific to the trial and institution. PMID:18687110

Tooher, Rebecca L; Middleton, Philippa F; Crowther, Caroline A

2008-01-01

101

Cumulative Effects of Mothers’ Risk and Promotive Factors on Daughters’ Disruptive Behavior  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the ways in which the accumulation of maternal factors increases or reduces risk for girls’ disruptive behavior during preadolescence. In the current study, maternal risk and promotive factors and the severity of girls’ disruptive behavior were assessed annually among girls’ ages 7–12 in an urban community sample (N=2043). Maternal risk and promotive factors were operative at different time points in girls’ development. Maternal warmth explained variance in girls’ disruptive behavior, even after controlling for maternal risk factors and relevant child and neighborhood factors. In addition, findings supported the cumulative hypothesis that the number of risk factors increased the chance on girls’ disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), while the number of promotive factors decreased this probability. Daughters of mothers with a history of Conduct Disorder (CD) were exposed to more risk factors and fewer promotive factors compared to daughters of mothers without prior CD. The identification of malleable maternal factors that can serve as targets for intervention has important implications for intergenerational intervention. Cumulative effects show that the focus of prevention efforts should not be on single factors, but on multiple factors associated with girls’ disruptive behavior. PMID:22127641

Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

2012-01-01

102

Ethnic variation in stillbirth risk and the role of maternal obesity: analysis of routine data from a London maternity unit.  

PubMed

BackgroundApproximately 5 in 1,000 deliveries in England and Wales result in stillbirth, with little improvement in figures over the last few decades. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between clinical and socio-demographic factors and stillbirth, with a particular focus on ethnicity and obesity.MethodsAnalysis of routine maternity data on 53,293 singleton births occurring in a large London teaching hospital between 2004 and 2012. Logistic regression was used to investigate risk factors for stillbirth and to explore potential effect modification.Results53,293 deliveries occurred during the time period, of which 329 resulted in a stillbirth (6.2 per 1,000 births). Compared to White women, non-White ethnicity was associated with a doubling of the odds of stillbirth (aOR for Black women 2.15, 95% CI 1.56-2.97; aOR for South Asian women 2.33, 95% CI 1.42-3.83). Obese women had a trend towards higher odds of stillbirth compared to women of recommended BMI (aOR 1.38, 95% CI 0.98-1.96), though this was not significant (p 0.07). Both higher parity (¿2 compared to para 1) and hypertension were associated with a higher odds of stillbirth (parity ¿2 aOR 1.65, 95% CI 1.13-2.39; hypertension aOR 1.84, 95% CI 1.22-2.78) but there was no evidence that area deprivation or maternal age were independently associated with stillbirth in this population. There was some evidence of effect modification between ethnicity and obesity (p value for interaction 0.06), with obesity a particularly strong risk factor for stillbirth in South Asian women (aOR 4.64, 95% CI 1.84-11.70).ConclusionsThere was a high prevalence of stillbirth in this multi-ethnic urban population. The increased risk of stillbirth observed in non-White women remains after adjusting for other factors. Our finding of possible effect modification between ethnicity and obesity suggests that further research should be conducted in order to improve understanding of the interplay between ethnicity, obesity and stillbirth. PMID:25481783

Penn, Nicole; Oteng-Ntim, Eugene; Oakley, Laura L; Doyle, Pat

2014-12-01

103

Maternal and infant gene-folate interactions and the risk of neural tube defects.  

PubMed

Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common, serious malformations with a complex etiology that suggests involvement of both genetic and environmental factors. The authors evaluated maternal or offspring folate-related gene variants and interactions between the gene variants and maternal intake of folates on the risk of NTDs in their offspring. A case-control study was conducted on mothers and/or their fetuses and infants who were born in California from 1999 to 2003 with an NTD (cases n = 222, including 24 mother-infant pairs) or without a major malformation (controls n = 454, including 186 mother-infant pairs). Maternal intake of folates was assessed by food frequency questionnaire and genotyping was performed on samples from mothers and infants. For mothers in the lowest folate-intake group, risk of NTDs in offspring was significantly decreased for maternal MTHFR SNPs rs1476413, rs1801131, and rs1801133 (odds ratio [OR] = 0.55, 80% confidence interval [CI]: 0.20, 1.48; OR = 0.58, 80% CI: 0.24, 1.43; OR = 0.69, 80% CI: 0.41, 1.17, respectively), and TYMS SNPs rs502396 and rs699517 (OR = 0.91, 80% CI: 0.53, 1.56; OR = 0.70, 80% CI: 0.38, 1.29). A gene-only effect was observed for maternal SHMT1 SNP rs669340 (OR?=?0.69, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.96). When there was low maternal folate intake, risk of NTDs was significantly increased for infant MTHFD1 SNPs rs2236224, rs2236225, and rs11627387 (OR = 1.58, 80% CI: 0.99, 2.51; OR = 1.53, 80% CI: 0.95, 2.47; OR = 4.25, 80% CI: 2.33, 7.75, respectively) and SHMT1 SNP rs12939757 (OR = 2.01, 80% CI: 1.20, 3.37), but decreased for TYMS SNP rs2847153 (OR = 0.73, 80% CI: 0.37, 1.45). Although power to detect interaction effects was low for this birth defects association study, the gene-folate interactions observed in this study represent preliminary findings that will be useful for informing future studies on the complex etiology of NTDs. PMID:22903727

Etheredge, Analee J; Finnell, Richard H; Carmichael, Suzan L; Lammer, Edward J; Zhu, Huiping; Mitchell, Laura E; Shaw, Gary M

2012-10-01

104

Perinatal risk factors for asthma in Finnish adolescent twins  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Previous studies have suggested that, in addition to genetic liability and environment in early childhood, intrauterine life also influences the risk for asthma beyond childhood. Low birth weight, prematurity, young maternal age, and maternal smoking have all shown an association with asthma. The effect of perinatal factors on the risk for asthma in relation to familial and social risk factors was studied in a nationwide population-based sample of adolescent twins. In addition to a distribution of birth characteristics among twins which differs from that of singletons, data on twins enable a distinction to be made between genetic and environmental sources of variation.?METHODS—Questionnaires were sent to five consecutive birth cohorts of Finnish 16 year old twins born in 1975-9 and to their parents (3065 families). The outcome measure was life time prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma in these adolescents. The association between asthma and potential risk factors was assessed by multiple logistic regression and discordant twin pair analysis.?RESULTS—Risk for asthma increased with increasing ponderal index (p for trend <0.01) and decreasing maternal age (p for trend <0.05). Among the 25% of twins with the highest ponderal index, the odds ratio for asthma was 1.82 (95% confidence interval 1.18 to 2.79) compared with those in the lowest 25%. Neither birth weight, gestational age, nor Apgar score was associated with asthma. When perinatal risk factors were combined with familial and social risk factors, ponderal index, maternal smoking, parental asthma, and sibship size were all significant independent determinants of asthma in these adolescents.?CONCLUSIONS—The risk for asthma in adolescent twins increases with increasing ponderal index when adjusted for familial and social factors.?? PMID:10607798

Rasanen, M.; Kaprio, J.; Laitinen, T.; Winter, T.; Koskenvuo, M.; Laitinen, L.

2000-01-01

105

Reasons for Persistently High Maternal and Perinatal Mortalities in Ethiopia: Part II-Socio-Economic and Cultural Factors  

PubMed Central

Background The major causes of maternal and perinatal deaths are mostly pregnancy related. However, there are several predisposing factors for the increased risk of pregnancy related complications and deaths in developing countries. The objective of this review was to grossly estimate the effect of selected socioeconomic and cultural factors on maternal mortality, stillbirths and neonatal mortality in Ethiopia. Methods A comprehensive literature review was conducted focusing on the effect of total fertility rate (TFR), modern contraceptive use, harmful traditional practice, adult literacy rate and level of income on maternal and perinatal mortalities. For the majority of the data, regression analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient were used as a proxy indicator for the association of variables with maternal, fetal and neonatal mortality. Results Although there were variations in the methods for estimation, the TFR of women in Ethiopia declined from 5.9 to 4.8 in the last fifteen years, which was in the middle as compared with that of other African countries. The preference of injectable contraceptive method has increased by 7-fold, but the unmet contraceptive need was among the highest in Africa. About 50% reduction in female genital cutting (FGC) was reported although some women's attitude was positive towards the practice of FGC. The regression analysis demonstrated increased risk of stillbirths, neonatal and maternal mortality with increased TFR. The increased adult literacy rate was associated with increased antenatal care and skilled person attended delivery. Low adult literacy was also found to have a negative association with stillbirths and neonatal and maternal mortality. A similar trend was also observed with income. Conclusion Maternal mortality ratio, stillbirth rate and neonatal mortality rate had inverse relations with income and adult education. In Ethiopia, the high total fertility rate, low utilization of contraceptive methods, low adult literacy rate, low income and prevalent harmful traditional practices have probably contributed to the high maternal mortality ratio, stillbirth and neonatal mortality rates. PMID:25489187

Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres

2014-01-01

106

Sexual Risk Factors  

MedlinePLUS

... HIV Translate Text Size Print Lower Your Sexual Risk of HIV How Can I Reduce My Risk Of Getting HIV Through Sexual Contact? In the ... not infected with HIV. Sexual Practices And HIV Risk The risk of getting HIV through sexual contact ...

107

Maternal depression during pregnancy and the postnatal period: risks and possible mechanisms for offspring depression at 18 years  

PubMed Central

Context Some relatively small studies suggest that maternal postnatal depression is a risk factor for offspring adolescent depression. However no large cohort studies have addressed this issue. Furthermore only one small study has examined the association between antenatal depression and later offspring depression. Understanding these associations is important to inform prevention. Objective To investigate the hypothesis that there are independent associations between antenatal and postnatal depression with offspring depression; and that the risk pathways are different, such that the risk associated with postnatal depression is moderated by disadvantage (low maternal education) but the risk associated with antenatal depression is not. Design Prospective investigation of associations between symptoms of antenatal and postnatal parental depression with offspring depression at age 18. Setting UK community based birth cohort (ALSPAC). Participants Data from over 4,500 parents and their adolescent offspring. Main Outcome Measure Diagnosis of offspring major depression, aged 18, using ICD-10. Results Antenatal depression was an independent risk factor. Offspring were 1.28 times (95% CI 1.08 to 1.51, p=0.003) more likely to have depression at 18 for each s.d increase in maternal depression score antenatally, independently of later maternal depression. Postnatal depression was also a risk factor for mothers with low education, with offspring 1.26 times (95% CI 1.06 to 1.50, p=0.009) more likely to have depression for each s.d increase in postnatal depression score. However, for more educated mothers, there was little association (OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.36, p=0.420). Moderation analyses found that maternal education moderated the effects of postnatal but not antenatal depression. Paternal depression antenatally was not associated with offspring depression, while postnatally paternal depression showed a similar pattern to maternal depression. Conclusions The findings suggest that treating maternal depression antenatally could prevent offspring depression during adulthood and that prioritising less advantaged mothers postnatally may be most effective. PMID:24108418

Pearson, R. M.; Evans, J.; Kounali, D.; Lewis, G.; Heron, J.; Ramchandani, P.G.; O’Connor, T.; Stein, A.

2014-01-01

108

Maternal Appraisal Styles, Family Risk Status and Anger Biases of Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the relationship between maternal appraisal styles, family risk status, and anger biases in children. Participants included 90 mothers and their children between 3-6 years of age. Eighty families were followed up 1 year later. Maternal appraisal styles were assessed via a naturalistic story-reading method, and Time 1…

Root, Carol A.; Jenkins, Jennifer M.

2005-01-01

109

Maternal, not paternal, PTSD is related to increased risk for PTSD in offspring of Holocaust survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundA significant association between parental PTSD and the occurrence of PTSD in offspring has been noted, consistent with the idea that risk for the development of PTSD is transmitted from parent to child. Two recent reports linking maternal PTSD and low offspring cortisol prompted us to examine the relative contributions of maternal vs. paternal PTSD in the prediction of PTSD

Rachel Yehuda; Amanda Bell; Linda M. Bierer; James Schmeidler

2008-01-01

110

Maternal weight change before pregnancy in relation with birthweight and risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes  

E-print Network

1 Maternal weight change before pregnancy in relation with birthweight and risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes Ibrahima Diouf,1,2 Marie Aline Charles,1,2 Olivier Thiebaugeorges, 3 Anne Forhan,1 change before pregnancy can be considered an indicator of maternal energy balance and nutritional status

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

111

Maternal Appraisal Styles, Family Risk Status and Anger Biases of Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the relationship between maternal appraisal styles, family risk status, and anger biases in children. Participants included 90 mothers and their children between 3–6 years of age. Eighty families were followed up 1 year later. Maternal appraisal styles were assessed via a naturalistic story-reading method, and Time 1 and Time 2 emotion biases included teacher ratings of

Carol A. Root; Jennifer M. Jenkins

2005-01-01

112

Maternal Gestational Smoking, Diabetes, Alcohol Drinking, Pre-Pregnancy Obesity and the Risk of Cryptorchidism: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal gestational smoking, diabetes, alcohol drinking, and pre-pregnancy obesity are thought to increase the risk of cryptorchidism in newborn males, but the evidence is inconsistent. Method We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies on the association between maternal gestational smoking, diabetes, alcohol drinking, and pre-pregnancy obesity and the risk of cryptorchidism. Articles were retrieved by searching PubMed and ScienceDirect, and the meta-analysis was conducted using Stata/SE 12.0 software. Sensitivity analysis was used to evaluate the influence of confounding variables. Results We selected 32 articles, including 12 case—control, five nested case—control, and 15 cohort studies. The meta-analysis showed that maternal smoking (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.11–1.23) or diabetes (OR = 1.21, 95%CI: 1.00–1.46) during pregnancy were associated with increased risk of cryptorchidism. Overall, the association between maternal alcohol drinking (OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.87–1.07), pre-pregnancy body mass index (OR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.95–1.09) and risk of cryptorchidism were not statistically significant. Additional analysis showed reduced risk (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.82–0.96) of cryptorchidism with moderate alcohol drinking during pregnancy. No dose—response relationship was observed for increments in body mass index in the risk of cryptorchidism. Sensitivity analysis revealed an unstable result for the association between maternal diabetes, alcohol drinking and cryptorchidism. Moderate heterogeneity was detected in studies of the effect of maternal alcohol drinking and diabetes. No publication bias was detected. Conclusion Maternal gestational smoking, but not maternal pre-pregnancy overweight or obesity, was associated with increased cryptorchidism risk in the offspring. Moderate alcohol drinking may reduce the risk of cryptorchidism while gestational diabetes may be a risk factor, but further studies are needed to verify this. PMID:25798927

Zhang, Lin; Wang, Xing-Huan; Zheng, Xin-Min; Liu, Tong-Zu; Zhang, Wei-Bin; Zheng, Hang; Chen, Mi-Feng

2015-01-01

113

Maternal and grandmaternal obesity and environmental factors as determinants of daughter's obesity  

PubMed Central

Obesity may be the consequence of various environmental or genetic factors, which may be highly correlated with each other. We aimed to examine whether grandmaternal and maternal obesity and environmental risk factors are related to obesity in daughters. Daughters (n = 182) recruited from female students, their mothers (n = 147) and their grandmothers (n = 67) were included in this study. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the association between the daughter's obesity and maternal, grandmaternal, and environmental factors. Maternal heights of 161-175cm (OD: 8.48, 95% CI: 3.61-19.93) and 156-160 cm (2.37, 1.14-4.91) showed positive associations with a higher height of daughter, compared to those of 149-155 cm. Mothers receiving a university or a higher education had a significant OR (3.82, 1.27-11.50) for a higher height of daughter compared to those having a low education (elementary school). Mother having the heaviest weight at current time (59-80 kg, 3.78, 1.73-8.28) and the heaviest weight at 20 years of age (51-65 kg, 3.17, 1.53-6.55) had significant associations with a higher height of daughters, compared to those having the lightest weight at the same times. There was no association between the height, weight, and BMI of daughters and the characteristics and education of her grandmothers. In conclusion, although genetic factors appear to influence the daughter's height more than environmental factors, the daughter's weight appears to be more strongly associated with individual factors than the genetic factors. PMID:24133620

Shin, Mi Na; Lee, Kyung Hea; Lee, Hye Sang; Sasaki, Satoshi; Oh, Hea Young; Lyu, Eun Soon

2013-01-01

114

Maternal overweight and obesity in early pregnancy and risk of infant mortality: a population based cohort study in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate associations between maternal overweight and obesity and infant mortality outcomes, including cause-specific mortality. Design Population based cohort study. Setting and participants 1?857?822 live single births in Sweden 1992–2010. Main outcome measures Associations between maternal body mass index (BMI) in early pregnancy and risks of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality, overall and stratified by gestational length and by causes of infant death. Odds ratios were adjusted for maternal age, parity, smoking, education, height, country of birth, and year of delivery. Results Infant mortality rates increased from 2.4/1000 among normal weight women (BMI 18.5–24.9) to 5.8/1000 among women with obesity grade 3 (BMI ?40.0). Compared with normal weight, overweight (BMI 25.0–29.9) and obesity grade 1 (BMI 30.0–34.9) were associated with modestly increased risks of infant mortality (adjusted odds ratios 1.25 (95% confidence interval 1.16 to 1.35) and 1.37 (1.22 to 1.53), respectively), and obesity grade 2 (BMI 35.0–39.9) and grade 3 were associated with more than doubled risks (adjusted odds ratios 2.11 (1.79 to 2.49) and 2.44 (1.88 to 3.17)). In analyses stratified by preterm and term births, maternal BMI was related to risks of infant mortality primarily in term births (?37 weeks), where risks of deaths due to birth asphyxia and other neonatal morbidities increased with maternal overweight and obesity. Obesity grade 2–3 was also associated with increased infant mortality due to congenital anomalies and sudden infant death syndrome. Conclusions Maternal overweight and obesity are associated with increased risks of infant mortality due to increased mortality risk in term births and an increased prevalence of preterm births. Maternal overweight and obesity may be an important preventable risk factor for infant mortality in many countries. PMID:25467170

Villamor, Eduardo; Altman, Maria; Bonamy, Anna-Karin Edstedt; Granath, Fredrik; Cnattingius, Sven

2014-01-01

115

Maternal and perinatal factors associated with hospitalised infectious mononucleosis in children, adolescents and young adults: record linkage study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  There is current interest in the role of perinatal factors in the aetiology of diseases that occur later in life. Infectious\\u000a mononucleosis (IM) can follow late primary infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and has been shown to increase the risk\\u000a of multiple sclerosis and Hodgkin's disease. Little is known about maternal or perinatal factors associated with IM or its\\u000a sequelae.

Imran Mahmud; Omar A Abdel-Mannan; Clare J Wotton; Michael J Goldacre

2011-01-01

116

Maternal Depression, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Youth Psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Across development, maternal depression has been found to be a risk factor for youth psychopathology generally and youth depression\\u000a specifically. Maternal Expressed Emotion (EE) has been examined as a predictor of outcome among youth with depression. The\\u000a present study explored the associations between youth psychopathology and two predictors–maternal depression within the child’s\\u000a lifetime and maternal EE–in a study of children

Martha C. Tompson; Claudette B. Pierre; Kathryn Dingman Boger; James W. McKowen; Priscilla T. Chan; Rachel D. Freed

2010-01-01

117

BIRTH DEFECTS RISK ASSOCIATED WITH MATERNAL SPORT FISH CONSUMPTION: POTENTIAL EFFECT MODIFICATION BY SEX OF OFFSPRING  

EPA Science Inventory

Contaminated sport fish consumption may result in exposure to various reproductive and developmental toxicants, including pesticides and other suspected endocrine disruptors. We investigated the relation between maternal sport fish meals and risk of major birth defects among infa...

118

Effect of maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk in the offspring  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Intrauterine and early life exposure to folic acid has significantly increased in North America owing to folic acid fortification, widespread supplemental use and periconceptional folic acid supplementation. The effect of maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk ...

119

Risk factors for prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of prostate cancer continues to increase in the US. Compared with other common cancers such as those of the breast and lung, the causes of prostate cancer remain poorly understood. Research endeavors continue to identify predictors of risk for prostate cancer, of which familial and genetic factors are among the strongest. Known risk factors can show significant heterogeneity

Amit R Patel; Eric A Klein

2009-01-01

120

Smoking – A Renal Risk Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important tasks of clinical and experimental nephrology is to identify the risk factors of progression of renal failure. A major renal risk factor which has not been sufficiently acknowledged despite increasing evidence is cigarette smoking. Diabetologists were the first to recognize the adverse effects of smoking on the kidney: both in type 1 and in type

Stephan R. Orth

2000-01-01

121

Maternal mental health predicts risk of developmental problems at 3 years of age: follow up of a community based trial  

PubMed Central

Background Undetected and untreated developmental problems can have a significant economic and social impact on society. Intervention to ameliorate potential developmental problems requires early identification of children at risk of future learning and behaviour difficulties. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of risk for developmental problems among preschool children born to medically low risk women and identify factors that influence outcomes. Methods Mothers who had participated in a prenatal trial were followed up three years post partum to answer a telephone questionnaire. Questions were related to child health and development, child care, medical care, mother's lifestyle, well-being, and parenting style. The main outcome measure was risk for developmental problems using the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS). Results Of 791 children, 11% were screened by the PEDS to be at high risk for developmental problems at age three. Of these, 43% had previously been referred for assessment. Children most likely to have been referred were those born preterm. Risk factors for delay included: male gender, history of ear infections, a low income environment, and a mother with poor emotional health and a history of abuse. A child with these risk factors was predicted to have a 53% chance of screening at high risk for developmental problems. This predicted probability was reduced to 19% if the child had a mother with good emotional health and no history of abuse. Conclusion Over 10% of children were identified as high risk for developmental problems by the screening, and more than half of those had not received a specialist referral. Risk factors for problems included prenatal and perinatal maternal and child factors. Assessment of maternal health and effective screening of child development may increase detection of children at high risk who would benefit from early intervention. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN64070727 PMID:18460217

Tough, Suzanne C; Siever, Jodi E; Leew, Shirley; Johnston, David W; Benzies, Karen; Clark, Dawne

2008-01-01

122

Risk Factors of Dystocia in Nulliparous Women  

PubMed Central

Background: Detection of women at risk for dystocia will allow physicians to make preparations and treatment decisions that can minimize maternal and neonatal morbidity. We aimed to determine the risk factors for dystocia in nulliparous women. Methods: This case series enrolled 447 nulliparous women who presented with a single pregnancy in the vertex presentation and gestational age of 38-42 weeks. Maternal anthropometric measurements were obtained upon admission. We defined dystocia as a cesarean section or vacuum delivery for abnormal progression of labor as evidenced by the presence of effective uterine contractions, cervical dilation of less than 1 cm/h in the active phase for 2 h, duration of the second stage beyond 2 h, or fetal head descent less than 1 cm/h. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 11.5. Kruskal-Wallis, logistic regression, chi-square, Student’s t test and the Mann-Whitney tests were used as appropriated. Results: The state anxiety score (OR=10.58, CI: 1.97-56.0), posterior head position (OR=9.53, CI: 4.68-19.36), fetal head swelling in the second stage of labor (OR=6.85, CI: 2.60-18.01), transverse diagonal of Michaelis sacral ?9.6 cm (OR=6.19, CI: 2.49-15.40), and height to fundal ratio <4.7 (OR=2.68, CI: 1.09-10.60) were significant risk factors for dystocia. Conclusion: Critical care during labor and delivery in women who have a height to fundal height ratio of <4.7 or transverse diagonal of Michaelis sacral ?9.6 cm, an anxiety score greater than moderate, and posterior head position or fetal head swelling during the second phase could play an effective and important role in preventing dystocia. PMID:24850982

Alijahan, Rahele; Kordi, Masoumeh

2014-01-01

123

Gender and Maternal Responsivity as Factors in Number of Conversational Turns in Adolescents with Developmental Disabilities  

E-print Network

1 Gender and Maternal Responsivity as Factors in Number of Conversational Turns in Adolescents and low levels of negative affect and punitive tone. Gender differences in maternal responsivity will also, Parlors, 3:00-4:00 PM This study examines factors that influence interactions between adolescents

124

Meningococcal Disease: Risk Factors  

MedlinePLUS

... Travelers to the meningitis belt in sub-Saharan Africa may be at risk for meningococcal disease, particularly during the dry season. ... do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF ...

125

Heart disease - risk factors  

MedlinePLUS

... et al. 2013 AHA/ACC Guidelines on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol . ...

126

Risk factors for periodontal disease.  

PubMed

Risk factors play an important role in an individual's response to periodontal infection. Identification of these risk factors helps to target patients for prevention and treatment, with modification of risk factors critical to the control of periodontal disease. Shifts in our understanding of periodontal disease prevalence, and advances in scientific methodology and statistical analysis in the last few decades, have allowed identification of several major systemic risk factors for periodontal disease. The first change in our thinking was the understanding that periodontal disease is not universal, but that severe forms are found only in a portion of the adult population who show abnormal susceptibility. Analysis of risk factors and the ability to statistically adjust and stratify populations to eliminate the effects of confounding factors have allowed identification of independent risk factors. These independent but modifiable, risk factors for periodontal disease include lifestyle factors, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. They also include diseases and unhealthy conditions such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome, osteoporosis, and low dietary calcium and vitamin D. These risk factors are modifiable and their management is a major component of the contemporary care of many periodontal patients. Genetic factors also play a role in periodontal disease and allow one to target individuals for prevention and early detection. The role of genetic factors in aggressive periodontitis is clear. However, although genetic factors (i.e., specific genes) are strongly suspected to have an association with chronic adult periodontitis, there is as yet no clear evidence for this in the general population. It is important to pursue efforts to identify genetic factors associated with chronic periodontitis because such factors have potential in identifying patients who have a high susceptibility for development of this disease. Many of the systemic risk factors for periodontal disease, such as smoking, diabetes and obesity, and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, are relatively common and can be expected to affect most patients with periodontal disease seen in clinics and dental practices. Hence, risk factor identification and management has become a key component of care for periodontal patients. PMID:23574464

Genco, Robert J; Borgnakke, Wenche S

2013-06-01

127

Examining Resource and Protective Factors in the Adjustment of Latino Youth in Low Income Families: What Role Does Maternal Acculturation Play?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study examined whether the risk and positive factors contributing to the delinquent behaviors and internalizing problems of 454 Latino adolescents varied across maternal linguistic acculturation and adolescent gender. Although the level of cumulative risk to which the 10-to-14-year old adolescents were exposed did not vary by…

Loukas, Alexandra; Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Prelow, Hazel M.

2007-01-01

128

Environmental risk factors for autism  

PubMed Central

Autism is a devastating childhood condition that has emerged as an increasing social concern just as it has increased in prevalence in recent decades. Autism and the broader category of autism spectrum disorders are among the increasingly seen examples in which there is a fetal basis for later disease or disorder. Environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors all play a role in determining the risk of autism and some of these effects appear to be transgenerational. Identification of the most critical windows of developmental vulnerability is paramount to understanding when and under what circumstances a child is at elevated risk for autism. No single environmental factor explains the increased prevalence of autism. While a handful of environmental risk factors have been suggested based on data from human studies and animal research, it is clear that many more, and perhaps the most significant risk factors, remain to be identified. The most promising risk factors identified to date fall within the categories of drugs, environmental chemicals, infectious agents, dietary factors, and other physical/psychological stressors. However, the rate at which environmental risk factors for autism have been identified via research and safety testing has not kept pace with the emerging health threat posed by this condition. For the way forward, it seems clear that additional focused research is needed. But more importantly, successful risk reduction strategies for autism will require more extensive and relevant developmental safety testing of drugs and chemicals. PMID:24149029

Dietert, Rodney R.; Dietert, Janice M.; Dewitt, Jamie C.

2010-01-01

129

Medical and Psychologic Risks of Maternal Cocaine Use  

PubMed Central

The growing use of crack-cocaine by women of child-bearing age poses significant management problems for physicians. Both animal and human studies suggest that cocaine exerts significant negative effects on maternal health, the course of pregnancy, and infant developmental outcome. Maternal pregnancy complications and increased rates of low birth weight and prematurity in infants who are fetally exposed are well documented. However, available studies of neurobehavioral outcomes for cocaine-exposed infants are still inconclusive. Physicians need to become knowledgeable about the potential effects of maternal drug addiction during pregnancy to provide appropriate medical care. PMID:25568499

Singer, Lynn; Arendt, Robert E.; Minnes, Sonia; Garber, Rachel M.

2014-01-01

130

MUTATIONAL RISKS IN FEMALES: GENOMIC IMPRINTING AND MATERNAL MOLECULES  

EPA Science Inventory

Genetic mechanisms for selective mutagenesis in female mammals might include alterations of genomic imprinting, maternally derived molecules, mitochondrial DNA or sex chromosome loci. one of these mechanisms provides an obvious explanation for the higher mutational rates observed...

131

Success factors for reducing maternal and child mortality  

PubMed Central

Abstract Reducing maternal and child mortality is a priority in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and will likely remain so after 2015. Evidence exists on the investments, interventions and enabling policies required. Less is understood about why some countries achieve faster progress than other comparable countries. The Success Factors for Women’s and Children’s Health studies sought to address this knowledge gap using statistical and econometric analyses of data from 144 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) over 20 years; Boolean, qualitative comparative analysis; a literature review; and country-specific reviews in 10 fast-track countries for MDGs 4 and 5a. There is no standard formula – fast-track countries deploy tailored strategies and adapt quickly to change. However, fast-track countries share some effective approaches in addressing three main areas to reduce maternal and child mortality. First, these countries engage multiple sectors to address crucial health determinants. Around half the reduction in child mortality in LMICs since 1990 is the result of health sector investments, the other half is attributed to investments made in sectors outside health. Second, these countries use strategies to mobilize partners across society, using timely, robust evidence for decision-making and accountability and a triple planning approach to consider immediate needs, long-term vision and adaptation to change. Third, the countries establish guiding principles that orient progress, align stakeholder action and achieve results over time. This evidence synthesis contributes to global learning on accelerating improvements in women’s and children’s health towards 2015 and beyond. PMID:25110379

Schweitzer, Julian; Bishai, David; Chowdhury, Sadia; Caramani, Daniele; Frost, Laura; Cortez, Rafael; Daelmans, Bernadette; de Francisco, Andres; Adam, Taghreed; Cohen, Robert; Alfonso, Y Natalia; Franz-Vasdeki, Jennifer; Saadat, Seemeen; Pratt, Beth Anne; Eugster, Beatrice; Bandali, Sarah; Venkatachalam, Pritha; Hinton, Rachael; Murray, John; Arscott-Mills, Sharon; Axelson, Henrik; Maliqi, Blerta; Sarker, Intissar; Lakshminarayanan, Rama; Jacobs, Troy; Jacks, Susan; Mason, Elizabeth; Ghaffar, Abdul; Mays, Nicholas; Presern, Carole; Bustreo, Flavia

2014-01-01

132

Risk factors for equine laminitis  

E-print Network

logistic regression to assess age, breed, sex, and seasonality as risk factors for equine laminitis. There were 70 acute cases, 183 chronic cases, and 779 controls. No statistical association was found between age, breed, sex, or seasonality...

Polzer, John Patrick

1995-01-01

133

What Are the Risk Factors?  

MedlinePLUS

... Cancer Home What Are the Risk Factors for Lung Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... those who smoke. Personal or Family History of Lung Cancer If you are a lung cancer survivor, there ...

134

The risk of maternal obesity to the long-term health of the offspring.  

PubMed

The prevalence of maternal obesity has risen dramatically in recent years, with approximately one in five pregnant women in the UK now classed as obese (body mass index ? 30 kg/m(2) ) at antenatal booking. Obesity during pregnancy has been hypothesized to exert long-term health effects on the developing child through 'early life programming'. While this phenomenon has been well studied in a maternal undernutrition paradigm, the processes by which the programming effects of maternal obesity are mediated are less well understood. In humans, maternal obesity has been associated with a number of long-term adverse health outcomes in the offspring, including lifelong risk of obesity and metabolic dysregulation with increased insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidaemia, as well as behavioural problems and risk of asthma. The complex relationships between the maternal metabolic milieu and the developing foetus, as well as the potential influence of postnatal lifestyle and environment, have complicated efforts to study the programming effects of maternal overnutrition in humans. This review will examine the emerging evidence from human studies linking maternal obesity to adverse offspring outcomes. PMID:23009645

O'Reilly, James R; Reynolds, Rebecca M

2013-01-01

135

Risk of Early-Onset Neonatal Infection with Maternal Infection or Colonization: A Global Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Neonatal infections cause a significant proportion of deaths in the first week of life, yet little is known about risk factors and pathways of transmission for early-onset neonatal sepsis globally. We aimed to estimate the risk of neonatal infection (excluding sexually transmitted diseases [STDs] or congenital infections) in the first seven days of life among newborns of mothers with bacterial infection or colonization during the intrapartum period. Methods and Findings We searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and the World Health Organization Regional Databases for studies of maternal infection, vertical transmission, and neonatal infection published from January 1, 1960 to March 30, 2013. Studies were included that reported effect measures on the risk of neonatal infection among newborns exposed to maternal infection. Random effects meta-analyses were used to pool data and calculate the odds ratio estimates of risk of infection. Eighty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. Seven studies (8.4%) were from high neonatal mortality settings. Considerable heterogeneity existed between studies given the various definitions of laboratory-confirmed and clinical signs of infection, as well as for colonization and risk factors. The odds ratio for neonatal lab-confirmed infection among newborns of mothers with lab-confirmed infection was 6.6 (95% CI 3.9–11.2). Newborns of mothers with colonization had a 9.4 (95% CI 3.1–28.5) times higher odds of lab-confirmed infection than newborns of non-colonized mothers. Newborns of mothers with risk factors for infection (defined as prelabour rupture of membranes [PROM], preterm <37 weeks PROM, and prolonged ROM) had a 2.3 (95% CI 1.0–5.4) times higher odds of infection than newborns of mothers without risk factors. Conclusions Neonatal infection in the first week of life is associated with maternal infection and colonization. High-quality studies, particularly from settings with high neonatal mortality, are needed to determine whether targeting treatment of maternal infections or colonization, and/or prophylactic antibiotic treatment of newborns of high risk mothers, may prevent a significant proportion of early-onset neonatal sepsis. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:23976885

Chan, Grace J.; Lee, Anne CC; Baqui, Abdullah H.; Tan, Jingwen; Black, Robert E.

2013-01-01

136

Maternal filaggrin mutations increase the risk of atopic dermatitis in children: an effect independent of mutation inheritance.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies suggest that allergy risk is preferentially transmitted through mothers. This can be due to genomic imprinting, where the phenotype effect of an allele depends on its parental origin, or due to maternal effects reflecting the maternal genome's influence on the child during prenatal development. Loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) cause skin barrier deficiency and strongly predispose to atopic dermatitis (AD). We investigated the 4 most prevalent European FLG mutations (c.2282del4, p.R501X, p.R2447X, and p.S3247X) in two samples including 759 and 450 AD families. We used the multinomial and maximum-likelihood approach implemented in the PREMIM/EMIM tool to model parent-of-origin effects. Beyond the known role of FLG inheritance in AD (R1meta-analysis = 2.4, P = 1.0 x 10-36), we observed a strong maternal FLG genotype effect that was consistent in both independent family sets and for all 4 mutations analysed. Overall, children of FLG-carrier mothers had a 1.5-fold increased AD risk (S1 = 1.50, Pmeta-analysis = 8.4 x 10-8). Our data point to two independent and additive effects of FLG mutations: i) carrying a mutation and ii) having a mutation carrier mother. The maternal genotype effect was independent of mutation inheritance and can be seen as a non-genetic transmission of a genetic effect. The FLG maternal effect was observed only when mothers had allergic sensitization (elevated allergen-specific IgE antibody plasma levels), suggesting that FLG mutation-induced systemic immune responses in the mother may influence AD risk in the child. Notably, the maternal effect reported here was stronger than most common genetic risk factors for AD recently identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Our study highlights the power of family-based studies in the identification of new etiological mechanisms and reveals, for the first time, a direct influence of the maternal genotype on the offspring's susceptibility to a common human disease. PMID:25757221

Esparza-Gordillo, Jorge; Matanovic, Anja; Marenholz, Ingo; Bauerfeind, Anja; Rohde, Klaus; Nemat, Katja; Lee-Kirsch, Min-Ae; Nordenskjöld, Magnus; Winge, Marten C G; Keil, Thomas; Krüger, Renate; Lau, Susanne; Beyer, Kirsten; Kalb, Birgit; Niggemann, Bodo; Hübner, Norbert; Cordell, Heather J; Bradley, Maria; Lee, Young-Ae

2015-03-01

137

Maternal Filaggrin Mutations Increase the Risk of Atopic Dermatitis in Children: An Effect Independent of Mutation Inheritance  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies suggest that allergy risk is preferentially transmitted through mothers. This can be due to genomic imprinting, where the phenotype effect of an allele depends on its parental origin, or due to maternal effects reflecting the maternal genome's influence on the child during prenatal development. Loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) cause skin barrier deficiency and strongly predispose to atopic dermatitis (AD). We investigated the 4 most prevalent European FLG mutations (c.2282del4, p.R501X, p.R2447X, and p.S3247X) in two samples including 759 and 450 AD families. We used the multinomial and maximum-likelihood approach implemented in the PREMIM/EMIM tool to model parent-of-origin effects. Beyond the known role of FLG inheritance in AD (R1meta-analysis = 2.4, P = 1.0 x 10?36), we observed a strong maternal FLG genotype effect that was consistent in both independent family sets and for all 4 mutations analysed. Overall, children of FLG-carrier mothers had a 1.5-fold increased AD risk (S1 = 1.50, Pmeta-analysis = 8.4 x 10?8). Our data point to two independent and additive effects of FLG mutations: i) carrying a mutation and ii) having a mutation carrier mother. The maternal genotype effect was independent of mutation inheritance and can be seen as a non-genetic transmission of a genetic effect. The FLG maternal effect was observed only when mothers had allergic sensitization (elevated allergen-specific IgE antibody plasma levels), suggesting that FLG mutation-induced systemic immune responses in the mother may influence AD risk in the child. Notably, the maternal effect reported here was stronger than most common genetic risk factors for AD recently identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Our study highlights the power of family-based studies in the identification of new etiological mechanisms and reveals, for the first time, a direct influence of the maternal genotype on the offspring’s susceptibility to a common human disease. PMID:25757221

Esparza-Gordillo, Jorge; Matanovic, Anja; Marenholz, Ingo; Bauerfeind, Anja; Rohde, Klaus; Nemat, Katja; Lee-Kirsch, Min-Ae; Nordenskjöld, Magnus; Winge, Marten C. G.; Keil, Thomas; Krüger, Renate; Lau, Susanne; Beyer, Kirsten; Kalb, Birgit; Niggemann, Bodo; Hübner, Norbert; Cordell, Heather J.; Bradley, Maria; Lee, Young-Ae

2015-01-01

138

Environmental risk factors for psychosis  

PubMed Central

Genetic factors are clearly important in the etiology of schizophrenia, but the environment in which an individual's genes find expression is also crucial to the development of the illness. In this review of environmental risk factors for schizophrenia, we consider risks operating prenatally and perinatally, during childhood, and then later in life prior to illness onset. Some of these risk factors have been well documented, for example, early hazards causing fetal growth retardation or hypoxia, and hazards nearer the onset of illness like drug abuse and migration. Others are much less certain. The importance of interaction between genetic and environmental risk is, however, undoubtedly important and there is emerging evidence for this from a range of sources. As the etiology of schiz-ophrenia is unraveled, the picture becomes more complex, but also more obviously relevant to the plight of the individual patient. PMID:16060597

Dean, Kimberlie; Murray, Robin M.

2005-01-01

139

Factors Associated with Young Children's Opportunities for Maintaining Family Relationships during Maternal Incarceration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children affected by maternal incarceration experience challenges maintaining continuous family relationships because of changes in caregivers, separation from siblings, and limited contact with mothers. In this mixed-method study, we investigated maternal and contextual factors associated with continuity in family relationships of children living…

Poehlmann, Julie; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Maes, Elizabeth; Hanneman, Ashley

2008-01-01

140

Effect of Late-Preterm Birth and Maternal Medical Conditions on Newborn Morbidity Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES. Late-preterm infants (34 -36 weeks' gestation) account for nearly three quarters of all preterm births in the United States, yet little is known about their morbidity risk. We compared late-preterm and term (37- 41 weeks' gestation) infants with and without selected maternal medical conditions and assessed the independent and joint effects of these exposures on newborn morbidity risk. METHODS.

Carrie K. Shapiro-Mendoza; Kay M. Tomashek; Milton Kotelchuck; Wanda Barfield; Angela Nannini; Judith Weiss; Eugene Declercq

2010-01-01

141

Determinants of Change in Maternal Sensitivity: Contributions of Context, Temperament, and Developmental Risk  

PubMed Central

Objective Maternal sensitivity is a fundamental parenting construct and a determinant of positive child outcomes and healthy parent-child relationships. Few longitudinal studies have investigated determinants of sensitive parenting, particularly in a population of children at risk for developmental delay. Design This study modeled trajectories of maternal sensitivity observed in two independent parenting contexts at child ages 3-, 4-, and 5-years. The sample included N = 247 mother-child dyads, with n = 110 children classified as at risk for developmental delays. Predictors included maternal distress, child anger proneness, and developmental risk status. Results Maternal sensitivity changed during more demanding parenting tasks over the 3-year period but not during a low-demand task. Mothers of children with developmental risk, relative to mothers of typically developing children, and mothers of boys relative to mothers of girls, showed less sensitivity during more demanding parenting tasks. Conclusions Early developmental risk and child gender contribute to the nature of maternal sensitivity over time, but their contributions depend on the situational demands of the interaction. This contextualized view of sensitivity provides further evidence in support of parenting as a dynamic developmental process. PMID:24044007

Ciciolla, Lucia; Crnic, Keith A.; West, Stephen G.

2013-01-01

142

Social and behavioral risk factors for obesity in early childhood  

PubMed Central

Objective While multiple social and behavioral risk factors associated with obesity co-occur among young children, most studies have examined them separately. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between social risk factors, behavioral problems, health behaviors and obesity among preschool children in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=1589). Methods A cumulative social risk score was created by summing maternal reports of intimate partner violence, food insecurity, housing insecurity, maternal depressive symptoms, maternal substance use, and father's incarceration, obtained when the child was 3 years old. Mothers reported on the child's internalizing and externalizing behaviors with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at age 5. Mothers also reported on hours the child spent watching TV and sleeping as well as servings of soda or juice drinks the child consumed per day. Child height and weight were measured at age 5. Obesity was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI) >=95th percentile. Results In regression analyses adjusted for health behaviors, behavioral problems and socio-demographic factors, cumulative social risk was associated with obesity among girls. Externalizing behavioral problems, were associated with obesity among girls (PR 1.5 95%CI 1.2, 1.7) and boys (PR 1.3 95%CI 1.1, 1.6). Short sleep duration was also associated with obesity among girls (PR 1.2 95% CI 1.0, 1.4) and boys (PR 1.3 95%CI 1.1, 1.5) even after adjusting for behavioral problems and social risk factors. Watching more than 2 hours of television per day was associated with obesity among boys (PR 1.5, 95%CI 1.2, 1.9) but not girls. Conclusions Co-occurring social and behavioral risk factors are associated with obesity among five-year old children. PMID:24131877

Suglia, Shakira F.; Duarte, Cristiane S.; Chambers, Earle C.; Boynton-Jarrett, Renée

2014-01-01

143

Sexual Harassment: Identifying Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new model of the etiology of sexual harassment,the four-factor model, is presented and compared with several models of sexual harassment including the biological model, the organizational model, the sociocultural model,and the sexrole spillover model. A number of risk factors associated with sexually harassing behavior are examined within the framework of the four-factor model of sexual harassment. These include characteristics

Elizabeth A. O'Hare; William O'Donohue

1998-01-01

144

Risk Factors for Acute Leukemia in Children: A Review  

PubMed Central

Although overall incidence is rare, leukemia is the most common type of childhood cancer. It accounts for 30% of all cancers diagnosed in children younger than 15 years. Within this population, acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) occurs approximately five times more frequently than acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and accounts for approximately 78% of all childhood leukemia diagnoses. Epidemiologic studies of acute leukemias in children have examined possible risk factors, including genetic, infectious, and environmental, in an attempt to determine etiology. Only one environmental risk factor (ionizing radiation) has been significantly linked to ALL or AML. Most environmental risk factors have been found to be weakly and inconsistently associated with either form of acute childhood leukemia. Our review focuses on the demographics of childhood leukemia and the risk factors that have been associated with the development of childhood ALL or AML. The environmental risk factors discussed include ionizing radiation, non-ionizing radiation, hydrocarbons, pesticides, alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and illicit drug use. Knowledge of these particular risk factors can be used to support measures to reduce potentially harmful exposures and decrease the risk of disease. We also review genetic and infectious risk factors and other variables, including maternal reproductive history and birth characteristics. PMID:17366834

Belson, Martin; Kingsley, Beverely; Holmes, Adrianne

2007-01-01

145

Factors associated with maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: an ecological study  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal health is one of the major worldwide health challenges. Currently, the unacceptably high levels of maternal mortality are a common subject in global health and development discussions. Although some countries have made remarkable progress, half of the maternal deaths in the world still take place in Sub-Saharan Africa where little or no progress has been made. There is no single simple, straightforward intervention that will significantly decrease maternal mortality alone; however, there is a consensus on the importance of a strong health system, skilled delivery attendants, and women's rights for maternal health. Our objective was to describe and determine different factors associated with the maternal mortality ratio in Sub-Saharan countries. Methods An ecological multi-group study compared variables between many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa using data collected between 1997 and 2006. The dependent variable was the maternal mortality ratio, and Health care system-related, educational and economic indicators were the independent variables. Information sources included the WHO, World Bank, UNICEF and UNDP. Results Maternal mortality ratio values in Sub-Saharan Africa were demonstrated to be high and vary enormously among countries. A relationship between the maternal mortality ratio and some educational, sanitary and economic factors was observed. There was an inverse and significant correlation of the maternal mortality ratio with prenatal care coverage, births assisted by skilled health personnel, access to an improved water source, adult literacy rate, primary female enrolment rate, education index, the Gross National Income per capita and the per-capita government expenditure on health. Conclusions Education and an effective and efficient health system, especially during pregnancy and delivery, are strongly related to maternal death. Also, macro-economic factors are related and could be influencing the others. PMID:20003411

2009-01-01

146

Risk factors for asthma prevalence among urban and nonurban African American children.  

PubMed

Urban residence is a risk factor for asthma. We examined multiple risk factors simultaneously among African American children. We interviewed 2409 African American mothers of newborns who had at least 1 child at home under 18 years of age. Sixteen percent reported at least 1 child with physician-diagnosed asthma. Significantly associated with an asthmatic child were maternal asthma and allergies, maternal cigarette smoking, a humidifying device, and a gas range or oven in the home. Urban residence was related to asthma but became nonsignificant once other factors were controlled for. Asthma associated with urban residence may be explained by identifiable factors. PMID:11714078

von Maffei, J; Beckett, W S; Belanger, K; Triche, E; Zhang, H; Machung, J F; Leaderer, B P

2001-10-01

147

Occupational risk factors for Wilms' tumor  

SciTech Connect

A matched case-control study of Wilms' tumor investigated parental occupational risk factors. Cases diagnosed in 1970-1983 were identified through a population-based tumor registry and hospital registries in the Greater Philadelphia area. Controls were selected by random digit dialing and were matched to cases on race, birth date (+/- 3 years), and the area code and exchange of the case's telephone number at diagnosis. Parents of 100 matched pairs were interviewed by telephone. Parents of patients and controls were generally similar in demographic characteristics, except that mothers differed in religion. Published schemes were used to group jobs into clusters of similar exposures and to determine exposures from industry and job title. Analyses were done for preconception, pregnancy, and postnatal time periods. More case than control fathers had jobs in a cluster that includes machinists and welders (odds ratios (ORs) = 4.0-5.7, p less than or equal to 0.04). Paternal exposures to lead, silver, tin, and iron (some exposures of this cluster) were associated with Wilms' tumor in some analyses, with moderate odds ratios (ORs = 1.5-3.4). In general, the highest odds ratios were found for the preconception period among the genetic (prezygotic) cases. No maternal job clusters or exposures gave significantly elevated odds ratios. These results support a previous finding that lead is a risk factor, but not radiation, hydrocarbon, or boron exposures.

Bunin, G.; Kramer, S.; Nass, C.; Meadows, A.

1986-09-01

148

Effects of Maternal Nutrition, Resource Use and Multi-Predator Risk on Neonatal White-Tailed Deer Survival  

PubMed Central

Growth of ungulate populations is typically most sensitive to survival of neonates, which in turn is influenced by maternal nutritional condition and trade-offs in resource selection and avoidance of predators. We assessed whether resource use, multi-predator risk, maternal nutritional effects, hiding cover, or interactions among these variables best explained variation in daily survival of free-ranging neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during their post-partum period (14 May–31 Aug) in Michigan, USA. We used Cox proportional hazards mixed-effects models to assess survival related to covariates of resource use, composite predation risk of 4 mammalian predators, fawn body mass at birth, winter weather, and vegetation growth phenology. Predation, particularly from coyotes (Canis latrans), was the leading cause of mortality; however, an additive model of non-ideal resource use and maternal nutritional effects explained 71% of the variation in survival. This relationship suggested that dams selected areas where fawns had poor resources, while greater predation in these areas led to additive mortalities beyond those related to resource use alone. Also, maternal nutritional effects suggested that severe winters resulted in dams producing smaller fawns, which decreased their likelihood of survival. Fawn resource use appeared to reflect dam avoidance of lowland forests with poor forage and greater use by wolves (C. lupus), their primary predator. While this strategy led to greater fawn mortality, particularly by coyotes, it likely promoted the life-long reproductive success of dams because many reached late-age (>10 years old) and could have produced multiple generations of fawns. Studies often link resource selection and survival of ungulates, but our results suggested that multiple factors can mediate that relationship, including multi-predator risk. We emphasize the importance of identifying interactions among biological and environmental factors when assessing survival of ungulates. PMID:24968318

Duquette, Jared F.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Svoboda, Nathan J.; Beyer, Dean E.; Lederle, Patrick E.

2014-01-01

149

Effects of maternal nutrition, resource use and multi-predator risk on neonatal white-tailed deer survival.  

PubMed

Growth of ungulate populations is typically most sensitive to survival of neonates, which in turn is influenced by maternal nutritional condition and trade-offs in resource selection and avoidance of predators. We assessed whether resource use, multi-predator risk, maternal nutritional effects, hiding cover, or interactions among these variables best explained variation in daily survival of free-ranging neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during their post-partum period (14 May-31 Aug) in Michigan, USA. We used Cox proportional hazards mixed-effects models to assess survival related to covariates of resource use, composite predation risk of 4 mammalian predators, fawn body mass at birth, winter weather, and vegetation growth phenology. Predation, particularly from coyotes (Canis latrans), was the leading cause of mortality; however, an additive model of non-ideal resource use and maternal nutritional effects explained 71% of the variation in survival. This relationship suggested that dams selected areas where fawns had poor resources, while greater predation in these areas led to additive mortalities beyond those related to resource use alone. Also, maternal nutritional effects suggested that severe winters resulted in dams producing smaller fawns, which decreased their likelihood of survival. Fawn resource use appeared to reflect dam avoidance of lowland forests with poor forage and greater use by wolves (C. lupus), their primary predator. While this strategy led to greater fawn mortality, particularly by coyotes, it likely promoted the life-long reproductive success of dams because many reached late-age (>10 years old) and could have produced multiple generations of fawns. Studies often link resource selection and survival of ungulates, but our results suggested that multiple factors can mediate that relationship, including multi-predator risk. We emphasize the importance of identifying interactions among biological and environmental factors when assessing survival of ungulates. PMID:24968318

Duquette, Jared F; Belant, Jerrold L; Svoboda, Nathan J; Beyer, Dean E; Lederle, Patrick E

2014-01-01

150

Factors affecting maternal provisioning to the pre-natal environment   

E-print Network

traits on general egg traits along with maternal antibodies. I examine this at the individual level using Chinese painted quail (Coturnix chinensis) who are prolific layers and sexually dimorphic. To date the majority of differential allocation studies...

Coakley, Christina Marie

2014-06-28

151

Maternal Obesity and Increased Risk for Autism and Developmental Delay among Very Preterm Infants  

PubMed Central

Objective Thirty-five percent of women of child-bearing age are obese, and there is evidence that maternal obesity may increase the risk for adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. However, research regarding obesity and neurodevelopment among children born preterm is limited. This study aimed to determine associations between maternal obesity and neurodevelopment in very preterm children at age 2 years. Study Design Maternal/infant dyads (n=62) born ?30 weeks gestation were enrolled in a prospective cohort study at a level-III neonatal intensive care unit. Mothers were classified as obese or non-obese based on pre-pregnancy body mass index. Infants underwent magnetic resonance imaging at term equivalent and developmental testing at age 2. Maternal obesity was investigated for associations with neurodevelopment. Results Maternal obesity was associated with positive screen for autism (OR=9.88, p=0.002) and lower composite language scores (?=-9.36, [CI=-15.11, -3.61], p=0.002). Conclusion Maternal obesity was associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcome at age 2 in this cohort of very preterm children. This study requires replication, but may support targeted surveillance of infants born to women with maternal obesity. PMID:24811227

Reynolds, Lauren C.; Inder, Terrie E.; Neil, Jeffrey J.; Pineda, Roberta G.; Rogers, Cynthia E.

2014-01-01

152

Environmental risk factors for osteoporosis  

SciTech Connect

Environmental risk factors for osteoporosis were reviewed at a conference held at the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences 8-9 November 1993. The conference was co-sponsored by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disease and the NIH Office of Research in Women's Health. The objective of the conference was to review what is known about risk factors for osteoporosis and to identify gaps in the present state of knowledge that might be addressed by future research. The conference was divided into two broad themes. The first session focused on current knowledge regarding etiology, risk factors, and approaches to clinical and laboratory diagnosis. This was followed by three sessions in which various environmental pollutants were discussed. Topics selected for review included environmental agents that interfere with bone and calcium metabolism, such as the toxic metals lead, cadmium, aluminum, and fluoride, natural and antiestrogens, calcium, and vitamin D.

Goyer, R.A.; Korach, K.S. (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Triangle Park, NC (United States)); Epstein, S. (Albert Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Bhattacharyya, M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Pounds, J. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States))

1994-04-01

153

Craniosynostosis and risk factors related to thyroid dysfunction.  

PubMed

Thyroid disease is a common problem among women of reproductive age but often goes undiagnosed. Maternal thyroid disease has been associated with increased risk of craniosynostosis. We hypothesized that known risk factors for thyroid disease would be associated with risk of craniosynostosis among women not diagnosed with thyroid disease. Analyses included mothers of 1,067 cases and 8,494 population-based controls who were interviewed for the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). After excluding women with diagnosed thyroid disease, younger maternal age (AOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.6-0.9, for <25 years versus 25-29), black or other race-ethnicity (AOR 0.3, 95% CI 0.2-0.4 and AOR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.8, respectively, relative to non-Hispanic whites), fertility medications or procedures (AOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-2.0), and alcohol consumption (AOR 0.8, 95% CI 0.7-0.9) were associated with risk of craniosynostosis, based on confidence intervals that excluded 1.0. These associations with craniosynostosis are consistent with the direction of their association with thyroid dysfunction (i.e., younger age, black race-ethnicity and alcohol consumption are associated with reduced risk and fertility problems are associated with increased risk of thyroid disease). This study thus provides support for the hypothesis that risk factors associated with thyroid dysfunction are also associated with risk of craniosynostosis. Improved understanding of the potential association between maternal thyroid function and craniosynostosis among offspring is important given that craniosynostosis carries significant morbidity and that thyroid disease is under-diagnosed and potentially modifiable. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25655789

Carmichael, S L; Ma, C; Rasmussen, S A; Cunningham, M L; Browne, M L; Dosiou, C; Lammer, E J; Shaw, G M

2015-04-01

154

Socioeconomic Risk Moderates the Link between Household Chaos and Maternal Executive Function  

PubMed Central

We examined the link between household chaos (i.e., noise, clutter, disarray, lack of routines) and maternal executive function (i.e., effortful regulation of attention and memory), and whether it varied as a function of socioeconomic risk (i.e., single parenthood, lower mother and father educational attainment, housing situation, and father unemployment). We hypothesized that: 1) higher levels of household chaos would be linked with poorer maternal executive function, even when controlling for other measures of cognitive functioning (e.g., verbal ability), and 2) this link would be strongest in the most socioeconomically distressed or lowest-socioeconomic status households. The diverse sample included 153 mothers from urban and rural areas who completed a questionnaire and a battery of cognitive executive function tasks and a verbal ability task in the laboratory. Results were mixed for hypothesis 1, and consistent with hypothesis 2. Two-thirds of the variance overlapped between household chaos and maternal executive function, but only in families with high levels of socioeconomic risk. This pattern was not found for chaos and maternal verbal ability, suggesting that the potentially deleterious effects of household chaos may be specific to maternal executive function. The findings implicate household chaos as a powerful statistical predictor of maternal executive function in socioeconomically distressed contexts. PMID:22563703

Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Chen, Nan; Wang, Zhe; Bell, Martha Ann

2012-01-01

155

Postpartum Behavioral Profiles in Wistar Rats Following Maternal Separation - Altered Exploration and Risk-Assessment Behavior in MS15 Dams.  

PubMed

The rodent maternal separation (MS) model is frequently used to investigate the impact of early environmental factors on adult neurobiology and behavior. The majority of MS studies assess effects in the offspring and few address the consequences of repeated pup removal in the dam. Such studies are of interest since alterations detected in offspring subjected to MS may, at least in part, be mediated by variations in maternal behavior and the amount of maternal care provided by the dam. The aim of this study was to investigate how daily short (15 min; MS15) and prolonged (360 min; MS360) periods of MS affects the dam by examining postpartum behavioral profiles using the multivariate concentric square field (MCSF) test. The dams were tested on postpartum days 24-25, i.e., just after the end of the separation period and weaning. The results reveal a lower exploratory drive and lower risk-assessment behavior in MS15 dams relative to MS360 or animal facility reared dams. The present results contrast some of the previously reported findings and provide new information about early post-weaning behavioral characteristics in a multivariate setting. Plausible explanations for the results are provided including a discussion how the present results fit into the maternal mediation hypothesis. PMID:20617189

Daoura, Loudin; Hjalmarsson, My; Oreland, Sadia; Nylander, Ingrid; Roman, Erika

2010-01-01

156

Rethinking How to Promote Maternity Care-Seeking: Factors Associated With Institutional Delivery in Guinea  

PubMed Central

This article presents findings from a study on women's delivery care-seeking in two regions of Guinea. We explored exposure to interventions promoting birth preparedness and complication readiness among women with recent live births and stillbirths. Using multivariate regression models, we identified factors associated with women's knowledge and practices related to birth preparedness, as well as their use of health facilities during childbirth. We found that women's knowledge about preparations for any birth (normal or complicated) was positively associated with increased preparation for birth, which itself was associated with institutional delivery. Knowledge about complication readiness, obstetric risks, and danger signs was not associated with birth preparation or with institutional delivery. The study findings highlight the importance of focusing on preparation for all births—and not simply obstetric emergencies—in interventions aimed at increasing women's use of skilled maternity care. PMID:24821280

Brazier, Ellen; Fiorentino, Renée; Barry, Saidou; Kasse, Yaya; Millimono, Sita

2014-01-01

157

Clustering of cardiovascular risk factors: Targeting high-risk individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular risk factors have traditionally been divided into 2 categories: modifiable risk factors (smoking, hypertension, elevated cholesterol, reduced high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and diabetes), and nonmodifiable risk factors (age, gender, and hereditary factors). However, more recent data indicate clustering of several metabolic and familial factors that are often related to each other. A pattern of lipoprotein abnormalities characterized by increased

Jacques Genest; Jeffrey S. Cohn

1995-01-01

158

Maternal obesity, associated complications and risk of prematurity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:We aimed at (a) examining the rates of obesity over a 12-year period; (b) studying the effect of obesity and morbid obesity on gestational age and birth weight and (c) determining the influence of race on the association between maternal obesity and the gestational age of a newborn.Study Design:We conducted a retrospective analysis using data from the perinatal data set

H Aly; T Hammad; A Nada; M Mohamed; S Bathgate; A El-Mohandes

2010-01-01

159

Risk factors for pathological gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand pathological gambling, potential risk factors were assessed within three domains—gambling behaviors, substance abuse and other problem behaviors, and sociodemographic factors. A random-digit-dial telephone survey was conducted in 1999–2000 with a representative sample of the U.S. population aged 18 or older. The current analyses uses data from the 2168 respondents who gambled in the year before the interview.

John W. Welte; Grace M. Barnes; William F. Wieczorek; Marie-Cecile O. Tidwell; John C. Parker

2004-01-01

160

Neighborhood Risk Factors for Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The goal of this study was to explore neighborhood environmental factors associated with obesity in a sample of adults living in a major U.S. metropolitan area.Research Methods and Procedures: This was a multi-level study combining data from the U.S. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System with data from the U.S. Census. A total of 15,358 subjects living in 327 zip

Russ P. Lopez

2007-01-01

161

Heart Disease Risk Factors You Can Control  

MedlinePLUS

... your risk Heart Health and Stroke Heart disease risk factors you can control Did you know? In ... Return to top More information on Heart disease risk factors you can control Read more from womenshealth. ...

162

Capacity Factor Risk At Nuclear Power Plants  

E-print Network

We develop a model of the dynamic structure of capacity factor risk. It incorporates the risk that the capacity factor may vary widely from year-to-year, and also the risk that the reactor may be permanently shutdown prior ...

Du, Yangbo

163

Other Possible Heart Disease Risk Factors  

MedlinePLUS

... your risk Heart Health and Stroke Other possible heart disease risk factors Related information Depression fact sheet Stress ... Return to top More information on Other possible heart disease risk factors Read more from womenshealth.gov Heart ...

164

Adverse outcomes in maternity care for women with a low risk profile in The Netherlands: a case series analysis  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to perform a structural analysis of determinants of risk of critical incidents in care for women with a low risk profile at the start of pregnancy with a view on improving patient safety. Methods We included 71 critical incidents in primary midwifery care and subsequent hospital care in case of referral after 36 weeks of pregnancy that were related to substandard care and for that reason were reported to the Health Care Inspectorate in The Netherlands in 36 months (n?=?357). We performed a case-by-case analysis, using a previously validated instrument which covered five broad domains: healthcare organization, communication between healthcare providers, patient risk factors, clinical management, and clinical outcomes. Results Determinants that were associated with risk concerned healthcare organization (n?=?20 incidents), communication about treatment procedures (n?=?39), referral processes (n?=?19), risk assessment by telephone triage (n?=?10), and clinical management in an out of hours setting (n?=?19). The 71 critical incidents included three cases of maternal death, eight cases of severe maternal morbidity, 42 perinatal deaths and 12 critical incidents with severe morbidity for the child. Suboptimal prenatal risk assessment, a delay in availability of health care providers in urgent situations, miscommunication about treatment between care providers, and miscommunication with patients in situations with a language barrier were associated with safety risks. Conclusions Systematic analysis of critical incidents improves insight in determinants of safety risk. The wide variety of determinants of risk of critical incidents implies that there is no single intervention to improve patient safety in the care for pregnant women with initially a low risk profile. PMID:24286376

2013-01-01

165

Pneumococcal Disease Risk Factors and Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... World Health Organization National Foundation for Infectious Diseases Risk Factors & Transmission Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... at increased risk for pneumococcal disease. Children at Risk for Pneumococcal Disease Children at higher risk for ...

166

Risk factors for critical illnesspolyneuromyopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although numerous\\u000aclinical, laboratory, and pharmacological\\u000avariables have been reported\\u000aas significant risk factors\\u000afor critical illness polyneuromyopathy\\u000a(CIPM), there is still no\\u000aconsensus on the aetiology of this\\u000acondition.

J. Bednarík; Petr Vondracek; Ladislav Dusek; Eva Moravcova; Ivan Cundrle

2005-01-01

167

Life-Style Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the evidence for two propositions: that health and ability to function can often be sustained into advanced old age through interventions that (1) control risk factors among people already old and (2) improve lifelong health behaviors and life-styles starting with people currently still young. Beginning with a general model of age-related changes in health, function, and survival,

Kenneth G. Manton

1989-01-01

168

Externalizing and Internalizing Problems in Low-Income Latino Early Adolescents: Risk, Resource, and Protective Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current investigation examined the role of cumulative risk, family routines, maternal monitoring, mother-child relationship quality, and youth socioemotional competence in adjustment outcomes of 521 10- to 14-year-old low-income Latino early adolescents. Results showed that, as the number of risk factors increased, levels of externalizing and…

Loukas, Alexandra; Prelow, Hazel M.

2004-01-01

169

Maternal caregiving and girls’ depressive symptoms and antisocial behavior trajectories: An examination among high-risk youth  

PubMed Central

Past research has identified parental depression and family-of-origin maltreatment as precursors to adolescent depression and antisocial behavior. Caregiving experiences have also been identified as a factor that may ameliorate or accentuate adolescent psychopathology trajectories. Using the unique attributes of two geographically diverse, yet complementary longitudinal research designs, the present study examined the role of maternal caregiver involvement as a factor that promotes resilience-based trajectories related to depressive symptom and antisocial behaviors among adolescent girls. The first sample comprises a group of US-based adolescent girls in foster care (n = 100; mean age = 11.50 years), all of whom have had a history of childhood maltreatment and removal from the home of their biological parent(s). The second sample comprises a group of UK-based adolescent girls at high familial risk for depression (n = 145; mean age = 11.70 years), with all girls having a biological mother who has experienced recurrent depression. Study analyses examined the role of maternal caregiving on girls’ trajectories of depression and antisocial behavior, while controlling for levels of co-occurring psychopathology at each time point across the study period. Results suggest increasing trajectories of depressive symptoms, controlling for antisocial behavior, for girls at familial risk for depression, but decreasing trajectories for girls in foster care. A similar pattern of results was noted for antisocial behavior trajectories, controlling for depressive symptoms. Maternal caregiver involvement was differentially related to intercept and slope parameters in both samples. Results are discussed with respect to the identification of family level promotive factors aimed at reducing negative developmental trajectories among high-risk youth. PMID:25422973

Harold, Gordon T.; Leve, Leslie D.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Mahedy, Liam; Gaysina, Darya; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan

2014-01-01

170

Maternal Grand Multiparity and the Risk of Severe Mental Disorders in Adult Offspring  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have shown that maternal grand multiparity may predict an increased risk of mental disorders in young adult offspring, but whether such effects persist throughout adulthood remains unknown. The current study examined if maternal grand multiparity predicts the risks of severe mental disorders, suicides, suicide attempts and dementias throughout adult life. Methods Our study sample comprised 13243 Helsinki Birth Cohort Study 1934–1944 participants (6905 men and 6338 women). According to hospital birth records, 341 offspring were born to grand multiparous mothers. From Finnish national hospital discharge and causes of death registers, we identified 1682 participants diagnosed with mental disorders during 1969–2010. Results Maternal grand multiparity predicted significantly increased risks of mood disorders (Hazard Ratio?=?1.64, p?=?0.03), non-psychotic mood disorders (Hazard Ratio?=?2.02, p?=?0.002), and suicide attempts (Hazard Ratio?=?3.94, p?=?0.01) in adult offspring. Furthermore, women born to grand multiparous mothers had significantly increased risks of any severe mental disorder (Hazard Ratio?=?1.79, p?=?0.01), non-psychotic substance use disorders (Hazard Ratio?=?2.77, p?=?0.02) schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders (Hazard Ratio?=?2.40, p?=?0.02), mood disorders (Hazard Ratio?=?2.40, p?=?0.002), non-psychotic mood disorders (Hazard Ratio?=?2.91, p<0.001), and suicide attempts (Hazard Ratio?=?5.05, p?=?0.01) in adulthood. The effects of maternal grand multiparity on offspring psychopathology risk were independent of maternal age and body mass index at childbirth, and of year of birth, sex, childhood socioeconomic position, and birth weight of the offspring. In contrast, no significant effects were found among men. Conclusions Women born to grand multiparous mothers are at an increased risk of severe mental disorders and suicide attempts across adulthood. Our findings may inform the development of preventive interventions for mental disorders. PMID:25493431

Lahti, Marius; Eriksson, Johan G.; Heinonen, Kati; Kajantie, Eero; Lahti, Jari; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Tuovinen, Soile; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Mikkonen, Maiju; Osmond, Clive; Räikkönen, Katri

2014-01-01

171

Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Obesity and Risk for Inattention and Negative Emotionality in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study aimed to replicate and extend previous work showing an association between maternal pre-pregnancy adiposity and risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children. Methods: A Swedish population-based prospective pregnancy-offspring cohort was followed up when children were 5 years old (N = 1,714).…

Rodriguez, Alina

2010-01-01

172

Maternal Residential Atrazine Exposure and Risk for Choanal Atresia and Stenosis in Offspring  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the relationship between estimated residential maternal exposure to atrazine during pregnancy and risk for choanal atresia or stenosis in offspring. Study Design Data for 280 nonsyndromic cases and randomly selected, population-based controls delivered during 1999 to 2008 were obtained from the Texas Birth Defects Registry. County-level estimates of atrazine levels obtained from the United States Geological Survey were assigned to cases and controls based on maternal county of residence at delivery. Unconditional logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between maternal residential atrazine exposure and risk for choanal atresia or stenosis in offspring. Results Compared to offspring of mothers with low levels of estimated residential atrazine exposure, those with high levels had nearly a two-fold increase in risk for choanal atresia or stenosis (adjusted odds ratio: 1.79, 95% confidence interval: 1.17–2.74). A significant linear trend was also observed with increasing levels of atrazine exposure (adjusted P = 0.002). Conclusions A link between maternal exposure to endocrine disruptors, such as atrazine, and choanal atresia risk is plausible based on previous findings. Our results further support this hypothesis. PMID:23036484

Agopian, A.J.; Cai, Yi; Langlois, Peter H.; Canfield, Mark A.; Lupo, Philip J.

2014-01-01

173

Maternal Antisocial Behavior, Parenting Practices, and Behavior Problems in Boys at Risk for Antisocial Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the independent contributions of maternal history of antisocial behavior and parenting practices to the worsening course of sons' behavior problems in a sample of young urban boys at risk for antisocial behavior. Mothers reported on boys' behavior problems at baseline and one year later, as well as on their own history of antisocial behavior before and after age

Miriam K. Ehrensaft; Gail A. Wasserman; Lena Verdelli; Steven Greenwald; Laurie S. Miller; Mark Davies

2003-01-01

174

Advancing Maternal Age Is Associated with Increasing Risk for Autism: A Review and Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: We conducted a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies investigating the association between maternal age and autism. Method: Using recommended guidelines for performing meta-analyses, we systematically selected, and extracted results from, epidemiological scientific studies reported before January 2012. We calculated pooled risk

Sandin, Sven; Hultman, Christina M.; Kolevzon, Alexander; Gross, Raz; MacCabe, James H.; Reichenberg, Abraham

2012-01-01

175

Maternal Depression, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Youth Psychopathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Across development, maternal depression has been found to be a risk factor for youth psychopathology generally and youth depression specifically. Maternal Expressed Emotion (EE) has been examined as a predictor of outcome among youth with depression. The present study explored the associations between youth psychopathology and two…

Tompson, Martha C.; Pierre, Claudette B.; Boger, Kathryn Dingman; McKowen, James W.; Chan, Priscilla T.; Freed, Rachel D.

2010-01-01

176

Pregnancy characteristics and maternal breast cancer risk: a review of the epidemiologic literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The short- and long-term effects of pregnancy on breast cancer risk are well documented. Insight into potential biological\\u000a mechanisms for these associations may be gained by studying breast cancer risk and pregnancy characteristics (e.g., preeclampsia,\\u000a twining), which may reflect hormone levels during pregnancy. To date, no review has synthesized the published literature for\\u000a pregnancy characteristics and maternal breast cancer using

Sarah Nechuta; Nigel Paneth; Ellen M. Velie

2010-01-01

177

Tubal Factor Infertility and Perinatal Risk After Assisted Reproductive Technology  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To assess trends of tubal factor infertility and to evaluate risk of miscarriage and delivery of preterm or low birth weight (LBW) neonates among women with tubal factor infertility using assisted reproductive technology (ART). METHODS We assessed trends of tubal factor infertility among all fresh and frozen, donor, and nondonor ART cycles performed annually in the United States between 2000 and 2010 (N=1,418,774) using the National ART Surveillance System. The data set was then limited to fresh, nondonor in vitro fertilization cycles resulting in pregnancy to compare perinatal outcomes for cycles associated with tubal compared with male factor infertility. We performed bivariate and multivariable analyses controlling for maternal characteristics and calculated adjusted risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS The percentage of ART cycles associated with tubal factor infertility diagnoses decreased from 2000 to 2010 (26.02–14.81%). Compared with male factor infertility, tubal factor portended an increased risk of miscarriage (14.0% compared with 12.7%, adjusted RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04–1.12); risk was increased for both early and late miscarriage. Singleton neonates born to women with tubal factor infertility had an increased risk of pre-term birth (15.8% compared with 11.6%, adjusted RR 1.27, 95% CI 1.20–1.34) and LBW (10.9% compared with 8.5%, adjusted RR 1.28, 95% CI 1.20–1.36). Significant increases in risk persisted for early and late preterm delivery and very low and moderately LBW delivery. A significantly elevated risk was also detected for twin, but not triplet, pregnancies. CONCLUSION Tubal factor infertility, which is decreasing in prevalence in the United States, is associated with an increased risk of miscarriage, preterm birth, and LBW delivery as compared with couples with male factor infertility using ART. PMID:23812461

Kawwass, Jennifer F.; Crawford, Sara; Kissin, Dmitry M.; Session, Donna R.; Boulet, Sheree; Jamieson, Denise J.

2014-01-01

178

Genetic Instrumental Variable Studies of Effects of Prenatal Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

Identifying the effects of maternal risk factors during pregnancy on infant and child health is an area of tremendous research interest. However, of interest to policy makers is unraveling the causal effects of prenatal risk factors, not their associations with child health, which may be confounded by several unobserved factors. In this paper, we evaluate the utility of genetic variants in three genes that have unequivocal evidence of being related to three major risk factors – CHRNA3 for smoking, ADH1B for alcohol use, and FTO for obesity – as instrumental variables for identifying the causal effects of such factors during pregnancy. Using two independent datasets, we find that these variants are overall predictive of the risk factors and are not systematically related to observed confounders, suggesting that they may be useful instruments. We also find some suggestive evidence that genetic effects are stronger during than before pregnancy. We provide an empirical example illustrating the use of these genetic variants as instruments to evaluate the effects of risk factors on birth weight. Finally, we offer suggestions for researchers contemplating the use of these variants as instruments. PMID:23701534

von Hinke Kessler Scholder, Stephanie

2013-01-01

179

Factors influencing length of maternal care in brown bears ( Ursus arctos ) and its effect on offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Length of maternal care, i.e. the interval between successfully raised litters, is the most important factor explaining the variation in reproductive rate among brown-bear ( Ursus arctos) populations. In this paper, we examine the variation in length of maternal care in radio-marked brown bears and its effect on their offspring in northern Sweden. Young stayed with their mothers for 1.4–1.5

Bjørn Dahle; Jon E. Swenson

2003-01-01

180

Hidden costs associated with the universal application of risk management in maternity care.  

PubMed

This paper presents a critical analysis of risk management in maternity care and the hidden costs associated with the practice in healthy women. Issues of quality and safety are driving an increased emphasis by health services on risk management in maternity care. Medical risk in pregnancy is known to benefit 15% or less of all pregnancies. Risk management applied to the remaining 85% of healthy women results in the management of risk in the absence of risk. The health cost to mothers and babies and the economic burden on the overall health system of serious morbidity has been omitted from calculations comparing costs of uncomplicated caesarean birth and uncomplicated vaginal birth. The understanding that elective caesarean birth is cost-neutral when compared to a normal vaginal birth has misled practitioners and contributed to over use of the practice. For the purpose of informing the direction of maternity service policy it is necessary to expose the effect the overuse of medical intervention has on the overall capacity of the healthcare system to absorb the increasing demand for operating theatre resources in the absence of clinical need. PMID:21612736

McIntyre, Meredith J; Chapman, Ysanne; Francis, Karen

2011-05-01

181

Risk factors for endometrial cancer.  

PubMed

Endometrial cancer is the most common malignancy of women in developed countries, and its incidence is rising among pre- and postmenopausal women. In developed and numerous developing countries endometrial cancer, as well as other types of female cancers are an ever-increasing threat that may be explained, among other reasons, by increased life expectancy and changes in lifestyle factors. Endometrial cancer is more common in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women. Through a review of the literature it was found that the risk of endometrial cancer is positively correlated with older age, early menarche & late menopause, obesity, family history of endometrial cancer (especially among close relatives), radiation exposure, and infertility particularly in the presence of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. Long-term use of unopposed oestrogens for hormone replacement therapy also increases the risk of endometrial cancer. Caucasians have a higher incidence of endometrial cancer than African or Asian women. Obese women were found to be at high risk for developing endometrial cancer, while diabetes, hypertension, and geographical and socioeconomic factors are still inconclusive. Finally, smoking is considered as a protective factor against endometrial cancer due to its anti- estrogenic effect. PMID:24313431

Ali, Aus Tariq

2013-11-01

182

Maternal and obstetrical factors associated with a successful trial of vaginal birth after cesarean section  

PubMed Central

Objective To detect the maternal and obstetrical factors associated with successful trial of vaginal birth among women with a previous cesarean delivery. Material and Methods A total of 122 women who were eligible for a trial of labor after cesarean section (TOLAC) according to departmental protocol were included in this comparative prospective study. After informed consent, the women included in this study were subjected to a thorough history to detect maternal and obstetric characteristics and a standard examination to estimate fetal weight, engagement of the fetal head, intra-partum features of fetal membranes, and cervical dilatation. After delivery, data on duration of labor, labor augmentation, mode of delivery, birth outcome, and neonatal intensive care (NICU) admission were recorded and analyzed. Results Trial of labor after cesarean section was successful in 72.13% and was unsuccessful in 27.87%. Body mass index (BMI) was significantly lower in the successful TOLAC group compared to the unsuccessful group (23.8±0.03 versus 26.2±0.02 kg/m2), and the number of women with BMI >25 kg/m2 was significantly high in the unsuccessful group; also, mean gestational age was significantly lower in the successful TOLAC group compared to the unsuccessful group (37.5±0.04 versus 38.5±0.03 weeks), and the number of women admitted in labor with gestation ?40 weeks was significantly high in the unsuccessful group. The number of women admitted with >2/5 of fetal head palpable abdominally and fetal head station ?-2 was significantly high in the unsuccessful TOLAC group. Conclusion In carefully selected cases, TOLAC is safe and often successful. Presence of BMI >25 kg/m2, gestation ?40 weeks, and vertex station ?-2 were risk factors for unsuccessful TOLAC. PMID:25584035

Abdelazim, Ibrahim A.; Elbiaa, Assem A. M.; Al-Kadi, Mohamed; Yehia, Amr H.; Sami Nusair, Bassam M.; Faza, Mohannad Abu

2014-01-01

183

Genetic and nongenetic risk factors for childhood cancer  

PubMed Central

Summary The causes of childhood cancer have been systematically studied for several decades, but apart from high-dose radiation and prior chemotherapy there are few or no strong external risk factors. On the other hand, inherent risk factors including birth weight, parental age, and congenital anomalies are consistently associated with most types of pediatric cancer. Rare, highly-penetrant syndromes have long been known to cause a small proportion of cancers but recently the contribution of common genetic variation to etiology has come into focus through genome wide association studies. These have highlighted genes not previously implicated in childhood cancers and, surprisingly, have suggested that common variation explains a larger proportion of childhood cancers than adult. Rare variation and non-Mendelian inheritance, such as through maternal genetic effects or de novo germline mutations, may also contribute to childhood cancer risk but have not been widely examined to date. PMID:25435109

Spector, Logan G.; Pankratz, Nathan; Marcotte, Erin L.

2015-01-01

184

Cluster of Heart Risk Factors Tied to Uterine Cancer Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Cluster of Heart Risk Factors Tied to Uterine Cancer Risk Excess weight likely a big factor, but other ... 13, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A collection of health risk factors known as the "metabolic syndrome" may boost ...

185

Maternal-Fetal Metabolic Gene-Gene Interactions and Risk of Neural Tube Defects  

PubMed Central

Single-gene analyses indicate that maternal genes associated with metabolic conditions (e.g., obesity) may influence the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs). However, to our knowledge, there have been no assessments of maternal-fetal metabolic gene-gene interactions and NTDs. We investigated 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms among 7 maternal metabolic genes (ADRB3, ENPP1, FTO, LEP, PPARG, PPARGC1A, and TCF7L2) and 2 fetal metabolic genes (SLC2A2 and UCP2). Samples were obtained from 737 NTD case-parent triads included in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study for birth years 1999–2007. We used a 2-step approach to evaluate maternal-fetal gene-gene interactions. First, a case-only approach was applied to screen all potential maternal and fetal interactions (n=76), as this design provides greater power in the assessment of gene-gene interactions compared to other approaches. Specifically, ordinal logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each maternal-fetal gene-gene interaction, assuming a log-additive model of inheritance. Due to the number of comparisons, we calculated a corrected p-value (q-value) using the false discovery rate. Second, we confirmed all statistically significant interactions (q<0.05) using a log-linear approach among case-parent triads. In step 1, there were 5 maternal-fetal gene-gene interactions with q<0.05. The “top hit” was an interaction between maternal ENPP1 rs1044498 and fetal SLC2A2 rs6785233 (interaction OR=3.65, 95% CI: 2.32–5.74, p=2.09×10?8, q=0.001), which was confirmed in step 2 (p=0.00004). Our findings suggest that maternal metabolic genes associated with hyperglycemia and insulin resistance and fetal metabolic genes involved in glucose homeostasis may interact to increase the risk of NTDs. PMID:24332798

Lupo, Philip J.; Mitchell, Laura E.; Canfield, Mark A.; Shaw, Gary M.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Finnell, Richard H.; Zhu, Huiping

2013-01-01

186

Maternal-fetal metabolic gene-gene interactions and risk of neural tube defects.  

PubMed

Single-gene analyses indicate that maternal genes associated with metabolic conditions (e.g., obesity) may influence the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs). However, to our knowledge, there have been no assessments of maternal-fetal metabolic gene-gene interactions and NTDs. We investigated 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms among 7 maternal metabolic genes (ADRB3, ENPP1, FTO, LEP, PPARG, PPARGC1A, and TCF7L2) and 2 fetal metabolic genes (SLC2A2 and UCP2). Samples were obtained from 737 NTD case-parent triads included in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study for birth years 1999-2007. We used a 2-step approach to evaluate maternal-fetal gene-gene interactions. First, a case-only approach was applied to screen all potential maternal and fetal interactions (n = 76), as this design provides greater power in the assessment of gene-gene interactions compared to other approaches. Specifically, ordinal logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each maternal-fetal gene-gene interaction, assuming a log-additive model of inheritance. Due to the number of comparisons, we calculated a corrected p-value (q-value) using the false discovery rate. Second, we confirmed all statistically significant interactions (q < 0.05) using a log-linear approach among case-parent triads. In step 1, there were 5 maternal-fetal gene-gene interactions with q < 0.05. The "top hit" was an interaction between maternal ENPP1 rs1044498 and fetal SLC2A2 rs6785233 (interaction OR = 3.65, 95% CI: 2.32-5.74, p = 2.09×10(-8), q=0.001), which was confirmed in step 2 (p = 0.00004). Our findings suggest that maternal metabolic genes associated with hyperglycemia and insulin resistance and fetal metabolic genes involved in glucose homeostasis may interact to increase the risk of NTDs. PMID:24332798

Lupo, Philip J; Mitchell, Laura E; Canfield, Mark A; Shaw, Gary M; Olshan, Andrew F; Finnell, Richard H; Zhu, Huiping

2014-01-01

187

Maternal exposure to predation risk decreases offspring antipredator behaviour and survival in threespined stickleback  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY 1. Adaptive maternal programming occurs when mothers alter their offspring's phenotype in response to environmental information such that it improves offspring fitness. When a mother's environment is predictive of the conditions her offspring are likely to encounter, such transgenerational plasticity enables offspring to be better-prepared for this particular environment. However, maternal effects can also have deleterious effects on fitness. 2. Here, we test whether female threespined stickleback fish exposed to predation risk adaptively prepare their offspring to cope with predators. We either exposed gravid females to a model predator or not, and compared their offspring's antipredator behaviour and survival when alone with a live predator. Importantly, we measured offspring behaviour and survival in the face of the same type of predator that threatened their mothers (Northern pike). 3. We did not find evidence for adaptive maternal programming; offspring of predator-exposed mothers were less likely to orient to the predator than offspring from unexposed mothers. In our predation assay, orienting to the predator was an effective antipredator behaviour and those that oriented, survived for longer. 4. In addition, offspring from predator-exposed mothers were caught more quickly by the predator on average than offspring from unexposed mothers. The difference in antipredator behaviour between the maternal predator-exposure treatments offers a potential behavioural mechanism contributing to the difference in survival between maternal treatments. 5. However, the strength and direction of the maternal effect on offspring survival depended on offspring size. Specifically, the larger the offspring from predator-exposed mothers, the more vulnerable they were to predation compared to offspring from unexposed mothers. 6. Our results suggest that the predation risk perceived by mothers can have long-term behavioural and fitness consequences for offspring in response to the same predator. These stress-mediated maternal effects can have nonadaptive consequences for offspring when they find themselves alone with a predator. In addition, complex interactions between such maternal effects and offspring traits such as size can influence our conclusions about the adaptive nature of maternal effects. PMID:22962510

McGhee, Katie E.; Pintor, Lauren M.; Suhr, Elissa L.; Bell, Alison M.

2012-01-01

188

Colic anastomotic leakage risk factors  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background: Anastomotic leakage is a dreaded complication of colorectal surgery, as it greatly increases the morbidity, mortality and has been associated with augmented local recurrence and diminished survival. The frequency of this complication is high in emergency colorectal surgery, especially for bowel occlusion, (13% for emergency vs. 4% in elective), due to visceral distension and, therefore, an incongruence in the size of each of the stumps, combined with the lack of mechanical preparation and risk of fecal contamination during operation. Methods: We studied the incidence of anastomotic fistula in the surgery clinic of the “Sf. Pantelimon” Emergency Hospital, between 2006 and 2010, on a lot of 251 patients who underwent different types of colic resection. Apart from the anatomic location of the disease, and the level of anastomosis, we included in our database the following criteria: the patient’s age and gender, type of colic pathology, surgical technique, emergency or elective surgery, comorbidities. Results: An ileocolic anastomosis was performed for 84 patients (33,46 %), for 114 patients (45,41%) a colo-colic anastomosis was carried out, 2 patients (0,79%) had ileorectal anastomosis and 51 patients (20,31%) underwent a colorectal anastomosis. From the comparative analysis of risk factors (the emergency interventions, the anastomosis location, the age and gender of the patient), a significantly increased value of the relative risk of anastomotic fistula was registered for the cases with emergency intervention (x 6,61) and for the colorectal anastomosis following the left hemi colectomies (x 2,23). Discussions: In our study, among the clinical and biological factors analyzed, emergency intervention was the most signi?cant factor associated with anastomotic leakage. Surgery performed in emergency settings, on debilitated patients without adequate preoperative preparation, has an increased risk for anastomotic dehiscence. PMID:24868253

Calin, MD; B?l?l?u, C; Popa, F; Voiculescu, S; Sc?una?u, RV

2013-01-01

189

Factors Associated With Maternal-Reported Actions to Prevent Type 1 Diabetes in the First Year of the TEDDY Study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Mothers of children at risk for type 1 diabetes report engaging in preventive behaviors. The purpose of this study is to further document these actions in an international, longitudinal sample and examine variables that predict whether mothers engage in these behaviors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This study examined an international sample (from Finland, Germany, Sweden, and the U.S.) from the naturalistic, longitudinal The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study, which tracked children genetically at risk for type 1 diabetes from birth to age 15 years. Mothers of 7,613 infants aged 6 months and 6,503 infants aged 15 months completed questionnaires assessing psychosocial factors and actions intended to prevent diabetes. RESULTS Many mothers (29.9% at 6 months and 42.8% at 15 months) reported engaging in a behavior intended to prevent type 1 diabetes, with the largest percentages (20.9–29.2%) reporting making changes to their child’s diet (e.g., reducing the consumption of sweets and carbohydrates). Factors related to engaging in preventive behaviors include older maternal age; higher maternal education; minority status; having only one child; having a first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes; being from a country other than Sweden; having an accurate perception of the child’s increased risk for developing diabetes; having postpartum depression, maternal anxiety, and worry about the risk of diabetes; and believing that diabetes can be prevented. CONCLUSIONS The findings of this study suggest that many mothers engage in actions to prevent diabetes and highlight the importance of tracking these behaviors to ensure the validity of naturalistic observational studies. PMID:24041684

Smith, Laura B.; Lynch, Kristian F.; Baxter, Judith; Lernmark, Barbro; Roth, Roswith; Simell, Tuula; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett

2014-01-01

190

Are urban safety-net hospitals losing low-risk Medicaid maternity patients?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine data on Medicaid and self-pay/charity maternity cases to address four questions: (1) Did safety-net hospitals' share of Medicaid patients decline while their shares of self-pay/charity-care patients increased from 1991 to 1994? (2) Did Medicaid patients' propensity to use safety-net hospitals decline during 1991-94? (3) Did self-pay/charity patients' propensity to use safety-net hospitals increase during 1991-94? (4) Did the change in Medicaid patients' use of safety-net hospitals differ for low- and high-risk patients? STUDY DESIGN: We use hospital discharge data to estimate logistic regression models of hospital choice for low-risk and high-risk Medicaid and self-pay/charity maternity patients for 25 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in five states for the years 1991 and 1994. We define low-risk patients as discharges without comorbidities and high-risk patients as discharges with comorbidities that may substantially increase hospital costs, length of stay, or morbidity. The five states are California, Florida, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York. The MSAs in the analysis are those with at least one safety-net hospital and a population of 500,000 or more. This study also uses data from the 1990 Census and AHA Annual Survey of Hospitals. The regression analysis estimates the change between 1991 and 1994 in the relative odds of a Medicaid or self-pay/charity patient using a safety-net hospital. We explore whether this change in the relative odds is related to the risk status of the patient. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The findings suggest that competition for Medicaid patients increased from 1991 to 1994. Over time, safety-net hospitals lost low-risk maternity Medicaid patients while services to high-risk maternity Medicaid patients and self-pay/charity maternity patients remained concentrated in safety-net hospitals. IMPLICATIONS FOR POLICY: Safety-net hospitals use Medicaid patient revenues and public subsidies that are based on Medicaid patient volumes to subsidize care for uninsured and underinsured patients. If safety-net hospitals continue to lose their low-risk Medicaid patients, their ability to finance care for the medically indigent will be impaired. Increased hospital competition may improve access to hospital care for low-risk Medicaid patients, but policymakers should be cognizant of the potential reduction in access to hospital care for uninsured and underinsured patients. Public policymakers should ensure that safety-net hospitals have sufficient financial resources to care for these patients by subsidizing their care directly. PMID:11324742

Gaskin, D J; Hadley, J; Freeman, V G

2001-01-01

191

Maternal Food Insecurity Is Associated with Increased Risk of Certain Birth Defects1,2  

PubMed Central

Food insecurity represents a lack of access to enough food to meet basic needs. We hypothesized that food insecurity may increase birth defect risks, because it is an indicator of increased stress or compromised nutrition, which are both implicated in birth defect etiologies. This study used population-based case-control data. Included in the analysis were 1,189 case mothers and 695 control mothers who were interviewed by telephone. We calculated a food insecurity score as the number of affirmative responses to 5 questions from a shortened instrument designed to measure food insecurity. OR for the food insecurity score specified as a linear term indicated that a higher score was associated with increased risk of cleft palate, d-transposition of the great arteries, tetralogy of Fallot, spina bifida, and anencephaly, but not with cleft lip with or without cleft palate, after adjustment for maternal race-ethnicity, education, BMI, intake of folic acid-containing supplements, dietary intake of folate and energy, neighborhood crime, and stressful life events. In addition, several models suggested effect modification by certain factors. For example, for anencephaly, among women with the worst score for neighborhood crime (i.e. 6), the OR associated with a 1-unit change in the food insecurity score was 1.57 (95% CI 1.06, 2.33), whereas among women with a low crime score (i.e. 2), the corresponding OR was 1.16 (95% CI 0.96, 1.38). This study suggests that increased risks of certain birth defects may be included among the negative consequences of food insecurity. PMID:17709447

Carmichael, Suzan L.; Yang, Wei; Herring, Amy; Abrams, Barbara; Shaw, Gary M.

2007-01-01

192

Risk factors for tornado injuries.  

PubMed

Tornadoes in North and South Carolina on 28 March 1984 caused 252 people to be injured seriously enough to require hospitalization and 59 to be killed. To evaluate risk factors, we gathered information on 238 (94%) of those hospitalized and 46 (78%) of those killed. Those hospitalized or deceased had statistically significantly more deep cuts, concussions, unconsciousness and broken bones than those with them at the time of the tornado who were not hospitalized or killed. People living in mobile homes were more likely to be hospitalized or die than people occupying conventional houses. Other risk factors for hospitalization or death included advanced age (60+ years), no physical protection (not having been covered with a blanket or other object), having been struck by broken window glass or other falling objects, home lifted off its foundation, collapsed ceiling or floor, or walls blown away. More awareness of the tornado risk before it strikes and better adherence to tornado protection guidelines could reduce injuries and deaths in the future. PMID:2083989

Eidson, M; Lybarger, J A; Parsons, J E; MacCormack, J N; Freeman, J I

1990-12-01

193

Risk factors of ?-hydroxybutyrate overdosing.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify in recreational drug users the factors which increase the risk of overdosing (OD) with ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). A purposive sample of 45 experienced GHB users was interviewed, equally divided into three groups (never OD, occasional OD, and repeat OD). The repeat OD group scored highest on many risk factors regarding GHB use, the occasional OD group scored intermediate, and the never OD group scored lowest. Participants, whether or not they had overdosed on GHB, most often perceived GHB use (e.g. using more GHB than usual, using GHB doses too closely together) as the main reason for GHB OD, and many participants who had overdosed on GHB reported that they had taken more GHB than usual at their most recent occasion of GHB OD. No significant differences in co-use of GHB with other substances were found between the three groups. Our findings indicate that using GHB in the company of groups of friends probably reduces, but does not eliminate, the risk of OD. PMID:24080792

Korf, Dirk J; Nabben, Ton; Benschop, Annemieke; Ribbink, Kim; van Amsterdam, Jan G C

2014-01-01

194

Factors associated with severe maternal morbidity and near miss in the São Francisco Valley, Brazil: a retrospective, cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal mortality remains a major public health issue worldwide, with persistent high rates prevailing principally in underdeveloped countries. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors for severe maternal morbidity and near miss (SMM/NM) in pregnant and postpartum women at the maternity ward of the Dom Malan Hospital, Petrolina, in northeastern Brazil. Methods A retrospective, cohort study was conducted to evaluate the sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics of the women. Patients who remained hospitalized at the end of the study period were excluded. Risk ratios (RR) and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated as a measure of relative risk. Hierarchical multiple logistic regression was also performed. Two-tailed p-values were used for all the tests and the significance level adopted was 5%. Results A total of 2,291 pregnant or postpartum women receiving care between May and August, 2011 were included. The frequencies of severe maternal morbidity and near miss were 17.5% and 1.0%, respectively. Following multivariate analysis, the factors that remained significantly associated with an increased risk of SMM/NM were a Cesarean section in the current pregnancy (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 2.0 – 3.3), clinical comorbidities (OR: 3.4; 95% CI: 2.5 – 4.4), having attended fewer than six prenatal visits (OR: 1.1; 95% CI: 1.01 – 1.69) and the presence of the third delay (i.e. delay in receiving care at the health facility) (OR: 13.3; 95% CI: 6.7 – 26.4). Conclusions The risk of SMM/NM was greater in women who had been submitted to a Cesarean section in the current pregnancy, in the presence of clinical comorbidities, fewer prenatal visits and when the third delay was present. All these factors could be minimized by initiating a broad debate on healthcare policies, introducing preventive measures and improving the training of the professionals and services providing obstetric care. PMID:24576223

2014-01-01

195

About Alzheimer's Disease: Risk Factors and Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR About Alzheimer's Disease: Risk Factors and Prevention We can’t control some ... help with Alzheimer's as well. NIA Information on Risk Factors and Prevention Brain Health Resource Preventing Alzheimer’s ...

196

Tourette Syndrome (TS): Risk Factors and Causes  

MedlinePLUS

... to Other Websites Information For... Media Policy Makers Risk Factors and Causes Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... Compartir Scientists are studying the causes of and risk factors for Tourette Syndrome (TS) in an effort to ...

197

An Investigation of the Relations between School Concentrations of Student Risk Factors and Student Educational Well-Being  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the unique relations between school concentrations of student risk factors and measures of reading, mathematics, and attendance. It used an integrated administrative data system to create a combined data set of risks (i.e., birth risks, teen mother, low maternal education, homelessness, maltreatment, and lead exposure) for…

Fantuzzo, John W.; LeBoeuf, Whitney A.; Rouse, Heather L.

2014-01-01

198

The Maternal Serological Response to Intrauterine Ureaplasma sp. Infection and Prediction of Risk of Pre-Term Birth  

PubMed Central

Pre-term birth (PTB) associated with intrauterine infection and inflammation (IUI) is the major cause of early PTB less than 32?weeks of gestation. Ureaplasma spp. are common commensals of the urogenital tract in pregnancy and are the most commonly identified microorganisms in amniotic fluid of pre-term pregnancies. While we have an understanding of the causal relationship between intra-amniotic infection, inflammation and PTB, we are still unable to explain why vaginal Ureaplasma sp. colonization is tolerated in some women but causes PTB in others. It is now known that placental tissues are frequently colonized by bacteria even in apparently healthy pregnancies delivered at term; usually this occurs in the absence of a significant local inflammatory response. It appears, therefore, that the site, nature, and magnitude of the immune response to infiltrating microorganisms are key in determining pregnancy outcome. Some evidence exists that the maternal serological response to Ureaplasma sp. colonization may be predictive of adverse pregnancy outcome, although issues such as the importance of virulence factors (serovars) and the timing, magnitude, and functional consequences of the immune response await clarification. This mini-review discusses the evidence linking the maternal immune response to risk of PTB and the potential applications of maternal serological analysis for predicting obstetric outcome. PMID:25538708

Ireland, Demelza J.; Keelan, Jeffrey A.

2014-01-01

199

Cumulative Risk and Adolescent's Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: The Mediating Roles of Maternal Responsiveness and Self-Regulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to examine longitudinal associations among maternal responsiveness, self-regulation, and behavioral adjustment in adolescents. The authors used structural equation modeling to test a model that demonstrates that the effects of early cumulative risk on behavioral problems is mediated by maternal responsiveness…

Doan, Stacey N.; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Evans, Gary W.

2012-01-01

200

Predicting Change in Parenting Stress across Early Childhood: Child and Maternal Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined maternal parenting stress in a sample of 430 boys and girls including those at risk for externalizing behavior problems. Children and their mothers were assessed when the children were ages 2, 4, and 5. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to examine stability of parenting stress across early childhood and to examine…

Williford, Amanda P.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.

2007-01-01

201

Modifications of Coronary Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

In addition to the revascularization and glycemic management interventions assigned at random, the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) design includes the uniform control of major coronary artery disease risk factors, including dyslipidemia, hypertension, smoking, central obesity, and sedentary lifestyle. Target levels for risk factors were adjusted throughout the trial to comply with changes in recommended clinical practice guidelines. At present, the goals are low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <2.59 mmol/L (<100 mg/dL) with an optional goal of <1.81 mmol/L (<70 mg/dL); plasma triglyceride level <1.70 mmol/L (<150 mg/dL); blood pressure level <130 mm Hg systolic and <80 mm Hg diastolic; and smoking cessation treatment for all active smokers. Algorithms were developed for the pharmacologic management of dyslipidemia and hypertension. Dietary prescriptions for the management of glycemia, plasma lipid profiles, and blood pressure levels were adapted from existing clinical practice guidelines. Patients with a body mass index >25 were prescribed moderate caloric restriction; after the trial was under way, a lifestyle weight-management program was instituted. All patients were formally prescribed both endurance and resistance/flexibility exercises, individually adapted to their level of disability and fitness. Pedometers were distributed as a biofeedback strategy. Strategies to achieve the goals for risk factors were designed by BARI 2D working groups (lipid, cardiovascular and hypertension, and nonpharmacologic intervention) and the ongoing implementation of the strategies is monitored by lipid, hypertension, and lifestyle intervention management centers. PMID:16813737

Albu, Jeanine; Gottlieb, Sheldon H.; August, Phyllis; Nesto, Richard W.; Orchard, Trevor J.

2009-01-01

202

Risk Factors for Chronic Kidney Disease  

MedlinePLUS

Home » Kidney Info » 1 in 9 Adults Risk Factors for CKD When you have a risk factor, it means you are more likely to have a problem than someone who does ... to prevent or delay kidney failure. Kidney Disease Risk Factors You Can Change Diabetes Type 2 diabetes ...

203

Configurations of Common Childhood Psychosocial Risk Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…

Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

2009-01-01

204

Human factors in software security risk management  

Microsoft Academic Search

All kinds of human factors can deeply affect the results and efficiency of software risk management. This paper focuses on our ongoing work of studying human factors in security risk management. The human factors are identified and classified for the categories of individual, team, management and stakeholder, as well as for the activities of security risk identification, analysis and mitigation.

Shareeful Islam; Wei Dong

2008-01-01

205

Risk Factors for Infective Endocarditis  

Microsoft Academic Search

record abstracts with risk factor data removed. Cases were more likely than controls to suffer from prior severe kidney disease (adjusted OR [95% CI]516.9 [1.5 to 193], P50.02) and diabetes mellitus (adjusted OR [95% CI]52.7 [1.4 to 5.2], P50.004). Cases infected with skin flora had received intravenous fluids more often (adjusted OR [95% CI]56.7 [1.1 to 41], P50.04) and had

Nondental Exposures; Brian L. Strom; Mph Elias Abrutyn; Jesse A. Berlin; Scd Judith L. Kinman; Roy S. Feldman; Dmsc Paul D. Stolley; Mph Matthew E. Levison; Oksana M. Korzeniowski; Donald Kaye

206

Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and body composition and cardiovascular risk markers in Indian children: the Mysore Parthenon study  

PubMed Central

Background Metabolic consequences of vitamin D deficiency have become a recent research focus. Maternal vitamin D status is thought to influence musculo-skeletal health in children, but its relationship with offspring metabolic risk is not known. Objective We aimed to examine the association between maternal vitamin D status and anthropometry, body composition and cardiovascular risk markers in Indian children. Design Serum 25-hydroxy D (25(OH)D ) concentrations were measured at 28-32 weeks gestation in 568 women who delivered at Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore. Anthropometry, glucose and insulin concentrations, blood pressure (BP) and fasting lipid concentrations were measured in the offspring at 5 and 9.5 years of age. Muscle-grip strength was measured using a hand held dynamometer at 9.5 years. Arm-muscle-area was calculated as a measure of muscle mass. Fasting insulin resistance was calculated using the HOMA equation. Results 67% of women had vitamin D deficiency (serum 25(OH)D concentration <50 nmol/l). At 5 and 9.5 years, children born to vitamin D deficient mothers had smaller arm-muscle-area compared to children born to mothers without deficiency (P<0.05). There was no difference in grip strength between offspring of women with and without vitamin D deficiency. At 9.5 years, children of vitamin D deficient mothers had higher fasting insulin resistance than children of non-deficient women (P=0.04). There were no associations between maternal vitamin D status and other offspring risk factors at either age. Conclusions Intra-uterine exposure to low 25(OH)D concentrations is associated with lower muscle mass and higher insulin resistance in children. PMID:21228264

Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Winder, Nicola R; Hill, Jacqueline C; Noonan, Kate; Boucher, Barbara J; Karat, Samuel C; Fall, Caroline HD

2012-01-01

207

High maternal mortality levels and additional risk from poor accessibility in two districts of northern province, Zambia.  

PubMed

Two community-based retrospective studies conducted in the northern province of Zambia and a review of mortality data from Kasama General Hospital from 1991 to 1995 confirmed the existence of exceptionally high maternal mortality levels in this area. The sisterhood method was applied to a randomly selected sample of 3123 respondents from Kasama District and 2953 from Kaputa District. The life-time risk of dying from maternal causes was 5.4% in Kasama and 11.0% in Kaputa. The maternal mortality ratio was 764/100,000 live births in Kasama District, 1549/100,000 live births in Kaputa District, and 543/100,000 live births at Kasama District Hospital. 94% of women delivering at the hospital were within two hours' walking distance from the facility. In Kasama District, the population-attributable risk (PAR, "risk in the total population minus risk in the unexposed population") of maternal mortality from poor accessibility (more than 2 hours' walking distance) was 220 maternal deaths/100,000 live births, and the population etiologic fraction (PEF, "PAR/risk in total population") was 29%. In Kaputa District, where there is no hospital, the PAR from poor accessibility was 1006 maternal deaths/100,000 live births and the PEF was 65%. To reduce accessibility-related maternal mortality, both districts have established an ambulance service, set up strategic blood banks, and provided short wave radios to outlying health centers. PMID:9169171

Le Bacq, F; Rietsema, A

1997-04-01

208

Maternal and neonatal factors associated with mode of delivery under a universal newborn hearing screening programme in Lagos, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Emerging evidence from a recent pilot universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) programme suggests that the burden of obstetric complications associated with mode of delivery is not limited to maternal and perinatal mortality but may also include outcomes that undermine optimal early childhood development of the surviving newborns. However, the potential pathways for this association have not been reported particularly in the context of a resource-poor setting. This study therefore set out to establish the pattern of delivery and the associated neonatal outcomes under a UNHS programme. Methods A cross-sectional study in which all consenting mothers who delivered in an inner-city tertiary maternity hospital in Lagos, Nigeria from May 2005 to December 2007 were enrolled during the UNHS programme. Socio-demographic, obstetric and neonatal factors independently associated with vaginal, elective and emergency caesarean deliveries were determined using multinomial logistic regression analyses. Results Of the 4615 mothers enrolled, 2584 (56.0%) deliveries were vaginal, 1590 (34.4%) emergency caesarean and 441 (9.6%) elective caesarean section. Maternal age, parity, social class and all obstetric factors including lack of antenatal care, maternal HIV and multiple gestations were associated with increased risk of emergency caesarean delivery compared with vaginal delivery. Only parity, lack of antenatal care and prolonged/obstructed labour were associated with increased risk of emergency compared with elective caesarean delivery. Infants delivered by vaginal method or by emergency caesarean section were more likely to be associated with the risk of sensorineural hearing loss but less likely to be associated with hyperbilirubinaemia compared with infants delivered by elective caesarean section. Emergency caesarean delivery was also associated with male gender, low five-minute Apgar scores and admission into special care baby unit compared with vaginal or elective caesarean delivery. Conclusions The vast majority of caesarean delivery in this population occur as emergencies and are associated with socio-demographic factors as well as several obstetric complications. Mode of delivery is also associated with the risk of sensorineural hearing loss and other adverse birth outcomes that lie on the causal pathways for potential developmental deficits. PMID:19732443

Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Solanke, Olumuyiwa A

2009-01-01

209

Risk of retinoblastoma is associated with a maternal polymorphism in dihydrofolatereductase (DHFR) and prenatal folic acid intake  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The incidence of unilateral retinoblastoma varies globally, suggesting possible environmental contributors to disease incidence. Maternal intake of naturally occurring folate from vegetables during pregnancy is associated inversely with the risk of retinoblastoma in offspring. The authors used a ca...

210

Maternal Teaching in the Zone of Proximal Development: A Comparison of Low- and High-Risk Dyads.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines differences between maternal verbal teaching interactions that facilitate adult transfer of task responsibility as demonstrated by children's improved task performance after a teaching session among low- and high-risk mother-child dyads. (Author/BB)

Diaz, Rafael M.; And Others

1991-01-01

211

Risk Factors for Excessive Gestational Weight Gain in a Healthy, Nulliparous Cohort  

PubMed Central

Objective. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with adverse maternal and child outcomes and contributes to obesity in women. Our aim was to identify early pregnancy factors associated with excessive GWG, in a contemporary nulliparous cohort. Methods. Participants in the SCOPE study were classified into GWG categories (“not excessive” versus “excessive”) based on pregravid body mass index (BMI) using 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines. Maternal characteristics and pregnancy risk factors at 14–16 weeks were compared between categories and multivariable analysis controlled for confounding factors. Results. Of 1950 women, 17% gained weight within the recommended range, 74% had excessive and 9% inadequate GWG. Women with excessive GWG were more likely to be overweight (adjOR 2.9 (95% CI 2.2–3.8)) or obese (adjOR 2.5 (95% CI 1.8–3.5)) before pregnancy compared to women with a normal BMI. Other factors independently associated with excessive GWG included recruitment in Ireland, younger maternal age, increasing maternal birthweight, cessation of smoking by 14–16 weeks, increased nightly sleep duration, high seafood diet, recent immigrant, limiting behaviour, and decreasing exercise by 14–16 weeks. Fertility treatment was protective. Conclusions. Identification of potentially modifiable risk factors for excessive GWG provides opportunities for intervention studies to improve pregnancy outcome and prevent maternal obesity. PMID:24995130

Taylor, Rennae S.; Thompson, John M. D.; Flower, Deralie; Dekker, Gustaaf A.; Kenny, Louise C.; Poston, Lucilla; McCowan, Lesley M. E.

2014-01-01

212

Effects of caesarean section on maternal health in low risk nulliparous women: a prospective matched cohort study in Shanghai, China  

PubMed Central

Background Rates of caesarean section are progressively increasing in many parts of the world. As a result of psychosocial factors there has been an increasing tendency for pregnant women without justifiable medical indications for caesarean section to ask for this procedure in China. A critical examination of this issue in relation to maternal outcomes is important. At present there are no clinical trials to help assess the risks and benefits of caesarean section in low risk women. To fill the gap left by trials, this indication-matched cohort study was carried out to examine prospectively the outcomes of caesarean section on women with no absolute obstetric indication compared with similar women who had vaginal delivery. Methods An indication-matched cohort study was undertaken to compare maternal outcomes following caesarean section with those undergoing vaginal delivery, in which the two groups were matched for non-absolute indications. 301 nulliparous women with caesarean section were matched successfully with 301 women who delivered vaginally in the Maternal and Children's Hospitals (MCHs) in Shanghai, China. Logistic regression model or binomial regression model was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) directly. Adjusted RRs were calculated adjusting for propensity score and medical indications. Results The incidence of total complications was 2.2 times higher in the caesarean section group during hospitalization post-partum, compared with the vaginal delivery group (RR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1-4.4). The risk of haemorrhage from the start of labour until 2 hours post-partum was significantly higher in the caesarean group (RR = 5.6; 95% CI: 1.2-26.9). The risk of chronic abdominal pain was significantly higher for the caesarean section group (RR = 3.6; 95% CI: 1.2-10.9) than for the vaginal delivery group within 12 months post-partum. The two groups had similar incidences of anaemia and complicating infections such as wound complications or urinary tract infection. Conclusions In nulliparous women who were at low risk, caesarean section was associated with a higher rate of post-partum morbidity. Those requesting the surgical procedure with no conventional medical indication, should be advised of the potential risks. PMID:21122153

2010-01-01

213

Risk factors on hypertensive disorders among Jordanian pregnant women.  

PubMed

Eight percent of pregnancies involve hypertensive disorders, which can have serious complications for mothers and children. There has only been minimal research into hypertension in pregnancy in developing countries, including Jordan. Therefore, this study aimed to identify how frequent certain risk factors that apply to hyper-tensive disorders during pregnancy were among women in the Jordanian capital of Amman. A prospective case-control study was conducted on 184 Jordanian pregnant patients with hypertensive disorders and 172 age-matched control subjects recruited from the maternity ward of a tertiary public hospital in Amman city; they were followed-up until 85 days after the birth (late puerperium). A standardized questionnaire pilot-tested was completed by participants that included demographic data and known risk factors for hypertension in pregnancy. Statistical analysis SPSS was conducted to compare the frequency of risk factors using Fisher's exact test, chi-square, Student's t-tests, as well as multivariate logistic regression was conducted to identify independent risk factors. The results showed that chronic hypertension, prenatal hypertension, family history of preeclampsia, diabetes, high BMI, nulliparity, previous preeclampsia history and low education level were identified as risk factors for hypertensive disorders in pregnancy in this population; Moreover, diabetes, chronic hypertension and family history of preeclampsia were found to be independent risk factors. The results of the study contribute to the currently limited knowledge about the modifiable risk factors for hypertensive disorders during pregnancy among the Jordanian population, and could therefore be extremely useful for clinicians providing prenatal care. PMID:24576373

Suleiman, Amal K

2014-03-01

214

Maternal occupational exposure to asthmogens during pregnancy and risk of asthma in 7-year-old children: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives The objective of this study was to examine whether maternal exposure to asthmogens during pregnancy is associated with the development of asthma in 7-year-old Danish children, taking atopic status and sex into consideration. Design The study is a prospective follow-up of a birth cohort. Setting and participants A total of 41?724 women and their children from The Danish National Birth Cohort were categorised according to maternal occupational exposure. Exposure information was obtained by combining job title in pregnancy and 18?months after pregnancy with a commonly used asthma Job Exposure Matrix. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcome was parent-reported asthma among their 7-year-old children in an internet-based questionnaire. Secondary outcome was asthma among the same children with or without atopic dermatitis and among boys and girls, respectively. Results Prenatal exposure to low molecular weight (LMW) agents was borderline associated with asthma in children with OR 1.17 (0.95 to 1.44) for children with atopic dermatitis and 1.10 (0.98 to 1.22) for children without. Maternal postnatal exposure was associated with asthma (OR 1.15 (1.04 to 1.28). After mutual adjustment,postnatal exposure (OR 1.13 (0.99 to 1.29) and the combined effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure (OR 1.34 (1.19 to 1.51)) seem to increase the risk of asthma in children. No significant associations were observed for other prenatal or postnatal exposures. The gender of the child did not modify the aforementioned associations. Conclusions Maternal occupational exposures during pregnancy do not seem to be a substantial risk factor for the development of asthma in 7-year-old children. Maternal prenatal and postnatal exposures to LMW agents may predispose the propensity of the children to develop asthma. Future studies should prioritise the characterisation of the timing of exposure in relation to the birth. PMID:23585388

Christensen, Berit Hvass; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Skadhauge, Lars R; Hansen, Kirsten Skamstrup; Frydenberg, Morten; Schlünssen, Vivi

2013-01-01

215

The Maternal ITPK1 Gene Polymorphism Is Associated with Neural Tube Defects in a High-Risk Chinese Population  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiological surveys and animal studies have revealed that inositol metabolism is associated with NTDs, but the mechanisms are not clear. Inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate 5/6-kinase (ITPK1) is a pivotal regulatory enzyme in inositol metabolic pathway. The objective was to assess the potential impact of the maternal ITPK1 genotypes on the inositol parameter and on the NTD risk in a NTD high-risk area in China. Methodology/Results A case-control study of pregnant women affected with NTDs (n?=?200) and controls (n?=?320) was carried out. 13 tag SNPs of ITPK1 were selected and genotyped by the Sequenom MassArray system. We found that 4 tag SNPs were statistically significant in spina bifida group (P<0.05). MACH was used to impute the un-genotyped SNPs in ITPK1 locus and showed that 3 meaningful SNPs in the non-coding regions were significant. We also predicted the binding capacity of transcription factors in the positive SNPs using the bioinformatics method and found that only rs3783903 was located in the conserved sequence of activator protein-1 (AP-1). To further study the association between biochemical values and genotypes, maternal plasma inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) levels were also assessed using LC-MS. The maternal plasma IP6 concentrations in the spina bifida subgroup were 7.1% lower than control (136.67 vs. 147.05 ng mL?1, P<0.05), and significantly lower in rs3783903 GG genotype than others (P<0.05). EMSA showed a different allelic binding capacity of AP-1 in rs3783903, which was affected by an A?G exchange. The RT-PCR suggested the ITPK1 expression was decreased significantly in mutant-type of rs3783903 compared with wild-type in the 60 healthy pregnancies (P<0.05). Conclusions/Significance These results suggested that the maternal rs3783903 of ITPK1 might be associated with spina bifida, and the allele G of rs3783903 might affect the binding of AP-1 and the decrease of maternal plasma IP6 concentration in this Chinese population. PMID:24465924

Guo, Jin; Wang, Fang; Wang, Xiuwei; Li, Guannan; Xie, Qiu; Han, Xu; Niu, Bo; Zhang, Ting

2014-01-01

216

C: Comparative quantification of health risks: Global and regional burden of disease due to selected major risk factors. Geneva: World Health Organization  

E-print Network

Comparative quantification of health risks: global and regional burden of disease attributable to selected major risk factors / edited by Majid Ezzati... [et al.]. 2 v. + v.3 in 1 CD-ROM. Contents: vol. 1, Childhood and maternal undernutrition—Other nutrition-related risk factors and physical activity—Addictive substances— vol. 2, Sexual and reproductive health—Environmental and occupational risks—Other selected risks—Distribution of risks by poverty—Data analysis and results—Multi-risk assessment.—Annex tables CD-ROM, Population

Majid Ezzati; Alan D. Lopez; Anthony Rodgers; Christopher J. L. Murray

217

Influence of maternal angiogenic factors during pregnancy on microvascular structure in school-age children.  

PubMed

Reduced placental growth factor (PlGF) levels and higher soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase (sFlt-1) levels in mothers during pregnancy may have persistent effects on vascular structures in their offspring. We examined whether angiogenic factors during pregnancy also affect childhood retinal microvasculature in a population-based prospective cohort study among 3505 mothers and their children. We measured maternal PlGF and sFlt-1 in the first and second trimester of pregnancy. At the age of 6, we measured childhood retinal arteriolar and venular calibers from digitized retinal photographs. We performed multiple linear regression models, taking maternal and childhood sociodemographic and lifestyle-related characteristics, birth characteristics, and childhood current body mass index and blood pressure into account. We observed that first trimester maternal PlGF and sFlt-1 levels were not associated with childhood retinal arteriolar caliber. Lower second trimester maternal PlGF levels, but not sFlt-1 levels, were associated with narrower childhood retinal arteriolar caliber (difference: -0.09 SD score [95% confidence interval, -0.16 to 0.01], per SD score decrease in PlGF). This association was not explained by maternal and childhood sociodemographic and lifestyle-related characteristics, birth characteristics, or childhood current body mass index and blood pressure. Maternal PlGF and sFlt-1 levels in the first or second trimester were not associated with childhood retinal venular caliber. Our results suggest that lower maternal second trimester PlGF levels affect the microvascular development in the offspring, leading to narrower retinal arteriolar caliber in childhood. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and to explore the underlying mechanisms and long-term cardiovascular consequences. PMID:25691621

Gishti, Olta; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Felix, Janine F; Reiss, Irwin; Hofman, Albert; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Steegers, Eric A P; Gaillard, Romy

2015-04-01

218

Effect of mode of delivery on perceived risks of maternal health outcomes among expectant parents: a cohort study in Beijing, China  

PubMed Central

Background Misperceptions regarding maternal health outcomes after vaginal delivery (VD) and cesarean delivery (CD) may contribute to the increasing trend towards CD. The effects of mode of delivery on parents’ perceived risks of health outcomes are unclear. This study aimed to compare the perceived risks of maternal health outcomes among pregnant women and their partners before and after delivery, and to evaluate factors related to inaccurate perceptions among women after delivery. Methods Consecutive eligible nulliparous women at 36-40 weeks gestation were approached during antenatal registration for electronic fetal monitoring, regardless of whether CD or VD was planned. Eligible women were aged 18-45 years, received antenatal care and planned delivery at the First Hospital of Tsinghua University, Beijing, and had partners who could be approached. Concerns about 12 maternal health outcomes were identified by literature search and validated using the content validity index. Women and their partners were questioned anonymously about the perceived risks of outcomes after CD and VD before delivery, and the perceived risks of the delivery experienced at 2-3 days after delivery. Perceived risks were compared with reported risks, and factors associated with inaccurate perceptions were evaluated. Results Among 272 couples approached, 264 women (97%) and 257 partners (94%) completed the questionnaire both before and after delivery. After CD, the perceived risk of seven health outcomes decreased in women and the perceived risk of two health outcomes increased in partners. After VD, the perceived risk of two outcomes decreased and of one outcome increased in women, and the perceived risk of three outcomes increased in partners. Women perceived higher risks of long-term perineal pain, pelvic organ prolapse, urinary/fecal incontinence, sexual dissatisfaction, and negative impact on the couple’s relationship after VD than after CD (all p?factor associated with inaccurate perceptions among women after delivery. Conclusions The perceived risks of maternal health outcomes decreased after delivery in women and increased after delivery in their partners. Women continued to have inaccurate perceptions of the risks of health outcomes after delivery, indicating that further education is important. PMID:24410828

2014-01-01

219

Comorbidities of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Pregnancy Risk Factors and Parent Mental Health.  

PubMed

Our study examined the risk of maternal smoking and alcohol consumption in pregnancy associated with child comorbidity in a community sample of children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We used a cross sectional community retrospective questionnaire of 321 children diagnosed with ADHD. Our results suggest that maternal smoking increased the risk of oppositional defiant behavior (ODB) in children with ADHD twofold (OR 2.27; CI 1.29-4.11). Maternal alcohol consumption increased the risk although not significantly for ADHD child comorbid ODB, anxiety disorder and depression. Parent mental health significantly impacted on child comorbidity. Our study suggests that smoking in pregnancy is associated with comorbid ODB, independent of parent mental health, family history of ADHD and socioeconomic factors. Parent mental health is independently associated with comorbid ODB, anxiety disorder and depression. PMID:25179388

Silva, Desiree; Houghton, Stephen; Hagemann, Erika; Bower, Carol

2014-09-01

220

Risk and Resilience: The Moderating Role of Social Coping for Maternal Mental Health in a Setting of Political Conflict  

PubMed Central

Violence can threaten individual well-being and tear at the social fabric of communities. At the same time, suffering can mobilize social coping and mutual support. Thus, the backdrop of political violence increases risk factors and stimulates resilience. The current study examined the moderating role of social coping as reflective of risk and resiliency in Northern Ireland, a setting of protracted conflict. Specifically, structural equation modeling was used to investigate whether social coping protects from or exacerbates the negative impact of sectarian crime and nonsectarian crime on maternal mental health (N=631). Nonsectarian crime predicted greater psychological distress for mothers in Belfast. Mixed support was found for the buffering and depletion moderation hypotheses; social coping functioned differently for nonsectarian crime and sectarian crime. Greater social coping buffered mothers’ psychological distress from the negative effects of nonsectarian crime, but exacerbated maternal mental health problems when facing sectarian crime. Results suggest that social coping is a complex phenomenon, particularly in settings of protracted political violence. Implications for interventions aimed at alleviating psychological distress by enhancing mothers’ social coping in contexts of intergroup conflict are discussed. PMID:22506629

Taylor, Laura K.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Cairns, Ed; Shirlow, Peter; Goeke-Morey, Marcie; Cummings, E. Mark

2012-01-01

221

Hormonal factors and risk of ovarian germ cell cancer in young women  

Microsoft Academic Search

No previous controlled studies of ovarian germ cell tumours have been reported; however the tumour is similar to germ cell testicular cancer in terms of histology, age-specific incidence rates (i.e. highest rates in young adulthood), and secular trends of increasing incidence. The investigation was designed to determine if maternal hormonal factors which have been found to increase the risk of

AH Walker; RK Ross; RWC Haile; BE Henderson

1988-01-01

222

"It Takes a Village" to Support the Vocabulary Development of Children with Multiple Risk Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from a nationally representative sample from Turkey (N = 1,017) were used to investigate the environmental factors that support the receptive vocabulary of 3-year-old children who differ in their developmental risk due to family low economic status and elevated maternal depressive symptoms. Children's vocabulary knowledge was strongly…

Baydar, Nazli; Küntay, Aylin C.; Yagmurlu, Bilge; Aydemir, Nuran; Cankaya, Dilek; Göksen, Fatos; Cemalcilar, Zeynep

2014-01-01

223

Risk factors for wasting and stunting among children in Metro Cebu, Philippines13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk factors for wasting and stunting were ex- amined in a longitudinal study of 18 544 children younger than 30 mo in Metro Cebu, Philippines. Measures of household demo- graphic and socioeconomic characteristics, maternal characteris- tics and behavior, and child biological variables were analyzed cross-sectionally in six child age-residence strata by using logistic regression. Our results support biological and epidemiologic

Judith A Ricci; Stan Becker

224

Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) patient-specific risk reporting: its use and misuse.  

PubMed

Fundamental to maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein screening is the clinical utility of the laboratory report. It follows that the scientific form of expression in that report is vital. Professional societies concur that patient-specific risk reporting is the preferred form. However, some intermediate steps being taken to calculate patient-specific risks are invalid because of the erroneous assumption that multiples of the median (MoMs) represent an interlaboratory common currency. The numerous methods by which MoMs may be calculated belie the foregoing assumption. PMID:1689955

Macri, J N; Kasturi, R V; Krantz, D A; Cook, E J; Larsen, J W

1990-03-01

225

Family Factors Predicting Categories of Suicide Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We compared family risk and protective factors among potential high school dropouts with and without suicide-risk behaviors (SRB) and examined the extent to which these factors predict categories of SRB. Subjects were randomly selected from among potential dropouts in 14 high schools. Based upon suicide-risk status, 1,083 potential high school…

Randell, Brooke P.; Wang, Wen-Ling; Herting, Jerald R.; Eggert, Leona L.

2006-01-01

226

Prenatal and postnatal risk factors for infantile pneumonia in a representative birth cohort.  

PubMed

Pneumonia is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in infants. However, information of risk factors for pneumonia in children aged <6 months is limited. This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors and their contribution to infantile pneumonia in a large population-based survey. Of 24,200 randomly sampled main caregivers invited, 21,248 (87.8%) participated in this study. A structured questionnaire was used to interview the main caregivers. Information regarding whether hospitalization was required, family environment, and medical history were obtained. The prevalence of pneumonia was 0.62% in our study cohort. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that preterm birth, congenital cardiopulmonary disease, antibiotic use during pregnancy, maternal overweight, daily prenatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and visible mould on walls at home are risk factors associated with infantile pneumonia. Further study is warranted to investigate the causality and mechanisms of these novel factors. PMID:21920066

Chen, C H; Wen, H J; Chen, P C; Lin, S J; Chiang, T L; Hsieh, I C; Guo, Y L

2012-07-01

227

Initiating a Caregiving Relationship: Pregnancy and Childbirth Factors as Predictors of Maternal Sensitivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between pregnancy and childbirth factors and subsequent quality of maternal interactive behavior in a sample of 116 full-term infants and their mothers. Mothers reported on the conditions of childbirth when infants were 6-8 months of age, and their interactive behavior was observed during a…

Bernier, Annie; Jarry-Boileau, Veronique; Tarabulsy, George M.; Miljkovitch, Raphaele

2010-01-01

228

Proximate Factors Regulating Maternal Options in the Eggplant Lace Bug, Gargaphia solani (Heteroptera: Tingidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eggplant lace bug, Gargaphia solani, was used to investigate the proximate factors regulating maternal care and a noncaring, condition dependent strategy called egg dumping. We hypothesize that the act of delaying oviposition while searching for a dumping opportunity suppresses oogenesis and triggers guarding behavior. We examined several predictions of this hypothesis by measuring: (1) whether females do delay oviposition

Annika Parr; Douglas W. Tallamy; Erin L. Monaco; John D. Pesek

2002-01-01

229

Maternal hospitalization with infection during pregnancy and risk of autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Animal models indicate that maternal infection during pregnancy can result in behavioral abnormalities and neuropathologies in offspring. We examined the association between maternal inpatient diagnosis with infection during pregnancy and risk of ASD in a Swedish nationwide register-based birth cohort born 1984-2007 with follow-up through 2011. In total, the sample consisted of 2,371,403 persons with 24,414 ASD cases. Infection during pregnancy was defined from ICD codes. In the sample, 903 mothers of ASD cases (3.7%) had an inpatient diagnosis of infection during pregnancy. Logistic regression models adjusted for a number of covariates yielded odds ratios indicating approximately a 30% increase in ASD risk associated with any inpatient diagnosis of infection. Timing of infection did not appear to influence risk in the total Swedish population, since elevated risk of ASD was associated with infection in all trimesters. In a subsample analysis, infections were associated with greater risk of ASD with intellectual disability than for ASD without intellectual disability. The present study adds to the growing body of evidence, encompassing both animal and human studies, that supports possible immune-mediated mechanisms underlying the etiology of ASD. PMID:25218900

Lee, Brian K; Magnusson, Cecilia; Gardner, Renee M; Blomström, Åsa; Newschaffer, Craig J; Burstyn, Igor; Karlsson, Håkan; Dalman, Christina

2015-02-01

230

Environmental risk factors for early infantile atopic dermatitis.  

PubMed

Previous studies of predictors of atopic dermatitis (AD) in Asia have had limited sample size and small numbers of variables focused primarily on family history or dietary exposures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of various environmental risk factors for early infantile AD. We used multistage, stratified systematic sampling to recruit 2048 mother-child pairs from the Taiwan national birth registration in 2003. Information on environmental risk factors for infant AD gathered by questionnaire were available from 1760 infants at 6 months of age. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk factors for AD after adjusting for potential confounders. AD was noted in 118 of 1760 (6.7%) of the infants. After adjusting for maternal age and education, family history of atopy, infant gender, and gestational age, fungi on walls of the house [aOR 2.14 (95% CI 1.41-3.22)] and frequent use of microwave oven at home [aOR 1.71 (95% CI 1.13-2.58)] increased the risk of early infantile AD. This study suggests that environmental factors do play a role in early infantile AD. Fungi, a kind of aeroallergen, are especially important in humid climate as in Taiwan and their impacts might be felt at the early infant stage. The hazards of microwave use should be paid more attention. PMID:17617812

Wang, I J; Guo, Y L; Weng, H J; Hsieh, W S; Chuang, Y L; Lin, S J; Chen, P C

2007-08-01

231

Maternal Eating Disorders and Infant Feeding Difficulties: Maternal and Child Mediators in a Longitudinal General Population Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Maternal eating disorders (ED) have been shown to increase the risk of feeding difficulties in the offspring. Very few studies, however, have investigated whether the effect of a maternal ED on childhood feeding is a direct effect or whether it can be ascribed to other child or maternal factors. We aimed to determine the role of…

Micali, Nadia; Simonoff, Emily; Stahl, Daniel; Treasure, Janet

2011-01-01

232

The MTR 2756A>G polymorphism and maternal risk of birth of a child with Down syndrome: a case-control study and a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Methionine synthase (MTR) is required for the conversion of homocysteine (hcy) to methionine in the one-carbon metabolic pathway. Previous studies investigating a common MTR 2756A>G polymorphism as a maternal risk factor for the birth of a child with Down syndrome (DS) are conflicting and limited by small case-control cohorts, and its contribution to circulating hcy levels is still debated. We performed a large case-control study and a meta-analysis of the literature to further address the role of MTR 2756A>G as a maternal risk factor for the birth of a child with DS. 286 mothers of a DS child (MDS) and 305 control mothers of Italian origin were included in the case-control study. Genotyping was performed by means of PCR/RFLP technique. Data on circulating levels of hcy, folates, and vitamin B12 were available for 189 MDS and 194 control mothers. The meta analysis of previous and present data involved a total of 8 studies (1,171 MDS and 1,402 control mothers). Both the case-control study and the meta-analysis showed no association of MTR 2756A>G with the maternal risk of birth of a child with DS (OR = 1.15; 95 % CI 0.85-1.55, and OR = 1.08; 95 % CI 0.93-1.25, respectively), even after stratification of the overall data available for the meta-analysis into ethnic groups. No association of the studied polymorphism with circulating levels of hcy, folates, and vitamin B12 was observed. Present data do not support a role for MTR 2756A>G as independent maternal risk factor for a DS birth. PMID:24150725

Coppedè, Fabio; Bosco, Paolo; Lorenzoni, Valentina; Migheli, Francesca; Barone, Concetta; Antonucci, Ivana; Stuppia, Liborio; Romano, Corrado; Migliore, Lucia

2013-12-01

233

Maternal endothelial function and serum concentrations of placental growth factor and soluble endoglin in women with abnormal placentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To determine whether maternal serum con- centrations of placental growth factor (PlGF) and soluble endoglin (sEng) are altered in women who subsequently develop pre-eclampsia (PE) or have small-for-gestational- age (SGA) infants, and whether these changes are associ- ated with maternal endothelial dysfunction. Methods Maternal serum PlGF and sEng were measured in two groups of pregnant women at 23-25 weeks'

M. D. Savvidou; M. Noori; J. M. Anderson; A. D. Hingorani; K. H. Nicolaides

2008-01-01

234

Maternal smoking and the risk of early weaning: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study reviewed evidence on the effect of maternal smoking on early weaning. METHODS: The following databases and journals were searched: Medline, Scientific Citation Index, Pediatrics, Journal of Pediatrics, New England Journal of Medicine, and Lancet. Analysis was restricted to studies in which infants who had never been breastfed were excluded or the prevalence of breastfeeding initiation was more than 90%. RESULTS: In smoking vs nonsmoking mothers, the random effects odds ratio for weaning before 3 months was 1.93 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.55, 2.40). An adjusted odds ratio of 1.50 (95% CI = 1.34, 1.68) was shown in studies that had lost-to-follow-up rates below 15% and included adequate adjustment for confounding. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal smoking increases the risk of early weaning. PMID:11211645

Horta, B L; Kramer, M S; Platt, R W

2001-01-01

235

Maternal total caffeine intake, mainly from Japanese and Chinese tea, during pregnancy was associated with risk of preterm birth: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.  

PubMed

The relation of maternal caffeine intake with birth outcomes is still inconclusive and has not been examined in Japan, where the sources of caffeine intake are different from those in Western countries. We hypothesized that maternal consumption of total caffeine and culture-specific major sources of caffeine would be associated with birth outcomes among Japanese pregnant. The study subjects were 858 Japanese women who delivered singleton infants. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed using a validated, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Birth outcomes considered were low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g), preterm birth (PTB; <37 weeks of gestation), and small for gestational age (SGA; <10th percentile). The main caffeine sources were Japanese and Chinese tea (73.5%), coffee (14.3%), black tea (6.6%), and soft drinks (3.5%). After controlling for confounders, maternal total caffeine intake during pregnancy was significantly associated with an increased risk of PTB (odds ratio per 100 mg/d caffeine increase, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.58; P for trend = .03). However, no evident relationships were observed between total caffeine intake and risk of LBW or SGA. As for caffeine sources, higher Japanese and Chinese tea consumption was associated with an increased risk of PTB (odds ratio per 1 cup/d increase, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.30; P for trend = .04), but not LBW or SGA. There were no associations between consumption of the other beverages examined and birth outcomes. In conclusion, this prospective birth cohort in Japan suggests that higher maternal total caffeine intake, mainly in the form of Japanese and Chinese tea, during pregnancy is associated with a greater risk of PTB. PMID:25773355

Okubo, Hitomi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Hirota, Yoshio

2015-04-01

236

What Are the Risk Factors for Cancer of the Pancreas?  

MedlinePLUS

... know what causes pancreatic cancer? What are the risk factors for pancreatic cancer? A risk factor is ... these are risk factors for exocrine pancreatic cancer. Risk factors that can be changed Tobacco use Smoking ...

237

Risk Factors for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury  

PubMed Central

Context: Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are immediately disabling and are associated with long-term consequences, such as posttraumatic osteoarthritis. It is important to have a comprehensive understanding of all possible risk factors for ACL injury to identify individuals who are at risk for future injuries and to provide an appropriate level of counseling and programs for prevention. Objective: This review, part 2 of a 2-part series, highlights what is known and still unknown regarding hormonal, genetic, cognitive function, previous injury, and extrinsic risk factors for ACL injury. Data Sources: Studies were identified from MEDLINE (1951–March 2011) using the MeSH terms anterior cruciate ligament, knee injury, and risk factors. The bibliographies of relevant articles and reviews were cross-referenced to complete the search. Study Selection: Prognostic case-control and prospective cohort study designs to evaluate risk factors for ACL injury were included in this review. Results: A total of 50 case-control and prospective cohort articles were included in parts 1 and 2. Twenty-one focused on hormonal, genetic, cognitive function, previous injury, and extrinsic risk factors. Conclusions: Several risk factors are associated with increased risk of suffering ACL injury—such as female sex, prior reconstruction of the ACL, and familial predisposition. These risk factors most likely act in combination with the anatomic factors reviewed in part 1 of this series to influence the risk of suffering ACL injury. PMID:23016083

Smith, Helen C.; Vacek, Pamela; Johnson, Robert J.; Slauterbeck, James R.; Hashemi, Javad; Shultz, Sandra; Beynnon, Bruce D.

2012-01-01

238

Gender-Based Model Comparisons of Maternal Values, Monitoring, Communication and Early Adolescent Risk Behavior  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To examine the relationships among maternal values, monitoring knowledge, parent-adolescent communication, and adolescent risk involvement based on adolescent gender. Methods: Parent reports of their personal values, monitoring knowledge, and communication with their children were compared to adolescent reports of risk involvement using information gathered from 647 Bahamian mother-adolescent (9?13 years) dyads. Results: Parent values of conservation (e.g., conformity) were positively associated with greater parent-adolescent communication and communication was significantly associated with greater monitoring knowledge for both genders. Among mother-son dyads only, group-based parent values of self-transcendence (e.g., universalism) were significantly associated with greater perceived parental monitoring knowledge; individualized self-enhancement values (e.g., hedonism) were negatively associated with open and supportive parent-adolescent communication. Conclusions: Parent values influence other parenting processes such as monitoring and communication. Parental monitoring, in turn, inversely influences adolescent risk involvement. These influences appear to differ based on the adolescent's gender as many of the relationships were stronger among mother-son dyads. These findings highlight a need to better understand the nature of the relationship between maternal values, parent-adolescent interactions, and adolescent's risk decisions. PMID:17875463

Cottrell, Lesley; Yu, Shuli; Liu, Hongjie; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Bain, Rosa Mae; Stanton, Bonita

2007-01-01

239

[Factors associated with continued breastfeeding until 6 months among lactating mothers in a Paris maternity hospital].  

PubMed

Breastfeeding contributes to the health of the child and the mother. Given the lack of studies done in France, it is relevant to examine, besides the sociodemographic factors, the psychosocial and the relational factors. The objectives of the study are: to describe the proportion of mothers who breastfeed up to six months, to identify the sociodemographic, psychosocial and relational factors. This is a prospective, observational, single-center cohort study. The instruments used are the socio-demographic and clinical data questionnaire, the Maternel Sensitivity Scale, the Social Behavioral Inventory and the Situational Anxiety Inventory. Of the 247 mothers who participed in the study, 134 responded at six months and 55 mothers reported breastfeeding at six months. Multivariate analysis revealed the significant factors associated with the continuation of breastfeeding up to six months: the determination of mothers to breastfeed (OR (95% CI): 3.99 (1.04 to 15.31)), high maternal sensitivity at 48h (OR (95% CI): 0.16 (0.03 to 0.84)) and the presence of maternal anxiety at 48 h (OR (95% CI): 1.18 (1.06 to 1.32)). The conjunction of the interactionist approach and of maternal sensitivity is a promising avenue for the support of breastfeeding. Psychosocial and relational factors are fields that need to be explored. Knowledge of these factors can strengthen the strategies to inform and support breastfeeding mothers. PMID:25080624

Courtois, Emilie; Lacombe, Marie; Tyzio, Sandrine

2014-06-01

240

Cardiovascular risk and psoriasis: beyond the traditional risk factors.  

PubMed

Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease resulting in plaques of the skin. Similar to atherosclerosis, inflammation is integral to the initiation and propagation of plaque development. Mounting evidence has emerged demonstrating that psoriasis not only is associated with increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, but also is an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Systemic therapies for moderate to severe psoriasis can increase the cardiovascular risk. Despite the evidence that psoriasis is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, current guidelines only address managing traditional risk factors. An interdisciplinary approach is needed to find the necessary steps beyond classic risk reduction and detection of early cardiovascular disease in patients with psoriasis, as well as to develop a cardiovascular disease preventive regimen. PMID:24161194

Coumbe, Ann G; Pritzker, Marc R; Duprez, Daniel A

2014-01-01

241

Common risk factors in bank stocks  

E-print Network

This dissertation provides evidence on the risk factors that are priced in bank equities. Alternative empirical models with precedent in the nonfinancial asset pricing literature are tested, including the single-factor Capital Asset Pricing Model...

Viale, Ariel Marcelo

2007-09-17

242

Clinical complications in pregnant women with sickle cell disease: prospective study of factors predicting maternal death or near miss  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate complications in pregnant women with sickle cell disease, especially those leading to maternal death or near miss (severe obstetric complications). Methods A prospective cohort of 104 pregnant women registered in the Blood Center of Belo Horizonte (Hemominas Foundation) was followed up at high-risk prenatal units. They belonged to Group I (51 hemoglobin SS and three hemoglobin S/?0-thalassemia) or Group II (49 hemoglobin SC and one hemoglobin S/?+-thalassemia). Both groups had similar median ages. Predictive factors for ‘near miss’ or maternal death with p-value ? 0.25 in the univariate analysis were included in a multivariate logistic model (significance set for p-value ? 0.05). Results Group I had more frequent episodes of vaso-occlusive crises, more transfusions in the antepartum and postpartum, and higher percentage of preterm deliveries than Group II. Infections and painful crises during the postpartum period were similar in both the groups. The mortality rate was 4.8%: three deaths in Group I and two in Group II. One-third of the women in both the groups experienced near miss. The most frequent event was pneumonia/acute chest syndrome. Alpha-thalassemia co-inheritance and ?-gene haplotypes were not associated with near miss or maternal death. In multivariate analysis predictors of near miss or death were parity above one and baseline red blood cell macrocytosis. In Group I, baseline hypoxemia (saturation < 94%) was also predictive of near miss or death. Conclusion One-third of pregnant women had near miss and 4.8% died. Both hemoglobin SS and SC pregnant women shared the same risk of death or of severe complications, especially pulmonary events. PMID:25031164

Resende Cardoso, Patrícia Santos; Lopes Pessoa de Aguiar, Regina Amélia; Viana, Marcos Borato

2014-01-01

243

Neural and Environmental Factors Impacting Maternal Behavior Differences in High- versus Low-Novelty Seeking Rats  

PubMed Central

Selective breeding of rats exhibiting differences in novelty-induced locomotion revealed that this trait predicts several differences in emotional behavior. Bred High Responders (bHRs) show exaggerated novelty-induced locomotion, aggression, and psychostimulant self-administration, compared to bred Low Responders (bLRs), which are inhibited and prone to anxiety- and depression-like behavior. Our breeding studies highlight the heritability of the bHR/bLR phenotypes, although environmental factors like maternal care also shape some aspects of these traits. We previously reported that HR vs. LR mothers act differently, but it was unclear whether their behaviors were genetically driven or influenced by their pups. The present study (a) used cross-fostering to evaluate whether the bHR/bLR maternal styles are inherent to mothers and/or are modulated by pups; and (b) assessed oxytocin and oxytocin receptor mRNA expression to examine possible underpinnings of bHR/bLR maternal differences. While bHR dams exhibited less maternal behavior than bLRs during the dark/active phase, they were very attentive to pups during the light phase, spending greater time passive nursing and in contact with pups compared to bLRs. Cross-fostering only subtly changed bHR and bLR dams’ behavior, suggesting that their distinct maternal styles are largely inherent to the mothers. We also found elevated oxytocin mRNA levels in the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus in bHR versus bLR dams, which may play some role in driving their behavior differences. Overall these studies shed light on the interplay between the genetics of mothers and infants in driving differences in maternal style. PMID:20156440

Clinton, Sarah M.; Bedrosian, Tracy A.; Abraham, Antony D.; Watson, Stanley J.; Akil, Huda

2010-01-01

244

Family and Child Factors Related to the Use of Non-Maternal Infant Care: An English Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores factors related to the use, amount and type of non-maternal child care infants experience in their first year, reporting on a prospective longitudinal study of 1201 families recruited from two different regions in England. The selection and timing of non-maternal child care was investigated within a socio-ecological model that…

Sylva, Kathy; Stein, Alan; Leach, Penelope; Barnes, Jacqueline; Malmberg, Lars-Erik

2007-01-01

245

Factors That Contribute to the Improvement in Maternal Parenting after Separation from a Violent Husband or Partner  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors test the hypothesis that separation from a violent husband or partner improves maternal parenting in Japan and examine how childhood abuse history (CAH), experience of domestic violence (DV), mental health problems, husband or partner's child maltreatment, and other demographic factors affect maternal parenting after such separation. A…

Fujiwara, Takeo; Okuyama, Makiko; Izumi, Mayuko

2012-01-01

246

Low Birth Weight and Its Related Risk Factors in Northeast Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) and its related risk factors in an appropriate sample of neonates in Shahroud, northeast Iran. Methods At this study, a random sample of 1000 neonates were selected of which 72 neonates were LBWs. We used univariate and multivariate logistic regression methods to evaluate the LBW risk factors in LBWs compared to normal weight infants. Findings 7.2% of neonates were LBWs and 6.1% born before 37 weeks of gestation. Prematurity, high-risk pregnancy and maternal age have significant statistical association with LBW. Odds Ratio (OR) for prematurity was 42.82 (95%CI; 21.93-83.57), for high risk pregnancy 2.76 (95%CI; 1.47-5.19) and for maternal age group more than 35 years in comparison to 19-35 years age group 0.2 (95%CI; 0.05-0.71). Conclusion Based on this study; prematurity and high risk pregnancy were the most important risk factors for LBW. There was also a reverse association between maternal age and LBW. PMID:24910751

Chaman, Reza; Amiri, Mohammad; Raei, Mehdi; Ajami, Mohammad-Esmaeil; Sadeghian, Afsaneh; Khosravi, Ahmad

2013-01-01

247

Quality of maternal thinking and mother-child interaction in at-risk contexts.  

PubMed

This study investigates how the maternal level of perspectivistic reasoning and the level of socialization goals in the representation of their actions are related to the quality of mother-child behaviors as well as to the expert ratings on maternal practices in at-risk contexts. It also investigated whether there is any direct link between mother and child behaviors and expert ratings. A sample of 75 mothers of children between 8 and 12 years old reported on their level of perspectivistic reasoning and were characterized by the social workers of municipal services as being coercive, neglectful or meeting their child's needs. Interactions during a collaborative task were observed to obtain information on level of socialization goals and mother-child behaviors. Structural equation models showed that mothers' higher levels of perspectivism and higher levels of socialization goals positively predicted the mother's and child's sensitivity and active involvement in the task and negatively predicted avoidance and passivity. Higher levels of perspectivism consistently predicted experts' views on maternal practices. However, only mother's avoidance predicted negatively expert ratings on coercion practice, indicating that expert views were mostly derived from the mothers' perspective on their child. The implications of these results for parental assessment and intervention programs are discussed. PMID:21777249

Rodríguez, Guacimara; Rodrigo, María José; Janssens, Jan M A M; Triana, Beatriz

2011-12-01

248

A case–control study of maternal bathing habits and risk for birth defects in offspring  

PubMed Central

Background Nearly all women shower or take baths during early pregnancy; however, bathing habits (i.e., shower and bath length and frequency) may be related to the risk of maternal hyperthermia and exposure to water disinfection byproducts, both of which are suspected to increase risk for multiple types of birth defects. Thus, we assessed the relationships between bathing habits during pregnancy and the risk for several nonsyndromic birth defects in offspring. Methods Data for cases with one of 13 types of birth defects and controls from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study delivered during 2000–2007 were evaluated. Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each type of birth defect. Results There were few associations between shower frequency or bath frequency or length and risk for birth defects in offspring. The risk for gastroschisis in offspring was increased among women who reported showers lasting ?15 compared to <15 minutes (adjusted odds ratio: 1.43, 95% confidence interval: 1.18-1.72). In addition, we observed modest increases in the risk for spina bifida, cleft lip with or without cleft palate, and limb reduction defects in offspring of women who showered ?15 compared to <15 minutes. The results of comparisons among more specific categories of shower length (i.e., <15 minutes versus 15–19, 20–29, and???30 minutes) were similar. Conclusions Our findings suggest that shower length may be associated with gastroschisis, but the modest associations with other birth defects were not supported by analyses of bath length or bath or shower frequency. Given that showering for ?15 minutes during pregnancy is very common, further evaluation of the relationship between maternal showering habits and birth defects in offspring is worthwhile. PMID:24131571

2013-01-01

249

Maternal early pregnancy body mass index and risk of preterm birth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To determine the association between maternal body mass index (BMI) in early pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth (PTB)\\u000a in Chinese women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Data were obtained from a population-based perinatal care program in China during 1993–2005. Women whose height and weight\\u000a information was recorded at the first prenatal visit in the first trimester of pregnancy and delivered a singleton live

Ting WangJun; Jun Zhang; Xinrong Lu; Wei Xi; Zhu Li

250

Risk factors identified for certain lymphoma subtypes  

Cancer.gov

In a large international collaborative analysis of risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), scientists were able to quantify risk associated with medical history, lifestyle factors, family history of blood or lymph-borne cancers, and occupation for 11 different NHL subtypes, including less common subtypes.

251

Osteoporosis Risk Factors in Eighth Grade Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents findings from food frequency questionnaires and surveys of 138 Midwestern eighth-grade student-parent pairs. The study examined the incidence of modifiable and nonmodifiable osteoporosis risk factors and compared gender differences. Data analysis indicated that many adolescents possessed several modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors

Lysen, Victoria C.; Walker, Robert

1997-01-01

252

Developmental Risk Factors for Sexual Offending.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…

Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony

2002-01-01

253

Dietary Research - Risk Factor Monitoring & Methods Branch  

Cancer.gov

Diet, in all its complexity, is considered one of the major risk factors for cancer and is therefore a primary area of research within the Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch. We work collaboratively with a wide range of researchers to conduct an integrated program that serves NCI as well as the extramural community.

254

Risk Factor Intervention for Health Maintenance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Risk factors for disease consist of personal habits such as cigarette smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, and bodily characteristics such as hypertension and high serum cholesterol. Progress in identifying, quantifying, and controlling risk factors is opening the way to the prevention of disease. (BB)

Breslow, Lester

1978-01-01

255

Critical success factors for risk management systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the existence of extensive literature regarding risk management, there still seems to be lack of knowledge in the identification of critical success factors (CSFs) in this area. In this research, grounded theory is implemented to identify CSFs in risk management systems (RMS). Factor analysis and one?sample t?tests are then used to refine and rank the CSFs on the basis

Niam Yaraghi; Roland G. Langhe

2011-01-01

256

Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity and Atherosclerosis Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain viral and bacterial infections may contribute to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study is to determine whether Helicobacter pylori (HP) seropositivity contributes to conventional atherosclerosis risk factors in the development of an early sign of atherosclerosis: intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid artery. Eighty-four patients who had at least two conventional atherosclerosis risk factors

Yakup Ekmekçi; Yasemin Karadeniz; Seyfettin Köklü; Teoman Apan; Mesut Sezikli; Tolga Demirel

2004-01-01

257

Risk factors across the eating disorders.  

PubMed

This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. Risk factors for BN were shared with AN and BED. Dieting was the most common onset symptom in AN, whereas binge eating was most common in BN and BED. Migration between AN and BED was rare, but more frequent between AN and BN and between BN and BED. AN and BED have distinct risk factors and onset patterns, while BN shares similar risk factors and onset patterns with both AN and BED. Results should inform future classification schemes and prevention programs. PMID:25103674

Hilbert, Anja; Pike, Kathleen M; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Wilfley, Denise E; Fairburn, Christopher G; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Walsh, B Timothy; Striegel Weissman, Ruth

2014-12-15

258

Pregnancy characteristics and maternal breast cancer risk: a review of the epidemiologic literature  

PubMed Central

The short- and long-term effects of pregnancy on breast cancer risk are well documented. Insight into potential biological mechanisms for these associations may be gained by studying breast cancer risk and pregnancy characteristics (e.g., preeclampsia, twining), which may reflect hormone levels during pregnancy. To date, no review has synthesized the published literature for pregnancy characteristics and maternal breast cancer using systematic search methods. We conducted a systematic search to identify all published studies. Using PUBMED (to 31 July 2009), 42 relevant articles were identified. Several studies suggest that multiple births may be associated with a lowered breast cancer risk of about 10–30%, but results were inconsistent across 18 studies. The majority of 13 studies suggest about a 20–30% reduction in risk with preeclampsia and/or gestational hypertension. Six of seven studies reported no association for infant sex and breast cancer risk. Data are sparse and conflicting for other pregnancy characteristics such as gestational age, fetal growth, pregnancy weight gain, gestational diabetes, and placental abnormalities. The most consistent findings in a generally sparse literature are that multiple births and preeclampsia may modestly reduce breast cancer risk. Additional research is needed to elucidate associations between pregnancy characteristics, related hormonal profiles, and breast cancer risk. PMID:20224871

Paneth, Nigel; Velie, Ellen M.

2013-01-01

259

Differential Genetic Susceptibility to Child Risk at Birth in Predicting Observed Maternal Behavior  

PubMed Central

This study examined parenting as a function of child medical risks at birth and parental genotype (dopamine D4 receptor; DRD4). Our hypothesis was that the relation between child risks and later maternal sensitivity would depend on the presence/absence of a genetic variant in the mothers, thus revealing a gene by environment interaction (GXE). Risk at birth was defined by combining risk indices of children's gestational age at birth, birth weight, and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. The DRD4-III 7-repeat allele was chosen as a relevant genotype as it was recently shown to moderate the effect of environmental stress on parental sensitivity. Mothers of 104 twin pairs provided DNA samples and were observed with their children in a laboratory play session when the children were 3.5 years old. Results indicate that higher levels of risk at birth were associated with less sensitive parenting only among mothers carrying the 7-repeat allele, but not among mothers carrying shorter alleles. Moreover, mothers who are carriers of the 7-repeat allele and whose children scored low on the risk index were observed to have the highest levels of sensitivity. These findings provide evidence for the interactive effects of genes and environment (in this study, children born at higher risk) on parenting, and are consistent with a genetic differential susceptibility model of parenting by demonstrating that some parents are inherently more susceptible to environmental influences, both good and bad, than are others. PMID:21603618

Fortuna, Keren; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Mankuta, David; Kaitz, Marsha; Avinun, Reut; Ebstein, Richard P.; Knafo, Ariel

2011-01-01

260

Perinatal and background risk factors for childhood autism in central China.  

PubMed

Perinatal and background risk factors for autism were identified in a cohort of autistic children in Zhengzhou, China, to formulate preventative and treatment strategies for high-risk families. In this case-control study, children were screened for suspected autism using the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) and diagnosed according to DSM-IV and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). We collected perinatal histories and clinical data of 286 confirmed autistic children treated at the Third Affiliated Hospital Children?s Psychological Clinic of Zhengzhou University from 2011 to 2013. The control group consisted of 286 healthy children from area kindergartens. Maternal age>30 years, parental introversion as measured by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, low level of parental education, smoking, abortion threat, pregnancy complications, maternal illness during pregnancy, maternal mental health, family history of mental illness, neonatal jaundice, birth asphyxia, premature rupture of the fetal membrane, and gestational age<37 weeks were significantly higher in the autism group. These factors were significantly correlated with behavioral symptoms as measured by ABC scores (Kendall rank correlation). Birth asphyxia, neonatal jaundice, maternal age, parental introversion, family history of mental illness, abortion threat, premature delivery, and smoking were identified as independent risk factors by multivariate logistic regression. PMID:25085792

Duan, Guiqin; Yao, Meiling; Ma, Yating; Zhang, Wenjing

2014-12-15

261

What Are the Risk Factors for Kidney Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... know what causes kidney cancer? What are the risk factors for kidney cancer? A risk factor is ... develop kidney cancer. Lifestyle-related and job-related risk factors Smoking Smoking increases the risk of developing ...

262

The Maternally Expressed WRKY Transcription Factor TTG2 Controls Lethality in Interploidy Crosses of Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

The molecular mechanisms underlying lethality of F1 hybrids between diverged parents are one target of speciation research. Crosses between diploid and tetraploid individuals of the same genotype can result in F1 lethality, and this dosage-sensitive incompatibility plays a role in polyploid speciation. We have identified variation in F1 lethality in interploidy crosses of Arabidopsis thaliana and determined the genetic architecture of the maternally expressed variation via QTL mapping. A single large-effect QTL, DR. STRANGELOVE 1 (DSL1), was identified as well as two QTL with epistatic relationships to DSL1. DSL1 affects the rate of postzygotic lethality via expression in the maternal sporophyte. Fine mapping placed DSL1 in an interval encoding the maternal effect transcription factor TTG2. Maternal parents carrying loss-of-function mutations in TTG2 suppressed the F1 lethality caused by paternal excess interploidy crosses. The frequency of cellularization in the endosperm was similarly affected by both natural variation and ttg2 loss-of-function mutants. The simple genetic basis of the natural variation and effects of single-gene mutations suggests that F1 lethality in polyploids could evolve rapidly. Furthermore, the role of the sporophytically active TTG2 gene in interploidy crosses indicates that the developmental programming of the mother regulates the viability of interploidy hybrid offspring. PMID:19071961

Dilkes, Brian P; Spielman, Melissa; Weizbauer, Renate; Watson, Brian; Burkart-Waco, Diana; Scott, Rod J; Comai, Luca

2008-01-01

263

Macroeconomic news and risk factor innovations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to determine if macroeconomic announcements affect the Fama-French market, size, book-to-market risk factors and momentum factor. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Using unexpected announcements of major macroeconomic indicators, a study is made of how daily innovations of risk factors react to macroeconomic shocks. In a Flannery and Protopapadakis framework, the impact of macroeconomics surprises on

Thomas Gosnell; Ali Nejadmalayeri

2010-01-01

264

Structural Genomic Variation as Risk Factor for Idiopathic Recurrent Miscarriage  

PubMed Central

Recurrent miscarriage (RM) is a multifactorial disorder with acknowledged genetic heritability that affects ?3% of couples aiming at childbirth. As copy number variants (CNVs) have been shown to contribute to reproductive disease susceptibility, we aimed to describe genome-wide profile of CNVs and identify common rearrangements modulating risk to RM. Genome-wide screening of Estonian RM patients and fertile controls identified excessive cumulative burden of CNVs (5.4 and 6.1 Mb per genome) in two RM cases possibly increasing their individual disease risk. Functional profiling of all rearranged genes within RM study group revealed significant enrichment of loci related to innate immunity and immunoregulatory pathways essential for immune tolerance at fetomaternal interface. As a major finding, we report a multicopy duplication (61.6 kb) at 5p13.3 conferring increased maternal risk to RM in Estonia and Denmark (meta-analysis, n = 309/205, odds ratio = 4.82, P = 0.012). Comparison to Estonian population-based cohort (total, n = 1000) confirmed the risk for Estonian female cases (P = 7.9 × 10?4). Datasets of four cohorts from the Database of Genomic Variants (total, n = 5,846 subjects) exhibited similar low duplication prevalence worldwide (0.7%–1.2%) compared to RM cases of this study (6.6%–7.5%). The CNV disrupts PDZD2 and GOLPH3 genes predominantly expressed in placenta and it may represent a novel risk factor for pregnancy complications. PMID:24827138

Nagirnaja, Liina; Palta, Priit; Kasak, Laura; Rull, Kristiina; Christiansen, Ole B; Nielsen, Henriette S; Steffensen, Rudi; Esko, Tõnu; Remm, Maido; Laan, Maris

2014-01-01

265

Maternal allergen exposure as a risk factor for childhood asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of early allergen exposure has been a central focus in the effort to curtail the rising rates of allergic disease.\\u000a Exposures in pregnancy have been of interest because the first signs of disease are often seen in early infancy. However,\\u000a so far, strategies to avoid or reduce allergen exposure in pregnancy have had disappointing results in reducing disease.

Susan L. Prescott

2006-01-01

266

Cryptosporidium Epidemiology and Risk Factors  

MedlinePLUS

... risk for infection, such as: Children who attend day care centers, including diaper-aged children Child care workers ... Work: Cryptosporidium CryptoNet Information For Immunocompromised Persons Travelers Day Care Facilities Boil Water Advisories Healthy Water Links Healthy ...

267

Maternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy and risk of recurrent wheeze in children at 3 y of age1–3  

PubMed Central

Background Vitamin D deficiency and asthma are common at higher latitudes. Although vitamin D has important immunologic effects, its relation with asthma is unknown. Objective We hypothesized that a higher maternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy is associated with a lower risk of recurrent wheeze in children at 3 y of age. Design The participants were 1194 mother-child pairs in Project Viva—a prospective prebirth cohort study in Massachusetts. We assessed the maternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy from a validated food-frequency questionnaire. The primary outcome was recurrent wheeze, ie, a positive asthma predictive index (?2 wheezing attacks among children with a personal diagnosis of eczema or a parental history of asthma). Results The mean (±SD) total vitamin D intake during pregnancy was 548 ± 167 IU/d. By age 3 y, 186 children (16%) had recurrent wheeze. Compared with mothers in the lowest quartile of daily intake (median: 356 IU), those in the highest quartile (724 IU) had a lower risk of having a child with recurrent wheeze [odds ratio (OR): 0.39; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.62; P for trend <0.001]. A 100-IU increase in vitamin D intake was associated with lower risk (OR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.89), regardless of whether vitamin D was from the diet (OR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.96) or supplements (OR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.92). Adjustment for 12 potential confounders, including maternal intake of other dietary factors, did not change the results. Conclusion In the northeastern United States, a higher maternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy may decrease the risk of recurrent wheeze in early childhood. PMID:17344501

Camargo, Carlos A; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Litonjua, Augusto A; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Weiss, Scott T; Gold, Diane R; Kleinman, Ken; Gillman, Matthew W

2015-01-01

268

RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY AND MATERNAL AGE  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the risk factors, especially maternal risk factors, associated with the development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in premature babies. Methods A matched case–control study involving premature patients was undertaken retrospectively. The case group consisted of premature babies with the subsequent development of ROP. The control group consisted of gestational age-matched and sex-matched premature babies that did not develop ROP during the follow-up period. Risk factors involving patient demographics and maternal characteristics were compared between the case and control groups. Results A total of 144 patients were included in this study (72 patients in the case group and 72 patients in the control group). Among the 66 possible risk factors compared, only birth weight and maternal age were found to be significant risk factors. Birth weight was significantly lower in the case group (1,248.7 ± 257.8 g vs. 1,335.5 ± 297.2 g, P = 0.01), and maternal age was significantly older in the case group compared with that in the control group (31.2 ± 5.1 years vs. 28.2 ± 5.3 years, P < 0.001). The odds ratio of having babies with ROP was 2.9 when the maternal age was >30 years. Conclusion Older maternal age is a newly identified risk factor for the development of ROP in premature babies. PMID:20010455

WU, WEI-CHI; ONG, FRANK SHIH-CHANG; KUO, JANE ZEA-CHIN; LAI, CHI-CHUN; WANG, NING-CHIA; CHEN, KUAN-JEN; HWANG, YIH-SHIOU; CHEN, TUN-LU; SHIH, CHIA-PANG

2010-01-01

269

Maternal Self-Efficacy in the Home Food Environment: A Qualitative Study among Low-Income Mothers of Nutritionally At-Risk Children in an Urban Area of Jakarta, Indonesia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To explore the factors that encompass maternal self-efficacy in providing food for the home. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 19 mothers of nutritionally at risk children in an urban area of East Jakarta, Indonesia. This study was based on Social Cognitive Theory, Family Stress Models, and Ecological Frameworks. Data…

Kolopaking, Risatianti; Bardosono, Saptawati; Fahmida, Umi

2011-01-01

270

MATERNAL COFFEE AND ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION DURING PREGNANCY, PARENTAL SMOKING AND RISK OF CHILDHOOH ACUTE LEUKEMIA  

E-print Network

ACUTE LEUKEMIA Short title: Maternal coffee and alcohol consumption, parental smoking and childhood leukemia Category : Original article Condensed abstract : Maternal habits during pregnancy, as maternal smoking and maternal beverage consumption, were obtained for 280 cases of childhood acute leukemia and 280

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

271

Risk Factors for Children's Receptive Vocabulary Development from Four to Eight Years in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children  

PubMed Central

Receptive vocabulary develops rapidly in early childhood and builds the foundation for language acquisition and literacy. Variation in receptive vocabulary ability is associated with variation in children's school achievement, and low receptive vocabulary ability is a risk factor for under-achievement at school. In this study, bivariate and multivariate growth curve modelling was used to estimate trajectories of receptive vocabulary development in relation to a wide range of candidate child, maternal and family level influences on receptive vocabulary development from 4–8 years. The study sample comprised 4332 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Predictors were modeled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB), low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4–8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that social gradients in children's developmental outcomes increase over time. PMID:24039856

Taylor, Catherine L.; Christensen, Daniel; Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Zubrick, Stephen R.

2013-01-01

272

Risk factors for children's receptive vocabulary development from four to eight years in the longitudinal study of Australian children.  

PubMed

Receptive vocabulary develops rapidly in early childhood and builds the foundation for language acquisition and literacy. Variation in receptive vocabulary ability is associated with variation in children's school achievement, and low receptive vocabulary ability is a risk factor for under-achievement at school. In this study, bivariate and multivariate growth curve modelling was used to estimate trajectories of receptive vocabulary development in relation to a wide range of candidate child, maternal and family level influences on receptive vocabulary development from 4-8 years. The study sample comprised 4332 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Predictors were modeled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB), low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4-8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that social gradients in children's developmental outcomes increase over time. PMID:24039856

Taylor, Catherine L; Christensen, Daniel; Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Zubrick, Stephen R

2013-01-01

273

Maternal Plasma Fibronectin and Advanced Oxidative Protein Products for the Prediction of Preeclampsia in High Risk Pregnancies: A Prospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether maternal plasma fibronectin and advanced oxidative protein products (AOPP) can be used for the prediction of preeclampsia in high-risk women. Study Design: One hundred pregnant women at high risk of preeclampsia were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. Maternal plasma total fibronectin and AOPP levels were measured at 19–25 weeks of gestation. AOPP levels were also

Cem Dane; Hasan Buyukasik; Banu Dane; Murat Yayla

2009-01-01

274

Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue  

PubMed Central

Objectives To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness) in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Sources A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012. Summary of findings Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents. Conclusions Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century. PMID:23515212

Rodrigues, Anabel N; Abreu, Glaucia R; Resende, Rogério S; Goncalves, Washington LS; Gouvea, Sonia Alves

2013-01-01

275

Melanoma risk factors and atypical moles.  

PubMed Central

Despite important advances in the treatment of melanoma, the prognosis for advanced disease remains discouraging. This fact, in combination with a worldwide epidemic of melanoma among persons of white skin type, has focused attention on identifying melanoma in its early, surgically curable stages. Attention has also been directed toward pinpointing which persons are at increased risk for melanoma to reduce risk where possible and to aid early diagnosis. Essentially all epidemiologic studies have identified an increased number of melanocytic nevi as an important risk factor in the development of melanoma, but controversy has arisen concerning the risk associated with certain types of nevi, particularly "dysplastic" nevi. We review melanoma risk factors and examine the relationship between melanocytic nevi and melanoma to clarify for primary care physicians what is "known" (non-controversial) and what is "unknown" (controversial). We propose a working definition of an atypical mole phenotype and outline an approach to managing high-risk patients. Images PMID:8023484

Williams, M L; Sagebiel, R W

1994-01-01

276

Severe psychosocial stress and heavy cigarette smoking during pregnancy: an examination of the pre- and perinatal risk factors associated with ADHD and Tourette syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently diagnosed in children with Tourette syndrome (TS). The basis\\u000a for this co-occurrence is uncertain. This study aimed to determine if specific pre- and perinatal risk factors, including\\u000a heavy maternal smoking and severe psychosocial stress during pregnancy, were associated with one or both disorders, or neither.\\u000a We compared maternal report data on pre- and perinatal risk

Maria G. Motlagh; Liliya Katsovich; Nancy Thompson; Haiqun Lin; Young-Shin Kim; Lawrence Scahill; Paul J. Lombroso; Robert A. King; Bradley S. Peterson; James F. Leckman

2010-01-01

277

Sudden cardiac death: epidemiology and risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is an important public-health problem with multiple etiologies, risk factors, and changing temporal trends. Substantial progress has been made over the past few decades in identifying markers that confer increased SCD risk at the population level. However, the quest for predicting the high-risk individual who could be a candidate for an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, or other therapy,

Russell V. Luepker; Véronique L. Roger; Bernard J. Gersh; A. Selcuk Adabag

2010-01-01

278

BEHAVIORAL RISK FACTOR SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (BRFSS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), the world's largest telephone survey, tracks health risks in the United States. Information from the survey is used to improve the health of the American people. Since the early 1980s, BRFSS data have been used to identify e...

279

Epidemiology\\/Risk Factors of Sexual Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Accurate estimates of prevalence\\/incidence are important in understanding the true burden of male and female sexual dysfunction and in identifying risk factors for prevention efforts. Aim. To provide recommendations\\/guidelines concerning state-of-the-art knowledge for the epidemiology\\/risk factors of sexual dysfunctions in men and women. Methods. An International Consultation in collaboration with the major urology and sexual med- icine associations assembled

Ronald W. Lewis; Kersten S. Fugl-Meyer; R. Bosch; Axel R. Fugl-Meyer; Edward O. Laumann; E. Lizza; Antonio Martin-Morales

2004-01-01

280

Risk Factors for Injuries in Football  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The injury risk in football is high, but little is known about causes of injury.Purpose: To identify risk factors for football injuries using a multivariate model.Study Design: Prospective cohort study.Methods: Participants were 306 male football players from the two highest divisions in Iceland. Before the 1999 football season started, the following factors were examined: height, weight, body composition, flexibility,

Arni Arnason; Stefan B. Sigurdsson; Arni Gudmundsson; Ingar Holme; Lars Engebretsen; Roald Bahr

2004-01-01

281

Maternal serum lead levels and risk of preeclampsia in pregnant women: a cohort study in a maternity hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Preeclampsia is one of the major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Despite numerous studies, the etiology of preeclampsia has not yet been fully elucidated. There has been confliction in results on the role of maternal lead in preeclampsia. Keeping in view with the scarcity of data on role of lead in preeclamptic women of Saudi Arabia and the disparity in earlier findings, the present study was carried out to determine the levels of maternal serum lead in patients with preeclampsia in comparison to normal pregnancy. The study consisted of 120 pregnant women divided into three groups of 40 each, control, HR group and PET group. The serum levels of lead were estimated by Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. We found that the mean value of serum lead was 18.23 ± 2.34, 20.08 ± 2.15 and 27.18 ± 2.13 µg/dl in control, high risk group and preeclamptic group respectively. The levels of Pb were found to decrease significantly (P < 0.05) in preeclamptic group compared to control. However, there was no significant change in levels of Pb when HR group was compared to Control and preeclamptic group. In the present study, we observed that serum levels of lead were positively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure and were statistically significant (P < 0.05). However, negative correlation was observed between Pb and BMI ruling out the association of BMI with preeclampsia. It is thus concluded that preeclampsia is associated with significant increase in maternal lead and these increasing levels of serum lead pose a significant risk in pregnant women to preeclampsia. PMID:25031738

Jameil, Noura Al

2014-01-01

282

Risk Factors for Homelessness Among US Veterans.  

PubMed

Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. PMID:25595171

Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A

2015-01-01

283

Maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring type 1 diabetes mellitus risk: accounting for HLA haplotype.  

PubMed

The main objective of this study was to investigate the risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) in children exposed to tobacco smoking in utero, also taking genetic predisposition as expressed by HLA haplotype into account. In Skåne, the southernmost county of Sweden, all children born 1999-2005 who developed T1D were registered, resulting in 344 cases. For each child with T1D, three control children, matched for HLA haplotype and birthyear, were selected. Information on prenatal smoking exposure was retrieved from a regional birth register. Conditional logistic regressions were used to evaluate T1D risk following prenatal smoking exposure. In these data, maternal smoking in early pregnancy was associated with a higher risk of her child developing T1D [odds ratio (OR) 2.83; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.67-4.80 for 1-9 cigarettes/day, and OR 3.91; 95 % CI 1.22-12.51 for >9 cigarettes/day]. Results remained through all adjustments and sensitivity analyses. When genetic predisposition in terms of HLA haplotype was taken into account, we found that children exposed to smoking during fetal life were at higher risk of developing T1D in childhood. PMID:25576078

Mattsson, Kristina; Jönsson, Ida; Malmqvist, Ebba; Larsson, Helena Elding; Rylander, Lars

2015-03-01

284

Variants in maternal COMT and MTHFR genes and risk of neural tube defects in offspring.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) G158A are associated with a risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring. This study examined the effect of a MTHFR × COMT interaction on the risk of NTDs in a Chinese population with a high prevalence of NTDs. A total of 576 fetuses or newborns with NTDs and 594 controls were genotyped for MTHFRrs1801133, MTHFRrs1801131, and COMTrs4680 and COMTrs737865. Information on maternal sociodemographic characteristics, reproductive history, and related behavior was collected through face-to-face interviews. Possible interactions between genetic variants of MTHFR and COMT were examined. MTHFR C677T homozygous TT was associated with an elevated risk of total NTDs (odds ratio [OR]?=?1.37, 95 % confidence interval [CI]?=?0.93-2.03) and of anencephaly (OR?=?1.67, 95 % CI?=?0.98-2.84) compared with the CC genotype. There was a COMT rs737865 CC × MTHFR rs1801133 TT interaction for total NTDs (OR?=?3.02, 95 % CI?=?1.00-9.14) and for anencephaly (OR?=?3.39, 95 % CI?=?0.94-12.18). No interaction was found between COMT rs4680 AA/AG and MTHFR CT/TT genotypes for total NTDs or any subtype of NTD. The interaction of COMT rs737865 and MTHFR C677T was associated with an increased risk of NTDs, especially anencephaly, in a Chinese population with a high prevalence of NTDs. PMID:24990354

Liu, Jufen; Zhang, Yali; Jin, Lei; Li, Guoxing; Wang, Linlin; Bao, Yanping; Fu, Yunting; Li, Zhiwen; Zhang, Le; Ye, Rongwei; Ren, Aiguo

2015-04-01

285

Adolescent risk factors for child maltreatment.  

PubMed

We investigate adolescent risk factors, measured at both early and late adolescence, for involvement in child maltreatment during adulthood. Comprehensive assessments of risk factors for maltreatment that use representative samples with longitudinal data are scarce and can inform multilevel prevention. We use data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study begun in 1988 with a sample of 1,000 seventh and eighth graders. Participants have been interviewed 14 times and, at the last assessment (age 31), 80% were retained. Risk factors represent 10 developmental domains: area characteristics, family background/structure, parent stressors, exposure to family violence, parent-child relationships, education, peer relationships, adolescent stressors, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions to adulthood. Maltreatment is measured by substantiated reports from Child Protective Services records. Many individual risk factors (20 at early adolescence and 14 at later adolescence) are significantly, albeit moderately, predictive of maltreatment. Several developmental domains stand out, including family background/structure, education, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions. In addition, there is a pronounced impact of cumulative risk on the likelihood of maltreatment. For example, only 3% of the youth with no risk domains in their background at early adolescence were involved in later maltreatment, but for those with risk in 9 developmental domains the rate was 45%. Prevention programs targeting youth at high risk for engaging in maltreatment should begin during early adolescence when risk factors are already at play. These programs need to be comprehensive, capable of addressing the multiple and interwoven nature of risk that is associated with maltreatment. PMID:24075569

Thornberry, Terence P; Matsuda, Mauri; Greenman, Sarah J; Augustyn, Megan Bears; Henry, Kimberly L; Smith, Carolyn A; Ireland, Timothy O

2014-04-01

286

Adolescent Risk Factors for Child Maltreatment  

PubMed Central

We investigate adolescent risk factors, measured at both early and late adolescence, for involvement in child maltreatment during adulthood. Comprehensive assessments of risk factors for maltreatment that use representative samples with longitudinal data are scarce and can inform multilevel prevention. We use data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study begun in 1988 with a sample of 1,000 seventh and eighth graders. Participants have been interviewed 14 times and, at the last assessment (age 31), 80% were retained. Risk factors represent 10 developmental domains: area characteristics, family background/structure, parent stressors, exposure to family violence, parent-child relationships, education, peer relationships, adolescent stressors, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions to adulthood. Maltreatment is measured by substantiated reports from Child Protective Services records. Many individual risk factors (20 at early adolescence and 14 at later adolescence) are significantly, albeit moderately, predictive of maltreatment. Several developmental domains stand out, including family background/structure, education, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions. In addition, there is a pronounced impact of cumulative risk on the likelihood of maltreatment. For example, only 3% of the youth with no risk domains in their background at early adolescence were involved in later maltreatment, but for those with risk in 9 developmental domains the rate was 45%. Prevention programs targeting youth at high risk for engaging in maltreatment should begin during early adolescence when risk factors are already at play. These programs need to be comprehensive, capable of addressing the multiple and interwoven nature of risk that is associated with maltreatment. PMID:24075569

Matsuda, Mauri; Greenman, Sarah J.; Augustyn, Megan Bears; Henry, Kimberly L.; Smith, Carolyn A.; Ireland, Timothy O.

2014-01-01

287

Inside the “fragile” infant: pathophysiology, molecular background, risk factors and investigation of neonatal osteopenia  

PubMed Central

Summary Current research in bone mineral metabolism reveals many aspects of osteopenia occurred in premature infants. This review examines not only the pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms of newborn osteopenia but also the risk factors and investigation. Osteopenia of premature infants has increased incidence among other diseases of prematurity. Identification of risk factors is essential for monitoring of osteopenia. Some of the risk factors include low birth weight, prematurity, long term administration of drugs such as corticosteroids, methyloxanthines, furosemide, abnormalities in vitamin D metabolism, poor maternal nutritional and mineral uptake etc. Neonatologists, pediatricians and endocrinologists should investigate premature, low birth weight infants that have high serum alkaline phosphatase and have at least one risk factor. PMID:24133523

Dokos, Charalampos; Tsakalidis, Christos; Tragiannidis, Athanasios; Rallis, Dimitrios

2013-01-01

288

Relationships between fetal biometry, maternal factors and birth weight of purebred domestic cat kittens.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to evaluate the relation between kittens' birth weights and biometrical factors from the kittens and the mother during pregnancy. Knowing fetal birth weight could help in detecting abnormalities before parturition. A Caesarean-section or a postnatal management plan could be scheduled. Consequently, the neonatal mortality rate should be decreased. We used ultrasonographic measurements of femur length (FL) or fetal biparietal diameter (BPD), pregnancies, and maternal factors to obtain a model of prediction. For this purpose, linear mixed-effects models were used because of random effects (several fetuses for one queen and a few paired measurements) and fixed effects (litter size, pregnancy rank, weight, wither height, and age of the queen). This study was performed in 24 purebred queens with normal pregnancies and normal body conditions. Queens were scanned in the second half of pregnancy, using a micro-convex probe. They gave birth to 140 healthy kittens whose mean birth weight was 104 g (ranged 65 to 165 g). No correlation between the birth weight and the age of the queen, as a maternal factor alone, was observed. But the birth weight was found to be inversely proportional to the pregnancy rank and the litter size. Moreover, birth weight increased when the weight and wither height of queen increased. BPD and FL increased linearly during pregnancy so a model was used to estimate mean birth weight. Using this model, we found a correlation between mean birth weights and an association of parameters: maternal factors (wither height and age), and litter size. PMID:21820718

Gatel, L; Rosset, E; Chalvet-Monfray, K; Buff, S; Rault, D N

2011-12-01

289

Placental growth factor influences maternal cardiovascular adaptation to pregnancy in mice.  

PubMed

In healthy human pregnancies, placental growth factor (PGF) concentrations rise in maternal plasma during early gestation, peak over Weeks 26-30, then decline. Because PGF in nongravid subjects participates in protection against and recovery from cardiac pathologies, we asked if PGF contributes to pregnancy-induced maternal cardiovascular adaptations. Cardiovascular function and structure were evaluated in virgin, pregnant, and postpartum C56BL/6-Pgf(-) (/) (-) (Pgf(-) (/) (-)) and C57BL/6-Pgf(+/+) (B6) mice using plethysmography, ultrasound, quantitative PCR, and cardiac and renal histology. Pgf(-/-) females had higher systolic blood pressure in early and late pregnancy but an extended, abnormal midpregnancy interval of depressed systolic pressure. Pgf(-/-) cardiac output was lower than gestation day (gd)-matched B6 after midpregnancy. While Pgf(-) (/) (-) left ventricular mass was greater than B6, only B6 showed the expected gestational gain in left ventricular mass. Expression of vasoactive genes in the left ventricle differed at gd8 with elevated Nos expression in Pgf(-) (/) (-) but not at gd14. By gd16, Pgf(-) (/) (-) kidneys were hypertrophic and had glomerular pathology. This study documents for the first time that PGF is associated with the systemic maternal cardiovascular adaptations to pregnancy. PMID:25537372

Aasa, Kristiina L; Zavan, Bruno; Luna, Rayana L; Wong, Philip G; Ventura, Nicole M; Tse, M Yat; Carmeliet, Peter; Adams, Michael A; Pang, Stephen C; Croy, B Anne

2015-02-01

290

Fetal and maternal transforming growth factor-beta 1 may combine to maintain pregnancy in mice.  

PubMed

One of the mysteries of pregnancy is why a mother does not reject her fetuses. Cytokine-modulation of maternal-fetal interactions is likely to be important. However, mice deficient in transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF beta 1) and other cytokines are able to breed, bringing this hypothesis into question. The phenotype of TGF beta 1 null-mutant mice varies with genetic background. We report here that, in outbred mice, the loss of TGF beta 1-deficient embryos is influenced by the parity of their mother. This is consistent with the loss of mutants being due to immune rejection. An inbred line of TGF beta 1(+/-) mice that supported TGF beta 1-deficient fetuses had high levels of TGF beta 1 in their plasma. Analysis of the amniotic fluids in this line indicated that biologically relevant levels of maternal TGF beta 1 were present in the TGF beta 1(-/-) fetuses. These data are consistent with maternal and fetal TGF beta 1 interacting to maintain pregnancy, within immune-competent mothers. PMID:14766723

McLennan, Ian S; Koishi, Kyoko

2004-06-01

291

What Are the Risk Factors for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia?  

MedlinePLUS

... lymphocytic leukemia? What are the risk factors for chronic lymphocytic leukemia? A risk factor is something that affects a ... There are very few known risk factors for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). These include: Exposure to certain chemicals Family ...

292

What Are the Risk Factors for Testicular Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... know what causes testicular cancer? What are the risk factors for testicular cancer? A risk factor is ... testicular cancer and body weight. Unproven or controversial risk factors Prior injury or trauma to the testicles ...

293

HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

294

Maternal Experience with Predation Risk Influences Genome-Wide Embryonic Gene Expression in Threespined Sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus)  

PubMed Central

There is growing evidence for nongenetic effects of maternal experience on offspring. For example, previous studies have shown that female threespined stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) exposed to predation risk produce offspring with altered behavior, metabolism and stress physiology. Here, we investigate the effect of maternal exposure to predation risk on the embryonic transcriptome in sticklebacks. Using RNA-sequencing we compared genome-wide transcription in three day post-fertilization embryos of predator-exposed and control mothers. There were hundreds of differentially expressed transcripts between embryos of predator-exposed mothers and embryos of control mothers including several non-coding RNAs. Gene Ontology analysis revealed biological pathways involved in metabolism, epigenetic inheritance, and neural proliferation and differentiation that differed between treatments. Interestingly, predation risk is associated with an accelerated life history in many vertebrates, and several of the genes and biological pathways that were identified in this study suggest that maternal exposure to predation risk accelerates the timing of embryonic development. Consistent with this hypothesis, embryos of predator-exposed mothers were larger than embryos of control mothers. These findings point to some of the molecular mechanisms that might underlie maternal effects. PMID:24887438

Mommer, Brett C.; Bell, Alison M.

2014-01-01

295

Maternal Diabetes and the Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Offspring: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We performed a systematic literature search regarding maternal diabetes before and during pregnancy and the risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the offspring. Of the 178 potentially relevant articles, 12 articles including three cohort studies and nine case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis. Both the meta-analyses of cohort…

Xu, Guifeng; Jing, Jin; Bowers, Katherine; Liu, Buyun; Bao, Wei

2014-01-01

296

Influence of maternal diet during lactation and use of formula feeds on development of atopic eczema in high risk infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To examine the effects of maternal diet during lactation and the use of formula feeds on the development of atopic eczema in infants at risk. DESIGN--Mothers who planned to breast feed exclusively were randomly allocated to either a restricted diet (avoiding milk and other dairy products, eggs, fish, peanuts, and soybeans) or a diet without restrictions. Mothers who did not

R. K. Chandra; S. Puri; A. Hamed

1989-01-01

297

Maternal mortality estimation: separating pregnancy-related and non-pregnancy-related risks.  

PubMed

The increased availability of survey data and improved estimation techniques have furthered our understanding of maternal mortality in developing countries. Both the indirect and direct sisterhood methods of estimation depend on time-of-death information from surveys. This report proposes a method for calculating two rates, one during the pregnancy period and one outside of it. Analysis of both rates provides more information about mortality associated with pregnancy than do methods that only produce one rate. The pregnancy-related mortality rate can be estimated by assuming that non-pregnancy-related risks are constant, irrespective of whether women are pregnant or not. An estimated 69 percent of deaths in Bolivia during pregnancy may be pregnancy related; this result is significantly lower than that obtained using the traditional sisterhood method. In certain cases, this result may be viewed as a plausible lower bound. A variety of estimates should probably be used for policy purposes. PMID:7785066

Stecklov, G

1995-01-01

298

[Risk factors for stroke in young people].  

PubMed

The risk factors of stroke in young adults and in the whole population are the same in general, but there are some special risk factors in young adults. They are congenital or early acquired diseases which are complicating with early stroke. We studied the risk factors of cerebrovascular insults in 150 patients, 20-49 years old (Table 1). This was 26.04 percent of all patients that were hospitally treated in the urgent neurological department over one year. However, twenty years ago, this percent was 20.20 [2]. We found that arterial hypertension was dominant both among young adults (47.99 percent) and in the whole population (Table 2) [1-3]. Essential hypertension was the most frequent, and renal and thyreotoxical hypertensions were rare. The atherogenic level of low density and high density lipoproteins (LDL/HDL) was present in 14.66 percent of young adult patients [3]. Diabetes mellitus, a known risk factor of stroke, was found in 5.33 percent of our studied patients, especially in the juvenile form [1-3]. Besides juvenile diabetes mellitus, we found other risk factors that were characteristic of young adults: systemic lupus erythematosus (3.33 percent), which began at an early vital age, and numerous cerebrovascular complications appeared during the first five years of illness [7]. In this group of young adults, we found no other type of vasculitis, which also can be a risk factor of stroke. Great risk factors of stroke in young adults were arterial-venous malformation, brain aneurysm and congenital muscular hypoplasia of the carotide and middle caliber cerebral arteries-multiple progressive intracranial arterial occlusion or Nishimoto Takeuchi disease or Moya Moya disease, which were found in 3.99 percent of our patients. These diseases were complicated by cerebrovascular haemorrhagic or ischaemic insults over the young vital period [9]. The similar was with congenital or early acquired (rheumatic fever) heart valve defects (3.99 percent in our group), with early cerebrovascular complications due to cardiogenic thromboembolism mechanisms [10]. In 2 percent of patients the stroke was the consequence of anticoagulant therapy. These were the patients with operated heart valve defects (haemodynamic risk factor was eliminated, but haemorrheological risk factor was evident) [2, 3]. Also, disturbances of cardiac rhythm were risk factors of stroke in 2 percent of our patients. The mechanism of stroke originated is cardiogenic thromboembolism or global hypotension and the following ischaemia in the border brain zone [11]. All these risk factors were present in a relatively small number of patients, but they were "strong" risk factors of stroke, especially in young adults. On the other hand, there were nicotinism, alcoholism and obesity. They were present in a greater percent (25.33; 15.66; 18.66 percent), but their influence was slow and indirect by haemorrheologic mechanism (the increasing aggregation of platelets, reduced flexibility of red and white blood cells, changed prostacycline-prostaglandin relation in endothelial and blood cells, viscosity of blood, LDL/HDL) [2, 3, 12, 13]. A prolonged psychogenic stress (8.66 percent in our group) was, also, a risk factor of stroke. It induced increase in catecholamine level, arterial hypertension, constriction of blood vessels, endothelial cell damages, increased aggregation of platelets, changed prostacycline-prostaglandin relation, metabolism of lipids and polysaccharides) [2, 3]. We found no abuse of ephedrine [16] or cocaine [15] as risk factors of stroke in our group, although it was described in litterature. Also, we found no postoperative thromboemolism (foramen ovale apertum). Ischaemic cerebrovascular insults dominated (77.34 percent) in our group of patients. In one article (Canada) [17] haemorrhagic insults were dominant in young adults. In our opinion, the number of our patients was not adequated, as haemorrhagic stroke is also treated in neurosurgical departments. The mor PMID:9102854

Jovanovi?, Z

1996-01-01

299

Optimizing benefits of influenza virus vaccination during pregnancy: potential behavioral risk factors and interventions.  

PubMed

Pregnant women and infants are at high risk for complications, hospitalization, and death due to influenza. It is well-established that influenza vaccination during pregnancy reduces rates and severity of illness in women overall. Maternal vaccination also confers antibody protection to infants via both transplacental transfer and breast milk. However, as in the general population, a relatively high proportion of pregnant women and their infants do not achieve protective antibody levels against influenza virus following maternal vaccination. Behavioral factors, particularly maternal weight and stress exposure, may affect initial maternal antibody responses, maintenance of antibody levels over time (i.e., across pregnancy), as well as the efficiency of transplacental antibody transfer to the fetus. Conversely, behavioral interventions including acute exercise and stress reduction can enhance immune protection following vaccination. Such behavioral interventions are particularly appealing in pregnancy because they are safe and non-invasive. The identification of individual risk factors for poor responses to vaccines and the application of appropriate interventions represent important steps towards personalized health care. PMID:24709586

Christian, Lisa M

2014-05-23

300

Refugee, asylum seeker, immigrant women and postnatal depression: rates and risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postnatal depression (PND) is recognised as a common maternal health problem, but little evidence examines PND among refugee,\\u000a asylum seeker and immigrant women in developed country settings. This review aimed to identify the rates of PND and highlight\\u000a common risk factors among this group of women. An iterative and dynamic literature search was conducted across ten databases\\u000a to identify published

Catherine H. Collins; Cathy Zimmerman; Louise M. Howard

2011-01-01

301

Circulating sex steroids during pregnancy and maternal risk of non-epithelial ovarian cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Sex steroid hormones have been proposed to play a role in the development of non-epithelial ovarian cancers (NEOC) but so far no direct epidemiological data are available. Methods A case-control study was nested within the Finnish Maternity Cohort, the world’s largest bio-repository of serum specimens from pregnant women. Study subjects were selected among women who donated a blood sample during a singleton pregnancy that led to the birth of their last child preceding diagnosis of NEOC. Case subjects were 41 women with sex-cord stromal tumors (SCST) and 21 with germ cell tumors (GCT). Three controls, matching the index case for age, parity at the index pregnancy, and date at blood donation were selected (n=171). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) associated with concentrations of testosterone, androstenedione, 17-OH-progesterone, progesterone, estradiol and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were estimated through conditional logistic regression. Results For SCST, doubling of testosterone, androstenedione and 17-OH-progesterone concentrations were associated with about 2-fold higher risk of SCST [ORs and 95% CI of 2.16 (1.25–3.74), 2.16 (1.20–3.87), and 2.62 (1.27–5.38), respectively]. These associations remained largely unchanged after excluding women within 2, 4 or 6 years lag-time between blood donation and cancer diagnosis. Sex steroid hormones concentrations were not related to maternal risk of GCT. Conclusions This is the first prospective study providing initial evidence that elevated androgens play a role in the pathogenesis of SCST. Impact Our study may note a particular need for larger confirmatory investigations on sex steroids and NEOC. PMID:21177423

Chen, Tianhui; Surcel, Helja-Marja; Lundin, Eva; Kaasila, Marjo; Lakso, Hans Ake; Schock, Helena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Koskela, Pentti; Grankvist, Kjell; Hallmans, Goran; Pukkala, Eero; Jacquotte, Anne Zeleniuch; Toniolo, Paolo; Lehtinen, Matti; Lukanova, Annekatrin

2011-01-01

302

Risk Factors for Esophageal Candidiasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of gastric acid inhibitors as predisposing factors for Candida esophagitis is unknown. A retrospective case-control study of esophageal candidiasis was conducted in human immunodeficiency\\u000a virus (HIV)-negative patients diagnosed from January 1991 to December 1997. The diagnosis of esophageal candidiasis was always\\u000a made on the basis of endoscopic and histological criteria. Fifty-one patients were diagnosed with esophageal candidiasis,\\u000a 15

A. Chocarro Martínez; F. Galindo Tobal; G. Ruiz-Irastorza; A. González López; F. Alvarez Navia; C. Ochoa Sangrador; M. I. Martín Arribas

2000-01-01

303

Maternal Caffeine Intake, Blood Pressure, and the Risk of Hypertensive Complications During Pregnancy. The Generation R Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCaffeine intake has been suggested to be associated with the risk of hypertension. Less is known about the associations of caffeine intake on maternal cardiovascular adaptations during pregnancy. We examined the associations of caffeine intake in different trimesters of pregnancy with repeatedly measured blood pressure and the risks of pregnancy-induced hypertension and pre-eclampsia in a population-based cohort of 7,890 pregnant

Rachel Bakker; Eric A. P. Steegers; Hein Raat; Albert Hofman; Vincent W. V. Jaddoe

2011-01-01

304

Physiological, Behavioral and Maternal Factors That Contribute to Size Variation in Larval Amphibian Populations  

PubMed Central

Size variance among similarly aged individuals within populations is a pattern common to many organisms that is a result of interactions between intrinsic and extrinsic traits of individuals. While genetic and maternal effects, as well as physiological and behavioral traits have been shown to contribute to size variation in animal populations, teasing apart the influence of such factors on individual growth rates remain a challenge. Furthermore, tracing the effects of these interactions across life stages and in shaping adult phenotypes also requires further exploration. In this study we investigated the relationship between genetics, hatching patterns, behaviors, neuroendocrine stress axis activity and variance in growth and metamorphosis among same-aged larval amphibians. Through parallel experiments we found that in the absence of conspecific interactions, hatch time and to a lesser extent egg clutch identity (i.e. genetics and maternal effects) influenced the propensity for growth and development in individual tadpoles and determined metamorphic traits. Within experimental groups we found that variance in growth rates was associated with size-dependent foraging behaviors and responses to food restriction. We also found an inverse relationship between glucocorticoid (GC) hormone levels and body mass and developmental stage among group-reared tadpoles, which suggests that GC expression plays a role in regulating differing within-population growth trajectories in response to density-dependent conditions. Taken together these findings suggest that factors that influence hatching conditions can have long-term effects on growth and development. These results also raise compelling questions regarding the extent to which maternal and genetic factors influence physiological and behavioral profiles in amphibians. PMID:24143188

Warne, Robin W.; Kardon, Adam; Crespi, Erica J.

2013-01-01

305

Family and socioeconomic risk factors for undernutrition among children aged 6 to 23 Months in Ibadan, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction Child undernutrition is a major public health problem in Nigeria and other Sub-Saharan African countries. However, few analytical studies have quantified the role of risk factors. This study was conducted to determine the socio-economic and family related risk factors for undernutrition among children in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods A case-control study was conducted among children100 cases and 200 controls aged 6-23 months. A semi-structured interviewer- administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-economic status, infant feeding practices of the mothers, children's immunization status and recent episodes of common childhood illnesses. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify the risk factors. Results On bivariate analysis, the maternal factors associated with undernutrition were maternal level of education below secondary level, monthly income below $20 and polygamous marriage. Socio-economic factors significantly associated with malnutrition were residence in a high density area, family accommodation in a single room apartment and family weekly expenditure on food below $55. Children's characteristics associated with child malnutrition included incomplete immunization for age, recent episodes of diarrhoea and acute respiratory infection. The significant risk factors on multivariate analysis were maternal monthly income <$20, monthly household food expenditure <$55, residence in a one room apartment, higher birth order and incomplete immunization of the child. Conclusion The multiplicity of risk factors identified is indicative of the need for a multidisciplinary approach in developing preventive strategies child undernutrition. PMID:25120874

Owoaje, Eme; Onifade, Oluwadolapo; Desmennu, Adeyimika

2014-01-01

306

Congenital Thrombotic Risk Factors in ?-Thalassemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thalassemia major patients have increased risk for thromboembolic complications because of the chronic hypercoagulable state. The question arising from this is whether thromboembolic complications are the result of genetic polymorphisms of prothrombotic factors. Here, we studied factor V 1691 G-A (FVL), factor II polymorphism (G20210A), methyltetrahydrofolate reductase mutation (MTHFR, C677T), and endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) deletion polymorphism and

Tansu Sipahi; Asl?han Kara; Ayca Kuybulu; Yonca Egin; Nejat Akar

2009-01-01

307

Cardiovascular risk factors, change in risk factors over 7 years, and the risk of clinical diabetes mellitus type 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a large longitudinal study, we examined the relationships between cardiovascular risk factors (blood lipids, blood pressure, smoking, and physical activity), and change in these risk factors over a 7-year period, and the risk of clinical diabetes mellitus type 2. There were 73 verified new cases of clinical diabetes mellitus type 2 (diagnosed between 1987 and 1995) and 9,982 controls

Bjarne K Jacobsen; Kaare H Bønaa; Inger Njølstad

2002-01-01

308

Risk Factors for Preterm Birth among HIV-Infected Tanzanian Women: A Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

Premature delivery, a significant cause of child mortality and morbidity worldwide, is particularly prevalent in the developing world. As HIV is highly prevalent in much of sub-Saharan Africa, it is important to determine risk factors for prematurity among HIV-positive pregnancies. The aims of this study were to identify risk factors of preterm (<37 weeks) and very preterm (<34 weeks) birth among a cohort of 927 HIV positive women living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, who enrolled in the Tanzania Vitamin and HIV Infection Trial between 1995 and 1997. Multivariable relative risk regression models were used to determine the association of potential maternal risk factors with premature and very premature delivery. High rates of preterm (24%) and very preterm birth (9%) were found. Risk factors (adjusted RR (95% CI)) for preterm birth were mother <20 years (1.46 (1.10, 1.95)), maternal illiteracy (1.54 (1.10, 2.16)), malaria (1.42 (1.11, 1.81)), Entamoeba coli (1.49 (1.04, 2.15)), no or low pregnancy weight gain, and HIV disease stage ?2 (1.41 (1.12, 1.50)). Interventions to reduce pregnancies in women under 20, prevent and treat malaria, reduce Entamoeba coli infection, and promote weight gain in pregnant women may have a protective effect on prematurity. PMID:25328529

Zack, Rachel M.; Golan, Jenna; Aboud, Said; Msamanga, Gernard; Spiegelman, Donna; Fawzi, Wafaie

2014-01-01

309

Maternal Factors Associated with Fetal Growth and Birthweight Are Independent Determinants of Placental Weight and Exhibit Differential Effects by Fetal Sex  

PubMed Central

Introduction Maternal nutritional and metabolic factors influence the developmental environment of the fetus. Virtually any nutritional factor in the maternal blood has to pass the placental membranes to reach the fetal blood. Placental weight is a commonly used measure to summarize placental growth and function. Placental weight is an independent determinant of fetal growth and birthweight and modifies the associations between maternal metabolic factors and fetal growth. We hypothesized that maternal factors known to be related to fetal growth, newborn size and body composition are determinants of placental weight and that effects of maternal metabolic factors on placental weight differ between the genders. Methods The STORK study is a prospective longitudinal study including 1031 healthy pregnant women of Scandinavian heritage with singleton pregnancies. Maternal determinants (parity, body mass index, gestational weight gain and fasting plasma glucose) of placental weight were explored by linear regression models, stratified by fetal sex. Results Parity, maternal BMI, gestational weight gain and fasting glucose had positive effects on placental weight. There was a sex specific effect in these associations. Fasting glucose was significantly associated with placental weight in females but not in males. Conclusion Maternal factors known to influence fetal growth, birthweight and neonatal body composition are determinants of placental weight. The effect of maternal factors on placental weight is influenced by sex as illustrated in the relation between maternal glucose and placental weight. PMID:24516548

Roland, Marie Cecilie Paasche; Friis, Camilla M.; Godang, Kristin; Bollerslev, Jens; Haugen, Guttorm; Henriksen, Tore

2014-01-01

310

Flux Congress Maternal History of Depression Impacts Neural Responses to Emotional Stimuli in  

E-print Network

. The current study sought to extend previous findings to test effects of maternal depression on neural, these results will help to elucidate the effects of maternal history of depression and other risk factorsFlux Congress Abstract Maternal History of Depression Impacts Neural Responses to Emotional

311

Mesoderm induction in Xenopus is a zygotic event regulated by maternal VegT via TGFbeta growth factors.  

PubMed

The maternal transcription factor VegT is important for establishing the primary germ layers in Xenopus. In previous work, we showed that the vegetal masses of embryos lacking maternal VegT do not produce mesoderm-inducing signals and that mesoderm formation in these embryos occurred ectopically, from the vegetal area rather than the equatorial zone of the blastula. Here we have increased the efficiency of the depletion of maternal VegT mRNA and have studied the effects on mesoderm formation. We find that maternal VegT is required for the formation of 90% of mesodermal tissue, as measured by the expression of mesodermal markers MyoD, cardiac actin, Xbra, Xwnt8 and alphaT4 globin. Furthermore, the transcription of FGFs and TGFbetas, Xnr1, Xnr2, Xnr4 and derrière does not occur in VegT-depleted embryos. We test whether these growth factors may be endogenous factors in mesoderm induction, by studying their ability to rescue the phenotype of VegT-depleted embryos, when their expression is restricted to the vegetal mass. We find that Xnr1, Xnr2, Xnr4 and derrière mRNA all rescue mesoderm formation, as well as the formation of blastopores and the wild-type body axis. Derrière rescues trunk and tail while nr1, nr2 and nr4 rescue head, trunk and tail. We conclude that mesoderm induction in Xenopus depends on a maternal transcription factor regulating these zygotic growth factors. PMID:10572051

Kofron, M; Demel, T; Xanthos, J; Lohr, J; Sun, B; Sive, H; Osada, S; Wright, C; Wylie, C; Heasman, J

1999-12-01

312

Evidence that aetiological risk factors for psychiatric disorders cause distinct patterns of cognitive deficits.  

PubMed

Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are associated with neurocognitive symptoms including deficits in attentional set shifting (changing attentional focus from one perceptual dimension to another) and reversal learning (learning a reversed stimulus/outcome contingency). Maternal infection during gestation and chronically flattened glucocorticoid rhythm are aetiological risk factors for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We hypothesised that these factors are causative in the neurocognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Here we used maternal immune activation (MIA) as a rat model of maternal infection, and sub-chronic low dose corticosterone treatment as a rat model of flattened glucocorticoid rhythm. For comparison we examined the effects of sub-chronic phencyclidine - a widely used rodent model of schizophrenia pathology. The effects of these three treatments on neurocognition were explored using the attentional set shifting task - a multistage test of executive functions. As expected, phencyclidine treatment selectively impaired set shifting ability. In contrast, MIA caused a marked and selective impairment of reversal learning. Corticosterone treatment impaired reversal learning but in addition also impaired rule abstraction and prevented the animals from forming an attentional set. The reversal learning deficits induced by MIA and corticosterone treatment were due to increases in non-perseverative rather than perseverative errors. Our data indicate that the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may be explained by aetiological factors including maternal infection and glucocorticoid abnormalities and moreover suggest that the particular spectrum of cognitive deficits in individual patients may depend on the specific underlying aetiology of the disorder. PMID:24377755

Wallace, J; Marston, H M; McQuade, R; Gartside, S E

2014-06-01

313

Risk Factors for Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) risk factors allows anesthesiologists to opti- mize the use of prophylactic regimens. Modern PONV risk research began in the 1990s with publica- tion of studies using logistic regression analysis to simultaneously identify multiple independent PONV predictors and publication of meta-analyses and systematic reviews. This literature shows that fe- male gender post-puberty, nonsmoking status,

Tong J. Gan

2006-01-01

314

Psychological Factors Linked to Risk Perception  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.

Arma?, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; St?nciugelu, I.

2012-04-01

315

Early childhood risk and resilience factors for behavioural and emotional problems in middle childhood  

PubMed Central

Background Mental disorders in childhood have a considerable health and societal impact but the associated negative consequences may be ameliorated through early identification of risk and protective factors that can guide health promoting and preventive interventions. The objective of this study was to inform health policy and practice through identification of demographic, familial and environmental factors associated with emotional or behavioural problems in middle childhood, and the predictors of resilience in the presence of identified risk factors. Methods A cohort of 706 mothers followed from early pregnancy was surveyed at six to eight years post-partum by a mail-out questionnaire, which included questions on demographics, children’s health, development, activities, media and technology, family, friends, community, school life, and mother’s health. Results Although most children do well in middle childhood, of 450 respondents (64% response rate), 29.5% and 25.6% of children were found to have internalising and externalising behaviour problem scores in the lowest quintile on the NSCLY Child Behaviour Scales. Independent predictors for problem behaviours identified through multivariable logistic regression modelling included being male, demographic risk, maternal mental health risk, poor parenting interactions, and low parenting morale. Among children at high risk for behaviour problems, protective factors included high maternal and child self-esteem, good maternal emotional health, adequate social support, good academic performance, and adequate quality parenting time. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that several individual and social resilience factors can counter the influence of early adversities on the likelihood of developing problem behaviours in middle childhood, thus informing enhanced public health interventions for this understudied life course phase. PMID:24986740

2014-01-01

316

Surgical site infection risk factors and risk stratification.  

PubMed

Preoperative identification of the risk factors for surgical site infection and patient risk stratification are essential for deciding whether surgery is appropriate, educating patients on their individual risk of complications, and managing postoperative expectations. Early identification of these factors is also necessary to help guide both patient medical optimization and perioperative care planning. Several resources are currently available to track and analyze healthcare-associated infections, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network. In addition, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons are exploring collaborative opportunities for the codevelopment of a hip and/or knee arthroplasty national quality measure for periprosthetic joint infection. PMID:25808971

Florschutz, Anthony V; Fagan, Ryan P; Matar, Wadih Y; Sawyer, Robert G; Berrios-Torres, Sandra I

2015-04-01

317

Adverse Effects of Heavy Prenatal Maternal Smoking on Attentional Control in Children with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Exposure to heavy maternal cigarette smoking in pregnancy and severe maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy appear to be important risk factors for the development of ADHD. This study aimed to determine whether these perinatal risk factors were associated with neuropsychological deficits commonly seen in ADHD. Method: We examined…

Motlagh, Maria G.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Katsovich, Liliya; Thompson, Nancy; Scahill, Lawrence; King, Robert A.; Peterson, Bradley S.; Schultz, Robert T.; Leckman, James F.

2011-01-01

318

Impact of Prenatal Risk Factors on Congenital Heart Disease in the Current Era  

PubMed Central

Background The healthcare burden related to congenital heart disease (CHD) is increasing with improving survival. We assessed changing trends in prenatal risk factors for CHD in the current era in a Canadian cohort. Methods and Results CHD patients <18 years old (n=2339) and controls without structural heart disease (n=199) were prospectively enrolled in an Ontario province?wide biobank registry from 2008–2011. Family history, frequency of extra?cardiac anomalies (ECAs), and antenatal risk factors were assessed. Temporal trends were analyzed and associations with CHD were measured using linear and logistic regression. Family history of CHD and frequency of major ECAs was higher in cases versus controls (P<0.001). Despite an increase in genetic testing in the recent era, only 9.5% of cases with CHD had a confirmed genetic diagnosis. Yield of genetic testing (ie, frequency of abnormal results) was higher in familial and syndromic cases. There was an increase in parental age at conception, maternal prepregnancy body mass index, maternal urinary tract infections, type 1 diabetes, and exposure to nonfertility medications during pregnancy from 1990–2011. Later year of birth, family history of CHD, presence of major ECAs, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and maternal medication exposure were associated with increased odds of CHD (P<0.05 for all). Advanced parental age was associated with increased odds of CHD caused by genetic abnormalities. Conclusions The increase in prenatal risk factors for CHD highlights the need for more rigorous ascertainment of genetic and environmental factors including gene?environment interactions that contribute to CHD. PMID:23727699

Fung, Alan; Manlhiot, Cedric; Naik, Sapna; Rosenberg, Herschel; Smythe, John; Lougheed, Jane; Mondal, Tapas; Chitayat, David; McCrindle, Brian W.; Mital, Seema

2013-01-01

319

Maternal Benzene Exposure during Pregnancy and Risk of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of childhood leukemia is increasing rapidly all over the world. However, studies on maternal benzene exposure during pregnancy and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have not been systematically assessed. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the association between maternal solvent, paint, petroleum exposure, and smoking during pregnancy and risk of childhood ALL. Methods Relevant studies up to September 1st, 2013 were identified by searching the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library and the Web of Science databases. The effects were pooled using either fixed or random effect models based on the heterogeneity of the studies. Results Twenty-eight case-control studies and one cohort study were included for analysis, with a total of 16,695 cases and 1,472,786 controls involved. Pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for ALL was 1.25 (1.09, 1.45) for solvent, 1.23 (1.02, 1.47) for paint, 1.42 (1.10, 1.84) for petroleum exposure, and 0.99 (0.93, 1.06) for maternal smoking during pregnancy. No publication bias was found in this meta-analysis and consistent results were observed for subgroup and sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Childhood ALL was associated with maternal solvent, paint, and petroleum exposure during pregnancy. No association was found between ALL and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Avoidance of maternal occupational and environmental benzene exposure during pregnancy could contribute to a decrease in the risk of childhood ALL. PMID:25333868

Li, Zhen; Zhu, Jie; Bi, Yongyi; Bai, YuE; Wang, Hong

2014-01-01

320

Risk Factors for Recurrent Lumbar Disc Herniations  

PubMed Central

The most common complication after lumbar discectomy is reherniation. As the first step in reducing the rate of recurrence, many studies have been conducted to find out the factors that may increase the reherniation risk. Some reported factors are age, sex, the type of lumbar disc herniation, the amount of fragments removed, smoking, alcohol consumption and the length of restricted activities. In this review, the factors studied thus far are summarized, excepting factors which cannot be chosen or changed, such as age or sex. Apart from the factors shown here, many other risk factors such as diabetes, family history, history of external injury, duration of illness and body mass index are considered. Few are agreed upon by all. The reason for the diverse opinions may be that many clinical and biomechanical variables are involved in the prognosis following operation. For the investigation of risk factors in recurrent lumbar disc herniation, large-scale multicenter prospective studies will be required in the future. PMID:24761206

2014-01-01

321

Occupational Asthma: Etiologies and Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this article is to critically review the available evidence pertaining to occupational, environmental, and individual factors that can affect the development of occupational asthma (OA). Increasing evidence suggests that exploration of the intrinsic characteristics of OA-causing agents and associated structure-activity relationships offers promising avenues for quantifying the sensitizing potential of agents that are introduced in the workplace. The intensity of exposure to sensitizing agents has been identified as the most important environmental risk factor for OA and should remain the cornerstone for primary prevention strategies. The role of other environmental co-factors (e.g., non-respiratory routes of exposure and concomitant exposure to cigarette smoke and other pollutants) remains to be further delineated. There is convincing evidence that atopy is an important individual risk factor for OA induced by high-molecular-weight agents. There is some evidence that genetic factors, such as leukocyte antigen class II alleles, are associated with an increased risk of OA; however, the role of genetic susceptibility factors is likely to be obscured by complex gene-environment interactions. OA, as well as asthma in general, is a complex disease that results from multiple interactions between environmental factors and host susceptibilities. Determining these interactions is a crucial step towards implementing optimal prevention policies. PMID:21738881

2011-01-01

322

Risk of Spontaneous Preterm Birth in Relation to Maternal Depressive, Anxiety and Stress Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the risk of preterm birth (PTB) in relation to maternal psychiatric symptoms during pregnancy in Peruvian women. Methods This case control study included 479 PTB cases and 480 term controls. In-person interviews were conducted to assess women’s depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Compared with women reporting no or minimal depressive symptoms, the aOR (95% CI) for PTB associated with consecutive severity of depressive symptoms based on the PHQ-9 assessment method were as follows: mild 2.22 (95% CI 1.64–3.00) and moderate-severe 3.67 (95% CI 2.09–6.46). The corresponding aORs for mild, moderate, and moderate- severe depressive symptoms based on the DASS-21 assessment were, 1.00 (reference), 3.82 (95% CI 1.90–7.66) and 2.90 (95% CI 1.66–5.04), respectively. A positive gradient was observed for the odds of PTB with severity of anxiety (ptrend <0.001) and stress symptoms (ptrend <0.001). Conclusions The odds of PTB are increased in pregnant Peruvian women with psychiatric symptoms. Efforts to screen and treat affected women may modify risks of PTB and possibly other associated disorders. PMID:23447915

Sanchez, Sixto E.; Puente, Gabriella C.; Atencio, Guillermo; Qiu, Chungfang; Yanez, David; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A.

2013-01-01

323

Risk factors for age-related cataracts.  

PubMed

Cataracts, the world's leading cause of blindness, are an enormous public health problem in both developing and industrialized countries. Identifying the risk factors responsible for cataract formation is a difficult and complicated problem because a realistic causal model in cataract formation would not be a simple linear sufficient cause paradigm (e.g., one exposure-one cataract type). A more complex model depicting each risk factor as a component cause, or part of a sufficient cause such as the sufficient/component cause model proposed by Rothman (62), is a more realistic way to summarize how multiple risk factors act in cataract etiology. Moreover, even this model has shortcomings, especially in explaining cataract etiology. It ignores the obvious importance of time to cataract formation and the way different component causes may act on different etiologic branches of cataract formation, e.g., nuclear sclerosis, posterior subcapsular cataracts, and mixed. Despite the complexity in identifying cataract risk factors, attempting to do so provides new hope in dealing with the morbidity, mortality, and cost of this disease. The evidence is overwhelming that age, trauma, and intraocular inflammation are important cataract risks. However, these exposures either are inevitable or are not major contributors to the population attributable risk. On the basis of both coherence and predictive performance, undernutrition is an important risk factor that can be altered. However, work still needs to be done in two areas related to this risk. First, regarding individuals in developing nations, the question must be asked about which nutrients (or lack thereof) are the culprits. The epidemiologic evidence that antioxidants are the missing nutrients is far from overwhelming. For developed nations, the obvious question still to be answered is whether the results of the Linxian Cataract Studies (11) and the India-US Case-Control Study (12) can be generalized to industrial nations. To help answer this question, an intervention study sponsored by the National Institutes of Health is now underway (K. Kupfer, Director, National Eye Institute of the USA, Bethesda, Maryland, personal communication, 1993). Ultraviolet radiation, especially ultraviolet B radiation, is an important risk for cortical cataracts, and one study (27) has even demonstrated a dose-response relation. However, the public health implication of this finding is not clear. Isolating the risk of ultraviolet B radiation exposure as a cause of cortical cataracts (and, in general, not of other types) indicates that the risk is small on a public health scale. This is because cortical cataracts are well tolerated and frequently require no treatment at all. The evidence that links ultraviolet B radiation to other cataract types comes mainly from ecologic studies and needs to be verified by analytic studies that are specifically designed to study the association. The strength of the association, consistency of studies, coherence, and biologic plausibility all indicate that both systemic and topical steroids are significant risk factors for the formation of posterior subcapsular cataracts. Given that most people are not chronic steroid users, the population attributable risk is low; however, the relative risk of those unfortunate enough to require chronic steroid use is high. The evidence is accumulating that cataracts can be added to the list of illnesses that are at least partially attributed to smoking. Although consistency among studies has not been obtained, this is certainly a plausible cause, and dose-response relations have been demonstrated (53). At this point, nuclear sclerosis is the most important cataract type associated with smoking. More work needs to be done to assess the role of smoking on other cataract types and to assess the risk of those who stop smoking. Retrospective studies that examine diabetes as a risk for cataracts are almost inevitably marred by hte selection bia PMID:8654515

Hodge, W G; Whitcher, J P; Satariano, W

1995-01-01

324

Infant risk factors associated with internalizing, externalizing, and co-occurring behavior problems in young children.  

PubMed

The purpose of the current study was to examine the unique and interactive contributions of infant negative emotionality and family risk factors in the development of internalizing-only, externalizing-only, and co-occurring behavior problems in early childhood. The sample included 412 infants and their primary caregivers. Interviews and temperament assessments took place when infants were 5-7 months old, and primary caregivers completed child behavior ratings at ages 2 1/2 and 5 years. Mixed-effects multinomial logistic regression was used to examine associations between infant risk factors and "pure" and co-occurring child behavior problems, and test whether these associations changed over time. The results of this study showed that hostile parenting during infancy increased the likelihood that children would develop internalizing-only problems, whereas infants who were highly distressed in response to novelty were at increased risk of developing externalizing-only problems. Multiple risk factors, including maternal anxious and depressive symptoms, family conflict, and younger maternal age, independently predicted early childhood co-occurring problems. Additionally, there was a significant interaction between infant anger/frustration and hostile parenting: In the context of hostile parenting, infants high in anger were at increased risk of developing early co-occurring problems, though this association faded by age 5. These findings point to the importance of considering the infant's family context, and differentiating between "pure" and co-occurring behaviors when examining the etiology of early childhood behavior problems. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25664829

Edwards, Renee C; Hans, Sydney L

2015-04-01

325

What Are the Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Men?  

MedlinePLUS

... in men? What are the risk factors for breast cancer in men? A risk factor is anything that ... old when they are diagnosed. Family history of breast cancer Breast cancer risk is increased if other members ...

326

Developmental Trajectories of Body Mass Index Among Japanese Children and Impact of Maternal Factors during Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background The aims of this study were to 1) determine the distinct patterns of body mass index (BMI) trajectories in Japanese children, and 2) elucidate the maternal factors during pregnancy, which contribute to the determination of those patterns. Methodology/Principal Findings All of the children (1,644 individuals) born in Koshu City, Japan, between 1991 and 1998 were followed in a longitudinal study exploring the subjects’ BMI. The BMI was calculated 11 times for each child between birth and 12 years of age. Exploratory latent class growth analyses were conducted to identify trajectory patterns of the BMI z-scores. The distribution of BMI trajectories were best characterized by a five-group model for boys and a six-group model for girls. The groups were named “stable thin,” “stable average,” “stable high average,” “progressive overweight,” and “progressive obesity” in both sexes; girls were allocated to an additional group called “progressive average.” Multinomial logistic regression found that maternal weight, smoking, and skipping breakfast during pregnancy were associated with children included in the progressive obesity pattern rather than the stable average pattern. These associations were stronger for boys than for girls. Conclusions/Significance Multiple developmental patterns in Japanese boys and girls were identified, some of which have not been identified in Western countries. Maternal BMI and some unfavorable behaviors during early pregnancy may impact a child’s pattern of body mass development. Further studies to explain the gender and regional differences that were identified are warranted, as these may be important for early life prevention of weight-associated health problems. PMID:23272187

Haga, Chiyori; Kondo, Naoki; Suzuki, Kohta; Sato, Miri; Ando, Daisuke; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Taichiro; Yamagata, Zentaro

2012-01-01

327

Risk factors for bleeding esophagogastric varices.  

PubMed

Bleeding from gastric varices (GVs) is generally considered more severe than that from esophageal varices (EVs) but occurs less frequently. We review the risk factors for bleeding EVs and GVs. GVs were divided into 2 groups: cardiac varices (CVs, Lg-c) and fundal varices (FVs), i.e., varices involving the fundus alone (Lg-f) or varices involving both the cardia and fundus (Lg-cf). Elevated pressure in the portal vein is a risk factor for bleeding EVs. The portal pressure in patients with GVs and a gastrorenal shunt is lower than that in patients with EVs. The large size of varices is a risk factor for bleeding EVs. Red color signs are elevated red areas that are important for predicting the risk of variceal bleeding, and red wale markings, dilated venules oriented longitudinally on the mucosal surface, have been considered to be the sign with the highest risk. Red color signs are rare in FVs, possibly because of the pronounced thickness of the mucosal layer. Bleeding EVs are not associated with use of antiulcer drugs or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Although, in patients with bleeding GVs, "occasional" use of an oral NSAID is an important step leading to variceal hemorrhage, especially from FVs, even if the mucosa is protected by antiulcer drugs. Constipation, vomiting, severe coughing, and excessive consumption of alcohol may precipitate rupture of EVs. PMID:23995567

Yoshida, Hiroshi; Mamada, Yasuhiro; Taniai, Nobuhiko; Yoshioka, Masato; Hirakata, Atsushi; Kawano, Youichi; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Shimizu, Tetsuya; Ueda, Junji; Uchida, Eiji

2013-01-01

328

Trend of Stillbirth Rates and the Associated Risk Factors in Babol, Northern Iran  

PubMed Central

Objectives Stillbirth is an important public health concern and its rate indicates the sanitary development of society. The purpose of this study is to determine the trend of stillbirth rates and its risk factors in Babol. Methods A retrospective study was conducted based on the data of hospital charts of two major Gynecological wards in Shahid Yahyanejat and Babol clinic hospitals in Babol, Northern Iran. In the first phase, the frequencies of stillbirths and live birth deliveries were collected for the period of 1999-2008. In the second phase, a case-control study of 150 stillbirths cases and 300 live births as controls was conducted. The risk factors data included maternal age, gestational age, gravity, history of stillbirth, abortion, diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, fetal sex, residence area, birth interval and prenatal care. The odds ratio for risk factors with 95% confidence interval for stillbirths was calculated using the logistic regression model. Results Stillbirth rate was reduced significantly from 10.51 in 1999 to 8.57 per 1000 deliveries in 2008 (p=0.001). A significant association was found between preterm delivery (p=0.001) and preeclampsia (p=0.01) with stillbirths. Although the proportion of stillbirths was higher among mothers with history of diabetes, abortion and maternal age of more than 35 years, the odds ratio was not statistically significant. Conclusion There is a relationship between stillbirth, preterm delivery and preeclampsia. Thus, we can considerably prevent stillbirths with sanitary remedial interference on these risk factors. PMID:24498477

Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah; Esmaielzadeh, Seddegheh; Sadeghian, Ghazaleh

2014-01-01

329

HEAT STRESS RISK FACTORS FOR FEEDLOT HEIFERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Heat stress in cattle results in millions of dollars in lost revenue each year due to production losses, and in extreme cases, death. Death losses are more likely to result from the animals vulnerable to heat stress. A study was conducted to determine risk factors for heat stress in feedlot heifer...

330

Risk Factors for Domestic Violence in Curacao  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single…

van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.

2012-01-01

331

Risk Factors for Rural Residential Fires  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context and Purpose: Rural households report high fire-related mortality and injury rates, but few studies have examined the risk factors for fires. This study aims to identify occupant and household characteristics that are associated with residential fires in a rural cohort. Methods: Of 1,005 households contacted in a single rural county, 691…

Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Yang, Jingzhen; Zwerling, Craig

2007-01-01

332

Brachial plexus injury and obstetrical risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether known historical risk factors of brachial plexus injury differ between affected neonates and healthy controls. Methods: The files of all 62 children with Erb's palsy who were diagnosed after birth were reviewed. The control group consisted of 124 randomly selected uninjured infants born within the same period. Results: Compared with the control group, the mothers of

J Bar; A Dvir; M Hod; R Orvieto; P Merlob; A Neri

2001-01-01

333

Risk Factors and Prodromal Eating Pathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…

Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather

2010-01-01

334

Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... medicines as prescribed. Ask your doctor about taking aspirin. Ask others to help you manage your diabetes. "I wasn't aware of my risk factors, such as being diabetic and having a family history of heart problems." — Ann Preventing Diabetes If you ...

335

Risk factors for feline diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chapters of Part I of the thesis describe the development of techniques that can be used in the assessment of risk factors for the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) in cats. \\u000aThe hyperglycemic glucose clamp (HGC) was developed for use in conscious cats, equipped with arterial catheters for plasma glucose measurements. The glucose disposal rate measured during HGC was

L. I. Slingerland

2008-01-01

336

Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

2014-01-01

337

Perinatal Risk Factors for Mild Motor Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aetiology of mild motor disability (MMD) is a complex issue and as yet is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of perinatal risk factors in a cohort of 10-year-old boys and girls with (n = 362) and without (n = 1193) MMD. Among the males with MMD there was a higher prevalence of postpartum haemorrhage,…

Hands, Beth; Kendall, Garth; Larkin, Dawne; Parker, Helen

2009-01-01

338

Monitoring Physical Activity - Risk Factor Monitoring & Methods  

Cancer.gov

The Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch (RFMMB) supports the collection of physical activity data in existing and planned surveys. In doing so, we are attempting to develop more complete assessments of individuals' physical activity based on information derived from multiple contexts, including transportation, occupation, and recreation.

339

Psychopathy as a Risk Factor for Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of Kansas v Hendricks, many sex offenders in the U.S. are likely to be civilly committed to mental institutions for indefinite periods, and many others with histories of violent offenses may also be so committed. It therefore becomes critical for mental health professionals to understand the risk factors for re-offending that put the public in jeopardy. The

Robert D. Hare

1999-01-01

340

Risk Factors for Paternal Physical Child Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study uses the developmental-ecological framework to examine a comprehensive set of paternal factors hypothesized to be linked to risk for paternal child abuse (PCA) among a diverse sample of fathers. Attention was given to fathers' marital status and their race/ethnicity (White, African American, and Hispanic). Methods: Interviews…

Lee, Shawna J.; Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Yookyong

2008-01-01

341

Risk Factors for Depression After a Disaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental stressors such as mass disasters may contribute to an increased prevalence of depression within the population affected. We examined the prevalence of probable major depression and risk factors for depression in the 6-month period after the September 11, 2001, attacks on the World Trade Center among New York City (NYC) metropolitan residents. A total of 2700 persons who were

Cheryl Person; Melissa Tracy; Sandro Galea

2006-01-01

342

Injury Risk Factors Among Telemark Skiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed a population survey of telemark skiers over two ski seasons to determine specific risk factors for injury. The survey inquired about the skier's sex, experience, equipment used, injuries, and number of days skied in each season. The respondents completed the surveys whether or not they were injured while skiing. We received 677 responses from telemark skiing clubs, with

Michael L. Tuggy; Ric Ong

2000-01-01

343

MTHFD1 polymorphism as maternal risk for neural tube defects: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Recently, the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1 (MTHFD1) G1958A polymorphism and neural tube defects (NTD) susceptibility has been widely investigated; however, the results remained inconclusive. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of MTHFD1 G1958A polymorphism on NTD. The relative literatures were identified by search of the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE. The extracted data were statistically analyzed, and pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the association strength using Stata version 11.0 software. Finally, ten studies met our inclusion criteria, including 2,132/4,082 in NTD infants and controls; 1,402/3,136 in mothers with NTD offspring and controls; and 993/2,879 in fathers with NTD offspring and controls. This meta-analysis showed that, compared with the mothers with GG genotype, the women with AA genotype had an increased risk of NTD in their offspring, with OR values and 95 % CI at 1.39 (1.16-1.68), p < 0.001. Interestingly, fathers with AG genotype had a significant decreased risk of NTD offspring (OR = 0.79, 95 % CI = 0.66-0.94, p = 0.009). However, there was no significant association between the MTHFD1 G1958A polymorphism in NTD patients and the risk of NTD. In conclusion, the present meta-analysis provided evidence of the association between maternal MTHFD1 G1958A polymorphism and NTD susceptibility. PMID:25502174

Zheng, Jinyu; Lu, Xiaocheng; Liu, Hao; Zhao, Penglai; Li, Kai; Li, Lixin

2015-04-01

344

Externalizing and Internalizing Problems in Low-Income Latino Early AdolescentsRisk, Resource, and Protective Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current investigation examined the role of cumulative risk, family routines, maternal monitoring, mother-child relationship quality, and youth socioemotional competence in adjustment outcomes of 521 10- to 14-year-old low-income Latino early adolescents. Results showed that, as the number of risk factors increased, levels of externalizing and internalizing problems also increased. Furthermore, findings indicated that socio-emotional competence was predictive of fewer

Alexandra Loukas; Hazel M. Prelow

2004-01-01

345

Maternal History and Uterine Artery Doppler in the Assessment of Risk for Development of Early- and Late-Onset Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction  

PubMed Central

Objective. To examine the value of one-step uterine artery Doppler at 20 weeks of gestation in the prediction pre-eclampsia (PE) and/or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Methods. A prospective multicentre study that included all women with singleton pregnancies at 19–22 weeks of gestation (w). The mean pulsatility index (mPI) of both uterine arteries was calculated. Receiver-operating characteristics curves (ROC) were drawn to compare uterine artery Doppler and maternal risk factors for the prediction of early-onset PE and/or IUGR (before 32 w) and late-onset PE and/or IUGR. Results. 6,586 women were included in the study. Complete outcome data was recorded for 6,035 of these women (91.6%). PE developed in 75 (1.2%) and IUGR in 69 (1.1%) cases. Uterine Doppler mPI was 0.99 and the 90th centile was 1.40. For 10% false-positive rate, uterine Doppler mPI identified 70.6% of pregnancies that subsequently developed early-onset PE and 73.3% of pregnancies that developed early-onset IUGR. The test had a lower detection rate for the late-onset forms of the disease (23.5% for PE and 30% for IUGR). Maternal history has a low sensitivity in the detection of early-onset cases, although it is better at detecting late-onset PE. Conclusion. Uterine artery Doppler and maternal risk factors seem to select two different populations - early and late-onset PE which might suggest a different pathogenesis. PMID:19936122

Llurba, Elisa; Carreras, Elena; Gratacós, Eduard; Juan, Miquel; Astor, Judith; Vives, Angels; Hermosilla, Eduard; Calero, Ines; Millán, Pilar; García-Valdecasas, Bárbara; Cabero, Lluís

2009-01-01

346

Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Venous Thrombosis  

PubMed Central

Venous thrombosis, including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, occurs at an annual incidence of about 1 per 1000 adults. Rates increase sharply after around age 45 years, and are slightly higher in men than women in older age. Major risk factors for thrombosis, other than age, include exogenous factors such as surgery, hospitalization, immobility, trauma, pregnancy and the puerperium and hormone use, and endogenous factors such as cancer, obesity, and inherited and acquired disorders of hypercoagulation. This review focuses on epidemiology of venous thrombosis and the general implications of this in patient management. PMID:17433897

Cushman, Mary

2007-01-01

347

Fetal macrosomia: risk factors and outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Because difficult vaginal delivery is more frequent with macrosomic fetuses, some authors recommend routine caesarean section for the delivery of fetuses>4500 g. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of this recommendation, in particular, to analyze maternal and fetal complications according to the mode of delivery.Method: Maternal and neonatal records of 100 infants with weights of

J Bérard; P Dufour; D Vinatier; D Subtil; S Vanderstichèle; J. C Monnier; F Puech

1998-01-01

348

Why are women so intelligent? The effect of maternal IQ on childhood mortality may be a relevant evolutionary factor.  

PubMed

Humans are an unusual species because they exhibit an economic division of labour. Most theories concerning the evolution of specifically human intelligence have focused either on economic problems or sexual selection mechanisms, both of which apply more to men than women. Yet while there is evidence for men having a slightly higher average IQ, the sexual dimorphism of intelligence is not obvious (except at unusually high and low levels). However, a more female-specific selection mechanism concerns the distinctive maternal role in child care during the offspring's early years. It has been reported that increasing maternal intelligence is associated with reducing child mortality. This would lead to a greater level of reproductive success for intelligent women, and since intelligence is substantially heritable, this is a plausible mechanism by which natural selection might tend to increase female intelligence in humans. Any effect of maternal intelligence on improving child survival would likely be amplified by assortative mating for IQ by which people tend to marry others of similar intelligence - combining female maternal and male economic or sexual selection factors. Furthermore, since general intelligence seems to have the functional attribute of general purpose problem-solving and more rapid learning, the advantages of maternal IQ are likely to be greater as the environment for child-rearing is more different from the African hunter-gatherer society and savannah environment in which ancestral humans probably evolved. However, the effect of maternal IQ on child mortality would probably only be of major evolutionary significance in environments where childhood mortality rates were high. The modern situation is that population growth is determined mostly by birth rates; so in modern conditions, maternal intelligence may no longer have a significant effect on reproductive success; the effect of female IQ on reproductive success is often negative. Nonetheless, in the past it is plausible that the link between maternal IQ and child survival constituted a strong selection pressure acting specifically on women. PMID:19766407

Charlton, Bruce G

2010-03-01

349

Maternal Smoking, Demographic and Lifestyle Factors in Relation to Daughter’s Age at Menarche  

PubMed Central

Summary A previous study suggested a younger age at menarche among daughters of heavy prenatal smokers, especially among non-Whites. The present study was designed to evaluate that association in another population and to examine other factors that might be related to age at menarche. We analyzed data from the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a nationwide longitudinal study of pregnant women and their children conducted in 1959–1966. At three sites, with a predominance of Black participants (80%), age at menarche (AAM) was ascertained in the offspring when they were young adults. We included data on 1,556 daughters who had a mean age at menarche of 12.7 years (standard deviation (SD) 1.8). Amount smoked by the mothers was obtained from a baseline interview and subsequent prenatal visits. Regression models were run including maternal smoking and other co-variates, for only the prenatal period, as well as in models with some childhood characteristics. In the prenatal factor model, younger mean age at menarche in daughters was found with the maternal characteristics of earlier age at menarche, being married, and lower parity. Examining childhood variables, earlier AAM was found among girls with few or no siblings or with higher SES. Unlike our previous findings, mean AAM was later in daughters of heavy smokers (20+cigs/day), with a delay of 0.31 years [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.008, 0.61], or about 3.7 months, in the prenatal model, and 0.34 years [95% CI ?0.02, 0.66] in the model with childhood variables included. The pattern was consistent by race. A number of prenatal and childhood factors related to age at menarche were identified that should be considered when examining exogenous exposures in relation to pubertal onset. PMID:19000293

Windham, Gayle C.; Zhang, Lixia; Longnecker, Matthew P; Klebanoff, Mark

2007-01-01

350

Maternal smoking, demographic and lifestyle factors in relation to daughter's age at menarche.  

PubMed

A previous study suggested a younger age at menarche (AAM) among daughters of heavy prenatal smokers, especially among non-Whites. The present study was designed to evaluate that association in another population and to examine other factors that may be related to AAM. We analysed data from the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a nationwide longitudinal study of pregnant women and their children conducted in 1959-66. At three sites, with a predominance of Black participants (80%), AAM was ascertained in the offspring when they were young adults. We included data on 1556 daughters who had a mean AAM of 12.7 years (standard deviation 1.8). Amount smoked by the mothers was obtained from a baseline interview and subsequent prenatal visits. Regression models were run including maternal smoking and other covariates, for only the prenatal period, as well as in models with some childhood characteristics. In the prenatal factor model, younger mean AAM in daughters was found with maternal characteristics of earlier AAM, being married, and of lower parity. Examining childhood variables, earlier AAM was found among girls with few or no siblings or with higher socio-economic status. Unlike our previous findings, mean AAM was later in daughters of heavy smokers (20+ cigarettes/day), with a delay of 0.31 years [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.008, 0.61], or about 3.7 months in the prenatal model, and 0.34 years [95% CI -0.02, 0.66] in the model with childhood variables included. The pattern was consistent by race. A number of prenatal and childhood factors related to AAM were identified that should be considered when examining exogenous exposures in relation to pubertal onset. PMID:19000293

Windham, Gayle C; Zhang, Lixia; Longnecker, Matthew P; Klebanoff, Mark

2008-11-01

351

Factors Affecting Ejection Risk in Rollover Crashes  

PubMed Central

Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 – 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position, roof crush, side curtain airbag deployment, glazing type, and occupant age, gender, and size. Seatbelt use was found to reduce the risk of partial ejection and virtually eliminate the risk of complete ejection. For belted occupants, the risk of partial ejection risk was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, light trucks and vans (LTVs), and larger occupants. For unbelted occupants, the risk of complete ejection was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, LTVs, far side occupants, and higher levels of roof crush. Roof crush was not a significant predictor of ejection after normalizing for rollover severity. Curtain airbag deployment was associated with reduced rates of partial and complete ejection, but the effect was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small sample size (n = 89 raw cases with curtain deployments). A much greater proportion of occupants who were ejected in spite of curtain airbag deployment passed through the sunroof and other portals as opposed to the adjacent side window compared to occupants who were ejected in rollovers without a curtain airbag deployment. The primary factors that reduce ejection risk in rollover crashes are, in generally decreasing order of importance: seatbelt use, fewer roof inversions, passenger car body type, curtain airbag deployment, near side seating position, and small occupant size. PMID:23169130

Funk, James R.; Cormier, Joseph M.; Bain, Charles E.; Wirth, Jeffrey L.; Bonugli, Enrique B.; Watson, Richard A.

2012-01-01

352

Maternal Vitamin D Status and Small-for-Gestational-Age Offspring in Women at High Risk for Preeclampsia  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the association between second-trimester maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations and risk of small for gestational age (SGA) in singleton, live births. Methods We assayed serum samples at 12 to 26 weeks of gestation for 25(OH)D in a sample of participants in a multicenter clinical trial of low-dose aspirin for the prevention of preeclampsia in high-risk women (n=792). Multivariable log-binomial regression models were used to assess the association between 25(OH)D and risk of SGA (birth weight less than the 10th percentile of gestational age) after adjustment for confounders including maternal prepregnancy obesity, race, treatment allocation, and risk group. Results Thirteen percent of infants were SGA at birth. Mean (SD) 25(OH)D concentrations were lower in women who delivered SGA (57.9 [29.9] nmol/L0 vs. non-SGA infants (64.8 [29.3] nmol/L, P=0.028). In adjusted models, 25(OH)D concentrations of 50-74 nmol/L and ?75 nmol/L compared with <30 nmol/L were associated with 43% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.33-0.99) and 54% (95% CI 0.24-0.87) reductions in risk of SGA, respectively. Race and maternal obesity each modified this association. White women with 25(OH)D ?50 vs. <50 nmol/L had a 68% reduction in SGA risk (adjusted risk ratio [RR] 0.32, 95% CI 0.17-0.63) and nonobese women 25(OH)D ?50 vs. <50 nmol/L had a 50% reduction in SGA risk (adjusted RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.31-0.82). There was no association between 25(OH)D and risk of SGA in black or obese mothers. Conclusion Maternal vitamin D status in the second trimester is associated with risk of SGA among all women, and in the subgroups of white and nonobese women. PMID:24463662

Gernand, Alison D.; Simhan, Hyagriv N.; Caritis, Steve; Bodnar, Lisa M.

2014-01-01

353

Temporal Shifts in Cardiovascular Risk Factor Distribution  

PubMed Central

Background Complementary strategies to shift risk factor population distributions and target high-risk individuals are required to reduce the burden of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Purpose To examine secular changes in glucose and CVD risk factors over 20 years during an individual and population-based CVD prevention program in Västerbotten County, Sweden. Methods Population-based health promotion intervention was conducted and annual invitation for individuals turning 40, 50, and 60 years to attend a health assessment, including an oral glucose tolerance test, biochemical measures, and a questionnaire. Data were collected between 1991 and 2010, analyzed in 2012 and available for 120,929 individuals. Linear regression modeling examined age-adjusted differences in CVD risk factor means over time. Data were direct-age-standardized to compare disease prevalence. Results Between 1991–1995 and 2006–2010, mean age-adjusted cholesterol (men=?0.53, 95% CI=?0.55, ?0.50 mmol/L; women=?0.48, 95% CI=?0.50, ?0.45 mmol/L) and systolic blood pressure declined (men=?3.06, 95% CI=?3.43, ?2.70 mm Hg; women=?5.27, 95% CI=?5.64, ?4.90 mm Hg), with corresponding decreases in the age-standardized prevalence of hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Mean age-adjusted 2-hour plasma glucose (men=0.19, 95% CI=0.15, 0.23 mmol/L; women=0.08, 95% CI=0.04, 0.11 mmol/L) and BMI increased (men=1.12, 95% CI=1.04, 1.21; women=0.65, 95% CI=0.55, 0.75), with increases in the age-standardized prevalence of diabetes and obesity. Conclusions These data demonstrate the potential of combined individual- and population-based approaches to CVD risk factor control and highlight the need for additional strategies addressing hyperglycemia and obesity. PMID:24439344

Long, Gráinne H.; Simmons, Rebecca K.; Norberg, Margareta; Wennberg, Patrik; Lindahl, Bernt; Rolandsson, Olov; Griffin, Simon J.; Weinehall, Lars

2014-01-01

354

Risk factors for respiratory symptoms and atopic sensitisation in the Baltic area.  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have indicated that atopic sensitisation is uncommon while respiratory symptoms are common among schoolchildren in Eastern Europe. Risk factors for respiratory symptoms and atopic sensitisation were evaluated in a cross sectional study involving 2594 schoolchildren (10-12 years) from Sweden (n = 665), Poland (n = 410), and Estonia (n = 1519). The measurements included parental questionnaires and skin prick tests with eight standardised allergens. Multiple logistic analyses demonstrated that atopic heredity was a significant independent risk factor for respiratory symptoms and atopic sensitisation in all the countries. Current dampness and maternal smoking were related to respiratory symptoms whereas domestic crowding, male gender, and passive smoking during infancy were related to atopic sensitisation. Current maternal smoking had a strong dose response association with current coughing attacks (nocturnal cough > 4 weeks or exercise induced coughing attacks) but only in Eastern Europe. A strong inverse relationship was recorded between domestic crowding and sensitisation as the risk for sensitisation increased with decreasing number of persons per room in the household (odds ratio (OR) 0.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43 to 0.77). Exposure to tobacco smoke at home during infancy was a risk factor for atopic sensitisation but only to animal dander and only in Eastern Europe (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.93). In conclusion, there were small differences in the pattern of risk factors between Eastern and Western Europe. The only exception was environmental tobacco smoke being a risk factor only in Eastern Europe. The study also suggests that factors related to domestic crowding protect against atopic sensitisation in Estonia and Poland. A higher standard of living with less crowding may give rise to an increasing prevalence of atopic sensitisation also in Eastern Europe. PMID:7618931

Bråbäck, L; Breborowicz, A; Julge, K; Knutsson, A; Riikjärv, M A; Vasar, M; Björkstén, B

1995-01-01

355

Adolescent Perceptions of Maternal Approval of Birth Control and Sexual Risk Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used data from the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent health to examine the relationship between adolescent perception of maternal approval of the use of birth control and sexual outcomes over 12 months. Overall, adolescents' perceptions of maternal approval related to an increased likelihood of sexual intercourse in the next year and an increase in…

Jaccard, James; Dittus, Patricia J.

2000-01-01

356

Risk assessment and decision making about in-labour transfer from rural maternity care: a social judgment and signal detection analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The importance of respecting women’s wishes to give birth close to their local community is supported by policy in many developed countries. However, persistent concerns about the quality and safety of maternity care in rural communities have been expressed. Safe childbirth in rural communities depends on good risk assessment and decision making as to whether and when the transfer of a woman in labour to an obstetric led unit is required. This is a difficult decision. Wide variation in transfer rates between rural maternity units have been reported suggesting different decision making criteria may be involved; furthermore, rural midwives and family doctors report feeling isolated in making these decisions and that staff in urban centres do not understand the difficulties they face. In order to develop more evidence based decision making strategies greater understanding of the way in which maternity care providers currently make decisions is required. This study aimed to examine how midwives working in urban and rural settings and obstetricians make intrapartum transfer decisions, and describe sources of variation in decision making. Methods The study was conducted in three stages. 1. 20 midwives and four obstetricians described factors influencing transfer decisions. 2. Vignettes depicting an intrapartum scenario were developed based on stage one data. 3. Vignettes were presented to 122 midwives and 12 obstetricians who were asked to assess the level of risk in each case and decide whether to transfer or not. Social judgment analysis was used to identify the factors and factor weights used in assessment. Signal detection analysis was used to identify participants’ ability to distinguish high and low risk cases and personal decision thresholds. Results When reviewing the same case information in vignettes midwives in different settings and obstetricians made very similar risk assessments. Despite this, a wide range of transfer decisions were still made, suggesting that the main source of variation in decision making and transfer rates is not in the assessment but the personal decision thresholds of clinicians. Conclusions Currently health care practice focuses on supporting or improving decision making through skills training and clinical guidelines. However, these methods alone are unlikely to be effective in improving consistency of decision making. PMID:23114289

2012-01-01

357

Intensive risk factor control in stroke prevention  

PubMed Central

Stroke prevention is an urgent priority because of the aging of the population and the steep association of age and risk of stroke. Direct costs of stroke are expected to more than double in the US between 2012 and 2030. By getting everything right, patients can reduce the risk of stroke by 80% or more; however, getting everything right is a tall order. Roughly in order of importance, this requires smoking cessation, maintenance of a healthy weight, a Cretan Mediterranean diet, blood pressure control, lipid-lowering drugs, appropriate use of antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants, and appropriate carotid endarterectomy and stenting. A new approach called “treating arteries instead of targeting risk factors” appears promising but requires validation in randomized trials. PMID:24167723

2013-01-01

358

Maternal Snuff Use and Smoking and the Risk of Oral Cleft Malformations - A Population-Based Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine if maternal use of snuff (containing high levels of nicotine, low levels of nitrosamines and no combustion products) is associated with an increased risk of oral cleft malformations in the infant and whether cessation of snuff use or smoking before the antenatal booking influences the risk. Method A population-based cohort study was conducted on all live born infants, recorded in the Swedish Medical Birth Register from 1999 through 2009 (n?=?1 086 213). Risks of oral clefts were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression analyses (using adjusted odds ratios, with 95% confidence intervals [CI]). Results Among 975 866 infants that had information on maternal tobacco use, 1761 cases of oral clefts were diagnosed. More than 50% of the mothers who used snuff or smoked three months prior pregnancy stopped using before the antenatal booking. Almost 8% of the mothers were smoking at the antenatal booking and 1,1% of the mothers used snuff. Compared with infants of non-tobacco users, the adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) of any oral cleft for infants of mothers who continued to use snuff or to smoke were 1.48 [1.00–2.21] and 1.19 [1.01–1.41], respectively. In contrast, in infants of mothers who stopped using snuff or stopped smoking before the antenatal booking, the corresponding risks were not increased (adjusted odds ratios [95% CI] were 0.71 [0.44–1.14] and 0.88 [0.73–1.05], respectively). Conclusion Maternal snuff use or smoking in early pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of oral clefts. Infants of mothers who stopped using snuff or stopped smoking before the antenatal booking had no increased risk of oral cleft malformations. Oral snuff or other sources of nicotine should not be recommended as an alternative for smoke-cessation during pregnancy. PMID:24454740

Gunnerbeck, Anna; Edstedt Bonamy, Anna-Karin; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Granath, Fredrik; Wickström, Ronny; Cnattingius, Sven

2014-01-01

359

Risk factors and management of gestational diabetes.  

PubMed

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is considered to be a typical condition of glucose intolerance in which a woman previously undiagnosed with diabetes exhibits high levels of blood glucose during the third trimester of pregnancy. It can hence be defined as any degree of intolerance to glucose with its first recognition only during the pregnancy. Approximately 7 % of all cases of pregnancy are found to be variedly complicated with GDM and this result in more than 200,000 cases annually. In US only, GDM has been found to complicate about 7-14 % cases annually, and the trend seems to have increased by 35-100 % in the recent years. A history of GDM can be considered to be one of the sturdiest risk factors concerning the development of type 2 diabetes. Among women who have a history of GDM, the risk of developing classical type 2 diabetes usually ranges from 20 to 50 %. Evidences collected from various efficacy trials suggest that lifestyle interventions like weight management can modulate and prevent type 2 diabetes in at-risk individuals. The cornerstone of GDM management is glycemic control, and hence, it is attributed to be the main focus of attention for the therapy. In this review, we have tried to highlight the various risk factors associated with GDM along with the available therapeutic options in the treatment and management of the disease. PMID:25269773

Chen, Penglong; Wang, Shuxiang; Ji, Jianying; Ge, Aiping; Chen, Chunlai; Zhu, Yanfei; Xie, Ni; Wang, Yi

2015-03-01

360

Risk factors for hypospadias in China  

PubMed Central

This case-controlled study was designed to evaluate the association between various baseline parental factors and the risk of hypospadias in China. Patients were selected from tertiary referral hospitals in Anhui, a province in mid-eastern China. A questionnaire was given to the parents of each patient. The final database included 193 cases and 835 controls. The incidence of additional coexistent anomalies was 13.0%, primarily cryptorchidism (9.8%). Ten patients (5.1%) were from families with genital anomaly, including five families (2.6%) with hypospadias. The risks of hypospadias was higher for children of mothers > 35 (odds ratio [OR] =1.47) and < 18 (OR = 2.95) years of age, and in mothers who had consumed alcohol (OR = 2.67), used drugs (OR = 1.53) and had an infection (OR = 1.87) during pregnancy. The risk of hypospadias was also higher when mothers (OR = 1.68) and fathers (OR = 1.74) were engaged in agriculture. Other factors assessed were not associated with the risk of hypospadias. PMID:24875823

Xu, Ling-Fan; Liang, Chao-Zhao; Lipianskaya, Julia; Chen, Xian-Guo; Fan, Song; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Jun; Tai, Sheng; Jiang, Chang-Qin

2014-01-01

361

Risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron disease. It is typically fatal within 2–5 years of symptom onset. The incidence of ALS is largely uniform across most parts of the world, but an increasing ALS incidence during the last decades has been suggested. Although recent genetic studies have substantially improved our understanding of the causes of ALS, especially familial ALS, an important role of non-genetic factors in ALS is recognized and needs further study. In this review, we briefly discuss several major genetic contributors to ALS identified to date, followed by a more focused discussion on the most commonly examined non-genetic risk factors for ALS. We first review factors related to lifestyle choices, including smoking, intake of antioxidants, physical fitness, body mass index, and physical exercise, followed by factors related to occupational and environmental exposures, including electromagnetic fields, metals, pesticides, ?-methylamino-L-alanine, and viral infection. Potential links between ALS and other medical conditions, including head trauma, metabolic diseases, cancer, and inflammatory diseases, are also discussed. Finally, we outline several future directions aiming to more efficiently examine the role of non-genetic risk factors in ALS. PMID:25709501

Ingre, Caroline; Roos, Per M; Piehl, Fredrik; Kamel, Freya; Fang, Fang

2015-01-01

362

Work and Pregnancy: Individual and Organizational Factors Influencing Organizational Commitment, Timing of Maternity Leave, and Return to Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors surveyed 86 pregnant women (73%White, 8% Asian, 7% African American, 6% Hispanic, and1% Native American) to examine individual andorganizational factors associated with organizationalcommitment and planned timing of their maternity leavesand return to work after childbirth. Women whoseorganizations offered guaranteed jobs after childbirthplanned to work later into their pregnancies and toreturn to work sooner after childbirth. Women whoperceived supportive

Karen S. Lyness; Cynthia A. Thompson; Anne Marie Francesco; Michael K. Judiesch

1999-01-01

363

Interrelations between Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy, Birth Weight and Sociodemographic Factors in the Prediction of Early Cognitive Abilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maternal prenatal smoking, birth weight and sociodemographic factors were investigated in relation to cognitive abilities of 1544 children (aged 3.5 years) participating in the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Children's Development. The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) was used to assess verbal ability, the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale…

Huijbregts, S. C. J.; Seguin, J. R.; Zelazo, P. D.; Parent, S.; Japel, C.; Tremblay, R. E.

2006-01-01

364

Understanding the Psychosocial and Environmental Factors and Barriers Affecting Utilization of Maternal Healthcare Services in Kalomo, Zambia: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study aimed to identify psychosocial and environmental factors contributing to low utilization of maternal healthcare services in Kalomo, Zambia. Twelve focus group discussions (n = 141) and 35 in-depth interviews were conducted in six health centre catchment areas. Focus group discussions comprised women of reproductive age…

Sialubanje, Cephas; Massar, Karlijn; Hamer, Davidson H.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.

2014-01-01

365

Epidemiology and risk factors for drug allergy  

PubMed Central

The aim of this review was to describe the current evidence-based knowledge of the epidemiology, prevalence, incidence, risk factors and genetic associations of drug allergy. Articles published between 1966 and 2010 were identified in MEDLINE using the key words adult, adverse drug reaction reporting systems, age factors, anaphylactoid, anaphylaxis, anaesthetics, antibiotics, child, drug allergy, drug eruptions, ethnic groups, hypersensitivity, neuromuscular depolarizing agents, neuromuscular nondepolarizing agents, sex factors, Stevens Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Additional studies were identified from article reference lists. Relevant, peer-reviewed original research articles, case series and reviews were considered for review. Current epidemiological studies on adverse drug reactions (ADRs) have used different definitions for ADR-related terminology, often do not differentiate immunologically and non-immunologically mediated drug hypersensitivity, study different study populations (different ethnicities, inpatients or outpatients, adults or children), utilize different methodologies (spontaneous vs. non-spontaneous reporting, cohort vs. case-control studies), different methods of assessing drug imputability and different methods of data analyses. Potentially life-threatening severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR) are associated with a high risk of morbidity and mortality. HLA associations for SCAR associated with allopurinol, carbamazepine and abacavir have been reported with the potential for clinical use in screening prior to prescription. Identification of risk factors for drug allergy and appropriate genetic screening of at-risk ethnic groups may improve the outcomes of drug-specific SCAR. Research and collaboration are necessary for the generation of clinically-relevant, translational pharmacoepidemiological and pharmacogenomic knowledge, and success of health outcomes research and policies on drug allergies. PMID:21480948

Thong, Bernard Y-H; Tan, Teck-Choon

2011-01-01

366

Management of patients with risk factors  

PubMed Central

This review addresses concomitant diseases and risk factors in patients treated for diseases of the ears, nose and throat in outpatient and hospital services. Besides heart disease, lung disease, liver disease and kidney disease, this article also covers disorders of coagulation (including therapy with new oral anticoagulants) and electrolyte imbalance. Special attention is paid to the prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment of perioperative delirium. It is also intended to help optimise the preparation for surgical procedures and pharmacotherapy during the hospital stay. PMID:24403970

Waldfahrer, Frank

2013-01-01

367

Hepatocellular Carcinoma – Epidemiological Trends and Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide with about 600,000 patients dying from the disease annually. In 70–90%, HCC develops on the background of chronic liver cirrhosis or inflammation. Risk factors and etiologies vary among geographical regions. In regions with a high incidence the majority of cases are related to HBV and HCV hepatitis.

Kerstin Schütte; Jan Bornschein; Peter Malfertheiner

2009-01-01

368

Treatment of Risk Factors to Prevent Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the decline in stroke incidence and mortality for the past several decades in Western countries has been attributed\\u000a to better treatment of risk factors. Many epidemiological studies and clinical trials confirmed the importance of managing\\u000a hypertension. Comparative trials of anti-hypertensive drugs or drug classes have not yielded clear results, but blood pressure\\u000a variability may play an important role

Junya Aoki; Ken Uchino

2011-01-01

369

Maternal Medication and Herbal Use and Risk for Hypospadias: Data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997--2007  

PubMed Central

Purpose Investigate associations between maternal use of common medications and herbals during early pregnancy and risk for hypospadias in male infants. Methods We used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multi-site, population-based, case-control study. We analyzed data from 1,537 infants with second-or third-degree isolated hypospadias and 4,314 liveborn male control infants without major birth defects, with estimated dates of delivery from 1997–2007. Exposure was reported use of prescription or over-the-counter medications or herbal products, from 1 month before to 4 months after conception. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, pre-pregnancy BMI, previous live births, maternal sub-fertility, study site, and year. Results We assessed 64 medication and 24 herbal components. Maternal uses of most components were not associated with an increased risk of hypospadias. Two new associations were observed for venlafaxine (aOR 2.4; 95% CI 1.0, 6.0) and progestin only oral contraceptives (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1, 3.2). The previously reported association for clomiphene citrate was confirmed (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2, 3.0). Numbers were relatively small for exposure to other specific patterns of fertility agents, but elevated aORs were observed for the most common of them. Conclusions Overall, findings were reassuring that hypospadias is not associated with most medication components examined in this analysis. New associations will need to be confirmed in other studies. Increased risks for hypospadias associated with various fertility agents raises the possibility of confounding by underlying subfertility. PMID:23620412

Lind, Jennifer N.; Tinker, Sarah C.; Broussard, Cheryl S.; Reefhuis, Jennita; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Honein, Margaret A.; Olney, Richard S.; Parker, Samantha E.; Werler, Martha M.

2014-01-01

370

Risk factors for adenocarcinoma of the lung  

SciTech Connect

The relation between various risk factors and adenocarcinoma of the lung was evaluated in a case-control study. Subjects were selected from the Colorado Central Cancer Registry from 1979-1982 in the Denver metropolitan area. A total of 102 (50 males and 52 females) adenocarcinoma case interviews and 131 (65 males and 66 females) control interviews were completed. The control group consisted of persons with cancers of the colon and bone marrow. The risk estimates associated with cigarette smoking were significantly elevated among males (odds ratio (OR) = 4.49) and females (OR = 3.95) and were found to increase significantly (p less than 0.01) with increasing levels of cigarette smoking for both males and females. For adenocarcinoma in females, the age- and smoking-adjusted odds ratios at different levels of passive smoke exposure followed an increasing overall trend (p = 0.05). After additional adjustment for potential confounders, prior cigarette use remained the most significant predictor of risk of adenocarcinoma among males and females. Analysis restricted to nonsmoking females revealed a risk of adenocarcinoma of 1.68 (95% confidence interval (Cl) = 0.39-2.97) for passive smoke exposure of four or more hours per day. Neither sex showed significantly elevated risk for occupational exposures, although males bordered on significance (OR = 2.23, 95% Cl = 0.97-5.12). The results suggest the need to develop cell type-specific etiologic hypotheses.

Brownson, R.C.; Reif, J.S.; Keefe, T.J.; Ferguson, S.W.; Pritzl, J.A.

1987-01-01

371

Maternal toxicity.  

PubMed

Although demonstration of some degree of maternal toxicity is required in regulatory developmental toxicology studies, marked maternal toxicity may be a confounding factor in data interpretation. Reduction in maternal body weight gain is the far most frequently used endpoint of toxicity, but alternative endpoints, like organ toxicity or exaggerated pharmacological response, can also be taken into consideration. The following conclusions are based on literature data and discussions at maternal toxicity workshops attended by representatives from regulatory agencies, academia, and industry: (1) Available results do not support that maternal toxicity (defined as clinical signs, decreased body weight gain or absolute body weight loss of up to 15% in rats or 7% in rabbits) can be used to explain the occurrence of major malformations. (2) There is clear evidence that substantial reductions in maternal weight gain (or absolute weight loss) are linked with other manifestations of developmental toxicity. Among these can be mentioned decreased fetal weight, and skeletal anomalies (e.g., wavy ribs) in rats and decreased fetal weights, post implantation loss, abortions, and some skeletal anomalies in rabbits. (3) There are several examples of misinterpretation among companies, where it was incorrectly expected that regulatory authorities would not label chemicals/drugs as "teratogens/developmental toxicants" because embryo fetal adverse effects were only observed at doses also causing signs of maternal toxicity. (4) Similarly, even if mechanistic studies indicate that a substance causes developmental toxicity via exaggerated pharmacological effects in the mother, such a mechanism does not automatically negate the observed fetal adverse effects.From a regulatory perspective, an observed developmental toxic finding is considered to be of potential human relevance (even if it is mediated via maternal pharmacological effects or occur at doses causing signs of maternal toxicity) unless the company can provide appropriate mechanistic and/or other convincing evidence to the contrary. PMID:23138914

Danielsson, Bengt R

2013-01-01

372

Differences in Risk Factors for Retinopathy of Prematurity Development in Paired Twins: A Chinese Population Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To determine the differences in risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in paired twins. Methods. A retrospective medical record review was performed for all paired twins screened for ROP between 2007 and 2012. Screening was offered to very low birth weight (?1500 grams) and preterm (?32 weeks) neonates. Twins 1 and 2 were categorized based on the order of delivery. Maternal and neonatal covariates were analyzed using univariate and multivariate regression analyses for both ROP and Type 1 ROP. Results. In 34 pairs of Chinese twins, the mean gestational age (GA) was 30.2 ± 2.0 weeks. In Twin 1, smaller GA (OR = 0.44, P = 0.02), higher mean oxygen concentration (OR = 1.34, P = 0.03), presence of thrombocytopenia (OR = 1429.60, P < 0.0001), and intraventricular hemorrhage (OR = 18.67, P = 0.03) were significant risk factors for ROP. For Twin 2, a smaller GA (OR = 0.45, P = 0.03) was the only risk factor. There were no significant risk factors for ROP in Twin 1 or Twin 2 on multivariate analysis. Conclusion. In Chinese twin pairs, smaller GA was the only common risk factor for ROP while Twin 1 was more susceptible to the postnatal risks for ROP. PMID:25401130

Cheng, Edith; Liu, Catherine C. L.; Chu, Benjamin C. Y.; Yuen, Can Y. F.

2014-01-01

373

Maternal exercise during pregnancy reduces risk of mammary tumorigenesis in rat offspring.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. Emerging research indicates that modifying lifestyle factors during pregnancy may convey long-term health benefits to offspring. This study was designed to determine whether maternal exercise during pregnancy leads to reduced mammary tumorigenesis in female offspring. Pregnant rats were randomly assigned to exercised and sedentary groups, with the exercised group having free access to a running wheel and the sedentary group housed with a locked wheel during pregnancy. Female pups from exercised or sedentary dams were weaned at 21 days of age and fed a high fat diet without access to a running wheel. At 6 weeks, all pups were injected with the carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. Mammary tumor development in all pups was monitored for 15 weeks. Pups from exercised dams had a substantially lower tumor incidence (42.9%) compared with pups from sedentary dams (100%). Neither tumor latency nor histological grade differed between the two groups. These data are the first to demonstrate that exercise during pregnancy potentiates reduced tumorigenesis in offspring. This study provides an important foundation towards developing more effective modes of behavior modification for cancer prevention. PMID:24950432

Camarillo, Ignacio G; Clah, Leon; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Xuanzhu; Larrick, Brienna; Blaize, Nicole; Breslin, Emily; Patel, Neal; Johnson, Diamond; Teegarden, Dorothy; Donkin, Shawn S; Gavin, Timothy P; Newcomer, Sean

2014-11-01

374

Association Between Stillbirth and Risk Factors Known at Pregnancy Confirmation  

PubMed Central

Context Stillbirths account for almost half of US deaths from 20 weeks’ gestation to 1 year of life. Most large studies of risk factors for stillbirth use vital statistics with limited data. Objective To determine the relation between stillbirths and risk factors that could be ascertained at the start of pregnancy, particularly the contribution of these factors to racial disparities. Design, Setting, and Participants Multisite population-based case-control study conducted between March 2006 and September 2008. Fifty-nine US tertiary care and community hospitals, with access to at least 90% of deliveries within 5 catchment areas defined by state and county lines, enrolled residents with deliveries of 1 or more stillborn fetuses and a representative sample of deliveries of only live-born infants, over-sampled for those at less than 32 weeks’ gestation and those of African descent. Main Outcome Measure Stillbirth. Results Analysis included 614 case and 1816 control deliveries. In multivariate analyses, the following factors were independently associated with stillbirth: non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity (23.1% stillbirths, 11.2% live births) (vs non-Hispanic whites; adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.12 [95% CI, 1.41–3.20]); previous stillbirth (6.7% stillbirths, 1.4% live births); nulliparity with (10.5% stillbirths, 5.2% live births) and without (34.0% stillbirths, 29.7% live births) previous losses at fewer than 20 weeks’ gestation (vs multiparity without stillbirth or previous losses; AOR, 5.91 [95% CI, 3.18–11.00]; AOR, 3.13 [95% CI, 2.06–4.75]; and AOR, 1.98 [95% CI, 1.51–2.60], respectively); diabetes (5.6% stillbirths, 1.6% live births) (vs no diabetes; AOR, 2.50 [95% CI, 1.39–4.48]); maternal age 40 years or older (4.5% stillbirths, 2.1% live births) (vs age 20–34 years; AOR, 2.41 [95% CI, 1.24–4.70]); maternal AB blood type (4.9% stillbirths, 3.0% live births) (vs type O; AOR, 1.96 [95% CI, 1.16–3.30]); history of drug addiction (4.5% stillbirths, 2.1% live births) (vs never use; AOR, 2.08 [95% CI, 1.12–3.88]); smoking during the 3 months prior to pregnancy (<10 cigarettes/d, 10.0% stillbirths, 6.5% live births) (vs none; AOR, 1.55 [95% CI, 1.02–2.35]); obesity/overweight (15.5% stillbirths, 12.4% live births) (vs normal weight; AOR, 1.72 [95% CI, 1.22–2.43]); not living with a partner (25.4% stillbirths, 15.3% live births) (vs married; AOR, 1.62 [95% CI, 1.15–2.27]); and plurality (6.4% stillbirths, 1.9% live births) (vs singleton; AOR, 4.59 [95% CI, 2.63–8.00]). The generalized R2 was 0.19, explaining little of the variance. Conclusion Multiple risk factors that would have been known at the time of pregnancy confirmation were associated with stillbirth but accounted for only a small amount of the variance in this outcome. PMID:22166606

2013-01-01

375

Methamphetamine reversed maternal separation-induced decrease in nerve growth factor in the ventral hippocampus.  

PubMed

Stress has been suggested to predispose individuals to drug abuse. The early life stress of maternal separation (MS) is known to alter the response to drugs of abuse later in life. Exposure to either stress or methamphetamine has been shown to alter neurotrophic factors in the brain. Changes in neurotrophin levels may contribute to the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for drug use- and stress-induced behaviours. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the individual effects of MS and methamphetamine administration during adolescence and the combined effects of both stressors on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) levels in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus (HC) in adulthood. Methamphetamine administration (1 mg/kg, daily from postnatal day (PND) 33 to 36 and from PND 39 to 42), MS and the combination of the two stressors resulted in decreased BDNF levels in both the dorsal and ventral HC. MS decreased NGF levels in the ventral HC which was restored by methamphetamine administration in adolescence. In the dorsal HC, NGF remained unaltered by either stressor alone or in combination. We propose that the restoration of NGF levels in the ventral HC may reflect a possible compensatory mechanism in response to methamphetamine exposure in adolescence following the early life stress of MS. PMID:24407463

Dimatelis, J J; Russell, V A; Stein, D J; Daniels, W M

2014-06-01

376

The High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency and Its Related Maternal Factors in Pregnant Women in Beijing  

PubMed Central

Maternal vitamin D deficiency has been suggested to influence fetal and neonatal health. Little is known about vitamin D status in Chinese pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to assess the vitamin D status of pregnant women residing in Beijing in winter and evaluate the impact of maternal factors on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels. The study was conducted on 125 healthy pregnant women. For each individual, data concerning pre-pregnancy weight, educational status, use of multivitamins and behavioral factors such as daily duration of computer use, walking and sun exposure were obtained. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) was 96.8% and almost half (44.8%) of women were severely vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 25 nmol/L). The concentration of 25(OH)D was lower in women with shorter duration of sun exposure (? 0.5 h/day, 25.3 ± 8.9 nmol/L) than that in women with longer duration of sun exposure (> 0.5 h/day; 30.3± 9.5 nmol/L; P = 0.003). Thirty six women (28.8%) had sun exposure duration ? 1.5h/day. The 25(OH)D concentration in these women was 31.5 ± 9.4 nmol/L which was also much lower than the normal level. Women who reported taking a multivitamin supplement had significantly higher 25(OH)D concentrations (32.3 ± 9.5 nmol/L) when compared with non-users (24.9 ± 8.2 nmol/L; P < 0.001). Pregnant women in Beijing are at very high risk of vitamin D deficiency in winter. Duration of Sun exposure and the use of multivitamin were the most important determinants for vitamin D status. However, neither prolonging the time of sunlight exposure nor multivitamin supplements can effectively prevent pregnant women from vitamin D deficiency. Other measures might have to be taken for pregnant women to improve their vitamin D status in winter. PMID:24386450

Song, Shu Jun; Zhou, Ling; Si, Shaoyan; Liu, Junli; Zhou, Jinlian; Feng, Kai; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Wenying

2013-01-01

377

Risk Factors for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in India  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an important cause of death all over the world, more so in Asia and Africa. The representative data on epidemiology of HCC in India is very scanty and cancer is not a reportable disease in India and the cancer registries in India are mostly urban. 45 million people who are suffering from chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and approximately 15 million people who are afflicted with chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in India. HBV and HCV infection is considered an important etiologic factor in HCC. Positive association between HCC and consumption of alcohol where alcohol contribute as a cofactor for hepatotoxins and hepatitis viruses. Aflatoxin contamination in the diets, Hepatitis B virus infection and liver cirrhosis in Andhra Pradesh, India and direct chronic exposure to aflatoxins was shown to cause liver cirrhosis. Cirrhosis of liver of any cause lead to develop about 70%–90% of HCC. Aflatoxin interact synergistically with Hepatitis B virus (HBV)/Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection which increase the risk of HCC. HBV infection, HBV infection with Aflatoxin exposure, viral infection and alcohol consumption leading to overt cirrhosis of the liver, alcohol consumption leading to cirrhosis of the liver with viral infection are the predominant risk factor for the development of HCC. HCV and alcohol are also associated with HCC in India. Indians develop diabetes at younger age, Asians have strong genetic susceptibility for type II diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is identified as a risk factor for HCC. Prevention of viral infection by universal vaccination against hepatitis virus, HCC surveillance program, preventing alcoholic liver diseases, fungal contamination of grains and ground crops to prevent basically Aflatoxin exposure are important measures to prevent liver diseases and HCC among those at risk. PMID:25755609

Kar, Premashis

2014-01-01

378

Oocyte donation is an independent risk factor for pregnancy complications: the implications for women of advanced age.  

PubMed

Maternal age at first pregnancy and age-related infertility are steadily increasing, and the demand for assisted reproductive technologies (ART) to treat age-related infertility is also on the rise. The latest registry findings from Europe and the United States show that the meager results of ART in women above 43 years of age have not improved much over the past 10 years. The latest evidence shows that the demand for oocyte donation (OD) is steadily increasing. Contrary to previous belief-attributing increased perinatal complications in OD recipients to advanced maternal age and multifetal pregnancy-accumulating evidence from the past few years suggests that OD itself is a significant and independent risk factor for pregnancy complications, mostly for pre-eclampsia. The increased rate of chronic maternal disease and medical complications in pregnancy observed in advanced maternal age, coupled with the growing demand for OD, with its independent association with pre-eclampsia, create an urgent need to adopt a clear policy taking these risks into account. We present recent evidence showing that OD is an independent risk factor for pre-eclampsia and suggest recommendations for women approaching OD treatment in advanced age. PMID:25646636

Younis, Johnny S; Laufer, Neri

2015-02-01

379

Identification of Caries Risk Factors in Toddlers  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors to predict caries progression in toddlers in primary-healthcare settings for the cost-effective targeting of preventive and referral strategies. We examined 329 children (26 ± 6 mos old) twice, one year apart, in Indiana, USA. A 107-item structured interview was used to collect information from the primary caregiver and child on factors/beliefs/perceptions/behaviors that could affect caries development, transmission of bacteria, medical-dental health, and access to care. Bacterial levels, gingivitis, dental plaque, and caries experience were assessed. Multiple-variable logistic regression models of caries progression toward cavitation included family caries experience, transmission-related behaviors, dietary factors, health beliefs, and lower income, but differed in selected predictors/predictive power by race/ethnicity. Addition of clinical variables did not significantly improve the prediction. PMID:21173434

Fontana, M.; Jackson, R.; Eckert, G.; Swigonski, N.; Chin, J.; Zandona, A. Ferreira; Ando, M.; Stookey, G.K.; Downs, S.; Zero, D.T.

2011-01-01

380

Maternal protein restriction induces alterations in hepatic tumor necrosis factor-?/CYP7A1 signaling and disorders regulation of cholesterol metabolism in the adult rat offspring  

PubMed Central

It is well recognized that adverse events in utero impair fetal development and lead to the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome in adulthood. To investigate the mechanisms linking impaired fetal growth to increased cholesterol, an important clinical risk factor characterizing the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, we examined the impact of maternal undernutrition on tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)/c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway and the cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) expression in the livers of the offspring with a protein restriction model. The male offspring with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) caused by the isocaloric low-protein diet showed decreased liver weight at birth and augmented circulation and hepatic cholesterol levels at 40 weeks of age. Maternal undernutrition significantly upregulated cytokine TNF-? expression and JNK phospholytion levels in the livers from fetal age to adulthood. Elevated JNK phospholytion could be linked to downregulated hepatocyte nuclear factor-4? and CYP7A1 expression, subsequently led to higher hepatic cholesterol. This work demonstrated that intrauterine malnutrition-induced IUGR might result in intrinsic disorder in hepatic TNF-?/CYP7A1 signaling, and contribute to the development of hypercholesterolemia in later life. PMID:25120278

Liu, Xiaomei; Qi, Ying; Tian, Baoling; Chen, Dong; Gao, Hong; Xi, Chunyan; Xing, Yanlin; Yuan, Zhengwei

2014-01-01

381

Maternal occupational exposure during pregnancy and the risk of spina bifida.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: A case-control study was carried out to explore associations between spina bifida and occupational exposure of the mother. METHODS: The cases were children with spina bifida aperta born between 1980 and 1992 from nine hospitals in the Netherlands. The controls were children born healthy in the same period as the cases, from hospitals and from the general population. Data collection was carried out in two steps. Firstly, postal questionnaires were sent to all the parents of cases and controls to gather information on occupations and potential confounders. In the second phase of the study, information on specific exposures was collected by means of job and task specific personal interviews. Interviews were performed with 55 case mothers and 66 control mothers who had occupations with a potential for chemical or physical exposure. Those exposures were assumed to be negligible for--for example, teachers and secretaries, so personal interviews were not indicated for these women. Information was collected on specific tasks in the period just after conception, and on the associated use of chemical or physical agents, frequency of exposure, and use of protective equipment. RESULTS: The analyses of occupation showed an increased risk for women working in agricultural occupations (OR = 3.4, CI:1.3-9.0), and, although less distinct, for cleaning women (OR = 1.7, CI:0.9-3.4). Only a few women seemed to be occupationally exposed to chemical or physical agents. No differences in occurrence of specific exposures could be detected between cases and controls. Besides, no differences were seen in pesticide or disinfectant exposure among case and control mothers in agricultural occupations. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational exposures of the mother during pregnancy were infrequent and did not seem to play an important part in the aetiology of spina bifida in this study. The association found between spina bifida and maternal agricultural occupations could not be explained by the use of pesticides by the mother or by any other occupational exposure. PMID:8777455

Blatter, B M; Roeleveld, N; Zielhuis, G A; Gabreëls, F J; Verbeek, A L

1996-01-01

382

Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: Overweight and Obesity  

MedlinePLUS

... Heart Handbook for Women Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease Overweight and Obesity A healthy weight is important ... a woman is, the higher her risk for heart disease. Overweight also increases the risks for stroke, congestive ...

383

Fetal deformations: a risk factor for obstetrical brachial plexus palsy?  

PubMed

The purpose of this report is to discuss the association of brachial plexus palsy and congenital deformations. We reviewed all charts of patients less than 1 year of age with obstetrical brachial plexus palsy evaluated by one of the authors (IA) between January 1998 and October 2005 at Miami Children's Hospital Brachial Plexus Center. Of 158 patients with obstetrical brachial plexus palsy, 7 had deformations (4.4%). Deformations were present in 32% of patients delivered by cesarean section, but in only 2% of patients delivered vaginally. The deformations were ipsilateral, involving the chest in two patients, distal arms in two patients, proximal arm in one patient, ear in one patient, and the leg in one patient. All patients with deformations had unilateral Erb's palsies. None had a history of maternal uterine malformation. Two presumptive mechanisms of injury, one causing the deformation (compressive forces) and one causing brachial plexus palsy at the time of delivery (traction forces), were present in all cases. The higher incidence of deformation in patients with obstetrical brachial plexus palsy born by cesarean sections and the presence of two presumptive mechanisms in all of the cases presented here raises the possibility that fetal deformations are a risk factor for obstetrical brachial plexus palsy. PMID:16996396

Alfonso, Israel; Diaz-Arca, Gemma; Alfonso, Daniel T; Shuhaiber, Hans H; Papazian, Oscar; Price, Andrew E; Grossman, John A I

2006-10-01

384

Necrotizing fasciitis: risk factors of mortality  

PubMed Central

Background Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a serious infection of skin and soft tissues that rapidly progresses along the deep fascia. It becomes a fatal soft tissue infection with high mortality rate if treatment is delayed. Early diagnosis for emergency surgical debridement and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy were the optimal treatments to reduce the mortality rate of NF. Objective The aim of this study was to identify risk factors that increased the mortality rate in patients with NF under routine clinical practices. Methods A retrospective cohort study was performed at three general hospitals located in northern Thailand. All medical records of patients with surgically confirmed NF treated between January 2009 and December 2012 were reviewed. Clinical predictors for mortality were analyzed using multivariable risk regression analysis. Results Of a total of 1,504 patients with a diagnosis of NF, 19.3% (n=290) died in hospital and 80.7% (n=1,214) survived. From multivariable analysis, being female (risk ratio [RR] =1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.01–1.84); age >60 (RR=1.39, 95% CI =1.25–1.53); having chronic heart disease (RR=1.64, 95% CI=1.18–2.28), cirrhosis (RR =2.36, 95% CI=1.70–3.27), skin necrosis (RR =1.22, 95% CI=1.15–1.28), pulse rate >130/min (RR =2.26, 95% CI=1.79–2.85), systolic BP <90 mmHg (RR =2.05, 95% CI =1.44–2.91), and serum creatinine ?1.6 mg/dL (RR=3.06, 95% CI=2.08–4.50) were risk factors for mortality. Conclusion Prognostic factors for mortality in NF patients included being female; age >60; or having chronic heart disease, cirrhosis, skin necrosis, pulse rate >130/min, systolic BP <90 mmHg, and serum creatinine ?1.6 mg/dL. Thus, disease progression to mortality may occur in such patients presenting one of these risk factors. Further examination or close monitoring for systemic involvement may be advantageous to reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:25733938

Khamnuan, Patcharin; Chongruksut, Wilaiwan; Jearwattanakanok, Kijja; Patumanond, Jayanton; Yodluangfun, Suttida; Tantraworasin, Apichat

2015-01-01

385

Erosion—diagnosis and risk factors  

PubMed Central

Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition: The interplay of chemical, biological and behavioural factors is crucial and helps explain why some individuals exhibit more erosion than others. The erosive potential of erosive agents like acidic drinks or foodstuffs depends on chemical factors, e.g. pH, titratable acidity, mineral content, clearance on tooth surface and on its calcium-chelation properties. Biological factors such as saliva, acquired pellicle, tooth structure and positioning in relation to soft tissues and tongue are related to the pathogenesis of dental erosion. Furthermore, behavioural factors like eating and drinking habits, regular exercise with dehydration and decrease of salivary flow, excessive oral hygiene and, on the other side, an unhealthy lifestyle, e.g. chronic alcoholism, are predisposing factors for dental erosion. There is some evidence that dental erosion is growing steadily. To prevent further progression, it is important to detect this condition as early as possible. Dentists have to know the clinical appearance and possible signs of progression of erosive lesions and their causes such that adequate preventive and, if necessary, therapeutic measures can be initiated. The clinical examination has to be done systematically, and a comprehensive case history should be undertaken such that all risk factors will be revealed. PMID:18228059

Jaeggi, T.

2008-01-01

386

Tree nut allergy: risk factors for development, mitigation of reaction risk and current efforts in desensitization.  

PubMed

Allergy to tree nuts has grown widespread among patients, specifically in the pediatric population, in recent years. In this review, we evaluate and summarize the literature specific to development and treatment of tree nut allergy. The cause of tree nut allergy, such as most food allergies, is unknown; there are theories regarding maternal dietary factors as well as sensitization related to cross-reactivity to peanut allergens. The gold standard for the diagnosis of tree nut allergy is the double-blind, placebo-controlled, oral food challenge; however, simpler and more cost-effective diagnostic methods, such as the skin prick test and serum-specific IgE are often used as a supplement for diagnosis. Management of tree nut allergy consists of dietary avoidance and using epinephrine to manage serious allergic reactions. Alternative therapeutic methods, such as oral and sublingual immunotherapy and modification of allergenic proteins are being explored to develop safer, more effective and long-lasting management of tree nut allergy. We comment on the current studies involving risk factors for sensitization, diagnosis and management of tree nut allergy. PMID:25824522

Liu, Mona; Burks, A Wesley; Green, Todd D

2015-05-01

387

Maternal Depression, Child Frontal Asymmetry, and Child Affective Behavior as Factors in Child Behavior Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Despite findings that parent depression increases children's risk for internalizing and externalizing problems, little is known about other factors that combine with parent depression to contribute to behavior problems. Methods: As part of a longitudinal, interdisciplinary study on childhood-onset depression (COD), we examined the…

Forbes, Erika E.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Silk, Jennifer S.; Kovacs, Maria

2006-01-01

388

Risk factors of young ischemic stroke in Qatar  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThere is limited information about risk factors of young ischemic stroke in Qatar. The aim of this study was to describe the risk factors and subtypes of young ischemic stroke among Qatari and non-Qatari residents.

Fahmi Yousef Khan

2007-01-01

389

Colorectal (Colon) Cancer: What Are the Risk Factors?  

MedlinePLUS

... Glossary Stay Informed Cancer Home What Are the Risk Factors for Colorectal Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... who are 50 years old or older. Other risk factors include havingâ?? Inflammatory bowel disease, Crohnâ??s disease, or ...

390

Prolonged Rehospitalizations Following Renal Transplantation: Causes, Risk Factors, and Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAlthough some studies have described rehospitalization after transplantation, few have focused on risk factors and consequences of prolonged hospital stay. Our goal was to determine the causes, risk factors, and outcomes of prolonged rehospitalizations after renal transplantation.

M. Naderi; J. Aslani; M. Hashemi; S. Assari; M. Amini; V. Pourfarziani

2007-01-01

391

Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: High Blood Cholesterol  

MedlinePLUS

... Heart Handbook for Women Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease High Blood Cholesterol High blood cholesterol is another major risk factor for heart disease that you can do something about. The higher ...

392

What Are the Risk Factors for Anal Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... anal cancer? What are the risk factors for anal cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects ... about HPV and HPV vaccines, see HPV Vaccines . Anal warts Anal warts (also known as condyloma acuminata ) ...

393

Levels of Family Assessment: II. Impact of Maternal Psychopathology on Family Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association of maternal and contextual risk factors with whole-family, marital, and parent–child levels of family functioning was examined. Maternal mental illness and multiple contextual risk best predicted whole-family functioning, but each was related to marital and parent–child levels as well. Nonspecific indicators of maternal illness, rather than diagnostic category, were the better predictors of family functioning. The multiple contextual

Susan Dickstein; Ronald Seifer; Lisa C. Hayden; Masha Schiller; Arnold J. Sameroff; Gabor Keitner; Ivan Miller; Steven Rasmussen; Marilyn Matzko; Karin Dodge Magee

1998-01-01

394

Assessing risk factors for periodontitis using regression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multivariate statistical analysis is indispensable to assess the associations and interactions between different factors and the risk of periodontitis. Among others, regression analysis is a statistical technique widely used in healthcare to investigate and model the relationship between variables. In our work we study the impact of socio-demographic, medical and behavioral factors on periodontal health. Using regression, linear and logistic models, we can assess the relevance, as risk factors for periodontitis disease, of the following independent variables (IVs): Age, Gender, Diabetic Status, Education, Smoking status and Plaque Index. The multiple linear regression analysis model was built to evaluate the influence of IVs on mean Attachment Loss (AL). Thus, the regression coefficients along with respective p-values will be obtained as well as the respective p-values from the significance tests. The classification of a case (individual) adopted in the logistic model was the extent of the destruction of periodontal tissues defined by an Attachment Loss greater than or equal to 4 mm in 25% (AL?4mm/?25%) of sites surveyed. The association measures include the Odds Ratios together with the correspondent 95% confidence intervals.

Lobo Pereira, J. A.; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Oliveira, Teresa

2013-10-01

395

Structured Inequalities: Factors Associated with Spatial Disparities in Maternity Care in India  

PubMed Central

Research on India documents considerable heterogeneity in health and health care across states. However, while regional differences are well established, factors underlying these differences have received little attention. This paper seeks to explain disparities in delivery care across districts by focusing on three factors: (1) Marriage and kinship patterns; (2) District wealth; (3) Governance and quality of services. Using data from nationally representative India Human Development Survey 2005 (IHDS) it examines the probability that the 11,905 women who had a child between 2000 and 2005 delivered in a hospital or received care from a doctor or a nurse while delivering at home. The results suggest that 47% of the variation in delivery care in India is between districts while 53% is between women within district. Although compositional differences in education and household wealth explain some of the variation between districts, marriage and kinship patterns, district wealth and governance each has a significant impact on shaping between-district variation in maternity care. PMID:24761090

Desai, Sonalde; Wu, Lijuan

2013-01-01

396

Midtrimester maternal plasma concentrations of angiopoietin 1, angiopoietin 2, and placental growth factor in pregnant women who subsequently develop preeclampsia  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to compare midtrimester maternal plasma concentrations of angiopoietin 1, angiopoietin 2, and placental growth factor between pregnant women who subsequently developed preeclampsia and those who did not. Methods Midtrimester maternal plasma was collected and stored at -70? when genetic amniocentesis was performed. Cases included 37 samples of individual who subsequently developed preeclampsia, and matched controls were from individuals who did not develop preeclampsia. Angiopoietin 1, angiopoietin 2, and placental growth factor concentrations were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. A P-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results In pregnant women who subsequently developed preeclampsia, midtrimester maternal plasma concentrations of angiopoietin 1 and angiopoietin 2 were significantly higher and placental growth factor concentrations were significantly lower than in women who did not develop preeclampsia (angiopoietin 1: 10.6 [3.1-19.7] vs. 7.8 [0.9-24.4] ng/mL, P=0.031; angiopoietin 2: 31.0 [4.7-81.2] vs. 18.4 [4.2-49.7] ng/mL, P<0.001; placental growth factor: 87.1 [14.2-774.3] vs. 148.8 [57.2-425.6] pg/mL, P<0.001). Within the case group who subsequently developed preeclampsia, the placental growth factor was significantly lower in those who had fetal growth restrictions than in those who did not (placental growth factor: 72.5 [14.2-774.3] vs. 140.9 [44.2-257.5] pg/mL, P=0.003). Conclusion Midtrimester maternal plasma concentrations of angiopoietin 1, angiopoietin 2, and placental growth factor may be associated with the subsequent development of preeclampsia. PMID:25629013

Shim, Soon-Sup; Lee, Cha Hee

2015-01-01

397

Blood group AB and factor V Leiden as risk factors for pre-eclampsia: A population-based nested case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionPre-eclampsia is an important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Its etiology is still unknown. Clinical symptoms correlate with activation of coagulation and inherited thrombophilia has been associated with pre-eclampsia. ABO blood group has been associated with thrombotic disorders and pre-eclampsia.We assessed ABO blood group, seven thrombophilia associated polymorphisms, and anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies as risk factors for pre-eclampsia.

Leena M Hiltunen; Hannele Laivuori; Anna Rautanen; Risto Kaaja; Juha Kere; Tom Krusius; Mikko Paunio; Vesa Rasi

2009-01-01

398

Cholera risk factors, Papua New Guinea, 2010  

PubMed Central

Background Cholera is newly emergent in Papua New Guinea but may soon become endemic. Identifying the risk factors for cholera provides evidence for targeted prevention and control measures. Methods We conducted a hospital-based case–control study to identify cholera risk factors. Using stool culture as the standard, we evaluated a cholera point of care test in the field. Results 176 participants were recruited: 54 cases and 122 controls. Independent risk factors for cholera were: being over 20 years of age (aOR 2.5; 95%CI 1.1, 5.4), defecating in the open air (or river) (aOR 4.5; 95% CI 1.4, 14.4) and knowing someone who travelled to a cholera affected area (aOR 4.1; 95%CI 1.6, 10.7); while the availability of soap for handwashing at home was protective (aOR 0.41; 95%CI 0.19, 0.87). Those reporting access to a piped water distribution system in the home were twice as likely to report the availability of soap for handwashing. The sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test were 72% (95% CI 47–90) and 71% (95%CI 44–90%). Conclusions Improving population access to the piped water distribution system and sanitation will likely reduce transmission by enabling enhanced hygiene and limiting the contamination of water sources. The One step V. cholerae O1/O139 Antigen Test is of limited utility for clinical decision making in a hospital setting with access to traditional laboratory methods. Settlement dwellers and mobile populations of all age groups should be targeted for interventions in Papua New Guinea. PMID:23126504

2012-01-01

399

Health Insurance and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

Background Compared to those with health insurance, the uninsured receive less care for chronic conditions such as hypertension and diabetes and they experience higher mortality. Methods We investigated the relations of health insurance status to prevalence, treatment, and control of major cardiovascular disease risk factors, hypertension and elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cho