Background An increase in the prevalence of hypospadias has been reported, but the environmental causes remain virtually unknown. Objectives Our goal was to assess the association between risk of hypospadias and indicators of placental function and endogenous hormone levels, exposure to exogenous hormones, maternal diet during pregnancy, and other environmental factors. Methods We conducted a case–control study in Sweden and Denmark from 2000 through 2005 using self-administered questionnaires completed by mothers of hypospadias cases and matched controls. The response rate was 88% and 81% among mothers of cases and controls, respectively. The analyses included 292 cases and 427 controls. Results A diet during pregnancy lacking both fish and meat was associated with a more than 4-fold increased risk of hypospadias [odds ratio (OR) = 4.6; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.6–13.3]. Boys born to obese [body mass index (BMI) ? 30] women had a more than 2-fold increased risk of hypospadias (OR = 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2–5.7) compared with boys born to mothers with a normal weight (BMI = 20–24). Maternal hypertension during pregnancy and absence of maternal nausea increased a boy’s risk of hypospadias 2.0-fold (95% CI, 1.1–3.7) and 1.8-fold (95% CI, 1.2–2.8), respectively. Nausea in late pregnancy also appeared to be positively associated with hypospadias risk (OR = 7.6; 95% CI, 1.1–53). Conclusions A pregnancy diet lacking meat and fish appears to increase the risk of hypospadias in the offspring. Other risk associations were compatible with a role for placental insufficiency in the etiology of hypospadias.
Akre, Olof; Boyd, Heather A.; Ahlgren, Martin; Wilbrand, Kerstin; Westergaard, Tine; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Nordenskjold, Agneta; Ekbom, Anders; Melbye, Mads
Gathering information about drinking during pregnancy is one of the most difficult aspects of studying fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). This information is critical to linking specific risk factors to any particular diagnosis within the FASD continuum. This article reviews highlights from the literature on maternal risk factors for FASD and illustrates that maternal risk is multidimensional, including factors related to quantity, frequency, and timing of alcohol exposure; maternal age; number of pregnancies; number of times the mother has given birth; the mother’s body size; nutrition; socioeconomic status; metabolism; religion; spirituality; depression; other drug use; and social relationships. More research is needed to more clearly define what type of individual behavioral, physical, and genetic factors are most likely to lead to having children with FASD.
May, Philip A.; Gossage, J. Phillip
Objectives: To study prevalence, risk factors, and maternal and infant outcomes of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed based on 111563 pregnancies delivered between 1991 through 1997 in 39 hospitals in northern and central Alberta, Canada. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals, and to control
X. Xiong; L. D. Saunders; F. L. Wang; N. N. Demianczuk
Fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs) may be associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors associated with NTDs, such as omphalocele, OEIS (omphalocele-exstrophy-imperforate anus-spinal defects) complex, pentalogy of Cantrell, amniotic band sequence, limb-body wall complex, Meckel syndrome, Joubert syndrome, skeletal dysplasia, diabetic embryopathy, and single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes of glucose metabolism. NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors are a rare but important cause of NTDs. The recurrence risk and the preventive effect of maternal folic acid intake in NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors may be different from those of nonsyndromic multifactorial NTDs. Perinatal identification of NTDs should alert the clinician to the syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt a thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling. PMID:18603496
Objectives: This paper describes a community diagnosis of maternal exposure to risk factors for congenital defects in the population of Pelotas, RS, Brazil (400,000 inhabitants). The authors investigated biological and demographic factors (maternal age, alcohol ingestion and smoking), social and economic factors (family income and type of work), and welfare factors (prenatal care, illnesses during pregnancy, drug therapy, and vaccinations).
Gilberto de Lima Garcias; Lavínia Schüler-Faccini
A case-control study assessing risk factors for maternal mortality was carried out in five Kampala hospitals covering a period of seven years (1 January 1980 to 31 December 1986). The major predictors of maternal mortality were the general condition on admission, the mode of delivery and the Apgar score of the newborn. These predictors indicate that women at high risk were those admitted to hospital for delivery in a poor state of health. We believe that the risk of maternal mortality can be reduced through appropriate action by health workers and that there is a need for a more complete view of risk factors for both maternal and perinatal mortality to be obtained through population-based studies rather than only those women who deliver in hospital. PMID:2083999
Kampikaho, A; Irwig, L M
Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) has been extensively studied as a risk factor for adverse offspring outcomes and is known to co-occur with other familial risk factors. Accounting for general familial risk factors has attenuated associations between SDP and adverse offspring outcomes, and identifying these confounds will be critical to elucidating the relationship between SDP and its psychological correlates. Methods The current study aimed to disentangle the relationship between maternal SDP and co-occurring risk factors (maternal criminal activity, drug problems, teen pregnancy, educational attainment, and cohabitation at childbirth) using a population-based sample of full- (n=206,313) and half-sister pairs (n=19,363) from Sweden. Logistic regression models estimated the strength of association between SDP and co-occurring risk factors. Bivariate behavioral genetic models estimated the degree to which associations between SDP and co-occurring risk factors are attributable to genetic and environmental factors. Results Maternal SDP was associated with an increase in all co-occurring risk factors. Of the variance associated with SDP, 45% was attributed to genetic factors and 53% was attributed to unshared environmental factors. In bivariate models, genetic factors accounted for 21% (non- drug-, non-violence-related crimes) to 35% (drug-related crimes) of the covariance between SDP and co-occurring risk factors. Unshared environmental factors accounted for the remaining covariance. Conclusions The genetic factors that influence a woman’s criminal behavior, substance abuse, and her offspring’s rearing environment also influence SDP. Therefore, the intergenerational transmission of genes conferring risk for antisocial behavior and substance misuse may influence the associations between maternal SDP and adverse offspring outcomes.
Ellingson, Jarrod M.; Rickert, Martin E.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Langstrom, Niklas; D'Onofrio, Brian M.
Background An interaction between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors is thought to be involved in the aetiology of type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate maternal and neonatal risk factors for type 1 diabetes in children under 15 years old in Grampian, Scotland. Methods A matched case-control study was conducted by record linkage. Cases (n = 361) were children born in Aberdeen Maternity Hospital from 1972 to 2002, inclusive, who developed type 1 diabetes, identified from the Scottish Study Group for the Care of Diabetes in the Young Register. Controls (n = 1083) were randomly selected from the Aberdeen Maternity Neonatal Databank, matched by year of birth. Exposure data were obtained from the Aberdeen Maternity Neonatal Databank. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between various maternal and neonatal factors and the risk of type 1 diabetes. Results There was no evidence of statistically significant associations between type 1 diabetes and maternal age, maternal body mass index, previous abortions, pre-eclampsia, amniocentesis, maternal deprivation, use of syntocinon, mode of delivery, antepartum haemorrhage, baby's sex, gestational age at birth, birth order, birth weight, jaundice, phototherapy, breast feeding, admission to neonatal unit and Apgar score (P > 0.05). A significantly decreased risk of type 1 diabetes was observed in children whose mothers smoked at the booking appointment compared to those whose mothers did not, with an adjusted OR of 0.67, 95% CI (0.46, 0.99). Conclusions This case-control study found limited evidence of a reduced risk of the development of type 1 diabetes in children whose mothers smoked, compared to children whose mothers did not. No evidence was found of a significant association between other maternal and neonatal factors and childhood type 1 diabetes.
Nearly 99% of maternal deaths in the world each year occur in developing countries. New efforts have recently been undertaken to combat maternal mortality through research and action. The medical causes of such deaths are coming to be better understood, but the social mechanisms remain poorly grasped. Maternal mortality rates in developing countries are difficult to interpret because they tend to exclude all deaths not occurring in health care facilities. The countries of Europe and North America have an average maternal mortality rate of 30/100,000 live births, representing about 6000 deaths each year. The developing countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America have rates of 270-640/100,000, representing some 492,000 deaths annually. For a true comparison of the risks of maternal mortality in different countries, the risk itself and the average number of children per woman must both be considered. A Nigerian woman has 375 times greater risk of maternal death than a Swedish woman, but since she has about 4 times more children, her lifetime risk of maternal death is over 1500 times greater than that of the Swedish woman. The principal medical causes of maternal death are known: hemorrhages due to placenta previa or retroplacental hematoma, mechanical dystocias responsible for uterine rupture, toxemia with eclampsia, septicemia, and malaria. The exact weight of abortion in maternal mortality is not known but is probably large. The possible measures for improving such rates are of 3 types: control of fertility to avoid early, late, or closely spaced pregnancies; effective medical surveillance of the pregnancy to reduce the risk of malaria, toxemia, and hemorrhage, and delivery in an obstetrical facility, especially for high-risk pregnancies. Differential access to high quality health care explains much of the difference between mortality rates in urban and rural, wealthy and impoverished areas of the same country. The social determinants of high maternal mortality rates include political, geographic, and economic mechanisms of exclusion which affect the vast majority of the population in developing countries. Political power is concentrated in the hands of relatively small groups whose decisions about such expenditures as health care are usually more favorable to the privileged. A consequence of the very unequal regional development in most Third World countries is that health, educational, and most other resources are concentrated in large cities and perhaps 1 or 2 strategic regions, leaving most of the population underserved. The low social position of women leaves them doubly vulnerable. The social factors adding to risks of maternal mortality should be considered in programs of prevention if the causes and not just the consequences are to be addressed. PMID:12281979
Defossez, A C; Fassin, D
The diagnosis of neonatal sepsis is difficult, resulting in unnecessary treatment to minimize morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that exposure to antenatal risk factors for sepsis alters the perinatal neutrophil phenotype. The study setting was a tertiary referral university-affiliated maternity and neonatal hospital. Neutrophils from adults, normal neonates, neonates with antenatal sepsis risk factors and their respective maternal samples were incubated alone, with agonistic Fas antibody or with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Surface receptor CD11b expression and the percentage apoptosis (persistent inflammatory response) were assessed using flow cytometry. Both mothers and asymptomatic neonates exposed to maternal sepsis risk factors had increased spontaneous neutrophil apoptosis compared to their respective controls. Infants with sepsis were LPS and Fas hyporesponsive. Maternal neutrophils had a delay in apoptosis in all groups with enhanced LPS and Fas responses associated with neonatal sepsis. CD11b expression was not altered significantly between groups. Maternal neutrophil function is altered in neonatal sepsis and may have a diagnostic role. Neonatal sepsis was associated with LPS hyporesponsiveness, potentially increasing susceptibility to infection.
Molloy, E J; O'Neill, A J; Grantham-Sloan, J J; Webb, D W; Watson, R W G
Background Women continue to die unnecessarily during or after pregnancy in the developed world. The aim of this analysis was to compare women with severe maternal morbidities who survived with those who died, to quantify the risk associated with identified factors to inform policy and practice to improve survival. Methods and Findings We conducted a national cohort analysis using data from two sources obtained between 2003 and 2009: the Centre for Maternal and Child Enquiries maternal deaths database and the United Kingdom Obstetric Surveillance System database. Included women had eclampsia, antenatal pulmonary embolism, amniotic fluid embolism, acute fatty liver of pregnancy or antenatal stroke. These conditions were chosen as major causes of maternal mortality and morbidity about which data were available through both sources, and include 42% of direct maternal deaths over the study period. Rates, risk ratios, crude and adjusted odd ratios were used to investigate risks factors for maternal death. Multiple imputation and sensitivity analysis were used to handle missing data. We identified 476 women who survived and 100 women who died. Maternal death was associated with older age (35+ years aOR 2.36, 95%CI 1.22–4.56), black ethnicity (aOR 2.38, 95%CI 1.15–4.92), and unemployed, routine or manual occupation (aOR 2.19, 95%CI 1.03–4.68). An association was also observed with obesity (BMI?30 kg/m2 aOR 2.73, 95%CI 1.15–6.46). Conclusions Ongoing high quality national surveillance programmes have an important place in addressing challenges in maternal health and care. There is a place for action to reverse the rising trends in maternal age at childbirth, and to reduce the burden of obesity in pregnancy, as well as ongoing recognition of the impact of older maternal age on the risks of pregnancy. Development and evaluation of services to mitigate the risk of dying associated with black ethnicity and lower socioeconomic status is also essential.
Kayem, Gilles; Kurinczuk, Jennifer; Lewis, Gwyneth; Golightly, Shona; Brocklehurst, Peter; Knight, Marian
Background Previous studies have found associations between maternal and family factors and child eating disorder symptoms. However, it is not clear whether family factors predict eating disorder symptoms specifically, or relate to more general child psychopathology, of which eating disorder symptoms may be one component. This study aimed to identify maternal and family factors that may predict increases or decreases in child eating disorder symptoms over time, accounting for children’s body mass index z-scores and levels of general psychological distress. Methods Participants were 221 mother-child dyads from the Childhood Growth and Development Study, a prospective cohort study in Western Australia. Participants were assessed at baseline, 1-year follow-up and 2-year follow-up using interview and self-report measures. Children had a mean age of 10 years at baseline and 46% were male. Linear mixed models and generalised estimating equations were used to identify predictors of children’s eating disorder symptoms, with outcome variables including a global index of eating disorder psychopathology, levels of dietary restraint, levels of emotional eating, and the presence of loss of control (‘binge’) eating. Results Children of mothers with a current or past eating disorder reported significantly higher levels of global eating disorder symptoms and emotional eating than other children, and mothers with a current or past eating disorder reported significantly more concern about their children’s weight than other mothers. Maternal concern about child weight, rather than maternal eating disorder symptoms, was significant in predicting child eating disorder symptoms over time. Family exposure to stress and low maternal education were additional risk factors for eating disorder symptoms, whilst child-reported family satisfaction was a protective factor. Conclusions After adjusting for relevant confounding variables, maternal concern about child weight, children’s level of family satisfaction, family exposure to stress, and maternal education are unique predictors of child eating disorder symptoms.
The association between history of asthma in the mother and low birth weight (<2,500 g) was studied in 2,929 primary schoolchildren, randomly selected from three areas of the Lazio Region, Italy, and enrolled in a cross-sectional survey to assess their health status in relation to environmental factors. A history of asthma in the mother was associated with a higher prevalence
Carlo Corchia; Roberto Bertollini; Francesco Forastiere; Riccardo Pistelli; Carlo Perucci
Risk factors for child obesity may be influenced by family environment, including maternal depression, family structure, and parenting quality. We tested a path model in which maternal depression and single parent status are associated with parenting quality, which relates to three risk factors for child obesity: diet, leisure, and sedentary behavior. Participants included 4,601 5th-grade children and their primary caregivers
Regina L. McConley; Sylvie Mrug; M. Janice Gilliland; Richard Lowry; Marc N. Elliott; Mark A. Schuster; Laura M. Bogart; Luisa Franzini; Soledad L. Escobar-Chaves; Frank A. Franklin
This study examined relations among mothers' discourse about experiences in their families of origin and with child protective services (CPS), attachment-related and current risk factors, and the quality of mothers' parenting behavior with their young children during supervised visits. Twenty-nine 2- to 6-year-old children in foster care and their…
Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Haight, Wendy L.; Black, James E.; Sokolowski, Margaret Szewczyk; Giorgio, Grace; Tata, Lakshmi
Recent reports linking Down syndrome (DS) to maternal polymorphism at the methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD) locus have generated a great interest among investigators in the field. In the current study, we examine one genetic polymorphism involved in homocysteine/folate pathway as a risk factor for DS in a Romanian urban–area women cohort. Our results show that the frequencies of MTHFD1 alleles, as well as the frequencies of MTHFD11958 genotypes (GG, GA, AA, GA+AA) do not correlate with DS pregnancies, demonstrating no difference between the case and control groups, as opposed to the findings of Scala et al. (2006) on an Italian cohort.
Cretu, R; Tutulan-Cunita, A; Stoian, V; Bohiltea, LC
Summary Background Severe maternal morbidity (SMM) is a serious health condition potentially resulting in death without immediate medical attention, including organ failure, obstetric shock, and elcampsia. SMM affects 20,000 US women every year; however, few population-based studies have examined SMM risk factors. Methods We conducted a population-based case-control study linking birth certificate and hospital discharge data from Washington State (1987–2008), identifying 9,485 women with an antepartum, intrapartum, or postpartum SMM with ?3-day hospitalization or transfer from another facility and 41,112 random controls. Maternal age, race, smoking during pregnancy, parity, preexisting medical condition, multiple birth, prior cesarean delivery, and BMI were assessed as risk factors with logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for education and delivery payer source. Results Older women [35–39: OR 1.65 CI 1.52, 1.79; 40+: OR 2.48 CI 2.16, 2.81], non-white women [Black: OR 1.82 CI 1.64, 2.01; American Indian: OR 1.52 CI 1.32, 1.73; Asian/Pacific Islander: OR 1.30 CI 1.19, 1.41; Hispanic: OR 1.17 CI 1.07, 1.27], and women at parity extremes [OR 1.83 CI 1.72, 1.95, nulliparous; OR 1.34 CI 1.23, 1.45, parity 3+] were at greater risk of SMM. Women with a preexisting medical condition [OR 2.10 CI 1.88, 2.33], a multiple birth [OR 2.54 CI 2.26, 2.82], and a prior cesarean delivery [OR 2.08 CI 1.93, 2.23] were also at increased risk. Conclusion The risk factors identified are not modifiable at the individual level; therefore, provider and system-level factors may be the most appropriate target for preventing SMM.
Gray, Kristen E; Wallace, Erin R; Nelson, Kailey R; Reed, Susan D; Schiff, Melissa A
The p53 family and its regulatory pathway play an important role as regulators of developmental processes, limiting the propagation of aneuploid cells. Its dysfunction or imbalance can lead to pathological abnormalities in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of maternal polymorphisms TP53 c.215G>C (P72R), TP73 4 c.-30G>A and 14 c.-20C>T, MDM2 c.14+309T>G (SNP309), MDM4 c.753+572C>T and USP7 c.2719-234G>A as risk factors for Down Syndrome (DS) birth. A case-control study was conducted with 263 mothers of DS children and 196 control mothers. The distribution of these genotypic variants was similar between case and control mothers. However, the combined alleles TP53 C and MDM2 G, and P53 C and USP7 A increased the risk of having offspring with DS (OR=1.84 and 1.77; 95% CI; P < 0.007 and 0.018, respectively). These results suggest that, although the individual polymorphisms were not associated with DS birth, the effect of the combined genotypes among TP53, MDM2 and USP7 genes indicates a possible role of TP53 and its regulatory pathway as a risk factor for aneuploidy. PMID:23089923
Boquett, Juliano André; Brandalize, Ana Paula Carneiro; Fraga, Lucas Rosa; Schuler-Faccini, Lavínia
Infantile hemangioma (IH) is the most common benign tumor occurring during childhood. We hypothesized that, in addition to already known risk factors, such as female sex, prematurity, and low birthweight (LBW), antenatal vaginal bleeding and progesterone therapy would be highly associated with IH. We randomly selected 650 individuals with IH and matched them with 650 children of the same age and nationality without IH. Trained investigators used a standardized questionnaire to collect data from both groups, including demographic, prenatal, and perinatal characteristics. Prematurity (p < .001, odds ratio [OR] = 2.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.44-3.41), LBW (p < .001, OR = 3.10, 95% CI = 1.87-5.16) and female sex (p < .001, OR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.65-2.58) were significantly associated with IH. Maternal vaginal bleeding during the first trimester was shown to be an independent risk factor according to logistic regression analyses (p < .001, OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.36-1.91), which was most evident in those receiving progesterone therapy to prevent miscarriage (p < .001, OR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.77-2.51). Subgroup analyses revealed that the effect was more pronounced in female than in male infants (OR = 2.82, 95% CI = 2.39-3.34). In addition to the known relationships, the present study identified a close relationship between maternal vaginal bleeding and progesterone therapy during early pregnancy and IH. Twins appeared to have a higher incidence of IH than singletons. PMID:23278441
Chen, Xiao Dong; Ma, Gang; Chen, Hui; Ye, Xiao Xiao; Jin, Yun Bo; Lin, Xiao Xi
Background Preterm birth, the birth of an infant prior to 37 completed weeks of gestation, is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Preterm infants are at greater risk of respiratory, gastrointestinal and neurological diseases. Despite significant research in developed countries, little is known about the causes of preterm birth in many developing countries, especially China. This study investigates the association between sciodemographic data, obstetric risk factor, and preterm birth in five Maternal and Child Health hospitals in Beijing, China. Methods and Findings A case-control study was conducted on 1391 women with preterm birth (case group) and 1391 women with term delivery (control group), who were interviewed within 48 hours of delivery. Sixteen potential factors were investigated and statistical analysis was performed by univariate analysis and logistic regression analysis. Univariate analysis showed that 14 of the 16 factors were associated with preterm birth. Inter-pregnancy interval and inherited diseases were not risk factors. Logistic regression analysis showed that obesity (odds ratio (OR)?=?3.030, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.166–7.869), stressful life events (OR?=?5.535, 95%CI 2.315–13.231), sexual activity (OR?=?1.674, 95%CI 1.279–2.191), placenta previa (OR 13.577, 95%CI 2.563–71.912), gestational diabetes mellitus (OR?=?3.441, 95%CI1.694–6.991), hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy (OR?=?6.034, 95%CI?=?3.401–10.704), history of preterm birth (OR?=?20.888, 95%CI 2.519–173.218) and reproductive abnormalities (OR?=?3.049, 95%CI 1.010–9.206) were independent risk factors. Women who lived in towns and cities (OR?=?0.603, 95%CI 0.430–0.846), had a balanced diet (OR?=?0.533, 95%CI 0.421–0.675) and had a record of prenatal care (OR?=?0.261, 95%CI 0.134–0.510) were less likely to have preterm birth. Conclusions Obesity, stressful life events, sexual activity, placenta previa, gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy, history of preterm birth and reproductive abnormalities are independent risk factors to preterm birth. Identification of remedial factors may inform local health and education policy.
Zhang, Yun-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Gao, Su-Hong; Wang, Jia-Mei; Gu, Yue-Shan; Zhang, Jiu-Yue; Zhou, Xia; Li, Qing-Xia
We examined whether polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD) and transcobalamin (TC) genes, which are involved in folate metabolism, affect maternal risk for Down syndrome. We investigated 76 Down syndrome mothers and 115 control mothers from Bengbu, China. Genomic DNA was isolated from the peripheral lymphocytes. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism were used to examine the polymorphisms of MTHFD G1958A and TC C776G. The frequencies of the polymorphic alleles were 24.3 and 19.1% for MTHFD 1958A, 53.9 and 54.2% for TC 776G, in the case and control groups, respectively. No significant differences were found between two groups in relation to either the allele or the genotype frequency for both polymorphisms. However, when gene-gene interactions between these two polymorphisms together with previous studied C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene were analyzed, the combined MTHFR 677CT/TT and MTHFD 1958AA/GA genotype was found to be significantly associated with the risk of having a Down syndrome child [odds ratio (OR) = 3.11; 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 1.07-9.02]. In addition, the combined TC 776CG and MTHFR 677TT genotype increased the risk of having a child with Down syndrome 3.64-fold (OR = 3.64; 95%CI = 1.28-10.31). In conclusion, neither MTHFD G1958A nor TC C776G polymorphisms are an independent risk factor for Down syndrome. However, the combined MTHFD/MTHFR, TC/MTHFR genotypes play a role in the risk of bearing a Down syndrome child in the Chinese population. PMID:24668664
Liao, Y P; Zhang, D; Zhou, W; Meng, F M; Bao, M S; Xiang, P; Liu, C Q
Background Prenatal micronutrient deficiency has been linked to later development of schizophrenia among offspring; however, no study has specifically investigated the association between vitamin A and this disorder. Vitamin A is an essential nutrient which is required by the early embryo and fetus for gene expression and regulation, cell differentiation, proliferation and migration. Previous work suggests that vitamin A deficiency in the second trimester may be particularly relevant to the etiopathogenesis of neurobehavioral phenotypes some of which are observed in schizophrenia. Methods We examined whether low maternal vitamin A levels in the second trimester are associated with the risk of schizophrenia and other schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) in the Prenatal Determinants of Schizophrenia study; third trimester vitamin A levels were also examined in relation to SSD. The cases were derived from a population-based birth cohort; all cohort members belonged to a prepaid health plan. Archived maternal serum samples were assayed for vitamin A in cases (N=55) and up to 2 controls per case (N=106) matched on length of membership in the health plan, date of birth (±28 days), sex, and gestational timing and availability of archived maternal sera. Results For the second trimester, low maternal vitamin A, defined as values in the lowest tertile of the distribution among controls, was associated with a greater than threefold increased risk of SSD, adjusting for maternal education and age (OR=3.04, 95% CI=1.06, 8.79, p=.039). No association between third trimester maternal vitamin A and SSD was observed. Conclusions Although further investigations are warranted, this is the first birth cohort study to our knowledge to report an association between low maternal vitamin A levels and SSD among offspring.
Bao, YuanYuan; Ibram, Ghionul; Blaner, William S.; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Shen, Ling; McKeague, Ian W.; Schaefer, Catherine A.; Susser, Ezra S.; Brown, Alan S.
Preeclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. New molecular insights offer new possibilities of early diagnosis of elevated maternal risk. Maternal risk factors, biophysical parameters like Doppler examination of the uterine arteries and biochemical parameters allow early risk calculation. Preventive and effective therapeutic agents like acetylsalicylacid can be started in the early second trimester. This article reviews the diagnostic possibilities of early risk calculation to detect women having high risk for preeclampsia and the potential benefits for them, the offspring and health care systems. We provide risk calculation for preeclampsia as an important and sensible part of first trimester screening.
Mikat, B.; Gellhaus, A.; Wagner, N.; Birdir, C.; Kimmig, R.; Koninger, A.
Background. The etiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is complex.This study was conducted to evaluate the pregnancy-related maternal risk factors of ADHD. Methods. 164 ADHD children attending to Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics compared with 166 normal children selected in a random-cluster method from primary schools. ADHD rating scale and clinical interview based on Schedule for Affective disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children (K-SADS) were used to diagnose ADHD cases and to select the control group. Results. The mean maternal age at pregnancy, duration of pregnancy, and the mean paternal age were alike in two groups. The ADHD children's mothers compared with those of control group had higher frequencies of somatic diseases, psychiatric disorders, and alcohol and cigarette exposure during the pregnancies (P < 0.01). Also birth by cesarean section was more common among mothers of ADHD children (P < 0.001). These factors plus trauma to the abdomen during pregnancy were significantly predictors of ADHD in children. Conclusions. Some pregnancy-related maternal factors may be considered as environmental risk factors for ADHD. Each of these factors considered in our study as a risk factor needs to be tested and confirmed through next methodologically appropriate researches in this field.
Amiri, Shahrokh; Malek, Ayyoub; Sadegfard, Majid; Abdi, Salman
In a cross-sectional study to determine the seroprevalence of, and possible risk factors for, Toxoplasma gondii infection in the pregnant women of Saudi Arabia, all of the pregnant Saudi women attending the Al Ahsa Maternity Hospital over a 1-year period were invited to participate. In an interview with each subject, the relevant socio-demographic data and information on housing conditions, previous obstetric history and possible risk factors for Toxoplasma infection (e.g.frequency of consumption of undercooked meat, unwashed raw vegetables and/or unwashed raw fruit, contact with soil, and main sources of drinking water) were collected. Each subject was then checked for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM in commercial ELISA. Of the 554 expectant women investigated, 51.4% were found seropositive for anti-Toxoplasma IgG (indicating chronic infection) and 8.8% for anti-Toxoplasma IgM (indicating acute infection), with 6.1% of the women seropositive for Toxoplasma -specific IgM but seronegative for Toxoplasma-specific IgG. Acute infection was most common among the women who were relatively young, lived in rural areas and had relatively low incomes. The results of a multivariate logistic regression indicated that the significant positive predictors for chronic Toxoplasma infection were increasing age, rural residence, low family income, frequent consumption of undercooked meat, and previous obstetric problems (and/or multiparity). Although of questionable accuracy, the results of the present study revealed a relatively high seroprevalence of (possibly primary) acute Toxoplasma infection in the pregnant women, with the potential for transmission of the parasite to the foetuses. PMID:20863438
Al-Mohammad, H I; Amin, T T; Balaha, M H; Al-Moghannum, M S
Objective:To study associations of size and body proportions at birth, and growth during infancy and childhood, to body composition and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors at the age of 6 years.Design:The Pune Maternal Nutrition Study, a prospective population-based study of maternal nutrition and CVD risk in rural Indian children.Methods:Body composition and CVD risk factors measured in 698 children at 6
C V Joglekar; C H D Fall; V U Deshpande; N Joshi; A Bhalerao; V Solat; T M Deokar; S D Chougule; S D Leary; C Osmond; C S Yajnik
Nicotine from maternal smoking during pregnancy can cross the placental barrier, possibly resulting in fetal brain sensitization, as indicated by studies in which prenatal exposure to maternal smoking was associated with an increased risk of tobacco use among adolescent offspring. We investigated whether this association persists beyond adolescence by studying cigarette smoking and the use of snus (Swedish oral moist snuff) among 983 young adults from a prospective cohort study conducted in Stockholm, Sweden, between 2006 and 2010. Self-reported questionnaire data were linked with data from national population-based registers from 1983 onward. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was consistently associated with snus use in offspring (e.g., for lifetime daily snus use, adjusted odds ratio = 2.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.32, 3.16; for use of >3 cans of snus per week vs. less, odds ratio = 3.85, 95% confidence interval: 1.57, 10.15). No association was apparent with offspring's smoking, age at onset of tobacco use, or changes in use between 2006 and 2010. These findings indicate that prenatal exposure to maternal smoking is associated with regular and heavy nicotine intake from smokeless tobacco rather than from smoking. This should be further explored in epidemiologic studies that simultaneously address the roles of genetics and social environments. PMID:24761008
Rydell, Mina; Magnusson, Cecilia; Cnattingius, Sven; Granath, Fredrik; Svensson, Anna C; Galanti, Maria Rosaria
Objective To assess the relationship between maternal UTI during pregnancy and neonatal UTI. Materials and methods This cross-sectional study included eighty neonates referred to Ali-e-Asghar Hospital, Tehran, Iran, in 2011. The participants were divided into the study (with diagnosis of UTI; n = 40) and the control (without this type of infection; n = 40) groups. The mothers were asked about the history of UTI during pregnancy, and if the response was positive, the trimester in which UTI had occurred. Urinalysis and urine culture were carried out for all neonates. Results Overall, 14.9% of neonates had mothers with a positive history of UTI during their pregnancy (4.4%, 6.1%, and 4.4% during the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters, respectively). A significant relationship was detected between the occurrence of UTI in neonates and maternal UTI, so that the overall prevalence of UTI among neonates of affected mothers was significantly higher than that observed among non-infected mothers (30.0% versus 6.8%; p = 0.001). Maternal UTI resulted in 5.9-fold increased risk of neonatal UTI. In UTI group, the most common bacterial etiologies of UTI were Escherichia coli (65.9%), followed by Klebsiella (14.6%) and Staphylococci (9.8%). Conclusion Our findings confirmed the association between the history of UTI in mother and occurrence of UTI in neonate, emphasizing to pay more attention for assessing and managing UTI in neonates in order to reduce the related complications.
Khalesi, Nasrin; Khosravi, Nastaran; Jalali, Ali
Background Previous research in South Africa revealed very high rates of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), of 46 to 89 per 1,000 among young children. Maternal and child data from studies in this community summarize the multiple predictors of FAS and partial fetal alcohol syndrome (PFAS). Method Sequential regression was employed to examine influences on child physical characteristics and dysmorphology from four categories of maternal traits: physical, demographic, childbearing, and drinking. Then, a structural equation model (SEM) was constructed to predict influences on child physical characteristics. Results Individual sequential regressions revealed that maternal drinking measures were the most powerful predictors of a child’s physical anomalies (R2 = .30, p < .001), followed by maternal demographics (R2 = .24, p < .001), maternal physical characteristics (R2 = .15, p < .001), and childbearing variables (R2 = .06, p< .001). The SEM utilized both individual variables and the four composite categories of maternal traits to predict a set of child physical characteristics, including a total dysmorphology score. As predicted, drinking behavior is a relatively strong predictor of child physical characteristics (? = 0.61, p < .001), even when all other maternal risk variables are included; higher levels of drinking predict child physical anomalies. Conclusions Overall, the SEM model explains 62% of the variance in child physical anomalies. As expected, drinking variables explain the most variance. But this highly controlled estimation of multiple effects also reveals a significant contribution played by maternal demographics and, to a lesser degree, maternal physical and childbearing variables.
May, Philip A.; Tabachnick, Barbara G.; Gossage, J. Phillip; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Marais, Anna-Susan; Robinson, Luther K.; Manning, Melanie; Buckley, David; Hoyme, H. Eugene
This study aimed to investigate pre- and perinatal determinants as risk factors for caries development in offspring. In this\\u000a longitudinal register-based cohort study, we included all children (n = 18,142), of 13 years of age who resided in the county of Stockholm, Sweden, in 2000. The cohort was followed until individuals\\u000a were 19 years of age. In total, 15,538 subjects were examined. Dental caries
Annika Julihn; Anders Ekbom; Thomas Modéer
Folate metabolism deficiency has been related to increased occurrence of maternal non-disjunction resulting in trisomy 21.\\u000a Several polymorphisms in genes coding for folate metabolism enzymes have been investigated for association with the maternal\\u000a risk of Down syndrome (DS) yielding variable results. We performed a meta-analysis of case-control studies obtained through\\u000a the PubMed database. The studies on polymorphisms in the MTHFR,
Igor Medica; Ales Maver; Goncalo Figueiredo Augusto; Borut Peterlin
Observed and birthweight-specific neonatal mortality rates have been used for assessing quality of neonatal care, but these are crude and affected by risk characteristics of the population served. Even when neonatal mortality rate is corrected for four risk factors, race, sex, birthweight, and multiple births, (California Data Research Facility, Santa Barbara, CA) it is possible that the corrected neonatal mortality rate is not comparable among institutions because of population differences not corrected for, eg, prenatal care. To analyze whether our high neonatal mortality rate is primarily dependent on population risk or quality of neonatal care, we used contemporaneous data collection by senior physicians and a microcomputer database system to construct indices of quality of care that are based on diagnoses graded according to disease severity. For the 1987/1988 academic year, we found: neonatal intensive care unit nosocomial infection rate, 20%; severe intraventricular hemorrhage per 100 very low birthweight infants (1500 g), 20%; bronchopulmonary dysplasia per 100 cases of severe respiratory distress syndrome, 27%; necrotizing enterocolitis per 100 neonatal intensive care unit discharges, 5%; air leak per 100 cases of severe respiratory distress syndrome, 21%; and neonatal mortality rate per very low birthweight delivery rate, 0.4. We propose that microcomputer, hospital-based analyses will improve comparisons of neonatal intensive care unit quality of care if appropriate indices can be sufficiently well-defined and shared. PMID:2352285
Ekelem, I; Taeusch, H W
Aims This study examines associations between maternal smoking and family, social or child risk factors when the child is aged 5 and adolescent smoking. The influence of mothers who smoke in pregnancy or continue to smoke at 14 years was also examined. Design The Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy is a prospective cohort study. Participants Participants included 8556 women
Frances V. O'Callaghan; Michael O'Callaghan; Jake M. Najman; Gail M. Williams; William Bor; Rosa Alati
It is not known whether reproductive factors early in the mother's life influence risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We assessed maternal age at menarche, menstrual cycle characteristics during adolescence, oral contraceptive use prior to first birth, body shape, and body mass index (BMI) in association with ASD using binomial regression in…
Lyall, Kristen; Pauls, David L.; Santangelo, Susan; Spiegelman, Donna; Ascherio, Alberto
The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Quality Indicator tools were used to identify risk factors for maternal birth-related trauma rates in the 2003 Nationwide Inpatient Sample and the 2002-2004 Iowa State Inpatient Database. Risk-adjusted analyses of these datasets isolated salient risk factors for maternal trauma. The rates of Iowa's risk factors for the most serious types of trauma—third\\/fourth-degree lacerations—were
Lance L. Roberts; John W. Ely; Marcia M. Ward
Background Accumulating data from animal and human studies indicate that the prenatal environment plays a significant role in shaping children’s neurocognitive development. Clinical, epidemiologic, and basic science research suggests that two experiences relatively common in pregnancy — an unhealthy maternal diet and psychosocial distress — significantly affect children’s future neurodevelopment. These prenatal experiences exert their influence in the context of one another and yet, almost uniformly, are studied independently. Scope and Method of Review In this review, we suggest that studying neurocognitive development in children in relation to both prenatal exposures is ecologically most relevant, and methodologically most sound. To support this approach, we selectively review two research topics that demonstrate the need for dual exposure studies, including exemplar findings on (1) the associations between pregnant women’s inadequate maternal intake of key nutrients – protein, fat, iron, zinc, and choline – as well as distress in relation to overlapping effects on children’s neurocognitive development; and (2) cross-talk between the biology of stress and nutrition that can amplify each experience for the mother and fetus,. We also consider obstacles to this kind of study design, such as questions of statistical methods for ‘disentangling’ the exposure effects, and aim to provide some answers. Conclusion Studies that specifically include both exposures in their design can begin to determine the relative and/or synergistic impact of these prenatal experiences on developmental trajectories — and thereby contribute most fully to the understanding of the early origins of health and disease.
Monk, Catherine; Georgieff, Michael K.; Osterholm, Erin A.
The current study examined the individual and joint effects of self-reported adult attachment style, psychological distress, and parenting stress on maternal caregiving behaviors at 6 and 12 months of child age. We proposed a diathesis-stress model to examine the potential deleterious effects of stress for mothers with insecure adult attachment styles. Data from 137 mothers were gathered by the longitudinal Durham Child Health and Development Study. Mothers provided self-reports using Hazan and Shaver’s (1987) Adult Attachment Style measure, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Parent Stress Inventory; observations of parenting data were made from 10-minute free play interactions. Consistently avoidant mothers were less sensitive with their infants than consistently secure mothers; however, this effect was limited to avoidant mothers who experienced elevated levels of psychological distress. Results suggest that the association between insecure adult attachment style and insensitive parenting behavior is moderated by concurrent psychosocial stress. Clinical implications for these findings are discussed.
Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Appleyard, Karen; Barnett, Melissa; Deng, Min; Putallaz, Martha; Cox, Martha
Objective: The prevalence of maternal overweight and fetal macrosomia is increasing. Fetal macroso- mia is associated with increased risk of maternal and neonatal complications. The objective of the present study was to investigate if maternal metabolic parameters associated with maternal overweight were independent determinants of macrosomia (birth weight . 4500 g or above the 95 percentile of the z-score for
T Clausen; T K Burski; N Øyen; K Godang; J Bollerslev; T Henriksen
This study set out to examine father-related factors predicting maternal physical child abuse risk in a national birth cohort of 1,480 families. In-home and phone interviews were conducted with mothers when index children were 3 years old. Predictor variables included the mother–father relationship status; father demographic, economic, and psychosocial variables; and key background factors. Outcome variables included both observed and self-reported proxies of maternal physical child abuse risk. At the bivariate level, mothers married to fathers were at lower risk for most indicators of maternal physical child abuse. However, after accounting for specific fathering factors and controlling for background variables, multivariate analyses indicated that marriage washed out as a protective factor, and on two of three indicators was linked with greater maternal physical abuse risk. Regarding fathering factors linked with risk, fathers’ higher educational attainment and their positive involvement with their children most discernibly predicted lower maternal physical child abuse risk. Fathers’ economic factors played no observable role in mothers’ risk for physical child maltreatment. Such multivariate findings suggest that marriage per se does not appear to be a protective factor for maternal physical child abuse and rather it may serve as a proxy for other father-related protective factors.
Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Yookyong; Lee, Shawna J.; Waldfogel, Jane; Rathouz, Paul J.
Background The major aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal risk factors associated with socioeconomic status and small for gestational age (SGA) might be viable targets of interventions to reduce differential risk of SGA by socioeconomic status (socioeconomic SGA inequality) in the metropolitan area of Vancouver, Canada. Methods This study included 59,039 live, singleton births in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area (Vancouver) from January 1, 2006 to September 17, 2009. To identify an indicator of socioeconomic SGA inequality, we used hierarchical logistic regression to model SGA by area-level variables from the Canadian census. We then modelled SGA by area-level average income plus established maternal risk factors for SGA and calculated population attributable SGA risk percentages (PAR%) for each variable. Associations of maternal risk factors for SGA with average income were investigated to identify those that might contribute to SGA inequality. Finally, we estimated crude reductions in the percentage and absolute differences in SGA risks between highest and lowest average income quintiles that would result if interventions on maternal risk factors successfully equalized them across income levels or eliminated them altogether. Results Average income produced the most linear and statistically significant indicator of socioeconomic SGA inequality with 8.9% prevalence of SGA in the lowest income quintile compared to 5.6% in the highest. The adjusted PAR% of SGA for variables were: bottom four quintiles of height (51%), first birth (32%), bottom four quintiles of average income (14%), oligohydramnios (7%), underweight or hypertension, (6% each), smoking (3%) and placental disorder (1%). Shorter height, underweight and smoking during pregnancy had higher prevalence in lower income groups. Crude models assuming equalization of risk factors across income levels or elimination altogether indicated little potential change in relative socioeconomic SGA inequality and reduction in absolute SGA inequality for shorter height only. Conclusions Our findings regarding maternal height may indicate trans-generational aetiology for socioeconomic SGA inequalities and/or that adult height influences social mobility. Conditions affecting foetal and childhood growth might be viable targets to reduce absolute socioeconomic SGA inequality in future generations, but more research is needed to determine whether such an approach is appropriate.
Parental smoking is known to have prenatal health effects on developing fetuses, and postnatal exposure to secondhand smoke causes adverse health effects during childhood and beyond. Further, there is solid evidence that parental smoking during childhood is a potent risk factor for smoking in offspring. In this issue of the Journal, Rydell et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2014;179(12):1409-1417) add to a growing body of evidence showing that maternal smoking during pregnancy is statistically associated with the long-term risk of tobacco use in offspring. The data revealed a strong signal between maternal smoking during pregnancy and tobacco use in young adulthood, an association that was largely concentrated in snus use but not cigarette smoking. This new study adds to a growing body of epidemiologic evidence that consistently points toward maternal smoking during pregnancy being associated with an increased risk of offspring tobacco use in later life. There is also evidence from animal models indicating that fetal exposure to maternal nicotine use in utero can have a durable impact on the neural pathways that affect lifetime sensitivity to nicotine. This is an important research topic that continues to yield a consistent signal despite an array of inferential challenges. PMID:24761006
Alberg, Anthony J; Korte, Jeffrey E
There is a general recognition of the role of low birthweight (LBW) as a major determinant of infant mortality rates. Since\\u000a the rate of LBW has been increasing over the past fifteen years in Japan, we decided to ascertain the risk factors related\\u000a to it, and also to verify whether or not maternal leisure-time physical activities including sports activities, before
Adriana Schiiler CAVALLI; Toyoho Tanaka
Elevated concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in fetal and neonatal compartments have been associated with an increased risk for preterm birth (PTB) and/or neonatal morbidity. The purpose of this study was to determine if the maternal serum concentration of IL-6, CRP, and MMP-9 in women at risk for PTB, who are not in labor and have intact membranes, are associated with an increased risk for PTB <32 weeks and/or neonatal morbidity. Maternal serum samples collected from 475 patients enrolled in a multicenter randomized controlled trial of single versus weekly corticosteroids for women at increased risk for preterm delivery were assayed. Serum was collected at randomization (24 to 32 weeks' gestation). Maternal serum concentrations of IL-6, CRP, and MMP-9 were subsequently determined using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to explore the relationship between maternal serum concentrations of IL-6, CRP, and MMP-9 and PTB <32 weeks, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), chronic lung disease (CLD), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and any sepsis. Maternal serum concentrations of IL-6 and CRP, but not MMP-9, above the 90th percentile at the time of randomization were associated with PTB <32 weeks. In contrast, there was no significant relationship between RDS and NEC and the maternal serum concentration of IL-6, CRP, or MMP-9 (univariate analysis). The development of CLD was associated with a high (above 90th percentile) IL-6 and CRP in maternal serum, even after adjustment for gestational age (GA) at randomization and treatment group. However, when GA at delivery was added to the model, this finding was nonsignificant. Neonatal sepsis was more frequent in neonates born to mothers with a high maternal serum concentration of CRP (>90th percentile). However, there was no significant association after adjustment for GA at randomization and treatment group. Logistic regression analysis for each analyte indicated that high maternal serum concentrations of IL-6 and CRP, but not MMP-9, were associated with an increased risk of IVH (odds ratio [OR] 4.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.86 to 10.68; OR 4.07, 95% CI 1.63 to 9.50) after adjusting for GA at randomization and treatment group. Most babies (25/30) had grade I IVH. When GA at delivery was included, elevated IL-6 remained significantly associated with IVH (OR 2.77, 95% CI 1.02 to 7.09). An elevated maternal serum concentration of IL-6 and CRP are risk factors for PTB <32 weeks and subsequent development of neonatal IVH. An elevated maternal serum IL-6 appears to confer additional risk for IVH even after adjusting for GA at delivery. PMID:20195952
Sorokin, Yoram; Romero, Roberto; Mele, Lisa; Wapner, Ronald J; Iams, Jay D; Dudley, Donald J; Spong, Catherine Y; Peaceman, Alan M; Leveno, Kenneth J; Harper, Margaret; Caritis, Steve N; Miodovnik, Menachem; Mercer, Brian M; Thorp, John M; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo; Ramin, Susan M; Carpenter, Marshall W; Rouse, Dwight J; Sibai, Baha
Objective We aimed to test the fetal overnutrition hypothesis by comparing the associations of maternal and paternal adiposity (sum of skinfolds) with adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors in children. Design Children from a prospective birth cohort had anthropometry, fat percentage (bio-impedance), plasma glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations and blood pressure measured at 9·5 years of age. Detailed anthropometric measurements were recorded for mothers (at 30 ± 2 weeks’ gestation) and fathers (5 years following the index pregnancy). Setting Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India. Subjects Children (n 504), born to mothers with normal glucose tolerance during pregnancy. Results Twenty-eight per cent of mothers and 38 % of fathers were overweight/obese (BMI ? 25·0 kg/m2), but only 4 % of the children were overweight/obese (WHO age- and sex-specific BMI ? 18·2 kg/m2). The children’s adiposity (BMI, sum of skinfolds, fat percentage and waist circumference), fasting insulin concentration and insulin resistance increased with increasing maternal and paternal sum of skinfolds adjusted for the child’s sex, age and socio-economic status. Maternal and paternal effects were similar. The associations with fasting insulin and insulin resistance were attenuated after adjusting for the child’s current adiposity. Conclusions In this population, both maternal and paternal adiposity equally predict adiposity and insulin resistance in the children. This suggests that shared family environment and lifestyle, or genetic/epigenetic factors, influence child adiposity. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that there is an intrauterine overnutrition effect of maternal adiposity in non-diabetic pregnancies, although we cannot rule out such an effect in cases of extreme maternal obesity, which is rare in our population.
Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Karat, Samuel C; Osmond, Clive; Fall, Caroline HD
Logistic regression and spatial analytic techniques are used to model fetal distress risk as a function of maternal exposure to Hurricane Andrew. First, monthly time series compare the proportion of infants born distressed in hurricane affected and unaffected areas. Second, resident births are analyzed in Miami-Dade and Broward counties, before, during, and after Hurricane Andrew. Third, resident births are analyzed in all Florida locales with 100,000 or more persons, comparing exposed and unexposed gravid females. Fourth, resident births are analyzed along Hurricane Andrew's path from southern Florida to northeast Mississippi. Results show that fetal distress risk increases significantly with maternal exposure to Hurricane Andrew in second and third trimesters, adjusting for known risk factors. Distress risk also correlates with the destructive path of Hurricane Andrew, with higher incidences of fetal distress found in areas of highest exposure intensity. Hurricane exposed African-American mothers were more likely to birth distressed infants. The policy implications of?in utero?costs of natural disaster exposure are discussed. PMID:20626684
Zahran, Sammy; Snodgrass, Jeffrey G; Peek, Lori; Weiler, Stephan
Objective Lower maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy may be associated with increased offspring cardiovascular risk in later life, but evidence for this is scant. We examined associations of maternal total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in pregnancy with offspring cardiovascular risk factors assessed in childhood and adolescence. Design A longitudinal, prospective study. Setting The study was based on data from mother–offspring pairs in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a UK prospective population-based birth cohort (N=4109). Outcome measures Offspring cardiovascular risk factors were measured in childhood (mean age 9.9?years) and in adolescence (mean age 15.4?years): blood pressure, lipids, apolipoproteins (at 9.9?years only), glucose and insulin (at 15.4?years only), C reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin 6 (at 9.9?years only) were measured. Results After adjustments for potential confounders (maternal age, education, body mass index (BMI), smoking, physical activity, parity, socioeconomic position, ethnicity, and offspring gestational age at 25(OH)D sampling; gender, age, and BMI at outcome assessment), maternal 25(OH)D was inversely associated with systolic blood pressure (?0.48?mm?Hg difference per 50?nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D; 95% CI ?0.95 to ?0.01), Apo-B (?0.01?mg/dL difference; 95% CI ?0.02 to ?0.001), and CRP (?6.1% difference; 95% CI ?11.5% to ?0.3%) at age 9.9?years. These associations were not present for risk factors measured at 15.4?years, with the exception of a weak inverse association with CRP (?5.5% difference; 95% CI ?11.4% to 0.8%). There was no strong evidence of associations with offspring triglycerides, glucose or insulin. Conclusions Our findings suggest that fetal exposure to 25(OH)D is unlikely to influence cardiovascular risk factors of individuals later in life.
Williams, Dylan M; Fraser, Abigail; Fraser, William D; Hypponen, Elina; Davey Smith, George; Deanfield, John; Hingorani, Aroon; Sattar, Naveed; Lawlor, Debbie A
There is increasing evidence that human pregnancy outcome can be significantly compromised by suboptimal maternal nutritional status. Poor diet results in a maternal-fetal environment in which the teratogenicity of other insults such as alcohol might be amplified. As an example, there is evidence that zinc (Zn) can interact with maternal alcohol exposure to influence the risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Studies with experimental animals have shown that the teratogenicity of alcohol is increased under conditions of Zn deficiency, while its teratogenicity is lessened when animals are given Zn supplemented diets or Zn injections prior to the alcohol exposure. Alcohol can precipitate an acute phase response resulting in a subsequent increase in maternal liver metallothionein, which can sequester Zn and lead to decreased Zn transfer to the fetus. Importantly, the teratogenicity of acute alcohol exposure is reduced in metallothionein knockout mice, which can have improved Zn transfer to the conceptus relative to wild-type mice. Consistent with the above, Zn status has been reported to be low in alcoholic women at delivery. Preliminary data from two basic science and clinical nutritional studies that are ongoing as part of the international Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (CIFASD) support the potential role of Zn, among other nutritional factors, relative to risk for FASD. Importantly, the nutrient levels being examined in these studies are relevant to general clinical populations and represent suboptimal levels rather than severe deficiencies. These data suggest that moderate deficiencies in single nutrients can act as permissive factors for FASD, and that adequate nutritional status or intervention through supplementation may provide protection for some of the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure.
Keen, Carl L.; Uriu-Adams, Janet Y.; Skalny, Anatoly; Grabeklis, Andrei; Grabeklis, Sevil; Green, Kerri; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Wertelecki, W. W.; Chambers, Christina D.
Background Although many studies indicate that maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) is correlated with later offspring antisocial behavior (ASB), recent quasi-experimental studies suggest that background familial factors confound the association. The present study sought to test alternative etiological hypotheses using multiple indices of adolescent ASB, comparing differentially exposed siblings, and testing assumptions in the sibling-comparison design. Methods The study examined the association between maternal SDP and adolescent-reported ASB, criminal convictions, and membership in a group of individuals with early-starting and chronic ASB among 6,066 offspring of women from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a representative sample of women in the United States. The analyses controlled for statistical covariates and examined associations while comparing differentially exposed siblings. Results At the population-level, each additional pack of cigarettes/day predicted greater mean adolescent-reported ASB symptoms (ratio of means=1.15, 95% CIs=1.08–1.22), odds of being in the top 10% of ASB (OR=1.34, 95% CIs=1.10–1.65), hazard of a criminal conviction (HR=1.51, 95% CIs=1.34–1.68), and odds of chronic ASB (OR=1.57, 95% CIs=1.25–1.99). SDP robustly predicted most assessments of ASB while controlling for measured covariates. When siblings exposed to differing levels of SDP were compared, however, all of the associations were attenuated and were not statistically significant: adolescent-reported mean ASB (ratio of means=0.86, 95% CIs=0.74–1.01), High ASB (OR=0.67, 95% CIs=0.41–1.12), criminal conviction (HR=0.98, 95% CIs=0.66–1.44), and Chronic ASB (OR=0.80, 95% CIs=0.46–1.38). Conclusions The results strongly suggest that familial factors account for the correlation between SDP and offspring adolescent ASB, rather than a putative causal environmental influence of SDP.
D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Goodnight, Jackson A.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Lahey, Benjamin B.
Background From 2000 a routine survey of mothers with newborn infants was commenced in South Western Sydney. The survey included the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for postnatal depressive symptoms in women living in metropolitan Sydney, Australia. Methods Mothers (n=15,389) delivering in 2002 and 2003 were assessed at 2–3 weeks after delivery for risk factors for depressive symptoms. The binary outcome variables were EPDS >9 and >12. Logistic regression was used for the multivariate analysis. Results The prevalence of EPDS >9 was 16.93 per 100 (95% CI: 16.34 to 17.52) and EPDS >12 was 7.73 per 100 (95% CI: 6.96 to 7.78). The final parsimonious logistic regression models included measures of infant behaviour, financial stress, mother’s expectation of motherhood, emotional support, sole parenthood, social support and mother’s country of birth. Conclusions Infant temperament and unmet maternal expectations have a strong association with depressive symptoms with implications for the design of both preventative and treatment strategies. The findings also support the proposition that social exclusion and social isolation are important determinants of maternal depression.
Child health is fundamental to well-being and achievement throughout the life course. Prior research has demonstrated strong associations between familial socioeconomic resources and children’s health outcomes, with especially poor health outcomes among disadvantaged youth who experience a concentration of risks, yet little is known about the influence of maternal health as a dimension of risk for children. This research used nationally representative U.S. data from the National Health Interview Surveys in 2007 and 2008 (N = 7,361) to evaluate the joint implications of maternal health and socioeconomic disadvantage for youth. Analyses revealed that maternal health problems were present in a substantial minority of families, clustered meaningfully with other risk factors, and had serious implications for children’s health. These findings support the development of health policies and interventions aimed at families.
Hardie, Jessica Halliday; Landale, Nancy S.
As public health organizations continue to implement maternal and child health home-visitation programs, more evaluation of these efforts is needed, particularly as it relates to improving parental behaviors. The purpose of our study was to assess the impact of families' participation in a home-visitation program offered by a central Kentucky…
Ferguson, Jonnisa M.; Vanderpool, Robin C.
Background: Accumulating data from animal and human studies indicate that the prenatal environment plays a significant role in shaping children's neurocognitive development. Clinical, epidemiologic, and basic science research suggests that two experiences relatively common in pregnancy--an unhealthy maternal diet and psychosocial…
Monk, Catherine; Georgieff, Michael K.; Osterholm, Erin A.
In many societies the prevalence of behavioural problems in school-aged children varies by national origin. We examined the association between national origin and behavioural problems in 1 1/2-year-old children. Data on maternal national origin and the Child Behavior Checklist for toddlers (n = 4943) from a population-based cohort in the…
Jansen, Pauline W.; Raat, Hein; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; van Oort, Floor V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of cumulative risk exposure in concert with maternal responsiveness on physiological indicators of chronic stress in children and youth. Middle-school children exposed to greater accumulated psychosocial (e.g., family turmoil, poverty) and physical (e.g., crowding, substandard housing) risk factors manifested higher levels of allostatic load, a physiological marker of cumulative wear
Gary W. Evans; Pilyoung Kim; Albert H. Ting; Harris B. Tesher; Dana Shannis
Maternal smoking during pregnancy is one proposed risk factor for gastroschisis, but reported associations have been modest, suggesting that differences in genetic susceptibility might play a role. We included 108 non-Hispanic white and 62 Hispanic families who had infants with gastroschisis, and 1,147 non-Hispanic white and 337 Hispanic families who had liveborn infants with no major structural birth defects (controls) in these analyses. DNA was extracted from buccal cells collected from infants and mothers, and information on periconceptional smoking history was obtained from maternal interviews, as part of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. We analyzed five polymorphisms in three genes that code for enzymes involved in metabolism of some cigarette smoke constituents (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and NAT2). Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) independently for maternal smoking and maternal and infant gene variants, and to assess joint associations of maternal smoking and maternal or infant gene variants with gastroschisis. In analyses adjusted for maternal age at delivery and stratified by maternal race-ethnicity, we identified three suggestive associations among 30 potential associations with sufficient numbers to calculate ORs: CYP1A1*2A for non-Hispanic white mothers who smoked periconceptionally (aOR?=?0.38, 95% CI 0.15-0.98), and NAT2*6 for Hispanic non-smoking mothers (aOR?=?2.17, 95% CI 1.12-4.19) and their infants (aOR?=?2.11, 95% CI 1.00-4.48). This analysis does not support the occurrence of effect modification between periconceptional maternal smoking and most of the xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme gene variants assessed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24668907
Jenkins, Mary M; Reefhuis, Jennita; Gallagher, Margaret L; Mulle, Jennifer G; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Koontz, Deborah A; Sturchio, Cynthia; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Witte, John S; Richter, Patricia; Honein, Margaret A
Objectives: This study attempted to follow up a cohort of women who presented to a tertiary hospital to investigate the effect of domestic violence on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Materials and Methods: Women, between 26-34 weeks of gestation, attending the obstetrics outpatient department, were recruited and followed up until delivery. They were assessed at recruitment and after delivery using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the Abuse Assessment Screen, and a pro forma to assess socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. Bivariate and multivariate statistics were employed to assess statistical significance. Results: One hundred and fifty women were recruited, 132 delivered in the hospital and were followed up. Domestic violence was associated with antenatal and postnatal depression, spouse's insistence of a boy baby, medical complications during pregnancy, preterm delivery, and lower birth-weight. Conclusion: Domestic violence has a significant impact on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Screening for domestic violence and interventions should be part of all antenatal programs. India should also employ public health approaches to change its patriarchal culture.
Nongrum, Rida; Thomas, Elsy; Lionel, Jessie; Jacob, Kuruthukulangara S.
Daughters of HIV-positive women are often exposed to the same factors that placed their mothers at risk. This cross-sectional study (N = 176 dyads) examined HIV status, parent-teen sexual risk communication (PTSRC), and daughters' abstinence and condom use beliefs and intentions. Maternal HIV status was not associated with PTSRC. Path analyses show that maternal depression was associated with PTSRC behavioral and normative beliefs; relationship satisfaction was associated with PTSRC normative and control beliefs. Control beliefs were solely predictive of maternal PTSRC intention. PTSRC was associated with adolescent behavioral and normative beliefs. Abstinence beliefs were associated with abstinence intentions; condom beliefs were associated with condom use intentions. Relationship satisfaction was associated with adolescent control beliefs about both abstinence and condom use. There is a need for interventions that help HIV-positive mothers recognize their daughter's HIV risk and provide them with relationship building and parent process skills to help reduce these risks. PMID:22677973
Cederbaum, Julie A; Hutchinson, M Katherine; Duan, Lei; Jemmott, Loretta S
Purpose This study examined three research questions: 1) Is there an association between maternal early-life economic disadvantage and the birth weight of later-born offspring? (2) Is there an association between maternal abuse in childhood and the birth weight of later-born offspring? And, (3) to what extent are these early-life risks mediated through adolescent and adult substance use, mental and physical health status, and adult socioeconomic status? Methods Analyses used structural equation modeling to examine data from two longitudinal studies that include three generations. The first (G1) and second generation (G2) were enrolled in the Seattle Social Development Project (SSDP) and the third generation (G3) was enrolled in the SSDP Intergenerational Project. Data for the study (N = 136) focused on SSDP (G2) mothers and their children (G3). Results Analyses revealed G2 low childhood socioeconomic status predicted G3 offspring birth weight. Early childhood abuse among G2 respondents predicted G3 offspring birth weight through a mediated pathway including G2 adolescent substance use and G2 prenatal substance use. Birth weight was unrelated to maternal adult SES, depression or obesity. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify the impact of maternal early-life risks of low childhood socioeconomic status and child maltreatment on later-born offspring birth weight. These findings have far-reaching effects on the cumulative risk associated with early-life-economic disadvantage and childhood maltreatment. Such findings encourage policies and interventions that enhance child health at birth by taking the mother’s own early-life and development into account.
Gavin, Amelia R.; Hill, Karl G.; Hawkins, J. David; Maas, Carl
There is increasing evidence that dietary folic acid deficiency in utero may increase the risk of developing the 'cleft lip with or without cleft palate' (CL±P) variant of orofacial cleft. Coeliac disease is a common cause of folic acid malabsorption, and in the majority of cases remains undiagnosed. This pilot study assessed the seroprevalence of undiagnosed coeliac disease in a cohort of mothers of infants with CL±P in the Hyderabad area of India. The seroprevalence of coeliac disease of 1.15% (95% confidence interval 0.37-2.66%) was little different from the expected figure based on published population studies, making a clinically significant association unlikely. PMID:23664420
Reddy, S G; Reddy, R R; Vaidhyanathan, A; Markus, A; Snook, J
A failure of integrative processes within the brain, mediated via altered GABAergic inhibition, may underlie several features of schizophrenia. The present study examined, therefore, whether maternal immune activation (MIA), a risk factor for schizophrenia, altered inhibitory markers in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), while also altering electroencephalogram (EEG) coherence between these regions. Pregnant rats were treated with saline or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid mid-gestation. EEG depth recordings were made from the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and mPFC of male adult offspring. Glutamic decarboxylase (GAD67) levels were separately assayed in these regions using western blot. GAD67 expression was also assessed within parvalbumin-positive cells in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus using immunofluorescence alongside stereological analysis of parvalbumin-positive cell numbers. EEG coherence was reduced between the dorsal hippocampus and mPFC, but not the ventral hippocampus and mPFC, in MIA animals. Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses revealed that GAD67 expression within parvalbumin-positive cells was also reduced in the dorsal hippocampus relative to ventral hippocampus in MIA animals when compared with controls. This reduction was observed in the absence of parvalbumin-positive neuronal loss. Overall, MIA produced a selective reduction in EEG coherence between the dorsal hippocampus and mPFC that was paralleled by a similarly specific reduction in GAD67 within parvalbumin-positive cells of the dorsal hippocampus. These results suggest a link between altered inhibitory mechanisms and synchrony and, therefore point to potential mechanisms via which a disruption in neurodevelopmental processes might lead to pathophysiology associated with schizophrenia. PMID:25072323
Dickerson, D D; Overeem, K A; Wolff, A R; Williams, J M; Abraham, W C; Bilkey, D K
THE CHANGE IN CONCENTRATIONS OF ANGIOGENIC AND ANTI-ANGIOGENIC FACTORS IN MATERNAL PLASMA BETWEEN THE FIRST AND SECOND TRIMESTERS IN RISK ASSESSMENT FOR THE SUBSEQUENT DEVELOPMENT OF PREECLAMPSIA AND SGA
Introduction An imbalance between angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors has been proposed as central to the pathophysiology of preeclampsia (PE). Indeed, patients with PE and those delivering small-for-gestational age (SGA) neonates have higher plasma concentrations of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1) and the soluble form of endoglin (s-Eng), as well as lower plasma concentrations of vascual endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placental growth factor (PlGF) than do patients with normal pregnancies. Of note, this imbalance has been observed before the clinical presentation of PE or the delivery of an SGA neonate. The objective of this study was to determine if changes in the profile of angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors in maternal plasma between the first and second trimesters are associated with a high risk for the subsequent development of preeclampsia and/or delivery of an SGA neonate. Methods This longitudinal case-control study included 402 singleton pregnancies in the following groups: 1) normal pregnancies with appropiate for gestational age (AGA) neonates (n=201); 2) patients who delivered an SGA neonate (n=145); and 3) patients who developed PE (n=56). Maternal plasma samples were obtained at the time of each prenatal visit, scheduled at 4-week intervals from the first or early second trimester until delivery. In this study, we included two samples per patient: 1) first sample obtained between 6 and 15 weeks of gestation (“first trimester” sample); and 2) second sample obtained between 20 and 25 weeks of gestation (“second trimester” sample). Plasma concentrations of s-Eng, sVEGFR-1 and PlGF were determined by specific and sensitive immunoassays. Changes in the maternal plasma concentrations of these angiogenesis-related factors were compared among normal patients and those destined to develop PE or deliver an SGA neonate while adjusting for maternal age, nulliparity and body mass index (BMI). General linear models and polytomous logistic regression models were used to relate the analyte concentrations, ratios, and product to the subsequent development of delivery of an SGA neonate. Results 1) An increase in the maternal plasma concentration of s-Eng between the first and second trimesters conferred risk for the development of preterm PE and SGA (OR 14.9, 95% CI 4.9-45.0, and OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.5-5.6, respectively); 2) An increase in the maternal plasma concentration of sVEGFR-1 between the first and second trimester conferred risk for the development of preterm PE (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.2-12.6); 3) A subnormal increase in maternal plasma PlGF concentration between the first and the second trimester was a risk factor for the subsequent development of preterm and term PE (OR 4.3, 95% CI 1.2-15.5, and OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2-5.9, respectively); 4) In addition, the combination of the three analytes into a pro-angiogenic versus anti-angiogenic ratio [PlGF/(sEng x VEGFR-1)] conferred risk for the subsequent development of preterm preeclampsia (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.1-12.1); 5) Importantly, patients with a high change in the s-Eng x sVEGFR-1 product had an OR of 10.38 (95% CI 3.18-33.84) for the development of preterm PE and 1.62 (95% CI 1.01-2.60) for the development of SGA. Conclusion Changes in the maternal plasma concentrations of s-Eng, sVEGFR-1, PlGF or their ratios between the first and second trimesters of pregnancy confer an increased risk to deliver a SGA neonate and/or develop PE.
Erez, Offer; Romero, Roberto; Espinoza, Jimmy; Fu, Wenjiang; Todem, David; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Gotsch, Francesca; Edwin, Samuel; Nien, Jyh Kae; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Mittal, Pooja; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Than, Nandor Gabor; Gomez, Ricardo; Hassan, Sonia
Despite being one of the most common congenital defects in boys, the etiology of hypospadias remains largely unknown. In this case-referent study, we evaluated a wide spectrum of potential risk factors for hypospadias. Cases were identified from the hospital information system, and referents were recruited through the parents of the cases. Both parents of cases and referents completed written questionnaires that they received through the mail. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the independent contribution of different factors to the risk of hypospadias. The final database included 583 cases and 251 referents. Hypospadias more often occurred in children whose father had hypospadias (OR=9.7; 95%CI: 1.3-74.0) and in children with a low birth weight (OR=2.3; 95%CI: 1.2-4.2). Indications for elevated risks were found when mothers were DES-daughters (OR=3.5; 95%CI: 0.8-15.6), fathers were subfertile (OR=1.8; 95%CI: 0.7-4.5), the parents had undergone fertility treatment (OR=2.3; 95%CI: 0.9-5.8), and in twin or triplet pregnancies (OR=2.0; 95%CI: 0.8-5.1). Maternal use of iron supplements (OR=2.2; 95%CI: 0.8-6.0), maternal smoking (OR=1.5; 95%CI: 1.0-2.4), paternal prescriptive drug use (OR=2.6; 95%CI: 1.1-6.6), and paternal exposure to pesticides (OR=2.1; 95%CI: 0.6-7.1) during the 3 months immediately prior to conception or in the first trimester of pregnancy also appeared to increase the risk of hypospadias. The associations found in this study support the hypothesis that genetic predisposition, placental insufficiency, and substances that interfere with natural hormones play a role in the etiology of hypospadias. PMID:17103190
Brouwers, Marijn M; Feitz, Wouter F J; Roelofs, Luc A J; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; de Gier, Robert P E; Roeleveld, Nel
The aim was to study, in a population-based cohort design, whether first-born sons run a higher risk of testicular cancer than later born sons; to investigate whether this difference in risk was affected by birth cohort, age of the son, maternal age, interval to previous delivery and other reproductive factors; and, finally, to evaluate to what extent changes in women's
T Westergaard; PK Andersen; JB Pedersen; M Frisch; JH Olsen; M Melbye
Maternal infection during pregnancy elevates risk for schizophrenia and related disorders in offspring. Converging evidence suggests the maternal inflammatory response mediates the interaction between maternal infection, altered brain development, and behavioral outcome. The extent to which individual differences in the maternal response to immune challenge influence the development of these abnormalities is unknown. The present study investigated the impact of individual differences in maternal response to the viral mimic polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) on offspring behavior. We observed significant variability in body weight alterations of pregnant rats induced by administration of poly I:C on gestational day 14. Furthermore, the presence or absence of maternal weight loss predicted MK-801 and amphetamine stimulated locomotor abnormalities in offspring. MK-801 stimulated locomotion was altered in offspring of all poly I:C treated dams; however, the presence or absence of maternal weight loss resulted in decreased and modestly increased locomotion, respectively. Adult offspring of poly I:C treated dams that lost weight exhibited significantly decreased amphetamine stimulated locomotion, while offspring of poly I:C treated dams without weight loss performed similarly to vehicle controls. Social isolation and increased maternal age predicted weight loss in response to poly I:C but not vehicle injection. In combination, these data identify environmental factors associated with the maternal response to immune challenge and functional outcome of offspring exposed to maternal immune activation.
Bronson, Stefanie L.; Ahlbrand, Rebecca; Horn, Paul S.; Kern, Joseph R.; Richtand, Neil M.
This study estimates the effect of maternal infections during pregnancy on childhood asthma. One-thousand four-hundred and twenty-eight pregnant women were prospectively followed using structured interviews and chart review until their child's 6th year of life. Infections were identified from outpatient and hospital visits. Childhood asthma was defined as physician diagnosis with symptoms at age six. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated from multivariable logistic regression models. Six-hundred and thirty-five women experienced an infection during pregnancy. Among antepartum infections, maternal urinary tract infections were significantly associated with childhood asthma (aOR 1.60, 95 % CI 1.12-2.29). Chorioamnionitis and maternal group beta streptococcus colonization were not significantly associated with an increased risk in childhood asthma. This study found an increased risk of asthma in children of women diagnosed with urinary tract infections during pregnancy, while other maternal infections did not increase the risk. PMID:23338127
Collier, Charlene H; Risnes, Kari; Norwitz, Errol R; Bracken, Michael B; Illuzzi, Jessica L
The scope of this article is to evaluate risk and protection factors for the development of 1-year-olds assisted at family health care units. It is a cross-sectional study involving 65 children of approximately 1 year of age and their mothers attended at two family health care units. The development was assessed using a developmental screening test (Denver II). The mothers filled out the SRQ-20 questionnaire to identify common mental disorder (CMD) indicators. After data collection, descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was performed. Global development was at risk in 43.1% of the children evaluated, and the most affected areas were language and fine motor development; 44.6% of mothers had results indicative of CMD when the child was 1 year of age. In bivariate analysis, reported depression, smoking, infections in pregnancy, CMD after birth and working outside the home were significantly associated with the children's development. After full statistical analysis, CMD was revealed as being a risk factor, and working away from home as being a protection factor. In order to increase the chances of success of programs targeted for children at health care units and avoiding the risk of impaired development, it is important to focus on two aspects: children's stimulation and maternal mental health. PMID:24473618
Ribeiro, Débora Gerardo; Perosa, Gimol Benzaquen; Padovani, Flávia Helena Pereira
Objective: To observe acute maternal morbidity and mortality due to iatrogenic factors and outcomes. Methods: This observational cross sectional study was conducted at intensive care unit of Liaquat University of Medical and Health sciences Jamshoro from 1-January-2011 to 31-December-2012. In this study all the delivered or undelivered women who needed intensive care unit (ICU) admission due to management related life threatening complication referred from periphery or within this hospital were included, while those women who had pregnancy complicated by medical conditions were excluded. These women were registered on the predesigned proforma containing variables like Demographic characteristics, various iatrogenic risk factors, complications and management out comes. The data was collected and analyzed on SPSS version 20. Results: During these study period 51 women needed ICU care for different complications due to adverse effects of medical treatments. Majority of these women were between 20-40 years of age 41(80.39%), multiparous 29(56.86%), unbooked 38(74.50%), referred from periphery 39(76.47%), common iatrogenic factors were misuse of oxytocin 16(31.37%), fluid overload/cardiac failure 8(15.68%), blood reaction 7(13.72%), anesthesia related problems were delayed recovery 3(5.88%), cardiac arrest 2(3.92%), spinal shock 2(3.92%), surgical problems were bladder injury 5(9.8%), post operative internal haemorrhage 3(5.88%), 37(72.54%) women recovered and 14(27.45%) expired. Conclusion: The maternal morbidity and mortality rate with iatrogenic factors was high and majority of these factors were avoidable. PMID:24639842
Khaskheli, Meharun-Nissa; Baloch, Shahla; Sheeba, Aneela
This study investigated birth risk factors for school-identified specific language impairment among 244,619 students. Very low birth weight, low 5-min Apgar scores, late or no prenatal care, high birth order and low maternal education were associated with high individual-level risk, and low maternal education and unmarried mothers were associated…
Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.; Chapman, Derek A.; Bainbridge, Nicolette L.; Scott, Keith G.
This study examined maternal parenting stress in a sample of 430 boys and girls including those at risk for externalizing\\u000a behavior problems. Children and their mothers were assessed when the children were ages 2, 4, and 5. Hierarchical linear modeling\\u000a (HLM) was used to examine stability of parenting stress across early childhood and to examine child and maternal factors predicting
Amanda P. Williford; Susan D. Calkins; Susan P. Keane
There is currently considerable interest in the relationship between variation in genes that are involved in the folate-homocysteine metabolic axis and the risk of spina bifida. The evaluation of this relationship is, however, complicated by the potential involvement of both the maternal and the embryonic genotype in determination of disease risk. The present study was designed to address questions regarding both maternal and embryonic genetic risk factors for spina bifida by use of the two-step transmission/disequilibrium test. Analysis of data on variants of two genes involved in homocysteine remethylation/methionine biosynthesis—methionine synthase (MTR) A2756G and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G—provided evidence that both variants influence the risk of spina bifida via the maternal rather than the embryonic genotype. For both variants, the risk of having a child with spina bifida appears to increase with the number of high-risk alleles in the maternal genotype: MTR (R1=2.16, 95% CI 0.92–5.06; R2=6.58, 95% CI 0.87–49.67) and MTRR (R1=2.05, 95% CI 1.05–3.99; R2=3.15, 95% CI 0.92–10.85). These findings highlight the importance of considering both the maternal and embryonic genotype when evaluating putative spina bifida susceptibility loci.
Doolin, Marie-Therese; Barbaux, Sandrine; McDonnell, Maeve; Hoess, Katy; Whitehead, Alexander S.; Mitchell, Laura E.
... Campaign Podcast: Meningitis Immunization for Adolescents Meningitis Risk Factors Share Compartir Certain groups of people are at ... to protect yourself against meningococcal disease. Some risk factors include: Age Meningococcal disease is more commonly diagnosed ...
Background Detectable HIV RNA in mothers at delivery is an important risk factor for HIV transmission to newborns. Our hypothesis was that, in migrant women, the risk of detectable HIV RNA at delivery is greater owing to late HIV diagnosis. Therefore, we examined pregnant women by regional provenance and measured variables that could be associated with detectable HIV RNA at delivery. Methods A observational retrospective study was conducted from January 1999 to May 2008. Univariate and multivariable regression analyses (generalized linear models) were used, with detectable HIV RNA at delivery as dependent variable. Results The overall population comprised 154 women (46.8% migrants). Presentation was later in migrant women than Italians, as assessed by CD4-T-cell count at first contact (mean 417/mm3 versus 545/mm3, respectively; p = 0.003). Likewise, HIV diagnosis was made before pregnancy and HAART was already prescribed at the time of pregnancy in more Italians (91% and 75%, respectively) than migrants (61% and 42.8%, respectively). A subgroup of women with available HIV RNA close to term (i.e., ?30 days before labour) was studied for risk factors of detectable HIV RNA (?50 copies/ml) at delivery. Among 93 women, 25 (26.9%) had detectable HIV RNA. A trend toward an association between non-Italian nationality and detectable HIV RNA at delivery was demonstrated by univariate analysis (relative risk, RR = 1.86; p = 0.099). However, by multivariable regression analysis, the following factors appeared to be more important: lack of stable (i.e., ?14 days) antiretroviral therapy at the time of HIV RNA testing (RR = 4.3; p < 0.0001), and higher CD4+ T-cell count at pregnancy (per 50/mm3, RR = 0.94; p = 0.038). Conclusions These results reinforce the importance of extensive screening for HIV infection, earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy and stricter monitoring of pregnant women to reduce the risk of detectable HIV RNA at delivery. Public health interventions should be particularly targeted to migrant women who are frequently unaware of their HIV status at the time of pregnancy.
Abstract Background Early childhood obesity, like other health disparities, disproportionately affects low-income populations. The purpose of this study is to determine the association between maternal sociodemographic factors and child overweight and obesity in a sample of low-income Mexican Americans. Methods The current study is a secondary analysis of baseline data that were collected as part of a longitudinal study of 374 children aged 12–24 months receiving Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) services in a large metropolitan area in central/south Texas. Measures used in this secondary analysis were: Measured weight and height of the child and mother to calculate weight-for-stature and BMI, respectively; maternal sociodemographic variables (age, education, marital status, employment status, and nativity); maternal acculturation level; and child breastfed status. Descriptive statistics are reported as frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviations (SD). Chi-squared Fisher exact tests assessed differences in maternal factors by child weight (healthy weight and overweight). Odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (CI), and levels of significance are reported. Results Of the 372 mothers, most were young (mean age 26.1 years, SD=6.1), 47.3% had graduated high school, 33.6% were employed at the time of the study, and 72.1% were U.S. born. No significant differences were observed for the maternal factors by child weight-for-stature z-score. However, maternal BMI statistically differed by child weight. Healthy weight mothers were more likely to have healthy weight children than overweight mothers. Maternal nativity and maternal acculturation were not statistically associated with child weight in this sample of low-income Mexican Americans. Conclusions The findings of the current study reinforce the importance of addressing the influence of maternal sociodemographic factors on child weight, in particular, maternal weight. A more comprehensive investigation of ecological factors' influence on obesity onset and control in young Mexican-American children is needed.
Roncancio, Angelica; Hinojosa, Martha B.; Reifsnider, Elizabeth
Background: A better understanding of risk factors associated with postpartum psychosis may contribute to the better management. Aims: This study was to identify the risk factors contributing to postpartum psychosis. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional, case control study 100 patients of postpartum psychosis (PP) were compared with the healthy controls. Risk factors explored were sociodemographic factors (age, education, occupation, income, and family type); positive family history; pregnancy and perinatal factors (number of antenatal check-up, parity, and complications during pregnancy, perinatal phase or in newborn); and presence of husband during peripartum period. Data were analyzed by graph pad instat software using chi square test and Fisher's exact test. Results: Total of 64% patients and 42% controls were less than 25 years of age (P = 0.001). Among the patients, 62% were primiparae compared with 46% in the controls (P = 0.02). Per capita family income was less than 5000 INR in 72% patients and 56% controls (P = 0.01). Maternal complications during perinatal period were observed in 38% patients and 22% controls (P = 0.01), while the complications in newborns were seen in 21% patients and 8% controls (P = 0.009). Husband was present in 58% patients and 76% controls. (P = 0.006). Conclusions: The risk factors related to PP were younger age, lower per capita income, perinatal and neonatal complications, and absence of husband in peripartum phase.
Upadhyaya, Suneet Kumar; Sharma, Archana; Raval, Chintan M
OBJECTIVE To determine if maternal plasma concentrations of placental growth factor (PlGF), soluble endoglin (sEng), and soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1) at 30–34 weeks can identify mothers at risk for preeclampsia (PE), stillbirth and small-for-gestational-age neonates (SGA). STUDY DESIGN A prospective cohort study included 1269 singleton pregnant women who had blood samples obtained at 30–34 weeks and delivered after 34 weeks of gestation. Plasma concentrations of PlGF, sEng, and sVEGFR-1 were determined by ELISA. RESULTS The prevalence of late (>34 weeks) PE, severe late PE, stillbirth and SGA was 3.2% (n=40), 1.8% (n=23), 0.4% (n=5) and 8.5% (n=108), respectively. A plasma concentration of PlGF/sEng <0.3 MoM was associated with severe late PE [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 16]; addition of PlGF/sEng to clinical risk factors increased the area under the ROC curve (AUC) from 0.76 to 0.88 (p=0.03). The ratio of PlGF/sEng or PlGF/sVEGFR-1 in the third trimester outperformed those obtained in the first or second trimester and uterine artery Doppler velocimetry at 20–25 weeks for the prediction of severe late PE (comparison of AUC; each p?0.02). Both PlGF/sEng and PlGF/sVEGFR-1 ratios achieved a sensitivity of 74% with a fixed false positive rate of 15% for the identification of severe late PE. A plasma concentration of PlGF/sVEGFR-1 <0.12 MoM at 30–34 weeks had a sensitivity of 80%, a specificity of 94%, and a likelihood ratio of a positive test of 14 for the identification of subsequent stillbirth. Similar findings (sensitivity 80% and specificity 93%) were observed in a separate case-control study. Integrating these biomarkers with clinical data did not improve the prediction of SGA. CONCLUSIONS Risk assessment for severe late PE and stillbirth in the third trimester is possible with the determination of maternal plasma concentrations of angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors at 30–34 weeks of gestation.
CHAIWORAPONGSA, Tinnakorn; ROMERO, Roberto; KORZENIEWSKI, Steven J; KUSANOVIC, Juan Pedro; SOTO, Eleazar; LAM, Jennifer; DONG, Zhong; THAN, Nandor G; YEO, Lami; HERNANDEZ-ANDRADE, Edgar; CONDE-AGUDELO, Agustin; HASSAN, Sonia S
ObjectiveTo investigate the influence of maternal working conditions on fertility and pregnancy outcomes.Methods8880 women were enrolled in a large prospective birth cohort during early (76%), mid (21%) or late pregnancy (3%) (61% participation). Complete questionnaire information was available for 6302 women (71% response). Outcomes were prolonged time to pregnancy (TTP) (>6 months), preterm birth (<37 weeks) and decreased birth weight
A Burdorf; T Brand; V W Jaddoe; A Hofman; J P Mackenbach; E A P Steegers
Obstetric and neonatal complications have been associated with completed and attempted suicide (suicidal acts) in young offspring.\\u000a Maternal smoking is one of the most important risk factors for obstetric complications, but the association between prenatal\\u000a smoking exposure and offspring risk of suicidal acts is unknown. We performed a population-based study of 1,449,333 single\\u000a births born in Sweden between 1983 and
Sven Cnattingius; Tobias Svensson; Fredrik Granath; Anastasia Iliadou
Summary Maternal obesity in pregnancy has been linked with several adverse outcomes in offspring including schizophrenia. The rising prevalence of obesity may contribute to an increase in the number of schizophrenia cases in the near future; therefore, it warrants further exploration. We reviewed current evidence regarding maternal body mass index (BMI) in pregnancy and risk of schizophrenia in adult offspring. We searched PubMed and Embase databases and included studies that were based on large and representative population-based datasets. A qualitative review was undertaken due to heterogeneity between studies. Four studies with 305 cases of schizophrenia and 24,442 controls were included. Maternal obesity (pre-pregnant BMI over 29 or 30 compared with mothers with low or average BMI) was associated with two- to threefold increased risk of schizophrenia in the adult offspring in two birth cohorts. High maternal BMI at both early and late pregnancy also increased risk of schizophrenia in the offspring. Discrepant findings from one study could be attributable to sample characteristics and other factors. The area needs more research. Future studies should take into account obstetric complications, diabetes, maternal infections and immune responses that might potentially mediate this association.
Khandaker, G M; Dibben, C R M; Jones, P B
Examined 4-year-olds for effects on IQ of prenatal cocaine exposure, exposure to other substances, risk factors, and neonatal medical problems. Found that maternal verbal IQ and low environmental risk predicted child IQ. Cocaine exposure negatively predicted children's overall IQ and verbal reasoning scores for boys only. Maternal harsh…
Bennett, David S.; Bendersky, Margaret; Lewis, Michael
The authors examined 223 children at age 4 years for the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure, exposure to other substances, maternal and environmental risk factors, and neonatal medical problems on IQ, externalizing problems, and internalizing problems. Regression analyses showed that maternal verbal IQ and low environmental risk predicted child IQ. Cocaine exposure negatively predicted children's overall IQ and verbal reasoning
David S. Bennett; Margaret Bendersky; Michael Lewis
Background Offspring of asthmatic mothers have increased risk of developing asthma, based on human epidemiologic data and experimental animal models. The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal allergy at non-pulmonary sites can increase asthma risk in offspring. Methods BALB/c female mice received 2 topical applications of vehicle, dinitrochlorobenzene, or toluene diisocyanate before mating with untreated males. Dinitrochlorobenzene is a skin-sensitizer only and known to induce a Th1 response, while toluene diisocyanate is both a skin and respiratory sensitizer that causes a Th2 response. Both cause allergic contact dermatitis. Offspring underwent an intentionally suboptimal protocol of allergen sensitization and aerosol challenge, followed by evaluation of airway hyperresponsiveness, allergic airway inflammation, and cytokine production. Mothers were tested for allergic airway disease, evidence of dermatitis, cellularity of the draining lymph nodes, and systemic cytokine levels. The role of interleukin-4 was also explored using interleukin-4 deficient mice. Results Offspring of toluene diisocyanate but not dinitrochlorobenzene-treated mothers developed an asthmatic phenotype following allergen sensitization and challenge, seen as increased Penh values, airway inflammation, bronchoalveolar lavage total cell counts and eosinophilia, and Th2 cytokine imbalance in the lung. Toluene diisocyanate treated interleukin-4 deficient mothers were able to transfer asthma risk to offspring. Mothers in both experimental groups developed allergic contact dermatitis, but not allergic airway disease. Conclusion Maternal non-respiratory allergy (Th2-skewed dermatitis caused by toluene diisocyanate) can result in the maternal transmission of asthma risk in mice.
Lim, Robert H; Arredouani, Mohamed S; Fedulov, Alexey; Kobzik, Lester; Hubeau, Cedric
Children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) demonstrate high rates of anxiety disorders, with 65-83% meeting diagnostic criteria. The severity of anxiety symptoms in FXS has been shown to be partially predicted by elevated negative affect across early childhood [Tonnsen et al. (2013a); J Abnorm Child Psychol 41:267-280]. This association suggests that biologically driven vulnerability emerges early in development, as is reported in non-clinical populations. However, anxiety emergence is likely moderated by multifaceted genetic, biological and environmental risk and protective factors. Mothers with the FMR1 premutation have been shown to exhibit elevated parenting stress and internalizing symptoms, which have each been associated with child behavior problems [Bailey et al. (2008a); Am J Med Genet Part A 146A:2060-2069 and Bailey et al. (2008b) Am J Med Genet Part A 146A:720-729]. Despite these findings, it is unclear whether maternal factors directly relate to anxiety vulnerability in high-risk children with FXS, a question essential to informing targeted, family-sensitive treatment. The present study examines how maternal protective and risk factors relate to child inhibition reflected in (1) child anxiety symptoms, (2) child trajectories of negative affect, and (3) the association between child anxiety and negative affect. Primary predictors include maternal parenting stress, indicators of mental health risk (anxiety and depressive symptoms), and maternal optimism. We also examine genetic correlates in mothers (CGG repeats, activation ratio, mRNA). Our findings suggest that behavioral inhibition in young children with FXS is associated with higher parenting stress and lower optimism, and higher parenting stress is associated with lower maternal X-activation ratio. These findings underscore the need for family-sensitive treatment strategies for anxiety disorders in children with FXS. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24832235
Tonnsen, Bridgette L; Cornish, Kim M; Wheeler, Anne C; Roberts, Jane E
Objective A systematic review was conducted to assess the possible association between omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation and intake in the perinatal period and the risk of maternal perinatal depression. Methods Two PubMed searches and a BIOSIS Preview, a Web of Science and a PsychInfo search were conducted with the search terms ‘DHA, pregnancy and depression’ and ‘omega-3 fatty acids, pregnancy and depression’. Results Ten articles – three longitudinal cohort studies, five randomized controlled trials and two pilot trials– that met selection criteria were reviewed. Six found no association, two found mixed results, and two found a positive association between omega-3 PUFAs and reduced incidence of maternal perinatal depression. The heterogeneity of results can be explained by dissimilar study designs, including differences in study duration, time period of measurement and number of participants, and in varied dosages and types of supplemental PUFAs. Some of the larger studies and those that found a positive effect were more likely to be using higher doses, close to 2 g of docosahexaeonic acid (DHA) + eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and began the supplementation earlier in pregnancy. Conclusions Future RCTs to investigate the role of PUFA supplementation and risk for maternal perinatal depression should begin supplementation early in pregnancy and use a dosage closer to 2 g of DHA + EPA. Depression should also be measured using a diagnostic interview schedule in addition to a screener.
Wojcicki, Janet M.; Heyman, Melvin B.
As part of a case-control study of ectopic pregnancy, we evaluated the potential etiologic role of cigarette smoking. Maternal cigarette smoking at the time of conception was associated with an increased risk of ectopic pregnancy with a dose-response relationship (adjusted odds ratios: 1.30 to 2.49). On the other hand, partner's smoking was not associated with ectopic pregnancy. The study provides a supplementary argument towards a causal effect of smoking in the development of ectopic pregnancy.
Coste, J; Job-Spira, N; Fernandez, H
Aims: To determine the factors that affect why some infants receive higher exposures relative to the mother's body burden than do others. Methods: A total of 159 mother-infant pairs from a cohort of women receiving prenatal care at Magee-Womens Hospital in Pittsburgh, PA from 1992 to 1995 provided blood samples at delivery for lead determination. The difference between cord and maternal blood lead concentration (PbB) and a dichotomous variable indicator of higher cord than maternal PbB, were examined as indicators of relative transfer. Women were interviewed twice during the pregnancy about lifestyle, medical history, calcium nutrition, and physical activity. Results: Higher blood pressure was associated with relatively greater cord compared with maternal PbB, as was maternal alcohol use. Sickle cell trait and higher haemoglobin were associated with a lower cord relative to maternal blood lead PbB. No association was seen with smoking, physical exertion, or calcium consumption. Conclusion: While reduction in maternal exposure will reduce fetal exposure, it may also be possible to mitigate infant lead exposure by reducing transfer from the pregnant woman. Interventions aimed at reducing blood pressure and alcohol consumption during pregnancy may be useful in this regard.
Harville, E; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Schramm, M; Watt-Morse, M; Chantala, K; Osterloh, J; Parsons, P; Rogan, W
Failure to diagnose abdominal pregnancies can have disastrous morbidity/mortality consequences for mother and fetus. To make the diagnosis of abdominal pregnancy requires that the physician have a high index of suspicion and that he or she have a good understanding of the risk factors of abdominal pregnancy. This article presents data suggesting that maternal cocaine use is a risk factor for abdominal pregnancy, reviews the literature on the maternal/fetal effects of maternal cocaine use and the risk factors of abdominal pregnancy, and analyzes 55 cases of abdominal pregnancy. Maternal cocaine use correlated with a 20% rate of increase in the incidence of abdominal pregnancy compared with the 70% rate of decrease in the "before cocaine" time period. Recommendations are offered for management.
Audain, L.; Brown, W. E.; Smith, D. M.; Clark, J. F.
Nepal experienced a steep decline in maternal mortality between 1996 and 2006, which had again dropped by 2010. The aim of this study was to investigate any trends in factors that may be responsible for this decline. The study was based on a secondary data analysis of maternity care services and socio-demographic variables extracted from the Nepal Demographic Health Surveys (1996, 2001, 2006 and 2011). Complex sample analysis was performed to determine the trends in these variables across the four surveys. Univariate logistic regression was performed for selected maternity care service variables to calculate the average change in odds ratio for each survey. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the trends in the health service uptake adjusting for socio-demographic variables. There were major demographic and socio-economic changes observed between 1996 and 2011: notably fewer women delivering at ‘high risk’ ages, decreased fertility, higher education levels and migration to urban areas. Significant trends were observed for improved uptake of all maternity care services. The largest increase was observed in health facility delivery (odds ratio?=?2.21; 95% confidence interval?=?1.92, 2.34) and women making four or more antenatal visits (odds ratio?=?2.24; 95% confidence interval?=?2.03, 2.47). After adjusting for all socio-demographic factors, the trends were still significant but disparities become more pronounced at the extremes of the socio-economic spectrum. The odds ratios for each maternity care service examined decreased slightly after adjusting for education, indicating that improved levels of education could partly explain these trends. The improved utilisation of maternity care services seems essential to the decline in maternal mortality in Nepal. These findings have implications for policy planning in terms of government resources for maternity care services and the education sector.
Shrestha, Sanu; Bell, Jacqueline S.; Marais, Debbi
Cholangiocarcinoma is the second most common primary hepatic malignancy after hepatocellular cancer. It accounts for approximately 10–25% of all hepatobiliary malignancies. There are considerable geographic and demographic variations in the incidence of cholangiocarcinoma. There are several established risk factors for CC including parasitic infections, primary sclerosing cholangitis, biliary-duct cysts, hepatolithiasis, and toxins. Other less-established, potential risk factors include inflammatory bowel disease, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, cirrhosis, diabetes, obesity, alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, and host genetic polymorphisms. In studies where the distinction between ICC and ECC was used, some potential risk factors seem to have differential effect on CC depending on site. Therefore, the consistent use of more refined classification would allow better understanding of risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma.
Tyson, Gia L.; El-Serag, Hashem B.
Statewide birth certificate and preschool exceptionality records were integrated to identify risk factors for developmental delay (DD). Epidemiological methods were used to investigate both individual-level and population-level risk for DD associated with a number of child and maternal factors. Infants born with very low birth weight were at the…
Delgado, Christine E. F.; Vagi, Sara J.; Scott, Keith G.
Risk perception is a phenomenon in search of an explanation. Several approaches are discussed in this paper. Technical risk estimates are sometimes a potent factor in accounting for perceived risk, but in many important applications it is not. Heuristics and biases, mainly availability, account for only a minor portion of risk perception, and media contents have not been clearly implicated in risk perception. The psychometric model is probably the leading contender in the field, but its explanatory value is only around 20% of the variance of raw data. Adding a factor of "unnatural risk" considerably improves the psychometric model. Cultural Theory, on the other hand, has not been able to explain more than 5-10% of the variance of perceived risk, and other value scales have similarly failed. A model is proposed in which attitude, risk sensitivity, and specific fear are used as explanatory variables; this model seems to explain well over 30-40% of the variance and is thus more promising than previous approaches. The model offers a different type of psychological explanation of risk perception, and it has many implications, e.g., a different approach to the relationship between attitude and perceived risk, as compared with the usual cognitive analysis of attitude. PMID:10795334
Context Adverse perinatal circumstances have been associated with increased risk of autism. Women exposed to childhood abuse experience more adverse perinatal circumstances than women unexposed, but whether abuse is associated with autism in offspring is unknown. Objective To determine whether maternal exposure to childhood abuse is associated with risk of autism, and whether possible increased risk is accounted for by higher prevalence of adverse perinatal circumstances among abused women, including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use, intimate partner abuse, prior abortion, pregnancy less than 37 weeks, low birth weight, alcohol use, and smoking during pregnancy. Design and Setting Nurses’ Health Study II, a population-based longitudinal cohort of 116,430 women. Patients or Other Participants Participants with data on childhood abuse and child’s autism status (97% White). Controls were randomly selected from among children of women who did not report autism in offspring (N mothers of children with autism = 451; N mothers of children without autism=52,498). Main Outcome Measure Autism spectrum disorder, assessed by maternal report, validated with the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised in a subsample. Results Exposure to abuse was associated with increased risk of autism in children in a monotonically increasing fashion. The highest level of abuse was associated with the greatest prevalence of autism (1.8% versus 0.7% in women not abused, P = 0.005) and the greatest risk for autism adjusted for demographic factors (risk ratio=3.7, 95% confidence interval=2.3, 5.8). All adverse perinatal circumstances were more prevalent in women abused except low birth weight. Adjusted for perinatal factors, the association of maternal abuse with autism was slightly attenuated (highest level of abuse, risk ratio = 3.0, 95% confidence interval=1.9, 4.9). Conclusions We identify an intergenerational association between childhood exposure to abuse and risk for autism in the subsequent generation. Adverse perinatal circumstances accounted for only a small portion of this increased risk.
Roberts, Andrea L.; Lyall, Kristen; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Ascherio, Alberto; Weisskopf, Marc G.
Two studies examined the nature and processes underlying the joint role of interparental aggression and maternal antisocial personality as predictors of children's disruptive behavior problems. Participants for both studies included a high-risk sample of 201 mothers and their 2-year-old children in a longitudinal, multimethod design. Addressing the form of the interplay between interparental aggression and maternal antisocial personality as risk factors for concurrent and prospective levels of child disruptive problems, the Study 1 findings indicated that maternal antisocial personality was a predictor of the initial levels of preschooler's disruptive problems independent of the effects of interparental violence, comorbid forms of maternal psychopathology, and socioeconomic factors. In attesting to the salience of interparental aggression in the lives of young children, latent difference score analyses further revealed that interparental aggression mediated the link between maternal antisocial personality and subsequent changes in child disruptive problems over a 1-year period. To identify the family mechanisms that account for the two forms of intergenerational transmission of disruptive problems identified in Study 1, Study 2 explored the role of children's difficult temperament, emotional reactivity to interparental conflict, adrenocortical reactivity in a challenging parent-child task, and experiences with maternal parenting as mediating processes. Analyses identified child emotional reactivity to conflict and maternal unresponsiveness as mediators in pathways between interparental aggression and preschooler's disruptive problems. The findings further supported the role of blunted adrenocortical reactivity as an allostatic mediator of the associations between parental unresponsiveness and child disruptive problems. PMID:22781856
Davies, Patrick T; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Cicchetti, Dante; Manning, Liviah G; Vonhold, Sara E
Risk Factors For Postpartum Depression In A Well-Child Clinic: Maternal And Infant Characteristics Bir Sa?likli Çocuk Poliklini?inde Do?um Sonrasi Depresyonda Risk Faktörleri: Anneye ve Bebe?e Ait Özellikler
Aim: The aim of this study was to identify possible risk factors for postpartum depression deve- lopment in mothers of infants who were brought to fi rst-month well-child visits. Material and methods: Self-reports were obtained from 103 mothers. The interviews collected data on mothers' sociodemographic and health characteristics, and infants' characteristics. The Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to
Filiz ?im?ek Orhon; Betül Ulukol; Atilla Soykan
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to identify characteristics of high-risk pregnant women that predicted long-term participation in a home visitation program. METHODS: Data regarding sociodemographic characteristics, perceived needs, psychological functioning, substance use, and informal social support were collected prospectively from 152 short-term and 221 long-term program participants. RESULTS: In comparison with short-term participants, long-term participants were more likely to have been African American, married, nonsmokers, and enrolled in the program during their second trimester of pregnancy, and they were more likely to have had emotional and instrumental support needs. CONCLUSIONS: Women with greater social support needs and healthier behaviors were more receptive to long-term home visitation than other women.
Navaie-Waliser, M; Martin, S L; Campbell, M K; Tessaro, I; Kotelchuck, M; Cross, A W
The risk of progression from exposure to the tuberculosis bacilli to the development of active disease is a two-stage process governed by both exogenous and endogenous risk factors. Exogenous factors play a key role in accentuating the progression from exposure to infection among which the bacillary load in the sputum and the proximity of an individual to an infectious TB case are key factors. Similarly endogenous factors lead in progression from infection to active TB disease. Along with well-established risk factors (such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malnutrition, and young age), emerging variables such as diabetes, indoor air pollution, alcohol, use of immunosuppressive drugs, and tobacco smoke play a significant role at both the individual and population level. Socioeconomic and behavioral factors are also shown to increase the susceptibility to infection. Specific groups such as health care workers and indigenous population are also at an increased risk of TB infection and disease. This paper summarizes these factors along with health system issues such as the effects of delay in diagnosis of TB in the transmission of the bacilli.
Narasimhan, Padmanesan; Wood, James; MacIntyre, Chandini Raina; Mathai, Dilip
Little is known about the ways in which the accumulation of maternal factors increases or reduces risk for girls' disruptive behavior during preadolescence. In the current study, maternal risk and promotive factors and the severity of girls' disruptive behavior were assessed annually among girls' ages 7-12 in an urban community sample (N = 2043).…
van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf
Potential risk factors for conduct problems and depressive symptoms were tested in a cohort of 10- to 12-year-old Ukrainian children (N = 544, 47.6% male). Risk factors examined were child emotional lability, child attention problems, poor mother-child communication, coercive maternal discipline, maternal depression, and low marital satisfaction.…
Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Bromet, Evelyn J.
Introduction: The role of preeclampsia (PE) in affecting bone metabolism could not be clarified in the past years. Recently Sclerostin, a new marker of bone metabolism which is known to have an inhibitory effect on bone formation causing osteoporosis, was discovered. Objective: To investigate serum levels of Sclerostin and markers of bone turnover in women with normotensive pregnancies and pregnancies complicated by PE. Methods: In this prospective study we enrolled 22 women with PE and 22 healthy pregnant women to observe serum levels of carboxyterminal propeptide of type I collagen (PICP), cross-linked carboxyl terminal telopeptide of the type I collagen (ICTP), calcium, phosphate, 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone. In 16 preeclamptic and 16 healthy pregnant women, serum Sclerostin levels were analyzed. Results: Serum levels of Sclerostin (mean?±?standard deviation: healthy 10.5?±?8.1?pmol/l versus PE 11.5?±?9.4?pmol/l, p?=?0.768), ICTP (healthy 0.3?±?0.2?ng/ml versus PE 0.4?±?0.1?ng/ml, p?=?0.462), PICP (healthy 59.9?±?49.9?ng/ml versus PE 89.0?±?62.0?ng/ml, p?=?0.094), phosphate (healthy 1.1?±?0.2?mmol/l versus PE 1.2?±?0.4?mmol/l, p?=?0.162) and parathyroid hormone (healthy 26.9?±?14?pg/ml versus PE 35.3?±?17.6?pg/ml, p?=?0.08) showed no significant differences between the groups. Significantly lower serum calcium (healthy 2.3?±?0.1?mmol/l versus PE 2.2?±?0.2?mmol/l, p?0.005) and serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (healthy 39.3?±?16.7?nmol/l versus PE 23.9?±?16.9?nmol/l, p?0.005) were observed in preeclamptic women. Conclusion: Pregnancies complicated by PE show no signs of high bone turnover and may not lead to a higher risk of osteoporosis in later life. PMID:24568269
Wild, Julia; Pateisky, Petra; Küssel, Lorenz; Huf, Wolfgang; Ott, Johannes; Haslinger, Peter; Knöfler, Martin; Zeisler, Harald
This longitudinal study investigated the relative contributions of infant temperament, maternal sensitivity, and psychosocial risk to individual differences in preschool children's cognitive development. It also examined specific moderating effects between predictors as well as the specific mediating role of maternal sensitivity in the relation between psychosocial risk and children's cognitive development. A mixed sample comprising 27 low-risk (i.e., adult mothers)
Jean-Pascal. Lemelin; Marc A. Provost
Background Children at highest risk of developmental problems benefit from early identification and intervention. Investigating factors affecting child development at the time of transition to school may reveal opportunities to tailor early intervention programs for the greatest effectiveness, social benefit and economic gain. The primary objective of this study was to identify child and maternal factors associated with children who screened at risk of developmental problems at school entry. Methods An existing cohort of 791 mothers who had been followed since early pregnancy was mailed a questionnaire when the children were aged four to six years. The questionnaire included a screening tool for developmental problems, an assessment of the child's social competence, health care utilization and referrals, and maternal factors, including physical health, mental health, social support, parenting morale and sense of competence, and parenting support/resources. Results Of the 491 mothers (62%) who responded, 15% had children who were screened at high risk of developmental problems. Based on a logistic regression model, independent predictors of screening at high risk for developmental problems at age 5 were male gender (OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.3, 4.1), maternal history of abuse at pregnancy (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.3, 4.4), and poor parenting morale when the child was 3 years old (OR: 3.9; 95% CI: 2.1, 7.3). A child with all of these risk factors had a 35% predicted probability of screening at high risk of developmental problems, which was reduced to 13% if maternal factors were favourable. Conclusions Risk factors for developmental problems at school entry are related to maternal well being and history of abuse, which can be identified in the prenatal period or when children are preschool age.
Birth order, maternal age, gestational age, birth weight, maternal smoking, and social class have all been associated with allergic rhinitis, eczema and asthma in childhood, but the consistency of independent effects of these exposures in relation to all of these allergic conditions has not been investigated. We have compared and contrasted the independent effects of these putative risk factors on
S. A. Lewis; J. R. Britton
Background: Elevated morning cortisol is a prospective predictor of major depression and may serve as a vulnerability marker. We examined the relation between morning cortisol and two prominent risk factors for depression in preschool-aged children: maternal depression and child temperament. We also explored whether maternal depression during the…
Dougherty, Lea R.; Klein, Daniel N.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret; Rose, Suzanne
This nested case-control study based on 1.7 million live births in Sweden explores the associations between maternal and perinatal factors and the occurrence of childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The National Swedish Cancer Registry ascertained 168 cases in successive birth cohorts from 1973 through 1989 recorded in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry. From the nationwide Birth Registry, 5 controls without NHL and alive at the date the case was diagnosed were randomly selected from the pool of children, with each case matched by gender, birth year and birth month. Standardized information on selected maternal and perinatal factors up to one month after delivery were recorded in the Medical Birth Registry. Mothers of children with NHL were more likely than mothers of controls to have undergone Cesarean section [Odds ratio (OR) 1.6] and to have been exposed to paracervical anesthesia during delivery (OR 1.8). Children with NHL were more likely than controls to have endocrine-metabolic disorders (OR 3.3). This study is one of the largest focusing on the etiology of childhood NHL. Most of the maternal and perinatal characteristics studied did not markedly affect risk for childhood NHL, which may be due to maternal and perinatal factors not included in these data or to exposures later in life. PMID:8631590
Adami, J; Glimelius, B; Cnattingius, S; Ekbom, A; Zahm, S H; Linet, M; Zack, M
Objective To investigate the relationship between adolescent pregnancy and neonatal mortality in a nutritionally deprived population in rural Nepal, and to determine mechanisms through which low maternal age may impact neonatal mortality. Design Nested cohort study using data from a population-based, cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled trial of newborn skin and umbilical cord cleansing with chlorhexidine. Setting Sarlahi District of Nepal. Participants Live-born singleton infants of parity 0 or 1 women under 25 years of age (n=10,745) were included in this analysis. Main Exposure Maternal age at birth of offspring. Outcome Measure Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) of neonatal mortality by maternal age category. Results Infants born to women aged 12?15 years were at a higher risk of neonatal mortality than those born to women aged 20?24 years (OR=2.24, 95% CI 1.40?3.59). After adjustment for confounders, there was a 53% excess risk of neonatal mortality among infants born to women in the youngest versus oldest age category (OR=1.53, 95% CI 0.90, 2.60). This association was attenuated upon further adjustment for low birthweight (LBW), preterm birth or small for gestational age (SGA). Conclusions The higher risk of neonatal mortality among adolescent women in this setting is partially explained by differences in socioeconomic factors in younger versus older women and is mediated primarily through preterm delivery, SGA and LBW or some interaction of these variables.
Sharma, Vandana; Katz, Joanne; Mullany, Luke C; Khatry, Subarna K; LeClerq, Steven C; Shrestha, Sharada R.; Darmstadt, Gary L; Tielsch, James M
Maternal smoking is a recognized risk factor for orofacial clefts. Maternal or fetal pharmacogenetic variants are plausible modulators of this risk. In this work, we studied 5,427 DNA samples, including 1,244 from subjects in Denmark and Iowa with facial clefting and 4,183 from parents, siblings, or unrelated population controls. We examined 25 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 16 genes in pathways for detoxification of components of cigarette smoke, to look for evidence of gene-environment interactions. For genes identified as related to oral clefting, we studied gene-expression profiles in fetal development in the relevant tissues and time intervals. Maternal smoking was a significant risk factor for clefting and showed dosage effects, in both the Danish and Iowan data. Suggestive effects of variants in the fetal NAT2 and CYP1A1 genes were observed in both the Iowan and the Danish participants. In an expanded case set, NAT2 continued to show significant overtransmission of an allele to the fetus, with a final P value of .00003. There was an interaction between maternal smoking and fetal inheritance of a GSTT1-null deletion, seen in both the Danish (P=.03) and Iowan (P=.002) studies, with a Fisher’s combined P value of <.001, which remained significant after correction for multiple comparisons. Gene-expression analysis demonstrated expression of GSTT1 in human embryonic craniofacial tissues during the relevant developmental interval. This study benefited from two large samples, involving independent populations, that provided substantial power and a framework for future studies that could identify a susceptible population for preventive health care.
Shi, Min; Christensen, Kaare; Weinberg, Clarice R.; Romitti, Paul; Bathum, Lise; Lozada, Anthony; Morris, Richard W.; Lovett, Michael; Murray, Jeffrey C.
W?hine hauora: linking local hospital and national health information datasets to explore maternal risk factors and obstetric outcomes of New Zealand M?ori and non-M?ori women in relation to infant respiratory admissions and timely immunisations
Background Significant health inequities exist around maternal and infant health for M?ori, the indigenous people of New Zealand. The infants of M?ori are more likely to die in their first year of life and also have higher rates of hospital admission for respiratory illnesses, with the greatest burden of morbidity being due to bronchiolitis in those under one year of age. Timely immunisations can prevent some respiratory related hospitalisations, although for M?ori, the proportion of infants with age appropriate immunisations are lower than for non-M?ori. This paper describes the protocol for a retrospective cohort study that linked local hospital and national health information datasets to explore maternal risk factors and obstetric outcomes in relation to respiratory admissions and timely immunisations for infants of M?ori and non-M?ori women. Methods/Design The study population included pregnant women who gave birth in hospital in one region of New Zealand between 1995 and 2009. Routinely collected local hospital data were linked via a unique identifier (National Health Index number) to national health information databases to assess rates of post-natal admissions and access to health services for M?ori and non-M?ori mothers and infants. The two primary outcomes for the study are: 1. The rates of respiratory hospitalisations of infants (? 1 yr of age) calculated for infants of both M?ori and non-M?ori women (for mothers under 20 years of age, and overall) accounting for relationship to parity, maternal age, socioeconomic deprivation index, maternal smoking status. 2. The proportion of infants with age appropriate immunisations at six and 12 months, calculated for both infants born to M?ori women and infants born to non-M?ori women, accounting for relationship to parity, maternal age, socioeconomic deprivation index, smoking status, and other risk factors. Discussion Analysis of a wide range of routinely collected health information in which maternal and infant data are linked will allow us to directly explore the relationship between key maternal factors and infant health, and provide a greater understanding of the causes of health inequalities that exist between the infants of M?ori and non-M?ori mothers.
Schizophrenia and autism are two poorly understood clinical syndromes that differ in age of onset and clinical profile. However, recent genetic and epidemiological research suggests that these two neurodevelopmental disorders share certain risk factors. The aims of this review are to describe modifiable risk factors that have been identified in both disorders, and, where available, collate salient systematic reviews and meta-analyses that have examined shared risk factors. Based on searches of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO, inspection of review articles and expert opinion, we first compiled a set of candidate modifiable risk factors associated with autism. Where available, we next collated systematic-reviews (with or without meta-analyses) related to modifiable risk factors associated with both autism and schizophrenia. We identified three modifiable risk factors that have been examined in systematic reviews for both autism and schizophrenia. Advanced paternal age was reported as a risk factor for schizophrenia in a single meta-analysis and as a risk factor in two meta-analyses for autism. With respect to pregnancy and birth complications, for autism one meta-analysis identified maternal diabetes and bleeding during pregnancy as risks factors for autism whilst a meta-analysis of eight studies identified obstetric complications as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Migrant status was identified as a risk factor for both autism and schizophrenia. Two separate meta-analyses were identified for each disorder. Despite distinct clinical phenotypes, the evidence suggests that at least some non-genetic risk factors are shared between these two syndromes. In particular, exposure to drugs, nutritional excesses or deficiencies and infectious agents lend themselves to public health interventions. Studies are now needed to quantify any increase in risk of either autism or schizophrenia that is associated with these modifiable environmental factors. PMID:23123588
Hamlyn, Jess; Duhig, Michael; McGrath, John; Scott, James
To examine the influence of maternal lymphocyte factors on the immune responses in offspring in early life, antibody production in neonates born to either normal or lymphocyte-deficient mothers was analyzed. Recombination activating gene (Rag)-2(+/-) mouse neonates born to Rag-2(+/+), Rag-2(+/-)or Rag-2(-/-)mothers were injected with goat anti-mouse IgD antiserum, and IgE and IgG(1) production was evaluated. The levels of IgE and IgG(1) were higher in the pups born to Rag-2(+/+)and Rag-2(+/-) dams than to lymphocyte-deficient Rag-2(-/-) dams. The enhanced antibody production in the former compared with the latter neonates was also found following immunization with ovalbumin or TNP-Ficoll. Thus, the presence of maternal lymphocyte factors was suggested in neonates that augmented antigen-specific antibody production in both T cell-dependent and -independent pathways. A reduction in antibody production was observed in normal neonates when they were foster-nursed by Rag-2(-/-) mothers. Thus, the maternal lymphocyte factors enhancing the immune responses in newborns were shown to be present in breast-milk. PMID:12527407
Shimamura, Michio; Huang, Yi-Ying; Goji, Hiroshi
... Board , 4/2014 Risk Factors Cancer.Net Guide Salivary Gland Cancer Overview Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors Symptoms ... and health care choices. The cause(s) of most salivary gland cancers are unknown, but the following factors may ...
We conducted a case-control study using 190 Han children with and without autism to investigate prenatal and perinatal risk factors for autism in China. Cases were recruited through public special education schools and controls from regular public schools in the same region (Tianjin), with frequency matching on sex and birth year. Unadjusted analyses identified seven prenatal and seven perinatal risk factors significantly associated with autism. In the adjusted analysis, nine risk factors showed significant association with autism: maternal second-hand smoke exposure, maternal chronic or acute medical conditions unrelated to pregnancy, maternal unhappy emotional state, gestational complications, edema, abnormal gestational age (<35 or >42 weeks), nuchal cord, gravidity >1, and advanced paternal age at delivery (>30 year-old). PMID:20358271
Zhang, Xin; Lv, Cong-Chao; Tian, Jiang; Miao, Ru-Juan; Xi, Wei; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Qi, Lihong
By stepwise regression analysis the levels of the alkaline phosphatases in maternal serum and in cord serum were studied in relation to each other and to 19 other factors. The maternal serum heat-stable alkaline phosphatase level was found to be influenced by the alkaline phosphatase level in placental tissue, the placental alkaline phosphatase factor I1 and the maternal serum acid
L. Beckman; G. Beckman; S. S. Magnusson
Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a metabolic disorder defined as glucose intolerance with the onset or first recognition during pregnancy. Women with GDM are at increased risk for adverse obstetric and perinatal outcome. The complications associated with GDM can be prevented by early recognition, intense monitoring and proper treatment. Aims: The present study was done to screen the high-risk pregnancy group for GDM, to find the incidence of abnormal results on screening and to correlate the abnormal results with the maternal and fetal outcomes. The study was done in a tertiary care hospital and teaching institute. It was a prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: Selective screening for GDM was done in 150 pregnant women with high-risk factors. Screening was done with 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT) after 18 weeks, and if GCT was negative then the test was repeated after 28 weeks of pregnancy. The patients who were having an abnormal GCT were subjected to 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). All GDM patients were followed up and treated with diet and/or insulin therapy till delivery to know maternal and fetal outcomes. The period of study was from April 2008 to March 2009. Results: 7.3% of study population was OGCT positive. 6% of the study population was OGTT positive. Age >25 years, obesity, family history of DM, and past history of GDM were the risk factors significantly associated with GDM. One newborn had hypoglycemia and one had hyperbilirubinemia. The fetal and maternal outcome in GDM patients was good in our study due to early diagnosis and intervention. Conclusion: Women with GDM are at an increased risk for adverse obstetric and perinatal outcome. The increased morbidity in GDM is preventable by meticulous antenatal care.
Nilofer, Angadi Rajasab; Raju, V. S.; Dakshayini, B. R.; Zaki, Syed Ahmed
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) can cross the placenta, enter fetal circulation, and were found to correlate with adverse fetal growth. However, determinants of cord blood PFASs are not fully characterized. The study aimed to explore the association between PFASs and neonatal-maternal factors within a Taiwanese birth cohort. We selected subjects from Taiwan Birth Panel Study, which enrolled 486 infant-mother pairs in 2004-2005. We collected cord blood and analyzed perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctanyl sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUA) using a simple protein precipitation and an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. We retrieved information pertaining to maternal socio-demographics, lifestyle- and dietary-related factors through structured questionnaires during the postpartum hospital stay. A total of 439 subjects, with 90% response rate, have completed serum analysis and questionnaire survey. The median concentrations for PFOA, PFOS, PFNA, and PFUA in cord blood were 1.86, 5.67, 3.00, and 13.5ngmL(-1), respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, multiple linear regression models revealed that log10-PFOA was positively associated with maternal age (?=0.011) and negatively associated with multiparity (?=-0.044). Log10-PFOS was negatively correlated with birth weight (?=-0.011) and higher maternal education (senior high school: ?=-0.067; university: ?=-0.088). Log10-PFUA tended to negatively associate with gender, male infants (?=-0.075), and using cosmetics during pregnancy (?=-0.065). Interestingly, presence of cockroaches in the home was positively associated with log10-PFOA (?=0.041) and 1og10-PFNA (?=0.123). In conclusion, this study demonstrated several factors to correlate with cord blood PFASs and further investigation are still needed for confirmation of exposure routes. PMID:23689097
Lien, Guang-Wen; Huang, Ching-Chun; Wu, Kuen-Yuh; Chen, Mei-Huei; Lin, Chien-Yu; Chen, Chia-Yang; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Chen, Pau-Chung
Maternal diabetes preceding pregnancy may increase the risk of birth defects in the offspring, but not all studies confirm this association, which has shown considerable variation over time, and the effect of having type 1 versus type 2 diabetes is unclear. We conducted a population-based cohort study in the Northern Italy Emilia-Romagna region linking administrative databases with a Birth Defects Registry. From hospital discharge records we identified all diabetic pregnancies during 1997-2010, and a population of non-diabetic parturients matched for age, residence, year and delivery hospital. We collected available information on education, smoking and drug prescriptions, from which we inferred the type of diabetes. We found 62 malformed infants out of 2,269 births among diabetic women, and 162 out of 10,648 births among non-diabetic women. The age-standardized prevalence ratio (PR) of malformation associated with maternal pregestational diabetes was 1.79 (95 % confidence interval 1.34-2.39), a value that varied little by age. Type of diabetes strongly influenced the PR, with higher values related to type 2 diabetic women. Most major subgroups of anomalies had PRs above 1, including cardiovascular, genitourinary, musculoskeletal, and chromosomal abnormalities. There was an unusually high PR for the rare defect 'extra-ribs', but it was based on only two cases. This study indicates that maternal pregestational type 2 diabetes is associated with a higher prevalence of specific birth defects in offspring, whereas for type 1 diabetic mothers, particularly in recent years, the association was unremarkable. PMID:24861339
Vinceti, Marco; Malagoli, Carlotta; Rothman, Kenneth J; Rodolfi, Rossella; Astolfi, Gianni; Calzolari, Elisa; Puccini, Aurora; Bertolotti, Marco; Lunt, Mark; Paterlini, Luisa; Martini, Mariella; Nicolini, Fausto
Background: Events during pregnancy and labour may influence the future health and well-being of offspring. Many studies rely on maternal reports of pre and peri-natal factors. Both maternal and child characteristics may potentially influence the reliability and accuracy of maternal recall. However, this has not been previously examined. Aims: To examine agreement between information from maternally reported questionnaires and medical
Frances Rice; Allyson Lewis; Gordon Harold; Marianne van den Bree; Jacky Boivin; Dale F. Hay; Michael J. Owen; Anita Thapar
Gender of a fetus is associated with maternal hormonal milieu and may therefore modify maternal risk of ovarian cancer following a birth. We evaluated the relation between gender of offspring and mater- nal risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in a large case- control study nested within a nationwide cohort. Cohort members were identified in the Swedish Fertility Register. Cases of
Inkyung Baik; Mats Lambe; Qin Liu; Sven Cnattingius; Lorelei A. Mucci; Tomas Riman; Anders Ekbom; Hans-Olov Adami; Chung-Cheng Hsieh
The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…
Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.
AIMS—To measure the prevalence of hypoglycaemia among newborn infants in Nepal, where classic risk factors prevail, and to evaluate their importance.?METHODS—A cross sectional study was done of 578 term newborn infants aged 0 to 48 hours on the postnatal wards of a government maternity hospital in Kathmandu, with unmatched case-control analysis of risk factors for moderate hypoglycaemia (less than 2.0 mmol /l).?RESULTS—Two hundred and thirty eight (41%) newborn infants had mild (less than 2.6 mmol/l) and 66 (11%) moderate hypoglycaemia. Significant independent risk factors for moderate hypoglycaemia included postmaturity (OR 2.62), birthweight under 2.5 kg (OR 2.11), small head size (OR 0.59), infant haemoglobin >210 g/l (OR 2.77), and raised maternal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (OR 3.08). Feeding delay increased the risk of hypoglycaemia at age 12-24 hours (OR 4.09). Disproportionality affected the risk of moderate hypoglycaemia: lower with increasing ponderal index (OR 0.29), higher as the head circumference to birthweight ratio increased (OR 1.41). Regression expressing blood glucose concentration as a continuous variable revealed associations with infant haemoglobin (negative) and maternal haemoglobin (positive), but no other textbook risk factors.?CONCLUSIONS—Neonatal hypoglycaemia is more common in a developing country, but may not be a clinical problem unless all fuel availability is reduced. Some textbook risk factors, such as hypothermia, disappear after controlling for confounding variables. Early feeding could reduce moderate hypoglycaemia in the second 12 hours of life. The clinical significance of raised maternal TSH and maternal anaemia as prenatal risk factors requires further research.??
Pal, D.; Manandhar, D.; Rajbhandari, S.; Land, J.; Patel, N.; Costello, A.
Background: Neural tube defects (NTDs) including spina bifida and anencephaly are the second most common birth defects with 2.8 per 1000 births in northern Iran. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the risk factors of neural tube defects in Gorgan, north of Iran. Patients and Methods: This hospital-based, case-control study was carried out on all NTD-affected pregnancies (n = 59) during February 2007 - August 2010, and 160 healthy pregnancies were selected via convenient sampling method in three hospitals in Gorgan, north of Iran. Risk factors including maternal body mass index (BMI), season of birth, gender of the newborn, mother’s age, ethnicity, consanguineous marriage, folic acid consumption, nutrition, habitat, and education, were assessed through interviews with mothers. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the risks by odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals. Results: The multivariate analysis showed that maternal BMI (normal/underweight OR: 0.23, overweight/underweight OR: 0.15, obese/underweight OR: 0.13) and maternal ethnicity (Fars/Sistani OR: 3.49) and maternal nutrition (good/poor OR: 0.46) were significantly correlated with NTDs in the newborns. Conclusions: This study showed that maternal ethnicity, insufficient nutrition, and BMI, were the main risk factors of NTDs in northern Iran.
Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar; Qorbani, Mostafa; Mirfazeli, Arezo; Mobasheri, Elham
... also known as "Crypto") Parasites Home Share Compartir Epidemiology & Risk Factors Crypto lives in the intestine of ... to Commerically Bottled-Water and Other Beverages Diagnosis Epidemiology & Risk Factors Treatment Biology Prevention & Control Child Care ...
Little is known about the ways in which the accumulation of maternal factors increases or reduces risk for girls’ disruptive behavior during preadolescence. In the current study, maternal risk and promotive factors and the severity of girls’ disruptive behavior were assessed annually among girls’ ages 7–12 in an urban community sample (N=2043). Maternal risk and promotive factors were operative at different time points in girls’ development. Maternal warmth explained variance in girls’ disruptive behavior, even after controlling for maternal risk factors and relevant child and neighborhood factors. In addition, findings supported the cumulative hypothesis that the number of risk factors increased the chance on girls’ disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), while the number of promotive factors decreased this probability. Daughters of mothers with a history of Conduct Disorder (CD) were exposed to more risk factors and fewer promotive factors compared to daughters of mothers without prior CD. The identification of malleable maternal factors that can serve as targets for intervention has important implications for intergenerational intervention. Cumulative effects show that the focus of prevention efforts should not be on single factors, but on multiple factors associated with girls’ disruptive behavior.
Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf
The aim was to study, in a population-based cohort design, whether first-born sons run a higher risk of testicular cancer than later born sons; to investigate whether this difference in risk was affected by birth cohort, age of the son, maternal age, interval to previous delivery and other reproductive factors; and, finally, to evaluate to what extent changes in women's parity over time might explain the increasing incidence of testicular cancer. By using data from the Civil Registration System, a database was established of all women born in Denmark since 1935 and all their children alive in 1968 or born later. Sons with testicular cancer were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry. Among 1015994 sons followed for 15981 967 person-years, 626 developed testicular cancer (443 non-seminomas, 183 seminomas). Later born sons had a decreased risk of testicular cancer (RR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.67-0.95) compared with first-born sons. The RR was 0.79 (95% CI = 0.64-0.98) for non-seminomas and 0.81 (95% CI = 0.58-1.13) for seminomas. There was no association between testicular cancer risk and overall parity of the mother, maternal or paternal age at the birth of the son, or maternal age at first birth. The decreased risk of testicular cancer among later born sons was not modified by age, birth cohort, interval to the previous birth, sex of the first-born child, or maternal age at birth of the son or at first birth. The increased proportion of first-borns from birth cohort 1946 to birth cohort 1969 only explained around 3% of an approximated two-fold increase in incidence between the cohorts. Our data document a distinctly higher risk of testicular cancer in first-born compared with later born sons and suggest that the most likely explanation should be sought among exposures in utero. The increase in the proportion of first-borns in the population has only contributed marginally to the increase in testicular cancer incidence.
Westergaard, T.; Andersen, P. K.; Pedersen, J. B.; Frisch, M.; Olsen, J. H.; Melbye, M.
It is no longer reasonable to divide cancers into those that are genetic in origin and those that are environmental in origin. With rare exception, carcinogenesis involves environmental factors that directly or indirectly exert a change in the cell's genome. Virtually all causes of cancer are multifactorial, sometimes involving an inherited predisposition to the carcinogenic effects of environmental factors, which include chemicals, ionizing radiation, and oncogenic virus. Carcinogenesis is a multistep process including induction, promotion, and progression. Initiation requires an irreversible change in the cellular genome, whereas promotion is commonly associated with prolonged and reversible exposure. Tumor progression results in genotypic and phenotypic changes associated with tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Most information on human cancer risk is based on epidemiologic studies involving both exposed and unexposed individuals. The quality of such studies depends on their ability to assess the strength of any association of exposure and disease and careful attention to any potential bias. Few cancers are inherited in a Mendelian fashion. Several preneoplastic conditions, however, are clearly inherited and several malignancies demonstrate weak familial patterns. Environmental factors may exert their effect on DNA in a random fashion, but certain consistent changes, including specific translocations of genetic information, are often found. Currently, there is great interest in the close proximity of certain oncogenes governing growth control to the consistent chromosomal changes observed. Such changes may represent a final common pathway of action for environmental carcinogens. Sufficient laboratory and epidemiologic evidence exists to establish a causal association of several chemical agents with cancer.
Lyman, G.H. (Medicine Service, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States))
Maternally supplied factors in fertilized eggs play essential roles in the establishment of primordial germ cells. In zebrafish, cytoplasm at the distal ends of the first and second cleavage furrows has been assumed to contain germ lineage determinants, since maternal transcripts of germ lineage-specific genes are localized to ends of the cleavage furrows. To investigate whether these parts of cytoplasm are required for germ cell formation, we removed all four regions of the cytoplasm by glass capillary at the 4-cell stage. Histological analysis revealed that the ablation of cytoplasm at the ends of the cleavage planes resulted in a severe reduction in the number of germ cells. In addition, the expression of germ lineage markers was eliminated by cytoplasmic ablation. These results demonstrated that cytoplasm at the distal ends of cleavage furrows is essential for germ cell formation. We also found novel localization patterns for zDazl and brul mRNAs along the cleavage planes. Our findings provide the first direct evidence that localized cytoplasmic factors are indispensable for germ cell establishment in zebrafish. PMID:15031112
Hashimoto, Yoshiko; Maegawa, Shingo; Nagai, Terumi; Yamaha, Etsuro; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Kunio; Inoue, Kunio
The present study investigated the relationship between maternal appraisal styles, family risk status, and anger biases in children. Participants included 90 mothers and their children between 3-6 years of age. Eighty families were followed up 1 year later. Maternal appraisal styles were assessed via a naturalistic story-reading method, and Time 1…
Root, Carol A.; Jenkins, Jennifer M.
BACKGROUND—Previous studies have suggested that, in addition to genetic liability and environment in early childhood, intrauterine life also influences the risk for asthma beyond childhood. Low birth weight, prematurity, young maternal age, and maternal smoking have all shown an association with asthma. The effect of perinatal factors on the risk for asthma in relation to familial and social risk factors was studied in a nationwide population-based sample of adolescent twins. In addition to a distribution of birth characteristics among twins which differs from that of singletons, data on twins enable a distinction to be made between genetic and environmental sources of variation.?METHODS—Questionnaires were sent to five consecutive birth cohorts of Finnish 16 year old twins born in 1975-9 and to their parents (3065 families). The outcome measure was life time prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma in these adolescents. The association between asthma and potential risk factors was assessed by multiple logistic regression and discordant twin pair analysis.?RESULTS—Risk for asthma increased with increasing ponderal index (p for trend <0.01) and decreasing maternal age (p for trend <0.05). Among the 25% of twins with the highest ponderal index, the odds ratio for asthma was 1.82 (95% confidence interval 1.18 to 2.79) compared with those in the lowest 25%. Neither birth weight, gestational age, nor Apgar score was associated with asthma. When perinatal risk factors were combined with familial and social risk factors, ponderal index, maternal smoking, parental asthma, and sibship size were all significant independent determinants of asthma in these adolescents.?CONCLUSIONS—The risk for asthma in adolescent twins increases with increasing ponderal index when adjusted for familial and social factors.??
Rasanen, M.; Kaprio, J.; Laitinen, T.; Winter, T.; Koskenvuo, M.; Laitinen, L.
Obesity may be the consequence of various environmental or genetic factors, which may be highly correlated with each other. We aimed to examine whether grandmaternal and maternal obesity and environmental risk factors are related to obesity in daughters. Daughters (n = 182) recruited from female students, their mothers (n = 147) and their grandmothers (n = 67) were included in this study. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the association between the daughter's obesity and maternal, grandmaternal, and environmental factors. Maternal heights of 161-175cm (OD: 8.48, 95% CI: 3.61-19.93) and 156-160 cm (2.37, 1.14-4.91) showed positive associations with a higher height of daughter, compared to those of 149-155 cm. Mothers receiving a university or a higher education had a significant OR (3.82, 1.27-11.50) for a higher height of daughter compared to those having a low education (elementary school). Mother having the heaviest weight at current time (59-80 kg, 3.78, 1.73-8.28) and the heaviest weight at 20 years of age (51-65 kg, 3.17, 1.53-6.55) had significant associations with a higher height of daughters, compared to those having the lightest weight at the same times. There was no association between the height, weight, and BMI of daughters and the characteristics and education of her grandmothers. In conclusion, although genetic factors appear to influence the daughter's height more than environmental factors, the daughter's weight appears to be more strongly associated with individual factors than the genetic factors.
Shin, Mi Na; Lee, Kyung Hea; Lee, Hye Sang; Sasaki, Satoshi; Oh, Hea Young; Lyu, Eun Soon
In this population-based case-control study conducted in California between June 1989 and May 1991, the authors investigated the association between maternal periconceptional exposure to nitrate from drinking water and diet and risk for neural tube defects. The mothers of 538 cases and 539 nonmalformed controls were interviewed regarding residential history, consumption of tap water at home, and dietary intake during the periconceptional period. Dietary nitrate exposure was not associated with increased risk for neural tube defects. Exposure to nitrate in drinking water at concentrations above the 45 mg/liter maximum contaminant level was associated with increased risk for anencephaly (odds ratio (OR) = 4.0, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0, 15.4), but not for spina bifida. Increased risks for anencephaly were observed at nitrate levels below the maximum contaminant level among groundwater drinkers only (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1,4.1 for 5-15 mg/liter; OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.1, 4.5 for 16-35 mg/liter; and OR = 6.9, 95% CI: 1.9, 24.9 for 36-67 mg/liter compared with <5 mg/liter). Adjustment for identified risk factors for anencephaly did not substantially alter these associations, nor did control for maternal dietary nitrate, total vitamin C intake, and quantity of tap water consumed. The lack of an observed elevation in risk for anencephaly in association with exposure to mixed water containing nitrate at levels comparable with the concentration in groundwater may indicate that something other than nitrate accounts for these findings. PMID:11207149
Croen, L A; Todoroff, K; Shaw, G M
Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, the authors investigated the association between maternal reports of periconceptional alcohol consumption and clefting. Cases with a cleft lip, cleft palate, or both and unaffected controls delivered from 1997 through 2002 were ascertained. Interview reports of alcohol consumption were obtained from 1,749 (75.1%) case and 4,094 (68.2%) control mothers. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to assess associations. Compared with odds ratios for mothers with no reported consumption, those for mothers who consumed alcohol tended to be near to (cleft lip, cleft lip with cleft palate) or to exceed (cleft palate) unity. The odds ratios associated with binge drinking were elevated but did not demonstrate significantly increased risk for any phenotype; however, the odds ratios differed by the type of alcohol consumed, particularly for cleft palate (distilled spirits > wine > beer). These odds ratios were further increased among mothers with no reported folic acid intake. Although these findings suggest that the association between alcohol consumption and clefting might be most influenced by the type of beverage consumed and folic acid intake, they are preliminary and might reflect chance associations. Such findings need exploration in additional, large studies. PMID:17609516
Romitti, Paul A; Sun, Lixian; Honein, Margaret A; Reefhuis, Jennita; Correa, Adolfo; Rasmussen, Sonja A
We examined the risk and protective factors and mental health problems of 105 low SES, urban adolescents whose mothers were coping with alcohol abuse and other drug problems. Approximately half of the mothers were also HIV-infected. As hypothesized, there were few differences between adolescents of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers in…
Leonard, Noelle R.; Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Cleland, Charles M.; Vekaria, Pooja C.; Ferns, Bill
BACKGROUND Subfertility shares common pathways with cardiovascular disease (CVD), including polycystic ovarian syndrome, obesity and thyroid disorders. Women with prior 0–1 pregnancies are at an increased risk of incident CVD when compared with women with two pregnancies. It is uncertain whether history of subfertility among women eventually giving birth is a risk factor for CVD. METHODS Among Swedish women with self-reported data on subfertility in the Swedish Medical Birth Register (n = 863 324), we used Cox proportional hazards models to relate a history of subfertility to CVD risk after adjustment for age, birth year, highest income, education, birth country, hypertension, diabetes, preterm birth, small for gestational age (SGA), smoking and for BMI in separate models. In additional analyses, we excluded women with: (i) pregnancy-related or non-pregnancy-related hypertension and/or diabetes; and (ii) preterm births and/or SGA babies. RESULTS Among nulliparous women eventually having a childbirth (between 1983 and 2005, the median follow-up time 11.9; 0–23 years and 9 906 621 person-years of follow-up), there was an increased risk of CVD among women reporting ?5 years of subfertility versus 0 years (hazard ratio 1.19, 95% confidence interval 1.02–1.39). There were not significantly elevated CVD risks for women with 1–2 or 3–4 years of subfertility versus 0 years. Accounting for BMI did not change results. Excluding women with hypertension and/or diabetes attenuated associations, whereas exclusion of women with preterm and/or SGA births did not change findings. CONCLUSIONS Subfertility among women eventually having a childbirth is a risk factor for CVD even upon accounting for cardiovascular risk factors and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Future studies should explore the mechanisms underlying this association.
Parikh, Nisha I.; Cnattingius, Sven; Mittleman, Murray A.; Ludvigsson, Jonas F.; Ingelsson, Erik
Contaminated sport fish consumption may result in exposure to various reproductive and developmental toxicants, including pesticides and other suspected endocrine disruptors. We investigated the relation between maternal sport fish meals and risk of major birth defects among infa...
Objective:We sought to determine when rates of maternal pregnancy complications increase for low-risk nulliparous and multiparous women at term.Methods:We designed a retrospective cohort study of low-risk women delivered beyond 37 weeks gestational age from 1976 to 2001. Rates of mode of delivery and maternal complications of labor and delivery were examined by gestational age with both bivariate and multivariate analyses.
A B Caughey; J T Bishop
The authors examined prospective measures of psychosocial risk factors as predictors of severe intimate partner violence among a community sample of 610 young adults at risk for intergenerational transmission of depression. The hypothesized risk factors were youth history of depression by age 15 and maternal history of depression. Youth social…
Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia
Existing research indicates that there is very little agreement between youth and their parents on youth trauma exposure and subsequent treatment. Few studies, however, have attempted to examine factors that may contribute to this lack of agreement. This study addressed this gap by examining youth and maternal-reported youth traumatic event exposure using a sample of 100 urban, African American adolescent-maternal dyads. Cumulative report of youth potentially traumatic event exposure (57%) was higher than youth (41%) and maternal (27%) reports. Findings indicate that there was agreement for sexual assault, being shot or stabbed, and auto accidents. Maternal depression was the only factor that was associated with both youth and maternal report of youth qualifying event. Other factors that distinguished youth reports included maternal event exposure, substance use disorder, antisocial personality behaviors, and youth reports of arguments with the mother and running away from home. Implications for reconciling reports of trauma exposure among youth and their mothers are discussed. PMID:24206543
Johnson, Sharon D
Background Undetected and untreated developmental problems can have a significant economic and social impact on society. Intervention to ameliorate potential developmental problems requires early identification of children at risk of future learning and behaviour difficulties. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of risk for developmental problems among preschool children born to medically low risk women and identify factors that influence outcomes. Methods Mothers who had participated in a prenatal trial were followed up three years post partum to answer a telephone questionnaire. Questions were related to child health and development, child care, medical care, mother's lifestyle, well-being, and parenting style. The main outcome measure was risk for developmental problems using the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS). Results Of 791 children, 11% were screened by the PEDS to be at high risk for developmental problems at age three. Of these, 43% had previously been referred for assessment. Children most likely to have been referred were those born preterm. Risk factors for delay included: male gender, history of ear infections, a low income environment, and a mother with poor emotional health and a history of abuse. A child with these risk factors was predicted to have a 53% chance of screening at high risk for developmental problems. This predicted probability was reduced to 19% if the child had a mother with good emotional health and no history of abuse. Conclusion Over 10% of children were identified as high risk for developmental problems by the screening, and more than half of those had not received a specialist referral. Risk factors for problems included prenatal and perinatal maternal and child factors. Assessment of maternal health and effective screening of child development may increase detection of children at high risk who would benefit from early intervention. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN64070727
Tough, Suzanne C; Siever, Jodi E; Leew, Shirley; Johnston, David W; Benzies, Karen; Clark, Dawne
Genetic mechanisms for selective mutagenesis in female mammals might include alterations of genomic imprinting, maternally derived molecules, mitochondrial DNA or sex chromosome loci. one of these mechanisms provides an obvious explanation for the higher mutational rates observed...
Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the risk of injuries among children exposed to a stressful life exposure (defined as bereavement) before conception or during fetal life. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting Denmark. Participants All singleton births in Denmark between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2006 were identified. These newborns were then linked to mothers, fathers, grandparents and siblings using individually assigned civil personal registration numbers. Primary and secondary outcome measures We identified that data on childhood injuries were obtained from the Danish National Patient Registry, which contains data on all hospital stays and outpatient visits. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were estimated from birth using log-linear Poisson regression models, and person-years were used as the offset variable. Age, residence, calendar period, maternal education, maternal income and parental-cohabitation status are treated as time-dependent variables (records were extracted from the offspring's birth year). Results Exposure to maternal bereavement due to a father's death had the strongest association with childhood injuries, especially when the cause of death was due to a traumatic event (adjusted estimates of IRR (aIRR): 1.25, 95%CI: 0.99 to 1.58). We did not find an association for childhood injuries and maternal bereavement due to grandparent's death, and we only found an association for sibling death when restricting to deaths due to traumatic events (aIRR: 1.20, 95%CI:1.03 to 1.39). Conclusions The aetiology of childhood injuries is complex and may be related to events that take place during prenatal life. This study suggests that exposure to a stressful life event during gestation may be linked to injury susceptibility in childhood. However, changes in postnatal family conditions related to loss or genetic factors may also play a role. Background Developmental plasticity related to early life exposures leading to disease programming in offspring is a theory with substantial theoretical and empirical support. Prenatal stress exposure has been linked to neurological outcomes, such as temperament, behavioural problems, cognitive function and affective disorders. If exposure modifies risk-seeking behaviour, perceived danger and reaction time, it is also expected to modify injury risk.
Virk, Jasveer; Li, Jiong; Lauritsen, Jens; Olsen, J?rn
Background Maternal pre-pregnancy body-mass index (ppBMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) are associated with cardiometabolic risk (CMR) traits in the offspring. The extent to which maternal genetic variation accounts for these associations is unknown. Methods/Results In 1249 mother-offspring pairs recruited from the Jerusalem Perinatal Study, we used archival data to characterize ppBMI and GWG and follow-up data from offspring to assess CMR, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, glucose, insulin, blood pressure, and lipid levels, at an average age of 32. Maternal genetic risk scores (GRS) were created using a subset of SNPs most predictive of ppBMI, GWG, and each CMR trait, selected among 1384 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) characterizing variation in 170 candidate genes potentially related to fetal development and/or metabolic risk. We fit linear regression models to examine the associations of ppBMI and GWG with CMR traits with and without adjustment for GRS. Compared to unadjusted models, the coefficient for the association of a one-standard-deviation (SD) difference in GWG and offspring BMI decreased by 41% (95%CI ?81%, ?11%) from 0.847 to 0.503 and the coefficient for a 1SD difference in GWG and WC decreased by 63% (95%CI ?318%, ?11%) from 1.196 to 0.443. For other traits, there were no statistically significant changes in the coefficients for GWG with adjustment for GRS. None of the associations of ppBMI with CMR traits were significantly altered by adjustment for GRS. Conclusions Maternal genetic variation may account in part for associations of GWG with offspring BMI and WC in young adults.
Wander, Pandora L.; Hochner, Hagit; Sitlani, Colleen M.; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Lumley, Thomas; Lawrence, Gabriela M.; Burger, Ayala; Savitsky, Bella; Manor, Orly; Meiner, Vardiella; Hesselson, Stephanie; Kwok, Pui Y.; Siscovick, David S.; Friedlander, Yechiel
Objectives?To evaluate the impact of maternal BMI on intrapartum interventions and adverse outcomes that may influence choice of planned birth setting in healthy women without additional risk factors. Design?Prospective cohort study. Setting?Stratified random sample of English obstetric units. Sample?17 230 women without medical or obstetric risk factors other than obesity. Methods?Multivariable log Poisson regression was used to evaluate the effect of BMI on risk of intrapartum interventions and adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes adjusted for maternal characteristics. Main outcome measures?Maternal intervention or adverse outcomes requiring obstetric care (composite of: augmentation, instrumental delivery, intrapartum caesarean section, general anaesthesia, blood transfusion, 3rd/4th degree perineal tear); neonatal unit admission or perinatal death. Results?In otherwise healthy women, obesity was associated with an increased risk of augmentation, intrapartum caesarean section and some adverse maternal outcomes but when interventions and outcomes requiring obstetric care were considered together, the magnitude of the increased risk was modest (adjusted RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.02–1.23, for BMI > 35 kg/m2 relative to low risk women of normal weight). Nulliparous low risk women of normal weight had higher absolute risks and were more likely to require obstetric intervention or care than otherwise healthy multiparous women with BMI > 35 kg/m2 (maternal composite outcome: 53% versus 21%). The perinatal composite outcome exhibited a similar pattern. Conclusions?Otherwise healthy multiparous obese women may have lower intrapartum risks than previously appreciated. BMI should be considered in conjunction with parity when assessing the potential risks associated with birth in non-obstetric unit settings.
Hollowell, J; Pillas, D; Rowe, R; Linsell, L; Knight, M; Brocklehurst, P
Introduction Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) is a heterogeneous group of malignancies with over thirty different subtypes. Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common form of indolent NHL and the second most common form of NHL overall. It has morphologic, immunophenotypic and clinical features significantly different from other subtypes. Considerable effort has been devoted to the identification of risk factors for etiology and prognosis of FL. These risk factors may advance our understanding of the biology of FL and have an impact on clinical practice. Areas covered The epidemiology of NHL and FL is briefly reviewed. For FL etiology and prognosis separately, we review clinical, environmental and molecular (including genetic, genomic, epigenetic and others) risk factors suggested in the literature. Expert opinion A large number of potential risk factors have been suggested in recent studies. However, there is a lack of consensus, and many of the suggested risk factors have not been rigorously validated in independent studies. There is a need for large-scale, prospective studies to consolidate existing findings and discover new risk factors. Some of the identified risk factors are successful at the population level. More effective individual-level risk factors and models remain to be identified.
Background: Dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia, are disorders of aging populations and represent a significant economic burden. Evidence is accumulating to suggest that cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors may be instrumental in the development of dementia.Objective: The goal of this review was to discuss the relationship between specific CVD risk factors and dementia and how current
Howard Fillit; David T. Nash; Tatjana Rundek; Andrea Zuckerman
One of the most important tasks of clinical and experimental nephrology is to identify the risk factors of progression of renal failure. A major renal risk factor which has not been sufficiently acknowledged despite increasing evidence is cigarette smoking. Diabetologists were the first to recognize the adverse effects of smoking on the kidney: both in type 1 and in type
Stephan R. Orth
Although maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonandotrophin (hCG), and estriol play important roles in immunomodulation and immunoregulation during pregnancy, their relationship to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in young infants is unknown despite BPD being associated with pre- and postnatal inflammatory factors. The objective of this population-based study was to examine whether second trimester levels of AFP, hCG, and unconjugated estriol (uE3) were associated with an increased risk of BPD. We found that these serum biomarkers were associated with an increased risk of BPD. Risks were especially high when AFP and/or hCG levels were above the 95th percentile and/or when uE3 levels were below the 5th percentile (relative risks (RRs) 3.1 to 6.7). Risks increased substantially when two or more biomarker risks were present (RRs 9.9 to 75.9). Data suggested that pregnancies which had a biomarker risk and yielded an offspring with BPD were more likely to have other factors present that suggested early intrauterine fetal adaptation to a stress including maternal hypertension and asymmetric growth restriction.
Jelliffe-Pawlowski, Laura L.; Shaw, Gary M.; Stevenson, David K.; Oehlert, John W.; Quaintance, Cele; Santos, Allan J.; Baer, Rebecca J.; Currier, Robert J.; O'Brodovich, Hugh M.; Gould, Jeffrey B.
Audit of severe maternal morbidity is a potent tool in determining standards of maternity care. This study determines the incidence of severe acute maternal morbidity in our population, identifies the underlying organ dysfunction and associated obstetric risk factors, and compares them to published international reports. Over a 5 year period, 1999-2003, data were collected prospectively from patients with severe acute maternal morbidity. There were 36,802 women who delivered infants weighing more than 500 g over the 5 years with 53 cases of severe maternal morbidity. There were two indirect maternal deaths yielding an incidence of 1.4/1000 for severe maternal morbidity and 5.4/100,000 for maternal mortality. The severe maternal morbidity to mortality ratio was 26.5:1. Massive obstetric haemorrhage requiring acute blood transfusion of > or = 5 units of packed red cells occurred in 77% of cases. This study identifies the feasibility of audit of severe maternal morbidity using simple defined clinical criteria. The incidence and underlying aetiology of severe maternal morbidity in our unit is comparable to other developed countries. It is essential that data on severe maternal morbidity are reviewed and analysed continuously at local hospital and national level to assess, maintain and improve clinical standards. PMID:18624257
Lynch, C M; Sheridan, C; Breathnach, F M; Said, S; Daly, S; Byrne, B
Background: Detection of women at risk for dystocia will allow physicians to make preparations and treatment decisions that can minimize maternal and neonatal morbidity. We aimed to determine the risk factors for dystocia in nulliparous women. Methods: This case series enrolled 447 nulliparous women who presented with a single pregnancy in the vertex presentation and gestational age of 38-42 weeks. Maternal anthropometric measurements were obtained upon admission. We defined dystocia as a cesarean section or vacuum delivery for abnormal progression of labor as evidenced by the presence of effective uterine contractions, cervical dilation of less than 1 cm/h in the active phase for 2 h, duration of the second stage beyond 2 h, or fetal head descent less than 1 cm/h. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 11.5. Kruskal-Wallis, logistic regression, chi-square, Student’s t test and the Mann-Whitney tests were used as appropriated. Results: The state anxiety score (OR=10.58, CI: 1.97-56.0), posterior head position (OR=9.53, CI: 4.68-19.36), fetal head swelling in the second stage of labor (OR=6.85, CI: 2.60-18.01), transverse diagonal of Michaelis sacral ?9.6 cm (OR=6.19, CI: 2.49-15.40), and height to fundal ratio <4.7 (OR=2.68, CI: 1.09-10.60) were significant risk factors for dystocia. Conclusion: Critical care during labor and delivery in women who have a height to fundal height ratio of <4.7 or transverse diagonal of Michaelis sacral ?9.6 cm, an anxiety score greater than moderate, and posterior head position or fetal head swelling during the second phase could play an effective and important role in preventing dystocia.
Alijahan, Rahele; Kordi, Masoumeh
Background: Detection of women at risk for dystocia will allow physicians to make preparations and treatment decisions that can minimize maternal and neonatal morbidity. We aimed to determine the risk factors for dystocia in nulliparous women. Methods: This case series enrolled 447 nulliparous women who presented with a single pregnancy in the vertex presentation and gestational age of 38-42 weeks. Maternal anthropometric measurements were obtained upon admission. We defined dystocia as a cesarean section or vacuum delivery for abnormal progression of labor as evidenced by the presence of effective uterine contractions, cervical dilation of less than 1 cm/h in the active phase for 2 h, duration of the second stage beyond 2 h, or fetal head descent less than 1 cm/h. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 11.5. Kruskal-Wallis, logistic regression, chi-square, Student's t test and the Mann-Whitney tests were used as appropriated. Results: The state anxiety score (OR=10.58, CI: 1.97-56.0), posterior head position (OR=9.53, CI: 4.68-19.36), fetal head swelling in the second stage of labor (OR=6.85, CI: 2.60-18.01), transverse diagonal of Michaelis sacral ?9.6 cm (OR=6.19, CI: 2.49-15.40), and height to fundal ratio <4.7 (OR=2.68, CI: 1.09-10.60) were significant risk factors for dystocia. Conclusion: Critical care during labor and delivery in women who have a height to fundal height ratio of <4.7 or transverse diagonal of Michaelis sacral ?9.6 cm, an anxiety score greater than moderate, and posterior head position or fetal head swelling during the second phase could play an effective and important role in preventing dystocia. PMID:24850982
Alijahan, Rahele; Kordi, Masoumeh
LAY ABSTRACT Previous reports on autism among children born to older parents have yielded conflicting results as to which parent, or whether neither, or both, contributes to the risk. We analyzed ten years of births in California, comprising approximately 5 million children. Autism cases were identified from the California Department of Developmental Services database and linked to birth files from 1990–1999. Due to the size of this population, we were able to observe the trend in autism risk for each parent’s age, restricted to a narrow age range of the other parent. Analysis was confined to singleton births with complete data on ages and educational levels of both parents (n=4,947,935, cases=12,159). We observed consistent stepwise increased risk for autism with advancing maternal age regardless of the father’s age, whereas increased risk with advancing paternal age was primarily observed among younger mothers, namely those <30 years of age. The different effects of father’s age depending on the mother’s age may indicate that the risk for autism from advancing maternal age past 30 years overwhelms the risk contributed by the father’s age. Additionally, we showed that if the distribution of mothers’ age had been the only factor to change between 1990 and 1999, then we would have expected the cumulative incidence to have risen only 4.6% during the decade from 1990 to 1999. SCIENTIFIC ABSTRACT Reports on autism and parental age have yielded conflicting results on whether mothers, fathers, or both, contribute to increased risk. We analyzed restricted strata of parental age in a ten-year California birth cohort to determine the independent or dependent effect from each parent. Autism cases from California Department of Developmental Services records were linked to State birth files (1990–1999). Only singleton births with complete data on parental age and education were included (n=4,947,935, cases=12,159). In multivariate logistic regression models, advancing maternal age increased risk for autism monotonically regardless of the paternal age. Compared with mothers 25–29 years of age, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for mothers 40+ years was 1.51 (95% CI: 1.35–1.70), or compared with mothers <25 years of age, aOR=1.77 (95% CI, 1.56–2.00). In contrast, autism risk was associated with advancing paternal age primarily among mothers <30: aOR =1.59 (95% CI, 1.37–1.85) comparing fathers 40+ vs. 25–29 years of age. However, among mothers > 30, the aOR was 1.13 (95% CI, 1.01–1.27) for fathers 40+ vs. 25–29 years of age, almost identical to the aOR for fathers <25 years. Based on the first examination of heterogeneity in parental age effects, it appears that women’s risk for delivering a child who develops autism increases throughout their reproductive years whereas father’s age confers increased risk for autism when mothers are <30, but has little effect when mothers are past age 30. We also calculated that the recent trend towards delayed childbearing contributed approximately a 4.6% increase in autism diagnoses in California over the decade.
Shelton, Janie F; Tancredi, Daniel J; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva
Maternal mortality has been identified as a priority issue in health policy and research in India. The country, with an annual decrease of maternal mortality rate by 4.9% since 1990, now records 63,000 maternal deaths a year. India tops the list of countries with high maternal mortality. Based on a verbal autopsy study of 403 maternal deaths, conducted in 2008, this paper explores the missed opportunities to save maternal lives, besides probing into the socioeconomic factors contributing to maternal deaths in Jharkhand, India. This cross-sectional study was carried out in two phases, and a multistage sampling design was used in selecting deaths for verbal autopsy. Informed consent was taken into consideration before verbal autopsy. The analytical approach includes bivariate analysis using SPSS 15, besides triangulation of qualitative and quantitative findings. Most of the deceased were poor (89%), non-literates (85%), and housewives (74%). Again, 80% died in the community/at home, 28% died during pregnancy while another 26% died during delivery. Any antenatal care was received by merely 28% women, and only 20% of the deliveries were conducted by skilled birth attendants (doctors and midwives). Delays in decision-making, travel, and treatment compounded by ignorance of obstetric complications, inadequate use of maternal healthcare services, poor healthcare infrastructure, and harmful rituals are the major contributing factors of maternal deaths in India.
Pradhan, Manas Ranjan
OBJECTIVES. Late-preterm infants (34 -36 weeks' gestation) account for nearly three quarters of all preterm births in the United States, yet little is known about their morbidity risk. We compared late-preterm and term (37- 41 weeks' gestation) infants with and without selected maternal medical conditions and assessed the independent and joint effects of these exposures on newborn morbidity risk. METHODS.
Carrie K. Shapiro-Mendoza; Kay M. Tomashek; Milton Kotelchuck; Wanda Barfield; Angela Nannini; Judith Weiss; Eugene Declercq
OBJECTIVES: Early infant mortality has not declined as rapidly as child mortality in many countries. Identification of risk factors for early infant mortality may help inform the design of intervention strategies. METHODS: Over the period 1994-97, 15,469 live-born, singleton infants in rural Nepal were followed to 24 weeks of age to identify risk factors for mortality within 0-7 days, 8-28 days, and 4-24 weeks after the birth. FINDINGS: In multivariate models, maternal and paternal education reduced mortality between 4 and 24 weeks only: odds ratios (OR) 0.28 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.12-0.66) and 0.63 (95% CI = 0.44-0.88), respectively. Miscarriage in the previous pregnancy predicted mortality in the first week of life (OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.37-2.87), whereas prior child deaths increased the risk of post-neonatal death (OR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.24-2.75). A larger maternal mid-upper arm circumference reduced the risk of infant death during the first week of life (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.81-0.95). Infants of women who did not receive any tetanus vaccinations during pregnancy or who had severe illness during the third trimester were more likely to die in the neonatal period. Maternal mortality was strongly associated with infant mortality (OR = 6.43, 95% CI = 2.35-17.56 at 0-7 days; OR = 11.73, 95% CI = 3.82-36.00 at 8-28 days; and OR = 51.68, 95% CI = 20.26-131.80 at 4-24 weeks). CONCLUSION: Risk factors for early infant mortality varied with the age of the infant. Factors amenable to intervention included efforts aimed at maternal morbidity and mortality and increased arm circumference during pregnancy.
Katz, Joanne; West, Keith P.; Khatry, Subarna K.; Christian, Parul; LeClerq, Steven C.; Pradhan, Elizabeth Kimbrough; Shrestha, Sharada Ram
Background Maternal health is one of the major worldwide health challenges. Currently, the unacceptably high levels of maternal mortality are a common subject in global health and development discussions. Although some countries have made remarkable progress, half of the maternal deaths in the world still take place in Sub-Saharan Africa where little or no progress has been made. There is no single simple, straightforward intervention that will significantly decrease maternal mortality alone; however, there is a consensus on the importance of a strong health system, skilled delivery attendants, and women's rights for maternal health. Our objective was to describe and determine different factors associated with the maternal mortality ratio in Sub-Saharan countries. Methods An ecological multi-group study compared variables between many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa using data collected between 1997 and 2006. The dependent variable was the maternal mortality ratio, and Health care system-related, educational and economic indicators were the independent variables. Information sources included the WHO, World Bank, UNICEF and UNDP. Results Maternal mortality ratio values in Sub-Saharan Africa were demonstrated to be high and vary enormously among countries. A relationship between the maternal mortality ratio and some educational, sanitary and economic factors was observed. There was an inverse and significant correlation of the maternal mortality ratio with prenatal care coverage, births assisted by skilled health personnel, access to an improved water source, adult literacy rate, primary female enrolment rate, education index, the Gross National Income per capita and the per-capita government expenditure on health. Conclusions Education and an effective and efficient health system, especially during pregnancy and delivery, are strongly related to maternal death. Also, macro-economic factors are related and could be influencing the others.
Several environmental exposures are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Exposure to secondhand smoke may increase the risk by as much as 25% to 30%. Exposure to thirdhand smoke, residual components of tobacco smoke that remain in the environment after a cigarette is extinguished, also appears to increase risk. These residual components can remain in rooms and automobiles for up to 30 years and enter the body through the skin or via inhalation or ingestion. Exposure to particulate matter air pollution from automobile emissions, power plants, and other sources is yet another environmental risk factor for CHD, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths annually in the United States. Exposure to other environmental toxins, particularly bisphenol A and phthalates, also has been linked to CHD. There are sociodemographic risks for CHD, with numerous studies showing that lower socioeconomic status is associated with higher risk. Behavioral risk factors include poor diet, such as frequent consumption of fast food and processed meals; sleep disturbance; and psychological stress, particularly related to marital or work issues. Finally, although high alcohol consumption is associated with increased CHD risk, moderate alcohol consumption (ie, less than 1 to 2 drinks/day), particularly of wine and possibly beer, appears to reduce the risk. PMID:24936715
Anthony, David; George, Paul; Eaton, Charles B
Growth of ungulate populations is typically most sensitive to survival of neonates, which in turn is influenced by maternal nutritional condition and trade-offs in resource selection and avoidance of predators. We assessed whether resource use, multi-predator risk, maternal nutritional effects, hiding cover, or interactions among these variables best explained variation in daily survival of free-ranging neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during their post-partum period (14 May-31 Aug) in Michigan, USA. We used Cox proportional hazards mixed-effects models to assess survival related to covariates of resource use, composite predation risk of 4 mammalian predators, fawn body mass at birth, winter weather, and vegetation growth phenology. Predation, particularly from coyotes (Canis latrans), was the leading cause of mortality; however, an additive model of non-ideal resource use and maternal nutritional effects explained 71% of the variation in survival. This relationship suggested that dams selected areas where fawns had poor resources, while greater predation in these areas led to additive mortalities beyond those related to resource use alone. Also, maternal nutritional effects suggested that severe winters resulted in dams producing smaller fawns, which decreased their likelihood of survival. Fawn resource use appeared to reflect dam avoidance of lowland forests with poor forage and greater use by wolves (C. lupus), their primary predator. While this strategy led to greater fawn mortality, particularly by coyotes, it likely promoted the life-long reproductive success of dams because many reached late-age (>10 years old) and could have produced multiple generations of fawns. Studies often link resource selection and survival of ungulates, but our results suggested that multiple factors can mediate that relationship, including multi-predator risk. We emphasize the importance of identifying interactions among biological and environmental factors when assessing survival of ungulates. PMID:24968318
Duquette, Jared F; Belant, Jerrold L; Svoboda, Nathan J; Beyer, Dean E; Lederle, Patrick E
Growth of ungulate populations is typically most sensitive to survival of neonates, which in turn is influenced by maternal nutritional condition and trade-offs in resource selection and avoidance of predators. We assessed whether resource use, multi-predator risk, maternal nutritional effects, hiding cover, or interactions among these variables best explained variation in daily survival of free-ranging neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during their post-partum period (14 May–31 Aug) in Michigan, USA. We used Cox proportional hazards mixed-effects models to assess survival related to covariates of resource use, composite predation risk of 4 mammalian predators, fawn body mass at birth, winter weather, and vegetation growth phenology. Predation, particularly from coyotes (Canis latrans), was the leading cause of mortality; however, an additive model of non-ideal resource use and maternal nutritional effects explained 71% of the variation in survival. This relationship suggested that dams selected areas where fawns had poor resources, while greater predation in these areas led to additive mortalities beyond those related to resource use alone. Also, maternal nutritional effects suggested that severe winters resulted in dams producing smaller fawns, which decreased their likelihood of survival. Fawn resource use appeared to reflect dam avoidance of lowland forests with poor forage and greater use by wolves (C. lupus), their primary predator. While this strategy led to greater fawn mortality, particularly by coyotes, it likely promoted the life-long reproductive success of dams because many reached late-age (>10 years old) and could have produced multiple generations of fawns. Studies often link resource selection and survival of ungulates, but our results suggested that multiple factors can mediate that relationship, including multi-predator risk. We emphasize the importance of identifying interactions among biological and environmental factors when assessing survival of ungulates.
Duquette, Jared F.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Svoboda, Nathan J.; Beyer, Dean E.; Lederle, Patrick E.
... environmental factors—cured food consumption (nitrites), cigarette smoking, cell phone use, and residential power line exposure, for example— ... associated with changes in the chromosomes. Each normal cell in any human body has 23 pairs of ... Phone: 773-577-8750 Fax: 773-577-8738 CareLine: ...
We examined the link between household chaos (i.e., noise, clutter, disarray, lack of routines) and maternal executive function (i.e., effortful regulation of attention and memory), and whether it varied as a function of socioeconomic risk (i.e., single parenthood, lower mother and father educational attainment, housing situation, and father unemployment). We hypothesized that: 1) higher levels of household chaos would be linked with poorer maternal executive function, even when controlling for other measures of cognitive functioning (e.g., verbal ability), and 2) this link would be strongest in the most socioeconomically distressed or lowest-socioeconomic status households. The diverse sample included 153 mothers from urban and rural areas who completed a questionnaire and a battery of cognitive executive function tasks and a verbal ability task in the laboratory. Results were mixed for hypothesis 1, and consistent with hypothesis 2. Two-thirds of the variance overlapped between household chaos and maternal executive function, but only in families with high levels of socioeconomic risk. This pattern was not found for chaos and maternal verbal ability, suggesting that the potentially deleterious effects of household chaos may be specific to maternal executive function. The findings implicate household chaos as a powerful statistical predictor of maternal executive function in socioeconomically distressed contexts.
Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Chen, Nan; Wang, Zhe; Bell, Martha Ann
This study uses instrumental variable (IV) models with genetic instruments to assess the effects of maternal smoking on the child's risk of orofacial clefts (OFC), a common birth defect. The study uses genotypic variants in neurotransmitter and detoxification genes relateded to smoking as instruments for cigarette smoking before and during pregnancy. Conditional maximum likelihood and two-stage IV probit models are used to estimate the IV model. The data are from a population-level sample of affected and unaffected children in Norway. The selected genetic instruments generally fit the IV assumptions but may be considered "weak" in predicting cigarette smoking. We find that smoking before and during pregnancy increases OFC risk substantially under the IV model (by about 4-5 times at the sample average smoking rate). This effect is greater than that found with classical analytic models. This may be because the usual models are not able to consider self-selection into smoking based on unobserved confounders, or it may to some degree reflect limitations of the instruments. Inference based on weak-instrument robust confidence bounds is consistent with standard inference. Genetic instruments may provide a valuable approach to estimate the "causal" effects of risk behaviors with genetic-predisposing factors (such as smoking) on health and socioeconomic outcomes. PMID:22102793
Wehby, George; Jugessur, Astanand; Murray, Jeffrey C; Moreno, Lina; Wilcox, Allen; Lie, Rolv T
Background There is current interest in the role of perinatal factors in the aetiology of diseases that occur later in life. Infectious mononucleosis (IM) can follow late primary infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and has been shown to increase the risk of multiple sclerosis and Hodgkin's disease. Little is known about maternal or perinatal factors associated with IM or its sequelae. Methods We investigated perinatal risk factors for hospitalised IM using a prospective record-linkage study in a population in the south of England. The dataset used, the Oxford record linkage study (ORLS), includes abstracts of birth registrations, maternities and in-patient hospital records, including day case care, for all subjects in a defined geographical area. From these sources, we identified cases of hospitalised IM up to the age of 30 years in people for whom the ORLS had a maternity record; and we compared perinatal factors in their pregnancy with those in the pregnancy of children who had no hospital record of IM. Results Our data showed a significant association between hospitalised IM and lower social class (p = 0.02), a higher risk of hospitalised IM in children of married rather than single mothers (p < 0.001), and, of marginal statistical significance, an association with singleton birth (p = 0.06). The ratio of observed to expected cases of hospitalised IM in each season was 0.95 in winter, 1.02 in spring, 1.02 in summer and 1.00 in autumn. The chi-square test for seasonality, with a value of 0.8, was not significant. Other factors studied, including low birth weight, short gestational age, maternal smoking, late age at motherhood, did not increase the risk of subsequent hospitalised IM. Conclusions Because of the increasing tendency of women to postpone childbearing, it is useful to know that older age at motherhood is not associated with an increased risk of hospitalised IM in their children. We have no explanation for the finding that children of married women had a higher risk of IM than those of single mothers. Though highly significant, it may nonetheless be a chance finding. We found no evidence that such perinatal factors as birth weight and gestational age, or season of birth, were associated with the risk of hospitalised IM.
Pregnancy is a time of vulnerability for vitamin D insufficiency, and there is an emerging literature associating low levels of 25(OH)-vitamin D with depressive symptoms. However, the link between 25(OH)-vitamin D status in pregnancy and altered risk of postnatal depressive symptoms has not been examined. We hypothesise that low levels of 25(OH)-vitamin D in maternal serum during pregnancy will be associated with a higher incidence of postpartum depressive symptoms. We prospectively collected sera at 18 weeks gestation from 796 pregnant women in Perth (1989-1992) who were enrolled in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study and measured levels of 25(OH)-vitamin D. Women reported postnatal depressive symptoms at 3 days post-delivery. Women in the lowest quartile for 25(OH)-vitamin D status were more likely to report a higher level of postnatal depression symptoms than women who were in the highest quartile for vitamin D, even after accounting for a range of confounding variables including season of birth, body mass index and sociodemographic factors. Low vitamin D during pregnancy is a risk factor for the development of postpartum depression symptoms. PMID:24663685
Robinson, Monique; Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Newnham, John P; Gorman, Shelley; Jacoby, Peter; Holt, Barbara J; Serralha, Michael; Tearne, Jessica E; Holt, Pat G; Hart, Prue H; Kusel, Merci M H
From 1996 to 2001, the authors undertook a case-control study of 192 pelvis fracture cases (men and women) and 2,402 controls aged ? 45 years at five Kaiser Permanente medical centers in Northern California. Most in- formation on potential risk factors was obtained by means of an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Number of fractures since age 45 years and a maternal history
Jennifer L. Kelsey; Mila M. Prill; Theresa H. M. Keegan; Charles P. Quesenberry; Steven Sidney
This study examined factors related to birth weight in a maternity hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro. It is a descriptive, sectional study conducted in the Herculano Pinheiro Maternity Hospital (HMHP) in Rio de Janeiro between December 2008 and February 2009, with postpartum mothers between 20 and 34 years of age. The chi-square test, the Student's t test and the logistical regression model were applied. 14.6% of the infants had low birth weight (less than 2500g). There was a negative correlation between birth weight and smoking habits of the mother. The pre-pregnancy weight, maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and number of pre-natal visit variables were positively associated with birth weight. Multiple regression analysis indicated maternal age as being a risk factor for low birth weight. The conclusion reached is that the marital status situation, where this was perceived as an important variable, as well as the number of prenatal visits, which in group analysis showed no statistical significance, deserve further investigation together with other studies. PMID:25014286
Capelli, Jane de Carlos Santana; Pontes, Juliana Silva; Pereira, Silvia Eliza Almeida; Silva, Alexandra Anastácio Monteiro; Carmo, Cleber Nascimento do; Boccolini, Cristiano Siqueira; Almeida, Maria Fernanda Larcher de
AIMTo examine the hypothesis that the maternal insulin-like growth factor system may constrain fetal growth.METHODSA prospective observational study of maternal serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) and fetal growth was undertaken in neonates with birthweights below the 5th centile. They had been classified either as having fetal growth restriction (FGR) due to placental dysfunction (increased umbilical artery Doppler pulsatility
Robert P Holmes; J M P Holly; Peter W Soothill
Objective: To study the prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) and its association with maternal factors Design: Cohort study. Setting: Urban community. Subjects: Cohort of 210 pregnant women. Results: The LBW prevalence was 30.3%. On multivariate analyses the maternal factors significantly associated with LBW were anemia (OR-4.81), low socioeconomic status (OR-3.96), short birth interval (OR-3.84), tobacco exposure (OR-3.14), height (OR-2.78),
J. S. Deshmukh; D. D. Motghare; S. P. Zodpey; S. K. Wadhva
Stroke is an uncommon but increasingly recognised cause of mortality and long-term neurological morbidity in children. A significant number of these events appear to be caused by thromboembolic disease and, as with other childhood thrombotic problems, the incidence of central nervous system events appears highest during the neonatal period. In contrast to peripheral arterial and venous thrombotic problems, it is likely that a proportion of cerebral thromboembolic events occur either in utero or perinatally and reflect different risk factors from those occurring in older infants and children. The pathophysiology of perinatal stroke is complex and in many cases is likely to be multifactorial. It is now recognised that risk factors may relate to both maternal and placental problems as well as fetal and neonatal disorders. Large prospective studies of perinatal stroke are currently lacking and efforts to define the relative contribution from each of these areas are at an early stage. The complex nature of these disorders requires collaboration between a number of different disciplines including obstetrics, fetal medicine, pathology, neonatology and neurology. Of particular interest to haematologists is the possible impact of prothrombotic abnormalities in the pathophysiology of these events and also the potential for the use of antithrombotic agents in both management and prevention. PMID:16042683
Chalmers, Elizabeth A
A matched case-control study of Wilms' tumor investigated parental occupational risk factors. Cases diagnosed in 1970-1983 were identified through a population-based tumor registry and hospital registries in the Greater Philadelphia area. Controls were selected by random digit dialing and were matched to cases on race, birth date (+/- 3 years), and the area code and exchange of the case's telephone number at diagnosis. Parents of 100 matched pairs were interviewed by telephone. Parents of patients and controls were generally similar in demographic characteristics, except that mothers differed in religion. Published schemes were used to group jobs into clusters of similar exposures and to determine exposures from industry and job title. Analyses were done for preconception, pregnancy, and postnatal time periods. More case than control fathers had jobs in a cluster that includes machinists and welders (odds ratios (ORs) = 4.0-5.7, p less than or equal to 0.04). Paternal exposures to lead, silver, tin, and iron (some exposures of this cluster) were associated with Wilms' tumor in some analyses, with moderate odds ratios (ORs = 1.5-3.4). In general, the highest odds ratios were found for the preconception period among the genetic (prezygotic) cases. No maternal job clusters or exposures gave significantly elevated odds ratios. These results support a previous finding that lead is a risk factor, but not radiation, hydrocarbon, or boron exposures.
Bunin, G.; Kramer, S.; Nass, C.; Meadows, A.
Protein-L-isoaspartate (D-aspartate) O-methyltransferase 1 (PCMT1) gene encodes for the protein repair enzyme L-isoaspartate (D-aspartate) O-methyltransferase (PIMT), which is known to protect certain neural cells from Bax-induced apoptosis. Previous study has shown that PCMT1 polymorphisms rs4552 and rs4816 of infant are associated with spina bifida in the Californian population. The association between maternal polymorphism and neural tube defects is still uncovered. A case-control study was conducted to investigate a possible association between maternal PCMT1 and NTDs in Lvliang high-risk area of Shanxi Province in China, using a high-resolution DNA melting analysis genotyping method. We found that increased risk for anencephaly in isolated NTDs compared with the normal control group was observed for the G (vs. A) allele (p=0.034, OR=1.896, 95% CI, 1.04-3.45) and genotypes GG+GA (p=0.025, OR=2.237, 95% CI, 1.09-4.57). Although the significance was lost after multiple comparison correction, the results implied that maternal polymorphisms in PCMT1 might be a potential genetic risk factor for isolated anencephaly in this Chinese population. PMID:22647835
Zhao, Huizhi; Wang, Fang; Wang, Jianhua; Xie, Hua; Guo, Jin; Liu, Chi; Wang, Li; Lu, Xiaolin; Bao, Yihua; Wang, Guoliang; Zhong, Rugang; Niu, Bo; Zhang, Ting
Objectives Though it is the largest county in the lower United States, minimal attention has been given to the elevated rates of poor perinatal outcomes and infant mortality in San Bernardino County. This study sought to analyze adverse birth outcomes such as low birth weight, and infant mortality as an outcome of specific proxy maternal sociodemographic factors. Methods Data from the California Department of Health Services Office of Vital Statistics birth cohort of mothers delivering between 1999 and 2001 (N = 1,590,876 participants) were analyzed. Of those, 5.5% (n = 86,736) were births in San Bernardino County. Low birth weight, very low birth weight, death in infants less than one year of age, and other maternal sociodemographic factors were explored. All events of low birth weight and deaths among infants less than one year of age were used as significant variables in statistical models. Results Black mothers experienced more than twice the rate of very low birth weight (3.89) than their White counterparts (1.39). The most significant contributors to adverse birth outcomes among Black women were length of gestation and maternal education, whereas the most significant predictor of infant mortality was birth weight. Conclusions This study demonstrates that traditional risk factors such as length of gestation and maternal age only partially explain adverse birth outcomes. These findings highlight the need to advocate for the systematic collection of data on maternal education and length gestation and for the promotion of public health initiatives that address these inequities in our most vulnerable of populations. PMID:17690961
Nanyonjo, Rebecca D; Montgomery, Susanne B; Modeste, Naomi; Fujimoto, Edward
Environmental risk factors for osteoporosis were reviewed at a conference held at the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences 8-9 November 1993. The conference was co-sponsored by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disease and the NIH Office of Research in Women's Health. The objective of the conference was to review what is known about risk factors for osteoporosis and to identify gaps in the present state of knowledge that might be addressed by future research. The conference was divided into two broad themes. The first session focused on current knowledge regarding etiology, risk factors, and approaches to clinical and laboratory diagnosis. This was followed by three sessions in which various environmental pollutants were discussed. Topics selected for review included environmental agents that interfere with bone and calcium metabolism, such as the toxic metals lead, cadmium, aluminum, and fluoride, natural and antiestrogens, calcium, and vitamin D.
Goyer, R.A.; Korach, K.S. (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Triangle Park, NC (United States)); Epstein, S. (Albert Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Bhattacharyya, M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Pounds, J. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States))
Objective To assess the relationship between estimated residential maternal exposure to atrazine during pregnancy and risk for choanal atresia or stenosis in offspring. Study Design Data for 280 nonsyndromic cases and randomly selected, population-based controls delivered during 1999 to 2008 were obtained from the Texas Birth Defects Registry. County-level estimates of atrazine levels obtained from the United States Geological Survey were assigned to cases and controls based on maternal county of residence at delivery. Unconditional logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between maternal residential atrazine exposure and risk for choanal atresia or stenosis in offspring. Results Compared to offspring of mothers with low levels of estimated residential atrazine exposure, those with high levels had nearly a two-fold increase in risk for choanal atresia or stenosis (adjusted odds ratio: 1.79, 95% confidence interval: 1.17–2.74). A significant linear trend was also observed with increasing levels of atrazine exposure (adjusted P = 0.002). Conclusions A link between maternal exposure to endocrine disruptors, such as atrazine, and choanal atresia risk is plausible based on previous findings. Our results further support this hypothesis.
Agopian, A.J.; Cai, Yi; Langlois, Peter H.; Canfield, Mark A.; Lupo, Philip J.
We investigated the independent contributions of maternal history of antisocial behavior and parenting practices to the worsening course of sons' behavior problems in a sample of young urban boys at risk for antisocial behavior. Mothers reported on boys' behavior problems at baseline and one year later, as well as on their own history of…
Ehrensaft, Miriam K.; Wasserman, Gail A.; Verdelli, Lena; Greenwald, Steven; Miller, Laurie S.; Davies, Mark
Recently published international guidelines recommend the clinical use of noninvasive prenatal test (NIPT) for aneuploidy screening only among pregnant women whose fetuses are deemed at high risk. The applicability of NIPT to aneuploidy screening among average risk pregnancies requires additional supportive evidence. A key determinant of the reliability of aneuploidy NIPT is the fetal DNA fraction in maternal plasma. In this report, we investigated if differences in fetal DNA fractions existed between different pregnancy risk groups. One hundred and ninety-five singleton pregnancies with male fetuses divided into 3 groups according to first trimester screening parameters were examined for fetal DNA percentage by counting Y chromosome DNA sequences using massively parallel sequencing. Fetal DNA fractions were compared between risk groups and assessed for correlations with first trimester screening parameters. There was no statistically significant difference in fetal DNA fractions across the high, intermediate and low risk groups. Fetal DNA fraction showed a strong negative correlation with maternal weight. Fetal DNA fraction also showed weak but significant correlations with gestational age, crown-rump length, multiple of medians of free ?-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A. Similar fetal DNA fractions in maternal plasma between high, intermediate and low risk pregnant women is a precondition for uniform performance of the aneuploidy NIPTs for the general population. This study thus shows that the aneuploidy screening by NIPT is likely to offer similar analytical reliability without respect to the a priori fetal aneuploidy risk. PMID:24586333
Hudecova, Irena; Sahota, Daljit; Heung, Macy M S; Jin, Yongjie; Lee, Wing S; Leung, Tak Y; Lo, Yuk Ming Dennis; Chiu, Rossa W K
Purpose. To evaluate associations between conditions of maternal new-onset gestational hypertension (mHTN) and the features imparting risk of severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in preterm infants. Methods. Hospital databases and charts of all preterm inborn infants at the University of North Carolina from 1996 to 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. The presence or absence of mHTN (e.g., pre-eclampsia) and infant factors (birthweight, gestational age, erythropoietin use, and zone and stage of ROP) were analyzed for independence of association. Results. Of the 5143 infants, 323 had ROP and 76 had mothers with mHTN. Infants with ROP were more likely to have mothers with mHTN and to be younger and smaller at birth. At initial examination, more infants of mothers with mHTN had vascularization into the lower zones than did infants of mothers without mHTN (P < 0.001). However, at the examination in which the most severe ROP was present, there was no association between mHTN and ROP stage (P = 0.2342). Analysis of stage and zone together showed that infants born to mothers with mHTN were more likely to have ROP at initial examination, after adjustment for gestational age, but not for birth weight. The use of erythropoietin was not associated with ROP zone or stage, even after adjustment for maternal condition, infant birth weight, or gestational age. Conclusions. Although larger avascular areas or higher severity scores were associated with mHTN after adjustment for gestational age at initial examination, no associations were found between mHTN and ROP severity score at the examination when ROP was most severe. There were no associations between ROP severity and treatment with erythropoietin.
Zayed, Mohamed A.; Uppal, Abhineet
Factors that influence the risk of hip fracture have been identified, many of which can be eliminated or modified. Even those risk factors that cannot be modified are important for identifying at-risk patients, who may benefit most from therapies that alter other risk factors. Bone mineral density (BMD) is the major measurable determinant of the risk of fragility fractures. However,
The genetic basis of melanoma is complex and has both inherited and acquired components. Different genomic approaches have\\u000a been used to identify a number of inherited risk factors, which can be stratified by penetrance and prevalence. Rare high-penetrance\\u000a factors are expressed in familial clustering of melanoma and include mutations in CDKN2A (encoding p16INK4a and p14ARF) and CDK4. These genes are
Kathrine Damm Meyle; Per Guldberg
The short- and long-term effects of pregnancy on breast cancer risk are well documented. Insight into potential biological\\u000a mechanisms for these associations may be gained by studying breast cancer risk and pregnancy characteristics (e.g., preeclampsia,\\u000a twining), which may reflect hormone levels during pregnancy. To date, no review has synthesized the published literature for\\u000a pregnancy characteristics and maternal breast cancer using
Sarah Nechuta; Nigel Paneth; Ellen M. Velie
Possible in utero effects of maternal smoking on hemopoietic cancer in the offspring have been addressed previously, although the results are inconclusive. In this investigation, we take advantage of population-based registers in Sweden to examine maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood risk of leukemia and lymphoma. Prospective data were available from 1,440,542 Swedish children born between 1983 and 1997. Proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) controlling for potential confounders. In the study base, 750 hemopoietic cancers occurred across 11 million person-years. Incidence rates per 100,000 person-years were 4.7 for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), 0.45 for acute myelogenous leukemia, and 0.76 for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Maternal smoking was associated with a lower risk of ALL (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.58-0.91). On the other hand, there was a higher risk of acute myelogenous leukemia (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 0.74-2.67) particularly among heavy (> or =10 cigarettes per day) smokers (HR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.05-4.94). The data also suggested a small excess risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.76-2.04). Evidence from this large cohort suggests that maternal smoking affects the risk of childhood leukemia and lymphoma in the offspring. The Swedish registries provide unique opportunities to examine this research question, with a design inherently free of selection and recall biases. The apparent protective effect with ALL needs to be explored further and in no way supports maternal smoking as beneficial, given its adverse association with common pregnancy outcomes. PMID:15342456
Mucci, Lorelei A; Granath, Frederik; Cnattingius, Sven
Objective: The study aimed to examine suicidal behaviour during in-patient care in a psychiatric university hospital. Method: Based upon a psychiatric basic documentation system prevalence and risk factors of in-patient suicides and suicide attempts were investigated (1995?-?2010). Results: A total of 42 in-patient suicides and 166 attempts were found among 16?251 patients. According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis the risk of suicide during hospitalization increases significantly for male patients, with more previous psychiatric hospitalizations and suicidality according to clinical impression at admission or suicide attempt before admission. Patients with affective or schizophrenic disorders were at highest risk. The following risk factors are associated with suicide attempt during stay: female gender, borderline personality disorder (F60.3), more previous psychiatric hospitalizations, shorter duration of disorder, earlier age of onset, suicidality according to clinical impression at admission or suicide attempt before admission. Conclusion: As depressive and schizophrenic patients represent the high-risk group of in-patient suicide, suicide prevention should be a major goal in their treatment. More frequent suicide risk assessment is recommended particularly before granting a leave or an outing. PMID:23868715
Lieb, Martin; Palm, Ulrich; Meyer, Sebastian; Sarubin, Nina; Mokhtari-Nejad, Rabee; Riedel, Michael; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Seemüller, Florian
... Our Stories Are Red: Jennifer's Story Sleep Apnea Research: The HeartBeat Study The NHLBI "Grand Opportunity" Exome Sequencing Project Heart Disease Risk Factors All of Our Stories Are Red: Yaskary's Story 04/11/2014 All of Our Stories Are Red: Eileen's Story ...
Summary Background There are few studies on the incidence or recurrence of anaphylaxis. Objective To examine the incidence of anaphylaxis and risk factors for recurrence. Methods A prospective study of 432 patients referred to a community-based specialist practice in the Australian Capital Territory with anaphylaxis, followed by a survey to obtain information on recurrence. Results Of 432 patients (48% male,
R. J. Mullins
The majority of studies on risk factors for suicide have been conducted in developed countries, and less work has been done to systematically profile risk factors in developing countries. The current paper presents a selective review of sociodemographic, clinical, and environmental\\/situational risk factors in developing countries. Taken together, the evidence suggests that the profiles of risk factors in developing countries
Lakshmi Vijayakumar; Sujit John; Jane Pirkis; Harvey Whiteford
Objective:Obesity is a risk factor for congenital heart defects (CHDs), but whether risk is independent of abnormal glucose metabolism remains unknown. Data on whether overweight status increases the risk are also conflicting.Research Design and Methods:We included 121?815 deliveries from a cohort study, the Consortium on Safe Labor (CSL), after excluding women with pregestational diabetes as recorded in the electronic medical record. CHD was identified via medical record discharge summaries. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for any CHD were calculated for prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) categories of overweight (25-<30?kg?m(-2)), obese (30-<40?kg?m(-2)) and morbidly obese (?40?kg?m(-2)) compared with normal weight (18.5-<25?kg?m(-2)) women, and for specific CHD with obese groups combined (?30?kg?m(-2)). A subanalysis adjusting for oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results where available was performed as a proxy for potential abnormal glucose metabolism present at the time of organogenesis.Results:There were 1388 (1%) infants with CHD. Overweight (OR=1.15, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.01-1.32), obese (OR=1.26, 95% CI: 1.09-1.44) and morbidly obese (OR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.02-1.76) women had greater OR of having a neonate with CHD than normal weight women (P<0.001 for trend). Obese women (BMI?30?kg?m(-2)) had higher OR of having an infant with conotruncal defects (OR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.04-1.72), atrial septal defects (OR=1.22, 95% CI: 1.04-1.43) and ventricular septal defects (OR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.06-1.79). Being obese remained a significant predictor of CHD risk after adjusting for OGTT.Conclusion:Increasing maternal weight class was associated with an increased risk for CHD. In obese women, abnormal glucose metabolism did not completely explain the increased risk for CHD; the possibility that other obesity-related factors are teratogenic requires further investigation. PMID:24362506
Brite, J; Laughon, S K; Troendle, J; Mills, J
The relationship of familial and school-based risk factors to socioemotional and learning problems was assessed in a sample of 69 Hispanic 3-year-old children in Head Start Programs in New York City. In a preliminary study of maternal stress, child temperament was identified as a significant predictor of child socioemotional problems. School risk…
Grossman, Judy; Shigaki, Irene S.
SUMMARY 1. Adaptive maternal programming occurs when mothers alter their offspring's phenotype in response to environmental information such that it improves offspring fitness. When a mother's environment is predictive of the conditions her offspring are likely to encounter, such transgenerational plasticity enables offspring to be better-prepared for this particular environment. However, maternal effects can also have deleterious effects on fitness. 2. Here, we test whether female threespined stickleback fish exposed to predation risk adaptively prepare their offspring to cope with predators. We either exposed gravid females to a model predator or not, and compared their offspring's antipredator behaviour and survival when alone with a live predator. Importantly, we measured offspring behaviour and survival in the face of the same type of predator that threatened their mothers (Northern pike). 3. We did not find evidence for adaptive maternal programming; offspring of predator-exposed mothers were less likely to orient to the predator than offspring from unexposed mothers. In our predation assay, orienting to the predator was an effective antipredator behaviour and those that oriented, survived for longer. 4. In addition, offspring from predator-exposed mothers were caught more quickly by the predator on average than offspring from unexposed mothers. The difference in antipredator behaviour between the maternal predator-exposure treatments offers a potential behavioural mechanism contributing to the difference in survival between maternal treatments. 5. However, the strength and direction of the maternal effect on offspring survival depended on offspring size. Specifically, the larger the offspring from predator-exposed mothers, the more vulnerable they were to predation compared to offspring from unexposed mothers. 6. Our results suggest that the predation risk perceived by mothers can have long-term behavioural and fitness consequences for offspring in response to the same predator. These stress-mediated maternal effects can have nonadaptive consequences for offspring when they find themselves alone with a predator. In addition, complex interactions between such maternal effects and offspring traits such as size can influence our conclusions about the adaptive nature of maternal effects.
McGhee, Katie E.; Pintor, Lauren M.; Suhr, Elissa L.; Bell, Alison M.
Single-gene analyses indicate that maternal genes associated with metabolic conditions (e.g., obesity) may influence the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs). However, to our knowledge, there have been no assessments of maternal-fetal metabolic gene-gene interactions and NTDs. We investigated 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms among 7 maternal metabolic genes (ADRB3, ENPP1, FTO, LEP, PPARG, PPARGC1A, and TCF7L2) and 2 fetal metabolic genes (SLC2A2 and UCP2). Samples were obtained from 737 NTD case-parent triads included in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study for birth years 1999-2007. We used a 2-step approach to evaluate maternal-fetal gene-gene interactions. First, a case-only approach was applied to screen all potential maternal and fetal interactions (n = 76), as this design provides greater power in the assessment of gene-gene interactions compared to other approaches. Specifically, ordinal logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each maternal-fetal gene-gene interaction, assuming a log-additive model of inheritance. Due to the number of comparisons, we calculated a corrected p-value (q-value) using the false discovery rate. Second, we confirmed all statistically significant interactions (q < 0.05) using a log-linear approach among case-parent triads. In step 1, there were 5 maternal-fetal gene-gene interactions with q < 0.05. The "top hit" was an interaction between maternal ENPP1 rs1044498 and fetal SLC2A2 rs6785233 (interaction OR = 3.65, 95% CI: 2.32-5.74, p = 2.09×10(-8), q=0.001), which was confirmed in step 2 (p = 0.00004). Our findings suggest that maternal metabolic genes associated with hyperglycemia and insulin resistance and fetal metabolic genes involved in glucose homeostasis may interact to increase the risk of NTDs. PMID:24332798
Lupo, Philip J; Mitchell, Laura E; Canfield, Mark A; Shaw, Gary M; Olshan, Andrew F; Finnell, Richard H; Zhu, Huiping
Background Cryptorchism is strongly associated with the development of testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs), possibly owing to a common aetiology. However, while TGCT incidence varies greatly between white and black men, little variability has been reported between the two groups in cryptorchism prevalence. This may suggest that cryptorchism risk factors differ by ethnicity. Methods To examine this hypothesis, a prospective analysis was conducted among black and white participants in the US Collaborative Perinatal Project. White participants included 238 cryptorchid sons and 12 296 non-cryptorchid sons, while black participants included 188 cryptorchid sons and 11 942 non-cryptorchid sons. Results While cryptorchism was significantly more common among white sons (1.90% vs 1.55%; P = 0.04), the difference was incompatible with the 5-fold difference in TGCT rates. The principal maternal risk factors among white sons were age (P = 0.03), hypertension/proteinuria (P = 0.006), and length of time to become pregnant (P = 0.055), while major maternal risk factors among black sons were age (P = 0.06), height (P = 0.007), weight (P = 0.06), and radiation exposure (P = 0.02). Only maternal height, however, had a different relationship with risk among black and white sons. Neonatal associations with risk (shorter gestational age, lower birthweight, shorter length) were similar in the two groups. Conclusions These results do not support the hypothesis that the risk factors for cryptorchism vary dramatically by ethnicity but may suggest that cryptorchism is not as closely linked to TGCT among black men as among white men.
McGlynn, Katherine A; Graubard, Barry I; Klebanoff, Mark A; Longnecker, Matthew P
Food insecurity represents a lack of access to enough food to meet basic needs. We hypothesized that food insecurity may increase birth defect risks, because it is an indicator of increased stress or compromised nutrition, which are both implicated in birth defect etiologies. This study used population-based case-control data. Included in the analysis were 1,189 case mothers and 695 control mothers who were interviewed by telephone. We calculated a food insecurity score as the number of affirmative responses to 5 questions from a shortened instrument designed to measure food insecurity. OR for the food insecurity score specified as a linear term indicated that a higher score was associated with increased risk of cleft palate, d-transposition of the great arteries, tetralogy of Fallot, spina bifida, and anencephaly, but not with cleft lip with or without cleft palate, after adjustment for maternal race-ethnicity, education, BMI, intake of folic acid-containing supplements, dietary intake of folate and energy, neighborhood crime, and stressful life events. In addition, several models suggested effect modification by certain factors. For example, for anencephaly, among women with the worst score for neighborhood crime (i.e. 6), the OR associated with a 1-unit change in the food insecurity score was 1.57 (95% CI 1.06, 2.33), whereas among women with a low crime score (i.e. 2), the corresponding OR was 1.16 (95% CI 0.96, 1.38). This study suggests that increased risks of certain birth defects may be included among the negative consequences of food insecurity. PMID:17709447
Carmichael, Suzan L; Yang, Wei; Herring, Amy; Abrams, Barbara; Shaw, Gary M
The purpose of the present study was to examine longitudinal associations among maternal responsiveness, self-regulation, and behavioral adjustment in adolescents. The authors used structural equation modeling to test a model that demonstrates that the effects of early cumulative risk on behavioral problems is mediated by maternal responsiveness…
Doan, Stacey N.; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Evans, Gary W.
A matched case control study has been conducted in the children's hospitals in Alexandria, Egypt, during 2 years-period, aiming at investigating the risk factors for the occurrence of congenital heart diseases. Our results showed that the significant risk factors for developing any type of congenital heart disease and ventricular septal defects were: older paternal age at birth, positive consanguinity, positive family history, female sex hormones, irradiation, hazardous maternal occupation, diabetes mellitus and suburban or rural residence. However, some environmental/teratogenic factors were not implicated in the etiology of atrial septal defects or pulmonary stenosis. These findings strongly suggest that environmental factors vary according to the specific type of congenital heart disease. This study emphasizes on the need to instruct the public about the importance of pre-marital counseling and the deleterious effects of various teratogens in the environment. PMID:11297222
Bassili, A; Mokhtar, S A; Dabous, N I; Zaher, S R; Mokhtar, M M; Zaki, A
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic antigen driven disease, whereby food and/or aeroallergens result in inflammation and luminal narrowing, and the clinical symptoms of dysphagia and food bolus obstruction events (FBOE). Established risk factors are male gender, Caucasian race and atopy. Increased risk amongst family members, and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in a gene coding thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) on the pseudoautosomal region of the X and Y chromosomes supports a genetic predisposition. Environmental factors including the timing and nature of food and aeroallergen exposure to the developing immune system may be important, whilst esophageal barrier function integrity and the influence of microbiota are worthy of future research. PMID:24990069
Philpott, H; Nandurkar, S; Royce, S G; Thien, F; Gibson, P R
This study examined maternal parenting stress in a sample of 430 boys and girls including those at risk for externalizing behavior problems. Children and their mothers were assessed when the children were ages 2, 4, and 5. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to examine stability of parenting stress across early childhood and to examine…
Williford, Amanda P.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.
The authors base their experience on 12 women affected by endometrial carcinoma. Problems have been diagnosed in the post-menopausal and climacterium period, considering the clinical, hormonal and lipidic profile and some tumoral markers. The most risk factors for the endometrial adenocarcinoma have been collected in the adiposity with hypertension and hyperglycemia, above all in nullipara women with late menopause and dyslipidemia. PMID:8414144
Giannone, R; Bernorio, R; Poli, M
The risk for multifactorial diseases is determined by risk factors that frequently apply across disorders (universal risk\\u000a factors). To investigate unresolved issues on etiology of and individual’s susceptibility to multifactorial diseases, research\\u000a focus should shift from single determinant-outcome relations to effect modification of universal risk factors. We present\\u000a a model to investigate universal risk factors of multifactorial diseases, based on
Ronald P. Stolk; Judith G. M. Rosmalen; Dirkje S. Postma; Rudolf A. de Boer; Gerjan Navis; Joris P. J. Slaets; Johan Ormel; Bruce H. R. Wolffenbuttel
Background Little is known about the relationship between maternal occupational physical exertion and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) with preterm delivery (PTD) among Thai women, a population that differs in many respects from women in Western countries. Objectives To evaluate associations of maternal occupational physical exertion and LTPA with PTD in aggregate and in subgroups (i.e., spontaneous preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membrane, medically indicated preterm delivery, moderate preterm delivery [gestational age 32–36 weeks], and very preterm delivery [<32 weeks]) among Thai women. Methods This case-control study included 467 PTD cases and 467 term controls. Maternal occupational exertion during pregnancy, as well as habitual engagement in LTPA before and during pregnancy was assessed using a structured questionnaire administered after delivery. Logistic regression procedures were used to examine relationships between both occupational and leisure time physical activity and PTD. Results After controlling for potential confounders, women who reported heavy physical occupational exertion during pregnancy, compared with other women, had a 2.42-fold increased risk of PTD overall [OR=2.42, 95% CI: 1.15, 5.09]. Very PTD [OR=4.57, 95% CI: 1.65, 12.64] and medically indicated PTD [OR=3.79, 95% CI: 1.54, 9.32] were particularly strongly associated with heavy occupational exertion. Maternal participation in LTPA before pregnancy was associated with a 24% reduction in PTD risk overall [OR=0.76, 95% CI: 0.57, 1.00], though no similar pattern in risk reduction was observed for LTPA performed during the first 6 months of pregnancy [OR=0.96, 95% CI: 0.68, 1.36]. Conclusion Consistent with some previous reports, we noted that heavy occupational physical exertion is associated with at least a doubling in PTD risk. Patterns of associations of PTD risk with LTPA were less well delineated in this Thai population.
Nelson, Kailey; Lohsoonthorn, Vitool; Williams, Michelle A.
Identifying the effects of maternal risk factors during pregnancy on infant and child health is an area of tremendous research interest. However, of interest to policy makers is unraveling the causal effects of prenatal risk factors, not their associations with child health, which may be confounded by several unobserved factors. In this paper, we evaluate the utility of genetic variants in three genes that have unequivocal evidence of being related to three major risk factors – CHRNA3 for smoking, ADH1B for alcohol use, and FTO for obesity – as instrumental variables for identifying the causal effects of such factors during pregnancy. Using two independent datasets, we find that these variants are overall predictive of the risk factors and are not systematically related to observed confounders, suggesting that they may be useful instruments. We also find some suggestive evidence that genetic effects are stronger during than before pregnancy. We provide an empirical example illustrating the use of these genetic variants as instruments to evaluate the effects of risk factors on birth weight. Finally, we offer suggestions for researchers contemplating the use of these variants as instruments.
von Hinke Kessler Scholder, Stephanie
With an aim of promoting primary prevention of cancer, major avoidable risk factors as well as protective factors of cancer are reviewed based on previous epidemiological studies. Among various risk factors of cancer, tobacco is the most important avoidable risk factor for cancers of the oral cavity, larynx, lung, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, kidney (pelvis), ureter, bladder, and cervix.
Abstract Background: Anastomotic leakage is a dreaded complication of colorectal surgery, as it greatly increases the morbidity, mortality and has been associated with augmented local recurrence and diminished survival. The frequency of this complication is high in emergency colorectal surgery, especially for bowel occlusion, (13% for emergency vs. 4% in elective), due to visceral distension and, therefore, an incongruence in the size of each of the stumps, combined with the lack of mechanical preparation and risk of fecal contamination during operation. Methods: We studied the incidence of anastomotic fistula in the surgery clinic of the “Sf. Pantelimon” Emergency Hospital, between 2006 and 2010, on a lot of 251 patients who underwent different types of colic resection. Apart from the anatomic location of the disease, and the level of anastomosis, we included in our database the following criteria: the patient’s age and gender, type of colic pathology, surgical technique, emergency or elective surgery, comorbidities. Results: An ileocolic anastomosis was performed for 84 patients (33,46 %), for 114 patients (45,41%) a colo-colic anastomosis was carried out, 2 patients (0,79%) had ileorectal anastomosis and 51 patients (20,31%) underwent a colorectal anastomosis. From the comparative analysis of risk factors (the emergency interventions, the anastomosis location, the age and gender of the patient), a significantly increased value of the relative risk of anastomotic fistula was registered for the cases with emergency intervention (x 6,61) and for the colorectal anastomosis following the left hemi colectomies (x 2,23). Discussions: In our study, among the clinical and biological factors analyzed, emergency intervention was the most signi?cant factor associated with anastomotic leakage. Surgery performed in emergency settings, on debilitated patients without adequate preoperative preparation, has an increased risk for anastomotic dehiscence.
Calin, MD; Balalau, C; Popa, F; Voiculescu, S; Scaunasu, RV
BACKGROUND--A study was carried out to analyse the impact of maternal asthma on the risk of preterm delivery and the contribution of preterm delivery to the development of childhood asthma. METHODS--Two cross sectional community studies of 1872 children (5-11 years) in 1991 and 3746 children in 1993 were performed. A respiratory health questionnaire was distributed throughout 15 schools in Merseyside
Y J Kelly; B J Brabin; P Milligan; D P Heaf; J Reid; M G Pearson
Old Order Amish, founded by a small number of Swiss immigrants, exist in culturally isolated communities across rural North America. The consequences of genetic isolation and inbreeding within this group are evident by increased frequencies of many monogenic diseases and several complex disorders. Conversely, the prevalence of Alzheimer disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, is lower in the Amish than in the general American population. Since mitochondrial dysfunction has been proposed as an underlying cause of AD and a specific haplogroup was found to affect AD susceptibility in Caucasians, we investigated whether inherited mitochondrial haplogroups affect risk of developing AD dementia in Ohio and Indiana Amish communities. Ninety-five independent matrilines were observed across six large pedigrees and three small pedigrees then classified into seven major European haplogroups. Haplogroup T is the most frequent haplogroup represented overall in these maternal lines (35.4%) while observed in only 10.6% in outbred American and European populations. Furthermore, haplogroups J and K are less frequent (1.0%) than in the outbred data set (9.4-11.2%). Affected case matrilines and unaffected control lines were chosen from pedigrees to test whether specific haplogroups and their defining SNPs confer risk of AD. We did not observe frequency differences between AD cases compared to controls overall or when stratified by sex. Therefore, we suggest that the genetic effect responsible for AD dementia in the affected Amish pedigrees is unlikely to be of mitochondrial origin and may be caused by nuclear genetic factors. PMID:16078048
van der Walt, Joelle M; Scott, William K; Slifer, Susan; Gaskell, P C; Martin, Eden R; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen; Creason, Marilyn; Crunk, Amy; Fuzzell, Denise; McFarland, Lynne; Kroner, Charles C; Jackson, C E; Haines, Jonathan L; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A
Objective. To estimate the association between maternal obesity and risk of three different degrees of severity of obstetric anal sphincter injury. Methods. The study population consisted of 436,482 primiparous women with singleton term vaginal cephalic births between 1998 and 2011 identified in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry. Women were grouped into six categories of BMI. BMI 18.5–24.9 was set as reference. Primary outcome was third-degree perineal laceration, partial or total, and fourth-degree perineal laceration. Adjustments were made for year of delivery, maternal age, fetal head position at delivery, infant birth weight and instrumental delivery. Results. The overall prevalence of third- or four-degree anal sphincter injury was 6.6% (partial anal sphincter injury 4.6%, total anal sphincter injury 1.2%, unclassified as either partial and total 0.2%, or fourth degree lacerations 0.6%). The risk for a partial, total, or a fourth-degree anal sphincter injury decreased with increasing maternal BMI most pronounced for total anal sphincter injury where the risk among morbidly obese women was half that of normal weight women, OR 0.47 95% CI 0.28–0.78. Conclusion. Obese women had a favourable outcome compared to normal weight women concerning serious pelvic floor damages at birth.
Objectives The objective of this study was to examine whether maternal exposure to asthmogens during pregnancy is associated with the development of asthma in 7-year-old Danish children, taking atopic status and sex into consideration. Design The study is a prospective follow-up of a birth cohort. Setting and participants A total of 41?724 women and their children from The Danish National Birth Cohort were categorised according to maternal occupational exposure. Exposure information was obtained by combining job title in pregnancy and 18?months after pregnancy with a commonly used asthma Job Exposure Matrix. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcome was parent-reported asthma among their 7-year-old children in an internet-based questionnaire. Secondary outcome was asthma among the same children with or without atopic dermatitis and among boys and girls, respectively. Results Prenatal exposure to low molecular weight (LMW) agents was borderline associated with asthma in children with OR 1.17 (0.95 to 1.44) for children with atopic dermatitis and 1.10 (0.98 to 1.22) for children without. Maternal postnatal exposure was associated with asthma (OR 1.15 (1.04 to 1.28). After mutual adjustment,postnatal exposure (OR 1.13 (0.99 to 1.29) and the combined effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure (OR 1.34 (1.19 to 1.51)) seem to increase the risk of asthma in children. No significant associations were observed for other prenatal or postnatal exposures. The gender of the child did not modify the aforementioned associations. Conclusions Maternal occupational exposures during pregnancy do not seem to be a substantial risk factor for the development of asthma in 7-year-old children. Maternal prenatal and postnatal exposures to LMW agents may predispose the propensity of the children to develop asthma. Future studies should prioritise the characterisation of the timing of exposure in relation to the birth.
Christensen, Berit Hvass; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Hougaard, Karin S?rig; Skadhauge, Lars R; Hansen, Kirsten Skamstrup; Frydenberg, Morten; Schlunssen, Vivi
This study investigated the unique relations between school concentrations of student risk factors and measures of reading, mathematics, and attendance. It used an integrated administrative data system to create a combined data set of risks (i.e., birth risks, teen mother, low maternal education, homelessness, maltreatment, and lead exposure) for…
Fantuzzo, John W.; LeBoeuf, Whitney A.; Rouse, Heather L.
... insomnia. Sleep Problems as a Risk Factor for Suicide As noted above, sleep problems are associated with ... disorders, both of which are risk factors for suicide (Wong & Brower, 2012). Overarousal, marked by agitation and ...
Maternal diabetes increases the risk of congenital malformations in the offspring of affected pregnancies. This increase arises from the teratogenic effect of the maternal diabetic milieu on the developing embryo, although the mechanism of this action is poorly understood. In the present study, we examined whether the vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA), a common drug with well-known teratogenic properties, may interact with maternal diabetes to alter the incidence of congenital malformations in mice. Our results show that when treated with RA, embryos of diabetic mice are significantly more prone than embryos of nondiabetic mice to develop caudal regression, a defect that is highly associated with diabetic pregnancy in humans. By studying the vestigial tail (Wnt-3a(vt)) mutant, we provide evidence that Wnt-3a, a gene that controls the development of the caudal region, is directly involved in the pathogenic pathway of RA-induced caudal regression. We further show that the molecular basis of the increased susceptibility of embryos of diabetic mice to RA involves enhanced downregulation of Wnt-3a expression. This positive interaction between RA and maternal diabetes may have implications for humans in suggesting increased susceptibility to environmental teratogens during diabetic pregnancy. PMID:12196475
Chan, Billy W H; Chan, Kwok-Siu; Koide, Tsuyoshi; Yeung, Sau-Man; Leung, Maran B W; Copp, Andrew J; Loeken, Mary R; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Shum, Alisa S W
Background Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest rates of maternal and neonatal mortality worldwide. Young maternal age at delivery has been proposed as risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome, yet there is insufficient data from Sub-Saharan Africa. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of maternal adolescence on pregnancy outcomes in the Central African country Gabon. Methodology and Principal Findings Data on maternal age, parity, birth weight, gestational age, maternal Plasmodium falciparum infection, use of bednets, and intake of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy were collected in a cross-sectional survey in 775 women giving birth in three mother-child health centers in Gabon. Adolescent women (?16 years of age) had a significantly increased risk to deliver a baby with low birth weight in univariable analysis (22.8%, 13/57, vs. 9.3%, 67/718, OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.5–5.6) and young maternal age showed a statistically significant association with the risk for low birth weight in multivariable regression analysis after correction for established risk factors (OR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.1–6.5). In further analysis adolescent women were shown to attend significantly less antenatal care visits than adult mothers (3.3±1.9 versus 4.4±1.9 mean visits, p<0.01, n?=?356) and this difference accounted at least for part of the excess risk for low birth weight in adolescents. Conclusion Our data demonstrate the importance of adolescent age as risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome. Antenatal care programs specifically tailored for the needs of adolescents may be necessary to improve the frequency of antenatal care visits and pregnancy outcomes in this risk group in Central Africa.
Kurth, Florian; Belard, Sabine; Mombo-Ngoma, Ghyslain; Schuster, Katharina; Adegnika, Ayola A.; Bouyou-Akotet, Marielle K.; Kremsner, Peter G.; Ramharter, Michael
In addition to the revascularization and glycemic management interventions assigned at random, the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) design includes the uniform control of major coronary artery disease risk factors, including dyslipidemia, hypertension, smoking, central obesity, and sedentary lifestyle. Target levels for risk factors were adjusted throughout the trial to comply with changes in recommended clinical practice guidelines. At present, the goals are low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <2.59 mmol/L (<100 mg/dL) with an optional goal of <1.81 mmol/L (<70 mg/dL); plasma triglyceride level <1.70 mmol/L (<150 mg/dL); blood pressure level <130 mm Hg systolic and <80 mm Hg diastolic; and smoking cessation treatment for all active smokers. Algorithms were developed for the pharmacologic management of dyslipidemia and hypertension. Dietary prescriptions for the management of glycemia, plasma lipid profiles, and blood pressure levels were adapted from existing clinical practice guidelines. Patients with a body mass index >25 were prescribed moderate caloric restriction; after the trial was under way, a lifestyle weight-management program was instituted. All patients were formally prescribed both endurance and resistance/flexibility exercises, individually adapted to their level of disability and fitness. Pedometers were distributed as a biofeedback strategy. Strategies to achieve the goals for risk factors were designed by BARI 2D working groups (lipid, cardiovascular and hypertension, and nonpharmacologic intervention) and the ongoing implementation of the strategies is monitored by lipid, hypertension, and lifestyle intervention management centers.
Albu, Jeanine; Gottlieb, Sheldon H.; August, Phyllis; Nesto, Richard W.; Orchard, Trevor J.
Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) has various complicated causes, and more and more researches are focused on its etiology. Genetic factors are the most common risk factors of RSA; immune factors, infection factors, male factors and female factors play an important role; environmental pollution and some other unknown factors may also be conspirators. This article presents an overview on the possible risk factors of RSA. PMID:24010215
Gu, Chun-Hui; Liang, Wen-Jun; Fu, Lu-Lu; Zheng, Lian-Wen
record abstracts with risk factor data removed. Cases were more likely than controls to suffer from prior severe kidney disease (adjusted OR [95% CI]516.9 [1.5 to 193], P50.02) and diabetes mellitus (adjusted OR [95% CI]52.7 [1.4 to 5.2], P50.004). Cases infected with skin flora had received intravenous fluids more often (adjusted OR [95% CI]56.7 [1.1 to 41], P50.04) and had
Nondental Exposures; Brian L. Strom; Mph Elias Abrutyn; Jesse A. Berlin; Scd Judith L. Kinman; Roy S. Feldman; Dmsc Paul D. Stolley; Mph Matthew E. Levison; Oksana M. Korzeniowski; Donald Kaye
OBJECTIVE To assess the associations between maternal obesity, uterine contraction frequency, and spontaneous preterm birth in at-risk women. METHODS In a secondary analysis, we analyzed data from 253 at-risk women (prior spontaneous preterm birth, vaginal bleeding) enrolled in a multi-center observational study of home uterine activity monitoring at 11 centers. All women wore a uterine activity monitor twice daily from 22 through 34 weeks of gestation. Mean and maximal contractions/hour at 22-24, 25-26, 27-28, 29-30, 31-32, and at or after 33 weeks of gestation were compared between overweight/obese women (a BMI at 22-24 weeks greater than 25 kg/m2) and normal/underweight women (a BMI of at least 25 kg/m2) at each gestational age interval. Multivariable analysis evaluated the influences of BMI, contractions, fetal fibronectin and transvaginal cervical length on spontaneous preterm birth before 35 weeks. RESULTS Obese/overweight women (n=156) were significantly less likely to experience spontaneous preterm birth before 35 weeks (8.3 vs 21.7%, p<0.01). For each gestational age interval before 32 weeks, obese/overweight women had fewer mean contractions/hour (P<0.01 for each) and maximal contractions/hour (p<0.01 for each) than normal/underweight women, although their mean cervical lengths (34.3 vs 33.1 mm, p=0.25), and fetal fibronectin levels (7.1% vs. 7.2% ?50 ng/mL, p=0.97) were similar at study enrollment. Obese/overweight status was associated with a lower risk of spontaneous preterm birth before 35 weeks after controlling for contraction frequency and other factors evaluated at 22-24 and 31-32 weeks, but not at later time periods. CONCLUSION Obese/overweight women at risk for spontaneous preterm birth exhibit less uterine activity and less frequent spontaneous preterm birth before 35 weeks of gestation than normal/underweight women.
Ehrenberg, Hugh M.; Iams, Jay D.; Goldenberg, Robert L.; Newman, Roger B.; Weiner, Steven J.; Sibai, Baha M.; Caritis, Steve N.; Miodovnik, Menachem; Dombrowski, Mitchell P.
Fundamental to maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein screening is the clinical utility of the laboratory report. It follows that the scientific form of expression in that report is vital. Professional societies concur that patient-specific risk reporting is the preferred form. However, some intermediate steps being taken to calculate patient-specific risks are invalid because of the erroneous assumption that multiples of the median (MoMs) represent an interlaboratory common currency. The numerous methods by which MoMs may be calculated belie the foregoing assumption. PMID:1689955
Macri, J N; Kasturi, R V; Krantz, D A; Cook, E J; Larsen, J W
Fundamental to maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein screening is the clinical utility of the laboratory report. It follows that the scientific form of expression in that report is vital. Professional societies concur that patient-specific risk reporting is the preferred form. However, some intermediate steps being taken to calculate patient-specific risks are invalid because of the erroneous assumption that multiples of the median (MoMs) represent an interlaboratory common currency. The numerous methods by which MoMs may be calculated belie the foregoing assumption.
Macri, J N; Kasturi, R V; Krantz, D A; Cook, E J; Larsen, J W
Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…
Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian
Background Misperceptions regarding maternal health outcomes after vaginal delivery (VD) and cesarean delivery (CD) may contribute to the increasing trend towards CD. The effects of mode of delivery on parents’ perceived risks of health outcomes are unclear. This study aimed to compare the perceived risks of maternal health outcomes among pregnant women and their partners before and after delivery, and to evaluate factors related to inaccurate perceptions among women after delivery. Methods Consecutive eligible nulliparous women at 36-40 weeks gestation were approached during antenatal registration for electronic fetal monitoring, regardless of whether CD or VD was planned. Eligible women were aged 18-45 years, received antenatal care and planned delivery at the First Hospital of Tsinghua University, Beijing, and had partners who could be approached. Concerns about 12 maternal health outcomes were identified by literature search and validated using the content validity index. Women and their partners were questioned anonymously about the perceived risks of outcomes after CD and VD before delivery, and the perceived risks of the delivery experienced at 2-3 days after delivery. Perceived risks were compared with reported risks, and factors associated with inaccurate perceptions were evaluated. Results Among 272 couples approached, 264 women (97%) and 257 partners (94%) completed the questionnaire both before and after delivery. After CD, the perceived risk of seven health outcomes decreased in women and the perceived risk of two health outcomes increased in partners. After VD, the perceived risk of two outcomes decreased and of one outcome increased in women, and the perceived risk of three outcomes increased in partners. Women perceived higher risks of long-term perineal pain, pelvic organ prolapse, urinary/fecal incontinence, sexual dissatisfaction, and negative impact on the couple’s relationship after VD than after CD (all p?0.05). CD was the most common factor associated with inaccurate perceptions among women after delivery. Conclusions The perceived risks of maternal health outcomes decreased after delivery in women and increased after delivery in their partners. Women continued to have inaccurate perceptions of the risks of health outcomes after delivery, indicating that further education is important.
We investigated the association of biological, sociocultural and economic risk factors with child mortality in Abu Dhabi from 1 January-31 December 1997. With McNemar chi-squared test, most selected biological risk factors were statistically associated with child mortality, although maternal age older than 40 years and history of fetal death were not positively correlated with neonate, infant or age under 5
H. A. Al-Hosani; J. Brebner; A. B. Bener; J. N. Norman
The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between pregnancy and childbirth factors and subsequent quality of maternal interactive behavior in a sample of 116 full-term infants and their mothers. Mothers reported on the conditions of childbirth when infants were 6-8 months of age, and their interactive behavior was observed during a…
Bernier, Annie; Jarry-Boileau, Veronique; Tarabulsy, George M.; Miljkovitch, Raphaele
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the compliance rate with a maternal risk-factor-based guideline for the prevention of neonatal group B streptococcal (GBS) sepsis. Methods: In August 1994, a risk-factor-based guideline for selective intrapartum prophylaxis against neonatal GBS was adopted by a group model health maintenance organization. This guideline identified the following maternal risk factors for neonatal GBS sepsis: preterm delivery, rupture of membranes for >18 h, fever/chorioamnionitis, and history of a previous GBS-affected child. Patients with one or more risk factors were to receive intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis consisting of either ampicillin, erythromycin, or clindamycin. We conducted a retrospective chart review to record risk factors and use of antibiotics. We hypothesized that >90% of patients with risk factors would receive intrapartum chemoprophylaxis. Results: A total of 805 maternal charts were reviewed. Of these, 105 (13%) were candidates for intrapartum prophylaxis. We found an overall compliance rate of 65%. Compliance rates by risk factor were preterm delivery (51%), prolonged rupture of membranes (73%), fever/chorioamnionitis (87%), and previous affected child (100%). Conclusions: Our results show unexpectedly low compliance rates with a risk-factor-based guideline for the prevention of neonatal GBS sepsis. Only 65% of women with any risk factor for neonatal GBS sepsis received intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis appropriately. Educational efforts to improve compliance with a risk-factor-based guideline should specifically address mothers delivering at 34–36 weeks gestation and mothers with prolonged rupture of membranes.
McDuffie, Robert S.; Russell, Kathy; Meikle, Susan
The maternal mortality ratio and other maternal health indicators are worse for developing countries than for the developed world due to improved access to quality care during pregnancy and especially at delivery in the industrialized world. This study was carried out to identify the factors which influenced choice of place of delivery by pregnant women in Enugu, southeastern Nigeria, and to recommend ways to improve women's access to skilled attendants at delivery. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered by interviewers to women who had delivered within 3 months prior to date of data collection. The response rate was 75.5% (n=1098). Of the respondents, 52.9% delivered outside health institutions and 47.1% in health institutions. The major factors influencing choice of place of delivery included promptness of care, competence of midwife/doctor, affordability, health education, 24 h presence of doctors, team work among doctors and presence of specialist obstetricians. There were statistically significant associations between choice of institutional or non-institutional deliveries and socio-demographic/economic factors such as place of residence (urban/rural), religion, educational status, tribe, marital status, occupational level, husband's occupational and educational levels, age and parity (p<0.05). We conclude that factors which will positively influence women to deliver in health institutions in Enugu, Nigeria include a variety of interacting social, economic and health system factors, which operate at various levels-the household, community, the health institutions and the larger social and political environment. Attention to these factors will not only improve maternity utilization but, hopefully, also will reduce the high maternal mortality and improve other maternal health indicators in the study area. PMID:16766107
Onah, Hyacinth Eze; Ikeako, Lawrence C; Iloabachie, Gabriel C
Background Little is known regarding the cardiovascular disease risk factors among Chamorros residing in the United States. Methods The Chamorro Directory International and the CDC's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Questionnaire (BRFSS) were used to assess the health related practices and needs of a random sample of 228 Chamorros. Results Inactivity, hypertension, elevated cholesterol and diabetes mellitus were more prevalent in this Chamorro sample compared to the US average. Participants who were 50-and-older or unemployed were more likely to report hypertension, diabetes and inactivity, but they were also more likely to consume more fruits and vegetables than their younger and employed counterparts. Women were more likely to report hypertension and diabetes, whereas men were more likely to have elevated BMI and to have never had their blood cholesterol checked. Conclusion The study provides data that will help healthcare providers, public health workers and community leaders identify where to focus their health improvement efforts for Chamorros and create culturally competent programs to promote health in this community.
Chiem, Binh; Nguyen, Victoria; Wu, Phillis L; Ko, Celine M; Cruz, Lee Ann; Sadler, Georgia Robins
Down syndrome birth is attributable to multiple maternal risk factors that include both genetic and environmental challenges, but there is limited understanding of the complicated interactions among these factors. In the present study, a case-control analysis of approximately 400 infants with or without suspected Down syndrome reported between 2003 and 2009 and their parents in and around Kolkata, India, was conducted. Maternal exposure to 2 environmental risk factors (smokeless chewing tobacco and oral contraceptive pills) was recorded, and families were genotyped with microsatellite markers to establish the origin of nondisjunction errors as well as recombination patterns of nondisjoined chromosome 21. With logistic regression models, the possible interactions among all of these risk factors, as well as with maternal age, were explored. Smokeless chewing tobacco was associated with significant risk for meiosis II nondisjunction and achiasmate (nonexchange) meiosis I error among young mothers. By contrast, the risk due to oral contraceptive pills was associated with older mothers. Study results suggest that the chewing tobacco risk factor operates independently of the maternal age effect, whereas contraceptive pill-related risk may interact with or exacerbate age-related risk. Moreover, both risk factors, when present together, exhibited a strong age-dependent effect. PMID:21957181
Ghosh, Sujoy; Hong, Chang-Sook; Feingold, Eleanor; Ghosh, Papiya; Ghosh, Priyanka; Bhaumik, Pranami; Dey, Subrata Kumar
Objective Evaluate whether there is an association between maternal occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oral cleftsin offspring. This is the first human study of PAHs and clefts of which the authors are aware. Design Case-control study. Setting, Participants Data for 1997–2002 from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large population-based case-control study in the US, were analyzed. Maternal telephone interviews yielded information on jobs held in the month before through three months after conception. Two industrial hygienists independently assessed occupational exposure to PAHs ; all jobs rated as exposed or with rating difficulty were reviewed with a third industrial hygienist to reach consensus on all exposure parameters. Logistic regression estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL±P) and cleft palate alone (CP). Results There were 2989 controls( 3.5% exposed), 805 cases of CL±P (5.8% exposed) and 439 cases of CP (4.6% exposed). The odds of maternal occupational exposure to PAH (any vs none) during pregnancy was increased for CL±P cases as compared with controls (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.18–2.40); the OR was 1.47 (95% CI 1.02–2.12) adjusted for maternal education. There was a statistically significant adjusted exposure-response relationship for CL±P (ptrend = 0.02). ORs for CP were not statistically significant. Conclusions Maternal occupational exposure to PAHs was associated with increased risk of cleft lip with or without cleft palate in offspring.
Langlois, Peter H; Hoyt, Adrienne T; Lupo, Philip J; Lawson, Christina C; Waters, Martha A; Desrosiers, Tania A; Shaw, Gary M; Romitti, Paul A; Lammer, Edward J
Objective. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with adverse maternal and child outcomes and contributes to obesity in women. Our aim was to identify early pregnancy factors associated with excessive GWG, in a contemporary nulliparous cohort. Methods. Participants in the SCOPE study were classified into GWG categories (“not excessive” versus “excessive”) based on pregravid body mass index (BMI) using 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines. Maternal characteristics and pregnancy risk factors at 14–16 weeks were compared between categories and multivariable analysis controlled for confounding factors. Results. Of 1950 women, 17% gained weight within the recommended range, 74% had excessive and 9% inadequate GWG. Women with excessive GWG were more likely to be overweight (adjOR 2.9 (95% CI 2.2–3.8)) or obese (adjOR 2.5 (95% CI 1.8–3.5)) before pregnancy compared to women with a normal BMI. Other factors independently associated with excessive GWG included recruitment in Ireland, younger maternal age, increasing maternal birthweight, cessation of smoking by 14–16 weeks, increased nightly sleep duration, high seafood diet, recent immigrant, limiting behaviour, and decreasing exercise by 14–16 weeks. Fertility treatment was protective. Conclusions. Identification of potentially modifiable risk factors for excessive GWG provides opportunities for intervention studies to improve pregnancy outcome and prevent maternal obesity.
Taylor, Rennae S.; Thompson, John M. D.; Flower, Deralie; Dekker, Gustaaf A.; Kenny, Louise C.; Poston, Lucilla; McCowan, Lesley M. E.
Eight percent of pregnancies involve hypertensive disorders, which can have serious complications for mothers and children. There has only been minimal research into hypertension in pregnancy in developing countries, including Jordan. Therefore, this study aimed to identify how frequent certain risk factors that apply to hyper-tensive disorders during pregnancy were among women in the Jordanian capital of Amman. A prospective case-control study was conducted on 184 Jordanian pregnant patients with hypertensive disorders and 172 age-matched control subjects recruited from the maternity ward of a tertiary public hospital in Amman city; they were followed-up until 85 days after the birth (late puerperium). A standardized questionnaire pilot-tested was completed by participants that included demographic data and known risk factors for hypertension in pregnancy. Statistical analysis SPSS was conducted to compare the frequency of risk factors using Fisher's exact test, chi-square, Student's t-tests, as well as multivariate logistic regression was conducted to identify independent risk factors. The results showed that chronic hypertension, prenatal hypertension, family history of preeclampsia, diabetes, high BMI, nulliparity, previous preeclampsia history and low education level were identified as risk factors for hypertensive disorders in pregnancy in this population; Moreover, diabetes, chronic hypertension and family history of preeclampsia were found to be independent risk factors. The results of the study contribute to the currently limited knowledge about the modifiable risk factors for hypertensive disorders during pregnancy among the Jordanian population, and could therefore be extremely useful for clinicians providing prenatal care. PMID:24576373
Suleiman, Amal K
Background Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) increases risk of large for gestational age neonates and subsequent tracking of excess weight throughout the life course for both mother and child. Although the physiological mechanisms underlying these associations are incomplete, the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis has garnered attention for its role in fetal growth and development. Our purpose was to characterize the IGF axis protein expression patterns in mother–infant dyads in respect of excessive GWG. Methods We obtained fasting serum samples and corresponding cord blood from eight controls (ADHERE group: ie, those who gained in accordance with 2009 Institute of Medicine GWG recommendations) and 13 exceeders (EXCEED group: ie, those who exceeded Institute of Medicine GWG recommendations). At study completion, we examined protein expression of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-1, IGFBP-3, IGFBP-4, and hormone concentrations in both maternal and cord blood. Results Between-group comparisons were made and revealed elevated maternal leptin (P ? 0.05) concentrations in gravidas who exceeded recommendations. There was a significantly higher number of obese women in the EXCEED group (P < 0.05). After adjustment, maternal leptin levels were positively correlated with maternal homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance score and excessive GWG (P ? 0.01). However, serum IGFBP-3 expression in the EXCEED mothers was greater than that in the ADHERE group (P ? 0.05). Conclusion These findings provide preliminary evidence suggesting that small deviations in IGFBP-regulated IGF bioavailability arising from excessive GWG/positive energy balance may affect adipocyte differentiation through subclinical insulin resistance.
Ferraro, Zachary M; Qiu, Qing; Gruslin, Andree; Adamo, Kristi B
The genetic basis of melanoma is complex and has both inherited and acquired components. Different genomic approaches have been used to identify a number of inherited risk factors, which can be stratified by penetrance and prevalence. Rare high-penetrance factors are expressed in familial clustering of melanoma and include mutations in CDKN2A (encoding p16(INK4a) and p14(ARF)) and CDK4. These genes are involved in cell-cycle arrest and melanocyte senescence and are nearly invariably targeted by somatic mutations during melanoma progression. Low-penetrance factors are common in the general population and include single-nucleotide polymorphisms in or near MC1R, ASIP, TYR and TYRP1. These genes are major determinants of hair and skin pigmentation, but their role in melanoma development remains unclear. This review describes the efforts that have led to the current understanding of melanoma susceptibility as the result of complex gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. Despite the significant advances, the majority of familial cases remain unaccounted for. PMID:19585149
Meyle, Kathrine Damm; Guldberg, Per
Purpose: To examine the relationships among maternal values, monitoring knowledge, parent-adolescent communication, and adolescent risk involvement based on adolescent gender. Methods: Parent reports of their personal values, monitoring knowledge, and communication with their children were compared to adolescent reports of risk involvement using information gathered from 647 Bahamian mother-adolescent (9?13 years) dyads. Results: Parent values of conservation (e.g., conformity) were positively associated with greater parent-adolescent communication and communication was significantly associated with greater monitoring knowledge for both genders. Among mother-son dyads only, group-based parent values of self-transcendence (e.g., universalism) were significantly associated with greater perceived parental monitoring knowledge; individualized self-enhancement values (e.g., hedonism) were negatively associated with open and supportive parent-adolescent communication. Conclusions: Parent values influence other parenting processes such as monitoring and communication. Parental monitoring, in turn, inversely influences adolescent risk involvement. These influences appear to differ based on the adolescent's gender as many of the relationships were stronger among mother-son dyads. These findings highlight a need to better understand the nature of the relationship between maternal values, parent-adolescent interactions, and adolescent's risk decisions.
Cottrell, Lesley; Yu, Shuli; Liu, Hongjie; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Bain, Rosa Mae; Stanton, Bonita
Methionine synthase (MTR) is required for the conversion of homocysteine (hcy) to methionine in the one-carbon metabolic pathway. Previous studies investigating a common MTR 2756A>G polymorphism as a maternal risk factor for the birth of a child with Down syndrome (DS) are conflicting and limited by small case-control cohorts, and its contribution to circulating hcy levels is still debated. We performed a large case-control study and a meta-analysis of the literature to further address the role of MTR 2756A>G as a maternal risk factor for the birth of a child with DS. 286 mothers of a DS child (MDS) and 305 control mothers of Italian origin were included in the case-control study. Genotyping was performed by means of PCR/RFLP technique. Data on circulating levels of hcy, folates, and vitamin B12 were available for 189 MDS and 194 control mothers. The meta analysis of previous and present data involved a total of 8 studies (1,171 MDS and 1,402 control mothers). Both the case-control study and the meta-analysis showed no association of MTR 2756A>G with the maternal risk of birth of a child with DS (OR = 1.15; 95 % CI 0.85-1.55, and OR = 1.08; 95 % CI 0.93-1.25, respectively), even after stratification of the overall data available for the meta-analysis into ethnic groups. No association of the studied polymorphism with circulating levels of hcy, folates, and vitamin B12 was observed. Present data do not support a role for MTR 2756A>G as independent maternal risk factor for a DS birth. PMID:24150725
Coppedè, Fabio; Bosco, Paolo; Lorenzoni, Valentina; Migheli, Francesca; Barone, Concetta; Antonucci, Ivana; Stuppia, Liborio; Romano, Corrado; Migliore, Lucia
To identify diabetes mellitus caused by the mitochondrial gene substitution at genomic nucleotide pair 3243 (M3243A ? G) we selected 87 diabetic patients with high risk factors such as maternal inheritance and hearing loss. Total DNA was extracted from peripheral leukocytes, and mitochondrial DNA fragments containing M3243A ? G were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplified fragments were
M. Fukui; K. Nakano; H. Obayashi; Y. Kitagawa; N. Nakamura; H. Mori; S. Kajiyama; S. Wada; M. Fujii; K. Yoshimori; T. Kanaitsuka; H. Shigeta; M. Kondo
Traffic accidents, which influence to every age group people, are an important public health. This study to determine which condition it has happened more, which days, months and years it has happened, what things have caused to happen traffic accidents. The study was made in Erciyes University Medical School Emergency Department. 31,550 patients applied to emergency department in a period of twelve months in 1998. 7098 (22%) cases of these were traffic accidents. It has done on 710 patients who have been brought to emergency by traffic accidents, and 10% systematic sampling of 7098 people. 504 (71%) of patients were male, 206 (29%) of them were female, the average age was 26.0 (min-max: 1-85). It was observed that traffic accidents occurred during peak times 1200-1800 p.m. The number of traffic accidents was higher during the weekends and in may and June than other times. All the accidents occurred in the same way both within and outside urban area. But the drivers hit the pedestrians more in the urban area. Although it has been seen 'the cars' in the accidents the most. The most mortality has been occurred in bus, minibus and motorbike accidents. The first treatment place of the casualties of 80.5% was at university emergency department. 619 all of the casualties who were admitted the university emergency department was simple injured. They all left the hospital with cure. 52 of casualties lost their life. As a result, some risk factors increase incidence of traffic accidents. Considering these risk factors in taking measures is of great importance in prevention of traffic accidents. Morbidity and mortality are affected by place where accidents occur, time of accident, properties of motor vehicles, and quality of medical care performed following the incident. PMID:11813478
Sözüer, M; Yildirim, C; Senol, V; Unalan, D; Naçar, M; Günay, O
Microsystem risk and protective factors associated with early sexual intercourse among low-income adolescents were assessed using bioecological theory and a risk and resiliency framework. Waves 1 and 2 of Welfare, Children and Families: A Three-City Study were used (N=984, 10–14 years). Findings showed age, gender, race, two-parent households, separated households, households where the mother formed a union between waves, transitioning onto welfare between waves, and delinquency increased the odds that adolescents were sexually active. Protective factors for early sexual activity included maternal education and father involvement. Risk factors for early sexual debut were age, gender, race, two-parent households, separated households, and delinquency. A protective factor for early sexual debut was maternal education. Findings differed by gender, race, and race*gender. Policy implications include increasing social and human capital among low-income mothers to promote family stability and providing diversified sexual education programs due to gender differences.
Jordahl, Tina; Lohman, Brenda J.
Pneumonia is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in infants. However, information of risk factors for pneumonia in children aged <6 months is limited. This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors and their contribution to infantile pneumonia in a large population-based survey. Of 24,200 randomly sampled main caregivers invited, 21,248 (87.8%) participated in this study. A structured questionnaire was used to interview the main caregivers. Information regarding whether hospitalization was required, family environment, and medical history were obtained. The prevalence of pneumonia was 0.62% in our study cohort. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that preterm birth, congenital cardiopulmonary disease, antibiotic use during pregnancy, maternal overweight, daily prenatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and visible mould on walls at home are risk factors associated with infantile pneumonia. Further study is warranted to investigate the causality and mechanisms of these novel factors. PMID:21920066
Chen, C H; Wen, H J; Chen, P C; Lin, S J; Chiang, T L; Hsieh, I C; Guo, Y L
Until a few years ago, vascular risks were not considered to play a role in Alzheimer's disease; However recent studies on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of this disease now suggest a strong association between vascular risk factors linked to cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore,vascular factors in middle age have been suggested to increase the risk of late onset Alzheimer's
We compared family risk and protective factors among potential high school dropouts with and without suicide-risk behaviors (SRB) and examined the extent to which these factors predict categories of SRB. Subjects were randomly selected from among potential dropouts in 14 high schools. Based upon suicide-risk status, 1,083 potential high school…
Randell, Brooke P.; Wang, Wen-Ling; Herting, Jerald R.; Eggert, Leona L.
Mature oocyte cytoplasm can reprogram somatic cell nuclei to the pluripotent state through a series of sequential events including protein exchange between the donor nucleus and ooplasm, chromatin remodeling, and pluripotency gene reactivation. Maternal factors that are responsible for this reprogramming process remain largely unidentified. Here, we demonstrate that knockdown of histone variant H3.3 in mouse oocytes results in compromised reprogramming and down-regulation of key pluripotency genes; and this compromised reprogramming for developmental potentials and transcription of pluripotency genes can be rescued by injecting exogenous H3.3 mRNA, but not H3.2 mRNA, into oocytes in somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos. We show that maternal H3.3, and not H3.3 in the donor nucleus, is essential for successful reprogramming of somatic cell nucleus into the pluripotent state. Furthermore, H3.3 is involved in this reprogramming process by remodeling the donor nuclear chromatin through replacement of donor nucleus-derived H3 with de novo synthesized maternal H3.3 protein. Our study shows that H3.3 is a crucial maternal factor for oocyte reprogramming and provides a practical model to directly dissect the oocyte for its reprogramming capacity. PMID:24799717
Wen, Duancheng; Banaszynski, Laura A; Liu, Ying; Geng, Fuqiang; Noh, Kyung-Min; Xiang, Jenny; Elemento, Olivier; Rosenwaks, Zev; Allis, C David; Rafii, Shahin
Variations in the serotonin transporter gene (5HTTLPR) and biased processing of face-emotion displays both have been implicated in the transmission of depression risk, but little is known about developmental influences on these relationships. Within a community sample of adolescents, we examine whether 5HTTLPR genotype moderates the link between maternal depressive history and errors in face-emotion labeling. When controlling for current levels of depression and anxiety among youth, a two-way interaction between maternal depressive history and 5HTTLPR genotype was detected. Specifically, adolescents whose mothers reported a depressive history and who had a low expressing genotype made more errors in classifying emotional faces when compared with adolescents with an intermediate or high expressing genotype, with or without maternal depression history. These findings highlight the complex manner in which maternal depression and genetic risk may interact to predict individual differences in social information processing, as it is moderated by the 5HTTLPR genotype.
Jacobs, Rachel H.; Pine, Daniel S.; Schoeny, Michael E.; Henry, David B.; Gollan, Jackie K.; Moy, Gregory; Cook, Edwin H.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.
Selective breeding of rats exhibiting differences in novelty-induced locomotion revealed that this trait predicts several differences in emotional behavior. Bred High Responders (bHRs) show exaggerated novelty-induced locomotion, aggression, and psychostimulant self-administration, compared to bred Low Responders (bLRs), which are inhibited and prone to anxiety- and depression-like behavior. Our breeding studies highlight the heritability of the bHR/bLR phenotypes, although environmental factors like maternal care also shape some aspects of these traits. We previously reported that HR vs. LR mothers act differently, but it was unclear whether their behaviors were genetically driven or influenced by their pups. The present study (a) used cross-fostering to evaluate whether the bHR/bLR maternal styles are inherent to mothers and/or are modulated by pups; and (b) assessed oxytocin and oxytocin receptor mRNA expression to examine possible underpinnings of bHR/bLR maternal differences. While bHR dams exhibited less maternal behavior than bLRs during the dark/active phase, they were very attentive to pups during the light phase, spending greater time passive nursing and in contact with pups compared to bLRs. Cross-fostering only subtly changed bHR and bLR dams’ behavior, suggesting that their distinct maternal styles are largely inherent to the mothers. We also found elevated oxytocin mRNA levels in the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus in bHR versus bLR dams, which may play some role in driving their behavior differences. Overall these studies shed light on the interplay between the genetics of mothers and infants in driving differences in maternal style.
Clinton, Sarah M.; Bedrosian, Tracy A.; Abraham, Antony D.; Watson, Stanley J.; Akil, Huda
Background Decreases in direct maternal deaths in Jamaica have been negated by growing indirect deaths. With sickle cell disease (SCD) a consistent underlying cause, we describe the epidemiology of maternal deaths in this population. Methods Demographic, service delivery and cause specific mortality rates were compared among women with (n?=?42) and without SCD (n?=?376), and between SCD women who died in 1998–2002 and 2003–7. Results Women with SCD had fewer viable pregnancies (p: 0.02) despite greater access to high risk antenatal care (p: 0.001), and more often died in an intensive care unit (p: 0.002). In the most recent period (2003–7) SCD women achieved more pregnancies (median 2 vs. 3; p: 0.009), made more antenatal visits (mean 3.3 vs. 7.3; p: 0.01) and were more often admitted antenatally (p:<0.0001). The maternal mortality ratio for SCD decedents was 7–11 times higher than the general population, with 41% of deaths attributable to their disorder. Cause specific mortality was higher for cardiovascular complications, gestational hypertension and haemorrhage. Respiratory failure was the leading immediate cause of death. Conclusions Women with SCD experience a significant excess risk of dying in pregnancy and childbirth [MMR: (SCD) 719/100,000, (non SCD) 78/100,000]. MDG5 cannot be realised without improving care for women with SCD. Tertiary services (e.g. ventilator support) are needed at regional centres to improve outcomes in this and other high risk populations. Universal SCD screening in pregnancy in populations of African and Mediterranean descent is needed as are guidelines for managing SCD pregnancies and educating families with SCD.
Asnani, Monika R.; McCaw-Binns, Affette M.; Reid, Marvin E.
This paper explores factors related to the use, amount and type of non-maternal child care infants experience in their first year, reporting on a prospective longitudinal study of 1201 families recruited from two different regions in England. The selection and timing of non-maternal child care was investigated within a socio-ecological model that…
Sylva, Kathy; Stein, Alan; Leach, Penelope; Barnes, Jacqueline; Malmberg, Lars-Erik
Background Nearly all women shower or take baths during early pregnancy; however, bathing habits (i.e., shower and bath length and frequency) may be related to the risk of maternal hyperthermia and exposure to water disinfection byproducts, both of which are suspected to increase risk for multiple types of birth defects. Thus, we assessed the relationships between bathing habits during pregnancy and the risk for several nonsyndromic birth defects in offspring. Methods Data for cases with one of 13 types of birth defects and controls from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study delivered during 2000–2007 were evaluated. Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each type of birth defect. Results There were few associations between shower frequency or bath frequency or length and risk for birth defects in offspring. The risk for gastroschisis in offspring was increased among women who reported showers lasting ?15 compared to <15 minutes (adjusted odds ratio: 1.43, 95% confidence interval: 1.18-1.72). In addition, we observed modest increases in the risk for spina bifida, cleft lip with or without cleft palate, and limb reduction defects in offspring of women who showered ?15 compared to <15 minutes. The results of comparisons among more specific categories of shower length (i.e., <15 minutes versus 15–19, 20–29, and???30 minutes) were similar. Conclusions Our findings suggest that shower length may be associated with gastroschisis, but the modest associations with other birth defects were not supported by analyses of bath length or bath or shower frequency. Given that showering for ?15 minutes during pregnancy is very common, further evaluation of the relationship between maternal showering habits and birth defects in offspring is worthwhile.
Background. Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is the most common chronic infectious disease of childhood worldwide. Seven of ten American children have one or more decayed or filled primary teeth by age five. ECC prevalence is especially high in lower socio-economic ethnic populations. Commonly recognized as a diet-induced disease, focal etiological factors include cariogenic bacteria, fermentable carbohydrates, and a susceptible newly
Sue Etta Daily Cunningham
Research Findings: This study examined relations between contextual risk, maternal negative emotionality, and preschool teacher reports of the negative emotion dysregulation of children from economically disadvantaged families. Contextual risk was represented by cumulative indexes of family and neighborhood adversity. The results showed a direct…
Brown, Eleanor D.; Ackerman, Brian P.
Although multiple genes have been identified as genetic risk factors for isolated, non-syndromic cleft lip with/without cleft palate (CL/P), a complex and heterogeneous birth defect, interferon regulatory factor 6 gene (IRF6) is one of the best documented genetic risk factors. In this study, we tested for association between markers in IRF6 and CL/P in 326 Chinese case–parent trios, considering gene–environment interaction for two common maternal exposures, and parent-of-origin effects. CL/P case–parent trios from three sites in mainland China and Taiwan were genotyped for 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IRF6. The transmission disequilibrium test was used to test for marginal effects of individual SNPs. We used PBAT to screen the SNPs and haplotypes for gene–environment (G × E) interaction and conditional logistic regression models to quantify effect sizes for SNP–environment interaction. After Bonferroni correction, 14 SNPs showed statistically significant association with CL/P. Evidence of G × E interaction was found for both maternal exposures, multivitamin supplementation and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Two SNPs showed evidence of interaction with multivitamin supplementation in conditional logistic regression models (rs2076153 nominal P = 0.019, rs17015218 nominal P = 0.012). In addition, rs1044516 yielded evidence for interaction with maternal ETS (nominal P = 0.041). Haplotype analysis using PBAT also suggested interaction between SNPs in IRF6 and both multivitamin supplementation and ETS. However, no evidence for maternal genotypic effects or significant parent-of-origin effects was seen in these data. These results suggest IRF6 gene may influence risk of CL/P through interaction with multivitamin supplementation and ETS in the Chinese population.
Wu, Tao; Liang, Kung Yee; Hetmanski, Jacqueline B.; Ruczinski, Ingo; Fallin, Margaret Daniele; Ingersoll, Roxann G.; Wang, Hong; Huang, Shangzhi; Ye, Xiaoqian; Wu-Chou, Yah-Huei; Chen, Philip K.; Jabs, Ethylin W.; Shi, Bing; Redett, Richard; Scott, Alan F.
The short- and long-term effects of pregnancy on breast cancer risk are well documented. Insight into potential biological mechanisms for these associations may be gained by studying breast cancer risk and pregnancy characteristics (e.g., preeclampsia, twining), which may reflect hormone levels during pregnancy. To date, no review has synthesized the published literature for pregnancy characteristics and maternal breast cancer using systematic search methods. We conducted a systematic search to identify all published studies. Using PUBMED (to 31 July 2009), 42 relevant articles were identified. Several studies suggest that multiple births may be associated with a lowered breast cancer risk of about 10-30%, but results were inconsistent across 18 studies. The majority of 13 studies suggest about a 20-30% reduction in risk with preeclampsia and/or gestational hypertension. Six of seven studies reported no association for infant sex and breast cancer risk. Data are sparse and conflicting for other pregnancy characteristics such as gestational age, fetal growth, pregnancy weight gain, gestational diabetes, and placental abnormalities. The most consistent findings in a generally sparse literature are that multiple births and preeclampsia may modestly reduce breast cancer risk. Additional research is needed to elucidate associations between pregnancy characteristics, related hormonal profiles, and breast cancer risk. PMID:20224871
Nechuta, Sarah; Paneth, Nigel; Velie, Ellen M
According to Ley (Ley and Spelman, 1967; Ley, 1977, 1982), dissatisfaction with medical communications and non-compliance with advice and instructions are caused by a failure to understand and remember what doctors say. The present experiment examines whether there might be additional factors, namely the attitudes and knowledge which people bring to the encounter. Seventy-three first-time parents-to-be were asked to complete
D. R. Rutter; Lyn Quine; R. Hayward
Reviews research on risk factors for adolescent substance use disorders (SUD) and discusses possible relationships between SUDs and learning disabilities (LD). Individual level factors (genetic, biologic, other familial, and psychiatric) emerge as very important in the risk equation, as well as the interaction between individual risk and environmental conditions. Commonalities between SUD risk and LD include prenatal substance exposure, family history of SUD, conduct disorder, social skills deficits, and academic failure; however, further research is needed to establish whether individuals with LD face a specific risk for SUDs, and if so, what the nature of that risk might be. PMID:15503578
Weinberg, N Z
Context: Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are immediately disabling and are associated with long-term consequences, such as posttraumatic osteoarthritis. It is important to have a comprehensive understanding of all possible risk factors for ACL injury to identify individuals who are at risk for future injuries and to provide an appropriate level of counseling and programs for prevention. Objective: This review, part 2 of a 2-part series, highlights what is known and still unknown regarding hormonal, genetic, cognitive function, previous injury, and extrinsic risk factors for ACL injury. Data Sources: Studies were identified from MEDLINE (1951–March 2011) using the MeSH terms anterior cruciate ligament, knee injury, and risk factors. The bibliographies of relevant articles and reviews were cross-referenced to complete the search. Study Selection: Prognostic case-control and prospective cohort study designs to evaluate risk factors for ACL injury were included in this review. Results: A total of 50 case-control and prospective cohort articles were included in parts 1 and 2. Twenty-one focused on hormonal, genetic, cognitive function, previous injury, and extrinsic risk factors. Conclusions: Several risk factors are associated with increased risk of suffering ACL injury—such as female sex, prior reconstruction of the ACL, and familial predisposition. These risk factors most likely act in combination with the anatomic factors reviewed in part 1 of this series to influence the risk of suffering ACL injury.
Smith, Helen C.; Vacek, Pamela; Johnson, Robert J.; Slauterbeck, James R.; Hashemi, Javad; Shultz, Sandra; Beynnon, Bruce D.
Background: Poor maternal folate status has been associated with an increased risk of preterm birth. However, major gaps remain in our understanding of how individual folate species relate to preterm birth. Objective: Our objective was to assess the association between maternal folate status as measured by 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5MeTHF), 5-formyltetrahydrofolate (5FoTHF), and folic acid concentrations, which are the 3 primary folate species in serum, and the risk of preterm birth and spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). Design: A cohort of 313 pregnant women who received care at resident antepartum clinics at Magee-Womens Hospital (Pittsburgh, PA) (2003–2007) was enrolled at <16 wk gestation. We analyzed nonfasting blood samples that were drawn from subjects at enrollment for the 3 folate species by using HPLC–tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Serum 5MeTHF and 5FoTHF concentrations comprised 65% and 33% of total folate concentrations, respectively. In confounder-adjusted, multivariable, log-binomial regression models, 1-SD increases in serum total folate and serum 5MeTHF concentrations were associated with significant reductions in the risk of sPTB (P < 0.05). There was a significant interaction between serum 5MeTHF and 5FoTHF concentrations and risk of preterm birth (P = 0.01). When serum 5MeTHF concentrations were low, there was a positive linear relation between 5FoTHF and risk of preterm birth. When 5MeTHF concentrations were high, there was a strong negative relation between 5FoTHF and preterm birth. Conclusions: Our results imply that the relative concentrations of folate species may be more critical than total folate in preventing preterm birth. An improved understanding of folate metabolism during pregnancy may lead to targeted intervention strategies that decrease the rate of preterm birth.
Himes, Katherine P; Venkataramanan, Raman; Chen, Jia-Yuh; Evans, Rhobert W; Meyer, Jennifer L; Simhan, Hyagriv N
Objective To determine whether first trimester maternal serum Placental Protein 13 (PP13) concentrations can be used in the risk assessment for preeclampsia. Study Design This case-control study included 50 patients with preeclampsia and 250 patients with normal pregnancies. Samples were collected between 8-13 weeks of gestation. Serum PP13 concentrations were measured by ELISA and expressed as medians and multiples of the median (MoM) for gestational age. Sensitivity and specificity were derived from receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results 1) Serum PP13 concentration in the first trimester was significantly lower in patients who developed preterm and early-onset preeclampsia than in those with normal pregnancies; and 2) At 80% specificity, a cutoff of 0.39 MoM had a sensitivity of 100% for early-onset preeclampsia and 85% for preterm preeclampsia. Conclusion Maternal serum first trimester PP13 appears to be a reasonable marker for risk assessment, but a weak marker for severe preeclampsia at term, and ineffective for identifying mild preeclampsia at term.
ROMERO, Roberto; KUSANOVIC, Juan Pedro; THAN, Nandor Gabor; EREZ, Offer; GOTSCH, Francesca; ESPINOZA, Jimmy; EDWIN, Samuel; CHEFETZ, Ilana; GOMEZ, Ricardo; NIEN, Jyh Kae; SAMMAR, Marei; PINELES, Beth; HASSAN, Sonia S.; MEIRI, Hamutal; TAL, Yossi; KUHNREICH, Ido; PAPP, Zoltan; CUCKLE, Howard S.
Associations between salivary cortisol and maternal psychological distress and well-being were examined prospectively on 112 women with normally progressing, singleton pregnancies between 24 and 38 weeks gestation. At each of 5 visits, conducted in 3-week intervals, women provided a saliva sample and completed questionnaires measuring trait anxiety, depressive symptoms, pregnancy-specific hassles and uplifts, and psychological well-being. Maternal salivary cortisol was unrelated to psychological measures with the exception of minor associations detected with measures of anxiety and depressive symptoms between 30 and 32 weeks only. Findings indicate that self-reported maternal psychological distress and well-being are not associated with significant variation in maternal salivary cortisol levels during the second half of gestation. This suggests that studies that measure psychological factors in pregnancy but do not measure maternal cortisol should exercise caution in assuming activation of the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is the mechanism through which maternal psychological factors are transduced to the fetus. PMID:23269500
Voegtline, Kristin M; Costigan, Kathleen A; Kivlighan, Katie T; Laudenslager, Mark L; Henderson, Janice L; DiPietro, Janet A
Associations between salivary cortisol and maternal psychological distress and well-being were examined prospectively on 112 women with normally progressing, singleton pregnancies between 24 and 38 weeks gestation. At each of 5 visits, conducted in 3-week intervals, women provided a saliva sample and completed questionnaires measuring trait anxiety, depressive symptoms, pregnancy-specific hassles and uplifts, and psychological well-being. Maternal salivary cortisol was unrelated to psychological measures with the exception of minor associations detected with measures of anxiety and depressive symptoms between 30 and 32 weeks only. Findings indicate that self-reported maternal psychological distress and well-being are not associated with significant variation in maternal salivary cortisol levels during the second half of gestation. This suggests that studies that measure psychological factors in pregnancy but do not measure maternal cortisol should exercise caution in assuming activation of the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is the mechanism through which maternal psychological factors are transduced to the fetus.
VOEGTLINE, Kristin M.; COSTIGAN, Kathleen A.; KIVLIGHAN, Katie T.; LAUDENSLAGER, Mark L.; HENDERSON, Janice L.; DIPIETRO, Janet A.
The objective of the project is to determine the relationship of a variety of relevant risk factors to eventual suicide in patients evaluated at two psychiatric outpatient clinics. Data relevant to these factors have already been collected for 1987 - 1990...
A. T. Beck G. K. Brown
This study examined whether maternal background and perinatal factors were associated with the risk of cow's milk allergy (CMA) in infants up to 2 years of age in a nested case-control study. All children born in 1996-2004 in Finland and diagnosed with CMA by 2006 were identified (n = 16,237). For each case, one matched control was selected. Information on maternal and perinatal factors was derived from the Medical Birth Register. The associations were analyzed by conditional logistic regression. Cesarean section (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10, 1.27) and high maternal age (> or =35 years; adjusted OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.36) were associated with increased risk, whereas low maternal socioeconomic status (adjusted OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.71), smoking (adjusted OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.67, 0.79), high number of previous deliveries (> or =5; adjusted OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.86), and multiple pregnancy (adjusted OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.60, 0.82) were associated with decreased risk of CMA. In conclusion, maternal background and perinatal factors may play a role in the development of CMA, but further research is needed to clarify these associations and the underpinning biologic mechanisms. PMID:20472571
Metsälä, Johanna; Lundqvist, Annamari; Kaila, Minna; Gissler, Mika; Klaukka, Timo; Virtanen, Suvi M
Objective This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) and its related risk factors in an appropriate sample of neonates in Shahroud, northeast Iran. Methods At this study, a random sample of 1000 neonates were selected of which 72 neonates were LBWs. We used univariate and multivariate logistic regression methods to evaluate the LBW risk factors in LBWs compared to normal weight infants. Findings 7.2% of neonates were LBWs and 6.1% born before 37 weeks of gestation. Prematurity, high-risk pregnancy and maternal age have significant statistical association with LBW. Odds Ratio (OR) for prematurity was 42.82 (95%CI; 21.93-83.57), for high risk pregnancy 2.76 (95%CI; 1.47-5.19) and for maternal age group more than 35 years in comparison to 19-35 years age group 0.2 (95%CI; 0.05-0.71). Conclusion Based on this study; prematurity and high risk pregnancy were the most important risk factors for LBW. There was also a reverse association between maternal age and LBW.
Chaman, Reza; Amiri, Mohammad; Raei, Mehdi; Ajami, Mohammad-Esmaeil; Sadeghian, Afsaneh; Khosravi, Ahmad
Aims To examine risk factors of preterm delivery (PTD) among Thai women. Methods Our case-control study included 467 term controls and 467 PTD cases. PTD was studied in aggregate and in subgroups (i.e., spontaneous preterm labor and delivery [SPTD], preterm premature rupture of membrane [PPROM], medically indicated preterm delivery [MIPTD], moderate preterm delivery [32–36 weeks], and very preterm delivery [<32 weeks]). We used multivariable logistic regression procedures to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of potential PTD risk factors. Results Advanced maternal age (?35 years) was associated with a 2.27-fold increased PTD risk overall (95%CI: 1.40, 3.68); and with a 3.79-fold increased risk of MIPTD (95%CI: 1.89, 7.59). Young maternal age (<20 years) was associated with a 2.07-fold increased risk of SPTD (95%CI: 1.19, 3.61). Prior history of PTD was associated with a 3.64-fold increased PTD risk overall (95%CI: 1.87, 7.09), and with a 5.69-fold increased risk of MIPTD (95%CI: 2.44, 13.24). No prenatal care was associated with all PTD subtypes. Lean women (BMI<18.5 kg/m2), compared with normal weight women (18.5–24.9 kg/m2), had a 1.70-fold increased risk of PTD (95%CI: 1.21, 2.39). Risk of SPTD (OR=2.16, 95%CI: 1.44, 3.24) and very PTD (OR=2.45, 95%CI: 1.35, 4.45) were also elevated in lean women. Conclusions Maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, prior history of PTD and no utilization of prenatal care were covariates identified in this study as risk factors for PTD. Our findings also suggest heterogeneity in risk factors for clinical subtypes of PTD.
Ip, Marisa; Peyman, Elmera; Lohsoonthorn, Vitool; Williams, Michelle A.
AimsTo investigate the prevalence of cannabis use and problem use in boys and girls at age 16 years, and to investigate the role of adversity in early life and of conduct disorder between the ages of 4 and 13 years as risk factors for these outcomes. DesignBirth cohort study. SettingEngland. ParticipantsA total of 4159 (2393 girls) participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort providing information on cannabis use at age 16. MeasurementsCannabis use and problem cannabis use at age 16 were assessed by postal questionnaire. Material adversity, maternal substance use, maternal mental health and child conduct disorder were all assessed by maternal report. FindingsCannabis use was more common among girls than boys (21.4% versus 18.3%, P?=?0.005). Problem cannabis use was more common in boys than girls (3.6% versus 2.8%, P?=?0.007). Early-onset persistent conduct problems were associated strongly with problem cannabis use [odds ratio (OR)?=?6.46, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?4.06–10.28]. Residence in subsidized housing (OR?=?3.10, 95% CI?=?1.95, 4.92); maternal cannabis use (OR 8.84, 95% CI 5.64–13.9) and any maternal smoking in the postnatal period (OR?=?2.69, 95% CI?=?1.90–3.81) all predicted problem cannabis use. Attributable risks for adolescent problem cannabis use associated with the above factors were 25, 13, 17 and 24%, respectively. ConclusionsMaternal smoking and cannabis use, early material disadvantage and early-onset persistent conduct problems are important risk factors for adolescent problem cannabis use. This may have implications for prevention.
Heron, Jon; Barker, Edward D; Joinson, Carol; Lewis, Glyn; Hickman, Matthew; Munafo, Marcus; Macleod, John
OBJECTIVE To investigate whether parental family history of diabetes influences cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied 1,294 type 2 diabetic patients (mean age 64.1 years, 51.2% female) recruited to a community-based cohort study from 1993 to 1996 and followed until mid-2006. A data linkage system assessed all-cause and cardiac mortality, incident myocardial infarction, and stroke. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to determine the influence of maternal or paternal family history on these outcomes. RESULTS A maternal family history of diabetes was reported by 20.4% of the cohort, 8.3% reported paternal family history, and 2.0% reported both parents affected. Maternal and paternal family history was associated with earlier age of diabetes onset, and maternal family history was associated with worse glycemic control. For all patients, maternal family history was significantly associated with reduced risk of all-cause mortality and cardiac mortality. When analyzed by sex, maternal family history had no effect on male patients, whereas female patients with diabetic mothers had significantly reduced hazard ratios for death from all causes (0.63 [95% CI 0.41–0.96]; P = 0.033), for death from cardiac causes (0.32 [0.14–0.72]; P = 0.006), and for first myocardial infarction (0.45 [0.26–0.76]; P = 0.003). Paternal family history status was not associated with these outcomes. CONCLUSIONS A maternal family history of diabetes confers relative protection against cardiovascular disease in female patients but not in male patients with type 2 diabetes. Paternal family history is associated with risks equivalent to those without a family history of diabetes. Some of the clinical heterogeneity of type 2 diabetes is related to maternal transmission effects with differential impact on male and female patients.
Bruce, David G.; Van Minnen, Kylie; Davis, Wendy A.; Mudhar, Jaspreet; Perret, Michael; Subawickrama, Dayani P.; Venkitachalam, Stephanie; Ravine, David; Davis, Timothy M.E.
A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…
Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony
Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the principal cause of death from cancer among women worldwide. Risk factors for breast cancer are manifold. Certain risk factors, such as age and family history are well established. Research in the past decade has further elucidated disease aetiology, in particular the role of hormones and the discovery of breast
Background: With the aging of the population, dementia has become an important health concern in most countries. There is a growing body of literature on the importance of cardiovascular risk factors in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia, and mixed dementia (AD with cerebrovascular disease).Objective: This article reviews the role of major risk factors in dementia between both
Nahid A. Azad; Muneerah Al Bugami; Inge Loy-English
Cardiovascular risk factors as well as morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease among Turkish adults are herein reviewed. Lipids and lipoproteins are in focus, but other relevant risk factors are also discussed. Turks have distinctively low levels of total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, associated with high levels of hepatic lipase and fasting triglycerides. In addition, physical inactivity is common
Suicide rates are higher in later life than in any other age group. The design of effective suicide prevention strategies hinges on the identification of specific, quantifiable risk factors. Methodological challenges include the lack of systematically applied terminology in suicide and risk factor research, the low base rate of suicide, and its complex, multidetermined nature.Although variables in mental, physical, and
Yeates Conwell; Paul R. Duberstein; Eric D. Caine
Four risk factors for parasuicide and suicide ideation in 197 male and female alcoholism inpatients were investigated: addiction severity, family addiction history, psychiatric symptomatology, and inadequate social support. Risk factors for suicide ideation were psychiatric symptom severity and social dysfunction; those for parasuicide were younger alcohol problem onset, more alcoholism symptoms, greater social dysfunction, and greater psychiatric symptom severity. Logistic
Nancy J. Smyth; Monica N. Dunn; John W. Myer; Elaine Maccio
Cancer of the prostate is the leading cancer among American men, yet few risk factors are known. Anthropometry may help uncover potential risk factors for prostate cancer, since fat distribution, skeletal structure, and musculature may differ between men with this hormonally linked cancer and those without it. A case?control study was undertaken to determine whether anthropometric differences exist between prostate
Mark R. Conaway; Cary N. Robertson; Barbara J. Mathias; E. Everett Anderson; David F. Paulson
Diet, in all its complexity, is considered one of the major risk factors for cancer and is therefore a primary area of research within the Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch. We work collaboratively with a wide range of researchers to conduct an integrated program that serves NCI as well as the extramural community.
Complex and dynamic networks of molecules participate in the essential interactions between maternal organism, placenta and fetus in a healthy and successful pregnancy. Macrophage migratory inhibitory factor (MIF) is one of several molecules produced at implantation sites; MIF is mostly expressed by trophoblast cells. This has led to expectations of MIF's relevance as a partner in the maternal/fetal dialog. MIF is known by its biological interactions and functional roles as an activator of innate immunity, regulating subsequent adaptive responses, which include inhibition of migration of mononuclear cells in vitro, antagonism of glucocorticoids, and regulation of expression of Toll-like receptor 4. Beyond roles in the inflammatory response, MIF can interfere with proliferative activities in different cell types, as well as with cell death pathways. This intriguing factor found at the human, porcine, ovine, bovine and rodent maternal-fetal interfaces is present in a time- and spatially-dependent manner, indicating regulatory roles in the process of embryo implantation, placental development, maintenance of pregnancy and birth. Here, we will review MIF participation in placental physiology, including new evidence for a dialog with uterine cells, and a potential role in protection of uterine decidual cells. PMID:24215782
Bevilacqua, E; Paulesu, L; Ferro, E A V; Ietta, F; Faria, M R; Lorenzon, A R; Costa, A F; Martucci, M
The issue of adverse human health effects due to exposure to electromagnetic fields is still unclear, and congenital anomalies are among the outcomes that have been inconsistently associated with such exposure. We conducted a population-based, case-control study to examine the risk of congenital anomalies associated with maternal exposure to magnetic fields (MF) from high-voltage power lines during pregnancy in a community in northern Italy. We identified 228 cases of congenital malformations diagnosed in live births, stillbirths, and induced abortions among women living in the municipality of Reggio Emilia during the period 1998-2006, and a reference group of healthy newborns was matched for year of birth, maternal age, and hospital of birth. We identified maternal residence during early pregnancy and used Geographic Information System to determine whether the residences were within geocoded corridors with MF ?0.1 ?T near high-voltage power lines, then calculated the relative risk (RR) of congenital anomalies associated with maternal exposure. One case and 5 control mothers were classified as exposed, and the RR associated with MF ?0.1 ?T was 0.2 (95% CI: 0.0-2.0) after adjusting for maternal education. While small or moderate effects may have gone undetected due to low statistical power, the results of this study overall do not provide support for major effects of a teratogenic risk due to exposure to MF during early pregnancy. PMID:22826845
Malagoli, Carlotta; Crespi, Catherine M; Rodolfi, Rossella; Signorelli, Carlo; Poli, Maurizio; Zanichelli, Paolo; Fabbi, Sara; Teggi, Sergio; Garavelli, Livia; Astolfi, Gianni; Calzolari, Elisa; Lucenti, Carlo; Vinceti, Marco
Preeclampsia is one of the major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Despite numerous studies, the etiology of preeclampsia has not yet been fully elucidated. There has been confliction in results on the role of maternal lead in preeclampsia. Keeping in view with the scarcity of data on role of lead in preeclamptic women of Saudi Arabia and the disparity in earlier findings, the present study was carried out to determine the levels of maternal serum lead in patients with preeclampsia in comparison to normal pregnancy. The study consisted of 120 pregnant women divided into three groups of 40 each, control, HR group and PET group. The serum levels of lead were estimated by Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. We found that the mean value of serum lead was 18.23 ± 2.34, 20.08 ± 2.15 and 27.18 ± 2.13 µg/dl in control, high risk group and preeclamptic group respectively. The levels of Pb were found to decrease significantly (P < 0.05) in preeclamptic group compared to control. However, there was no significant change in levels of Pb when HR group was compared to Control and preeclamptic group. In the present study, we observed that serum levels of lead were positively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure and were statistically significant (P < 0.05). However, negative correlation was observed between Pb and BMI ruling out the association of BMI with preeclampsia. It is thus concluded that preeclampsia is associated with significant increase in maternal lead and these increasing levels of serum lead pose a significant risk in pregnant women to preeclampsia.
Jameil, Noura Al
... and stroke one to 30 years after delivery. Hypertension: Women with chronic primary or secondary hypertension, or previous pregnancy-related hypertension have an increased stroke risk. Hormone Replacement Therapy: Women who take hormone replacement therapy may have a ...
Recurrent miscarriage (RM) is a multifactorial disorder with acknowledged genetic heritability that affects ?3% of couples aiming at childbirth. As copy number variants (CNVs) have been shown to contribute to reproductive disease susceptibility, we aimed to describe genome-wide profile of CNVs and identify common rearrangements modulating risk to RM. Genome-wide screening of Estonian RM patients and fertile controls identified excessive cumulative burden of CNVs (5.4 and 6.1 Mb per genome) in two RM cases possibly increasing their individual disease risk. Functional profiling of all rearranged genes within RM study group revealed significant enrichment of loci related to innate immunity and immunoregulatory pathways essential for immune tolerance at fetomaternal interface. As a major finding, we report a multicopy duplication (61.6 kb) at 5p13.3 conferring increased maternal risk to RM in Estonia and Denmark (meta-analysis, n = 309/205, odds ratio = 4.82, P = 0.012). Comparison to Estonian population-based cohort (total, n = 1000) confirmed the risk for Estonian female cases (P = 7.9 × 10(-4) ). Datasets of four cohorts from the Database of Genomic Variants (total, n = 5,846 subjects) exhibited similar low duplication prevalence worldwide (0.7%-1.2%) compared to RM cases of this study (6.6%-7.5%). The CNV disrupts PDZD2 and GOLPH3 genes predominantly expressed in placenta and it may represent a novel risk factor for pregnancy complications. PMID:24827138
Nagirnaja, Liina; Palta, Priit; Kasak, Laura; Rull, Kristiina; Christiansen, Ole B; Nielsen, Henriette S; Steffensen, Rudi; Esko, Tõnu; Remm, Maido; Laan, Maris
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSP) and lifetime risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD) and to explore possible mechanisms through which MSP may be related to neurobehavioral conditions during infancy and childhood, which could, in turn, lead to increased risk for AUD. Method: A sample of 1,625 individuals was followed from pregnancy for more than 40 years. Capitalizing on the long follow-up time, we used survival analysis to examine lifetime risks of AUD (diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) in relation to levels of MSP (none, <20 cigarettes/day, and ?20 cigarettes/day). We then used structural equation modeling to test hypotheses regarding potential mechanisms, including lower birth weight, neurological abnormalities, poorer academic functioning, and behavioral dysregulation. Results: Relative to unexposed offspring, offspring of mothers who smoked 20 cigarettes per day or more exhibited greater risks for AUD (hazard ratio = 1.31, 95% CI [1.08, 1.59]). However, no differences were observed among offspring exposed to fewer than 20 cigarettes per day. In structural equation models, MSP was associated with neurobehavioral problems during infancy and childhood, which, in turn, were associated with an increased risk for adult AUD. Conclusions: MSP was associated with an increased lifetime risk for AUD. Adverse consequences were evident from birth to adulthood. A two-pronged remedial intervention targeted at both the mother (to reduce smoking during pregnancy) and child (to improve academic functioning) may reduce the risk for subsequent AUD.
Nomura, Yoko; Gilman, Stephen E.; Buka, Stephen L.
This study was designed to evaluate the effects of maternal obesity and diabetes mellitus on the risk of nonchromosomal congenital defects. We used data from 22,951 pregnant women enrolled in a prospective cohort study of early prenatal exposures and pregnancy outcome. The relative risks [prevalence ratios (PRs)] of major nonchromosomal congenital defects associated with obesity and diabetes, alone or in combination, were calculated using multiple logistic regression analysis. In this study, in the absence of diabetes, obese women (body mass index > or =28) had no higher risk, overall, of having an offspring with a major defect [PR = 0.95; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.62-1.5]. Their offspring, however, did have a higher prevalence of certain types of defects, including orofacial clefts; club foot; cardiac septal defects; and, to a lesser extent, hydrocephaly and abdominal wall defects. Women with pre-existing or gestational diabetes who were not obese also had no excess risk overall of having offspring affected by a major defect (PR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.43-2.2), although they did have a higher prevalence of musculoskeletal defects. The pregnancies of women who were both obese and diabetic were 3.1 times as likely (95% CI = 1.2-7.6) to result in an offspring with a defect than were those of nonobese, nondiabetic women, which suggests that obesity and diabetes mellitus may act synergistically in the pathogenesis of congenital anomalies. The defects were largely craniofacial or musculoskeletal. PMID:11055631
Moore, L L; Singer, M R; Bradlee, M L; Rothman, K J; Milunsky, A
Autosomal dominant conditions are known to be associated with advanced paternal age, and it has been suggested that retinoblastoma (Rb) also exhibits a paternal age effect due to the paternal origin of most new germline RB1 mutations. To further our understanding of the association of parental age and risk of de novo germline Rb mutations, we evaluated the effect of parental age in a cohort of Rb survivors in the United States. A cohort of 262 retinoblastoma patients was retrospectively identified at one institution, and telephone interviews were conducted with parents of 160 survivors (65.3%). We built two sets of hierarchical stepwise logistic regression models to detect an increased odds of a de novo germline mutation related to older parental age compared to sporadic and familial Rb. The modeling strategy evaluated effects of continuous increasing maternal and paternal age and five-year age increases adjusted for the age of the other parent. Mean maternal ages for patients with de novo germline mutations and sporadic Rb were similar (28.3 and 28.5 respectively) as were mean paternal ages (31.9 and 31.2 respectively), and all were significantly higher than the weighted general U.S. population means. In contrast, maternal and paternal ages for familial Rb did not differ significantly from the weighted U.S. general population means. Although we noted no significant differences between mean maternal and paternal ages between each of the three Rb classification groups, we found increased odds of having a de novo germline mutation for each five-year increase in paternal age, but these findings were not statistically significant (de novo versus sporadic ORs: 30-34 = 1.65 [0.69-4], ?35 = 1.34 [0.54-3.3]; de novo versus familial ORs: 30-34 = 2.82 [0.95 – 8.4], ?35 = 1.61 [0.57-4.6]). Our study suggests a weak paternal age effect for Rb resulting from de novo germline mutations consistent with the paternal origin of most of these mutations.
Mills, Melissa B.; Hudgins, Louanne; Balise, Raymond R.; Abramson, David H.; Kleinerman, Ruth A.
Autosomal dominant conditions are known to be associated with advanced paternal age, and it has been suggested that retinoblastoma (Rb) also exhibits a paternal age effect due to the paternal origin of most new germline RB1 mutations. To further our understanding of the association of parental age and risk of de novo germline RB1 mutations, we evaluated the effect of parental age in a cohort of Rb survivors in the United States. A cohort of 262 Rb patients was retrospectively identified at one institution, and telephone interviews were conducted with parents of 160 survivors (65.3%). We classified Rb survivors into three groups: those with unilateral Rb were classified as sporadic if they had no or unknown family history of Rb, those with bilateral Rb were classified as having a de novo germline mutation if they had no or unknown family history of Rb, and those with unilateral or bilateral Rb, who had a family history of Rb, were classified as familial. We built two sets of nested logistic regression models to detect an increased odds of the de novo germline mutation classification related to older parental age compared to sporadic and familial Rb classifications. The modeling strategy evaluated effects of continuous increasing maternal and paternal age and 5-year age increases adjusted for the age of the other parent. Mean maternal ages for survivors classified as having de novo germline mutations and sporadic Rb were similar (28.3 and 28.5, respectively) as were mean paternal ages (31.9 and 31.2, respectively), and all were significantly higher than the weighted general US population means. In contrast, maternal and paternal ages for familial Rb did not differ significantly from the weighted US general population means. Although we noted no significant differences between mean maternal and paternal ages between each of the three Rb classification groups, we found increased odds of a survivor being in the de novo germline mutation group for each 5-year increase in paternal age, but these findings were not statistically significant (de novo vs. sporadic ORs 30-34 = 1.7 [0.7-4], ? 35 = 1.3 [0.5-3.3]; de novo vs. familial ORs 30-34 = 2.8 [1.0-8.4], ? 35 = 1.6 [0.6-4.6]). Our study suggests a weak paternal age effect for Rb resulting from de novo germline mutations consistent with the paternal origin of most of these mutations. PMID:22203219
Mills, Melissa B; Hudgins, Louanne; Balise, Raymond R; Abramson, David H; Kleinerman, Ruth A
We conducted a study of published work to evaluate the evidence for the hypothesis that environmental exposure and parental occupation are risk factors for neural tube defects. As other risk factors such as maternal illnesses, medication, and dietary factors have been reviewed before, this review only summarizes this information. In studies concerning environmental pollution, only a few weak associations were found. It appears that specific studies on the topic of parental occupation and neural tube defects are scarce. Therefore, studies on broader malformation categories, such as central nervous system defects, were also taken into account. Both maternal and paternal occupation seem to be associated with the occurrence of neural tube defects. However, results are not always consistent with each other, and relevant recommendations concerning prevention thus cannot be given before more studies with larger populations are conducted to confirm or refute the findings reviewed. Images p140-a
Blatter, B M; van der Star, M; Roeleveld, N
Many biochemical traits are recognised as risk factors, which contribute to or predict the development of disease. Only a few are in widespread use, usually to assist with treatment decisions and motivate behavioural change. The greatest effort has gone into evaluation of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and/or diabetes, with substantial overlap as ‘cardiometabolic’ risk. Over the past few years many genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have sought to account for variation in risk factors, with the expectation that identifying relevant polymorphisms would improve our understanding or prediction of disease; others have taken the direct approach of genomic case-control studies for the corresponding diseases. Large GWAS have been published for coronary heart disease and Type 2 diabetes, and also for associated biomarkers or risk factors including body mass index, lipids, C-reactive protein, urate, liver function tests, glucose and insulin. Results are not encouraging for personal risk prediction based on genotyping, mainly because known risk loci only account for a small proportion of risk. Overlap of allelic associations between disease and marker, as found for low density lipoprotein cholesterol and heart disease, supports a causal association, but in other cases genetic studies have cast doubt on accepted risk factors. Some loci show unexpected effects on multiple markers or diseases. An intriguing feature of risk factors is the blurring of categories shown by the correlation between them and the genetic overlap between diseases previously thought of as distinct. GWAS can provide insight into relationships between risk factors, biomarkers and diseases, with potential for new approaches to disease classification.
Whitfield, John B
The most common complication after lumbar discectomy is reherniation. As the first step in reducing the rate of recurrence, many studies have been conducted to find out the factors that may increase the reherniation risk. Some reported factors are age, sex, the type of lumbar disc herniation, the amount of fragments removed, smoking, alcohol consumption and the length of restricted activities. In this review, the factors studied thus far are summarized, excepting factors which cannot be chosen or changed, such as age or sex. Apart from the factors shown here, many other risk factors such as diabetes, family history, history of external injury, duration of illness and body mass index are considered. Few are agreed upon by all. The reason for the diverse opinions may be that many clinical and biomechanical variables are involved in the prognosis following operation. For the investigation of risk factors in recurrent lumbar disc herniation, large-scale multicenter prospective studies will be required in the future.
The goal of this study was to evaluate the relation between kittens' birth weights and biometrical factors from the kittens and the mother during pregnancy. Knowing fetal birth weight could help in detecting abnormalities before parturition. A Caesarean-section or a postnatal management plan could be scheduled. Consequently, the neonatal mortality rate should be decreased. We used ultrasonographic measurements of femur length (FL) or fetal biparietal diameter (BPD), pregnancies, and maternal factors to obtain a model of prediction. For this purpose, linear mixed-effects models were used because of random effects (several fetuses for one queen and a few paired measurements) and fixed effects (litter size, pregnancy rank, weight, wither height, and age of the queen). This study was performed in 24 purebred queens with normal pregnancies and normal body conditions. Queens were scanned in the second half of pregnancy, using a micro-convex probe. They gave birth to 140 healthy kittens whose mean birth weight was 104 g (ranged 65 to 165 g). No correlation between the birth weight and the age of the queen, as a maternal factor alone, was observed. But the birth weight was found to be inversely proportional to the pregnancy rank and the litter size. Moreover, birth weight increased when the weight and wither height of queen increased. BPD and FL increased linearly during pregnancy so a model was used to estimate mean birth weight. Using this model, we found a correlation between mean birth weights and an association of parameters: maternal factors (wither height and age), and litter size. PMID:21820718
Gatel, L; Rosset, E; Chalvet-Monfray, K; Buff, S; Rault, D N
Receptive vocabulary develops rapidly in early childhood and builds the foundation for language acquisition and literacy. Variation in receptive vocabulary ability is associated with variation in children's school achievement, and low receptive vocabulary ability is a risk factor for under-achievement at school. In this study, bivariate and multivariate growth curve modelling was used to estimate trajectories of receptive vocabulary development in relation to a wide range of candidate child, maternal and family level influences on receptive vocabulary development from 4–8 years. The study sample comprised 4332 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Predictors were modeled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB), low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4–8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that social gradients in children's developmental outcomes increase over time.
Taylor, Catherine L.; Christensen, Daniel; Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Zubrick, Stephen R.
Receptive vocabulary develops rapidly in early childhood and builds the foundation for language acquisition and literacy. Variation in receptive vocabulary ability is associated with variation in children's school achievement, and low receptive vocabulary ability is a risk factor for under-achievement at school. In this study, bivariate and multivariate growth curve modelling was used to estimate trajectories of receptive vocabulary development in relation to a wide range of candidate child, maternal and family level influences on receptive vocabulary development from 4-8 years. The study sample comprised 4332 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Predictors were modeled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB), low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4-8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that social gradients in children's developmental outcomes increase over time. PMID:24039856
Taylor, Catherine L; Christensen, Daniel; Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Zubrick, Stephen R
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) plays a pivotal role in pregnancy-related proinflammatory processes, such as placentation and labor. Differential MIF concentrations have been correlated with pathological events during pregnancy, such as recurrent miscarriages and severe pre-eclampsia (PE). The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate whether maternal MIF serum levels are already altered in early pregnancy before PE onset. Women (n=2,821) before 20 weeks of gestational age were recruited for a prospective study on early markers of PE. Forty-eight consecutive pregnancies that developed PE and 79 normotensive pregnancies that delivered at term were chosen. Maternal MIF serum levels were assessed by ELISA. We found significantly lower MIF serum levels in women who developed PE (4,967±3,119?pg/mL) compared to controls (7,640±5,519?pg/mL) (mean±standard deviation, P<0.001). Our findings indicate that low maternal MIF serum levels in early pregnancy may contribute to abnormal placental development. PMID:24606610
Cardaropoli, Simona; Ietta, Francesca; Romagnoli, Roberta; Rolfo, Alessandro; Paulesu, Luana; Todros, Tullia
SUMMARY We examined whether hypospadias was associated with several aspects of the diet, including intake of animal products, intake of several nutrients and food groups related to a vegetarian diet and estrogen metabolism, and diet quality. The study included deliveries from 1997 to 2005 that were part of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaire during maternal telephone interviews, and two diet quality indices were developed based on existing indices. Analyses included 1,250 cases with second or third degree hypospadias (urethra opened at the penile shaft, scrotum or perineum) and 3,118 male, liveborn, non-malformed controls. All odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from logistic regression models that included several potential confounders, including energy intake. Intake of animal products was not associated with hypospadias; e.g., the adjusted OR for any versus no intake of meat was 1.0 (95% CI 0.6, 1.6). Frequency of intake of meat or other animal products was also not associated with hypospadias, nor was intake of iron or several nutrients that are potentially related to estrogen metabolism. Diet quality was also not associated with hypospadias; the ORs for diet quality in the highest versus lowest quartile for the two diet quality indices were 1.0 (95% CI 0.6, 1.6) and 0.9 (95% CI 0.7, 1.1). In conclusion, this large study does not support an association of a vegetarian diet or worse diet quality with hypospadias.
Carmichael, Suzan L.; Ma, Chen; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Munger, Ronald G.; Olney, Richard S.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Shaw, Gary M.; Correa, Adolfo
Research exploring the effects of prenatal maternal depression on a developing fetus and child is underrepresented in the literature. Empirical papers have typically focused on the effects of postpartum depression (after birth) instead of prepartum depression (before birth). Disparate empirical findings have produced ongoing debate regarding the effects of prenatal depression on a developing fetus and later in infancy and early childhood. Even more controversial is determining the role of antidepressant medication on offspring outcomes and whether research that does not include the proper control population (e.g., unmedicated depressed participants) can adequately address questions about risks and benefits of treatment during pregnancy. The current review systematically summarizes the literature focusing on unmedicated prenatal depression and offspring outcome and concludes that prepartum depression is highly prevalent, is associated with negative outcomes in offspring, and remains understudied. PMID:22215285
Davalos, Deana B; Yadon, Carly A; Tregellas, Hope C
Background Neural tube defects (NTDs), including spina bifida and anencephaly, are the second most common birth defect with an incidence of 1/1000. Genetic factors are believed to contribute to NTD risk and family-based studies can be useful for identifying such risk factors. Methods We ascertained 1066 NTD families (1467 affected patients), including 307 multiplex NTD families. We performed pedigree analysis to describe the inheritance patterns, pregnancy outcomes and recurrence risks to relatives of various types. Results Myelomeningocele or spina bifida (66.9%) and cranial defects (17.7%) were the most common NTD subtypes observed. The overall male:female ratio for affected individuals was 0.82, and there were even fewer males among individuals with an upper level NTD (0.62). Among twins, two of the five monozygotic twins and only three of 35 dizygotic twins were concordant, while 27% of the same sex twins were concordant, but none of the different sex twins. The estimated 6.3% recurrence risk to siblings (CI 0.04 0.08) is consistent with previous reports. Families with two or more affected individuals show a higher proportion of female transmitters (P = 0.0002). Additionally, the number of affected relatives in maternal compared to paternal lineages was more than double (P = 0.006). There were significantly more miscarriages, infant deaths, and stillborn pregnancies in the maternal aunts and uncles (P = < 0.0001) and of first cousins (P = 0.04). Conclusions Our data provide several lines of evidence consistent with a maternal effect, as well as a sex-influenced effect, in the etiology of NTDs.
Deak, Kristen L.; Siegel, Deborah G.; George, Timothy M.; Gregory, Simon; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Speer, Marcy C.
OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with periodontitis in pregnant women. METHODS: This study was conducted in two stages. In Stage 1, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of periodontitis among 810 women treated at the maternity ward of a university hospital. In Stage 2, the factors associated with periodontitis were investigated in two groups of pregnant women: 90 with periodontitis and 720 without. A hierarchized approach to the evaluation of the risk factors was used in the analysis, and the independent variables related to periodontitis were grouped into two levels: 1) socio-demographic variables; 2a) variables related to nutritional status, smoking, and number of pregnancies; and 2b) variables related to oral hygiene. Periodontitis was defined as a probing depth ?4 mm and an attachment loss ?3 mm at the same site in four or more teeth. A logistic regression analysis was also performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of periodontitis in this sample was 11%. The variables that remained in the final multivariate model with the hierarchized approach were schooling, family income, smoking, body mass index, and bacterial plaque. CONCLUSION: The factors identified underscore the social nature of the disease, as periodontitis was associated with socioeconomic, demographic status, and poor oral hygiene.
de Vasconcellos Piscoya, Maria Dilma Bezerra; de Alencar Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes; da Silva, Genivaldo Moura; Jamelli, Silvia Regina; Coutinho, Sonia Bechara
Background. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders among children. The aim of this study was to evaluate risk factors for ADHD in children. Method. In this case-control study, 404 children between 4 and 11 years old were selected by cluster sampling method from preschool children (208 patients as cases and 196 controls). All the participants were interviewed by a child and adolescent psychiatrist to survey risk factors of ADHD. Results. Among cases, 59.3% of children were boys and 38.4% were girls, which is different to that in control group with 40.7% boys and 61.6% girls. The chi-square showed statistically significance (P value < 0.0001). The other significant factors by chi-square were fathers' somatic or psychiatric disease (P value < 0.0001), history of trauma and accident during pregnancy (P value = 0.039), abortion proceeds (P value < 0.0001), unintended pregnancy (P value < 0.0001), and history of head trauma (P value < 0.0001). Conclusions. Findings of our study suggest that maternal and paternal adverse events were associated with ADHD symptoms, but breast feeding is a protective factor. PMID:24319465
Golmirzaei, Javad; Namazi, Shole; Amiri, Shahrokh; Zare, Shahram; Rastikerdar, Najme; Hesam, Ali Akbar; Rahami, Zahra; Ghasemian, Fatemeh; Namazi, Seyyed Shojaeddin; Paknahad, Abbas; Mahmudi, Forugh; Mahboobi, Hamidreza; Khorgoei, Tahereh; Niknejad, Bahareh; Dehghani, Fatemeh; Asadi, Shima
Objective To investigate the relation of maternal and peer attitudes and behaviors to changes in eating disorder risk factors and symptoms in adolescent females. Method We tested whether maternal and peer eating attitudes, behaviors, and deficits in social support at baseline predicted subsequent increases in eating disorder risk factors and symptoms among 483 late adolescent females followed over 3 years. Results Data provide partial support for hypotheses, as eating disorder risk factors and symptoms increased over time and maternal thin ideal internalization significantly predicted a future increases in adolescent bulimic symptoms. There were no significant predictors of adolescent thin ideal internalization or body dissatisfaction. Discussion Findings only partially support the hypothesis that unhealthy attitudes and behaviors of mothers increase risk for eating disorder symptoms in their late adolescent daughters. These results underscore why eating disorder prevention programs should be based on risk factor research that has used prospective and rigorous designs.
Linville, Deanna; Stice, Eric; Gau, Jeff; O'Neil, Maya
Higher egg and cholesterol intakes are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, their association with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has not been evaluated. The authors assessed such associations in both a prospective cohort study (1996–2008; 3,158 participants) and a case-control study (1998–2002; 185 cases, 411 controls). A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess maternal diet. Multivariable models were used to derive relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. Compared with no egg consumption, adjusted relative risks for GDM were 0.94, 1.01, 1.12, 1.54, and 2.52 for consumption of ?1, 2–3, 4–6, 7–9, and ?10 eggs/week, respectively (P for trend = 0.008). Women with high egg consumption (?7/week) had a 1.77-fold increased risk compared with women with lower consumption (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19, 2.63). The relative risk for the highest quartile of cholesterol intake (?294 mg/day) versus the lowest (<151 mg/day) was 2.35 (95% CI: 1.35, 4.09). In the case-control study, the adjusted odds ratio for consuming ?7 eggs/week versus <7 eggs/week was 2.65 (95% CI: 1.48, 4.72), and the odds of GDM increased with increasing cholesterol intake (P for trend = 0.021). In conclusion, high egg and cholesterol intakes before and during pregnancy are associated with increased risk of GDM.
Qiu, Chunfang; Frederick, Ihunnaya O.; Zhang, Cuilin; Sorensen, Tanya K.; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Williams, Michelle A.
Objective To investigate the association between overweight and severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM) in a low-risk pregnant population. Design Nationwide case-control study. Setting The Netherlands, august 2004 to august 2006. Population 1567 cases from initially primary care and 2994 women from primary care practices as controls, out of 371 012 women delivering in the Netherlands during the study period Methods Cases were women with SAMM obtained from a nationwide prospective study. All women in this cohort who initially had low-risk pregnancies were compared with low-risk women without SAMM to calculate odd ratios (ORs) to develop SAMM by body mass index (BMI) category. We divided body mass index in three overweight categories and calculated the ORs (95% CI) of total SAMM and per specific endpoint by logistic regression, with normal weight as reference. We adjusted for age, parity and socio-economic status. Main Outcome Measures SAMM, defined as Intensive Care Unit (ICU)-admission, Uterine Rupture, Eclampsia or Major Obstetric Haemorrhage (MOH) Results SAMM was reported in 1567 cases which started as low-risk pregnancies. BMI was available in 1097 (70.0%) cases and 2994 control subjects were included. Analysis showed a dose response relation for overweight (aOR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.5), obese (aOR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.9) and morbidly obese (aOR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3-3.2) women to develop SAMM compared to normal weight. Sub analysis showed the same dose response relation for ICU-admission, Uterine Rupture and Eclampsia. We found no association for MOH. Conclusion Overweight without pre-existent co-morbidity is an important risk-indicator for developing SAMM. This risk increases with an increasing body mass index.
Witteveen, Tom; Zwart, Joost J.; Gast, Karin B.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.; van Roosmalen, Jos
Rationale: Evidence is emerging that exposure to maternal distress in early life plays a causal role in the development of childhood asthma. Objectives: Because much of the data are from high-risk cohorts, we undertook a birth cohort study in a complete population of children to test this association. Methods: Using Manitoba, Canada's, health care and prescription databases, this longitudinal study
Anita L. Kozyrskyj; Xiao-Mei Mai; Patrick McGrath; Kent T. HayGlass; Allan B. Becker; Brian MacNeil
Background: Caffeine is a widely used and accepted pharmacologically active substance. The effect of caffeine intake during pregnancy on fetal growth and development is still unclear. Objective: We examined the associations of maternal caffeine intake, on the basis of coffee and tea consumption, with fetal growth characteristics measured in each trimester of pregnancy and the risks of adverse birth outcomes.
R. Bakker; R. P. M. Steegers-Theunissen; A. Obradov; H. Raat; A. Hofman; V. W. V. Jaddoe
There is growing evidence for nongenetic effects of maternal experience on offspring. For example, previous studies have shown that female threespined stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) exposed to predation risk produce offspring with altered behavior, metabolism and stress physiology. Here, we investigate the effect of maternal exposure to predation risk on the embryonic transcriptome in sticklebacks. Using RNA-sequencing we compared genome-wide transcription in three day post-fertilization embryos of predator-exposed and control mothers. There were hundreds of differentially expressed transcripts between embryos of predator-exposed mothers and embryos of control mothers including several non-coding RNAs. Gene Ontology analysis revealed biological pathways involved in metabolism, epigenetic inheritance, and neural proliferation and differentiation that differed between treatments. Interestingly, predation risk is associated with an accelerated life history in many vertebrates, and several of the genes and biological pathways that were identified in this study suggest that maternal exposure to predation risk accelerates the timing of embryonic development. Consistent with this hypothesis, embryos of predator-exposed mothers were larger than embryos of control mothers. These findings point to some of the molecular mechanisms that might underlie maternal effects.
Mommer, Brett C.; Bell, Alison M.
OBJECTIVE--To examine the effects of maternal diet during lactation and the use of formula feeds on the development of atopic eczema in infants at risk. DESIGN--Mothers who planned to breast feed exclusively were randomly allocated to either a restricted diet (avoiding milk and other dairy products, eggs, fish, peanuts, and soybeans) or a diet without restrictions. Mothers who did not
R. K. Chandra; S. Puri; A. Hamed
Background Sex steroid hormones have been proposed to play a role in the development of non-epithelial ovarian cancers (NEOC) but so far no direct epidemiological data are available. Methods A case-control study was nested within the Finnish Maternity Cohort, the world’s largest bio-repository of serum specimens from pregnant women. Study subjects were selected among women who donated a blood sample during a singleton pregnancy that led to the birth of their last child preceding diagnosis of NEOC. Case subjects were 41 women with sex-cord stromal tumors (SCST) and 21 with germ cell tumors (GCT). Three controls, matching the index case for age, parity at the index pregnancy, and date at blood donation were selected (n=171). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) associated with concentrations of testosterone, androstenedione, 17-OH-progesterone, progesterone, estradiol and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were estimated through conditional logistic regression. Results For SCST, doubling of testosterone, androstenedione and 17-OH-progesterone concentrations were associated with about 2-fold higher risk of SCST [ORs and 95% CI of 2.16 (1.25–3.74), 2.16 (1.20–3.87), and 2.62 (1.27–5.38), respectively]. These associations remained largely unchanged after excluding women within 2, 4 or 6 years lag-time between blood donation and cancer diagnosis. Sex steroid hormones concentrations were not related to maternal risk of GCT. Conclusions This is the first prospective study providing initial evidence that elevated androgens play a role in the pathogenesis of SCST. Impact Our study may note a particular need for larger confirmatory investigations on sex steroids and NEOC.
Chen, Tianhui; Surcel, Helja-Marja; Lundin, Eva; Kaasila, Marjo; Lakso, Hans Ake; Schock, Helena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Koskela, Pentti; Grankvist, Kjell; Hallmans, Goran; Pukkala, Eero; Jacquotte, Anne Zeleniuch; Toniolo, Paolo; Lehtinen, Matti; Lukanova, Annekatrin
Size variance among similarly aged individuals within populations is a pattern common to many organisms that is a result of interactions between intrinsic and extrinsic traits of individuals. While genetic and maternal effects, as well as physiological and behavioral traits have been shown to contribute to size variation in animal populations, teasing apart the influence of such factors on individual growth rates remain a challenge. Furthermore, tracing the effects of these interactions across life stages and in shaping adult phenotypes also requires further exploration. In this study we investigated the relationship between genetics, hatching patterns, behaviors, neuroendocrine stress axis activity and variance in growth and metamorphosis among same-aged larval amphibians. Through parallel experiments we found that in the absence of conspecific interactions, hatch time and to a lesser extent egg clutch identity (i.e. genetics and maternal effects) influenced the propensity for growth and development in individual tadpoles and determined metamorphic traits. Within experimental groups we found that variance in growth rates was associated with size-dependent foraging behaviors and responses to food restriction. We also found an inverse relationship between glucocorticoid (GC) hormone levels and body mass and developmental stage among group-reared tadpoles, which suggests that GC expression plays a role in regulating differing within-population growth trajectories in response to density-dependent conditions. Taken together these findings suggest that factors that influence hatching conditions can have long-term effects on growth and development. These results also raise compelling questions regarding the extent to which maternal and genetic factors influence physiological and behavioral profiles in amphibians. PMID:24143188
Warne, Robin W; Kardon, Adam; Crespi, Erica J
Objectives To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness) in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Sources A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012. Summary of findings Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents. Conclusions Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century.
Rodrigues, Anabel N; Abreu, Glaucia R; Resende, Rogerio S; Goncalves, Washington LS; Gouvea, Sonia Alves
The objective of this study was to determine if the maternal serum concentration of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) at 11–13 week's gestation is altered in pregnancies that subsequently develop preeclampsia (PE). Maternal serum concentration of IGFBP-3, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and uterine artery pulsatility index (PI) were measured in 60 cases that developed PE, including 20 that developed early-PE
S Sifakis; R Akolekar; D Kappou; N Mantas; K H Nicolaides
Background: Early feeding with cow’s milk (CM) may increase the risk of cow’s milk allergy (CMA). Objective: We sought to examine prospectively whether supplementary feeding of CM at the maternity hospital would increase the risk when compared with feeding with pasteurized human milk or hydrolyzed formula. Methods: We studied 6209 unselected healthy, full-term infants, of whom 5385 (87%) required supplementary
Kristiina Mertta Saarinen; Kaisu Juntunen-Backman; Anna-Liisa Järvenpää; Pekka Kuitunen; Leena Lope; Martin Renlund; Matti Siivola; Erkki Savilahti
Background Poor quality relationships between mothers and toddlers have been associated with higher risk for childhood obesity, but few prospective studies of obesity have assessed maternal-child relationship quality in infancy. In addition it is not known whether the increased risk is associated with the mother’s or the child’s contribution to the relationship quality. Methods We analyzed data (n?=?5650) from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, a national study of U.S. children born in 2001 and followed until they entered kindergarten. At 9 months of age, the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale (NCATS) was used to assess the quality of observed playtime interactions between mothers and infants, yielding separate scores for maternal and infant behaviors. Obesity (BMI ?95th percentile) at age 5.5 years was based on measured weight and height. Results The prevalence (95% confidence interval) of obesity at 5.5 years of age was higher among children in the lowest quartile of maternal NCATS score (20.2% [95% CI: 17.2%, 23.2%]) than in the highest quartile (13.9% [11.3%, 16.5%]), but maternal NCATS score was not significantly associated with obesity after adjustment for race/ethnicity, maternal education and household income. The prevalence of obesity at 5.5 years of age was similar among children in the lowest quartile of infant NCATS score (17.4% [14.4%, 20.3%]) and in the highest quartile (17.6% 14.4%, 20.8%]), and was not changed with covariate adjustment. Conclusions Maternal-infant relationship quality, assessed by direct observation at 9 months of age in a national sample, was not associated with an increased risk of obesity at age 5.5 years after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics.
Despite important advances in the treatment of melanoma, the prognosis for advanced disease remains discouraging. This fact, in combination with a worldwide epidemic of melanoma among persons of white skin type, has focused attention on identifying melanoma in its early, surgically curable stages. Attention has also been directed toward pinpointing which persons are at increased risk for melanoma to reduce risk where possible and to aid early diagnosis. Essentially all epidemiologic studies have identified an increased number of melanocytic nevi as an important risk factor in the development of melanoma, but controversy has arisen concerning the risk associated with certain types of nevi, particularly "dysplastic" nevi. We review melanoma risk factors and examine the relationship between melanocytic nevi and melanoma to clarify for primary care physicians what is "known" (non-controversial) and what is "unknown" (controversial). We propose a working definition of an atypical mole phenotype and outline an approach to managing high-risk patients. Images
Williams, M L; Sagebiel, R W
An epidemiological study led by researchers from Johns Hopkins University implicates human papillomavirus (HPV) exposure and infection as strong risk factors for oropharyngeal cancer, according to the May 10, 2007, New England Journal of Medicine.
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is an important public-health problem with multiple etiologies, risk factors, and changing temporal trends. Substantial progress has been made over the past few decades in identifying markers that confer increased SCD risk at the population level. However, the quest for predicting the high-risk individual who could be a candidate for an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, or other therapy,
Russell V. Luepker; Véronique L. Roger; Bernard J. Gersh; A. Selcuk Adabag
Examines risk and protective factors to identify processes in rural, single-parent families that are linked with positive child outcomes. Protective domains promoted greater child self-regulation; parenting protective factors promoted greater self-regulation. Maternal risk had the greatest negative effect on child self-worth. Results also reveal…
Murry, Velma McBride; Brody, Gene H.
The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), the world's largest telephone survey, tracks health risks in the United States. Information from the survey is used to improve the health of the American people. Since the early 1980s, BRFSS data have been used to identify e...
A number of surveys have by now provided information about the relative risk of persons from various backgrounds to experience sexual abuse during childhood. Interestingly, they are fairly uniform in failing to find differences in rates according to social class or race. However, several other factors have emerged from community studies as being consistently associated with higher risk for abuse:
DAVID FINKELHOR; LARRY BARON
Background: The injury risk in football is high, but little is known about causes of injury.Purpose: To identify risk factors for football injuries using a multivariate model.Study Design: Prospective cohort study.Methods: Participants were 306 male football players from the two highest divisions in Iceland. Before the 1999 football season started, the following factors were examined: height, weight, body composition, flexibility,
Arni Arnason; Stefan B. Sigurdsson; Arni Gudmundsson; Ingar Holme; Lars Engebretsen; Roald Bahr
Our objective was to assess whether postpartum depression risk factors differ between adolescent and adult mothers and to evaluate the need for adolescent specific screening instruments. We performed a retrospective cohort study using data from the Rhode Island Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, 2004-2008. We identified maternal age specific risk factors using weighted logistic regression and developed predictive models using a forward selected weighted logistic regression. Notable differences in odds ratios were observed for risk factors such as maternal race (OR Hispanic vs. White: 0.99, 95 % CI 0.49-1.99 among adolescents; 3.32, 95 % CI 2.01-5.49 among adults), pre-pregnancy alcohol use (OR use vs. non-use: 2.04, 95 % CI 1.08-3.86 among adolescents; 0.49, 95 % CI 0.33-0.73 among adults), and pregnancy intention (OR unintended vs. intended: 1.05, 95 % CI 0.37-2.97 among adolescents; 2.67, 95 % CI 1.51-4.74 among adults). In predictive models, adolescent postpartum depressive symptoms were most influenced by prior depression and social support while adult postpartum depressive symptoms were associated with risk factors including maternal race, pregnancy intention, SES, prior depression, mental health during pregnancy, stressors, and social support. We were able to identify similarities and dissimilarities in risk factors for postpartum depressive symptoms among adolescents and adults. Predictive models developed in the general population of pregnant women performed poorly among adolescents relative to age specific predictive models, suggesting that current screening tools may not adequately identify high risk adolescents. PMID:22886352
Nunes, Anthony P; Phipps, Maureen G
Encephalopathy in a common neonatological sense is a term referring to a complex of clinical symptoms occurring in term infants in the first days of their life as a result of hypoxic-ischemic lesions. However, if we accept the encyclopedic definition of encephalopathy as a vast or multifocal brain lesions caused by a variety of factors, we may use the term to describe all patients with traumatic, hypoxic or toxic brain lesions, and therefore also newborns at different levels of maturity. Contrary to term newborns, in which case the hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy are mostly intrauterine, for preterm infants there is a number of factors which destroy neural tissue postnatally The occurrence of those factors is often influenced by elements of essential intensive care. The article describes the most common biochemical disturbances and clinical causes. PMID:19824462
Kornacka, Maria K; Bokiniec, Renata; Bargiel, Agata
We investigate adolescent risk factors, measured at both early and late adolescence, for involvement in child maltreatment during adulthood. Comprehensive assessments of risk factors for maltreatment that use representative samples with longitudinal data are scarce and can inform multilevel prevention. We use data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study begun in 1988 with a sample of 1,000 seventh and eighth graders. Participants have been interviewed 14 times and, at the last assessment (age 31), 80% were retained. Risk factors represent 10 developmental domains: area characteristics, family background/structure, parent stressors, exposure to family violence, parent-child relationships, education, peer relationships, adolescent stressors, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions to adulthood. Maltreatment is measured by substantiated reports from Child Protective Services records. Many individual risk factors (20 at early adolescence and 14 at later adolescence) are significantly, albeit moderately, predictive of maltreatment. Several developmental domains stand out, including family background/structure, education, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions. In addition, there is a pronounced impact of cumulative risk on the likelihood of maltreatment. For example, only 3% of the youth with no risk domains in their background at early adolescence were involved in later maltreatment, but for those with risk in 9 developmental domains the rate was 45%. Prevention programs targeting youth at high risk for engaging in maltreatment should begin during early adolescence when risk factors are already at play. These programs need to be comprehensive, capable of addressing the multiple and interwoven nature of risk that is associated with maltreatment. PMID:24075569
Thornberry, Terence P; Matsuda, Mauri; Greenman, Sarah J; Augustyn, Megan Bears; Henry, Kimberly L; Smith, Carolyn A; Ireland, Timothy O
A retrospective analysis of data from a series of 22 patients with toxic megacolon complicating ulcerative colitis was performed in an attempt to detect factors associated with the fatal outcome of the attack. Of the 25 clinical findings studied, significant differences between survivors (17) and nonsurvivors (5) were observed in only seven. In nonsurvivors, duration of the disease was longer
R. Caprilli; P. Vernia; O. Colaneri; G. Frieri
Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...
Introduction Maternal nutritional and metabolic factors influence the developmental environment of the fetus. Virtually any nutritional factor in the maternal blood has to pass the placental membranes to reach the fetal blood. Placental weight is a commonly used measure to summarize placental growth and function. Placental weight is an independent determinant of fetal growth and birthweight and modifies the associations between maternal metabolic factors and fetal growth. We hypothesized that maternal factors known to be related to fetal growth, newborn size and body composition are determinants of placental weight and that effects of maternal metabolic factors on placental weight differ between the genders. Methods The STORK study is a prospective longitudinal study including 1031 healthy pregnant women of Scandinavian heritage with singleton pregnancies. Maternal determinants (parity, body mass index, gestational weight gain and fasting plasma glucose) of placental weight were explored by linear regression models, stratified by fetal sex. Results Parity, maternal BMI, gestational weight gain and fasting glucose had positive effects on placental weight. There was a sex specific effect in these associations. Fasting glucose was significantly associated with placental weight in females but not in males. Conclusion Maternal factors known to influence fetal growth, birthweight and neonatal body composition are determinants of placental weight. The effect of maternal factors on placental weight is influenced by sex as illustrated in the relation between maternal glucose and placental weight.
Roland, Marie Cecilie Paasche; Friis, Camilla M.; Godang, Kristin; Bollerslev, Jens; Haugen, Guttorm; Henriksen, Tore
In retrospective studies of esophageal cancer (EC), cigarettes and hookah smoking, nass use (a chewing tobacco product), opium consumption, hot tea drinking, poor oral health, low intake of fresh fruit and vegetables, and low socioeconomic status have been associated with a higher risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Barrett's esophagus is clearly recognized as a risk factor for EC, and dysplasia remains the only factor useful for identifying patients at increased risk, for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma in clinical practice. Here, we review the epidemiologic studies that have investigated the epidemiologic patterns and causes of EC. PMID:22320939
Mao, Wei-Min; Zheng, Wei-Hui; Ling, Zhi-Qiang
Background The aim of prenatal care is to promote good maternal and foetal health and to identify risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes in an attempt to promptly manage and solve them. Although high prenatal care attendance is reported in most areas in Brazil, perinatal and neonatal mortalities are disproportionally high, raising doubts about the quality and performance of the care provided. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the adequacy of prenatal care use and the risk factors involved in inadequate prenatal care utilization in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil. Methods A survey was carried out with puerperal women who delivered singleton liveborns in all four maternity hospitals of Aracaju. A total of 4552 singleton liveborns were studied. The Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index, modified according to the guidelines of the Prenatal Care and Birth Humanization Programme, was applied. Socioeconomic, demographic, biological, life style and health service factors were evaluated by multiple logistic regression. Results: Prenatal care coverage in Aracaju was high (98.3%), with a mean number of 6.24 visits. Prenatal care was considered to be adequate or intensive in 66.1% of cases, while 33.9% were considered to have inadequate usage. Age < 18 to 34 years at delivery, low maternal schooling, low family income, two or more previous deliveries, maternal smoking during pregnancy, having no partner and prenatal care obtained outside Aracaju were associated with inadequate prenatal care use. In contrast, private service attendance protected from inadequate prenatal care use. Conclusion Prenatal care coverage was high. However, a significant number of women still had inadequate prenatal care use. Socioeconomic inequalities, demographic factors and behavioural risk factors are still important factors associated with inadequate prenatal care use.
Ribeiro, Eleonora RO; Guimaraes, Alzira Maria DN; Bettiol, Heloisa; Lima, Danilo DF; Almeida, Maria Luiza D; de Souza, Luiz; Silva, Antonio Augusto M; Gurgel, Ricardo Q
Objectives Environmental factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus, many of these factors have been uncovered despite much research. A case-control study was carried out to determine the potential maternal, neonatal and early childhood risk factors for type 1 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents in Basrah. Methods A total of 96 diabetic patients who have been admitted to the pediatric wards at 3 main hospitals in Basrah, and those who have visited primary health care centers over the period from the 4th of November 2006 to the end of May 2007 were recruited. In addition, 299 non-diabetic children were included, their age ranged from 18 months to 17 years. Results Family history of type 1 diabetes mellitus and thyroid diseases in first and second degree relatives was found to be an independent risk factor for type 1 diabetes mellitus, (p<0.001). Regarding maternal habits and illnesses during pregnancy, the study has revealed that tea drinking during pregnancy is a risk factor for type 1 diabetes mellitus in their offspring, (p<0.05). In addition, maternal pre-eclampsia and infections were found to be significant risk factor for type 1 diabetes mellitus, (p<0.001). Neonatal infections, eczema and rhinitis during infancy were also significantly associated with development of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Moreover, the results revealed that duration of <6 months breast feeding is an important trigger of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Conclusion Exposure to environmental risk factors during pregnancy (tea drinking, pre-eclampsia, and infectious diseases), neonatal period (respiratory distress, jaundice and infections) and early infancy are thought to play an important role in triggering the immune process leading to B-cell destruction and the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Majeed, Athar Abdul Samad; Hassan, Kadhum
Pregnant women and infants are at high risk for complications, hospitalization, and death due to influenza. It is well-established that influenza vaccination during pregnancy reduces rates and severity of illness in women overall. Maternal vaccination also confers antibody protection to infants via both transplacental transfer and breast milk. However, as in the general population, a relatively high proportion of pregnant women and their infants do not achieve protective antibody levels against influenza virus following maternal vaccination. Behavioral factors, particularly maternal weight and stress exposure, may affect initial maternal antibody responses, maintenance of antibody levels over time (i.e., across pregnancy), as well as the efficiency of transplacental antibody transfer to the fetus. Conversely, behavioral interventions including acute exercise and stress reduction can enhance immune protection following vaccination. Such behavioral interventions are particularly appealing in pregnancy because they are safe and non-invasive. The identification of individual risk factors for poor responses to vaccines and the application of appropriate interventions represent important steps towards personalized health care. PMID:24709586
Christian, Lisa M
Abstract Objective: Possible risk factors and trends in the rate of stillbirth in Hungary between 1971 and 2010. Methods: Annual data of fetal birth weight, fetal gender, maternal age and marital status of the mother categories were available for both live and stillborn cases and were analyzed using negative binomial regression. A p value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Male gender significantly increased risk of stillbirth (relative risk (RR):1.08; p?0.001). The risk of stillbirth was also significantly associated with the maternal age (RR: 2.01 in the group older than 35 years, relative to younger mothers; p?0.001), and the marital status (RR: 1.24 among the babies of an extramarital partnership; p?0.001), this holding true for both fetal genders. However, a low birth weight (?2500?g) increased the risk of stillbirth more than 18-fold (RR: 18.47; p?0.001) and there was a markedly higher risk of low birth weight in boys than in girls. Further, a strong negative correlation (r?=?-0.88) was detected between the real income per person of the overall population and the rate of stillbirth. Conclusions: These findings support the known risk factors of stillbirth and gender-specific analyses given an estimation of the risk of stillbirth in both boys and girls. PMID:24102256
Nyári, Tibor András
Little is known about the prevalence of dementia and its associated risk factors in developing countries. Some studies suggest that the prevalence of dementia is lower in developing countries than it is in high-income nations. We sought to determine risk factors for dementia in elderly persons in central Nigeria. Using the standardized Community Screening Instrument for Dementia, we screened a stratified, random community sample of 280 persons aged 65 years and older for dementia. We examined the independent association of known risk factors with dementia using logistic regression. The overall prevalence of dementia was 6.4% (95% CI 3.8-9.9%). Independent risk factors for dementia included female sex (OR 8.4; 95% CI 1.9-39), body mass index of 18.5 kg/m2 or less (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.2-9.9), and age (OR 1.05 per year; 95% CI 1.00-1.11). Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use was associated with a reduced risk of dementia (OR 0.20; 95% CI 0.04-0.93). Education, blood pressure, history of stroke, family history of dementia, and rural residence were not significantly associated with dementia in the multivariate model. The prevalence of dementia in central Nigeria may be greater than that found in other developing countries. Female sex, low body mass index, lack of NSAID use, and advancing age were the major risk factors in this population. PMID:17050090
Ochayi, B; Thacher, T D
Changes in circulating levels of maternal serum transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-?1), collected from 98 women (AGA) at different gestational ages (10-38 weeks) were measured and comparisons were made between levels in pregnant and nonpregnant controls and also between 10 women with small-for-gestational age (SGA) and 7 with appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) fetuses. Maternal serum TGF-?1 levels at all stages of pregnancy were higher than those in normal healthy nonpregnant adults. The mean TGF-?1 levels in SGA pregnancies at 34-week gestation (32.5?+?3.2?ng/mL) were significantly less than those in AGA pregnancies (39.2?+?9.8?ng/mL) while at 38-week gestation, the levels were similar in the two groups (36.04?+?4.3 versus 36.7?+?7.0?ng/mL). This differential change in TGF-?1 levels is probably an important modulating factor in the aetiopathogenesis of abnormal intrauterine fetal growth. PMID:24350258
Singh, Mandeep; Orazulike, Ngozi C; Ashmore, Jill; Konje, Justin C
Postnatal depression (PND) is recognised as a common maternal health problem, but little evidence examines PND among refugee,\\u000a asylum seeker and immigrant women in developed country settings. This review aimed to identify the rates of PND and highlight\\u000a common risk factors among this group of women. An iterative and dynamic literature search was conducted across ten databases\\u000a to identify published
Catherine H. Collins; Cathy Zimmerman; Louise M. Howard
... what causes thymus cancer? What are the risk factors for thymus cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting ... such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. For example, exposing the skin to strong sunlight ...
Do resiliency or protective factors moderate risk factors in preschool aged children? This study looks at pre- and post-treatment data from 49 preschool children whose average age was 4 years old. The treatment included prevention and early intervention programs that promote emotional well-being and the development of healthy interpersonal relationships in children, ages birth to eight, and their caregivers. The
Monica R. Geist; P. Antonio; Olmos Gallo; Mary Grimmer; Daniel J. Mundfrom
Background: Childhood obesity has increased significantly in recent decades. Objective: The objective was to examine the perinatal risk factors related to childhood obesity. Design: In a prospective study, 89 women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and their offspring were evaluated at birth and at 8.8 ± 1.8 y. At birth, obstetrical data, parental anthropometric measures, and neonatal body composition were assessed; at follow-up, diet and activity were assessed and laboratory studies were conducted. Weight was classified by using weight for age and sex, and body composition was measured by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In childhood, data were analyzed as tertiles and prediction models were developed by using logistic and stepwise regression. Results: No significant differences in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention weight percentiles, body composition, and most metabolic measures were observed between children of mothers with NGT and GDM at follow-up. Children in the upper tertile for weight had greater energy intake (P = 0.02), skinfold thickness (P = 0.0001), and leptin concentrations (P < 0.0001) than did those in tertiles 1 and 2. Children in the upper tertile for percentage body fat had greater waist circumference (P = 0.0001), insulin resistance (P = 0.002), and triglyceride (P = 0.009) and leptin (P = 0.0001) concentrations than did children in tertiles 1 and 2. The correlation between body fat at birth and follow-up was r = 0.29 (P = 0.02). The strongest perinatal predictor for a child in the upper tertile for weight was maternal pregravid body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) >30 (odds ratio: 3.75; 95% CI: 1.39, 10.10; P = 0.009) and for percentage body fat was maternal pregravid BMI >30 (odds ratio: 5.45; 95% CI: 1.62, 18.41; P = 0.006). Conclusion: Maternal pregravid BMI, independent of maternal glucose status or birth weight, was the strongest predictor of childhood obesity.
Farrell, Kristen; Thomas, Alicia; Huston-Presley, Larraine; Mencin, Patricia; de Mouzon, Sylvie Hauguel; Amini, Saeid B
The nutritional status of a selected population--859 male members of the Fire Rescue Service from 12 districts in the Czech Republic--was assessed in 1997 and 1998. The study provides extensive information on selected anthropometrical and biochemical parameters, especially on those, which are generally used as risk indices for the origin and development of cardiovascular disease (CVD): body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (b. fat), waist circumference (waist), serum concentrations of total cholesterol (Tchol), HDL- and LDL-cholesterol (HDL-chol, LDL-chol), triacylglyceroles (TAG) and the atherogenic index (AI). As far as lipid parameters were concerned, increased serum levels were estimated in 30.4% (TAG), 54% (Tchol) and 60.9% (LDL-chol) of volunteers. Decreased serum levels of HDL-chol were found in 38.2% of volunteers. An AI higher than 3.5 a.u. was calculated for 79.9% of all subjects in study while an AI higher than 5.0 a.u. was calculated for 45.3% of all subjects. An AI higher than 3.5 a.u. was found in 62% of males with normal weight, in 85% of overweight males and in 92% of obese males. The results of the study proved the considerable prevalence of the overweightness and obesity in the male population group that was followed: according to the calculated BMI, 49.5% of volunteers were estimated to be overweight and 16.3% to be obese. The study concept made it possible to reveal the relationships among the anthropometrical and biochemical parameters followed. The correlation matrix documents a statistically significant dependence among the BMI or waist values and the serum concentrations of Tchol, LDL-chol, TAG and AI. A significant negative correlation was found between the HDL-chol serum concentration and the BMI or waist values. The variance analysis results (the estimated lipid parameter values were divided into groups according to BMI and waist categories) document a statistically significant increase in serum Tchol, LDL-chol, TAG and AI in age categories over 35 years in comparison with the category of men under 25 years of age. For Tchol and LDL-chol a statistically significant increase had already been found in the 25-35 year age category. In comparison with the normal weight category, Tchol serum levels and AI values were statistically significantly higher in both the overweight and obese categories. Statistically significant increase was proven for the TAG and LDL-chol serum levels in both the overweight II. gr. and obese categories. A statistically significant decrease in comparison with the normal weight category was found in the HDL-chol serum levels of both the overweight and obesity categories. In the same way, an increase in Tchol and LDL-chol, TAG serum concentrations and AI values in higher and high risk CVD categories (according to the waist circumference value) was found in comparison with the low CVD risk category. PMID:12688165
Hlúbik, P; Opltová, L; Chaloupka, J
Background Infection in pregnancy may be involved in the aetiology of pre-eclampsia. However, a clear association between acute maternal infection and pre-eclampsia has not been established. We assessed whether acute urinary tract infection, respiratory tract infection, and antibiotic drug prescriptions in pregnancy (a likely proxy for maternal infection) are associated with an increased risk of pre-eclampsia. Methods and Findings We used a matched nested case-control design and data from the UK General Practice Research Database to examine the association between maternal infection and pre-eclampsia. Primiparous women aged at least 13 years and registered with a participating practice between January 1987 and October 2007 were eligible for inclusion. We selected all cases of pre-eclampsia and a random sample of primiparous women without pre-eclampsia (controls). Cases (n?=?1533) were individually matched with up to ten controls (n?=?14236) on practice and year of delivery. We calculated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for pre-eclampsia comparing women exposed and unexposed to infection using multivariable conditional logistic regression. After adjusting for maternal age, pre-gestational hypertension, diabetes, renal disease and multifetal gestation, the odds of pre-eclampsia were increased in women prescribed antibiotic drugs (adjusted odds ratio 1.28;1.14–1.44) and in women with urinary tract infection (adjusted odds ratio 1.22;1.03–1.45). We found no association with maternal respiratory tract infection (adjusted odds ratio 0.91;0.72–1.16). Further adjustment for maternal smoking and pre-pregnancy body mass index made no difference to our findings. Conclusions Women who acquire a urinary infection during pregnancy, but not those who have a respiratory infection, are at an increased risk of pre-eclampsia. Maternal antibiotic prescriptions are also associated with an increased risk. Further research is required to elucidate the underlying mechanism of this association and to determine whether, among women who acquire infections in pregnancy, prompt treatment or prophylaxis against infection might reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia.
Minassian, Caroline; Thomas, Sara L.; Williams, David J.; Campbell, Oona; Smeeth, Liam
The HIV\\/AIDS epidemic is one of the major factors affecting women's health, with 20 million women living with HIV and more than two million pregnancies in HIV-positive women each year. Most HIV infections in women are in resource-constrained settings where the risk of maternal morbidity and mortality is also unacceptably high, and where most of the 529,000 deaths from complications
Postnatal depression (PND) is recognised as a common maternal health problem, but little evidence examines PND among refugee, asylum seeker and immigrant women in developed country settings. This review aimed to identify the rates of PND and highlight common risk factors among this group of women. An iterative and dynamic literature search was conducted across ten databases to identify published articles on PND among immigrant, asylum-seeking and refugee women in developed country settings. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and 'free text' search terms, as well as thesaurus terms, acronyms and truncation were used where appropriate. Findings suggest that PND may affect up to 42% of migrant women, compared to around 10-15% of native-born women. Common risk factors for PND among migrant women include history of stressful life events, lack of social support and cultural factors. With a growing number of babies born to immigrant mothers, greater awareness of PND among this group is needed in order to respond to their particular maternal mental health needs. Maternity care providers should regard all recent immigrants as at high risk of PND and give closer observation and support as necessary. PMID:21153849
Collins, Catherine H; Zimmerman, Cathy; Howard, Louise M
Background The aims of this study were to 1) determine the distinct patterns of body mass index (BMI) trajectories in Japanese children, and 2) elucidate the maternal factors during pregnancy, which contribute to the determination of those patterns. Methodology/Principal Findings All of the children (1,644 individuals) born in Koshu City, Japan, between 1991 and 1998 were followed in a longitudinal study exploring the subjects’ BMI. The BMI was calculated 11 times for each child between birth and 12 years of age. Exploratory latent class growth analyses were conducted to identify trajectory patterns of the BMI z-scores. The distribution of BMI trajectories were best characterized by a five-group model for boys and a six-group model for girls. The groups were named “stable thin,” “stable average,” “stable high average,” “progressive overweight,” and “progressive obesity” in both sexes; girls were allocated to an additional group called “progressive average.” Multinomial logistic regression found that maternal weight, smoking, and skipping breakfast during pregnancy were associated with children included in the progressive obesity pattern rather than the stable average pattern. These associations were stronger for boys than for girls. Conclusions/Significance Multiple developmental patterns in Japanese boys and girls were identified, some of which have not been identified in Western countries. Maternal BMI and some unfavorable behaviors during early pregnancy may impact a child’s pattern of body mass development. Further studies to explain the gender and regional differences that were identified are warranted, as these may be important for early life prevention of weight-associated health problems.
Haga, Chiyori; Kondo, Naoki; Suzuki, Kohta; Sato, Miri; Ando, Daisuke; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Taichiro; Yamagata, Zentaro
Objective: To determine the risk factors for persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborns (PPHN) and their influence on mortality. Methods: This was an observational study conducted at The Children’s Hospital & the Institute of Child Health, Multan, Pakistan, from July 2011 to June 2012.All admitted babies who had respiratory distress, cyanosis and evidence of hypoxia on ABG,s were diagnosed provided that they were having right- to- left or bidirectional hemodynamic shunting at the ductus arteriosus or at patent foramen ovale along with Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) jet >40 mm of Hg on echocardiography. All the demographic, maternal, antenatal, natal and postnatal data were recorded on a predesigned Performa. Results: There were 79 patients, including 61 males and 18 females. The most common risk factors observed in our study were male sex (72.1%), cesarean section mode of delivery (54.2%), positive pressure ventilation while resuscitation (44.2%) birth asphyxia (40.4%) and meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS)35.4%. It was found that male sex (88.8%), cesarean-section delivery (77.7%), respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) 44.8% and sepsis (44.4%) were more associated with PPHN in premature infants than with term and post term infants. Out of the total 79 patients, death occurred among 7 preterm and 14 terms and post term infants. As a whole, cesarean section mode of delivery (71.4%), birth asphyxia (57.1%) and female sex (52.4%) were found major risk factors associated with mortality. However, respiratory distress syndrome (Relative Risk RR=5), birth asphyxia (RR=2.5) and male sex (RR=2)were found to be associated with increased risk of mortality in preterm than term and post term infants. Conclusion: Male gender, cesarean section mode of delivery, MAS and RDS are the major risk factors for PPHN in any age group. RDS, Birth asphyxia and male sex are associated with increased risk of mortality in pre term than term and post term infants.
Razzaq, Athar; Iqbal Quddusi, Ahmed; Nizami, Naila
Objective: To determine the risk factors for persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborns (PPHN) and their influence on mortality. Methods: This was an observational study conducted at The Children's Hospital & the Institute of Child Health, Multan, Pakistan, from July 2011 to June 2012.All admitted babies who had respiratory distress, cyanosis and evidence of hypoxia on ABG,s were diagnosed provided that they were having right- to- left or bidirectional hemodynamic shunting at the ductus arteriosus or at patent foramen ovale along with Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) jet >40 mm of Hg on echocardiography. All the demographic, maternal, antenatal, natal and postnatal data were recorded on a predesigned Performa. Results: There were 79 patients, including 61 males and 18 females. The most common risk factors observed in our study were male sex (72.1%), cesarean section mode of delivery (54.2%), positive pressure ventilation while resuscitation (44.2%) birth asphyxia (40.4%) and meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS)35.4%. It was found that male sex (88.8%), cesarean-section delivery (77.7%), respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) 44.8% and sepsis (44.4%) were more associated with PPHN in premature infants than with term and post term infants. Out of the total 79 patients, death occurred among 7 preterm and 14 terms and post term infants. As a whole, cesarean section mode of delivery (71.4%), birth asphyxia (57.1%) and female sex (52.4%) were found major risk factors associated with mortality. However, respiratory distress syndrome (Relative Risk RR=5), birth asphyxia (RR=2.5) and male sex (RR=2)were found to be associated with increased risk of mortality in preterm than term and post term infants. Conclusion: Male gender, cesarean section mode of delivery, MAS and RDS are the major risk factors for PPHN in any age group. RDS, Birth asphyxia and male sex are associated with increased risk of mortality in pre term than term and post term infants. PMID:24353699
Razzaq, Athar; Iqbal Quddusi, Ahmed; Nizami, Naila
Objective: To determine the risk of neonatal death (NND) in relation to birth weight for gestational age and the presence or absence of maternal hypertensive disease in preterm neonates. Design: Record linkage of maternity data and neonatal mortality data. Setting: Scotland, UK. Population: A group of 6946 live singleton preterm neonates without lethal congenital abnormalities born at 24–32 weeks between
Tim Chard; Gillian Penney; Jim Chalmers
BACKGROUND: In utero interactions between incompatible maternal and fetal genotypes are a potential mechanism for the onset or progression of pregnancy related diseases such as pre-eclampsia (PE). However, the optimal analytical approach and study design for evaluating incompatible maternal\\/offspring genotype combinations is unclear. METHODS: Using simulation, we estimated the type I error and power of incompatible maternal\\/offspring genotype models for
Neeta Parimi; Gerard Tromp; Helena Kuivaniemi; Jyh Kae Nien; Ricardo Gomez; Roberto Romero; Katrina AB Goddard
Objective To determine risk factors for childhood overweight that can be identified during the first year of life to facilitate early identification and targeted intervention. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Search strategy Electronic database search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and CAB Abstracts. Eligibility criteria Prospective observational studies following up children from birth for at least 2?years. Results Thirty prospective studies were identified. Significant and strong independent associations with childhood overweight were identified for maternal pre-pregnancy overweight, high infant birth weight and rapid weight gain during the first year of life. Meta-analysis comparing breastfed with non-breastfed infants found a 15% decrease (95% CI 0.74 to 0.99; I2=73.3%; n=10) in the odds of childhood overweight. For children of mothers smoking during pregnancy there was a 47% increase (95% CI 1.26 to 1.73; I2=47.5%; n=7) in the odds of childhood overweight. There was some evidence associating early introduction of solid foods and childhood overweight. There was conflicting evidence for duration of breastfeeding, socioeconomic status at birth, parity and maternal marital status at birth. No association with childhood overweight was found for maternal age or education at birth, maternal depression or infant ethnicity. There was inconclusive evidence for delivery type, gestational weight gain, maternal postpartum weight loss and ‘fussy’ infant temperament due to the limited number of studies. Conclusions Several risk factors for both overweight and obesity in childhood are identifiable during infancy. Future research needs to focus on whether it is clinically feasible for healthcare professionals to identify infants at greatest risk.
Weng, Stephen Franklin; Redsell, Sarah A; Swift, Judy A; Yang, Min; Glazebrook, Cristine P
Objectives. We examined the association between maternal experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV) and the risk of undernutrition among children younger than 5 years in Bangladesh. Methods. We used data from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey. Our analyses were based on the responses of 1851 married women living with at least 1 child younger than 5 years. Exposure was determined from maternal reports of physical and sexual IPV. Outcomes included underweight, stunting, and wasting. Results. Twenty-nine percent of the respondents had experienced IPV in the year preceding the survey. Maternal experience of any physical or sexual IPV was associated with an increased risk of stunting (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]?=?1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.23, 2.08) and underweight (AOR?=?1.33; 95% CI?=?1.04, 1.71) but was not significantly associated with wasting (AOR?=?1.08; 95% CI?=?0.78, 1.49). Conclusions. The association between maternal exposure to physical or sexual IPV and child underweight and stunting suggests that partner violence plays a significant role in compromising child health by impairing child nutrition. Our findings reinforce the evidence that improving child nutrition is an additional reason to strengthen efforts to protect women from physical and sexual IPV.
Rahman, Mosiur; Yasuoka, Junko; Otsuka, Keiko; Yoshikawa, Kayoko; Jimba, Masamine
The purpose of the current study was to examine in detail the association between witnessing domestic violence (DV) and long-term psychological adjustment. Important limitations of past research were addressed, including controlling for several associated risk factors. Special attention was paid to whether the perpetrator of the violence was the maternal or paternal figure, as well as to whether the witness
Terry Diamond; Robert T. Muller
Objective To identify potentially modifiable risk factors of placental injury reflecting maternal uteroplacental vascular compromise (UPVC) and acute and chronic placental inflammation. Study design A prospective epidemiologic study was conducted. A total of 1270 placentas were characterized by gross and microscopic examination. Placental pathology was coded for features of amniotic fluid infection syndrome (AFIS), chronic villitis, UPVC, and fetal vascular obstructive lesions. Odds ratios between UPVC, the acute and the chronic inflammatory lesions, and risk factors of interest were calculated. Results After adjusting for confounders, women with a history of preterm birth had 1.60 times the odds of chronic inflammation (95% CI: 1.10, 2.55). Women with a previous elective termination had 3.28 times the odds of acute inflammation (95% CI: 1.89, 5.70). The odds of chronic villitis increased with parity, while the odds of AFIS decreased with parity. Conclusion We have identified several predictors of UPVC, AFIS and chronic villitis. Further studies are needed to examine whether interventions to alter UPVC, AFIS and chronic villitis will lead to improved pregnancy outcomes.
BAKER, Arthur M.; BRAUN, Joe M.; SALAFIA, Carolyn M.; HERRING, Amy H.; DANIELS, Julie; RANKINS, Nicole; THORP, John M.
Obesity is associated with increased risk of many adverse health conditions. During pregnancy, obesity presents particularly important challenges for both mother and baby. Over the last 20 years, studies have emerged indicating an association between prepregnancy weight and risks of birth defects. However, few studies have examined the mechanisms through which this association occurs. Understanding the underlying mechanisms may provide clues to public health strategies for the prevention of birth defects associated with maternal obesity. This article briefly reviews existing literature on the association between maternal obesity and birth defects, discusses potential underlying mechanisms, and suggests research needed to improve our understanding of this important association. PMID:20973050
Carmichael, Suzan L; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Shaw, Gary M
Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are associated with neurocognitive symptoms including deficits in attentional set shifting (changing attentional focus from one perceptual dimension to another) and reversal learning (learning a reversed stimulus/outcome contingency). Maternal infection during gestation and chronically flattened glucocorticoid rhythm are aetiological risk factors for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We hypothesised that these factors are causative in the neurocognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Here we used maternal immune activation (MIA) as a rat model of maternal infection, and sub-chronic low dose corticosterone treatment as a rat model of flattened glucocorticoid rhythm. For comparison we examined the effects of sub-chronic phencyclidine - a widely used rodent model of schizophrenia pathology. The effects of these three treatments on neurocognition were explored using the attentional set shifting task - a multistage test of executive functions. As expected, phencyclidine treatment selectively impaired set shifting ability. In contrast, MIA caused a marked and selective impairment of reversal learning. Corticosterone treatment impaired reversal learning but in addition also impaired rule abstraction and prevented the animals from forming an attentional set. The reversal learning deficits induced by MIA and corticosterone treatment were due to increases in non-perseverative rather than perseverative errors. Our data indicate that the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may be explained by aetiological factors including maternal infection and glucocorticoid abnormalities and moreover suggest that the particular spectrum of cognitive deficits in individual patients may depend on the specific underlying aetiology of the disorder. PMID:24377755
Wallace, J; Marston, H M; McQuade, R; Gartside, S E
This analysis was conducted to explore the association between 5 birth size measurements (weight, length and head, chest and mid-upper arm [MUAC] circumferences) as dependent variables and 10 maternal factors as independent variables using canonical correlation analysis (CCA). CCA considers simultaneously sets of dependent and independent variables and, thus, generates a substantially reduced type 1 error. Data were from women delivering a singleton live birth (n?=?14,506) while participating in a double-masked, cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled maternal vitamin A or ?-carotene supplementation trial in rural Bangladesh. The first canonical correlation was 0.42 (P<0.001), demonstrating a moderate positive correlation mainly between the 5 birth size measurements and 5 maternal factors (preterm delivery, early pregnancy MUAC, infant sex, age and parity). A significant interaction between infant sex and preterm delivery on birth size was also revealed from the score plot. Thirteen percent of birth size variability was explained by the composite score of the maternal factors (Redundancy, RY/X?=?0.131). Given an ability to accommodate numerous relationships and reduce complexities of multiple comparisons, CCA identified the 5 maternal variables able to predict birth size in this rural Bangladesh setting. CCA may offer an efficient, practical and inclusive approach to assessing the association between two sets of variables, addressing the innate complexity of interactions. PMID:24710082
Kabir, Alamgir; Merrill, Rebecca D; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Klemn, Rolf D W; Labrique, Alain B; Christian, Parul; West, Keith P; Nasser, Mohammed
This analysis was conducted to explore the association between 5 birth size measurements (weight, length and head, chest and mid-upper arm [MUAC] circumferences) as dependent variables and 10 maternal factors as independent variables using canonical correlation analysis (CCA). CCA considers simultaneously sets of dependent and independent variables and, thus, generates a substantially reduced type 1 error. Data were from women delivering a singleton live birth (n?=?14506) while participating in a double-masked, cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled maternal vitamin A or ?-carotene supplementation trial in rural Bangladesh. The first canonical correlation was 0.42 (P<0.001), demonstrating a moderate positive correlation mainly between the 5 birth size measurements and 5 maternal factors (preterm delivery, early pregnancy MUAC, infant sex, age and parity). A significant interaction between infant sex and preterm delivery on birth size was also revealed from the score plot. Thirteen percent of birth size variability was explained by the composite score of the maternal factors (Redundancy, RY/X?=?0.131). Given an ability to accommodate numerous relationships and reduce complexities of multiple comparisons, CCA identified the 5 maternal variables able to predict birth size in this rural Bangladesh setting. CCA may offer an efficient, practical and inclusive approach to assessing the association between two sets of variables, addressing the innate complexity of interactions.
Kabir, Alamgir; Merrill, Rebecca D.; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Klemn, Rolf D. W.; Labrique, Alain B.; Christian, Parul; West, Keith P.; Nasser, Mohammed
Knowledge of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) risk factors allows anesthesiologists to opti- mize the use of prophylactic regimens. Modern PONV risk research began in the 1990s with publica- tion of studies using logistic regression analysis to simultaneously identify multiple independent PONV predictors and publication of meta-analyses and systematic reviews. This literature shows that fe- male gender post-puberty, nonsmoking status,
Tong J. Gan
Brain injury from ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease (CVD) produces decline in cognitive functions and vascular dementia (VaD). Likewise, CVD may cause VaD from hypoperfusion of susceptible brain areas. CVD may also worsen degenerative dementias such as Alzheimer’s disease. Significant advances have been made in the identification and control of risk factors for stroke and cardiovascular disease. The main risk
Gustavo C. Román
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide including in developing countries like India. Indians are known to be predisposed to CVD, which occur almost a decade earlier in them. Though these diseases manifest in the middle age and beyond, it is now clear that the roots of CVD lie in childhood and adolescence. Many of the conventional risk factors of CVD such as high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, tobacco use, unhealthy diet and obesity have their beginnings in childhood and then track overtime. It is thus important to screen and identify these risk factors early and treat them to prevent onset of CVD. Similarly community based strategies to prevent onset of these risk factors is imperative to tackle this burgeoning public health crisis especially in countries like ours with limited resources. PMID:22638996
Praveen, Pradeep A; Roy, Ambuj; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj
Background Mental disorders in childhood have a considerable health and societal impact but the associated negative consequences may be ameliorated through early identification of risk and protective factors that can guide health promoting and preventive interventions. The objective of this study was to inform health policy and practice through identification of demographic, familial and environmental factors associated with emotional or behavioural problems in middle childhood, and the predictors of resilience in the presence of identified risk factors. Methods A cohort of 706 mothers followed from early pregnancy was surveyed at six to eight years post-partum by a mail-out questionnaire, which included questions on demographics, children’s health, development, activities, media and technology, family, friends, community, school life, and mother’s health. Results Although most children do well in middle childhood, of 450 respondents (64% response rate), 29.5% and 25.6% of children were found to have internalising and externalising behaviour problem scores in the lowest quintile on the NSCLY Child Behaviour Scales. Independent predictors for problem behaviours identified through multivariable logistic regression modelling included being male, demographic risk, maternal mental health risk, poor parenting interactions, and low parenting morale. Among children at high risk for behaviour problems, protective factors included high maternal and child self-esteem, good maternal emotional health, adequate social support, good academic performance, and adequate quality parenting time. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that several individual and social resilience factors can counter the influence of early adversities on the likelihood of developing problem behaviours in middle childhood, thus informing enhanced public health interventions for this understudied life course phase.
A previous study suggested a younger age at menarche (AAM) among daughters of heavy prenatal smokers, especially among non-Whites. The present study was designed to evaluate that association in another population and to examine other factors that may be related to AAM. We analysed data from the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a nationwide longitudinal study of pregnant women and their children conducted in 1959-66. At three sites, with a predominance of Black participants (80%), AAM was ascertained in the offspring when they were young adults. We included data on 1556 daughters who had a mean AAM of 12.7 years (standard deviation 1.8). Amount smoked by the mothers was obtained from a baseline interview and subsequent prenatal visits. Regression models were run including maternal smoking and other covariates, for only the prenatal period, as well as in models with some childhood characteristics. In the prenatal factor model, younger mean AAM in daughters was found with maternal characteristics of earlier AAM, being married, and of lower parity. Examining childhood variables, earlier AAM was found among girls with few or no siblings or with higher socio-economic status. Unlike our previous findings, mean AAM was later in daughters of heavy smokers (20+ cigarettes/day), with a delay of 0.31 years [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.008, 0.61], or about 3.7 months in the prenatal model, and 0.34 years [95% CI -0.02, 0.66] in the model with childhood variables included. The pattern was consistent by race. A number of prenatal and childhood factors related to AAM were identified that should be considered when examining exogenous exposures in relation to pubertal onset. PMID:19000293
Windham, Gayle C; Zhang, Lixia; Longnecker, Matthew P; Klebanoff, Mark
The aim of this thesis was to investigate possible risk factors affecting the development of AD. AD is a frequent disease among children and has a substantial impact on the lives of both the child and its family. A better understanding of the disease would enable better treatment, prevention and information to the families involved. Previous risk factor studies have been hampered by an unsuitable study design and/or difficulties in standardization when diagnosing AD, which limit their conclusions. In paper I, we conducted a traditional cross-sectional analysis testing 40 possible risk factors for developing AD at 3 years of age. Our data suggested a strong heredity of AD and confirmed the risk associated with the non-functional FLG allele mutations after adjustments for confounders. Besides this mother's dermatitis and father's allergic rhinitis were found to increase the risk of AD. Perinatal exposure to dog was the only environmental exposure that significantly reduced the disease manifestation, suggesting other, yet unknown environmental factors affecting the increasing prevalence of AD in children. Length at birth was shown to be inversely associated with the risk of later developing AD. This traditional risk factor analysis led to two borderline significant results: duration of exclusive breastfeeding and mother's alcohol intake during the 3rd trimester. Since these possible two risk factors could neither be rejected nor accepted, we decided to do two in-depth studies, further investigating these, using longitudinal data information and data analysis instead of the traditional cross-sectional approach (paper II & III). In paper II, we investigated the risk of developing AD and wheezy symptoms until age 2 years depending on duration of breastfeeding. We found an increased risk of AD, but a protective effect on wheezy disorders in infancy from exclusive breastfeeding. The effect of exclusive breastfeeding on the risk of development of AD was significant after adjustment for demographics, FLG variants R501X and 2282del4 status, parent's AD and pets at home (RR 2.09, 95% CI 1.15-3.80, p=0.016). In addition, there was a significant effect of duration of exclusive breastfeeding (p=0.043), as the relative risk of AD was increased in proportion to increased duration of breastfeeding. The risk associated with exclusive breastfeeding was not explained by the fatty acid composition of mother's milk, though a trend showed higher risk of AD if mother's milk had low concentrations of n-3 fatty acids. In paper III, we found that alcohol intake during pregnancy was associated with a significantly higher risk of developing AD in the offspring, with the effect persisting throughout the whole 7 years follow-up period (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.05-1.99, p=0.024). The increased risk was still significant after confounder adjustment for mother's education, AD and smoking habits during the 3rd trimester. There was no association between alcohol intake during pregnancy and other atopic endpoints (wheeze episodes, asthma, allergic rhinitis, blood eosinophil count, total IgE, sensitization, cord blood IgE and nasal eosinophilia). However, the underlying explanation was not clear. The thesis is based on data collected as part of the ongoing COPSAC cohort. The cohort is a longitudinal, prospective birth cohort following 411 children born to mothers with asthma. This selection of high-risk children restricts the interpretation of the results and they cannot necessarily be expanded to apply to the general population. PMID:23809981
Carson, Charlotte Giwercman
Risk factors for post-transplant tuberculosis.BackgroundPost-transplant tuberculosis (post-TxTB) occurs in 12 to 20% of patients in India and results in the death of 20 to 25% of those patients. Prospective studies on post-TxTB are few.MethodsRenal allograft recipients were studied prospectively for 3.1 (0 to 13.9) median (range) years for incidence, manifestations, risk factors, and prognosis for post-TxTB. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used
George Tharayil John; Viswanathan Shankar; Abi Mookanottle Abraham; Uma Mukundan; Paulose Punnakuzhathil Thomas; Chakko Korula Jacob
This article updates current knowledge about epidemiology, prognosis, and risk factors for major complications in mastocytosis. A prevalence of mastocytosis of 1 in 10000 inhabitants has been reported, but underdiagnosis is assumed. The prognosis for cutaneous and indolent systemic mastocytosis is excellent. For more advanced forms of disease, prognostic parameters have been identified. A high extent of skin involvement, increased basal serum tryptase values, and extensive blistering are risk factors for severe mast cell activation episodes in children, whereas these associations seem to be less strong or nonexistent for anaphylaxis and osteoporosis in adult patients with indolent systemic mastocytosis. PMID:24745674
Objective Disruptive behavior in adolescence may indicate a broad vulnerability to disinhibition, which begins in childhood and culminates in adult externalizing psychopathology. We utilized prospective birth cohort data to assess childhood predictors of adolescent disinhibition. We also examined the effect of pre-adolescent fluctuation in cognitive ability. Methods Data were drawn from the Child Health and Development Study cohort, born 1961–1963; we used the subsample who participated in follow-up through adolescence (n=1752). Six indicators of behavioral disinhibition (BD), reported in adolescence, were analyzed as a count outcome. Predictor variables were drawn from several waves of data collection and included individual-, maternal-, and neighborhood-level measures. Cognitive ability was assessed with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test at two time points. Neighborhood characteristics were assessed using census data from 1970. Results Number of BD indicators was predicted by maternal characteristics at prenatal assessment (maternal age and alcohol consumption) and age-10 assessment (maternal smoking, education, and separation from father). Characteristics of the child that predicted BD included birth order and conduct problems in middle childhood. Neighborhood poverty did not predict BD. Regardless of initial cognitive ability score, movement to a higher quartile by adolescence was associated with lower BD, while movement to a lower quartile was associated with higher BD. Conclusion Risk for adolescent BD exists prenatally and extends through middle childhood. Change in cognitive ability during pre-adolescence emerged as a potentially important factor that merits further investigation. A greater focus on the life course can aid in comprehensively understanding disruptive behavior emergence in adolescence.
Keyes, Katherine M.; Keyes, Margaret A.; March, Dana; Susser, Ezra
The most common complication after lumbar discectomy is reherniation. As the first step in reducing the rate of recurrence, many studies have been conducted to find out the factors that may increase the reherniation risk. Some reported factors are age, sex, the type of lumbar disc herniation, the amount of fragments removed, smoking, alcohol consumption and the length of restricted activities. In this review, the factors studied thus far are summarized, excepting factors which cannot be chosen or changed, such as age or sex. Apart from the factors shown here, many other risk factors such as diabetes, family history, history of external injury, duration of illness and body mass index are considered. Few are agreed upon by all. The reason for the diverse opinions may be that many clinical and biomechanical variables are involved in the prognosis following operation. For the investigation of risk factors in recurrent lumbar disc herniation, large-scale multicenter prospective studies will be required in the future. PMID:24761206
The failure to find genes of major effect in schizophrenia has refocused attention on nongenetic, including infectious factors. In a previous study, antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were found to be elevated in 23 studies of schizophrenia (OR 2.73; 95% CI 2.10–3.60). The current study replicates this finding with 15 additional studies (OR 2.71; 95% CI 1.93–3.80) and compares this with other identified schizophrenia risk factors. The highest risk factors are having an affected mother (relative risks [RR] 9.31; 95% CI 7.24–11.96), father (RR 7.20; 95% CI 5.10–10.16), or sibling (RR 6.99; 95% CI 5.38–9.08) or being the offspring of immigrants from selected countries (RR 4.5; 95% CI 1.5–13.1). Intermediate risk factors, in addition to infection with T. gondii, include being an immigrant from and to selected countries (RR 2.7; 95% CI 2.3–3.2), being born in (RR 2.24; 95% CI 1.92–2.61) or raised in (RR 2.75; 95% CI 2.31–3.28) an urban area, cannabis use (OR 2.10–2.93; 95% CI 1.08–6.13), having minor physical anomalies (OR 2.23; 95% CI 1.42–3.58), or having a father 55 or older (OR 2.21–5.92; 95% CI 1.46-17.02). Low-risk factors include a history of traumatic brain injury (OR 1.65; 95% CI 1.17–2.32), sex abuse in childhood (OR 1.46; 95% CI 0.84–2.52), obstetrical complications (OR 1.29–1.38; 95% CI 1.00–1.84), having a father 45 or older (OR 1.21–1.66; 95% CI 1.09–2.01), specific genetic polymorphisms (OR 1.09–1.24; 95% CI 1.06–1.45), birth seasonality (OR 1.07–1.95; 95% CI 1.05–2.91), maternal exposure to influenza (RR 1.05; 95% CI 0.98–1.12), or prenatal stress (RR 0.98–1.00; 95% CI 0.85–1.16).
Torrey, E. Fuller; Bartko, John J.; Yolken, Robert H.
Variations in the serotonin transporter gene (5HTTLPR) and biased processing of face-emotion displays both have been implicated in the transmission of depression risk, but little is known about developmental influences on these relationships. Within a community sample of adolescents, we examine whether 5HTTLPR genotype moderates the link between maternal depressive history and errors in face-emotion labeling. When controlling for current
Rachel H. Jacobs; Daniel S. Pine; Michael E. Schoeny; David B. Henry; Jackie K. Gollan; Gregory Moy; Edwin H. Cook; Lauren S. Wakschlag
The aim of the present study was to examine the associations between the maternal intake of fatty acids during pregnancy and the risk of preclinical and clinical type 1 diabetes in the offspring. The study included 4887 children with human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-conferred type 1 diabetes susceptibility born during the years 1997-2004 from the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Study. Maternal diet was assessed with a validated FFQ. The offspring were observed at 3- to 12-month intervals for the appearance of type 1 diabetes-associated autoantibodies and development of clinical type 1 diabetes (average follow-up period: 4·6 years (range 0·5-11·5 years)). Altogether, 240 children developed preclinical type 1 diabetes and 112 children developed clinical type 1 diabetes. Piecewise linear log-hazard survival model and Cox proportional-hazards regression were used for statistical analyses. The maternal intake of palmitic acid (hazard ratio (HR) 0·82, 95 % CI 0·67, 0·99) and high consumption of cheese during pregnancy (highest quarter v. intermediate half HR 0·52, 95 % CI 0·31, 0·87) were associated with a decreased risk of clinical type 1 diabetes. The consumption of sour milk products (HR 1·14, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·28), intake of protein from sour milk (HR 1·15, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·29) and intake of fat from fresh milk (HR 1·43, 95 % CI 1·04, 1·96) were associated with an increased risk of preclinical type 1 diabetes, and the intake of low-fat margarines (HR 0·67, 95 % CI 0·49, 0·92) was associated with a decreased risk. No conclusive associations between maternal fatty acid intake or food consumption during pregnancy and the development of type 1 diabetes in the offspring were detected. PMID:24589042
Niinistö, Sari; Takkinen, Hanna-Mari; Uusitalo, Liisa; Rautanen, Jenna; Nevalainen, Jaakko; Kenward, Michael G; Lumia, Mirka; Simell, Olli; Veijola, Riitta; Ilonen, Jorma; Knip, Mikael; Virtanen, Suvi M
The authors used 1982-1983 Illinois vital records and 1980 US Census income data to determine the contnbution of maternal race to the risk of preterm (<260 days), non-low birth weight (>2,500 g) infants. This older cohort was chosen to avoid the confounding effect of cocaine associated with its increased local availability after 1985. In Chicago, the unadjusted preterm, non-low birth
James W. Collins; Nancy A. Hammond
Background Erysipelas is a common infection that often recurs, but the impact of specific risk factors for reoccurrence remains elusive. In the present study we aimed at clarifying predisposing conditions for reoccurrence. Methods Medical records were reviewed from all patients ?18 years of age diagnosed with erysipelas at the Department of Infectious Diseases at Skåne University Hospital, Sweden, from January 2007 to February 2011. 502 patients were included, of which 357 were single episode erysipelas and 145 had recurrent erysipelas. These two groups were compared regarding underlying conditions and clinical presentation. Results Erysipelas in the lower limbs had the greatest propensity of recurrence. The associations between underlying conditions and recurrence were largely depending on the site of erysipelas. Overall, the most prominent risk factor for recurrence was lymphedema and other conditions causing a chronic impairment of the defence against microbes. Conditions temporarily disrupting the skin barrier (e.g. a local wound or toe web intertrigo), although likely being risk factors for erysipelas per se, did not seem to predispose to repeated episodes. Individuals with recurrent erysipelas tended to seek medical attention earlier, and were less likely to be hospitalized or receive intravenous antibiotics, but there was no evidence of any difference in inflammatory reaction when taking confounding factors into account. Conclusions In this large cross-sectional study of over 500 patients with erysipelas, lymphedema was the most prominent risk factors for recurrence although the distribution of predisposing conditions varies depending on the site of erysipelas.
Abstract Objective: We reviewed studies of maternal depression and preterm birth (PTB), low birthweight (LBW) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) in the context of methodological differences between studies and potential limitations. Methods: We conducted a literature search of PubMed (1996-2011) for English-language studies of maternal depression and (1) PTB and gestational age (GA), (2) LBW and birthweight (BW) and (3) SGA. Thirty-six studies met eligibility criteria. Results: Elevated depression levels, particularly in early- to mid-pregnancy, appear to increase risk of PTB and SGA. Findings suggest an increased risk for LBW, but were less consistent. Methodological differences and limitations likely contributed to conflicting findings. A wide range of depression measures were used with the majority of studies utilizing measures not designed, or validated, for pregnant women. Studies failed to assess depression at multiple pregnancy time points, thus constraining the ability to assess the impact of duration and pattern of exposure to depression. Antidepressant use and co-morbid psychosocial factors were rarely considered as potential confounders or effect modifiers. Conclusions: Studies suggest that depression during pregnancy may be an important risk factor for PTB and SGA, and possibly LBW. Improved study methodology is needed to elucidate the consequence of maternal depression on adverse birth outcomes. PMID:24044422
Szegda, Kathleen; Markenson, Glenn; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R; Chasan-Taber, Lisa
Renal venous thrombosis (RVT) is a rare but a well recognized entity in children and neonates. The clinical signs of neonatal RVT include hypertension, enlarged kidney(s), hematuria, renal insufficiency, proteinuria, thrombocytopenia, or all. Persisting impairment of kidney function and hypertension are serious and common complications in patients with RVT. Risk factors for the development of RVT include maternal diabetes mellitus, pathologic states associated with thrombosis (e.g., shock, dehydration, perinatal asphyxia, polycythemia), and sepsis. Inherited prothrombotic abnormalities have been described in some reports of RVT. We report the case of a male newborn with left RVT and associated homozygosity for both factor V Leiden (G1691A) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T mutations in addition to elevated serum lipoprotein (a). The patient was treated with heparin. We believe our case to be the first reported case in the English medical literature of such an association between neonatal RVT and homozygosity for both factor V Leiden and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. This case and other studies clearly demonstrate that neonatal RVT should be evaluated for thrombophilia conditions. PMID:19542880
Muwakkit, Samar A; Saab, Raya; Sanjad, Sami A; Bhar, Saleh I; Ishak, Rim S; Samad, Zeina A; Chan, Anthony K; Abboud, Miguel R
Rationale: The characterization of young adults who develop late-onset diseases may augment the detection of novel genes and promote new pathogenic insights. Methods: We analyzed data from 2,500 individuals of African and European ancestry in the COPDGene Study. Subjects with severe, early-onset chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 70, age < 55 yr, FEV1 < 50% predicted) were compared with older subjects with COPD (n = 306, age > 64 yr, FEV1 < 50% predicted). Measurements and Main Results: Subjects with severe, early-onset COPD were predominantly females (66%), P = 0.0004. Proportionally, early-onset COPD was seen in 42% (25 of 59) of African Americans versus 14% (45 of 317) of non-Hispanic whites, P < 0.0001. Other risk factors included current smoking (56 vs. 17%, P < 0.0001) and self-report of asthma (39 vs. 25%, P = 0.008). Maternal smoking (70 vs. 44%, P = 0.0001) and maternal COPD (23 vs. 12%, P = 0.03) were reported more commonly in subjects with early-onset COPD. Multivariable regression analysis found association with African American race, odds ratio (OR), 7.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3–24; P = 0.0007); maternal COPD, OR, 4.7 (95% CI, 1.3–17; P = 0.02); female sex, OR, 3.1 (95% CI, 1.1–8.7; P = 0.03); and each pack-year of smoking, OR, 0.98 (95% CI, 0.96–1.0; P = 0.03). Conclusions: These observations support the hypothesis that severe, early-onset COPD is prevalent in females and is influenced by maternal factors. Future genetic studies should evaluate (1) gene-by-sex interactions to address sex-specific genetic contributions and (2) gene-by-race interactions.
Foreman, Marilyn G.; Zhang, Lening; Murphy, James; Hansel, Nadia N.; Make, Barry; Hokanson, John E.; Washko, George; Regan, Elizabeth A.; Crapo, James D.; Silverman, Edwin K.
The goal of this study was to conduct a review of the main papers published between 1983 and 2003 on the main risk factors for urinary incontinence (UI) in women. Thirty-eight publications in English and Portuguese were analyzed using the MEDLINE and LILACS databases as well as through research in libraries. There is evidence that the main risk factors are age, pelvic floor trauma, hereditary factors, race, menopausal status, obesity, chronic diseases, use of some sympathomimetics and parasympatholitics, constipation, smoking, coffee consumption and intense abdominal exercises. Nurses are able to identify these factors through anamnesis and determine interventions for the prevention and treatment of UI, thus contributing to improve incontinent women's quality of life. PMID:18450165
Higa, Rosângela; Lopes, Maria Helena Baena de Moraes; dos Reis, Maria José
This study investigated the influence of maternal choline intake on the human placental transcriptome, with a special interest in its role in modulating placental vascular function. Healthy pregnant women (n=26, wk 26-29 gestation) were randomized to 480 mg choline/d, an intake level approximating the adequate intake of 450 mg/d, or 930 mg/d for 12 wk. Maternal blood and placental samples were retrieved at delivery. Whole genome expression microarrays were used to identify placental genes and biological processes impacted by maternal choline intake. Maternal choline intake influenced a wide array of genes (n=166) and biological processes (n=197), including those related to vascular function. Of special interest was the 30% down-regulation (P=0.05) of the antiangiogenic factor and preeclampsia risk marker fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT1) in the placenta tissues obtained from the 930 vs. 480 mg/d choline intake group. Similar decreases (P=0.04) were detected in maternal blood sFLT1 protein concentrations. The down-regulation of sFLT1 by choline treatment was confirmed in a human trophoblast cell culture model and may be related to enhanced acetylcholine signaling. These findings indicate that supplementing the maternal diet with extra choline may improve placental angiogenesis and mitigate some of the pathological antecedents of preeclampsia. PMID:23195033
Jiang, Xinyin; Bar, Haim Y; Yan, Jian; Jones, Sara; Brannon, Patsy M; West, Allyson A; Perry, Cydne A; Ganti, Anita; Pressman, Eva; Devapatla, Srisatish; Vermeylen, Francoise; Wells, Martin T; Caudill, Marie A
To investigate the relationship among parity, length of the inter-pregnancy intervals and excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and the risk of obesity. Using a prospective cohort study of 3,422 non-obese, non-pregnant US women aged 14-22 years at baseline, adjusted Cox models were used to estimate the association among parity, inter-pregnancy intervals, and excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and the relative hazard rate (HR) of obesity. Compared to nulliparous women, primiparous women with excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy had a HR of obesity of 1.79 (95% CI 1.40, 2.29); no significant difference was seen between primiparous without excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and nulliparous women. Among women with the same pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and the same number of inter-pregnancy intervals (12 and 18 months or ?18 months), the HR of obesity increased 2.43-fold (95% CI 1.21, 4.89; p = 0.01) for every additional inter-pregnancy interval of <12 months; no significant association was seen for longer inter-pregnancy intervals. Among women with the same parity and inter-pregnancy interval pattern, women with excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy had an HR of obesity 2.41 times higher (95% CI 1.81, 3.21; p < 0.001) than women without. Primiparous and nulliparous women had similar obesity risk unless the primiparous women had excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy, then their risk of obesity was greater. Multiparous women with the same excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and at least one additional short inter-pregnancy interval had a significant risk of obesity after childbirth. Perinatal interventions that prevent excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy or lengthen the inter-pregnancy interval are necessary for reducing maternal obesity. PMID:23595566
Davis, Esa M; Babineau, Denise C; Wang, Xuelei; Zyzanski, Stephen; Abrams, Barbara; Bodnar, Lisa M; Horwitz, Ralph I
Plasma concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins are well-established risk factors for atherosclerotic coronary heart disease\\u000a and show substantial heritability. Identification of the genetic factors underlying such complex genetic traits, in which\\u000a multiple genes and significant gene-environment interactions contribute to the variation, has been challenging. This article\\u000a reviews recent findings from the first wave of genomewide association studies conducted to identify
Ralph Burkhardt; Eimear E. Kenny; Jan L. Breslow
Cancer starts with a change in one single cell. This change may be initiated by external agents and genetic factors. Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and accounts for 7.6 million deaths (around 13% of all deaths) in 2008. Lung, stomach, liver, colon and breast cancer cause the most cancer deaths each year. In this review, different aspects of gastric cancer; including clinical, pathological characteristic of gastric cancer, etiology, incidence, risk factors, prevention and treatment are studied.
Zali, Hakimeh; Azodi, Mona
:Background. Women veterans are three to four times more likely than non-veteran women to become homeless. However, their risk factors for homelessness have not been defined. Methods. Case-control study of non-institutionalized homeless women veterans (n533) and age-matched housed women veterans (n=165). Health, health care, and factors associated with homelessness were assessed using multiple logistic regression with a Monte Carlo algorithm
Donna L. Washington; Elizabeth M. Yano; James McGuire; Vivian Hines; Martin Lee; Lillian Gelberg
Background. Women veterans are three to four times more likely than non-veteran women to become homeless. However, their risk factors for homelessness have not been defined. Methods. Case-control study of non-institutionalized homeless women veterans (n533) and age-matched housed women veterans (n=165). Health, health care, and factors associated with homelessness were assessed using multiple logistic regression with a Monte Carlo algorithm
MPH Elizabeth M. Yano MSPH Donna L. Washington; MSPH Lillian Gelberg
Follicular lymphoma (FL) is an indolent malignancy of germinal center B cells with varied incidence across racial groups and geographic regions. Improvements in the classification of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes provide an opportunity to explore associations between environmental exposures and FL incidence. Our paper found that aspects of Western lifestyle including sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and diets high in meat and milk are associated with an increased risk of FL. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin D, and certain antioxidants are inversely associated with FL risk. A medical history of Sjogren's syndrome, influenza vaccination, and heart disease may be associated with FL incidence. Associations between FL and exposure to pesticides, industrial solvents, hair dyes, and alcohol/tobacco were inconsistent. Genetic risk factors include variants at the 6p21.32 region of the MHC II locus, polymorphisms of the DNA repair gene XRCC3, and UV exposure in individuals with certain polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor. Increasing our understanding of risk factors for FL must involve integrating epidemiological studies of genetics and exposures to allow for the examination of risk factors and interactions between genes and environment.
Ambinder, Alexander J.; Shenoy, Pareen J.; Malik, Neha; Maggioncalda, Alison; Nastoupil, Loretta J.; Flowers, Christopher R.
Objective Evidence suggests that chronic high levels of behavioral inhibition are a precursor of social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study identified the early risk factors for and developmental pathways to chronic high inhibition among school-age children and its association with SAD by adolescence. Method A community sample of 238 children was followed from birth to Grade 9. Mothers, children, and teachers reported on children's behavioral inhibition from Grades 1 to 9. Lifetime history of psychiatric disorders was available for the subset of 60 (25%) children who participated in an intensive laboratory assessment at Grade 9. Four early risk factors were assessed: female gender; exposure to maternal stress during the infancy and preschool periods and at child age 4.5 years; early manifestation of behavioral inhibition, and elevated afternoon salivary cortisol levels. Results All four risk factors predicted higher and more chronic inhibition from Grade 1 to Grade 9, and together, defined two developmental pathways. The first pathway in female children was partially mediated by early evidence of behavioral inhibition and elevated cortisol levels at age 4.5 years. The second pathway began with exposure to early maternal stress and was also partially mediated by childhood cortisol levels. By Grade 9, chronic high inhibition was associated with a lifetime history of SAD. Conclusions Chronic high levels of behavioral inhibition are associated with SAD by adolescence. The identification of two developmental pathways suggests the potential importance of considering both sets of risk factors in developing preventive interventions for SAD.
Essex, Marilyn J.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Slattery, Marcia J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Kalin, Ned H.
Objectives Stillbirth is an important public health concern and its rate indicates the sanitary development of society. The purpose of this study is to determine the trend of stillbirth rates and its risk factors in Babol. Methods A retrospective study was conducted based on the data of hospital charts of two major Gynecological wards in Shahid Yahyanejat and Babol clinic hospitals in Babol, Northern Iran. In the first phase, the frequencies of stillbirths and live birth deliveries were collected for the period of 1999-2008. In the second phase, a case-control study of 150 stillbirths cases and 300 live births as controls was conducted. The risk factors data included maternal age, gestational age, gravity, history of stillbirth, abortion, diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, fetal sex, residence area, birth interval and prenatal care. The odds ratio for risk factors with 95% confidence interval for stillbirths was calculated using the logistic regression model. Results Stillbirth rate was reduced significantly from 10.51 in 1999 to 8.57 per 1000 deliveries in 2008 (p=0.001). A significant association was found between preterm delivery (p=0.001) and preeclampsia (p=0.01) with stillbirths. Although the proportion of stillbirths was higher among mothers with history of diabetes, abortion and maternal age of more than 35 years, the odds ratio was not statistically significant. Conclusion There is a relationship between stillbirth, preterm delivery and preeclampsia. Thus, we can considerably prevent stillbirths with sanitary remedial interference on these risk factors.
Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah; Esmaielzadeh, Seddegheh; Sadeghian, Ghazaleh
Objective To determine if maternal use of snuff (containing high levels of nicotine, low levels of nitrosamines and no combustion products) is associated with an increased risk of oral cleft malformations in the infant and whether cessation of snuff use or smoking before the antenatal booking influences the risk. Method A population-based cohort study was conducted on all live born infants, recorded in the Swedish Medical Birth Register from 1999 through 2009 (n?=?1 086 213). Risks of oral clefts were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression analyses (using adjusted odds ratios, with 95% confidence intervals [CI]). Results Among 975 866 infants that had information on maternal tobacco use, 1761 cases of oral clefts were diagnosed. More than 50% of the mothers who used snuff or smoked three months prior pregnancy stopped using before the antenatal booking. Almost 8% of the mothers were smoking at the antenatal booking and 1,1% of the mothers used snuff. Compared with infants of non-tobacco users, the adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) of any oral cleft for infants of mothers who continued to use snuff or to smoke were 1.48 [1.00–2.21] and 1.19 [1.01–1.41], respectively. In contrast, in infants of mothers who stopped using snuff or stopped smoking before the antenatal booking, the corresponding risks were not increased (adjusted odds ratios [95% CI] were 0.71 [0.44–1.14] and 0.88 [0.73–1.05], respectively). Conclusion Maternal snuff use or smoking in early pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of oral clefts. Infants of mothers who stopped using snuff or stopped smoking before the antenatal booking had no increased risk of oral cleft malformations. Oral snuff or other sources of nicotine should not be recommended as an alternative for smoke-cessation during pregnancy.
Gunnerbeck, Anna; Edstedt Bonamy, Anna-Karin; Wikstrom, Anna-Karin; Granath, Fredrik; Wickstrom, Ronny; Cnattingius, Sven
Context and Purpose: Rural households report high fire-related mortality and injury rates, but few studies have examined the risk factors for fires. This study aims to identify occupant and household characteristics that are associated with residential fires in a rural cohort. Methods: Of 1,005 households contacted in a single rural county, 691…
Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Yang, Jingzhen; Zwerling, Craig
As a result of Kansas v Hendricks, many sex offenders in the U.S. are likely to be civilly committed to mental institutions for indefinite periods, and many others with histories of violent offenses may also be so committed. It therefore becomes critical for mental health professionals to understand the risk factors for re-offending that put the public in jeopardy. The
Robert D. Hare
The Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch (RFMMB) supports the collection of physical activity data in existing and planned surveys. In doing so, we are attempting to develop more complete assessments of individuals' physical activity based on information derived from multiple contexts, including transportation, occupation, and recreation.
\\u000a Osteoarthritis is the most prevalent joint disease in the elderly population. In this chapter, the authors discuss the classification\\u000a criteria and the modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for osteoarthritis. The relationship between age-associated changes\\u000a in the musculoskeletal system and the development of osteoarthritis is also explained.
Crisostomo Bialog; Anthony M. Reginato