Science.gov

Sample records for risk factors maternal

  1. Maternal lifestyle and environmental risk factors for autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lyall, Kristen; Schmidt, Rebecca J; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2014-01-01

    Background: Over the past 10 years, research into environmental risk factors for autism has grown dramatically, bringing evidence that an array of non-genetic factors acting during the prenatal period may influence neurodevelopment. Methods: This paper reviews the evidence on modifiable preconception and/or prenatal factors that have been associated, in some studies, with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including nutrition, substance use and exposure to environmental agents. This review is restricted to human studies with at least 50 cases of ASD, having a valid comparison group, conducted within the past decade and focusing on maternal lifestyle or environmental chemicals. Results: Higher maternal intake of certain nutrients and supplements has been associated with reduction in ASD risk, with the strongest evidence for periconceptional folic acid supplements. Although many investigations have suggested no impact of maternal smoking and alcohol use on ASD, more rigorous exposure assessment is needed. A number of studies have demonstrated significant increases in ASD risk with estimated exposure to air pollution during the prenatal period, particularly for heavy metals and particulate matter. Little research has assessed other persistent and non-persistent organic pollutants in association with ASD specifically. Conclusions: More work is needed to examine fats, vitamins and other maternal nutrients, as well as endocrine-disrupting chemicals and pesticides, in association with ASD, given sound biological plausibility and evidence regarding other neurodevelopmental deficits. The field can be advanced by large-scale epidemiological studies, attention to critical aetiological windows and how these vary by exposure, and use of biomarkers and other means to understand underlying mechanisms. PMID:24518932

  2. Syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors associated with neural tube defects (I).

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Ping

    2008-03-01

    Fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs) may be associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, such as acrocallosal syndrome, autosomal dominant brachydactyly-clinodactyly syndrome, Manouvrier syndrome, short rib-polydactyly syndrome, Disorganization ( Ds )-like human malformations, isolated hemihyperplasia, X-linked NTDs, meroanencephaly, schisis association, diprosopus, fetal valproate syndrome, DiGeorge syndrome/velocardiofacial syndrome, Waardenburg syndrome, folic acid antagonists, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors are a rare but important cause of NTDs. The recurrence risk and the preventive effect of maternal folic acid intake in NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors may be different from those of non-syndromic multifactorial NTDs. Perinatal identification of NTDs should alert one to the syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt a thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling. PMID:18400576

  3. Maternal and perinatal risk factors for childhood leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Zack, M.; Adami, H.O.; Ericson, A. )

    1991-07-15

    This report describes an exploratory population-based study of maternal and perinatal risk factors for childhood leukemia in Sweden. The Swedish National Cancer Registry ascertained 411 cases in successive birth cohorts from 1973 through 1984 recorded in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry. Using the latter, we matched five controls without cancer to each case by sex and month and year of birth. Mothers of children with leukemia were more likely to have been exposed to nitrous oxide anesthesia during delivery than mothers of controls (odds ratio (OR) = 1.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0, 1.6). Children with leukemia were more likely than controls to have Down's syndrome (OR = 32.5; 95% CI = 7.3, 144.0) or cleft lip or cleft palate (OR = 5.0; 95% CI = 1.0, 24.8); to have had a diagnosis associated with difficult labor but unspecified complications (OR = 4.5; 95% CI = 1.1, 18.2) or with other conditions of the fetus or newborn (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1, 2.1), specifically, uncomplicated physiological jaundice (OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.2, 2.9); or to have received supplemental oxygen (OR = 2.6; 95% CI = 1.3, 1.3, 4.9). Because multiple potential risk factors were analyzed in this study, future studies need to check these findings. The authors did not confirm the previously reported higher risks for childhood leukemia associated with being male, having a high birth weight, or being born to a woman of advanced maternal age.

  4. Risk Factors Linking Maternal Depressed Mood to Growth in Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Rebecca C.; Fleming, Charles B.; Mason, W. Alex; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    Maternal depression has been implicated in the development of adolescent substance use. Conceptualizing depression as a continuum, the aims of this study are to (a) understand the relationship between maternal depressed mood and risk factors associated with adolescent substance use; (b) understand the relationship between maternal depressed mood…

  5. Maternal obesity is a risk factor for orofacial clefts: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Blanco, R; Colombo, A; Suazo, J

    2015-10-01

    Orofacial clefts are the most prevalent birth defects that affect craniofacial structures and implicate genetic and environmental factors in their aetiology. Maternal metabolic state and nutrition have been related to these and other structural malformations, and studies of maternal obesity before pregnancy have shown controversial results about its association with the risk of orofacial clefts in their offspring. Our aim was to assess the combined effect of several single studies of maternal obesity on the risk of orofacial clefts using meta-analysis. We searched for these reports in the PubMed database, and selected 8 studies that met our criteria for eligibility. As a result of this analysis, and using maternal normal weight as a reference, we found that maternal obesity does increase the risk of orofacial clefts in their offspring (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.26). When these clefts are considered separately, maternal obesity is associated with cleft lip with or without cleft palate (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.23), and with cleft palate alone (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.35). Our results support the relation between maternal obesity and orofacial clefts, and confirm two previous meta-analyses that considered fewer studies. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this statistical evidence have not been fully elucidated. PMID:26073906

  6. Risk Factors for Maternal Mortality in Rural Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Godefay, Hagos; Byass, Peter; Graham, Wendy J.; Kinsman, John; Mulugeta, Afework

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality continues to have devastating impacts in many societies, where it constitutes a leading cause of death, and thus remains a core issue in international development. Nevertheless, individual determinants of maternal mortality are often unclear and subject to local variation. This study aims to characterise individual risk factors for maternal mortality in Tigray, Ethiopia. Methods A community-based case-control study was conducted, with 62 cases and 248 controls from six randomly-selected rural districts. All maternal deaths between May 2012 and September 2013 were recruited as cases and a random sample of mothers who delivered in the same communities within the same time period were taken as controls. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify independent determinants of maternal mortality. Results Four independent individual risk factors, significantly associated with maternal death, emerged. Women who were not members of the voluntary Women’s Development Army were more likely to experience maternal death (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.04–4.11), as were women whose husbands or partners had below-median scores for involvement during pregnancy (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.14–4.18). Women with a pre-existing history of other illness were also at increased risk (OR 5.58, 95% CI 2.17–14.30), as were those who had never used contraceptives (OR 2.58, 95% CI 1.37–4.85). Previous pregnancy complications, a below-median number of antenatal care visits and a woman’s lack of involvement in health care decision making were significant bivariable risks that were not significant in the multivariable model. Conclusions The findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing maternal mortality need to focus on encouraging membership of the Women’s Development Army, enhancing husbands’ involvement in maternal health services, improving linkages between maternity care and other disease-specific programmes and ensuring that women with previous illnesses or non-users of contraceptive services are identified and followed-up as being at increased risk during pregnancy and childbirth. PMID:26678047

  7. The effects of maternal modeling and parenting style on the development of eating disorder risk factors in adolescent daughters 

    E-print Network

    Maddox, Lori Ann

    2001-01-01

    The effect of different variables on the development of eating disorder risk factors has been widely studied. Much data exist on maternal influences on adolescent daughters' risk of developing eating disorders, though much is conflicting...

  8. Risk factors for maternal mortality in a Tertiary Hospital in Kenya: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality is high in Africa, especially in Kenya where there is evidence of insufficient progress towards Millennium Development Goal (MDG) Five, which is to reduce the global maternal mortality rate by three quarters and provide universal access to reproductive health by 2015. This study aims to identify risk factors associated with maternal mortality in a tertiary level hospital in Kenya. Methods A manual review of records for 150 maternal deaths (cases) and 300 controls was undertaken using a standard audit form. The sample included pregnant women aged 15-49 years admitted to the Obstetric and Gynaecological wards at the Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (MTRH) in Kenya from January 2004 and March 2011. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess risk factors for maternal mortality. Results Factors significantly associated with maternal mortality included: having no education relative to secondary education (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.1-10.4, p?=?0.0284), history of underlying medical conditions (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.7-9.2, p?=?0.0016), doctor attendance at birth (OR 4.6, 95% CI 2.1-10.1, p?=?0.0001), having no antenatal visits (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.6-10.4, p?=?0.0007), being admitted with eclampsia (OR 10.9, 95% CI 3.7-31.9, p?maternal education are important risk factors for maternal mortality, even after adjusting for comorbidities and complications. Antenatal visits can provide opportunities for detecting risk factors for eclampsia, and other underlying illnesses but the visits need to be frequent and timely. Education enables access to information and helps empower women and their spouses to make appropriate decisions during pregnancy. PMID:24447854

  9. Risk factors for maternal morbidity in Victoria, Australia: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Lindquist, Anthea C; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Wallace, Euan M; Oats, Jeremy; Knight, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this analysis was to quantify the risk factors associated with maternal morbidity among women in Victoria, Australia, focusing particularly on sociodemographic factors. Design Case–control analysis. Participants Data on all maternities in Victoria from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2008. Methods A case–control analysis was conducted using unconditional logistic regression to calculate adjusted ORs (aORs). Cases were defined as all women noted to have had a severe complication during the index pregnancy. Severe maternal morbidity was defined by the validated, composite Australian Maternal Morbidity Outcome Indicator. Socioeconomic position was defined by Socio-Economic Indices for Areas (SEIFA), specifically the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage (IRSD), and other variables analysed were age, parity, Indigenous background, multiple pregnancy, country of birth, coexisting medical condition, previous caesarean section, spontaneous abortion or ectopic pregnancy. Results The study population comprised 211?060 women, including 1119 cases of severe maternal morbidity (0.53%). Compared with the highest IRSD quintile, the aOR for the 2nd quintile was 1.23 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.49), 0.98 (95% CI 0.79 to 1.21) for the 3rd quintile, 1.55 (95% CI 1.28 to 1.87) for the 4th and 1.21 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.47) for the lowest (most deprived) quintile. Indigenous status was associated with twice (aOR 2.02; 95% CI 1.32 to 3.09) the odds of being a case. Other risk factors for severe maternal morbidity were age ?35?years (aOR 1.22; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.44), coexisting medical condition (aOR 1.39; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.65), multiple pregnancy (aOR 2.30; 95% CI 1.71 to 3.10), primiparity (aOR 1.36; 95% CI 1.18 to 1.57), previous caesarean section (aOR 1.79; 95% CI 1.53 to 2.10) and previous spontaneous miscarriage (aOR 1.25; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.44). Conclusions The findings from Victoria strongly suggest that social disadvantage needs to be acknowledged and further investigated as an independent risk factor for adverse maternal outcomes in Australia and incorporated into appropriate policy planning and healthcare programmes. PMID:26307615

  10. Risk Factors for Maternal Injuries in a Population-Based Sample of Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Saftlas, Audrey F.; Yankowitz, Jerome; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The prevalence of injuries during pregnancy is largely underestimated, as previous research has focused on more severe injuries resulting in emergency department visits and hospitalizations. The objective of our study was to estimate the frequency, risk factors, and causes of injuries in a population-based sample of pregnant women. Methods: This article is an analysis of postpartum interviews among the control series from a case-control study (n=1,488). Maternal, pregnancy, and environmental characteristics associated with injury during pregnancy in control subjects were examined to identify population-based risk factors for injury. We collected data on self-reported injury during pregnancy, including the month of pregnancy, whether medical attention was sought, the mechanism of injury, and the number and location of bodily injuries. Logistic regression was used to calculate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of injury. Results: Over 5% of women reported an injury during pregnancy, with falls being the most common mechanism of injury. Women at highest adjusted risk for injury had unintended pregnancies (aOR: 2.28 [1.40–3.70]) and no partner during pregnancy (aOR: 2.45 [1.16–5.17]) relative to women without injuries. Conclusions: Pregnant women with risk factors for many pregnancy-related complications are also at increased risk of injury during pregnancy. Further studies of pregnancy-related injuries are needed to consider environmental and maternal characteristics on risk of injury. PMID:25251144

  11. Maternal folate status as a risk factor for autism spectrum disorders: a review of existing evidence.

    PubMed

    DeVilbiss, Elizabeth A; Gardner, Renee M; Newschaffer, Craig J; Lee, Brian K

    2015-09-14

    Emerging evidence from epidemiological studies supports the notion that maternal folate status regulated by dietary and genetic factors early in pregnancy may influence the risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this review, we provide an overview of what is known about the role of folate in the aetiology of neurodevelopmental disorders; summarise relevant biological, genetic and epigenetic mechanisms; and synthesise the evidence from human observational studies and randomised controlled trials that have examined the relationship between maternal folate and ASD or related traits. Much of the existing literature on this topic is subject to limitations such as potential confounding by healthy behaviours and other dietary factors, and exposure assessed within limited exposure windows. As the existing evidence is inconclusive, further research remains to be conducted in order to verify this hypothesis. Complete assessment of maternal functional folate status through the pre- and peri-conceptional periods requires biological measurement of folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine and genetic variants involved in one-carbon metabolism and epigenetic mechanisms. In addition to more complete assessment of maternal functional folate status, careful consideration of potential confounding is warranted. PMID:26243379

  12. Identifying maternal risk factors associated with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Esper, Larissa Horta; Furtado, Erikson Felipe

    2014-10-01

    To identify the demographic, psychological, and social maternal risk factors associated with the development of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). A bibliographic search was conducted in PubMed, SciELO, Lilacs, Web of Knowledge, and PsycINFO. The Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (NOS) was used to evaluate the quality of the studies with case-control design. Articles were selected based on their relevance and presentation of data related to statistical comparisons of at least one or more demographic, psychological, or social maternal risk factors for FASD. 738 references were identified, of which 15 met the criteria to be included in the present review. Mothers of FASD children tend to: be older at the time of birth of the affected child, present lower educational level, have other family relatives with alcohol abuse, have other children with FASD, present a pattern of little prenatal care and a distinguishing pattern of alcohol consumption (alcohol use before and during pregnancy, failure to reduce alcohol use during pregnancy, and frequent episodes of binge drinking). Application of the NOS scale of methodological quality indicated that 8 studies (53 %) met the criterion for selection, 4 (27 %) were suitable for the criterion for comparability and only 4 studies were suitable for the exposition criterion. Mothers of FASD children have a distinctive pattern of drinking and accumulate several social risk factors. Maternal age at birth of the child seems to accentuate the risk. There are, however, few controlled studies that are adequate according to the NOS requirements for methodological quality. Fewer are based on the verification of a theoretical model. Clinicians should be aware of the relevance of preventive assessment of FASD risk mothers. PMID:25164262

  13. Risk factors for maternal death and trends in maternal mortality in low- and middle-income countries: a prospective longitudinal cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Because large, prospective, population-based data sets describing maternal outcomes are typically not available in low- and middle-income countries, it is difficult to monitor maternal mortality rates over time and to identify factors associated with maternal mortality. Early identification of risk factors is essential to develop comprehensive intervention strategies preventing pregnancy-related complications. Our objective was to describe maternal mortality rates in a large, multi-country dataset and to determine maternal, pregnancy-related, delivery and postpartum characteristics that are associated with maternal mortality. Methods We collected data describing all pregnancies from 2010 to 2013 among women enrolled in the multi-national Global Network for Women’s and Children’s Health Research Maternal and Neonatal Health Registry (MNHR). We reported the proportion of mothers who died per pregnancy and the maternal mortality ratio (MMR). Generalized linear models were used to evaluate the relationship of potential medical and social factors and maternal mortality and to develop point and interval estimates of relative risk associated with these factors. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for the correlation of outcomes within cluster to develop appropriate confidence intervals. Results We recorded 277,736 pregnancies and 402 maternal deaths for an MMR of 153/100,000 live births. We observed an improvement in the total MMR from 166 in 2010 to 126 in 2013. The MMR in Latin American sites (91) was lower than the MMR in Asian (178) and African sites (125). When adjusted for study site and the other variables, no formal education (RR 3.2 [1.5, 6.9]), primary education only (RR 3.4 [1.6, 7.5]), secondary education only (RR 2.5 [1.1, 5.7]), lack of antenatal care (RR 1.8 [1.2, 2.5]), caesarean section delivery (RR 1.9 [1.3, 2.8]), hemorrhage (RR 3.3 [2.2, 5.1]), and hypertensive disorders (RR 7.4 [5.2, 10.4]) were associated with higher risks of death. Conclusions The MNHR identified preventable causes of maternal mortality in diverse settings in low- and middle-income countries. The MNHR can be used to monitor public health strategies and determine their association with reducing maternal mortality. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT01073475 PMID:26062992

  14. Epidemiologic evidence supporting the role of maternal vitamin D deficiency as a risk factor for the development of infantile autism.

    PubMed

    Grant, William B; Soles, Connie M

    2009-07-01

    This study examines whether maternal vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for infantile autism disease (IAD). We used epidemiologic data seasonal variation of birth rates and prevalence of IAD for cohorts born before 1985. For seven studies reporting spring-to-summer excess birth rates for IAD, the season progressed from broad near 30 degrees N latitude, spring/summer in midlatitudes, to winter at the highest latitude. Also, using data from 10 studies, we found a strong effective latitudinal (related to wintertime solar ultraviolet B radiation) increase in IAD prevalence. These findings are consistent with maternal vitamin D deficiency's being a risk factor for IAD, possibly by affecting fetal brain development as well as possibly by affecting maternal immune system status during pregnancy. Further investigation of this hypothesis is warranted. PMID:20592795

  15. Maternal fumonisin exposure as a risk factor for neural tube defects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by the fungus F. verticillioides, a common contaminant of maize (corn) worldwide. Maternal consumption of fumonisin B1-contaminated maize during early pregnancy has recently been associated with increased risk for neural tube defects (NTDs) in human populations th...

  16. Exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy as a risk factor for tobacco use in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Rydell, Mina; Magnusson, Cecilia; Cnattingius, Sven; Granath, Fredrik; Svensson, Anna C; Galanti, Maria Rosaria

    2014-06-15

    Nicotine from maternal smoking during pregnancy can cross the placental barrier, possibly resulting in fetal brain sensitization, as indicated by studies in which prenatal exposure to maternal smoking was associated with an increased risk of tobacco use among adolescent offspring. We investigated whether this association persists beyond adolescence by studying cigarette smoking and the use of snus (Swedish oral moist snuff) among 983 young adults from a prospective cohort study conducted in Stockholm, Sweden, between 2006 and 2010. Self-reported questionnaire data were linked with data from national population-based registers from 1983 onward. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was consistently associated with snus use in offspring (e.g., for lifetime daily snus use, adjusted odds ratio = 2.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.32, 3.16; for use of >3 cans of snus per week vs. less, odds ratio = 3.85, 95% confidence interval: 1.57, 10.15). No association was apparent with offspring's smoking, age at onset of tobacco use, or changes in use between 2006 and 2010. These findings indicate that prenatal exposure to maternal smoking is associated with regular and heavy nicotine intake from smokeless tobacco rather than from smoking. This should be further explored in epidemiologic studies that simultaneously address the roles of genetics and social environments. PMID:24761008

  17. Risk factors leading to preterm births in Morocco: a prospective study at the maternity Souissi in Rabat

    PubMed Central

    Sabiri, Nargisse; Kabiri, Meryem; Razine, Rachid; Barkat, Amina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Eminent morbidity and mortality of preterm infants is perceived, especially in developing countries. The aim of the study is to identify the main factors involved in the occurrence of premature births in Morocco. Methods This was a descriptive and analytical study conducted at the maternity Souissi in Rabat, from January 2011 to December 2011. The data were collected using interview with women in the postpartum, and via, the exploitation of obstetric and perinatal records. The data sheet was filled out for each newborn, including socio-demographic, obstetrical, maternal, childbirth and neonatal data, as well as, monitoring and surveillance of pregnancy. Results A total of 1015 births were collected. 954 were full term babies and 61 were preterms. The gestational age was between 33-34 weeks in 57.4%. Relying on Statistical analysis, many risk factors were, significantly, associated with the occurrence of prematurity, namely: low level of maternal education (p < 0.004), absence of pregnancy’ monitoring (p < 0.001), multiparity (p < 0.001), maternal chronic diseases (p < 0.001), and drug taking during pregnancy (p < 0.001). Conclusion To reduce the incidence of preterm births, reliable programs must be established, devoting all its interest, to educate the young woman in childbearing age about the appropriate ways of monitoring pregnancy, as well as, the qualitative and quantitative development of health care structures. PMID:26600920

  18. Adolescent eating disorder behaviours and cognitions: gender-specific effects of child, maternal and family risk factors.

    PubMed

    Micali, N; De Stavola, B; Ploubidis, G; Simonoff, E; Treasure, J; Field, A E

    2015-10-01

    BackgroundEating disorder behaviours begin in adolescence. Few longitudinal studies have investigated childhood risk and protective factors.AimsTo investigate the prevalence of eating disorder behaviours and cognitions and associated childhood psychological, physical and parental risk factors among a cohort of 14-year-old children.MethodData were collected from 6140 boys and girls aged 14 years. Gender-stratified models were used to estimate prospective associations between childhood body dissatisfaction, body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, maternal eating disorder and family economic disadvantage on adolescent eating disorder behaviours and cognitions.ResultsChildhood body dissatisfaction strongly predicted eating disorder cognitions in girls, but only in interaction with BMI in boys. Higher self-esteem had a protective effect, particularly in boys. Maternal eating disorder predicted body dissatisfaction and weight/shape concern in adolescent girls and dieting in boys.ConclusionsRisk factors for eating disorder behaviours and cognitions vary according to gender. Prevention strategies should be gender-specific and target modifiable predictors in childhood and early adolescence. PMID:26206865

  19. Adolescent eating disorder behaviours and cognitions: gender-specific effects of child, maternal and family risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Micali, N.; De Stavola, B.; Ploubidis, G.; Simonoff, E.; Treasure, J.; Field, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Eating disorder behaviours begin in adolescence. Few longitudinal studies have investigated childhood risk and protective factors. Aims To investigate the prevalence of eating disorder behaviours and cognitions and associated childhood psychological, physical and parental risk factors among a cohort of 14-year-old children. Method Data were collected from 6140 boys and girls aged 14 years. Gender-stratified models were used to estimate prospective associations between childhood body dissatisfaction, body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, maternal eating disorder and family economic disadvantage on adolescent eating disorder behaviours and cognitions. Results Childhood body dissatisfaction strongly predicted eating disorder cognitions in girls, but only in interaction with BMI in boys. Higher self-esteem had a protective effect, particularly in boys. Maternal eating disorder predicted body dissatisfaction and weight/shape concern in adolescent girls and dieting in boys. Conclusions Risk factors for eating disorder behaviours and cognitions vary according to gender. Prevention strategies should be gender-specific and target modifiable predictors in childhood and early adolescence. PMID:26206865

  20. Maternal and child under-nutrition in rural and urban communities of Lagos state, Nigeria: the relationship and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Poor nutritional status of mothers has a direct and indirect consequence on their own health and that of their children. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between nutritional status of mothers and their children and the risk factors for under-nutrition among mothers and children in rural and urban communities of Lagos State, Nigeria. Methods This was a cross sectional survey conducted using the multistage random sampling technique. A total of 300 mother-child pairs were studied, consisting of 150 each from rural and urban communities. Under-nutrition in mothers and children was determined using standard criteria. Results The prevalence of under-nutrition among mothers was significantly higher in rural than urban communities (10.7% vs. 2.7%, p?=?0.014). The prevalences of underweight and stunted children were also significantly higher in rural than urban communities (19.4% vs. 9.3%, p?risk of stunted mothers having children with stunting was about 7 times higher than those who were not (OR 6.7, 95% CI?=?1.4-32.0, p?=?0.007). In urban communities, undernourished mothers have about 11 and 12 times risk of having children with underweight and wasting respectively (OR 11.2, 95% CI?=?1.4-86.5, p?=?0.005) and (OR 12.3, 95% CI?=?1.6-95.7, p?=?0.003) respectively. The identified risk factors for maternal and child under nutrition differs across rural and urban communities. Conclusions The prevalence of maternal and child under-nutrition is high in both communities although higher in rural communities. Efforts at reducing the vicious cycle of under-nutrition among mothers and children should concentrate on addressing risk factors specific for each community. PMID:23880121

  1. One-year neurodevelopmental outcome of very and late preterm infants: Risk factors and correlation with maternal stress.

    PubMed

    Coletti, Maria Franca; Caravale, Barbara; Gasparini, Corinna; Franco, Francesco; Campi, Francesca; Dotta, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Although "late preterm" (LP) newborns (33-36 weeks of gestational age) represent more than 70% of all preterm labors, little is known about the relation between certain risk factors and developmental outcomes in LP compared to "very preterm" (?32 weeks) children (VP). This study investigates: (1) LP and VP infants' development at 12 months of corrected age (CA) using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development - 3rd Edition (BSID-III); (2) correlation between BSID-III performances and maternal stress (using Parenting Stress Index-Short Form, PSI-SF) among LP and VP at 12 months CA; and (3) the link between known neonatal and demographic risk factors and developmental outcomes of LP and VP infants. For both LP and VP infants the Mean Cognitive (LP: 102.69±7.68; VP: 103.63±10.68), Language (LP: 96.23±10.08; VP: 99.10±10.37) and Motor (LP: 91.11±10.33; VP: 93.85±10.17) composite scores were in the normal range, without significant differences between the groups. Correlations between PSI-SF and BSID-III showed that in the VP group (but not LP), Language score was negatively related to the PSI-SF 'Difficult Child' scale (r=-.34, p<.05). Regression models revealed that cognitive performance was significantly predicted by physical therapy in LP and by cesarean section in VP infants. For VP only maternal education and length of stay predicted Language score, whereas physical therapy predicted Motor score. Results of the study underline the importance of considering cognitive, language and motor developments separately when assessing a preterm child's development. Prediction models of developmental performance confirm the influence of some known neonatal risk factors and indicate the need for further research on the role of sociodemographic risk factors. PMID:25779697

  2. Adolescent Substance Abuse: Risk Factors and Prevention Strategies. Maternal & Child Health Technical Information Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Mark J.

    The high prevalence of alcohol and substance abuse by adolescents poses a significant threat to the wellness of youth. Adolescents appear to use drugs for a variety of reasons. In addition to the multiple etiologic and risk factors present for substance abuse, there are many pathways teenagers may follow on their way to substance abuse. The…

  3. An incident case-referent study of stillbirths at Harare Maternity Hospital: socio-economic and obstetric risk factors.

    PubMed

    Moyo, S R; Tswana, S A; Nyström, L; Mahomed, K; Bergström, S; Ljungh, A

    1994-01-01

    This incident case-referent study was conducted at Harare Maternity Hospital in 1989-1990 on 104 consecutive cases of stillbirth with unknown aetiology and 96 age- and parity-matched referents. Information was collected by interviewing the women following a standardized form and by review of antenatal cards. None of the women refused to participate. The most significant obstetric risk factors were prevalence of earlier stillbirths (odds ratio, OR = 6.1) and miscarriages (OR = 4.8). Low height and body mass index also increased the risk of having a stillborn baby significantly as well as a history of flue-like illness during pregnancy (OR = 4.6). The latter may have stimulated the women to book early causing the unexpectedly high OR for early booking among these cases. The pattern for the socio-economic risk factors was not easy to interpret. The most striking finding was the U-shaped relationship between socio-economic status and stillbirths with a higher risk among those with low and high status. PMID:8125406

  4. Maternal choline concentrations during pregnancy and choline-related genetic variants as risk factors for neural tube defects123

    PubMed Central

    Mills, James L; Fan, Ruzong; Brody, Lawrence C; Liu, Aiyi; Ueland, Per M; Wang, Yifan; Kirke, Peadar N; Shane, Barry; Molloy, Anne M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Low maternal choline intake and blood concentration may be risk factors for having a child with a neural tube defect (NTD); however, the data are inconsistent. This is an important question to resolve because choline, if taken periconceptionally, might add to the protective effect currently being achieved by folic acid. Objective: We examined the relation between NTDs, choline status, and genetic polymorphisms reported to influence de novo choline synthesis to investigate claims that taking choline periconceptionally could reduce NTD rates. Design: Two study groups of pregnant women were investigated: women who had a current NTD-affected pregnancy (AP; n = 71) and unaffected controls (n = 214) and women who had an NTD in another pregnancy but not in the current pregnancy [nonaffected pregnancy (NAP); n = 98] and unaffected controls (n = 386). Blood samples to measure betaine and total choline concentrations and single nucleotide polymorphisms related to choline metabolism were collected at their first prenatal visit. Results: Mean (±SD) plasma total choline concentrations in the AP (2.8 ± 1.0 mmol/L) and control (2.9 ± 0.9 mmol/L) groups did not differ significantly. Betaine concentrations were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Total choline and betaine in the NAP group did not differ from controls. Cases were significantly more likely to have the G allele of phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PEMT; V175M, +5465 G>A) rs7946 (P = 0.02). Conclusions: Our results indicate that maternal betaine and choline concentrations are not strongly associated with NTD risk. The association between PEMT rs7946 and NTDs requires confirmation. The addition of choline to folic acid supplements may not further reduce NTD risk. PMID:25240073

  5. Maternal Early Life Factors Associated with Hormone Levels and the Risk of Having a Child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Nurses Health Study II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyall, Kristen; Pauls, David L.; Santangelo, Susan; Spiegelman, Donna; Ascherio, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    It is not known whether reproductive factors early in the mother's life influence risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We assessed maternal age at menarche, menstrual cycle characteristics during adolescence, oral contraceptive use prior to first birth, body shape, and body mass index (BMI) in association with ASD using binomial regression in…

  6. Maternal Depression and Trait Anger as Risk Factors for Escalated Physical Discipline

    PubMed Central

    Shay, Nicole L.; Knutson, John F.

    2008-01-01

    To test the hypothesized anger-mediated relation between maternal depression and escalation of physical discipline, 122 economically disadvantaged mothers were assessed for current and lifetime diagnoses of depression using the Current Depressive Episode, Past Depression, and Dysthymia sections of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) and a measure of current depressive symptoms, the Beck Depression Inventory–Second Edition (BDI-II). Escalation of physical discipline was assessed using a video analog parenting task; maternal anger not specific to discipline was assessed using the Spielberger Trait Anger Expression Inventory. Reports of anger were associated with the diagnosis of depression and depressive symptoms. Bootstrap analyses of indirect effects indicated that the link between depression and escalated discipline was mediated by anger. Parallel analyses based on BDI-II scores identified a marginally significant indirect effect of depression on discipline. Findings suggest that anger and irritability are central to the putative link between depression and harsh discipline. PMID:18174347

  7. Maternal prenatal distress and poor nutrition – mutually influencing risk factors affecting infant neurocognitive development

    PubMed Central

    Monk, Catherine; Georgieff, Michael K.; Osterholm, Erin A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Accumulating data from animal and human studies indicate that the prenatal environment plays a significant role in shaping children’s neurocognitive development. Clinical, epidemiologic, and basic science research suggests that two experiences relatively common in pregnancy — an unhealthy maternal diet and psychosocial distress — significantly affect children’s future neurodevelopment. These prenatal experiences exert their influence in the context of one another and yet, almost uniformly, are studied independently. Scope and Method of Review In this review, we suggest that studying neurocognitive development in children in relation to both prenatal exposures is ecologically most relevant, and methodologically most sound. To support this approach, we selectively review two research topics that demonstrate the need for dual exposure studies, including exemplar findings on (1) the associations between pregnant women’s inadequate maternal intake of key nutrients – protein, fat, iron, zinc, and choline – as well as distress in relation to overlapping effects on children’s neurocognitive development; and (2) cross-talk between the biology of stress and nutrition that can amplify each experience for the mother and fetus,. We also consider obstacles to this kind of study design, such as questions of statistical methods for ‘disentangling’ the exposure effects, and aim to provide some answers. Conclusion Studies that specifically include both exposures in their design can begin to determine the relative and/or synergistic impact of these prenatal experiences on developmental trajectories — and thereby contribute most fully to the understanding of the early origins of health and disease. PMID:23039359

  8. Risk Factors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Risk Factors We're all at risk for heart disease ... Health Depression has been found to be a risk factor for development of heart disease. Depression occurs in ...

  9. Invited commentary: Parental smoking as a risk factor for adult tobacco use: can maternal smoking during pregnancy be distinguished from the social environmental influence during childhood?

    PubMed

    Alberg, Anthony J; Korte, Jeffrey E

    2014-06-15

    Parental smoking is known to have prenatal health effects on developing fetuses, and postnatal exposure to secondhand smoke causes adverse health effects during childhood and beyond. Further, there is solid evidence that parental smoking during childhood is a potent risk factor for smoking in offspring. In this issue of the Journal, Rydell et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2014;179(12):1409-1417) add to a growing body of evidence showing that maternal smoking during pregnancy is statistically associated with the long-term risk of tobacco use in offspring. The data revealed a strong signal between maternal smoking during pregnancy and tobacco use in young adulthood, an association that was largely concentrated in snus use but not cigarette smoking. This new study adds to a growing body of epidemiologic evidence that consistently points toward maternal smoking during pregnancy being associated with an increased risk of offspring tobacco use in later life. There is also evidence from animal models indicating that fetal exposure to maternal nicotine use in utero can have a durable impact on the neural pathways that affect lifetime sensitivity to nicotine. This is an important research topic that continues to yield a consistent signal despite an array of inferential challenges. PMID:24761006

  10. Prenatal Risk and Protective Factors for Childhood Cancer: Investigating the Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation, Pesticide Exposure, and Maternal Diet

    E-print Network

    Lombardi, Christina

    2013-01-01

    al.  Diet  and  the  risk  of  head  and  neck  cancer:  a  diet  and   acute  lymphoblastic  leukemia  in  young  children.  Cancer  diet and nutrients have been investigated as possible risk and protective factors for childhood cancer.

  11. Testing the fetal overnutrition hypothesis; the relationship of maternal and paternal adiposity to adiposity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in Indian children

    PubMed Central

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Karat, Samuel C; Osmond, Clive; Fall, Caroline HD

    2012-01-01

    Objective We aimed to test the fetal overnutrition hypothesis by comparing the associations of maternal and paternal adiposity (sum of skinfolds) with adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors in children. Design Children from a prospective birth cohort had anthropometry, fat percentage (bio-impedance), plasma glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations and blood pressure measured at 9·5 years of age. Detailed anthropometric measurements were recorded for mothers (at 30 ± 2 weeks’ gestation) and fathers (5 years following the index pregnancy). Setting Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India. Subjects Children (n 504), born to mothers with normal glucose tolerance during pregnancy. Results Twenty-eight per cent of mothers and 38 % of fathers were overweight/obese (BMI ? 25·0 kg/m2), but only 4 % of the children were overweight/obese (WHO age- and sex-specific BMI ? 18·2 kg/m2). The children’s adiposity (BMI, sum of skinfolds, fat percentage and waist circumference), fasting insulin concentration and insulin resistance increased with increasing maternal and paternal sum of skinfolds adjusted for the child’s sex, age and socio-economic status. Maternal and paternal effects were similar. The associations with fasting insulin and insulin resistance were attenuated after adjusting for the child’s current adiposity. Conclusions In this population, both maternal and paternal adiposity equally predict adiposity and insulin resistance in the children. This suggests that shared family environment and lifestyle, or genetic/epigenetic factors, influence child adiposity. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that there is an intrauterine overnutrition effect of maternal adiposity in non-diabetic pregnancies, although we cannot rule out such an effect in cases of extreme maternal obesity, which is rare in our population. PMID:22895107

  12. Child Health, Maternal Marital and Socioeconomic Factors, and Maternal Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.

    2013-01-01

    Although maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children's future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse…

  13. Associations of maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D in pregnancy with offspring cardiovascular risk factors in childhood and adolescence: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Dylan M; Fraser, Abigail; Fraser, William D; Hyppönen, Elina; Davey Smith, George; Deanfield, John; Hingorani, Aroon; Sattar, Naveed; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2013-01-01

    Objective Lower maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy may be associated with increased offspring cardiovascular risk in later life, but evidence for this is scant. We examined associations of maternal total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in pregnancy with offspring cardiovascular risk factors assessed in childhood and adolescence. Design A longitudinal, prospective study. Setting The study was based on data from mother–offspring pairs in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a UK prospective population-based birth cohort (N=4109). Outcome measures Offspring cardiovascular risk factors were measured in childhood (mean age 9.9?years) and in adolescence (mean age 15.4?years): blood pressure, lipids, apolipoproteins (at 9.9?years only), glucose and insulin (at 15.4?years only), C reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin 6 (at 9.9?years only) were measured. Results After adjustments for potential confounders (maternal age, education, body mass index (BMI), smoking, physical activity, parity, socioeconomic position, ethnicity, and offspring gestational age at 25(OH)D sampling; gender, age, and BMI at outcome assessment), maternal 25(OH)D was inversely associated with systolic blood pressure (?0.48?mm?Hg difference per 50?nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D; 95% CI ?0.95 to ?0.01), Apo-B (?0.01?mg/dL difference; 95% CI ?0.02 to ?0.001), and CRP (?6.1% difference; 95% CI ?11.5% to ?0.3%) at age 9.9?years. These associations were not present for risk factors measured at 15.4?years, with the exception of a weak inverse association with CRP (?5.5% difference; 95% CI ?11.4% to 0.8%). There was no strong evidence of associations with offspring triglycerides, glucose or insulin. Conclusions Our findings suggest that fetal exposure to 25(OH)D is unlikely to influence cardiovascular risk factors of individuals later in life. PMID:24125739

  14. Impact of a Kentucky Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home-Visitation Program on Parental Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Jonnisa M.; Vanderpool, Robin C.

    2013-01-01

    As public health organizations continue to implement maternal and child health home-visitation programs, more evaluation of these efforts is needed, particularly as it relates to improving parental behaviors. The purpose of our study was to assess the impact of families' participation in a home-visitation program offered by a central Kentucky…

  15. National Origin and Behavioural Problems of Toddlers: The Role of Family Risk Factors and Maternal Immigration Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Pauline W.; Raat, Hein; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; van Oort, Floor V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2010-01-01

    In many societies the prevalence of behavioural problems in school-aged children varies by national origin. We examined the association between national origin and behavioural problems in 1 1/2-year-old children. Data on maternal national origin and the Child Behavior Checklist for toddlers (n = 4943) from a population-based cohort in the…

  16. Research Review: Maternal Prenatal Distress and Poor Nutrition--Mutually Influencing Risk Factors Affecting Infant Neurocognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Catherine; Georgieff, Michael K.; Osterholm, Erin A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Accumulating data from animal and human studies indicate that the prenatal environment plays a significant role in shaping children's neurocognitive development. Clinical, epidemiologic, and basic science research suggests that two experiences relatively common in pregnancy--an unhealthy maternal diet and psychosocial…

  17. Understanding adolescent psychopathic traits from early risk and protective factors: Relations among inhibitory control, maternal sensitivity, and attachment representation.

    PubMed

    Buck, Katharine Ann

    2015-10-01

    Psychopathic traits reflect deficits in behavioral, affective, and interpersonal functioning (Cooke & Michie, 2001). Children with poor inhibitory control may display these traits. Maternal sensitivity and attachment have been implicated in psychopathic traits, but whether they may reduce the likelihood of psychopathic trait expression in adolescence for uninhibited children is largely unknown. The current study attempted to shed light on this issue. Data came from 957 adolescents, followed from 54 months through 15 years. Findings demonstrated that maternal sensitivity was associated with a reduced likelihood of psychopathic traits for males with low inhibitory control. For females, secure attachment mediated the interaction of sensitivity and inhibitory control to psychopathic traits. The current study offers insight into the temperamental traits, parenting, and relational processes involved in psychopathic trait expression during adolescence. PMID:26255247

  18. First-trimester maternal factors and biomarker screening for preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Poon, Leona C; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2014-07-01

    Preeclampsia (PE), which affects about 2% of pregnancies, is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. PE can be subdivided into early onset PE with delivery <34?weeks' gestation and late onset PE with delivery ?34?weeks. Early onset PE is associated with a higher incidence of adverse outcome. This review illustrates that effective screening for the development of early onset PE can be provided in the first-trimester of pregnancy. Screening by a combination of maternal risk factors, mean arterial pressure, uterine artery Doppler, maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and placental growth factor can identify about 95% of cases of early onset PE for a false-positive rate of 10%. PMID:24764257

  19. Maternal HIV serostatus, mother-daughter sexual risk communication and adolescent HIV risk beliefs and intentions.

    PubMed

    Cederbaum, Julie A; Hutchinson, M Katherine; Duan, Lei; Jemmott, Loretta S

    2013-09-01

    Daughters of HIV-positive women are often exposed to the same factors that placed their mothers at risk. This cross-sectional study (N = 176 dyads) examined HIV status, parent-teen sexual risk communication (PTSRC), and daughters' abstinence and condom use beliefs and intentions. Maternal HIV status was not associated with PTSRC. Path analyses show that maternal depression was associated with PTSRC behavioral and normative beliefs; relationship satisfaction was associated with PTSRC normative and control beliefs. Control beliefs were solely predictive of maternal PTSRC intention. PTSRC was associated with adolescent behavioral and normative beliefs. Abstinence beliefs were associated with abstinence intentions; condom beliefs were associated with condom use intentions. Relationship satisfaction was associated with adolescent control beliefs about both abstinence and condom use. There is a need for interventions that help HIV-positive mothers recognize their daughter's HIV risk and provide them with relationship building and parent process skills to help reduce these risks. PMID:22677973

  20. Risk Factors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... has been linked to some cancers: Links between air pollution and cancer risk have been found. These include ... between lung cancer and secondhand tobacco smoke , outdoor air pollution, and asbestos . Drinking water that contains a large ...

  1. Maternal risk taking on the balloon analogue risk task as a prospective predictor of youth alcohol use escalation.

    PubMed

    Banducci, Anne N; Felton, Julia W; Dahne, Jennifer; Ninnemann, Andrew; Lejuez, C W

    2015-10-01

    The transition from late childhood through middle adolescence represents a critical developmental period during which there is a rapid increase in the initiation and escalation of alcohol use. Alcohol use is part of a constellation of risk taking behaviors that increase during this developmental transition, which can be explained by environmental and genetic factors. Social learning theory (SLT) implicates observations of parental drinking in the development of alcohol use in youth. Parental risk taking more broadly has not previously been examined as a factor predictive of alcohol use escalation in youth across adolescence. The current study examined the relative contributions of maternal risk taking on the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) and maternal alcohol use in the prediction of alcohol escalation among youth over three years. Participants were a sample of 245 youth (55.0% male, 49.6% Caucasian) who participated annually between grades 8 and 10, drawn from a larger study of adolescent risk taking. Within our sample, maternal risk taking, as measured by the BART, predicted increases in alcohol use. Interestingly, maternal alcohol use and other youth factors were not predictive of escalations in youth alcohol use. Our findings suggest the importance of considering maternal riskiness more broadly, rather than solely focusing on maternal alcohol use when attempting to understand youth alcohol use across adolescence. These findings emphasize the relevance of maternal risk taking as measured by a behavioral task and suggest a general level of riskiness displayed by mothers might encourage youth to behave in a riskier manner themselves. PMID:26046400

  2. Risk Factors for Scleroderma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... You are here: Home For Patients Risk Factors Risk Factors for Scleroderma The cause of scleroderma is still ... 4-to-1. There is likely no single risk factor for scleroderma. A number of scientific studies suggest ...

  3. Risk Assessment of Adverse Birth Outcomes in Relation to Maternal Age

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Yi-Hao; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Chiu, Ya-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Background Although a number of studies have investigated correlations of maternal age with birth outcomes, an extensive assessment using age as a continuous variable is lacking. In the current study, we estimated age-specific risks of adverse birth outcomes in childbearing women. Method National population-based data containing maternal and neonatal information were derived from the Health Promotion Administration, Taiwan. A composite adverse birth outcome was defined as at least anyone of stillbirth, preterm birth, low birth weight, macrosomia, neonatal death, congenital anomaly, and small for gestational age (SGA). Singletons were further analyzed for outcomes of live birth in relation to each year of maternal age. A log-binomial model was used to adjust for possible confounders of maternal and neonatal factors. Results In total, 2,123,751 births between 2001 and 2010 were utilized in the analysis. The risk of a composite adverse birth outcome was significantly higher at extreme maternal ages. In specific, risks of stillbirth, neonatal death, preterm birth, congenital anomaly, and low birth weight were higher at the extremes of maternal age. Furthermore, risk of macrosomia rose proportionally with an increasing maternal age. In contrast, risk of SGA declined proportionally with an increasing maternal age. The log-binomial model showed greater risks at the maternal ages of <26 and > 30 years for a composite adverse birth outcome. Conclusions Infants born to teenagers and women at advanced age possess greater risks for stillbirth, preterm birth, neonatal death, congenital anomaly, and low birth weight. Pregnancies at advanced age carry an additional risk for macrosomia, while teenage pregnancies carry an additional risk for SGA. The data suggest that the optimal maternal ages to minimize adverse birth outcomes are 26?30 years. PMID:25494176

  4. Does maternal psychopathology increase the risk of pre-schooler obesity? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Benton, Pree M; Skouteris, Helen; Hayden, Melissa

    2015-04-01

    The preschool years may be a critical period for child obesity onset; however, literature examining obesity risk factors to date has largely focused on school-aged children. Several links have been made between maternal depression and childhood obesity risks; however, other types of maternal psychopathology have been widely neglected. The aim of the present review was to systematically identify articles that examined relationships between maternal psychopathology variables, including depressive and anxiety symptoms, self-esteem and body dissatisfaction, and risks for pre-schooler obesity, including weight outcomes, physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels, and nutrition/diet variables. Twenty articles meeting review criteria were identified. Results showed positive associations between maternal depressive symptoms and increased risks for pre-schooler obesity in the majority of studies. Results were inconsistent depending on the time at which depression was measured (i.e., antenatal, postnatal, in isolation or longitudinally). Anxiety and body dissatisfaction were only measured in single studies; however, both were linked to pre-schooler obesity risks; self-esteem was not measured by any studies. We concluded that maternal depressive symptoms are important to consider when assessing risks for obesity in preschool-aged children; however, more research is needed examining the impact of other facets of maternal psychopathology on obesity risk in pre-schoolers. PMID:25572134

  5. Identification of Early Risk Factors for Language Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.; Chapman, Derek A.; Bainbridge, Nicolette L.; Scott, Keith G.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated birth risk factors for school-identified specific language impairment among 244,619 students. Very low birth weight, low 5-min Apgar scores, late or no prenatal care, high birth order and low maternal education were associated with high individual-level risk, and low maternal education and unmarried mothers were associated…

  6. Identification of Early Risk Factors for Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.; Chapman, Derek A.; Scott, Keith G.

    2001-01-01

    A study involving 244,610 children (ages 6-8) investigated birth risk factors for learning disabilities. Very low birth weight, low 5- minute Apgar score, and low maternal education were associated with highest individual-level risk. Low maternal education, late or no prenatal care, and tobacco use were associated with highest population-level…

  7. Growth Models of Maternal Smoking Behavior: Individual and Contextual Factors

    PubMed Central

    Mumford, Elizabeth A.; Liu, Weiwei

    2015-01-01

    Background Persistent maternal smoking during pregnancy, reduction or cessation during pregnancy, and smoking initiation or resumption postpartum impel further research to understand these behavioral patterns and opportunities for intervention. Objectives We investigated heterogeneous longitudinal patterns of smoking quantity to determine if these patterns vary across three maternal age groups, and whether the influence of individual and contextual risk factors varies by maternal age. Methods Separate general growth mixture models were estimated for mothers ages 15–25, 26–35, and 36+, allowing different empirical patterns of an ordinal measure of smoking behavior at six time points, from preconception through child entry to kindergarten. Results We identify five classes for mothers ages 15–25, four classes for ages 26–35, and three classes for ages 36+. Each age group presents classes of nonsmokers and persistent heavy smokers. Intermediate to these ends of the spectrum, each age group exhibited its own smoking classes characterized by the extent of pregnancy smoking reductions and postpartum behavior. In all three age groups, class membership can be distinguished by individual sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. Co-resident smokers predicted nearly all smoking classifications across age groups, and selected neighborhood characteristics predicted classification of younger (15–25) and older (36+) mothers. Conclusions The design, timing, and delivery of smoking prevention and cessation services, for women seeking to become pregnant and for women presenting for prenatal or pediatric care, are best guided by individual characteristics, particularly maternal age, preconception alcohol consumption, and postpartum depression, but neighborhood characteristics merit further attention for mothers at different ages. PMID:25612076

  8. Maternal infection in pregnancy and risk of asthma in offspring.

    PubMed

    Collier, Charlene H; Risnes, Kari; Norwitz, Errol R; Bracken, Michael B; Illuzzi, Jessica L

    2013-12-01

    This study estimates the effect of maternal infections during pregnancy on childhood asthma. One-thousand four-hundred and twenty-eight pregnant women were prospectively followed using structured interviews and chart review until their child's 6th year of life. Infections were identified from outpatient and hospital visits. Childhood asthma was defined as physician diagnosis with symptoms at age six. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated from multivariable logistic regression models. Six-hundred and thirty-five women experienced an infection during pregnancy. Among antepartum infections, maternal urinary tract infections were significantly associated with childhood asthma (aOR 1.60, 95 % CI 1.12-2.29). Chorioamnionitis and maternal group beta streptococcus colonization were not significantly associated with an increased risk in childhood asthma. This study found an increased risk of asthma in children of women diagnosed with urinary tract infections during pregnancy, while other maternal infections did not increase the risk. PMID:23338127

  9. [To be born without risk: searching for small maternity centres].

    PubMed

    Norvez, A

    1997-01-01

    In 1992, in the public sector, 18% of child deliveries took place in small maternity centres having less than 15 beds. In 1981, the percentage has fallen to 11%. In the private sector, the two proportions were respectively 30% and 11%. From the demographic point of view, the process of urbanization and the sharp decrease in the overall birth rate explain the trend. From the medical point of view, as the small maternities cannot have sophisticated equipment, the risk to the mother and the child is likely far greater than in maternities in large cities. However, there is no clear-cut empirical evidence. Moreover, the closing down of a maternity centre in a small city means loss of individual jobs, of collective prestige and the start of overall decline. Furthermore, people have a greater felling of safety with a neighboring maternity centre. In France, the subject is extremely controversial. The article shows some directions to cope with the debates. PMID:9239317

  10. Cumulative Risk, Maternal Responsiveness, and Allostatic Load among Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Gary W.; Kim, Pilyoung; Ting, Albert H.; Tesher, Harris B.; Shannis, Dana

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of cumulative risk exposure in concert with maternal responsiveness on physiological indicators of chronic stress in children and youth. Middle-school children exposed to greater accumulated psychosocial (e.g., family turmoil, poverty) and physical (e.g., crowding, substandard housing) risk

  11. Maternal and infant factors influencing infant feeding – a longitudinal study 

    E-print Network

    Mills, Suzanne Barbara

    2012-06-26

    Introduction: There has been a lack of longitudinal studies on maternal and infant factors associated with feeding difficulties. Feeding difficulties are common, cause much anxiety for parents, and are associated with a ...

  12. Brain Tumor Risk Factors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have been performed on a number of potential environmental risk factors. Of the many factors studied, only one—exposure to ionizing radiation—has been clearly shown to increase the risk of developing brain tumors. Some studies have shown that a history of allergies as an adult, a mother eating ...

  13. Children's experiences of maternal incarceration-specific risks: predictions to psychological maladaptation.

    PubMed

    Dallaire, Danielle H; Zeman, Janice L; Thrash, Todd M

    2015-01-01

    Children of incarcerated mothers are at increased risk for social and emotional difficulties, yet few studies have investigated potential mechanisms of risk within this population. This research simultaneously examined the association of children's experience of incarceration-specific risk factors (e.g., witness mother's arrest) and environmental risks (e.g., low educational attainment) to children's psychological maladaptation using a multi-informant design and a latent variable analytic approach. Participants were 117 currently incarcerated mothers (64.1% African American), their 151 children (53.6% boys, M age = 9.8 years, range = 6-12 years, 61.7% African American), and the 118 caregivers (74.8% female, 61.9% grandparents, 62.2% African American) of the children. Mothers, children, and caregivers each provided accounts of children's experiences related to maternal incarceration and children's internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Mothers and caregivers each supplied information about 10 environmental risk factors. Findings from structural equation modeling indicate that children's incarceration-specific risk experiences predict internalizing and externalizing behavior problems whereas the influence of environmental risks was negligible. Follow-up analyses examining the contribution of specific risks indicate that significant predictors differ by reporter and separate into effects of family incarceration history and direct experiences of maternal incarceration. Incarceration-specific experiences place children at higher risk for maladjustment than exposure to general environmental risk factors. These findings indicate the need to critically examine children's exposure to experiences related to maternal incarceration and family incarceration history to help to clarify the multifaceted stressor of maternal incarceration. PMID:24871820

  14. Factors associated with maternal death from direct pregnancy complications: a UK national case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Nair, M; Kurinczuk, JJ; Brocklehurst, P; Sellers, S; Lewis, G; Knight, M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the factors associated with maternal death from direct pregnancy complications in the UK. Design Unmatched case–control analysis. Setting All hospitals caring for pregnant women in the UK. Population A total of 135 women who died (cases) between 2009 and 2012 from eclampsia, pulmonary embolism, severe sepsis, amniotic fluid embolism, and peripartum haemorrhage, using data from the Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Death, and another 1661 women who survived severe complications (controls) caused by these conditions (2005–2013), using data from the UK Obstetric Surveillance System. Methods Multivariable regression analyses were undertaken to identify the factors that were associated with maternal deaths and to estimate the additive odds associated with the presence of one or more of these factors. Main outcome measures Odds ratios associated with maternal death and population-attributable fractions, with 95% confidence intervals. Incremental risk of death associated with the factors using a ‘risk factors’ score. Results Six factors were independently associated with maternal death: inadequate use of antenatal care (adjusted odds ratio, aOR 15.87, 95% CI 6.73–37.41); substance misuse (aOR 10.16, 95% CI 1.81–57.04); medical comorbidities (aOR 4.82, 95% CI 3.14–7.40); previous pregnancy problems (aOR 2.21, 95% CI 1.34–3.62); hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (aOR 2.44, 95% CI 1.31–4.52); and Indian ethnicity (aOR 2.70, 95% CI 1.14–6.43). Of the increased risk associated with maternal death, 70% (95% CI 66–73%) could be attributed to these factors. Odds associated with maternal death increased by three and a half times per unit increase in the ‘risk factor’ score (aOR 3.59, 95% CI 2.83–4.56). Conclusions This study shows that medical comorbidities are importantly associated with direct (obstetric) deaths. Further studies are required to understand whether specific aspects of care could be improved to reduce maternal deaths among women with medical comorbidities in the UK. PMID:25573167

  15. [Risk factors in Alzheimer's dementia].

    PubMed

    Aksari, P; Stoppe, G

    1996-11-01

    This paper focuses on the review of risk factors of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Despite the vast literature on AD only advanced age and genetic predisposition have been known factors in the development of this disease. Recent data estimate a point prevalence of 3% in the age group from 65-69 and a steady increase to 24% after the age of 85 and older. The allele ApoE4 on chromosome 19 is liked to the sporadic form of AD with late onset, although not disease-specific. The risk factor is increasing from 20 to 90% with the growing number of ApoE4-allele. Since the sporadic form of AD is diagnosed much more frequently and about 40% of the cases are ApoE4-negative, one should not overestimate the percentage of AD in patients with a genetic component. No gender differences have been established in view of education, social factors and higher life expectancy of women. Mental and physical activities seem to improve coping strategies and develop reserve capacities. The lack of education presents a risk factor as opposed to at least 6 years of elementary schooling. Various studies report an association of AD with head injuries. Depression, which is diagnosed 3 times more often prior to the onset of AD, may be part of a prodromal stage preceding the actual symptoms by several years. Thus, conclusions should be drawn with caution. No increased risk with nicotine and alcohol has been found. However, maternal age, exposure to aluminum, estrogen deficiency and various diseases have been controversially discussed. PMID:9064270

  16. Risk Factors and Prevention

    MedlinePLUS

    ... atherosclerosis (“clogged” arteries) and High Blood Pressure . Preventing Arrhythmias and Heart Disease Prevent heart disease by lowering ... cholesterol, diabetes, and thyroid disease. Risk Factors For Arrhythmias and Heart Disease The following conditions can increase ...

  17. Screening and Risk Factors

    Cancer.gov

    Close Window State Cancer Profiles Quick Reference Guides ? Quick Reference Guides Index Screening and Risk Factors Send to Printer Text description of this image. Site Home Policies Accessibility Viewing Files FOIA Contact Us U.S. Department of Health

  18. Identification of Early Risk Factors for Developmental Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Christine E. F.; Vagi, Sara J.; Scott, Keith G.

    2007-01-01

    Statewide birth certificate and preschool exceptionality records were integrated to identify risk factors for developmental delay (DD). Epidemiological methods were used to investigate both individual-level and population-level risk for DD associated with a number of child and maternal factors. Infants born with very low birth weight were at the…

  19. Maternal and neonatal colonisation of group B streptococcus at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: prevalence, risk factors and antimicrobial resistance

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Group B streptococcus (GBS), which asymptomatically colonises the vaginal and rectal areas of women, is the leading cause of septicemia, meningitis and pneumonia in neonates. In Tanzania no studies have been done on GBS colonisation of pregnant women and neonates. This study was conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania to determine the prevalence of GBS colonisation among pregnant women, the neonatal colonisation rate and the antimicrobial susceptibility, thus providing essential information to formulate a policy for treatment and prevention regarding perinatal GBS diseases. Methods This cross sectional study involved 300 pregnant women attending antenatal clinic and their newborns delivered at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) between October 2008 and March 2009. High vaginal, rectal, nasal, ear and umbilical swabs were cultured on Todd Hewitt Broth and in 5% sheep blood agar followed by identification of isolates using conventional methods and testing for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents using the Kirby-Bauer method. Results GBS colonisation was confirmed in 23% of pregnant women and 8.9% of neonates. A higher proportion of GBS were isolated from the vagina (12.3%) as compared to the rectum (5%). Prolonged duration of labour (>12 hrs) was significantly shown to influence GBS colonisation in neonates P < 0.05. Other risk factors such as prolonged rupture of membrane, intrapartum fever, low birth weight and HIV infection did not correlate with GBS colonisation. All isolates were sensitive to vancomycin and ampicillin. Resistance to clindamycin, erythromycin and penicillin G was found to 17.6%, 13% and 9.4%, respectively. Conclusion Our findings seem to suggest that a quarter of pregnant women attending ANC clinic at MNH and approximately 10% of their newborns are colonised with GBS. All isolates were found to be sensitive to vancomycin and ampicillin which seem to be the most effective antibiotics for the time being. However there is a need for continuous antibiotics surveillance of GBS to monitor trend of resistance. The high isolation frequency of GBS among pregnant women suggests routine antenatal screening at 35 to 37 weeks of gestation in order to provide antibiotic prophylaxis to GBS carrier. PMID:19948075

  20. Risk Factors for Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Padmanesan; Wood, James; MacIntyre, Chandini Raina; Mathai, Dilip

    2013-01-01

    The risk of progression from exposure to the tuberculosis bacilli to the development of active disease is a two-stage process governed by both exogenous and endogenous risk factors. Exogenous factors play a key role in accentuating the progression from exposure to infection among which the bacillary load in the sputum and the proximity of an individual to an infectious TB case are key factors. Similarly endogenous factors lead in progression from infection to active TB disease. Along with well-established risk factors (such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malnutrition, and young age), emerging variables such as diabetes, indoor air pollution, alcohol, use of immunosuppressive drugs, and tobacco smoke play a significant role at both the individual and population level. Socioeconomic and behavioral factors are also shown to increase the susceptibility to infection. Specific groups such as health care workers and indigenous population are also at an increased risk of TB infection and disease. This paper summarizes these factors along with health system issues such as the effects of delay in diagnosis of TB in the transmission of the bacilli. PMID:23476764

  1. Maternal Predictors of Anxiety Risk in Young Males with Fragile X

    PubMed Central

    Tonnsen, Bridgette; Cornish, Kim M.; Wheeler, Anne C.; Roberts, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    Children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) demonstrate high rates of anxiety disorders, with 65–83% meeting diagnostic criteria. The severity of anxiety symptoms in FXS has been shown to be partially predicted by elevated negative affect across early childhood (Tonnsen, Malone, et al., 2013). This association suggests that biologically-driven vulnerability emerges early in development, as is reported in non-clinical populations. However, anxiety emergence is likely moderated by multifaceted genetic, biological and environmental risk and protective factors. Mothers with the FMR1 premutation have been shown to exhibit elevated parenting stress and internalizing symptoms, which have each been associated with child behavior problems (Bailey, et al., 2008). Despite these findings, it is unclear whether maternal factors directly relate to anxiety vulnerability in high-risk children with FXS, a question essential to informing targeted, family-sensitive treatment. The present study examines how maternal protective and risk factors relate to child inhibition reflected in (1) child anxiety symptoms, (2) child trajectories of negative affect, and (3) the association between child anxiety and negative affect. Primary predictors include maternal parenting stress, indicators of mental health risk (anxiety and depressive symptoms), and maternal optimism. We also examine genetic correlates in mothers (CGG repeats, activation ratio, mRNA). Our findings suggest that behavioral inhibition in young children with FXS is associated with higher parenting stress and lower optimism, and higher parenting stress is associated with lower maternal X-activation ratio. These findings underscore the need for family-sensitive treatment strategies for anxiety disorders in children with FXS. PMID:24832235

  2. The role of maternal obesity in the risk of neuropsychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Heidi M.; Christiansen, Kelly J.; Sullivan, Elinor L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that perinatal exposure to maternal obesity, metabolic disease, including diabetes and hypertension, and unhealthy maternal diet has a long-term impact on offspring behavior and physiology. During the past three decades, the prevalence of both obesity and neuropsychiatric disorders has rapidly increased. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence that maternal obesity and metabolic complications increase the risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, eating disorders (food addiction, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa), and impairments in cognition in offspring. Animal models of maternal high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity also document persistent changes in offspring behavior and impairments in critical neural circuitry. Animals exposed to maternal obesity and HFD consumption display hyperactivity, impairments in social behavior, increased anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors, substance addiction, food addiction, and diminished cognition. During development, these offspring are exposed to elevated levels of nutrients (fatty acids, glucose), hormones (leptin, insulin), and inflammatory factors (C-reactive protein, interleukin, and tumor necrosis factor). Such factors appear to permanently change neuroendocrine regulation and brain development in offspring. In addition, inflammation of the offspring brain during gestation impairs the development of neural pathways critical in the regulation of behavior, such as serotoninergic, dopaminergic, and melanocortinergic systems. Dysregulation of these circuits increases the risk of mental health disorders. Given the high rates of obesity in most developed nations, it is critical that the mechanisms by which maternal obesity programs offspring behavior are thoroughly characterized. Such knowledge will be critical in the development of preventative strategies and therapeutic interventions. PMID:26150767

  3. Maternal autoimmune diseases and the risk of autism spectrum disorders in offspring: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Wei; Zhong, Xue-Shan; Jiang, Li-Na; Zheng, Xue-Yan; Xiong, Yi-Quan; Ma, Shu-Juan; Qiu, Min; Huo, Shu-Ting; Ge, Jing; Chen, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Although inherited and immune disorder factors are known to be involved in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), controversy still exists as to whether maternal autoimmune disease is an independent risk of ASD in offspring. We aimed to quantitatively summarize the risk of ASD in offspring in relation to maternal autoimmune diseases. A literature search in Pubmed, Web of science, Embase, and China national knowledge internet was conducted to identify relevant studies. Pooled odd ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were computed by STATA version 12.0. Nine case-control studies and one cohort studies comprising 9775 cases and 952,211 controls were included in this study. A positive association between maternal autoimmune diseases and the risk of ASD in offspring was identified assuming a fixed effect model (pooled OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.23-1.46; I(2), 27.9%). There were statistically significant associations between maternal autoimmune diseases developed during pregnancy or maternal thyroid disease and the risk of ASD in offspring (pooled OR, 1.30, 1.29, respectively). Maternal autoimmune disease is likely to be an independent risk factor of ASD in offspring. PMID:26327239

  4. Cumulative Effects of Mothers' Risk and Promotive Factors on Daughters' Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the ways in which the accumulation of maternal factors increases or reduces risk for girls' disruptive behavior during preadolescence. In the current study, maternal risk and promotive factors and the severity of girls' disruptive behavior were assessed annually among girls' ages 7-12 in an urban community sample (N = 2043).…

  5. Risk factors and effective management of preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    English, Fred A; Kenny, Louise C; McCarthy, Fergus P

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy is estimated to complicate 2%–8% of pregnancies and remains a principal cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Preeclampsia may present at any gestation but is more commonly encountered in the third trimester. Multiple risk factors have been documented, including: family history, nulliparity, egg donation, diabetes, and obesity. Significant progress has been made in developing tests to predict risk of preeclampsia in pregnancy, but these remain confined to clinical trial settings and center around measuring angiogenic profiles, including placental growth factor or newer tests involving metabolomics. Less progress has been made in developing new treatments and therapeutic targets, and aspirin remains one of the few agents shown to consistently reduce the risk of developing preeclampsia. This review serves to discuss recent advances in risk factor identification, prediction techniques, and management of preeclampsia in antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal patients. PMID:25767405

  6. Risk factors and effective management of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    English, Fred A; Kenny, Louise C; McCarthy, Fergus P

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy is estimated to complicate 2%-8% of pregnancies and remains a principal cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Preeclampsia may present at any gestation but is more commonly encountered in the third trimester. Multiple risk factors have been documented, including: family history, nulliparity, egg donation, diabetes, and obesity. Significant progress has been made in developing tests to predict risk of preeclampsia in pregnancy, but these remain confined to clinical trial settings and center around measuring angiogenic profiles, including placental growth factor or newer tests involving metabolomics. Less progress has been made in developing new treatments and therapeutic targets, and aspirin remains one of the few agents shown to consistently reduce the risk of developing preeclampsia. This review serves to discuss recent advances in risk factor identification, prediction techniques, and management of preeclampsia in antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal patients. PMID:25767405

  7. Maternal and offspring xenobiotic metabolism haplotypes and the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Nousome, Darryl; Lupo, Philip J.; Okcu, M. Fatih; Scheurer, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Discovering genetic predictors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) necessitates the evaluation of novel factors including maternal genetic effects, which are a proxy for the intrauterine environment, and robust epidemiologic study designs. Therefore, we evaluated five maternal and offspring xenobiotic metabolism haplotypes and the risk of childhood ALL among 120 case-parent triads. Two of the five haplotypes were significantly associated with risk: GSTM3/GSTM4 (P=0.01) and GSTP1 (P=0.02). The EPHX1 haplotype was marginally associated with risk (P=0.05), whereas haplotypes in CYP1B1 and GSTA4 were not. Our results suggest genetic variation in xenobiotic metabolism is important in childhood ALL etiology. PMID:23433810

  8. Predictors of Staphylococcus aureus Rectovaginal Colonization in Pregnant Women and Risk for Maternal and Neonatal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Top, Karina A.; Buet, Amanda; Whittier, Susan; Ratner, Adam J.; Saiman, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Background. Staphylococcus aureus infections are increasing among pregnant and postpartum women and neonates, but risk factors for S. aureus colonization in pregnancy and the association between maternal colonization and infant infections are not well defined. We sought to identify risk factors for maternal S. aureus rectovaginal colonization and assess colonization as a risk factor for infections among mothers and infants. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of pregnant women and their infants. Demographic and clinical data, including S. aureus infections that occurred in mothers from 3 months before to 3 months after delivery and in infants during the first 3 months of life, were extracted from electronic medical records. Predictors for maternal S. aureus rectovaginal colonization were assessed through multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results. The cohort included 2702 women and 2789 infants. The prevalence of maternal rectovaginal colonization with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was 13% and 0.7%. Independent predictors of colonization included multigravidity, human immunodeficiency virus seropositivity, and group B Streptococcus colonization. S. aureus colonization was associated with an increased risk of infection in mothers (odds ratio [OR], 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4–8.8) but not in their infants (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, .6–5.6). The frequency of S. aureus infections was 0.8% in mothers and 0.7% in infants. Conclusions. S. aureus rectovaginal colonization was associated with an increased risk of infections in women but not in their infants. The frequency of MRSA infections was low. These data suggest that routine MRSA screening of pregnant women may not be indicated. PMID:23687569

  9. BCSC - Risk Factors Dataset

    Cancer.gov

    This dataset may be useful to people interested in exploring the distribution of breast cancer risk factors in US women. The dataset includes information from 6,318,638 women receiving mammography within the BCSC between January 2000 and December 2009.

  10. [Risk factors in cataract].

    PubMed

    Vîrgolici, Bogdana; Popescu, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Cataract is one of the major causes of blindness throughout the world. Considerable effort to elucidate risk factors for cataract has been undertaken in hopes that simple, preventive strategies may be implemented to avoid or delay the progression of lens opacification. Advanced age, female gender, poor education, lower socioeconomic status, high or low body mass index and heavy alcohol consumption are some risk factors for senile cataract. Smoking appears to provide an oxidative challenge associated with depletion of antioxidants as well as with enhanced risk for cataract formation. Multiple drugs are responsive in iatrogenic cataract. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and pyruvate may have protective effects for senile cataract. Randomized clinical trials should be encouraged to find medical therapeutic ways to delay the cataract development. PMID:16927750

  11. Maternal mortality in rural Gambia: levels, causes and contributing factors.

    PubMed Central

    Walraven, G.; Telfer, M.; Rowley, J.; Ronsmans, C.

    2000-01-01

    A demographic study carried out in a rural area of the Gambia between January 1993 and December 1998 recorded 74 deaths among women aged 15-49 years. Reported here is an estimation of maternal mortality among these 74 deaths based on a survey of reproductive age mortality, which identified 18 maternal deaths by verbal autopsy. Over the same period there were 4245 live births in the study area, giving a maternal mortality ratio of 424 per 100,000 live births. This maternal mortality estimate is substantially lower than estimates made in the 1980s, which ranged from 1005 to 2362 per 100,000 live births, in the same area. A total of 9 of the 18 deaths had a direct obstetric cause--haemorrhage (6 deaths), early pregnancy (2), and obstructed labour (1). Indirect causes of obstetric deaths were anaemia (4 deaths), hepatitis (1), and undetermined (4). Low standards of health care for obstetric referrals, failure to recognize the severity of the problem at the community level, delays in starting the decision-making process to seek health care, lack of transport, and substandard primary health care were identified more than once as probable or possible contributing factors to these maternal deaths. PMID:10859854

  12. Atrial natriuretic factor in maternal and fetal sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, C.Y.; Gibbs, D.M.; Brace, R.A.

    1987-02-01

    To determine atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) concentrations in the circulation and body fluids of adult pregnant sheep and their fetuses, pregnant ewes were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium, and the fetuses were exteriorized for sampling. ANF concentration, as measured by radioimmunoassay, was 47 +/- 6 (SE) pg/ml in maternal plasma, which was significantly higher than the 15 +/- 3 pg/ml in maternal urine. In the fetus, plasma ANF concentration was 265 +/- 49 pg/ml, 5.6 times that in maternal plasma. No umbilical arterial and venous difference in ANF concentration was observed. Fetal urine ANF concentration was significantly lower than that in fetal plasma, and was similar to that measured in amniotic and allantoic fluid. In chronically catheterized maternal and fetal sheep, fetal plasma ANF was again 5.1 times that in maternal plasma, and these levels were not different from those measured in acutely anesthetized animals. These results demonstrate that immunoreactive ANF is present in the fetal circulation at levels higher than those found in the mother. The low concentration of ANF in fetal urine suggests that ANF is probably metabolized and/or reabsorbed by the fetal kidney.

  13. Breast cancer risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Ciszewski, Tomasz; ?opacka-Szatan, Karolina; Miot?a, Pawe?; Staros?awska, El?bieta

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual's life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence. PMID:26528110

  14. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…

  15. Increased Waking Salivary Cortisol and Depression Risk in Preschoolers: The Role of Maternal History of Melancholic Depression and Early Child Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Klein, Daniel N.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret; Rose, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Background: Elevated morning cortisol is a prospective predictor of major depression and may serve as a vulnerability marker. We examined the relation between morning cortisol and two prominent risk factors for depression in preschool-aged children: maternal depression and child temperament. We also explored whether maternal depression during the…

  16. Maternal and genetic factors determine early life telomere length.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Muhammad; Bensch, Staffan; Tarka, Maja; Hansson, Bengt; Hasselquist, Dennis

    2015-01-22

    In a broad range of species--including humans--it has been demonstrated that telomere length declines throughout life and that it may be involved in cell and organismal senescence. This potential link to ageing and thus to fitness has triggered recent interest in understanding how variation in telomere length is inherited and maintained. However, previous studies suffer from two main drawbacks that limit the possibility of understanding the relative importance of genetic, parental and environmental influences on telomere length variation. These studies have been based on (i) telomere lengths measured at different time points in different individuals, despite the fact that telomere length changes over life, and (ii) parent-offspring regression techniques, which do not enable differentiation between genetic and parental components of inheritance. To overcome these drawbacks, in our study of a songbird, the great reed warbler, we have analysed telomere length measured early in life in both parents and offspring and applied statistical models (so-called 'animal models') that are based on long-term pedigree data. Our results showed a significant heritability of telomere length on the maternal but not on the paternal side, and that the mother's age was positively correlated with their offspring's telomere length. Furthermore, the pedigree-based analyses revealed a significant heritability and an equally large maternal effect. Our study demonstrates strong maternal influence on telomere length and future studies now need to elucidate possible underlying factors, including which types of maternal effects are involved. PMID:25621325

  17. Factors influencing maternal survival in ruptured uterus.

    PubMed

    Megafu, U

    1985-12-01

    Ruptured uterus continues to be a common obstetric hazard in under developed countries. The commonest cause is spontaneous rupture from obstructed labor in the multipara. There was not a single rupture in the primipara. Rupture following previous cesarean section scar is also common. The most effective way of management is to correct fluid and blood loss followed by laparotomy and subtotal hysterectomy. This method gave a lower mortality than either repair and sterilization or total hysterectomy. Adequate pre-operative resuscitation and time interval between rupture and operation also influences mortality rate. The experience of the surgeon is another vital factor in determining mortality rate. PMID:2868942

  18. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Request Permissions Print to PDF Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 08/ ... menu on the side of your screen. A risk factor is anything that increases a person’s chance of ...

  19. Hidden Risk Factors for Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Twitter Chats American Stroke Month Launch Hidden Stroke Risk Factors for Women Updated:Feb 5,2014 Excerpted from "What Women Need To Know About The Hidden Risk Factors For Stroke," Stroke Connection Magazine, November/December 2004. ( ...

  20. A thematic analysis of factors influencing recruitment to maternal and perinatal trials

    PubMed Central

    Tooher, Rebecca L; Middleton, Philippa F; Crowther, Caroline A

    2008-01-01

    Background Recruitment of eligible participants remains one of the biggest challenges to successful completion of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Only one third of trials recruit on time, often requiring a lengthy extension to the recruitment period. We identified factors influencing recruitment success and potentially effective recruitment strategies. Methods We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE from 1966 to December Week 2, 2006, the Cochrane Library Methodology Register in December 2006, and hand searched reference lists for studies of any design which focused on recruitment to maternal/perinatal trials, or if no studies of maternal or perinatal research could be identified, other areas of healthcare. Studies of nurses' and midwives' attitudes to research were included as none specifically about trials were located. We synthesised the data narratively, using a basic thematic analysis, with themes derived from the literature and after discussion between the authors. Results Around half of the included papers (29/53) were specific to maternal and perinatal healthcare. Only one study was identified which focused on factors for maternal and perinatal clinicians and only seven studies considered recruitment strategies specific to perinatal research. Themes included: participant assessment of risk; recruitment process; participant understanding of research; patient characteristics; clinician attitudes to research and trials; protocol issues; and institutional or organisational issues. While no reliable evidence base for strategies to enhance recruitment was identified in any of the review studies, four maternal/perinatal primary studies suggest that specialised recruitment staff, mass mailings, physician referrals and strategies targeting minority women may increase recruitment. However these findings may only be applicable to the particular trials and settings studied. Conclusion Although factors reported by both participants and clinicians which influence recruitment were quite consistent across the included studies, studies comparing different recruitment strategies were largely missing. Trials of different recruitment strategies could be embedded in large multicentre RCTs, with strategies tailored to the factors specific to the trial and institution. PMID:18687110

  1. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  2. Risk factors for term intrauterine growth retardation: a community-based study in Karachi.

    PubMed Central

    Fikree, F. F.; Berendes, H. W.

    1994-01-01

    Reported are the results of a community-based prospective study in four urban squatter settlements in Karachi that was carried out to assess the incidence of and risk factors for intrauterine growth retardation. The incidence of term intrauterine growth retardation was 24.4% among 738 singleton births. The socioeconomic and biological risk factors that were found to be statistically significant in a bivariate analysis were included in a logistic regression model to assess their independent effects. The major risk factors were low level of maternal education, paternal unemployment, consanguinity, short birth-to-conception intervals, short maternal stature, and low maternal weight. The population risk estimates suggest the desirability of public health interventions to improve maternal weight and birth spacing and of improvements in socioeconomic conditions, especially maternal education. Public education programmes to discourage consanguineous marriages should also be considered. PMID:7923537

  3. Maternal and neonatal individual risks and benefits associated with caesarean delivery: multicentre prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Carroli, Guillermo; Zavaleta, Nelly; Donner, Allan; Wojdyla, Daniel; Faundes, Anibal; Velazco, Alejandro; Bataglia, Vicente; Langer, Ana; Narváez, Alberto; Valladares, Eliette; Shah, Archana; Campodónico, Liana; Romero, Mariana; Reynoso, Sofia; de Pádua, Karla Simônia; Giordano, Daniel; Kublickas, Marius; Acosta, Arnaldo

    2007-01-01

    Objective To assess the risks and benefits associated with caesarean delivery compared with vaginal delivery. Design Prospective cohort study within the 2005 WHO global survey on maternal and perinatal health. Setting 410 health facilities in 24 areas in eight randomly selected Latin American countries; 123 were randomly selected and 120 participated and provided data Participants 106?546 deliveries reported during the three month study period, with data available for 97?095 (91% coverage). Main outcome measures Maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality associated with intrapartum or elective caesarean delivery, adjusted for clinical, demographic, pregnancy, and institutional characteristics. Results Women undergoing caesarean delivery had an increased risk of severe maternal morbidity compared with women undergoing vaginal delivery (odds ratio 2.0 (95% confidence interval 1.6 to 2.5) for intrapartum caesarean and 2.3 (1.7 to 3.1) for elective caesarean). The risk of antibiotic treatment after delivery for women having either type of caesarean was five times that of women having vaginal deliveries. With cephalic presentation, there was a trend towards a reduced odds ratio for fetal death with elective caesarean, after adjustment for possible confounding variables and gestational age (0.7, 0.4 to 1.0). With breech presentation, caesarean delivery had a large protective effect for fetal death. With cephalic presentation, however, independent of possible confounding variables and gestational age, intrapartum and elective caesarean increased the risk for a stay of seven or more days in neonatal intensive care (2.1 (1.8 to 2.6) and 1.9 (1.6 to 2.3), respectively) and the risk of neonatal mortality up to hospital discharge (1.7 (1.3 to 2.2) and 1.9 (1.5 to 2.6), respectively), which remained higher even after exclusion of all caesarean deliveries for fetal distress. Such increased risk was not seen for breech presentation. Lack of labour was a risk factor for a stay of seven or more days in neonatal intensive care and neonatal mortality up to hospital discharge for babies delivered by elective caesarean delivery, but rupturing of membranes may be protective. Conclusions Caesarean delivery independently reduces overall risk in breech presentations and risk of intrapartum fetal death in cephalic presentations but increases the risk of severe maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in cephalic presentations. PMID:17977819

  4. Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Daughters’ Preeclampsia Risk

    PubMed Central

    Mattsson, Kristina; Källén, Karin; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Hansson, Stefan R.; McElrath, Thomas F.; Cantonwine, David E.; Rylander, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Background An obstetrical paradox is that maternal smoking is protective for the development of preeclampsia. However, there are no prior studies investigating the risk of preeclampsia in women who were exposed to tobacco smoking during their own fetal period. We aimed to study the subsequent risk of preeclampsia in women who were exposed to tobacco smoke in utero, using a national population-based register. Methods Data were obtained from the Medical Birth Register of Sweden for women who were born in 1982 (smoking data first recorded) or after, who had given birth to at least one child; 153 885 pregnancies were included. Results The associations between intrauterine smoking exposure (three categories: non-smokers, 1–9 cigarettes/day [moderate exposure], and >9 cigarettes/day [heavy exposure]) and subsequent preeclampsia (n = 5721) were assessed using logistic regressions. In models adjusted for maternal age, parity and own smoking, the odds ratios (OR) for preeclampsia were 1.06 [95% CI: 0.99,1.13 for moderate intrauterine exposure, and 1.18, [95% CI: 1.10,1.27] for heavy exposure. Estimates were slightly strengthened in non-smoking women who experienced heavy intrauterine exposure (adjusted OR 1.24 [95% CI: 1.14,1.34]). Results were no longer statistically significant after adjustment for the woman’s own BMI, gestational age and birthweight Z-scores. Conclusion These data revealed some evidence of a possible weak positive association between intrauterine smoking exposure and the risk of subsequent preeclampsia, however, results were not significant over all manifestations of preeclampsia and confounder adjustment. The increased risk might be mediated through exposed women’s own BMI or birthweight. PMID:26630273

  5. Effect of Maternal Factors and Fetomaternal Glucose Homeostasis on Birth Weight and Postnatal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Özbörü A?kan, Öykü; Bozaykut, Abdülkadir; Sezer, Rabia Gönül; Güran, Tülay; Bereket, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: It is important to identify the possible risk factors for the occurrence of large for gestational age (LGA) in newborns and to determine the effect of birth weight and metabolic parameters on subsequent growth. We aimed to determine the effects of maternal weight, weight gain during pregnancy, maternal hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), C-peptide and insulin as well as cord C-peptide and insulin levels on birth weight and postnatal growth during the first two years of life. Methods: Healthy, non-diabetic mothers and term singleton newborns were included in this prospective case-control cohort study. Fasting maternal glucose, HbA1c, C-peptide and insulin levels were studied. Cord blood was analyzed for C-peptide and insulin. At birth, newborns were divided into two groups according to birth size: LGA and appropriate for GA (AGA). Infants were followed at six-month intervals for two years and their length and weight were recorded. Results: Forty LGA and 43 AGA infants were included in the study. Birth weight standard deviation score (SDS) was positively correlated with maternal body mass index (BMI) before delivery (r=0.2, p=0.04) and with weight gain during pregnancy (r=0.2, p=0.04). In multivariate analyses, the strongest association with macrosomia was a maternal C-peptide level >3.85 ng/mL (OR=20). Although the LGA group showed decreased growth by the 6-month of follow-up, the differences between the LGA and AGA groups in weight and length SDS persisted over the 2 years of follow-up. Conclusion: The control of maternal BMI and prevention of overt weight gain during pregnancy may prevent excessive birth weight. The effect of the in utero metabolic environment on the weight and length SDS of infants born LGA persists until at least two years of age.

  6. Reasons for Persistently High Maternal and Perinatal Mortalities in Ethiopia: Part II-Socio-Economic and Cultural Factors

    PubMed Central

    Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres

    2014-01-01

    Background The major causes of maternal and perinatal deaths are mostly pregnancy related. However, there are several predisposing factors for the increased risk of pregnancy related complications and deaths in developing countries. The objective of this review was to grossly estimate the effect of selected socioeconomic and cultural factors on maternal mortality, stillbirths and neonatal mortality in Ethiopia. Methods A comprehensive literature review was conducted focusing on the effect of total fertility rate (TFR), modern contraceptive use, harmful traditional practice, adult literacy rate and level of income on maternal and perinatal mortalities. For the majority of the data, regression analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient were used as a proxy indicator for the association of variables with maternal, fetal and neonatal mortality. Results Although there were variations in the methods for estimation, the TFR of women in Ethiopia declined from 5.9 to 4.8 in the last fifteen years, which was in the middle as compared with that of other African countries. The preference of injectable contraceptive method has increased by 7-fold, but the unmet contraceptive need was among the highest in Africa. About 50% reduction in female genital cutting (FGC) was reported although some women's attitude was positive towards the practice of FGC. The regression analysis demonstrated increased risk of stillbirths, neonatal and maternal mortality with increased TFR. The increased adult literacy rate was associated with increased antenatal care and skilled person attended delivery. Low adult literacy was also found to have a negative association with stillbirths and neonatal and maternal mortality. A similar trend was also observed with income. Conclusion Maternal mortality ratio, stillbirth rate and neonatal mortality rate had inverse relations with income and adult education. In Ethiopia, the high total fertility rate, low utilization of contraceptive methods, low adult literacy rate, low income and prevalent harmful traditional practices have probably contributed to the high maternal mortality ratio, stillbirth and neonatal mortality rates. PMID:25489187

  7. Maternal Obesity in Early Pregnancy and Risk of Adverse Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada; Henriquez-Sanchez, Patricia; Alemán-Perez, Nestor; Garcia-Salvador, Jose J.; Gonzalez-Quesada, Alicia; García-Hernández, Jose A.; Serra-Majem, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess the role of the health consequences of maternal overweight and obesity at the start of pregnancy on gestational pathologies, delivery and newborn characteristics. Methods A cohort of pregnant women (n?=?6.558) having delivered at the Maternal & Child University Hospital of Gran Canaria (HUMIGC) in 2008 has been studied. Outcomes were compared using multivariate analyses controlling for confounding variables. Results Compared to normoweight, overweight and obese women have greater risks of gestational diabetes mellitus (RR?=?2.13 (95% CI: 1.52–2.98) and (RR?=?2.85 (95% CI: 2.01–4.04), gestational hypertension (RR?=?2.01 (95% CI: 1.27–3.19) and (RR?=?4.79 (95% CI: 3.13–7.32) and preeclampsia (RR?=?3.16 (95% CI: 1.12–8.91) and (RR?=?8.80 (95% CI: 3.46–22.40). Obese women have also more frequently oligodramnios (RR?=?2.02 (95% CI: 1.25–3.27), polyhydramnios. (RR?=?1.76 (95% CI: 1.03–2.99), tearing (RR?=?1.24 (95% CI: 1.05–1.46) and a lower risk of induced deliveries (RR?=?0.83 (95% CI: 0.72–0.95). Both groups have more frequently caesarean section (RR?=?1.36 (95% CI: 1.14–1.63) and (RR?=?1.84 (95% CI: 1.53–2.22) and manual placenta extraction (RR?=?1.65 (95% CI: 1.28–2.11) and (RR?=?1.77 (95% CI: 1.35–2.33). Newborns from overweight and obese women have higher weight (p<0.001) and a greater risk of being macrosomic (RR?=?2.00 (95% CI: 1.56–2.56) and (RR?=?2.74 (95% CI: 2.12–3.54). Finally, neonates from obese mother have a higher risk of being admitted to special care units (RR?=?1.34 (95% CI: 1.01–1.77). Apgar 1 min was significantly higher in newborns from normoweight mothers: 8.65 (95% CI: 8.62–8.69) than from overweight: 8.56 (95% CI: 8.50–8.61) or obese mothers: 8.48 (95% CI: 8.41–8.54). Conclusion Obesity and overweight status at the beginning of pregnancy increase the adverse outcomes of the pregnancy. It is important to promote the normalization of bodyweight in those women who intend to get pregnant and to provide appropriate advice to the obese women of the risks of obesity at the start of the pregnancy. PMID:24278281

  8. Maternal Genitourinary Infections and the Risk of Gastroschisis

    PubMed Central

    Yazdy, Mahsa M.; Mitchell, Allen A.; Werler, Martha M.

    2014-01-01

    Genitourinary infections (GUIs) have been associated with increased risk of gastroschisis in 2 studies. Using data collected in the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study, we examined the association between GUI and gastroschisis. From 1998 to 2010, mothers of 249 gastroschisis cases and 7,104 controls were interviewed within 6 months of delivery about pregnancy events, including vaginal infections, genital herpes, urinary tract infections (UTIs), and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Women were considered exposed if they reported at least 1 instance of a GUI in the first trimester. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Women who reported having any GUI had an adjusted odds ratio of 1.8 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3, 2.4). The highest risk was seen among women who reported a UTI only (adjusted odds ratio = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.5, 3.5), while the odds ratio for an STD only was slightly elevated (adjusted odds ratio = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.5). Among women under 25 years of age, the odds ratio for UTI only was 2.6 (95% CI: 1.7, 4.0), and among older women it was 1.8 (95% CI: 0.6, 5.9). When we considered the joint association of UTIs and young maternal age, a synergistic effect was observed. The results of this study add further evidence that UTIs may increase the risk of gastroschisis. PMID:25073472

  9. Risk factors for ischaemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Allen, Claire L; Bayraktutan, Ulvi

    2008-05-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in western populations, with up to 40% of survivors not expected to recover independence from severe disabilities. This equates to an immense financial burden on health systems worldwide. Hence further education is required to inform individuals of the risks to promote secondary prevention strategies in future generations. Stroke is a heterogeneous, multifactorial disease regulated by modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors. Modifiable factors include a history of high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease. Nonmodifiable factors include age, sex and race. Other less-well documented risk factors include geographic location, socioeconomic status and alcoholism. Approximately 80% of stroke events could be reduced by making simple lifestyle modifications. Further studies are required to clarify the role and interplay of the risk factors outlined to give a more comprehensive understanding of stroke and to aid and drive the development of more effective stroke prevention programs, in high risk groups. PMID:18706004

  10. Psychosocial factors in maternal phenylketonuria: women's adherence to medical recommendations.

    PubMed Central

    Waisbren, S E; Hamilton, B D; St James, P J; Shiloh, S; Levy, H L

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study identified factors predicting adherence to medical recommendations in maternal phenylketonuria, which can result in severe fetal damage. METHODS. Sixty-nine women with phenylketonuria, 68 of their acquaintances, and 69 women with diabetes mellitus were interviewed annually for 5 years. A model in which each stage in the maternal phenylketonuria life cycle represented a treatment-related goal provided a means to assess adherence. RESULTS. At the stages of prevention of unplanned pregnancy, treatment initiation, and diet continuation throughout pregnancy, attitudes and social support were associated with adherence to medical recommendations. No specific variables were associated with outcome at reproductive decision making, but women with phenylketonuria were more likely to delay making a decision, resulting in unplanned and, hence, untreated or late-treated pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS. Women with phenylketonuria differed from their acquaintances and diabetic women in many respects, suggesting that special programs are needed. Greater emphasis on reproductive decision making is especially needed. Interventions that focus on improving social support networks and attitudes about treatment may increase adherence to recommendations. PMID:7503337

  11. Maternal Weight Gain in Pregnancy and Risk of Obesity among Offspring: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Erica Y.; Liu, Junxiu; McDonald, Samantha M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To systematically review the evidence from prospective and retrospective cohort studies on the association between gestational weight gain (GWG) and offspring's body weight. Methods. Electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Academic Search Premiere were searched from inception through March 18, 2013. Included studies (n = 23) were English articles that examined the independent associations of GWG with body mass index (BMI) and/or overweight status in the offspring aged 2 to 18.9 years. Two authors independently extracted the data and assessed methodological quality of the included studies. Results. Evidence from cohort studies supports that total GWG and exceeding the Institute of Medicine maternal weight gain recommendation were associated with higher BMI z-score and elevated risk of overweight or obesity in offspring. The evidence of high rate of GWG during early- and mid-pregnancy is suggestive. Additionally, the evidence on inadequate GWG and net GWG in relation to body weight outcomes in offspring is insufficient to draw conclusions. Conclusions. These findings suggest that GWG is a potential risk factor for childhood obesity. However, findings should be interpreted with caution due to measurement issues of GWG and potential confounding effects of shared familial characteristics (i.e., genetics and maternal and child's lifestyle factors). PMID:25371815

  12. Maternal stressors and social support as risks for delivering babies with structural birth defects

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, Suzan L.; Ma, Chen; Tinker, Sarah; Rasmussen, Sonia A.; Shaw, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    Background We examined the association of maternal stressful life events and social support with risks of birth defects using National Birth Defects Prevention Study data, a population-based case-control study. Methods We examined 7 stressful life events and 3 social support questions applicable to the periconceptional period, among mothers of 552 cases with neural tube defects (NTDs), 413 cleft palate (CP), 797 cleft lip +/? cleft palate (CLP), 189 d-transposition of the great arteries (dTGA), 311 tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), and 2,974 non-malformed controls. A stressful life events index equaled the sum of “yes” responses to the 7 questions. Social support questions were also summed to form an index. Data were analyzed using logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for maternal race-ethnicity, age, education, body mass index, smoking, drinking, and intake of vitamin supplements. Results Associations with the stress index tended to be higher with higher scores, but few 95% CIs excluded one. A 4-point increase in the index was moderately associated with NTDs (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 2.0) and CLP (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0–1.7). The social support index tended to be associated with reduced risk but most 95% CIs included one, with the exception of dTGA (OR for a score of three versus zero was 0.5, 95% CI 0.3–0.8). Conclusions Maternal periconceptional stressful life events, social support, and the two factors in combination were at most modestly, if at all, associated with risks of the studied birth defects. PMID:24697924

  13. Risk factors for Dandy-Walker malformation: a population-based assessment.

    PubMed

    Reeder, Matthew R; Botto, Lorenzo D; Keppler-Noreuil, Kim M; Carey, John C; Byrne, Janice L B; Feldkamp, Marcia L

    2015-09-01

    Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) is the most common congenital malformation of the cerebellum, but its causes are largely unknown. An increasing number of genes associated with congenital cerebellar malformations have been identified; however, few studies have examined the potential role of non-genetic, potentially modifiable risk factors. From the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, we examined maternal, paternal, and infant characteristics and maternal conditions and periconceptional exposures (from 1 month before to 3 months after conception) among infants with DWM (n?=?160) and unaffected controls (n?=?10,200), delivered between 1997 and 2009. Odds ratios, crude (cOR) and adjusted (aOR) were computed using logistic regression. Maternal factors associated with DWM included non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity (aOR?=?2.0, 95%CI: 1.3-3.2). Among maternal conditions, a history of infertility increased the risk for DWM (all: aOR?=?2.4, 95%CI: 1.3-4.6; multiple: aOR?=?3.9, 95%CI: 1.7-8.9). The lack of association with many maternal exposures supports the hypothesis of a major contribution of genetic factors to the risk for DWM; however, the observed associations with maternal non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity and maternal history of infertility indicate that further research into factors underlying these characteristics may uncover potentially modifiable risk factors, acting alone or as a component of gene-environment interactions. PMID:25941000

  14. Predicting emotional and social competence during early childhood from toddler risk and maternal behavior.

    PubMed

    Blandon, Alysia Y; Calkins, Susan D; Keane, Susan P

    2010-01-01

    The longitudinal associations between maternal parenting behavior and toddler risk with children's emotional and social competence were examined during the transition to kindergarten, in a sample of 253 children. Toddler risk was characterized by early externalizing behavior and poor emotion regulation skills. Given that we were interested in the multiple pathways that may result in emotional and social competence, we examined the interactions among maternal parenting behavior and toddler risk. There were some significant interactions, although the pattern of results was not consistent across all competence outcomes. Maternal parenting behavior was not directly associated with children's emotional and social competence. In some instances, maternal control has differential implications for children's emotional and social competence dependent upon the child's level of early risk and maternal positive parenting. Specifically, maternal control tended to be more detrimental for children's emotional competence during the transition to kindergarten, when children exhibit higher levels of risk. Overall, it appears that there are multiple developmental pathways, depending on child and maternal characteristics that lead to early emotional and social competence. PMID:20102651

  15. Mother-child reminiscing at risk: Maternal attachment, elaboration, and child autobiographical memory specificity.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Christina G; Valentino, Kristin; Comas, Michelle; Nuttall, Amy K

    2016-03-01

    Mother-child reminiscing, the process by which mothers and their children discuss past events and emotional experiences, has been robustly linked with child outcomes, including autobiographical memory. To advance previous work linking elaborative maternal reminiscing with child autobiographical memory specificity, the ability to generate and retrieve specific memories from one's past, it is essential to make distinctions among aspects of elaboration and to consider how maternal risk factors may influence the reminiscing context. The current study evaluated (a) an interaction between emotional and structural elaboration predicting child autobiographical memory specificity and (b) the potential moderating role of maternal adult attachment. Participants consisted of 95 preschool-aged children and their mothers. The sample was predominantly low income and racially diverse. Dyads completed a reminiscing task that was coded for emotional and structural elaboration. Mothers completed the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire (ECR-R) to assess attachment-related avoidance and anxiety, and children completed the Autobiographical Memory Test-Preschool Version (AMT-PV) to assess memory specificity. Results indicated that the association between structural reminiscing and child memory specificity was moderated by emotional elements of reminiscing. At high levels of emotional elaboration, mothers with high levels of structural elaboration had children with more specific memory than mothers with low levels of structural elaboration. Moreover, emotional elaboration (a) predicted less specific child memory without high structural support and (b) negatively predicted child specificity at high levels of maternal attachment avoidance and anxiety, a profile associated with fearful avoidance. Future directions and implications are discussed. PMID:26630033

  16. Maternal Substance Use and HIV Status: Adolescent Risk and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Noelle R.; Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Cleland, Charles M.; Vekaria, Pooja C.; Ferns, Bill

    2008-01-01

    We examined the risk and protective factors and mental health problems of 105 low SES, urban adolescents whose mothers were coping with alcohol abuse and other drug problems. Approximately half of the mothers were also HIV-infected. As hypothesized, there were few differences between adolescents of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers in…

  17. Effect of maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk in the offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intrauterine and early life exposure to folic acid has significantly increased in North America owing to folic acid fortification, widespread supplemental use and periconceptional folic acid supplementation. The effect of maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk ...

  18. BIRTH DEFECTS RISK ASSOCIATED WITH MATERNAL SPORT FISH CONSUMPTION: POTENTIAL EFFECT MODIFICATION BY SEX OF OFFSPRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminated sport fish consumption may result in exposure to various reproductive and developmental toxicants, including pesticides and other suspected endocrine disruptors. We investigated the relation between maternal sport fish meals and risk of major birth defects among infa...

  19. Maternal and foetal outcome of 206 high risk pregnancy cases in border guard hospital, dhaka.

    PubMed

    Shapla, N R; Islam, M A; Shahida, S M; Parveen, Z; Lipe, Y S

    2015-04-01

    This observational study was carried out to identify the various types of high risk pregnancy and to determine the maternal and foetal outcome. The study was carried out on 206 pregnant high risk women in the Gynecology and Obstetrics department of Border Guard Hospital, Dhaka from January 2012 to December 2012. During mentioned period among 598 pregnant women 206 high risk pregnancy cases were randomly selected. Pregnant women (gestational age from 34 weeks upto 40 weeks) having medical condition and pregnancy related high risk factors were included and uncomplicated pregnancy, pregnancy before 37 weeks, post dated pregnancy were excluded from this study. Data was collected from semi structured history sheet and data analysis done by percentage. High risk pregnant women were grouped into three. Group A and Group B includes pregnant women having medical condition before and during pregnancy respectively. Group C consists of pregnant women had pregnancy related high risk issues. Among 206 high risk pregnancy cases majority 47.57% women had medical condition during pregnancy, 31.55% patient had medical condition before pregnancy. Among them majority 30.58% of the patient suffered from pregnancy induced hypertension, 15.04% patients suffered from gestational Diabetes Mellitus and premature rupture of membranes were 12.13%. In this study majority 43.68% of high risk pregnant patients were in age group of 30-35 years, 19.90% pregnant women were in age group of >35 years and 19.40% were in age group of upto 20 years. Among study groups maximum 65.04% of the patients were multiparous. Among 206 study population 60.19% high risk pregnant women were at term at the time of delivery and 39.8% women delivered their babies preterm. Caesarean section was done in 69.41% of high risk pregnant women. After delivery majority 77.66% women had no complication, only 10.19%, 8.25%, 2.91% and 0.97% high risk pregnant women suffered from fever, UTI, abdominal wound infection and post partum hemorrhage respectively. In this study, among 206 pregnancy cases 91.31% of the neonates had Apgar score >7 and 8.61% neonates had Apgar score <7%, 33.49% neonates had low birth weight and premature 39.80%. During the study period no maternal and neonatal death were observed. PMID:26007267

  20. Risk factors for equine laminitis 

    E-print Network

    Polzer, John Patrick

    1995-01-01

    logistic regression to assess age, breed, sex, and seasonality as risk factors for equine laminitis. There were 70 acute cases, 183 chronic cases, and 779 controls. No statistical association was found between age, breed, sex, or seasonality...

  1. Success factors for reducing maternal and child mortality

    PubMed Central

    Schweitzer, Julian; Bishai, David; Chowdhury, Sadia; Caramani, Daniele; Frost, Laura; Cortez, Rafael; Daelmans, Bernadette; de Francisco, Andres; Adam, Taghreed; Cohen, Robert; Alfonso, Y Natalia; Franz-Vasdeki, Jennifer; Saadat, Seemeen; Pratt, Beth Anne; Eugster, Beatrice; Bandali, Sarah; Venkatachalam, Pritha; Hinton, Rachael; Murray, John; Arscott-Mills, Sharon; Axelson, Henrik; Maliqi, Blerta; Sarker, Intissar; Lakshminarayanan, Rama; Jacobs, Troy; Jacks, Susan; Mason, Elizabeth; Ghaffar, Abdul; Mays, Nicholas; Presern, Carole; Bustreo, Flavia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Reducing maternal and child mortality is a priority in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and will likely remain so after 2015. Evidence exists on the investments, interventions and enabling policies required. Less is understood about why some countries achieve faster progress than other comparable countries. The Success Factors for Women’s and Children’s Health studies sought to address this knowledge gap using statistical and econometric analyses of data from 144 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) over 20 years; Boolean, qualitative comparative analysis; a literature review; and country-specific reviews in 10 fast-track countries for MDGs 4 and 5a. There is no standard formula – fast-track countries deploy tailored strategies and adapt quickly to change. However, fast-track countries share some effective approaches in addressing three main areas to reduce maternal and child mortality. First, these countries engage multiple sectors to address crucial health determinants. Around half the reduction in child mortality in LMICs since 1990 is the result of health sector investments, the other half is attributed to investments made in sectors outside health. Second, these countries use strategies to mobilize partners across society, using timely, robust evidence for decision-making and accountability and a triple planning approach to consider immediate needs, long-term vision and adaptation to change. Third, the countries establish guiding principles that orient progress, align stakeholder action and achieve results over time. This evidence synthesis contributes to global learning on accelerating improvements in women’s and children’s health towards 2015 and beyond. PMID:25110379

  2. Screening and Risk Factors Table

    Cancer.gov

    Shows data at the state level related to a number of screening and risk factors associated with cancer in terms of percent and the sample survey size. The data for this table is from the Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System Summary Prevalence Report and is compared to the Healthy People 2020 target values. You can sort the data on the table by State name and percent value.

  3. Cardiac risk factors: environmental, sociodemographic, and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Anthony, David; George, Paul; Eaton, Charles B

    2014-06-01

    Several environmental exposures are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Exposure to secondhand smoke may increase the risk by as much as 25% to 30%. Exposure to third hand smoke, residual components of tobacco smoke that remain in the environment after a cigarette is extinguished, also appears to increase risk. These residual components can remain in rooms and automobiles for up to 30 years and enter the body through the skin or via inhalation or ingestion. Exposure to particulate matter air pollution from automobile emissions, power plants, and other sources is yet another environmental risk factor for CHD, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths annually in the United States. Exposure to other environmental toxins, particularly bisphenol A and phthalates, also has been linked to CHD. There are sociodemographic risks for CHD, with numerous studies showing that lower socioeconomic status is associated with higher risk. Behavioral risk factors include poor diet, such as frequent consumption of fast food and processed meals; sleep disturbance; and psychological stress, particularly related to marital or work issues. Finally, although high alcohol consumption is associated with increased CHD risk, moderate alcohol consumption (ie, less than 1 to 2 drinks/day), particularly of wine and possibly beer, appears to reduce the risk. PMID:24936715

  4. Risk factors for early infant mortality in Sarlahi district, Nepal.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Joanne; West, Keith P.; Khatry, Subarna K.; Christian, Parul; LeClerq, Steven C.; Pradhan, Elizabeth Kimbrough; Shrestha, Sharada Ram

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Early infant mortality has not declined as rapidly as child mortality in many countries. Identification of risk factors for early infant mortality may help inform the design of intervention strategies. METHODS: Over the period 1994-97, 15,469 live-born, singleton infants in rural Nepal were followed to 24 weeks of age to identify risk factors for mortality within 0-7 days, 8-28 days, and 4-24 weeks after the birth. FINDINGS: In multivariate models, maternal and paternal education reduced mortality between 4 and 24 weeks only: odds ratios (OR) 0.28 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.12-0.66) and 0.63 (95% CI = 0.44-0.88), respectively. Miscarriage in the previous pregnancy predicted mortality in the first week of life (OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.37-2.87), whereas prior child deaths increased the risk of post-neonatal death (OR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.24-2.75). A larger maternal mid-upper arm circumference reduced the risk of infant death during the first week of life (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.81-0.95). Infants of women who did not receive any tetanus vaccinations during pregnancy or who had severe illness during the third trimester were more likely to die in the neonatal period. Maternal mortality was strongly associated with infant mortality (OR = 6.43, 95% CI = 2.35-17.56 at 0-7 days; OR = 11.73, 95% CI = 3.82-36.00 at 8-28 days; and OR = 51.68, 95% CI = 20.26-131.80 at 4-24 weeks). CONCLUSION: Risk factors for early infant mortality varied with the age of the infant. Factors amenable to intervention included efforts aimed at maternal morbidity and mortality and increased arm circumference during pregnancy. PMID:14758431

  5. Parent Involvement in School: Conceptualizing Multiple Dimensions and Their Relations with Family and Demographic Risk Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohl, Gwynne O.; Lengua, Liliana J.; McMahon, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the association between parental involvement (PI) and children's positive academic performance and social competence. Study examines the relations between a set of family and demographic risk factors and PI. Results reveal different patterns of relations between the risk factors studied-parental education, maternal depression, and…

  6. [Risk factors of thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Nováková, Dana; K?enek, Martin; Vošmiková, Kv?tuše; Vl?ek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is one of the worlds fastest growing tumor incidences. The number of new cases has particularly increased in differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma. In the Czech Republic it is documented that the incidence of thyroid cancer continues to grow, since 1980 has increased four times. The Czech Republic has a higher incidence than most other European countries and at the same time is a country with average and declining mortality from this disease. This review summarizes the known risk factors that may contribute to the formation and rise of thyroid carcinomas.Key words: differentiated thyroid carcinoma - incidence - low risk carcinoma - microcarcinoma - risk factors. PMID:26375692

  7. Psychosocial factors in maternal phenylketonuria: prevention of unplanned pregnancies.

    PubMed Central

    Waisbren, S E; Shiloh, S; St James, P; Levy, H L

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Women with phenylketonuria (PKU) not treated prior to conception can have a pregnancy that results in serious fetal damage. In this report, factors associated with preventing unplanned (and hence late treated) pregnancies are described. METHODS. Subjects included 60 phenylketonuric women and two comparison groups composed of female acquaintances and diabetic women. All were interviewed and administered tests of intelligence, general well-being, knowledge, and personality. RESULTS. Thirty-five percent of the sexually active women with PKU used contraception only sporadically. The variables that best predicted reported frequency of birth control use were the extent to which women felt social support to use contraception (r = .64) along with positive attitudes about birth control (r = .66) and knowledge of family planning (r = .43). For the comparison groups, a different pattern of variables predicted contraceptive use, with locus of control figuring most prominently for the diabetics (r = .39) and social support for birth control being most important for the acquaintances (r = .46). CONCLUSIONS. As more girls with PKU enter childbearing ages, there will be an increased need for specific programs that address psychosocial factors in maternal PKU. PMID:1994738

  8. Factors associated with weapon use in maternal filicide.

    PubMed

    Lewis, C F; Baranoski, M V; Buchanan, J A; Benedek, E P

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with weapon use in a group of filicidal women. Clinical data were gathered from the charts of sixty filicidal women evaluated at Michigan's Center for Forensic Psychiatry or through Connecticut's Psychiatric Security Review Board from 1970 to 1996. Factors associated with weapon use were determined using chi squares, ANCOVAS, and a logistic regression. Results were compared to national statistics for child homicide from the Department of Justice Uniform Crime Reports (UCR). Weapon was defined as knife or gun for the study. Weapons were used by one of four women in our study. Guns were used by 13% of filicidal women and knives by 12%. Odds ratio showed that psychotic women were eleven times more likely to kill their child with a weapon than their non-psychotic counterparts (11.2; p = .008). Psychosis was present in every mother who killed her child with a knife and in seven of eight women who killed their children with a gun. Younger children were less likely to be killed with weapons (ANCOVA; F = 8.28; p = .006). This finding was independent of presence or absence of maternal psychosis. These results show that psychotic women are more likely than non-psychotic women to kill their children with weapons. They also show that mothers are more likely to use weapons to kill older children than younger children. PMID:9608698

  9. Risk factors for celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Sarno, Marco; Discepolo, Valentina; Troncone, Riccardo; Auricchio, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Celiac Disease (CD) is an immune-mediated systemic disorder elicited by gluten and related prolamines in genetically susceptible individuals and it is the result of the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Among genetic risk factors, the strongest association is with the HLA class II DQ region; nevertheless at least 39 non-HLA loci are associated with CD. Gluten is the main environmental trigger of the disease. In addition, infant feeding and weaning practices as well as timing of gluten introduction in the diet have been suggested to contribute to CD risk. Furthermore a role for infectious agents and microbiota composition in disease development has also been proposed.Aim of this short review is to discuss the current knowledge on both genetic and environmental risk factors for the development of CD; moreover we will provide a brief overview of the possible strategies that could be envisaged to prevent this condition, at least in the population at-risk. PMID:26268374

  10. MUTATIONAL RISKS IN FEMALES: GENOMIC IMPRINTING AND MATERNAL MOLECULES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genetic mechanisms for selective mutagenesis in female mammals might include alterations of genomic imprinting, maternally derived molecules, mitochondrial DNA or sex chromosome loci. one of these mechanisms provides an obvious explanation for the higher mutational rates observed...

  11. Perinatal risk factors for acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Crump, Casey; Sundquist, Jan; Sieh, Weiva; Winkleby, Marilyn A; Sundquist, Kristina

    2015-12-01

    Infectious etiologies have been hypothesized for acute leukemias because of their high incidence in early childhood, but have seldom been examined for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We conducted the first large cohort study to examine perinatal factors including season of birth, a proxy for perinatal infectious exposures, and risk of AML in childhood through young adulthood. A national cohort of 3,569,333 persons without Down syndrome who were born in Sweden in 1973-2008 were followed up for AML incidence through 2010 (maximum age 38 years). There were 315 AML cases in 69.7 million person-years of follow-up. We found a sinusoidal pattern in AML risk by season of birth (P < 0.001), with peak risk among persons born in winter. Relative to persons born in summer (June-August), incidence rate ratios for AML were 1.72 (95 % CI 1.25-2.38; P = 0.001) for winter (December-February), 1.37 (95 % CI 0.99-1.90; P = 0.06) for spring (March-May), and 1.27 (95 % CI 0.90-1.80; P = 0.17) for fall (September-November). Other risk factors for AML included high fetal growth, high gestational age at birth, and low maternal education level. These findings did not vary by sex or age at diagnosis. Sex, birth order, parental age, and parental country of birth were not associated with AML. In this large cohort study, birth in winter was associated with increased risk of AML in childhood through young adulthood, possibly related to immunologic effects of early infectious exposures compared with summer birth. These findings warrant further investigation of the role of seasonally varying perinatal exposures in the etiology of AML. PMID:26113060

  12. Factors Associated with Young Children's Opportunities for Maintaining Family Relationships during Maternal Incarceration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poehlmann, Julie; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Maes, Elizabeth; Hanneman, Ashley

    2008-01-01

    Children affected by maternal incarceration experience challenges maintaining continuous family relationships because of changes in caregivers, separation from siblings, and limited contact with mothers. In this mixed-method study, we investigated maternal and contextual factors associated with continuity in family relationships of children living…

  13. Identifying factors associated with maternal deaths in Jharkhand, India: a verbal autopsy study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nizamuddin; Pradhan, Manas Ranjan

    2013-06-01

    Maternal mortality has been identified as a priority issue in health policy and research in India. The country, with an annual decrease of maternal mortality rate by 4.9% since 1990, now records 63,000 maternal deaths a year. India tops the list of countries with high maternal mortality. Based on a verbal autopsy study of 403 maternal deaths, conducted in 2008, this paper explores the missed opportunities to save maternal lives, besides probing into the socioeconomic factors contributing to maternal deaths in Jharkhand, India. This cross-sectional study was carried out in two phases, and a multistage sampling design was used in selecting deaths for verbal autopsy. Informed consent was taken into consideration before verbal autopsy. The analytical approach includes bivariate analysis using SPSS 15, besides triangulation of qualitative and quantitative findings. Most of the deceased were poor (89%), non-literates (85%), and housewives (74%). Again, 80% died in the community/at home, 28% died during pregnancy while another 26% died during delivery. Any antenatal care was received by merely 28% women, and only 20% of the deliveries were conducted by skilled birth attendants (doctors and midwives). Delays in decision-making, travel, and treatment compounded by ignorance of obstetric complications, inadequate use of maternal healthcare services, poor healthcare infrastructure, and harmful rituals are the major contributing factors of maternal deaths in India. PMID:23930345

  14. Risk factors for asthma: is prevention possible?

    PubMed

    Beasley, Richard; Semprini, Alex; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2015-09-12

    Asthma is one of the most common diseases in the world, resulting in a substantial burden of disease. Although rates of deaths due to asthma worldwide have reduced greatly over the past 25 years, no available therapeutic regimens can cure asthma, and the burden of asthma will continue to be driven by increasing prevalence. The reasons for the increase in asthma prevalence have not been defined, which limits the opportunities to develop targeted primary prevention measures. Although associations are reported between a wide range of risk factors and childhood asthma, substantiation of causality is inherently difficult from observational studies, and few risk factors have been assessed in primary prevention studies. Furthermore, none of the primary prevention intervention strategies that have undergone scrutiny in randomised controlled trials has provided sufficient evidence to lead to widespread implementation in clinical practice. A better understanding of the factors that cause asthma is urgently needed, and this knowledge could be used to develop public health and pharmacological primary prevention measures that are effective in reducing the prevalence of asthma worldwide. To achieve this it will be necessary to think outside the box, not only in terms of risk factors for the causation of asthma, but also the types of novel primary prevention strategies that are developed, and the research methods used to provide the evidence base for their implementation. In the interim, public health efforts should remain focused on measures with the potential to improve lung and general health, such as: reducing tobacco smoking and environmental tobacco smoke exposure; reducing indoor and outdoor air pollution and occupational exposures; reducing childhood obesity and encouraging a diet high in vegetables and fruit; improving feto-maternal health; encouraging breastfeeding; promoting childhood vaccinations; and reducing social inequalities. PMID:26382999

  15. [Risk factors of necrotizing enterocolitis].

    PubMed

    Tapia-Rombo, C A; Velasco-Lavín, M R; Nieto-Caldelas, A

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the present study is to compare risk factors of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) between two group: group A, newborns with the disease and group B, newborns with other diseases different from NEC, in order to know if these risk factors are more frequent or not in the first group. We assessed the clinical records of all the patients hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and Neonatology Service of the La Raza General Hospital between 1987 and 1991 with the diagnosis of NEC. They were compared with 65 clinical records chosen at random of patients hospitalized in the same Unit with other diagnosis at the same time, and who were discharged by improvement or deceased. In all of them were look for known risk factors for NEC generally accepted such as: prematurity, neonatal asphyxia, poliglobulia, cyanotic congenital heart disease, patent ductus arteriosus, respiratory distress syndrome, catheterization of umbilical vessels, early feeding of elevated formula increases, exchange exchange transfusion, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, infection, etc. Just 25 records of the possible 50 with the diagnosis of NEC full filled inclusion criteria. There were no statistically significant difference in weight, sex, mortality and known risk factors of NEC between both groups. Were concluded that NEC is a disease of unknown etiology that should be studied more thoroughly. The known risk factors must be avoided because the patient susceptibility probably play an important role. PMID:8373546

  16. Occupational risk factors for Wilms' tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Bunin, G.; Kramer, S.; Nass, C.; Meadows, A.

    1986-09-01

    A matched case-control study of Wilms' tumor investigated parental occupational risk factors. Cases diagnosed in 1970-1983 were identified through a population-based tumor registry and hospital registries in the Greater Philadelphia area. Controls were selected by random digit dialing and were matched to cases on race, birth date (+/- 3 years), and the area code and exchange of the case's telephone number at diagnosis. Parents of 100 matched pairs were interviewed by telephone. Parents of patients and controls were generally similar in demographic characteristics, except that mothers differed in religion. Published schemes were used to group jobs into clusters of similar exposures and to determine exposures from industry and job title. Analyses were done for preconception, pregnancy, and postnatal time periods. More case than control fathers had jobs in a cluster that includes machinists and welders (odds ratios (ORs) = 4.0-5.7, p less than or equal to 0.04). Paternal exposures to lead, silver, tin, and iron (some exposures of this cluster) were associated with Wilms' tumor in some analyses, with moderate odds ratios (ORs = 1.5-3.4). In general, the highest odds ratios were found for the preconception period among the genetic (prezygotic) cases. No maternal job clusters or exposures gave significantly elevated odds ratios. These results support a previous finding that lead is a risk factor, but not radiation, hydrocarbon, or boron exposures.

  17. Environmental risk factors for osteoporosis

    SciTech Connect

    Goyer, R.A.; Korach, K.S. ); Epstein, S. ); Bhattacharyya, M. ); Pounds, J. )

    1994-04-01

    Environmental risk factors for osteoporosis were reviewed at a conference held at the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences 8-9 November 1993. The conference was co-sponsored by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disease and the NIH Office of Research in Women's Health. The objective of the conference was to review what is known about risk factors for osteoporosis and to identify gaps in the present state of knowledge that might be addressed by future research. The conference was divided into two broad themes. The first session focused on current knowledge regarding etiology, risk factors, and approaches to clinical and laboratory diagnosis. This was followed by three sessions in which various environmental pollutants were discussed. Topics selected for review included environmental agents that interfere with bone and calcium metabolism, such as the toxic metals lead, cadmium, aluminum, and fluoride, natural and antiestrogens, calcium, and vitamin D.

  18. Prenatal maternal immune disruption and sex-dependent risk for psychoses

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, J. M; Cherkerzian, S.; Seidman, L. J.; Donatelli, J.-A. L.; Remington, A. G.; Tsuang, M. T.; Hornig, M.; Buka, S. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggest that abnormalities in maternal immune activity during pregnancy alter the offspring’s brain development and are associated with increased risk for schizophrenia (SCZ) dependent on sex. Method Using a nested case–control design and prospectively collected prenatal maternal sera from which interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-8, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and IL-10 were assayed, we investigated sex-dependent associations between these cytokines and 88 psychotic cases [SCZ=44; affective psychoses (AP)=44] and 100 healthy controls from a pregnancy cohort followed for >40 years. Analyses included sex-stratified non-parametric tests adjusted for multiple comparisons to screen cytokines associated with SCZ risk, followed by deviant subgroup analyses using generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. Results There were higher prenatal IL-6 levels among male SCZ than male controls, and lower TNF-? levels among female SCZ than female controls. The results were supported by deviant subgroup analyses with significantly more SCZ males with high IL-6 levels (>highest quartile) compared with controls [odd ratio (OR)75=3.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13–9.82], and greater prevalence of low TNF-? levels (risk for psychoses depending on psychosis subtype and offspring sex. PMID:25065485

  19. Maternal Risk of Breeding Failure Remained Low throughout the Demographic Transitions in Fertility and

    E-print Network

    Lummaa, Virpi

    Maternal Risk of Breeding Failure Remained Low throughout the Demographic Transitions in Fertility declines in fertility and postponement of first reproduction during the recent human demographic risk of breeding failure (no offspring raised to adulthood) underlay shifts in both fertility and first

  20. Maternal body mass index during early pregnancy, gestational weight gain, and risk of autism spectrum disorders: Results from a Swedish total population and discordant sibling study

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Renee M; Lee, Brian K; Magnusson, Cecilia; Rai, Dheeraj; Frisell, Thomas; Karlsson, Håkan; Idring, Selma; Dalman, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prenatal environmental factors such as maternal adiposity may influence the risk of offspring autism spectrum disorders (ASD), though current evidence is inconsistent. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship of parental BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG) with risk of offspring ASD in a population-based cohort study using family-based study designs. Methods: The cohort was based in Stockholm County, Sweden, including 333?057 individuals born 1984–2007, of whom 6420 were diagnosed with an ASD. We evaluated maternal body mass index (BMI) at first antenatal visit, GWG and paternal BMI at the time of conscription into the Swedish military as exposures using general estimating equation (GEE) models with logit link. Results: At the population level, maternal overweight/obesity was associated with increased risk of offspring ASD [odds ratio (OR)25???BMI?maternal BMI and ASD risk was not apparent. GWG had a U-shaped association with offspring ASD at the population level (ORinsufficient 1.22, 1.07–1.40; ORexcessive 1.23, 1.08–1.40). Matched sibling analyses were suggestive of elevated risk with excessive GWG (ORinsufficient 1.12, 0.68–1.84; ORexcessive 1.48, 0.93–2.38). Conclusions: Whereas population-level results suggested that maternal BMI was associated with ASD, sibling analyses and paternal BMI analyses indicate that maternal BMI may also be a proxy marker for other familial risk factors. Evidence is stronger for a direct link between GWG and ASD risk. PMID:26045508

  1. About Alzheimer's Disease: Risk Factors and Prevention

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR About Alzheimer's Disease: Risk Factors and Prevention We can’t control some risk ... help with Alzheimer's as well. NIA Information on Risk Factors and Prevention Participating in Activities You Enjoy—More ...

  2. Capacity Factor Risk At Nuclear Power Plants

    E-print Network

    Du, Yangbo

    We develop a model of the dynamic structure of capacity factor risk. It incorporates the risk that the capacity factor may vary widely from year-to-year, and also the risk that the reactor may be permanently shutdown prior ...

  3. Effects of maternal nutrition, resource use and multi-predator risk on neonatal white-tailed deer survival.

    PubMed

    Duquette, Jared F; Belant, Jerrold L; Svoboda, Nathan J; Beyer, Dean E; Lederle, Patrick E

    2014-01-01

    Growth of ungulate populations is typically most sensitive to survival of neonates, which in turn is influenced by maternal nutritional condition and trade-offs in resource selection and avoidance of predators. We assessed whether resource use, multi-predator risk, maternal nutritional effects, hiding cover, or interactions among these variables best explained variation in daily survival of free-ranging neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during their post-partum period (14 May-31 Aug) in Michigan, USA. We used Cox proportional hazards mixed-effects models to assess survival related to covariates of resource use, composite predation risk of 4 mammalian predators, fawn body mass at birth, winter weather, and vegetation growth phenology. Predation, particularly from coyotes (Canis latrans), was the leading cause of mortality; however, an additive model of non-ideal resource use and maternal nutritional effects explained 71% of the variation in survival. This relationship suggested that dams selected areas where fawns had poor resources, while greater predation in these areas led to additive mortalities beyond those related to resource use alone. Also, maternal nutritional effects suggested that severe winters resulted in dams producing smaller fawns, which decreased their likelihood of survival. Fawn resource use appeared to reflect dam avoidance of lowland forests with poor forage and greater use by wolves (C. lupus), their primary predator. While this strategy led to greater fawn mortality, particularly by coyotes, it likely promoted the life-long reproductive success of dams because many reached late-age (>10 years old) and could have produced multiple generations of fawns. Studies often link resource selection and survival of ungulates, but our results suggested that multiple factors can mediate that relationship, including multi-predator risk. We emphasize the importance of identifying interactions among biological and environmental factors when assessing survival of ungulates. PMID:24968318

  4. Effects of Maternal Nutrition, Resource Use and Multi-Predator Risk on Neonatal White-Tailed Deer Survival

    PubMed Central

    Duquette, Jared F.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Svoboda, Nathan J.; Beyer, Dean E.; Lederle, Patrick E.

    2014-01-01

    Growth of ungulate populations is typically most sensitive to survival of neonates, which in turn is influenced by maternal nutritional condition and trade-offs in resource selection and avoidance of predators. We assessed whether resource use, multi-predator risk, maternal nutritional effects, hiding cover, or interactions among these variables best explained variation in daily survival of free-ranging neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during their post-partum period (14 May–31 Aug) in Michigan, USA. We used Cox proportional hazards mixed-effects models to assess survival related to covariates of resource use, composite predation risk of 4 mammalian predators, fawn body mass at birth, winter weather, and vegetation growth phenology. Predation, particularly from coyotes (Canis latrans), was the leading cause of mortality; however, an additive model of non-ideal resource use and maternal nutritional effects explained 71% of the variation in survival. This relationship suggested that dams selected areas where fawns had poor resources, while greater predation in these areas led to additive mortalities beyond those related to resource use alone. Also, maternal nutritional effects suggested that severe winters resulted in dams producing smaller fawns, which decreased their likelihood of survival. Fawn resource use appeared to reflect dam avoidance of lowland forests with poor forage and greater use by wolves (C. lupus), their primary predator. While this strategy led to greater fawn mortality, particularly by coyotes, it likely promoted the life-long reproductive success of dams because many reached late-age (>10 years old) and could have produced multiple generations of fawns. Studies often link resource selection and survival of ungulates, but our results suggested that multiple factors can mediate that relationship, including multi-predator risk. We emphasize the importance of identifying interactions among biological and environmental factors when assessing survival of ungulates. PMID:24968318

  5. Maternal Consumption of Non-Staple Food in the First Trimester and Risk of Neural Tube Defects in Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Zhi-Ping; Gao, Li-Jie; Yang, Hui; Zhao, Zhong-Tang

    2015-01-01

    To study the associations between maternal consumption of non-staple food in the first trimester and risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring. Data collected from a hospital-based case-control study conducted between 2006 and 2008 in Shandong/Shanxi provinces including 459 mothers with NTDs-affected births and 459 mothers without NTDs-affected births. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between maternal consumption of non-staple food in the first trimester and risk of NTDs in offspring. The effects were evaluated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) with SAS9.1.3.software. Maternal consumption of milk, fresh fruits and nuts in the first trimester were protective factors for total NTDs. Compared with consumption frequency of ?1 meal/week, the ORs for milk consumption frequency of 1–2, 3–6, ?7 meals/week were 0.50 (95% CI: 0.28–0.88), 0.56 (0.32–0.99), and 0.59 (0.38–0.90), respectively; the ORs for fresh fruits consumption frequency of 1–2, 3–6, ?7 meals/week were 0.29 (95% CI: 0.12–0.72), 0.22 (0.09–0.53), and 0.32 (0.14–0.71), respectively; the ORs for nuts consumption frequency of 1–2, 3–6, ?7 meals/week were 0.60 (95% CI: 0.38–0.94), 0.49 (0.31–0.79), and 0.63 (0.36–1.08), respectively. Different effects of above factors on NTDs were found for subtypes of anencephaly and spina bifida. Maternal non-staple food consumption of milk, fresh fruits and nuts in the first trimester was associated with reducing NTDs risk in offspring. PMID:25919306

  6. [Screening for the risk of allergy and prevention in French maternity units: A survey].

    PubMed

    Chouraqui, J-P; Simeoni, U; Tohier, C; Nguyen, F; Kempf, C; Beck, L; Lachambre, E

    2015-09-01

    Allergy has been on the rise for half a century and concerns nearly 30% of children; it has now become a real public health problem. The guidelines on prevention of allergy set up by the French Society of Paediatrics (SFP) and the European Society of Paediatric Allergology and Clinical Immunology (ESPACI) are based on screening children at risk through a systematic search of the family history and recommend, for children at risk, exclusive breastfeeding whenever possible or otherwise utilization of hypoallergenic infant formula, which has demonstrated efficacy. The AllerNaiss practice survey assessed the modes of screening and prevention of allergy in French maternity units in 2012. The SFP guidelines are known by 82% of the maternity units that took part in the survey, and the ESPACI guidelines by 55% of them. A screening strategy is in place in 59% of the participating maternity wards, based on local consensus for 36% of them, 13% of the units having a written screening procedure. Screening is based on the search for a history of allergy in first-degree relatives (99%) during pregnancy (51%), in the delivery room (50%), and after delivery (89%). A mode of prevention of the risk of allergy exists in 62% of the maternity units, most often in writing (49%). A hypoallergenic infant formula is prescribed for non-breastfed children in 90% of the units. The survey shows that there is a real need for formalization of allergy risk screening and prevention of allergy in newborns in French maternity units. PMID:26251054

  7. Association of Mothers’ Perception of Neighborhood Quality and Maternal Resilience with Risk of Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Namrata; Chao, Shin Margaret; Higgins, Chandra; Patel, Suvas; Crespi, Catherine M.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the associations of mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience with risk of preterm birth and whether maternal resilience moderated the effect of neighborhood quality perception. We analyzed data from 10,758 women with singleton births who participated in 2010–2012 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby surveys. Multilevel logistic regression models assessed the effects of mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience on preterm birth (yes/no), controlling for potential confounders and economic hardship index, a city-level measure of neighborhood quality. Interaction terms were assessed for moderation. Mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience were each uniquely associated with preterm birth, independent of potential confounders (p-values < 0.05). The risk of preterm birth among mothers who perceived their neighborhood as of poor quality was about 30% greater compared to mothers who perceived their neighborhood as of good quality; the risk was 12% greater among mothers with low resilience compared to those with high resilience. Effects of neighborhood quality were not modified by maternal resilience. The findings suggest that mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and resilience are associated with the risk of preterm birth. Further research should explore whether initiatives aimed at improving neighborhood quality and women’s self-esteem may improve birth outcomes. PMID:26274966

  8. Increased Risk of Asthma in Children with ADHD: Role of Prematurity and Maternal Stress during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Grizenko, Natalie; Osmanlliu, Esli; Fortier, Marie-Ève; Joober, Ridha

    2015-01-01

    Objective: ADHD and asthma are prevalent conditions in childhood, with complex pathophysiology involving genetic-environmental interplay. The study objective is to examine the prevalence of asthma in our ADHD population and explore factors that may increase the risk of developing asthma in children with ADHD. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the presence of maternal stress during pregnancy and history of asthma in 201 children diagnosed with ADHD. Results: Chi-square analysis indicated significant higher presence of asthma in our ADHD sample compared to Quebec children, ?2(1, N = 201) = 15.37, P<0.001. Only prematurity and stress during pregnancy significantly predicted asthma in a logistic regression model, ?2(2)=23.70, P<0.001, with odds ratios of 10.6 (95% CI: 2.8–39.5) and 3.2 (95% CI: 1.4–7.3), respectively. Conclusion: Children with ADHD have a higher prevalence of asthma than the general Quebec pediatric population. Children with ADHD born prematurely and/or those whose mothers experienced stress during pregnancy have a significantly increased risk of developing asthma. The study highlights the importance of potentially offering social and psychological support to mothers who experienced stress during pregnancy and/or are at risk of delivering prematurely. PMID:26379722

  9. The genetics of folate metabolism and maternal risk of birth of a child with Down syndrome and associated congenital heart defects

    PubMed Central

    Coppedè, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Almost 15 years ago it was hypothesized that polymorphisms of genes encoding enzymes involved in folate metabolism could lead to aberrant methylation of peri-centromeric regions of chromosome 21, favoring its abnormal segregation during maternal meiosis. Subsequently, more than 50 small case-control studies investigated whether or not maternal polymorphisms of folate pathway genes could be risk factors for the birth of a child with Down syndrome (DS), yielding conflicting and inconclusive results. However, recent meta-analyses of those studies suggest that at least three of those polymorphisms, namely MTHFR 677C>T, MTRR 66A>G, and RFC1 80G>A, are likely to act as maternal risk factors for the birth of a child with trisomy 21, revealing also complex gene-nutrient interactions. A large-cohort study also revealed that lack of maternal folic acid supplementation at peri-conception resulted in increased risk for a DS birth due to errors occurred at maternal meiosis II in the aging oocyte, and it was shown that the methylation status of chromosome 21 peri-centromeric regions could favor recombination errors during meiosis leading to its malsegregation. In this regard, two recent case-control studies revealed association of maternal polymorphisms or haplotypes of the DNMT3B gene, coding for an enzyme required for the regulation of DNA methylation at centromeric and peri-centromeric regions of human chromosomes, with risk of having a birth with DS. Furthermore, congenital heart defects (CHD) are found in almost a half of DS births, and increasing evidence points to a possible contribution of lack of folic acid supplementation at peri-conception, maternal polymorphisms of folate pathway genes, and resulting epigenetic modifications of several genes, at the basis of their occurrence. This review summarizes available case-control studies and literature meta-analyses in order to provide a critical and up to date overview of what we currently know in this field. PMID:26161087

  10. The genetics of folate metabolism and maternal risk of birth of a child with Down syndrome and associated congenital heart defects.

    PubMed

    Coppedè, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Almost 15 years ago it was hypothesized that polymorphisms of genes encoding enzymes involved in folate metabolism could lead to aberrant methylation of peri-centromeric regions of chromosome 21, favoring its abnormal segregation during maternal meiosis. Subsequently, more than 50 small case-control studies investigated whether or not maternal polymorphisms of folate pathway genes could be risk factors for the birth of a child with Down syndrome (DS), yielding conflicting and inconclusive results. However, recent meta-analyses of those studies suggest that at least three of those polymorphisms, namely MTHFR 677C>T, MTRR 66A>G, and RFC1 80G>A, are likely to act as maternal risk factors for the birth of a child with trisomy 21, revealing also complex gene-nutrient interactions. A large-cohort study also revealed that lack of maternal folic acid supplementation at peri-conception resulted in increased risk for a DS birth due to errors occurred at maternal meiosis II in the aging oocyte, and it was shown that the methylation status of chromosome 21 peri-centromeric regions could favor recombination errors during meiosis leading to its malsegregation. In this regard, two recent case-control studies revealed association of maternal polymorphisms or haplotypes of the DNMT3B gene, coding for an enzyme required for the regulation of DNA methylation at centromeric and peri-centromeric regions of human chromosomes, with risk of having a birth with DS. Furthermore, congenital heart defects (CHD) are found in almost a half of DS births, and increasing evidence points to a possible contribution of lack of folic acid supplementation at peri-conception, maternal polymorphisms of folate pathway genes, and resulting epigenetic modifications of several genes, at the basis of their occurrence. This review summarizes available case-control studies and literature meta-analyses in order to provide a critical and up to date overview of what we currently know in this field. PMID:26161087

  11. Low maternal serum vitamin D during pregnancy and the risk for postpartum depression symptoms.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Monique; Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Newnham, John P; Gorman, Shelley; Jacoby, Peter; Holt, Barbara J; Serralha, Michael; Tearne, Jessica E; Holt, Pat G; Hart, Prue H; Kusel, Merci M H

    2014-06-01

    Pregnancy is a time of vulnerability for vitamin D insufficiency, and there is an emerging literature associating low levels of 25(OH)-vitamin D with depressive symptoms. However, the link between 25(OH)-vitamin D status in pregnancy and altered risk of postnatal depressive symptoms has not been examined. We hypothesise that low levels of 25(OH)-vitamin D in maternal serum during pregnancy will be associated with a higher incidence of postpartum depressive symptoms. We prospectively collected sera at 18 weeks gestation from 796 pregnant women in Perth (1989-1992) who were enrolled in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study and measured levels of 25(OH)-vitamin D. Women reported postnatal depressive symptoms at 3 days post-delivery. Women in the lowest quartile for 25(OH)-vitamin D status were more likely to report a higher level of postnatal depression symptoms than women who were in the highest quartile for vitamin D, even after accounting for a range of confounding variables including season of birth, body mass index and sociodemographic factors. Low vitamin D during pregnancy is a risk factor for the development of postpartum depression symptoms. PMID:24663685

  12. A test of maternal programming of offspring stress response to predation risk in threespine sticklebacks

    PubMed Central

    Mommer, Brett C.; Bell, Alison M.

    2014-01-01

    Non-genetic maternal effects are widespread across taxa and challenge our traditional understanding of inheritance. Maternal experience with predators, for example, can have lifelong consequences for offspring traits, including fitness. Previous work in threespine sticklebacks showed that females exposed to simulated predation risk produced eggs with higher cortisol content and offspring with altered anti-predator behavior. However, it is unknown whether this maternal effect is mediated via the offspring glucocorticoid stress response and if it is retained over the entire lifetime of offspring. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that maternal exposure to simulated predation risk has long-lasting effects on the cortisol response to simulated predation risk in stickleback offspring. We measured circulating concentrations of cortisol before (baseline), 15 min after, and 60 min after exposure to a simulated predation risk. We compared adult offspring of predator-exposed mothers and control mothers in two different social environments (alone or in a group). Relative to baseline, offspring plasma cortisol was highest 15 min after exposure to simulated predation risk and decreased after 60 min. Offspring of predator-exposed mothers differed in the cortisol response to simulated predation risk compared to offspring of control mothers. In general, females had higher cortisol than males, and fish in a group had lower cortisol than fish that were by themselves. The buffering effect of the social environment did not differ between maternal treatments or between males and females. Altogether the results show that while a mother’s experience with simulated predation risk might affect the physiological response of her adult offspring to a predator, sex and social isolation have much larger effects on the stress response to predation risk in sticklebacks. PMID:23628383

  13. Factors affecting maternal provisioning to the pre-natal environment 

    E-print Network

    Coakley, Christina Marie

    2014-06-28

    is key to understanding offspring success- in early life as well as later life. Differential allocation has been reported to occur, however how it impacts on offspring and mother’s future reproduction still remains unclear. This is also true for maternal...

  14. Maternal Obesity in Pregnancy, Gestational Weight Gain, and Risk of Childhood Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Young, Omar M.; Kumar, Rajesh; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Environmental or lifestyle exposures in utero may influence the development of childhood asthma. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to assess whether maternal obesity in pregnancy (MOP) or increased maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) increased the risk of asthma in offspring. METHODS: We included all observational studies published until October 2013 in PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Scopus, The Cochrane Database, and Ovid. Random effects models with inverse variance weights were used to calculate pooled risk estimates. RESULTS: Fourteen studies were included (N = 108?321 mother–child pairs). Twelve studies reported maternal obesity, and 5 reported GWG. Age of children was 14 months to 16 years. MOP was associated with higher odds of asthma or wheeze ever (OR = 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16–1.49) or current (OR = 1.21; 95% CI, 1.07–1.37); each 1-kg/m2 increase in maternal BMI was associated with a 2% to 3% increase in the odds of childhood asthma. High GWG was associated with higher odds of asthma or wheeze ever (OR = 1.16; 95% CI, 1.001–1.34). Maternal underweight and low GWG were not associated with childhood asthma or wheeze. Meta-regression showed a negative association of borderline significance for maternal asthma history (P = .07). The significant heterogeneity among existing studies indicates a need for standardized approaches to future studies on the topic. CONCLUSIONS: MOP and high GWG are associated with an elevated risk of childhood asthma; this finding may be particularly significant for mothers without asthma history. Prospective randomized trials of maternal weight management are needed. PMID:25049351

  15. [Suicide - background, epidemiology, risk factors].

    PubMed

    Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta

    2015-10-01

    Suicide research, in particular epidemiology, comprises a huge amount of data. However, the theoretical understanding clearly lags behind the empirical knowledge. Suicide, suicide attempts and other suicidal behaviors are more heterogeneous than most explanatory approaches would assume. The most important recent contributions to a better understanding have come from selected epidemiological findings and, interestingly, prevention. This article provides an overview of epidemiological findings, the most relevant risk factors and conclusions related to successful preventive efforts. PMID:26423878

  16. BCSC - Documentation for the Risk Factors Dataset

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Home   |   Data   |   Statistics   |   Tools   |   Collaborations   |   Work with Us   |   Publications   |   About   |   Links Data home Data Elements, Questionnaires & Definitions Risk Estimation Dataset Risk Factors Dataset Hormone

  17. Maternal caregiving and girls’ depressive symptoms and antisocial behavior trajectories: An examination among high-risk youth

    PubMed Central

    Harold, Gordon T.; Leve, Leslie D.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Mahedy, Liam; Gaysina, Darya; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Past research has identified parental depression and family-of-origin maltreatment as precursors to adolescent depression and antisocial behavior. Caregiving experiences have also been identified as a factor that may ameliorate or accentuate adolescent psychopathology trajectories. Using the unique attributes of two geographically diverse, yet complementary longitudinal research designs, the present study examined the role of maternal caregiver involvement as a factor that promotes resilience-based trajectories related to depressive symptom and antisocial behaviors among adolescent girls. The first sample comprises a group of US-based adolescent girls in foster care (n = 100; mean age = 11.50 years), all of whom have had a history of childhood maltreatment and removal from the home of their biological parent(s). The second sample comprises a group of UK-based adolescent girls at high familial risk for depression (n = 145; mean age = 11.70 years), with all girls having a biological mother who has experienced recurrent depression. Study analyses examined the role of maternal caregiving on girls’ trajectories of depression and antisocial behavior, while controlling for levels of co-occurring psychopathology at each time point across the study period. Results suggest increasing trajectories of depressive symptoms, controlling for antisocial behavior, for girls at familial risk for depression, but decreasing trajectories for girls in foster care. A similar pattern of results was noted for antisocial behavior trajectories, controlling for depressive symptoms. Maternal caregiver involvement was differentially related to intercept and slope parameters in both samples. Results are discussed with respect to the identification of family level promotive factors aimed at reducing negative developmental trajectories among high-risk youth. PMID:25422973

  18. Maternal and obstetrical factors associated with a successful trial of vaginal birth after cesarean section

    PubMed Central

    Abdelazim, Ibrahim A.; Elbiaa, Assem A. M.; Al-Kadi, Mohamed; Yehia, Amr H.; Sami Nusair, Bassam M.; Faza, Mohannad Abu

    2014-01-01

    Objective To detect the maternal and obstetrical factors associated with successful trial of vaginal birth among women with a previous cesarean delivery. Material and Methods A total of 122 women who were eligible for a trial of labor after cesarean section (TOLAC) according to departmental protocol were included in this comparative prospective study. After informed consent, the women included in this study were subjected to a thorough history to detect maternal and obstetric characteristics and a standard examination to estimate fetal weight, engagement of the fetal head, intra-partum features of fetal membranes, and cervical dilatation. After delivery, data on duration of labor, labor augmentation, mode of delivery, birth outcome, and neonatal intensive care (NICU) admission were recorded and analyzed. Results Trial of labor after cesarean section was successful in 72.13% and was unsuccessful in 27.87%. Body mass index (BMI) was significantly lower in the successful TOLAC group compared to the unsuccessful group (23.8±0.03 versus 26.2±0.02 kg/m2), and the number of women with BMI >25 kg/m2 was significantly high in the unsuccessful group; also, mean gestational age was significantly lower in the successful TOLAC group compared to the unsuccessful group (37.5±0.04 versus 38.5±0.03 weeks), and the number of women admitted in labor with gestation ?40 weeks was significantly high in the unsuccessful group. The number of women admitted with >2/5 of fetal head palpable abdominally and fetal head station ?-2 was significantly high in the unsuccessful TOLAC group. Conclusion In carefully selected cases, TOLAC is safe and often successful. Presence of BMI >25 kg/m2, gestation ?40 weeks, and vertex station ?-2 were risk factors for unsuccessful TOLAC. PMID:25584035

  19. Maternal Depression, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Youth Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompson, Martha C.; Pierre, Claudette B.; Boger, Kathryn Dingman; McKowen, James W.; Chan, Priscilla T.; Freed, Rachel D.

    2010-01-01

    Across development, maternal depression has been found to be a risk factor for youth psychopathology generally and youth depression specifically. Maternal Expressed Emotion (EE) has been examined as a predictor of outcome among youth with depression. The present study explored the associations between youth psychopathology and two…

  20. Maternal and birth anthropometric characteristics in relation to the risk of childhood lymphomas: a Swedish nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Petridou, Eleni Th; Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Antonopoulos, Constantine N; Dessypris, Nick; Svensson, Tobias; Stephansson, Olof; Kieler, Helle; Smedby, Karin E

    2015-11-01

    This Swedish nationwide cohort study aims to examine the role of maternal characteristics (maternal age, education, smoking, BMI, diabetes, and preeclampsia) and multiple intrauterine growth measures on the risk of childhood lymphomas. A total of 3?444?136 singleton live births registered in the Swedish Medical Birth Register were analyzed, among whom there were 515 incident non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) cases and 169 Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) cases aged 0-14 years at diagnosis (1973-2007) identified through linkage with the Swedish Cancer Register. Proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of NHL and HL. Male sex (HR=2.00, 95% CI: 1.66-2.41), older maternal age (HR=1.03, 95% CI: 1.00-1.06, per 1-year increase), and large for gestational age compared with appropriate for gestational age (AGA) birth weight (HR=1.83, 95% CI: 1.20-2.79) were correlated with the risk of NHL; of note, in subanalysis by sex, the latter association was confined to girls (HR=3.37, 95% CI: 1.90-5.97, Pinteraction by sex=0.008). The risk of childhood HL overall was more evident among boys (HR=2.03, 95% CI: 1.46-2.81), whereas indices of accelerated fetal growth were not convincingly associated with the risk of HL. Apart from the established association with sex, the findings point to accelerated intrauterine growth as a risk factor for childhood NHL that may differ by sex. Given the rarity of this condition at birth, however, further studies with more elaborate indices are needed to conclude on its association with rare diseases such as HL. PMID:25569452

  1. Maternal intraguild predation risk affects offspring anti-predator behavior and learning in mites

    PubMed Central

    Seiter, Michael; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Predation risk is a strong selective force shaping prey morphology, life history and behavior. Anti-predator behaviors may be innate, learned or both but little is known about the transgenerational behavioral effects of maternally experienced predation risk. We examined intraguild predation (IGP) risk-induced maternal effects on offspring anti-predator behavior, including learning, in the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. We exposed predatory mite mothers during egg production to presence or absence of the IG predator Amblyseius andersoni and assessed whether maternal stress affects the anti-predator behavior, including larval learning ability, of their offspring as protonymphs. Protonymphs emerging from stressed or unstressed mothers, and having experienced IGP risk as larvae or not, were subjected to choice situations with and without IG predator traces. Predator-experienced protonymphs from stressed mothers were the least active and acted the boldest in site choice towards predator cues. We argue that the attenuated response of the protonymphs to predator traces alone represents optimized risk management because no immediate risk existed. Such behavioral adjustment could reduce the inherent fitness costs of anti-predator behaviors. Overall, our study suggests that P. persimilis mothers experiencing IGP risk may prime their offspring to behave more optimally in IGP environments. PMID:26449645

  2. Fetal risk through maternal Amanita phalloides poisoning at the end of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Wacker, Annette; Riethmüller, Joachim; Zilker, Thomas; Felgenhauer, Norbert; Abele, Harald; Poets, Christian F; Goelz, Rangmar

    2009-03-01

    There is a paucity of knowledge about prenatal and perinatal risks through maternal amatoxin poisoning. No symptoms of amatoxin intoxication, except for a slight temporary increase in liver enzymes activity, occurred in a term newborn after delivery despite an Amanita phalloides intoxication of the mother 2 days before. Considering previous reports, severe fetal intoxication may not occur during the entire pregnancy. PMID:19031349

  3. A Meta-Analysis of Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Autism Spectrum Disorder Risk in Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shiming; Wang, Ying; Gong, Xuan; Wang, Gaohua

    2015-01-01

    The association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk in offspring has been investigated in several studies, but the evidence is not conclusive. We, therefore, conducted this meta-analysis to explore whether an association exists between maternal smoking during pregnancy and ASD risk in offspring. We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for studies of maternal smoking during pregnancy and ASD risk in offspring up to 10 June 2015. The random-effects model was used to combine results from individual studies. 15 observational studies (6 cohort studies and 9 case-control studies), with 17,890 ASD cases and 1,810,258 participants were included for analysis. The pooled odds ratio (OR) was 1.02 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93–1.13) comparing mothers who smoked during pregnancy with those who did not. Subgroup and sensitivity analysis suggested the overall result of this analysis was robust. Results from this meta-analysis indicate that maternal smoking during pregnancy is not associated with ASD risk in offspring. Further well-designed cohort studies are needed to confirm the present findings. PMID:26343689

  4. Maternal HIV-1 envelope-specific antibody responses and reduced risk of perinatal transmission.

    PubMed

    Permar, Sallie R; Fong, Youyi; Vandergrift, Nathan; Fouda, Genevieve G; Gilbert, Peter; Parks, Robert; Jaeger, Frederick H; Pollara, Justin; Martelli, Amanda; Liebl, Brooke E; Lloyd, Krissey; Yates, Nicole L; Overman, R Glenn; Shen, Xiaoying; Whitaker, Kaylan; Chen, Haiyan; Pritchett, Jamie; Solomon, Erika; Friberg, Emma; Marshall, Dawn J; Whitesides, John F; Gurley, Thaddeus C; Von Holle, Tarra; Martinez, David R; Cai, Fangping; Kumar, Amit; Xia, Shi-Mao; Lu, Xiaozhi; Louzao, Raul; Wilkes, Samantha; Datta, Saheli; Sarzotti-Kelsoe, Marcella; Liao, Hua-Xin; Ferrari, Guido; Alam, S Munir; Montefiori, David C; Denny, Thomas N; Moody, M Anthony; Tomaras, Georgia D; Gao, Feng; Haynes, Barton F

    2015-07-01

    Despite the wide availability of antiretroviral drugs, more than 250,000 infants are vertically infected with HIV-1 annually, emphasizing the need for additional interventions to eliminate pediatric HIV-1 infections. Here, we aimed to define humoral immune correlates of risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1, including responses associated with protection in the RV144 vaccine trial. Eighty-three untreated, HIV-1-transmitting mothers and 165 propensity score-matched nontransmitting mothers were selected from the Women and Infants Transmission Study (WITS) of US nonbreastfeeding, HIV-1-infected mothers. In a multivariable logistic regression model, the magnitude of the maternal IgG responses specific for the third variable loop (V3) of the HIV-1 envelope was predictive of a reduced risk of MTCT. Neutralizing Ab responses against easy-to-neutralize (tier 1) HIV-1 strains also predicted a reduced risk of peripartum transmission in secondary analyses. Moreover, recombinant maternal V3-specific IgG mAbs mediated neutralization of autologous HIV-1 isolates. Thus, common V3-specific Ab responses in maternal plasma predicted a reduced risk of MTCT and mediated autologous virus neutralization, suggesting that boosting these maternal Ab responses may further reduce HIV-1 MTCT. PMID:26053661

  5. Advancing Maternal Age Is Associated with Increasing Risk for Autism: A Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandin, Sven; Hultman, Christina M.; Kolevzon, Alexander; Gross, Raz; MacCabe, James H.; Reichenberg, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies investigating the association between maternal age and autism. Method: Using recommended guidelines for performing meta-analyses, we systematically selected, and extracted results from, epidemiological scientific studies reported before January 2012. We calculated pooled risk

  6. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Obesity and Risk for Inattention and Negative Emotionality in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Alina

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to replicate and extend previous work showing an association between maternal pre-pregnancy adiposity and risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children. Methods: A Swedish population-based prospective pregnancy-offspring cohort was followed up when children were 5 years old (N = 1,714).…

  7. Maternal Antisocial Behavior, Parenting Practices, and Behavior Problems in Boys at Risk for Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrensaft, Miriam K.; Wasserman, Gail A.; Verdelli, Lena; Greenwald, Steven; Miller, Laurie S.; Davies, Mark

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the independent contributions of maternal history of antisocial behavior and parenting practices to the worsening course of sons' behavior problems in a sample of young urban boys at risk for antisocial behavior. Mothers reported on boys' behavior problems at baseline and one year later, as well as on their own history of…

  8. Predator-induced maternal stress and population demography in snowshoe hares: the more severe the risk,

    E-print Network

    Krebs, Charles J.

    Predator-induced maternal stress and population demography in snowshoe hares: the more severe the demography of prey populations even when the predators are no longer present. The 10-year snowshoe hare cycle risk effects. During the decline phase, virtually, all hares die because they are killed

  9. Maternal HIV-1 envelope–specific antibody responses and reduced risk of perinatal transmission

    PubMed Central

    Permar, Sallie R.; Fong, Youyi; Vandergrift, Nathan; Fouda, Genevieve G.; Gilbert, Peter; Parks, Robert; Jaeger, Frederick H.; Pollara, Justin; Martelli, Amanda; Liebl, Brooke E.; Lloyd, Krissey; Yates, Nicole L.; Overman, R. Glenn; Shen, Xiaoying; Whitaker, Kaylan; Chen, Haiyan; Pritchett, Jamie; Solomon, Erika; Friberg, Emma; Marshall, Dawn J.; Whitesides, John F.; Gurley, Thaddeus C.; Von Holle, Tarra; Martinez, David R.; Cai, Fangping; Kumar, Amit; Xia, Shi-Mao; Lu, Xiaozhi; Louzao, Raul; Wilkes, Samantha; Datta, Saheli; Sarzotti-Kelsoe, Marcella; Liao, Hua-Xin; Ferrari, Guido; Alam, S. Munir; Montefiori, David C.; Denny, Thomas N.; Moody, M. Anthony; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Gao, Feng; Haynes, Barton F.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the wide availability of antiretroviral drugs, more than 250,000 infants are vertically infected with HIV-1 annually, emphasizing the need for additional interventions to eliminate pediatric HIV-1 infections. Here, we aimed to define humoral immune correlates of risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1, including responses associated with protection in the RV144 vaccine trial. Eighty-three untreated, HIV-1–transmitting mothers and 165 propensity score–matched nontransmitting mothers were selected from the Women and Infants Transmission Study (WITS) of US nonbreastfeeding, HIV-1–infected mothers. In a multivariable logistic regression model, the magnitude of the maternal IgG responses specific for the third variable loop (V3) of the HIV-1 envelope was predictive of a reduced risk of MTCT. Neutralizing Ab responses against easy-to-neutralize (tier 1) HIV-1 strains also predicted a reduced risk of peripartum transmission in secondary analyses. Moreover, recombinant maternal V3–specific IgG mAbs mediated neutralization of autologous HIV-1 isolates. Thus, common V3-specific Ab responses in maternal plasma predicted a reduced risk of MTCT and mediated autologous virus neutralization, suggesting that boosting these maternal Ab responses may further reduce HIV-1 MTCT. PMID:26053661

  10. Genetic and nongenetic risk factors for childhood cancer

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Logan G.; Pankratz, Nathan; Marcotte, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The causes of childhood cancer have been systematically studied for several decades, but apart from high-dose radiation and prior chemotherapy there are few or no strong external risk factors. On the other hand, inherent risk factors including birth weight, parental age, and congenital anomalies are consistently associated with most types of pediatric cancer. Rare, highly-penetrant syndromes have long been known to cause a small proportion of cancers but recently the contribution of common genetic variation to etiology has come into focus through genome wide association studies. These have highlighted genes not previously implicated in childhood cancers and, surprisingly, have suggested that common variation explains a larger proportion of childhood cancers than adult. Rare variation and non-Mendelian inheritance, such as through maternal genetic effects or de novo germline mutations, may also contribute to childhood cancer risk but have not been widely examined to date. PMID:25435109

  11. Prenatal versus postnatal maternal factors in the development of infection-induced working memory impairments in mice.

    PubMed

    Richetto, Juliet; Calabrese, Francesca; Meyer, Urs; Riva, Marco A

    2013-10-01

    Prenatal maternal infection is an environmental risk factor for neurodevelopmental psychiatric illness and disease-associated cognitive impairments. Modeling this epidemiological link in animals shows that prenatal immune challenge is capable of inducing long-lasting deficits in numerous cognitive domains. Here, we combined a neonatal cross-fostering design with a mouse model of prenatal immune challenge induced by maternal gestational treatment with the viral mimetic poly(I:C) to dissect the relative contribution of prenatal and postnatal maternal effects on the offspring. We show that offspring prenatally exposed to poly(I:C) display significant impairments in spatial matching-to-position working memory and spatial novelty presence regardless of whether they are raised by gestationally immune-challenged or non-challenged control surrogate mothers. Likewise, prenatally immune challenged offspring exhibit reduced glutamic acid decarboxylase 65-kDa (GAD65) and 67-kDa (GAD67) gene expression in the adult medial prefrontal cortex and dorsal hippocampus largely independently of the postnatal rearing conditions. In addition, we confirm that being raised by a gestationally immune-challenged surrogate mother is sufficient to increase the offspring's locomotor response to systemic amphetamine treatment. Our data thus suggest that prenatal infection-induced deficits in spatial short-term memory are mediated by prenatal maternal effects on the offspring. At the same time, our study adds further weight to the notion that being reared by a surrogate mother that experienced immune activation during pregnancy may constitute a risk factor for specific dopaminergic abnormalities. PMID:23876745

  12. Pneumococcal Disease Risk Factors and Transmission

    MedlinePLUS

    ... World Health Organization National Foundation for Infectious Diseases Risk Factors and Transmission Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this Page Children at Risk Adults at Risk Transmission Anyone can get pneumococcal ...

  13. Factors Associated With Maternal-Reported Actions to Prevent Type 1 Diabetes in the First Year of the TEDDY Study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Laura B.; Lynch, Kristian F.; Baxter, Judith; Lernmark, Barbro; Roth, Roswith; Simell, Tuula; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Mothers of children at risk for type 1 diabetes report engaging in preventive behaviors. The purpose of this study is to further document these actions in an international, longitudinal sample and examine variables that predict whether mothers engage in these behaviors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This study examined an international sample (from Finland, Germany, Sweden, and the U.S.) from the naturalistic, longitudinal The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study, which tracked children genetically at risk for type 1 diabetes from birth to age 15 years. Mothers of 7,613 infants aged 6 months and 6,503 infants aged 15 months completed questionnaires assessing psychosocial factors and actions intended to prevent diabetes. RESULTS Many mothers (29.9% at 6 months and 42.8% at 15 months) reported engaging in a behavior intended to prevent type 1 diabetes, with the largest percentages (20.9–29.2%) reporting making changes to their child’s diet (e.g., reducing the consumption of sweets and carbohydrates). Factors related to engaging in preventive behaviors include older maternal age; higher maternal education; minority status; having only one child; having a first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes; being from a country other than Sweden; having an accurate perception of the child’s increased risk for developing diabetes; having postpartum depression, maternal anxiety, and worry about the risk of diabetes; and believing that diabetes can be prevented. CONCLUSIONS The findings of this study suggest that many mothers engage in actions to prevent diabetes and highlight the importance of tracking these behaviors to ensure the validity of naturalistic observational studies. PMID:24041684

  14. Perinatal and maternal outcomes in planned home and obstetric unit births in women at ‘higher risk’ of complications: secondary analysis of the Birthplace national prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y; Townend, J; Rowe, R; Brocklehurst, P; Knight, M; Linsell, L; Macfarlane, A; McCourt, C; Newburn, M; Marlow, N; Pasupathy, D; Redshaw, M; Sandall, J; Silverton, L; Hollowell, J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore and compare perinatal and maternal outcomes in women at ‘higher risk’ of complications planning home versus obstetric unit (OU) birth. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting OUs and planned home births in England. Population 8180 ‘higher risk’ women in the Birthplace cohort. Methods We used Poisson regression to calculate relative risks adjusted for maternal characteristics. Sensitivity analyses explored possible effects of differences in risk between groups and alternative outcome measures. Main outcome measures Composite perinatal outcome measure encompassing ‘intrapartum related mortality and morbidity’ (intrapartum stillbirth, early neonatal death, neonatal encephalopathy, meconium aspiration syndrome, brachial plexus injury, fractured humerus or clavicle) and neonatal admission within 48 hours for more than 48 hours. Two composite maternal outcome measures capturing intrapartum interventions/adverse maternal outcomes and straightforward birth. Results The risk of ‘intrapartum related mortality and morbidity’ or neonatal admission for more than 48 hours was lower in planned home births than planned OU births [adjusted relative risks (RR) 0.50, 95% CI 0.31–0.81]. Adjustment for clinical risk factors did not materially affect this finding. The direction of effect was reversed for the more restricted outcome measure ‘intrapartum related mortality and morbidity’ (RR adjusted for parity 1.92, 95% CI 0.97–3.80). Maternal interventions were lower in planned home births. Conclusions The babies of ‘higher risk’ women who plan birth in an OU appear more likely to be admitted to neonatal care than those whose mothers plan birth at home, but it is unclear if this reflects a real difference in morbidity. Rates of intrapartum related morbidity and mortality did not differ statistically significantly between settings at the 5% level but a larger study would be required to rule out a clinically important difference between the groups. PMID:25603762

  15. Risk Factors for Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Renal. Home » Kidney Info » 1 in 9 Adults Risk Factors for CKD x What are you doing to ... to prevent or delay kidney failure. Kidney Disease Risk Factors You Can Change Diabetes Type 2 diabetes is ...

  16. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure Anyone can develop high ... this condition are why family history is a risk factor for this condition. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: ...

  17. Tourette Syndrome (TS): Risk Factors and Causes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Other Websites Information For... Media Policy Makers Risk Factors and Causes Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... Compartir Scientists are studying the causes of and risk factors for Tourette Syndrome (TS) in an effort to ...

  18. Nocturnal Sleep Disturbances: Risk Factors for Suicide

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are associated with insomnia. Sleep Problems as a Risk Factor for Suicide As noted above, sleep problems are ... depressive and anxiety disorders, both of which are risk factors for suicide (Wong & Brower, 2012). Overarousal, marked by ...

  19. Other Possible Heart Disease Risk Factors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Heart Health and Stroke Other possible heart disease risk factors Related information Depression fact sheet Stress and your ... top More information on Other possible heart disease risk factors Read more from womenshealth.gov Heart Disease Fact ...

  20. Risk factors identified for certain lymphoma subtypes

    Cancer.gov

    In a large international collaborative analysis of risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), scientists were able to quantify risk associated with medical history, lifestyle factors, family history of blood or lymph-borne cancers, and occupation for 11

  1. Modifications of Coronary Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Albu, Jeanine; Gottlieb, Sheldon H.; August, Phyllis; Nesto, Richard W.; Orchard, Trevor J.

    2009-01-01

    In addition to the revascularization and glycemic management interventions assigned at random, the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) design includes the uniform control of major coronary artery disease risk factors, including dyslipidemia, hypertension, smoking, central obesity, and sedentary lifestyle. Target levels for risk factors were adjusted throughout the trial to comply with changes in recommended clinical practice guidelines. At present, the goals are low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <2.59 mmol/L (<100 mg/dL) with an optional goal of <1.81 mmol/L (<70 mg/dL); plasma triglyceride level <1.70 mmol/L (<150 mg/dL); blood pressure level <130 mm Hg systolic and <80 mm Hg diastolic; and smoking cessation treatment for all active smokers. Algorithms were developed for the pharmacologic management of dyslipidemia and hypertension. Dietary prescriptions for the management of glycemia, plasma lipid profiles, and blood pressure levels were adapted from existing clinical practice guidelines. Patients with a body mass index >25 were prescribed moderate caloric restriction; after the trial was under way, a lifestyle weight-management program was instituted. All patients were formally prescribed both endurance and resistance/flexibility exercises, individually adapted to their level of disability and fitness. Pedometers were distributed as a biofeedback strategy. Strategies to achieve the goals for risk factors were designed by BARI 2D working groups (lipid, cardiovascular and hypertension, and nonpharmacologic intervention) and the ongoing implementation of the strategies is monitored by lipid, hypertension, and lifestyle intervention management centers. PMID:16813737

  2. Configurations of Common Childhood Psychosocial Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…

  3. An Investigation of the Relations between School Concentrations of Student Risk Factors and Student Educational Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fantuzzo, John W.; LeBoeuf, Whitney A.; Rouse, Heather L.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the unique relations between school concentrations of student risk factors and measures of reading, mathematics, and attendance. It used an integrated administrative data system to create a combined data set of risks (i.e., birth risks, teen mother, low maternal education, homelessness, maltreatment, and lead exposure) for…

  4. Predicting Change in Parenting Stress across Early Childhood: Child and Maternal Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williford, Amanda P.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined maternal parenting stress in a sample of 430 boys and girls including those at risk for externalizing behavior problems. Children and their mothers were assessed when the children were ages 2, 4, and 5. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to examine stability of parenting stress across early childhood and to examine…

  5. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Pregnancy and Maternal Risk of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Toniolo, Paolo; Grankvist, Kjell; Wulff, Marianne; Chen, Tianhui; Johansson, Robert; Schock, Helena; Lenner, Per; Hallmans, Göran; Lehtinen, Matti; Kaaks, Rudolf; Wadell, Göran; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Lundin, Eva; Lukanova, Annekatrin

    2010-01-01

    Full-term pregnancies are associated with long-term reductions in maternal risk of breast cancer, but the biological determinants of the protection are unknown. Experimental observations suggest that human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG), a major hormone of pregnancy, could play a role in this association. A case-control study (242 cases, 450 controls) nested within the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort included women who had donated a blood sample during the first trimester of a first full-term pregnancy. Total hCG was determined on Immulite 2000 analyzer. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated through conditional logistic regression. Maternal breast cancer risk decreased with increasing hCG (upper tertile OR, 0.67; CI, 0.46-0.99) especially for pregnancies before age 25 (upper tertile OR, 0.41; CI, 0.21-0.80). The association diverged according to age at diagnosis: risk was reduced after age 40 (upper tertile OR: 0.60; CI, 0.39-0.91) and appeared to increase before age 40 (upper tertile OR: 1.78; CI, 0.72-4.38). Risk was reduced among those diagnosed 10 years or longer after blood draw (upper tertile OR, 0.60; CI, 0.40-0.90), but not so among those diagnosed within 10 years (upper tertile OR, 4.33; CI, 0.86-21.7). These observations suggest that the association between pregnancy hCG and subsequent maternal risk of breast cancer is modified by age at diagnosis. While the hormone appears to be a determinant of the reduced risk around or after age 50, it might not confer protection against, or it could even increase the risk of, cancers diagnosed in the years immediately following pregnancy. PMID:20713523

  6. Perinatal factors and the risk of bipolar disorder in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Chudal, Roshan; Sourander, Andre; Polo-Kantola, Päivi; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Lehti, Venla; Sucksdorff, Dan; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Complications during the perinatal period have been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders like schizophrenia and autism. However, similar studies on bipolar disorder (BPD) have been limited and the findings are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to examine the association between perinatal risk factors and BPD. Methods This nested case-control study, based on the Finnish Prenatal Study of Bipolar Disorders (FIPS-B), identified 724 cases and 1419 matched controls from population based registers. Conditional logistic regression was used to examine the associations between perinatal factors and BPD adjusting for potential confounding due to maternal age, psychiatric history and educational level, place of birth, number of previous births and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Results Children delivered by planned cesarean section had a 2.5-fold increased risk of BPD (95% CI: 1.32–4.78, P <0.01). No association was seen between other examined perinatal risk factors and BPD. Limitations The limitations of this study include: the restriction in the sample to treated cases of BPD in the population, and usage of hospital based clinical diagnosis for case ascertainment. In addition, in spite of the large sample size, there was low power to detect associations for certain exposures including the lowest birth weight category and pre-term birth. Conclusions Birth by planned caesarean section was associated with risk of BPD, but most other perinatal risk factors examined in this study were not associated with BPD. Larger studies with greater statistical power to detect less common exposures and studies utilizing prospective biomarker-based exposures are necessary in the future. PMID:24215899

  7. Emergent patterns of risk for psychopathology: The influence of infant avoidance and maternal caregiving on trajectories of social reticence.

    PubMed

    Degnan, Kathryn A; Hane, Amie Ashley; Henderson, Heather A; Walker, Olga L; Ghera, Melissa M; Fox, Nathan A

    2015-11-01

    The current study investigated the influential role of infant avoidance on links between maternal caregiving behavior and trajectories at risk for psychopathology. A sample of 153 children, selected for temperamental reactivity to novelty, was followed from infancy through early childhood. At 9 months, infant avoidance of fear-eliciting stimuli in the laboratory and maternal sensitivity at home were assessed. At 36 months, maternal gentle discipline was assessed at home. Children were repeatedly observed in the lab with an unfamiliar peer across early childhood. A latent class growth analysis yielded three longitudinal risk trajectories of social reticence behavior: a high-stable trajectory, a high-decreasing trajectory, and a low-increasing trajectory. For infants displaying greater avoidance, 9-month maternal sensitivity and 36-month maternal gentle discipline were both positively associated with membership in the high-stable social reticence trajectory, compared to the high-decreasing social reticence trajectory. For infants displaying lower avoidance, maternal sensitivity was positively associated with membership in the high-decreasing social reticence trajectory, compared to the low-increasing trajectory. Maternal sensitivity was positively associated with the high-stable social reticence trajectory when maternal gentle discipline was lower. These results illustrate the complex interplay of infant and maternal behavior in early childhood trajectories at risk for emerging psychopathology. PMID:26439068

  8. Are urban safety-net hospitals losing low-risk Medicaid maternity patients?

    PubMed Central

    Gaskin, D J; Hadley, J; Freeman, V G

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine data on Medicaid and self-pay/charity maternity cases to address four questions: (1) Did safety-net hospitals' share of Medicaid patients decline while their shares of self-pay/charity-care patients increased from 1991 to 1994? (2) Did Medicaid patients' propensity to use safety-net hospitals decline during 1991-94? (3) Did self-pay/charity patients' propensity to use safety-net hospitals increase during 1991-94? (4) Did the change in Medicaid patients' use of safety-net hospitals differ for low- and high-risk patients? STUDY DESIGN: We use hospital discharge data to estimate logistic regression models of hospital choice for low-risk and high-risk Medicaid and self-pay/charity maternity patients for 25 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in five states for the years 1991 and 1994. We define low-risk patients as discharges without comorbidities and high-risk patients as discharges with comorbidities that may substantially increase hospital costs, length of stay, or morbidity. The five states are California, Florida, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York. The MSAs in the analysis are those with at least one safety-net hospital and a population of 500,000 or more. This study also uses data from the 1990 Census and AHA Annual Survey of Hospitals. The regression analysis estimates the change between 1991 and 1994 in the relative odds of a Medicaid or self-pay/charity patient using a safety-net hospital. We explore whether this change in the relative odds is related to the risk status of the patient. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The findings suggest that competition for Medicaid patients increased from 1991 to 1994. Over time, safety-net hospitals lost low-risk maternity Medicaid patients while services to high-risk maternity Medicaid patients and self-pay/charity maternity patients remained concentrated in safety-net hospitals. IMPLICATIONS FOR POLICY: Safety-net hospitals use Medicaid patient revenues and public subsidies that are based on Medicaid patient volumes to subsidize care for uninsured and underinsured patients. If safety-net hospitals continue to lose their low-risk Medicaid patients, their ability to finance care for the medically indigent will be impaired. Increased hospital competition may improve access to hospital care for low-risk Medicaid patients, but policymakers should be cognizant of the potential reduction in access to hospital care for uninsured and underinsured patients. Public policymakers should ensure that safety-net hospitals have sufficient financial resources to care for these patients by subsidizing their care directly. PMID:11324742

  9. What Are the Risk Factors for Eye Cancer?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... eye cancer? What are the risk factors for eye cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects ... or no known risk factors. Risk factors for eye melanoma Race/ethnicity The risk of intraocular melanoma ...

  10. The Maternal Serological Response to Intrauterine Ureaplasma sp. Infection and Prediction of Risk of Pre-Term Birth

    PubMed Central

    Ireland, Demelza J.; Keelan, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Pre-term birth (PTB) associated with intrauterine infection and inflammation (IUI) is the major cause of early PTB less than 32?weeks of gestation. Ureaplasma spp. are common commensals of the urogenital tract in pregnancy and are the most commonly identified microorganisms in amniotic fluid of pre-term pregnancies. While we have an understanding of the causal relationship between intra-amniotic infection, inflammation and PTB, we are still unable to explain why vaginal Ureaplasma sp. colonization is tolerated in some women but causes PTB in others. It is now known that placental tissues are frequently colonized by bacteria even in apparently healthy pregnancies delivered at term; usually this occurs in the absence of a significant local inflammatory response. It appears, therefore, that the site, nature, and magnitude of the immune response to infiltrating microorganisms are key in determining pregnancy outcome. Some evidence exists that the maternal serological response to Ureaplasma sp. colonization may be predictive of adverse pregnancy outcome, although issues such as the importance of virulence factors (serovars) and the timing, magnitude, and functional consequences of the immune response await clarification. This mini-review discusses the evidence linking the maternal immune response to risk of PTB and the potential applications of maternal serological analysis for predicting obstetric outcome. PMID:25538708

  11. Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and body composition and cardiovascular risk markers in Indian children: the Mysore Parthenon study

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Winder, Nicola R; Hill, Jacqueline C; Noonan, Kate; Boucher, Barbara J; Karat, Samuel C; Fall, Caroline HD

    2012-01-01

    Background Metabolic consequences of vitamin D deficiency have become a recent research focus. Maternal vitamin D status is thought to influence musculo-skeletal health in children, but its relationship with offspring metabolic risk is not known. Objective We aimed to examine the association between maternal vitamin D status and anthropometry, body composition and cardiovascular risk markers in Indian children. Design Serum 25-hydroxy D (25(OH)D ) concentrations were measured at 28-32 weeks gestation in 568 women who delivered at Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore. Anthropometry, glucose and insulin concentrations, blood pressure (BP) and fasting lipid concentrations were measured in the offspring at 5 and 9.5 years of age. Muscle-grip strength was measured using a hand held dynamometer at 9.5 years. Arm-muscle-area was calculated as a measure of muscle mass. Fasting insulin resistance was calculated using the HOMA equation. Results 67% of women had vitamin D deficiency (serum 25(OH)D concentration <50 nmol/l). At 5 and 9.5 years, children born to vitamin D deficient mothers had smaller arm-muscle-area compared to children born to mothers without deficiency (P<0.05). There was no difference in grip strength between offspring of women with and without vitamin D deficiency. At 9.5 years, children of vitamin D deficient mothers had higher fasting insulin resistance than children of non-deficient women (P=0.04). There were no associations between maternal vitamin D status and other offspring risk factors at either age. Conclusions Intra-uterine exposure to low 25(OH)D concentrations is associated with lower muscle mass and higher insulin resistance in children. PMID:21228264

  12. Maternal body mass index and risk of birth and maternal health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Abe, S K; Kanda, M; Narita, S; Rahman, M S; Bilano, V; Ota, E; Gilmour, S; Shibuya, K

    2015-09-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based cohort studies of maternal body mass index (BMI) and risk of adverse birth and health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and the British Nursing Index were searched from inception to February 2014. Forty-two studies were included. Our study found that maternal underweight was significantly associated with higher risk of preterm birth (odds ratio [OR], 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.27), low birthweight (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.50-1.84) and small for gestational age (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.69-2.02). Compared with mothers with normal BMI, overweight or obese mothers were at increased odds of gestational diabetes, pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia, caesarean delivery and post-partum haemorrhage. The population-attributable risk (PAR) indicated that if women were entirely unexposed to overweight or obesity during the pre-pregnancy or early pregnancy period, 14% to 35% fewer women would develop gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia or pregnancy-induced hypertension in Brazil, China, India, Iran or Thailand. The highest PAR of low birthweight attributable to maternal underweight was found in Iran (20%), followed by India (18%), Thailand (10%) and China (8%). Treatment and prevention of maternal underweight, overweight or obesity may help reduce the burden on maternal and child health in developing countries. PMID:26094567

  13. Pulmonary imaging in pregnancy. Maternal risk and fetal dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, C.S.; Mason, G.R.; Kuperus, J.H.; Mena, I.

    1985-01-01

    A Tc-99m macroaggregated albumin (MAA) perfusion lung scan and a Tc-99m DTPA aerosol ventilation scan were performed for suspicion of pulmonary embolism (PE) in a patient who was ten weeks pregnant. There was considerable reluctance on the part of the obstetricians to permit this study. Standard MIRD dose estimates to the fetus were performed, which showed a maximum fetal exposure of about 50 mrem. It was concluded that the risk to mother and fetus from undiagnosed and untreated PE is much greater than the negligible risk to the fetus from the radiation exposure; fear of fetal radiation damage should not be a deterrent to performing these scans.

  14. Family Factors Predicting Categories of Suicide Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell, Brooke P.; Wang, Wen-Ling; Herting, Jerald R.; Eggert, Leona L.

    2006-01-01

    We compared family risk and protective factors among potential high school dropouts with and without suicide-risk behaviors (SRB) and examined the extent to which these factors predict categories of SRB. Subjects were randomly selected from among potential dropouts in 14 high schools. Based upon suicide-risk status, 1,083 potential high school…

  15. Maternal factors contributing to under-five mortality at birth order 1 to 5 in India: a comprehensive multivariate study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajvir; Tripathi, Vrijesh

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study is to assess maternal factors contributing to under-five mortality at birth order 1 to 5 in India. Data for this study was derived from the children's record of the 2007 India National Family Health Survey, which is a nationally representative cross-sectional household survey. Data is segregated according to birth order 1 to 5 to assess mother's occupation, Mother's education, child's gender, Mother's age, place of residence, wealth index, mother's anaemia level, prenatal care, assistance at delivery , antenatal care, place of delivery and other maternal factors contributing to under-five mortality. Out of total 51555 births, analysis is restricted to 16567 children of first birth order, 14409 of second birth order, 8318 of third birth order, 5021 of fourth birth order and 3034 of fifth birth order covering 92% of the total births taken place 0-59 months prior to survey. Mother's average age in years for birth orders 1 to 5 are 23.7, 25.8, 27.4, 29 and 31 years, respectively. Most mothers whose children died are Hindu, with no formal education, severely anaemic and working in the agricultural sector. In multivariate logistic models, maternal education, wealth index and breastfeeding are protective factors across all birth orders. In birth order model 1 and 2, mother's occupation is a significant risk factor. In birth order models 2 to 5, previous birth interval of lesser than 24 months is a risk factor. Child's gender is a risk factor in birth order 1 and 5. Information regarding complications in pregnancy and prenatal care act as protective factors in birth order 1, place of delivery and immunization in birth order 2, and child size at birth in birth order 4. Prediction models demonstrate high discrimination that indicates that our models fit the data. The study has policy implications such as enhancing the Information, Education and Communication network for mothers, especially at higher birth orders, in order to reduce under-five mortality. The study emphasises the need of developing interventions to address the issues of anaemia, mothers working in the agricultural sector and improving relevant literacy among mothers. PMID:23961385

  16. "It Takes a Village" to Support the Vocabulary Development of Children with Multiple Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baydar, Nazli; Küntay, Aylin C.; Yagmurlu, Bilge; Aydemir, Nuran; Cankaya, Dilek; Göksen, Fatos; Cemalcilar, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    Data from a nationally representative sample from Turkey (N = 1,017) were used to investigate the environmental factors that support the receptive vocabulary of 3-year-old children who differ in their developmental risk due to family low economic status and elevated maternal depressive symptoms. Children's vocabulary knowledge was strongly…

  17. Sex Differences in the Longitudinal Relations among Family Risk Factors and Childhood Externalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt-Eisengart, Ilana; Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Monahan, Kathryn C.; Steinberg, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    Despite potential sex differences in base rates, predictors, and maintaining processes for children's externalizing behaviors, little prospective research has examined sex differences in the relations between concurrent, proximal family risk factors and children's externalizing behaviors. The current study examined the relations among maternal

  18. Initiating a Caregiving Relationship: Pregnancy and Childbirth Factors as Predictors of Maternal Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernier, Annie; Jarry-Boileau, Veronique; Tarabulsy, George M.; Miljkovitch, Raphaele

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between pregnancy and childbirth factors and subsequent quality of maternal interactive behavior in a sample of 116 full-term infants and their mothers. Mothers reported on the conditions of childbirth when infants were 6-8 months of age, and their interactive behavior was observed during a…

  19. Learning Innovative Maternal Instinct: Activity Designing Semantic Factors of Alcohol Modification in Rural Communities of Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yodmongkol, Pitipong; Jaimung, Thunyaporn; Chakpitak, Nopasit; Sureephong, Pradorn

    2014-01-01

    At present, Thailand is confronting a serious problem of alcohol drinking behavior which needs to be solved urgently. This research aimed to identify the semantic factors on alcohol drinking behavior and to use maternal instinct driving for housewives as village health volunteers in rural communities, Thailand. Two methods were implemented as the…

  20. Risk of retinoblastoma is associated with a maternal polymorphism in dihydrofolatereductase (DHFR) and prenatal folic acid intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of unilateral retinoblastoma varies globally, suggesting possible environmental contributors to disease incidence. Maternal intake of naturally occurring folate from vegetables during pregnancy is associated inversely with the risk of retinoblastoma in offspring. The authors used a ca...

  1. Effects of caesarean section on maternal health in low risk nulliparous women: a prospective matched cohort study in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Rates of caesarean section are progressively increasing in many parts of the world. As a result of psychosocial factors there has been an increasing tendency for pregnant women without justifiable medical indications for caesarean section to ask for this procedure in China. A critical examination of this issue in relation to maternal outcomes is important. At present there are no clinical trials to help assess the risks and benefits of caesarean section in low risk women. To fill the gap left by trials, this indication-matched cohort study was carried out to examine prospectively the outcomes of caesarean section on women with no absolute obstetric indication compared with similar women who had vaginal delivery. Methods An indication-matched cohort study was undertaken to compare maternal outcomes following caesarean section with those undergoing vaginal delivery, in which the two groups were matched for non-absolute indications. 301 nulliparous women with caesarean section were matched successfully with 301 women who delivered vaginally in the Maternal and Children's Hospitals (MCHs) in Shanghai, China. Logistic regression model or binomial regression model was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) directly. Adjusted RRs were calculated adjusting for propensity score and medical indications. Results The incidence of total complications was 2.2 times higher in the caesarean section group during hospitalization post-partum, compared with the vaginal delivery group (RR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1-4.4). The risk of haemorrhage from the start of labour until 2 hours post-partum was significantly higher in the caesarean group (RR = 5.6; 95% CI: 1.2-26.9). The risk of chronic abdominal pain was significantly higher for the caesarean section group (RR = 3.6; 95% CI: 1.2-10.9) than for the vaginal delivery group within 12 months post-partum. The two groups had similar incidences of anaemia and complicating infections such as wound complications or urinary tract infection. Conclusions In nulliparous women who were at low risk, caesarean section was associated with a higher rate of post-partum morbidity. Those requesting the surgical procedure with no conventional medical indication, should be advised of the potential risks. PMID:21122153

  2. Maternal Intake of Supplemental Iron and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Rebecca J.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Krakowiak, Paula; Hansen, Robin L.; Ozonoff, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency affects 40%–50% of pregnancies. Iron is critical for early neurodevelopmental processes that are dysregulated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined maternal iron intake in relation to ASD risk in California-born children enrolled in a population-based case-control study (the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment (CHARGE) Study) from 2003 to 2009 with a diagnosis of ASD (n = 520) or typical development (n = 346) that was clinically confirmed using standardized assessments. Mean maternal daily iron intake was quantified on the basis of frequency, dose, and brands of supplements and cereals consumed each month from 3 months before pregnancy through the end of pregnancy and during breastfeeding (the index period), as reported in parental interviews. Mothers of cases were less likely to report taking iron-specific supplements during the index period (adjusted odds ratio = 0.63, 95% confidence interval: 0.44, 0.91), and they had a lower mean daily iron intake (51.7 (standard deviation, 34.0) mg/day) than mothers of controls (57.1 (standard deviation, 36.6) mg/day; P = 0.03). The highest quintile of iron intake during the index period was associated with reduced ASD risk compared with the lowest (adjusted odds ratio = 0.49, 95% confidence interval: 0.29, 0.82), especially during breastfeeding. Low iron intake significantly interacted with advanced maternal age and metabolic conditions; combined exposures were associated with a 5-fold increased ASD risk. Further studies of this link between maternal supplemental iron and ASD are needed to inform ASD prevention strategies. PMID:25249546

  3. Maternal intake of supplemental iron and risk of autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Rebecca J; Tancredi, Daniel J; Krakowiak, Paula; Hansen, Robin L; Ozonoff, Sally

    2014-11-01

    Iron deficiency affects 40%-50% of pregnancies. Iron is critical for early neurodevelopmental processes that are dysregulated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined maternal iron intake in relation to ASD risk in California-born children enrolled in a population-based case-control study (the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment (CHARGE) Study) from 2003 to 2009 with a diagnosis of ASD (n = 520) or typical development (n = 346) that was clinically confirmed using standardized assessments. Mean maternal daily iron intake was quantified on the basis of frequency, dose, and brands of supplements and cereals consumed each month from 3 months before pregnancy through the end of pregnancy and during breastfeeding (the index period), as reported in parental interviews. Mothers of cases were less likely to report taking iron-specific supplements during the index period (adjusted odds ratio = 0.63, 95% confidence interval: 0.44, 0.91), and they had a lower mean daily iron intake (51.7 (standard deviation, 34.0) mg/day) than mothers of controls (57.1 (standard deviation, 36.6) mg/day; P = 0.03). The highest quintile of iron intake during the index period was associated with reduced ASD risk compared with the lowest (adjusted odds ratio = 0.49, 95% confidence interval: 0.29, 0.82), especially during breastfeeding. Low iron intake significantly interacted with advanced maternal age and metabolic conditions; combined exposures were associated with a 5-fold increased ASD risk. Further studies of this link between maternal supplemental iron and ASD are needed to inform ASD prevention strategies. PMID:25249546

  4. Maternal occupational exposure to asthmogens during pregnancy and risk of asthma in 7-year-old children: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Berit Hvass; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Skadhauge, Lars R; Hansen, Kirsten Skamstrup; Frydenberg, Morten; Schlünssen, Vivi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to examine whether maternal exposure to asthmogens during pregnancy is associated with the development of asthma in 7-year-old Danish children, taking atopic status and sex into consideration. Design The study is a prospective follow-up of a birth cohort. Setting and participants A total of 41?724 women and their children from The Danish National Birth Cohort were categorised according to maternal occupational exposure. Exposure information was obtained by combining job title in pregnancy and 18?months after pregnancy with a commonly used asthma Job Exposure Matrix. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcome was parent-reported asthma among their 7-year-old children in an internet-based questionnaire. Secondary outcome was asthma among the same children with or without atopic dermatitis and among boys and girls, respectively. Results Prenatal exposure to low molecular weight (LMW) agents was borderline associated with asthma in children with OR 1.17 (0.95 to 1.44) for children with atopic dermatitis and 1.10 (0.98 to 1.22) for children without. Maternal postnatal exposure was associated with asthma (OR 1.15 (1.04 to 1.28). After mutual adjustment,postnatal exposure (OR 1.13 (0.99 to 1.29) and the combined effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure (OR 1.34 (1.19 to 1.51)) seem to increase the risk of asthma in children. No significant associations were observed for other prenatal or postnatal exposures. The gender of the child did not modify the aforementioned associations. Conclusions Maternal occupational exposures during pregnancy do not seem to be a substantial risk factor for the development of asthma in 7-year-old children. Maternal prenatal and postnatal exposures to LMW agents may predispose the propensity of the children to develop asthma. Future studies should prioritise the characterisation of the timing of exposure in relation to the birth. PMID:23585388

  5. Early Risk Factors of Overweight Developmental Trajectories during Middle Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Pryor, Laura E.; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E.; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Liu, Xuecheng; Dubois, Lise; Touchette, Evelyne; Falissard, Bruno; Boivin, Michel; Côté, Sylvana M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Research is needed to identify early life risk factors associated with different developmental paths leading to overweight by adolescence. Objectives To model heterogeneity in overweight development during middle childhood and identify factors associated with differing overweight trajectories. Methods Data was drawn from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD; 1998-2010). Trained research assistants measured height and weight according to a standardized protocol and conducted yearly home interviews with the child’s caregiver (mother in 98% of cases). Information on several putative early life risk factors for the development of overweight were obtained, including factors related to the child’s perinatal, early behavioral family and social environment. Group-based trajectories of the probability of overweight (6-12 years) were identified with a semiparametric method (n=1678). Logistic regression analyses were used to identify early risk factors (5 months- 5 years) associated with each trajectory. Results Three trajectories of overweight were identified: “early-onset overweight” (11.0 %), “late-onset overweight” (16.6%) and “never overweight” (72.5%). Multinomial analyses indicated that children in the early and late-onset group, compared to the never overweight group, had 3 common types of risk factors: parental overweight, preschool overweight history, and large size for gestational age. Maternal overprotection (OR= 1.12, CI: 1.01-1.25), short nighttime sleep duration (OR=1.66, CI: 1.07-2.57), and immigrant status (OR=2.01, CI: 1.05-3.84) were factors specific to the early-onset group. Finally, family food insufficiency (OR=1.81, CI: 1.00-3.28) was weakly associated with membership in the late-onset trajectory group. Conclusions The development of overweight in childhood follows two different trajectories, which have common and distinct risk factors that could be the target of early preventive interventions. PMID:26121682

  6. Risk and Resilience: The Moderating Role of Social Coping for Maternal Mental Health in a Setting of Political Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Laura K.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Cairns, Ed; Shirlow, Peter; Goeke-Morey, Marcie; Cummings, E. Mark

    2012-01-01

    Violence can threaten individual well-being and tear at the social fabric of communities. At the same time, suffering can mobilize social coping and mutual support. Thus, the backdrop of political violence increases risk factors and stimulates resilience. The current study examined the moderating role of social coping as reflective of risk and resiliency in Northern Ireland, a setting of protracted conflict. Specifically, structural equation modeling was used to investigate whether social coping protects from or exacerbates the negative impact of sectarian crime and nonsectarian crime on maternal mental health (N=631). Nonsectarian crime predicted greater psychological distress for mothers in Belfast. Mixed support was found for the buffering and depletion moderation hypotheses; social coping functioned differently for nonsectarian crime and sectarian crime. Greater social coping buffered mothers’ psychological distress from the negative effects of nonsectarian crime, but exacerbated maternal mental health problems when facing sectarian crime. Results suggest that social coping is a complex phenomenon, particularly in settings of protracted political violence. Implications for interventions aimed at alleviating psychological distress by enhancing mothers’ social coping in contexts of intergroup conflict are discussed. PMID:22506629

  7. Parental risk factors and anorectal malformations: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Anorectal malformations (ARM) are rare forms of congenital uro-rectal anomalies with largely unknown causes. Besides genetic factors, prenatal exposures of the parents to nicotine, alcohol, caffeine, illicit drugs, occupational hazards, overweight/obesity and diabetes mellitus are suspected as environmental risk factors. Methods Relevant studies published until August 2010 were identified through systematic search in PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge and the Cochrane Library databases. Furthermore, related and cross-referencing publications were reviewed. Pooled odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were determined to quantify associations of maternal and paternal smoking, maternal alcohol consumption, underweight (body mass index [BMI] < 18.5), overweight (BMI 25-29.9), obesity (BMI ?30) and maternal diabetes mellitus with ARM using meta-analyses. Results 22 studies that reported on the association between prenatal environmental risk factors and infants born with ARM were included in this review. These were conducted in the United States of America (n = 12), Spain (n = 2), Sweden (n = 2), the Netherlands (n = 2), Japan (n = 1), France (n = 1), Germany (n = 1) and Hungary (n = 1). However, only few of these studies reported on the same risk factors. Studies were heterogeneous with respect to case numbers, control types and adjustment for covariates. Consistently increased risks were observed for paternal smoking and maternal overweight, obesity and diabetes, but not for maternal smoking and alcohol consumption. In meta-analyses, pooled odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for paternal smoking, maternal overweight, obesity, pre-gestational and gestational diabetes were 1.53 (1.04-2.26), 1.25 (1.07-1.47), 1.64 (1.35-2.00), 4.51 (2.55-7.97) and 1.81 (1.23-2.65), respectively. Conclusion Evidence on risk factors for ARM from epidemiological studies is still very limited. Nevertheless, the few available studies indicate paternal smoking and maternal overweight, obesity and diabetes to be associated with increased risks. Further, ideally large-scale multicentre and register-based studies are needed to clarify the role of key risk factors for the development of ARM. PMID:21586115

  8. Risk Factors for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Helen C.; Vacek, Pamela; Johnson, Robert J.; Slauterbeck, James R.; Hashemi, Javad; Shultz, Sandra; Beynnon, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are immediately disabling and are associated with long-term consequences, such as posttraumatic osteoarthritis. It is important to have a comprehensive understanding of all possible risk factors for ACL injury to identify individuals who are at risk for future injuries and to provide an appropriate level of counseling and programs for prevention. Objective: This review, part 2 of a 2-part series, highlights what is known and still unknown regarding hormonal, genetic, cognitive function, previous injury, and extrinsic risk factors for ACL injury. Data Sources: Studies were identified from MEDLINE (1951–March 2011) using the MeSH terms anterior cruciate ligament, knee injury, and risk factors. The bibliographies of relevant articles and reviews were cross-referenced to complete the search. Study Selection: Prognostic case-control and prospective cohort study designs to evaluate risk factors for ACL injury were included in this review. Results: A total of 50 case-control and prospective cohort articles were included in parts 1 and 2. Twenty-one focused on hormonal, genetic, cognitive function, previous injury, and extrinsic risk factors. Conclusions: Several risk factors are associated with increased risk of suffering ACL injury—such as female sex, prior reconstruction of the ACL, and familial predisposition. These risk factors most likely act in combination with the anatomic factors reviewed in part 1 of this series to influence the risk of suffering ACL injury. PMID:23016083

  9. Maternal Eating Disorders and Infant Feeding Difficulties: Maternal and Child Mediators in a Longitudinal General Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micali, Nadia; Simonoff, Emily; Stahl, Daniel; Treasure, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Background: Maternal eating disorders (ED) have been shown to increase the risk of feeding difficulties in the offspring. Very few studies, however, have investigated whether the effect of a maternal ED on childhood feeding is a direct effect or whether it can be ascribed to other child or maternal factors. We aimed to determine the role of…

  10. MATERNAL OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND RISK OF ORAL CLEFT-AFFECTED PREGNANCIES

    PubMed Central

    Langlois, Peter H; Hoyt, Adrienne T; Lupo, Philip J; Lawson, Christina C; Waters, Martha A; Desrosiers, Tania A; Shaw, Gary M; Romitti, Paul A; Lammer, Edward J

    2014-01-01

    Objective Evaluate whether there is an association between maternal occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oral cleftsin offspring. This is the first human study of PAHs and clefts of which the authors are aware. Design Case-control study. Setting, Participants Data for 1997–2002 from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large population-based case-control study in the US, were analyzed. Maternal telephone interviews yielded information on jobs held in the month before through three months after conception. Two industrial hygienists independently assessed occupational exposure to PAHs ; all jobs rated as exposed or with rating difficulty were reviewed with a third industrial hygienist to reach consensus on all exposure parameters. Logistic regression estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL±P) and cleft palate alone (CP). Results There were 2989 controls( 3.5% exposed), 805 cases of CL±P (5.8% exposed) and 439 cases of CP (4.6% exposed). The odds of maternal occupational exposure to PAH (any vs none) during pregnancy was increased for CL±P cases as compared with controls (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.18–2.40); the OR was 1.47 (95% CI 1.02–2.12) adjusted for maternal education. There was a statistically significant adjusted exposure-response relationship for CL±P (ptrend = 0.02). ORs for CP were not statistically significant. Conclusions Maternal occupational exposure to PAHs was associated with increased risk of cleft lip with or without cleft palate in offspring. PMID:23136939

  11. Contributions of maternal and paternal adiposity and smoking to adult offspring adiposity and cardiovascular risk: the Midspan Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Han, T S; Hart, C L; Haig, C; Logue, J; Upton, M N; Watt, G C M; Lean, M E J

    2015-01-01

    Objective Obesity has some genetic basis but requires interaction with environmental factors for phenotypic expression. We examined contributions of gender-specific parental adiposity and smoking to adiposity and related cardiovascular risk in adult offspring. Design Cross-sectional general population survey. Setting Scotland. Participants 1456 of the 1477 first generation families in the Midspan Family Study: 2912 parents (aged 45–64?years surveyed between 1972 and 1976) who had 1025 sons and 1283 daughters, aged 30–59?years surveyed in 1996. Main measures Offspring body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), cardiometabolic risk (lipids, blood pressure and glucose) and cardiovascular disease as outcome measures, and parental BMI and smoking as determinants. All analyses adjusted for age, socioeconomic status and family clustering and offspring birth weight. Results Regression coefficients for BMI associations between father–son (0.30) and mother–daughter (0.33) were greater than father–daughter (0.23) or mother–son (0.22). Regression coefficient for the non-genetic, shared-environment or assortative-mating relationship between BMIs of fathers and mothers was 0.19. Heritability estimates for BMI were greatest among women with mothers who had BMI either <25 or ?30?kg/m2. Compared with offspring without obese parents, offspring with two obese parents had adjusted OR of 10.25 (95% CI 6.56 to 13.93) for having WC ?102?cm for men, ?88?cm women, 2.46 (95% CI 1.33 to 4.57) for metabolic syndrome and 3.03 (95% CI 1.55 to 5.91) for angina and/or myocardial infarct (p<0.001). Neither parental adiposity nor smoking history determined adjusted offspring individual cardiometabolic risk factors, diabetes or stroke. Maternal, but not paternal, smoking had significant effects on WC in sons (OR=1.50; 95% CI 1.13 to 2.01) and daughters (OR=1.42; 95% CI 1.10 to 1.84) and metabolic syndrome OR=1.68; 95% CI 1.17 to 2.40) in sons. Conclusions There are modest genetic/epigenetic influences on the environmental factors behind adverse adiposity. Maternal smoking appears a specific hazard on obesity and metabolic syndrome. A possible epigenetic mechanism linking maternal smoking to obesity and metabolic syndrome in offspring is proposed. Individuals with family histories of obesity should be targeted from an early age to prevent obesity and complications. PMID:26525718

  12. Factors That Contribute to the Improvement in Maternal Parenting after Separation from a Violent Husband or Partner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Okuyama, Makiko; Izumi, Mayuko

    2012-01-01

    The authors test the hypothesis that separation from a violent husband or partner improves maternal parenting in Japan and examine how childhood abuse history (CAH), experience of domestic violence (DV), mental health problems, husband or partner's child maltreatment, and other demographic factors affect maternal parenting after such separation. A…

  13. Maternal smoking and the risk of early weaning: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Horta, B L; Kramer, M S; Platt, R W

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study reviewed evidence on the effect of maternal smoking on early weaning. METHODS: The following databases and journals were searched: Medline, Scientific Citation Index, Pediatrics, Journal of Pediatrics, New England Journal of Medicine, and Lancet. Analysis was restricted to studies in which infants who had never been breastfed were excluded or the prevalence of breastfeeding initiation was more than 90%. RESULTS: In smoking vs nonsmoking mothers, the random effects odds ratio for weaning before 3 months was 1.93 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.55, 2.40). An adjusted odds ratio of 1.50 (95% CI = 1.34, 1.68) was shown in studies that had lost-to-follow-up rates below 15% and included adequate adjustment for confounding. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal smoking increases the risk of early weaning. PMID:11211645

  14. Osteoporosis Risk Factors in Eighth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysen, Victoria C.; Walker, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Presents findings from food frequency questionnaires and surveys of 138 Midwestern eighth-grade student-parent pairs. The study examined the incidence of modifiable and nonmodifiable osteoporosis risk factors and compared gender differences. Data analysis indicated that many adolescents possessed several modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors

  15. Developmental Risk Factors for Sexual Offending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…

  16. Risk factors identified for certain lymphoma subtypes

    Cancer.gov

    In a large international collaborative analysis of risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), scientists were able to quantify risk associated with medical history, lifestyle factors, family history of blood or lymph-borne cancers, and occupation for 11 different NHL subtypes, including less common subtypes.

  17. Risk Factor Intervention for Health Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslow, Lester

    1978-01-01

    Risk factors for disease consist of personal habits such as cigarette smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, and bodily characteristics such as hypertension and high serum cholesterol. Progress in identifying, quantifying, and controlling risk factors is opening the way to the prevention of disease. (BB)

  18. Dietary Research - Risk Factor Monitoring & Methods Branch

    Cancer.gov

    Diet, in all its complexity, is considered one of the major risk factors for cancer and is therefore a primary area of research within the Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch. We work collaboratively with a wide range of researchers to conduct an integrated program that serves NCI as well as the extramural community.

  19. Risk factors across the eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Anja; Pike, Kathleen M; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Wilfley, Denise E; Fairburn, Christopher G; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Walsh, B Timothy; Striegel Weissman, Ruth

    2014-12-15

    This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. Risk factors for BN were shared with AN and BED. Dieting was the most common onset symptom in AN, whereas binge eating was most common in BN and BED. Migration between AN and BED was rare, but more frequent between AN and BN and between BN and BED. AN and BED have distinct risk factors and onset patterns, while BN shares similar risk factors and onset patterns with both AN and BED. Results should inform future classification schemes and prevention programs. PMID:25103674

  20. Maternal and offspring genetic variants of AKR1C3 and the risk of childhood leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chen-yu; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Pan, Pi-Chen; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Ho, Chi-Kung; Su, Li; Xu, Xin; Li, Yi; Christiani, David C.

    2008-01-01

    The aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3) gene located on chromosome 10p15-p14, a regulator of myeloid cell proliferation and differentiation, represents an important candidate gene for studying human carcinogenesis. In a prospectively enrolled population-based case–control study of Han Chinese conducted in Kaohsiung in southern Taiwan, a total of 114 leukemia cases and 221 controls <20 years old were recruited between November 1997 and December 2005. The present study set out to evaluate the association between childhood leukemia and both maternal and offspring's genotypes. To do so, we conducted a systematic assessment of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the 5? flanking 10 kb to 3? UTR of AKR1C3 gene. Gln5His and three tagSNPs (rs2245191, rs10508293 and rs3209896) and one multimarker (rs2245191, rs10508293 and rs3209896) were selected with average 90% coverage of untagged SNPs by using the HapMap II data set. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were adjusted for age and gender. After correcting for multiple comparisons, we observed that risk of developing childhood leukemia is significantly associated with rs10508293 polymorphism on intron 4 of the AKR1C3 gene in both offspring alone and in the combined maternal and offspring genotypes (nominal P < 0.0001, permutation P < 0.005). The maternal methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase A1298C polymorphism was found to be an effect modifier of the maternal intron 4 polymorphism of the AKR1C3 gene (rs10508293) and the childhood leukemia risk. In conclusion, this study suggests that AKR1C3 polymorphisms may be important predictive markers for childhood leukemia susceptibility. PMID:18339682

  1. Multilevel Factors Influencing Maternal Stress during the First Three Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulsow, Miriam; Caldera, Yvonne M.; Pursley, Marta; Reifman, Alan; Huston, Aletha C.

    2002-01-01

    Study applies family stress theory to the influence of personal, child, and familial factors on a mother's parenting stress during the first 3 years of her infant's life. Mother's personality was most predictive of parenting stress. Counterintuitively, mothers who were more satisfied with work or school choices were more likely to be chronically…

  2. Identifying perinatal risk factors for infant maltreatment: an ecological approach

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yueqin; Hallisey, Elaine J; Freymann, Gordon R

    2006-01-01

    Background Child maltreatment and its consequences are a persistent problem throughout the world. Public health workers, human services officials, and others are interested in new and efficient ways to determine which geographic areas to target for intervention programs and resources. To improve assessment efforts, selected perinatal factors were examined, both individually and in various combinations, to determine if they are associated with increased risk of infant maltreatment. State of Georgia birth records and abuse and neglect data were analyzed using an area-based, ecological approach with the census tract as a surrogate for the community. Cartographic visualization suggested some correlation exists between risk factors and child maltreatment, so bivariate and multivariate regression were performed. The presence of spatial autocorrelation precluded the use of traditional ordinary least squares regression, therefore a spatial regression model coupled with maximum likelihood estimation was employed. Results Results indicate that all individual factors or their combinations are significantly associated with increased risk of infant maltreatment. The set of perinatal risk factors that best predicts infant maltreatment rates are: mother smoked during pregnancy, families with three or more siblings, maternal age less than 20 years, births to unmarried mothers, Medicaid beneficiaries, and inadequate prenatal care. Conclusion This model enables public health to take a proactive stance, to reasonably predict areas where poor outcomes are likely to occur, and to therefore more efficiently allocate resources. U.S. states that routinely collect the variables the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) defines for birth certificates can easily identify areas that are at high risk for infant maltreatment. The authors recommend that agencies charged with reducing child maltreatment target communities that demonstrate the perinatal risks identified in this study. PMID:17144919

  3. Understanding Early Contextual and Parental Risk Factors for the Development of Limited Prosocial Emotions.

    PubMed

    Waller, Rebecca; Shaw, Daniel S; Forbes, Erika E; Hyde, Luke W

    2015-08-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that parenting influences the development of youth callous unemotional (CU) behavior. However, less is known about the effects of parenting or contextual risk factors on 'limited prosocial emotions' (LPE), a recent conceptualization of CU behavior added to the DSM-5. We focused on LPE at ages 10-12 and age 20 among low income, urban males (N?=?310), and examined potential developmental precursors, including contextual risk factors assessed during infancy and observed maternal warmth during the toddler period. We found unique direct associations between maternal warmth, maternal aggression, and low empathetic awareness on LPE at ages 10-12, controlling for concurrent self-reported antisocial behavior. Further, there were indirect effects of maternal aggression, low empathetic awareness, and difficult infant temperament assessed in infancy on LPE at ages 10-12 via their influence on maternal warmth at age 2. Finally, there were lasting indirect effects of parental warmth on LPE at age 20, via LPE at ages 10-12. We discuss the implications of these findings for ecological models of antisocial behavior and LPE development, and preventative interventions that target the broader early parenting environment. PMID:25510355

  4. Perinatal and background risk factors for childhood autism in central China.

    PubMed

    Duan, Guiqin; Yao, Meiling; Ma, Yating; Zhang, Wenjing

    2014-12-15

    Perinatal and background risk factors for autism were identified in a cohort of autistic children in Zhengzhou, China, to formulate preventative and treatment strategies for high-risk families. In this case-control study, children were screened for suspected autism using the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) and diagnosed according to DSM-IV and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). We collected perinatal histories and clinical data of 286 confirmed autistic children treated at the Third Affiliated Hospital Children?s Psychological Clinic of Zhengzhou University from 2011 to 2013. The control group consisted of 286 healthy children from area kindergartens. Maternal age>30 years, parental introversion as measured by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, low level of parental education, smoking, abortion threat, pregnancy complications, maternal illness during pregnancy, maternal mental health, family history of mental illness, neonatal jaundice, birth asphyxia, premature rupture of the fetal membrane, and gestational age<37 weeks were significantly higher in the autism group. These factors were significantly correlated with behavioral symptoms as measured by ABC scores (Kendall rank correlation). Birth asphyxia, neonatal jaundice, maternal age, parental introversion, family history of mental illness, abortion threat, premature delivery, and smoking were identified as independent risk factors by multivariate logistic regression. PMID:25085792

  5. [Etiologic factors of prematurity in Ziguinchor maternity hospital center (Senegal)].

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, O; Fall, A L; Dramé, A; Sylla, A; Guèye, M; Cissé, C T; Guélaye Sall, M; Bâ, M; Kuakuvi, N

    2006-05-01

    A case-control study was conducted between September 2003 and January 2004. Fifty four newborn babies born before 37 weeks of gestation resulting from 47 pregnancies including 7 multiple pregnancies were compared to 105 newborn babies born between 37 and the 42 weeks of gestation. Parturient geographical origin, marital status, age, alcohol or tea consumption and height were not significantly associated to premature birth (p > 0.05). On the other hand, a higher parity or equal to 3, a number of antenatal care lower than 3 were significantly associated with the risk of premature birth (p < 0.05). But a gestity and a parity lower than 3 and a number of antenatal consultations higher or equal to 3 had a protective effect (OR < 1; p < 0.05). We recommend a reinforcement of malarial prevention during pregnancy according to WHO recommendations and the improvement of the quality of the antenatal care in the Ziguinchor medical district. PMID:16821443

  6. What Are the Risk Factors for Kidney Cancer?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... know what causes kidney cancer? What are the risk factors for kidney cancer? A risk factor is anything ... develop kidney cancer. Lifestyle-related and job-related risk factors Smoking Smoking increases the risk of developing renal ...

  7. [Risk factors of primary angle closure glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Cui, Hong-ping

    2012-01-01

    Primary angle closure glaucoma is one of the common diseases causing blindness. The pathogenesis inducing primary angle closure glaucoma has not been entirely clear. Traditionally identified risk factors include shallow anterior chamber, short axial length and thicker lens. Recent studies begin to pay attention to other new risk factors, not only including static anatomical factors, such as anterior chamber volume, iris curvature and lens vault, but also including dynamic changing factors, such as dynamic dilation of iris volume and choroidal effusion. Comprehensive assessment of these risk factors is of great significance for early diagnosis and treatment of angle closure glaucoma. This article briefly reviews research advances in risk factors of primary angle closure glaucoma. PMID:22490921

  8. Effects of individual and neighborhood factors on maternal care in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Sagna, Marguerite L; Sunil, T S

    2012-03-01

    This study analyzed data from the 2005 Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey to examine the effects of individual- and community-level factors on the receipt of four or more antenatal care visits, receipt of antenatal care within the first trimester of pregnancy, delivery in a health facility and delivery by trained medical professional. The findings demonstrate that age at birth, parity level, educational attainment, household wealth, occupation, media exposure and counseling about pregnancy complications are significant determinants of pregnancy care. There is also a strong evidence of the impact of community-level factors on the utilization of maternal health services. Programs to improve maternal health outcomes must take into account covariates at multiple levels of influence to better address the needs of women of reproductive age in Cambodia. PMID:22265205

  9. What Are the Risk Factors?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... at some workplaces that increase risk include asbestos, arsenic, diesel exhaust, and some forms of silica and ... For more information, visit Lung Cancer Prevention. Also, arsenic in drinking water (primarily from private wells) can ...

  10. Prenatal exposure to elevated maternal body temperature and risk of epilepsy in childhood: a population-based pregnancy cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuelian; Vestergaard, Mogens; Christensen, Jakob; Olsen, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    Elevated maternal body temperature during pregnancy is of clinical concern as side effects have been reported. We estimated the association between maternal fever and sauna bathing during pregnancy and risk of epilepsy in the offspring. We identified 86,810 liveborn singletons from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) and followed them for up to 9 years of age. Information on fever including number, timing, level, duration, and symptoms of each fever episodes was collected in two computer-assisted telephone interviews around 17 and 32 gestational weeks; information on maternal use of a sauna was collected in the latter interview, and information on epilepsy was obtained from the Danish National Hospital Register. We applied Cox regression models to estimate the incidence rate ratios (IRR) of epilepsy for children exposed to maternal fever and sauna bathing during pregnancy. Maternal sauna bathing during pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of epilepsy. Maternal fever during pregnancy in general was not associated with an increased risk of epilepsy in the offspring [IRR = 1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85, 1.19], and no dose-response pattern was found according to number, level and duration of fever. However we did find an increased risk of epilepsy among children exposed to at least 3 fever episodes (IRR = 1.88, 95% CI 1.19, 2.98), to maternal fever with symptoms in the urinary system (IRR = 4.86, 95% CI 1.56, 15.17), and to one-day maternal fever of 39.0-39.4°C (IRR = 2.79, 95% CI 1.60, 4.84). Our findings do not support a strong association between hyperthermia and epilepsy but the associations between underlying causes of fever, especially prenatal infections, call for more research. PMID:21133969

  11. Maternal Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and Early Age Leukemia Risk in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Jeniffer Dantas; Couto, Arnaldo Cézar; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S.; Koifman, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the association between the maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and early age leukemia (EAL) in offspring. Methods. Datasets were analyzed from a case-control study carried out in Brazil during 1999–2007. Data were obtained by maternal interviews using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children (193 acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and 423 controls). Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and adjusted odds ratios (adj. OR) on the association between alcohol consumption and EAL were ascertained. Results. Alcohol consumption was reported by 43% of ALL and 39% of AML case mothers and 35.5% of controls'. Beer consumption before and during pregnancy was associated with ALL in crude analysis (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.08–2.19), although in adjusted analysis no statistical significance was found. For weekly intake of ?1 glass (adj. OR = 1.30, 95% CI, 0.71–2.36) and ?1 glass/week (adj. OR = 1.47, 95% CI, 0.88–2.46) a potential dose-response was observed (P trend < 0.03). Conclusion. This study failed to support the hypothesis of an increased risk of EAL associated with maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy, neither with the interaction with tobacco nor with alcohol consumption. PMID:26090439

  12. Structural Genomic Variation as Risk Factor for Idiopathic Recurrent Miscarriage

    PubMed Central

    Nagirnaja, Liina; Palta, Priit; Kasak, Laura; Rull, Kristiina; Christiansen, Ole B; Nielsen, Henriette S; Steffensen, Rudi; Esko, Tõnu; Remm, Maido; Laan, Maris

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent miscarriage (RM) is a multifactorial disorder with acknowledged genetic heritability that affects ?3% of couples aiming at childbirth. As copy number variants (CNVs) have been shown to contribute to reproductive disease susceptibility, we aimed to describe genome-wide profile of CNVs and identify common rearrangements modulating risk to RM. Genome-wide screening of Estonian RM patients and fertile controls identified excessive cumulative burden of CNVs (5.4 and 6.1 Mb per genome) in two RM cases possibly increasing their individual disease risk. Functional profiling of all rearranged genes within RM study group revealed significant enrichment of loci related to innate immunity and immunoregulatory pathways essential for immune tolerance at fetomaternal interface. As a major finding, we report a multicopy duplication (61.6 kb) at 5p13.3 conferring increased maternal risk to RM in Estonia and Denmark (meta-analysis, n = 309/205, odds ratio = 4.82, P = 0.012). Comparison to Estonian population-based cohort (total, n = 1000) confirmed the risk for Estonian female cases (P = 7.9 × 10?4). Datasets of four cohorts from the Database of Genomic Variants (total, n = 5,846 subjects) exhibited similar low duplication prevalence worldwide (0.7%–1.2%) compared to RM cases of this study (6.6%–7.5%). The CNV disrupts PDZD2 and GOLPH3 genes predominantly expressed in placenta and it may represent a novel risk factor for pregnancy complications. PMID:24827138

  13. Concussion risk factors and strategies for prevention.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Hamish A

    2014-12-01

    Concussion in children is frequently related to participation in sports. It requires a traumatic event to occur that transmits acceleration to the brain. Some children may have intrinsic risk factors that place them at greater risk for this type of injury. Comorbidities such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, migraine headaches, and mood disorders may place athletes at increased risk of more severe injury. A previous concussion is probably the most important influence on risk for future injury. Extrinsic risk factors include coaching techniques, officiating, and choice of sport. Helmet choice does not diminish concussion risk, nor does the use of mouth guards. Education of athletes, coaches, parents, and physicians is very important in improving recognition of potential concussive injury and helping child athletes and their parents understand the risks involved in sport participation. PMID:25486039

  14. [Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Romanzini, Marcelo; Reichert, Felipe Fossati; Lopes, Adair da Silva; Petroski, Edio Luiz; de Farias Júnior, José Cazuza

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents and to verify its association with age and gender. 644 high school students from public schools in the city of Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil, participated in the study. A two-step sampling process was used. Behavioral risk factors (physical inactivity, inadequate consumption of fruits and vegetables, and smoking) and biological risk factors (overweight and high blood pressure) were investigated. Nearly 90% of adolescents showed at least one risk factor. Inadequate consumption of fruits (56.7%) and vegetables (43.9%) and physical inactivity (39.2%) were the most prevalent risk factors. Prevalence rates for high blood pressure and overweight were 18.6 and 12.7%, respectively. Cardiovascular risk factors were more frequent among boys (PR = 1.20; 95%CI = 1.01-1.42). In conclusion, cardiovascular risk factors are a prevalent health issue among students in the city of Londrina. PMID:19009137

  15. Paternal and Maternal Transition to Parenthood: The Risk of Postpartum Depression and Parenting Stress.

    PubMed

    Epifanio, Maria Stella; Genna, Vitalba; De Luca, Caterina; Roccella, Michele; La Grutta, Sabina

    2015-05-25

    Transition to parenthood represents an important life event increasing vulnerability to psychological disorders. Postpartum depression and parenting distress are the most common psychological disturbances and a growing scientific evidence suggests that both mothers and fathers are involved in this developmental crisis. This paper aims to explore maternal and paternal experience of transition to parenthood in terms of parenting distress and risk of postpartum depression. Seventy-five couples of first-time parents were invited to compile the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form in the first month of children life. Study sample reported very high levels of parenting distress and a risk of postpartum depression in 20.8% of mothers and 5.7% of fathers. No significant correlation between parenting distress and the risk of postpartum depression emerged, both in mothers than in fathers group while maternal distress levels are related to paternal one. The first month after partum represents a critical phase of parents life and it could be considered a developmental crisis characterized by anxiety, stress and mood alterations that could have important repercussions on the child psycho-physical development. PMID:26266033

  16. Paternal and Maternal Transition to Parenthood: The Risk of Postpartum Depression and Parenting Stress

    PubMed Central

    Epifanio, Maria Stella; Genna, Vitalba; De Luca, Caterina; Roccella, Michele; La Grutta, Sabina

    2015-01-01

    Transition to parenthood represents an important life event increasing vulnerability to psychological disorders. Postpartum depression and parenting distress are the most common psychological disturbances and a growing scientific evidence suggests that both mothers and fathers are involved in this developmental crisis. This paper aims to explore maternal and paternal experience of transition to parenthood in terms of parenting distress and risk of postpartum depression. Seventy-five couples of first-time parents were invited to compile the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form in the first month of children life. Study sample reported very high levels of parenting distress and a risk of postpartum depression in 20.8% of mothers and 5.7% of fathers. No significant correlation between parenting distress and the risk of postpartum depression emerged, both in mothers than in fathers group while maternal distress levels are related to paternal one. The first month after partum represents a critical phase of parents life and it could be considered a developmental crisis characterized by anxiety, stress and mood alterations that could have important repercussions on the child psycho-physical development. PMID:26266033

  17. Contextual Risk, Maternal Negative Emotionality, and the Negative Emotion Dysregulation of Preschool Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Eleanor D.; Ackerman, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined relations between contextual risk, maternal negative emotionality, and preschool teacher reports of the negative emotion dysregulation of children from economically disadvantaged families. Contextual risk was represented by cumulative indexes of family and neighborhood adversity. The results showed a direct…

  18. A case–control study of maternal bathing habits and risk for birth defects in offspring

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nearly all women shower or take baths during early pregnancy; however, bathing habits (i.e., shower and bath length and frequency) may be related to the risk of maternal hyperthermia and exposure to water disinfection byproducts, both of which are suspected to increase risk for multiple types of birth defects. Thus, we assessed the relationships between bathing habits during pregnancy and the risk for several nonsyndromic birth defects in offspring. Methods Data for cases with one of 13 types of birth defects and controls from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study delivered during 2000–2007 were evaluated. Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each type of birth defect. Results There were few associations between shower frequency or bath frequency or length and risk for birth defects in offspring. The risk for gastroschisis in offspring was increased among women who reported showers lasting ?15 compared to <15 minutes (adjusted odds ratio: 1.43, 95% confidence interval: 1.18-1.72). In addition, we observed modest increases in the risk for spina bifida, cleft lip with or without cleft palate, and limb reduction defects in offspring of women who showered ?15 compared to <15 minutes. The results of comparisons among more specific categories of shower length (i.e., <15 minutes versus 15–19, 20–29, and???30 minutes) were similar. Conclusions Our findings suggest that shower length may be associated with gastroschisis, but the modest associations with other birth defects were not supported by analyses of bath length or bath or shower frequency. Given that showering for ?15 minutes during pregnancy is very common, further evaluation of the relationship between maternal showering habits and birth defects in offspring is worthwhile. PMID:24131571

  19. Ethnic differences in risk factors for obesity in New Zealand infants

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Laura D; Ellison-Loschmann, Lis; Pearce, Neil; Douwes, Jeroen; Jeffreys, Mona; Firestone, Ridvan

    2015-01-01

    Background In New Zealand, the burden of childhood obesity is greatest in M?ori and Pacific children. Methods In 687 infants from an internet-based birth cohort in New Zealand, we investigated ethnic differences in early life risk factors for later obesity, the degree to which these were explained by sociodemographic factors, and the extent to which ethnic differences in weight at age 3?months were explained by measured risk factors. Results The risk of having an obese mother was double in M?ori and Pacific infants compared with NZ European infants (prevalence 24% and 14%, respectively; OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.23 to 4.04). M?ori and Pacific infants had higher weights in the first week of life and at 3?months (mean difference 0.19?kg, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.38), and their mothers had higher scores on a ‘snacks’ dietary pattern and lower scores on ‘healthy’ and ‘sweet’ dietary patterns. These inequalities were not explained by maternal education, maternal age or area-based deprivation. No ethnic differences were observed for maternal pre-pregnancy physical activity, hypertension or diabetes in pregnancy, exclusive breastfeeding or early introduction of solid foods. Ethnic inequalities in infant weight at 3?months were not explained by sociodemographic variables, maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index or dietary pattern scores or by other measured risk factors. Conclusions This study shows excess prevalence of early life risk factors for obesity in M?ori and Pacific infants in New Zealand and suggests an urgent need for early interventions for these groups. PMID:25795734

  20. Altered maternal profiles in corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Gammie, Stephen C; Bethea, Emily D; Stevenson, Sharon A

    2007-01-01

    Background During lactation, the CNS is less responsive to the anxiogenic neuropeptide, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). Further, central injections of CRF inhibit maternal aggression and some maternal behaviors, suggesting decreased CRF neurotransmission during lactation supports maternal behaviors. In this study, we examined the maternal profile of mice missing the CRF receptor 1 (CRFR1). Offspring of knockout (CRFR1-/-) mice were heterozygote to offset possible deleterious effects of low maternal glucocorticoids on pup survival and all mice contained a mixed 50:50 inbred/outbred background to improve overall maternal profiles and fecundity. Results Relative to littermate wild-type (WT) controls, CRFR1-/- mice exhibited significant deficits in total time nursing, including high arched-back, on each test day. Consistent with decreased nursing, pups of CRFR1-deficient dams weighed significantly less than WT offspring. Licking and grooming of pups was significantly higher in WT mice on postpartum Day 2 and when both test days were averaged, but not on Day 3. Time off nest was higher for CRFR1-/- mice on Day 2, but not on Day 3 or when test days were averaged. Licking and grooming of pups did not differ on Day 2 when this measure was examined as a proportion of time on nest. CRFR1-/- mice showed significantly higher nest building on Day 3 and when tests were averaged. Mean pup number was almost identical between groups and no pup mortality occurred. Maternal aggression was consistently lower in CRFR1-/- mice and in some measures these differences approached, but did not reach significance. Because of high variance, general aggression results are viewed as preliminary. In terms of sites of attacks on intruders, CRFR1-/- mice exhibited significantly fewer attacks to the belly of the intruder on Day 5 and when tests were averaged. Performance on the elevated plus maze was similar between genotypes. Egr-1 expression differences in medial preoptic nucleus and c-Fos expression differences in bed nucleus of stria terminalis between genotype suggest possible sites where loss of gene alters behavioral output. Conclusion Taken together, the results suggest that the presence of an intact CRFR1 receptor supports some aspects of nurturing behavior. PMID:17331244

  1. Risk Factors and Levels of Risk for High School Dropouts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Suhyun; Suh, Jingyo

    2007-01-01

    The study in this article identifies three major risk categories of high school dropouts and evaluates the impact of possible prevention strategies. As students accumulate these risks, they became more likely to drop out and prevention programs become less effective. Additionally, it was found that factors influencing the decision to drop out vary…

  2. Biomarkers - Risk Factor Monitoring & Methods

    Cancer.gov

    A biomarker is a biologic specimen that may be a marker of exposure to some substance, of its metabolism, or of the integration of exposure and metabolism. Biomarkers may also reflect host characteristics. Because biomarkers are sometimes related to risk of disease, they are important in cancer control research.

  3. Home-Alone Risk Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Mick; Apts, Sherry

    1991-01-01

    This article explores potential risks faced by children with disabilities who are left at home alone. The importance of assessing children's needs and skills for safely staying home alone is stressed and suggestions offered for concepts to teach children, alternate methods of supervision, and other practical concerns. (PB)

  4. Maternal history of diabetes is associated with increased cardiometabolic risk in Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Tam, C H T; Wang, Y; Luan, J; Lee, H M; Luk, A O Y; Tutino, G E; Tong, P C Y; Kong, A P S; So, W Y; Chan, J C N; Ma, R C W

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Positive family history is associated with increased type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk, and reflects both genetic and environmental risks. Several studies have suggested an excess maternal transmission of T2D, although the underlying mechanism is unknown. We aimed to examine the association between maternal diabetes and cardiometabolic risk in the offspring. Methods: Parental history of diabetes and clinical data including anthropometric traits, fasting plasma glucose and insulin (FPG, FPI), blood pressure and lipid profile were collected from 2581 unrelated Chinese offspring (2026 adolescents from a population-based school survey and 555 adults from a community-based health screening programme). A subset of subjects (n=834) underwent oral glucose tolerance test to measure the glucose and insulin concentrations at 0, 15, 30, 60 and 120?min for evaluation of the areas under the curve (AUC) of glucose and insulin at 0–120?min, homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and bell-cell function, insulinogenic index, insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and oral disposition index (DI). Results: A positive parental history of diabetes was associated with increased risk of obesity (odd ratios (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI))=1.48 (1.10–2.00)), central obesity (OR (95% CI)=1.67 (1.21–2.32)), higher FPI, HOMA-IR, 2-h insulin, AUC of glucose at 0–120?min, triglycerides, reduced ISI and DI. Compared with individuals without parental diabetes, offspring with diabetic mother had significantly increased risk of obesity (OR (95% CI)=1.59 (1.07–2.35)), central obesity (OR (95% CI)=1.88 (1.23–2.88)), higher glucose levels and BP, were more insulin resistant but also had impaired first-phase insulin response and worse lipid profile. However, paternal history of diabetes had no effect on any of the studied traits, except higher body mass index, waist circumference in females and FPG. Conclusions: Our findings suggested that maternal history of diabetes conferred increased risk of cardiometabolic abnormalities, and was associated with both insulin resistance and impaired first-phase insulin secretion. Further investigation into the mechanism of transgenerational diabetes is warranted. PMID:24614663

  5. Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Anabel N; Abreu, Glaucia R; Resende, Rogério S; Goncalves, Washington LS; Gouvea, Sonia Alves

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness) in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Sources A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012. Summary of findings Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents. Conclusions Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century. PMID:23515212

  6. Risk factors among stroke subtypes in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Porcello Marrone, Luiz Carlos; Diogo, Luciano Passamani; de Oliveira, Faberson Mocelin; Trentin, Sheila; Scalco, Renata Siciliani; de Almeida, Andréa Garcia; Gutierres, Luis del Carmo Vega; Marrone, Antônio Carlos Huf; da Costa, Jaderson Costa

    2013-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and disability in Brazil. Among the risk factors for cerebrovascular disease, some have more influence than others in certain stroke subtypes. Little data are available in the literature on the prevalence of stroke subtypes in Latin America. We analyzed data from 688 patients with acute ischemic stroke (52.3% women; mean age, 65.7 years) who were enrolled in a stroke data bank. Standardized data assessment and stroke subtype classification were used. The most common stroke subtype was large-artery atherosclerosis (n = 223; 32.4%), followed by cardioembolism (n = 195; 28.3%), and microangiopathy (n = 127; 18.5%). Stroke risk factors differ among stroke subtypes. The population of South America is ethnically diverse, and few previous studies have describe the distribution of risk factors among stroke subtypes in this population. In this study, the most important risk factors were hypertension and dyslipidemia. PMID:22078780

  7. What Are Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... risk factors. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video All of Our Stories Are Red: Yaskary's Story 04/ ... part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). All of Our Stories Are Red: Eileen's Story 04/ ...

  8. Effects of Disasters: Risk and Resilience Factors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... property Displacement (being forced to leave home) Developing countries These risk factors can be made worse if the disaster occurs in a developing country. Disasters in developing countries have more severe mental ...

  9. Maternal Self-Efficacy in the Home Food Environment: A Qualitative Study among Low-Income Mothers of Nutritionally At-Risk Children in an Urban Area of Jakarta, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolopaking, Risatianti; Bardosono, Saptawati; Fahmida, Umi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the factors that encompass maternal self-efficacy in providing food for the home. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 19 mothers of nutritionally at risk children in an urban area of East Jakarta, Indonesia. This study was based on Social Cognitive Theory, Family Stress Models, and Ecological Frameworks. Data…

  10. BEHAVIORAL RISK FACTOR SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (BRFSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), the world's largest telephone survey, tracks health risks in the United States. Information from the survey is used to improve the health of the American people. Since the early 1980s, BRFSS data have been used to identify e...

  11. Maternal nerve growth factor levels during pregnancy in women with preeclampsia: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    D'souza, Vandita; Kilari, Anitha; Pisal, Hemlata; Patil, Vidya; Mehendale, Savita; Wagh, Girija; Gupte, Sanjay; Joshi, Sadhana

    2015-12-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. Improper development of the placenta due to altered angiogenesis is the main culprit in PE. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is an angiogenic factor which is expressed and localized in the placenta. Our earlier cross sectional study has shown altered NGF levels at delivery in women with PE. However, there are no studies on NGF levels in PE early in pregnancy before manifestation of the disease. Thus, there is a need to examine the role of NGF in vascular development during different stages of gestation in PE. A longitudinal study was carried out where pregnant women were enrolled from two major hospitals from Pune, Bharati hospital and Gupte hospital. They were followed at three different time points [16-20 weeks (T1), 26-30 weeks (T2) and at delivery (T3)] during pregnancy and maternal blood at every time point and cord blood at delivery was collected and processed. This study included normotensive women (n=88) and women with PE (n=48). NGF levels were measured from maternal and cord plasma using the Emax Immuno Assay System (Promega). The data was analyzed using the SPSS/PC+ package (Version 20.0, Chicago, IL, USA). Maternal NGF levels did not change at all time points while cord NGF levels were higher (p<0.05) in women with PE. Further, maternal NGF levels were negatively associated with blood pressure while cord NGF levels were positively associated with baby head circumference. Our data suggests that there may possibly be a compensatory role for NGF in the foeto-placental circulation in PE. PMID:26342999

  12. Wide Variation Found In Hospital Facility Costs For Maternity Stays Involving Low-Risk Childbirth.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao; Gariepy, Aileen; Lundsberg, Lisbet S; Sheth, Sangini S; Pettker, Christian M; Krumholz, Harlan M; Illuzzi, Jessica L

    2015-07-01

    Childbirth is the leading cause of hospital admission in the United States, yet there has been little research on variation in hospital costs associated with childbirth. Using data from the 2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, we characterized the variation in estimated facility costs of hospitalizations for low-risk childbirth across US hospitals. We found that the average estimated facility cost per maternity stay ranged from $1,189 to $11,986 (median: $4,215), with a 2.2-fold difference between the 10th and 90th percentiles. Estimated facility costs were higher at hospitals with higher rates of cesarean delivery or serious maternal morbidity. Hospitals having government or nonprofit ownership; being a rural hospital; and having relatively low volumes of childbirths, low proportions of childbirths covered by Medicaid, and long stays also had significantly higher costs. The large variation in estimated facility cost for low-risk childbirths among hospitals suggests that hospital practices might be an important contributor to variation in cost and that there may be opportunities for cost reduction. The safe reduction of cesarean deliveries, increasing the coordination of care, and emphasizing value of care through new payment and delivery systems reforms may help reduce hospital costs and cost variation associated with childbirth in the United States. PMID:26153317

  13. Maternal risk behavior and caries incidence in children with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Soares, Felipe Fagundes; Cangussu, Maria Cristina Teixeira; Vianna, Maria Isabel Pereira; Rossi, Thais Regis Aranha; Carvalho, Anderson Santos; Brito, Maria Goretti Silva

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of caries, in relation to maternal risk behaviors and clinical conditions representing different levels of sickle cell disease severity. A total of 295 children aged 6 to 60 months participated in this cohort conducted from August 2007 to December 2008. They were diagnosed and monitored by the referral service of the state. Interviews were made with families to identify sociodemographic variables, and an oral exam was performed to determine dental caries. The SRQ (Self Report Questionnaire) scale was used to diagnose the presence of common mental disorders, and the CAGE (Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty and Eye opener) was applied to determine abusive use of alcohol. The absolute and relative frequencies of the variables of interest were analyzed by Chi-square and Mann-Whitney, with a 5% significance level. The incidence variables were analyzed according to the logistic regression model, with a confidence interval of 95%. Caries incidence (1.98; SD = 4.68) was higher in the HbSS genotype. There was a statistically significant association between caries incidence and both abusive use of alcohol (32.43%, RR = 1.99; 1.05-3.78; 95%CI) and common mental disorders (8.77% RR = 0.37; 0.15-0.93; 95%CI). There was also an association between caries incidence and maternal risk behavior, indicating that the care network should be expanded to include patients with sickle cell disease. PMID:26676194

  14. Risk Factors for Classical Hysterotomy in Twin Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Osmundson, Sarah S.; Garabedian, Matthew J.; Yeaton-Massey, Amanda; Lyell, Deirdre J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the rate of classical hysterotomy in twin pregnancies across gestational age and examine risk factors that increase its occurrence. METHODS This is a secondary analysis of the Cesarean Registry, a cohort study of women who underwent a cesarean delivery or a trial of labor after cesarean delivery at 19 academic centers between 1999 and 2002. Our study included all women with twin pregnancies and a recorded hysterotomy type who underwent cesarean delivery between 23 0/7 and 41 6/7 weeks of gestation. Primary exposures were gestational age at delivery and combined birth weight of twin A and twin B. Multivariate logistic regression was used to study factors thought to influence hysterotomy type including maternal age, body mass index (BMI) at delivery, obesity (BMI 30 or higher), nulliparity, labor, prior cesarean delivery, emergent delivery, and fetal presentation at delivery. RESULTS Of 1,820 women meeting inclusion criteria, 125 (7%) underwent a classical hysterotomy. The risk of classical hysterotomy was greatest at 25 weeks of gestation (41%) and declined thereafter. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for cesarean delivery declined as gestation age advanced (OR 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.78–0.98). African American race and emergent delivery were associated risk factors for classical hysterotomy at 32 weeks of gestation or greater. CONCLUSION Among women with twin pregnancies who deliver by cesarean, the incidence of classical hysterotomy is inversely related to gestational age but does not exceed 50% at any week; African American race and emergent delivery are associated risk factors at 32 weeks of gestation or greater. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE II PMID:25730228

  15. Maternal Age at First Birth and Boys' Risk for Conduct Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Gordon, Rachel A.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Loeber, Rolf; Green, Stephanie M.; Leventhal, Bennett L.

    2000-01-01

    Studied multigenerational links between maternal history of problem behavior, mother's age at birth of first child, and child conduct disorder in boys. Found that maternal age at first birth was associated with child's conduct disorder, and maternal history of problem behavior was also associated with early maternal age at first birth and the…

  16. Risk Factors for Homelessness Among US Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. PMID:25595171

  17. Stroke in Bangladeshi patients and risk factor.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Q D; Habib, M; Mondal, B A; Chowdhury, R N; Hasan, M H; Hoque, M A; Rahman, K M; Khan, S U; Chowdhury, A H; Haque, B

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate comprehensively the distribution of established risk factors of stroke among Bangladeshi patients. This is an observational study. It involved 8400 stroke patients from different hospitals in Bangladesh over a period of sixteen years. Common established risk factors of stroke e.g. age, sex, family history, hypertension, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, smoking, obesity, dyslipidaemia, alcoholism, use of oral contraceptive pill, lack of fresh fruit consumption etc. were evaluated in these patients through a preformed questionnaire and data were analyzed. Majority of the stroke events occurred after the age of forty (82.3%) and the ischemic stroke (72%) is the most common. Apart from non modifiable risk factors (advancing age, sex, Family history of stroke) hypertension was the most common modifiable risk factor found in stroke patients (57.6%) followed by smoking (44.6%), tobacco use (24.3%), OCP use in female (40% of female stroke), diabetes (23%), ischemic heart disease (17.1%), obesity (10.6%) and dyslipidaemia (5.3%). Lack of fresh fruit consumption and alcoholism were found in some of the patients. Stroke is common after the age of forty. Ischemic events are commonest type of stroke. Hypertension, smoking, tobacco use, diabetes and ischemic heart disease were five most common risk factors of stroke. Outlining the common stroke risk factors in our settings, may help the physicians and care givers in managing this disabling disease properly. PMID:25178605

  18. Adolescent risk factors for child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Thornberry, Terence P; Matsuda, Mauri; Greenman, Sarah J; Augustyn, Megan Bears; Henry, Kimberly L; Smith, Carolyn A; Ireland, Timothy O

    2014-04-01

    We investigate adolescent risk factors, measured at both early and late adolescence, for involvement in child maltreatment during adulthood. Comprehensive assessments of risk factors for maltreatment that use representative samples with longitudinal data are scarce and can inform multilevel prevention. We use data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study begun in 1988 with a sample of 1,000 seventh and eighth graders. Participants have been interviewed 14 times and, at the last assessment (age 31), 80% were retained. Risk factors represent 10 developmental domains: area characteristics, family background/structure, parent stressors, exposure to family violence, parent-child relationships, education, peer relationships, adolescent stressors, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions to adulthood. Maltreatment is measured by substantiated reports from Child Protective Services records. Many individual risk factors (20 at early adolescence and 14 at later adolescence) are significantly, albeit moderately, predictive of maltreatment. Several developmental domains stand out, including family background/structure, education, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions. In addition, there is a pronounced impact of cumulative risk on the likelihood of maltreatment. For example, only 3% of the youth with no risk domains in their background at early adolescence were involved in later maltreatment, but for those with risk in 9 developmental domains the rate was 45%. Prevention programs targeting youth at high risk for engaging in maltreatment should begin during early adolescence when risk factors are already at play. These programs need to be comprehensive, capable of addressing the multiple and interwoven nature of risk that is associated with maltreatment. PMID:24075569

  19. Adolescent Risk Factors for Child Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Mauri; Greenman, Sarah J.; Augustyn, Megan Bears; Henry, Kimberly L.; Smith, Carolyn A.; Ireland, Timothy O.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate adolescent risk factors, measured at both early and late adolescence, for involvement in child maltreatment during adulthood. Comprehensive assessments of risk factors for maltreatment that use representative samples with longitudinal data are scarce and can inform multilevel prevention. We use data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study begun in 1988 with a sample of 1,000 seventh and eighth graders. Participants have been interviewed 14 times and, at the last assessment (age 31), 80% were retained. Risk factors represent 10 developmental domains: area characteristics, family background/structure, parent stressors, exposure to family violence, parent-child relationships, education, peer relationships, adolescent stressors, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions to adulthood. Maltreatment is measured by substantiated reports from Child Protective Services records. Many individual risk factors (20 at early adolescence and 14 at later adolescence) are significantly, albeit moderately, predictive of maltreatment. Several developmental domains stand out, including family background/structure, education, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions. In addition, there is a pronounced impact of cumulative risk on the likelihood of maltreatment. For example, only 3% of the youth with no risk domains in their background at early adolescence were involved in later maltreatment, but for those with risk in 9 developmental domains the rate was 45%. Prevention programs targeting youth at high risk for engaging in maltreatment should begin during early adolescence when risk factors are already at play. These programs need to be comprehensive, capable of addressing the multiple and interwoven nature of risk that is associated with maltreatment. PMID:24075569

  20. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  1. Ranking risk factors for perinatal mortality. Analysis of a nation-wide study.

    PubMed

    Samueloff, A; Mor-Yosef, S; Seidman, D S; Adler, I; Persitz, E; Schenker, J G

    1989-01-01

    This paper analyses data from the Israeli nationwide perinatal census, with the aim of revealing the possible causes of perinatal death, and to assess the effects of risk factors, using a logistic regression analysis. The analysis provided an estimate of the net effect of each characteristic independently, thus identifying high-risk pregnancies that should be monitored with greater intensity. Five variables were found to have a significant effect on perinatal death. Among these, in order of decreasing risk: fetal presentation, maternal diseases complicating pregnancy, number of fetuses, ethnic origin, and maternal age. Other variables such as parity, standard of hospital, the mother's country of birth and domiciliary circumstances, did not significantly affect perinatal mortality. PMID:2631538

  2. Neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone level is influenced by neonatal, maternal, and pregnancy factors.

    PubMed

    Trumpff, Caroline; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo; Vanderpas, Jean; Tafforeau, Jean; Van Oyen, Herman; De Schepper, Jean

    2015-11-01

    The percentage of newborns with a neonatal whole blood thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) greater than 5 mIU/L has been used as an indicator of iodine deficiency at the population level. However, TSH levels in newborns may be influenced by many factors other than iodine status. The objective of this study was to identify neonatal, maternal, and pregnancy-related determinants of neonatal TSH levels in a retrospective cohort study. The study sample included 313 Belgian mothers and their 4- to 5-year-old children. The children had a neonatal TSH concentration between 0 and 15 mIU/L at neonatal screening, and blood samples were collected 3 to 5 days after birth. Children with suspected congenital hypothyroidism (neonatal TSH level >15 mIU/L), prematurely born (ie, <37 weeks), or with a low birth weight (ie, <2500 g) were excluded. Information about maternal and birth-related determinants was collected from the neonatal screening center via a self-administered questionnaire filled in by the mother together with the child's health booklet. Higher TSH levels were found in spring and winter compared to summer and autumn (P = .011). Higher TSH levels were associated with lifetime smoking behavior (up to child birth) in the mother (P = .005), lower weight gain during pregnancy (P = .014), and longer pregnancies (P = .003). This study showed that several neonatal, maternal, and pregnancy-related determinants are influencing neonatal TSH level. PMID:26428622

  3. Cervical Artery Dissection: Emerging Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Micheli, S; Paciaroni, M; Corea, F; Agnelli, G; Zampolini, M; Caso, V

    2010-01-01

    Cervical artery dissection (CAD) represents an increasingly recognized cause of stroke and the most common cause of ischemic stroke in young adults. Many factors have been identified in association with CAD such as primary disease of arterial wall (fibrodysplasia) and other non-specific diseases related to CAD like Ehlers Danlos-syndrome IV, Marfan’s syndrome, vessel tortuosity. Moreover, an underlying arteriopathy which could be in part genetically determined, has been suspected. The rule of emerging risk factors for CAD such as recent respiratory tract infection, migraine and hyperhomocysteinemia are still a matter of research. Other known risks factors for CAD are major head/neck trauma like chiropractic maneuver, coughing or hyperextension injury associated to car. We examined emerging risks factors for CAD detected in the last years, as CAD pathogenesis is still not completely understood and needs further investigations. PMID:21270941

  4. Prenatal factors and infant feeding in relation to risk of benign breast disease in young women.

    PubMed

    Berkey, Catherine S; Rosner, Bernard; Willett, Walter C; Tamimi, Rulla M; Lindsay Frazier, A; Colditz, Graham A

    2015-12-01

    Benign breast disease (BBD) is a well-established risk factor for breast cancer, but little work has considered a girl's early life and her risk for BBD in adulthood. We investigated factors, from pre-conception through infant feeding practices, in relation to subsequent BBD risk in young women. The Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) includes 9032 females, born 1980-1987, who completed questionnaires annually from 1996 through 2001, then 2003, 2005, 2007, 2010, and 2013. In 1996, their mothers provided each participant's birth weight and length, gestational age, biological father's height, and infant feeding factors (e.g., breast-fed, type of formula). In 1999, their mothers reported maternal pre-pregnancy weight and weight gain during index pregnancy. Beginning in 2005, daughters (18 years+) reported whether they had ever been diagnosed with biopsy-confirmed BBD (n = 142 cases, through 2013). Logistic regression estimated associations between early life factors and biopsy-confirmed BBD. Girls whose mother's BMI prior to pregnancy was 20-25 kg/m(2) were at lower risk of BBD as young women (OR = 0.66, p = 0.04, vs. maternal pre-pregnancy BMI < 20). Girls whose mothers gained 20 + pounds (vs. <20 pounds) during pregnancy were at lower risk (among full-term singleton births: OR = 0.48, p = 0.007, if mother gained 20-35 pounds). However, neither birth weight nor BMI at birth were associated with subsequent BBD risk. We found no evidence that infant feeding practices were linked to BBD. A healthy maternal BMI before pregnancy and sufficient weight gain during pregnancy may produce daughters at lower risk for BBD as young women. Further examination of these findings is needed. PMID:26582399

  5. Risk of retinoblastoma is associated with a maternal polymorphism in dihydrofolatereductase (DHFR) and pre-natal folic acid intake

    PubMed Central

    Orjuela, MA; Cabrera-Muñoz, L; Paul, L; Ramirez-Ortiz, MA; Liu, X; Chen, J; Mejia-Rodriguez, F; Medina-Sanson, A; Diaz-Carreño, S; Suen, IH; Selhub, J; Ponce-Castañeda, MV

    2012-01-01

    Background Incidence of unilateral retinoblastoma varies globally suggesting possible environmental contributors to disease incidence. Maternal intake of naturally occurring folate from vegetables during pregnancy is inversely associated with risk of retinoblastoma in offspring. Methods Using a case-control study design, we examined the association between retinoblastoma risk and maternal variations in the folate-metabolizing genes, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR677C>T, rs1801133) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR 19base pair deletion of intron 1a [DHFR19bpdel], rs70991108). In central Mexico, we enrolled 103 mothers of children with newly diagnosed unilateral retinoblastoma and 97 control mothers who had healthy children in an IRB approved study. Mothers were interviewed regarding perinatal characteristics including use of prenatal vitamin supplements and gave peripheral blood samples used for PCR-based genotyping of rs1801133 and rs70991108. Results The risk of having a child with unilateral retinoblastoma were associated with maternal homozygosity for DHFR19bpdel (OR=3.78, 95%CI:1.89,7.55; p=0.0002), even after controlling for child’s DHFR19bpdel genotype (OR=2.81, 95%CI:1.32,5.99; p=0.0073). In a subgroup of 167 mothers with data on prenatal intake of supplements containing folic acid (a synthetic form of folate), DHFR19bpdel-associated risk was significantly elevated only among those who reported taking folic acid supplements. Maternal MTHFR genotype was unrelated to risk of having a child with retinoblastoma. Conclusion Maternal homozygosity for a polymorphism in the DHFR gene necessary for converting synthetic folic acid into biological folate is associated with increased risk for retinoblastoma. Prenatal ingestion of synthetic folic acid supplements may be associated with increased risk for early childhood carcinogenesis in a genetically susceptible subset of the population. PMID:22648968

  6. Maternal serum lead levels and risk of preeclampsia in pregnant women: a cohort study in a maternity hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Jameil, Noura Al

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is one of the major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Despite numerous studies, the etiology of preeclampsia has not yet been fully elucidated. There has been confliction in results on the role of maternal lead in preeclampsia. Keeping in view with the scarcity of data on role of lead in preeclamptic women of Saudi Arabia and the disparity in earlier findings, the present study was carried out to determine the levels of maternal serum lead in patients with preeclampsia in comparison to normal pregnancy. The study consisted of 120 pregnant women divided into three groups of 40 each, control, HR group and PET group. The serum levels of lead were estimated by Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. We found that the mean value of serum lead was 18.23 ± 2.34, 20.08 ± 2.15 and 27.18 ± 2.13 µg/dl in control, high risk group and preeclamptic group respectively. The levels of Pb were found to decrease significantly (P < 0.05) in preeclamptic group compared to control. However, there was no significant change in levels of Pb when HR group was compared to Control and preeclamptic group. In the present study, we observed that serum levels of lead were positively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure and were statistically significant (P < 0.05). However, negative correlation was observed between Pb and BMI ruling out the association of BMI with preeclampsia. It is thus concluded that preeclampsia is associated with significant increase in maternal lead and these increasing levels of serum lead pose a significant risk in pregnant women to preeclampsia. PMID:25031738

  7. [Aflatoxins--health risk factors].

    PubMed

    Mili??, Nicoleta Manuela; Mih?escu, Gr; Chifiriuc, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by a group of strains, mainly Aspergillus and Penicillium species. These mycotoxins are bifurano-coumarin derivatives group with four major products B1, B2, G1 and G2 according to blue or green fluorescence emitted in ultraviolet light and according to chromatographic separation. After metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and B2 in the mammalian body, result two metabolites M1 and M2 as hydroxylated derivatives of the parent compound. Aflatoxins have high carcinogenic potential, the most powerful carcinogens in different species of animals and humans. International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified aflatoxin B1 in Group I carcinogens. The target organ for aflatoxins is the liver. In chronic poisoning, aflatoxin is a risk to health, for a long term causing cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma), and in acute intoxications aflatoxin is lethal. This work purpose to discuss aflatoxins issue: the synthesis, absorption and elimination of aflatoxins, the toxicity mechanisms, and measures to limit the content of aflatoxins in food PMID:21038701

  8. Industrial risk factors for colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lashner, B.A.; Epstein, S.S. )

    1990-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common malignancy in the United States, and its incidence rates have sharply increased recently, especially in males. Industrial exposures, both occupational and environmental, are important colorectal cancer risk factors that are generally unrecognized by clinicians. Migration studies have documented that colorectal cancer is strongly associated with environmental risk factors. The causal role of occupational exposures is evidenced by a substantial literature associating specific work practices with increased colorectal cancer risks. Industrially related environmental exposures, including polluted drinking water and ionizing radiation, have also been associated with excess risks. Currently, there is a tendency to attribute colorectal cancer, largely or exclusively, to dietary and other lifestyle factors, thus neglecting these industrially related effects. Concerted efforts are needed to recognize the causal role of industrial risk factors and to encourage government and industry to reduce carcinogenic exposures. Furthermore, cost-effective screening programs for high-risk population groups are critically needed to further reduce deaths from colorectal cancer. 143 references.

  9. Assessment of Risk Factors and Prognosis in Asphyxiated Infants

    PubMed Central

    Boskabadi, Hassan; Ashrafzadeh, Farah; Doosti, Hassan; Zakerihamidi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Asphyxia is considered an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. This condition can affect many vital organs including the central nervous system and may eventually lead to death or developmental disorders. Objectives: Considering the high prevalence of asphyxia and its adverse consequences, the present study was conducted to evaluate the risk factors for birth asphyxia and assess their correlation with prognosis in asphyxiated infants. Patients and Methods: This two-year follow-up cohort study was conducted on 260 infants (110 asphyxiated infants and 150 healthy neonates) at Mashhad Ghaem Hospital during 2007 - 2014. Data collection tools consisted of a researcher-designed questionnaire including maternal and neonatal information and clinical/laboratory test results. The subjects were followed-up, using Denver II test for 6, 12, 18, and 24 months (after discharge). For data analysis, t-test was performed, using SPSS version 16.5. P value ? 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Of 260 neonates, 199 (76.5%) and 61 (23.5%) cases presented with normal neonatal outcomes and with abnormal neonatal outcomes (developmental delay), respectively. Variables such as the severity of asphyxia (P = 0.000), five-minute Apgar score (P = 0.015), need for ventilation (P = 0.000), and severity of acidosis at birth (P = 0.001) were the major prognostic factors in infants with asphyxia. Additionally, prognosis was significantly poorer in boys and infants with dystocia history (P = 0.000). Conclusions: Prevalence of risk factors for developmental delay including the severity of asphyxia need for mechanical ventilation, and severity of acidosis at birth, dystocia, and Apgar score were lower in surviving infants; therefore, controlling these risk factors may reduce asphyxia-associated complications. PMID:26396695

  10. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring type 1 diabetes mellitus risk: accounting for HLA haplotype.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Kristina; Jönsson, Ida; Malmqvist, Ebba; Larsson, Helena Elding; Rylander, Lars

    2015-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) in children exposed to tobacco smoking in utero, also taking genetic predisposition as expressed by HLA haplotype into account. In Skåne, the southernmost county of Sweden, all children born 1999-2005 who developed T1D were registered, resulting in 344 cases. For each child with T1D, three control children, matched for HLA haplotype and birthyear, were selected. Information on prenatal smoking exposure was retrieved from a regional birth register. Conditional logistic regressions were used to evaluate T1D risk following prenatal smoking exposure. In these data, maternal smoking in early pregnancy was associated with a higher risk of her child developing T1D [odds ratio (OR) 2.83; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.67-4.80 for 1-9 cigarettes/day, and OR 3.91; 95% CI 1.22-12.51 for >9 cigarettes/day]. Results remained through all adjustments and sensitivity analyses. When genetic predisposition in terms of HLA haplotype was taken into account, we found that children exposed to smoking during fetal life were at higher risk of developing T1D in childhood. PMID:25576078

  11. EFFECT OF INDIVIDUAL AND COMMUNITY FACTORS ON MATERNAL HEALTH CARE SERVICE USE IN INDIA: A MULTILEVEL APPROACH.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Awdhesh; Kesarwani, Ranjana

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess empirically the influence of individual and community (neighbourhood) factors on the use of maternal health care services in India through three outcomes: utilization of full antenatal care (ANC) services, safe delivery and utilization of postnatal care services. Data were from the third round of the National Family Health Survey (2005-06). The study sample constituted ever-married women aged 15-49 from 29 Indian states. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed for the three outcomes of interest accounting for individual- and community-level factors associated with the use of maternal health care services. A substantial amount of variation was observed at the community level. About 45%, 51% and 62% of the total variance in the use of full ANC, safe delivery and postnatal care, respectively, could be attributed to differences across the community. There was significant variation in the use of maternal health care services at the individual level, with socioeconomic status and mother's education being the most prominent factors associated with the use of maternal health care services. At the community level, urban residence and poverty concentration were found to be significantly associated with maternal health care service use. The results suggest that an increased focus on community-level interventions could lead to an increase in the utilization of maternal health care services in India. PMID:25741587

  12. Brief Report: Effect of Maternal Age on Severity of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Alisa C.; Lotspeich, Linda J.; Spiker, Donna; Martin, Jacquelin L.; Grether, Judith K.; Hallmayer, Joachim F.

    2007-01-01

    The etiology of autism is complex, consisting of unknown genetic and environmental factors. Previous studies have revealed that maternal age is increased in autism compared to controls, making it a possible risk factor. This study examined the effects of maternal age on autism severity using IQ as a measure of cognitive severity and selected…

  13. Risk factors for the development of pleural empyema in children.

    PubMed

    Elemraid, Mohamed A; Thomas, Matthew F; Blain, Alasdair P; Rushton, Stephen P; Spencer, David A; Gennery, Andrew R; Clark, Julia E

    2015-07-01

    Pediatric pleural empyema has increased substantially over the past 20 years and reasons for this rise remain not fully explained. We investigated potential risk factors for the development of empyema in children by examining a cohort of patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Demographic, clinical, and socioeconomic characteristics, use of Ibuprofen prior to presentation and selected potential epidemiological risk factors were analyzed. Data were collected from a prospective etiological study of radiologically confirmed pneumonia in hospitalized children aged ?16 years. One hundred sixty children were enrolled; 56% were male and 69% aged <5 years. Empyema complication developed in 40 (25%) children. Children with empyema were more frequently prescribed Ibuprofen prior to admission to hospital than those without (82% vs. 46.2%; OR 1.94, 97.5% credible interval 0.80-3.18). Bacterial infection was strongly associated with the development of empyema (OR 3.34, 97.5% credible interval 1.70-5.14). In contrast age, sex, maternal age, parental smoking, level of socioeconomic status, nursery attendance, asthma, household characteristics (bedrooms and number of occupants) were not significantly different between groups. In conclusion, children with pneumonia who developed empyema had more often received Ibuprofen prior to hospitalization and confirmed bacterial infection. We suggest a population-based study involving both primary and secondary care settings would help to investigate the role of Ibuprofen use in modulating the course of disease in children with pneumonia. PMID:24692118

  14. Risk factors for basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hogan, D J; To, T; Gran, L; Wong, D; Lane, P R

    1989-11-01

    Completed questionnaires regarding suspected risk factors for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) were completed by 538 basal cell carcinoma patients and 738 age-, sex-, and location-matched controls in Saskatchewan. Significant risk factors were identified using chi2 analyses. Relative risks were subsequently computed. The following relative risks were identified: occupation of farming, 1.29; prominent freckles in childhood, 1.23; family history of skin cancer, 1.22; sunburn, 1.19; Irish, Scottish, Welsh mother, 1.19; light skin color, 1.18; red/blond hair color, 1.16; and working outdoors more than 3 hours/day in winter, 1.13: The average age of cases of BCC with a family history of skin cancer was significantly lower than cases of BCC with no family history of skin cancer (63.86 vs. 67.02 years, p = 0.018). No association was noted between BCC and psoriasis. PMID:2583903

  15. Risk Factors for Preterm Birth among HIV-Infected Tanzanian Women: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Zack, Rachel M.; Golan, Jenna; Aboud, Said; Msamanga, Gernard; Spiegelman, Donna; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2014-01-01

    Premature delivery, a significant cause of child mortality and morbidity worldwide, is particularly prevalent in the developing world. As HIV is highly prevalent in much of sub-Saharan Africa, it is important to determine risk factors for prematurity among HIV-positive pregnancies. The aims of this study were to identify risk factors of preterm (<37 weeks) and very preterm (<34 weeks) birth among a cohort of 927 HIV positive women living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, who enrolled in the Tanzania Vitamin and HIV Infection Trial between 1995 and 1997. Multivariable relative risk regression models were used to determine the association of potential maternal risk factors with premature and very premature delivery. High rates of preterm (24%) and very preterm birth (9%) were found. Risk factors (adjusted RR (95% CI)) for preterm birth were mother <20 years (1.46 (1.10, 1.95)), maternal illiteracy (1.54 (1.10, 2.16)), malaria (1.42 (1.11, 1.81)), Entamoeba coli (1.49 (1.04, 2.15)), no or low pregnancy weight gain, and HIV disease stage ?2 (1.41 (1.12, 1.50)). Interventions to reduce pregnancies in women under 20, prevent and treat malaria, reduce Entamoeba coli infection, and promote weight gain in pregnant women may have a protective effect on prematurity. PMID:25328529

  16. Psychological Factors Linked to Risk Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arma?, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; St?nciugelu, I.

    2012-04-01

    Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.

  17. Maternal Experience with Predation Risk Influences Genome-Wide Embryonic Gene Expression in Threespined Sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

    PubMed Central

    Mommer, Brett C.; Bell, Alison M.

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence for nongenetic effects of maternal experience on offspring. For example, previous studies have shown that female threespined stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) exposed to predation risk produce offspring with altered behavior, metabolism and stress physiology. Here, we investigate the effect of maternal exposure to predation risk on the embryonic transcriptome in sticklebacks. Using RNA-sequencing we compared genome-wide transcription in three day post-fertilization embryos of predator-exposed and control mothers. There were hundreds of differentially expressed transcripts between embryos of predator-exposed mothers and embryos of control mothers including several non-coding RNAs. Gene Ontology analysis revealed biological pathways involved in metabolism, epigenetic inheritance, and neural proliferation and differentiation that differed between treatments. Interestingly, predation risk is associated with an accelerated life history in many vertebrates, and several of the genes and biological pathways that were identified in this study suggest that maternal exposure to predation risk accelerates the timing of embryonic development. Consistent with this hypothesis, embryos of predator-exposed mothers were larger than embryos of control mothers. These findings point to some of the molecular mechanisms that might underlie maternal effects. PMID:24887438

  18. Maternal Diabetes and the Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Offspring: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Guifeng; Jing, Jin; Bowers, Katherine; Liu, Buyun; Bao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    We performed a systematic literature search regarding maternal diabetes before and during pregnancy and the risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the offspring. Of the 178 potentially relevant articles, 12 articles including three cohort studies and nine case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis. Both the meta-analyses of cohort…

  19. Impact of maternal and neonatal factors on parameters of hematopoietic potential in umbilical cord blood

    PubMed Central

    Al-Deghaither, Sara Y.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine characteristics of laboratory parameters of hematopoietic potential in umbilical cord blood and their association with maternal and neonatal factors. Methods: This prospective analysis was performed on 206 umbilical cord blood donations (50-200 ml) from King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between January and September 2014. Samples were processed and analyzed for total nucleated cells (TNC’s), cluster designation (CD)45+, CD34+ counts, nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) count, and viability testing. Results: Most of the study participants (63.6%) were on their first 3 deliveries and from women with age between 17 and 30 years (80.6%). The donated volume was 50.4-192.4 ml, TNCs ranged from 500.2×106 to 9430.3 ×106 cells, and CD34+ cells ranged from 1.25×106 to 12.82×106/unit. The volume was positively affected by bigger birth weight of the baby (p<0.0001), larger placenta (p=0.001), TNCs (p<0.0001), CD34+ (p<0.0001), NRBCs (p<0.0001), and viability (p=0.002). There were no statistically significant differences between baby boys and girls for laboratory variables. Conclusion: In the selection and identification of a possible donor of umbilical cord blood, several maternal and neonatal factors should be considered, as younger maternal age, neonatal birth weight >3300 grams, larger placental size, and first or second-born babies, were shown to be associated with higher TNCs, CD34+, CD45+, NRBCs, and viability. PMID:25987113

  20. No increased risk of infant hypospadias after maternal use of loratadine in early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Källén, Bengt; Olausson, Petra Otterblad

    2006-01-01

    The original report published in 2001 on a possible association between maternal use of loratadine and an increased risk of infant hypospadias, based on data in the Swedish Medical Birth Register 1995-2001, has been followed up by continued surveillance in the same register. The original “signal” was based on 15 infants with hypospadias among 2780 loratadine-exposed infants born, representing an adjusted odd ratio of about 2.3, statistically significant. Since then another 10 cases have been identified, and 12.5 expected. For the period 2001-2004, another 1911 loratadine-exposed infants have been identified and only two had hypospadias (4 expected). Our present position is that the primary finding was a “signal” which had occurred by chance and the follow-up agrees with independent studies which indicate an absence of an association. This illustrates the care with which apparent statistically significant increases have to be handled when no prior hypothesis exists. PMID:16761079

  1. Potential long-term risks associated with maternal aging (the role of the mitochondria).

    PubMed

    Wilding, Martin

    2015-06-01

    The mean age at which women create families in Western society is increasing. This is in spite of the fact that reproduction in later life is subject to various difficulties, such as the lower probability of conception in relation to maternal age, the increase in spontaneous pregnancy loss, and higher obstetric risk. In this review of recent data, we suggest that a fourth effect, the decrease in lifespan of children in relation to the age of conception of the mother, can be added to the list. We discuss this effect in relation to the transmission of the mitochondria exclusively through the female germ line and the effect of age on this organelle. Data from our own studies and the animal literature as a whole suggest that this effect could be due to the transmission of damaged mitochondrial DNA, and further indicate that the effect is more widespread than previously considered. PMID:25936236

  2. Occupational risk factors for sarcoma subtypes.

    PubMed

    Hoppin, J A; Tolbert, P E; Flanders, W D; Zhang, R H; Daniels, D S; Ragsdale, B D; Brann, E A

    1999-05-01

    Herbicides, chlorophenols, and other occupational exposures are suspected risk factors for soft-tissue sarcoma, but the epidemiologic evidence is inconsistent. Given that soft-tissue sarcomas represent a heterogeneous mix of cancer subtypes and that these subtypes have different disease patterns by race, sex, and age at diagnosis, studying all soft-tissue sarcomas combined may mask subtype-specific associations. Using the Selected Cancers Study, a large population-based case-control study of sarcoma conducted among U.S. men aged 30 to 60 in 1984 to 1988, we explored the occupational risk factors for soft-tissue sarcoma subtypes and skeletal sarcoma. The analysis included 251 living sarcoma cases (48 dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, 32 malignant fibrohistiocytic sarcoma, 67 leiomyosarcoma, 53 liposarcoma, and 51 skeletal sarcoma) and 1908 living controls. Exact conditional logistic regression models suggested patterns of subtype specificity for occupational exposures. Self-reported herbicide use was associated with malignant fibrohistiocytic sarcoma (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.1-7.3). We found elevated risks for chlorophenol exposure and cutting oil exposure and malignant fibrohistiocytic sarcoma and leiomyosarcoma. We found no occupational risk factor for liposarcoma. Polytomous regression models identified different odds ratios across subtypes for plywood exposure and exposure to wood and saw dust. Although exploratory, this analysis suggests that occupational risk factors for sarcoma are not uniform across subtypes. PMID:10230842

  3. Risk factors for developing atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Carson, Charlotte Giwercman

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate possible risk factors affecting the development of AD. AD is a frequent disease among children and has a substantial impact on the lives of both the child and its family. A better understanding of the disease would enable better treatment, prevention and information to the families involved. Previous risk factor studies have been hampered by an unsuitable study design and/or difficulties in standardization when diagnosing AD, which limit their conclusions. In paper I, we conducted a traditional cross-sectional analysis testing 40 possible risk factors for developing AD at 3 years of age. Our data suggested a strong heredity of AD and confirmed the risk associated with the non-functional FLG allele mutations after adjustments for confounders. Besides this mother's dermatitis and father's allergic rhinitis were found to increase the risk of AD. Perinatal exposure to dog was the only environmental exposure that significantly reduced the disease manifestation, suggesting other, yet unknown environmental factors affecting the increasing prevalence of AD in children. Length at birth was shown to be inversely associated with the risk of later developing AD. This traditional risk factor analysis led to two borderline significant results: duration of exclusive breastfeeding and mother's alcohol intake during the 3rd trimester. Since these possible two risk factors could neither be rejected nor accepted, we decided to do two in-depth studies, further investigating these, using longitudinal data information and data analysis instead of the traditional cross-sectional approach (paper II & III). In paper II, we investigated the risk of developing AD and wheezy symptoms until age 2 years depending on duration of breastfeeding. We found an increased risk of AD, but a protective effect on wheezy disorders in infancy from exclusive breastfeeding. The effect of exclusive breastfeeding on the risk of development of AD was significant after adjustment for demographics, FLG variants R501X and 2282del4 status, parent's AD and pets at home (RR 2.09, 95% CI 1.15-3.80, p=0.016). In addition, there was a significant effect of duration of exclusive breastfeeding (p=0.043), as the relative risk of AD was increased in proportion to increased duration of breastfeeding. The risk associated with exclusive breastfeeding was not explained by the fatty acid composition of mother's milk, though a trend showed higher risk of AD if mother's milk had low concentrations of n-3 fatty acids. In paper III, we found that alcohol intake during pregnancy was associated with a significantly higher risk of developing AD in the offspring, with the effect persisting throughout the whole 7 years follow-up period (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.05-1.99, p=0.024). The increased risk was still significant after confounder adjustment for mother's education, AD and smoking habits during the 3rd trimester. There was no association between alcohol intake during pregnancy and other atopic endpoints (wheeze episodes, asthma, allergic rhinitis, blood eosinophil count, total IgE, sensitization, cord blood IgE and nasal eosinophilia). However, the underlying explanation was not clear. The thesis is based on data collected as part of the ongoing COPSAC cohort. The cohort is a longitudinal, prospective birth cohort following 411 children born to mothers with asthma. This selection of high-risk children restricts the interpretation of the results and they cannot necessarily be expanded to apply to the general population. PMID:23809981

  4. [Secondary cancers: Incidence, risk factors and recommendations].

    PubMed

    Demoor-Goldschmidt, Charlotte; Fayech, Chiraz; Girard, Pauline; Plantaz, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Cure rates for most childhood cancers and adolescents have made remarkable progress over the last thirty to forty years. The development of secondary malignancies has become an important question for these patients. The frequency is low, but the risk is significantly higher (between 3 and 10 times) and it is the leading cause of long-term mortality off relapse. In this literature review, we discuss the epidemiological aspect and the risk factors contributing to this increased risk, and conclude with a summary of current recommendations for screening and surveillance. We also discuss briefly the constitutional predisposing genetic contributions to other cancers. PMID:25911942

  5. Early childhood risk and resilience factors for behavioural and emotional problems in middle childhood

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mental disorders in childhood have a considerable health and societal impact but the associated negative consequences may be ameliorated through early identification of risk and protective factors that can guide health promoting and preventive interventions. The objective of this study was to inform health policy and practice through identification of demographic, familial and environmental factors associated with emotional or behavioural problems in middle childhood, and the predictors of resilience in the presence of identified risk factors. Methods A cohort of 706 mothers followed from early pregnancy was surveyed at six to eight years post-partum by a mail-out questionnaire, which included questions on demographics, children’s health, development, activities, media and technology, family, friends, community, school life, and mother’s health. Results Although most children do well in middle childhood, of 450 respondents (64% response rate), 29.5% and 25.6% of children were found to have internalising and externalising behaviour problem scores in the lowest quintile on the NSCLY Child Behaviour Scales. Independent predictors for problem behaviours identified through multivariable logistic regression modelling included being male, demographic risk, maternal mental health risk, poor parenting interactions, and low parenting morale. Among children at high risk for behaviour problems, protective factors included high maternal and child self-esteem, good maternal emotional health, adequate social support, good academic performance, and adequate quality parenting time. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that several individual and social resilience factors can counter the influence of early adversities on the likelihood of developing problem behaviours in middle childhood, thus informing enhanced public health interventions for this understudied life course phase. PMID:24986740

  6. Prevalence and factors associated with the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Anísio Luiz da Silva; Hardman, Carla Meneses; de Barros, Mauro Virgílio Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the prevalence and factors associated with the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed with a sample of high school students from state public schools in Pernambuco, Brazil (n=4207, 14-19 years old). Data were obtained using a questionnaire. The co-occurrence of health risk behaviors was established based on the sum of five behavioral risk factors (low physical activity, sedentary behavior, low consumption of fruits/vegetables, alcohol consumption and tobacco use). The independent variables were gender, age group, time of day attending school, school size, maternal education, occupational status, skin color, geographic region and place of residence. Data were analyzed by ordinal logistic regression with proportional odds model. Results: Approximately 10% of adolescents were not exposed to health risk behaviors, while 58.5% reported being exposed to at least two health risk behaviors simultaneously. There was a higher likelihood of co-occurrence of health risk behaviors among adolescents in the older age group, with intermediate maternal education (9-11 years of schooling), and who reported living in the driest (semi-arid) region of the state of Pernambuco. Adolescents who reported having a job and living in rural areas had a lower likelihood of co-occurrence of risk behaviors. Conclusions: The findings suggest a high prevalence of co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in this group of adolescents, with a higher chance in five subgroups (older age, intermediate maternal education, the ones that reported not working, those living in urban areas and in the driest region of the state). PMID:26298656

  7. Impact of Prenatal Risk Factors on Congenital Heart Disease in the Current Era

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Alan; Manlhiot, Cedric; Naik, Sapna; Rosenberg, Herschel; Smythe, John; Lougheed, Jane; Mondal, Tapas; Chitayat, David; McCrindle, Brian W.; Mital, Seema

    2013-01-01

    Background The healthcare burden related to congenital heart disease (CHD) is increasing with improving survival. We assessed changing trends in prenatal risk factors for CHD in the current era in a Canadian cohort. Methods and Results CHD patients <18 years old (n=2339) and controls without structural heart disease (n=199) were prospectively enrolled in an Ontario province?wide biobank registry from 2008–2011. Family history, frequency of extra?cardiac anomalies (ECAs), and antenatal risk factors were assessed. Temporal trends were analyzed and associations with CHD were measured using linear and logistic regression. Family history of CHD and frequency of major ECAs was higher in cases versus controls (P<0.001). Despite an increase in genetic testing in the recent era, only 9.5% of cases with CHD had a confirmed genetic diagnosis. Yield of genetic testing (ie, frequency of abnormal results) was higher in familial and syndromic cases. There was an increase in parental age at conception, maternal prepregnancy body mass index, maternal urinary tract infections, type 1 diabetes, and exposure to nonfertility medications during pregnancy from 1990–2011. Later year of birth, family history of CHD, presence of major ECAs, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and maternal medication exposure were associated with increased odds of CHD (P<0.05 for all). Advanced parental age was associated with increased odds of CHD caused by genetic abnormalities. Conclusions The increase in prenatal risk factors for CHD highlights the need for more rigorous ascertainment of genetic and environmental factors including gene?environment interactions that contribute to CHD. PMID:23727699

  8. Cardiovascular risk factors following renal transplant

    PubMed Central

    Neale, Jill; Smith, Alice C

    2015-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the gold-standard treatment for many patients with end-stage renal disease. Renal transplant recipients (RTRs) remain at an increased risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular (CV) events compared to the general population, although rates are lower than those patients on maintenance haemodialysis. Death with a functioning graft is most commonly due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and therefore this remains an important therapeutic target to prevent graft failure. Conventional CV risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension and renal dysfunction remain a major influence on CVD in RTRs. However it is now recognised that the morbidity and mortality from CVD are not entirely accounted for by these traditional risk-factors. Immunosuppression medications exert a deleterious effect on many of these well-recognised contributors to CVD and are known to exacerbate the probability of developing diabetes, graft dysfunction and hypertension which can all lead on to CVD. Non-traditional CV risk factors such as inflammation and anaemia have been strongly linked to increased CV events in RTRs and should be considered alongside those which are classified as conventional. This review summarises what is known about risk-factors for CVD in RTRs and how, through identification of those which are modifiable, outcomes can be improved. The overall CV risk in RTRs is likely to be multifactorial and a complex interaction between the multiple traditional and non-traditional factors; further studies are required to determine how these may be modified to enhance survival and quality of life in this unique population. PMID:26722646

  9. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Severely Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Michalsky, Marc P.; Inge, Thomas H.; Simmons, Mark; Jenkins, Todd M.; Buncher, Ralph; Helmrath, Michael; Brandt, Mary L.; Harmon, Carroll M.; Courcoulas, Anita; Chen, Michael; Horlick, Mary; Daniels, Stephen R.; Urbina, Elaine M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Severe obesity is increasingly common in the adolescent population but, as of yet, very little information exists regarding cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks in this group. OBJECTIVE To assess the baseline prevalence and predictors of CVD risks among severely obese adolescents undergoing weight-loss surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A prospective cohort study was conducted from February 28, 2007, to December 30, 2011, at the following 5 adolescent weight-loss surgery centers in the United States: Nationwide Children’s Hospital in Columbus, Ohio; Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati, Ohio; Texas Children’s Hospital in Houston; University of Pittsburgh Medical Center in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and Children’s Hospital of Alabama in Birmingham. Consecutive patients aged 19 years or younger were offered enrollment in a long-term outcome study; the final analysis cohort consisted of 242 participants. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES This report examined the preoperative prevalence of CVD risk factors (ie, fasting hyperinsulinemia, elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, impaired fasting glucose levels, dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and diabetes mellitus) and associations between risk factors and body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Preoperative data were collected within 30 days preceding bariatric surgery. RESULTS The mean (SD) age was 17 (1.6) years and median body mass index was 50.5. Cardiovascular disease risk factor prevalence was fasting hyperinsulinemia (74%), elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (75%), dyslipidemia (50%), elevated blood pressure (49%), impaired fasting glucose levels (26%), and diabetes mellitus (14%). The risk of impaired fasting glucose levels, elevated blood pressure, and elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels increased by 15%, 10%, and 6%, respectively, per 5-unit increase in body mass index (P < .01). Dyslipidemia (adjusted relative risk = 1.60 [95% CI, 1.26–2.03]; P < .01) and elevated blood pressure (adjusted relative risk = 1.48 [95% CI, 1.16–1.89]; P < .01) were more likely in adolescent boys compared with adolescent girls. White individuals were at greater risk of having elevated triglyceride levels (adjusted relative risk = 1.76 [95% CI, 1.14–2.72]; P = .01) but were less likely to have impaired fasting glucose levels (adjusted relative risk = 0.58 [95% CI, 0.38–0.89]; P = .01). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Numerous CVD risk factors are apparent in adolescents undergoing weight-loss surgery. Increasing body mass index and male sex increase the relative risk of specific CVD risk factors. These data suggest that even among severely obese adolescents, recognition and treatment of CVD risk factors is important to help limit further progression of disease. PMID:25730293

  10. What Are the Risk Factors for Stomach Cancer?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... know what causes stomach cancer? What are the risk factors for stomach cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting ... disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. Some risk factors, like smoking, can be changed. ...

  11. What Are the Risk Factors for Hodgkin Disease?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... know what causes Hodgkin disease? What are the risk factors for Hodgkin disease? A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting ... disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. Some cancer risk factors, like smoking, can be ...

  12. Significance of maternal periodontal health in preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Khushboo; Desai, Parth; Duseja, Shilpa; Kumar, Santosh; Mahendra, Jaideep; Duseja, Sareen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present case–control study was to evaluate the association between maternal periodontitis and preeclampsia. Association studies between maternal periodontitis and elevated risk for preeclampsia have shown conflicting results. Periodontal maintenance is necessary to reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes like preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: Periodontal parameters [bleeding on probing, probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL)] of 1320 women were assessed, followed by retrieval of their demographic and medical data from the medical records. Based on the medical records, 80 women were excluded from the study, leaving 1240 females as the eligible sample for the study. The women were divided into control group (1120 non-preeclamptic women who gave birth to infants with adequate gestational age) and case group (120 preeclamptic women). Logistic regression analysis revealed that primiparity and maternal periodontitis were the two significant variables causing preeclampsia. Further analysis was carried out by matching the two groups for primiparity to find the significance of maternal periodontitis. Maternal periodontitis was defined as PD ?4 mm and CAL ?3 mm at the same site in at least four teeth. Results: The results showed that maternal periodontitis (odds ratio 19.8) was associated with preeclampsia. Maternal periodontitis also remained associated with preeclampsia after matching for primiparity, which was another significant confounding factor in the study (odds ratio 9.33). Conclusion: Maternal periodontitis is a risk factor associated with preeclampsia, emphasizing the importance of periodontal care in prenatal programs. PMID:25992334

  13. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: Overweight and Obesity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Materials The Healthy Heart Handbook for Women Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease Overweight and Obesity A healthy ... heart disease even if you have no other risk factors. Overweight and obesity also increase the risks for ...

  14. Drug and Alcohol Use -- A Significant Risk Factor for HIV

    MedlinePLUS

    ... A Significant Risk Factor for HIV Drug and Alcohol Use - A Significant Risk Factor for HIV Email ... with HIV currently use drugs or binge on alcohol. Many people are unaware that the increased risk ...

  15. Risk Factors and Prodromal Eating Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…

  16. Risk Factors for Domestic Violence in Curacao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single…

  17. Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

  18. Risk Factors for Paternal Physical Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shawna J.; Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Yookyong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study uses the developmental-ecological framework to examine a comprehensive set of paternal factors hypothesized to be linked to risk for paternal child abuse (PCA) among a diverse sample of fathers. Attention was given to fathers' marital status and their race/ethnicity (White, African American, and Hispanic). Methods: Interviews…

  19. Screening and Risk Factors Data Types

    Cancer.gov

    Direct Estimates are the usual estimates reported from a survey-directly estimated from the survey data using appropriate weighting. Most of these direct estimates are based on data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), a large annual telephone survey of U.S. households designed to measure at the state level.

  20. Risk Factors for Depression in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…

  1. Risk Factors for Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zivaljevic, V.; Slijepcevic, N.; Paunovic, I.; Diklic, A.; Kalezic, N.; Marinkovic, J.; Zivic, R.; Vekic, B.; Sipetic, S.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a form of thyroid cancer with very poor prognosis, but is fortunately quite rare. Its aetiology is unknown and not well researched. Aim. The aim of this study was to identify potential risk factors for ATC. Material and Method. Case-control study of 126 ATC patients (77 females and 49 males) and 252 controls individually matched by gender, age, and place of abode. In statistical analysis we used a Cox regression model. Results. Univariate logistic regression showed that the risk factors for ATC are low education level, type B blood group, goitre, other nonthyroid malignancies, diabetes, late menarche, and an early first pregnancy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that independent risk factors for ATC are low education level (OR?=?1.42, 95% CI?=?1.09–1.86), type B blood group (OR?=?2.41, 95% CI?=?1.03–5.66), and goitre (OR?=?25–33, 95% CI?=?5.66–126.65). Conclusion. Independent risk factors for ATC are: low education level, type B blood group, and goitre. PMID:24949009

  2. Risk Factors for Rural Residential Fires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Yang, Jingzhen; Zwerling, Craig

    2007-01-01

    Context and Purpose: Rural households report high fire-related mortality and injury rates, but few studies have examined the risk factors for fires. This study aims to identify occupant and household characteristics that are associated with residential fires in a rural cohort. Methods: Of 1,005 households contacted in a single rural county, 691…

  3. Monitoring Physical Activity - Risk Factor Monitoring & Methods

    Cancer.gov

    The Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch (RFMMB) supports the collection of physical activity data in existing and planned surveys. In doing so, we are attempting to develop more complete assessments of individuals' physical activity based on information derived from multiple contexts, including transportation, occupation, and recreation.

  4. [Intestinal ischemia: nosographic framework and risk factors].

    PubMed

    Andriulli, A; Pera, A; Gindro, T; Astegiano, M; Verme, G

    1990-01-01

    The diagnosis of intestinal ischaemia still presents numerous problems in terms of nosography, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment with the result that it is more often excluded than diagnosed. The aim of the present study was to discover whether intestinal ischaemia was clinically identifiable by any specific early signs and symptoms and whether there were any concomitant risk factors. The medical reports on 44 patients consecutively admitted to the San Giovanni Battista Hospital, Turin in 1985-86 with suspected intestinal ischaemia were therefore examined. It was found that intestinal ischaemia was only occasionally (30% of cases) diagnosed at the onset of clinical symptoms. In the 10 patients with ischaemic colitis, the risk factor linked to the causes of the disease was systemic hypovolaemia arising in diffuse atherosclerosis. In the 8 cases of chronic ischaemia and the 26 of intestinal infarction the remote anamnesis revealed symptoms that should have aroused suspicion of intestinal ischaemia partly because the patients were suffering from widespread atherosclerosis. In fact a review of the risk factors for the onset of atherosclerosis (i.e. high blood pressure, smoking, dyslipidemia, obesity and age over 65) revealed that about 60% of the patients under study presented 3 or 4 them simultaneously. To conclude, the data emerging from the study indicate the existence of symptoms and risk factors to diffuse atherosclerosis that should permit the early diagnosis of intestinal ischaemia. PMID:2314616

  5. Perinatal Risk Factors for Mild Motor Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hands, Beth; Kendall, Garth; Larkin, Dawne; Parker, Helen

    2009-01-01

    The aetiology of mild motor disability (MMD) is a complex issue and as yet is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of perinatal risk factors in a cohort of 10-year-old boys and girls with (n = 362) and without (n = 1193) MMD. Among the males with MMD there was a higher prevalence of postpartum haemorrhage,…

  6. Environmental Risk Factors in Hospital Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Daniel Z.; Resnik, Harvey L.P.; Holder-Perkins, Vicenzio

    2004-01-01

    Suicide of hospitalized patients is the most common sentinel event reviewed by The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. Shorter lengths of stay, sicker patients, and higher patient to staff ratios challenge the ability of the hospital to maintain safety. Risk factors associated with the physical environment of the…

  7. Infants at Risk: Perinatal and Neonatal Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsitt, Lewis P.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews studies of infant behavior and development. Delineates a behavioral hypothesis relating prenatal and neonatal risk factors in infancy to crib death. The mutual dependence of experience and neurostructural development suggests that infancy is a period of critical learning experiences. (Author/RH)

  8. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Epilepsy of

    E-print Network

    Daley, Monica A.

    Prevalence and Risk Factors for Epilepsy of Unidentified Origin among Dogs in the U.K. Primary epilepsy is diagnosed when the cause of the seizures is unknown and has been reported to be commonly diagnosed in dogs [1, 2, 3]. The epidemiological evaluation of primary epilepsy in dogs is an under

  9. Risk factors for smoking behaviors among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2014-08-01

    Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were defined: never smoking (in their lifetime), history of experimental smoking (ever tried but not within the last 30 days), and current smoking (at least 1 day during the last 30 days). Risk factors for experimentally starting and not continuing smoking were identified as gender, perceived health status, and friend-related stress. School type, academic performance, alcohol use, perception of harm of smoking, and close friends' smoking increased the risk of progressing from never smoking to the history of experimental smoking and current smoking. Our findings may be valuable in school health care settings in planning cessation programs. PMID:24051583

  10. Adverse Effects of Heavy Prenatal Maternal Smoking on Attentional Control in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motlagh, Maria G.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Katsovich, Liliya; Thompson, Nancy; Scahill, Lawrence; King, Robert A.; Peterson, Bradley S.; Schultz, Robert T.; Leckman, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Exposure to heavy maternal cigarette smoking in pregnancy and severe maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy appear to be important risk factors for the development of ADHD. This study aimed to determine whether these perinatal risk factors were associated with neuropsychological deficits commonly seen in ADHD. Method: We examined…

  11. Risk factors associated with lambing traits.

    PubMed

    McHugh, N; Berry, D P; Pabiou, T

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the risk factors associated with both lambing difficulty and lamb mortality in the Irish sheep multibreed population. A total of 135 470 lambing events from 42 675 ewes in 839 Irish crossbred and purebred flocks were available. Risk factors associated with producer-scored ewe lambing difficulty score (scale of one (no difficulty) to four (severe difficulty)) were determined using linear mixed models. Risk factors associated with the logit of the probability of lamb mortality at birth (i.e. binary trait) were determined using generalised estimating equations. For each dependent variable, a series of simple regression models were developed as well as a multiple regression model. In the simple regression models, greater lambing difficulty was associated with quadruplet bearing, younger ewes, of terminal breed origin, lambing in February; for example, first parity ewes experienced greater (P7.0 kg) birth weights, quadruplet born lambs and lambs that experienced a more difficult lambing (predicted probability of death for lambs that required severe and veterinary assistance of 0.15 and 0.32, respectively); lambs from dual-purpose breeds and born to younger ewes were also at greater risk of mortality. In the multiple regression model, the association between ewe parity, age at first lambing, year of lambing and lamb mortality no longer persisted. The trend in solutions of the levels of each fixed effect that remained associated with lamb mortality in the multiple regression model, did not differ from the trends observed in the simple regression models although the differential in relative risk between the different lambing difficulty scores was greater in the multiple regression model. Results from this study show that many common flock- and animal-level factors are associated with both lambing difficulty and lamb mortality and management of different risk category groups (e.g. scanned litter sizes, ewe age groups) can be used to appropriately manage the flock at lambing to reduce their incidence. PMID:26264450

  12. Maternal separation produces alterations of forebrain brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in differently aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiong; Shao, Feng; Wang, Weiwen

    2015-01-01

    Early life adversity, such as postnatal maternal separation (MS), play a central role in the development of psychopathologies during individual ontogeny. In this study, we investigated the effects of repeated MS (4 h per day from postnatal day (PND) 1–21) on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the hippocampus of male and female juvenile (PND 21), adolescent (PND 35) and young adult (PND 56) Wistar rats. The results indicated that MS increased BDNF in the CA1 and the dentate gyrus (DG) of adolescent rats as well as in the DG of young adult rats. However, the expression of BDNF in the mPFC in the young adult rats was decreased by MS. Additionally, in the hippocampus, there was decreased BDNF expression with age in both the MS and non separated rats. However, in the mPFC, the BDNF expression was increased with age in the non separated rats; nevertheless, the BDNF expression was significantly decreased in the MS young adult rats. In the NAc, the BDNF expression was increased with age in the male non-maternal separation (NMS) rats, and the young adult female MS rats had less BDNF expression than the adolescent female MS rats. The present study shows unique age-differently changes on a molecular level induced by MS and advances the use of MS as a valid animal model to detect the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of mental disorders. PMID:26388728

  13. Pre-Diabetes Non-Modifiable Risk Factors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tools & Resources Stroke More Pre-diabetes Non-modifiable Risk Factors Updated:Nov 9,2015 What Factors Are Beyond ... 2 diabetes are unaware of their condition. Some risk factors are inherited and some are acquired as we ...

  14. The New England Maternal PKU Project: identification of at-risk women.

    PubMed Central

    Waisbren, S E; Doherty, L B; Bailey, I V; Rohr, F J; Levy, H L

    1988-01-01

    Young women with phenylketonuria (PKU) are at risk for bearing children with mental retardation, microcephaly, heart defects, and low birthweight. These effects may be prevented if a low phenylalanine diet is maintained prior to and throughout pregnancy. This report describes the procedures of the New England Regional Maternal PKU Project for identifying and locating this population of at-risk women. Newborn screening records, routine umbilical cord blood screening, and PKU Clinic records provided most of the identifying information. We identified 235 women with hyperphenylalaninemia, ages 12 to 44 years. Of these, 183 had PKU or atypical PKU while 52 had non-PKU mild hyperphenylalaninemia. The 235 women represent 88 per cent of the expected number of women with hyperphenylalaninemia in New England. We identified more than the expected number of those with PKU but only 57 per cent of the expected number with mild hyperphenylalaninemia. Developing a national registry, as well as screening women who utilize birth control clinics or prenatal clinics, may be helpful. Implementing routine umbilical cord blood screening programs may be beneficial in efforts to identify women with hyperphenylalaninemia who have had a child and may want more children in the future. PMID:3381953

  15. Factors affecting ejection risk in rollover crashes.

    PubMed

    Funk, James R; Cormier, Joseph M; Bain, Charles E; Wirth, Jeffrey L; Bonugli, Enrique B; Watson, Richard A

    2012-01-01

    Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 - 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position, roof crush, side curtain airbag deployment, glazing type, and occupant age, gender, and size. Seatbelt use was found to reduce the risk of partial ejection and virtually eliminate the risk of complete ejection. For belted occupants, the risk of partial ejection risk was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, light trucks and vans (LTVs), and larger occupants. For unbelted occupants, the risk of complete ejection was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, LTVs, far side occupants, and higher levels of roof crush. Roof crush was not a significant predictor of ejection after normalizing for rollover severity. Curtain airbag deployment was associated with reduced rates of partial and complete ejection, but the effect was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small sample size (n = 89 raw cases with curtain deployments). A much greater proportion of occupants who were ejected in spite of curtain airbag deployment passed through the sunroof and other portals as opposed to the adjacent side window compared to occupants who were ejected in rollovers without a curtain airbag deployment. The primary factors that reduce ejection risk in rollover crashes are, in generally decreasing order of importance: seatbelt use, fewer roof inversions, passenger car body type, curtain airbag deployment, near side seating position, and small occupant size. PMID:23169130

  16. Factors Affecting Ejection Risk in Rollover Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Funk, James R.; Cormier, Joseph M.; Bain, Charles E.; Wirth, Jeffrey L.; Bonugli, Enrique B.; Watson, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 – 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position, roof crush, side curtain airbag deployment, glazing type, and occupant age, gender, and size. Seatbelt use was found to reduce the risk of partial ejection and virtually eliminate the risk of complete ejection. For belted occupants, the risk of partial ejection risk was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, light trucks and vans (LTVs), and larger occupants. For unbelted occupants, the risk of complete ejection was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, LTVs, far side occupants, and higher levels of roof crush. Roof crush was not a significant predictor of ejection after normalizing for rollover severity. Curtain airbag deployment was associated with reduced rates of partial and complete ejection, but the effect was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small sample size (n = 89 raw cases with curtain deployments). A much greater proportion of occupants who were ejected in spite of curtain airbag deployment passed through the sunroof and other portals as opposed to the adjacent side window compared to occupants who were ejected in rollovers without a curtain airbag deployment. The primary factors that reduce ejection risk in rollover crashes are, in generally decreasing order of importance: seatbelt use, fewer roof inversions, passenger car body type, curtain airbag deployment, near side seating position, and small occupant size. PMID:23169130

  17. Risk factors for suicidal behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kirkcaldy, B D; Siefen, G R; Urkin, J; Merrick, J

    2006-10-01

    Adolescent suicide is today a public health problem among the leading cause of mortality among adolescents and young adults. There seems to be many reasons for this increase (which has different trends in different populations), but associations have been found with increased substance abuse, television and video violence, socio-economic status and easy access to firearms. Gender differences have also been observed with crime, suicide and substance abuse higher among males, while eating disorder, depression and suicidal behavior more prevalent among females. This paper will review prevalence and incidence of adolescent suicidal behavior, socio-demographic and psychological risk factors, associated cognitive factors and socio-economic factors. Risk factors include previous suicide attempts, a history of others in the family who have been suicidal, mental illness, alcohol and drug use, and other self-destructive behaviors as well as consideration being given to hopelessness, hostility, negative self-concept and isolation. At the individual difference level, factors such as trait depression, anger and hostility, perfectionism and social sensitivity would seem critical variables, as would age, gender and intellectual functioning. Sociological and family-related factors may also be implicated including dysfunctional family organizations, a history of physical or psychological abuse (sexual abuse) and limited extent of social support networks. A frequently reported precipitating event of suicidal behavior is family adversity including rejection, separation and interpersonal conflict. At a socio-economic level it would seem essential to provide comprehensive document about the social and economic conditions from which the adolescent comes. PMID:17008855

  18. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Broeders, M J; Verbeek, A L

    1997-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in our summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point in time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women. PMID:9274126

  19. Maternal Clinical Diagnoses and Hospital Variation in the Risk of Cesarean Delivery: Analyses of a National US Hospital Discharge Database

    PubMed Central

    Kozhimannil, Katy B.; Arcaya, Mariana C.; Subramanian, S. V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cesarean delivery is the most common inpatient surgery in the United States, where 1.3 million cesarean sections occur annually, and rates vary widely by hospital. Identifying sources of variation in cesarean use is crucial to improving the consistency and quality of obstetric care. We used hospital discharge records to examine the extent to which variability in the likelihood of cesarean section across US hospitals was attributable to individual women's clinical diagnoses. Methods and Findings Using data from the 2009 and 2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project—a 20% sample of US hospitals—we analyzed data for 1,475,457 births in 1,373 hospitals. We fitted multilevel logistic regression models (patients nested in hospitals). The outcome was cesarean (versus vaginal) delivery. Covariates included diagnosis of diabetes in pregnancy, hypertension in pregnancy, hemorrhage during pregnancy or placental complications, fetal distress, and fetal disproportion or obstructed labor; maternal age, race/ethnicity, and insurance status; and hospital size and location/teaching status. The cesarean section prevalence was 22.0% (95% confidence interval 22.0% to 22.1%) among women with no prior cesareans. In unadjusted models, the between-hospital variation in the individual risk of primary cesarean section was 0.14 (95% credible interval 0.12 to 0.15). The difference in the probability of having a cesarean delivery between hospitals was 25 percentage points. Hospital variability did not decrease after adjusting for patient diagnoses, socio-demographics, and hospital characteristics (0.16 [95% credible interval 0.14 to 0.18]). A limitation is that these data, while nationally representative, did not contain information on parity or gestational age. Conclusions Variability across hospitals in the individual risk of cesarean section is not decreased by accounting for differences in maternal diagnoses. These findings highlight the need for more comprehensive or linked data including parity and gestational age as well as examination of other factors—such as hospital policies, practices, and culture—in determining cesarean section use. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25333943

  20. Maternal Factors Are Associated with the Expression of Placental Genes Involved in Amino Acid Metabolism and Transport

    PubMed Central

    Day, Pricilla E.; Ntani, Georgia; Crozier, Sarah R.; Mahon, Pam A.; Inskip, Hazel M.; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas C.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Hanson, Mark A.; Lewis, Rohan M.; Cleal, Jane K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Maternal environment and lifestyle factors may modify placental function to match the mother’s capacity to support the demands of fetal growth. Much remains to be understood about maternal influences on placental metabolic and amino acid transporter gene expression. We investigated the influences of maternal lifestyle and body composition (e.g. fat and muscle content) on a selection of metabolic and amino acid transporter genes and their associations with fetal growth. Methods RNA was extracted from 102 term Southampton Women’s Survey placental samples. Expression of nine metabolic, seven exchange, eight accumulative and three facilitated transporter genes was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR. Results Increased placental LAT2 (p = 0.01), y+LAT2 (p = 0.03), aspartate aminotransferase 2 (p = 0.02) and decreased aspartate aminotransferase 1 (p = 0.04) mRNA expression associated with pre-pregnancy maternal smoking. Placental mRNA expression of TAT1 (p = 0.01), ASCT1 (p = 0.03), mitochondrial branched chain aminotransferase (p = 0.02) and glutamine synthetase (p = 0.05) was positively associated with maternal strenuous exercise. Increased glutamine synthetase mRNA expression (r = 0.20, p = 0.05) associated with higher maternal diet quality (prudent dietary pattern) pre-pregnancy. Lower LAT4 (r = -0.25, p = 0.05) and aspartate aminotransferase 2 mRNA expression (r = -0.28, p = 0.01) associated with higher early pregnancy diet quality. Lower placental ASCT1 mRNA expression associated with measures of increased maternal fat mass, including pre-pregnancy BMI (r = -0.26, p = 0.01). Lower placental mRNA expression of alanine aminotransferase 2 associated with greater neonatal adiposity, for example neonatal subscapular skinfold thickness (r = -0.33, p = 0.001). Conclusion A number of maternal influences have been linked with outcomes in childhood, independently of neonatal size; our finding of associations between placental expression of transporter and metabolic genes and maternal smoking, physical activity and diet raises the possibility that their effects are mediated in part through alterations in placental function. The observed changes in placental gene expression in relation to modifiable maternal factors are important as they could form part of interventions aimed at maintaining a healthy lifestyle for the mother and for optimal fetal development. PMID:26657885

  1. Modeling risk for severe adverse outcomes using angiogenic factor measurements in women with suspected preterm preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Palomaki, Glenn E; Haddow, James E; Haddow, Hamish R M; Salahuddin, Saira; Geahchan, Carl; Cerdeira, Ana Sofia; Verlohren, Stefan; Perschel, Frank H; Horowitz, Gary; Thadhani, Ravi; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Rana, Sarosh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific syndrome associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Patient-specific risks based on angiogenic factors might better categorize those who might have a severe adverse outcome. Methods Women evaluated for suspected PE at a tertiary hospital (2009–2012) had pregnancy outcomes categorized as ‘referent’ or ‘severe’, based solely on maternal/fetal findings. Outcomes that may have been influenced by a PE diagnosis were considered ‘unclassified’. Soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase (sFlt1) and placental growth factor (PlGF) were subjected to bivariate discriminant modeling, allowing patient-specific risks to be assigned for severe outcomes. Results Three hundred twenty-eight singleton pregnancies presented at ?34.0 weeks' gestation. sFlt1 and PlGF levels were adjusted for gestational age. Risks above 5 : 1 (10-fold over background) occurred in 77% of severe (95% CI 66 to 87%) and 0.7% of referent (95% CI <0.1 to 3.8%) outcomes. Positive likelihood ratios for the modeling and validation datasets were 19 (95% CI 6.2–58) and 15 (95% CI 5.8–40) fold, respectively. Conclusions This validated model assigns patient-specific risks of any severe outcome among women attending PE triage. In practice, women with high risks would receive close surveillance with the added potential for reducing unnecessary preterm deliveries among remaining women. © 2015 The Authors. Prenatal Diagnosis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25641027

  2. Maternal prenatal anxiety and child brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genotype: effects on internalizing symptoms from 4 to 15 years of age.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Kieran J; Glover, Vivette; Holbrook, Joanna D; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2014-11-01

    Multiple behavioral and health outcomes, including internalizing symptoms, may be predicted from prenatal maternal anxiety, depression, or stress. However, not all children are affected, and those that are can be affected in different ways. Here we test the hypothesis that the effects of prenatal anxiety are moderated by genetic variation in the child's brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children population cohort. Internalizing symptoms were assessed from 4 to 13 years of age using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (n = 8,584); a clinical interview with the adolescents was conducted at age 15 years (n = 4,704). Obstetric and psychosocial risk and postnatal maternal symptoms were included as covariates. Results show that prenatal maternal anxiety predicted internalizing symptoms, including with the diagnostic assessment at 15 years. There was a main effect of two BDNF polymorphisms (rs6265 [val66met] and rs11030104) on internalizing symptoms up to age 13. There was also genetic moderation of the prenatal anxiety effect by different BDNF polymorphisms (rs11030121 and rs7124442), although significant effects were limited to preadolescence. The findings suggest a role for BDNF gene-environment interactions in individual vulnerability to the effects of prenatal anxiety on child internalizing symptoms. PMID:25422959

  3. Risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ingre, Caroline; Roos, Per M; Piehl, Fredrik; Kamel, Freya; Fang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron disease. It is typically fatal within 2–5 years of symptom onset. The incidence of ALS is largely uniform across most parts of the world, but an increasing ALS incidence during the last decades has been suggested. Although recent genetic studies have substantially improved our understanding of the causes of ALS, especially familial ALS, an important role of non-genetic factors in ALS is recognized and needs further study. In this review, we briefly discuss several major genetic contributors to ALS identified to date, followed by a more focused discussion on the most commonly examined non-genetic risk factors for ALS. We first review factors related to lifestyle choices, including smoking, intake of antioxidants, physical fitness, body mass index, and physical exercise, followed by factors related to occupational and environmental exposures, including electromagnetic fields, metals, pesticides, ?-methylamino-L-alanine, and viral infection. Potential links between ALS and other medical conditions, including head trauma, metabolic diseases, cancer, and inflammatory diseases, are also discussed. Finally, we outline several future directions aiming to more efficiently examine the role of non-genetic risk factors in ALS. PMID:25709501

  4. Risk Factors for Hemorrhoids on Screening Colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Peery, Anne F.; Sandler, Robert S.; Galanko, Joseph A.; Bresalier, Robert S.; Figueiredo, Jane C.; Ahnen, Dennis J.; Barry, Elizabeth L.; Baron, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Constipation, a low fiber diet, sedentary lifestyle and gravidity are commonly assumed to increase the risk of hemorrhoids. However, evidence regarding these factors is limited. We examined the association between commonly cited risk factors and the prevalence of hemorrhoids. Methods We performed a cross sectional study of participants who underwent a colonoscopy in a colorectal adenoma prevention trial and who had a detailed assessment of bowel habits, diet and activity. The presence of hemorrhoids was extracted from the subjects’ colonoscopy reports. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals while adjusting for age and sex. Results The study included 2,813 participants. Of these, 1,074 had hemorrhoids recorded. Constipation was associated with an increased prevalence of hemorrhoids (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.11, 1.86). Of the fiber subtypes, high grain fiber intake was associated with a reduced risk (OR for quartile 4 versus quartile 1 = 0.78, 95% CI 0.62, 0.98). We found no association when comparing gravid and nulligravida women (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.62–1.40). Sedentary behavior was associated with a reduced risk (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.65–0.98), but not physical activity (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.66–1.03). Neither being overweight nor obese was associated with the presence of hemorrhoids (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.72–1.09 and OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.70–1.06). Conclusions Constipation is associated with an increased risk of hemorrhoids. Gravidity and physical activity do not appear to be associated. High grain fiber intake and sedentary behavior are associated with a decreased risk of hemorrhoids. PMID:26406337

  5. Obesity Policy Research - Risk Factor Monitoring & Methods

    Cancer.gov

    Obesity is a risk factor for various types of cancer and for other chronic diseases and conditions such as type II diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Obesity prevalence in the United States has risen substantially in the last 50 years, particularly since the early 1980s. Experiences with tobacco control and other public health initiatives suggest that public policy may be a powerful tool to improve diet and physical activity behavior at the population level.

  6. Subconjunctival hemorrhage: risk factors and potential indicators

    PubMed Central

    Tarlan, Bercin; Kiratli, Hayyam

    2013-01-01

    Subconjunctival hemorrhage is a benign disorder that is a common cause of acute ocular redness. The major risk factors include trauma and contact lens usage in younger patients, whereas among the elderly, systemic vascular diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and arteriosclerosis are more common. In patients in whom subconjunctival hemorrhage is recurrent or persistent, further evaluation, including workup for systemic hypertension, bleeding disorders, systemic and ocular malignancies, and drug side effects, is warranted. PMID:23843690

  7. Management of patients with risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Waldfahrer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This review addresses concomitant diseases and risk factors in patients treated for diseases of the ears, nose and throat in outpatient and hospital services. Besides heart disease, lung disease, liver disease and kidney disease, this article also covers disorders of coagulation (including therapy with new oral anticoagulants) and electrolyte imbalance. Special attention is paid to the prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment of perioperative delirium. It is also intended to help optimise the preparation for surgical procedures and pharmacotherapy during the hospital stay. PMID:24403970

  8. Studying Risk Factors Associated with Human Leptospirosis

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Ramachandra; Swain, Subhashisa; Pattanshetty, Sanjay; Nair, N Sreekumaran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Leptospirosis is one of the most under diagnosed and underreported disease in both developed and developing countries including India. It is established that environmental conditions and occupational habit of the individuals put them at risk of acquiring disease, which varies from community to community. Various seroprevalence studies across the world have documented emerging situation of this neglected tropical disease, but limited have probed to identify the risk factors, especially in India. Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify the environmental and occupational risk factors associated with the disease in Udupi District. Materials and Methods: This population-based case-control study was carried out in Udupi, a District in Southern India from April 2012 until August 2012. Udupi is considered to be endemic for Leptospirosis and reported 116 confirmed cases in the year 2011. Seventy of 116 laboratory confirmed cases and 140 sex matched neighborhood healthy controls participated in the study. A predesigned, semi-structured and validated questionnaire was used for data collection through house to house visit and observations were noted about environmental conditions. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate analysis (back ward conditional logistic regression) was performed by using STATA version 9.2 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA) to identify potential risk factors. Results: Occupational factors such as outdoor activities (matched odds ratio [OR] of 3.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-13.0), presence of cut or wound at body parts during work (matched OR: 4.88, CI: 1.83-13.02) and environmental factors such as contact with rodents through using the food materials ate by rat (matched OR: 4.29, CI: 1.45-12.73) and contact with soil or water contaminated with urine of rat (matched OR: 4.58, CI: 1.43-14.67) were the risk factors identified to be associated with disease. Conclusion: Leptospirosis is still considered as neglected disease in the district. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of cases can save many lives. However, there is a need of integrated rodent control measures with great effort to increase awareness and education among subjects in controlling the disease. PMID:24741223

  9. Risk factors associated with psychiatric readmission.

    PubMed

    Lorine, Kim; Goenjian, Haig; Kim, Soeun; Steinberg, Alan M; Schmidt, Kendall; Goenjian, Armen K

    2015-06-01

    The present study focused on identifying risk factors for early readmission of patients discharged from an urban community hospital. Retrospective chart reviews were conducted on 207 consecutive inpatient psychiatric admissions that included patients who were readmitted within 15 days, within 3 to 6 months, and not admitted for at least 12 months post-discharge. Findings indicated that a diagnosis of schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (OR = 18; 95% CI 2.70-117.7; p < 0.05), history of alcohol abuse (OR = 9; 95% CI 1.80-40.60; p < 0.05), number of previous psychiatric hospitalizations (OR = 2; 95% CI 1.28-3.73; p < 0.05), and type of residence at initial admission (e.g., homeless, OR = 29; 95% CI 3.99-217; p < 0.05) were significant risk factors for early readmission, where OR compares readmission group 1 versus group 3 in the multinomial logistic regression. Initial positive urine drug screen, history of drug abuse or incarceration, and legal status at initial admission did not predict early readmission. Reducing the risk factors associated with psychiatric readmissions has the potential to lead to the identification and development of preventative intervention strategies that can significantly improve patient safety, quality of care, well-being, and contain health care expenditures. PMID:25974053

  10. Interrelations between Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy, Birth Weight and Sociodemographic Factors in the Prediction of Early Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huijbregts, S. C. J.; Seguin, J. R.; Zelazo, P. D.; Parent, S.; Japel, C.; Tremblay, R. E.

    2006-01-01

    Maternal prenatal smoking, birth weight and sociodemographic factors were investigated in relation to cognitive abilities of 1544 children (aged 3.5 years) participating in the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Children's Development. The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) was used to assess verbal ability, the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale…

  11. Understanding the Psychosocial and Environmental Factors and Barriers Affecting Utilization of Maternal Healthcare Services in Kalomo, Zambia: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sialubanje, Cephas; Massar, Karlijn; Hamer, Davidson H.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to identify psychosocial and environmental factors contributing to low utilization of maternal healthcare services in Kalomo, Zambia. Twelve focus group discussions (n = 141) and 35 in-depth interviews were conducted in six health centre catchment areas. Focus group discussions comprised women of reproductive age…

  12. Maternal Adjustment and Infant Outcome in Medically Defined High-Risk Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy-Shiff, Rachel; Lerman, Maya; Har-Even, Dov; Hod, Moshe

    2002-01-01

    Explored relation of biological and psychosocial risk factors to infant development among pregnant women who had pregestational diabetes, gestational diabetes, or were nondiabetic. Found that infants of diabetic mothers scored lower on the Bayley Scales at 1 year and revealed fewer positive and more negative behaviors than infants of nondiabetic…

  13. Maternal health interventions in resource limited countries: a systematic review of packages, impacts and factors for change

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The burden of maternal mortality in resource limited countries is still huge despite being at the top of the global public health agenda for over the last 20 years. We systematically reviewed the impacts of interventions on maternal health and factors for change in these countries. Methods A systematic review was carried out using the guidelines for Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Articles published in the English language reporting on implementation of interventions, their impacts and underlying factors for maternal health in resource limited countries in the past 23 years were searched from PubMed, Popline, African Index Medicus, internet sources including reproductive health gateway and Google, hand-searching, reference lists and grey literature. Results Out of a total of 5084 articles resulting from the search only 58 qualified for systematic review. Programs integrating multiple interventions were more likely to have significant positive impacts on maternal outcomes. Training in emergency obstetric care (EmOC), placement of care providers, refurbishment of existing health facility infrastructure and improved supply of drugs, consumables and equipment for obstetric care were the most frequent interventions integrated in 52% - 65% of all 54 reviewed programs. Statistically significant reduction of maternal mortality ratio and case fatality rate were reported in 55% and 40% of the programs respectively. Births in EmOC facilities and caesarean section rates increased significantly in 71% - 75% of programs using these indicators. Insufficient implementation of evidence-based interventions in resources limited countries was closely linked to a lack of national resources, leadership skills and end-users factors. Conclusions This article presents a list of evidenced-based packages of interventions for maternal health, their impacts and factors for change in resource limited countries. It indicates that no single magic bullet intervention exists for reduction of maternal mortality and that all interventional programs should be integrated in order to bring significant changes. State leaders and key actors in the health sectors in these countries and the international community are proposed to translate the lessons learnt into actions and intensify efforts in order to achieve the goals set for maternal health. PMID:21496315

  14. Risk Factors for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in India

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Premashis

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an important cause of death all over the world, more so in Asia and Africa. The representative data on epidemiology of HCC in India is very scanty and cancer is not a reportable disease in India and the cancer registries in India are mostly urban. 45 million people who are suffering from chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and approximately 15 million people who are afflicted with chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in India. HBV and HCV infection is considered an important etiologic factor in HCC. Positive association between HCC and consumption of alcohol where alcohol contribute as a cofactor for hepatotoxins and hepatitis viruses. Aflatoxin contamination in the diets, Hepatitis B virus infection and liver cirrhosis in Andhra Pradesh, India and direct chronic exposure to aflatoxins was shown to cause liver cirrhosis. Cirrhosis of liver of any cause lead to develop about 70%–90% of HCC. Aflatoxin interact synergistically with Hepatitis B virus (HBV)/Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection which increase the risk of HCC. HBV infection, HBV infection with Aflatoxin exposure, viral infection and alcohol consumption leading to overt cirrhosis of the liver, alcohol consumption leading to cirrhosis of the liver with viral infection are the predominant risk factor for the development of HCC. HCV and alcohol are also associated with HCC in India. Indians develop diabetes at younger age, Asians have strong genetic susceptibility for type II diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is identified as a risk factor for HCC. Prevention of viral infection by universal vaccination against hepatitis virus, HCC surveillance program, preventing alcoholic liver diseases, fungal contamination of grains and ground crops to prevent basically Aflatoxin exposure are important measures to prevent liver diseases and HCC among those at risk. PMID:25755609

  15. Adolescent Perceptions of Maternal Approval of Birth Control and Sexual Risk Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaccard, James; Dittus, Patricia J.

    2000-01-01

    Used data from the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent health to examine the relationship between adolescent perception of maternal approval of the use of birth control and sexual outcomes over 12 months. Overall, adolescents' perceptions of maternal approval related to an increased likelihood of sexual intercourse in the next year and an increase in…

  16. The High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency and Its Related Maternal Factors in Pregnant Women in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shu Jun; Zhou, Ling; Si, Shaoyan; Liu, Junli; Zhou, Jinlian; Feng, Kai; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Wenying

    2013-01-01

    Maternal vitamin D deficiency has been suggested to influence fetal and neonatal health. Little is known about vitamin D status in Chinese pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to assess the vitamin D status of pregnant women residing in Beijing in winter and evaluate the impact of maternal factors on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels. The study was conducted on 125 healthy pregnant women. For each individual, data concerning pre-pregnancy weight, educational status, use of multivitamins and behavioral factors such as daily duration of computer use, walking and sun exposure were obtained. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) was 96.8% and almost half (44.8%) of women were severely vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 25 nmol/L). The concentration of 25(OH)D was lower in women with shorter duration of sun exposure (? 0.5 h/day, 25.3 ± 8.9 nmol/L) than that in women with longer duration of sun exposure (> 0.5 h/day; 30.3± 9.5 nmol/L; P = 0.003). Thirty six women (28.8%) had sun exposure duration ? 1.5h/day. The 25(OH)D concentration in these women was 31.5 ± 9.4 nmol/L which was also much lower than the normal level. Women who reported taking a multivitamin supplement had significantly higher 25(OH)D concentrations (32.3 ± 9.5 nmol/L) when compared with non-users (24.9 ± 8.2 nmol/L; P < 0.001). Pregnant women in Beijing are at very high risk of vitamin D deficiency in winter. Duration of Sun exposure and the use of multivitamin were the most important determinants for vitamin D status. However, neither prolonging the time of sunlight exposure nor multivitamin supplements can effectively prevent pregnant women from vitamin D deficiency. Other measures might have to be taken for pregnant women to improve their vitamin D status in winter. PMID:24386450

  17. Allergy: A Risk Factor for Suicide?

    PubMed Central

    Postolache, Teodor T.; Komarow, Hirsh; Tonelli, Leonardo H.

    2008-01-01

    Opinion statement The rates of depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance (suicide risk factors) are greater in patients with allergic rhinitis than in the general population. The rate of allergy is also greater in patients with depression. Preliminary data suggest that patients with a history of allergy may have an increased rate of suicide. Clinicians should actively inquire to diagnose allergy in patients with depression and depression in patients with allergy. Spring peaks of suicide are highly replicated, but their origin is poorly understood. Preliminary epidemiologic data suggest that seasonal spring peaks in aeroallergens are associated with seasonal spring peaks in suicide. Our research in Brown Norway rats demonstrates that sensitization and exposure to aeroallergens induces anxiety-like and aggressive behaviors as well as allergy-related helper T-cell type 2 (Th2) cytokine gene expression in the prefrontal cortex. Thus, it is possible that sensitization and exposure to aeroallergens, which peak in spring, may be conducive to seasonal exacerbation of suicide risk factors such as anxiety, depression, hostility/ aggression, and sleep disturbance. Connecting allergy with suicide and suicide risk factors adds to previous neurologic literature connecting allergy with migraines and seizure disorders. Our recent report of Th2 (allergy-mediating) cytokine expression in the orbito-frontal cortex of suicide victims should lead to future studies to test the hypothesis that mediators of allergic inflammation in the nasal cavities may result in Th2 cytokine expression in the brain, influencing affect and behavioral modulation. Certain medications used to treat allergy can exacerbate suicide risk factors, potentially worsening suicide risk and even triggering suicide. Systemic (but not topical) corticosteroids have been associated with manic and depressive episodes and mixed mood states. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration started investigating the possibility that montelukast may trigger suicide. Although this association requires further exploration and confirmation, clinicians should err on the side of caution, inquiring about past suicide attempts; hopelessness; reasons for living; and suicidal ideation, intent, or plan; and referring the patient to a mental health professional for evaluation if appropriate. PMID:18782509

  18. Necrotizing fasciitis: risk factors of mortality

    PubMed Central

    Khamnuan, Patcharin; Chongruksut, Wilaiwan; Jearwattanakanok, Kijja; Patumanond, Jayanton; Yodluangfun, Suttida; Tantraworasin, Apichat

    2015-01-01

    Background Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a serious infection of skin and soft tissues that rapidly progresses along the deep fascia. It becomes a fatal soft tissue infection with high mortality rate if treatment is delayed. Early diagnosis for emergency surgical debridement and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy were the optimal treatments to reduce the mortality rate of NF. Objective The aim of this study was to identify risk factors that increased the mortality rate in patients with NF under routine clinical practices. Methods A retrospective cohort study was performed at three general hospitals located in northern Thailand. All medical records of patients with surgically confirmed NF treated between January 2009 and December 2012 were reviewed. Clinical predictors for mortality were analyzed using multivariable risk regression analysis. Results Of a total of 1,504 patients with a diagnosis of NF, 19.3% (n=290) died in hospital and 80.7% (n=1,214) survived. From multivariable analysis, being female (risk ratio [RR] =1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.01–1.84); age >60 (RR=1.39, 95% CI =1.25–1.53); having chronic heart disease (RR=1.64, 95% CI=1.18–2.28), cirrhosis (RR =2.36, 95% CI=1.70–3.27), skin necrosis (RR =1.22, 95% CI=1.15–1.28), pulse rate >130/min (RR =2.26, 95% CI=1.79–2.85), systolic BP <90 mmHg (RR =2.05, 95% CI =1.44–2.91), and serum creatinine ?1.6 mg/dL (RR=3.06, 95% CI=2.08–4.50) were risk factors for mortality. Conclusion Prognostic factors for mortality in NF patients included being female; age >60; or having chronic heart disease, cirrhosis, skin necrosis, pulse rate >130/min, systolic BP <90 mmHg, and serum creatinine ?1.6 mg/dL. Thus, disease progression to mortality may occur in such patients presenting one of these risk factors. Further examination or close monitoring for systemic involvement may be advantageous to reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:25733938

  19. Risk Factors and Comorbidities for Onychomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    A number of comorbidities and risk factors complicate the successful management of onychomycosis. Underlying conditions and patient characteristics, such as tinea pedis, age, and obesity, contribute to risk, whereas comorbidities, such as diabetes and psoriasis, can increase susceptibility to the disease. There are limited data on treatment effectiveness in these patients. Here, the authors review post hoc analyses of efinaconazole topical solution, 10%, in mild-to-moderate onychomycosis and present new data in terms of age and obesity. The only post hoc analysis to report significant differences so far is gender, where female patients do much better; however, the reasons are unclear. The authors report significant differences in terms of efficacy in obese patients who do not respond as well as those with normal body mass index (P=0.05) and in patients who have their co-existing tinea pedis treated compared to those in whom co-existing tinea pedis was not treated (P=0.025). Although there is a trend to reduced efficacy in older patients and those with co-existing diabetes, differences were not significant. More research is needed in onychomycosis patients with these important risk factors and comorbidities to fully evaluate the treatment challengse and possible solutions. PMID:26705439

  20. Liver biopsy: complications and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Thampanitchawong, Pornpen; Piratvisuth, Teerha

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To study the complications and the risk factors of percutaneous liver biopsy, and to compare the complication rate between the periods o f 1987-1993 and 1994-1996. METHODS: Medical records of all patients undergoing percutaneous liver biopsy between January 1, 1987 to September 31, 1996 in Songklanagarind Hospital were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: There were 484 percutaneous liver biopsies performed. The total complication rate was 6.4%, of which 4.5% were due to major bleeding; the death rate was 1.6%. The important risk factors correlated with bleeding complications and deaths were a platelet count of 70 × 109/L or less, a prolonged prothrombin time of > 3 s over control, or a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time of > 10 s over control. Although physician inexperience was not statistically significantly associated with bleeding complications and deaths, there was a reduction of death rate from 2.2% in 1987-1993 to 0% in 1993-1996. This reduction is thought to result from both increased experience o f senior staff and increased supervision of residents. CONCLUSIONS: Screening of platelet count, prothrombin time, and activated partial thromboplastin time should be done and need to be corrected in case of abnormality before liver biopsy. Percutaneous liver biopsy should be performed or supervised by an expert in gastrointestinal diseases, especially in high risk cases. PMID:11819452

  1. Risk factors for the development of striae gravidarum

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Hibah; Rubeiz, Nelly; Tamim, Hala; Nassar, Anwar H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors associated with striae gravidarum (SG). Study design A cross-sectional study of 112 primiparous women delivering at a private teaching hospital was conducted. Participants were assessed during the immediate postpartum period for evidence of SG. Presence and severity of SG were compared to characteristics of women using t tests and Chi-square tests. Results Sixty percent of the study participants had developed SG. Women who developed SG were significantly younger (26.5 ± 4.5 vs 30.5 ± 4.6; P < .001) and had gained significantly more weight during pregnancy (15.6 ± 3.9 vs 38.4 kg ± 2.7; P < .001). Birthweight (BW), gestational age at delivery, and family history of SG were associated with moderate/severe SG. Conclusion Maternal age and weight gain during pregnancy are associated with SG. BW, family history of SG, and gestational age at delivery are associated with moderate/severe SG. PMID:17240237

  2. Risk factors for postpartum hemorrhage after vaginal delivery of twins.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shunji; Kikuchi, Fumi; Ouchi, Nozomi; Nagayama, Chiaki; Nakagawa, Michiko; Inde, Yusuke; Igarashi, Miwa; Miyake, Hidehiko

    2007-12-01

    We examined vaginal deliveries of twins to identify factors most strongly associated with the increased risk of postpartum hemorrhage (estimated blood loss > or = 1,000 mL). We reviewed the obstetric records of all 171 twin vaginal deliveries at Japanese Red Cross Katsushika Maternity Hospital from January 2002 through August 2006. Of these deliveries, 41 (24%) were complicated by postopartum hemorrhage. Postpartum hemorrhage was significantly more likely in cases with gestational age > or = 39 weeks (odds ratio [OR], 3.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65-7.28), a combined birth weight of more than 5,500 g (OR, 2.53; 95% CI, 1.00-6.45), induction of labor (OR, 2.87; 95% CI, 1.38-5.98), oxytocin administration during labor (OR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.27-6.48), or a duration of labor > or = 24 hours (OR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.15-5.62). Postpartum hemorrhage is a frequent complication in twin pregnancies. Therefore, special attention should be given after birth to patients with induction of labor or intervened delivery especially at > or = 39 weeks gestation. PMID:18084135

  3. Uterine prolapse in pregnancy: risk factors, complications and management.

    PubMed

    Tsikouras, Panagiotis; Dafopoulos, Alexandros; Vrachnis, Nikolaos; Iliodromiti, Zoe; Bouchlariotou, Sofia; Pinidis, Petros; Tsagias, Nikolaos; Liberis, Vasileios; Galazios, Georgios; Von Tempelhoff, Georg Friedrich

    2014-02-01

    Presentation of uterine prolapse is a rare event in a pregnant woman, which can be pre-existent or else manifest in the course of pregnancy. Complications resulting from prolapse of the uterus in pregnancy vary from minor cervical infection to spontaneous abortion, and include preterm labor and maternal and fetal mortality as well as acute urinary retention and urinary tract infection. Moreover, affected women may be at particular risk of dystocia during labor that could necessitate emergency intervention for delivery. Recommendations regarding the management of this infrequent but potentially harmful condition are scarce and outdated. This review will examine the causative factors of uterine prolapse and the antepartum, intrapartum and puerperal complications that may arise from this condition as well as therapeutic options available to the obstetrician. While early recognition and appropriate prenatal management of uterine prolapse during pregnancy is imperative, implementation of conservative treatment modalities throughout pregnancy, these applied in accordance with the severity of the uterus prolapse and the patient's preference, may be sufficient to achieve uneventful pregnancy and normal, spontaneous delivery. PMID:23692627

  4. Maternal protein restriction induces alterations in hepatic tumor necrosis factor-?/CYP7A1 signaling and disorders regulation of cholesterol metabolism in the adult rat offspring

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaomei; Qi, Ying; Tian, Baoling; Chen, Dong; Gao, Hong; Xi, Chunyan; Xing, Yanlin; Yuan, Zhengwei

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that adverse events in utero impair fetal development and lead to the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome in adulthood. To investigate the mechanisms linking impaired fetal growth to increased cholesterol, an important clinical risk factor characterizing the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, we examined the impact of maternal undernutrition on tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)/c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway and the cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) expression in the livers of the offspring with a protein restriction model. The male offspring with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) caused by the isocaloric low-protein diet showed decreased liver weight at birth and augmented circulation and hepatic cholesterol levels at 40 weeks of age. Maternal undernutrition significantly upregulated cytokine TNF-? expression and JNK phospholytion levels in the livers from fetal age to adulthood. Elevated JNK phospholytion could be linked to downregulated hepatocyte nuclear factor-4? and CYP7A1 expression, subsequently led to higher hepatic cholesterol. This work demonstrated that intrauterine malnutrition-induced IUGR might result in intrinsic disorder in hepatic TNF-?/CYP7A1 signaling, and contribute to the development of hypercholesterolemia in later life. PMID:25120278

  5. Haptoglobin Phenotype, Angiogenic Factors and Preeclampsia Risk

    PubMed Central

    WEISSGERBER, Tracey L.; ROBERTS, James M.; JEYABALAN, Arun; POWERS, Robert W.; LEE, MinJae; DATWYLER, Saul A; GANDLEY, Robin E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether haptolgobin phenotype is related to preeclampsia risk, or to plasma concentrations of soluble endoglin (sEng), soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) and placental growth factor (PlGF). Study Design Haptoglobin phenotype was retrospectively determined in primiparous women with uncomplicated pregnancies (n=309), gestational hypertension (n=215) and preeclampsia (n=249). Phenotype was assessed by peroxidase staining following native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of hemoglobin-supplemented serum. Results Compared to haptoglobin 1-1, haptoglobin 2-1 was associated with a significantly increased risk of preeclampsia (odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 2.11 (1.07, 4.18)) and term preeclampsia (2.45 (1.07, 5.83)) in Caucasian women. Haptoglobin phenotype was not associated with preeclampsia risk in African Americans. Preeclamptic women had higher plasma sEng and sFlt-1, and lower PlGF, than controls. sEng, sFlt-1 and PlGF did not differ among women of different haptoglobin phenotypes. Conclusion Haptoglobin 2-1 is associated with higher preeclampsia risk in primiparous Caucasian women. PMID:22340942

  6. Parkinson's disease: A risk factor for osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Malochet-Guinamand, Sandrine; Durif, Franck; Thomas, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    Parkinson's disease is the most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease. On the long term, it may be complicated by various musculoskeletal problems, such as osteoporotic fractures, that have significant socioeconomic consequences. Indeed, patients suffering from Parkinson's disease have a higher fracture risk, particularly hip fracture risk, than other subjects of the same age because of both a higher risk of falls and lower bone mineral density. Bone loss in Parkinson's disease may be associated with the severity and duration of the disease. We review here the different suspected mechanisms of accelerated bone loss in Parkinson's disease, amongst which weight loss and reduced mobility appear to play key roles. Antiparkinsonian drugs, particularly levodopa, may also be associated with decreased bone mineral density as a result of hyperhomocysteinaemia. We discuss the role of other nutritional deficiencies, such as vitamin B12, folate or vitamin K. In conclusion, it seems necessary to screen for and treat osteoporosis in this at-risk population, while actions to prevent falls are still disappointing. A better understanding of the factors explaining bone loss in this population would help implementing preventive actions. PMID:26453100

  7. Clinical features and risk factors for blood stream infections of Candida in neonates

    PubMed Central

    LIU, MINGYUE; HUANG, SIYUAN; GUO, LINYING; LI, HONGRI; WANG, FEI; ZHANG, QI; SONG, GUOWEI

    2015-01-01

    Candida species are the leading cause of invasive fungal infections in children admitted to hospital. However, few data exist with regard to the clinical features, risk factors and prognosis for candidemia in neonates. The present retrospective study included 40 neonates from the Affiliated Children's Hospital of the Capital Institute of Pediatrics (Beijing, China) in the time period between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2010 (candidemia group, n=19; non-candidemia group, n=21). The clinical characteristics, prognosis and previously identified risk factors for the two groups were recorded. According to the forward stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis, administration of antibiotics >2 weeks prior, the use of glycopeptide antibiotics, maternal candidal vaginitis and secondary gastrointestinal surgery were identified as predictors of candidiasis. When compared with the non-gastrointestinal dysfunction group, the proportion of neonates that had been subjected to parenteral nutrition, central venous catheters, gastrointestinal surgery, secondary gastrointestinal surgery, repeated tracheal intubation and glycopeptide antibiotic administration was significantly higher in the gastrointestinal dysfunction group (P<0.05). Long-term application of antibiotics, use of glycopeptide antibiotics, maternal candidal vaginitis and secondary gastrointestinal surgery appeared to be the risk factors of candidemia in neonates. The neonates co-existed with gastrointestinal dysfunction suffering from candidemia were likely to experience growth retardation at 6 months after hospital discharge. Candidemia is potentially life-threatening situation for neonates, and if patients do not succumb it may affect their early development.

  8. What Are the Risks Factors for Preterm Labor and Birth?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What are the risk factors for preterm labor and birth? Skip sharing on ... links Share this: Page Content There are several risk factors for preterm labor and premature birth, including ones ...

  9. What Are the Risk Factors for Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lymphocytic leukemia? What are the risk factors for acute lymphocytic leukemia? A risk factor is something that affects your ... this is unknown. Having an identical twin with ALL Someone who has an identical twin who develops ...

  10. What Are the Risk Factors for Anal Cancer?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... anal cancer? What are the risk factors for anal cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects ... about HPV and HPV vaccines, see HPV Vaccines . Anal warts Anal warts (also known as condyloma acuminata ) ...

  11. The Reproductive Factors Linked to Breast Cancer Risk

    E-print Network

    Chen, Tsuhan

    . Breastfeeding decreases breast cancer risk and is a good example of an established, modifiable risk factor affect the age of menarche. Breastfeeding and Other Reproductive Factors for Breast Cancer BCERFBriefs

  12. Hyperemesis gravidarum and maternal cancer risk, a scandinavian nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Vandraas, Kathrine F; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Støer, Nathalie C; Troisi, Rebecca; Stephansson, Olof; Ording, Anne Gulbech; Vangen, Siri; Grotmol, Tom; Vikanes, Åse V

    2015-09-01

    Reproductive factors have been shown to influence cancer risk. Several pathological conditions during pregnancy have also been associated with subsequent altered cancer risk in the mother. Hyperemesis gravidarum (hyperemesis) is an early pregnancy condition characterized by severe nausea and vomiting resulting in weight loss and metabolic disturbances. Studies have reported associations between hyperemesis and cancer, but results are inconsistent. In this nested case-control study we linked the population-based medical birth registries and cancer registries in Norway, Sweden and Denmark in order to examine overall cancer risk and risk of specific cancer types in women with a history of hyperemesis, using conditional logistic regression. In total, 168,501 cases of cancer in addition to up to 10 cancer-free controls per case were randomly sampled, matched on year of birth and birth registry (n?=?1,721,626). Hyperemesis was defined through the International Classification of Diseases. Analyses were adjusted for potential confounders. Hyperemesis was inversely associated with overall cancer risk with adjusted relative risk (aRR) of 0.93 (95% CI: 0.88-0.99), with cancer in the lungs (aRR: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.44-0.81), cervix (aRR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.49-0.91) and rectum (aRR: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.29-0.78). Thyroid cancer was positively associated with hyperemesis (aRR 1.45, 95% CI: 1.06-1.99) and risk increased with more than one hyperemetic pregnancy (aRR 1.80, 95% CI: 1.23-2.63). Hormonal factors, in particular human chorionic gonadotropin, are likely to be involved in mediating these effects. This study is the first to systematically address these associations and provides valuable knowledge on potential long-term consequences of hyperemesis. PMID:25665163

  13. Assessing risk factors for periodontitis using regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo Pereira, J. A.; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Oliveira, Teresa

    2013-10-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis is indispensable to assess the associations and interactions between different factors and the risk of periodontitis. Among others, regression analysis is a statistical technique widely used in healthcare to investigate and model the relationship between variables. In our work we study the impact of socio-demographic, medical and behavioral factors on periodontal health. Using regression, linear and logistic models, we can assess the relevance, as risk factors for periodontitis disease, of the following independent variables (IVs): Age, Gender, Diabetic Status, Education, Smoking status and Plaque Index. The multiple linear regression analysis model was built to evaluate the influence of IVs on mean Attachment Loss (AL). Thus, the regression coefficients along with respective p-values will be obtained as well as the respective p-values from the significance tests. The classification of a case (individual) adopted in the logistic model was the extent of the destruction of periodontal tissues defined by an Attachment Loss greater than or equal to 4 mm in 25% (AL?4mm/?25%) of sites surveyed. The association measures include the Odds Ratios together with the correspondent 95% confidence intervals.

  14. Internet Abuse Risk Factors among Spanish Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Carballo, José L; Marín-Vila, María; Espada, José P; Orgilés, Mireia; Piqueras, José A

    2015-01-01

    Empirical evidence has revealed various factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of Internet abuse. The aim of this paper was to analyze, on a sample of Spanish adolescents, the relationship between Internet abuse and: (1) Personal and interpersonal risk factors, including social skills in both virtual and real-life contexts; (2) Drug use. A total of 814 high school students aged between 13 and 17 participated in this study, and were divided into two groups: Internet Abusers (IA = 173) and Non-Internet Abusers (NIA = 641). Questionnaires were used to analyze Internet and drug use/abuse, as well as social skills, in virtual and real contexts. Various interpersonal risk factors (family and group of friends) were also assessed. IA showed a more severe pattern of Internet and drug use, as well as poorer social skills in both contexts. Moreover, their groups of friends appeared more likely to become involved in risky situations related to Internet and drug abuse. Both IA and NIA showed more adaptive social skills in the virtual context than in the real one. There is a need for further research to build on these findings, with a view to designing specific preventive programs that promote responsible Internet use. PMID:26611139

  15. Maternal Depression, Child Frontal Asymmetry, and Child Affective Behavior as Factors in Child Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Erika E.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Silk, Jennifer S.; Kovacs, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Background: Despite findings that parent depression increases children's risk for internalizing and externalizing problems, little is known about other factors that combine with parent depression to contribute to behavior problems. Methods: As part of a longitudinal, interdisciplinary study on childhood-onset depression (COD), we examined the…

  16. Tree nut allergy: risk factors for development, mitigation of reaction risk and current efforts in desensitization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mona; Burks, A Wesley; Green, Todd D

    2015-05-01

    Allergy to tree nuts has grown widespread among patients, specifically in the pediatric population, in recent years. In this review, we evaluate and summarize the literature specific to development and treatment of tree nut allergy. The cause of tree nut allergy, such as most food allergies, is unknown; there are theories regarding maternal dietary factors as well as sensitization related to cross-reactivity to peanut allergens. The gold standard for the diagnosis of tree nut allergy is the double-blind, placebo-controlled, oral food challenge; however, simpler and more cost-effective diagnostic methods, such as the skin prick test and serum-specific IgE are often used as a supplement for diagnosis. Management of tree nut allergy consists of dietary avoidance and using epinephrine to manage serious allergic reactions. Alternative therapeutic methods, such as oral and sublingual immunotherapy and modification of allergenic proteins are being explored to develop safer, more effective and long-lasting management of tree nut allergy. We comment on the current studies involving risk factors for sensitization, diagnosis and management of tree nut allergy. PMID:25824522

  17. Family physicians in the maternity care workforce: factors influencing declining trends.

    PubMed

    Tong, Sebastian T; Makaroff, Laura A; Xierali, Imam M; Puffer, James C; Newton, Warren P; Bazemore, Andrew W

    2013-11-01

    Family physicians provide access to maternity care for a disproportionate share of rural and urban underserved communities. This paper aims to determine trends in maternity care provision by family physicians and the characteristics of family physicians that provide maternity care. We used American Board of Family Medicine survey data collected from every family physician during application for the Maintenance of Certification Examination to determine the percentage of family physicians that provided maternity care from 2000 to 2010. Using a cross-sectional study design, logistic regression analysis was performed to examine association between maternity care provision and various physician demographic and practice characteristics. Maternity care provision by family physicians declined from 23.3 % in 2000 to 9.7 % in 2010 (p < 0.0001). Family physicians who were female, younger and US medical graduates were more likely to practice maternity care. Practicing in a rural setting (OR = 2.2; 95 % CL 2.1-2.4), an educational setting (OR = 6.4; 95 % CL 5.7-7.1) and in either the Midwest (OR = 2.6; 95 % CL 2.3-2.9) or West (OR = 2.3; 95 % CL 2.1-2.6) were the strongest predictors of higher likelihood of providing maternity care. While family physicians continue to play an important role in providing maternity care in many parts of the United States, the steep decline in the percentage of family physicians providing maternity care is concerning. Formal collaborations with midwives and obstetrician-gynecologists, malpractice reform, payment changes and graduate medical education innovations are potential avenues to explore to ensure access to maternity care. PMID:23065313

  18. Maternal Medication and Herbal Use and Risk for Hypospadias: Data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997--2007

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Jennifer N.; Tinker, Sarah C.; Broussard, Cheryl S.; Reefhuis, Jennita; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Honein, Margaret A.; Olney, Richard S.; Parker, Samantha E.; Werler, Martha M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Investigate associations between maternal use of common medications and herbals during early pregnancy and risk for hypospadias in male infants. Methods We used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multi-site, population-based, case-control study. We analyzed data from 1,537 infants with second-or third-degree isolated hypospadias and 4,314 liveborn male control infants without major birth defects, with estimated dates of delivery from 1997–2007. Exposure was reported use of prescription or over-the-counter medications or herbal products, from 1 month before to 4 months after conception. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, pre-pregnancy BMI, previous live births, maternal sub-fertility, study site, and year. Results We assessed 64 medication and 24 herbal components. Maternal uses of most components were not associated with an increased risk of hypospadias. Two new associations were observed for venlafaxine (aOR 2.4; 95% CI 1.0, 6.0) and progestin only oral contraceptives (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1, 3.2). The previously reported association for clomiphene citrate was confirmed (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2, 3.0). Numbers were relatively small for exposure to other specific patterns of fertility agents, but elevated aORs were observed for the most common of them. Conclusions Overall, findings were reassuring that hypospadias is not associated with most medication components examined in this analysis. New associations will need to be confirmed in other studies. Increased risks for hypospadias associated with various fertility agents raises the possibility of confounding by underlying subfertility. PMID:23620412

  19. [Environmental risk factors and epidemiologic study].

    PubMed

    Signorelli, C; Limina, R M

    2002-01-01

    The problems regarding communication of risks in the environmental sector and the analysis of certain causes of pollution, together with their effects on human health are the subjects of this article. In an illustrative and concise manner results of the most important epidemiological studies concerning the effects of non-ionizing radiations, of radon and of air pollution have been analyzed. Throughout this analysis emphasis has been placed on the difficulty of obtaining clear and scientifically based results. Such results are needed in order to provide the population with satisfying information and thus meet the increasing demand for unambiguous answers. Among the risk factors for human health are the high frequency electromagnetic fields used for mobile phones (radiofrequency--RF) nd extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) of power-lines. Even though these risk factors may be minimal the high number of persons exposed could make them an important impact on public health. Regarding the topic of air pollution, effects on particular segments of the population (children, elderly people and subjects with chronic diseases) have been found in various studies; for example, for an increase of PM(10) of 10 microg/m(3) an increase in daily mortality of 0.69% (CI 0.40-0.98) due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes has been estimated as well as an increase in general daily mortality of 0.54% (CI 0.33-0.76). Due to the populations' low risk perception (caused by unawareness of the problem) radon is undoubtedly the environmental pollutant which has the most impact on public health. This is true even in Italy where 4,000 cases of lung cancer attributable to radon (about 11% of total lung cancer) have been estimated per year; this risk is heightened by the combined effect with smoking. When dealing with health risks the tools of communication must be simple and correct; the mass-media are the most important mediators between the scientific community and the public. It is therefore vital for the public health operators to maintain a continuous relationship with the mass media which should be based on reciprocal trust and full collaboration. PMID:12162123

  20. Maternal mortality in Cameroon: a university teaching hospital report.

    PubMed

    Pierre-Marie, Tebeu; Gregory, Halle-Ekane; Maxwell, Da Itambi; Robinson, Enow Mbu; Yvette, Mawamba; Nelson, Fomulu Joseph

    2015-01-01

    More than 550,000 women die yearly from pregnancy-related causes. Fifty percent (50%) of the world estimate of maternal deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa alone. There is insufficient information on the risk factors of maternal mortality in Cameroon. This study aimed at establishing causes and risk factors of maternal mortality. This was a case-control study from 1st January, 2006 to 31st December, 2010 after National Ethical Committee Approval. Cases were maternal deaths; controls were women who delivered normally. Maternal deaths were obtained from the delivery room registers and in-patient registers. Controls for each case were two normal deliveries following identified maternal deaths on the same day. Variables considered were socio-demographic and reproductive health characteristics. Epi Info 3.5.1 was used for analysis. The mean MMR was 287.5/100,000 live births. Causes of deaths were: postpartum hemorrhage (229.2%), unsafe abortion (25%), ectopic pregnancy (12.5%), hypertension in pregnancy (8.3%), malaria (8.3%), anemia (8.3%), heart disease (4.2%), and pneumonia (4.2%), and placenta praevia (4.2%). Ages ranged from 18 to 41 years, with a mean of 27.7 ± 5.14 years. Lack of antenatal care was a risk factor for maternal death (OR=78.33; CI: (8.66- 1802.51)). The mean MMR from 2006 to 2010 was 287.5/100,000 live births. Most of the causes of maternal deaths were preventable. Lack of antenatal care was a risk factor for maternal mortality. Key words: Maternal mortality, causes, risk factors, Cameroon. PMID:26401210

  1. Maternal mortality in Cameroon: a university teaching hospital report

    PubMed Central

    Pierre-Marie, Tebeu; Gregory, Halle-Ekane; Maxwell, Da Itambi; Robinson, Enow Mbu; Yvette, Mawamba; Nelson, Fomulu Joseph

    2015-01-01

    More than 550,000 women die yearly from pregnancy-related causes. Fifty percent (50%) of the world estimate of maternal deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa alone. There is insufficient information on the risk factors of maternal mortality in Cameroon. This study aimed at establishing causes and risk factors of maternal mortality. This was a case-control study from 1st January, 2006 to 31st December, 2010 after National Ethical Committee Approval. Cases were maternal deaths; controls were women who delivered normally. Maternal deaths were obtained from the delivery room registers and in-patient registers. Controls for each case were two normal deliveries following identified maternal deaths on the same day. Variables considered were socio-demographic and reproductive health characteristics. Epi Info 3.5.1 was used for analysis. The mean MMR was 287.5/100,000 live births. Causes of deaths were: postpartum hemorrhage (229.2%), unsafe abortion (25%), ectopic pregnancy (12.5%), hypertension in pregnancy (8.3%), malaria (8.3%), anemia (8.3%), heart disease (4.2%), and pneumonia (4.2%), and placenta praevia (4.2%). Ages ranged from 18 to 41 years, with a mean of 27.7 ± 5.14 years. Lack of antenatal care was a risk factor for maternal death (OR=78.33; CI: (8.66- 1802.51)). The mean MMR from 2006 to 2010 was 287.5/100,000 live births. Most of the causes of maternal deaths were preventable. Lack of antenatal care was a risk factor for maternal mortality. Key words: Maternal mortality, causes, risk factors, Cameroon. PMID:26401210

  2. What Are the Risk Factors for Multiple Myeloma?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... know what causes multiple myeloma? What are the risk factors for multiple myeloma? A risk factor is anything that changes a person’s chance of ... disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. For example, exposing skin to strong sunlight is ...

  3. What Are the Risk Factors for Thymus Cancer?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... know what causes thymus cancer? What are the risk factors for thymus cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting ... disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. For example, exposing the skin to strong sunlight ...

  4. Disruptive behaviour disorders: a systematic review of environmental antenatal and early years risk factors.

    PubMed

    Latimer, K; Wilson, P; Kemp, J; Thompson, L; Sim, F; Gillberg, C; Puckering, C; Minnis, H

    2012-09-01

    Disruptive behaviour disorders (DBDs), including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) are chronic disorders with significant overlap in aetiology and presentation. An integrative examination of environmental risk factors is lacking. Six literature searches of web-based bibliographic databases were completed to identify literature on DBDs in general and five disorders in particular: CD, ODD, ADHD, deficits of attention, motor control and perception, and reactive attachment disorder. Searches were filtered to focus on studies including diagnostic assessment, focussing on environmental risk and protective factors in the first 4 years of life. The database searches generated 9806 papers of which 47 were reviewed after filters had been applied. The evidence suggests links between a number of early life risk factors and DBDs, including prenatal cigarette smoking and alcohol use, prenatal viral illness, maternal stress and anxiety, low birthweight, peri-partum and early neonatal complications, parental stress and parenting styles in infancy, early deprivation, adoption and separation. Despite the understanding that there is sharing of risk factors between the DBDs, there has been a disproportionate focus on the role of certain risk factors at the expense of others and the field is weakened by difficulties in controlling for all potential confounding variables. PMID:22372737

  5. Factors affecting maternal healthcare utilization in Afghanistan: secondary analysis of Afghanistan Health Survey 2012

    PubMed Central

    Shahram, Muhammad Shuaib; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Reyer, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study, a secondary analysis of data from Afghanistan Health Survey 2012, aimed to identify factors affecting maternal healthcare utilization in Afghanistan. Subjects were 5,662 women aged 15–49 years who had had one delivery in the two years preceding the survey. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by logistic regression analysis. The study found that 54.0% of mothers used antenatal care (ANC) at least one time, and 47.4% of births were assisted by skilled birth attendants (SBA). Adjusted OR of ANC use was 2.74 (95% CI, 2.08–3.60) for urban residency, 1.69 (95% CI, 1.26–2.27) for primary education relative to no education, 3.94 (95% CI, 3.51–4.42) for knowledge on danger signs of pregnancy, and 1.78 (95% CI, 1.47–2.15) for television and radio relative to no exposure. Adjusted OR of SBA utilization was 3.71 (95% CI, 2.65–5.18) for urban residency, 0.67 (95% CI, 0.48–0.91) for age <20 years relative to age 34–49 years, 1.43 (95% CI, 1.03–1.97) for secondary and higher education relative to no education, 1.83 (95% CI, 1.47–2.27) for para 1 relative to para ?5, 6.66 (95% CI, 5.43–8.15) for ?4 ANC visits relative to no visit, 1.37 (95% CI, 1.21–1.57) for knowledge of danger signs of pregnancy, 1.62 (95% CI, 1.38–1.90) for radio relative to no exposure, and 2.71 (95% CI, 2.25–3.27) for rich households relative to poor ones. Since women's education and knowledge about danger signs of pregnancy were significant factors of both ANC and SBA, educating women may be an effective step in promoting safe maternal health. PMID:26663938

  6. Factors associated with early postpartum maternity blues and depression tendency among Japanese mothers with full-term healthy infants.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yuki; Tamakoshi, Koji

    2014-02-01

    Maternity blues and postpartum depression are common mental health problems during the early postpartum period. However, few studies have examined the factors associated with maternity blues and postpartum depression in healthy mothers with spontaneous births of healthy full-term infants. This study aimed to determine the demographic and obstetric factors, various feelings during pregnancy, and psychological factors by using the Maternity Blues Scale (MBS) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scale (EPDS) among healthy Japanese mothers. We distributed the MBS and EPDS self-administered questionnaires to 100 Japanese mothers during their 4-5 day hospitalization and at a health check-up 1-month after delivery, respectively. Multiple regression analyses were performed including the above-mentioned variables as independent variables and the maximum MBS or EPDS scores as dependent variables. The answers "Having a friend I can talk to about maternity life or child rearing" [beta (95% confidence interval) = -1.53 (-2.68 - -0.378)] and "Satogaeri bunben", a Japanese traditional support system wherein a postnatal woman lives with her husband/parents [-2.82 (-4.73 - -0.898)] were significantly associated with MBS scores. The answer "Having a friend I can talk to about maternity life or child rearing" [-2.83 (-4.76 - -0.903)] was also significantly associated with EPDS scores, although the association between the partner's age and these scores was marginally significant [-0.106 (-0.008 - 0.221)]. This study shows that it is important to provide support for healthy women without delivery complications, both at home and in the community. PMID:25129999

  7. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH EARLY POSTPARTUM MATERNITY BLUES AND DEPRESSION TENDENCY AMONG JAPANESE MOTHERS WITH FULL-TERM HEALTHY INFANTS

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, YUKI; TAMAKOSHI, KOJI

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Maternity blues and postpartum depression are common mental health problems during the early postpartum period. However, few studies have examined the factors associated with maternity blues and postpartum depression in healthy mothers with spontaneous births of healthy full-term infants. This study aimed to determine the demographic and obstetric factors, various feelings during pregnancy, and psychological factors by using the Maternity Blues Scale (MBS) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scale (EPDS) among healthy Japanese mothers. We distributed the MBS and EPDS self-administered questionnaires to 100 Japanese mothers during their 4–5 day hospitalization and at a health check-up 1-month after delivery, respectively. Multiple regression analyses were performed including the above-mentioned variables as independent variables and the maximum MBS or EPDS scores as dependent variables. The answers "Having a friend I can talk to about maternity life or child rearing" [? (95% confidence interval) = –1.53 (–2.68 – –0.378)] and "Satogaeri bunben", a Japanese traditional support system wherein a postnatal woman lives with her husband/parents [–2.82 (–4.73 – –0.898)] were significantly associated with MBS scores. The answer "Having a friend I can talk to about maternity life or child rearing" [–2.83 (–4.76 – –0.903)] was also significantly associated with EPDS scores, although the association between the partner’s age and these scores was marginally significant [–0.106 (–0.008 – 0.221)]. This study shows that it is important to provide support for healthy women without delivery complications, both at home and in the community. PMID:25129999

  8. Epigenetic Risk Factors in PTSD and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Raabe, Florian Joachim; Spengler, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that children exposed to adverse experiences are at increased risk for the development of depression, anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A history of child abuse and maltreatment increases the likelihood of being subsequently exposed to traumatic events or of developing PTSD as an adult. The brain is highly plastic during early life and encodes acquired information into lasting memories that normally subserve adaptation. Translational studies in rodents showed that enduring sensitization of neuronal and neuroendocrine circuits in response to early life adversity are likely risk factors of life time vulnerability to stress. Hereby, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis integrates cognitive, behavioral, and emotional responses to early-life stress and can be epigenetically programed during sensitive windows of development. Epigenetic mechanisms, comprising reciprocal regulation of chromatin structure and DNA methylation, are important to establish and maintain sustained, yet potentially reversible, changes in gene transcription. The relevance of these findings for the development of PTSD requires further studies in humans where experience-dependent epigenetic programing can additionally depend on genetic variation in the underlying substrates which may protect from or advance disease development. Overall, identification of early-life stress-associated epigenetic risk markers informing on previous stress history can help to advance early diagnosis, personalized prevention, and timely therapeutic interventions, thus reducing long-term social and health costs. PMID:23966957

  9. The relationship between maternal employment and adolescent nutritional status and risks to cardiovascular health 

    E-print Network

    Halepeska, Aielie Michelle

    2003-01-01

    by maternal work commitment. Sons' subscapular skinfold thicknesses and intakes of thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B?, folate, vitamin C, vitamin A, and potassium were predicted by the amount of rules and regulations their mothers were subject to at work. Sons...

  10. Effect of Patient and Therapist Factors on Suicide Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Berman, Noah C; Stark, Abigail; Cooperman, Allison; Wilhelm, Sabine; Cohen, I Glenn

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined how patient risk factors and clinician demographics predict the assessment of suicide risk. Clinicians (N = 333) read two vignettes, one of which manipulated patient risk factors, then rated the patient's likelihood of suicide and need for hospitalization. Clinicians' assessments were heterogeneous. Results indicated that certain patient risk factors (access to excess medication) and clinician demographics (relationship status, religiosity) predicted perceived suicide risk; and, moreover, clinicians' suicide risk assessment did not always align with the decision to hospitalize the patient. The authors discuss methods for standardizing clinicians' judgment of risk and minimizing error through debiasing strategies (cognitive forcing strategy). PMID:25674940

  11. Risk factors for male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mabuchi, K; Bross, D S; Kessler, I I

    1985-02-01

    To investigate risk factors in male breast cancer, a case-control study of 52 histologically diagnosed cases and 52 controls--matched for age, race, marital status, and hospital--was conducted in 5 U.S. metropolitan areas. Cases were significantly more likely to be Jewish than were the controls, supporting earlier suggestions of an increased risk in Jewish males. A significant association of male breast cancer with mumps infections at age 20 years or older, along with the possible association with antecedent testicular injury and the excess frequency of mumps orchitis among cases, suggests that testicular factors may be important in the development of breast cancer among males. An increased frequency of breast cancer among persons who have worked in blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling mills is of interest because of the possible testicular effect of high environmental temperatures. The observed association between breast cancer and a prior history of swollen breast is difficult to interpret because of potential recall bias, and a possible relationship with military service needs further confirmation. PMID:3856050

  12. Genetic risk factors in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Tilley, L; Morgan, K; Kalsheker, N

    1998-01-01

    Following a brief introduction and discussion of the pathological features of Alzheimer's disease, the main emphasis of this review article will be the genetic factors that have been implicated in this disease. These can be divided into two main categories. First, the three genes in which mutations are known to result in early onset autosomal dominant familial Alzheimer's disease will be discussed. These are well characterised but account for only a small proportion of Alzheimer's disease cases. Late onset, sporadic Alzheimer's disease is more common and evidence suggests that there is a genetic component to this type of disease. A number of genetic risk factors have been implicated that might increase the risk of developing sporadic disease. Many of these are controversial and studies have shown conflicting results, which are discussed in this section. Finally, a brief discussion of some of the mechanisms suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is included. It is hoped that this will show why particular genes have been implicated in Alzheimer's disease and how they might be able to influence the development of the disease. PMID:10193509

  13. Risk Factors and Birth Outcomes of Anaemia in Early Pregnancy in a Nulliparous Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Masukume, Gwinyai; Khashan, Ali S.; Kenny, Louise C.; Baker, Philip N.; Nelson, Gill

    2015-01-01

    Background Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health and economic problem worldwide, that contributes to both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Objective The aim of the study was to calculate the prevalence of anaemia in early pregnancy in a cohort of ‘low risk’ women participating in a large international multicentre prospective study (n = 5 609), to identify the modifiable risk factors for anaemia in pregnancy in this cohort, and to compare the birth outcomes between pregnancies with and without anaemia in early gestation. Methods The study is an analysis of data that were collected prospectively during the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints study. Anaemia was defined according to the World Health Organization’s definition of anaemia in pregnancy (haemoglobin < 11g/dL). Binary logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders (country, maternal age, having a marital partner, ethnic origin, years of schooling, and having paid work) was the main method of analysis. Results The hallmark findings were the low prevalence of anaemia (2.2%), that having no marital partner was an independent risk factor for having anaemia (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.01-1.78), and that there was no statistically significant effect of anaemia on adverse pregnancy outcomes (small for gestational age, pre-tem birth, mode of delivery, low birth weight, APGAR score < 7 at one and five minutes). Adverse pregnancy outcomes were however more common in those with anaemia than in those without. Conclusion In this low risk healthy pregnant population we found a low anaemia rate. The absence of a marital partner was a non-modifiable factor, albeit one which may reflect a variety of confounding factors, that should be considered for addition to anaemia’s conceptual framework of determinants. Although not statistically significant, clinically, a trend towards a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes was observed in women that were anaemic in early pregnancy. PMID:25875012

  14. Early onset neonatal group B streptococcus (GBS) infection: associated obstetric risk factors.

    PubMed

    Garland, S M

    1991-05-01

    An analysis of all early onset neonatal Group B streptococcal (GBS) infections at the Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne was made for the 10-year period 1979-1988. There were 104 cases with 29 neonatal deaths (28%). One or more predisposing perinatal risk factors was evident in 82% of cases (premature labour 79%, prolonged membrane rupture (greater than 12 hours) 57%, premature rupture of the membranes 69%, maternal sepsis 29%). Overall, 88% of GBS infections were evident within 24 hours of birth, suggesting an intrapartum pathogenesis for infection. PMID:1930030

  15. Etiological Risk Factors for Sibling Incest: Data From an Anonymous Computer-Assisted Self-Interview.

    PubMed

    Griffee, Karen; Swindell, Sam; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Stroebel, Sandra S; Beard, Keith W; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Stroupe, Walter

    2014-11-27

    Retrospective data from 1,821 women and 1,064 men with one or more siblings, provided anonymously using a computer-assisted self-interview, were used to identify risk factors for sibling incest (SI); 137 were participants in SI. In order of decreasing predictive power, the risk factors identified by the multiple logistic regression analysis included ever having shared a bed for sleeping with a sibling, parent-child incest (PCI), family nudity, low levels of maternal affection, and ever having shared a tub bath with a sibling. The results were consistent with the idea that SI in many families was the cumulative result of four types of parental behaviors: (a) factors that lower external barriers to sexual behavior (e.g., permitting co-sleeping or co-bathing of sibling dyads), (b) factors that encourage nudity of children within the nuclear family and permit children to see the parent's genitals, (c) factors that lead to the siblings relying on one another for affection (e.g., diminished maternal affection), and (d) factors that eroticize young children (e.g., child sexual abuse [CSA] by a parent). Thirty-eight of the 137 SI participants were participants in coerced sibling incest (CSI). In order of decreasing predictive power, risk factors for CSI identified by multiple logistic regression analysis included ever having shared a bed for sleeping with a brother, PCI, witnessing parental physical fighting, and family nudity. SI was more likely to have been reported as CSI if the sibling had touched the reporting sibling's genitals, and less likely to have been reported as CSI if the siblings had shared a bed. PMID:25432976

  16. Risk factors for migraine and tension-type headache in 11 year old children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Though migraine and tension type headache are both commonly diagnosed in childhood, little is known about their determinants when diagnosed prior to puberty onset. Our aim was to determine psychosocial- and health-related risk factors of migraine and tension-type headache in 11 year old children. Methods 871 New Zealand European children were enrolled in a longitudinal study at birth and data were collected at birth, 1, 3.5, 7, and 11 years of age. Primary headache was determined at age 11 years based on the International Headache Society. Perinatal factors assessed were small for gestational age status, sex, maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal perceived stress, and maternal school leaving age. Childhood factors assessed were sleep duration, percent body fat, television watching, parent and self-reported total problem behaviour, being bullied, and depression. Results Prevalence of migraine and tension-type headache was 10.5% and 18.6%, respectively. Both migraine and TTH were significantly associated with self-reported problem behaviour in univariable logistic regression analyses. Additionally, migraine was associated with reduced sleep duration, and both sleep and behaviour problems remained significant after multivariable analyses. TTH was also significantly associated with antenatal maternal smoking, higher body fat, and being bullied. For TTH, problem behaviour measured at ages 3.5 and 11 years both remained significant after multivariable analysis. Being born small for gestational age was not associated with either headache group. Conclusions Although they share some commonality, migraine and tension-type headache are separate entities in childhood with different developmental characteristics. The association between primary headache and problem behaviour requires further investigation. PMID:25205384

  17. Maternal zinc deficiency during pregnancy elevates the risks of fetal growth restriction: a population-based birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Hu, Yong-Fang; Hao, Jia-Hu; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Su, Pu-Yu; Wang, Ying; Yu, Zhen; Fu, Lin; Xu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Cheng; Tao, Fang-Biao; Xu, De-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the association between maternal zinc level during pregnancy and the risks of low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA) infants in a large population-based birth cohort study. In this study, 3187 pregnant women were recruited. For serum zinc level, 2940 pregnant women were sufficient (?56??g/dL) and 247 deficient (<56??g/dL). Of interest, 7.3% newborns were with LBW among subjects with low zinc level (RR: 3.48; 95% CI: 2.03, 5.96; P?maternal serum zinc level was lower in SGA cases as compared with controls. By contrast, maternal serum C-reactive protein, TNF-? and IL-8 levels were significantly higher in SGA cases than that of controls. Moreover, nuclear NF-?B p65 was significantly up-regulated in placentas of SGA cases as compared with controls. Taken together, maternal zinc deficiency during pregnancy elevates the risks of LBW and SGA infants. PMID:26053136

  18. CPITN changes during pregnancy and maternal demographic factors ‘impact on periodontal health

    PubMed Central

    Rashidi Maybodi, Fahimeh; Haerian-Ardakani, Ahmad; Vaziri, Farzaneh; Khabbazian, Arezoo; Mohammadi-Asl, Salem

    2015-01-01

    Background: There have been speculations about the effects of hormonal changes and socio-demographic factors on periodontal health during pregnancy. Objective: According to the lack of sufficient epidemiologic information about the periodontal status of pregnant women in Yazd, this study was accomplished to determine the changes of Community Periodontal Index for Treatment Needs (CPITN) during pregnancy and evaluating the possible relationship between this index and demographic characteristics of the mothers. Materials and Methods: This was a longitudinal descriptive study. The samples included 115 pregnant women who were referred to health centers of Yazd, Iran. The mothers’ data were obtained from a questionnaire consisted of 3 parts: consent paper, demographic data and CPITN records. Examination was performed with dental unit light, flat dental mirror and WHO’s scaled probe. Results: In the beginning of the study, 60.1% of checked sextants had healthy gingival status. 25.9% had code1 and 14% had code 2. Code 3 and 4 were not seen in any sextants. There was a significant relationship between lower CPITN and higher maternal education, occupation and more frequencies of tooth-brushing but there was not a relationship between CPITN and mother’s age and number of pregnancies. CPITN had a significant relationship with increasing of the gestational age. Conclusion: There might be a relationship between increasing the month of pregnancy and more periodontal treatment needs. CPITN Increasing during pregnancy shows the importance of periodontal cares during this period. PMID:26000000

  19. Risk Factors of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Risk Factors for Sleep Disturbances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelmanson, Igor A.

    2011-01-01

    Relationship between major risk factors of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and sleep disorders in the infants is the subject of review and discussion. Improper micro-environmental characteristics (especially poor environmental organisation and lack of developmental stimulation), pre-term delivery and/or infant low birth weight, prone sleep…

  20. Interparental Violence and Childhood Adjustment: How and Why Maternal Sensitivity is a Protective Factor

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Liviah G.; Davies, Patrick T.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2014-01-01

    This study examined sensitive parenting as a protective factor in relations between interparental violence and children’s coping and psychological adjustment. Using a multi-method approach, a high risk sample of 201 two-year olds and their mothers participated in three annual waves of data collection. Moderator analyses revealed that sensitive parenting buffered the risk posed by interparental violence on children’s changes in externalizing and prosocial development over a two year period. Tests of mediated moderation further indicated that sensitive parenting protected children from the vulnerability of growing up in a violent home through its association with lower levels of children’s angry reactivity to interparental conflict. Results highlight the significance of identifying the mechanisms that mediate protective factors in models of family adversity. PMID:25132541

  1. Differences in risk factors for recurrent versus incident preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Grantz, Katherine L; Hinkle, Stefanie N; Mendola, Pauline; Sjaarda, Lindsey A; Leishear, Kira; Albert, Paul S

    2015-07-15

    Risk factors for preterm delivery have been described, but whether risk factors differ in the context of prior preterm delivery history is less understood. We assessed whether known risk factors were different in women with versus without prior preterm delivery using medical records of the first and second singleton deliveries in 25,820 Utah women (2002-2010). Longitudinal transition models with modified Poisson regression calculated adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals, with multiplicative interactions between each preterm risk factor and prior preterm delivery status to explore whether risk factors varied between incident and recurrent preterm delivery at <37 weeks. Fewer second pregnancy factors were associated with recurrent preterm delivery, including alcohol, thyroid disease, and depression. Smoking was associated with increased risk for incident (relative risk (RR) = 1.95, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.53, 2.49) but not recurrent (RR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.71, 1.19) preterm delivery, whereas alcohol was associated with an increased risk for recurrent (RR = 2.38, 95% CI: 1.53, 3.71) but not incident (RR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.43; Pinteraction = 0.02 and <0.01) preterm delivery, respectively. Prior term delivery did not necessarily confer protection from known second pregnancy preterm delivery risk factors. In the setting of a prior preterm delivery, many risk factors did not persist. Prior preterm delivery history is important when assessing subsequent preterm delivery risk factors. PMID:26033931

  2. Risk factors of diarrhea in children under 5 years in Al-Mukalla, Yemen

    PubMed Central

    Bahartha, Ali S.; AlEzzi, Jalil I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the risk factors associated with diarrhea among children below 5-years-old in Mukalla, Yemen, and compare with other studies. Methods: We conducted a case-control study on 200 children (100 cases and 100 controls) who attended the Maternity and Child Hospital, outpatient-clinics, and the Primary Health Care Centers in Al-Mukalla, Hadhramout, Yemen between February and April 2013. Results: We found that the significant risk factors associated with diarrhea were crowded housing (odds ratio [OR] 2.02; p=0.02; confidence interval [CI] 1.03-4.01), incomplete vaccination of the child (OR=2.02; p=0.027; CI: 1.08-3.8), and recurrent diarrheal illness during the last 3 months (OR=6.61; p=0.001; CI: 3.41-12.90). Conclusion: Diarrheal diseases are strongly associated with incomplete vaccination, recurrent diarrheal disease, and crowded housing. PMID:25987115

  3. Maternal metabolic perturbations elicited by high-fat diet promote Wnt-1-induced mammary tumor risk in adult female offspring via long-term effects on mammary and systemic phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Montales, Maria Theresa E.; Melnyk, Stepan B.; Simmen, Frank A.; Simmen, Rosalia C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Many adult chronic diseases are thought to be influenced during early life by maternal nutrition; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Obesity-related diseases may be due partly to high fat consumption. Herein, we evaluated mammary tumor risk in female mouse mammary tumor virus-Wnt-1 transgenic (Tg) offspring exposed to high-fat diet (HFD) or control diet (CD) (45% and 17% kcal from fat, respectively) during gestation and lactation, with CD provided to progeny at weaning. In Tg offspring, maternal HFD exposure increased mammary tumor incidence and decreased tumor latency without affecting tumor volume. Tumor risk was associated with higher tumor necrosis factor-? and insulin and altered oxidative stress biomarkers in sera and with early changes in mammary expression of genes linked to tumor promotion [interleukin 6 (Il6)] or inhibition [phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (Pten), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2)]. Corresponding wild-type progeny exposed to maternal HFD displayed accelerated mammary development, higher mammary adiposity, increased insulin resistance and early changes in Pten, Bcl2 and Il6, than CD-exposed offspring. Dams-fed HFD showed higher serum glucose and oxidative stress biomarkers but comparable adiposity compared with CD-fed counterparts. In human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, sera from maternal HFD-exposed Tg offspring elicited changes in PTEN, BCL2 and IL6 gene expression, mimicking in vivo exposure; increased cell viability and mammosphere formation and induced measures [insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), IRS-2] of insulin sensitivity. Serum effects on IRS-1 were recapitulated by exogenous insulin and the PTEN-specific inhibitor SF1670. Hyperinsulinemia and PTEN loss-of-function may thus, couple maternal HFD exposure to enhanced insulin sensitivity via increased mammary IRS-1 expression in progeny, to promote breast cancer risk. PMID:24832086

  4. Calciphylaxis: Risk Factors, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nigwekar, Sagar U.; Kroshinksy, Daniela; Nazarian, Rosalynn M.; Goverman, Jeremy; Malhotra, Rajeev; Jackson, Vicki Ann; Kamdar, Mihir M.; Steele J.R., David; Thadhani, Ravi I.

    2015-01-01

    Calciphylaxis is a rare but devastating condition that has continued to challenge the medical community since its early descriptions in the scientific literature many decades ago. It is predominantly seen in chronic kidney failure patients treated with dialysis (uremic calciphylaxis) but is also described in patients with earlier stages of chronic kidney disease and with normal renal function. In this In Practice feature, we review the available medical literature regarding risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment of both uremic and non-uremic calciphylaxis. High quality evidence for the evaluation and management of calciphylaxis is lacking at this time due to its rare incidence, poorly understood pathogenesis, and the relative paucity of collaborative research efforts. We hereby provide a summary of recommendations developed by the Massachusetts General Hospital's Multi-disciplinary Calciphylaxis Team for calciphylaxis patients. PMID:25960299

  5. [Prevention programs of risk factors for falls].

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Shuzo; Sakita, Masahiro

    2014-10-01

    Approximately 17% of Japanese older people fall for a year. The femoral neck fractures with falls caused by various functional problems make them depress remarkably activities of daily living and quality of life. In risk factors for falls in old people, muscle weakness, balance and gait disorders particularly increases to falls. The major results from recent systematic reviews have indicated that interventions of exercise, multifactorial, environmental modification and gradual withdrawal of psychotropic medication in community-dwelling elderly people were effective for preventing falls. Regarding the older people in hospitals and sanatoriums, it appeared that comprehensive multifactorial interventions and vitamin D supplementation could be effective in falls rather than exercises intervention only. However, the short period of the exercise intervention may affect ineffectiveness in preventing falls. PMID:25509808

  6. Maternal Folic Acid Supplementation and the Risk of Congenital Heart Defects in Offspring: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Observational Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yu; Wang, Song; Chen, Runsen; Tong, Xing; Wu, Zeyu; Mo, Xuming

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results regarding the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). However, a meta-analysis of the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and CHDs in offspring has not been conducted. We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for articles cataloged between their inceptions and October 10, 2014 and identified relevant published studies that assessed the association between maternal folate supplementation and the risk of CHDs. Study-specific relative risk estimates were pooled using random-effects or fixed-effects models. Out of the 1,606 articles found in our initial literature searches, a total of 1 randomized controlled trial, 1 cohort study, and 16 case-control studies were included in our final meta-analysis. The overall results of this meta-analysis provide evidence that maternal folate supplementation is associated with a significantly decreased risk of CHDs (RR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.63-0.82). Statistically significant heterogeneity was detected (Q = 82.48, P < 0.001, I2 = 79.4%). We conducted stratified and meta-regression analyses to identify the origin of the heterogeneity among the studies, and a Galbraith plot was generated to graphically assess the sources of heterogeneity. This meta-analysis provides a robust estimate of the positive association between maternal folate supplementation and a decreased risk of CHDs.

  7. Psychosocial risk factors of pain among employees.

    PubMed

    Saastamoinen, Peppiina; Laaksonen, Mikko; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Lahelma, Eero

    2009-01-01

    The study of psychosocial risk factors of pain among employees has typically focused on Karasek's job-demand-control model. The aim of the study was to examine the own and independent associations of job strain, organizational justice, workplace bullying, and work-home interface with pain. Data were collected through a postal survey to all 40, 45, 50, 55, and 60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki in 2001 and 2002 (response rate 66%, N=5819, 80% women). Pain was measured with a three category outcome: no pain, acute pain or chronic pain. Adjustment was made for age, education, physical working conditions, BMI, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Among women, all psychosocial variables were associated with both acute and chronic pain when adjusted for confounders only. When psychosocial factors were additionally adjusted for each other, high job strain and both dimensions of work-home interface remained associated with both types of pain and repeatedly occurring bullying at workplace showed association with acute pain. Among men, when adjusted for confounders only, all psychosocial variables were associated with acute and chronic pain, except for family-to-work conflicts among those with acute pain. When adjusted mutually for all psychosocial variables, only bullying was associated with acute pain. Job strain and organizational justice showed associations with chronic pain. Future studies would benefit from a broad psychosocial framework. Investments to healthier psychosocial working environments are needed to tackle pain related problems among employees. PMID:18440254

  8. Incidence, risk factors and prevention of melanoma.

    PubMed

    MacKie, R M

    1998-07-01

    The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma steadily increased between 1940 and 1990 in both sexes. However, this increase appears to have peaked in females in Scotland. Excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation among Caucasians is the main etiologic factor implicated in the incidence of melanoma. Mortality due to melanoma also increased between 1940 and 1990, but the rate of increase is less than that of the incidence of melanoma. This may be due to earlier diagnosis and treatment of melanoma as a result of public education campaigns. Independent risk factors for developing melanoma include the presence of benign melanocytic naevi (moles), the development of lentigines or freckles, three or more dysplastic naevi and a history of three or more severe sunburns that resulted in peeling or blistering. Approximately 2% of melanoma patients have a family history of the disease and research into potential melanoma susceptibility genes is ongoing. Primary prevention campaigns, initiated mainly in Australia, are aimed at encouraging sensible sun exposure. Secondary prevention campaigns are directed at preventing death from melanoma by encouraging early diagnosis and treatment. Additional prospective studies are needed to determine if the incidence of melanoma has peaked and whether the recent trends observed in females will also occur in males. PMID:9849401

  9. Maternal Supplementation with LGG Reduces Vaccine-Specific Immune Responses in Infants at High-Risk of Developing Allergic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Licciardi, Paul V.; Ismail, Intan H.; Balloch, Anne; Mui, Milton; Hoe, Edwin; Lamb, Karen; Tang, Mimi L. K.

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are defined as live micro-organisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Among their pleiotropic effects, inhibition of pathogen colonization at the mucosal surface as well as modulation of immune responses are widely recognized as the principal biological activities of probiotic bacteria. In recent times, the immune effects of probiotics have led to their application as vaccine adjuvants, offering a novel strategy for enhancing the efficacy of current vaccines. Such an approach is particularly relevant in regions where infectious disease burden is greatest and where access to complete vaccination programs is limited. In this study, we report the effects of the probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on immune responses to tetanus, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and pneumococcal conjugate (PCV7) vaccines in infants. This study was conducted as part of a larger clinical trial assessing the impact of maternal LGG supplementation in preventing the development of atopic eczema in infants at high-risk for developing allergic disease. Maternal LGG supplementation was associated with reduced antibody responses against tetanus, Hib, and pneumococcal serotypes contained in PCV7 (N?=?31) compared to placebo treatment (N?=?30) but not total IgG levels. Maternal LGG supplementation was also associated with a trend to increased number of tetanus toxoid-specific T regulatory in the peripheral blood compared to placebo-treated infants. These findings suggest that maternal LGG supplementation may not be beneficial in terms of improving vaccine-specific immunity in infants. Further clinical studies are needed to confirm these findings. As probiotic immune effects can be species/strain specific, our findings do not exclude the potential use of other probiotic bacteria to modulate infant immune responses to vaccines. PMID:24324465

  10. ROLE OF MATERNAL CHILDHOOD TRAUMA ON PARENTING AMONG DEPRESSED MOTHERS OF PSYCHIATRICALLY ILL CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Zalewski, Maureen; Cyranowski, Jill M.; Cheng, Yu; Swartz, Holly A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Independently, maternal depression and maternal history of childhood abuse confer risk for impaired parenting. These associations may be compounded when depressed mothers with histories of childhood abuse are faced with the challenge of parenting offspring who themselves struggle with mental health problems. This study examined the relationships among maternal history of childhood abuse, maternal depression, and parenting style in the context of parenting a psychiatrically ill child, with an emphasis on examining maternal emotional abuse and neglect. We hypothesized that maternal childhood emotional abuse would be associated with maladaptive parenting strategies (lower levels of maternal acceptance and higher levels of psychological control), independent of maternal depression severity and other psychosocial risk factors. Method Ninety-five mother-child dyads (children ages 7–18) were recruited from child mental health centers where children were receiving treatment for at least one internalizing disorder. Participating mothers met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder. Mothers reported on their own childhood abuse histories and children reported on their mothers’ parenting. Results Regression analyses demonstrated that maternal childhood emotional abuse was associated with child reports of lower maternal acceptance and greater psychological control, controlling for maternal depression severity, and other psychosocial risk factors. Conclusions When treating psychiatrically ill children, it is important for a child’s clinician to consider mothers’ childhood abuse histories in addition to their history of depression. These mothers appear to have additional barriers to effective parenting. PMID:23649503

  11. Risk Factors Associated with Overdose among Bahraini Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Ansari, Ahmed M.; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Matar, Ali M.; Marhoon, Huda; Buzaboon, Bana Y.; Raees, Ahmed G.

    2001-01-01

    Study aimed to identify risk factors, such as family pathology and psychosocial stress, of overdose suicide attempts among Bahraini youth. Stresses from living in a non-intact family; interpersonal relationships mainly with the opposite sex; unemployment; and school performance emerged as main risk factors. Previously identified factors, such as…

  12. Risk Factors Leading to Marital Dissolution in the Estonian SSR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiit, Ene-Margit

    1982-01-01

    Surveyed 575 newly married couples in 1972 and 425 divorced couples in 1975 to examine risk factors leading to divorce in Estonia, USSR. Found risk factors included an unstable parental home, unsuitable age at marriage, and duration of courtship. Incompatibility of value orientation and role expectation were other factors. (JAC)

  13. Grand Multiparity: Risk Factors and Outcome in a Tertiary Hospital: a Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Alsammani, Mohamed Akhatim; Ahmed, Salah Roshdy

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence of grand multiparity and the associated risks factors. Methods: Four hundred thirty grandmutliparas (parity 5 or more) were compared with multiparous population (parity 2-4) with regard to maternal age, gestational age, mode of delivery, fetal and maternal outcomes and inter-current medical and obstetrical problems. Results: There were significant association between grand multiparity and adverse pregnancy outcomes such as cesarean delivery (OR=2.699, CI=2.072-3.515, p<0.001), fetal macrosomia (OR=1.675; 95% CI=1.004- 2.796, p=.048), Diabetes mellitus (OR=1.634, 95%CI=1.076-2.481, p=0 .021), and pregnancy induced hypertension (OR=1.838, 95% CI=1.054-3.204, p= .032). No significant associations were seen in placenta abruption, placenta previa, preterm labor, postpartum hemorrhage and the frequency of admission to neonatal intensive care unit. No prenatal or maternal mortality was reported in this study. Conclusion: Grand multiparty remains a major obstetrics problem. It is associated with many medical and obstetrical complications. In communities where large family is desirable it is important to address the value of family planning and conduction of meticulous antenatal care. PMID:26543415

  14. Periodontal Disease: A Possible Risk-Factor for Adverse Pregnancy Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Parihar, Anuj Singh; Katoch, Vartika; Rajguru, Sneha A; Rajpoot, Nami; Singh, Pinojj; Wakhle, Sonal

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial invasion in subgingival sites especially of gram-negative organisms are initiators for periodontal diseases. The periodontal pathogens with persistent inflammation lead to destruction of periodontium. In recent years, periodontal diseases have been associated with a number of systemic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular-disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic respiratory diseases and adverse pregnancy outcomes including pre-term low-birth weight (PLBW) and pre-eclampsia. The factors like low socio-economic status, mother's age, race, multiple births, tobacco and drug-abuse may be found to increase risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. However, the same are less correlated with PLBW cases. Even the invasion of both aerobic and anerobic may lead to inflammation of gastrointestinal tract and vagina hence contributing to PLBW. The biological mechanism involved between PLBW and Maternal periodontitis is the translocation of chemical mediators of inflammation. Pre-eclampsia is one of the commonest cause of both maternal and fetal morbidity as it is characterized by hypertension and hyperprotenuria. Improving periodontal health before or during pregnancy may prevent or reduce the occurrences of these adverse pregnancy outcomes and, therefore, reduce the maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Hence, this article is an attempt to review the relationship between periodontal condition and altered pregnancy outcome. PMID:26229389

  15. Grandmultiparity: Risk Factors and Outcome in a Tertiary Hospital: a Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Alsammani, Mohamed Akhatim; Ahmed, Salah Roshdy

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence of grandmultiparity and the associated risks factors. Methods: Four hundred thirty grandmutliparas (parity 5 or more) were compared with multiparous population (parity 2-4) with regard to maternal age, gestational age, mode of delivery, fetal and maternal outcomes and inter-current medical and obstetrical problems. Results: There were significant association between grandmultiparity and adverse pregnancy outcomes such as cesarean delivery (OR=2.699, CI=2.072-3.515, p<0.001), fetal macrosomia (OR=1.675; 95% CI=1.004- 2.796, p=.048), Diabetes mellitus (OR=1.634, 95%CI=1.076-2.481, p=0.021), and pregnancy induced hypertension (OR=1.838, 95% CI=1.054-3.204, p=.032). No significant associations were seen in placenta abruption, placenta previa, preterm labor, postpartum hemorrhage and the frequency of admission to neonatal intensive care unit. No prenatal or maternal mortality was reported in this study. Conclusion: Grandmultiparty remains a major obstetrics problem. It is associated with many medical and obstetrical complications. In communities where large family is desirable it is important to address the value of family planning and conduction of meticulous antenatal care. PMID:25870476

  16. Periodontal Disease: A Possible Risk-Factor for Adverse Pregnancy Outcome.

    PubMed

    Parihar, Anuj Singh; Katoch, Vartika; Rajguru, Sneha A; Rajpoot, Nami; Singh, Pinojj; Wakhle, Sonal

    2015-07-01

    Bacterial invasion in subgingival sites especially of gram-negative organisms are initiators for periodontal diseases. The periodontal pathogens with persistent inflammation lead to destruction of periodontium. In recent years, periodontal diseases have been associated with a number of systemic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular-disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic respiratory diseases and adverse pregnancy outcomes including pre-term low-birth weight (PLBW) and pre-eclampsia. The factors like low socio-economic status, mother's age, race, multiple births, tobacco and drug-abuse may be found to increase risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. However, the same are less correlated with PLBW cases. Even the invasion of both aerobic and anerobic may lead to inflammation of gastrointestinal tract and vagina hence contributing to PLBW. The biological mechanism involved between PLBW and Maternal periodontitis is the translocation of chemical mediators of inflammation. Pre-eclampsia is one of the commonest cause of both maternal and fetal morbidity as it is characterized by hypertension and hyperprotenuria. Improving periodontal health before or during pregnancy may prevent or reduce the occurrences of these adverse pregnancy outcomes and, therefore, reduce the maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Hence, this article is an attempt to review the relationship between periodontal condition and altered pregnancy outcome. PMID:26229389

  17. Early Health Risk Factors for Violence: Conceptualization, Review of the Evidence, and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong

    2010-01-01

    Violence and aggression are public health problems that can benefit from ongoing research into risk reduction and prevention. Current developmental theories of violence and aggression emphasize biological and psychosocial factors, particularly during adolescence. However, there has been less focus on understanding the interactive, multiplicative effects of these processes. Furthermore, little attention has been given to the pre-, peri-, and postnatal periods, where prevention and intervention may yield effective results. Early health risk factors that influence negative behavioral outcomes include prenatal and postnatal nutrition, tobacco use during pregnancy, maternal depression, birth complications, traumatic brain injury, lead exposure, and child abuse. There is an ample literature to suggest that these early health risk factors may increase the likelihood of childhood externalizing behaviors, aggression, juvenile delinquency, adult criminal behavior, and/or violence. This paper proposes an early health risk factors framework for violence prediction, built on existing developmental theories of criminal behavior and supported by empirical findings. This framework addresses gaps in the adolescent psychopathology literature and presents a novel conceptualization of behavioral disturbance that emphasizes the pre-, peri-, and post-natal periods, when a child’s development is critical and the opportunity for behavioral and environmental modification is high. Implications for such a framework on violence prevention programs are discussed. PMID:21399727

  18. Early Life Course Risk Factors for Childhood Obesity: The IDEFICS Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Bammann, Karin; Peplies, Jenny; De Henauw, Stefaan; Hunsberger, Monica; Molnar, Denes; Moreno, Luis A.; Tornaritis, Michael; Veidebaum, Toomas; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Siani, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Background The early life course is assumed to be a critical phase for childhood obesity; however the significance of single factors and their interplay is not well studied in childhood populations. Objectives The investigation of pre-, peri- and postpartum risk factors on the risk of obesity at age 2 to 9. Methods A case-control study with 1,024 1?1-matched case-control pairs was nested in the baseline survey (09/2007–05/2008) of the IDEFICS study, a population-based intervention study on childhood obesity carried out in 8 European countries in pre- and primary school settings. Conditional logistic regression was used for identification of risk factors. Results For many of the investigated risk factors, we found a raw effect in our study. In multivariate models, we could establish an effect for gestational weight gain (adjusted OR?=?1.02; 95%CI 1.00–1.04), smoking during pregnancy (adjusted OR?=?1.48; 95%CI 1.08–2.01), Caesarian section (adjusted OR?=?1.38; 95%CI 1.10–1.74), and breastfeeding 4 to 11 months (adjusted OR?=?0.77; 95%CI 0.62–0.96). Birth weight was related to lean mass rather than to fat mass, the effect of smoking was found only in boys, but not in girls. After additional adjustment for parental BMI and parental educational status, only gestational weight gain remained statistically significant. Both, maternal as well as paternal BMI were the strongest risk factors in our study, and they confounded several of the investigated associations. Conclusions Key risk factors of childhood obesity in our study are parental BMI and gestational weight gain; consequently prevention approaches should target not only children but also adults. The monitoring of gestational weight seems to be of particular importance for early prevention of childhood obesity. PMID:24551043

  19. Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in College Students12

    PubMed Central

    Arts, Jennifer; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Lofgren, Ingrid E.

    2014-01-01

    More than one-half of young adults aged 18–24 y have at least 1 coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factor and nearly one-quarter have advanced atherosclerotic lesions. The extent of atherosclerosis is directly correlated with the number of risk factors. Unhealthy dietary choices made by this age group contribute to weight gain and dyslipidemia. Risk factor profiles in young adulthood strongly predict long-term CHD risk. Early detection is critical to identify individuals at risk and to promote lifestyle changes before disease progression occurs. Despite the presence of risk factors and pathological changes, risk assessment and disease prevention efforts are lacking in this age group. Most young adults are not screened and are unaware of their risk. This review provides pathological evidence along with current risk factor prevalence data to demonstrate the need for early detection. Eighty percent of heart disease is preventable through diet and lifestyle, and young adults are ideal targets for prevention efforts because they are in the process of establishing lifestyle habits, which track forward into adulthood. This review aims to establish the need for increased screening, risk assessment, education, and management in young adults. These essential screening efforts should include the assessment of all CHD risk factors and lifestyle habits (diet, exercise, and smoking), blood pressure, glucose, and body mass index in addition to the traditional lipid panel for effective long-term risk reduction. PMID:24618758

  20. Coronary heart disease risk factors in college students.

    PubMed

    Arts, Jennifer; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Lofgren, Ingrid E

    2014-03-01

    More than one-half of young adults aged 18-24 y have at least 1 coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factor and nearly one-quarter have advanced atherosclerotic lesions. The extent of atherosclerosis is directly correlated with the number of risk factors. Unhealthy dietary choices made by this age group contribute to weight gain and dyslipidemia. Risk factor profiles in young adulthood strongly predict long-term CHD risk. Early detection is critical to identify individuals at risk and to promote lifestyle changes before disease progression occurs. Despite the presence of risk factors and pathological changes, risk assessment and disease prevention efforts are lacking in this age group. Most young adults are not screened and are unaware of their risk. This review provides pathological evidence along with current risk factor prevalence data to demonstrate the need for early detection. Eighty percent of heart disease is preventable through diet and lifestyle, and young adults are ideal targets for prevention efforts because they are in the process of establishing lifestyle habits, which track forward into adulthood. This review aims to establish the need for increased screening, risk assessment, education, and management in young adults. These essential screening efforts should include the assessment of all CHD risk factors and lifestyle habits (diet, exercise, and smoking), blood pressure, glucose, and body mass index in addition to the traditional lipid panel for effective long-term risk reduction. PMID:24618758

  1. Lifestyle decreases risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Slavícek, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E; Medová, Eva; Konecná, Jana; Zizka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimir

    2008-12-01

    The morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1349 volunteers, 320 men, 1029 woman, mean age 51 +/- 14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999-2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1223 measured persons from 71.2 +/- 14.38 (SD) to 70.6 +/- 14.02 kg (p<0.0001), BMI (1,046 measured persons) from 25.1 +/- 4.60 (SD) to 24.8+4.49 (SD) kg/m2 (p<0.0001), systolic blood pressure (1,218 persons) from 129.8 +/- 23.02 (SD) to 123.8 +/- 21.52 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (1210 persons) from 79.8 +/- 12.7 (SD) to 77.5 +/- 11.6 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), serum cholesterol (998 persons) from 4.86 +/- 0.95 (SD) to 4.32 +/- 0.77 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001), blood glucose (544 persons) from 4.31 +/- 1.59 (SD) to 3.88 +/- 1.33 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001). Heart rate was not significantly decreased. The parameters were lower in lacto-ovo vegetarians and Seventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19256282

  2. Key systemic and environmental risk factors for implant failure.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Dolphus R; Jasper, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Dental implants are an important treatment option for patients interested in replacing lost or missing teeth. Although a robust body of literature has reviewed risk factors for tooth loss, the evidence for risk factors associated with dental implants is less well defined. This article focuses on key systemic risk factors relating to dental implant failure, as well as on perimucositis and peri-implantitis. PMID:25434557

  3. The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

    Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

  4. Paternal Factors and Inequity Associated with Access to Maternal Health Care Service Utilization in Nepal: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhatta, Dharma Nand; Aryal, Umesh Raj

    2015-01-01

    Background The threat of maternal mortality can be reduced by increasing use of maternal health services. Maternal death and access to maternal health care services are inequitable in low and middle income countries.The aim of this study is to assess associated paternal factors and degree of inequity in access to maternal health care service utilization. Methods Analysis illustrates on a cross-sectional household survey that followed multistage-cluster sampling. Concentration curve and indices were calculated. Binary logistic regression analysis was executed to account paternal factors associated with the utilization of maternal health services. Path model with structural equation modeling (SEM) examined the predictors of antenatal care (ANC) and institutional delivery. Results The finding of this study revealed that 39.9% and 45.5% of the respondents’ wives made ANC visits and utilized institutional delivery services respectively. Men with graduate and higher level of education were more likely (AOR: 5.91, 95% CI; 4.02, 8.70) to have ANC of their wives than men with no education or primary level of education. Men with higher household income (Q5) were more likely (1.99, 95% CI; 1.39, 2.86) to have ANC for their wives. Similarly, higher household income (Q5) also determined (2.74, 95% CI; 1.81, 4.15) for institutional delivery of their wives. Concentration curve and indices also favored rich than the poor. SEM revealed that ANC visit was directly associated to institutional delivery. Conclusions Paternal factors like age, household wealth, number of children, ethnicity, education, knowledge of danger sign during pregnancy, and husband’s decision making for seeking maternal and child health care are crucial factors associated to maternal health service utilization. Higher ANC coverage predicts higher utilization of the institutional delivery. Wealthier population is more concentrated to maternal health services. The inequities between the poor and the rich are necessary to be addressed through effective policy and programs. PMID:26107621

  5. Early weaning and other potential risk factors for overweight among preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Balaban, Geni; Motta, Maria Eugênia Farias Almeida; Silva, Giselia Alves Pontes

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate whether early weaning constitutes a risk factor for overweight at preschool age and to identify other factors that affect this association. METHODS This was a case-control study of 366 children aged 2 to 6 years (176 boys and 190 girls) from three cities. The case group comprised overweight children, as defined by body mass index (BMI) for age greater than or equal to the 85th percentile. The main exposure analyzed was early weaning (exclusive or predominant breastfeeding for less than four months). RESULTS Early weaning was a significant risk factor for overweight in univariate analysis (OR = 1.69; 95% CI: 1.10–2.60; p = 0.02), but not in multivariate analysis (OR = 1.42; 95% CI: 0.86–2.34; p = 0.17). Maternal overweight, birth weight ? 3,500 g and sedentarism were the main risk factors for overweight in multivariate analysis. DISCUSSION In our study, the protective effect of breastfeeding against overweight was only shown in univariate analysis; it did not persist after controlling for other variables. It is possible that breastfeeding has only a small protective role against overweight in comparison with other variables of greater importance. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that the potential protective effect of breastfeeding against overweight among preschool children is weaker than genetic and other environmental factors. PMID:20186302

  6. Can the season of birth risk factor for schizophrenia be prevented by bright light treatment for the second trimester mother around the winter solstice?

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Paul J

    2014-12-01

    The season of birth risk factor for schizophrenia exerts a pervasive effect on the global population, particularly at northerly latitudes. The winter infection hypothesis and the low vitamin D hypothesis are both compelling but lack conclusive clinical data. The present work develops a maternal-fetal chronobiological hypothesis for this season of birth risk factor and its prevention by maternal bright light treatment. Around the winter solstice, due to decreased sunlight, the chronobiological apparatus of the at-risk second trimester mother is characterized by a reduced amplitude circadian pacemaker, and a reduced maximum of her nocturnal plasma melatonin concentrations (MTmax) and an increased minimum of her nocturnal core body temperatures (Tmin)--both of which exert adverse effects on the fetal hippocampus and dorsal striatum. The consequences for the fetus include reduced volume and increased excitability of the hippocampus, ventral striatal dysfunction, increased presynaptic nigrostriatal dopamine transmission, and increased propensity for pathological nigrostriatal neuronal phasic firing. Thus, the maternal-fetal chronobiological hypothesis fully accounts for the fetal precursors of the major pathognomonic abnormalities in adults with schizophrenia. Bright light treatment for the second trimester mother around the winter solstice, by increasing maternal circadian amplitude, could possibly prevent the fetal hippocampal and striatal abnormalities and eliminate the season of birth risk factor for schizophrenia. PMID:25456791

  7. Physical Activity - Risk Factor Monitoring & Methods

    Cancer.gov

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  8. Infant physiological regulation and maternal risks as predictors of dyadic interaction trajectories in families with a preterm infant.

    PubMed

    Poehlmann, Julie; Schwichtenberg, A J Miller; Bolt, Daniel M; Hane, Amanda; Burnson, Cynthia; Winters, Jill

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined predictors of rates of growth in dyadic interaction quality in children born preterm who did not experience significant neurological findings during neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalization. Multiple methods were used to collect data from 120 preterm infants (48% girls, 52% boys) and their mothers. Infant heart rate variability (HRV), gestational age, neonatal health, feeding route, and maternal socioeconomic (SES) risks were assessed at NICU discharge (mean of 36 weeks postconception). Mother-child interactions were observed at 4, 9, 16, and 24 months postterm and analyzed with hierarchical linear modeling. On average, children's quality of play, interest, and attention increased over time while their dysregulation and irritability decreased, whereas average maternal positive affect and involvement declined in quality (ps < .05), although there was individual variation in rates of change. Mothers of infants with higher postfeeding HRV (i.e., vagal regulation) exhibited less decrease in positive affect and involvement between 4 months and 24 months, compared with mothers of infants with lower HRV (p < .05). Although infants with higher postfeeding HRV showed less positive affect and communication at 4 months, they exhibited significantly greater increases in positive affect and social competence and decreases in dysregulation and irritability between 4 months and 24 months, compared with infants with lower HRV (ps < .05). Dyads experiencing more SES risks showed less optimal interactions at 4 months; this difference remained as children grew older (ps < .05). Results have implications for our understanding of social development in preterm infants. PMID:21244152

  9. Infant Physiological Regulation and Maternal Risks as Predictors of Dyadic Interaction Trajectories in Families With a Preterm Infant

    PubMed Central

    Poehlmann, Julie; Schwichtenberg, A. J. Miller; Bolt, Daniel M.; Hane, Amanda; Burnson, Cynthia; Winters, Jill

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined predictors of rates of growth in dyadic interaction quality in children born preterm who did not experience significant neurological findings during neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalization. Multiple methods were used to collect data from 120 preterm infants (48% girls, 52% boys) and their mothers. Infant heart rate variability (HRV), gestational age, neonatal health, feeding route, and maternal socioeconomic (SES) risks were assessed at NICU discharge (mean of 36 weeks postconception). Mother–child interactions were observed at 4, 9, 16, and 24 months postterm and analyzed with hierarchical linear modeling. On average, children’s quality of play, interest, and attention increased over time while their dysregulation and irritability decreased, whereas average maternal positive affect and involvement declined in quality (ps < .05), although there was individual variation in rates of change. Mothers of infants with higher postfeeding HRV (i.e., vagal regulation) exhibited less decrease in positive affect and involvement between 4 months and 24 months, compared with mothers of infants with lower HRV (p < .05). Although infants with higher postfeeding HRV showed less positive affect and communication at 4 months, they exhibited significantly greater increases in positive affect and social competence and decreases in dysregulation and irritability between 4 months and 24 months, compared with infants with lower HRV (ps < .05). Dyads experiencing more SES risks showed less optimal interactions at 4 months; this difference remained as children grew older (ps < .05). Results have implications for our understanding of social development in preterm infants. PMID:21244152

  10. Proposing interactions between maternal phospholipids and the one carbon cycle: A novel mechanism influencing the risk for cardiovascular diseases in the offspring in later life.

    PubMed

    Khot, Vinita; Chavan-Gautam, Preeti; Joshi, Sadhana

    2015-05-15

    Studies have adequately demonstrated the importance of maternal nutrition, particularly, micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) in determining pregnancy outcome. Reports indicate that children born preterm or to mothers with preeclampsia are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in later life although mechanisms are unclear. Our earlier studies have established that micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) and LCPUFAs are interlinked in the one carbon cycle and influence methylation reactions. Here, we propose a novel hypothesis that altered phospholipid metabolism and dysregulation in the one carbon cycle will result in altered epigenetic programming of placental genes leading to an adverse pregnancy outcome with increased risk of adult diseases in the offspring. Folic acid and vitamin B12 are involved in S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) synthesis, the major methyl donor for most methyl acceptors. Inadequacy of LCPUFA containing phospholipids, one of the major methyl group acceptors in the one carbon metabolic pathway, may cause diversion of methyl groups toward deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) eventually resulting in aberrant DNA methylation patterns. These modified DNA methylation patterns lead to alterations in the expression of vital genes e.g. angiogenic factor genes thereby contributing to the dysregulation of angiogenesis/vasculogenesis further affecting placental development. This consequently would adversely "program" the fetus for increased risk of CVD in later life. PMID:25283080

  11. TGF-alpha genotypes, oral clefts, and environmental risk factors: A population-based California study

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, G.M.; Wasserman, C.R.; Lammer, E.J.

    1994-09-01

    Several studies have shown a relation between genetic variation at the TGF-alpha locus and oral clefts. These studies had limited sample sizes and also lacked data on additional factors potentially related to clefting. We investigated the influence on clefting from risk factors, such as maternal smoking, dependent on TFG-alpha genotype. This was accomplished using a large population-bases case-control study of fetuses and liveborn infants with oral clefts among a 1987-89 cohort of California births (N=548,844). To obtain data on potential risk factors, telephone interviews were conducted with mothers of 731 (84.5% of eligible) cleft cases, and 734 (78.2%) nonmalformed controls. DNA was obtained from newborn screening bloodspots and genotyped by using SSCP designed to detect the Taq1 RFLP. Among mothers who completed an interview, genotyping results were available for 571 (78.1%) cases and 640 (87.2%) controls. Compared to controls, the risk estimate for TGF-alpha polymorphism as measured by the odds ratio was: 0.99 (95% confidence interval 0.64, 1.5) for isolated cleft lip {plus_minus}palate; 0.88 (0.33, 2.2) for nonisolated cleft lip {plus_minus}palate; 1.6 (0.94, 2.8) for isolated cleft palate; 1.9 (0.82, 4.3) for nonisolated cleft palate; and 2.2 (0.99, 5.0) for clefts with known etiology. This dataset also revealed 1.4 to 2-fold increased risks for maternal cigarette smoking > 19 cigs/day in early pregnancy. Among these heavy smokers, risk of clefting was even more increased for infants with the TGF-alpha polymorphism. Our data suggest an association between the TGF-alpha uncommon allele and some phenotypic subgroups as well as provide evidence for a genetic-environment interaction between maternal smoking and the variant in the etiology of clefting. The fraction of cases possibly attributed to this interaction, however, was small.

  12. [Eating disorders as risk factors for osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Rivera-Gallardo, Ma Teresa; Ma del Socorro, Parra-Cabrera; Barriguete-Meléndez, Jorge Armando

    2005-01-01

    Eating disorders (TCA per its abbreviation in Spanish) are common in young women, with an estimated prevalence of 4-5%. One of the physical complications of eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa (AN) and eating disorder not otherwise specified (TANE) is bone mass loss, which affects both cortical and trabecular bone. The synergistic effect of malnutrition and estrogen deficiency produces significant bone mass loss, resulting from the uncoupling of bone turnover characterized by a decrease in osteoblastic bone formation and an increase in osteclastic bone resorption. The mechanisms implied in the pathogenesis of bone loss are the hypoestrogenism, hypercortisolism, serum leptin levels and insulin-like growth factor decrease. Severity of bone loss in anorexia nervosa varies depending on duration of illness, the minimal weight ever and sedentarism or strenuous exercise. Long term consequences occur, such as a fracture risk increase in patients who have suffered anorexia nervosa, compared with the general population. The first treatment line to recover bone mass is nutritional rehabilitation together with weight gain. Hormonal replacement therapy may be effective if combined with an anabolic method. Osteopenia and osteoporosis are terms adopted to define the deficiency of bone mass in adults. Authors have used these terms to define densitometric data in young subjects who have not reached their peak bone mass. We suggest the term "hypo-osteogenesia" to define the deficiency in the development of bone mass in adolescents or children. PMID:16259293

  13. Postinfusion Phlebitis: Incidence and Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Webster, Joan; McGrail, Matthew; Marsh, Nicole; Wallis, Marianne C; Ray-Barruel, Gillian; Rickard, Claire M

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To document the incidence of postinfusion phlebitis and to investigate associated risk factors. Design. Analysis of existing data set from a large randomized controlled trial, the primary purpose of which was to compare routine peripheral intravascular catheter changes with changing catheters only on clinical indication. Participants and Setting. Patients admitted to a large, acute general hospital in Queensland, Australia, and who required a peripheral intravenous catheter. Results. 5,907 PIVCs from 3,283 patients were studied. Postinfusion phlebitis at 48 hours was diagnosed in 59 (1.8%) patients. Fifteen (25.4%) of these patients had phlebitis at removal and also at 48 hours after removal. When data were analyzed per catheter, the rate was lower, 62/5907 (1.1%). The only variable associated with postinfusion phlebitis was placement of the catheter in the emergency room (P = 0.03). Conclusion. Although not a common occurrence, postinfusion phlebitis may be problematic so it is important for health care staff to provide patients with information about what to look for after an intravascular device has been removed. This trial is registered with ACTRN12608000445370. PMID:26075092

  14. Atopic dermatitis: global epidemiology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Nutten, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease posing a significant burden on health-care resources and patients' quality of life. It is a complex disease with a wide spectrum of clinical presentations and combinations of symptoms. AD affects up to 20% of children and up to 3% of adults; recent data show that its prevalence is still increasing, especially in low-income countries. First manifestations of AD usually appear early in life and often precede other allergic diseases such as asthma or allergic rhinitis. Individuals affected by AD usually have genetically determined risk factors affecting the skin barrier function or the immune system. However, genetic mutations alone might not be enough to cause clinical manifestations of AD, and it is merely the interaction of a dysfunctional epidermal barrier in genetically predisposed individuals with harmful effects of environmental agents which leads to the development of the disease. AD has been described as an allergic skin disease, but today, the contribution of allergic reactions to the initiation of AD is challenged, and it is proposed that allergy is rather a consequence of AD in subjects with a concomitant underlying atopic constitution. Treatment at best achieves symptom control rather than cure; there is thus a strong need to identify alternatives for disease prevention. PMID:25925336

  15. Maternal serum biomarkers for risk assessment in gestational diabetes. A potential universal screening test to predict GDM status

    PubMed Central

    Nagalla, Srinivasa R.; Snyder, Caryn K.; Michaels, John E.; Laughlin, Mary J.; Roberts, Charles T.; Balaji, Madhuri; Balaji, V.; Seshiah, V.; Rao, Paturi V.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing because of the worldwide obesity/diabetes epidemic. The complications of untreated GDM affect both the mother and baby and include complications during pregnancy as well as increased risk of subsequent type-2 diabetes in mothers and offspring. Standard tests for hyperglycemia in diabetes, such as fasting glucose and hemoglobin (HbA1c), are currently not recommended for GDM screening. Instead, an oral glucose tolerance test is specified, which is invasive, time-consuming, and not easily accessible to many at-risk populations. In this study, we describe a multi-analyte maternal serum profile test that incorporates novel glycoprotein biomarkers and previously described GDM-associated markers. In screening for GDM by multi-analyte panel, the detection rate was 87% at a false-positive rate of 1%. PMID:25593844

  16. Maternal Over-Control Moderates the Association between Early Childhood Behavioral Inhibition and Adolescent Social Anxiety Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis-Morrarty, Erin; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Pine, Daniel S.; Henderon, Heather A.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) and maternal over-control are early risk factors for later childhood internalizing problems, particularly social anxiety disorder (SAD). Consistently high BI across childhood appears to confer risk for the onset of SAD by adolescence. However, no prior studies have prospectively examined observed maternal over-control as…

  17. Risk Factors of Periodontal Disease: Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    AlJehani, Yousef A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This paper aims to review the evidence on the potential roles of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors associated with periodontal disease. Data. Original articles that reported on the risk factors for periodontal disease were included. Sources. MEDLINE (1980 to Jan 2014), PubMed (using medical subject headings), and Google Scholar were searched using the following terms in different combinations: “periodontal disease,” “periodontitis,” “risk factors,” and “causal.” This was supplemented by hand-searching in peer-reviewed journals and cross-referenced with the articles accessed. Conclusions. It is important to understand the etiological factors and the pathogenesis of periodontal disease to recognize and appreciate the associated risk factors. As periodontal disease is multifactorial, effective disease management requires a clear understanding of all the associated risk factors. PMID:24963294

  18. Reproductive risk factors surveyed in Matamoros.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Oral contraceptives (OCs) have been distributed through a community-based distribution (CBD) program in Matamaros, Mexico under the auspices of the Centro pro Orientacion Familiar (COFAC). Family Health International (FHI) has provided technical assistance enabling COFAC to conduct a Reproductive Risk Factors Survey to determine if any substantial group of women were placed at a greater risk of death or serious health damage because of this program than if the program had not existed, and, if so, how might such women be protected. The health of CBD acceptors was compared with that of women accepting OC from other sources and women who had never taken OC, using parameters ranging from anemia to cardiovascular disorders. The objective was to investigate the behavior of women who may have serious contraindications to OC and/or pregnancy. About 500 women were interviewed in their homes by specially trained nurses with a questionnaire supplemented by some simple, objective measurements. For validation, a complete medical history was taken and physical examination given for a subsample in the COFAC clinic. Some 40 separate reproductive health indicators were developed from this data. Findings indicated that the CBD program in Matamoros did not introduce any new source of danger to women of reproductive age. As a generality across the 40 indicators, CBD acceptors were as healthy as acceptors from other sources and were somewhat more likely to have consulted a physician. Current OC users were healthier than never users, after controlling for age and parity. The fact of regular contact with neighborhood promotoras (promoters), backed up by the COFAC medical center, represented an additional source of safety not previously available. The promoters were responsible for promotion of family planning, including sale at a subsidized price of OCs and contraceptive foam, and were trained in the use of a checklist for possible contraindications to OC. The CBD program introduced an important public health benefit by reducing unwanted pregnancy with its attendant dangers. Survey results failed to support the view that physician prescription as a requirement for OC use would be a useful public health measure in that setting. PMID:12265939

  19. Female Sexual Dysfunction: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Jaafarpour, Molouk; Khani, Ali; Khajavikhan, Javaher; Suhrabi, Zeinab

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Sexual dysfunction adversely affects quality of life, self esteem and interpersonal relationships and it may often be responsible for psychopathological disturbances. The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and associated risk factors for Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD) in women with Kurdish culture from western Iran . Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive survey which included 400 women aged 18–50 years old, married, from Ilam-IR, who were interviewed as per the Iranian version of Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). The subjects were randomly selected from 4 primary health centres. Results: According to the findings, 185 (46.2%) women reported FSD. Prevalence of FSD increased with age, from 22% in women aged <20 years to 75.7% in women aged 40-50 years. FSD was detected as a desire problem in 45.3% of women, an arousal problem in 37.5%, a lubrication problem in 41.2%, an orgasm problem in 42.0%, a satisfaction problem in 44.5% and a pain problem in 42.5%. The educational level was inversely correlated with the risk of FSD (OR: 1.54 ,95% CI: 1.09-2.13). Patients with FSD were significantly more likely to be older than 40 years (OR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.12-2.68), who had sexual intercourse fewer than 3 times a week (OR:1.85, 95% CI: 1.23-1.99), who had been married for 10 years or more (OR:1.76, 95% CI: 1.04-1.97), who had 3 children or more (OR: 1.48, 95% CI: 0.97-1.24), who had husbands aged 40 years or more (OR: 2.11, 95% CI: 1.35-2.37) and who were unemployed (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.06-1.63). No significant differences were detected in smoking history, residences and contraception methods used (p>0.05). Conclusion: FSD needs to be recognized as a significant public health problem in Kurd women. Further research, particularly studies on awareness and competency of physicians in the management of FSD, is required. PMID:24551663

  20. Maternal Psychological Control and Child Internalizing Symptoms: Vulnerability and Protective Factors across Bioregulatory and Ecological Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Kelly, Ryan J.; Erath, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Background: We examined ecological (family socioeconomic status (SES)) and bioregulatory (sleep duration, sleep efficiency) moderators of the link between maternal psychological control and children's vulnerability to internalizing symptoms. Method: A large socioeconomically diverse sample of third graders (N = 141) and their mothers participated.…

  1. Girls' Rumination and Anxiety Sensitivity: Are They Related after Controlling for Girl, Maternal, and Parenting Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Christie; Epkins, Catherine C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rumination and anxiety sensitivity are posited cognitive vulnerabilities in the development and/or maintenance of depression and anxiety and have only been examined separately in youth. Objective: We examined the relation between rumination and anxiety sensitivity in girls, after controlling for other girl, maternal, and parenting…

  2. Associations of Psychosocial Factors with Maternal Confidence among Japanese and Vietnamese Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goto, Aya; Nguyen, Quang Vinh; Nguyen, Thi Tu Van; Pham, Nghiem Minh; Chung, Thi Mong Thuy; Trinh, Huu Phuc; Yabe, Junko; Sasaki, Hitomi; Yasumura, Seiji

    2010-01-01

    We conducted this cross-sectional study among 392 Japanese and 294 Vietnamese mothers who attended routine child health visits in a Japanese city and at a tertiary hospital in Vietnam, in order to investigate the prevalence and associated sociodemographic, parenting, and psychological characteristics of low maternal confidence in child rearing…

  3. Maternal Factors Influencing Infant Total Body Iron at Birth and Four Months of Age

    E-print Network

    Scroggs, Sarah Catherine

    2011-05-31

    ................................................................................ 22 Table 2. Breastfeeding………………..................................................................................... 23 Table 3. Mean Body Iron of Subjects……………….............................................................. 24 Table 4. Maternal... of delivery, the mean gestational age was 39.43 weeks with a mean birth weight of 3362.8 g. Five percent of the subjects had preterm deliveries (breastfeeding was gathered at infant follow-up visits...

  4. Maternal exposure to neighborhood carbon monoxide and risk of low infant birth weight

    SciTech Connect

    Alderman, B.W.; Baron, A.E.; Savitz, D.A.

    1987-07-01

    This case-control study investigated the potential association between ambient levels of carbon monoxide in a pregnant woman's neighborhood of residence and her chance of delivering a low birth weight infant. Low birth weight infants and normal birth weight infants were contrasted with respect to ambient levels of CO during the 3 months prior to delivery in the neighborhoods where their mothers lived at birth. After adjustment for the confounding effects of maternal race and education, there was no association between higher CO exposure and higher odds of low birth weight. These data do not support a strong association between maternal exposure to neighborhood CO during pregnancy and odds of delivering a low birth weight infant. Further investigation of the effects of CO exposure on birth weight, with direct measurement of total CO exposure, is needed.

  5. Common Risk Factors in Currency Markets

    E-print Network

    Roussano, Nikolai

    We identify a “slope” factor in exchange rates. High interest rate currencies load more on this slope factor than low interest rate currencies. This factor accounts for most of the cross-sectional variation in average ...

  6. Maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy impairs an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-like pathway in sheep fetal coronary arteries

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Praveen; Ghatta, Srinivas; Dubey, Nidhi; Lemley, Caleb O.; Johnson, Mary Lynn; Modgil, Amit; Vonnahme, Kimberly; Caton, Joel S.; Reynolds, Lawrence P.; Sun, Chengwen

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying developmental programming are poorly understood but may be associated with adaptations by the fetus in response to changes in the maternal environment during pregnancy. We hypothesized that maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy alters vasodilator responses in fetal coronary arteries. Pregnant ewes were fed a control [100% U.S. National Research Council (NRC)] or nutrient-restricted (60% NRC) diet from days 50 to 130 of gestation (term = 145 days); fetal tissues were collected at day 130. In coronary arteries isolated from control fetal lambs, relaxation to bradykinin was unaffected by nitro-l-arginine (NLA). Iberiotoxin or contraction with KCl abolished the NLA-resistant response to bradykinin. In fetal coronary arteries from nutrient-restricted ewes, relaxation to bradykinin was fully suppressed by NLA. Large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channel (BKCa) currents did not differ in coronary smooth muscle cells from control and nutrient-restricted animals. The BKCa openers, BMS 191011 and NS1619, and 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid [a putative endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)] each caused fetal coronary artery relaxation and BKCa current activation that was unaffected by maternal nutrient restriction. Expression of BKCa-channel subunits did not differ in fetal coronary arteries from control or undernourished ewes. The results indicate that maternal undernutrition during pregnancy results in loss of the EDHF-like pathway in fetal coronary arteries in response to bradykinin, an effect that cannot be explained by a decreased number or activity of BKCa channels or by decreased sensitivity to mediators that activate BKCa channels in vascular smooth muscle cells. Under these conditions, bradykinin-induced relaxation is completely dependent on nitric oxide, which may represent an adaptive response to compensate for the absence of the EDHF-like pathway. PMID:24816259

  7. Maternal effects and range expansion: a key factor in a dynamic process?

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Renée A.

    2009-01-01

    Species that depend on ephemeral habitat often evolve distinct dispersal strategies in which the propensity to disperse is closely integrated with a suite of morphological, behavioural and physiological traits that influence colonizing ability. These strategies are maintained by natural selection resulting from spatial and temporal variation in resource abundance and are particularly evident during range expansion. Yet the mechanisms that maintain close alignment of such strategies with resource availability, integrate suites of dispersal traits and generate variability in dispersal propensity are rarely known. Breeding females can influence offspring phenotype in response to changes in current environmental conditions, making maternal effects uniquely suited to bridge fluctuations in resource abundance in the maternal generation and variation in offspring dispersal ability. Western bluebirds' (Sialia mexicana) dependence on nest cavities—an ephemeral resource—has led to the evolution of two distinct dispersal phenotypes: aggressive males that disperse and non-aggressive males that remain philopatric and cooperate with their relatives. Over the last 40 years, western bluebirds rapidly expanded their geographical range, providing us with an opportunity to test, in newly established populations, the importance of maternal effects for generating variability in dispersal propensity. Here, I show that, under variable resource conditions, breeding females group offspring of different competitive ability in different positions in the egg-laying order and, consequently, produce aggressive males that are more likely to disperse when resources are low and non-aggressive philopatric males when resources are abundant. I then show experimentally that the association between resource availability and sex-specific birth order is robust across populations. Thus, this maternal effect enables close tracking of resource availability and may explain how variation in dispersal is generated in newly colonized populations. More generally, these results suggest that, as a key source of variation in colonizing phenotypes, maternal effects are of crucial importance for understanding the dynamics of range expansion. PMID:19324612

  8. Changes in CVD risk factors in the activity counseling trial

    PubMed Central

    Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara; Sallis, James F; King, Abby C; Marcus, Bess H; Blair, Steven N

    2011-01-01

    Primary care facilities may be a natural setting for delivering interventions that focus on behaviors that improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the 24-month effects of the Activity Counseling Trial (ACT) on CVD risk factors, to examine whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status, and to examine whether changes in fitness were associated with changes in CVD risk factors. ACT was a 24-month multicenter randomized controlled trial to increase physical activity. Participants were 874 inactive men and women aged 35–74 years. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three arms that varied by level of counseling, intensity, and resource requirements. Because there were no significant differences in change over time between arms on any of the CVD risk factors examined, all arms were combined, and the effects of time, independent of arm, were examined separately for men and women. Time × Baseline risk factor status interactions examined whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status. Significant improvements in total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-C, and triglycerides were seen in both men and women who had high (or low for HDL-C) baseline levels of risk factors, whereas significant improvements in diastolic blood pressure were seen only in those men with high baseline levels. There were no improvements in any risk factors among participants with normal baseline levels. Changes in fitness were associated with changes in a number of CVD risk factors. However, most relationships disappeared after controlling for changes in body weight. Improvements in lipids from the ACT interventions could reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in people with already high levels of lipids by 16%–26% in men and 11%–16% in women. Interventions that can be implemented in health care settings nationwide and result in meaningful population-wide changes in CVD risk factors are needed. The ACT physical activity interventions produced substantial improvements among men and women with elevated CVD risk factors. PMID:21403793

  9. Environmental risk factors and allergic bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; D'Amato, M; Holgate, S

    2005-09-01

    The prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases such as bronchial asthma has increased in recent years, especially in industrialized countries. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increase in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, this increase may be explained by changes in environmental factors, including indoor and outdoor air pollution. Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in studies of air pollution and its effects on human health. Although the role played by outdoor pollutants in allergic sensitization of the airways has yet to be clarified, a body of evidence suggests that urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries, and there is considerable evidence that asthmatic persons are at increased risk of developing asthma exacerbations with exposure to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and inhalable particulate matter. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of air pollution on the timing of asthma exacerbations and on the prevalence of asthma in general. As concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory allergy and bronchial asthma. Pollinosis is frequently used to study the interrelationship between air pollution and respiratory allergy. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. By attaching to the surface of pollen grains and of plant-derived particles of paucimicronic size, pollutants could modify not only the morphology of these antigen-carrying agents but also their allergenic potential. In addition, by inducing airway inflammation, which increases airway permeability, pollutants overcome the mucosal barrier and could be able to "prime" allergen-induced responses. There are also observations that a thunderstorm occurring during pollen season can induce severe asthma attacks in pollinosis patients. After rupture by thunderstorm, pollen grains may release part of their cytoplasmic content, including inhalable, allergen-carrying paucimicronic particles. PMID:16164436

  10. Apolipoprotein E: risk factor for Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, M. S.; Tangalos, E. G.; Petersen, R. C.; Smith, G. E.; Schaid, D. J.; Kokmen, E.; Ivnik, R. J.; Thibodeau, S. N.

    1994-01-01

    The apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) has three common alleles (epsilon 2, epsilon 3, and epsilon 4) that determine six genotypes in the general population. In this study, we examined 77 patients with late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD), along with an equal number of age- and sex-matched controls, for an association with the APOE-epsilon 4 allele. We show that the frequency of this allele among AD patients was significantly higher than that among the control population (.351 vs. .130, P = .000006). The genotype frequencies also differed between the two groups (P = .0002), with the APOE-epsilon 4/epsilon 3 genotype being the most common in the AD group and the APOE-epsilon 3/epsilon 3 being the most common in the control group. In the AD group, homozygosity for epsilon 4 was found in nine individuals, whereas none was found in the control group. The odds ratio for AD, when associated with one or two epsilon 4 alleles, was 4.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-12.3), while the odds ratio for AD, when associated with heterozygosity for APOE-epsilon 4, was 3.6 (95% CI 1.5-9.8). Finally, the median age at onset among the AD patients decreased from 83 to 78 to 74 years as the number of APOE-epsilon 4 alleles increased from 0 to 1 to 2, respectively (test for trend, P = .001). Our data, which are in agreement with recent reports, suggest that the APOE-epsilon 4 allele is associated with AD and that this allelic variant may be an important risk factor for susceptibility to AD in the general population. PMID:8128961

  11. Apolipoprotein E: Risk factor for Alzheimer disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, M.S.; Thibodeau, S.N.; Tangalos, E.G.; Petersen, R.C.; Kokmen, E.; Smith, G.E.; Schaid, D.J.; Ivnik, R.J. )

    1994-04-01

    The apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) has three common alleles (E2, E3, and E4) that determine six genotypes in the general population. In this study, the authors examined 77 patients with late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD), along with an equal number of age- and sex-matched controls, for an association with the APOE-E4 allele. They show that the frequency of this allele among AD patients was significantly higher than that among the control population (.351 vs. .130, P = .000006). The genotype frequencies also differed between the two groups (P = .0002), with the APOE-E4/E3 genotype being the most common in the AD group and the APOE-E3/E3 being the most common in the control group. In the AD group, homozygosity for E4 was found in nine individuals, whereas none was found in the control group. The odds ratio for AD, when associated with one or two E4 alleles, was 4.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-12.3), while the odds ratio for AD, when associated with heterozygosity for APOE-E4, was 3.6 (05% CI 1.5-9.8). Finally, the median age at onset among the AD patients decreased from 83 to 78 to 74 years as the number of APOE-E4 alleles increased from 0 to 1 to 2, respectively (test for trend, P = .001). The data, which are in agreement with recent reports, suggest that the APOE-E4 allele is associated with AD and that this allelic variant may be an important risk factor for susceptibility to AD in the general population. 30 refs., 5 tabs.

  12. A common genetic risk factor for colorectal and prostate cancer

    E-print Network

    Reich, David

    A common genetic risk factor for colorectal and prostate cancer Christopher A Haiman1, Loi¨c Le,4 & Brian E Henderson1 Variants on chromosome 8q24 contribute risk for prostate cancer; here, we tested risk variants for prostate cancer spread over three unlinked regions of chromosome 8 between 128

  13. Extinction risk depends strongly on factors contributing to stochasticity

    E-print Network

    Bernard, Samuel

    LETTERS Extinction risk depends strongly on factors contributing to stochasticity Brett A. Melbourne1 & Alan Hastings2 Extinction risk in natural populations depends on stochastic fac- tors their combined effects on extinction risk. Here we derive a family of stochastic Ricker models using different

  14. Maternal Verbal Responses to Communication of Infants at Low and Heightened Risk of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leezenbaum, Nina B.; Campbell, Susan B.; Butler, Derrecka; Iverson, Jana M.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates mothers' responses to infant communication among infants at heightened genetic risk (high risk) of autism spectrum disorder compared to infants with no such risk (low risk). A total of 26 infants, 12 of whom had an older sibling with autism spectrum disorder, were observed during naturalistic in-home interaction and…

  15. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis Among Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Lori W.; Wallace, Lorraine Silver; Perry, Blake Allen; Bleeker, Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the risk factors for osteoporosis among a sample of middle-aged women. Methods: Adipose tissue and bone mineral density levels at the left femur, lumbar spine, and total body were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects (n=342) were surveyed regarding a variety of osteoporosis-related risk factors.…

  16. Suicide Clusters: A Review of Risk Factors and Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haw, Camilla; Hawton, Keith; Niedzwiedz, Claire; Platt, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Suicide clusters, although uncommon, cause great concern in the communities in which they occur. We searched the world literature on suicide clusters and describe the risk factors and proposed psychological mechanisms underlying the spatio-temporal clustering of suicides (point clusters). Potential risk factors include male gender, being an…

  17. Risk Factors for Peer Sexual Harassment in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fineran, Susan; Bolen, Rebecca M.

    2006-01-01

    This study introduces potential risk factors for victimization and perpetration of sexual harassment among teens not previously studied. The first set of analyses compared histories of perpetration and victimization by gender, as well as the relationship between risk factors and perpetration or victimization. For girls (r = 0.544) and boys (r =…

  18. Risk Factors for Attempting Suicide in Heroin Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Alec

    2010-01-01

    In order to examine risk factors for attempting suicide in heroin dependent patients, a group of 527 abstinent opiate dependent patients had a psychiatric interview and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Patients who had or had never attempted suicide were compared on putative suicide risk factors. It was found that 207 of the 527…

  19. [Risk factors for arterial hypertension among machinery construction workers].

    PubMed

    Zakhar'eva, S V; Pasechnaia, N A

    2006-01-01

    The authors studied prevalence of arterial hypertension, its risk factors in workers of major machinery construction enterprise, who have prolonged contact with a complex of low-intensity occupational hazards. Findings are reliably higher prevalence of arterial hypertension among the workers vs. reference group, relative risk of arterial hypertension responding to exposed factor. PMID:16491856

  20. Identifying Risk Factors for Webserver Compromise Marie Vasek & Tyler Moore

    E-print Network

    Thornton, Mitchell

    Identifying Risk Factors for Webserver Compromise Marie Vasek & Tyler Moore SMU Financial: No CMS 8 of 29 #12;Research Hypotheses Indicators CMS Attributes CMS Market Share # Exploits for CMS CMS of Being Hacked 9 of 29 #12;Research Hypotheses H0: Running a CMS is a positive risk factor for compromise

  1. Suicide in Peacekeepers: Risk Factors for Suicide versus Accidental Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoresen, Siri; Mehlum, Lars

    2006-01-01

    To investigate risk factors for suicide in veterans of peacekeeping, 43 suicides and 41 fatal accidents in Norwegian peacekeepers (1978 to 1995) were compared in a psychological autopsy study. Mental health problems were the most important risk factor for suicide. Both living alone and the break-up of a love relationship contributed uniquely to…

  2. Is Folate Status a Risk Factor for Asthma or Other Allergic Diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting; Zhang, Hong-Ping; Zhang, Xin; Liang, Zong-An; Ji, Yu-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose It is controversial whether folate status is a risk factor for the development of asthma or other allergic diseases. This study was conducted to investigate whether indirect or direct exposure to folate and impaired folate metabolism, reflected as methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism, would contribute to the development of asthma and other allergic diseases. Methods Electronic databases were searched to identify all studies assessing the association between folate status and asthma or other allergic diseases. Two reviewers independently assessed the eligibility of studies and extracted data. The relative risk (RR) or odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was calculated and pooled. Results Twenty-six studies (16 cohort, 7 case-control, and 3 cross-sectional studies) were identified. Maternal folic acid supplementation was not associated with the development of asthma, atopic dermatitis (AD), eczema, and sensitization in the offspring, whereas exposure during early pregnancy was related to wheeze occurrence in the offspring (RR=1.06, 95% CI=[1.02-1.09]). The TT genotype of MTHFR C677T polymorphism was at high risk of asthma (OR=1.41, 95% CI=[1.07-1.86]). Conclusions It is indicated that maternal folic acid supplementation during early pregnancy may increase the risk of wheeze in early childhood and that the TT genotype of MTHFR C677T polymorphism impairing folic acid metabolism would be at high risk of asthma development. These results might provide additional information for recommendations regarding forced folate consumption or folic acid supplements during pregnancy based on its well-established benefits for the prevention of congenital malformations. However, currently available evidence is of low quality which is needed to further elucidate. PMID:26333700

  3. Pulmonary tuberculosis and risk factors in Portugal: a spatial analysis.

    PubMed

    Couceiro, L; Santana, P; Nunes, C

    2011-11-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a multidimensional disease, and interactions between individuals and groups are of extreme importance in its development. The aim of this study was to estimate the occurrence of pulmonary TB (PTB) to identify potential risk factors and to define high-risk areas in Portugal (2004-2006). The relevance of the common risk factors identified was evaluated at the national and local levels. Considering local public health at the municipality level, the main objective of this study was the support of local interventions, identifying local high-risk areas and the corresponding local risk factors. A complex statistical methodology based on correlation analysis, spatial clustering, risk maps and multivariate regression models was developed. The results showed that some areas were at higher risk of PTB than others due to high incidence of HIV/AIDS, incarceration, nonstandard (abnormal) and/or crowded accommodation, unemployment and immigrant populations. The majority of these areas showed increased TB incidence rates. PMID:21740646

  4. Maternal Parity and the Risk of Congenital Heart Defects in Offspring: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao; Liu, Jin; Tong, Xing; Yang, Lei; Da, Min; Shen, Shutong; Fan, Changfeng; Wang, Song; Mo, Xuming

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results regarding maternal parity and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). However, a meta-analysis of the association between maternal parity and CHDs in offspring has not been conducted. Methods We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles catalogued between their inception and March 8, 2014; we identified relevant published studies that assessed the association between maternal parity and CHD risk. Two authors independently assessed the eligibility of the retrieved articles and extracted data from them. Study-specific relative risk estimates were pooled by random-effects or fixed-effects models. From the 11272 references, a total of 16 case-control studies and 3 cohort studies were enrolled in this meta-analysis. Results The overall relative risk of CHD in parous versus nulliparous women was 1.01 (95% CI, 0.97–1.06; Q?=?32.34; P?=?0.006; I2?=?53.6%). Furthermore, we observed a significant association between the highest versus lowest parity number, with an overall RR?=?1.20 (95% CI, 1.10–1.31; (Q?=?74.61, P<0.001, I2?=?82.6%). A dose–response analysis also indicated a positive effect of maternal parity on CHD risk, and the overall increase in relative risk per one live birth was 1.06 (95% CI, 1.02–1.09); Q?=?68.09; P<0.001; I2?=?80.9%). We conducted stratified and meta-regression analyses to identify the origin of the heterogeneity among studies. A Galbraith plot was created to graphically assess the sources of heterogeneity. Conclusion In summary, this meta-analysis provided a robust estimate of the positive association between maternal parity and risk of CHD. PMID:25295723

  5. Multiple Risk Factors during Pregnancy in South Africa: The Need for a Horizontal Approach to Perinatal Care

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, Mark; O’Connor, Mary J.; LeRoux, Ingrid M.; Stewart, Jacqueline; Mbewu, Nokwanele; Harwood, Jessica; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2013-01-01

    South African children’s long-term health and well-being is jeopardized during their mothers’ pregnancies by the intersecting epidemics of HIV, alcohol use, low birth weight (LBW; <2500 grams) related to poor nutrition, and depressed mood. This research examines these overlapping risk factors among 1145 pregnant Xhosa women living in 24 township neighborhoods in Cape Town, South Africa. Results revealed that 66% of pregnant women experienced at least one risk factor. In descending order of prevalence, 37% reported depressed mood; 29% were HIV+; 25% used alcohol prior to knowing that they were pregnant; and 15% had a previous childbirth with a LBW infant. Approximately 27% percent of women had more than one risk factor: depressed mood was significantly associated with alcohol use and LBW, with a trend to significance with HIV+. In addition, alcohol use was significantly related to HIV+. These results suggest the importance of intervening across multiple risks to maternal and child health, and particularly with depression and alcohol use, to positively impact multiple maternal and infant outcomes. PMID:23475562

  6. Multiple risk factors during pregnancy in South Africa: the need for a horizontal approach to perinatal care.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Mark; O'Connor, Mary J; le Roux, Ingrid M; Stewart, Jacqueline; Mbewu, Nokwanele; Harwood, Jessica; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2014-06-01

    South African children's long-term health and well-being is jeopardized during their mothers' pregnancies by the intersecting epidemics of HIV, alcohol use, low birth weight (LBW; <2,500 g) related to poor nutrition, and depressed mood. This research examines these overlapping risk factors among 1,145 pregnant Xhosa women living in 24 township neighborhoods in Cape Town, South Africa. Results revealed that 66 % of pregnant women experienced at least one risk factor. In descending order of prevalence, 37 % reported depressed mood, 29 % were HIV+, 25 % used alcohol prior to knowing that they were pregnant, and 15 % had a previous childbirth with a LBW infant. Approximately 27 % of women had more than one risk factor: depressed mood was significantly associated with alcohol use and LBW, with a trend to significance with HIV+. In addition, alcohol use was significantly related to HIV+. These results suggest the importance of intervening across multiple risks to maternal and child health, and particularly with depression and alcohol use, to positively impact multiple maternal and infant outcomes. PMID:23475562

  7. Future directions in Alzheimer's disease from risk factors to prevention.

    PubMed

    Imtiaz, Bushra; Tolppanen, Anna-Maija; Kivipelto, Miia; Soininen, Hilkka

    2014-04-15

    The increase in life expectancy has resulted in a high occurrence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Research on AD has undergone a paradigm shift from viewing it as a disease of old age to taking a life course perspective. Several vascular, lifestyle, psychological and genetic risk factors influencing this latent period have been recognized and they may act both independently and by potentiating each other. These risk factors have consequently been used to derive risk scores for predicting the likelihood of dementia. Despite population differences, age, low education and vascular risk factors were identified as key factors in all scoring systems. Risk scores can help to identify high-risk individuals who might benefit from different interventions. The European Dementia Prevention Initiative (EDPI), an international collaboration, encourages data sharing between different randomized controlled trials. At the moment, it includes three large ongoing European trials: Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER), Prevention of Dementia by Intensive Vascular Care (preDIVA), and Multidomain Alzheimer Prevention study (MAPT). Recently EDPI has developed a "Healthy Aging through Internet Counseling in Elderly" (HATICE) program, which intends to manage modifiable risk factors in an aged population through an easily accessible Internet platform. Thus, the focus of dementia research has shifted from identification of potential risk factors to using this information for developing interventions to prevent or delay the onset of dementia as well as identifying special high-risk populations who could be targeted in intervention trials. PMID:24418410

  8. Risk factors for childhood sensorineural hearing loss in the Oxford region.

    PubMed

    Sutton, G J; Rowe, S J

    1997-02-01

    We have used a comprehensive register of hearing-impaired children born in the former Oxford Health Region to study risk factors for sensorineural hearing loss. The occurrence of a wide variety of risk factors was documented from the case notes of 145 children; these were all the cases known at the time of the study with all degrees of hearing loss born between 1984 and 1988. Comparison with the normal Regional population showed that maternal age over 35 years and Asian ethnic origin were significant risk factors for congenital (non-acquired) hearing loss (odds ratio 1.7 and 2.5 respectively). Black/Asian children were also significantly more likely to have acquired losses. Low birthweight (below 2500 g) also gave a significantly increased risk, with an odds ratio of 4.5, rising to 9.6 for birthweight less than 1500 g. We also found that significantly more hearing-impaired cases were in lower social classes compared with the general population. A high proportion of cases (24%) had cranio-facial abnormalities (CFA), including many non-aural abnormalities and dysmorphic features, which therefore should be counted as high risk. Hearing losses acquired due to perinatal causes were almost all mild or moderate. Four factors-admission to special care baby unit for more than 72 hours, CFA, family history, and meningitis-accounted for 69% of all cases in this study. Targeted neonatal screening based on the first three factors, plus obligatory testing following meningitis, therefore, should be highly efficient at detecting deafness early. PMID:9056042

  9. Incidence and Risk Factors for Retinopathy of Prematurity in Multiple Gestations

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Gordon S.K.; Lee, Jacky W.Y.; Tam, Victor T.Y.; Yip, Stan; Cheng, Edith; Liu, Catherine C.L.; Chu, Benjamin C.Y.; Wong, Ian Y.H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To determine the incidence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) among new-born Chinese infants of multiple gestations. A retrospective review of medical records was performed for all neonates of multiple gestations screened for ROP between January 2007 and December 2012 in 2 neonatal intensive care units in Hong Kong. Screening was offered to very low birth weight (VLBW; ?1500?g) and/or preterm (gestation ?32 weeks) neonates using the Royal College of Ophthalmologists ROP guideline and the International Classification of ROP by 3 pediatric ophthalmologists. Maternal and neonatal covariates were analyzed using univariate and multivariate regression analyses for both ROP and Type 1 ROP. A total of 153 Chinese infants of multiple gestations were included in the study. The mean gestational age (GA) was 30.8?±?2.4 weeks and the mean birth weight (BW) was 1284.8?±?267.4?g. The incidence of ROP and Type 1 ROP was 11.8% and 3.9%, respectively. On univariate analysis, younger GA, lighter birth weight, postnatal hypotension, inotropes use, bronchopulmonary disease, and intraventricular hemorrhage were common independent risk factors for the development of ROP and Type 1 ROP (all P???0.04). On multivariate analysis, younger GA, surfactant use, invasive mechanical ventilation, higher mean oxygen concentration, thrombocytopenia, intraventricular hemorrahage, total parental nutrition, and hypoglycemia were significant risk factors for ROP. For Type 1 ROP, there were no significant dependent risk factors. In preterm Chinese infants born from multiple gestations, prematurity, lighter weight, postnatal hypotension, inotropes use, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and an intraventricular hemorrhage were common independent risk factors for the development of ROP and Type 1 ROP. PMID:25950699

  10. Maternal mRNA expression levels of H19 are inversely associated with risk of macrosomia

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hua; Yu, Yang; Xun, Pengcheng; Zhang, Jun; Luo, Guanghua

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To investigate the associations between the mRNA levels of H19 in term placenta and risk of macrosomia. Material and methods Term placentas were collected from 37 macrosomia and 37 matched neonates with normal birth weight (controls) born in Changzhou Women and Children Health Hospital, Jiangsu province, P. R. China from March 1 to June 30, 2008. The mRNA levels of H19 in those placentas were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Simple and multiple logistic regression models were used to explore the risk factors in the development of macrosomia. All analyses were performed using Stata 10.0 (StataCorp, College Station, Texas, USA). Results The average H19 mRNA level of the macrosomia group was 1.450 ±0.456 while in the control group it was 2.080 ±1.296. Based on the result of Student's t test, there was a significant difference in H19 mRNA level between the macrosomia group and the control group (p = 0.008). After controlling for potential confounders, the multivariable adjusted odds ratio (OR) of macrosomia for those in the highest tertile of H19 mRNA level was 0.12 (95% CI: 0.02–0.59) when compared to those in the lowest tertile (p for linear trend = 0.009). Conclusions The term placental H19 mRNA levels were inversely related to the occurrence of macrosomia. Our findings suggest that the low expression of H19 mRNA may contribute to the development of macrosomia. PMID:25097584

  11. Is Grandmultiparity A Significant Risk Factor in This New Millennium?

    PubMed Central

    Nordin, Noraihan Mohd.; Fen, Choong Khim; Isa, Suhaimi; Symonds, Edwin Malcolm

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the outcomes of grandmultiparous women receiving the current obstetric care in Maternity Hospital Kuala Lumpur. Recent data regarding some of the complications are conflicting and the significance of grandmultiparity is now in question. Therefore, a retrospective cohort study of 237 grandmultiparous and 254 multiparous women were undertaken. Chi-squared and t test were used (P<0.05) where appropriate. The results revealed that grandmultiparous women tend to be Malays, age above 35, have late antenatal booking and suffered from anemia and non-proteinuric hypertension. There was no significant difference in diabetes and glucose intolerance, ante partum and post partum hemorrhage. There was a significantly lower risk of first and second-degree perineal tear, and prolonged first stage of labor. There was a significant increased in induction of labor but there was no uterine rupture and no increased in Cesarean Section. There was an increased in meconium stain liquor but there was no increased risk of fetal distress. The fetal outcome was good and there was no tendency to macrosomic infants or shoulder dystocia. With adequate care, the maternal fetal outcome of grandmutiparous women is good and comparable to the multiparous women. Anemia is still common and patient education is important to overcome this problem. PMID:22589605

  12. Cardiovascular risk factors for acute stroke: Risk profiles in the different subtypes of ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Arboix, Adrià

    2015-01-01

    Timely diagnosis and control of cardiovascular risk factors is a priority objective for adequate primary and secondary prevention of acute stroke. Hypertension, atrial fibrillation and diabetes mellitus are the most common risk factors for acute cerebrovascular events, although novel risk factors, such as sleep-disordered breathing, inflammatory markers or carotid intima-media thickness have been identified. However, the cardiovascular risk factors profile differs according to the different subtypes of ischemic stroke. Atrial fibrillation and ischemic heart disease are more frequent in patients with cardioembolic infarction, hypertension and diabetes in patients with lacunar stroke, and vascular peripheral disease, hypertension, diabetes, previous transient ischemic attack and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with atherothrombotic infarction. This review aims to present updated data on risk factors for acute ischemic stroke as well as to describe the usefulness of new and emerging vascular risk factors in stroke patients. PMID:25984516

  13. Development and psychometric testing of the Chinese Postnatal Risk Factors Questionnaire (CPRFQ) for postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaoyu; Lu, Jun; Shi, Shenxun; Wang, Ximei; Zhao, Rui; Yan, Yuan; Chen, Gang

    2015-04-01

    This article describes the development and psychometric assessment of the Chinese Postnatal Risk Factors Questionnaire (CPRFQ). There were four phases in this process: (1) the items were generated using a literature review and a focus group, (2) content validity was evaluated by an expert panel, (3) a pilot study was conducted with 45 postpartum women to refine the scale, and (4) a convenience sample of 256 postpartum women in China was recruited to complete the questionnaire. Construct validity was established by exploratory factor analysis; a four-factor structure of the scale was accepted (social and family, personality and relationship, mother and infant, maternal feelings and 'doing the month'). These factors explained 47.46 % of the variance. Pearson's correlation coefficient was conducted to test convergent validity with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) (r?=?0.54; p?risk factors in Chinese postpartum mothers. PMID:25142052

  14. Kindergarten Risk Factors, Cognitive Factors, and Teacher Judgments as Predictors of Early Reading in Dutch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gijsel, Martine A. R.; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2006-01-01

    This study focused on the predictive value of risk factors, cognitive factors, and teachers' judgments in a sample of 462 kindergartners for their early reading skills and reading failure at the beginning of Grade 1. With respect to risk factors, enrollment in speech-language therapy, history of dyslexia or speech-language problems in the family,…

  15. Exposure to Maternal Distress in Childhood and Cortisol Activity in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahrer, Nicole E.; Luecken, Linda J.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulated cortisol is a risk factor for poor health outcomes. Children of distressed mothers exhibit dysregulated cortisol, yet it is unclear whether maternal distress predicts cortisol activity in later developmental stages. This longitudinal study examined the prospective relation between maternal distress during late childhood (9-12 years)…

  16. A case-control study of maternal blood mitochondrial DNA copy number and preeclampsia risk

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Chunfang; Hevner, Karin; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Williams, Michelle A

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with oxidative stress and impaired differentiation and invasion of trophoblasts, both of which have been related to preeclampsia pathogenesis. However, studies that examined circulating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in relation to preeclampsia are limited. Therefore, we examined association of maternal whole blood mtDNA copy number (a novel biomarker of systemic mitochondrial dysfunction) with the odds of preeclampsia. This case-control study was comprised of 144 preeclampsia cases and 407 normotensive controls. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to assess the relative copy number of mtDNA in maternal whole blood samples collected at delivery. Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Median mtDNA copy number was significantly higher among preeclamptic women compared with controls (271.5 vs. 239.3, Mann-Whitney U test p-value <0.001). There was evidence of a linear trend in higher odds of preeclampsia with increasing quartiles of mtDNA copy number (P for trend=0.03) after controlling for confounders. The adjusted ORs for the successive quartiles of mtDNA copy number, compared with the referent (first quartile) were 1.30 (95%CI 0.66-2.56), 1.93 (95%CI 1.02-3.67) and 1.86 (95%CI 1.00-3.48). Our findings suggest that maternal mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. However, replication in prospective studies is needed to further investigate this relationship. PMID:23050054

  17. Intrauterine Exposure to Maternal Diabetes Is Associated With Higher Adiposity and Insulin Resistance and Clustering of Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Indian Children

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaveni, Ghattu V.; Veena, Sargoor R.; Hill, Jacqueline C.; Kehoe, Sarah; Karat, Samuel C.; Fall, Caroline H.D.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that maternal gestational diabetes increases cardiovascular risk markers in Indian children. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Anthropometry, blood pressure, and glucose/insulin concentrations were measured in 514 children at 5 and 9.5 years of age (35 offspring of diabetic mothers [ODMs], 39 offspring of diabetic fathers [ODFs]). Children of nondiabetic parents were control subjects. RESULTS At age 9.5 years, female ODMs had larger skinfolds (P < 0.001), higher glucose (30 min) and insulin concentrations, and higher homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) of insulin resistance and systolic blood pressure (P < 0.05) than control subjects. Male ODMs had higher HOMA (P < 0.01). Associations were stronger than at age 5 years. Female ODFs had larger skinfolds and male ODFs had higher HOMA (P < 0.05) than control subjects; associations were weaker than for ODMs. Associations between outcomes in control subjects and parental BMI, glucose, and insulin concentrations were similar for mothers and fathers. CONCLUSIONS The intrauterine environment experienced by ODMs increases diabetes and cardiovascular risk over genetic factors; the effects strengthen during childhood. PMID:19918007

  18. Diabetic Retinopathy Risk Factors: Plasma Erythropoietin as a Risk Factor for Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Gholamhossein, Yaghoobi; Asghar, Zarban

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether any stage of diabetic retinopathy (DR) is associated with levels of plasma erythropoietin and other plasma parameters. Methods It was examined a representative sample of 180 type 2 diabetes patients aged 40 to 79 years. Ophthalmic examination including a funduscopic examination, performed by an experienced ophthalmologist and the retinal finding were classified according to the grading system for diabetic retinopathy of ETDRS (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study). It was measured the levels of plasma erythropoietin, cholesterol, triglyceride, apolipoproteins A and B, C-reactive protein, fasting blood glucose and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) in 88 DR patients and 92 controls without DR. Risk factors correlated with DR were compared between groups. Results The study group of 180 patients included 72 males and 108 females. The mean age of the patients with and without DR was 57.36 ± 8.87 years and 55.33 ± 8.28 years, respectively. Of the 88 patients with DR, only 9 (10%) had proliferative DR and the rest suffered from non-proliferative DR. The mean plasma levels of erythropoietin in proliferative DR group showed a significant difference in comparison to other groups. The mean plasma levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, apolipoproteins A and B, C-reactive protein, and fasting blood glucose were not significantly different in the three groups except for HbA1C. The absolute relative risk (ARR) also showed that erythropoietin was an increasing risk for proliferative DR (ARR, 1.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.060 to 1.420; odds ratio,1.060). Conclusions Of the factors studied, erythropoietin level showed significant increase in proliferative DR group. The stepwise raised in mean plasma erythropoietin level which demonstrates significant correlation with proliferative DR versus remaining two groups, will be an indication of its role in proliferative DR. PMID:25276078

  19. Children's Cognitive Ability from 4 to 9 Years Old as a Function of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure, Environmental Risk, and Maternal Verbal Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, David S.; Bendersky, Margaret; Lewis, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure, environmental risk, and maternal verbal intelligence on children's cognitive ability. Gender and age were examined as moderators of potential cocaine exposure effects. The Stanford-Binet IV intelligence test was administered to 231 children (91 cocaine exposed, 140 unexposed) at ages 4,…

  20. The Effects of Maternal Parenting Style and Religious Commitment on Self-Regulation, Academic Achievement, and Risk Behavior among African-American Parochial College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abar, Beau; Carter, Kermit L.; Winsler, Adam

    2009-01-01

    This study explored relations between religiosity, both parent and student, and maternal parenting style and student academic self-regulation, academic achievement, and risk behavior among African-American youth attending a parochial college. Eighty-five students completed self-report survey measures of religiosity, self-regulation, academic…

  1. Birth weight as a risk factor for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Robison, L L; Codd, M; Gunderson, P; Neglia, J P; Smithson, W A; King, F L

    1987-01-01

    Increased birth weight previously has been reported to be associated with childhood acute leukemia although the etiologic importance of this finding remains unclear. To further assess birth weight and associated parameters as a risk factor for childhood leukemia, a case/control study was performed using children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) born in the state of Minnesota and diagnosed since 1969. Data obtained from birth registrations of 219 cases were compared with two control groups matched on date and county of birth (group I) or year of birth (group II). No significant differences were observed in mean birth weights of cases and controls. Statistically significant associations with birth weights greater than 3800 g were identified in cases diagnosed within the first 4 years of life. No associations were found between birth weight and ALL for case children diagnosed after 4 years of age. Factors that might be associated with increased birth weight, including maternal age, birth order, length of gestation, and socioeconomic status as measured by paternal education, were not found to be associated with an increased risk for ALL. The significance of the finding of high birth weight as a risk factor for childhood ALL remains unknown but suggests that pregnancy-related events may be of importance in the etiology of ALL in young children. PMID:3152913

  2. Risk factors for atopic and non-atopic asthma in a rural area of Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Vaca, Maritza; Oviedo, Gisela; Erazo, Silvia; Quinzo, Isabel; Fiaccone, Rosemeire L; Chico, Martha E; Barreto, Mauricio L; Cooper, Philip J

    2010-01-01

    Background Asthma has emerged as an important public health problem of urban populations in Latin America. Epidemiological data suggest that a minority of asthma cases in Latin America may be associated with allergic sensitisation and that other mechanisms causing asthma have been overlooked. The aim of the present study was to investigate risk factors for atopic and non-atopic asthma in school-age children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 3960 children aged 6–16?years living in Afro-Ecuadorian rural communities in Esmeraldas province in Ecuador. Allergic diseases and risk factors were assessed by questionnaire and allergic sensitisation by allergen skin prick reactivity. Results A total of 390 (10.5%) children had wheeze within the previous 12?months, of whom 14.4% had at least one positive skin test. The population-attributable fraction for recent wheeze associated with atopy was 2.4%. Heavy Trichuris trichiura infections were strongly inversely associated with atopic wheeze. Non-atopic wheeze was positively associated with maternal allergic symptoms and sedentarism (watching television (>3?h/day)) but inversely associated with age and birth order. Conclusions The present study showed a predominance of non-atopic compared with atopic wheeze among schoolchildren living in a poor rural region of tropical Latin America. Distinct risk factors were associated with the two wheeze phenotypes and may indicate different causal mechanisms. Future preventive strategies in such populations may need to be targeted at the causes of non-atopic wheeze. PMID:20435862

  3. Dating violence among college students: the risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Kaukinen, Catherine

    2014-10-01

    The research review synthesizes the knowledge base on risk and protective factors for dating violence while highlighting its relevance to violence against college women. In particular, the review highlights the personal, family, relationship, and behavioral factors that heighten the risk of dating violence victimization and perpetration while also noting the methodological limitations of the current body of empirical research and identifying directions for future academic work. Researchers have identified the correlation between risky health and behavioral factors and dating violence, most often modeling these as part of the etiology of dating violence among college students. Less often have scholars explored these as co-occurring risk factors. This approach to dating violence may be used to develop meaningful and impactful interventions to reduce the incidence and prevalence of college dating violence while also addressing the other health risk behaviors that impact academic success and place students' well-being at risk. PMID:24499962

  4. [Lowering of blood pressure - by treatment of other risk factors].

    PubMed

    Sou?ek, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Reaching the target value of blood pressure is still a big problem. A mere 30 % of treated hypertensives reach blood pressure values < 140/90 mm Hg. Hypertensive patients often exhibit further risk factors - diabetes mellitus, dyslipoproteinemia, excess weight and obesity, all of which are included in the definition of metabolic syndrome. The cardiovascular risks associated with the individual risk factors are not summed, they are multiplied. Unfortunately, the individual risk factors have been treated separately until now. However, there is an effort aimed at treating individual risk factors in the way that may positively affect others. The study focuses on the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, excess weight and obesity taking account of possible influencing of blood pressure values.Key words: type 2 diabetes mellitus - hypertension - metabolic syndrome - excess weight - obesity. PMID:26375702

  5. Brain health and shared risk factors for dementia and stroke.

    PubMed

    Gardener, Hannah; Wright, Clinton B; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L

    2015-11-01

    Impaired brain health encompasses a range of clinical outcomes, including stroke, dementia, vascular cognitive impairment, cognitive ageing, and vascular functional impairment. Conditions associated with poor brain health represent leading causes of global morbidity and mortality, with projected increases in public health burden as the population ages. Many vascular risk factors are shared predictors for poor brain health. Moreover, subclinical brain MRI markers of vascular damage are risk factors shared between stroke and dementia, and can be used for risk stratification and early intervention. The broad concept of brain health has resulted in a conceptual shift from vascular risk factors to determinants of brain health. Global campaigns to reduce cardiovascular diseases by targeting modifiable risk factors are necessary and will have a broad impact on brain health. Research is needed on the distinct and overlapping aetiologies of brain health conditions, and to define MRI markers to help clinicians identify patients who will benefit from aggressive prevention measures. PMID:26481296

  6. [Information should be given on consanguinity as a risk factor for congenital malformations].

    PubMed

    Cornel, Martina C; Houwink, Elisa J F; Houwink, Pieter E F

    2014-01-01

    In the Born in Bradford study, an increased risk for congenital anomalies was found in the Pakistani subpopulation of Bradford, where cousin marriage is relatively frequent. While consanguinity may be associated with a risk for congenital malformations, it does not prove a causal relationship. Whatever the case, high perinatal mortality as well as the high prevalence of congenital anomalies are good reasons for implementing the knowledge on reproductive risks that has been available for many years. Well-known risk factors include higher maternal age, that was associated with congenital anomalies in the British mothers. Further research in an intervention study may provide more data on whether the associations found are causal. Implementing preconception care should involve primary care physicians, who need both facilities and training. In the Netherlands, the high perinatal mortality, especially in some big cities, could profit from similar interventions. Dutch primary care physicians consider it their responsibility to discuss consanguinity with patients, although there is some reluctance because of anticipated religious and social value conflicts. Without information reaching the target populations, they may lack awareness and will not ask for information themselves. People from Dutch migrant groups would prefer to be informed about reproductive risks of consanguinity by their primary care physicians. PMID:24397975

  7. Interstitial pneumonitis after bone marrow transplantation. Assessment of risk factors

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, R.S.; Bortin, M.M.; Gale, R.P.; Gluckman, E.; Kay, H.E.; Kolb, H.J.; Hartz, A.J.; Rimm, A.A.

    1986-02-01

    Data from 932 patients with leukemia who received bone marrow transplants were analyzed to determine factors associated with an increased risk of developing interstitial pneumonitis. Interstitial pneumonitis developed in 268 patients for a 2-year actuarial incidence of 35 +/- 4% (SD) and with a mortality rate of 24%. Six factors were associated with an increased risk: use of methotrexate rather than cyclosporine after transplantation (relative risk, 2.3; p less than 0.0002); older age (relative risk, 2.1; p less than 0.0001); presence of severe graft-versus-host disease (relative risk, 1.9; p less than 0.003); long interval from diagnosis to transplantation (relative risk, 1.6; p less than 0.002); performance ratings before transplantation of less than 100% (relative risk, 2.1; p less than 0.0001); and high dose-rates of irradiation in patients given methotrexate after transplantation (relative risk, 3.2; p less than 0.03). The risk of developing interstitial pneumonitis ranged from 8% in patients with none of these adverse risk factors to 94% in patients with all six. These findings may help to identify patients at high risk for this complication.

  8. Telomere shortening as genetic risk factor of liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Carulli, Lucia

    2015-01-14

    Cirrhosis is the main complication of chronic liver disease, leads to progressive liver function impairment and is the main risk factor for the development of liver cancer. Liver failure at endstage cirrhosis is associated with increased mortality with liver transplantation as the only possible treatment at this stage. The pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis is not completely elucidated. Although the common factors leading to liver injury, such as viral hepatitis, alcohol consume or fatty liver disease can be identified in the majority of patients a small percentage of patients have no apparent risk factors. Moreover given the same risk factors, some patients progress to cirrhosis whereas others have a benign course, the reason remains unclear. In order to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic tools, it is s essential to understand the pathogenesis of cirrhosis. The identification of genetic risk factors associated with cirrhosis is one of the possible approach to achieve these goal. In the past years several studies have supported the role of telomere shortening and cirrhosis. In the recent year several studies on the relation between several single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) and cirrhosis have been published; it has been proposed also a cirrhosis risk score based on seven SNPs. Also epidemiological studies on identical twins and in different ethnic groups have been supporting the importance of the role of genetic risk factors. Finally in the very recent years it has been suggested that telomere shortening may represent a genetic risk factor for the development of cirrhosis. PMID:25593453

  9. Insulin Like Growth Factor 2 Expression in the Rat Brain Both in Basal Condition and following Learning Predominantly Derives from the Maternal Allele

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiaojing; Kohtz, Amy; Pollonini, Gabriella; Riccio, Andrea; Alberini, Cristina M.

    2015-01-01

    Insulin like growth factor 2 (Igf2) is known as a maternally imprinted gene involved in growth and development. Recently, Igf2 was found to also be regulated and required in the adult rat hippocampus for long-term memory formation, raising the question of its allelic regulation in adult brain regions following experience and in cognitive processes. We show that, in adult rats, Igf2 is abundantly expressed in brain regions involved in cognitive functions, like hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, compared to the peripheral tissues. In contrast to its maternal imprinting in peripheral tissues, Igf2 is mainly expressed from the maternal allele in these brain regions. The training-dependent increase in Igf2 expression derives proportionally from both parental alleles, and, hence, is mostly maternal. Thus, Igf2 parental expression in the adult rat brain does not follow the imprinting rules found in peripheral tissues, suggesting differential expression regulation and functions of imprinted genes in the brain. PMID:26495851

  10. Risk Factors for Low Receptive Vocabulary Abilities in the Preschool and Early School Years in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Daniel; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Taylor, Catherine L.

    2014-01-01

    Receptive vocabulary development is a component of the human language system that emerges in the first year of life and is characterised by onward expansion throughout life. Beginning in infancy, children's receptive vocabulary knowledge builds the foundation for oral language and reading skills. The foundations for success at school are built early, hence the public health policy focus on reducing developmental inequalities before children start formal school. The underlying assumption is that children's development is stable, and therefore predictable, over time. This study investigated this assumption in relation to children's receptive vocabulary ability. We investigated the extent to which low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years was associated with low receptive vocabulary ability at 8 years, and the predictive utility of a multivariate model that included child, maternal and family risk factors measured at 4 years. The study sample comprised 3,847 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate risks for low receptive vocabulary ability from 4–8 years and sensitivity-specificity analysis was used to examine the predictive utility of the multivariate model. In the multivariate model, substantial risk factors for receptive vocabulary delay from 4–8 years, in order of descending magnitude, were low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years, low maternal education, and low school readiness. Moderate risk factors, in order of descending magnitude, were low maternal parenting consistency, socio-economic area disadvantage, low temperamental persistence, and NESB status. The following risk factors were not significant: One or more siblings, low family income, not reading to the child, high maternal work hours, and Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander ethnicity. The results of the sensitivity-specificity analysis showed that a well-fitted multivariate model featuring risks of substantive magnitude does not do particularly well in predicting low receptive vocabulary ability from 4–8 years. PMID:24988308

  11. Ischemic heart disease in women: a focus on risk factors.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Puja K; Wei, Janet; Wenger, Nanette K

    2015-02-01

    Heart disease remains a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in women in the United States and worldwide. This review highlights known and emerging risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD) in women. Traditional Framingham risk factors such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking, as well as lifestyle habits such as unhealthy diet and sedentary lifestyle are all modifiable. Health care providers should be aware of emerging cardiac risk factors in women such as adverse pregnancy outcomes, systemic autoimmune disorders, obstructive sleep apnea, and radiation-induced heart disease; psychosocial factors such as mental stress, depression, anxiety, low socioeconomic status, and work and marital stress play an important role in IHD in women. Appropriate recognition and management of an array of risk factors is imperative given the growing burden of IHD and need to deliver cost-effective, quality care for women. PMID:25453985

  12. Risk factors for UK Plasmodium falciparum cases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An increasing proportion of malaria cases diagnosed in UK residents with a history of travel to malaria endemic areas are due to Plasmodium falciparum. Methods In order to identify travellers at most risk of acquiring malaria a proportional hazards model was used to estimate the risk of acquiring malaria stratified by purpose of travel and age whilst adjusting for entomological inoculation rate (EIR) and duration of stay in endemic countries. Results Travellers visiting friends and relatives and business travellers were found to have significantly higher hazard of acquiring malaria (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) relative to that of holiday makers 7.4, 95% CI 6.4–8.5, p?risk than children aged 0–15 years. Conclusions These estimates of the increased risk for business travellers and those visiting friends and relatives should be used to inform programmes to improve awareness of the risks of malaria when travelling. PMID:25091803

  13. Epidemiology, Traditional and Novel Risk Factors in Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Mack, Molly; Gopal, Ambarish

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) mortality has been declining in the United States and in regions where health care systems are relatively advanced. Still, CAD remains the number one cause of death in both men and women in the United States, and coronary events have increased in women. Many traditional risk factors for CAD are related to lifestyle, and preventative treatment can be tailored to modifying specific factors. Novel risk factors also may contribute to CAD. Finally, as the risk for CAD is largely understood to be inherited, further genetic testing should play a role in preventative treatment of the disease. PMID:26567971

  14. Caesarean section without medical indications is associated with an increased risk of adverse short-term maternal outcomes: the 2004-2008 WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is worldwide debate about the appropriateness of caesarean sections performed without medical indications. In this analysis, we aim to further investigate the relationship between caesarean section without medical indication and severe maternal outcomes. Methods This is a multicountry, facility-based survey that used a stratified multistage cluster sampling design to obtain a sample of countries and health institutions worldwide. A total of 24 countries and 373 health facilities participated in this study. Data collection took place during 2004 and 2005 in Africa and the Americas and during 2007 and 2008 in Asia. All women giving birth at the facility during the study period were included and had their medical records reviewed before discharge from the hospital. Univariate and multilevel analysis were performed to study the association between each group's mode of delivery and the severe maternal and perinatal outcome. Results A total of 286,565 deliveries were analysed. The overall caesarean section rate was 25.7% and a total of 1.0 percent of all deliveries were caesarean sections without medical indications, either due to maternal request or in the absence of other recorded indications. Compared to spontaneous vaginal delivery, all other modes of delivery presented an association with the increased risk of death, admission to ICU, blood transfusion and hysterectomy, including antepartum caesarean section without medical indications (Adjusted Odds Ratio (Adj OR), 5.93, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI), 3.88 to 9.05) and intrapartum caesarean section without medical indications (Adj OR, 14.29, 95% CI, 10.91 to 18.72). In addition, this association is stronger in Africa, compared to Asia and Latin America. Conclusions Caesarean sections were associated with an intrinsic risk of increased severe maternal outcomes. We conclude that caesarean sections should be performed when a clear benefit is anticipated, a benefit that might compensate for the higher costs and additional risks associated with this operation. PMID:21067593

  15. Common risk factors in bank stocks 

    E-print Network

    Viale, Ariel Marcelo

    2007-09-17

    Page 1. Betas’ Finite Sample Distributions ............................................................... 23 viii LIST OF TABLES TABLE...-to-market ratio are the dominant factors in explaining the returns on a large sample of nonfinancial firms. In contrast, and contrary to the CAPM, market-wide factors (as proxied by the market beta) are unable to explain cross-sectional variations in the equity...

  16. Threat-sensitive anti-intraguild predation behaviour: maternal strategies to reduce offspring predation risk in mites

    PubMed Central

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Predation is a major selective force for the evolution of behavioural characteristics of prey. Predation among consumers competing for food is termed intraguild predation (IGP). From the perspective of individual prey, IGP differs from classical predation in the likelihood of occurrence because IG prey is usually more rarely encountered and less profitable because it is more difficult to handle than classical prey. It is not known whether IGP is a sufficiently strong force to evolve interspecific threat sensitivity in antipredation behaviours, as is known from classical predation, and if so whether such behaviours are innate or learned. We examined interspecific threat sensitivity in antipredation in a guild of predatory mite species differing in adaptation to the shared spider mite prey (i.e. Phytoseiulus persimilis, Neoseiulus californicus and Amblyseius andersoni). We first ranked the players in this guild according to the IGP risk posed to each other: A. andersoni was the strongest IG predator; P. persimilis was the weakest. Then, we assessed the influence of relative IGP risk and experience on maternal strategies to reduce offspring IGP risk: A. andersoni was insensitive to IGP risk. Threat sensitivity in oviposition site selection was induced by experience in P. persimilis but occurred independently of experience in N. californicus. Irrespective of experience, P. persimilis laid fewer eggs in choice situations with the high- rather than low-risk IG predator. Our study suggests that, similar to classical predation, IGP may select for sophisticated innate and learned interspecific threat-sensitive antipredation responses. We argue that such responses may promote the coexistence of IG predators and prey. PMID:21317973

  17. Military risk factors for cognitive decline, dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Veitch, Dallas P; Friedl, Karl E; Weiner, Michael W

    2013-11-01

    Delayed neurological health consequences of environmental exposures during military service have been generally underappreciated. The rapidly expanding understanding of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis now makes it possible to quantitate some of the likely long-term health risks associated with military service. Military risk factors for AD include both factors elevated in military personnel such as tobacco use, traumatic brain injury (TBI), depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other nonspecific risk factors for AD including, vascular risk factors such as obesity and obesity-related diseases (e.g., metabolic syndrome), education and physical fitness. The degree of combat exposure, Vietnam era Agent Orange exposure and Gulf War Illness may also influence risk for AD. Using available data on the association of AD and specific exposures and risk factors, the authors have conservatively estimated 423,000 new cases of AD in veterans by 2020, including 140,000 excess cases associated with specific military exposures. The cost associated with these excess cases is approximately $5.8 billion to $7.8 billion. Mitigation of the potential impact of military exposures on the cognitive function of veterans and management of modifiable risk factors through specifically designed programs will be instrumental in minimizing the impact of AD in veterans in the future decades. PMID:23906002

  18. [Review of risk factors for breast cancer--what's new?].

    PubMed

    Haimov-Kochman, Ronit; Lavy, Yuval; Hochner-Celinkier, Drorit

    2002-08-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women and constitutes 18% of all cancers in women. Female gender, age and country of birth are the strongest determinants of disease risk. Family history and mutations in tumor suppressor genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are important correlates of lifetime risk. Genetic polymorphisms associated with estrogen synthesis and metabolism are viewed as major factors in breast cancer prevalence in specific populations. Atypical hyperplasia and ductal/lobular carcinoma in situ although uncommon, are considered as pre-malignant conditions as well as markers for invasive breast cancer. Lately, increased bone density and high breast tissue density on mammogram in postmenopausal women have been reported in association with increased risk of breast carcinoma, probably attributable to increased levels of endogenous estrogen. Serum estrogen levels are higher in breast cancer cases as compared with controls. Current use of oral contraceptives and prolonged, current or recent use of postmenopausal hormonal replacement therapy are also considered as risk factors for breast cancer. Tamoxifen and raloxifene, selective estrogen receptor modulators, were shown to reduce breast cancer risk among high-risk women. Various nutrients were evaluated for their possible effect on breast cancer risk but further studies are needed. High socioeconomic status is found to be associated with increased risk of breast malignancy for as yet unestablished reasons. Studying breast cancer risk factors and further research into the molecular etiology of the disease will enable early diagnosis and detection of high-risk women and ultimately improve prognosis. PMID:12222134

  19. Maternal benefits of immunization during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Geeta K; Beigi, Richard H

    2015-11-25

    The US Centers for Disease Control & Prevention currently recommend routine immunization to prevent 17 vaccine-preventable diseases that occur in infants, children, adolescents, or adults. Pregnant women are at particularly high risk for morbidity and mortality related to several vaccine-preventable diseases. Furthermore, such illnesses are also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as spontaneous abortion, congenital anomalies, preterm birth, and low birthweight. In addition to directly preventing maternal infection, vaccination during pregnancy may offer fetal and infant benefit through passive immunization. Several vaccines aimed at providing passive immunity to neonates are either currently recommended or in development. This article specifically addresses maternal benefits of maternal immunization following (1) vaccines recommended for all pregnant women; (2) vaccines recommended for pregnant women with particular risk factors; and (3) novel vaccines currently under development that primarily aim to at reduce infant morbidity and mortality. PMID:26384445

  20. Prevalence and risk factors for anaemia in pregnant women: a population-based prospective cohort study in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiaoyi; Li, Zhu; Ananth, Cande V

    2009-07-01

    Maternal anaemia is a common pregnancy complication in developing countries; however, its epidemiology remains largely unexplored in China. This study was designed to explore the epidemiology and risk factors of anaemia during pregnancy. A prospective cohort study was conducted, using data from a population-based pregnancy-monitoring system in 13 counties in East China (1993-96). Women who delivered singleton infants at 20-44 weeks with at least one haemoglobin assessment during pregnancy were included (n = 164 667). The prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin < 10 g/dL) during pregnancy as well as in each trimester was estimated. Multivariable log-binomial regression models were used to evaluate risk factors. The overall prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy was 32.6%, with substantial variations across trimesters (11.2%, 20.1% and 26.2% in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters respectively). Risk factors for anaemia included older maternal age, education below junior high school (prevalence rate ratio [RR] 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08, 1.12), farming occupation (1.05, 95% CI 1.03, 1.06), and mild pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) (RR 1.09, 95% CI 1.05, 1.13) and severe PIH (RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.06, 1.19). Peri-conception folic acid use was associated with a reduced risk for anaemia in the 1st trimester (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.72, 0.78). Initiating prenatal care after the 1st trimester was associated with increased risk of anaemia in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Our study found anaemia during pregnancy is highly prevalent in this indigenous Chinese population. The risk increases with the severity of hypertensive disorders. Folic acid supplementation during the peri-conception period is associated with reduced risk of 1st trimester anaemia. PMID:19523075

  1. Impact of family planning programs in reducing high-risk births due to younger and older maternal age, short birth intervals, and high parity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Win; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Roche, Neil; Sonneveldt, Emily; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2015-08-01

    Several studies show that maternal and neonatal/infant mortality risks increase with younger and older maternal age (<18 and >34 years), high parity (birth order >3), and short birth intervals (<24 months). Family planning programs are widely viewed as having contributed to substantial maternal and neonatal mortality decline through contraceptive use--both by reducing unwanted births and by reducing the burden of these high-risk births. However, beyond averting births, the empirical evidence for the role of family planning in reducing high-risk births at population level is limited. We examined data from 205 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), conducted between 1985 and 2013, to describe the trends in high-risk births and their association with the pace of progress in modern contraceptive prevalence rate (yearly increase in rate of MCPR) in 57 developing countries. Using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition technique, we then examine the contributions of family planning program, economic development (GDP per capita), and educational improvement (secondary school completion rate) on the progress of MCPR in order to link the net contribution of family planning program to the reduction of high-risk births mediated through contraceptive use. Countries that had the fastest progress in improving MCPR experienced the greatest declines in high-risk births due to short birth intervals (<24 months), high parity births (birth order >3), and older maternal age (>35 years). Births among younger women <18 years, however, did not decline significantly during this period. The decomposition analysis suggests that 63% of the increase in MCPR was due to family planning program efforts, 21% due to economic development, and 17% due to social advancement through women's education. Improvement in MCPR, predominately due to family planning programs, is a major driver of the decline in the burden of high-risk births due to high parity, shorter birth intervals, and older maternal age in developing countries. The lack of progress in the decline of births in younger women <18 years of age underscores the need for more attention to ensure that quality contraceptive methods are available to adolescent women in order to delay first births. This study substantiates the significance of family planning programming as a major health intervention for preventing high-risk births and associated maternal and child mortality, but it highlights the need for concerted efforts to strengthen service provision for adolescents. PMID:26169538

  2. New evidence of genetic factors influencing sexual orientation in men: female fecundity increase in the maternal line.

    PubMed

    Iemmola, Francesca; Camperio Ciani, Andrea

    2009-06-01

    There is a long-standing debate on the role of genetic factors influencing homosexuality because the presence of these factors contradicts the Darwinian prediction according to which natural selection should progressively eliminate the factors that reduce individual fecundity and fitness. Recently, however, Camperio Ciani, Corna, and Capiluppi (Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences, 271, 2217-2221, 2004), comparing the family trees of homosexuals with heterosexuals, reported a significant increase in fecundity in the females related to the homosexual probands from the maternal line but not in those related from the paternal one. This suggested that genetic factors that are partly linked to the X-chromosome and that influence homosexual orientation in males are not selected against because they increase fecundity in female carriers, thus offering a solution to the Darwinian paradox and an explanation of why natural selection does not progressively eliminate homosexuals. Since then, new data have emerged suggesting not only an increase in maternal fecundity but also larger paternal family sizes for homosexuals. These results are partly conflicting and indicate the need for a replication on a wider sample with a larger geographic distribution. This study examined the family trees of 250 male probands, of which 152 were homosexuals. The results confirmed the study of Camperio Ciani et al. (2004). We observed a significant fecundity increase even in primiparous mothers, which was not evident in the previous study. No evidence of increased paternal fecundity was found; thus, our data confirmed a sexually antagonistic inheritance partly linked to the X-chromosome that promotes fecundity in females and a homosexual sexual orientation in males. PMID:18561014

  3. PHYSIOPATHOLOGY OF OSTEOPOROSIS: FROM RISK FACTORS ANALYSIS TO TREATMENT.

    PubMed

    Del Puente, A; Esposito, A; Del Puente, A; Costa, L; Caso, F; Scarpa, R

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis represents a relevant health issue, being the first cause of bone fractures in the elderly with subsequent implications in terms of survival and social costs. The improved knowledge about the physiopathology of this disease has led to a new definition of Osteoporosis, which shifts the attention from the ?"decrease in bone mass"? to several elements related to what has globally been defined as bone quality. In fact, it has been shown that clinical risk factors affecting bone homeostasis coincide with osteoporosis risk factors. The evaluation of such clinical risk factors is an important element in the assessment of the global fracture risk. The availability of instruments for the assessment of the global fracture risk also suggests a change in the clinical perspective and raises new questions as yet unanswered. PMID:26403391

  4. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gay Neighborhood Residence

    PubMed Central

    Buttram, Mance E.; Kurtz, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    Using a sample of 482 ethnically diverse current substance using men who have sex with men (MSM) who reported recent unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), this study compared health risk behaviors – substance use and sexual HIV risk – and one health protective factor – prosocial activities - between men who live in a gay neighborhood and those who do not. Data are drawn from comprehensive health and social risk assessments administered in South Florida. In a multivariate logistic regression model, methamphetamine use, high rates of receptive UAI, and lower levels of prosocial engagement were found to be risk factors associated with gay neighborhood residence. Compared to living elsewhere, gay neighborhood residence appeared to be protective against cocaine use and substance dependence. Implications of the findings for prevention interventions are discussed, as is the need for further research regarding decisions about neighborhood residence and how neighborhood risk and protective factors emerge and are sustained. PMID:22948299

  5. What's in a risk factor? "He who strikes the ball".

    PubMed

    Capron, L

    2003-02-01

    A major aim of epidemiology is to explore the prognosis and aetiology of diseases, in order to improve treatment and prevention. To avoid misleading interpretations of observed associations between a modifier and the occurrence of a disease, the all-purpose idiom "risk factor" should be replaced by 3 locutions with narrower meanings: a risk marker is a modifier which is associated (correlated) with disease prevalence (case-control studies) or incidence (cohort studies); a risk marker truly becomes a risk factor if its experimental correction (intervention studies) does improve the disease incidence or prognosis; a risk factor is promoted to the rank of cause if it is proved to be necessary (sine qua non) for the occurrence of the disease. A more rigorous vocabulary avoids premature claims for unsubstantiated treatments or preventions, and helps defining sound priorities in aetiological research. PMID:12629442

  6. Maternal blood mitochondrial DNA copy number and placental abruption risk: results from a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Michelle A; Sanchez, Sixto E; Ananth, Cande V; Hevner, Karin; Qiu, Chunfang; Enquobahrie, Daniel A

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress and impaired placental function – pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of placental abruption – have their origins extending to mitochondrial dysfunction. To the best of our knowledge, there are no published reports of associations of placental abruption with circulating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number – a novel biomarker of systemic mitochondrial dysfunction. This pilot case-control study was comprised of 233 placental abruption cases and 238 non-abruption controls. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to assess the relative copy number of mtDNA in maternal whole blood samples collected at delivery. Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). There was some evidence of an increased odds of placental abruption with the highest quartile of mtDNA copy number (P for trend = 0.09) after controlling for confounders. The odds of placental abruption was elevated among women with higher mtDNA copy number (?336.9) as compared with those with lower values (<336.9) (adjusted OR = 1.60; 95% CI 1.04-2.46). Women diagnosed with preeclampsia and with elevated mtDNA copy number had a dramatically increased odds of placental abruption as compared with normotensive women without elevated mtDNA copy number (adjusted OR = 6.66; 95% CI 2.58-17.16). Maternal mitochondrial dysfunction appears to be associated with placental abruption in the presence of preeclampsia. Replication in other studies, particularly prospective cohort studies and those that allow for tissue specific assessment of mitochondrial dysfunction (e.g., the placenta) are needed to further understand cellular and genomic biomarkers of normal and abnormal placental function. PMID:23875065

  7. Influence of maternal and social factors as predictors of low birth weight in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Nobile, Carmelo GA; Raffaele, Gianluca; Altomare, Carlo; Pavia, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to provide insight into the determinants of low birth weight (LBW) in Italy. Methods The study was carried out in a non-teaching hospital in Catanzaro (Italy). All LBW and very LBW newborns (200) were included in the study and a random sample of 400 newborns weighing ? 2500 g was selected. Data were collected from the delivery certificates during one year. Smoking activity of mother and familiar and/or social support during pregnancy was gathered through telephone interviews. Results Overall annual LBW rate was 11.8%. Among LBW newborn there were 125 preterm and 75 term. Younger mothers, those who smoked during pregnancy, and had fewer prenatal care visits were more likely to deliver a LBW child; moreover, preterm newborns, delivered by caesarean section, and twin or multiple birth were significantly more likely to have a LBW. The comparison of very LBW (<1500 g) to LBW newborns showed that a very LBW was significantly more likely in newborns delivered by less educated mothers, those who work outside the home, live in smaller towns, and had less echographies; moreover, as expected, very LBW newborns were more likely to be preterm. Conclusion Several modifiable factors affect the risk of LBW, even when universal access to health care is freely available, but socio-economic status appears to correlate only to very LBW. PMID:17683559

  8. Environmental Risk Factors and Cancer - March 6, 1997

    Cancer.gov

    ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS AND CANCER Testimony Of Susan Sieber, Ph.D. Deputy Director Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics National Cancer Institute National Institutes of Health before the Senate Cancer Coalition Senators Connie Mack

  9. What Are the Risk Factors for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tumor (GIST)? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST) ... and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer ...

  10. Identifying Risk Factors for Metabolic Syndrome in Biomedical Text

    PubMed Central

    Fiszman, Marcelo; Rosemblat, Graciela; Ahlers, Caroline B.; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

    2007-01-01

    Identifying risk factors and biomarkers for diseases is an important aspect of biomedical research. However, much of the underlying information resides in the research literature and is not available in executable form. We propose a methodology based on automatic semantic interpretation (using SemRep) to capture risk factors and biomarkers for diseases asserted in MEDLINE citations. In this initial study, we focus on metabolic syndrome. The performance of SemRep in identifying risk factors and biomarkers for this disorder was 53% recall (CI, 44% to 62%) and 67% precision (CI, 62% to 72%). We discuss how the information captured could assist clinicians in finding current and new risk factors for metabolic syndrome as well as diseases predisposed by this disorder. The availability of this information in executable form can support guideline development and the timely translation of biomedical research into improvements in quality of patient care. PMID:18693836

  11. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: High Blood Cholesterol

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have a group of risk factors known as "metabolic syndrome," which is usually caused by overweight or obesity ... regardless of your LDL cholesterol level. Women have metabolic syndrome if they have three or more of the ...

  12. What Are the Risk Factors for Lung Carcinoid Tumors?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... we know what causes lung carcinoid tumors? What are the risk factors for lung carcinoid tumors? A ... women than in men. The reasons for this are not known. Race/ethnicity Lung carcinoids are more ...

  13. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  14. Coming to Terms With Risk Factors for Eating Disorders: Application of Risk Terminology and Suggestions for a General Taxonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobi, Corinna; Hayward, Chris; de Zwaan, Martina; Kraemer, Helena C.; Agras, W. Steward

    2004-01-01

    The aims of the present review are to apply a recent risk factor approach (H. C. Kraemer et al., 1997) to putative risk factors for eating disorders, to order these along a timeline, and to deduce general taxonomic questions. Putative risk factors were classified according to risk factor type, outcome (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa,…

  15. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: dietary and metabolic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Nandeesha, H

    2008-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common nonmalignant condition of the prostate occurring in ageing men. Even though BPH is a major public health problem, causing high morbidity and substantial worsening in men's quality of life, little is known about its risk factors. Several studies revealed that it is a multifactorial disease. Previous studies have documented family history, hormonal imbalance, and growth factors as etiological factors in the development of BPH. This review focuses on the dietary and metabolic risk factors including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, hyperinsulinemia, as well as dyslipidemia and their mechanisms in the pathogenesis of BPH. PMID:18246440

  16. Socioeconomic, cultural and demographic maternal factors associated with dietary patterns of infants

    PubMed Central

    Sotero, Andréa Marques; Cabral, Poliana Coelho; da Silva, Giselia Alves Pontes

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze dietary patterns of infants and its association with maternal socioeconomic, cultural, and demographic variables. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with two groups of mothers of children up to 24 months (n=202) living in the city of Maceió, Alagoas, Northeast Brazil. The case group consisted of mothers enrolled in a Family Health Unit. The comparison group consisted of mothers who took their children to two private pediatric offices of the city. Dietary intake was assessed using a qualitative and validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The evaluation of the FFQ was performed by a method in which the overall rate of consumption frequency is converted into a score. Results: Children of higher income families and mothers with better education level (control group) showed the highest median of consumption scores for fruits and vegetables (p<0.01) and meat, offal, and eggs (p<0.01), when compared with children of the case group. On the other hand, the median of consumption scores of manufactured goods was higher among children in the case group (p<0.01). Conclusions: Maternal socioeconomic status influenced the quality of food offered to the infant. In the case group, children up to 24 months already consumed industrial products instead of healthy foods on their menu. PMID:26298652

  17. Familial and Temperamental Risk Factors for Social Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R.

    2010-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common disorder that can lead to significant impairment. In this chapter, the author provides background on the disorder and reviews hypothesized familial and temperamental risk factors. In particular, it highlights the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Longitudinal Study of Children at Risk for Anxiety, now…

  18. Adolescents Who Drive Under the Influence: Correlates and Risk Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayton, Daniel M., II; And Others

    This study was designed to determine the correlates or potential risk factors which predict whether an adolescent who drinks or uses drugs will refrain from driving under the influence, or will drive in this condition. A group of 426 rural high school seniors completed a questionnaire which assessed drug use patterns and previously identified risk

  19. Preterm Birth: An Overview of Risk Factors and Obstetrical Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Amanda; Graham, Ernest

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and a major public health concern. Risk factors for preterm birth include a history of preterm birth, short cervix, infection, short interpregnancy interval, smoking, and African-American race. The use of progesterone therapy to treat mothers at risk for preterm delivery is becoming more…

  20. Temporal Evaluation of Risk Factors for Acute Myocardial Infarction Readmissions

    E-print Network

    Obradovic, Zoran

    Temporal Evaluation of Risk Factors for Acute Myocardial Infarction Readmissions Gregor Stiglic.obradovic@temple.edu Abstract--Risk-adjusted 30-day readmission rates for specific diagnoses including myocardial infarction on an eight-year dataset of hospital discharge records of myocardial infarction patients consisting of 312

  1. Risk Factors for Bereavement Outcome: A Multivariate Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Houwen, Karolijne; Stroebe, Margaret; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Schut, Henk; van den Bout, Jan; Wijngaards-De Meij, Leoniek

    2010-01-01

    Bereavement increases the risk of ill health, but only a minority of bereaved suffers lasting health impairment. Because only this group is likely to profit from bereavement intervention, early identification is important. Previous research is limited, because of cross sectional designs, small numbers of risk factors, and use of a single measure…

  2. What Are the Risk Factors for Vulvar Cancer?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... risk types of HPV and include HPV 16, HPV 18, HPV 31, as well as others. Infection with a ... these cancers share certain risk factors. The same HPV types that are linked to cervical cancer are also linked to vulvar cancer. Smoking is also ... Guide Topics What Is ...

  3. Cardiovascular Risk Factor Levels in Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, James H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Comparison of cardiovascular risk factors (blood lipids, obesity, and smoking) in 329 adults with mental retardation residing in various settings with subjects in the Framingham Offspring Study found that adults with mental retardation had cardiovascular risk profiles similar to those of individuals without mental retardation. (Author/DB)

  4. Risk factors of paternal depression in the early postnatal period in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Akiko; Ohashi, Kazutomo

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated risk factors of depression in fathers at 4 weeks post-partum using a cross-sectional design. Mothers were recruited at the 4 week postnatal health check between March and July 2007. A total of 510 mothers agreed to participate in the study. One-hundred-and-fifty-six fathers and 181 mothers returned the questionnaires. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale were filled out to assess depressive symptoms. There was no association between paternal and maternal depression. According to the logistic regression analysis, paternal depression was associated with employment status, history of psychiatric treatment, and unintended pregnancy. Of eight fathers with unstable employment, seven were temporary employees and one was unemployed, suggesting that perinatal care-providers should independently screen for depression in fathers and mothers and focus attention on paternal employment status, especially temporary employment. PMID:20602688

  5. PreImplantation factor (PIF) detection in maternal circulation in early pregnancy correlates with live birth (bovine model)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Early identification of viable pregnancy is paramount for successful reproduction. Detection of specific signals from pre-implantation viable embryos in normal pregnancy circulation would indicate initiation of embryo-maternal interaction and create a continuum to accurately reflect embryo/fetal well-being post-implantation. Viable mammalian embryos secrete PreImplantation Factor (PIF), a biomarker which plays key, multi-targeted roles to promote implantation, trophoblast invasion and modulate maternal innate and adaptive immunity toward acceptance. Anti-PIF monoclonal antibody (mAb-based chemiluminescent ELISA) accurately detects PIF in singly cultured embryos media and its increased levels correlate with embryo development up to the blastocyst stage. Herein reported that PIF levels (ELISA) in early maternal serum correlate with pregnancy outcome. Methods Artificially inseminated (AI) blind-coded Angus cattle (N?=?21-23) serum samples (day10,15 & 20 post-AI) with known calf birth were blindly tested, using both non-pregnant heifers (N?=?30) and steer serum as negative controls. Assay properties and anti-PIF monoclonal antibody specificity were determined by examining linearity, spike and recovery experiments and testing the antibody against 234 different circulating proteins by microarray. Endogenous PIF was detected using <3 kDa filter separation followed by anti-PIF mAb-based affinity chromatography and confirmed by ELISA and HPLC. PIF expression was established in placenta using anti-PIF mAb-based IHC. Results PIF detects viable pregnancy at day 10 post-AI with 91.3% sensitivity, reaching 100% by day 20 and correlating with live calf birth. All non-pregnant samples were PIF negative. PIF level in pregnant samples was a stringent 3?+?SD higher as compared to heifers and steer sera. Assay is linear and spike and recovery data demonstrates lack of serum interference. Anti-PIF mAb is specific and does not interact with circulating proteins. Anti-PIF based affinity purification demonstrates that endogenous PIF is what ELISA detects. The early bovine placenta expresses PIF in the trophoblast layer. Conclusion Data herein documents that PIF is a specific, reliable embryo-derived biomarker conveniently detectable in early maternal circulation. PIF ELISA emerges as practical tool to detect viable early pregnancy from day 20 post-AI. PMID:24238492

  6. [Suicide in the elderly – risk factors and prevention].

    PubMed

    Linnemann, Christoph; Leyhe, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Suicide rates are highest among the elderly in Switzerland. The estimated number of unreported cases is particularly high in this age group. The risk factors are multidimensional, including depression and social isolation. The detection and management of the controllable risk factors, foremost depression, is of particular importance for suicide prevention. Old age depression often shows an atypical presentation, is misinterpreted as a normal process of aging and is not adequately treated. PMID:26423881

  7. Substantial contribution of extrinsic risk factors to cancer development.

    PubMed

    Wu, Song; Powers, Scott; Zhu, Wei; Hannun, Yusuf A

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has highlighted a strong correlation between tissue-specific cancer risk and the lifetime number of tissue-specific stem-cell divisions. Whether such correlation implies a high unavoidable intrinsic cancer risk has become a key public health debate with the dissemination of the 'bad luck' hypothesis. Here we provide evidence that intrinsic risk factors contribute only modestly (less than ~10-30% of lifetime risk) to cancer development. First, we demonstrate that the correlation between stem-cell division and cancer risk does not distinguish between the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. We then show that intrinsic risk is better estimated by the lower bound risk controlling for total stem-cell divisions. Finally, we show that the rates of endogenous mutation accumulation by intrinsic processes are not sufficient to account for the observed cancer risks. Collectively, we conclude that cancer risk is heavily influenced by extrinsic factors. These results are important for strategizing cancer prevention, research and public health. PMID:26675728

  8. Does maternal exposure to benzene and PM10 during pregnancy increase the risk of congenital anomalies? A population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Vinceti, Marco; Malagoli, Carlotta; Malavolti, Marcella; Cherubini, Andrea; Maffeis, Giuseppe; Rodolfi, Rossella; Heck, Julia E; Astolfi, Gianni; Calzolari, Elisa; Nicolini, Fausto

    2016-01-15

    A few studies have suggested an association between maternal exposure to ambient air pollution from vehicular traffic and risk of congenital anomalies in the offspring, but epidemiologic evidence is neither strong nor entirely consistent. In a population-based case-control study in a Northern Italy community encompassing 228 cases of birth defects and 228 referent newborns, we investigated if maternal exposure to PM10 and benzene from vehicular traffic during early pregnancy, as estimated through a dispersion model, was associated with excess teratogenic risk. In conditional logistic regression analysis, and with adjustment for the other pollutant, we found that higher exposure to PM10 but not benzene was associated with increased risk of birth defects overall. Anomaly categories showing the strongest dose-response relation with PM10 exposure were musculoskeletal and chromosomal abnormalities but not cardiovascular defects, with Down syndrome being among the specific abnormalities showing the strongest association, though risk estimates particularly for the less frequent defects were statistically very unstable. Further adjustment in the regression model for potential confounders did not considerably alter the results. All the associations were stronger for average levels of PM10 than for their maximal level. Findings of this study give some support for an excess teratogenic risk following maternal exposure during pregnancy to PM10, but not benzene. Such association appears to be limited to some birth defect categories. PMID:26410719

  9. Protective Factors Buffer Effects of Risk Factors on Alcohol Use among Inner-City Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Jennifer A.; Botvin, Gilbert J.; Griffin, Kenneth W.; Diaz, Tracy

    2001-01-01

    Evaluates the buffering effect of cumulative protection on adolescent alcohol use in the presence of high and moderate cumulative risk. Students with high scores on the cumulative risk factor index engaged in more alcohol use compared to those with low scores; those with high scores on the cumulative protective factor index engaged in less alcohol…

  10. [Cardiovascular risk factors. Insights from Framingham Heart Study].

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Christopher J; Elosua, Roberto

    2008-03-01

    Epidemiology involves the study of disease frequency and its determinants within the population. Cardiovascular epidemiology began in the 1930s as a result of changes observed in the causes of death. In the 1950s, several epidemiological studies were set in motion with the aim of clarifying the cause of cardiovascular disease. Four years after the Framingham Heart Study started, researchers had identified high cholesterol and high blood pressure levels as important factors in the development of cardiovascular disease. In subsequent years, the Framingham study and other epidemiological studies have helped to identify other risk factors, which are now considered classical risk factors. By coining the expression "risk factor", the Framingham Heart Study helped to bring about a change in the way medicine is practiced. Today, a risk factor is defined as a measurable characteristic that is causally associated with increased disease frequency and that is a significant independent predictor of an increased risk of presenting with the disease. This wide-ranging overview describes some of the most important insights into the causes of cardiovascular disease to have come from the Framingham Heart Study. The emphasis is on the identification of risk factors, and the assessment of their predictive ability and their implications for disease prevention. PMID:18361904

  11. Dietary Factors and the Risk of Thyroid Cancer: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Wook Jin

    2014-01-01

    In the past few decades, the incidence of thyroid cancer has rapidly increased worldwide. Thyroid cancer incidence is relatively high in regions where the population's daily iodine intake is insufficient. While low dietary iodine has been considered as a risk factor for thyroid cancer development, previous studies found controversial results across different food types. Among different ethnic groups, dietary factors are influenced by various dietary patterns, eating habits, life-styles, nutrition, and other environmental factors. This review reports the association between dietary factors and thyroid cancer risk among ethnic groups living in different geologic regions. Iodine-rich food such as fish and shellfish may provide a protective role in populations with insufficient daily iodine intake. The consumption of goitrogenic food, such as cruciferous vegetables, showed a positive association with risk. While considered to be a risk factor for other cancers, alcohol intake showed a protective role against thyroid cancer. High consumption of meat such as chicken, pork, and poultry showed a positive association with the risk, but dairy products showed no significant association. Regular use of multivitamins and dietary nitrate and nitrite also showed a positive association with thyroid cancer risk. However, the study results are inconsistent and investigations into the mechanism for how dietary factors change thyroid hormone levels and influence thyroid function are required. PMID:25136535

  12. Risk Factors Associated with Recurrent Diarrheal Illnesses among Children in Kabul, Afghanistan: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Maroof, Zabihullah; Chandramohan, Daniel; Bruce, Jane; Masher, Mohammad I.; Manaseki-Holland, Semira; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Childhood diarrheal illnesses are a major public health problem. In low-income settings data on disease burden and factors associated with diarrheal illnesses are poorly defined, precluding effective prevention programs. This study explores factors associated with recurrent diarrheal illnesses among children in Kabul, Afghanistan. Methods A cohort of 1–11 month old infants was followed for 18 months from 2007–2009. Data on diarrheal episodes were gathered through active and passive surveillance. Information on child health, socioeconomics, water and sanitation, and hygiene behaviors was collected. Factors associated with recurrent diarrheal illnesses were analyzed using random effects recurrent events regression models. Results 3,045 children were enrolled and 2,511 (82%) completed 18-month follow-up. There were 14,998 episodes of diarrheal disease over 4,200 child-years (3.51 episodes/child-year, 95%CI 3.40–3.62). Risk of diarrheal illness during the winter season was 63% lower than the summer season (HR = 0.37, 95%CI 0.35–0.39, P<0.001). Soap for hand washing was available in 72% of households and 11.9% had toilets with septic/canalization. Half of all mothers reported using soap for hand washing. In multivariate analysis diarrheal illness was lower among children born to mothers with post-primary education (aHR = 0.79, 95%CI 0.69–0.91, p = 0.001), from households where maternal hand washing with soap was reported (aHR = 0.83, 95%CI 0.74–0.92, p<0.001) and with improved sanitation facilities (aHR = 0.76, 95%CI 0.63–0.93, p = 0.006). Malnourished children from impoverished households had significantly increased risks for recurrent disease [(aHR = 1.15, 95%CI 1.03–1.29, p = 0.016) and (aHR = 1.20, 95%CI 1.05–1.37, p = 0.006) respectively]. Conclusions Maternal hand washing and improved sanitation facilities were protective, and represent important prevention points among public health endeavors. The discrepancy between soap availability and utilization suggests barriers to access and knowledge, and programs simultaneously addressing these aspects would likely be beneficial. Enhanced maternal education and economic status were protective in this population and these findings support multi-sector interventions to combat illness. Trial Registration www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00548379 https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00548379 PMID:25679979

  13. Maternal near-miss case reviews: the UK approach

    PubMed Central

    Knight, M; Lewis, G; Acosta, CD; Kurinczuk, JJ

    2014-01-01

    The UK has a well-established programme of Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths and a national system for research into near-miss maternal morbidities, the UK Obstetric Surveillance System. The addition of a programme of near-miss case reviews, the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Morbidity, permits a complete examination of the incidence, risk factors, care and outcomes of the severest complications in pregnancy, and enables the lessons learnt to improve future care to be identified more quickly. This in turn allows for more rapid inclusion of recommendations into national guidance and hence the potential of better health for both women and babies. PMID:25236644

  14. Factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-11-01

    The collective influence of biologic and physical factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer introduces uncertainties sufficient to deny precision of estimates of human cancer risk that can be calculated for low-dose radiation in exposed populations. The important biologic characteristics include the tissue sites and cell types, baseline cancer incidence, minimum latent period, time-to-tumor recognition, and the influence of individual host (age and sex) and competing etiologic influences. Physical factors include radiation dose, dose rate, and radiation quality. Statistical factors include time-response projection models, risk coefficients, and dose-response relationships. Other modifying factors include other carcinogens, and other biological sources (hormonal status, immune status, hereditary factors).

  15. Maternal dietary intake of folate and vitamins B6 and B12 during pregnancy and risk of childhood brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Greenop, Kathryn R; Miller, Margaret; de Klerk, Nicholas H; Scott, Rodney J; Attia, John; Ashton, Lesley J; Dalla-Pozza, Luciano; Bower, Carol; Armstrong, Bruce K; Milne, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Childhood brain tumors (CBT) are the second most common childhood cancers, yet their etiology is largely unknown. We investigated whether maternal gestational intake of folate and vitamins B6 and B12 was associated with CBT risk in a nationwide case-control study conducted 2005-2010. Case children 0-14 years were recruited from all 10 Australian pediatric oncology centers. Control children were recruited by national random digit dialing, frequency matched to cases on age, sex, and state of residence. Dietary intake was ascertained using food frequency questionnaires and adjusted for total energy intake. Data from 293 case and 726 control mothers were analyzed using unconditional logistic regression. The odds ratio (OR) for the highest versus lowest tertile of folate intake was 0.70 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48, 1.02]. The ORs appeared lower in mothers who drank alcohol during pregnancy (OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.93), mothers who took folic acid (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.42, 1.06) or B6/B12 supplements (OR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.25, 1.06) and in children younger than 5 years (OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.27, 0.93). These findings are consistent with folate's crucial role in maintenance of genomic integrity and DNA methylation. Dietary intake of B6 and B12 was not associated with risk of CBT. PMID:24897174

  16. Lifestyle and health-related risk factors and risk of cognitive aging among older veterans.

    PubMed

    Yaffe, Kristine; Hoang, Tina D; Byers, Amy L; Barnes, Deborah E; Friedl, Karl E

    2014-06-01

    Lifestyle and health-related factors are critical components of the risk for cognitive aging among veterans. Because dementia has a prolonged prodromal phase, understanding effects across the life course could help focus the timing and duration of prevention targets. This perspective may be especially relevant for veterans and health behaviors. Military service may promote development and maintenance of healthy lifestyle behaviors, but the period directly after active duty has ended could be an important transition stage and opportunity to address some important risk factors. Targeting multiple pathways in one intervention may maximize efficiency and benefits for veterans. A recent review of modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer's disease estimated that a 25% reduction of a combination of seven modifiable risk factors including diabetes, hypertension, obesity, depression, physical inactivity, smoking, and education/cognitive inactivity could prevent up to 3 million cases worldwide and 492,000 cases in the United States. Lifestyle interventions to address cardiovascular health in veterans may serve as useful models with both physical and cognitive activity components, dietary intervention, and vascular risk factor management. Although the evidence is accumulating for lifestyle and health-related risk factors as well as military risk factors, more studies are needed to characterize these factors in veterans and to examine the potential interactions between them. PMID:24924664

  17. Strongyloides stercoralis: Global Distribution and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Schär, Fabian; Trostdorf, Ulf; Giardina, Federica; Khieu, Virak; Muth, Sinuon; Marti, Hanspeter; Vounatsou, Penelope; Odermatt, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background The soil-transmitted threadworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, is one of the most neglected among the so-called neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). We reviewed studies of the last 20 years on S. stercoralis's global prevalence in general populations and risk groups. Methods/Principal Findings A literature search was performed in PubMed for articles published between January 1989 and October 2011. Articles presenting information on infection prevalence were included. A Bayesian meta-analysis was carried out to obtain country-specific prevalence estimates and to compare disease odds ratios in different risk groups taking into account the sensitivities of the diagnostic methods applied. A total of 354 studies from 78 countries were included for the prevalence calculations, 194 (62.4%) were community-based studies, 121 (34.2%) were hospital-based studies and 39 (11.0%) were studies on refugees and immigrants. World maps with country data are provided. In numerous African, Asian and South-American resource-poor countries, information on S. stercoralis is lacking. The meta-analysis showed an association between HIV-infection/alcoholism and S. stercoralis infection (OR: 2.17 BCI: 1.18–4.01; OR: 6.69; BCI: 1.47–33.8), respectively. Conclusions Our findings show high infection prevalence rates in the general population in selected countries and geographical regions. S. stercoralis infection is prominent in several risk groups. Adequate information on the prevalence is still lacking from many countries. However, current information underscore that S. stercoralis must not be neglected. Further assessments in socio-economic and ecological settings are needed and integration into global helminth control is warranted. PMID:23875033

  18. Mental Health in Low-to-Moderate Risk Preterm, Low Birth Weight, and Small for Gestational Age Children at 4 to 5 Years: The Role of Early Maternal Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westrupp, Elizabeth M.; Mensah, Fiona K.; Giallo, Rebecca; Cooklin, Amanda; Nicholson, Jan M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The majority of children born preterm, with low birth weight, or small for gestational age are born with low-to-moderate risk (LTM), yet most research focuses on the high-risk group. Little is known about whether children with LTM perinatal risk are at greater risk for mental health problems, or what the role of early maternal

  19. What Are the Factors That Interplay From Normal Pregnancy to Near Miss Maternal Morbidity in a Nigerian Tertiary Health Care Facility?

    PubMed Central

    Adeoye, Ikeola A.; Ijarotimi, Omotade O.; Fatusi, Adesegun O.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers in Nigeria examined the epidemiological characteristics and factors associated with maternal outcomes using a mixed method approach: a prospective case control study design involving 375 pregnant women who received maternal care from a tertiary facility and in-depth interviews reporting the experience of near-miss survivors. A generalized ordered logit model was used to generate the estimates of partial proportional odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) across categories of the outcome variable. Factors strongly associated with maternal morbidity were late referral of women, presence of complications at booking antenatal visits, low birth weight, and severe birth asphyxia. The nearmiss women were further characterized, and a low proportion (25%) had organ dysfunction or failure. The challenge of such diagnoses in resource-constrained settings raises questions about the appropriateness of using organ dysfunction criteria in developing countries. PMID:25119488

  20. Factors associated with risk of malaria infection among pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pregnant women living in an area of stable malaria transmission such as Lagos, Nigeria, have been identified as being at an increased risk of the effects of malaria infection. In this area, most of the infections are asymptomatic which means they are overlooked and untreated much to the detriment of the mother and her foetus. The reality of scaled-up malaria interventions with long-lasting insecticide treated nets, vector control, artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) and intermittent preventive treatment of malaria pregnancy (IPTp) using sulphadoxine pyrimethamine (SP) is that it is also essential to determine the risk factors at play in these kinds of circumstances. This study was aimed at identifying the factors associated with risk of malaria infection in pregnant women in Lagos, Southwest Nigeria. Methods Demographic information and malaria prevention practices of the pregnant women studied were captured using structured questionnaire. Microscopy was used to establish malaria infection, species identification and parasite density. Relative risk and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to compare factors associated with malaria in pregnant women. Results Malaria microscopy details, demographic information and malaria prevention practices of the pregnant women were obtained using a structured questionnaire. The prevalence of malaria using peripheral blood from 1,084 pregnant women that participated in the study was 7.7%. Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) was seen in 95.2% of the cases as either mixed infection with P. malariae (3.6%) or as a mono infection (91.6%). Malaria preventive practices associated with a significant reduction (P<0.05) in the malaria infection was the use of insecticide sprays (RR = 0.36, 95 C.I. 0.24-0.54), and the combined use of insecticide spray and insecticide-treated nets (ITN) (RR= 6.53, 95% C.I. 0.92-46.33). Sleeping under ITN alone (RR = 1.07, 95% C.I. 0.55-2.09) was not associated with significant reduction in malaria infection among the study participants with malaria parasitaemia. Young maternal age (<20years) (RR = 2.86, 95% C.I. 1.48 – 5.50), but not primigravidity (RR = 1.36, 95% C.I. 0.90-2.05), was associated with an increased risk of malaria infection during pregnancy. After a multivariate logistic regression, young maternal age (OR = 2.61, 95% C.I. 1.13 – 6.03) and the use of insecticide spray (OR = 0.38, 95% C.I. 0.24-0.63) were associated with an increase and a reduction in malaria infection, respectively. Conclusion Malaria prevalence was low among the pregnant women studied. Young maternal age and non-usage of insecticidal spray were the main factors associated with an increased risk of malaria infection among pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria. PMID:24001135