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1

Maternal risk factors for neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between maternal hypertensive disease and other risk factors and the neonatal development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Methods: This was a retrospective case-control study of infants with NEC from 2008 to 2012. The primary exposure of interest was maternal hypertensive disease, which has been hypothesized to put infants at risk for NEC. Other variables collected included demographics, pregnancy complications, medications and neonatal hospital course. Data were abstracted from medical records. Results: Twenty-eight cases of singleton neonates with NEC and 81 matched controls were identified and analyzed. There was no significant difference in the primary outcome. Fetuses with an antenatal diagnosis of growth restriction were more likely to develop NEC (p?=?0.008). Infants with NEC had lower median birth weight than infants without NEC (p?=?0.009). Infants with NEC had more late-onset sepsis (p?=?0.01) and mortality before discharge (p?=?0.001). Conclusions: The factors identified by this case-control study that increased the risk of neonatal NEC included intrauterine growth restriction and lower neonatal birth weight. The primary exposure, hypertensive disease, did not show a significantly increased risk of neonatal NEC; however, there was a nearly two-fold difference observed. Our study was underpowered to detect the observed difference. PMID:25162307

March, Melissa I; Gupta, Munish; Modest, Anna M; Wu, Lily; Hacker, Michele R; Martin, Camilia R; Rana, Sarosh

2014-08-27

2

Maternal and perinatal risk factors for childhood leukemia  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an exploratory population-based study of maternal and perinatal risk factors for childhood leukemia in Sweden. The Swedish National Cancer Registry ascertained 411 cases in successive birth cohorts from 1973 through 1984 recorded in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry. Using the latter, we matched five controls without cancer to each case by sex and month and year of birth. Mothers of children with leukemia were more likely to have been exposed to nitrous oxide anesthesia during delivery than mothers of controls (odds ratio (OR) = 1.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0, 1.6). Children with leukemia were more likely than controls to have Down's syndrome (OR = 32.5; 95% CI = 7.3, 144.0) or cleft lip or cleft palate (OR = 5.0; 95% CI = 1.0, 24.8); to have had a diagnosis associated with difficult labor but unspecified complications (OR = 4.5; 95% CI = 1.1, 18.2) or with other conditions of the fetus or newborn (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1, 2.1), specifically, uncomplicated physiological jaundice (OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.2, 2.9); or to have received supplemental oxygen (OR = 2.6; 95% CI = 1.3, 1.3, 4.9). Because multiple potential risk factors were analyzed in this study, future studies need to check these findings. The authors did not confirm the previously reported higher risks for childhood leukemia associated with being male, having a high birth weight, or being born to a woman of advanced maternal age.

Zack, M.; Adami, H.O.; Ericson, A. (Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA (USA))

1991-07-15

3

Risk Factors Linking Maternal Depressed Mood to Growth in Adolescent Substance Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maternal depression has been implicated in the development of adolescent substance use. Conceptualizing depression as a continuum, the aims of this study are to (a) understand the relationship between maternal depressed mood and risk factors associated with adolescent substance use; (b) understand the relationship between maternal depressed mood…

Cortes, Rebecca C.; Fleming, Charles B.; Mason, W. Alex; Catalano, Richard F.

2009-01-01

4

Risk factors for adverse maternal outcomes among women with HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count) syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was undertake to determine risk factors for adverse maternal outcomes among women with HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count) syndrome. Study Design: Maternal medical records of pregnancies complicated by HELLP syndrome managed between July 1, 1992, and April 30, 1999, were reviewed. Risk factors evaluated included maternal age, parity, race, previous preeclampsia, chronic hypertension,

Bassam Haddad; John R. Barton; Jeffrey C. Livingston; Rabih Chahine; Baha M. Sibai

2000-01-01

5

Maternal Early Life Risk Factors for Offspring Birth Weight: Findings from the Add Health Study  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to examine the pathways that link mothers’ early life socioeconomic status (SES) and mothers’ experience of childhood maltreatment with birth weight among their later born offspring. Data were drawn from a nationally representative longitudinal survey of school-aged respondents, initially enrolled during adolescence in Wave I (1994–1995) and Wave II (1996) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and followed-up in adulthood in Wave III (2001–2002). Data on offspring birth weight were obtained from nulliparous females (N=1,897) who had given birth between Waves II and III. Analyses used structural equation modeling to examine the extent to which early life maternal risk predicted offspring birth weight, and demonstrated that maternal childhood SES and maternal childhood maltreatment predicted offspring birth weight through several mediated pathways. First, maternal adolescent substance use and prenatal cigarette use partially mediated the association between maternal childhood SES and offspring birth weight. Second, maternal adolescent depressive symptoms and adult SES partially mediated the association between maternal childhood SES and offspring birth weight. Third, adult SES partially mediated the association between maternal childhood SES and offspring birth weight. Fourth, maternal adolescent substance use and prenatal cigarette use partially mediated the association between maternal childhood maltreatment and offspring birth weight. Finally, maternal adolescent depressive symptoms and adult SES partially mediated the association between maternal childhood maltreatment and offspring birth weight. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify maternal childhood maltreatment as an early life risk factor for offspring birth weight among a nationally representative sample of young women, and to demonstrate the mechanisms that link childhood SES and maltreatment to offspring birth weight. These findings suggest the importance of designing and implementing prevention and intervention strategies to address early life maternal social conditions in an effort to improve intergenerational child health at birth. PMID:21986991

Thompson, Elaine; Rue, Tessa; Guo, Yuqing

2014-01-01

6

Preventable Maternal Risk Factors and Association of Genital Infection with Fetal Growth Restriction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Maternal risk factors may interfere with mechanisms regulating fetal growth. The aim of the present study was to determine which sociodemographic and reproductive risk factors may be related to fetal growth restriction (FGR), with a special focus on determinants possible for preventive intervention. Materials and Methods: The study period is from May 2007 until December 2009. Data about lifestyle

Natalija Vedmedovska; Dace Rezeberga; Uldis Teibe; Jana Zodzika; Gilbert G. G. Donders

2010-01-01

7

Adverse maternal outcomes associated with fetal macrosomia: what are the risk factors beyond birthweight?  

PubMed Central

Background To identify risk factors, beyond fetal weight, associated with adverse maternal outcomes in delivering infants with a birthweight of 4000 g or greater, and to quantify their role in maternal complications. Methods All women (n?=?1564) with singleton pregnancies who attempted vaginal delivery and delivered infants weighing at least 4000 g, in two French tertiary care centers from 2005 to 2008, were included in our study. The studied outcome was maternal complications defined as composite item including the occurrence of a third- or fourth-degree perineal laceration, or the occurrence of severe postpartum hemorrhage requiring the use of prostaglandins, uterine artery embolization, internal iliac artery ligation or haemostatic hysterectomy, or the occurrence of blood transfusion. Univariate analysis, multivariable logistic regression and estimation of attributable risk were used. Results Maternal complications were increased in Asian women (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–9.3, Attributable risk (AR): 3%), in prolonged labor (aOR?=?1.9 [95% CI; 1.1–3.4], AR?=?12%) and in cesarean delivery during labor (aOR?=?2.2 [95% CI; 1.3–3.9], AR?=?17%). Delivering infants with a birthweight?>?4500 g also increased the occurrence of maternal complications (aOR?=?2.7 [95% CI; 1.4–5.1]) but with an attributable risk of only 10%. Multiparous women with a previous delivery of a macrosomic infant were at lower risk of maternal complications (aOR?=?0.5 [95% CI; 0.2–0.9]). Conclusion In women delivering infants with a birthweight of 4000 g or greater, some maternal characteristics as well as labor parameters may worsen maternal outcome beyond the influence of increased fetal weight. PMID:23565692

2013-01-01

8

Polymorphisms in Genes Involved in Folate Metabolism as Maternal Risk Factors for Down Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Down syndrome is a complex genetic and metabolic disorder attributed to the presence of three copies of chro- mosome 21. The extra chromosome derives from the mother in 93% of cases and is due to abnormal chromosome segregation during meiosis (nondisjunction). Except for advanced age at conception, maternal risk factors for meiotic nondisjunction are not well established. A recent preliminary

Charlotte A. Hobbs; Stephanie L. Sherman; Ping Yi; Sarah E. Hopkins; Claudine P. Torfs; R. Jean Hine; Marta Pogribna; Rima Rozen; S. Jill James

2000-01-01

9

Risk factors for maternal mortality in the west of Iran: a nested case-control study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: With a gradual decline in maternal mortality in recent years in Iran, this study was conducted to identify the remaining risk factors for maternal death. METHODS: This 8-year nested case-control study was conducted in Hamadan Province, in the west of Iran, from April 2006 to March 2014. It included 185 women (37 cases and 148 controls). All maternal deaths that occurred during the study period were considered cases. For every case, four women with a live birth were selected as controls from the same area and date. Conditional logistic regression analysis was performed and the odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were obtained for each risk factor. RESULTS: The majority of cases were aged 20-34 years, died in hospital, and lived in urban areas. The most common causes of death were bleeding, systemic disease, infection, and pre-eclampsia. The OR estimate of maternal death was 8.48 (95% CI=1.26-56.99) for advanced maternal age (?35 years); 2.10 (95% CI=0.07-65.43) for underweight and 10.99 (95% CI=1.65-73.22) for overweight or obese women compared to those with normal weight; 1.56 (95% CI=1.08-2.25) for every unit increase in gravidity compared to those with one gravidity; 1.73 (95% CI=0.34-8.88) for preterm labors compared to term labors; and 17.54 (95% CI= 2.71-113.42) for women with systemic diseases. CONCLUSIONS: According to our results, advanced maternal age, abnormal body mass index, multiple gravidity, preterm labor, and systemic disease were the main risk factors for maternal death. However, more evidence based on large cohort studies in different settings is required to confirm our results. PMID:25381997

Poorolajal, Jalal; Alafchi, Behnaz; Najafi Vosoogh, Roya; Hamzeh, Sahar; Ghahramani, Masoomeh

2014-01-01

10

Risk factors for maternal mortality in a Tertiary Hospital in Kenya: a case control study  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal mortality is high in Africa, especially in Kenya where there is evidence of insufficient progress towards Millennium Development Goal (MDG) Five, which is to reduce the global maternal mortality rate by three quarters and provide universal access to reproductive health by 2015. This study aims to identify risk factors associated with maternal mortality in a tertiary level hospital in Kenya. Methods A manual review of records for 150 maternal deaths (cases) and 300 controls was undertaken using a standard audit form. The sample included pregnant women aged 15-49 years admitted to the Obstetric and Gynaecological wards at the Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (MTRH) in Kenya from January 2004 and March 2011. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess risk factors for maternal mortality. Results Factors significantly associated with maternal mortality included: having no education relative to secondary education (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.1-10.4, p?=?0.0284), history of underlying medical conditions (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.7-9.2, p?=?0.0016), doctor attendance at birth (OR 4.6, 95% CI 2.1-10.1, p?=?0.0001), having no antenatal visits (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.6-10.4, p?=?0.0007), being admitted with eclampsia (OR 10.9, 95% CI 3.7-31.9, p?maternal education are important risk factors for maternal mortality, even after adjusting for comorbidities and complications. Antenatal visits can provide opportunities for detecting risk factors for eclampsia, and other underlying illnesses but the visits need to be frequent and timely. Education enables access to information and helps empower women and their spouses to make appropriate decisions during pregnancy. PMID:24447854

2014-01-01

11

Maternal hormonal interventions as a risk factor for Autism Spectrum Disorder: an epidemiological assessment from India.  

PubMed

Globalization and women empowerment have led to stressful life among Indian women. This stress impairs women's hormonal makeup and menstrual cycle, leading to infertility. National Family Health Survey-3 (NFHS-3) reports a decline in fertility status in India, indicating a rise in various infertility treatments involving hormonal interventions. No studies are available from India on the risk association link between maternal hormonal treatments and ASD. Hence, this study explores the association of maternal hormonal interventions with risk for ASD. Parents of 942 children (471 ASD and 471 controls) across 9 cities in India participated in the questionnaire-based study. The questionnaire was pilot tested and validated for its content and reliability as a psychometric instrument. Data collection was done at 70 centres through direct interaction with parents and with the help of trained staff. Statistical analysis of data was carried out using SAS 9.1.3. Out of the 471 ASD cases analysed, 58 mothers had undergone hormonal interventions (12.3 percent) while there were only 22 mothers among controls who underwent hormonal interventions (4.6 percent). According to logistic regression analysis maternal hormonal intervention (OR=2.24) was a significant risk factor for ASD. PMID:24296891

Mamidala, Madhu Poornima; Polinedi, Anupama; Kumar, P T V Praveen; Rajesh, N; Vallamkonda, Omsai Ramesh; Udani, Vrajesh; Singhal, Nidhi; Rajesh, Vidya

2013-12-01

12

Polymorphisms in Genes Involved in Folate Metabolism as Maternal Risk Factors for Down Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Down syndrome is a complex genetic and metabolic disorder attributed to the presence of three copies of chromosome 21. The extra chromosome derives from the mother in 93% of cases and is due to abnormal chromosome segregation during meiosis (nondisjunction). Except for advanced age at conception, maternal risk factors for meiotic nondisjunction are not well established. A recent preliminary study suggested that abnormal folate metabolism and the 677C?T polymorphism in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene may be maternal risk factors for Down syndrome. The present study was undertaken with a larger sample size to determine whether the MTHFR 677C?T polymorphism was associated with increased risk of having a child with Down syndrome. Methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) is another enzyme essential for normal folate metabolism. A common polymorphism in this gene was recently associated with increased risk of neural tube defects and might also contribute to increased risk for Down syndrome. The frequencies of the MTHFR 677C?T and MTRR 66A?G mutations were evaluated in DNA samples from 157 mothers of children with Down syndrome and 144 control mothers. Odds ratios were calculated for each genotype separately and for potential gene-gene interactions. The results are consistent with the preliminary observation that the MTHFR 677C?T polymorphism is more prevalent among mothers of children with Down syndrome than among control mothers, with an odds ratio of 1.91 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19–3.05). In addition, the homozygous MTRR 66A?G polymorphism was independently associated with a 2.57-fold increase in estimated risk (95% CI 1.33–4.99). The combined presence of both polymorphisms was associated with a greater risk of Down syndrome than was the presence of either alone, with an odds ratio of 4.08 (95% CI 1.94–8.56). The two polymorphisms appear to act without a multiplicative interaction. PMID:10930360

Hobbs, Charlotte A.; Sherman, Stephanie L.; Yi, Ping; Hopkins, Sarah E.; Torfs, Claudine P.; Hine, R. Jean; Pogribna, Marta; Rozen, Rima; James, S. Jill

2000-01-01

13

Maternal depression and low maternal intelligence as risk factors for malnutrition in children: a community based case-control study from South India  

PubMed Central

Aims: To determine whether current and postpartum maternal depression and low maternal intelligence are risk factors for malnutrition in children. Methods: In rural South India 72 children with malnutrition were identified from a central register; 72 controls were matched for age, gender, and residence. Results: Major depression in the postpartum period (OR 5.0, 95% CI 1.0 to 24.0), current major depression (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 9.5), and low maternal intelligence (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.3 to 11.1) were associated with malnutrition in the child. Low birth weight (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 6.8) was also significantly associated with infant malnutrition. Conditional logistic regression adjusting for all other determinants yielded the following results: major depression during the postpartum period (OR 7.8; 95% CI 1.6 to 38.51), current major depression (OR 3.1; 95% CI 0.9 to 9.7), low maternal intelligence (OR 4.6; 95% CI 1.5 to 14.1), and low birth weight (OR 2.7; 95% CI 2.5 to 6.8). The interactions between current maternal depression and low birth weight and between postpartum depression and low maternal intelligence were statistically significant. The level of maternal intelligence was associated with nutritional status. The severity of malnutrition was also significantly associated with major depression during the postpartum period and low maternal intelligence. Conclusion: There is evidence for an association between postpartum maternal depression, low maternal intelligence, and low birth weight with malnutrition in children aged 6–12 months. PMID:15033840

Anoop, S; Saravanan, B; Joseph, A; Cherian, A; Jacob, K

2004-01-01

14

Maternal hookworm modifies risk factors for childhood eczema: results from a birth cohort in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Worms may protect against allergy. Early-life worm exposure may be critical, but this has not been fully investigated. Objectives To investigate whether worms in pregnancy and in early childhood are associated with childhood eczema incidence. Methods The Entebbe Mother and Baby Study, an anthelminthic treatment trial, enrolled pregnant women between 2003 and 2005 in Uganda. Mothers were investigated for worms during pregnancy and children annually. Eczema was doctor-diagnosed from birth to age five years. A planned observational analysis was conducted within the trial cohort to investigate associations between worms and eczema. Results Data for 2345 live-born children were analysed. Hookworm was the most prevalent maternal worm (45%). Childhood worms were less prevalent. Eczema incidence was 4.68/100 person-years. Maternal hookworm was associated with reduced eczema incidence [adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval), p-value: 0.71(0.51–0.99), 0.04] and modified effects of known risk factors for eczema: Dermatophagoides-specific IgE in children was positively associated with eczema incidence if the mother had no hookworm [2.72(1.11–6.63), 0.03], but not if the mother had hookworm [0.41(0.10–1.69), 0.22], interaction p-value = 0.03. Similar interactions were seen for maternal history of eczema {[2.87(1.31–6.27, 0.008) vs. [0.73(0.23–2.30), 0.60], interaction p-value = 0.05}, female gender {[1.82(1.22–2.73), 0.004 vs. [0.96(0.60–1.53), 0.87], interaction p-value = 0.04} and allergen-specific IgE. ChildhoodTrichuris trichiura and hookworm were inversely associated with eczema. Conclusions Maternal hookworm modifies effects of known risk factors for eczema. Mechanisms by which early-life worm exposures influence allergy need investigation. Worms or worm products, and intervention during pregnancy have potential for primary prevention of allergy. PMID:25171741

Mpairwe, Harriet; Ndibazza, Juliet; Webb, Emily L; Nampijja, Margaret; Muhangi, Lawrence; Apule, Barbara; Lule, Swaib; Akurut, Hellen; Kizito, Dennison; Kakande, Mohammed; Jones, Frances M; Fitzsimmons, Colin M; Muwanga, Moses; Rodrigues, Laura C; Dunne, David W; Elliott, Alison M

2014-01-01

15

Risk factors for burns in children: crowding, poverty, and poor maternal education  

PubMed Central

Objective: To characterize the presentation of burns in children and risk factors associated with their occurrence in a developing country as a basis for future prevention programs. Design: Case-control study. Setting: Burn unit of the National Institute of Child Health (Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño) in Lima, Peru. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to all consenting guardians of children admitted to the burns (cases) and general medicine (controls) units during a period of 14 months. Guardians of patients were questioned regarding etiology of the injury, demographic and socioeconomic data. Results: 740 cases and controls were enrolled. Altogether 77.5% of the cases burns occurred in the patient's home, with 67.8% in the kitchen; 74% were due to scalding. Most involved children younger than 5 years. Lack of water supply (odds ratio (OR) 5.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1 to 12.3), low income (OR 2.8, 95% CI 2.0 to 3.9), and crowding (OR 2.5, 95%CI 1.7 to 3.6) were associated with an increased risk. The presence of a living room (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4 to 0.8) and better maternal education (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.9) were protective factors. Conclusions: To prevent burns interventions should be directed to low socioeconomic status groups; these interventions should be designed accordingly to local risk factors. PMID:11928972

Delgado, J; Ramirez-Cardich, M; Gilman, R; Lavarello, R; Dahodwala, N; Bazan, A; Rodriguez, V; Cama, R; Tovar, M; Lescano, A

2002-01-01

16

"Polymorphisms in folate metabolism genes as maternal risk factor for neural tube defects: an updated meta-analysis".  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between maternal methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, A1298C and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G polymorphisms and risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring. However, the results from the published studies on the association between these three polymorphisms and NTD risk are conflicting. To derive a clearer picture of association between these three maternal polymorphisms and risk of NTD, we performed meta-analysis. A comprehensive search was conducted to identify all case-control studies of maternal MTHFR and MTRR polymorphisms and NTD risk. We used odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the strength of the association. Overall, we found that maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism (ORTvsC =1.20; 95 % CI?=?1.13-1.28) and MTRR A66G polymorphism (ORGvsA?=?1.21; 95 % CI?=?0.98-1.49) were risk factors for producing offspring with NTD but maternal MTHFR A1298C polymorphism (ORCvsA?=?0.91; 95 % CI?=?0.78-1.07) was not associated with NTD risk. However, in stratified analysis by geographical regions, we found that the maternal C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with the risk of NTD in Asian (ORTvsC?=?1.43; 95 % CI: 1.05-1.94), European (ORTvsC?=?1.13; 95 % CI: 1.04-1.24) and American (ORTvsC?=?1.26; 95 % CI: 1.13-1.41) populations. In conclusion, present meta-analysis supports that the maternal MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G are polymorphisms contributory to risk for NTD. PMID:25005003

Yadav, Upendra; Kumar, Pradeep; Yadav, Sushil Kumar; Mishra, Om Prakash; Rai, Vandana

2015-02-01

17

Maternal and congenital syphilis in Bolivia, 1996: prevalence and risk factors.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The present study was carried out in seven maternity hospitals to determine the prevalence of maternal syphilis at the time of delivery and the associated risk factors, to conduct a pilot project of rapid syphilis testing in hospital laboratories, to assure the quality of syphilis testing, and to determine the rate of congenital syphilis in infants born to women with syphilis at the time of delivery--all of which would provide baseline data for a national prevention programme in Bolivia. METHODS: All women delivering either live-born or stillborn infants in the seven participating hospitals in and around La Paz, El Alto, and Cochabamba between June and November 1996 were eligible for enrolment in the study. FINDINGS: A total of 61 out of 1428 mothers (4.3%) of live-born infants and 11 out of 43 mothers (26%) of stillborn infants were found to have syphilis at delivery. Multivariate analysis showed that women with live-born infants who had less than secondary-level education, who did not watch television during the week before delivery (this was used as an indicator of socioeconomic status), who had a previous history of syphilis, or who had more than one partner during the pregnancy were at increased risk of syphilis. While 76% of the study population had received prenatal care, only 17% had syphilis testing carried out during the pregnancy; 91% of serum samples that were reactive to rapid plasma reagin (RPR) tests were also reactive to fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption (FTA-ABS) testing. There was 96% agreement between the results from local hospital laboratories and national reference laboratories in their testing of RPR reactivity of serum samples. Congenital syphilis infection was confirmed by laboratory tests in 15% of 66 infants born to women with positive RPR and FTA-ABS testing. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that a congenital syphilis prevention programme in Bolivia could substantially reduce adverse infant outcomes due to this disease. PMID:11217665

Southwick, K. L.; Blanco, S.; Santander, A.; Estenssoro, M.; Torrico, F.; Seoane, G.; Brady, W.; Fears, M.; Lewis, J.; Pope, V.; Guarner, J.; Levine, W. C.

2001-01-01

18

Maternal fumonisin exposure as a risk factor for neural tube defects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by the fungus F. verticillioides, a common contaminant of maize (corn) worldwide. Maternal consumption of fumonisin B1-contaminated maize during early pregnancy has recently been associated with increased risk for neural tube defects (NTDs) in human populations th...

19

Risk factors for antepartum stillbirth and the influence of maternal age in New South Wales Australia: A population based study  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal age is a known risk factor for stillbirth and delayed childbearing is a societal norm in developed country settings. The timing and reasons for age being a risk factor are less clear. This study aimed to document the gestational specific risk of maternal age throughout pregnancy and whether the underlying causes of stillbirth differ for older women. Methods Using linkage of state maternity and perinatal death data collections the authors assessed risk factors for antepartum stillbirth in New South Wales Australia for births between 2002 – 2006 (n = 327,690) using a Cox proportional hazards model. Gestational age specific risk was calculated for different maternal age groups. Deaths were classified according to the Perinatal Mortality Classifications of the Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand. Results Maternal age was a significant independent risk factor for antepartum stillbirth (35 – 39 years HR 1.4 95% CI 1.12 – 1.75; ? 40 years HR 2.41 95% CI 1.8 – 3.23). Other significant risk factors were smoking HR 1.82 (95% CI 1.56 –2.12) nulliparity HR 1.23 (95% CI 1.08 – 1.40), pre-existing hypertension HR 2.77 (95% CI 1.94 – 3.97) and pre-existing diabetes HR 2.65 (95% CI 1.63 – 4.32). For women aged 40 or over the risk of antepartum stillbirth beyond 40 weeks was 1 in 455 ongoing pregnancies compared with 1 in 1177 ongoing pregnancies for those under 40. This risk was increased in nulliparous women to 1 in 247 ongoing pregnancies. Unexplained stillbirths were the most common classification for all women, stillbirths classified as perinatal infection were more common in the women aged 40 or above. Conclusions Women aged 35 or older in a first pregnancy should be counselled regarding stillbirth risk at the end of pregnancy to assist with informed decision making regarding delivery. For women aged 40 or older in their first pregnancy it would be reasonable to offer induction of labour by 40 weeks gestation. PMID:23324309

2013-01-01

20

The Impact of Maternal Intergenerational Risk Factors on Adverse Developmental Outcomes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses intergenerational risk factors affecting individual growth. Discusses how risk factors occurring during a mother's own developmental history can affect the postnatal environment, and how an intergenerational approach can aid in understanding cognitive development. (Author/SD)

Chapman, Derek A.; Scott, Keith G.

2001-01-01

21

Lack of Breastfeeding: A Potential Risk Factor in the Multifactorial Genesis of Borderline Personality Disorder and Impaired Maternal Bonding.  

PubMed

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by a pattern of intense but unstable interpersonal relationships. These interpersonal dysfunctions may originate from impaired bonding and attachment that is determined during early life. Remarkably, it has been reported that the quality of mother-infant relationship is influenced by the feeding mode. Thus, bottle feeding instead of breastfeeding and possible lack of maternal bonding-related behavior may increase the risk for later psychopathology and attachment problems as seen in BPD. A total of 100 BPD patients and 100 matched healthy controls underwent semistructured interviews, based on retrospective information about early risk factors and breastfeeding during infancy. The authors' analyses revealed that BPD patients were significantly less breastfed compared to healthy controls (no breastfeeding in BPD: 42.4%; no breastfeeding in controls: 18.2%; p < .001). The BPD diagnosis was significantly predicted by the variable "no breastfeeding" (p < .001; odds ratio [OR] = 3.32; confidence interval [CI] [1.74, 6.34]), even after adjustment for childhood trauma and several confounding factors (p = .001). The variable "no breastfeeding" accounts for 9.1% of the variance of the BPD diagnosis and is associated with low perceived maternal bonding (p = .006). Breastfeeding may act as an early indicator of the mother-infant relationship that seems to be relevant for bonding and attachment later in life. PMID:25248013

Schwarze, Cornelia E; Hellhammer, Dirk H; Stroehle, Verena; Lieb, Klaus; Mobascher, Arian

2014-09-23

22

Maternal risk factors in fetal alcohol syndrome: Provocative and permissive influences  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an hypothesis integrating epidemiological, clinical case, and basic biomedical research to explain why only relatively few women who drink alcohol during pregnancy give birth to children with alcohol-related birth defects (ARBDs), in particular, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). We argue that specific sociobehavioral risk factors, e.g., low socioeconomic status, are permissive for FAS in that they provide the context

Ernest L. Abel; John H. Hannigan

1995-01-01

23

Polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism as maternal risk factors for Down syndrome — meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Folate metabolism deficiency has been related to increased occurrence of maternal non-disjunction resulting in trisomy 21.\\u000a Several polymorphisms in genes coding for folate metabolism enzymes have been investigated for association with the maternal\\u000a risk of Down syndrome (DS) yielding variable results. We performed a meta-analysis of case-control studies obtained through\\u000a the PubMed database. The studies on polymorphisms in the MTHFR,

Igor Medica; Ales Maver; Goncalo Figueiredo Augusto; Borut Peterlin

2009-01-01

24

Maternal Early Life Factors Associated with Hormone Levels and the Risk of Having a Child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Nurses Health Study II  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is not known whether reproductive factors early in the mother's life influence risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We assessed maternal age at menarche, menstrual cycle characteristics during adolescence, oral contraceptive use prior to first birth, body shape, and body mass index (BMI) in association with ASD using binomial regression in…

Lyall, Kristen; Pauls, David L.; Santangelo, Susan; Spiegelman, Donna; Ascherio, Alberto

2011-01-01

25

Sex-specific impact of maternal–fetal risk factors on depression and cardiovascular risk 40 years later  

PubMed Central

Major depressive disorder (MDD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) represent leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We tested the hypothesis that growth restriction and preeclampsia (referred to as fetal risk) are significant predictors of these conditions, with women at higher risk in adulthood. Adult offspring exposed to fetal risk factors and their discordant siblings were from two prenatal cohorts, whose mothers were followed through pregnancy and whom we recruited as adults 40 years later (n=538; 250 males and 288 females). Subjects were psychiatrically diagnosed and underwent a stress challenge during which parasympathetic regulation was assessed by electrocardiogram, operationalized as high-frequency R-R interval variability (HF-RRV). Linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations were used to examine the relationship of fetal risk on HF-RRV, MDD and comorbidity of low HF-RRV (lowest 25th percentile) and MDD, including interactions with sex and socioeconomic status (SES). Fetal risk was significantly associated with low HF-RRV response (F=3.64, P=0.05), particularly among low SES (interaction: F=4.31, P<0.04). When stratified by MDD, the fetal risk impact was three times greater among MDD compared with non-MDD subjects (effect size: 0.21 v. 0.06). Females had a significantly higher risk for the comorbidity of MDD and low HF-RRV than males (relative risk (RR)=1.36, 95% CI: 1.07–1.73), an association only seen among those exposed to fetal risk (RR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.04–1.83). Findings suggest that these are shared fetal antecedents to the comorbidity of MDD and CVD risk 40 years later, an association stronger in females than in males. PMID:23378891

Goldstein, J. M.; Cherkerzian, S.; Buka, S. L.; Fitzmaurice, G.; Hornig, M.; Gillman, M.; O’Toole, S.; Sloan, R. P.

2013-01-01

26

Maternal prenatal distress and poor nutrition – mutually influencing risk factors affecting infant neurocognitive development  

PubMed Central

Background Accumulating data from animal and human studies indicate that the prenatal environment plays a significant role in shaping children’s neurocognitive development. Clinical, epidemiologic, and basic science research suggests that two experiences relatively common in pregnancy — an unhealthy maternal diet and psychosocial distress — significantly affect children’s future neurodevelopment. These prenatal experiences exert their influence in the context of one another and yet, almost uniformly, are studied independently. Scope and Method of Review In this review, we suggest that studying neurocognitive development in children in relation to both prenatal exposures is ecologically most relevant, and methodologically most sound. To support this approach, we selectively review two research topics that demonstrate the need for dual exposure studies, including exemplar findings on (1) the associations between pregnant women’s inadequate maternal intake of key nutrients – protein, fat, iron, zinc, and choline – as well as distress in relation to overlapping effects on children’s neurocognitive development; and (2) cross-talk between the biology of stress and nutrition that can amplify each experience for the mother and fetus,. We also consider obstacles to this kind of study design, such as questions of statistical methods for ‘disentangling’ the exposure effects, and aim to provide some answers. Conclusion Studies that specifically include both exposures in their design can begin to determine the relative and/or synergistic impact of these prenatal experiences on developmental trajectories — and thereby contribute most fully to the understanding of the early origins of health and disease. PMID:23039359

Monk, Catherine; Georgieff, Michael K.; Osterholm, Erin A.

2012-01-01

27

Maternal and Early Childhood Risk Factors for Overweight and Obesity among Low-Income Predominantly Black Children at Age Five Years: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. To identify maternal and early childhood risk factors for obesity and overweight among children at age 5 in the state of Alabama. Methods. We recruited 740 mothers during early pregnancy from University of Alabama Prenatal Clinics in a prospective cohort study and followed them throughout pregnancy. We followed their children from birth until 5 years of age. The main outcome measure was obesity (BMI for age and sex ? 95th percentile) at 5 years of age. We used poisson regression with robust variance estimation to compute risk ratio (RR). Results. At the 5th year of followup, 71 (9.6%) of the children were obese and 85 (11.5%) were overweight (BMI ? 85th–<95th percentile). In multivariable analysis, maternal prepregnancy overweight (RR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.29–4.11) and obesity (RR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.49–4.31), and child's birth weight >85th percentile (RR: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.13–3.68) were associated with childhood obesity. Maternal prepregnancy BMI, birth weight, and maternal smoking were associated with the child being overweight 1–12 cigarettes/day versus 0 cigarettes/day (RR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.02–1.91). Conclusion. Children of overweight and obese mothers, and children with higher birth weight, are more likely to be obese and overweight at age 5. Maternal smoking 1–12 cigarettes per day is associated with the child being overweight. PMID:23056928

Janjua, Naveed Zafar; Mahmood, Bushra; Islam, M. Aminul; Goldenberg, Robert L.

2012-01-01

28

Maternal and Early Childhood Risk Factors for Overweight and Obesity among Low-Income Predominantly Black Children at Age Five Years: A Prospective Cohort Study.  

PubMed

Objective. To identify maternal and early childhood risk factors for obesity and overweight among children at age 5 in the state of Alabama. Methods. We recruited 740 mothers during early pregnancy from University of Alabama Prenatal Clinics in a prospective cohort study and followed them throughout pregnancy. We followed their children from birth until 5 years of age. The main outcome measure was obesity (BMI for age and sex ? 95th percentile) at 5 years of age. We used poisson regression with robust variance estimation to compute risk ratio (RR). Results. At the 5th year of followup, 71 (9.6%) of the children were obese and 85 (11.5%) were overweight (BMI ? 85th-<95th percentile). In multivariable analysis, maternal prepregnancy overweight (RR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.29-4.11) and obesity (RR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.49-4.31), and child's birth weight >85th percentile (RR: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.13-3.68) were associated with childhood obesity. Maternal prepregnancy BMI, birth weight, and maternal smoking were associated with the child being overweight 1-12 cigarettes/day versus 0 cigarettes/day (RR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.02-1.91). Conclusion. Children of overweight and obese mothers, and children with higher birth weight, are more likely to be obese and overweight at age 5. Maternal smoking 1-12 cigarettes per day is associated with the child being overweight. PMID:23056928

Janjua, Naveed Zafar; Mahmood, Bushra; Islam, M Aminul; Goldenberg, Robert L

2012-01-01

29

Congenital Anomalies, Labor/Delivery Complications, Maternal Risk Factors and Their Relationship with Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA)-Contaminated Public Drinking Water  

PubMed Central

Background We have previously examined the associations between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposure, birth weight and gestational age in individuals exposed to PFOA-contaminated residential drinking water from the Little Hocking Water Association (LHWA). In this investigation, we expand the scope of our analysis to examine the associations between PFOA, congenital anomalies, labor and delivery complications and maternal risk factors. Objectives To compare the incidence of congenital anomalies, labor and delivery complications and maternal risk factors in neonates and their mothers residing in zip codes with public water service provided completely, partially or not at all by the LHWA. Methods Logistic regression analyses were performed on singleton neonatal birth outcome data supplied by the Ohio Department of Health to examine the associations between LHWA water service category and the outcomes of interest. When possible, models were adjusted for maternal age, preterm birth, neonatal sex, race, maternal education, alcohol use, tobacco use and diabetic status. Results Increased PFOA exposure, as assessed by water service category, was not associated with an overall increase in the likelihood of congenital anomalies or any specific diagnosis (Adjusted OR: 1.4, 95%CI: 0.34–3.3). The overall likelihood of labor and delivery complications was significantly lower among mothers with water service provided by the LHWA, as compared to mothers not serviced by the LHWA (Adjusted OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.46–0.92). A significant increase in the likelihood of anemia (Crude OR: 11, 95%CI: 1.8–64) and dysfunctional labor (Crude OR: 5.3 95%CI: 1.2–24) was noted for mothers residing within zip codes serviced by the LHWA, but the number of reported cases was very small. Conclusion At the levels measured in the LHWA, we conclude that PFOA is not associated with increased incidence of congenital anomalies and most labor and delivery complications and maternal risk factors. Additional research is required to assess the observed associations between PFOA, anemia and dysfunctional labor. PMID:19897029

Nolan, Lynda A.; Nolan, John M.; Shofer, Frances S.; Rodway, Nancy V.; Emmett, Edward A.

2011-01-01

30

Maternal nutritional risk factors for small for gestational age babies in a developed country: a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Aims: To assess the effect of maternal diet during pregnancy on the risk of delivering a baby who is small for gestational age (SGA). Methods: Case-control study of 844 cases (SGA) and 870 controls (appropriate size for gestational age (AGA)). Only term (37+ completed weeks of gestation) infants were included. Retrospective food frequency questionnaires were completed at birth on the diet at the time of conception and in the last month of pregnancy. Results: At the time of conception, mothers of AGA infants ate significantly more servings of carbohydrate rich food and fruit, and were more likely to have taken folate and vitamin supplements than mothers of SGA infants. There was some evidence that mothers of AGA infants also ate more servings of dairy products, meat, and fish (0.05 < p < 0.1). However, after adjustment for maternal ethnicity, smoking, height, weight, hypertension, and occupation, fish intake (p  =  0.04), carbohydrate-rich foods (p  =  0.04), and folate supplementation (p  =  0.02) were associated with a reduced risk of SGA. In the last month of pregnancy, only iron supplementation was associated with a reduced risk of SGA (p  =  0.05) after adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusions: This study suggests that small variations in maternal diets within the normal range during pregnancy in developed countries are associated with differences in birth weight. PMID:15321964

Mitchell, E; Robinson, E; Clark, P; Becroft, D; Glavish, N; Pattison, N; Pryor, J; Thompson, J; Wild, C

2004-01-01

31

Child Health, Maternal Marital and Socioeconomic Factors, and Maternal Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children's future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse…

Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.

2013-01-01

32

Is Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy a Causal Environmental Risk Factor for Adolescent Antisocial Behavior? Testing Etiological Theories and Assumptions  

PubMed Central

Background Although many studies indicate that maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) is correlated with later offspring antisocial behavior (ASB), recent quasi-experimental studies suggest that background familial factors confound the association. The present study sought to test alternative etiological hypotheses using multiple indices of adolescent ASB, comparing differentially exposed siblings, and testing assumptions in the sibling-comparison design. Methods The study examined the association between maternal SDP and adolescent-reported ASB, criminal convictions, and membership in a group of individuals with early-starting and chronic ASB among 6,066 offspring of women from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a representative sample of women in the United States. The analyses controlled for statistical covariates and examined associations while comparing differentially exposed siblings. Results At the population-level, each additional pack of cigarettes/day predicted greater mean adolescent-reported ASB symptoms (ratio of means=1.15, 95% CIs=1.08–1.22), odds of being in the top 10% of ASB (OR=1.34, 95% CIs=1.10–1.65), hazard of a criminal conviction (HR=1.51, 95% CIs=1.34–1.68), and odds of chronic ASB (OR=1.57, 95% CIs=1.25–1.99). SDP robustly predicted most assessments of ASB while controlling for measured covariates. When siblings exposed to differing levels of SDP were compared, however, all of the associations were attenuated and were not statistically significant: adolescent-reported mean ASB (ratio of means=0.86, 95% CIs=0.74–1.01), High ASB (OR=0.67, 95% CIs=0.41–1.12), criminal conviction (HR=0.98, 95% CIs=0.66–1.44), and Chronic ASB (OR=0.80, 95% CIs=0.46–1.38). Conclusions The results strongly suggest that familial factors account for the correlation between SDP and offspring adolescent ASB, rather than a putative causal environmental influence of SDP. PMID:22085725

D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Goodnight, Jackson A.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

2013-01-01

33

Maternal Risk Factors for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in the Western Cape Province of South Africa: A Population-Based Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We defined risk factors for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in a region with the highest documented prevalence of FAS in the world. Methods. We compared mothers of 53 first-grade students with FAS (cases) with 116 randomly selected mothers of first-grade students without FAS (controls). Results. Differences between case and control mothers in our study population existed regarding socioeconomic status,

Philip A. May; J. Phillip Gossage; Lesley E. Brooke; Cudore L. Snell; Anna-Susan Marais; Loretta S. Hendricks; Julie A. Croxford; Denis L. Viljoen

2005-01-01

34

Maternal depression and perception of teratogenic risk.  

PubMed

Depression in pregnancy is characterized by unrealistically heightened perception of teratogenic risk. Appropriate counseling regarding the exposure at hand can assist in reducing maternal concerns. Addressing depression during pregnancy and, in parallel, providing evidence based counseling and reassurance regarding different antidepressants in pregnancy may avert major health risks. PMID:25372559

Koren, Gideon

2014-01-01

35

Research Review: Maternal Prenatal Distress and Poor Nutrition--Mutually Influencing Risk Factors Affecting Infant Neurocognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Accumulating data from animal and human studies indicate that the prenatal environment plays a significant role in shaping children's neurocognitive development. Clinical, epidemiologic, and basic science research suggests that two experiences relatively common in pregnancy--an unhealthy maternal diet and psychosocial…

Monk, Catherine; Georgieff, Michael K.; Osterholm, Erin A.

2013-01-01

36

Intimate Partner Violence, Maternal Stress, Nativity, and Risk for Maternal Maltreatment of Young Children  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined the associations of intimate partner violence (IPV) and maternal risk factors with maternal child maltreatment risk within a diverse sample of mothers. Methods. We derived the study sample (N = 2508) from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study. We conducted regression analyses to examine associations between IPV, parenting stress, major depression, key covariates, and 4 proxy variables for maternal child maltreatment. Results. Mothers reported an average of 25 acts of psychological aggression and 17 acts of physical aggression against their 3-year-old children in the year before the study, 11% reported some act of neglect toward their children during the same period, and 55% had spanked their children during the previous month. About 40% of mothers had experienced IPV by their current partner. IPV and maternal parenting stress were both consistent risk factors for all 4 maltreatment proxy variables. Although foreign-born mothers reported fewer incidents of child maltreatment, the IPV relative risk for child maltreatment was greater for foreign-born than for US-born mothers. Conclusions. Further integration of IPV and child maltreatment prevention and intervention efforts is warranted; such efforts must carefully balance the needs of adult and child victims. PMID:19008518

Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Shawna J.; Rathouz, Paul J.

2009-01-01

37

Digitization of clinical and epidemiological data from the Kyoto Collection of Human Embryos: maternal risk factors and embryonic malformations.  

PubMed

Understanding the causes of congenital anomalies is of prime importance to develop management and/or prevention strategies. It is widely accepted that the occurrence of congenital malformations in fetuses and neonates is heavily correlated with maternal genetic makeup and lifestyle. However, very few epidemiologic analyses have been conducted on the embryonic developmental period because of the rarity of data available. Instigated in 1961, the Kyoto Collection of Human Embryos comprises approximately 45,000 specimens of embryos and fetuses. The collection's most unique feature is that most specimens were added to the collection along with epidemiologic information on the respective mothers. This is the first report on the digitization of data from the collection. A total of 22,262 embryonic specimens were selected on the basis of data integrity. Data related to the embryos were then classified according to the following criteria: developmental stage, sampling period, geographical area, maternal determinant, and external malformation. Results indicate that 7.8% of the embryos exhibit external anomalies and 92.2% are without anomalies. The three most common anomalies were nuchal bleb, holoprosencephaly and spina bifida. A special emphasis was placed on the potential association between maternal determinants and embryonic external anomalies, allowing for statistical analyses. The present study provides further evidence that this collection represents a unique source of information to conduct epidemiological analyses, not only to further the understanding of congenital anomalies but also to help establish preventive health guidelines for pregnant women. PMID:22348783

Kameda, Tomomi; Yamada, Shigehito; Uwabe, Chigako; Suganuma, Nobuhiko

2012-03-01

38

Maternal miscarriage history and risk of anencephaly.  

PubMed

Women with a history of reproductive loss may be at an increased risk of having an unfavourable outcome in subsequent pregnancies. Using data from a matched case-control study based on the record of the Epidemiological Surveillance System of Neural Tube Defects, we evaluated the association between history of maternal reproductive loss and the risk of anencephaly in three Mexican states. Mothers of 157 cases of anencephaly and 151 controls born during the period March 2000 to February 2001, were interviewed about their reproductive history and other additional factors, including socio-economic characteristics, prenatal care, use of tobacco and alcohol, presence of chronic diseases, acute illnesses and fever during the periconceptional period, and consumption of multivitamins and medicines during this period; mothers who reported no prior pregnancies were excluded from the analysis; 58 matched case-control pairs were used for the analysis. After adjusting for potential confounders, women with a history of miscarriage in previous pregnancies had 4.58 times more risk of having a child with anencephaly, than those who did not have this history; OR = 4.58, [95% CI 1.22, 17.23]. Our results suggest that a history of previous miscarriages is a risk indicator for anencephaly in future gestations. This does not necessarily mean that the miscarriage itself is the cause, but that common mechanisms could be involved in the aetiology of both events. Thus, women who have had histories of reproductive losses, especially miscarriages, should be a priority group for the primary and secondary prevention of neural tube defects. PMID:16629695

Blanco-Muñoz, Julia; Lacasaña, Marina; Borja-Aburto, Victor Hugo

2006-05-01

39

Domestic Violence as a Risk Factor for Maternal Depression and Neonatal Outcomes: A Hospital-Based Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study attempted to follow up a cohort of women who presented to a tertiary hospital to investigate the effect of domestic violence on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Materials and Methods: Women, between 26-34 weeks of gestation, attending the obstetrics outpatient department, were recruited and followed up until delivery. They were assessed at recruitment and after delivery using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the Abuse Assessment Screen, and a pro forma to assess socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. Bivariate and multivariate statistics were employed to assess statistical significance. Results: One hundred and fifty women were recruited, 132 delivered in the hospital and were followed up. Domestic violence was associated with antenatal and postnatal depression, spouse's insistence of a boy baby, medical complications during pregnancy, preterm delivery, and lower birth-weight. Conclusion: Domestic violence has a significant impact on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Screening for domestic violence and interventions should be part of all antenatal programs. India should also employ public health approaches to change its patriarchal culture. PMID:24860221

Nongrum, Rida; Thomas, Elsy; Lionel, Jessie; Jacob, Kuruthukulangara S.

2014-01-01

40

Intimate partner violence as a risk factor for postpartum depression among Canadian women in the Maternity Experience Survey  

PubMed Central

Purpose Intimate partner violence is a worldwide public health concern predominantly affecting women of reproductive age. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of exposure to intimate partner violence before, during or after pregnancy on postpartum depression in a nationally representative sample of Canadian women. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was performed using data from the Maternity Experience Survey conducted by Statistics Canada in 2006. A population-based sample of 8,542 women 15 years and older who delivered singleton live births was selected from all Canadian provinces and territories; of those, 6,421 completed a computer-assisted telephone interview. Recent experiences with and threats of physical or sexual violence by an intimate partner were examined in relation to postpartum depression assessed through the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale. Results The prevalence of postpartum depression was 7.5% (95% CI: 6.8, 8.2). Controlling for confounders, odds of postpartum depression were significantly higher among women who reported partner violence in the past two years as opposed to those who did not (adjusted OR=1.61; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.45). Conclusions Intimate partner violence is positively associated with postpartum depression among Canadian women. Implications for healthcare practice are discussed. PMID:20609336

Beydoun, Hind A.; Al-Sahab, Ban; Beydoun, May A.; Tamim, Hala

2014-01-01

41

Maternal HIV serostatus, mother-daughter sexual risk communication and adolescent HIV risk beliefs and intentions.  

PubMed

Daughters of HIV-positive women are often exposed to the same factors that placed their mothers at risk. This cross-sectional study (N = 176 dyads) examined HIV status, parent-teen sexual risk communication (PTSRC), and daughters' abstinence and condom use beliefs and intentions. Maternal HIV status was not associated with PTSRC. Path analyses show that maternal depression was associated with PTSRC behavioral and normative beliefs; relationship satisfaction was associated with PTSRC normative and control beliefs. Control beliefs were solely predictive of maternal PTSRC intention. PTSRC was associated with adolescent behavioral and normative beliefs. Abstinence beliefs were associated with abstinence intentions; condom beliefs were associated with condom use intentions. Relationship satisfaction was associated with adolescent control beliefs about both abstinence and condom use. There is a need for interventions that help HIV-positive mothers recognize their daughter's HIV risk and provide them with relationship building and parent process skills to help reduce these risks. PMID:22677973

Cederbaum, Julie A; Hutchinson, M Katherine; Duan, Lei; Jemmott, Loretta S

2013-09-01

42

Screening for maternal coeliac disease as a potential risk factor for orofacial clefts--a pilot study.  

PubMed

There is increasing evidence that dietary folic acid deficiency in utero may increase the risk of developing the 'cleft lip with or without cleft palate' (CL±P) variant of orofacial cleft. Coeliac disease is a common cause of folic acid malabsorption, and in the majority of cases remains undiagnosed. This pilot study assessed the seroprevalence of undiagnosed coeliac disease in a cohort of mothers of infants with CL±P in the Hyderabad area of India. The seroprevalence of coeliac disease of 1.15% (95% confidence interval 0.37-2.66%) was little different from the expected figure based on published population studies, making a clinically significant association unlikely. PMID:23664420

Reddy, S G; Reddy, R R; Vaidhyanathan, A; Markus, A; Snook, J

2013-11-01

43

Association of aberrant neural synchrony and altered GAD67 expression following exposure to maternal immune activation, a risk factor for schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

A failure of integrative processes within the brain, mediated via altered GABAergic inhibition, may underlie several features of schizophrenia. The present study examined, therefore, whether maternal immune activation (MIA), a risk factor for schizophrenia, altered inhibitory markers in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), while also altering electroencephalogram (EEG) coherence between these regions. Pregnant rats were treated with saline or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid mid-gestation. EEG depth recordings were made from the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and mPFC of male adult offspring. Glutamic decarboxylase (GAD67) levels were separately assayed in these regions using western blot. GAD67 expression was also assessed within parvalbumin-positive cells in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus using immunofluorescence alongside stereological analysis of parvalbumin-positive cell numbers. EEG coherence was reduced between the dorsal hippocampus and mPFC, but not the ventral hippocampus and mPFC, in MIA animals. Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses revealed that GAD67 expression within parvalbumin-positive cells was also reduced in the dorsal hippocampus relative to ventral hippocampus in MIA animals when compared with controls. This reduction was observed in the absence of parvalbumin-positive neuronal loss. Overall, MIA produced a selective reduction in EEG coherence between the dorsal hippocampus and mPFC that was paralleled by a similarly specific reduction in GAD67 within parvalbumin-positive cells of the dorsal hippocampus. These results suggest a link between altered inhibitory mechanisms and synchrony and, therefore point to potential mechanisms via which a disruption in neurodevelopmental processes might lead to pathophysiology associated with schizophrenia. PMID:25072323

Dickerson, D D; Overeem, K A; Wolff, A R; Williams, J M; Abraham, W C; Bilkey, D K

2014-01-01

44

Maternal positive affect mediates the link between family risk and preschoolers' positive affect.  

PubMed

The present study sought to further specify conceptual models of youth positive affect (PA) by examining mothers' observed PA as a mediator of the relation between family risk (based on maternal reports of demographic factors) and children's PA in a sample of 82 mothers (M = 31.25 years, SD = 6.16) and their preschool-aged children (M = 3.51 years, SD = .49, 63.00 % boys). Results yielded a significant, negative correlation between family risk and child PA. Mediation analyses indicated that family risk was related to child PA through its effects on maternal PA, even after controlling for maternal depression symptoms. Findings suggest that family risk and maternal PA are important factors to consider in understanding preschoolers' PA development. Identifying children at risk for developing PA difficulties can aid in the implementation of prevention and intervention strategies for promoting young children's PA specifically, and their psychosocial functioning more broadly. PMID:25326667

Davis, Molly; Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne

2015-02-01

45

Risk Assessment of Adverse Birth Outcomes in Relation to Maternal Age  

PubMed Central

Background Although a number of studies have investigated correlations of maternal age with birth outcomes, an extensive assessment using age as a continuous variable is lacking. In the current study, we estimated age-specific risks of adverse birth outcomes in childbearing women. Method National population-based data containing maternal and neonatal information were derived from the Health Promotion Administration, Taiwan. A composite adverse birth outcome was defined as at least anyone of stillbirth, preterm birth, low birth weight, macrosomia, neonatal death, congenital anomaly, and small for gestational age (SGA). Singletons were further analyzed for outcomes of live birth in relation to each year of maternal age. A log-binomial model was used to adjust for possible confounders of maternal and neonatal factors. Results In total, 2,123,751 births between 2001 and 2010 were utilized in the analysis. The risk of a composite adverse birth outcome was significantly higher at extreme maternal ages. In specific, risks of stillbirth, neonatal death, preterm birth, congenital anomaly, and low birth weight were higher at the extremes of maternal age. Furthermore, risk of macrosomia rose proportionally with an increasing maternal age. In contrast, risk of SGA declined proportionally with an increasing maternal age. The log-binomial model showed greater risks at the maternal ages of <26 and > 30 years for a composite adverse birth outcome. Conclusions Infants born to teenagers and women at advanced age possess greater risks for stillbirth, preterm birth, neonatal death, congenital anomaly, and low birth weight. Pregnancies at advanced age carry an additional risk for macrosomia, while teenage pregnancies carry an additional risk for SGA. The data suggest that the optimal maternal ages to minimize adverse birth outcomes are 26?30 years. PMID:25494176

Weng, Yi-Hao; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Chiu, Ya-Wen

2014-01-01

46

Maternal mortality in rural and urban Zimbabwe: Social and reproductive factors in an incident case-referent study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A community-based incident case-referent study was undertaken in a rural and an urban setting in Zimbabwe in order to define risk factors associated with maternal deaths at family, community, primary and referral health care levels. Referent subjects were drawn from place or area of delivery for each consecutive maternal death. Using a multiple source confidential reporting network for all maternal

Michael T Mbizvo; Susan Fawcus; Gunilla Lindmark; Lennarth Nyström

1993-01-01

47

Associations of intrauterine growth restriction with placental pathological factors, maternal factors and fetal factors; clinicopathological findings of 257 Japanese cases.  

PubMed

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is the leading cause of fetal mortality and morbidity. As an etiology, each of placental findings, maternal factors and fetal factors has been reported to be associated with IUGR, although a comprehensive approach to examine all of these parameters as a cause of IUGR has not been reported. In the present study, therefore, we comprehensively examined the placental findings and maternal and fetal factors in the cases of IUGR (n=257, mean maternal age, 30 years; gestational weeks, 34 weeks) and normal growth pregnancies (n=258, mean maternal age, 30 years; gestational weeks, 33 weeks), and determined risk factors for IUGR. The prevalence of pregnancy hypertension (PHT) (19% vs. 8%, P<0.01), smoking habit (3% vs. 0.7%, P<0.05) and fetal anomaly (3.5% vs. 0.8%, P<0.05) were higher in IUGR cases than normal growth pregnancies. Pathologically, the prevalence of infarction (33% vs. 14%, P<0.05), fetal vessel thrombosis (22% vs. 6%, P<0.001) and chronic villitis (11% vs. 3%, P<0.001) were higher in IUGR cases than those in normal growth pregnancies. A multivariable regression analysis revealed that maternal factors (PHT), fetal factors (anomaly), and placental findings (infarction, fetal vessel thrombosis, and chronic villitis) are independently associated with increased risk of IUGR (all P<0.01). PMID:23233065

Sato, Y; Benirschke, K; Marutsuka, K; Yano, Y; Hatakeyama, K; Iwakiri, T; Yamada, N; Kodama, Y; Sameshima, H; Ikenoue, T; Asada, Y

2013-01-01

48

Maternal versus Paternal Suicide and Offspring Risk of Hospitalization for Psychiatric Disorders and Suicide Attempt  

PubMed Central

Objective We examined whether the risk for psychiatric morbidity requiring inpatient care was higher in offspring who experienced parental suicide compared to offspring who experienced parental fatal accidents, and if the association varied by the deceased parent’s gender. Subjects and Methods Children and adolescents (age 0-17 years) who experienced maternal (n=5,600) or paternal suicide (n=17,847) during 1973-2003 in Sweden were identified using national, longitudinal population-based registries. Cox regression modeling was used to compare psychiatric hospitalization risks among offspring of suicide decedents with propensity-matched offspring of accident decedents. Results Offspring of maternal suicide decedents had increased risk of hospitalization for suicide attempt after controlling for psychiatric hospitalization in decedents and surviving parents, compared to offspring of maternal accidental decedents. Offspring of paternal suicide decedents had similar risk of hospitalization for suicide attempt compared to offspring of accident decedents but had increased risk of hospitalization for depressive and anxiety disorders. The magnitude of risks for offspring hospitalization for suicide attempt was greater for those who experienced maternal versus paternal suicide, as compared to their respective controls (interaction p=0.05) [AHR (95%CI) = 1.80 (1.19-2.74) in offspring of maternal decedents vs. 1.14 (0.96-1.35) in offspring of paternal decedents]. Conclusions Maternal suicide is associated with increased risk of hospitalization for suicide attempt in offspring, beyond the risk associated with maternal accidental death. However, paternal suicide is not associated with hospitalization for suicide attempt. Future studies should examine factors that might differ between offspring who experience maternal versus paternal suicide, including genetic or early environmental determinants. PMID:20956422

Kuramoto, S. Janet; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Runeson, Bo; Lichtenstein, Paul; Långström, Niklas; Wilcox, Holly C.

2013-01-01

49

Individual differences in maternal response to immune challenge predict offspring behavior: Contribution of environmental factors  

PubMed Central

Maternal infection during pregnancy elevates risk for schizophrenia and related disorders in offspring. Converging evidence suggests the maternal inflammatory response mediates the interaction between maternal infection, altered brain development, and behavioral outcome. The extent to which individual differences in the maternal response to immune challenge influence the development of these abnormalities is unknown. The present study investigated the impact of individual differences in maternal response to the viral mimic polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) on offspring behavior. We observed significant variability in body weight alterations of pregnant rats induced by administration of poly I:C on gestational day 14. Furthermore, the presence or absence of maternal weight loss predicted MK-801 and amphetamine stimulated locomotor abnormalities in offspring. MK-801 stimulated locomotion was altered in offspring of all poly I:C treated dams; however, the presence or absence of maternal weight loss resulted in decreased and modestly increased locomotion, respectively. Adult offspring of poly I:C treated dams that lost weight exhibited significantly decreased amphetamine stimulated locomotion, while offspring of poly I:C treated dams without weight loss performed similarly to vehicle controls. Social isolation and increased maternal age predicted weight loss in response to poly I:C but not vehicle injection. In combination, these data identify environmental factors associated with the maternal response to immune challenge and functional outcome of offspring exposed to maternal immune activation. PMID:21255612

Bronson, Stefanie L.; Ahlbrand, Rebecca; Horn, Paul S.; Kern, Joseph R.; Richtand, Neil M.

2011-01-01

50

Iatrogenic risks and maternal health: Issues and outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objective: To observe acute maternal morbidity and mortality due to iatrogenic factors and outcomes. Methods: This observational cross sectional study was conducted at intensive care unit of Liaquat University of Medical and Health sciences Jamshoro from 1-January-2011 to 31-December-2012. In this study all the delivered or undelivered women who needed intensive care unit (ICU) admission due to management related life threatening complication referred from periphery or within this hospital were included, while those women who had pregnancy complicated by medical conditions were excluded. These women were registered on the predesigned proforma containing variables like Demographic characteristics, various iatrogenic risk factors, complications and management out comes. The data was collected and analyzed on SPSS version 20. Results: During these study period 51 women needed ICU care for different complications due to adverse effects of medical treatments. Majority of these women were between 20-40 years of age 41(80.39%), multiparous 29(56.86%), unbooked 38(74.50%), referred from periphery 39(76.47%), common iatrogenic factors were misuse of oxytocin 16(31.37%), fluid overload/cardiac failure 8(15.68%), blood reaction 7(13.72%), anesthesia related problems were delayed recovery 3(5.88%), cardiac arrest 2(3.92%), spinal shock 2(3.92%), surgical problems were bladder injury 5(9.8%), post operative internal haemorrhage 3(5.88%), 37(72.54%) women recovered and 14(27.45%) expired. Conclusion: The maternal morbidity and mortality rate with iatrogenic factors was high and majority of these factors were avoidable. PMID:24639842

Khaskheli, Meharun-nissa; Baloch, Shahla; Sheeba, Aneela

2014-01-01

51

The prevalence of severe maternal morbidity and near miss and associated factors in Sergipe, Northeast Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background The investigation of severe maternal morbidity (SAMM) and maternal near miss (NM) and associated risk factors is important for the global reduction of maternal mortality. This study investigated the prevalence of SAMM and NM cases and the associated risk factors in two reference maternity hospitals in a capital city in Northeast-Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study with a nested case–control component was conducted from June-2011 to May-2012. Case identification was prospective and data collection was performed according to WHO criteria and definitions. Odds ratio with confidence intervals and multivariate analysis were used whenever possible. Results There were 16,243 deliveries, 1,102 SAMM cases, 77 NM cases and 17 maternal deaths. The maternal NM outcome ratio was 5.8 cases/1,000 live births (LB); the total prevalence of SAMM?+?NM was 72.6 cases/1,000 LB, the maternal near miss: mortality ratio was 4.5cases/1 maternal death (18% of mortality index). Management-based criteria were the most common events for NM (87.1%) and hypertensive disorders for SAMM (67.5%). Higher age, previous abortion and caesarean delivery, the non-adhesion to antenatal care, current caesarean delivery and bad perinatal results were associated with SAMM/NM. In the multivariate analysis, patient’s status, previous caesarian and abortion and level of consciousness were significant when analyzed together. Conclusions SAMM and NM situations were prevalent in the studied population and some risk factors seem to be associated with the event, particularly previous gestational antecedents. Protocols based on SAMM/NM situations can save lives and decrease maternal mortality. PMID:24433516

2014-01-01

52

Cumulative Risk, Maternal Responsiveness, and Allostatic Load among Young Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of cumulative risk exposure in concert with maternal responsiveness on physiological indicators of chronic stress in children and youth. Middle-school children exposed to greater accumulated psychosocial (e.g., family turmoil, poverty) and physical (e.g., crowding, substandard housing) risk

Evans, Gary W.; Kim, Pilyoung; Ting, Albert H.; Tesher, Harris B.; Shannis, Dana

2007-01-01

53

On the use of animal modeling to study maternal infection during pregnancy and prenatal cytokine exposure as risk factors for schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased incidence of schizophrenia has been observed following maternal infections with either viral or bacterial pathogens during pregnancy. This suggests that infection during pregnancy might contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia through adverse effects on brain development. Animal models in which live viruses, bacterial endotoxin or viral mimics are administered during pregnancy have begun to delineate acute and long term

Patricia Boksa; Giamal N. Luheshi

2003-01-01

54

Children’s Experiences of Maternal Incarceration-Specific Risks: Predictions to Psychological Maladaptation  

PubMed Central

Children of incarcerated mothers are at increased risk for social and emotional difficulties, yet few studies have investigated potential mechanisms of risk within this population. This research simultaneously examined the association of children’s experience of incarceration-specific risk factors (e.g., witness mother’s arrest) and environmental risks (e.g., low educational attainment) to children’s psychological maladaptation using a multi-informant design and a latent variable analytic approach. Participants were 117 currently incarcerated mothers (64.1% African American), their 151 children (53.6% boys, M age =9.8 years, range =6–12 years, 61.7% African American), and the 118 caregivers (74.8% female, 61.9% grandparents, 62.2% African American) of the children. Mothers, children, and caregivers each provided accounts of children’s experiences related to maternal incarceration and children’s internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Mothers and caregivers each supplied information about 10 environmental risk factors. Findings from structural equation modeling indicate that children’s incarceration-specific risk experiences predict internalizing and externalizing behavior problems whereas the influence of environmental risks was negligible. Follow-up analyses examining the contribution of specific risks indicate that significant predictors differ by reporter and separate into effects of family incarceration history and direct experiences of maternal incarceration. Incarceration-specific experiences place children at higher risk for maladjustment than exposure to general environmental risk factors. These findings indicate the need to critically examine children’s exposure to experiences related to maternal incarceration and family incarceration history to help to clarify the multifaceted stressor of maternal incarceration. PMID:24871820

Dallaire, Danielle H.; Zeman, Janice L.; Thrash, Todd M.

2014-01-01

55

Children's Experiences of Maternal Incarceration-Specific Risks: Predictions to Psychological Maladaptation.  

PubMed

Children of incarcerated mothers are at increased risk for social and emotional difficulties, yet few studies have investigated potential mechanisms of risk within this population. This research simultaneously examined the association of children's experience of incarceration-specific risk factors (e.g., witness mother's arrest) and environmental risks (e.g., low educational attainment) to children's psychological maladaptation using a multi-informant design and a latent variable analytic approach. Participants were 117 currently incarcerated mothers (64.1% African American), their 151 children (53.6% boys, M age = 9.8 years, range = 6-12 years, 61.7% African American), and the 118 caregivers (74.8% female, 61.9% grandparents, 62.2% African American) of the children. Mothers, children, and caregivers each provided accounts of children's experiences related to maternal incarceration and children's internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Mothers and caregivers each supplied information about 10 environmental risk factors. Findings from structural equation modeling indicate that children's incarceration-specific risk experiences predict internalizing and externalizing behavior problems whereas the influence of environmental risks was negligible. Follow-up analyses examining the contribution of specific risks indicate that significant predictors differ by reporter and separate into effects of family incarceration history and direct experiences of maternal incarceration. Incarceration-specific experiences place children at higher risk for maladjustment than exposure to general environmental risk factors. These findings indicate the need to critically examine children's exposure to experiences related to maternal incarceration and family incarceration history to help to clarify the multifaceted stressor of maternal incarceration. PMID:24871820

Dallaire, Danielle H; Zeman, Janice L; Thrash, Todd M

2015-01-01

56

Maternal Vitamin D Deficiency Increases the Risk of Preeclampsia  

PubMed Central

Context Vitamin D has direct influence on molecular pathways proposed to be important in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia, yet the vitamin D-preeclampsia relation has not been studied. Objectives We aimed to assess the effect of maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration on the risk of preeclampsia and to assess the vitamin D status of newborns of preeclamptic mothers. Design and Setting We conducted a nested case-control study of pregnant women followed from less than 16 wk gestation to delivery (1997–2001) at prenatal clinics and private practices. Patients Patients included nulliparous pregnant women with singleton pregnancies who developed preeclampsia (n = 55) or did not develop preeclampsia (n = 219). Women’s banked sera were newly measured for 25(OH)D. Main Outcome Measure The main outcome measure was preeclampsia (new-onset gestational hypertension and proteinuria for the first time after 20 wk gestation). Our hypotheses were formulated before data collection. Results Adjusted serum 25(OH)D concentrations in early pregnancy were lower in women who subsequently developed preeclampsia compared with controls [geometric mean, 45.4 nmol/liter, and 95% confidence interval (CI), 38.6 –53.4 nmol/liter, vs. 53.1 and 47.1–59.9 nmol/liter; P < 0.01]. There was a monotonic dose-response relation between serum 25(OH)D concentrations at less than 22 wk and risk of preeclampsia. After confounder adjustment, a 50-nmol/liter decline in 25(OH)D concentration doubled the risk of preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.1–5.4). Newborns of preeclamptic mothers were twice as likely as control newborns to have 25(OH)D less than 37.5 nmol/liter (adjusted odds ratio, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2– 4.1). Conclusions Maternal vitamin D deficiency may be an independent risk factor for preeclampsia. Vitamin D supplementation in early pregnancy should be explored for preventing preeclampsia and promoting neonatal well-being. PMID:17535985

Bodnar, Lisa M.; Catov, Janet M.; Simhan, Hyagriv N.; Holick, Michael F.; Powers, Robert W.; Roberts, James M.

2015-01-01

57

Risk factors of sudden infant death syndrome and risk factors for sleep disturbances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationship between major risk factors of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and sleep disorders in the infants is the subject of review and discussion. Improper micro?environmental characteristics (especially poor environmental organisation and lack of developmental stimulation), pre?term delivery and\\/or infant low birth weight, prone sleep position, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and infant–parent(s) bed?sharing are among well?established risk factors of SIDS.

Igor A. Kelmanson

2011-01-01

58

Early or recurrent preterm birth and maternal cardiovascular disease risk  

PubMed Central

Purpose Preterm birth (PTB) has been associated with a later increased risk of maternal cardiovascular disease (CVD). We hypothesized a more pronounced relation between early or recurrent PTB and maternal CVD risk. Methods We related PTB severity (earlier gestational age at delivery) and recurrence (=2) among women with births from 1973–1983 in Denmark (n=427,765) to maternal CVD morbidity or mortality (1977–2006). Birth data were linked to CVD hospitalizations and deaths identified in national registers and data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models. Results Women with a prior PTB had excess CVD after adjustment for age, parity, and education (HR 1.36 [95% CI 1.31, 1.41]). This was only modestly attenuated when women with preeclampsia or small for gestational age births were excluded, and the relationship was stronger for CVD mortality (HR 1.98 [1.73, 2.26]). Recurrent PTB was associated with higher CVD morbidity compared to women with one PTB, particularly for ischemic events (HR 1.78 [1.40, 2.27] vs. 1.22 [1.09, 1.36]). Risk was similarly elevated among women with early, moderate, and late PTB. Sensitivity analysis suggested that confounding by smoking only partly explained these associations. Conclusions Women with PTB, especially recurrent PTB, were at increased risk for CVD, suggesting common causes of these conditions. PMID:20609340

Catov, Janet M; Wu, Chun Sen; Olsen, Jorn; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Li, Jiong; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

2010-01-01

59

Factors in risk perception  

PubMed

Risk perception is a phenomenon in search of an explanation. Several approaches are discussed in this paper. Technical risk estimates are sometimes a potent factor in accounting for perceived risk, but in many important applications it is not. Heuristics and biases, mainly availability, account for only a minor portion of risk perception, and media contents have not been clearly implicated in risk perception. The psychometric model is probably the leading contender in the field, but its explanatory value is only around 20% of the variance of raw data. Adding a factor of "unnatural risk" considerably improves the psychometric model. Cultural Theory, on the other hand, has not been able to explain more than 5-10% of the variance of perceived risk, and other value scales have similarly failed. A model is proposed in which attitude, risk sensitivity, and specific fear are used as explanatory variables; this model seems to explain well over 30-40% of the variance and is thus more promising than previous approaches. The model offers a different type of psychological explanation of risk perception, and it has many implications, e.g., a different approach to the relationship between attitude and perceived risk, as compared with the usual cognitive analysis of attitude. PMID:10795334

Sjoberg

2000-02-01

60

Maternal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and risk for perinatal maternal depression  

PubMed Central

Objective A systematic review was conducted to assess the possible association between omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation and intake in the perinatal period and the risk of maternal perinatal depression. Methods Two PubMed searches and a BIOSIS Preview, a Web of Science and a PsychInfo search were conducted with the search terms ‘DHA, pregnancy and depression’ and ‘omega-3 fatty acids, pregnancy and depression’. Results Ten articles – three longitudinal cohort studies, five randomized controlled trials and two pilot trials– that met selection criteria were reviewed. Six found no association, two found mixed results, and two found a positive association between omega-3 PUFAs and reduced incidence of maternal perinatal depression. The heterogeneity of results can be explained by dissimilar study designs, including differences in study duration, time period of measurement and number of participants, and in varied dosages and types of supplemental PUFAs. Some of the larger studies and those that found a positive effect were more likely to be using higher doses, close to 2 g of docosahexaeonic acid (DHA) + eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and began the supplementation earlier in pregnancy. Conclusions Future RCTs to investigate the role of PUFA supplementation and risk for maternal perinatal depression should begin supplementation early in pregnancy and use a dosage closer to 2 g of DHA + EPA. Depression should also be measured using a diagnostic interview schedule in addition to a screener. PMID:20925595

Wojcicki, Janet M.; Heyman, Melvin B.

2011-01-01

61

An Analysis of Factors Linked to the Decline in Maternal Mortality in Nepal  

PubMed Central

Nepal experienced a steep decline in maternal mortality between 1996 and 2006, which had again dropped by 2010. The aim of this study was to investigate any trends in factors that may be responsible for this decline. The study was based on a secondary data analysis of maternity care services and socio-demographic variables extracted from the Nepal Demographic Health Surveys (1996, 2001, 2006 and 2011). Complex sample analysis was performed to determine the trends in these variables across the four surveys. Univariate logistic regression was performed for selected maternity care service variables to calculate the average change in odds ratio for each survey. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the trends in the health service uptake adjusting for socio-demographic variables. There were major demographic and socio-economic changes observed between 1996 and 2011: notably fewer women delivering at ‘high risk’ ages, decreased fertility, higher education levels and migration to urban areas. Significant trends were observed for improved uptake of all maternity care services. The largest increase was observed in health facility delivery (odds ratio?=?2.21; 95% confidence interval?=?1.92, 2.34) and women making four or more antenatal visits (odds ratio?=?2.24; 95% confidence interval?=?2.03, 2.47). After adjusting for all socio-demographic factors, the trends were still significant but disparities become more pronounced at the extremes of the socio-economic spectrum. The odds ratios for each maternity care service examined decreased slightly after adjusting for education, indicating that improved levels of education could partly explain these trends. The improved utilisation of maternity care services seems essential to the decline in maternal mortality in Nepal. These findings have implications for policy planning in terms of government resources for maternity care services and the education sector. PMID:24705366

Shrestha, Sanu; Bell, Jacqueline S.; Marais, Debbi

2014-01-01

62

Maternal well-being and its association to risk of developmental problems in children at school entry  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Children at highest risk of developmental problems benefit from early identification and intervention. Investigating factors affecting child development at the time of transition to school may reveal opportunities to tailor early intervention programs for the greatest effectiveness, social benefit and economic gain. The primary objective of this study was to identify child and maternal factors associated with children who

Suzanne C Tough; Jodi E Siever; Karen Benzies; Shirley Leew; David W Johnston

2010-01-01

63

Maternal pre-pregnancy risk drinking and toddler behavior problems: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.  

PubMed

Maternal risk drinking may be a risk factor for child behavior problems even if the mother has discontinued this behavior. Whether pre-pregnancy risk drinking is an independent predictor of child behavior problems, or whether a potential effect may be explained by maternal alcohol use during and after pregnancy or other adverse maternal characteristics, is not known. Employing data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), longitudinal associations between maternal pre-pregnancy risk drinking and behavior problems in toddlers aged 18 and 36 months were examined. Included in the study was mothers answering MoBa questionnaires when the child was 18 (N = 56,682) and 36 months (N = 46,756), and who had responded to questions regarding pre-pregnancy risk drinking at gestation week 17/18, using the screening instrument T-ACE. Toddler behavior problems were measured with items from Child Behavior Checklist. Associations were analyzed with multivariate logistic regression, controlling for pre and postnatal alcohol use, as well as other relevant covariates. Pre-pregnancy risk drinking was associated with child behavior problems at 18 and 36 months, even after controlling for pre and postnatal alcohol use. Maternal ADHD and anxiety and depression were the only covariates that had any substantial impact on the associations. When all covariates were included in the model, the associations were weak for internalizing behavior problems and non-significant for externalizing behavior problems. Pre-pregnancy risk drinking may predict early development of behavior problems in the offspring. This increased risk may be due to other adverse maternal characteristics associated with risk drinking, in particular co-occurring maternal psychopathology. PMID:25053124

Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Ystrom, Eivind; Sivertsen, Børge; Tell, Grethe S; Torgersen, Leila

2014-10-01

64

Maternal Age and Risk of Labor and Delivery Complications.  

PubMed

We utilized an updated nationally representative database to examine associations between maternal age and prevalence of maternal morbidity during complications of labor and delivery. We used hospital inpatient billing data from the 2009 United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample, part of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. To determine whether the likelihood that maternal morbidity during complications of labor and delivery differed among age groups, separate logistic regression models were run for each complication. Age was the main independent variable of interest. In analyses that controlled for demographics and clinical confounders, we found that complications with the highest odds among women, 11-18 years of age, compared to 25-29 year old women, included preterm delivery, chorioamnionitis, endometritis, and mild preeclampsia. Pregnant women who were 15-19 years old had greater odds for severe preeclampsia, eclampsia, postpartum hemorrhage, poor fetal growth, and fetal distress. Pregnant women who were ?35 years old had greater odds for preterm delivery, hypertension, superimposed preeclampsia, severe preeclampsia, and decreased risk for chorioamnionitis. Older women (?40 years old) had increased odds for mild preeclampsia, fetal distress, and poor fetal growth. Our findings underscore the need for pregnant women to be aware of the risks associated with extremes of age so that they can watch for signs and symptoms of such complications. PMID:25366100

Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Spitznagel, Edward L; Bommarito, Kerry; Madden, Tessa; Olsen, Margaret A; Subramaniam, Harini; Peipert, Jeffrey F; Bierut, Laura Jean

2014-11-01

65

Factors predicting completion of a home visitation program by high-risk pregnant women: the North Carolina Maternal Outreach Worker Program.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to identify characteristics of high-risk pregnant women that predicted long-term participation in a home visitation program. METHODS: Data regarding sociodemographic characteristics, perceived needs, psychological functioning, substance use, and informal social support were collected prospectively from 152 short-term and 221 long-term program participants. RESULTS: In comparison with short-term participants, long-term participants were more likely to have been African American, married, nonsmokers, and enrolled in the program during their second trimester of pregnancy, and they were more likely to have had emotional and instrumental support needs. CONCLUSIONS: Women with greater social support needs and healthier behaviors were more receptive to long-term home visitation than other women. PMID:10630150

Navaie-Waliser, M; Martin, S L; Campbell, M K; Tessaro, I; Kotelchuck, M; Cross, A W

2000-01-01

66

Maternal mortality in rural Gambia: levels, causes and contributing factors.  

PubMed Central

A demographic study carried out in a rural area of the Gambia between January 1993 and December 1998 recorded 74 deaths among women aged 15-49 years. Reported here is an estimation of maternal mortality among these 74 deaths based on a survey of reproductive age mortality, which identified 18 maternal deaths by verbal autopsy. Over the same period there were 4245 live births in the study area, giving a maternal mortality ratio of 424 per 100,000 live births. This maternal mortality estimate is substantially lower than estimates made in the 1980s, which ranged from 1005 to 2362 per 100,000 live births, in the same area. A total of 9 of the 18 deaths had a direct obstetric cause--haemorrhage (6 deaths), early pregnancy (2), and obstructed labour (1). Indirect causes of obstetric deaths were anaemia (4 deaths), hepatitis (1), and undetermined (4). Low standards of health care for obstetric referrals, failure to recognize the severity of the problem at the community level, delays in starting the decision-making process to seek health care, lack of transport, and substandard primary health care were identified more than once as probable or possible contributing factors to these maternal deaths. PMID:10859854

Walraven, G.; Telfer, M.; Rowley, J.; Ronsmans, C.

2000-01-01

67

Atrial natriuretic factor in maternal and fetal sheep  

SciTech Connect

To determine atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) concentrations in the circulation and body fluids of adult pregnant sheep and their fetuses, pregnant ewes were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium, and the fetuses were exteriorized for sampling. ANF concentration, as measured by radioimmunoassay, was 47 +/- 6 (SE) pg/ml in maternal plasma, which was significantly higher than the 15 +/- 3 pg/ml in maternal urine. In the fetus, plasma ANF concentration was 265 +/- 49 pg/ml, 5.6 times that in maternal plasma. No umbilical arterial and venous difference in ANF concentration was observed. Fetal urine ANF concentration was significantly lower than that in fetal plasma, and was similar to that measured in amniotic and allantoic fluid. In chronically catheterized maternal and fetal sheep, fetal plasma ANF was again 5.1 times that in maternal plasma, and these levels were not different from those measured in acutely anesthetized animals. These results demonstrate that immunoreactive ANF is present in the fetal circulation at levels higher than those found in the mother. The low concentration of ANF in fetal urine suggests that ANF is probably metabolized and/or reabsorbed by the fetal kidney.

Cheung, C.Y.; Gibbs, D.M.; Brace, R.A.

1987-02-01

68

Modifiable risk factors for schizophrenia and autism--shared risk factors impacting on brain development.  

PubMed

Schizophrenia and autism are two poorly understood clinical syndromes that differ in age of onset and clinical profile. However, recent genetic and epidemiological research suggests that these two neurodevelopmental disorders share certain risk factors. The aims of this review are to describe modifiable risk factors that have been identified in both disorders, and, where available, collate salient systematic reviews and meta-analyses that have examined shared risk factors. Based on searches of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO, inspection of review articles and expert opinion, we first compiled a set of candidate modifiable risk factors associated with autism. Where available, we next collated systematic-reviews (with or without meta-analyses) related to modifiable risk factors associated with both autism and schizophrenia. We identified three modifiable risk factors that have been examined in systematic reviews for both autism and schizophrenia. Advanced paternal age was reported as a risk factor for schizophrenia in a single meta-analysis and as a risk factor in two meta-analyses for autism. With respect to pregnancy and birth complications, for autism one meta-analysis identified maternal diabetes and bleeding during pregnancy as risks factors for autism whilst a meta-analysis of eight studies identified obstetric complications as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Migrant status was identified as a risk factor for both autism and schizophrenia. Two separate meta-analyses were identified for each disorder. Despite distinct clinical phenotypes, the evidence suggests that at least some non-genetic risk factors are shared between these two syndromes. In particular, exposure to drugs, nutritional excesses or deficiencies and infectious agents lend themselves to public health interventions. Studies are now needed to quantify any increase in risk of either autism or schizophrenia that is associated with these modifiable environmental factors. PMID:23123588

Hamlyn, Jess; Duhig, Michael; McGrath, John; Scott, James

2013-05-01

69

Increased Waking Salivary Cortisol and Depression Risk in Preschoolers: The Role of Maternal History of Melancholic Depression and Early Child Temperament  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Elevated morning cortisol is a prospective predictor of major depression and may serve as a vulnerability marker. We examined the relation between morning cortisol and two prominent risk factors for depression in preschool-aged children: maternal depression and child temperament. We also explored whether maternal depression during the…

Dougherty, Lea R.; Klein, Daniel N.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret; Rose, Suzanne

2009-01-01

70

Maternal perception of fetal movement type: the effect of gestational age and maternal factors.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: To assess maternal perception of fetal movement types and its association with maternal factors in normal pregnancies with good pregnancy outcome. Methods: This study was conducted on 729 normotensive singleton pregnant women with good pregnancy outcome who had referred for prenatal visit. After completing a questionnaire, the participants were asked to count fetal movements for 1?h/3 times/day. They were also asked to identify the type of fetal movement: general body movement (GBM) (rolling and stretching/strong), isolated limb movement (ILM; simple flutter or kicks/weak), trunk movement (TM) (strong jab, startle/strong), or hiccup movement (HM) (high frequency and rapid/weak). All the participants were followed till delivery to exclude pregnant women with preterm birth and/or small for gestational age from the study. Results: 90.8% of participants perceived GBM, which was independently associated with maternal unemployment (OR?=?2.28, 95% CI?=?1.18-4.4). 74.2% of participants perceived TM, which was associated with multiparity (OR?=?1.69, 95% CI?=?1.18-2.4). 86.3% perceived ILM, which was independently associated with maternal unemployment (OR?=?2.67, 95% CI?=?1.53-4.68), lower gestational age (OR?=?2.17, 95% CI?=?1.28-3.67), perception of fetal movements at night (OR?=?2.05, 95% CI?=?1.27-3.32), and multiparity (OR?=?1.68, 95% CI?=?1.04-2.72). 36.6% perceived HM, which was independently associated with higher gestational age (OR?=?1.71, 95% CI?=?1.2-2.44). Conclusions: Most pregnant women could discriminate changes in fetal movement type that follow a general pattern through the third gestational trimester, however this can be affected by maternal employment, parity and time of perception. PMID:24871458

Hantoushzadeh, Sedigheh; Sheikh, Mahdi; Shariat, Mamak; Farahani, Zahra

2014-06-30

71

W?hine hauora: linking local hospital and national health information datasets to explore maternal risk factors and obstetric outcomes of New Zealand M?ori and non-M?ori women in relation to infant respiratory admissions and timely immunisations  

PubMed Central

Background Significant health inequities exist around maternal and infant health for M?ori, the indigenous people of New Zealand. The infants of M?ori are more likely to die in their first year of life and also have higher rates of hospital admission for respiratory illnesses, with the greatest burden of morbidity being due to bronchiolitis in those under one year of age. Timely immunisations can prevent some respiratory related hospitalisations, although for M?ori, the proportion of infants with age appropriate immunisations are lower than for non-M?ori. This paper describes the protocol for a retrospective cohort study that linked local hospital and national health information datasets to explore maternal risk factors and obstetric outcomes in relation to respiratory admissions and timely immunisations for infants of M?ori and non-M?ori women. Methods/Design The study population included pregnant women who gave birth in hospital in one region of New Zealand between 1995 and 2009. Routinely collected local hospital data were linked via a unique identifier (National Health Index number) to national health information databases to assess rates of post-natal admissions and access to health services for M?ori and non-M?ori mothers and infants. The two primary outcomes for the study are: 1. The rates of respiratory hospitalisations of infants (? 1 yr of age) calculated for infants of both M?ori and non-M?ori women (for mothers under 20 years of age, and overall) accounting for relationship to parity, maternal age, socioeconomic deprivation index, maternal smoking status. 2. The proportion of infants with age appropriate immunisations at six and 12 months, calculated for both infants born to M?ori women and infants born to non-M?ori women, accounting for relationship to parity, maternal age, socioeconomic deprivation index, smoking status, and other risk factors. Discussion Analysis of a wide range of routinely collected health information in which maternal and infant data are linked will allow us to directly explore the relationship between key maternal factors and infant health, and provide a greater understanding of the causes of health inequalities that exist between the infants of M?ori and non-M?ori mothers. PMID:23837612

2013-01-01

72

Risk Factors for Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances in understanding the etiology of eating disorders require

Ruth H. Striegel-Moore; Cynthia M. Bulik

2007-01-01

73

Risk Factors for Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…

Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

2007-01-01

74

Maternal and genetic factors determine early life telomere length.  

PubMed

In a broad range of species--including humans--it has been demonstrated that telomere length declines throughout life and that it may be involved in cell and organismal senescence. This potential link to ageing and thus to fitness has triggered recent interest in understanding how variation in telomere length is inherited and maintained. However, previous studies suffer from two main drawbacks that limit the possibility of understanding the relative importance of genetic, parental and environmental influences on telomere length variation. These studies have been based on (i) telomere lengths measured at different time points in different individuals, despite the fact that telomere length changes over life, and (ii) parent-offspring regression techniques, which do not enable differentiation between genetic and parental components of inheritance. To overcome these drawbacks, in our study of a songbird, the great reed warbler, we have analysed telomere length measured early in life in both parents and offspring and applied statistical models (so-called 'animal models') that are based on long-term pedigree data. Our results showed a significant heritability of telomere length on the maternal but not on the paternal side, and that the mother's age was positively correlated with their offspring's telomere length. Furthermore, the pedigree-based analyses revealed a significant heritability and an equally large maternal effect. Our study demonstrates strong maternal influence on telomere length and future studies now need to elucidate possible underlying factors, including which types of maternal effects are involved. PMID:25621325

Asghar, Muhammad; Bensch, Staffan; Tarka, Maja; Hansson, Bengt; Hasselquist, Dennis

2015-01-22

75

Maternal and neonatal individual risks and benefits associated with caesarean delivery: multicentre prospective study  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the risks and benefits associated with caesarean delivery compared with vaginal delivery. Design Prospective cohort study within the 2005 WHO global survey on maternal and perinatal health. Setting 410 health facilities in 24 areas in eight randomly selected Latin American countries; 123 were randomly selected and 120 participated and provided data Participants 106?546 deliveries reported during the three month study period, with data available for 97?095 (91% coverage). Main outcome measures Maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality associated with intrapartum or elective caesarean delivery, adjusted for clinical, demographic, pregnancy, and institutional characteristics. Results Women undergoing caesarean delivery had an increased risk of severe maternal morbidity compared with women undergoing vaginal delivery (odds ratio 2.0 (95% confidence interval 1.6 to 2.5) for intrapartum caesarean and 2.3 (1.7 to 3.1) for elective caesarean). The risk of antibiotic treatment after delivery for women having either type of caesarean was five times that of women having vaginal deliveries. With cephalic presentation, there was a trend towards a reduced odds ratio for fetal death with elective caesarean, after adjustment for possible confounding variables and gestational age (0.7, 0.4 to 1.0). With breech presentation, caesarean delivery had a large protective effect for fetal death. With cephalic presentation, however, independent of possible confounding variables and gestational age, intrapartum and elective caesarean increased the risk for a stay of seven or more days in neonatal intensive care (2.1 (1.8 to 2.6) and 1.9 (1.6 to 2.3), respectively) and the risk of neonatal mortality up to hospital discharge (1.7 (1.3 to 2.2) and 1.9 (1.5 to 2.6), respectively), which remained higher even after exclusion of all caesarean deliveries for fetal distress. Such increased risk was not seen for breech presentation. Lack of labour was a risk factor for a stay of seven or more days in neonatal intensive care and neonatal mortality up to hospital discharge for babies delivered by elective caesarean delivery, but rupturing of membranes may be protective. Conclusions Caesarean delivery independently reduces overall risk in breech presentations and risk of intrapartum fetal death in cephalic presentations but increases the risk of severe maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in cephalic presentations. PMID:17977819

Carroli, Guillermo; Zavaleta, Nelly; Donner, Allan; Wojdyla, Daniel; Faundes, Anibal; Velazco, Alejandro; Bataglia, Vicente; Langer, Ana; Narváez, Alberto; Valladares, Eliette; Shah, Archana; Campodónico, Liana; Romero, Mariana; Reynoso, Sofia; de Pádua, Karla Simônia; Giordano, Daniel; Kublickas, Marius; Acosta, Arnaldo

2007-01-01

76

Modifiable Risk Factors Branch (MRFB)  

Cancer.gov

The Modifiable Risk Factors Branch (MRFB) focuses on factors to reduce cancer risk in humans, including exposures to nutritional components; physical activity and energy balance; alcohol and tobacco; and infectious, physical, and chemical agents.

77

Ethnic variation in stillbirth risk and the role of maternal obesity: analysis of routine data from a London maternity unit.  

PubMed

BackgroundApproximately 5 in 1,000 deliveries in England and Wales result in stillbirth, with little improvement in figures over the last few decades. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between clinical and socio-demographic factors and stillbirth, with a particular focus on ethnicity and obesity.MethodsAnalysis of routine maternity data on 53,293 singleton births occurring in a large London teaching hospital between 2004 and 2012. Logistic regression was used to investigate risk factors for stillbirth and to explore potential effect modification.Results53,293 deliveries occurred during the time period, of which 329 resulted in a stillbirth (6.2 per 1,000 births). Compared to White women, non-White ethnicity was associated with a doubling of the odds of stillbirth (aOR for Black women 2.15, 95% CI 1.56-2.97; aOR for South Asian women 2.33, 95% CI 1.42-3.83). Obese women had a trend towards higher odds of stillbirth compared to women of recommended BMI (aOR 1.38, 95% CI 0.98-1.96), though this was not significant (p 0.07). Both higher parity (¿2 compared to para 1) and hypertension were associated with a higher odds of stillbirth (parity ¿2 aOR 1.65, 95% CI 1.13-2.39; hypertension aOR 1.84, 95% CI 1.22-2.78) but there was no evidence that area deprivation or maternal age were independently associated with stillbirth in this population. There was some evidence of effect modification between ethnicity and obesity (p value for interaction 0.06), with obesity a particularly strong risk factor for stillbirth in South Asian women (aOR 4.64, 95% CI 1.84-11.70).ConclusionsThere was a high prevalence of stillbirth in this multi-ethnic urban population. The increased risk of stillbirth observed in non-White women remains after adjusting for other factors. Our finding of possible effect modification between ethnicity and obesity suggests that further research should be conducted in order to improve understanding of the interplay between ethnicity, obesity and stillbirth. PMID:25481783

Penn, Nicole; Oteng-Ntim, Eugene; Oakley, Laura L; Doyle, Pat

2014-12-01

78

Risk Factors of Neural Tube Defects in Northern Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Neural tube defects (NTDs) including spina bifida and anencephaly are the second most common birth defects with 2.8 per 1000 births in northern Iran. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the risk factors of neural tube defects in Gorgan, north of Iran. Patients and Methods: This hospital-based, case-control study was carried out on all NTD-affected pregnancies (n = 59) during February 2007 - August 2010, and 160 healthy pregnancies were selected via convenient sampling method in three hospitals in Gorgan, north of Iran. Risk factors including maternal body mass index (BMI), season of birth, gender of the newborn, mother’s age, ethnicity, consanguineous marriage, folic acid consumption, nutrition, habitat, and education, were assessed through interviews with mothers. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the risks by odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals. Results: The multivariate analysis showed that maternal BMI (normal/underweight OR: 0.23, overweight/underweight OR: 0.15, obese/underweight OR: 0.13) and maternal ethnicity (Fars/Sistani OR: 3.49) and maternal nutrition (good/poor OR: 0.46) were significantly correlated with NTDs in the newborns. Conclusions: This study showed that maternal ethnicity, insufficient nutrition, and BMI, were the main risk factors of NTDs in northern Iran. PMID:25068063

Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar; Qorbani, Mostafa; Mirfazeli, Arezo; Mobasheri, Elham

2014-01-01

79

Risk factors and prediction of preeclampsia.  

PubMed

Inadequate trophoblast invasion of the spiral arteries in early pregnancy, an increased inflammatory response and changes in the immune answer to paternal antigens are considered aetiological factors in preeclampsia. Searching for factors related to these angiogenic, anti-angiogenic, immunologic and inflammatory mechanisms may provide methods to determine which patient will develop preeclampsia predating the onset of the clinical manifestations of the disease. Screening for preeclampsia in the first trimester has had Limited success. Currently, maternal characteristics, clinical history, maternal serum biochemistry and uterine artery Doppler sonography before 14 weeks are being investigated. Preeclampsia in a previous pregnancy is still the strongest predictor. In the second trimester, uterine artery Doppler has a detection rate around 60% but also a high false positive rate of 25%. First trimester uterine artery Doppler studies have high sensitivity but poor specificity with a high false positive rate. Combination of first trimester uterine artery Doppler with patient characteristics and maternal serum biochemistry, specifically placental protein 13 holds promise but further evaluation is needed. Maternal serum markers including inhibin A, activin A, soluble FMS-Like tyrosine kinase 1, endoglin, pregnancy associated plasma protein A and others, when used alone have proved poor predictors of preeclampsia. Most studies have been performed by a limited group of researchers in a population with a high risk and no validation studies of any method in other populations are available. Results are difficult to compare due to differences in methodology, and differences in the end point studied.There are still no good methods of preventing preeclampsia once a high risk has been determined. PMID:20373592

Jacquemyn, Y; Zemtsova, O

2010-01-01

80

Cumulative effects of mothers' risk and promotive factors on daughters' disruptive behavior.  

PubMed

Little is known about the ways in which the accumulation of maternal factors increases or reduces risk for girls' disruptive behavior during preadolescence. In the current study, maternal risk and promotive factors and the severity of girls' disruptive behavior were assessed annually among girls' ages 7-12 in an urban community sample (N?=?2043). Maternal risk and promotive factors were operative at different time points in girls' development. Maternal warmth explained variance in girls' disruptive behavior, even after controlling for maternal risk factors and relevant child and neighborhood factors. In addition, findings supported the cumulative hypothesis that the number of risk factors increased the chance on girls' disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), while the number of promotive factors decreased this probability. Daughters of mothers with a history of Conduct Disorder (CD) were exposed to more risk factors and fewer promotive factors compared to daughters of mothers without prior CD. The identification of malleable maternal factors that can serve as targets for intervention has important implications for intergenerational intervention. Cumulative effects show that the focus of prevention efforts should not be on single factors, but on multiple factors associated with girls' disruptive behavior. PMID:22127641

van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

2012-07-01

81

Risk factors of intracranial hemorrhage in premature neonates.  

PubMed

Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is an important cause of brain injury in premature neonates. Current study tries to define associated risk factors of IVH in preterm neonates in Aliasghar Children Hospital during 2008 to 2011. In this study, the risk factors have been evaluated in premature neonates with IVH, who had at least one brain sonography since their admission in NICU. A total of 63 premature neonates with IVH were assessed. Mean gestational age was 29.81 (24-34) weeks and mean birth weight was 1290.83±382.96 gr. Other risk factors such as sex, mode of delivery, history of using infertility drugs, maternal disease, maternal hypertension and preeclampsia, lumbar puncture, ventilator therapy and pneumothorax were considered. Because no absolute treatment for IVH is available, identifying risk factors is important in prevention and management of IVH. PMID:25421841

Khalessi, Nasrin; Farahani, Zahra; Shariat, Mamak; Rezaeizadeh, Golnaz

2014-01-01

82

Risk factors for urinary tract infection in the postpartum period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We sought to examine risk factors for urinary tract infection in postpartum women. Study Design: Subjects (n = 931) with maternal urinary tract infections and control subjects (n = 1862) were identified by using a linked Washington State birth certificate and Birth Events Records Database for the years 1987-1993; stratified analysis was performed by using Mantel-Haenszel procedures. Results: Increased

Margot A. Schwartz; Chia C. Wang; Linda O. Eckert; Cathy W. Critchlow

1999-01-01

83

Multiple jeopardy: Risk and protective factors among addicted mothers' offspring  

PubMed Central

Objectives of this study were to ascertain risk and protective factors in the adjustment of 78 school-age and teenage offspring of opioid- and cocaine-abusing mothers. Using a multimethod, multiinformant approach, child outcomes were operationalized via lifetime psychiatric diagnoses and everyday social competence (each based on both mother and child reports), and dimensional assessments of symptoms (mother report). Risk/protective factors examined included the child sociodemographic attributes of gender, age, and ethnicity, aspects of maternal psychopathology, and both mother's and children's cognitive functioning. Results revealed that greater child maladjustment was linked with increasing age, Caucasian (as opposed to African American) ethnicity, severity of maternal psychiatric disturbance, higher maternal cognitive abilities (among African Americans) and lower child cognitive abilities (among Caucasians). Limitations of the study are discussed, as are implications of findings for future research. PMID:9524811

LUTHAR, SUNIYA S.; CUSHING, GRETTA; MERIKANGAS, KATHLEEN R.; ROUNSAVILLE, BRUCE J.

2012-01-01

84

Testicular cancer risk and maternal parity: a population-based cohort study.  

PubMed Central

The aim was to study, in a population-based cohort design, whether first-born sons run a higher risk of testicular cancer than later born sons; to investigate whether this difference in risk was affected by birth cohort, age of the son, maternal age, interval to previous delivery and other reproductive factors; and, finally, to evaluate to what extent changes in women's parity over time might explain the increasing incidence of testicular cancer. By using data from the Civil Registration System, a database was established of all women born in Denmark since 1935 and all their children alive in 1968 or born later. Sons with testicular cancer were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry. Among 1015994 sons followed for 15981 967 person-years, 626 developed testicular cancer (443 non-seminomas, 183 seminomas). Later born sons had a decreased risk of testicular cancer (RR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.67-0.95) compared with first-born sons. The RR was 0.79 (95% CI = 0.64-0.98) for non-seminomas and 0.81 (95% CI = 0.58-1.13) for seminomas. There was no association between testicular cancer risk and overall parity of the mother, maternal or paternal age at the birth of the son, or maternal age at first birth. The decreased risk of testicular cancer among later born sons was not modified by age, birth cohort, interval to the previous birth, sex of the first-born child, or maternal age at birth of the son or at first birth. The increased proportion of first-borns from birth cohort 1946 to birth cohort 1969 only explained around 3% of an approximated two-fold increase in incidence between the cohorts. Our data document a distinctly higher risk of testicular cancer in first-born compared with later born sons and suggest that the most likely explanation should be sought among exposures in utero. The increase in the proportion of first-borns in the population has only contributed marginally to the increase in testicular cancer incidence. PMID:9569059

Westergaard, T.; Andersen, P. K.; Pedersen, J. B.; Frisch, M.; Olsen, J. H.; Melbye, M.

1998-01-01

85

Child sexual assault: risk factors for girls.  

PubMed

To identify prospectively measured risk factors of sexual assault (SA) among girls age 17 and younger. The data come from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and are derived from interviews with 1,087 girls, their primary caregivers, and household heads. The data were collected from the girls' first year of life through their early twenties. Factors measured during childhood were used to predict whether the girls experienced a subsequent first sexual assault before the age of 18. Prospectively measured risk factors associated with subsequent child SA included the absence of one or both parents, maternal education less than college, family income below 400% of the federal poverty threshold, low caregiver warmth, child internalizing and externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, low achievement scores, and having been classified by their school as needing special education. Girls with behavioral health problems and learning challenges are at heightened risk for sexual assault. Research on behavioral health consequences of SA should control for preexisting SA risk factors to more accurately estimate the impact of child SA on subsequent behavioral health. PMID:23899536

Butler, Amy C

2013-09-01

86

Maternal Catecholamine Levels in Midpregnancy and Risk of Preterm Delivery  

PubMed Central

Associations between stress hormones and preterm delivery have not been fully explored. In this study, pregnant women enrolled from 52 clinics in 5 Michigan communities (1998–2004) provided urine samples for 3 days (waking and bedtime) during midpregnancy. Urinary catecholamine levels (epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine) were measured in a subcohort (247 preterm and 760 term deliveries), and a 3-day median value was calculated. Polytomous logistic regression models assessed relations between catecholamine quartiles (of the median) and a 4-level outcome variable (i.e., term (referent) and 3 preterm delivery subtypes: spontaneous; premature rupture of membranes; and medically indicated). Final models incorporated other relevant covariates (e.g., creatinine, demographic, behavior). The risk of spontaneous preterm delivery was increased in the highest versus lowest quartile of norepinephrine and dopamine: norepinephrine, waking (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8, 7.9) and bedtime (AOR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.3, 4.9); dopamine, waking (AOR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.4, 5.1) and bedtime (AOR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.2, 4.6). Adjusted odds ratios were further strengthened after removing women whose placentas showed evidence of acute infection or vascular pathology. High catecholamine levels in maternal urine may be indicative of excess stressors and/or predisposition to elevated sympathetic activation that contributes to increased risk of spontaneous preterm delivery. PMID:19741043

Senagore, Patricia; Tian, Yan; Bullen, Bertha; DeVos, Eric; Leece, Cheryl; Zanella, Adroaldo; Fink, Gregory; Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Sapkal, Anjali

2009-01-01

87

Predicting Preschool Cognitive Development from Infant Temperament, Maternal Sensitivity, and Psychosocial Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study investigated the relative contributions of infant temperament, maternal sensitivity, and psychosocial risk to individual differences in preschool children's cognitive development. It also examined specific moderating effects between predictors as well as the specific mediating role of maternal sensitivity in the relation…

Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Tarabulsy, George M.; Provost, Marc A.

2006-01-01

88

Maternal factors required for oocyte developmental competence in mice  

PubMed Central

During mouse antral follicle development, the oocyte chromatin gradually transforms from a less condensed state with no Hoechst-positive rim surrounding the nucleolus (NSN) to a fully condensed chromatin state with a Hoechst-positive rim surrounding the nucleolus (SN). Compared with SN oocytes, NSN oocytes display a higher gene transcription activity and a lower rate of meiosis resumption (G2/M transition), and they are mostly arrested at the two-cell stage after in vitro fertilization. To explore the differences between NSN and SN oocytes, and the maternal factors required for oocyte developmental competence, we compared the whole-transcriptome profiles between NSN and SN oocytes. First, we found that the NSN and SN oocytes were different in their metabolic pathways. In the phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway, the SN oocytes tend to produce diacylglycerol, whereas the NSN oocytes tend to produce phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate. For energy production, the SN oocytes and NSN oocytes differed in the gluconeogenesis and in the synthesis processes. Second, we also found that the key genes associated with oocyte meiosis and/or preimplantation embryo development were differently expressed in the NSN and SN oocytes. Our results illustrate that during the NSN-SN transition, the oocytes change their metabolic activities and accumulate maternal factors for further oocyte maturation and post-fertilization embryo development. PMID:23673344

Ma, Jun-Yu; Li, Mo; Luo, Yi-Bo; Song, Shuhui; Tian, Dongmei; Yang, Jin; Zhang, Bing; Hou, Yi; Schatten, Heide; Liu, Zhonghua; Sun, Qing-Yuan

2013-01-01

89

Meningococcal Disease: Risk Factors  

MedlinePLUS

... about those with certain medical conditions being at risk . Travel Travelers to the meningitis belt in sub-Saharan Africa may be at risk for meningococcal disease, particularly during the dry season. ...

90

Maternal overweight and obesity in early pregnancy and risk of infant mortality: a population based cohort study in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate associations between maternal overweight and obesity and infant mortality outcomes, including cause-specific mortality. Design Population based cohort study. Setting and participants 1?857?822 live single births in Sweden 1992–2010. Main outcome measures Associations between maternal body mass index (BMI) in early pregnancy and risks of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality, overall and stratified by gestational length and by causes of infant death. Odds ratios were adjusted for maternal age, parity, smoking, education, height, country of birth, and year of delivery. Results Infant mortality rates increased from 2.4/1000 among normal weight women (BMI 18.5–24.9) to 5.8/1000 among women with obesity grade 3 (BMI ?40.0). Compared with normal weight, overweight (BMI 25.0–29.9) and obesity grade 1 (BMI 30.0–34.9) were associated with modestly increased risks of infant mortality (adjusted odds ratios 1.25 (95% confidence interval 1.16 to 1.35) and 1.37 (1.22 to 1.53), respectively), and obesity grade 2 (BMI 35.0–39.9) and grade 3 were associated with more than doubled risks (adjusted odds ratios 2.11 (1.79 to 2.49) and 2.44 (1.88 to 3.17)). In analyses stratified by preterm and term births, maternal BMI was related to risks of infant mortality primarily in term births (?37 weeks), where risks of deaths due to birth asphyxia and other neonatal morbidities increased with maternal overweight and obesity. Obesity grade 2–3 was also associated with increased infant mortality due to congenital anomalies and sudden infant death syndrome. Conclusions Maternal overweight and obesity are associated with increased risks of infant mortality due to increased mortality risk in term births and an increased prevalence of preterm births. Maternal overweight and obesity may be an important preventable risk factor for infant mortality in many countries. PMID:25467170

Villamor, Eduardo; Altman, Maria; Bonamy, Anna-Karin Edstedt; Granath, Fredrik; Cnattingius, Sven

2014-01-01

91

Maternal Substance Use and HIV Status: Adolescent Risk and Resilience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the risk and protective factors and mental health problems of 105 low SES, urban adolescents whose mothers were coping with alcohol abuse and other drug problems. Approximately half of the mothers were also HIV-infected. As hypothesized, there were few differences between adolescents of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers in…

Leonard, Noelle R.; Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Cleland, Charles M.; Vekaria, Pooja C.; Ferns, Bill

2008-01-01

92

BIRTH DEFECTS RISK ASSOCIATED WITH MATERNAL SPORT FISH CONSUMPTION: POTENTIAL EFFECT MODIFICATION BY SEX OF OFFSPRING  

EPA Science Inventory

Contaminated sport fish consumption may result in exposure to various reproductive and developmental toxicants, including pesticides and other suspected endocrine disruptors. We investigated the relation between maternal sport fish meals and risk of major birth defects among infa...

93

Effect of maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk in the offspring  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Intrauterine and early life exposure to folic acid has significantly increased in North America owing to folic acid fortification, widespread supplemental use and periconceptional folic acid supplementation. The effect of maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk ...

94

Elevated maternal lipids in early pregnancy are not associated with risk of intrapartum caesarean in overweight and obese nulliparous women  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal overweight and obesity are associated with slower labour progress and increased caesarean delivery for failure to progress. Obesity is also associated with hyperlipidaemia and cholesterol inhibits myometrial contractility in vitro. Our aim was, among overweight and obese nulliparous women, to investigate 1. the role of early pregnancy serum cholesterol and 2. clinical risk factors associated with first stage caesarean for failure to progress at term. Methods Secondary data analysis from a prospective cohort of overweight/obese New Zealand and Australian nullipara recruited to the SCOPE study. Women who laboured at term and delivered vaginally (n=840) or required first stage caesarean for failure to progress (n=196) were included. Maternal characteristics and serum cholesterol at 14–16 weeks’ of gestation were compared according to delivery mode in univariable and multivariable analyses (adjusted for BMI, maternal age and height, obstetric care type, induction of labour and gestation at delivery ?41 weeks). Results Total cholesterol at 14–16 weeks was not higher among women requiring first stage caesarean for failure to progress compared to those with vaginal delivery (5.55 ± 0.92 versus 5.67 ± 0.85 mmol/L, p= 0.10 respectively). Antenatal risk factors for first stage caesarean for failure to progress in overweight and obese women were BMI (adjusted odds ratio [aOR (95% CI)] 1.15 (1.07-1.22) per 5 unit increase, maternal age 1.37 (1.17-1.61) per 5 year increase, height 1.09 (1.06-1.12) per 1cm reduction), induction of labour 1.94 (1.38-2.73) and prolonged pregnancy ?41 weeks 1.64 (1.14-2.35). Conclusions Elevated maternal cholesterol in early pregnancy is not a risk factor for first stage caesarean for failure to progress in overweight/obese women. Other clinically relevant risk factors identified are: increasing maternal BMI, increasing maternal age, induction of labour and prolonged pregnancy ?41 weeks’ of gestation. PMID:23835080

2013-01-01

95

Cardiovascular risk factors among Chamorros  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding the cardiovascular disease risk factors among Chamorros residing in the United States. METHODS: The Chamorro Directory International and the CDC's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Questionnaire (BRFSS) were used to assess the health related practices and needs of a random sample of 228 Chamorros. RESULTS: Inactivity, hypertension, elevated cholesterol and diabetes mellitus were more prevalent

Binh Chiem; Victoria Nguyen; Phillis L Wu; Celine M Ko; Lee Ann Cruz; Georgia Robins Sadler

2006-01-01

96

Smoking – A Renal Risk Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important tasks of clinical and experimental nephrology is to identify the risk factors of progression of renal failure. A major renal risk factor which has not been sufficiently acknowledged despite increasing evidence is cigarette smoking. Diabetologists were the first to recognize the adverse effects of smoking on the kidney: both in type 1 and in type

Stephan R. Orth

2000-01-01

97

Success factors for reducing maternal and child mortality.  

PubMed

Reducing maternal and child mortality is a priority in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and will likely remain so after 2015. Evidence exists on the investments, interventions and enabling policies required. Less is understood about why some countries achieve faster progress than other comparable countries. The Success Factors for Women's and Children's Health studies sought to address this knowledge gap using statistical and econometric analyses of data from 144 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) over 20 years; Boolean, qualitative comparative analysis; a literature review; and country-specific reviews in 10 fast-track countries for MDGs 4 and 5a. There is no standard formula--fast-track countries deploy tailored strategies and adapt quickly to change. However, fast-track countries share some effective approaches in addressing three main areas to reduce maternal and child mortality. First, these countries engage multiple sectors to address crucial health determinants. Around half the reduction in child mortality in LMICs since 1990 is the result of health sector investments, the other half is attributed to investments made in sectors outside health. Second, these countries use strategies to mobilize partners across society, using timely, robust evidence for decision-making and accountability and a triple planning approach to consider immediate needs, long-term vision and adaptation to change. Third, the countries establish guiding principles that orient progress, align stakeholder action and achieve results over time. This evidence synthesis contributes to global learning on accelerating improvements in women's and children's health towards 2015 and beyond. PMID:25110379

Kuruvilla, Shyama; Schweitzer, Julian; Bishai, David; Chowdhury, Sadia; Caramani, Daniele; Frost, Laura; Cortez, Rafael; Daelmans, Bernadette; de Francisco, Andres; Adam, Taghreed; Cohen, Robert; Alfonso, Y Natalia; Franz-Vasdeki, Jennifer; Saadat, Seemeen; Pratt, Beth Anne; Eugster, Beatrice; Bandali, Sarah; Venkatachalam, Pritha; Hinton, Rachael; Murray, John; Arscott-Mills, Sharon; Axelson, Henrik; Maliqi, Blerta; Sarker, Intissar; Lakshminarayanan, Rama; Jacobs, Troy; Jack, Susan; Jacks, Susan; Mason, Elizabeth; Ghaffar, Abdul; Mays, Nicholas; Presern, Carole; Bustreo, Flavia

2014-07-01

98

Dietary consumption of B vitamins, maternal MTHFR polymorphisms and risk for spontaneous abortion  

PubMed Central

Objective To asses he association between intake of folate and B vitamins and the incidence of spontaneous abortion (SA) according to the maternal methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms (677 C>T and 1298 A>C). Material and Methods We conducted a nested case-control study within a perinatal cohort of women recruited in the state of Morelos, Mexico. Twenty-three women with SA were compared to 74 women whose pregnancy survived beyond week 20th. Intake of folate and B vitamins respectively, was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Maternal MTHFR polymorphisms were determined by PCR-RFLP and serum homocysteine levels by HPLC. Results Carriers of MTHFR 677TT and 1298AC genotypes respectively showed an increased risk of SA (OR 677TT vs. CC/CT=5.0; 95% CI: 1.2, 20.9 and OR 1298 AC vs. AA=5.5; 95% CI: 1.1, 26.6). Conclusions Our results support the role of MTHFR polymorphisms as a risk factor for SA, regardless of dietary intake of B vitamins. PMID:19180309

Rodríguez-Guillén, María del Rosario; Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; Chen, Jia; Galván-Portillo, Marcia; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Blanco-Muñoz, Julia; Hernández-Valero, María A.; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

2010-01-01

99

Maternal and perinatal factors associated with subsequent meningococcal, Haemophilus or enteroviral meningitis in children: database study.  

PubMed

We used a database of 248 659 births, with follow-up to subsequent disease, in the Oxford record linkage archive (1979-1999) to study the influence of family, maternal, and perinatal factors on subsequent hospital admission for meningococcal, Haemophilus, and enteroviral meningitis in the children. In this summary, we report key findings that were significant in multivariate analysis. Meningococcal meningitis was significantly associated with maternal smoking [odds ratio (OR) 2·1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·2-3·7]. Haemophilus meningitis was associated with having older siblings (e.g. second child compared to first-born, OR 3·3, 95% CI 2·0-5·6). Enteroviral meningitis was associated with low birth weight (OR 2·2, 95% CI 1·3-3·6) and male sex (OR 1·7, 95% CI 1·2-2·3). The mothers of six of the 312 children with enteroviral meningitis had previously had enteroviral meningitis themselves. We concluded that several maternal characteristics influence the risk of these types of meningitis. PMID:23659618

Goldacre, M J; Wotton, C J; Maisonneuve, J J

2014-02-01

100

Risk Factors of Dystocia in Nulliparous Women  

PubMed Central

Background: Detection of women at risk for dystocia will allow physicians to make preparations and treatment decisions that can minimize maternal and neonatal morbidity. We aimed to determine the risk factors for dystocia in nulliparous women. Methods: This case series enrolled 447 nulliparous women who presented with a single pregnancy in the vertex presentation and gestational age of 38-42 weeks. Maternal anthropometric measurements were obtained upon admission. We defined dystocia as a cesarean section or vacuum delivery for abnormal progression of labor as evidenced by the presence of effective uterine contractions, cervical dilation of less than 1 cm/h in the active phase for 2 h, duration of the second stage beyond 2 h, or fetal head descent less than 1 cm/h. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 11.5. Kruskal-Wallis, logistic regression, chi-square, Student’s t test and the Mann-Whitney tests were used as appropriated. Results: The state anxiety score (OR=10.58, CI: 1.97-56.0), posterior head position (OR=9.53, CI: 4.68-19.36), fetal head swelling in the second stage of labor (OR=6.85, CI: 2.60-18.01), transverse diagonal of Michaelis sacral ?9.6 cm (OR=6.19, CI: 2.49-15.40), and height to fundal ratio <4.7 (OR=2.68, CI: 1.09-10.60) were significant risk factors for dystocia. Conclusion: Critical care during labor and delivery in women who have a height to fundal height ratio of <4.7 or transverse diagonal of Michaelis sacral ?9.6 cm, an anxiety score greater than moderate, and posterior head position or fetal head swelling during the second phase could play an effective and important role in preventing dystocia. PMID:24850982

Alijahan, Rahele; Kordi, Masoumeh

2014-01-01

101

Medical and Psychologic Risks of Maternal Cocaine Use  

PubMed Central

The growing use of crack-cocaine by women of child-bearing age poses significant management problems for physicians. Both animal and human studies suggest that cocaine exerts significant negative effects on maternal health, the course of pregnancy, and infant developmental outcome. Maternal pregnancy complications and increased rates of low birth weight and prematurity in infants who are fetally exposed are well documented. However, available studies of neurobehavioral outcomes for cocaine-exposed infants are still inconclusive. Physicians need to become knowledgeable about the potential effects of maternal drug addiction during pregnancy to provide appropriate medical care.

Singer, Lynn; Arendt, Robert E.; Minnes, Sonia; Garber, Rachel M.

2014-01-01

102

Sexual Risk Factors  

MedlinePLUS

... can be. These actions include: Choose less risky sexual behaviors. Oral sex is much less risky than anal or vaginal sex. Anal sex is the highest-risk sexual activity for HIV transmission. If you are HIV- ...

103

Environmental risk factors for autism.  

PubMed

Autism is a devastating childhood condition that has emerged as an increasing social concern just as it has increased in prevalence in recent decades. Autism and the broader category of autism spectrum disorders are among the increasingly seen examples in which there is a fetal basis for later disease or disorder. Environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors all play a role in determining the risk of autism and some of these effects appear to be transgenerational. Identification of the most critical windows of developmental vulnerability is paramount to understanding when and under what circumstances a child is at elevated risk for autism. No single environmental factor explains the increased prevalence of autism. While a handful of environmental risk factors have been suggested based on data from human studies and animal research, it is clear that many more, and perhaps the most significant risk factors, remain to be identified. The most promising risk factors identified to date fall within the categories of drugs, environmental chemicals, infectious agents, dietary factors, and other physical/psychological stressors. However, the rate at which environmental risk factors for autism have been identified via research and safety testing has not kept pace with the emerging health threat posed by this condition. For the way forward, it seems clear that additional focused research is needed. But more importantly, successful risk reduction strategies for autism will require more extensive and relevant developmental safety testing of drugs and chemicals. PMID:24149029

Dietert, Rodney R; Dietert, Janice M; Dewitt, Jamie C

2011-01-01

104

Maternal Fish Consumption, Mercury Levels, and Risk of Preterm Delivery  

PubMed Central

Background Pregnant women receive mixed messages about fish consumption in pregnancy because unsaturated fatty acids and protein in fish are thought to be beneficial, but contaminants such as methylmercury may pose a hazard. Methods In the Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health (POUCH) study, women were enrolled in the 15th to 27th week of pregnancy from 52 prenatal clinics in five Michigan communities. At enrollment, information was gathered on amount and category of fish consumed during the current pregnancy, and a hair sample was obtained. A segment of hair closest to the scalp, approximating exposure during pregnancy, was assessed for total mercury levels (70–90% methylmercury) in 1,024 POUCH cohort women. Results Mercury levels ranged from 0.01 to 2.50 ?g/g (mean = 0.29 ?g/g; median = 0.23 ?g/g). Total fish consumption and consumption of canned fish, bought fish, and sport-caught fish were positively associated with mercury levels in hair. The greatest fish source for mercury exposure appeared to be canned fish. Compared with women delivering at term, women who delivered before 35 weeks’ gestation were more likely to have hair mercury levels at or above the 90th percentile (? 0.55 ?g/g), even after adjusting for maternal characteristics and fish consumption (adjusted odds ratio = 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.3–6.7). Conclusion This is the first large, community-based study to examine risk of very preterm birth in relation to mercury levels among women with low to moderate exposure. Additional studies are needed to see whether these findings will be replicated in other settings. PMID:17366817

Xue, Fei; Holzman, Claudia; Rahbar, Mohammad Hossein; Trosko, Kay; Fischer, Lawrence

2007-01-01

105

Perinatal Tumor Necrosis Factor-? Production, Influenced by Maternal Pregnancy Weight Gain, Predicts Childhood Asthma  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Innate immune responses marked by increases in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? have been associated with asthma but whether such alterations are evident before symptoms is not yet clear. Objectives: To determine if prevalence of childhood asthma or asthma-related traits is predicted by perinatal innate immune status and if maternal factors related to pregnancy influence asthma prevalence and innate immune status. Methods: In the Tucson Infant Immune Study (a nonselected birth cohort), presence of eczema and wheezing in the child's first year and physician-diagnosed asthma through age 9 and asthma in the parents was obtained from parent-completed questionnaires. TNF-?, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12 were measured in supernatants of LPS-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells at birth and 3 months as was TNF-? in plasma. TNF-? single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped by Sequenom. Percent predicted FEV1/FVC was measured at age 9. Maternal weight gain during pregnancy and prepregnancy weight were ascertained from medical records. Measurements and Main Results: Infants with persistently elevated LPS-induced TNF-? at birth and 3 months were at increased risk for childhood asthma (odds ratio [OR], 4.1; confidence interval [CI], 1.9–8.8; n = 233; P = 0.0003) and had decreased FEV1/FVC ratios at age 9. Children with mothers in the top tertile for pregnancy weight gain had increased risk for asthma (OR, 3.4; CI, 1.7–6.9; n = 225; P = 0.001) and persistently elevated TNF-? in early life (OR, 2.9; CI, 1.4–8.2; n = 195; P = 0.013). These relations were independent of maternal asthma and rhinitis. Conclusions: Persistently elevated LPS-induced TNF-? production early in life acts as a predictive biomarker for childhood asthma, and excess pregnancy weight gain in the mother seems to contribute to both. PMID:23590270

Lohman, I. Carla; Stern, Debra A.; Ellis, Whitney L.; Rothers, Janet; Wright, Anne L.

2013-01-01

106

Perinatal risk factors for developmental dysplasia of the hip  

PubMed Central

AIMS—To identify perinatal risk factors for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) and define the risk for each factor.?METHODS—In this case control study, using logistic regression analysis, all 1127 cases of isolated DDH live born in South Australia in 1986-93 and notified to the South Australian Birth Defects Register were included; controls comprised 150 130 live births in South Australia during the same period without any notified congenital abnormalities.?RESULTS—Breech presentation, oligohydramnios, female sex and primiparity were confirmed as risk factors for DDH. Significant findings were an increased risk for vaginal delivery over caesarean section for breech presentation (as well as an increased risk for emergency section over elective section), high birthweight (?4000 g), postmaturity and older maternal age; multiple births and preterm births had a reduced risk. There was no increased risk for caesarean section in the absence of breech presentation. For breech presentation, the risk of DDH was estimated to be at least 2.7% for girls and 0.8% for boys; a combination of factors increased the risk.?CONCLUSIONS—It is suggested that the risk factors identified be used as indications for repeat screening at 6 weeks of age and whenever possible in infancy. Other indications are family history and associated abnormalities.?? Keywords: congenital hip dislocation; perinatal risk factors; screening; breech presentation. PMID:9135287

Chan, A.; McCaul, K.; Cundy, P.; Haan, E.; Byron-Scott, R.

1997-01-01

107

The ghosts of predators past: population cycles and the role of maternal programming under fluctuating predation risk.  

PubMed

Maternal effects may be a major factor influencing the demography of populations. In mammals, the transmission of stress hormones between mother and offspring may play an important role in these effects. Laboratory studies have shown that stressors during pregnancy and lactation result in lifelong programming of the offspring phenotype. However, the relevance of these studies to free-living mammals is unclear. The 10-year snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) cycle is intimately linked to fluctuating predation pressure and predation risk. The enigma of these cycles is the lack of population growth following the decline phase, when the predators have virtually all disappeared and the food supply is ample. We have shown that a predator-induced increase in maternal stress hormone levels resulted in a decline in reproduction. Here we examine population and hormone changes over a four-year period from the increase (2005) to the decline (2008). We report (1) that an index of maternal stress (fecal corticosteroid metabolite [FCM] concentrations) fluctuates in synchrony with predator density during the breeding season; (2) that maternal FCM levels are echoed in their offspring, and this occurs at a population-wide level; and (3) that higher maternal FCM levels at birth are correlated with an increased responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in their progeny. Our results show an intergenerational inheritance of stress hormones in a free-ranging population of mammals. We propose that the lack of recovery of reproductive rates during the early low phase of the hare cycle may be the result of the impacts of intergenerational, maternally inherited stress hormones caused by high predation risk during the decline phase. PMID:21058558

Sheriff, Michael J; Krebs, Charles J; Boonstra, Rudy

2010-10-01

108

Maternal Genetic Variation Accounts in Part for the Associations of Maternal Size during Pregnancy with Offspring Cardiometabolic Risk in Adulthood  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal pre-pregnancy body-mass index (ppBMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) are associated with cardiometabolic risk (CMR) traits in the offspring. The extent to which maternal genetic variation accounts for these associations is unknown. Methods/Results In 1249 mother-offspring pairs recruited from the Jerusalem Perinatal Study, we used archival data to characterize ppBMI and GWG and follow-up data from offspring to assess CMR, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, glucose, insulin, blood pressure, and lipid levels, at an average age of 32. Maternal genetic risk scores (GRS) were created using a subset of SNPs most predictive of ppBMI, GWG, and each CMR trait, selected among 1384 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) characterizing variation in 170 candidate genes potentially related to fetal development and/or metabolic risk. We fit linear regression models to examine the associations of ppBMI and GWG with CMR traits with and without adjustment for GRS. Compared to unadjusted models, the coefficient for the association of a one-standard-deviation (SD) difference in GWG and offspring BMI decreased by 41% (95%CI ?81%, ?11%) from 0.847 to 0.503 and the coefficient for a 1SD difference in GWG and WC decreased by 63% (95%CI ?318%, ?11%) from 1.196 to 0.443. For other traits, there were no statistically significant changes in the coefficients for GWG with adjustment for GRS. None of the associations of ppBMI with CMR traits were significantly altered by adjustment for GRS. Conclusions Maternal genetic variation may account in part for associations of GWG with offspring BMI and WC in young adults. PMID:24670385

Wander, Pandora L.; Hochner, Hagit; Sitlani, Colleen M.; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Lumley, Thomas; Lawrence, Gabriela M.; Burger, Ayala; Savitsky, Bella; Manor, Orly; Meiner, Vardiella; Hesselson, Stephanie; Kwok, Pui Y.; Siscovick, David S.; Friedlander, Yechiel

2014-01-01

109

Success factors for reducing maternal and child mortality  

PubMed Central

Abstract Reducing maternal and child mortality is a priority in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and will likely remain so after 2015. Evidence exists on the investments, interventions and enabling policies required. Less is understood about why some countries achieve faster progress than other comparable countries. The Success Factors for Women’s and Children’s Health studies sought to address this knowledge gap using statistical and econometric analyses of data from 144 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) over 20 years; Boolean, qualitative comparative analysis; a literature review; and country-specific reviews in 10 fast-track countries for MDGs 4 and 5a. There is no standard formula – fast-track countries deploy tailored strategies and adapt quickly to change. However, fast-track countries share some effective approaches in addressing three main areas to reduce maternal and child mortality. First, these countries engage multiple sectors to address crucial health determinants. Around half the reduction in child mortality in LMICs since 1990 is the result of health sector investments, the other half is attributed to investments made in sectors outside health. Second, these countries use strategies to mobilize partners across society, using timely, robust evidence for decision-making and accountability and a triple planning approach to consider immediate needs, long-term vision and adaptation to change. Third, the countries establish guiding principles that orient progress, align stakeholder action and achieve results over time. This evidence synthesis contributes to global learning on accelerating improvements in women’s and children’s health towards 2015 and beyond. PMID:25110379

Schweitzer, Julian; Bishai, David; Chowdhury, Sadia; Caramani, Daniele; Frost, Laura; Cortez, Rafael; Daelmans, Bernadette; de Francisco, Andres; Adam, Taghreed; Cohen, Robert; Alfonso, Y Natalia; Franz-Vasdeki, Jennifer; Saadat, Seemeen; Pratt, Beth Anne; Eugster, Beatrice; Bandali, Sarah; Venkatachalam, Pritha; Hinton, Rachael; Murray, John; Arscott-Mills, Sharon; Axelson, Henrik; Maliqi, Blerta; Sarker, Intissar; Lakshminarayanan, Rama; Jacobs, Troy; Jacks, Susan; Mason, Elizabeth; Ghaffar, Abdul; Mays, Nicholas; Presern, Carole; Bustreo, Flavia

2014-01-01

110

National data system on near miss and maternal death: shifting from maternal risk to public health impact in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The lack of reliable and up-to-date statistics on maternal deaths and disabilities remains a major challenge to the implementation of Nigeria's Road Map to Accelerate the Millennium Development Goal related to Maternal Health (MDG-5). There are currently no functioning national data sources on maternal deaths and disabilities that could serve as reference points for programme managers, health advocates and policy makers. While awaiting the success of efforts targeted at overcoming the barriers facing establishment of population-based data systems, referral institutions in Nigeria can contribute their quota in the quest towards MDG-5 by providing good quality and reliable information on maternal deaths and disabilities on a continuous basis. This project represents the first opportunity to initiate a scientifically sound and reliable quantitative system of data gathering on maternal health profile in Nigeria. Objective The primary objective is to create a national data system on maternal near miss (MNM) and maternal mortality in Nigerian public tertiary institutions. This system will conduct periodically, both regionally and at country level, a review of the magnitude of MNM and maternal deaths, nature of events responsible for MNM and maternal deaths, indices for the quality of care for direct obstetric complications and the health service events surrounding these complications, in an attempt to collectively define and monitor the standard of comprehensive emergency obstetric care in the country. Methods This will be a nationwide cohort study of all women who experience MNM and those who die from pregnancy, childbirth and puerperal complications using uniform criteria among women admitted in tertiary healthcare facilities in the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria. This will be accomplished by establishing a network of all public tertiary obstetric referral institutions that will prospectively collect specific information on potentially fatal maternal complications. For every woman enrolled, the health service events (care pathways) within the facility will be evaluated to identify areas of substandard care/avoidable factors through clinical audit by the local research team. A summary estimate of the frequencies of MNM and maternal deaths will be determined at intervals and indicators of quality of care (case fatality rate, both total and cause-specific and mortality index) will be evaluated at facility, regional and country levels. Management Overall project management will be from the Centre for Research in Reproductive Health (CRRH), Sagamu, Nigeria. There will be at least two meetings and site visits for efficient coordination of the project by regional coordinators and central coordinating staff. Data will be transferred electronically by hospital and regional coordinators and managed at the Data Management Unit of CRRH, Sagamu, Nigeria. Expected outcomes The outcome of the study would provide useful information to the health practitioners, policy-makers and international partners on the strengths and weaknesses of the infrastructures provided for comprehensive emergency obstetric care in Nigeria. The successful implementation of this project will pave way for the long-awaited Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths that would guide the formulation and or revision of obstetric policies and practices in Nigeria. Lessons learnt from the establishment of this data system can also be used to set up similar structures at lower levels of healthcare delivery in Nigeria. PMID:19508717

Oladapo, Olufemi T; Adetoro, Olalekan O; Fakeye, Oluwarotimi; Ekele, Bissallah A; Fawole, Adeniran O; Abasiattai, Aniekan; Kuti, Oluwafemi; Tukur, Jamilu; Ande, Adedapo BA; Dada, Olukayode A

2009-01-01

111

Risk factors for early infant mortality in Sarlahi district, Nepal.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Early infant mortality has not declined as rapidly as child mortality in many countries. Identification of risk factors for early infant mortality may help inform the design of intervention strategies. METHODS: Over the period 1994-97, 15,469 live-born, singleton infants in rural Nepal were followed to 24 weeks of age to identify risk factors for mortality within 0-7 days, 8-28 days, and 4-24 weeks after the birth. FINDINGS: In multivariate models, maternal and paternal education reduced mortality between 4 and 24 weeks only: odds ratios (OR) 0.28 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.12-0.66) and 0.63 (95% CI = 0.44-0.88), respectively. Miscarriage in the previous pregnancy predicted mortality in the first week of life (OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.37-2.87), whereas prior child deaths increased the risk of post-neonatal death (OR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.24-2.75). A larger maternal mid-upper arm circumference reduced the risk of infant death during the first week of life (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.81-0.95). Infants of women who did not receive any tetanus vaccinations during pregnancy or who had severe illness during the third trimester were more likely to die in the neonatal period. Maternal mortality was strongly associated with infant mortality (OR = 6.43, 95% CI = 2.35-17.56 at 0-7 days; OR = 11.73, 95% CI = 3.82-36.00 at 8-28 days; and OR = 51.68, 95% CI = 20.26-131.80 at 4-24 weeks). CONCLUSION: Risk factors for early infant mortality varied with the age of the infant. Factors amenable to intervention included efforts aimed at maternal morbidity and mortality and increased arm circumference during pregnancy. PMID:14758431

Katz, Joanne; West, Keith P.; Khatry, Subarna K.; Christian, Parul; LeClerq, Steven C.; Pradhan, Elizabeth Kimbrough; Shrestha, Sharada Ram

2003-01-01

112

Cardiac risk factors: environmental, sociodemographic, and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors.  

PubMed

Several environmental exposures are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Exposure to secondhand smoke may increase the risk by as much as 25% to 30%. Exposure to third hand smoke, residual components of tobacco smoke that remain in the environment after a cigarette is extinguished, also appears to increase risk. These residual components can remain in rooms and automobiles for up to 30 years and enter the body through the skin or via inhalation or ingestion. Exposure to particulate matter air pollution from automobile emissions, power plants, and other sources is yet another environmental risk factor for CHD, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths annually in the United States. Exposure to other environmental toxins, particularly bisphenol A and phthalates, also has been linked to CHD. There are sociodemographic risks for CHD, with numerous studies showing that lower socioeconomic status is associated with higher risk. Behavioral risk factors include poor diet, such as frequent consumption of fast food and processed meals; sleep disturbance; and psychological stress, particularly related to marital or work issues. Finally, although high alcohol consumption is associated with increased CHD risk, moderate alcohol consumption (ie, less than 1 to 2 drinks/day), particularly of wine and possibly beer, appears to reduce the risk. PMID:24936715

Anthony, David; George, Paul; Eaton, Charles B

2014-06-01

113

Maternal caregiving and girls' depressive symptom and antisocial behavior trajectories: An examination among high-risk youth.  

PubMed

Past research has identified maternal depression and family of origin maltreatment as precursors to adolescent depression and antisocial behavior. Caregiving experiences have been identified as a factor that may ameliorate or accentuate adolescent psychopathology trajectories. Using a multilevel approach that pools the unique attributes of two geographically diverse, yet complementary, longitudinal research designs, the present study examined the role of maternal caregiver involvement as a factor that promotes resilience-based trajectories related to depressive symptoms and antisocial behaviors among adolescent girls. The first sample comprises a group of US-based adolescent girls in foster care (n = 100; mean age = 11.50 years), each of whom had a history of childhood maltreatment and removal from their biological parent(s). The second sample comprises a group of UK-based adolescent girls at high familial risk for depression (n = 145; mean age = 11.70 years), with all girls having biological mothers who experienced recurrent depression. Analyses examined the role of maternal caregiving on girls' trajectories of depression and antisocial behavior, while controlling for levels of co-occurring psychopathology at each time point. Results suggest increasing levels of depressive symptoms for girls at familial risk for depression but decreasing levels of depression for girls in foster care. Foster girls' antisocial behavior also decreased over time. Maternal caregiver involvement was differentially related to intercept and slope parameters in both samples. Results are discussed with respect to the benefits of applying multilevel (multisample, multiple outcome) approaches to identifying family-level factors that can reduce negative developmental outcomes in high-risk youth. PMID:25422973

Harold, Gordon T; Leve, Leslie D; Kim, Hyoun K; Mahedy, Liam; Gaysina, Darya; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan

2014-11-01

114

What Are Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors?  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors? Coronary heart disease risk factors are ... Grand Opportunity" Exome Sequencing Project 10/14/2014 Heart Disease Risk Factors 10/14/2014 All of Our ...

115

Maternal weight change before pregnancy in relation with birthweight and risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes  

E-print Network

/m². In these mothers, weight loss before pregnancy was associated with a higher risk of newborns small for gestational age (SGA). Whatever the prepregnancy BMI, WCBP was positively associated with a maternal risk of gestational diabetes and hypertension. The ponderal history of mothers before pregnancy can impact on fetal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

116

Genetic polymorphisms involved in folate metabolism and maternal risk for down syndrome: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Inconclusive results of the association between genetic polymorphisms involved in folate metabolism and maternal risk for Down syndrome (DS) have been reported. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted. We searched electronic databases through May, 2014, for eligible studies. Pooled odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were used to assess the strength of the association, which was estimated by fixed or random effects models. Heterogeneity among studies was evaluated using Q-test and I (2) statistic. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were also conducted. Publication bias was estimated using Begg's and Egger's tests. A total of 17 case-controls studies were included. There was evidence for an association between the MTRR c.66A>G (rs1801394) polymorphism and maternal risk for DS. In the subgroup analysis, increased maternal risk for DS was found in Caucasians. Additionally, the polymorphic heterozygote MTHFD1 1958GA genotype was associated significantly with maternal risk for DS, when we limit the analysis by studies conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Finally, considering MTR c.2756A>G (rs1805087), TC2 c.776C>G (rs1801198), and CBS c.844ins68, no significant associations have been found, neither in the overall analyses nor in the stratified analyses by ethnicity. In conclusion, our meta-analysis suggested that the MTRR c.66A>G (rs1801394) polymorphism and MTHFD1 c.1958G>A (rs2236225) were associated with increased maternal risk for DS. PMID:25544792

Balduino Victorino, Daniella; de Godoy, Moacir Fernandes; Goloni-Bertollo, Eny Maria; Pavarino, Érika Cristina

2014-01-01

117

Genetic Polymorphisms Involved in Folate Metabolism and Maternal Risk for Down Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Inconclusive results of the association between genetic polymorphisms involved in folate metabolism and maternal risk for Down syndrome (DS) have been reported. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted. We searched electronic databases through May, 2014, for eligible studies. Pooled odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were used to assess the strength of the association, which was estimated by fixed or random effects models. Heterogeneity among studies was evaluated using Q-test and I2 statistic. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were also conducted. Publication bias was estimated using Begg's and Egger's tests. A total of 17 case-controls studies were included. There was evidence for an association between the MTRR c.66A>G (rs1801394) polymorphism and maternal risk for DS. In the subgroup analysis, increased maternal risk for DS was found in Caucasians. Additionally, the polymorphic heterozygote MTHFD1 1958GA genotype was associated significantly with maternal risk for DS, when we limit the analysis by studies conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Finally, considering MTR c.2756A>G (rs1805087), TC2 c.776C>G (rs1801198), and CBS c.844ins68, no significant associations have been found, neither in the overall analyses nor in the stratified analyses by ethnicity. In conclusion, our meta-analysis suggested that the MTRR c.66A>G (rs1801394) polymorphism and MTHFD1 c.1958G>A (rs2236225) were associated with increased maternal risk for DS.

Balduino Victorino, Daniella; de Godoy, Moacir Fernandes; Goloni-Bertollo, Eny Maria; Pavarino, Érika Cristina

2014-01-01

118

Factors Associated with Young Children's Opportunities for Maintaining Family Relationships during Maternal Incarceration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children affected by maternal incarceration experience challenges maintaining continuous family relationships because of changes in caregivers, separation from siblings, and limited contact with mothers. In this mixed-method study, we investigated maternal and contextual factors associated with continuity in family relationships of children living…

Poehlmann, Julie; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Maes, Elizabeth; Hanneman, Ashley

2008-01-01

119

Mode of Delivery and Other Maternal Factors Influence the Acquisition of Streptococcus mutans in Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

S. mutans plays a key role in dental caries. The extent to which perinatal events influence the acquisition of S. mutans is unclear. We hypothesized that several maternal factors, including the mode of delivery, influence the initial acquisition of S. mutans in infants. A prospective cohort study was conducted in 156 mother-infant pairs. The study found that maternal gestational age

Y. Li; P. W. Caufield; A. P. Dasanayake; H. W. Wiener; S. H. Vermund

2005-01-01

120

Identifying Factors Associated with Maternal Deaths in Jharkhand, India: A Verbal Autopsy Study  

PubMed Central

Maternal mortality has been identified as a priority issue in health policy and research in India. The country, with an annual decrease of maternal mortality rate by 4.9% since 1990, now records 63,000 maternal deaths a year. India tops the list of countries with high maternal mortality. Based on a verbal autopsy study of 403 maternal deaths, conducted in 2008, this paper explores the missed opportunities to save maternal lives, besides probing into the socioeconomic factors contributing to maternal deaths in Jharkhand, India. This cross-sectional study was carried out in two phases, and a multistage sampling design was used in selecting deaths for verbal autopsy. Informed consent was taken into consideration before verbal autopsy. The analytical approach includes bivariate analysis using SPSS 15, besides triangulation of qualitative and quantitative findings. Most of the deceased were poor (89%), non-literates (85%), and housewives (74%). Again, 80% died in the community/at home, 28% died during pregnancy while another 26% died during delivery. Any antenatal care was received by merely 28% women, and only 20% of the deliveries were conducted by skilled birth attendants (doctors and midwives). Delays in decision-making, travel, and treatment compounded by ignorance of obstetric complications, inadequate use of maternal healthcare services, poor healthcare infrastructure, and harmful rituals are the major contributing factors of maternal deaths in India. PMID:23930345

Pradhan, Manas Ranjan

2013-01-01

121

Identifying factors associated with maternal deaths in Jharkhand, India: a verbal autopsy study.  

PubMed

Maternal mortality has been identified as a priority issue in health policy and research in India. The country, with an annual decrease of maternal mortality rate by 4.9% since 1990, now records 63,000 maternal deaths a year. India tops the list of countries with high maternal mortality. Based on a verbal autopsy study of 403 maternal deaths, conducted in 2008, this paper explores the missed opportunities to save maternal lives, besides probing into the socioeconomic factors contributing to maternal deaths in Jharkhand, India. This cross-sectional study was carried out in two phases, and a multistage sampling design was used in selecting deaths for verbal autopsy. Informed consent was taken into consideration before verbal autopsy. The analytical approach includes bivariate analysis using SPSS 15, besides triangulation of qualitative and quantitative findings. Most of the deceased were poor (89%), non-literates (85%), and housewives (74%). Again, 80% died in the community/at home, 28% died during pregnancy while another 26% died during delivery. Any antenatal care was received by merely 28% women, and only 20% of the deliveries were conducted by skilled birth attendants (doctors and midwives). Delays in decision-making, travel, and treatment compounded by ignorance of obstetric complications, inadequate use of maternal healthcare services, poor healthcare infrastructure, and harmful rituals are the major contributing factors of maternal deaths in India. PMID:23930345

Khan, Nizamuddin; Pradhan, Manas Ranjan

2013-06-01

122

Ethnic differences in risk factors for cervical incompetence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: African-American women (AA) have a higher premature birth rate than Caucasian women (Ca). We studied risk factors for cervical incompetence (CI) to determine if there are ethnic differences.Study design: We did a retrospective review of 199 pregnancies in 48 women with CI diagnoses over 5 years. Maternal demographics and outcomes were evaluated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed.Results: Eighteen

Kafui Demasio; Kelly Bennett; Ray Bahado-Singh; Urania Magriples; Joshua A. Copel

2001-01-01

123

Maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism and congenital heart defect risk in the Chinese Han population: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have evaluated the association between the maternal C677T polymorphism in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and congenital heart defect (CHD) risk in the Chinese Han population. However, the specific association is still controversial. Six separate studies with 1089 subjects in the Chinese Han population on the relationship between the C677T polymorphism and CHDs were analyzed by meta-analysis, upon database search. The fixed-effect model or random-effect model was selected to calculate the pooled odds ratio (ORs) and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (95%CI) when appropriate. The Begg test was used to measure publication bias. Sensitivity analyses were performed to insure authenticity of the outcome. Meta-analysis of the results showed significant associations between the maternal C677T polymorphism and CHD risk (CC vs TT: OR = 0.65, 95%CI = 0.44-0.96). Limiting the analysis to the studies with controls in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and the results indicate that the meta-analysis was statistically significant. Results of Begg's funnel plot showed that there was no publication bias (all P > 0.05). The present meta-analysis suggested that the maternal C677T polymorphism is a risk factor for CHDs in the Chinese Han population. PMID:24338416

Chen, K H; Chen, L L; Li, W G; Fang, Y; Huang, G Y

2013-01-01

124

Effects of Maternal Nutrition, Resource Use and Multi-Predator Risk on Neonatal White-Tailed Deer Survival  

PubMed Central

Growth of ungulate populations is typically most sensitive to survival of neonates, which in turn is influenced by maternal nutritional condition and trade-offs in resource selection and avoidance of predators. We assessed whether resource use, multi-predator risk, maternal nutritional effects, hiding cover, or interactions among these variables best explained variation in daily survival of free-ranging neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during their post-partum period (14 May–31 Aug) in Michigan, USA. We used Cox proportional hazards mixed-effects models to assess survival related to covariates of resource use, composite predation risk of 4 mammalian predators, fawn body mass at birth, winter weather, and vegetation growth phenology. Predation, particularly from coyotes (Canis latrans), was the leading cause of mortality; however, an additive model of non-ideal resource use and maternal nutritional effects explained 71% of the variation in survival. This relationship suggested that dams selected areas where fawns had poor resources, while greater predation in these areas led to additive mortalities beyond those related to resource use alone. Also, maternal nutritional effects suggested that severe winters resulted in dams producing smaller fawns, which decreased their likelihood of survival. Fawn resource use appeared to reflect dam avoidance of lowland forests with poor forage and greater use by wolves (C. lupus), their primary predator. While this strategy led to greater fawn mortality, particularly by coyotes, it likely promoted the life-long reproductive success of dams because many reached late-age (>10 years old) and could have produced multiple generations of fawns. Studies often link resource selection and survival of ungulates, but our results suggested that multiple factors can mediate that relationship, including multi-predator risk. We emphasize the importance of identifying interactions among biological and environmental factors when assessing survival of ungulates. PMID:24968318

Duquette, Jared F.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Svoboda, Nathan J.; Beyer, Dean E.; Lederle, Patrick E.

2014-01-01

125

Maternal Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Polymorphism and Down Syndrome Risk: A Meta-Analysis from 34 Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme of folate metabolic pathway which catalyzes the irreversible conversion of 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. 5-methyltetrahydrofolate donates methyl group for the methylation of homocysteine to methionine. Several studies have investigated maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism as a risk factor for DS, but the results were controversial and inconclusive. To come into a conclusive estimate, authors performed a meta-analysis. Aim A meta-analysis of published case control studies was performed to investigate the association between maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism and Down syndrome. Methods PubMed, Google Scholar, Elsevier, Springer Link databases were searched to select the eligible case control studies using appropriate keywords. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95%confidence interval were calculated for risk assessment. Results Thirty four studies with 3,098 DS case mothers and 4,852 control mothers were included in the present meta-analysis. The pooled OR was estimated under five genetic models and significant association was found between maternal MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism and Down syndrome under four genetic models except recessive model (for T vs. C, OR?=?1.26, 95% CI?=?1.09–1.46, p?=?0.001; for TT vs. CC, OR?=?1.49, 95% CI?=?1.13–1.97, p?=?0.008; for CT vs. CC, OR?=?1.29, 95% CI?=?1.10–1.51, p?=?0.001; for TT+CT vs. CC, OR?=?1.35, 95% CI?=?1.13–1.60, p?=?0.0008; for TT vs. CT+CC, OR?=?0.76, 95% CI?=?0.60–0.94, p?=?0.01). Conclusion The results of the present meta-analysis support that maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism is a risk factor for DS- affected pregnancy. PMID:25265565

Rai, Vandana; Yadav, Upendra; Kumar, Pradeep; Yadav, Sushil Kumar; Mishra, Om Prakesh

2014-01-01

126

Effects of maternal nutrition, resource use and multi-predator risk on neonatal white-tailed deer survival.  

PubMed

Growth of ungulate populations is typically most sensitive to survival of neonates, which in turn is influenced by maternal nutritional condition and trade-offs in resource selection and avoidance of predators. We assessed whether resource use, multi-predator risk, maternal nutritional effects, hiding cover, or interactions among these variables best explained variation in daily survival of free-ranging neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during their post-partum period (14 May-31 Aug) in Michigan, USA. We used Cox proportional hazards mixed-effects models to assess survival related to covariates of resource use, composite predation risk of 4 mammalian predators, fawn body mass at birth, winter weather, and vegetation growth phenology. Predation, particularly from coyotes (Canis latrans), was the leading cause of mortality; however, an additive model of non-ideal resource use and maternal nutritional effects explained 71% of the variation in survival. This relationship suggested that dams selected areas where fawns had poor resources, while greater predation in these areas led to additive mortalities beyond those related to resource use alone. Also, maternal nutritional effects suggested that severe winters resulted in dams producing smaller fawns, which decreased their likelihood of survival. Fawn resource use appeared to reflect dam avoidance of lowland forests with poor forage and greater use by wolves (C. lupus), their primary predator. While this strategy led to greater fawn mortality, particularly by coyotes, it likely promoted the life-long reproductive success of dams because many reached late-age (>10 years old) and could have produced multiple generations of fawns. Studies often link resource selection and survival of ungulates, but our results suggested that multiple factors can mediate that relationship, including multi-predator risk. We emphasize the importance of identifying interactions among biological and environmental factors when assessing survival of ungulates. PMID:24968318

Duquette, Jared F; Belant, Jerrold L; Svoboda, Nathan J; Beyer, Dean E; Lederle, Patrick E

2014-01-01

127

Kincare Risk and Protective Factors Protective INDIVIDUAL Risk  

E-print Network

Kincare Risk and Protective Factors Protective INDIVIDUAL Risk problem-solving skills and physical health risks social/interpersonal and communication skills social isolation and stress good adjustment Protective FAMILY Risk close relationship within the family family conflict family support

128

Socioeconomic Risk Moderates the Link between Household Chaos and Maternal Executive Function  

PubMed Central

We examined the link between household chaos (i.e., noise, clutter, disarray, lack of routines) and maternal executive function (i.e., effortful regulation of attention and memory), and whether it varied as a function of socioeconomic risk (i.e., single parenthood, lower mother and father educational attainment, housing situation, and father unemployment). We hypothesized that: 1) higher levels of household chaos would be linked with poorer maternal executive function, even when controlling for other measures of cognitive functioning (e.g., verbal ability), and 2) this link would be strongest in the most socioeconomically distressed or lowest-socioeconomic status households. The diverse sample included 153 mothers from urban and rural areas who completed a questionnaire and a battery of cognitive executive function tasks and a verbal ability task in the laboratory. Results were mixed for hypothesis 1, and consistent with hypothesis 2. Two-thirds of the variance overlapped between household chaos and maternal executive function, but only in families with high levels of socioeconomic risk. This pattern was not found for chaos and maternal verbal ability, suggesting that the potentially deleterious effects of household chaos may be specific to maternal executive function. The findings implicate household chaos as a powerful statistical predictor of maternal executive function in socioeconomically distressed contexts. PMID:22563703

Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Chen, Nan; Wang, Zhe; Bell, Martha Ann

2012-01-01

129

Environmental risk factors for osteoporosis  

SciTech Connect

Environmental risk factors for osteoporosis were reviewed at a conference held at the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences 8-9 November 1993. The conference was co-sponsored by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disease and the NIH Office of Research in Women's Health. The objective of the conference was to review what is known about risk factors for osteoporosis and to identify gaps in the present state of knowledge that might be addressed by future research. The conference was divided into two broad themes. The first session focused on current knowledge regarding etiology, risk factors, and approaches to clinical and laboratory diagnosis. This was followed by three sessions in which various environmental pollutants were discussed. Topics selected for review included environmental agents that interfere with bone and calcium metabolism, such as the toxic metals lead, cadmium, aluminum, and fluoride, natural and antiestrogens, calcium, and vitamin D.

Goyer, R.A.; Korach, K.S. (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Triangle Park, NC (United States)); Epstein, S. (Albert Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Bhattacharyya, M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Pounds, J. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States))

1994-04-01

130

Maternal Factors Influencing Infant Total Body Iron at Birth and Four Months of Age  

E-print Network

Iron is necessary in fetal development, however little research has been conducted to assess factors that affect both maternal and fetal total body iron. The objective of this research is to investigate infant iron status ...

Scroggs, Sarah Catherine

2011-05-31

131

Neighborhood Risk Factors for Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The goal of this study was to explore neighborhood environmental factors associated with obesity in a sample of adults living in a major U.S. metropolitan area.Research Methods and Procedures: This was a multi-level study combining data from the U.S. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System with data from the U.S. Census. A total of 15,358 subjects living in 327 zip

Russ P. Lopez

2007-01-01

132

Capacity Factor Risk At Nuclear Power Plants  

E-print Network

We develop a model of the dynamic structure of capacity factor risk. It incorporates the risk that the capacity factor may vary widely from year-to-year, and also the risk that the reactor may be permanently shutdown prior ...

Du, Yangbo

133

Maternal caregiving and girls’ depressive symptoms and antisocial behavior trajectories: An examination among high-risk youth  

PubMed Central

Past research has identified parental depression and family-of-origin maltreatment as precursors to adolescent depression and antisocial behavior. Caregiving experiences have also been identified as a factor that may ameliorate or accentuate adolescent psychopathology trajectories. Using the unique attributes of two geographically diverse, yet complementary longitudinal research designs, the present study examined the role of maternal caregiver involvement as a factor that promotes resilience-based trajectories related to depressive symptom and antisocial behaviors among adolescent girls. The first sample comprises a group of US-based adolescent girls in foster care (n = 100; mean age = 11.50 years), all of whom have had a history of childhood maltreatment and removal from the home of their biological parent(s). The second sample comprises a group of UK-based adolescent girls at high familial risk for depression (n = 145; mean age = 11.70 years), with all girls having a biological mother who has experienced recurrent depression. Study analyses examined the role of maternal caregiving on girls’ trajectories of depression and antisocial behavior, while controlling for levels of co-occurring psychopathology at each time point across the study period. Results suggest increasing trajectories of depressive symptoms, controlling for antisocial behavior, for girls at familial risk for depression, but decreasing trajectories for girls in foster care. A similar pattern of results was noted for antisocial behavior trajectories, controlling for depressive symptoms. Maternal caregiver involvement was differentially related to intercept and slope parameters in both samples. Results are discussed with respect to the identification of family level promotive factors aimed at reducing negative developmental trajectories among high-risk youth. PMID:25422973

Harold, Gordon T.; Leve, Leslie D.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Mahedy, Liam; Gaysina, Darya; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan

2014-01-01

134

Maternal Grand Multiparity and the Risk of Severe Mental Disorders in Adult Offspring  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have shown that maternal grand multiparity may predict an increased risk of mental disorders in young adult offspring, but whether such effects persist throughout adulthood remains unknown. The current study examined if maternal grand multiparity predicts the risks of severe mental disorders, suicides, suicide attempts and dementias throughout adult life. Methods Our study sample comprised 13243 Helsinki Birth Cohort Study 1934–1944 participants (6905 men and 6338 women). According to hospital birth records, 341 offspring were born to grand multiparous mothers. From Finnish national hospital discharge and causes of death registers, we identified 1682 participants diagnosed with mental disorders during 1969–2010. Results Maternal grand multiparity predicted significantly increased risks of mood disorders (Hazard Ratio?=?1.64, p?=?0.03), non-psychotic mood disorders (Hazard Ratio?=?2.02, p?=?0.002), and suicide attempts (Hazard Ratio?=?3.94, p?=?0.01) in adult offspring. Furthermore, women born to grand multiparous mothers had significantly increased risks of any severe mental disorder (Hazard Ratio?=?1.79, p?=?0.01), non-psychotic substance use disorders (Hazard Ratio?=?2.77, p?=?0.02) schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders (Hazard Ratio?=?2.40, p?=?0.02), mood disorders (Hazard Ratio?=?2.40, p?=?0.002), non-psychotic mood disorders (Hazard Ratio?=?2.91, p<0.001), and suicide attempts (Hazard Ratio?=?5.05, p?=?0.01) in adulthood. The effects of maternal grand multiparity on offspring psychopathology risk were independent of maternal age and body mass index at childbirth, and of year of birth, sex, childhood socioeconomic position, and birth weight of the offspring. In contrast, no significant effects were found among men. Conclusions Women born to grand multiparous mothers are at an increased risk of severe mental disorders and suicide attempts across adulthood. Our findings may inform the development of preventive interventions for mental disorders. PMID:25493431

Lahti, Marius; Eriksson, Johan G.; Heinonen, Kati; Kajantie, Eero; Lahti, Jari; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Tuovinen, Soile; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Mikkonen, Maiju; Osmond, Clive; Räikkönen, Katri

2014-01-01

135

Analysis of purine metabolites in maternal serum for evaluating the risk of gestosis.  

PubMed

Metabolome analysis of the serum from pregnant patients aimed at detection of low-molecular-weight biomarkers of gestation process disorders indicated a relationship between the metabolic profile of maternal serum and risk of gestosis. In women with pre-eclampsia or preterm delivery, analysis of serum purine metabolites revealed changes in the metabolite concentrations, associated with pregnancy complications. PMID:24288739

Senyavina, N V; Khaustova, S A; Grebennik, T K; Pavlovich, S V

2013-09-01

136

Advancing Maternal Age Is Associated with Increasing Risk for Autism: A Review and Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: We conducted a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies investigating the association between maternal age and autism. Method: Using recommended guidelines for performing meta-analyses, we systematically selected, and extracted results from, epidemiological scientific studies reported before January 2012. We calculated pooled risk

Sandin, Sven; Hultman, Christina M.; Kolevzon, Alexander; Gross, Raz; MacCabe, James H.; Reichenberg, Abraham

2012-01-01

137

Maternal Depression, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Youth Psychopathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Across development, maternal depression has been found to be a risk factor for youth psychopathology generally and youth depression specifically. Maternal Expressed Emotion (EE) has been examined as a predictor of outcome among youth with depression. The present study explored the associations between youth psychopathology and two…

Tompson, Martha C.; Pierre, Claudette B.; Boger, Kathryn Dingman; McKowen, James W.; Chan, Priscilla T.; Freed, Rachel D.

2010-01-01

138

Children's Risk and Protective Factors Protective INDIVIDUAL Risk  

E-print Network

Children's Risk and Protective Factors Protective INDIVIDUAL Risk problem-solving skills rules, expectations, rewards encourage children's participation at home alone Protective FRIENDS Risk people without regard to race, color, sex, disability, religion, age, or national origin. The Texas A

139

Genetic Instrumental Variable Studies of Effects of Prenatal Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

Identifying the effects of maternal risk factors during pregnancy on infant and child health is an area of tremendous research interest. However, of interest to policy makers is unraveling the causal effects of prenatal risk factors, not their associations with child health, which may be confounded by several unobserved factors. In this paper, we evaluate the utility of genetic variants in three genes that have unequivocal evidence of being related to three major risk factors – CHRNA3 for smoking, ADH1B for alcohol use, and FTO for obesity – as instrumental variables for identifying the causal effects of such factors during pregnancy. Using two independent datasets, we find that these variants are overall predictive of the risk factors and are not systematically related to observed confounders, suggesting that they may be useful instruments. We also find some suggestive evidence that genetic effects are stronger during than before pregnancy. We provide an empirical example illustrating the use of these genetic variants as instruments to evaluate the effects of risk factors on birth weight. Finally, we offer suggestions for researchers contemplating the use of these variants as instruments. PMID:23701534

von Hinke Kessler Scholder, Stephanie

2013-01-01

140

Risk factors for placenta accreta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To identify risk factors associated with placenta accreta in a large cohort study.Methods: Data for this study came from the Taiwan Down Syndrome Screening Group, an ongoing project on feasibility of serum screening in an Asian population. Women who had serum screening for Down syndrome at 14–22 weeks’ gestation using alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and free ?-hCG between January 1994 and

Tai-Ho Hung; Wen-Yi Shau; Ching-Chang Hsieh; Tsung-Hong Chiu; Jenn-Jeih Hsu; T’Sang-T’Ang Hsieh

1999-01-01

141

Maternal and obstetrical factors associated with a successful trial of vaginal birth after cesarean section  

PubMed Central

Objective To detect the maternal and obstetrical factors associated with successful trial of vaginal birth among women with a previous cesarean delivery. Material and Methods A total of 122 women who were eligible for a trial of labor after cesarean section (TOLAC) according to departmental protocol were included in this comparative prospective study. After informed consent, the women included in this study were subjected to a thorough history to detect maternal and obstetric characteristics and a standard examination to estimate fetal weight, engagement of the fetal head, intra-partum features of fetal membranes, and cervical dilatation. After delivery, data on duration of labor, labor augmentation, mode of delivery, birth outcome, and neonatal intensive care (NICU) admission were recorded and analyzed. Results Trial of labor after cesarean section was successful in 72.13% and was unsuccessful in 27.87%. Body mass index (BMI) was significantly lower in the successful TOLAC group compared to the unsuccessful group (23.8±0.03 versus 26.2±0.02 kg/m2), and the number of women with BMI >25 kg/m2 was significantly high in the unsuccessful group; also, mean gestational age was significantly lower in the successful TOLAC group compared to the unsuccessful group (37.5±0.04 versus 38.5±0.03 weeks), and the number of women admitted in labor with gestation ?40 weeks was significantly high in the unsuccessful group. The number of women admitted with >2/5 of fetal head palpable abdominally and fetal head station ?-2 was significantly high in the unsuccessful TOLAC group. Conclusion In carefully selected cases, TOLAC is safe and often successful. Presence of BMI >25 kg/m2, gestation ?40 weeks, and vertex station ?-2 were risk factors for unsuccessful TOLAC. PMID:25584035

Abdelazim, Ibrahim A.; Elbiaa, Assem A. M.; Al-Kadi, Mohamed; Yehia, Amr H.; Sami Nusair, Bassam M.; Faza, Mohannad Abu

2014-01-01

142

Neonatal Meningitis: Risk Factors, Causes, and Neurologic Complications  

PubMed Central

Objective Neonates are at greater risk for sepsis and meningitis than other ages and in spite of rapid diagnoses of pathogens and treatments, they still contribute to complications and mortality. This study determines risk factors, causes, and neurologic complications of neonatal meningitis in hospitalized neonates. Material & Methods In this descriptive, cross sectional study, we evaluated 415 neonates with sepsis and meningitis admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit at our center between 2008 and 2012. The data that was recorded was age, sex, birth weight, prenatal risk factors, clinical features, blood and cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and brain sonographic findings and outcomes. Results Twenty patients had meningitis. Eleven cases (55%) were male. The mean age was 8. 41 days and mean birth weight was 2891.5±766 grams. Poor feeding, seizures, and tachypnea were detected in 12 (60%), 11 (55%), and 6 (30%) patients, respectively. Prenatal risk factors were prolonged rupture of membranes, maternal vaginitis, asymptomatic bacteriuria, prematurity, low birth weights, and asphyxia. Four patients had positive cerebrospinal fluid cultures with klebsiella pneumoniae 2 (50%), Enterococcus spp. 1 (25%), and Group B streptococcus 1 (25%) cases, respectively. Two cases had positive blood cultures with klebsiella pneumoniae. Neurologic complications were brain edema, subdural effusion, and brain abscesses with hydrocephaly. One neonate (5%) died. Conclusion Our study provides some information about risk factors, pathogens, and neurologic complications for neonatal meningitis. Prenatal assessments help to diagnose and reduce risk factors of this hazardous disease.

KHALESSI, Nasrin; AFSHARKHAS, Ladan

2014-01-01

143

Factors Predicting Maternal Stress in Mothers with Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal stress has been linked to psychological well-being and a greater likelihood of poor ad- justment for both mother and child. Furthermore, higher levels of stress were predicted for mothers with a perception of limited partner support and\\/or low frustration tolerance. Sixty-one mothers of infants that were contacted via mail completed the Survey of Personal Beliefs (SPB; Kassinove, 1986), the

Hilary Vidair; Jennifer M. Hoag; Wanda G. Vargas

2004-01-01

144

Colic anastomotic leakage risk factors  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background: Anastomotic leakage is a dreaded complication of colorectal surgery, as it greatly increases the morbidity, mortality and has been associated with augmented local recurrence and diminished survival. The frequency of this complication is high in emergency colorectal surgery, especially for bowel occlusion, (13% for emergency vs. 4% in elective), due to visceral distension and, therefore, an incongruence in the size of each of the stumps, combined with the lack of mechanical preparation and risk of fecal contamination during operation. Methods: We studied the incidence of anastomotic fistula in the surgery clinic of the “Sf. Pantelimon” Emergency Hospital, between 2006 and 2010, on a lot of 251 patients who underwent different types of colic resection. Apart from the anatomic location of the disease, and the level of anastomosis, we included in our database the following criteria: the patient’s age and gender, type of colic pathology, surgical technique, emergency or elective surgery, comorbidities. Results: An ileocolic anastomosis was performed for 84 patients (33,46 %), for 114 patients (45,41%) a colo-colic anastomosis was carried out, 2 patients (0,79%) had ileorectal anastomosis and 51 patients (20,31%) underwent a colorectal anastomosis. From the comparative analysis of risk factors (the emergency interventions, the anastomosis location, the age and gender of the patient), a significantly increased value of the relative risk of anastomotic fistula was registered for the cases with emergency intervention (x 6,61) and for the colorectal anastomosis following the left hemi colectomies (x 2,23). Discussions: In our study, among the clinical and biological factors analyzed, emergency intervention was the most signi?cant factor associated with anastomotic leakage. Surgery performed in emergency settings, on debilitated patients without adequate preoperative preparation, has an increased risk for anastomotic dehiscence. PMID:24868253

Calin, MD; B?l?l?u, C; Popa, F; Voiculescu, S; Sc?una?u, RV

2013-01-01

145

Breastfeeding in Infancy and Adult Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

Background Public health recommendations advocate breastfeeding in infancy as a means to reduce later-life obesity. Several prior studies relating breastfeeding to cardiovascular risk factors have been limited by lack of adjustment for maternal and participant confounding factors. Methods We ascertained breastfeeding history via questionnaire from mothers enrolled in the Framingham Offspring Study. In their young to middle-aged adult children enrolled in the Framingham Third Generation, we examined the relations between maternal breastfeeding history (yes, no) to cardiovascular risk factors, including: body mass index (BMI), HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting blood glucose, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. We applied Generalized estimating equations (GEE) to account for sibling correlations and adjusted for maternal and participant lifestyle, education and cardiovascular risk factors. Results In Third Generation participants (n=962, mean age=41 years, 54% women), 26% of their mothers reported breastfeeding. Compared to non-breastfed individuals, breastfed adult participants had lower multivariable-adjusted BMI [26.1 kg/m2 vs. 26.9 kg/m2, p=0.04] and higher HDL cholesterol levels [HDL 56.6 mg/dL vs. 53.7 mg/dL, p=0.01]. Upon additional adjustment for BMI the association between breastfeeding and HDL cholesterol was attenuated (p=0.09). Breastfeeding was not associated with total cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions Breastfeeding in infancy is inversely associated with adult BMI and positively associated with HDL cholesterol. Associations between breastfeeding and BMI may mediate the association between breastfeeding and HDL cholesterol. PMID:19559168

Parikh, Nisha I.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Ingelsson, Erik; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Fox, Caroline S.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Murabito, Joanne M.

2009-01-01

146

Risk factors of ?-hydroxybutyrate overdosing.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify in recreational drug users the factors which increase the risk of overdosing (OD) with ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). A purposive sample of 45 experienced GHB users was interviewed, equally divided into three groups (never OD, occasional OD, and repeat OD). The repeat OD group scored highest on many risk factors regarding GHB use, the occasional OD group scored intermediate, and the never OD group scored lowest. Participants, whether or not they had overdosed on GHB, most often perceived GHB use (e.g. using more GHB than usual, using GHB doses too closely together) as the main reason for GHB OD, and many participants who had overdosed on GHB reported that they had taken more GHB than usual at their most recent occasion of GHB OD. No significant differences in co-use of GHB with other substances were found between the three groups. Our findings indicate that using GHB in the company of groups of friends probably reduces, but does not eliminate, the risk of OD. PMID:24080792

Korf, Dirk J; Nabben, Ton; Benschop, Annemieke; Ribbink, Kim; van Amsterdam, Jan G C

2014-01-01

147

Risk factors for tornado injuries.  

PubMed

Tornadoes in North and South Carolina on 28 March 1984 caused 252 people to be injured seriously enough to require hospitalization and 59 to be killed. To evaluate risk factors, we gathered information on 238 (94%) of those hospitalized and 46 (78%) of those killed. Those hospitalized or deceased had statistically significantly more deep cuts, concussions, unconsciousness and broken bones than those with them at the time of the tornado who were not hospitalized or killed. People living in mobile homes were more likely to be hospitalized or die than people occupying conventional houses. Other risk factors for hospitalization or death included advanced age (60+ years), no physical protection (not having been covered with a blanket or other object), having been struck by broken window glass or other falling objects, home lifted off its foundation, collapsed ceiling or floor, or walls blown away. More awareness of the tornado risk before it strikes and better adherence to tornado protection guidelines could reduce injuries and deaths in the future. PMID:2083989

Eidson, M; Lybarger, J A; Parsons, J E; MacCormack, J N; Freeman, J I

1990-12-01

148

The Maternal Serological Response to Intrauterine Ureaplasma sp. Infection and Prediction of Risk of Pre-Term Birth  

PubMed Central

Pre-term birth (PTB) associated with intrauterine infection and inflammation (IUI) is the major cause of early PTB less than 32?weeks of gestation. Ureaplasma spp. are common commensals of the urogenital tract in pregnancy and are the most commonly identified microorganisms in amniotic fluid of pre-term pregnancies. While we have an understanding of the causal relationship between intra-amniotic infection, inflammation and PTB, we are still unable to explain why vaginal Ureaplasma sp. colonization is tolerated in some women but causes PTB in others. It is now known that placental tissues are frequently colonized by bacteria even in apparently healthy pregnancies delivered at term; usually this occurs in the absence of a significant local inflammatory response. It appears, therefore, that the site, nature, and magnitude of the immune response to infiltrating microorganisms are key in determining pregnancy outcome. Some evidence exists that the maternal serological response to Ureaplasma sp. colonization may be predictive of adverse pregnancy outcome, although issues such as the importance of virulence factors (serovars) and the timing, magnitude, and functional consequences of the immune response await clarification. This mini-review discusses the evidence linking the maternal immune response to risk of PTB and the potential applications of maternal serological analysis for predicting obstetric outcome. PMID:25538708

Ireland, Demelza J.; Keelan, Jeffrey A.

2014-01-01

149

About Alzheimer's Disease: Risk Factors and Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR About Alzheimer's Disease: Risk Factors and Prevention We can’t control some risk factors for Alzheimer's disease such as age and genetic profile. But scientists ...

150

An Investigation of the Relations between School Concentrations of Student Risk Factors and Student Educational Well-Being  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the unique relations between school concentrations of student risk factors and measures of reading, mathematics, and attendance. It used an integrated administrative data system to create a combined data set of risks (i.e., birth risks, teen mother, low maternal education, homelessness, maltreatment, and lead exposure) for…

Fantuzzo, John W.; LeBoeuf, Whitney A.; Rouse, Heather L.

2014-01-01

151

Maternal one-carbon nutrient intake and cancer risk in offspring.  

PubMed

Dietary intake of one-carbon nutrients, particularly folate, vitamin B(2) (riboflavin), vitamin B(6) , vitamin B(12) , and choline have been linked to the risk of cancers of the colon and breast in both human and animal studies. More recently, experimental and epidemiological data have emerged to suggest that maternal intake of these nutrients during gestation may also have an impact on the risk of cancer in offspring later in life. Given the plasticity of DNA methylation in the developing embryo and the established role of one-carbon metabolism in supporting biological methylation reactions, it is plausible that alterations in maternal one-carbon nutrient availability might induce subtle epigenetic changes in the developing embryo and fetus that persist into later life, altering the risk of tumorigenesis throughout the lifespan. This review summarizes the current literature on maternal one-carbon nutrient intake and offspring cancer risk, with an emphasis on cancers of the colon and breast, and discusses specific epigenetic modifications that may play a role in their pathogenesis. PMID:21967157

Ciappio, Eric D; Mason, Joel B; Crott, Jimmy W

2011-10-01

152

Maternal risk for Down syndrome is modulated by genes involved in folate metabolism.  

PubMed

Studies have shown that the maternal risk for Down syndrome (DS) may be modulated by alterations in folate metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of 12 genetic polymorphisms involved in folate metabolism on maternal risk for DS. In addition, we evaluated the impact of these polymorphisms on serum folate and plasma methylmalonic acid (MMA, an indicator of vitamin B_{12} status) concentrations. The polymorphisms transcobalamin II (TCN2) c.776C>G, betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT) c.742A>G, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (NAD(P)H) (MTHFR) c.677 C>T and the MTHFR 677C-1298A-1317T haplotype modulate DS risk. The polymorphisms MTHFR c.677C>T and solute carrier family 19 (folate transporter), member 1 (SLC19A1) c.80 A>G modulate folate concentrations, whereas the 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase (MTRR) c.66A>G polymorphism affects the MMA concentration. These results are consistent with the modulation of the maternal risk for DS by these polymorphisms. PMID:22377700

Zampieri, Bruna Lancia; Biselli, Joice Matos; Goloni-Bertollo, Eny Maria; Vannucchi, Hélio; Carvalho, Valdemir Melechco; Cordeiro, José Antônio; Pavarino, Erika Cristina

2012-01-01

153

Adolescence As Risk Factor for Adverse Pregnancy Outcome in Central Africa – A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest rates of maternal and neonatal mortality worldwide. Young maternal age at delivery has been proposed as risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome, yet there is insufficient data from Sub-Saharan Africa. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of maternal adolescence on pregnancy outcomes in the Central African country Gabon. Methodology and Principal Findings Data on maternal age, parity, birth weight, gestational age, maternal Plasmodium falciparum infection, use of bednets, and intake of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy were collected in a cross-sectional survey in 775 women giving birth in three mother-child health centers in Gabon. Adolescent women (?16 years of age) had a significantly increased risk to deliver a baby with low birth weight in univariable analysis (22.8%, 13/57, vs. 9.3%, 67/718, OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.5–5.6) and young maternal age showed a statistically significant association with the risk for low birth weight in multivariable regression analysis after correction for established risk factors (OR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.1–6.5). In further analysis adolescent women were shown to attend significantly less antenatal care visits than adult mothers (3.3±1.9 versus 4.4±1.9 mean visits, p<0.01, n?=?356) and this difference accounted at least for part of the excess risk for low birth weight in adolescents. Conclusion Our data demonstrate the importance of adolescent age as risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome. Antenatal care programs specifically tailored for the needs of adolescents may be necessary to improve the frequency of antenatal care visits and pregnancy outcomes in this risk group in Central Africa. PMID:21188301

Kurth, Florian; Bélard, Sabine; Mombo-Ngoma, Ghyslain; Schuster, Katharina; Adegnika, Ayola A.; Bouyou-Akotet, Marielle K.; Kremsner, Peter G.; Ramharter, Michael

2010-01-01

154

Variation by Diagnostic Subtype in Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders Associated with Maternal Parity among Finnish Births  

PubMed Central

Background Associations between maternal parity and outcomes in offspring may provide evidence for involvement of prenatal exposures. The objective of this study was to determine whether risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is associated with maternal parity. Methods Diagnoses of childhood autism, Asperger syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) were examined separately and as a group. The study was conducted in the Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism, which is based in a national birth cohort. Children born in Finland in 1987–2005 and diagnosed with ASD by 2007 were identified through the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Four matched controls were selected for each case using the Finnish Medical Birth Register. The association between parity and each ASD was determined using conditional logistic regression and adjusted for number of children in the sibship and other potential confounders. Results ASDs combined showed a pattern of decreasing risk with increasing parity (OR for fourth or greater versus first-born children, 0.43; CI, [0.35, 0.51]). For childhood autism, an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.51 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.27, 1.81] was observed for second versus first-born children. Associations for Asperger syndrome and PDD-NOS were consistent with those for all ASDs. Conclusions Differences in patterns of association between maternal parity and ASD subtypes may indicate varying contributions of specific environmental factors to risk; however, differences in diagnosis or in treatment seeking for childhood behavioural problems cannot be ruled out, particularly for higher-functioning cases. PMID:24313668

Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Jokiranta, Elina; Suominen, Auli; Lehti, Venla; Sourander, Andre; Brown, Alan S.

2013-01-01

155

Modifications of Coronary Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

In addition to the revascularization and glycemic management interventions assigned at random, the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) design includes the uniform control of major coronary artery disease risk factors, including dyslipidemia, hypertension, smoking, central obesity, and sedentary lifestyle. Target levels for risk factors were adjusted throughout the trial to comply with changes in recommended clinical practice guidelines. At present, the goals are low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <2.59 mmol/L (<100 mg/dL) with an optional goal of <1.81 mmol/L (<70 mg/dL); plasma triglyceride level <1.70 mmol/L (<150 mg/dL); blood pressure level <130 mm Hg systolic and <80 mm Hg diastolic; and smoking cessation treatment for all active smokers. Algorithms were developed for the pharmacologic management of dyslipidemia and hypertension. Dietary prescriptions for the management of glycemia, plasma lipid profiles, and blood pressure levels were adapted from existing clinical practice guidelines. Patients with a body mass index >25 were prescribed moderate caloric restriction; after the trial was under way, a lifestyle weight-management program was instituted. All patients were formally prescribed both endurance and resistance/flexibility exercises, individually adapted to their level of disability and fitness. Pedometers were distributed as a biofeedback strategy. Strategies to achieve the goals for risk factors were designed by BARI 2D working groups (lipid, cardiovascular and hypertension, and nonpharmacologic intervention) and the ongoing implementation of the strategies is monitored by lipid, hypertension, and lifestyle intervention management centers. PMID:16813737

Albu, Jeanine; Gottlieb, Sheldon H.; August, Phyllis; Nesto, Richard W.; Orchard, Trevor J.

2009-01-01

156

Knockdown of maternal homeobox transcription factor SEBOX gene impaired early embryonic development in porcine parthenotes.  

PubMed

A number of germ cell-specific transcription factors essential for ovarian formation and folliculogenesis have been identified and studied. However, the role of these factors during early embryonic development has been poorly explored. In the present study, we investigated the role of SEBOX, a maternal homeobox transcription factor, during early embryonic development in porcine parthenotes. mRNA for SEBOX is preferentially expressed in oocytes, and expression persists until embryonic genome activation (EGA). Knockdown of SEBOX by siRNA disrupted early embryonic development, but not oocyte maturation. Many maternal genes essential for early embryonic development were upregulated in SEBOX-depleted embryos. Moreover, some pluripotency-associated genes, including SOX2 and NANOG, were upregulated when SEBOX was knocked down. Therefore, our data demonstrate that SEBOX is required for early embryonic development in pigs and appears to regulate the degradation of maternal transcripts and the expression of pluripotency genes. PMID:24018616

Zheng, Zhong; Zhao, Ming-Hui; Jia, Jia-Lin; Heo, Young-Tae; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Oh, Jeong Su; Kim, Nam-Hyung

2013-12-17

157

Knockdown of Maternal Homeobox Transcription Factor SEBOX Gene Impaired Early Embryonic Development in Porcine Parthenotes  

PubMed Central

Abstract A number of germ cell-specific transcription factors essential for ovarian formation and folliculogenesis have been identified and studied. However, the role of these factors during early embryonic development has been poorly explored. In the present study, we investigated the role of SEBOX, a maternal homeobox transcription factor, during early embryonic development in porcine parthenotes. mRNA for SEBOX is preferentially expressed in oocytes, and expression persists until embryonic genome activation (EGA). Knockdown of SEBOX by siRNA disrupted early embryonic development, but not oocyte maturation. Many maternal genes essential for early embryonic development were upregulated in SEBOX-depleted embryos. Moreover, some pluripotency-associated genes, including SOX2 and NANOG, were upregulated when SEBOX was knocked down. Therefore, our data demonstrate that SEBOX is required for early embryonic development in pigs and appears to regulate the degradation of maternal transcripts and the expression of pluripotency genes. PMID:24018616

ZHENG, Zhong; ZHAO, Ming-Hui; JIA, Jia-Lin; HEO, Young-Tae; CUI, Xiang-Shun; OH, Jeong Su; KIM, Nam-Hyung

2013-01-01

158

Perinatal factors and the risk of bipolar disorder in Finland  

PubMed Central

Background Complications during the perinatal period have been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders like schizophrenia and autism. However, similar studies on bipolar disorder (BPD) have been limited and the findings are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to examine the association between perinatal risk factors and BPD. Methods This nested case-control study, based on the Finnish Prenatal Study of Bipolar Disorders (FIPS-B), identified 724 cases and 1419 matched controls from population based registers. Conditional logistic regression was used to examine the associations between perinatal factors and BPD adjusting for potential confounding due to maternal age, psychiatric history and educational level, place of birth, number of previous births and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Results Children delivered by planned cesarean section had a 2.5-fold increased risk of BPD (95% CI: 1.32–4.78, P <0.01). No association was seen between other examined perinatal risk factors and BPD. Limitations The limitations of this study include: the restriction in the sample to treated cases of BPD in the population, and usage of hospital based clinical diagnosis for case ascertainment. In addition, in spite of the large sample size, there was low power to detect associations for certain exposures including the lowest birth weight category and pre-term birth. Conclusions Birth by planned caesarean section was associated with risk of BPD, but most other perinatal risk factors examined in this study were not associated with BPD. Larger studies with greater statistical power to detect less common exposures and studies utilizing prospective biomarker-based exposures are necessary in the future. PMID:24215899

Chudal, Roshan; Sourander, Andre; Polo-Kantola, Päivi; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Lehti, Venla; Sucksdorff, Dan; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan S.

2013-01-01

159

Maternal and neonatal factors associated with mode of delivery under a universal newborn hearing screening programme in Lagos, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Emerging evidence from a recent pilot universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) programme suggests that the burden of obstetric complications associated with mode of delivery is not limited to maternal and perinatal mortality but may also include outcomes that undermine optimal early childhood development of the surviving newborns. However, the potential pathways for this association have not been reported particularly in the context of a resource-poor setting. This study therefore set out to establish the pattern of delivery and the associated neonatal outcomes under a UNHS programme. Methods A cross-sectional study in which all consenting mothers who delivered in an inner-city tertiary maternity hospital in Lagos, Nigeria from May 2005 to December 2007 were enrolled during the UNHS programme. Socio-demographic, obstetric and neonatal factors independently associated with vaginal, elective and emergency caesarean deliveries were determined using multinomial logistic regression analyses. Results Of the 4615 mothers enrolled, 2584 (56.0%) deliveries were vaginal, 1590 (34.4%) emergency caesarean and 441 (9.6%) elective caesarean section. Maternal age, parity, social class and all obstetric factors including lack of antenatal care, maternal HIV and multiple gestations were associated with increased risk of emergency caesarean delivery compared with vaginal delivery. Only parity, lack of antenatal care and prolonged/obstructed labour were associated with increased risk of emergency compared with elective caesarean delivery. Infants delivered by vaginal method or by emergency caesarean section were more likely to be associated with the risk of sensorineural hearing loss but less likely to be associated with hyperbilirubinaemia compared with infants delivered by elective caesarean section. Emergency caesarean delivery was also associated with male gender, low five-minute Apgar scores and admission into special care baby unit compared with vaginal or elective caesarean delivery. Conclusions The vast majority of caesarean delivery in this population occur as emergencies and are associated with socio-demographic factors as well as several obstetric complications. Mode of delivery is also associated with the risk of sensorineural hearing loss and other adverse birth outcomes that lie on the causal pathways for potential developmental deficits. PMID:19732443

Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Solanke, Olumuyiwa A

2009-01-01

160

Risk of retinoblastoma is associated with a maternal polymorphism in dihydrofolatereductase (DHFR) and prenatal folic acid intake  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The incidence of unilateral retinoblastoma varies globally, suggesting possible environmental contributors to disease incidence. Maternal intake of naturally occurring folate from vegetables during pregnancy is associated inversely with the risk of retinoblastoma in offspring. The authors used a ca...

161

Increased Risk of Severe Infant Anemia Following Exposure to Maternal HAART, Botswana  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) reduces mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT), but may increase the risk for infant anemia. Methods The incidence of first severe anemia (Grade 3 or 4, Division of AIDS 2004 Toxicity Table) was assessed among HIV-uninfected infants in the Mashi and Mma Bana MTCT prevention trials in Botswana. Severe anemia rates were compared between 3 groups: infants exposed to maternal HAART in utero and during breastfeeding and 1 month of postnatal zidovudine (HAART-BF); infants exposed to maternal zidovudine (ZDV) in utero, 6 months of postnatal ZDV, and breastfeeding (ZDV-BF); and infants exposed to maternal ZDV in utero, 1 month of postnatal ZDV, and formula-feeding (ZDV-FF). Results A total of 1719 infants were analyzed— 691 HAART-BF, 503 ZDV-BF, and 525 ZDV-FF. Severe anemia was detected in 118 infants (7.4%). By 6 months, 12.5% of HAART-BF infants experienced severe anemia, compared with 5.3% of ZDV-BF (P<0.001) and 2.5% of ZDV-FF infants (P<0.001). In adjusted analysis, HAART-BF infants were at greater risk of severe anemia than ZDV-BF or ZDV-FF infants (adjusted odds ratios 2.6 and 5.8, respectively; P < 0.001). Most anemias were asymptomatic and improved with iron/multivitamin supplementation and cessation of ZDV exposure. However, 11 infants (0.6% of all infants) required transfusion for symptomatic anemia. Microcytosis and hypochromia were common among infants with severe anemia. Conclusions Exposure to maternal HAART starting in utero was associated with severe infant anemia. Confirmation of this finding and possible strategies to mitigate hematologic toxicity warrant further study. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00197587 and NCT00270296. PMID:21266910

Dryden-Peterson, Scott; Shapiro, Roger L.; Hughes, Michael D.; Powis, Kathleen; Ogwu, Anthony; Moffat, Claire; Moyo, Sikhulile; Makhema, Joseph; Essex, Max; Lockman, Shahin

2011-01-01

162

Risk Factors for Excessive Gestational Weight Gain in a Healthy, Nulliparous Cohort  

PubMed Central

Objective. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with adverse maternal and child outcomes and contributes to obesity in women. Our aim was to identify early pregnancy factors associated with excessive GWG, in a contemporary nulliparous cohort. Methods. Participants in the SCOPE study were classified into GWG categories (“not excessive” versus “excessive”) based on pregravid body mass index (BMI) using 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines. Maternal characteristics and pregnancy risk factors at 14–16 weeks were compared between categories and multivariable analysis controlled for confounding factors. Results. Of 1950 women, 17% gained weight within the recommended range, 74% had excessive and 9% inadequate GWG. Women with excessive GWG were more likely to be overweight (adjOR 2.9 (95% CI 2.2–3.8)) or obese (adjOR 2.5 (95% CI 1.8–3.5)) before pregnancy compared to women with a normal BMI. Other factors independently associated with excessive GWG included recruitment in Ireland, younger maternal age, increasing maternal birthweight, cessation of smoking by 14–16 weeks, increased nightly sleep duration, high seafood diet, recent immigrant, limiting behaviour, and decreasing exercise by 14–16 weeks. Fertility treatment was protective. Conclusions. Identification of potentially modifiable risk factors for excessive GWG provides opportunities for intervention studies to improve pregnancy outcome and prevent maternal obesity. PMID:24995130

Taylor, Rennae S.; Thompson, John M. D.; Flower, Deralie; Dekker, Gustaaf A.; Kenny, Louise C.; Poston, Lucilla; McCowan, Lesley M. E.

2014-01-01

163

Maternal occupational exposure to asthmogens during pregnancy and risk of asthma in 7-year-old children: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives The objective of this study was to examine whether maternal exposure to asthmogens during pregnancy is associated with the development of asthma in 7-year-old Danish children, taking atopic status and sex into consideration. Design The study is a prospective follow-up of a birth cohort. Setting and participants A total of 41?724 women and their children from The Danish National Birth Cohort were categorised according to maternal occupational exposure. Exposure information was obtained by combining job title in pregnancy and 18?months after pregnancy with a commonly used asthma Job Exposure Matrix. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcome was parent-reported asthma among their 7-year-old children in an internet-based questionnaire. Secondary outcome was asthma among the same children with or without atopic dermatitis and among boys and girls, respectively. Results Prenatal exposure to low molecular weight (LMW) agents was borderline associated with asthma in children with OR 1.17 (0.95 to 1.44) for children with atopic dermatitis and 1.10 (0.98 to 1.22) for children without. Maternal postnatal exposure was associated with asthma (OR 1.15 (1.04 to 1.28). After mutual adjustment,postnatal exposure (OR 1.13 (0.99 to 1.29) and the combined effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure (OR 1.34 (1.19 to 1.51)) seem to increase the risk of asthma in children. No significant associations were observed for other prenatal or postnatal exposures. The gender of the child did not modify the aforementioned associations. Conclusions Maternal occupational exposures during pregnancy do not seem to be a substantial risk factor for the development of asthma in 7-year-old children. Maternal prenatal and postnatal exposures to LMW agents may predispose the propensity of the children to develop asthma. Future studies should prioritise the characterisation of the timing of exposure in relation to the birth. PMID:23585388

Christensen, Berit Hvass; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Skadhauge, Lars R; Hansen, Kirsten Skamstrup; Frydenberg, Morten; Schlünssen, Vivi

2013-01-01

164

Risk factors for preterm delivery in south western Nigeria.  

PubMed

This was a case-control study to determine the risk factors of preterm delivery among Nigerian women seen at Obafemi Awolowo University teaching hospital, Ile-Ife, Nigeria over a period of 9 months. All women delivering preterm were recruited into the study, with two consecutive term deliveries after each preterm delivery serving as controls. Information obtained from the women includes socio-demographic characteristics, past reproductive and present pregnancy history and outcome. Laboratory investigations were conducted as necessary. Bivariate analysis revealed 21 potential risk factors, however, following adjustment by multiple logistic regression only previous preterm delivery (OR 4.68, 2.24-6.31), previous second trimester spontaneous abortion (OR 4.48, 2.32-8.54), heavy and stressful occupation (OR 3.56, 1.05-6.45), premature rupture of fetal membrane (OR 3.46, 1.04-6.45), maternal medical disorders (OR 3.13, 1.56-5.16), body mass index at delivery of less than 23 (OR 3.01, 1.56-5.43), antepartum haemorrhage (OR 2.73, 1.18-6.34), maternal febrile illness (OR 2.84, 1.32-4.52), intrauterine growth retardation (OR 2.14, 0.98-2.34) and multiple pregnancy (OR 1.98, 1.02-2.68) remained as significant factors. PMID:12881078

Ezechi, O C; Makinde, O N; Kalu, B E K; Nnatu, S N N

2003-07-01

165

Risk and Resilience: The Moderating Role of Social Coping for Maternal Mental Health in a Setting of Political Conflict  

PubMed Central

Violence can threaten individual well-being and tear at the social fabric of communities. At the same time, suffering can mobilize social coping and mutual support. Thus, the backdrop of political violence increases risk factors and stimulates resilience. The current study examined the moderating role of social coping as reflective of risk and resiliency in Northern Ireland, a setting of protracted conflict. Specifically, structural equation modeling was used to investigate whether social coping protects from or exacerbates the negative impact of sectarian crime and nonsectarian crime on maternal mental health (N=631). Nonsectarian crime predicted greater psychological distress for mothers in Belfast. Mixed support was found for the buffering and depletion moderation hypotheses; social coping functioned differently for nonsectarian crime and sectarian crime. Greater social coping buffered mothers’ psychological distress from the negative effects of nonsectarian crime, but exacerbated maternal mental health problems when facing sectarian crime. Results suggest that social coping is a complex phenomenon, particularly in settings of protracted political violence. Implications for interventions aimed at alleviating psychological distress by enhancing mothers’ social coping in contexts of intergroup conflict are discussed. PMID:22506629

Taylor, Laura K.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Cairns, Ed; Shirlow, Peter; Goeke-Morey, Marcie; Cummings, E. Mark

2012-01-01

166

A reexamination of the risk factors for the sudden infant death syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine which risk factors are specific for the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) rather than characteristic of postneonatal deaths in general. Study population: The live births and infant death cohorts of the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey. Methods: Information on live births, deaths from SIDS, and postneonatal deaths from other causes was abstracted from the National

James A. Taylor; Maureen Sanderson

1995-01-01

167

Risk factors for wasting and stunting among children in Metro Cebu, Philippines13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk factors for wasting and stunting were ex- amined in a longitudinal study of 18 544 children younger than 30 mo in Metro Cebu, Philippines. Measures of household demo- graphic and socioeconomic characteristics, maternal characteris- tics and behavior, and child biological variables were analyzed cross-sectionally in six child age-residence strata by using logistic regression. Our results support biological and epidemiologic

Judith A Ricci; Stan Becker

168

A Bioecological Analysis of Risk and Protective Factors Associated With Early Sexual Intercourse of Young Adolescents.  

PubMed

Microsystem risk and protective factors associated with early sexual intercourse among low-income adolescents were assessed using bioecological theory and a risk and resiliency framework. Waves 1 and 2 of Welfare, Children and Families: A Three-City Study were used (N=984, 10-14 years). Findings showed age, gender, race, two-parent households, separated households, households where the mother formed a union between waves, transitioning onto welfare between waves, and delinquency increased the odds that adolescents were sexually active. Protective factors for early sexual activity included maternal education and father involvement. Risk factors for early sexual debut were age, gender, race, two-parent households, separated households, and delinquency. A protective factor for early sexual debut was maternal education. Findings differed by gender, race, and race*gender. Policy implications include increasing social and human capital among low-income mothers to promote family stability and providing diversified sexual education programs due to gender differences. PMID:20161569

Jordahl, Tina; Lohman, Brenda J

2009-12-01

169

Maternal hospitalization with infection during pregnancy and risk of autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Animal models indicate that maternal infection during pregnancy can result in behavioral abnormalities and neuropathologies in offspring. We examined the association between maternal inpatient diagnosis with infection during pregnancy and risk of ASD in a Swedish nationwide register-based birth cohort born 1984-2007 with follow-up through 2011. In total, the sample consisted of 2,371,403 persons with 24,414 ASD cases. Infection during pregnancy was defined from ICD codes. In the sample, 903 mothers of ASD cases (3.7%) had an inpatient diagnosis of infection during pregnancy. Logistic regression models adjusted for a number of covariates yielded odds ratios indicating approximately a 30% increase in ASD risk associated with any inpatient diagnosis of infection. Timing of infection did not appear to influence risk in the total Swedish population, since elevated risk of ASD was associated with infection in all trimesters. In a subsample analysis, infections were associated with greater risk of ASD with intellectual disability than for ASD without intellectual disability. The present study adds to the growing body of evidence, encompassing both animal and human studies, that supports possible immune-mediated mechanisms underlying the etiology of ASD. PMID:25218900

Lee, Brian K; Magnusson, Cecilia; Gardner, Renee M; Blomström, Åsa; Newschaffer, Craig J; Burstyn, Igor; Karlsson, Håkan; Dalman, Christina

2015-02-01

170

Is renin a risk factor?  

PubMed Central

1. These results show that elevated blood pressure and a hyperlipidemic diet exacerbate atherogenesis in the two kidney, one-clip hypertensive rabbit. Elevated PRA activity was not essential for the hypertension and did not exacerbate atherogenesis. 2. In addition, the experimentally induced, low renin state following DOC-saline did not result in a protective effect on cardiovascular lesions in rabbits fed an atherogenic diet when compared to normal renin controls. 3. Thus, in these experiments neither an increase in plasma renin accelerated atherogenesis, nor did a decrease in PRA slow the rate of production of atherosclerosis in the rabbit. 4. These observations lend no support to the thesis that renin is an independent risk factor when it is generated within the body in response to these stimuli. Indeed, it suggests that in this setting other factors, not PRA, are responsible for both hypertension in the two-kidney, one-clip rabbit and the arterial damage which occurs in this hypercholesterolemic model. PMID:7025426

Kirkendall, W. M.; Overturf, M. L.; Druilhet, R. E.

1981-01-01

171

Factors affecting utilization of skilled maternal care in Northwest Ethiopia: a multilevel analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The evaluation of all potential sources of low skilled maternal care utilization is crucial for Ethiopia. Previous studies have largely disregarded the contribution of different levels. This study was planned to assess the effect of individual, communal, and health facility characteristics in the utilization of antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care by a skilled provider. Methods A linked facility and population-based survey was conducted over three months (January - March 2012) in twelve “kebeles” of North Gondar Zone, Amhara Region. A total of 1668 women who had births in the year preceding the survey were selected for analysis. Using a multilevel modelling, we examined the effect of cluster variation and a number of individual, communal (kebele), and facility-related variables for skilled maternal care utilization. Result About 32.3%, 13.8% and 6.3% of the women had the chance to get skilled providers for their antenatal, delivery and postnatal care, respectively. A significant heterogeneity was observed among clusters for each indicator of skilled maternal care utilization. At the individual level, variables related to awareness and perceptions were found to be much more relevant for skilled maternal service utilization. Preference for skilled providers and previous experience of antenatal care were consistently strong predictors of all indicators of skilled maternal health care utilizations. Birth order, maternal education, and awareness about health facilities to get skilled professionals were consistently strong predictors of skilled antenatal and delivery care use. Communal factors were relevant for both delivery and postnatal care, whereas the characteristics of a health facility were more relevant for use of skilled delivery care than other maternity services. Conclusion Factors operating at individual and “kebele” levels play a significant role in determining utilization of skilled maternal health services. Interventions to create better community awareness and perception about skilled providers and their care, and ensuring the seamless performance of health care facilities have been considered crucial to improve skilled maternal services in the study area. Such interventions should target underprivileged women. PMID:23587369

2013-01-01

172

Maternal Eating Disorders and Infant Feeding Difficulties: Maternal and Child Mediators in a Longitudinal General Population Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Maternal eating disorders (ED) have been shown to increase the risk of feeding difficulties in the offspring. Very few studies, however, have investigated whether the effect of a maternal ED on childhood feeding is a direct effect or whether it can be ascribed to other child or maternal factors. We aimed to determine the role of…

Micali, Nadia; Simonoff, Emily; Stahl, Daniel; Treasure, Janet

2011-01-01

173

Factors Associated with Perceived Stress and Stressful Life Events in Pregnant Women: Findings from the Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prenatal maternal stress has been linked to multiple adverse outcomes. Researchers have used a variety of methods to assess\\u000a maternal stress. The purpose of this study was to explore and compare factors associated with stress in pregnancy as measured\\u000a by perceived stress and stressful life events. We analyzed data from the Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey. A randomly\\u000a selected sample of

Dawn Kingston; Maureen Heaman; Deshayne Fell; Susie Dzakpasu; Beverley Chalmers

174

Maternal Socioeconomic Status and the Risk of Congenital Heart Defects in Offspring: A Meta-Analysis of 33 Studies  

PubMed Central

Background We conducted this meta-analysis to address the open question of a possible association between maternal socioeconomic status and congenital heart defects (CHDs). Methods We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE from their inception to January 1, 2014 for case-control and cohort studies that assessed the association between maternal socioeconomic status and the risk of CHDs. Study-specific relative risk estimates were polled according to random-effect or fixed-effect models. Results From 3343 references, a total of 31 case-control studies and 2 cohort studies were enrolled in this meta-analysis, including more than 50,000 cases. We observed that maternal educational attainment, family income and maternal occupation were negatively associated with an 11% (pooled RR?=?1.11, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.21), 5% (pooled RR?=?1.05, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.09) and 51% (pooled RR?=?1.51, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.24) increased risk of CHDs, respectively. In a subgroup analysis by geographic region, the results were inconsistent for the European region (RR?=?1.29, 95% CI: 0.99–1.69) and USA/Canada region (RR?=?1.06, 95% CI: 0.97, 1.16) in maternal educational attainment. Conclusion In summary, this meta-analysis suggests that a lower degree of maternal socioeconomic status is modestly associated with an increased risk of CHDs. However, further investigations are needed to confirm the association. PMID:25347676

Yang, Lei; Da, Min; Fan, Changfeng; Wang, Song; Mo, Xuming

2014-01-01

175

[Factors associated with continued breastfeeding until 6 months among lactating mothers in a Paris maternity hospital].  

PubMed

Breastfeeding contributes to the health of the child and the mother. Given the lack of studies done in France, it is relevant to examine, besides the sociodemographic factors, the psychosocial and the relational factors. The objectives of the study are: to describe the proportion of mothers who breastfeed up to six months, to identify the sociodemographic, psychosocial and relational factors. This is a prospective, observational, single-center cohort study. The instruments used are the socio-demographic and clinical data questionnaire, the Maternel Sensitivity Scale, the Social Behavioral Inventory and the Situational Anxiety Inventory. Of the 247 mothers who participed in the study, 134 responded at six months and 55 mothers reported breastfeeding at six months. Multivariate analysis revealed the significant factors associated with the continuation of breastfeeding up to six months: the determination of mothers to breastfeed (OR (95% CI): 3.99 (1.04 to 15.31)), high maternal sensitivity at 48h (OR (95% CI): 0.16 (0.03 to 0.84)) and the presence of maternal anxiety at 48 h (OR (95% CI): 1.18 (1.06 to 1.32)). The conjunction of the interactionist approach and of maternal sensitivity is a promising avenue for the support of breastfeeding. Psychosocial and relational factors are fields that need to be explored. Knowledge of these factors can strengthen the strategies to inform and support breastfeeding mothers. PMID:25080624

Courtois, Emilie; Lacombe, Marie; Tyzio, Sandrine

2014-06-01

176

Prenatal and early life factors and risk of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Few studies have investigated the relation between early life factors and risk of Parkinson's disease (PD), although a potential role of exposures during pregnancy and childhood has been hypothesized. The study population comprised participants in two prospective cohorts: the Nurses' Health Study (121,701 female nurses followed up from 1976-2002) and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (51,529 male health professionals followed up from 1986-2002). PD risk was examined in relation to season of birth, birthweight, parental age at birth, preterm birth, multiple birth, ever having been breast-fed, and handedness. We identified 659 incident PD cases. No significant relation with PD was observed for birthweight, paternal age, preterm birth, multiple birth, and having been breast-fed. A modest nonsignificant association was suggested for season of birth (30% higher risk of PD associated with spring versus winter birth) and for older maternal age at birth (75% increased risk among those with mothers aged 30 years and older versus younger than 20 years). Left-handedness was associated with a 62% increased risk of PD in women but not in men. Further investigation of the relation between prenatal, perinatal, or neonatal factors and PD in other study populations is suggested. PMID:20740569

Gardener, Hannah; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Honglei; Schwarzschild, Michael A; Spiegelman, Donna; Ascherio, Alberto

2010-08-15

177

Clinical complications in pregnant women with sickle cell disease: prospective study of factors predicting maternal death or near miss  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate complications in pregnant women with sickle cell disease, especially those leading to maternal death or near miss (severe obstetric complications). Methods A prospective cohort of 104 pregnant women registered in the Blood Center of Belo Horizonte (Hemominas Foundation) was followed up at high-risk prenatal units. They belonged to Group I (51 hemoglobin SS and three hemoglobin S/?0-thalassemia) or Group II (49 hemoglobin SC and one hemoglobin S/?+-thalassemia). Both groups had similar median ages. Predictive factors for ‘near miss’ or maternal death with p-value ? 0.25 in the univariate analysis were included in a multivariate logistic model (significance set for p-value ? 0.05). Results Group I had more frequent episodes of vaso-occlusive crises, more transfusions in the antepartum and postpartum, and higher percentage of preterm deliveries than Group II. Infections and painful crises during the postpartum period were similar in both the groups. The mortality rate was 4.8%: three deaths in Group I and two in Group II. One-third of the women in both the groups experienced near miss. The most frequent event was pneumonia/acute chest syndrome. Alpha-thalassemia co-inheritance and ?-gene haplotypes were not associated with near miss or maternal death. In multivariate analysis predictors of near miss or death were parity above one and baseline red blood cell macrocytosis. In Group I, baseline hypoxemia (saturation < 94%) was also predictive of near miss or death. Conclusion One-third of pregnant women had near miss and 4.8% died. Both hemoglobin SS and SC pregnant women shared the same risk of death or of severe complications, especially pulmonary events. PMID:25031164

Resende Cardoso, Patrícia Santos; Lopes Pessoa de Aguiar, Regina Amélia; Viana, Marcos Borato

2014-01-01

178

Pre- and perinatal risk factors for autism spectrum disorder in a New Jersey cohort.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the prevalence of pre- and perinatal risk factors in a cohort of children with autism spectrum disorders compared with the New Jersey population. Our cohort included 268 individuals with an autism spectrum disorder. Birth histories were obtained by a self-administered questionnaire. The autism spectrum disorders cohort rates of 7 perinatal risk factors were significantly higher than New Jersey state rates: mother's age 35 years or older, low birth weight, multiple gestation, prematurity, vaginal bleeding, prolonged labor, and hypoxia. Analysis of clustering of risk factors in the cohort showed no significant differences across maternal and paternal age groups. Older mothers in the cohort had a higher risk of infant hypoxia. Multiple risk factors during pregnancy appear to be associated with a higher risk of autism spectrum disorders in offspring, supporting the hypothesis that environmental influences in conjunction with genetics contribute to the causes of autism spectrum disorders. PMID:24413357

Maramara, Lauren A; He, Wenzhuan; Ming, Xue

2014-12-01

179

Risk of hypospadias in relation to maternal occupational exposure to potential endocrine disrupting chemicals  

PubMed Central

Background: Reported rises in the prevalence of hypospadias and other abnormalities of the male reproductive system may be a result of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals. Aims: To analyse the relation between risk of hypospadias and maternal occupation, particularly with regard to exposure to potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Methods: Data (1980–96) from the National Congenital Anomaly System (NCAS) were used to analyse the proportion of all congenital anomaly cases (n = 35 962) which were notified with hypospadias (n = 3471) by occupational codes (348 individual job titles) and by categories of exposure to potential EDCs from a job exposure matrix. Results: Five individual occupations (of 348) showed nominally statistically significant excesses, none of which had possible or probable exposure to potential EDCs. Odds ratios for "possible" or "probable" compared to "unlikely" exposure to potential EDCs did not show statistically significant increases in any of the EDC categories after adjustment for social class of the mother and father, nor was there evidence of an upward trend in risk with likelihood of exposure. In the 1992–96 time period odds ratios were increased for hairdressers (the largest group exposed to potential EDCs) and for probable exposure to phthalates (of which hairdressers form the largest group) before social class adjustment. Conclusions: There was little evidence for a relation between risk of hypospadias and maternal occupation or occupational exposure to potential EDCs, but as the exposure classification was necessarily crude, these findings should be interpreted with caution. PMID:12883014

Vrijheid, M; Armstrong, B; Dolk, H; van Tongeren, M; Botting, B

2003-01-01

180

Maternal and paternal occupational exposure to agricultural work and the risk of anencephaly  

PubMed Central

Aims To evaluate the association between parental occupational exposure to agricultural work and the risk of anencephaly in three Mexican states. Methods A paired case control study (1:1) was done based on records of the Epidemiological Surveillance System of Neural Tube Defects in Mexico; 151 cases of anencephaly of more than 20?weeks' gestation were selected between March 2000 and February 2001. Controls were selected from the same maternity services as those of the cases and were born alive without congenital malformations. Information was obtained from both parents by means of a general questionnaire, a food frequency questionnaire, and a specific questionnaire on occupational exposure to pesticides. Exposures were analysed with emphasis on the three months before and one month after the last menstruation periods (acute risk period (ARP)), as well as exposure prior to the abovementioned period (non?acute risk period (NARP)). Results The children of mothers who worked in agriculture in the ARP had a greater risk of anencephaly (OR?=?4.57, 95% CI 1.05 to 19.96). The risk of fathers having a child with anencephaly was greater in those who applied pesticides irrespective of whether it was done in the ARP or the NARP (OR?=?2.50, 95% CI 0.73 to 8.64; and OR?=?2.03, 95% CI 0.58 to 7.08, respectively). Conclusions These results support the hypothesis of the effect of maternal exposure to agricultural work on anencephaly and suggest that exposure of the father to pesticides in the periconceptional period or prior to this can also increase the risk of having an anencephalic child. PMID:16873458

Lacasaña, M; Vázquez?Grameix, H; Borja?Aburto, V H; Blanco?Muñoz, J; Romieu, I; Aguilar?Garduño, C; García, A M

2006-01-01

181

Factors That Contribute to the Improvement in Maternal Parenting after Separation from a Violent Husband or Partner  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors test the hypothesis that separation from a violent husband or partner improves maternal parenting in Japan and examine how childhood abuse history (CAH), experience of domestic violence (DV), mental health problems, husband or partner's child maltreatment, and other demographic factors affect maternal parenting after such separation. A…

Fujiwara, Takeo; Okuyama, Makiko; Izumi, Mayuko

2012-01-01

182

Low Birth Weight and Its Related Risk Factors in Northeast Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) and its related risk factors in an appropriate sample of neonates in Shahroud, northeast Iran. Methods At this study, a random sample of 1000 neonates were selected of which 72 neonates were LBWs. We used univariate and multivariate logistic regression methods to evaluate the LBW risk factors in LBWs compared to normal weight infants. Findings 7.2% of neonates were LBWs and 6.1% born before 37 weeks of gestation. Prematurity, high-risk pregnancy and maternal age have significant statistical association with LBW. Odds Ratio (OR) for prematurity was 42.82 (95%CI; 21.93-83.57), for high risk pregnancy 2.76 (95%CI; 1.47-5.19) and for maternal age group more than 35 years in comparison to 19-35 years age group 0.2 (95%CI; 0.05-0.71). Conclusion Based on this study; prematurity and high risk pregnancy were the most important risk factors for LBW. There was also a reverse association between maternal age and LBW. PMID:24910751

Chaman, Reza; Amiri, Mohammad; Raei, Mehdi; Ajami, Mohammad-Esmaeil; Sadeghian, Afsaneh; Khosravi, Ahmad

2013-01-01

183

Maternal early pregnancy body mass index and risk of preterm birth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To determine the association between maternal body mass index (BMI) in early pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth (PTB)\\u000a in Chinese women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Data were obtained from a population-based perinatal care program in China during 1993–2005. Women whose height and weight\\u000a information was recorded at the first prenatal visit in the first trimester of pregnancy and delivered a singleton live

Ting WangJun; Jun Zhang; Xinrong Lu; Wei Xi; Zhu Li

184

Dynamic Risk Factors: The Kia Marama Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk assessment is an essential part of clinical practice. Each of the three aspects of risk (static, stable, and acute dynamic) are important at various points of contact between the man and the systems that are responsible for providing service. Dynamic factors, the typical treatment and supervision targets, have received less research attention than static factors. This paper examined the

Stephen M. Hudson; David S. Wales; Leon Bakker; Tony Ward

2002-01-01

185

Risk Factor Intervention for Health Maintenance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Risk factors for disease consist of personal habits such as cigarette smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, and bodily characteristics such as hypertension and high serum cholesterol. Progress in identifying, quantifying, and controlling risk factors is opening the way to the prevention of disease. (BB)

Breslow, Lester

1978-01-01

186

Risk Factors for Forced Migrant Flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important type of medical study seeks to establish the risk factors for contracting various diseases. A similar, but very small, vein of research exists in peace and conflict studies, and we seek to contribute to it. Our study evaluates whether variables shown to explain variance in numbers of forced migrants can serve as risk factors that might aid contingency

Jacqueline H. Rubin; Will H. Moore

2007-01-01

187

Osteoporosis Risk Factors in Eighth Grade Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents findings from food frequency questionnaires and surveys of 138 Midwestern eighth-grade student-parent pairs. The study examined the incidence of modifiable and nonmodifiable osteoporosis risk factors and compared gender differences. Data analysis indicated that many adolescents possessed several modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors

Lysen, Victoria C.; Walker, Robert

1997-01-01

188

Risk factors and cardiovascular disease in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular risk factors as well as morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease among Turkish adults are herein reviewed. Lipids and lipoproteins are in focus, but other relevant risk factors are also discussed. Turks have distinctively low levels of total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, associated with high levels of hepatic lipase and fasting triglycerides. In addition, physical inactivity is common

Altan Onat

2001-01-01

189

Developmental Risk Factors for Sexual Offending.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…

Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony

2002-01-01

190

Dietary Research - Risk Factor Monitoring & Methods Branch  

Cancer.gov

Diet, in all its complexity, is considered one of the major risk factors for cancer and is therefore a primary area of research within the Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch. We work collaboratively with a wide range of researchers to conduct an integrated program that serves NCI as well as the extramural community.

191

Status of Risk Factors for Vascular Dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two most common causes of vascular dementia (VAD) are dementia evolving in connection with multiple small or large strokes and dementia related to ischemic white-matter lesions (WMLs) of the brain. The knowledge about risk factors for these disorders is still scarce. Besides sharing risk factors with stroke, dementia with multiple small or large brain infarcts is also associated with

Ingmar Skoog

1998-01-01

192

Risk factors identified for certain lymphoma subtypes  

Cancer.gov

In a large international collaborative analysis of risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), scientists were able to quantify risk associated with medical history, lifestyle factors, family history of blood or lymph-borne cancers, and occupation for 11 different NHL subtypes, including less common subtypes.

193

Risk factors across the eating disorders.  

PubMed

This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. Risk factors for BN were shared with AN and BED. Dieting was the most common onset symptom in AN, whereas binge eating was most common in BN and BED. Migration between AN and BED was rare, but more frequent between AN and BN and between BN and BED. AN and BED have distinct risk factors and onset patterns, while BN shares similar risk factors and onset patterns with both AN and BED. Results should inform future classification schemes and prevention programs. PMID:25103674

Hilbert, Anja; Pike, Kathleen M; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Wilfley, Denise E; Fairburn, Christopher G; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Walsh, B Timothy; Striegel Weissman, Ruth

2014-12-15

194

Multilevel Factors Influencing Maternal Stress during the First Three Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study applies family stress theory to the influence of personal, child, and familial factors on a mother's parenting stress during the first 3 years of her infant's life. Mother's personality was most predictive of parenting stress. Counterintuitively, mothers who were more satisfied with work or school choices were more likely to be chronically…

Mulsow, Miriam; Caldera, Yvonne M.; Pursley, Marta; Reifman, Alan; Huston, Aletha C.

2002-01-01

195

Elevated complement factor C5a in maternal and umbilical cord plasma in preeclampsia.  

PubMed

Preeclampsia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, encompassing significant short- and long-term health sequelae. Recently, there has been accumulating evidence for a role of the complement system in the pathogenesis of numerous complications of pregnancy, including preeclampsia. The present cross-sectional study compared the plasma concentrations of complement factors C3a and C5a between normotensive pregnancies and pregnancies complicated with either preeclampsia or gestational hypertension alone. We found that maternal plasma C5a concentration was significantly higher in preeclamptic pregnancy than in pregnancy affected by gestational hypertension alone or normotensive pregnancy. Umbilical cord plasma C5a concentrations were also higher in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia compared to gestational hypertension or normotensive pregnancy. Maternal and cord plasma C5a concentrations were significantly correlated, suggesting that C5a can freely diffuse between maternal and fetal circulation. There were no significant differences in C3a concentrations in maternal or cord plasma between any groups. These results support the hypothesis that C5a may play a role in preeclampsia, but not in gestational hypertension. PMID:23415845

Denny, Kerina J; Coulthard, Liam G; Finnell, Richard H; Callaway, Leonie K; Taylor, Stephen M; Woodruff, Trent M

2013-04-01

196

Maternal leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in normal and gestational diabetes.  

PubMed

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common medical complication associated with pregnancy. The present study evaluates the changes in maternal adipocytokines (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha; TNF-?) in pregnancy complicated with GDM compared to normal pregnancy at 2nd and 3rd trimesters. The study included total number of 142 pregnant women classified into 4 groups: normal pregnancy (n = 33) and pregnancy with GDM (n = 24) both at 2nd trimester and normal pregnancy (n = 38) and GDM (n = 47) at 3rd trimester. Both GDM groups were significantly presented with elevated body mass index, fasting blood sugar and abnormal oral glucose tolerance test compared to their matched control. Results indicated reduction in maternal serum leptin and adiponectin in GDM compared to normal pregnancy at 3rd trimester. Elevated resistin and TNF-? were evident among pregnancy complicated with GDM at both tested trimesters. On the other hand, significant elevation in maternal visfatin was noted between GDM and matched control at 2nd trimester only. Significant increase in maternal leptin and visfatin and resistin was noted by advances in gestational period in healthy pregnancy. On the other hand, reduced adiponectin and elevated visfatin mean values were noticed in GDM at 3rd compared to 2nd trimester. It could be concluded that increased insulin resistance accompanies GDM is associated with suppressed leptin and adiponectin and increased resistin and TNF-? which might suggest their involvement in the development of GDM. PMID:25298627

Noureldeen, Amani F H; Qusti, Safaa Y; Al-Seeni, Madeha N; Bagais, Maram H

2014-10-01

197

Labour complications remain the most important risk factors for perinatal mortality in rural Kenya.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To identify and quantify risk factors for perinatal mortality in a Kenyan district hospital and to assess the proportion of perinatal deaths attributable to labour complications, maternal undernutrition, malaria, anaemia and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 910 births was conducted between January 1996 and July 1997 and risk factors for perinatal mortality were analysed. FINDINGS: The perinatal mortality rate was 118 per 1000 births. Complications of labour such as haemorrhage, premature rupture of membranes/premature labour, and obstructed labour/ malpresentation increased the risk of death between 8- and 62-fold, and 53% of all perinatal deaths were attributable to labour complications. Placental malaria and maternal HIV, on the other hand, were not associated with perinatal mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Greater attention needs to be given to the quality of obstetric care provided in the rural district-hospital setting. PMID:14576887

Weiner, Renay; Ronsmans, Carine; Dorman, Ed; Jilo, Hilton; Muhoro, Anne; Shulman, Caroline

2003-01-01

198

Vehicle emission unit risk factors for transportation risk assessments  

SciTech Connect

When the transportation risk posed by shipments of hazardous chemical and radioactive materials is being assessed, it is necessary to evaluate the risks associated with both vehicle emissions and cargo-related risks. Diesel exhaust and fugitive dust emissions from vehicles transporting hazardous shipments lead to increased air pollution, which increases the risk of latent fatalities in the affected population along the transport route. The estimated risk from these vehicle-related sources can often by as large or larger than the estimated risk associated with the material being transported. In this paper, data from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Motor Vehicle-Related Air Toxics Study are first used to develop latent cancer fatality estimates per kilometer of travel in rural and urban areas for all diesel truck classes. These unit risk factors are based on studies investigating the carcinogenic nature of diesel exhaust. With the same methodology, the current per=kilometer latent fatality risk factor used in transportation risk assessment for heavy diesel trucks in urban areas is revised and the analysis expanded to provide risk factors for rural areas and all diesel truck classes. These latter fatality estimates may include, but are not limited to, cancer fatalities and are based primarily on the most recent epidemiological data available on mortality rates associated with ambient air PM-10 concentrations.

Biwer, B.M.; Butler, J.P.

1999-12-01

199

Maternal Heme Oxygenase 1 Regulates Placental Vasculature Development via Angiogenic Factors in Mice1  

PubMed Central

The placental vasculature is critical for nutrient, gas, and waste exchange between the maternal and fetal systems. Its development depends on the proper expression and interaction of angiogenesis and associated growth factors. Heme oxygenase (HMOX), the enzyme for heme degradation, plays a role in angiogenesis and is highly expressed in the placenta. To evaluate the role of maternal HMOX1, the inducible HMOX isozyme, on placental vasculature formation, mice with a partial deficiency in Hmox1 (Hmox1+/?) were used. Three-dimensional images of placental vasculatures as well as spiral arteries from Hmox1+/+ or Hmox1+/? placentas were created by vascular corrosion casting technique and imaged by micro-computerized tomography (microCT). The structures and morphologies of fetomaternal interfaces were observed by histological staining and the ultrastructure of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells, a major regulator in spiral artery remodeling, was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. A group of growth factors and angiogenic factors from the decidua/mesometrial lymphoid aggregate of pregnancy (MLAp) as well as labyrinth regions were quantified using an angiogenesis PCR array kit and compared between Hmox1+/+ or Hmox1+/? placentas. In conclusion, a partial deficiency of maternal Hmox1 resulted in the malformation of fetomaternal interface, insufficiency of spiral artery remodeling, and alteration of uNK cell differentiation and maturation. These changes were independent of the fetal genotype, but relied on the maternal HMOX1 level, which determined the balance of expression levels of pro- and antiangiogenic factors in the decidua/MLAp region. These results implied that Hmox1 polymorphisms among the human population might contribute to some unexplained cases of pregnancy disorders, such as fetal growth retardation and preeclampsia. PMID:21778140

Zhao, Hui; Azuma, Junya; Kalish, Flora; Wong, Ronald J.; Stevenson, David K.

2011-01-01

200

Preschool risk factors as predictors of early school performance.  

PubMed

The relative importance of selected developmental, medical, and social factors in assessing a child's early academic potential was evaluated prospectively in a rural southern school district. Two hundred and ten (210) preschoolers were given the Sprigle School Readiness Screening Test (SSRST) and the Beery Test of Visual Motor Integration (VMI) while physicians rated the children's attention span. A parental questionnaire assessed medical, behavioral, social, and family variables. Follow-up school data were available on 176 children (84%). Using regression techniques, reading and math achievement scores were directly correlated with maternal education, SSRST and VMI results, and lack of family history of learning problems, whereas grade failure was associated with low VMI scores, decreased maternal education, boys with late birthdays, and family history of learning problems. Medical problems and parental preschool behavior concerns were unrelated to school achievement, but physician rating of preschool attention span showed a significant correlation with reading and math scores. A 0-11 Risk Index of School Capability (RISC) scale based on data analyses was developed to rate a preschooler's early academic potential. A score of 7 or above had a 98% positive predictive value of successful grade completion, whereas a score of 3 or below had a 70% predictive value for grade failure. The value of assessing the scores of the VMI and SSRST alone was also considered, but was found less useful. This study demonstrates the importance of evaluating a number of risk factors in assessing a preschooler's early academic potential. Such data can be used to focus school resources for children at increased risk for grade failure. PMID:3745450

Fowler, M G; Cross, A W

1986-08-01

201

Structural Genomic Variation as Risk Factor for Idiopathic Recurrent Miscarriage  

PubMed Central

Recurrent miscarriage (RM) is a multifactorial disorder with acknowledged genetic heritability that affects ?3% of couples aiming at childbirth. As copy number variants (CNVs) have been shown to contribute to reproductive disease susceptibility, we aimed to describe genome-wide profile of CNVs and identify common rearrangements modulating risk to RM. Genome-wide screening of Estonian RM patients and fertile controls identified excessive cumulative burden of CNVs (5.4 and 6.1 Mb per genome) in two RM cases possibly increasing their individual disease risk. Functional profiling of all rearranged genes within RM study group revealed significant enrichment of loci related to innate immunity and immunoregulatory pathways essential for immune tolerance at fetomaternal interface. As a major finding, we report a multicopy duplication (61.6 kb) at 5p13.3 conferring increased maternal risk to RM in Estonia and Denmark (meta-analysis, n = 309/205, odds ratio = 4.82, P = 0.012). Comparison to Estonian population-based cohort (total, n = 1000) confirmed the risk for Estonian female cases (P = 7.9 × 10?4). Datasets of four cohorts from the Database of Genomic Variants (total, n = 5,846 subjects) exhibited similar low duplication prevalence worldwide (0.7%–1.2%) compared to RM cases of this study (6.6%–7.5%). The CNV disrupts PDZD2 and GOLPH3 genes predominantly expressed in placenta and it may represent a novel risk factor for pregnancy complications. PMID:24827138

Nagirnaja, Liina; Palta, Priit; Kasak, Laura; Rull, Kristiina; Christiansen, Ole B; Nielsen, Henriette S; Steffensen, Rudi; Esko, Tõnu; Remm, Maido; Laan, Maris

2014-01-01

202

Maternal Self-Efficacy in the Home Food Environment: A Qualitative Study among Low-Income Mothers of Nutritionally At-Risk Children in an Urban Area of Jakarta, Indonesia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To explore the factors that encompass maternal self-efficacy in providing food for the home. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 19 mothers of nutritionally at risk children in an urban area of East Jakarta, Indonesia. This study was based on Social Cognitive Theory, Family Stress Models, and Ecological Frameworks. Data…

Kolopaking, Risatianti; Bardosono, Saptawati; Fahmida, Umi

2011-01-01

203

MATERNAL COFFEE AND ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION DURING PREGNANCY, PARENTAL SMOKING AND RISK OF CHILDHOOH ACUTE LEUKEMIA  

E-print Network

ACUTE LEUKEMIA Short title: Maternal coffee and alcohol consumption, parental smoking and childhood leukemia Category : Original article Condensed abstract : Maternal habits during pregnancy, as maternal smoking and maternal beverage consumption, were obtained for 280 cases of childhood acute leukemia and 280

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

204

Cryptosporidium Epidemiology and Risk Factors  

MedlinePLUS

... risk for infection, such as: Children who attend day care centers, including diaper-aged children Child care workers ... Work: Cryptosporidium CryptoNet Information For Immunocompromised Persons Travelers Day Care Facilities Boil Water Advisories Healthy Water Links Healthy ...

205

Genetic Insights into Cardiometabolic Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

Many biochemical traits are recognised as risk factors, which contribute to or predict the development of disease. Only a few are in widespread use, usually to assist with treatment decisions and motivate behavioural change. The greatest effort has gone into evaluation of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and/or diabetes, with substantial overlap as ‘cardiometabolic’ risk. Over the past few years many genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have sought to account for variation in risk factors, with the expectation that identifying relevant polymorphisms would improve our understanding or prediction of disease; others have taken the direct approach of genomic case-control studies for the corresponding diseases. Large GWAS have been published for coronary heart disease and Type 2 diabetes, and also for associated biomarkers or risk factors including body mass index, lipids, C-reactive protein, urate, liver function tests, glucose and insulin. Results are not encouraging for personal risk prediction based on genotyping, mainly because known risk loci only account for a small proportion of risk. Overlap of allelic associations between disease and marker, as found for low density lipoprotein cholesterol and heart disease, supports a causal association, but in other cases genetic studies have cast doubt on accepted risk factors. Some loci show unexpected effects on multiple markers or diseases. An intriguing feature of risk factors is the blurring of categories shown by the correlation between them and the genetic overlap between diseases previously thought of as distinct. GWAS can provide insight into relationships between risk factors, biomarkers and diseases, with potential for new approaches to disease classification. PMID:24659834

Whitfield, John B

2014-01-01

206

The non-inherited maternal HLA haplotype affects the risk for type 1 diabetes.  

PubMed

The aim was to test the hypothesis that the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) haplotype that is not inherited from the mother, that is, the non-inherited maternal antigen (NIMA) affects the risk for type 1 diabetes (T1D). A total of 563 children with T1D and 286 non-diabetic control children from Sweden were genotyped for DRB1, DQA1 and DQB1 alleles. The frequency of positively (DR4-DQA1*0301-B1*0302 and DR3-DQA1*0501-B1*0201), negatively (DR15-DQ A1*0102-B1*0602) or neutrally (all other) T1D associated HLA haplotypes were compared between NIMA and non-inherited paternal antigen (NIPA). All comparisons were carried out between HLA-matched patients and controls. The frequency of positively associated NIMA was higher among both DR4/X-positive healthy individuals compared wit DR4/X-positive patients (P < 0.00003) and DR3/X-positive healthy individuals compared with DR3/X-positive patients (P < 0.009). No such difference was observed for NIPA. High-risk NIMA was increased compared to NIPA among healthy DR3/X- and DR4/X-positive children (P < 0.05). There was no difference in frequency of positively associated haplotypes between patient NIMA and NIPA. The NIMA but not the NIPA affects the risk for T1D, suggesting that not only the inherited but also non-inherited maternal HLA haplotypes, perhaps through microchimerism or other mechanisms, may influence the risk for the disease. PMID:19055605

Akesson, K; Carlsson, A; Ivarsson, S-A; Johansson, C; Weidby, B-M; Ludvigsson, J; Gustavsson, B; Lernmark, A; Kockum, I

2009-02-01

207

Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls’ Disruptive Behavior  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls’ disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years. Multivariate Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) analyses indicated that European American race, mother’s prenatal nicotine use, maternal depression, maternal conduct problems prior to age 15, and low maternal warmth explained unique variance. Maladaptive parenting partly mediated the effects of maternal depression and maternal conduct problems. Both current and early maternal risk factors have an impact on young girls’ disruptive behavior, providing support for the timing and focus of the prevention of girls’ disruptive behavior. PMID:21391016

van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

2011-01-01

208

Maternal characteristics predicting young girls' disruptive behavior.  

PubMed

Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls' disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent- and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years. Multivariate generalized estimating equation analyses indicated that European American race, mother's prenatal nicotine use, maternal depression, maternal conduct problems prior to age 15, and low maternal warmth explained unique variance. Maladaptive parenting partly mediated the effects of maternal depression and maternal conduct problems. Both current and early maternal risk factors have an impact on young girls' disruptive behavior, providing support for the timing and focus of the prevention of girls' disruptive behavior. PMID:21391016

van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

2011-01-01

209

Otitis media incidence and risk factors in a population-based birth cohort  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Otitis media is the main reason young children receive antibiotics and is the leading reason for physician visits. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the incidence, recurrence and risk factors for otitis media in a population-based birth cohort. METHODS: All children born in southwestern British Columbia during 1999 to 2000 were followed until the age of three years. Otitis media was defined using The International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision coding of physician visits, and linked with antibiotic prescription data. Information on sex, birth weight, gestational age, Aboriginal status, maternal age, older siblings, maternal smoking during pregnancy, breastfeeding initiation, neighbourhood income, female education and rural residence were obtained from vital statistics, birth hospitalizations, perinatal registry and census data. RESULTS: Complete risk factor information was available for 50,474 children (86% of all births). Nearly one-half of the children (48.6%) had one or more physician visits for otitis media during follow-up, and 3952 children (7.8%) met the definition for recurrent otitis media. Of the children with at least three visits during follow-up (n=7571), 73% had their initial visit during the first year of life. Aboriginal status, maternal age younger than 20 years, male sex and older siblings were the strongest risk factors identified in the adjusted conditional logistic regression models. DISCUSSION: The present study established a population-based birth cohort by linking multiple administrative databases to characterize the incidence of and risk factors for otitis media. Although the incidence of otitis media is generally low in southwestern British Columbia, important risk factors continue to be young maternal age, mothers who smoke during pregnancy and children with Aboriginal ancestry. PMID:21886448

MacIntyre, Elaina A; Karr, Catherine J; Koehoorn, Mieke; Demers, Paul; Tamburic, Lillian; Lencar, Cornel; Brauer, Michael

2010-01-01

210

Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue  

PubMed Central

Objectives To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness) in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Sources A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012. Summary of findings Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents. Conclusions Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century. PMID:23515212

Rodrigues, Anabel N; Abreu, Glaucia R; Resende, Rogério S; Goncalves, Washington LS; Gouvea, Sonia Alves

2013-01-01

211

Maternal Antibody and Viral Factors in the Pathogenesis of Dengue Virus in Infants  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of dengue in infants is poorly understood. We postulated that dengue severity in infants would be positively associated with markers of viral burden and that maternally derived, neutralizing antidengue antibody would have decayed before the age at which infants with dengue presented to the hospital. In 75 Vietnamese infants with primary dengue, we found significant heterogeneity in viremia and NS1 antigenemia at hospital presentation, and these factors were independent of disease grade or continuous measures of disease severity. Neutralizing antibody titers, predicted in each infant at the time of their illness, suggested that the majority of infants (65%) experienced dengue hemorrhagic fever when the maternally derived neutralizing antibody titer had declined to <1:20. Collectively, these data have important implications for dengue vaccine research because they suggest that viral burden may not solely explain severe dengue in infants and that neutralizing antibody is a reasonable but not absolute marker of protective immunity in infants. PMID:17597456

Simmons, Cameron P.; Chau, Tran Nguyen Bich; Thuy, Tran Thi; Tuan, Nguyen Minh; Hoang, Dang Minh; Thien, Nguyen Thanh; Lien, Le Bich; Quy, Nguyen Thien; Hieu, Nguyen Trong; Hien, Tran Tinh; McElnea, Catriona; Young, Paul; Whitehead, Steve; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Farrar, Jeremy

2014-01-01

212

Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and risk of fetal growth restriction: a large prospective observational study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the association of maternal caffeine intake with fetal growth restriction. Design Prospective longitudinal observational study. Setting Two large UK hospital maternity units. Participants 2635 low risk pregnant women recruited between 8-12 weeks of pregnancy. Investigations Quantification of total caffeine intake from 4 weeks before conception and throughout pregnancy was undertaken with a validated caffeine assessment tool. Caffeine half life (proxy for clearance) was determined by measuring caffeine in saliva after a caffeine challenge. Smoking and alcohol were assessed by self reported status and by measuring salivary cotinine concentrations. Main outcome measures Fetal growth restriction, as defined by customised birth weight centile, adjusted for alcohol intake and salivary cotinine concentrations. Results Caffeine consumption throughout pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of fetal growth restriction (odds ratios 1.2 (95% CI 0.9 to 1.6) for 100-199 mg/day, 1.5 (1.1 to 2.1) for 200-299 mg/day, and 1.4 (1.0 to 2.0) for >300 mg/day compared with <100 mg/day; test for trend P<0.001). Mean caffeine consumption decreased in the first trimester and increased in the third. The association between caffeine and fetal growth restriction was stronger in women with a faster compared to a slower caffeine clearance (test for interaction, P=0.06). Conclusions Caffeine consumption during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of fetal growth restriction and this association continued throughout pregnancy. Sensible advice would be to reduce caffeine intake before conception and throughout pregnancy. PMID:18981029

2008-01-01

213

[Midwives' perception of reproductive risk factors].  

PubMed

Midwives in rural areas of the State of Morelos are one of the most important resources used by rural women for health care of pregnancy, delivery and the puerperium. This work was aimed at identifying midwives perceptions of pregnant women's risk factors, in order to include this knowledge in reproductive health programs which articulate institutional and traditional health systems. We applied a questionnaire to all midwives in the Municipalities of Ocuituco, yecapixtla and Zacualpan, Morelos (n = 35). Four key informants were selected and interviewed. These instruments enabled us to measure variability in perception of risk factors. Knowledge of risk factors is defective among midwives. Previous training made a big difference. Sixty three per cent of midwives who attended training courses are better qualified from an academic medicine point of view. Only 28.7 per cent of non-trained midwives (43% for both groups), indicating that sociocultural aspects prevail over technical training in midwives perceptions of reproductive risk factors. PMID:8470023

García-Barrios, C; Castañeda-Camey, X; Romero-Guerrero, X; González-Hernández, D; Langer-Glas, A

1993-01-01

214

Maternal serum lead levels and risk of preeclampsia in pregnant women: a cohort study in a maternity hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Preeclampsia is one of the major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Despite numerous studies, the etiology of preeclampsia has not yet been fully elucidated. There has been confliction in results on the role of maternal lead in preeclampsia. Keeping in view with the scarcity of data on role of lead in preeclamptic women of Saudi Arabia and the disparity in earlier findings, the present study was carried out to determine the levels of maternal serum lead in patients with preeclampsia in comparison to normal pregnancy. The study consisted of 120 pregnant women divided into three groups of 40 each, control, HR group and PET group. The serum levels of lead were estimated by Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. We found that the mean value of serum lead was 18.23 ± 2.34, 20.08 ± 2.15 and 27.18 ± 2.13 µg/dl in control, high risk group and preeclamptic group respectively. The levels of Pb were found to decrease significantly (P < 0.05) in preeclamptic group compared to control. However, there was no significant change in levels of Pb when HR group was compared to Control and preeclamptic group. In the present study, we observed that serum levels of lead were positively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure and were statistically significant (P < 0.05). However, negative correlation was observed between Pb and BMI ruling out the association of BMI with preeclampsia. It is thus concluded that preeclampsia is associated with significant increase in maternal lead and these increasing levels of serum lead pose a significant risk in pregnant women to preeclampsia. PMID:25031738

Jameil, Noura Al

2014-01-01

215

BEHAVIORAL RISK FACTOR SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (BRFSS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), the world's largest telephone survey, tracks health risks in the United States. Information from the survey is used to improve the health of the American people. Since the early 1980s, BRFSS data have been used to identify e...

216

Prognostic risk factors for early diagnosing of Preeclampsia in Nulliparas  

PubMed Central

Background: Preeclampsia is of major complications of pregnancy that is associated with maternal morbidity and mortality. Therefore, prediction and early diagnosis of preeclampsia would be helpful for better controlling of related complications. Our study aimed to investigate risk factors helping to predict and early diagnose of preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: A total of 739 nulliparous women at their 24-28th weeks of the first pregnancy were enrolled in this multi-center cohort study. Incidence or absence of preeclampsia in this population was evaluated up to the end of pregnancy period. For each case, a record sheet was assigned that contained information about haematocrit level in weeks 24-28th of pregnancy, blood pressure, result of roll-over test in weeks 24-28th of pregnancy and the presence of disease up to end of the study. Diagnosis of preeclampsia was made based on gold standard. Results: Overall, 3.9 % of all cases developed preeclampsia. The mean maternal age, body mass index (BMI), years of education and positive roll-over test were significantly higher in preeclampsia group (P < 0.001). However, the mean gestational age and changes in the levels of haematocrit were significantly higher in normotensive cases (P < 0.001). Our combined model could predict preeclampsia with a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 80%. Conclusion: Simple combined model of demographic characteristics including maternal age, BMI, years of education and positive roll-over tests can predict preeclampsia without any cost for the patients. PMID:24403715

Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Mohammadi, Marziye; Vosoogh, Shohre; Mohammadi, Sahar; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad

2013-01-01

217

Risk Factors for Injuries in Football  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The injury risk in football is high, but little is known about causes of injury.Purpose: To identify risk factors for football injuries using a multivariate model.Study Design: Prospective cohort study.Methods: Participants were 306 male football players from the two highest divisions in Iceland. Before the 1999 football season started, the following factors were examined: height, weight, body composition, flexibility,

Arni Arnason; Stefan B. Sigurdsson; Arni Gudmundsson; Ingar Holme; Lars Engebretsen; Roald Bahr

2004-01-01

218

Risk Factors for Homelessness Among US Veterans.  

PubMed

Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. PMID:25595171

Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A

2015-01-01

219

Stroke in Bangladeshi patients and risk factor.  

PubMed

To evaluate comprehensively the distribution of established risk factors of stroke among Bangladeshi patients. This is an observational study. It involved 8400 stroke patients from different hospitals in Bangladesh over a period of sixteen years. Common established risk factors of stroke e.g. age, sex, family history, hypertension, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, smoking, obesity, dyslipidaemia, alcoholism, use of oral contraceptive pill, lack of fresh fruit consumption etc. were evaluated in these patients through a preformed questionnaire and data were analyzed. Majority of the stroke events occurred after the age of forty (82.3%) and the ischemic stroke (72%) is the most common. Apart from non modifiable risk factors (advancing age, sex, Family history of stroke) hypertension was the most common modifiable risk factor found in stroke patients (57.6%) followed by smoking (44.6%), tobacco use (24.3%), OCP use in female (40% of female stroke), diabetes (23%), ischemic heart disease (17.1%), obesity (10.6%) and dyslipidaemia (5.3%). Lack of fresh fruit consumption and alcoholism were found in some of the patients. Stroke is common after the age of forty. Ischemic events are commonest type of stroke. Hypertension, smoking, tobacco use, diabetes and ischemic heart disease were five most common risk factors of stroke. Outlining the common stroke risk factors in our settings, may help the physicians and care givers in managing this disabling disease properly. PMID:25178605

Mohammad, Q D; Habib, M; Mondal, B A; Chowdhury, R N; Hasan, M H; Hoque, M A; Rahman, K M; Khan, S U; Chowdhury, A H; Haque, B

2014-07-01

220

Mutation risk associated with paternal and maternal age in a cohort of retinoblastoma survivors.  

PubMed

Autosomal dominant conditions are known to be associated with advanced paternal age, and it has been suggested that retinoblastoma (Rb) also exhibits a paternal age effect due to the paternal origin of most new germline RB1 mutations. To further our understanding of the association of parental age and risk of de novo germline RB1 mutations, we evaluated the effect of parental age in a cohort of Rb survivors in the United States. A cohort of 262 Rb patients was retrospectively identified at one institution, and telephone interviews were conducted with parents of 160 survivors (65.3%). We classified Rb survivors into three groups: those with unilateral Rb were classified as sporadic if they had no or unknown family history of Rb, those with bilateral Rb were classified as having a de novo germline mutation if they had no or unknown family history of Rb, and those with unilateral or bilateral Rb, who had a family history of Rb, were classified as familial. We built two sets of nested logistic regression models to detect an increased odds of the de novo germline mutation classification related to older parental age compared to sporadic and familial Rb classifications. The modeling strategy evaluated effects of continuous increasing maternal and paternal age and 5-year age increases adjusted for the age of the other parent. Mean maternal ages for survivors classified as having de novo germline mutations and sporadic Rb were similar (28.3 and 28.5, respectively) as were mean paternal ages (31.9 and 31.2, respectively), and all were significantly higher than the weighted general US population means. In contrast, maternal and paternal ages for familial Rb did not differ significantly from the weighted US general population means. Although we noted no significant differences between mean maternal and paternal ages between each of the three Rb classification groups, we found increased odds of a survivor being in the de novo germline mutation group for each 5-year increase in paternal age, but these findings were not statistically significant (de novo vs. sporadic ORs 30-34 = 1.7 [0.7-4], ? 35 = 1.3 [0.5-3.3]; de novo vs. familial ORs 30-34 = 2.8 [1.0-8.4], ? 35 = 1.6 [0.6-4.6]). Our study suggests a weak paternal age effect for Rb resulting from de novo germline mutations consistent with the paternal origin of most of these mutations. PMID:22203219

Mills, Melissa B; Hudgins, Louanne; Balise, Raymond R; Abramson, David H; Kleinerman, Ruth A

2012-07-01

221

Adolescent risk factors for child maltreatment.  

PubMed

We investigate adolescent risk factors, measured at both early and late adolescence, for involvement in child maltreatment during adulthood. Comprehensive assessments of risk factors for maltreatment that use representative samples with longitudinal data are scarce and can inform multilevel prevention. We use data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study begun in 1988 with a sample of 1,000 seventh and eighth graders. Participants have been interviewed 14 times and, at the last assessment (age 31), 80% were retained. Risk factors represent 10 developmental domains: area characteristics, family background/structure, parent stressors, exposure to family violence, parent-child relationships, education, peer relationships, adolescent stressors, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions to adulthood. Maltreatment is measured by substantiated reports from Child Protective Services records. Many individual risk factors (20 at early adolescence and 14 at later adolescence) are significantly, albeit moderately, predictive of maltreatment. Several developmental domains stand out, including family background/structure, education, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions. In addition, there is a pronounced impact of cumulative risk on the likelihood of maltreatment. For example, only 3% of the youth with no risk domains in their background at early adolescence were involved in later maltreatment, but for those with risk in 9 developmental domains the rate was 45%. Prevention programs targeting youth at high risk for engaging in maltreatment should begin during early adolescence when risk factors are already at play. These programs need to be comprehensive, capable of addressing the multiple and interwoven nature of risk that is associated with maltreatment. PMID:24075569

Thornberry, Terence P; Matsuda, Mauri; Greenman, Sarah J; Augustyn, Megan Bears; Henry, Kimberly L; Smith, Carolyn A; Ireland, Timothy O

2014-04-01

222

Links between maternal postpartum depressive symptoms, maternal distress, infant gender and sensitivity in a high-risk population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Maternal postpartum depression has an impact on mother-infant interaction. Mothers with depression display less positive affect\\u000a and sensitivity in interaction with their infants compared to non-depressed mothers. Depressed women also show more signs\\u000a of distress and difficulties adjusting to their role as mothers than non-depressed women. In addition, depressive mothers\\u000a are reported to be affectively more negative with their sons

Anna Sidor; Elisabeth Kunz; Daniel Schweyer; Andreas Eickhorst; Manfred Cierpka

2011-01-01

223

Cardio-metabolic risk in 5-year-old children prenatally exposed to maternal psychosocial stress: the ABCD study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence, both animal and human, suggests that modifiable factors during fetal and infant development predispose for cardiovascular disease in adult life and that they may become possible future targets for prevention. One of these factors is maternal psychosocial stress, but so far, few prospective studies have been able to investigate the longer-term effects of stress in detail, i.e.

Aimée E van Dijk; Manon van Eijsden; Karien Stronks; Reinoud JBJ Gemke; Tanja GM Vrijkotte

2010-01-01

224

Risk Factors in Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is an uncommon but potentially serious idiosyncratic response to neuroleptic antipsychotics. It usually affects young males, but the risk has been seen to increase with certain factors including the administration practices of antipsychotic neuroleptics in these individuals. Even though no predictors for NMS are yet known, this article highlights the findings on certain risk factors as seen from a series of fifteen patients who developed NMS. Cautious use of neuroleptics in those at risk, early recognition and institution of immediate management is important. PMID:21206810

Gupta, Vinay; Magon, Rakesh; Mishra, B.P.; Sidhu, G.B.S.; Mahajan, Ranjiv

2003-01-01

225

Maternal Diabetes and the Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Offspring: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We performed a systematic literature search regarding maternal diabetes before and during pregnancy and the risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the offspring. Of the 178 potentially relevant articles, 12 articles including three cohort studies and nine case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis. Both the meta-analyses of cohort…

Xu, Guifeng; Jing, Jin; Bowers, Katherine; Liu, Buyun; Bao, Wei

2014-01-01

226

Maternal Experience with Predation Risk Influences Genome-Wide Embryonic Gene Expression in Threespined Sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus)  

PubMed Central

There is growing evidence for nongenetic effects of maternal experience on offspring. For example, previous studies have shown that female threespined stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) exposed to predation risk produce offspring with altered behavior, metabolism and stress physiology. Here, we investigate the effect of maternal exposure to predation risk on the embryonic transcriptome in sticklebacks. Using RNA-sequencing we compared genome-wide transcription in three day post-fertilization embryos of predator-exposed and control mothers. There were hundreds of differentially expressed transcripts between embryos of predator-exposed mothers and embryos of control mothers including several non-coding RNAs. Gene Ontology analysis revealed biological pathways involved in metabolism, epigenetic inheritance, and neural proliferation and differentiation that differed between treatments. Interestingly, predation risk is associated with an accelerated life history in many vertebrates, and several of the genes and biological pathways that were identified in this study suggest that maternal exposure to predation risk accelerates the timing of embryonic development. Consistent with this hypothesis, embryos of predator-exposed mothers were larger than embryos of control mothers. These findings point to some of the molecular mechanisms that might underlie maternal effects. PMID:24887438

Mommer, Brett C.; Bell, Alison M.

2014-01-01

227

Influence of maternal diet during lactation and use of formula feeds on development of atopic eczema in high risk infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To examine the effects of maternal diet during lactation and the use of formula feeds on the development of atopic eczema in infants at risk. DESIGN--Mothers who planned to breast feed exclusively were randomly allocated to either a restricted diet (avoiding milk and other dairy products, eggs, fish, peanuts, and soybeans) or a diet without restrictions. Mothers who did not

R. K. Chandra; S. Puri; A. Hamed

1989-01-01

228

Overweight and Severe Acute Maternal Morbidity in a Low-Risk Pregnant Population in The Netherlands  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the association between overweight and severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM) in a low-risk pregnant population. Design Nationwide case-control study. Setting The Netherlands, august 2004 to august 2006. Population 1567 cases from initially primary care and 2994 women from primary care practices as controls, out of 371 012 women delivering in the Netherlands during the study period Methods Cases were women with SAMM obtained from a nationwide prospective study. All women in this cohort who initially had low-risk pregnancies were compared with low-risk women without SAMM to calculate odd ratios (ORs) to develop SAMM by body mass index (BMI) category. We divided body mass index in three overweight categories and calculated the ORs (95% CI) of total SAMM and per specific endpoint by logistic regression, with normal weight as reference. We adjusted for age, parity and socio-economic status. Main Outcome Measures SAMM, defined as Intensive Care Unit (ICU)-admission, Uterine Rupture, Eclampsia or Major Obstetric Haemorrhage (MOH) Results SAMM was reported in 1567 cases which started as low-risk pregnancies. BMI was available in 1097 (70.0%) cases and 2994 control subjects were included. Analysis showed a dose response relation for overweight (aOR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.5), obese (aOR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.9) and morbidly obese (aOR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3-3.2) women to develop SAMM compared to normal weight. Sub analysis showed the same dose response relation for ICU-admission, Uterine Rupture and Eclampsia. We found no association for MOH. Conclusion Overweight without pre-existent co-morbidity is an important risk-indicator for developing SAMM. This risk increases with an increasing body mass index. PMID:24069316

Witteveen, Tom; Zwart, Joost J.; Gast, Karin B.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.; van Roosmalen, Jos

2013-01-01

229

Intermittent claudication: prevalence and risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk factors for intermittent claudication (IC) were studied in 54 patients--that is, all patients with IC on the lists of two general practices--and 108 controls. Smoking was the factor most strongly associated with the development of IC, but systolic and diastolic blood pressures and concentrations of triglyceride, urate, and fibrinogen were all significantly higher among the patients with IC than

W G Hughson; J I Mann; A Garrod

1978-01-01

230

Protective Factors and Risk Factors in Preschool Aged Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do resiliency or protective factors moderate risk factors in preschool aged children? This study looks at pre- and post-treatment data from 49 preschool children whose average age was 4 years old. The treatment included prevention and early intervention programs that promote emotional well-being and the development of healthy interpersonal relationships in children, ages birth to eight, and their caregivers. The

Monica R. Geist; P. Antonio; Olmos Gallo; Mary Grimmer; Daniel J. Mundfrom

2006-01-01

231

Refugee, asylum seeker, immigrant women and postnatal depression: rates and risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postnatal depression (PND) is recognised as a common maternal health problem, but little evidence examines PND among refugee,\\u000a asylum seeker and immigrant women in developed country settings. This review aimed to identify the rates of PND and highlight\\u000a common risk factors among this group of women. An iterative and dynamic literature search was conducted across ten databases\\u000a to identify published

Catherine H. Collins; Cathy Zimmerman; Louise M. Howard

2011-01-01

232

Maternal depressive symptoms, maternal behavior, and toddler internalizing outcomes: a moderated mediation model.  

PubMed

Maternal depression relates to child internalizing outcomes, but one missing aspect of this association is how variation in depressive symptoms, including mild and moderate symptoms, relates to young children's outcomes. The current study examined a moderated mediation model to investigate how maternal behaviors may mediate this association in the context of child temperament and gender. Mothers and toddlers completed a free-play/clean-up task in the laboratory. Mothers rated their depressive symptoms and their toddlers' temperament and internalizing behaviors. Results indicated a significant indirect effect of maternal warmth on the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and toddler internalizing outcomes for boys with low negative emotionality. Toddler gender and temperament moderated the relation between maternal intrusiveness and toddler internalizing outcomes, but mediation was not supported. Results highlight the important interaction between child and maternal variables in predicting child outcomes, and suggest mechanisms by and conditions under which mild maternal depressive symptomatology can be a risk factor for toddler internalizing outcomes. PMID:24553739

Hummel, Alexandra C; Kiel, Elizabeth J

2015-02-01

233

Cervical Artery Dissection: Emerging Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

Cervical artery dissection (CAD) represents an increasingly recognized cause of stroke and the most common cause of ischemic stroke in young adults. Many factors have been identified in association with CAD such as primary disease of arterial wall (fibrodysplasia) and other non-specific diseases related to CAD like Ehlers Danlos-syndrome IV, Marfan’s syndrome, vessel tortuosity. Moreover, an underlying arteriopathy which could be in part genetically determined, has been suspected. The rule of emerging risk factors for CAD such as recent respiratory tract infection, migraine and hyperhomocysteinemia are still a matter of research. Other known risks factors for CAD are major head/neck trauma like chiropractic maneuver, coughing or hyperextension injury associated to car. We examined emerging risks factors for CAD detected in the last years, as CAD pathogenesis is still not completely understood and needs further investigations. PMID:21270941

Micheli, S; Paciaroni, M; Corea, F; Agnelli, G; Zampolini, M; Caso, V

2010-01-01

234

Physiological, Behavioral and Maternal Factors That Contribute to Size Variation in Larval Amphibian Populations  

PubMed Central

Size variance among similarly aged individuals within populations is a pattern common to many organisms that is a result of interactions between intrinsic and extrinsic traits of individuals. While genetic and maternal effects, as well as physiological and behavioral traits have been shown to contribute to size variation in animal populations, teasing apart the influence of such factors on individual growth rates remain a challenge. Furthermore, tracing the effects of these interactions across life stages and in shaping adult phenotypes also requires further exploration. In this study we investigated the relationship between genetics, hatching patterns, behaviors, neuroendocrine stress axis activity and variance in growth and metamorphosis among same-aged larval amphibians. Through parallel experiments we found that in the absence of conspecific interactions, hatch time and to a lesser extent egg clutch identity (i.e. genetics and maternal effects) influenced the propensity for growth and development in individual tadpoles and determined metamorphic traits. Within experimental groups we found that variance in growth rates was associated with size-dependent foraging behaviors and responses to food restriction. We also found an inverse relationship between glucocorticoid (GC) hormone levels and body mass and developmental stage among group-reared tadpoles, which suggests that GC expression plays a role in regulating differing within-population growth trajectories in response to density-dependent conditions. Taken together these findings suggest that factors that influence hatching conditions can have long-term effects on growth and development. These results also raise compelling questions regarding the extent to which maternal and genetic factors influence physiological and behavioral profiles in amphibians. PMID:24143188

Warne, Robin W.; Kardon, Adam; Crespi, Erica J.

2013-01-01

235

Family and socioeconomic risk factors for undernutrition among children aged 6 to 23 Months in Ibadan, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction Child undernutrition is a major public health problem in Nigeria and other Sub-Saharan African countries. However, few analytical studies have quantified the role of risk factors. This study was conducted to determine the socio-economic and family related risk factors for undernutrition among children in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods A case-control study was conducted among children100 cases and 200 controls aged 6-23 months. A semi-structured interviewer- administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-economic status, infant feeding practices of the mothers, children's immunization status and recent episodes of common childhood illnesses. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify the risk factors. Results On bivariate analysis, the maternal factors associated with undernutrition were maternal level of education below secondary level, monthly income below $20 and polygamous marriage. Socio-economic factors significantly associated with malnutrition were residence in a high density area, family accommodation in a single room apartment and family weekly expenditure on food below $55. Children's characteristics associated with child malnutrition included incomplete immunization for age, recent episodes of diarrhoea and acute respiratory infection. The significant risk factors on multivariate analysis were maternal monthly income <$20, monthly household food expenditure <$55, residence in a one room apartment, higher birth order and incomplete immunization of the child. Conclusion The multiplicity of risk factors identified is indicative of the need for a multidisciplinary approach in developing preventive strategies child undernutrition. PMID:25120874

Owoaje, Eme; Onifade, Oluwadolapo; Desmennu, Adeyimika

2014-01-01

236

Effect of pregestational maternal, obstetric and perinatal factors on neonatal outcome in extreme prematurity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To investigate the effect of pregestational maternal, obstetric and perinatal factors on neonatal outcome in extreme preterm\\u000a deliveries.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Retrospective study of deliveries in a Norwegian tertiary teaching hospital. All women with live births at 24+0– 27+6 weeks of gestation between 2004 and 2007 were included. Major morbidity is defined as intraventricular haemorrhage grade\\u000a 3–4, periventricular leukomalacia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia or necrotizing

Yun Wang; Tom Tanbo; Liv Ellingsen; Thomas Åbyholm; Tore Henriksen

237

Industrial risk factors for colorectal cancer  

SciTech Connect

Colorectal cancer is the second most common malignancy in the United States, and its incidence rates have sharply increased recently, especially in males. Industrial exposures, both occupational and environmental, are important colorectal cancer risk factors that are generally unrecognized by clinicians. Migration studies have documented that colorectal cancer is strongly associated with environmental risk factors. The causal role of occupational exposures is evidenced by a substantial literature associating specific work practices with increased colorectal cancer risks. Industrially related environmental exposures, including polluted drinking water and ionizing radiation, have also been associated with excess risks. Currently, there is a tendency to attribute colorectal cancer, largely or exclusively, to dietary and other lifestyle factors, thus neglecting these industrially related effects. Concerted efforts are needed to recognize the causal role of industrial risk factors and to encourage government and industry to reduce carcinogenic exposures. Furthermore, cost-effective screening programs for high-risk population groups are critically needed to further reduce deaths from colorectal cancer. 143 references.

Lashner, B.A.; Epstein, S.S. (Univ. of Chicago Medical Center, IL (USA))

1990-01-01

238

Maternal Reproductive History and the Risk of Congenital Heart Defects in Offspring: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results on the association of congenital heart defect (CHD) risk in offspring with a maternal history of prior pregnancies and abortions, but no meta-analysis has been reported. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE from their inception to April 14, 2014, for relevant studies that assessed the association between maternal reproductive history and CHD risk. Two authors independently assessed eligibility and extracted data. Fixed-effects or random-effects models were used to calculate the pooled odds ratios (ORs). Among 1,599 references, 17 case-control studies and one nested case-control study were included in this meta-analysis. The summary OR for the ever versus nulligravidity was 1.18 (95 % CI 1.03-1.34). A dose-response analysis also indicated a positive effect of maternal gravidity on CHD risk, and the summary OR for each increment in number of pregnancies was 1.13 (95 % CI 1.08-1.18). A history of abortion was associated with a 24 % higher risk of CHD, OR = 1.24 (95 % CI 1.11-1.38). When stratified by abortion category, CHD risk increased by 18 and 58 % with a history of spontaneous abortion and induced abortion, respectively. The summary OR for each increment of one abortion was 1.28 (95 % CI 1.18-1.40). In summary, this study provides evidence that increased maternal gravidity was positively associated with a risk of CHDs in offspring. Meanwhile, our results demonstrate a positive association of any history of abortion with an increased risk of CHDs. PMID:25500695

Feng, Yu; Wang, Song; Zhao, Liyan; Yu, Di; Hu, Liang; Mo, Xuming

2015-02-01

239

Risk factors for the development of pleural empyema in children.  

PubMed

Pediatric pleural empyema has increased substantially over the past 20 years and reasons for this rise remain not fully explained. We investigated potential risk factors for the development of empyema in children by examining a cohort of patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Demographic, clinical, and socioeconomic characteristics, use of Ibuprofen prior to presentation and selected potential epidemiological risk factors were analyzed. Data were collected from a prospective etiological study of radiologically confirmed pneumonia in hospitalized children aged ?16 years. One hundred sixty children were enrolled; 56% were male and 69% aged <5 years. Empyema complication developed in 40 (25%) children. Children with empyema were more frequently prescribed Ibuprofen prior to admission to hospital than those without (82% vs. 46.2%; OR 1.94, 97.5% credible interval 0.80-3.18). Bacterial infection was strongly associated with the development of empyema (OR 3.34, 97.5% credible interval 1.70-5.14). In contrast age, sex, maternal age, parental smoking, level of socioeconomic status, nursery attendance, asthma, household characteristics (bedrooms and number of occupants) were not significantly different between groups. In conclusion, children with pneumonia who developed empyema had more often received Ibuprofen prior to hospitalization and confirmed bacterial infection. We suggest a population-based study involving both primary and secondary care settings would help to investigate the role of Ibuprofen use in modulating the course of disease in children with pneumonia. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24692118

Elemraid, Mohamed A; Thomas, Matthew F; Blain, Alasdair P; Rushton, Stephen P; Spencer, David A; Gennery, Andrew R; Clark, Julia E

2014-04-01

240

Risk Factors for Preterm Birth among HIV-Infected Tanzanian Women: A Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

Premature delivery, a significant cause of child mortality and morbidity worldwide, is particularly prevalent in the developing world. As HIV is highly prevalent in much of sub-Saharan Africa, it is important to determine risk factors for prematurity among HIV-positive pregnancies. The aims of this study were to identify risk factors of preterm (<37 weeks) and very preterm (<34 weeks) birth among a cohort of 927 HIV positive women living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, who enrolled in the Tanzania Vitamin and HIV Infection Trial between 1995 and 1997. Multivariable relative risk regression models were used to determine the association of potential maternal risk factors with premature and very premature delivery. High rates of preterm (24%) and very preterm birth (9%) were found. Risk factors (adjusted RR (95% CI)) for preterm birth were mother <20 years (1.46 (1.10, 1.95)), maternal illiteracy (1.54 (1.10, 2.16)), malaria (1.42 (1.11, 1.81)), Entamoeba coli (1.49 (1.04, 2.15)), no or low pregnancy weight gain, and HIV disease stage ?2 (1.41 (1.12, 1.50)). Interventions to reduce pregnancies in women under 20, prevent and treat malaria, reduce Entamoeba coli infection, and promote weight gain in pregnant women may have a protective effect on prematurity. PMID:25328529

Zack, Rachel M.; Golan, Jenna; Aboud, Said; Msamanga, Gernard; Spiegelman, Donna; Fawzi, Wafaie

2014-01-01

241

Risk factors for perinatal arterial stroke: a study of 60 mother-child pairs.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to examine demographic, historical, and prothrombotic risk factors in infants with perinatal arterial stroke and their mothers. Risk factors were evaluated in 60 mother-child pairs with perinatal arterial stroke. Prothrombotic factors analyzed included the DNA mutations factor V Leiden, prothrombin 20210, MTHFR C677T and A1298C; serum activity levels for protein C, protein S, and antithrombin III; serum levels of lipoprotein(a); and, in the mothers, antiphospholipid antibodies. Boys predominated, 36:24. There were four twin sets. Sixty percent were term and 22% were post-date. Ten were large for gestational age. Five mothers had abdominal trauma. Nine mothers (15%) had preeclampsia. Emergency caesarean section was performed in 17 cases (28%). Eight placental exams revealed seven with abnormalities. Seizures were the presenting sign in 70%, and 30% presented with early handedness or cerebral palsy. Prothrombotic risk factors were found in 28 of 51 mothers (55%) and 30 of 60 children (50%). Forty-one pairs (68%) had at least one abnormality in mother, child, or both. Long-term sequelae included cerebral palsy (40 of 51; 78%), cognitive impairment (35 of 51; 68%), seizures (23 of 51; 45%), and microcephaly (26 of 51; 51%). Perinatal arterial stroke is the result of multifactorial, synergistic fetal and maternal factors among which the prothrombotic factors, both fetal and maternal, appear significant. PMID:17675024

Curry, Cynthia J; Bhullar, Sundeep; Holmes, Jon; Delozier, C Dawn; Roeder, Elizabeth R; Hutchison, H Terry

2007-08-01

242

Hypertension Is a Risk Factor for Fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the effects of hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors on risk of fractures, we carried out a case-control\\u000a study including 124,655 fracture cases and 373,962 age- and gender-matched controls. The main exposure was hypertension, stroke,\\u000a acute myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, atrial fibrillation, peripheral arterial disease, and deep venous thromboembolism,\\u000a and the main confounders were use of diuretics,

Peter Vestergaard; Lars Rejnmark; Leif Mosekilde

2009-01-01

243

Evidence that aetiological risk factors for psychiatric disorders cause distinct patterns of cognitive deficits.  

PubMed

Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are associated with neurocognitive symptoms including deficits in attentional set shifting (changing attentional focus from one perceptual dimension to another) and reversal learning (learning a reversed stimulus/outcome contingency). Maternal infection during gestation and chronically flattened glucocorticoid rhythm are aetiological risk factors for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We hypothesised that these factors are causative in the neurocognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Here we used maternal immune activation (MIA) as a rat model of maternal infection, and sub-chronic low dose corticosterone treatment as a rat model of flattened glucocorticoid rhythm. For comparison we examined the effects of sub-chronic phencyclidine - a widely used rodent model of schizophrenia pathology. The effects of these three treatments on neurocognition were explored using the attentional set shifting task - a multistage test of executive functions. As expected, phencyclidine treatment selectively impaired set shifting ability. In contrast, MIA caused a marked and selective impairment of reversal learning. Corticosterone treatment impaired reversal learning but in addition also impaired rule abstraction and prevented the animals from forming an attentional set. The reversal learning deficits induced by MIA and corticosterone treatment were due to increases in non-perseverative rather than perseverative errors. Our data indicate that the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may be explained by aetiological factors including maternal infection and glucocorticoid abnormalities and moreover suggest that the particular spectrum of cognitive deficits in individual patients may depend on the specific underlying aetiology of the disorder. PMID:24377755

Wallace, J; Marston, H M; McQuade, R; Gartside, S E

2014-06-01

244

Risk factors for basal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the risk factors for basal cell carcinoma (BCC). A case-control study, carried out in two towns in Yugoslavia, comprised 200 BCC cases and 399 controls. For statistical analysis, univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used. The risk factors found for BCC were: freckling before the age 15, seven or more weeks per year spent at the seaside during holidays (lifetime average), outdoor work during summer-time, occupational exposure to organic and non-organic dissolvents and organophosphatic compounds, use of tar for cosmetic purposes, and previous BCC in personal history. Subjects who tended to burn and not to tan after sun exposure also showed a significantly higher risk for BCC. Brown eyes and history of acne had a protective effect. This study confirmed the role of both constitutional and environmental factors in the development of BCC. PMID:11093369

Vlajinac, H D; Adanja, B J; Lazar, Z F; Bogavac, A N; Bjeki?, M D; Marinkovic, J M; Kocev, N I

2000-01-01

245

Leptin as a cardiovascular risk factor  

PubMed Central

The role of leptin in humans is not yet precisely established. Nevertheless there is increasing evidence revealing that this molecule is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis as an independent risk factor. From another point of view, however, leptin is allready related to known traditional risk factors for accelerated atherogenesis, like obesity. We herein provide the experimental and clinical data concerning the association between leptin and atherosclerotic disease. Vascular stiffness and calcification, immune responce regulation, fibrinolysis, and oxidative stress, are the main fields to be investigated in relation to leptin in the present study. Additionally the discription of the main characteristics of leptin and its receptors is included in the introduction of this article, whereas in the end the main clinical data suggesting that this molecule represents an interesting risk factor for atherosclerotic disease are provided. PMID:19582187

Efstratiadis, G; Nikolaidou, C; Vergoulas, G

2007-01-01

246

Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Antiphospholipid Syndrome  

PubMed Central

A major cause of morbidity and mortality in the context of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is the occurrence of thrombotic events. Besides the pathogenic roles of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), other risk factors and medical conditions, which are conditions for traditional risk of an individual without the APS, can coexist in this patient, raising their risk of developing thrombosis. Therefore, the clinical and laboratory investigation of comorbidities known to increase cardiovascular risk in patients with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is crucial for the adoption of a more complete and effective treatment. Experimental models and clinical studies show evidence of association between APS and premature formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Atherosclerosis has major traditional risk factors: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidemia, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle that may be implicated in vascular involvement in patients with APS. The influence of nontraditional risk factors as hyperhomocysteinemia, increased lipoprotein a, and anti-oxLDL in the development of thromboembolic events in APS patients has been studied in scientific literature. Metabolic syndrome with all its components also has been recently studied in antiphospholipid syndrome and is associated with arterial events. PMID:25133195

da Silva, Felipe Freire; Levy, Roger Abramino; de Carvalho, Jozélio Freire

2014-01-01

247

Early childhood risk and resilience factors for behavioural and emotional problems in middle childhood  

PubMed Central

Background Mental disorders in childhood have a considerable health and societal impact but the associated negative consequences may be ameliorated through early identification of risk and protective factors that can guide health promoting and preventive interventions. The objective of this study was to inform health policy and practice through identification of demographic, familial and environmental factors associated with emotional or behavioural problems in middle childhood, and the predictors of resilience in the presence of identified risk factors. Methods A cohort of 706 mothers followed from early pregnancy was surveyed at six to eight years post-partum by a mail-out questionnaire, which included questions on demographics, children’s health, development, activities, media and technology, family, friends, community, school life, and mother’s health. Results Although most children do well in middle childhood, of 450 respondents (64% response rate), 29.5% and 25.6% of children were found to have internalising and externalising behaviour problem scores in the lowest quintile on the NSCLY Child Behaviour Scales. Independent predictors for problem behaviours identified through multivariable logistic regression modelling included being male, demographic risk, maternal mental health risk, poor parenting interactions, and low parenting morale. Among children at high risk for behaviour problems, protective factors included high maternal and child self-esteem, good maternal emotional health, adequate social support, good academic performance, and adequate quality parenting time. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that several individual and social resilience factors can counter the influence of early adversities on the likelihood of developing problem behaviours in middle childhood, thus informing enhanced public health interventions for this understudied life course phase. PMID:24986740

2014-01-01

248

Blood pressure variability: cardiovascular risk integrator or independent risk factor?  

PubMed

Blood pressure (BP) variability is associated with several cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. Is BP variability measurement of any additive value, in terms of CV risk assessment strategies? To answer this question, we analyzed data from the SU.FOL.OM3 secondary prevention trial that included 2501 patients with background of CV disease history (coronary or cerebrovascular disease). BP was measured every year allowing calculation of variability of BP, expressed as s.d. and coefficient of variability (s.d./mean systolic BP) in 2157 patients. We found that systolic BP variability was associated with several CV risk factors: principally hypertension, age, and diabetes. Furthermore, all antihypertensives were positively associated with variability. Logistic regression analysis revealed that three factors were independent predictors of major CV event: coefficient of variability of systolic BP (OR=1.23 per s.d., 95% CI: 1.04-1.46, P=0.016), current smoking (OR=1.94, 95% CI: 1.03-3.66, P=0.039), and inclusion for cerebrovascular disease (OR=1.92, 95% CI: 1.29-2.87, P=0.001). Finally, when comparing logistic regression models characteristics without, and then with, inclusion of BP variability, there was a modest but statistically significant improvement (P=0.04). In conclusion, age, BP and diabetes were the major determinants of BP variability. Furthermore, BP variability has an independent prognostic value in the prediction of major CV events; but improvement in the prediction model was quite modest. This last finding is more in favor of BP variability acting as an integrator of CV risk than acting as a robust independent CV risk factor in this high-risk population. PMID:24990422

Blacher, J; Safar, M E; Ly, C; Szabo de Edelenyi, F; Hercberg, S; Galan, P

2015-02-01

249

Risk factors for proximal humerus fracture.  

PubMed

This case-control study of proximal humerus fracture included 448 incident female and male cases and 2,023 controls aged 45 years or older identified in five Northern California Kaiser Permanente Medical Centers in 1996-2001. Data were collected by using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Some factors related to low bone mass, including number of fractures since age 45 years and low dietary calcium intake, were associated with increased risks of fracture, and factors thought to protect against bone loss, such as menopausal hormone therapy and calcium carbonate tablet use, were associated with reduced risks. Fall-related risk factors included previous falls, diabetes mellitus, and difficulty walking in dim light. Possible fall-related risk factors suggested for the first time in this study were seizure medication use (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.80, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.45, 5.42), depression (OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.84), almost always using a hearing aid (OR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.12, 3.31 vs. never prescribed), and left-handedness (OR = 2.36, 95% CI: 1.51, 3.68 vs. right-handedness). Difficulty with activities of daily living and lack of physical activity tended to be associated with increased risk. Prevention of falls among frail, osteoporotic persons would likely reduce the frequency of proximal humerus fracture. PMID:15286021

Chu, Sarah P; Kelsey, Jennifer L; Keegan, Theresa H M; Sternfeld, Barbara; Prill, Mila; Quesenberry, Charles P; Sidney, Stephen

2004-08-15

250

Adverse Effects of Heavy Prenatal Maternal Smoking on Attentional Control in Children with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Exposure to heavy maternal cigarette smoking in pregnancy and severe maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy appear to be important risk factors for the development of ADHD. This study aimed to determine whether these perinatal risk factors were associated with neuropsychological deficits commonly seen in ADHD. Method: We examined…

Motlagh, Maria G.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Katsovich, Liliya; Thompson, Nancy; Scahill, Lawrence; King, Robert A.; Peterson, Bradley S.; Schultz, Robert T.; Leckman, James F.

2011-01-01

251

Epidemiology, prognosis, and risk factors in mastocytosis.  

PubMed

This article updates current knowledge about epidemiology, prognosis, and risk factors for major complications in mastocytosis. A prevalence of mastocytosis of 1 in 10000 inhabitants has been reported, but underdiagnosis is assumed. The prognosis for cutaneous and indolent systemic mastocytosis is excellent. For more advanced forms of disease, prognostic parameters have been identified. A high extent of skin involvement, increased basal serum tryptase values, and extensive blistering are risk factors for severe mast cell activation episodes in children, whereas these associations seem to be less strong or nonexistent for anaphylaxis and osteoporosis in adult patients with indolent systemic mastocytosis. PMID:24745674

Brockow, Knut

2014-05-01

252

Effects of Maternal Smoking and Exposure to Methylmercury on Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Concentrations in Umbilical Cord Serum  

PubMed Central

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin essential for neuronal survival and differentiation. We examined the concentration of BDNF in cord serum from newborns exposed to methylmercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in utero by maternal consumption of whale meat. The cohort consisted of 395 singleton births (206 boys and 189 girls), gestational age ranging from 38 to 42 weeks. Serum BDNF was measured by sandwich ELISA. Maternal smoking habits and other relevant factors were obtained by interviewing the mothers. The exposure to MeHg was estimated from Hg concentrations in cord blood, whereas exposure to PCB was estimated based on maternal serum concentrations. Only MeHg exposure affected the serum BDNF, which decreased in a concentration-dependent manner in girls born to nonsmoking mothers. Maternal smoking significantly increased BNDF in girls but not in boys. For further statistical analyses, we used the serum BDNF concentration as a continuous outcome variable in supervised regression models. Serum BDNF concentration increased with gestational age, increased by maternal smoking, decreased slightly with MeHg exposure, and maternal smoking enhanced the decrease in serum BDNF induced by MeHg exposure. Cord blood BDNF has been reported to increase in association with perinatal brain injuries and has been proposed as a possible predictive marker of neurodevelopmental outcomes. The negative effect that MeHg seems to exert on cord blood BDNF concentration could endanger compensatory responses to an adverse impact and therefore deserves attention. PMID:20631062

Spulber, Stefan; Rantamäki, Tomi; Nikkilä, Outi; Castrén, Eero; Weihe, Pál; Grandjean, Philippe; Ceccatelli, Sandra

2010-01-01

253

Paternally Expressed Peg3 Controls Maternally Expressed Zim1 as a Trans Factor  

PubMed Central

The expression of two adjacent imprinted genes, Peg3 and Zim1, is inversely correlated: down-regulation of Peg3 coinciding with up-regulation of Zim1. The current study characterized this inverse correlation using a mutant allele targeting Peg3. According to the results, the mutation on the paternal allele of Peg3 resulted in a dramatic increase in the transcription levels of the maternal allele of Zim1, suggesting the involvement of unknown trans factors in this trans-allelic event. Subsequent ChIP experiments revealed that the protein encoded by Peg3 itself binds to the zinc finger exon of Zim1, which is modified with the repression mark H3K9me3. Interestingly, the levels of H3K9me3 on Zim1 are also reduced in the mutant cells lacking the protein PEG3, suggesting potential roles for PEG3 in establishing H3K9me3 on Zim1. Reintroducing PEG3 into the mutant cell restored down-regulation of Zim1, confirming the predicted repressor role for Peg3 on Zim1. Overall, these results demonstrated that paternally expressed Peg3 controls maternally expressed Zim1 as a trans factor. The current study also provides the first case for the trans-allelic interaction of two oppositely imprinted genes through their gene products. PMID:25265264

Ye, An; He, Hongzhi; Kim, Joomyeong

2014-01-01

254

Toxoplasma gondii and Other Risk Factors for Schizophrenia: An Update  

PubMed Central

The failure to find genes of major effect in schizophrenia has refocused attention on nongenetic, including infectious factors. In a previous study, antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were found to be elevated in 23 studies of schizophrenia (OR 2.73; 95% CI 2.10–3.60). The current study replicates this finding with 15 additional studies (OR 2.71; 95% CI 1.93–3.80) and compares this with other identified schizophrenia risk factors. The highest risk factors are having an affected mother (relative risks [RR] 9.31; 95% CI 7.24–11.96), father (RR 7.20; 95% CI 5.10–10.16), or sibling (RR 6.99; 95% CI 5.38–9.08) or being the offspring of immigrants from selected countries (RR 4.5; 95% CI 1.5–13.1). Intermediate risk factors, in addition to infection with T. gondii, include being an immigrant from and to selected countries (RR 2.7; 95% CI 2.3–3.2), being born in (RR 2.24; 95% CI 1.92–2.61) or raised in (RR 2.75; 95% CI 2.31–3.28) an urban area, cannabis use (OR 2.10–2.93; 95% CI 1.08–6.13), having minor physical anomalies (OR 2.23; 95% CI 1.42–3.58), or having a father 55 or older (OR 2.21–5.92; 95% CI 1.46-17.02). Low-risk factors include a history of traumatic brain injury (OR 1.65; 95% CI 1.17–2.32), sex abuse in childhood (OR 1.46; 95% CI 0.84–2.52), obstetrical complications (OR 1.29–1.38; 95% CI 1.00–1.84), having a father 45 or older (OR 1.21–1.66; 95% CI 1.09–2.01), specific genetic polymorphisms (OR 1.09–1.24; 95% CI 1.06–1.45), birth seasonality (OR 1.07–1.95; 95% CI 1.05–2.91), maternal exposure to influenza (RR 1.05; 95% CI 0.98–1.12), or prenatal stress (RR 0.98–1.00; 95% CI 0.85–1.16). PMID:22446566

Torrey, E. Fuller; Bartko, John J.; Yolken, Robert H.

2012-01-01

255

Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy: A case–control study  

PubMed Central

Background: Ectopic pregnancy (EP) is a condition presenting as a major health problem for women of childbearing age. This study aimed to identify potential risk factors for EP and to evaluate the contribution of the risk factors associated to EP. Materials and Methods: This retrospective nested case–control study was conducted from 2006 to 2011. In case group, there were a total of 83 women diagnosed with EP, while in the control group; there was a total of 340 women who gave birth. The basic recorded information included surgical, gynecological, obstetrics, sexual, contraceptive, and infectious histories; demographic characteristics; smoking habits; fertility markers; as well as reproductive outcome after EP. The association between EP and the factors studied was analyzed by logistic regression. Results: The findings reveal that the following factors were associated with increased risk of EP, including: Maternal age (odds ratio [OR] =1.11, confidence interval [CI] [1.06–1.16], P < 0.0001), spouse's cigarette smoking (OR = 1.73, CI [1.05–2.85], P = 0.02), gravidity (OR = 1.50, CI [1.25–1.80], P < 0.0001), prior spontaneous abortions (OR = 1.93, CI [1.11–3.36], P = 0.01), history of EP (OR = 17.16, CI [1.89–155.67], P = 0.01), tubal blockage (OR = 10.85, CI [2.02–58.08], P = 0.01), use of intrauterine device (IUD) (OR = 4.39, CI [1.78–10.81], P = 0.001), tubal damage (OR = 2.704, CI [1.26–5.78], P = 0.01), first pregnancy interval (OR = 1.01, CI [1.00–1.02], P < 0.0001) and history of infertility (OR = 6.13, CI [2.70–13.93], P < 0.0001). Conclusion: By identifying risk factors being amenable to modification, such as cigarette smoking and use of IUD and first pregnancy interval the effective risk-reduction strategies can be devised.

Moini, Ashraf; Hosseini, Reihaneh; Jahangiri, Nadia; Shiva, Marzieh; Akhoond, Mohammad Reza

2014-01-01

256

Recurrent erysipelas - risk factors and clinical presentation  

PubMed Central

Background Erysipelas is a common infection that often recurs, but the impact of specific risk factors for reoccurrence remains elusive. In the present study we aimed at clarifying predisposing conditions for reoccurrence. Methods Medical records were reviewed from all patients ?18 years of age diagnosed with erysipelas at the Department of Infectious Diseases at Skåne University Hospital, Sweden, from January 2007 to February 2011. 502 patients were included, of which 357 were single episode erysipelas and 145 had recurrent erysipelas. These two groups were compared regarding underlying conditions and clinical presentation. Results Erysipelas in the lower limbs had the greatest propensity of recurrence. The associations between underlying conditions and recurrence were largely depending on the site of erysipelas. Overall, the most prominent risk factor for recurrence was lymphedema and other conditions causing a chronic impairment of the defence against microbes. Conditions temporarily disrupting the skin barrier (e.g. a local wound or toe web intertrigo), although likely being risk factors for erysipelas per se, did not seem to predispose to repeated episodes. Individuals with recurrent erysipelas tended to seek medical attention earlier, and were less likely to be hospitalized or receive intravenous antibiotics, but there was no evidence of any difference in inflammatory reaction when taking confounding factors into account. Conclusions In this large cross-sectional study of over 500 patients with erysipelas, lymphedema was the most prominent risk factors for recurrence although the distribution of predisposing conditions varies depending on the site of erysipelas. PMID:24884840

2014-01-01

257

Maternal Clinical Diagnoses and Hospital Variation in the Risk of Cesarean Delivery: Analyses of a National US Hospital Discharge Database  

PubMed Central

Background Cesarean delivery is the most common inpatient surgery in the United States, where 1.3 million cesarean sections occur annually, and rates vary widely by hospital. Identifying sources of variation in cesarean use is crucial to improving the consistency and quality of obstetric care. We used hospital discharge records to examine the extent to which variability in the likelihood of cesarean section across US hospitals was attributable to individual women's clinical diagnoses. Methods and Findings Using data from the 2009 and 2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project—a 20% sample of US hospitals—we analyzed data for 1,475,457 births in 1,373 hospitals. We fitted multilevel logistic regression models (patients nested in hospitals). The outcome was cesarean (versus vaginal) delivery. Covariates included diagnosis of diabetes in pregnancy, hypertension in pregnancy, hemorrhage during pregnancy or placental complications, fetal distress, and fetal disproportion or obstructed labor; maternal age, race/ethnicity, and insurance status; and hospital size and location/teaching status. The cesarean section prevalence was 22.0% (95% confidence interval 22.0% to 22.1%) among women with no prior cesareans. In unadjusted models, the between-hospital variation in the individual risk of primary cesarean section was 0.14 (95% credible interval 0.12 to 0.15). The difference in the probability of having a cesarean delivery between hospitals was 25 percentage points. Hospital variability did not decrease after adjusting for patient diagnoses, socio-demographics, and hospital characteristics (0.16 [95% credible interval 0.14 to 0.18]). A limitation is that these data, while nationally representative, did not contain information on parity or gestational age. Conclusions Variability across hospitals in the individual risk of cesarean section is not decreased by accounting for differences in maternal diagnoses. These findings highlight the need for more comprehensive or linked data including parity and gestational age as well as examination of other factors—such as hospital policies, practices, and culture—in determining cesarean section use. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25333943

Kozhimannil, Katy B.; Arcaya, Mariana C.; Subramanian, S. V.

2014-01-01

258

Risk Factors for Homelessness among Women Veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Background. Women veterans are three to four times more likely than non-veteran women to become homeless. However, their risk factors for homelessness have not been defined. Methods. Case-control study of non-institutionalized homeless women veterans (n533) and age-matched housed women veterans (n=165). Health, health care, and factors associated with homelessness were assessed using multiple logistic regression with a Monte Carlo algorithm

Donna L. Washington; Elizabeth M. Yano; James McGuire; Vivian Hines; Martin Lee; Lillian Gelberg

2010-01-01

259

Risk Factors for Homelessness among Women Veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Women veterans are three to four times more likely than non-veteran women to become homeless. However, their risk factors for homelessness have not been defined. Methods. Case-control study of non-institutionalized homeless women veterans (n533) and age-matched housed women veterans (n=165). Health, health care, and factors associated with homelessness were assessed using multiple logistic regression with a Monte Carlo algorithm

MPH Elizabeth M. Yano MSPH Donna L. Washington; MSPH Lillian Gelberg

2010-01-01

260

What Are the Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Men?  

MedlinePLUS

... in men? What are the risk factors for breast cancer in men? A risk factor is anything that ... old when they are diagnosed. Family history of breast cancer Breast cancer risk is increased if other members ...

261

Retardation of fetal brain cell growth during maternal starvation: circulating factors versus altered cellular response.  

PubMed

Maternal starvation inhibits fetal brain development during late gestation in the rat. To determine whether intrinsic or extrinsic factors might be the principal contributor to altered growth, brain cells from 20 day fetuses were cultured in a 96 well plate with MEM and 10% adult rat serum. Tissue growth was monitored by spectrophotometric measurement of the mitochondrial reduction of a chromagen 3-(4,5 dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT). After 1, 4 or 6 days incubation, MTT activity in non confluent cultures was shown to be directly related to tissue mass. When fetal brain cell cultures were incubated with 1% and 10% concentrations of adult rat serum, an 11-fold increase in MTT activity paralleled a 15-fold increase in tritiated thymidine incorporation. The impact of maternal starvation on fetal brain cell growth was examined by measuring MTT activity in fetal brain cells from fed and starved mothers. When cultures were incubated for 6 days with graded concentrations of fed adult serum (1.25-10%), the MTT response was slightly but consistently lower in cells from starved when compared with cells from fed mothers. By contrast, a marked difference in MTT activity which was paralleled by a lower DNA content became apparent when fetal rat brain cells were incubated with starved adult serum. Fetal serum and adult male serum were found to support growth equally well, while incubation of fetal brain cells with maternal sera resulted in lower MTT values than with the corresponding fetal sera. When cells were incubated with fetal sera pooled from starved mothers, MTT activity was decreased by 42 to 45%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1603259

Gu, D S; Shambaugh, G E; Metzger, B E; Unterman, T G; Radosevich, J A

1992-06-01

262

Exploring Risk Factors for Follicular Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Follicular lymphoma (FL) is an indolent malignancy of germinal center B cells with varied incidence across racial groups and geographic regions. Improvements in the classification of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes provide an opportunity to explore associations between environmental exposures and FL incidence. Our paper found that aspects of Western lifestyle including sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and diets high in meat and milk are associated with an increased risk of FL. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin D, and certain antioxidants are inversely associated with FL risk. A medical history of Sjogren's syndrome, influenza vaccination, and heart disease may be associated with FL incidence. Associations between FL and exposure to pesticides, industrial solvents, hair dyes, and alcohol/tobacco were inconsistent. Genetic risk factors include variants at the 6p21.32 region of the MHC II locus, polymorphisms of the DNA repair gene XRCC3, and UV exposure in individuals with certain polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor. Increasing our understanding of risk factors for FL must involve integrating epidemiological studies of genetics and exposures to allow for the examination of risk factors and interactions between genes and environment. PMID:23028387

Ambinder, Alexander J.; Shenoy, Pareen J.; Malik, Neha; Maggioncalda, Alison; Nastoupil, Loretta J.; Flowers, Christopher R.

2012-01-01

263

Trend of Stillbirth Rates and the Associated Risk Factors in Babol, Northern Iran  

PubMed Central

Objectives Stillbirth is an important public health concern and its rate indicates the sanitary development of society. The purpose of this study is to determine the trend of stillbirth rates and its risk factors in Babol. Methods A retrospective study was conducted based on the data of hospital charts of two major Gynecological wards in Shahid Yahyanejat and Babol clinic hospitals in Babol, Northern Iran. In the first phase, the frequencies of stillbirths and live birth deliveries were collected for the period of 1999-2008. In the second phase, a case-control study of 150 stillbirths cases and 300 live births as controls was conducted. The risk factors data included maternal age, gestational age, gravity, history of stillbirth, abortion, diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, fetal sex, residence area, birth interval and prenatal care. The odds ratio for risk factors with 95% confidence interval for stillbirths was calculated using the logistic regression model. Results Stillbirth rate was reduced significantly from 10.51 in 1999 to 8.57 per 1000 deliveries in 2008 (p=0.001). A significant association was found between preterm delivery (p=0.001) and preeclampsia (p=0.01) with stillbirths. Although the proportion of stillbirths was higher among mothers with history of diabetes, abortion and maternal age of more than 35 years, the odds ratio was not statistically significant. Conclusion There is a relationship between stillbirth, preterm delivery and preeclampsia. Thus, we can considerably prevent stillbirths with sanitary remedial interference on these risk factors. PMID:24498477

Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah; Esmaielzadeh, Seddegheh; Sadeghian, Ghazaleh

2014-01-01

264

Risk Factors for Domestic Violence in Curacao  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single…

van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.

2012-01-01

265

Risk Factors and Prodromal Eating Pathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…

Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather

2010-01-01

266

Monitoring Physical Activity - Risk Factor Monitoring & Methods  

Cancer.gov

The Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch (RFMMB) supports the collection of physical activity data in existing and planned surveys. In doing so, we are attempting to develop more complete assessments of individuals' physical activity based on information derived from multiple contexts, including transportation, occupation, and recreation.

267

Infants at Risk: Perinatal and Neonatal Factors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews studies of infant behavior and development. Delineates a behavioral hypothesis relating prenatal and neonatal risk factors in infancy to crib death. The mutual dependence of experience and neurostructural development suggests that infancy is a period of critical learning experiences. (Author/RH)

Lipsitt, Lewis P.

1979-01-01

268

Risk Factors for Rural Residential Fires  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context and Purpose: Rural households report high fire-related mortality and injury rates, but few studies have examined the risk factors for fires. This study aims to identify occupant and household characteristics that are associated with residential fires in a rural cohort. Methods: Of 1,005 households contacted in a single rural county, 691…

Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Yang, Jingzhen; Zwerling, Craig

2007-01-01

269

(??????????) Prevalence and risk factors of malnutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: to assess the prevalence and risk factors of malnutrition of children 6 to 23 months. Design: a cross?sectional study was done in Kibera an urban slum in Nairobi Kenya. Cluster and random sampling methods were used. A sample size of 353 children and their mothers was targeted. A structured questionnaire was administered to parents and caretakers to obtain information

Aikawa R; Osaki Y

270

Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

2014-01-01

271

Population-based birth-defect and risk-factor surveillance: data from the Northern Netherlands.  

PubMed

In many countries, birth defect monitoring systems have been set up in order to identify new teratogens as soon as possible. The usual approach to monitoring involves analysis of the frequency of specific birth defects over time. This approach has been criticized as having poor statistical power to detect epidemics due to new rare teratogenic exposures. A proposed alternative approach is the on-going analysis of risk-factor data with a case-control approach. In this paper, we present birth-defects and risk-factor surveillance data from the Northern Netherlands (NNL). For years of birth 1981-1994, 4014 cases had been registered. We investigated combinations of 32 diagnostic categories and 77 risk factors. For 10 combinations a P value < 0.01 was found; for another 25, the P value was between 0.01 and 0.05. We then checked these positive associations against data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP) and the MAternal DRug Exposure surveillance project (MADRE). In all three data sets, an association between maternal use of psychotropic drugs (psycholeptics) and cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CLP) was present. The highest odds ratio was found for CLP and maternal use of oxazepam in the NNL data (OR = 8.17, 95% CI 1.26-42.2). Both in the MACDP data and in the NNL data, an association between maternal smoking and clubfoot was found. Although the odds ratios were low, the attributable fraction derived from the NNL data was 11%. Methodologic issues that should be considered in this approach include exposure ascertainment and classification, outcome specificity, and type I errors. The strengths of this approach include its population-based nature and the ability of users to check results against results from other similar systems. PMID:23511978

Cornel, M C; Erickson, J D; Khoury, M J; James, L M; Liu, Y

1996-01-01

272

Risk Factors for Periventricular-Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Premature Infants  

PubMed Central

Periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage (PV-IVH) is a major cause of neurological disabilities in preterm newborns. This study aimed to determine the perinatal factors associated with PV-IVH. We conducted a retrospective case-control study from preterm infants born at ?34 weeks of gestation and admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Units of Seoul National University Children's Hospital and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital between June 2003 and December 2007. Neonates with no cranial sonographic data or infants transferred from other centers after three days of age were excluded. Of 1,044 eligible subjects, 59 infants with PV-IVH grade 2, 3, and 4 were allocated to the case group. The control group consisted of 118 infants without PV-IVH who were matched for gestational age and birth weight to each case of PV-IVH. At the multivariate logistic regression model, metabolic acidosis (odds ratio [OR]: 6.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12-43.23) and use of inotropes (OR: 3.70; 95% CI: 1.16-11.84) were associated with an increased risk of PV-IVH. Maternal use of antenatal corticosteroids decreases the risk of PV-IVH (OR: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.14-0.92). PMID:20191041

Lee, Ju Young; Jung, Euiseok; Kim, Eun Sun; Shim, Gyu Hong; Lee, Hyun Joo; Lee, Jin A; Choi, Chang Won; Kim, Ee-Kyung; Kim, Beyong Il; Choi, Jung-Hwan

2010-01-01

273

Canonical correlation analysis of infant's size at birth and maternal factors: a study in rural northwest Bangladesh.  

PubMed

This analysis was conducted to explore the association between 5 birth size measurements (weight, length and head, chest and mid-upper arm [MUAC] circumferences) as dependent variables and 10 maternal factors as independent variables using canonical correlation analysis (CCA). CCA considers simultaneously sets of dependent and independent variables and, thus, generates a substantially reduced type 1 error. Data were from women delivering a singleton live birth (n?=?14,506) while participating in a double-masked, cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled maternal vitamin A or ?-carotene supplementation trial in rural Bangladesh. The first canonical correlation was 0.42 (P<0.001), demonstrating a moderate positive correlation mainly between the 5 birth size measurements and 5 maternal factors (preterm delivery, early pregnancy MUAC, infant sex, age and parity). A significant interaction between infant sex and preterm delivery on birth size was also revealed from the score plot. Thirteen percent of birth size variability was explained by the composite score of the maternal factors (Redundancy, RY/X?=?0.131). Given an ability to accommodate numerous relationships and reduce complexities of multiple comparisons, CCA identified the 5 maternal variables able to predict birth size in this rural Bangladesh setting. CCA may offer an efficient, practical and inclusive approach to assessing the association between two sets of variables, addressing the innate complexity of interactions. PMID:24710082

Kabir, Alamgir; Merrill, Rebecca D; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Klemn, Rolf D W; Labrique, Alain B; Christian, Parul; West, Keith P; Nasser, Mohammed

2014-01-01

274

Maternal Adjustment and Infant Outcome in Medically Defined High-Risk Pregnancy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored relation of biological and psychosocial risk factors to infant development among pregnant women who had pregestational diabetes, gestational diabetes, or were nondiabetic. Found that infants of diabetic mothers scored lower on the Bayley Scales at 1 year and revealed fewer positive and more negative behaviors than infants of nondiabetic…

Levy-Shiff, Rachel; Lerman, Maya; Har-Even, Dov; Hod, Moshe

2002-01-01

275

MATERNAL EMPLOYMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD AND THE RISK OF OVERWEIGHT IN ADOLESCENCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Childhood obesity is still on the rise, reaching 15% in 1999-2000. Low socioeconomic status has been identified as a risk factor, with lack of money to buy nutritious food being one explanation. Added to this disadvantage may be under-investment in children by employed mothers with limited time fo...

276

[Risk factors in carcinoma of the prostate].  

PubMed

The authors review risk factors of prostate carcinoma. Generally accepted factors include advanced age; some work confirms a familial incidence of the condition. When the incidence is evaluated by race, the highest prevalence is described in American negroes and the lowest prevalence in the Japanese. The higher prevalence in northern areas and lower prevalence in southern areas is explained by the effect of ultraviolet radiation. It is generally accepted that prostate carcinoma depends on androgens; the dependence on sexual activity is evaluated in relation to the higher androgen concentration and the higher risk of infection. As to dietary factors the condition is promoted by fats; the higher prevalence in smokers can be explained by the cadmium and nickel content of cigarettes. With regard to occupation, brain workers are affected more frequently; as to occupational carcinogens cadmium and nickel are quoted most frequently. PMID:8556758

Kohout, J; Ouda, Z; Hora, M

1995-11-01

277

Maternal Smoking, Demographic and Lifestyle Factors in Relation to Daughter’s Age at Menarche  

PubMed Central

Summary A previous study suggested a younger age at menarche among daughters of heavy prenatal smokers, especially among non-Whites. The present study was designed to evaluate that association in another population and to examine other factors that might be related to age at menarche. We analyzed data from the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a nationwide longitudinal study of pregnant women and their children conducted in 1959–1966. At three sites, with a predominance of Black participants (80%), age at menarche (AAM) was ascertained in the offspring when they were young adults. We included data on 1,556 daughters who had a mean age at menarche of 12.7 years (standard deviation (SD) 1.8). Amount smoked by the mothers was obtained from a baseline interview and subsequent prenatal visits. Regression models were run including maternal smoking and other co-variates, for only the prenatal period, as well as in models with some childhood characteristics. In the prenatal factor model, younger mean age at menarche in daughters was found with the maternal characteristics of earlier age at menarche, being married, and lower parity. Examining childhood variables, earlier AAM was found among girls with few or no siblings or with higher SES. Unlike our previous findings, mean AAM was later in daughters of heavy smokers (20+cigs/day), with a delay of 0.31 years [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.008, 0.61], or about 3.7 months, in the prenatal model, and 0.34 years [95% CI ?0.02, 0.66] in the model with childhood variables included. The pattern was consistent by race. A number of prenatal and childhood factors related to age at menarche were identified that should be considered when examining exogenous exposures in relation to pubertal onset. PMID:19000293

Windham, Gayle C.; Zhang, Lixia; Longnecker, Matthew P; Klebanoff, Mark

2007-01-01

278

Maternal Influence on Adolescent Self-Esteem, Ethnic Pride and Intentions to Engage in Risk Behavior in Latino Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between ethnic pride, self-esteem and adolescent intentions to smoke cigarettes and engage\\u000a in sexual intercourse. It also explored the influence of maternal levels of ethnic pride and self-esteem as indirect predictors\\u000a of adolescent risk intentions. Middle school youth were randomly selected from six schools in the Bronx, NY. A total of 1,538\\u000a adolescents and their

Vincent Guilamo-Ramos

2009-01-01

279

Prenatal, perinatal and neonatal risk factors of Autism Spectrum Disorder: a comprehensive epidemiological assessment from India.  

PubMed

Incidence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is increasing across the globe and no data is available from India regarding the risk factors of ASD. In this regard a questionnaire based epidemiological assessment was carried out on prenatal, perinatal and neonatal risk factors of ASD across 8 cities in India. A retrospective cohort of 942 children was enrolled for the study. 471 children with ASD, under age of 10, were analyzed for pre-, peri-, and neonatal factors and were compared with the observations from equal number of controls. The quality control of the questionnaire and data collection was done thoroughly and the observations were computed statistically. A total of 25 factors were evaluated by unadjusted and adjusted analysis in this study. Among the prenatal factors considered, advanced maternal age, fetal distress and gestational respiratory infections were found to be associated with ASD and had an odds ratio of 1.8. Evaluation of perinatal and neonatal risk factors showed labor complications, pre-term birth, neonatal jaundice, delayed birth cry and birth asphyxia to be associated with ASD with an odds ratio greater than 1.5. This important study, first of its kind in Indian population gives a firsthand account of the relation of pre-, peri- and neonatal risk factors on ASD from an ethnically and socially diverse country like India, the impact of which was unknown earlier. This advocates additional focused investigations on physiological and genetic changes contributed by these risk factor inducing environments. PMID:23816633

Mamidala, Madhu Poornima; Polinedi, Anupama; P T V, Praveen Kumar; Rajesh, N; Vallamkonda, Omsai Ramesh; Udani, Vrajesh; Singhal, Nidhi; Rajesh, Vidya

2013-09-01

280

Adolescent Perceptions of Maternal Approval of Birth Control and Sexual Risk Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used data from the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent health to examine the relationship between adolescent perception of maternal approval of the use of birth control and sexual outcomes over 12 months. Overall, adolescents' perceptions of maternal approval related to an increased likelihood of sexual intercourse in the next year and an increase in…

Jaccard, James; Dittus, Patricia J.

2000-01-01

281

Risk factors of hypoglycemia in premature infants.  

PubMed

Hypoglycemia is a frequent complication of preterm birth and may lead to later CNS damage. The hypoglycemia incidence and the relative risk factors for the affected preterm infants were assessed. We examined 1,500 preterm infants (<37 weeks of gestational age) consecutively admitted between January 1994 and December 1996 at the Department of Pediatrics of Padua University, and screened for hypoglycemia by Dextrostix within the first hour of life. Hypoglycemia was defined as blood glucose levels <40 mg% at Dextrostix. Among study prematures, 35% had hypoglycemia; while the incidence was 9% at levels of Dextrostix <20 mg%. The relative risk for hypoglycemia (odds ratio, OR) was computed assuming a 99% confidence interval (CI). We found 5 risk factors for hypoglycemia: cesarean section (OR 2.24, CI 1.66-3.03), intrauterine malnutrition (SGA) (OR 1.65, CI 1.08-2.53), NICU hospitalization (OR 1.45, CI 1. 09-1.93), gestational age between 30 and 33 weeks (OR 1.93, CI 1. 34-2.78), and twinning (OR 2.49, CI 1.77-3.56). At levels of Dextrostix <20 mg%, 3 more risk factors were found: cardiopulmonary resuscitation at birth (OR 4.06, CI 2.52-6.54), neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (OR 2.21, CI 1.34-3.36) and gestational age between 26 and 29 weeks (OR 2.16, CI 1.02-4.25). The identification of relative risk factors could be useful in improving the hypoglycemia prophylaxis, and in reducing related later CNS abnormalities. PMID:10085501

Zanardo, V; Cagdas, S; Golin, R; Trevisanuto, D; Marzari, F; Rizzo, L

1999-01-01

282

Swimmer's itch: incidence and risk factors.  

PubMed

Swimmer's itch (cercarial dermatitis) affects people engaged in open-water activities. We report incidence and risk factors for a US lake. Water exposures and swimmer's itch experience were reported daily for riparian household residents and guests at Douglas Lake, Michigan, in July 2000. Incidence of swimmer's itch was 6.8 episodes per 100 water exposure days. Positive risks were (1) exposures in shallow water and in areas with onshore winds and (2) more days of lake use in July. Further epidemiological studies will help public health agencies address this bothersome problem at recreational lakes. PMID:15117691

Verbrugge, Lois M; Rainey, Jeanette J; Reimink, Ronald L; Blankespoor, Harvey D

2004-05-01

283

Risk factors for dementia with Lewy bodies  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the risk factors associated with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Methods: We identified 147 subjects with DLB and sampled 2 sex- and age-matched cognitively normal control subjects for each case. We also identified an unmatched comparison group of 236 subjects with Alzheimer disease (AD). We evaluated 19 candidate risk factors in the study cohort. Results: Compared with controls, subjects with DLB were more likely to have a history of anxiety (odds ratio; 95% confidence interval) (7.4; 3.5–16; p < 0.0001), depression (6.0; 3.7–9.5; p < 0.0001), stroke (2.8; 1.3–6.3; p = 0.01), a family history of Parkinson disease (PD) (4.6; 2.5–8.6; p < 0.0001), and carry APOE ?4 alleles (2.2; 1.5–3.3; p < 0.0001), but less likely to have had cancer (0.44; 0.27–0.70; p = 0.0006) or use caffeine (0.29; 0.14–0.57; p < 0.0001) with a similar trend for alcohol (0.65; 0.42–1.0; p = 0.0501). Compared with subjects with AD, subjects with DLB were younger (72.5 vs 74.9 years, p = 0.021) and more likely to be male (odds ratio; 95% confidence interval) (5.3; 3.3–8.5; p < 0.0001), have a history of depression (4.3; 2.4–7.5; p < 0.0001), be more educated (2.5; 1.1–5.6; p = 0.031), have a positive family history of PD (5.0; 2.4–10; p < 0.0001), have no APOE ?4 alleles (0.61; 0.40–0.93; p = 0.02), and to have had an oophorectomy before age 45 years (7.6; 1.5–39; p = 0.015). Conclusion: DLB risk factors are an amalgam of those for AD and PD. Smoking and education, which have opposing risk effects on AD and PD, are not risk factors for DLB; however, depression and low caffeine intake, both risk factors for AD and PD, increase risk of DLB more strongly than in either. PMID:23892702

Boot, Brendon P.; Orr, Carolyn F.; Ahlskog, J. Eric; Ferman, Tanis J.; Roberts, Rosebud; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Parisi, Joseph; Aakre, Jeremiah A.; Geda, Yonas E.; Knopman, David S.; Petersen, Ronald C.

2013-01-01

284

An analytical framework for the study of proximate determinants of maternal mortality.  

PubMed

A country's level of maternal mortality is a sensitive index of the provision and quality of health and obstetric services. It is important to understand the determinants of maternal mortality in order to take measures which will effectively quicken the pace of its decline. The authors present an analytical framework of factors which affect the risk of maternal mortality, using an epidemiological approach adopted to identify risk factors at the microlevel. The relative risk of each key factor was then estimated based upon empirical data using odds ratio. The study population was comprised of all 252 maternal deaths and 252 matched maternal survivors at Safdarjung hospital, New Delhi, between January 1, 1983, and December 31, 1985. Cases and controls were matched by age, parity, and registration status for antenatal care. The empirical findings of the study are consistent with the notion that maternal mortality is affected by demographic, socioeconomic, medical, and obstetric factors. PMID:12292804

Anandlakshmy, P N; Talwar, P P; Buckshee, K

1997-01-01

285

Cerebrovascular Risk Factors and Stroke Subtypes Differences Between Ethnic Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—The excess risk of stroke seen in the black population has not been explained by differences in age, sex, and social class, although differences in the frequency of cerebrovascular risk factors may be partly responsible. Data on risk factor profiles for the UK black stroke population are sparse. Previous studies have contrasted the association of cerebrovascular risk factors

Cother Hajat; Ruth Dundas; Judy A. Stewart; Enas Lawrence; Anthony G. Rudd; Robin Howard; Charles D. A. Wolfe

286

Risk assessment and decision making about in-labour transfer from rural maternity care: a social judgment and signal detection analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The importance of respecting women’s wishes to give birth close to their local community is supported by policy in many developed countries. However, persistent concerns about the quality and safety of maternity care in rural communities have been expressed. Safe childbirth in rural communities depends on good risk assessment and decision making as to whether and when the transfer of a woman in labour to an obstetric led unit is required. This is a difficult decision. Wide variation in transfer rates between rural maternity units have been reported suggesting different decision making criteria may be involved; furthermore, rural midwives and family doctors report feeling isolated in making these decisions and that staff in urban centres do not understand the difficulties they face. In order to develop more evidence based decision making strategies greater understanding of the way in which maternity care providers currently make decisions is required. This study aimed to examine how midwives working in urban and rural settings and obstetricians make intrapartum transfer decisions, and describe sources of variation in decision making. Methods The study was conducted in three stages. 1. 20 midwives and four obstetricians described factors influencing transfer decisions. 2. Vignettes depicting an intrapartum scenario were developed based on stage one data. 3. Vignettes were presented to 122 midwives and 12 obstetricians who were asked to assess the level of risk in each case and decide whether to transfer or not. Social judgment analysis was used to identify the factors and factor weights used in assessment. Signal detection analysis was used to identify participants’ ability to distinguish high and low risk cases and personal decision thresholds. Results When reviewing the same case information in vignettes midwives in different settings and obstetricians made very similar risk assessments. Despite this, a wide range of transfer decisions were still made, suggesting that the main source of variation in decision making and transfer rates is not in the assessment but the personal decision thresholds of clinicians. Conclusions Currently health care practice focuses on supporting or improving decision making through skills training and clinical guidelines. However, these methods alone are unlikely to be effective in improving consistency of decision making. PMID:23114289

2012-01-01

287

Maternal Snuff Use and Smoking and the Risk of Oral Cleft Malformations - A Population-Based Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine if maternal use of snuff (containing high levels of nicotine, low levels of nitrosamines and no combustion products) is associated with an increased risk of oral cleft malformations in the infant and whether cessation of snuff use or smoking before the antenatal booking influences the risk. Method A population-based cohort study was conducted on all live born infants, recorded in the Swedish Medical Birth Register from 1999 through 2009 (n?=?1 086 213). Risks of oral clefts were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression analyses (using adjusted odds ratios, with 95% confidence intervals [CI]). Results Among 975 866 infants that had information on maternal tobacco use, 1761 cases of oral clefts were diagnosed. More than 50% of the mothers who used snuff or smoked three months prior pregnancy stopped using before the antenatal booking. Almost 8% of the mothers were smoking at the antenatal booking and 1,1% of the mothers used snuff. Compared with infants of non-tobacco users, the adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) of any oral cleft for infants of mothers who continued to use snuff or to smoke were 1.48 [1.00–2.21] and 1.19 [1.01–1.41], respectively. In contrast, in infants of mothers who stopped using snuff or stopped smoking before the antenatal booking, the corresponding risks were not increased (adjusted odds ratios [95% CI] were 0.71 [0.44–1.14] and 0.88 [0.73–1.05], respectively). Conclusion Maternal snuff use or smoking in early pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of oral clefts. Infants of mothers who stopped using snuff or stopped smoking before the antenatal booking had no increased risk of oral cleft malformations. Oral snuff or other sources of nicotine should not be recommended as an alternative for smoke-cessation during pregnancy. PMID:24454740

Gunnerbeck, Anna; Edstedt Bonamy, Anna-Karin; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Granath, Fredrik; Wickström, Ronny; Cnattingius, Sven

2014-01-01

288

Endothelial damage and angiogenesis in hypertensive patients: relationship to cardiovascular risk factors and risk factor management  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundHypertensive patients are at particular risk of cardiovascular complications, possibly related to endothelial damage or dysfunction, or to abnormal angiogenesis. These pathophysiologic processes are assessable by measurement of plasma levels of von Willebrand factor (vWf), and by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its soluble receptor (sFlt-1). We hypothesized that these markers would correlate with the Framingham cardiovascular risk score

Dirk C. Felmeden; Charles G. C. Spencer; Funmi M. Belgore; Andrew D. Blann; D. Gareth Beevers; Gregory Y. H. Lip

2003-01-01

289

Low back pain: risk factors for chronicity.  

PubMed

The burden of low back pain disability has increased steadily over the last few decades in western countries. The high social and economic cost of low back pain is related to the minority of individuals who lose more than six months from work. Although the risk factors for low back pain have been well delineated, methodologic obstacles have hindered the collection of information on factors associated with a chronic course. The most reliable data are those generated by prospective studies involving multivariate analyses. Advanced age is associated with an increased risk of chronic pain, as is male gender (except in some recent studies). Weight and height are not related to chronicity. Disease-related factors predictive of chronic pain include presence of multiple functional symptoms, evidence of nonorganic disease, pain in the legs, significant disability at onset, a protracted initial episode, multiple recurrences and a history of low back pain or inhospital treatment. Occupational factors have a very substantial impact: workers in blue-collar jobs, those involved in heavy labor or in jobs that require efforts beyond their physical capabilities and those who have a low level of job satisfaction or poor working conditions, who are new at their job, or who are not well rated by their superiors are more likely to develop chronic pain. A history of compensation for a spinal condition, receipt of work-related sickness payments, or litigation about compensation are also associated with an increased risk of chronic pain. Social and economic factors predictive of a chronic course are a low level of schooling, language problems, a low income and an unfavorable family status. The impact of psychological factors is controversial. Depression, a number of specific coping strategies and a sensation of being "sick all the time" may be associated with an increase in the risk of chronicity. Overall, progression to a chronic pattern of pain is more closely dependent on demographic, psychosocial and occupational factors than on the medical characteristics of the spinal condition itself. Simple questionnaires can be used to identify patients at a high risk for chronicity. Treatment should be prompt and comprehensive in these patients since the likelihood of a return to work decreases rapidly as sick leave duration increases. PMID:9090769

Valat, J P; Goupille, P; Védere, V

1997-03-01

290

Maternal and Fetal Factors Associated with Mortality and Morbidity in a Multi-Racial/Ethnic Registry of Anti-SSA/Ro Associated Cardiac Neonatal Lupus  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiac manifestations of neonatal lupus (cardiac-NL) include conduction disease and rarely an isolated cardiomyopathy. This study was initiated to determine the mortality and morbidity of cardiac-NL and associated risk factors in a multi-racial/ethnic US-based registry to provide insights into the pathogenesis of antibody mediated injury and data for counseling. Methods and Results Three hundred and twenty-five offspring exposed to maternal anti-SSA/Ro antibodies with cardiac-NL met entry criteria. Maternal, fetal echocardiographic, and neonatal risk factors were assessed for association with mortality. Fifty-seven (17.5%) died; 30% in utero. The probability of in utero death was 6%. The cumulative probability of survival at 10 years for a child born alive was 86%. Fetal echocardiographic risk factors associated with increased mortality in a multivariable analysis of all cases included hydrops and endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE). Significant predictors of in utero death were hydrops and earlier diagnosis, and for postnatal death, hydrops, EFE, and lower ventricular rate. Isolated heart block was associated with a 7.8% case fatality rate whereas the concomitant presence of dilated cardiomyopathy or EFE quadrupled the case fatality rate. There was a significantly higher case fatality rate in minorities compared to Caucasians, who were at a lower risk of hydrops and EFE. Pacing was required in 70% and cardiac transplantation in four children. Conclusion Nearly one-fifth of fetuses who develop cardiac-NL die from complications which are predicted by echocardiographic abnormalities consistent with antibody associated disease beyond the AV node. The disparity in outcomes observed between minorities and Caucasians warrants further investigation. PMID:21969015

Izmirly, Peter M.; Saxena, Amit; Kim, Mimi Y.; Wang, Dan; Sahl, Sara K.; Llanos, Carolina; Friedman, Deborah; Buyon, Jill P.

2011-01-01

291

Risk Factors for Giant Retinal Tears  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the risk factors associated with giant retinal tears. Methods This retrospective study was performed on medical records of 150 patients who had undergone retinal detachment surgery. Age, sex, history of trauma, lens status (phakic, pseudophakic, or aphakic), and high myopia were evaluated in association with giant retinal tears. Results Of 150 patients with retinal detachments, 99 subjects (66%) were older than 30 years while 51 (34%) were 30 years of age or younger. Overall, 26 (17.3%) patients had giant retinal tears. Controlling for all variables, only age had a significant correlation with giant retinal tears. Each year of advancing age was associated with a 6% decrease in the incidence of giant retinal tears. Conclusion Young age is a significant risk factor for development of giant retinal tears. PMID:22737369

Mehdizadeh, Morteza; Afarid, Mehrdad; Haqiqi, Mohammad Shabanpour

2010-01-01

292

Maternal Medication and Herbal Use and Risk for Hypospadias: Data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997--2007  

PubMed Central

Purpose Investigate associations between maternal use of common medications and herbals during early pregnancy and risk for hypospadias in male infants. Methods We used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multi-site, population-based, case-control study. We analyzed data from 1,537 infants with second-or third-degree isolated hypospadias and 4,314 liveborn male control infants without major birth defects, with estimated dates of delivery from 1997–2007. Exposure was reported use of prescription or over-the-counter medications or herbal products, from 1 month before to 4 months after conception. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, pre-pregnancy BMI, previous live births, maternal sub-fertility, study site, and year. Results We assessed 64 medication and 24 herbal components. Maternal uses of most components were not associated with an increased risk of hypospadias. Two new associations were observed for venlafaxine (aOR 2.4; 95% CI 1.0, 6.0) and progestin only oral contraceptives (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1, 3.2). The previously reported association for clomiphene citrate was confirmed (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2, 3.0). Numbers were relatively small for exposure to other specific patterns of fertility agents, but elevated aORs were observed for the most common of them. Conclusions Overall, findings were reassuring that hypospadias is not associated with most medication components examined in this analysis. New associations will need to be confirmed in other studies. Increased risks for hypospadias associated with various fertility agents raises the possibility of confounding by underlying subfertility. PMID:23620412

Lind, Jennifer N.; Tinker, Sarah C.; Broussard, Cheryl S.; Reefhuis, Jennita; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Honein, Margaret A.; Olney, Richard S.; Parker, Samantha E.; Werler, Martha M.

2014-01-01

293

Risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity in extremely preterm chinese infants.  

PubMed

To investigate the incidence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and Type 1 ROP in extremely preterm Chinese infants.A retrospective review of medical records was performed of all extremely preterm neonates (gestational age, GA???28 weeks) screened for ROP from 2007 to 2012 at an ophthalmology centre in Hong Kong. Thirty-three maternal and neonatal covariates were analyzed using univariate and multivariate regression analyses for both ROP and Type 1 ROP.The mean gestational age (GA) was 26.4?±?1.3 weeks and the birth weight (BW) was 855.0?±?199.0?g. The incidence of ROP development was 60.7% and 16.2% for Type 1 ROP. On univariate analysis, 6 risk factors were identified for ROP development including: lighter BW; lower GA; postnatal hypotension; inotrope use; surfactant use; and invasive mechanical ventilation (all P???0.01). On multivariate analysis, neonatal congenital heart disease and greater GA were protective factors for ROP development (P???0.04). On the other hand, 4 risk factors were associated with Type 1 ROP development in univariate analysis, including: lower GA, lighter BW, multiple pregnancies, and invasive mechanical ventilation (all P???0.02); while there was no significant risk factors on multivariate analysis.A lighter BW and lower GA were the only common independent risk factors for both ROP and Type 1 ROP while neonatal congenital heart disease and greater GA were the protective factors against ROP. PMID:25526484

Yau, Gordon S K; Lee, Jacky W Y; Tam, Victor T Y; Liu, Catherine C L; Wong, Ian Y H

2014-12-01

294

Risk factors for hypospadias in China  

PubMed Central

This case-controlled study was designed to evaluate the association between various baseline parental factors and the risk of hypospadias in China. Patients were selected from tertiary referral hospitals in Anhui, a province in mid-eastern China. A questionnaire was given to the parents of each patient. The final database included 193 cases and 835 controls. The incidence of additional coexistent anomalies was 13.0%, primarily cryptorchidism (9.8%). Ten patients (5.1%) were from families with genital anomaly, including five families (2.6%) with hypospadias. The risks of hypospadias was higher for children of mothers > 35 (odds ratio [OR] =1.47) and < 18 (OR = 2.95) years of age, and in mothers who had consumed alcohol (OR = 2.67), used drugs (OR = 1.53) and had an infection (OR = 1.87) during pregnancy. The risk of hypospadias was also higher when mothers (OR = 1.68) and fathers (OR = 1.74) were engaged in agriculture. Other factors assessed were not associated with the risk of hypospadias. PMID:24875823

Xu, Ling-Fan; Liang, Chao-Zhao; Lipianskaya, Julia; Chen, Xian-Guo; Fan, Song; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Jun; Tai, Sheng; Jiang, Chang-Qin

2014-01-01

295

Training risk factors associated with wrestling injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionWrestling is strength sport that requires a large amount of muscle stamina superior flexibility, control and intensive training. The incidence of traumatic and overuse injury is high.12 The purpose of this study is to determine injury risk factors associated with wrestling training.Methods120 (male and female) wrestling students aged 18–26.5 years were recruited from National Sports Academy. We retrieved through injury

S Stanev; E Dimitrova

2011-01-01

296

Tobacco as a Cardiovascular Risk Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco use in the form of cigarettes has long been established as a major risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). It\\u000a is the most preventable cause of mortality. Each year, cigarette smoking causes more than 400,000 deaths in the United States\\u000a alone, more than the number of American lives lost during World War I, Korea, and Vietnam combined (1,2).

Robyn Bergman Buchsbaum; Jeffrey Craig Buchsbaum

297

Management of patients with risk factors  

PubMed Central

This review addresses concomitant diseases and risk factors in patients treated for diseases of the ears, nose and throat in outpatient and hospital services. Besides heart disease, lung disease, liver disease and kidney disease, this article also covers disorders of coagulation (including therapy with new oral anticoagulants) and electrolyte imbalance. Special attention is paid to the prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment of perioperative delirium. It is also intended to help optimise the preparation for surgical procedures and pharmacotherapy during the hospital stay. PMID:24403970

Waldfahrer, Frank

2013-01-01

298

Treatment of Risk Factors to Prevent Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the decline in stroke incidence and mortality for the past several decades in Western countries has been attributed\\u000a to better treatment of risk factors. Many epidemiological studies and clinical trials confirmed the importance of managing\\u000a hypertension. Comparative trials of anti-hypertensive drugs or drug classes have not yielded clear results, but blood pressure\\u000a variability may play an important role

Junya Aoki; Ken Uchino

2011-01-01

299

Subconjunctival hemorrhage: risk factors and potential indicators  

PubMed Central

Subconjunctival hemorrhage is a benign disorder that is a common cause of acute ocular redness. The major risk factors include trauma and contact lens usage in younger patients, whereas among the elderly, systemic vascular diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and arteriosclerosis are more common. In patients in whom subconjunctival hemorrhage is recurrent or persistent, further evaluation, including workup for systemic hypertension, bleeding disorders, systemic and ocular malignancies, and drug side effects, is warranted. PMID:23843690

Tarlan, Bercin; Kiratli, Hayyam

2013-01-01

300

Tinnitus in children and associated risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of tinnitus and explore the risk factors in school-aged children age 5–12 years. For that we asked “Do you hear a noise inside your ears\\/head?” and required children to be able to describe the sounds perceived and their location. We refer to this as tinnitus sensation. Additionally, we asked “Does

Claudia Barros Coelho; Tanit Ganz Sanchez; Richard S. Tyler

2007-01-01

301

Obesity Policy Research - Risk Factor Monitoring & Methods  

Cancer.gov

Obesity is a risk factor for various types of cancer and for other chronic diseases and conditions such as type II diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Obesity prevalence in the United States has risen substantially in the last 50 years, particularly since the early 1980s. Experiences with tobacco control and other public health initiatives suggest that public policy may be a powerful tool to improve diet and physical activity behavior at the population level.

302

Understanding the Psychosocial and Environmental Factors and Barriers Affecting Utilization of Maternal Healthcare Services in Kalomo, Zambia: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study aimed to identify psychosocial and environmental factors contributing to low utilization of maternal healthcare services in Kalomo, Zambia. Twelve focus group discussions (n = 141) and 35 in-depth interviews were conducted in six health centre catchment areas. Focus group discussions comprised women of reproductive age…

Sialubanje, Cephas; Massar, Karlijn; Hamer, Davidson H.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.

2014-01-01

303

Studying Risk Factors Associated with Human Leptospirosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Leptospirosis is one of the most under diagnosed and underreported disease in both developed and developing countries including India. It is established that environmental conditions and occupational habit of the individuals put them at risk of acquiring disease, which varies from community to community. Various seroprevalence studies across the world have documented emerging situation of this neglected tropical disease, but limited have probed to identify the risk factors, especially in India. Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify the environmental and occupational risk factors associated with the disease in Udupi District. Materials and Methods: This population-based case-control study was carried out in Udupi, a District in Southern India from April 2012 until August 2012. Udupi is considered to be endemic for Leptospirosis and reported 116 confirmed cases in the year 2011. Seventy of 116 laboratory confirmed cases and 140 sex matched neighborhood healthy controls participated in the study. A predesigned, semi-structured and validated questionnaire was used for data collection through house to house visit and observations were noted about environmental conditions. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate analysis (back ward conditional logistic regression) was performed by using STATA version 9.2 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA) to identify potential risk factors. Results: Occupational factors such as outdoor activities (matched odds ratio [OR] of 3.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-13.0), presence of cut or wound at body parts during work (matched OR: 4.88, CI: 1.83-13.02) and environmental factors such as contact with rodents through using the food materials ate by rat (matched OR: 4.29, CI: 1.45-12.73) and contact with soil or water contaminated with urine of rat (matched OR: 4.58, CI: 1.43-14.67) were the risk factors identified to be associated with disease. Conclusion: Leptospirosis is still considered as neglected disease in the district. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of cases can save many lives. However, there is a need of integrated rodent control measures with great effort to increase awareness and education among subjects in controlling the disease. PMID:24741223

Kamath, Ramachandra; Swain, Subhashisa; Pattanshetty, Sanjay; Nair, N Sreekumaran

2014-01-01

304

Risk factors for adenocarcinoma of the lung  

SciTech Connect

The relation between various risk factors and adenocarcinoma of the lung was evaluated in a case-control study. Subjects were selected from the Colorado Central Cancer Registry from 1979-1982 in the Denver metropolitan area. A total of 102 (50 males and 52 females) adenocarcinoma case interviews and 131 (65 males and 66 females) control interviews were completed. The control group consisted of persons with cancers of the colon and bone marrow. The risk estimates associated with cigarette smoking were significantly elevated among males (odds ratio (OR) = 4.49) and females (OR = 3.95) and were found to increase significantly (p less than 0.01) with increasing levels of cigarette smoking for both males and females. For adenocarcinoma in females, the age- and smoking-adjusted odds ratios at different levels of passive smoke exposure followed an increasing overall trend (p = 0.05). After additional adjustment for potential confounders, prior cigarette use remained the most significant predictor of risk of adenocarcinoma among males and females. Analysis restricted to nonsmoking females revealed a risk of adenocarcinoma of 1.68 (95% confidence interval (Cl) = 0.39-2.97) for passive smoke exposure of four or more hours per day. Neither sex showed significantly elevated risk for occupational exposures, although males bordered on significance (OR = 2.23, 95% Cl = 0.97-5.12). The results suggest the need to develop cell type-specific etiologic hypotheses.

Brownson, R.C.; Reif, J.S.; Keefe, T.J.; Ferguson, S.W.; Pritzl, J.A.

1987-01-01

305

Differences in Risk Factors for Retinopathy of Prematurity Development in Paired Twins: A Chinese Population Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To determine the differences in risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in paired twins. Methods. A retrospective medical record review was performed for all paired twins screened for ROP between 2007 and 2012. Screening was offered to very low birth weight (?1500 grams) and preterm (?32 weeks) neonates. Twins 1 and 2 were categorized based on the order of delivery. Maternal and neonatal covariates were analyzed using univariate and multivariate regression analyses for both ROP and Type 1 ROP. Results. In 34 pairs of Chinese twins, the mean gestational age (GA) was 30.2 ± 2.0 weeks. In Twin 1, smaller GA (OR = 0.44, P = 0.02), higher mean oxygen concentration (OR = 1.34, P = 0.03), presence of thrombocytopenia (OR = 1429.60, P < 0.0001), and intraventricular hemorrhage (OR = 18.67, P = 0.03) were significant risk factors for ROP. For Twin 2, a smaller GA (OR = 0.45, P = 0.03) was the only risk factor. There were no significant risk factors for ROP in Twin 1 or Twin 2 on multivariate analysis. Conclusion. In Chinese twin pairs, smaller GA was the only common risk factor for ROP while Twin 1 was more susceptible to the postnatal risks for ROP. PMID:25401130

Cheng, Edith; Liu, Catherine C. L.; Chu, Benjamin C. Y.; Yuen, Can Y. F.

2014-01-01

306

The High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency and Its Related Maternal Factors in Pregnant Women in Beijing  

PubMed Central

Maternal vitamin D deficiency has been suggested to influence fetal and neonatal health. Little is known about vitamin D status in Chinese pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to assess the vitamin D status of pregnant women residing in Beijing in winter and evaluate the impact of maternal factors on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels. The study was conducted on 125 healthy pregnant women. For each individual, data concerning pre-pregnancy weight, educational status, use of multivitamins and behavioral factors such as daily duration of computer use, walking and sun exposure were obtained. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) was 96.8% and almost half (44.8%) of women were severely vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 25 nmol/L). The concentration of 25(OH)D was lower in women with shorter duration of sun exposure (? 0.5 h/day, 25.3 ± 8.9 nmol/L) than that in women with longer duration of sun exposure (> 0.5 h/day; 30.3± 9.5 nmol/L; P = 0.003). Thirty six women (28.8%) had sun exposure duration ? 1.5h/day. The 25(OH)D concentration in these women was 31.5 ± 9.4 nmol/L which was also much lower than the normal level. Women who reported taking a multivitamin supplement had significantly higher 25(OH)D concentrations (32.3 ± 9.5 nmol/L) when compared with non-users (24.9 ± 8.2 nmol/L; P < 0.001). Pregnant women in Beijing are at very high risk of vitamin D deficiency in winter. Duration of Sun exposure and the use of multivitamin were the most important determinants for vitamin D status. However, neither prolonging the time of sunlight exposure nor multivitamin supplements can effectively prevent pregnant women from vitamin D deficiency. Other measures might have to be taken for pregnant women to improve their vitamin D status in winter. PMID:24386450

Song, Shu Jun; Zhou, Ling; Si, Shaoyan; Liu, Junli; Zhou, Jinlian; Feng, Kai; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Wenying

2013-01-01

307

The high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its related maternal factors in pregnant women in Beijing.  

PubMed

Maternal vitamin D deficiency has been suggested to influence fetal and neonatal health. Little is known about vitamin D status in Chinese pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to assess the vitamin D status of pregnant women residing in Beijing in winter and evaluate the impact of maternal factors on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels. The study was conducted on 125 healthy pregnant women. For each individual, data concerning pre-pregnancy weight, educational status, use of multivitamins and behavioral factors such as daily duration of computer use, walking and sun exposure were obtained. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) was 96.8% and almost half (44.8%) of women were severely vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 25 nmol/L). The concentration of 25(OH)D was lower in women with shorter duration of sun exposure (? 0.5 h/day, 25.3 ± 8.9 nmol/L) than that in women with longer duration of sun exposure (> 0.5 h/day; 30.3 ± 9.5 nmol/L; P = 0.003). Thirty six women (28.8%) had sun exposure duration ? 1.5h/day. The 25(OH)D concentration in these women was 31.5 ± 9.4 nmol/L which was also much lower than the normal level. Women who reported taking a multivitamin supplement had significantly higher 25(OH)D concentrations (32.3 ± 9.5 nmol/L) when compared with non-users (24.9 ± 8.2 nmol/L; P < 0.001). Pregnant women in Beijing are at very high risk of vitamin D deficiency in winter. Duration of Sun exposure and the use of multivitamin were the most important determinants for vitamin D status. However, neither prolonging the time of sunlight exposure nor multivitamin supplements can effectively prevent pregnant women from vitamin D deficiency. Other measures might have to be taken for pregnant women to improve their vitamin D status in winter. PMID:24386450

Song, Shu Jun; Zhou, Ling; Si, Shaoyan; Liu, Junli; Zhou, Jinlian; Feng, Kai; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Wenying

2013-01-01

308

Risk Factors for Osteonecrosis of the Jaws  

PubMed Central

Case reports and cohort studies have linked bisphosphonate therapy and osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ), but neither causality nor specific risks for lesion development have been clearly established. We conducted a 1:3 case-control study with three dental Practice-based Research Networks, using dentist questionnaires and patient interviews for collection of data on bisphosphonate therapy, demographics, co-morbidities, and dental and medical treatments. Multivariable logistic regression analyses tested associations between bisphosphonate use and other risk factors with ONJ. We enrolled 191 ONJ cases and 573 controls in 119 dental practices. Bisphosphonate use was strongly associated with ONJ (odds ratios [OR] 299.5 {95%CI 70.0-1282.7} for intravenous [IV] use and OR = 12.2 {4.3-35.0} for oral use). Risk markers included local suppuration (OR = 7.8 {1.8-34.1}), dental extraction (OR = 7.6 {2.4-24.7}), and radiation therapy (OR = 24.1 {4.9-118.4}). When cancer patients (n = 143) were excluded, bisphosphonate use (OR = 7.2 {2.1-24.7}), suppuration (OR = 11.9 {2.0-69.5}), and extractions (OR = 6.6 {1.6-26.6}) remained associated with ONJ. Higher risk of ONJ began within 2 years of bisphosphonate initiation and increased four-fold after 2 years. Both IV and oral bisphosphonate use were strongly associated with ONJ. Duration of treatment > 2 years; suppuration and dental extractions were independent risk factors for ONJ. PMID:21317246

Barasch, A.; Cunha-Cruz, J.; Curro, F.A.; Hujoel, P.; Sung, A.H.; Vena, D.; Voinea-Griffin, A.E.; Beadnell, Steven; Craig, Ronald G.; DeRouen, Timothy; Desaranayake, Ananda; Gilbert, Ann; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Goldberg, Ken; Hauley, Richard; Hashimoto, Mariko; Holmes, Jon; Latzke, Brooke; Leroux, Brian; Lindblad, Anne; Richman, Joshua; Safford, Monika; Ship [deceased], Jonathan; Thompson, Van P.; Williams, O. Dale; Yin, Wanrong

2011-01-01

309

Maternal Dietary Patterns are Associated With Risk of Neural Tube and Congenital Heart Defects  

PubMed Central

Studying empirically derived dietary patterns is useful in understanding dietary practice. We classified women by their dietary patterns using latent class analysis of 66 foods and studied the association of these patterns with neural tube defects (NTDs) and congenital heart defects (CHDs) in the US National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997–2005). Logistic regression models used data from 1,047 with an NTD, 6,641 with a CHD, and 6,123 controls that were adjusted for maternal characteristics and tested the effect modification of multivitamin supplement use. Four latent dietary patterns were identified: prudent, Western, low-calorie Western, and Mexican. Among participants who did not use supplements, those in the Mexican, Western, and low-calorie Western classes were significantly more likely (odds ratios of 1.6, 1.5, and 1.4, respectively) to have offspring born with NTDs than were those in the prudent class after adjustment of for dietary folic acid intake. In contrast, among supplement users, there was no difference in the incidence of NTDs between classes. Associations between dietary class and CHD subgroups were not modified by supplement use except for tetralogy of Fallot; among supplement users, those in the Western class were twice as likely (95% confidence interval: 1.4, 2.8) as the prudent class to have offspring with tetralogy of Fallot. Women who adhered to a Western diet were 1.2 (95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.35) times more likely to have an infant with septal heart defect than were women who adhered to a prudent diet. A prudent dietary pattern, even with folate fortification, may decrease the risk of NTDs and some heart defects. PMID:23639938

Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Herring, Amy H.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Hobbs, Charlotte A.; Olshan, Andrew F.

2013-01-01

310

Identification of Caries Risk Factors in Toddlers  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors to predict caries progression in toddlers in primary-healthcare settings for the cost-effective targeting of preventive and referral strategies. We examined 329 children (26 ± 6 mos old) twice, one year apart, in Indiana, USA. A 107-item structured interview was used to collect information from the primary caregiver and child on factors/beliefs/perceptions/behaviors that could affect caries development, transmission of bacteria, medical-dental health, and access to care. Bacterial levels, gingivitis, dental plaque, and caries experience were assessed. Multiple-variable logistic regression models of caries progression toward cavitation included family caries experience, transmission-related behaviors, dietary factors, health beliefs, and lower income, but differed in selected predictors/predictive power by race/ethnicity. Addition of clinical variables did not significantly improve the prediction. PMID:21173434

Fontana, M.; Jackson, R.; Eckert, G.; Swigonski, N.; Chin, J.; Zandona, A. Ferreira; Ando, M.; Stookey, G.K.; Downs, S.; Zero, D.T.

2011-01-01

311

Maternal protein restriction induces alterations in hepatic tumor necrosis factor-?/CYP7A1 signaling and disorders regulation of cholesterol metabolism in the adult rat offspring  

PubMed Central

It is well recognized that adverse events in utero impair fetal development and lead to the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome in adulthood. To investigate the mechanisms linking impaired fetal growth to increased cholesterol, an important clinical risk factor characterizing the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, we examined the impact of maternal undernutrition on tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)/c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway and the cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) expression in the livers of the offspring with a protein restriction model. The male offspring with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) caused by the isocaloric low-protein diet showed decreased liver weight at birth and augmented circulation and hepatic cholesterol levels at 40 weeks of age. Maternal undernutrition significantly upregulated cytokine TNF-? expression and JNK phospholytion levels in the livers from fetal age to adulthood. Elevated JNK phospholytion could be linked to downregulated hepatocyte nuclear factor-4? and CYP7A1 expression, subsequently led to higher hepatic cholesterol. This work demonstrated that intrauterine malnutrition-induced IUGR might result in intrinsic disorder in hepatic TNF-?/CYP7A1 signaling, and contribute to the development of hypercholesterolemia in later life. PMID:25120278

Liu, Xiaomei; Qi, Ying; Tian, Baoling; Chen, Dong; Gao, Hong; Xi, Chunyan; Xing, Yanlin; Yuan, Zhengwei

2014-01-01

312

Uterine prolapse in pregnancy: risk factors, complications and management.  

PubMed

Presentation of uterine prolapse is a rare event in a pregnant woman, which can be pre-existent or else manifest in the course of pregnancy. Complications resulting from prolapse of the uterus in pregnancy vary from minor cervical infection to spontaneous abortion, and include preterm labor and maternal and fetal mortality as well as acute urinary retention and urinary tract infection. Moreover, affected women may be at particular risk of dystocia during labor that could necessitate emergency intervention for delivery. Recommendations regarding the management of this infrequent but potentially harmful condition are scarce and outdated. This review will examine the causative factors of uterine prolapse and the antepartum, intrapartum and puerperal complications that may arise from this condition as well as therapeutic options available to the obstetrician. While early recognition and appropriate prenatal management of uterine prolapse during pregnancy is imperative, implementation of conservative treatment modalities throughout pregnancy, these applied in accordance with the severity of the uterus prolapse and the patient's preference, may be sufficient to achieve uneventful pregnancy and normal, spontaneous delivery. PMID:23692627

Tsikouras, Panagiotis; Dafopoulos, Alexandros; Vrachnis, Nikolaos; Iliodromiti, Zoe; Bouchlariotou, Sofia; Pinidis, Petros; Tsagias, Nikolaos; Liberis, Vasileios; Galazios, Georgios; Von Tempelhoff, Georg Friedrich

2014-02-01

313

What Are the Risk Factors for Endometrial Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer? What are the risk factors for endometrial cancer? A risk factor is anything that changes your ... hasn't been discovered yet. Breast or ovarian cancer Women who have had breast cancer or ovarian ...

314

Drug and Alcohol Use -- A Significant Risk Factor for HIV  

MedlinePLUS

... A Significant Risk Factor for HIV Drug and Alcohol Use - A Significant Risk Factor for HIV Email ... with HIV currently use drugs or binge on alcohol. Contrary to popular belief, it is not the ...

315

What Are the Risk Factors for Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia?  

MedlinePLUS

... lymphocytic leukemia? What are the risk factors for acute lymphocytic leukemia? A risk factor is something that affects your ... this is unknown. Having an identical twin with ALL Someone who has an identical twin who develops ...

316

What Are the Risk Factors for Anal Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... anal cancer? What are the risk factors for anal cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects ... about HPV and HPV vaccines, see HPV Vaccines . Anal warts Anal warts (also known as condyloma acuminata ) ...

317

Levels of Family Assessment: II. Impact of Maternal Psychopathology on Family Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association of maternal and contextual risk factors with whole-family, marital, and parent–child levels of family functioning was examined. Maternal mental illness and multiple contextual risk best predicted whole-family functioning, but each was related to marital and parent–child levels as well. Nonspecific indicators of maternal illness, rather than diagnostic category, were the better predictors of family functioning. The multiple contextual

Susan Dickstein; Ronald Seifer; Lisa C. Hayden; Masha Schiller; Arnold J. Sameroff; Gabor Keitner; Ivan Miller; Steven Rasmussen; Marilyn Matzko; Karin Dodge Magee

1998-01-01

318

History of the Evolution of Cardiovascular Risk Factors and the Predictive Value of Traditional Risk-Factor-Based Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The near epidemic rise in cardiovascular disease deaths in the early and middle twentieth century necessitated a more complete\\u000a understanding of the risk factors for these illnesses. Through histologic examinations, animal studies, clinical and geographical\\u000a observations and, ultimately, through large, prospective epidemiologic studies, the major traditional risk factors for cardiovascular\\u000a disease were discovered, which paved the way for successful public

Amit Khera

319

Risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao.  

PubMed

One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single parenthood, and unemployment increase the risk for women, but not for men. These findings are consistent with current literature on the subject. Further research on the context, nature, and severity of domestic violence in the Caribbean is necessary. Studies should preferably combine the strengths of national crime surveys and family conflict studies: nationally representative samples (including men and women) and questionnaires that include all possible experiences of psychological, physical, and sexual assaults by current and former partners, family, and friends. PMID:22829216

van Wijk, N Ph L; de Bruijn, J G M

2012-10-01

320

Structured Inequalities: Factors Associated with Spatial Disparities in Maternity Care in India  

PubMed Central

Research on India documents considerable heterogeneity in health and health care across states. However, while regional differences are well established, factors underlying these differences have received little attention. This paper seeks to explain disparities in delivery care across districts by focusing on three factors: (1) Marriage and kinship patterns; (2) District wealth; (3) Governance and quality of services. Using data from nationally representative India Human Development Survey 2005 (IHDS) it examines the probability that the 11,905 women who had a child between 2000 and 2005 delivered in a hospital or received care from a doctor or a nurse while delivering at home. The results suggest that 47% of the variation in delivery care in India is between districts while 53% is between women within district. Although compositional differences in education and household wealth explain some of the variation between districts, marriage and kinship patterns, district wealth and governance each has a significant impact on shaping between-district variation in maternity care. PMID:24761090

Desai, Sonalde; Wu, Lijuan

2013-01-01

321

Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Knowledge in Young Adults and 10-year Change in Risk Factors The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study's objective was assessment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor knowledge in young adults, its association with 10-year changes in risk factor levels, and variables related to risk factor knowledge. A total of 4,193 healthy persons (55% female, 48% Black; mean age ¼ 30 years) from four urban US communities were queried about risk factor knowledge in 1990-1991 and

Elizabeth B. Lynch; Kiang Liu; Catarina I. Kiefe; Philip Greenland

322

Midtrimester maternal plasma concentrations of angiopoietin 1, angiopoietin 2, and placental growth factor in pregnant women who subsequently develop preeclampsia  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to compare midtrimester maternal plasma concentrations of angiopoietin 1, angiopoietin 2, and placental growth factor between pregnant women who subsequently developed preeclampsia and those who did not. Methods Midtrimester maternal plasma was collected and stored at -70? when genetic amniocentesis was performed. Cases included 37 samples of individual who subsequently developed preeclampsia, and matched controls were from individuals who did not develop preeclampsia. Angiopoietin 1, angiopoietin 2, and placental growth factor concentrations were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. A P-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results In pregnant women who subsequently developed preeclampsia, midtrimester maternal plasma concentrations of angiopoietin 1 and angiopoietin 2 were significantly higher and placental growth factor concentrations were significantly lower than in women who did not develop preeclampsia (angiopoietin 1: 10.6 [3.1-19.7] vs. 7.8 [0.9-24.4] ng/mL, P=0.031; angiopoietin 2: 31.0 [4.7-81.2] vs. 18.4 [4.2-49.7] ng/mL, P<0.001; placental growth factor: 87.1 [14.2-774.3] vs. 148.8 [57.2-425.6] pg/mL, P<0.001). Within the case group who subsequently developed preeclampsia, the placental growth factor was significantly lower in those who had fetal growth restrictions than in those who did not (placental growth factor: 72.5 [14.2-774.3] vs. 140.9 [44.2-257.5] pg/mL, P=0.003). Conclusion Midtrimester maternal plasma concentrations of angiopoietin 1, angiopoietin 2, and placental growth factor may be associated with the subsequent development of preeclampsia.

Shim, Soon-Sup; Lee, Cha Hee

2015-01-01

323

Cholera risk factors, Papua New Guinea, 2010  

PubMed Central

Background Cholera is newly emergent in Papua New Guinea but may soon become endemic. Identifying the risk factors for cholera provides evidence for targeted prevention and control measures. Methods We conducted a hospital-based case–control study to identify cholera risk factors. Using stool culture as the standard, we evaluated a cholera point of care test in the field. Results 176 participants were recruited: 54 cases and 122 controls. Independent risk factors for cholera were: being over 20 years of age (aOR 2.5; 95%CI 1.1, 5.4), defecating in the open air (or river) (aOR 4.5; 95% CI 1.4, 14.4) and knowing someone who travelled to a cholera affected area (aOR 4.1; 95%CI 1.6, 10.7); while the availability of soap for handwashing at home was protective (aOR 0.41; 95%CI 0.19, 0.87). Those reporting access to a piped water distribution system in the home were twice as likely to report the availability of soap for handwashing. The sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test were 72% (95% CI 47–90) and 71% (95%CI 44–90%). Conclusions Improving population access to the piped water distribution system and sanitation will likely reduce transmission by enabling enhanced hygiene and limiting the contamination of water sources. The One step V. cholerae O1/O139 Antigen Test is of limited utility for clinical decision making in a hospital setting with access to traditional laboratory methods. Settlement dwellers and mobile populations of all age groups should be targeted for interventions in Papua New Guinea. PMID:23126504

2012-01-01

324

Risk Factor Documentation in Elective and Emergency Vascular Surgical Admissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: this study investigates current practice of risk factor documentation in a vascular unit and compares variations in risk factor assessment between elective and emergency admissions.Methods: one hundred and forty-four patients who underwent vascular surgical intervention for atherosclerotic disease during the year 2000 were retrospectively identified from computerised database. Case note review collated demographic details, data on risk factor assessment

D. R. Lewis; J. F. Bolton; S. Hebard; F. C. Smith; R. N. Baird; P. M. Lamont

2003-01-01

325

Disruptive behaviour disorders: a systematic review of environmental antenatal and early years risk factors.  

PubMed

Disruptive behaviour disorders (DBDs), including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) are chronic disorders with significant overlap in aetiology and presentation. An integrative examination of environmental risk factors is lacking. Six literature searches of web-based bibliographic databases were completed to identify literature on DBDs in general and five disorders in particular: CD, ODD, ADHD, deficits of attention, motor control and perception, and reactive attachment disorder. Searches were filtered to focus on studies including diagnostic assessment, focussing on environmental risk and protective factors in the first 4 years of life. The database searches generated 9806 papers of which 47 were reviewed after filters had been applied. The evidence suggests links between a number of early life risk factors and DBDs, including prenatal cigarette smoking and alcohol use, prenatal viral illness, maternal stress and anxiety, low birthweight, peri-partum and early neonatal complications, parental stress and parenting styles in infancy, early deprivation, adoption and separation. Despite the understanding that there is sharing of risk factors between the DBDs, there has been a disproportionate focus on the role of certain risk factors at the expense of others and the field is weakened by difficulties in controlling for all potential confounding variables. PMID:22372737

Latimer, K; Wilson, P; Kemp, J; Thompson, L; Sim, F; Gillberg, C; Puckering, C; Minnis, H

2012-09-01

326

[Cardiovascular risk factors in Tlemcen (Algeria)].  

PubMed

Cardiovascular risk factors were studied in a random representative sample of the urban community of Tlemcen, aged 20 years or older. The study included 805 subjects (participation rate: 72%). This study showed a high prevalence of hypertension (32.7%), diabetes (16.1%), cigarette smoking (17.1%, but 36.8% among men), blood cholesterol levels > 6.2 mmol/L (6.3%) and obesity (19.2% and significantly higher in women than in men: 27.9% vs 10.5%). These results show that the prevalence of hypertension is very high among women, reaching levels observed in industrialized countries. PMID:18180216

Latifa, Boukli Hacène; Kaouel, Meguenni

2007-01-01

327

Factors associated with early postpartum maternity blues and depression tendency among Japanese mothers with full-term healthy infants.  

PubMed

Maternity blues and postpartum depression are common mental health problems during the early postpartum period. However, few studies have examined the factors associated with maternity blues and postpartum depression in healthy mothers with spontaneous births of healthy full-term infants. This study aimed to determine the demographic and obstetric factors, various feelings during pregnancy, and psychological factors by using the Maternity Blues Scale (MBS) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scale (EPDS) among healthy Japanese mothers. We distributed the MBS and EPDS self-administered questionnaires to 100 Japanese mothers during their 4-5 day hospitalization and at a health check-up 1-month after delivery, respectively. Multiple regression analyses were performed including the above-mentioned variables as independent variables and the maximum MBS or EPDS scores as dependent variables. The answers "Having a friend I can talk to about maternity life or child rearing" [beta (95% confidence interval) = -1.53 (-2.68 - -0.378)] and "Satogaeri bunben", a Japanese traditional support system wherein a postnatal woman lives with her husband/parents [-2.82 (-4.73 - -0.898)] were significantly associated with MBS scores. The answer "Having a friend I can talk to about maternity life or child rearing" [-2.83 (-4.76 - -0.903)] was also significantly associated with EPDS scores, although the association between the partner's age and these scores was marginally significant [-0.106 (-0.008 - 0.221)]. This study shows that it is important to provide support for healthy women without delivery complications, both at home and in the community. PMID:25129999

Takahashi, Yuki; Tamakoshi, Koji

2014-02-01

328

Maternal metabolic perturbations elicited by high-fat diet promote Wnt-1-induced mammary tumor risk in adult female offspring via long-term effects on mammary and systemic phenotypes.  

PubMed

Many adult chronic diseases are thought to be influenced during early life by maternal nutrition; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Obesity-related diseases may be due partly to high fat consumption. Herein, we evaluated mammary tumor risk in female mouse mammary tumor virus-Wnt-1 transgenic (Tg) offspring exposed to high-fat diet (HFD) or control diet (CD) (45% and 17% kcal from fat, respectively) during gestation and lactation, with CD provided to progeny at weaning. In Tg offspring, maternal HFD exposure increased mammary tumor incidence and decreased tumor latency without affecting tumor volume. Tumor risk was associated with higher tumor necrosis factor-? and insulin and altered oxidative stress biomarkers in sera and with early changes in mammary expression of genes linked to tumor promotion [interleukin 6 (Il6)] or inhibition [phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (Pten), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2)]. Corresponding wild-type progeny exposed to maternal HFD displayed accelerated mammary development, higher mammary adiposity, increased insulin resistance and early changes in Pten, Bcl2 and Il6, than CD-exposed offspring. Dams-fed HFD showed higher serum glucose and oxidative stress biomarkers but comparable adiposity compared with CD-fed counterparts. In human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, sera from maternal HFD-exposed Tg offspring elicited changes in PTEN, BCL2 and IL6 gene expression, mimicking in vivo exposure; increased cell viability and mammosphere formation and induced measures [insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), IRS-2] of insulin sensitivity. Serum effects on IRS-1 were recapitulated by exogenous insulin and the PTEN-specific inhibitor SF1670. Hyperinsulinemia and PTEN loss-of-function may thus, couple maternal HFD exposure to enhanced insulin sensitivity via increased mammary IRS-1 expression in progeny, to promote breast cancer risk. PMID:24832086

Montales, Maria Theresa E; Melnyk, Stepan B; Simmen, Frank A; Simmen, Rosalia C M

2014-09-01

329

Epigenetic Risk Factors in PTSD and Depression  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that children exposed to adverse experiences are at increased risk for the development of depression, anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A history of child abuse and maltreatment increases the likelihood of being subsequently exposed to traumatic events or of developing PTSD as an adult. The brain is highly plastic during early life and encodes acquired information into lasting memories that normally subserve adaptation. Translational studies in rodents showed that enduring sensitization of neuronal and neuroendocrine circuits in response to early life adversity are likely risk factors of life time vulnerability to stress. Hereby, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis integrates cognitive, behavioral, and emotional responses to early-life stress and can be epigenetically programed during sensitive windows of development. Epigenetic mechanisms, comprising reciprocal regulation of chromatin structure and DNA methylation, are important to establish and maintain sustained, yet potentially reversible, changes in gene transcription. The relevance of these findings for the development of PTSD requires further studies in humans where experience-dependent epigenetic programing can additionally depend on genetic variation in the underlying substrates which may protect from or advance disease development. Overall, identification of early-life stress-associated epigenetic risk markers informing on previous stress history can help to advance early diagnosis, personalized prevention, and timely therapeutic interventions, thus reducing long-term social and health costs. PMID:23966957

Raabe, Florian Joachim; Spengler, Dietmar

2013-01-01

330

Etiological Risk Factors for Sibling Incest: Data From an Anonymous Computer-Assisted Self-Interview.  

PubMed

Retrospective data from 1,821 women and 1,064 men with one or more siblings, provided anonymously using a computer-assisted self-interview, were used to identify risk factors for sibling incest (SI); 137 were participants in SI. In order of decreasing predictive power, the risk factors identified by the multiple logistic regression analysis included ever having shared a bed for sleeping with a sibling, parent-child incest (PCI), family nudity, low levels of maternal affection, and ever having shared a tub bath with a sibling. The results were consistent with the idea that SI in many families was the cumulative result of four types of parental behaviors: (a) factors that lower external barriers to sexual behavior (e.g., permitting co-sleeping or co-bathing of sibling dyads), (b) factors that encourage nudity of children within the nuclear family and permit children to see the parent's genitals, (c) factors that lead to the siblings relying on one another for affection (e.g., diminished maternal affection), and (d) factors that eroticize young children (e.g., child sexual abuse [CSA] by a parent). Thirty-eight of the 137 SI participants were participants in coerced sibling incest (CSI). In order of decreasing predictive power, risk factors for CSI identified by multiple logistic regression analysis included ever having shared a bed for sleeping with a brother, PCI, witnessing parental physical fighting, and family nudity. SI was more likely to have been reported as CSI if the sibling had touched the reporting sibling's genitals, and less likely to have been reported as CSI if the siblings had shared a bed. PMID:25432976

Griffee, Karen; Swindell, Sam; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Stroebel, Sandra S; Beard, Keith W; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Stroupe, Walter

2014-11-27

331

Genetic risk factors in Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed Central

Following a brief introduction and discussion of the pathological features of Alzheimer's disease, the main emphasis of this review article will be the genetic factors that have been implicated in this disease. These can be divided into two main categories. First, the three genes in which mutations are known to result in early onset autosomal dominant familial Alzheimer's disease will be discussed. These are well characterised but account for only a small proportion of Alzheimer's disease cases. Late onset, sporadic Alzheimer's disease is more common and evidence suggests that there is a genetic component to this type of disease. A number of genetic risk factors have been implicated that might increase the risk of developing sporadic disease. Many of these are controversial and studies have shown conflicting results, which are discussed in this section. Finally, a brief discussion of some of the mechanisms suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is included. It is hoped that this will show why particular genes have been implicated in Alzheimer's disease and how they might be able to influence the development of the disease. PMID:10193509

Tilley, L; Morgan, K; Kalsheker, N

1998-01-01

332

Ionizing radiation: a risk factor for mesothelioma.  

PubMed

In the majority of mesothelioma cases worldwide, asbestos is a likely causal factor, but several alternative factors, such as ionizing radiation, have been recognized. We reviewed ionizing-radiation evidence from epidemiology studies of (1) patients exposed to the diagnostic X-ray contrast medium "Thorotrast," (2) patients undergoing radiation therapy (i.e., to treat cancer), and (3) atomic energy workers chronically exposed to lower levels of radiation. The results from these populations are also supported by case reports of mesothelioma following therapeutic radiation. Statistically significant associations were found in many, but not all, epidemiology studies (particularly those of Thorotrast- and radiation-treated patients). Given the low mesothelioma rate in the general population, the consistently increased risk among these radiation-exposed individuals is noteworthy. Many studies were limited by the lack of a uniform manner in which mesothelioma was reported prior to introduction of a uniform classification system (ICD-10). Future studies that rely on ICD-10 should have greater power to detect an association. While the evidence falls short of a definitive causal link, considering studies in which statistical significance was achieved, the case reports, and the plausible mode of action, we conclude that the evidence is supportive of a causal link between ionizing radiation exposure and mesothelioma risk. PMID:19444627

Goodman, Julie E; Nascarella, Marc A; Valberg, Peter A

2009-10-01

333

Risk factors for thrombosis in lupus patients.  

PubMed Central

Lupus anticoagulant, concentrations of anticardiolipin antibodies, antithrombin III, plasminogen, (free) protein S, protein C, prothrombin, platelet counts, and bleeding times were determined in 74 lupus patients (58 with systemic lupus erythematosus; 16 with lupus-like disease) to establish the presence of risk factors for thrombosis in these patients. Of the variables evaluated, lupus anticoagulant had the strongest association with a history of thrombosis. Both positive anticardiolipin antibody concentrations and the presence of (mild) thrombocytopenia were significantly associated with a history of thrombosis and the presence of lupus anticoagulant. Reduced concentrations of antithrombin III, plasminogen, (free) protein S, and protein C were found in some patients but were not associated with either thrombosis or lupus anticoagulant. Mean concentrations of total protein S were significantly lower in patients with thrombosis than in those without and in patients with lupus anticoagulant than in those without. The antigenic concentration of prothrombin was reduced in 3/74 (4%) lupus patients. These three patients had lupus anticoagulant but no history of thrombosis, which suggests that a low prothrombin concentration protects patients with lupus anticoagulant from the development of thrombosis. A prolonged bleeding time was associated with the presence of lupus anticoagulant but not with a history of thrombosis. Analysis by stepwise logistic regression did not disclose additional risk factors for thrombosis in lupus patients with lupus anticoagulant. Increased antithrombin III concentrations and decreased free protein S concentrations are often found in lupus patients, unrelated to lupus anticoagulant or thrombosis. PMID:2512863

Hasselaar, P; Derksen, R H; Blokzijl, L; Hessing, M; Nieuwenhuis, H K; Bouma, B N; De Groot, P G

1989-01-01

334

Cellular and biochemical mechanisms, risk factors and management of preterm birth: state of the art.  

PubMed

Preterm birth (PTB) is usually defined as a delivery before 37 completed weeks or 259 days of gestation. World Health Organization estimates a worldwide incidence of PTB of 9.6%. Infants born preterm are at higher risks than infants born at term for mortality, and acute and chronic morbidity. Major causes of PTB are the following: spontaneous preterm labor with intact membranes (50%), labor induction or caesarean delivery for maternal or fetal indications (30%), and preterm premature rupture of membranes or PPROM (20%). The aim of this review is to analyze this medical condition, focusing on cellular and biochemical mechanisms, maternal risk factors and role of inflammation and infections in preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and PTB. Moreover we will discuss about the proper therapeutic strategies for its management. Although different methods have been introduced to predict the advent of preterm labour in asymptomatic women, possibilities for real primary prevention are rare. An early estimation of potential risk factors is pivotal in the secondary prevention of PTB. Finally most efforts so far have been tertiary interventions. These measures have reduced perinatal morbidity and mortality. Advances in primary and secondary care will be needed to prevent prematurity-related illness in infants and children. PMID:25373016

Vitale, S G; Marilli, I; Rapisarda, A M; Rossetti, D; Belluomo, G; Iapichino, V; Stancanelli, F; Cianci, A

2014-12-01

335

Maternal Supplementation with LGG Reduces Vaccine-Specific Immune Responses in Infants at High-Risk of Developing Allergic Disease  

PubMed Central

Probiotics are defined as live micro-organisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Among their pleiotropic effects, inhibition of pathogen colonization at the mucosal surface as well as modulation of immune responses are widely recognized as the principal biological activities of probiotic bacteria. In recent times, the immune effects of probiotics have led to their application as vaccine adjuvants, offering a novel strategy for enhancing the efficacy of current vaccines. Such an approach is particularly relevant in regions where infectious disease burden is greatest and where access to complete vaccination programs is limited. In this study, we report the effects of the probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on immune responses to tetanus, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and pneumococcal conjugate (PCV7) vaccines in infants. This study was conducted as part of a larger clinical trial assessing the impact of maternal LGG supplementation in preventing the development of atopic eczema in infants at high-risk for developing allergic disease. Maternal LGG supplementation was associated with reduced antibody responses against tetanus, Hib, and pneumococcal serotypes contained in PCV7 (N?=?31) compared to placebo treatment (N?=?30) but not total IgG levels. Maternal LGG supplementation was also associated with a trend to increased number of tetanus toxoid-specific T regulatory in the peripheral blood compared to placebo-treated infants. These findings suggest that maternal LGG supplementation may not be beneficial in terms of improving vaccine-specific immunity in infants. Further clinical studies are needed to confirm these findings. As probiotic immune effects can be species/strain specific, our findings do not exclude the potential use of other probiotic bacteria to modulate infant immune responses to vaccines. PMID:24324465

Licciardi, Paul V.; Ismail, Intan H.; Balloch, Anne; Mui, Milton; Hoe, Edwin; Lamb, Karen; Tang, Mimi L. K.

2013-01-01

336

O/sup 6/-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase in human fetal tissues: fetal and maternal factors  

SciTech Connect

O/sup 6/-Methylguanine methyltransferase (O/sup 6/-MT) was measured and compared in extracts of 7 human fetal tissues obtained from 21 different fetal specimens as a function of fetal age and race, and maternal smoking and drug usage. Activity was determined from the proteinase-K solubilized radioactivity transferred from the DNA to the O/sup 6/-MT. S9 homogenates were incubated with a heat depurinated (/sup 3/H)-methylnitrosourea alkylated DNA. Liver exhibited the highest activity followed by kidney, lung, small intestine, large intestine, skin and brain. Each of the tissues exhibited a 3- to 5-fold level of interindividual variation of O/sup 6/-MT. There did not appear to be any significant difference of O/sup 6/-MT in the tissues obtained from mothers who smoked cigarettes during pregnancy. Also, fetal race and age did not appear to account for the level of variation of O/sup 6/-MT. The fetal tissues obtained from an individual using phenobarbital and smoking exhibited 4-fold increases in O/sup 6/-MT activity. The tissues obtained from another individual on kidney dialysis were 2- to 3-fold higher than the normal population. These data suggest that the variation in human O/sup 6/-MT can not be explained by racial or smoking factors, but may be modulated by certain drugs.

D'Ambrosio, S.M.; Samuel, M.J.; Dutta-Choudhury, T.A.; Wani, A.A.

1986-03-01

337

Risk Factors of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Risk Factors for Sleep Disturbances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relationship between major risk factors of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and sleep disorders in the infants is the subject of review and discussion. Improper micro-environmental characteristics (especially poor environmental organisation and lack of developmental stimulation), pre-term delivery and/or infant low birth weight, prone sleep…

Kelmanson, Igor A.

2011-01-01

338

Dominican and Puerto Rican Mother-Adolescent Communication: Maternal Self-Disclosure and Youth Risk Intentions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A communication framework was developed to examine the influence of maternal use of self-disclosure on adolescent intentions to smoke cigarettes and to engage in sexual intercourse. Data were collected from 516 Dominican and Puerto Rican mother-adolescent dyads. Statistical analyses were conducted in AMOS using structural equation modeling.…

Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent

2010-01-01

339

Maternal infection and white matter toxicity  

PubMed Central

Studies examining maternal infection as a risk factor for neurological disorders in the offspring have suggested that altered maternal immune status during pregnancy can be considered as an adverse event in prenatal development. Infection occurring in the mother during the gestational period has been implicated in multiple neurological effects. The current manuscript will consider the issue of immune/inflammatory conditions during prenatal development where adverse outcomes have been linked to maternal systemic infection. The discussions will focus primary on white matter and oligodendrocytes as they have been identified as target processes. This white matter damage occurs in very early preterm infants and in various other human diseases currently being examined for a linkage to maternal or early developmental immune status. The intent is to draw attention to the impact of altered immune status during pregnancy on the offspring for the consideration of such contributing factors to the general assessment of developmental neurotoxicology. PMID:16787664

Harry, G. Jean; Lawler, Cindy; Brunssen, Susan H.

2006-01-01

340

Pre-pregnancy high-risk factors at first antenatal visit: how predictive are these of pregnancy outcomes?  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine relationships between pre-pregnancy risk factors at first antenatal visit booking and pregnancy outcomes. Study design This was a multicenter, cross-sectional study involving women admitted for singleton delivery from July 1 until October 31 (3 months), 2013, at nine major maternity clinics in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. All women were checked for hereditary, community, and personal medical/surgical risk situations and mother/infant problems in previous pregnancies. Maternal and perinatal complications related to current/just-terminated pregnancy were analyzed according to pre-pregnancy risk factors in order to establish their prediction concerning maternal and perinatal complications related to current/just-terminated pregnancy (odds ratios). Results are given with 95% confidence intervals, and P<0.05 was considered significant. Results The study sample comprised 2,086 women. Primiparity (36.5%), single relationship status (26.4%), and maternal age ?35 years (18.3%) were the most important non-pathologic risk factors, while arterial hypertension in family (34.3%), previous miscarriage (33.2%), overweight/obesity (21.9%), diabetes in family (21.1%), previous cesarean section (15.7%), previous postpartum hemorrhage (13.1%), low birth weight (10%), previous macrosomia (10%), and previous premature rupture of membranes (6.2%) predominated among pathologic risk factors. Major adverse outcomes recurred in some women, with recurrence rates of 21/37 (57%), 111/208 (53%), 74/208 (36%), 191/598 (32%), 132/466 (28%), 24/130 (18%), and 4/65 (6%) for prematurity, low birth weight, macrosomia, preeclampsia/eclampsia, cesarean section, premature rupture of membranes, and stillbirth, respectively. Outcomes that were significantly influenced by non-pathologic risk factors were also significantly influenced by pathologic risk factors. Conclusion Pregnancy adverse outcomes are strongly influenced by either non-pathologic or pathologic pre-pregnancy risk factors at first antenatal visit booking. The recurrence potential of complications is one reason to establish the predictability and preventability of morbidity such that the most appropriate referrals and best options throughout the pregnancy can be determined. PMID:25525392

Tandu-Umba, Barthélémy; Mbangama, Muela Andy; Kamongola, Kitenge Marc Brunel; Kamgang Tchawou, Armel Georges; Kivuidi, Mawamfumu Perthus; Kasonga Munene, Sam; Kambashi Meke, Irène; Kapuku Kabasele, Oscar; Kondoli, Bituemi Jackson; Kikuni, Kibundila Rolly; Kasikila Kuzungu, Simon

2014-01-01

341

Common risk factors in the returns on stocks and bonds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper identities five common risk factors in the returns on stocks and bonds. There are three stock-market factors: an overall market factor and factors related to firm size and book-to-market equity. There are two bond-market factors. related to maturity and default risks. Stock returns have shared variation due to the stock-market factors, and they are linked to bond returns

Eugene F. Fama; Kenneth R. French

1993-01-01

342

Epidemiology, risk factors, and pathogenesis of cholangiocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a fatal cancer of the biliary epithelium, arising either within the liver (intrahepatic, ICC) or in the extrahepatic bile ducts (extrahepatic ECC). Globally, CCA is the second most common primary hepatic malignancy. Several recent epidemiological studies have shown that the incidence and mortality rates of ICC are increasing. This review of the literature on the international epidemiological rates of CCA, both intra- and extrahepatic, explores possible explanations for the trends found. The possible role of epidemiological artifact in the findings is discussed and the known risk factors for CCA are summarized. These include primary sclerosing cholangitis, liver fluke infestation, congenital fibropolycystic liver, bile duct adenomas, and biliary papillomatosis, hepatolithiasis, chemical carcinogens such as nitrosamines, Thorotrast, chronic viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, chronic non-alcoholic liver disease and obesity. Potential pathways involved in the molecular pathogenesis of CCA are also summarized. PMID:18773060

Toledano, M. B.; Taylor-Robinson, S. D.

2008-01-01

343

Epidemiology, risk factors, and pathogenesis of cholangiocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a fatal cancer of the biliary epithelium, arising either within the liver (intrahepatic, ICC) or in the extrahepatic bile ducts (extrahepatic ECC). Globally, CCA is the second most common primary hepatic malignancy. Several recent epidemiological studies have shown that the incidence and mortality rates of ICC are increasing. This review of the literature on the international epidemiological rates of CCA, both intra- and extrahepatic, explores possible explanations for the trends found. The possible role of epidemiological artifact in the findings is discussed and the known risk factors for CCA are summarized. These include primary sclerosing cholangitis, liver fluke infestation, congenital fibropolycystic liver, bile duct adenomas, and biliary papillomatosis, hepatolithiasis, chemical carcinogens such as nitrosamines, Thorotrast, chronic viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, chronic non-alcoholic liver disease and obesity. Potential pathways involved in the molecular pathogenesis of CCA are also summarized. PMID:18773060

Khan, S A; Toledano, M B; Taylor-Robinson, S D

2008-01-01

344

CURRENT OPINION Lipoprotein(a) as a cardiovascular risk factor  

E-print Network

OPINION Lipoprotein(a) as a cardiovascular risk factor: current status Børge G. Nordestgaard1*, M. John(a)] as a cardiovascular risk factor and, second, to advise on screening for elevated plasma Lp(a), on desirable levels and increased cardiovascular disease (CVD)/cor- onary heart disease (CHD) risk, together with recent genetic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

345

Risk factors and classifications of hilar cholangiocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Cholangiocarcinoma is the second most common primary malignant tumor of the liver. Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma or Klatskin tumor represents more than 50% of all biliary tract cholangiocarcinomas. A wide range of risk factors have been identified among patients with Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma including advanced age, male gender, primary sclerosing cholangitis, choledochal cysts, cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, parasitic infection (Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis), inflammatory bowel disease, alcoholic cirrhosis, nonalcoholic cirrhosis, chronic pancreatitis and metabolic syndrome. Various classifications have been used to describe the pathologic and radiologic appearance of cholangiocarcinoma. The three systems most commonly used to evaluate Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma are the Bismuth-Corlette (BC) system, the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and the TNM classification. The BC classification provides preoperative assessment of local spread. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering cancer center proposes a staging system according to three factors related to local tumor extent: the location and extent of bile duct involvement, the presence or absence of portal venous invasion, and the presence or absence of hepatic lobar atrophy. The TNM classification, besides the usual descriptors, tumor, node and metastases, provides additional information concerning the possibility for the residual tumor (R) and the histological grade (G). Recently, in 2011, a new consensus classification for the Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma had been published. The consensus was organised by the European Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association which identified the need for a new staging system for this type of tumors. The classification includes information concerning biliary or vascular (portal or arterial) involvement, lymph node status or metastases, but also other essential aspects related to the surgical risk, such as remnant hepatic volume or the possibility of underlying disease. PMID:23919107

Suarez-Munoz, Miguel Angel; Fernandez-Aguilar, Jose Luis; Sanchez-Perez, Belinda; Perez-Daga, Jose Antonio; Garcia-Albiach, Beatriz; Pulido-Roa, Ysabel; Marin-Camero, Naiara; Santoyo-Santoyo, Julio

2013-07-15

346

Prenatal and postnatal risk factors for mental retardation among children in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the contribution of prenatal, perinatal, neonatal, and postnatal factors to the prevalence of cognitive disabilities among children aged 2-9 years in Bangladesh. A two-phase survey was implemented in 1987-1988 in which 10,299 children were screened for disability. In multivariate analyses, significant independent predictors of serious mental retardation in rural and urban areas included maternal goiter (rural odds ratio (OR) = 5.14, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23, 21.57; urban OR = 4.82, 95% CI: 2.73, 8.50) and postnatal brain infections (rural OR = 29.24, 95% CI: 7.17, 119.18; urban OR = 13.65, 95% CI: 4.69, 39.76). In rural areas, consanguinity (OR = 15.13, 95% CI: 3.08, 74.30) and landless agriculture (OR = 6.02, 95% CI: 1.16, 31.19) were also independently associated with the prevalence of serious mental retardation. In both rural and urban areas, independent risk factors for mild cognitive disabilities included maternal illiteracy (OR = 2.48, 95% CI: 0.86, 7.12), landlessness (OR = 4.27, 95% CI: 1.77, 10.29), maternal history of pregnancy loss (OR = 2.61, 95% CI: 0.95, 7.12), and small for gestational age at birth (OR = 3.86, 95% CI: 1.56, 9.55). Interventions likely to have the greatest impact on preventing cognitive disabilities among children in Bangladesh include expansion of existing iodine supplementation, maternal literacy, and poverty alleviation programs as well as prevention of intracranial infections and their consequences. Further population-based studies are needed to confirm and understand the association between consanguinity and serious cognitive disability. PMID:11117611

Durkin, M S; Khan, N Z; Davidson, L L; Huq, S; Munir, S; Rasul, E; Zaman, S S

2000-12-01

347

Maternal serum biomarkers for risk assessment in gestational diabetes. A potential universal screening test to predict GDM status  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing because of the worldwide obesity/diabetes epidemic. The complications of untreated GDM affect both the mother and baby and include complications during pregnancy as well as increased risk of subsequent type-2 diabetes in mothers and offspring. Standard tests for hyperglycemia in diabetes, such as fasting glucose and hemoglobin (HbA1c), are currently not recommended for GDM screening. Instead, an oral glucose tolerance test is specified, which is invasive, time-consuming, and not easily accessible to many at-risk populations. In this study, we describe a multi-analyte maternal serum profile test that incorporates novel glycoprotein biomarkers and previously described GDM-associated markers. In screening for GDM by multi-analyte panel, the detection rate was 87% at a false-positive rate of 1%. PMID:25593844

Nagalla, Srinivasa R.; Snyder, Caryn K.; Michaels, John E.; Laughlin, Mary J.; Roberts, Charles T.; Balaji, Madhuri; Balaji, V.; Seshiah, V.; Rao, Paturi V.

2015-01-01

348

Maternal serum biomarkers for risk assessment in gestational diabetes. A potential universal screening test to predict GDM status.  

PubMed

The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing because of the worldwide obesity/diabetes epidemic. The complications of untreated GDM affect both the mother and baby and include complications during pregnancy as well as increased risk of subsequent type-2 diabetes in mothers and offspring. Standard tests for hyperglycemia in diabetes, such as fasting glucose and hemoglobin (HbA1c), are currently not recommended for GDM screening. Instead, an oral glucose tolerance test is specified, which is invasive, time-consuming, and not easily accessible to many at-risk populations. In this study, we describe a multi-analyte maternal serum profile test that incorporates novel glycoprotein biomarkers and previously described GDM-associated markers. In screening for GDM by multi-analyte panel, the detection rate was 87% at a false-positive rate of 1%. PMID:25593844

Nagalla, Srinivasa R; Snyder, Caryn K; Michaels, John E; Laughlin, Mary J; Roberts, Charles T; Balaji, Madhuri; Balaji, V; Seshiah, V; Rao, Paturi V

2015-01-01

349

Proposing interactions between maternal phospholipids and the one carbon cycle: A novel mechanism influencing the risk for cardiovascular diseases in the offspring in later life.  

PubMed

Studies have adequately demonstrated the importance of maternal nutrition, particularly, micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) in determining pregnancy outcome. Reports indicate that children born preterm or to mothers with preeclampsia are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in later life although mechanisms are unclear. Our earlier studies have established that micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) and LCPUFAs are interlinked in the one carbon cycle and influence methylation reactions. Here, we propose a novel hypothesis that altered phospholipid metabolism and dysregulation in the one carbon cycle will result in altered epigenetic programming of placental genes leading to an adverse pregnancy outcome with increased risk of adult diseases in the offspring. Folic acid and vitamin B12 are involved in S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) synthesis, the major methyl donor for most methyl acceptors. Inadequacy of LCPUFA containing phospholipids, one of the major methyl group acceptors in the one carbon metabolic pathway, may cause diversion of methyl groups toward deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) eventually resulting in aberrant DNA methylation patterns. These modified DNA methylation patterns lead to alterations in the expression of vital genes e.g. angiogenic factor genes thereby contributing to the dysregulation of angiogenesis/vasculogenesis further affecting placental development. This consequently would adversely "program" the fetus for increased risk of CVD in later life. PMID:25283080

Khot, Vinita; Chavan-Gautam, Preeti; Joshi, Sadhana

2014-10-01

350

Birth by Caesarean Section and Prevalence of Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases in Young Adults: A Birth Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Conflicting findings on the risk of obesity among subjects born by caesarean section have been published. Caesarean section should also increase the risk of obesity related cardiovascular risk factors if type of delivery is associated with obesity later in life. This study was aimed at assessing the effect of type of delivery on metabolic cardiovascular risk factors in early adulthood. Methodology and Principal Findings In 1982, maternity hospitals in Pelotas, southern Brazil, were visited and those livebirths whose family lived in the urban area of the city have been followed. In 2000, when male subjects undertook the Army entrance examination (n=2200), fat mass and fat free mass were estimated through bioimpedance. In 2004–2005, we attempted to follow the whole cohort (n=4297), and the following outcomes were studied: blood pressure; HDL cholesterol; triglycerides; random blood glucose, C-reactive protein, waist circumference and body mass index. The estimates were adjusted for the following confounders: family income at birth; maternal schooling; household assets index in childhood; maternal skin color; birth order; maternal age; maternal prepregnancy weight; maternal height; maternal smoking during pregnancy; birthweight and family income at early adulthood. Results In the crude analyses, blood pressure (systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure) and body mass index were higher among subjects who were delivered through caesarean section. After controlling for confounders, systolic blood pressure was 1.15 mmHg (95% confidence interval: 0.05; 2.25) higher among subjects delivered by caesarean section, and BMI 0.40 kg/m2 (95% confidence interval: 0.08; 0.71). After controlling for BMI the effect on systolic blood pressure dropped to 0.60 mmHg (95% confidence interval: -0.47; 1.67). Fat mass at 18 years of age was also higher among subjects born by caesarean section. Conclusion Caesarean section was associated with a small increased in systolic blood pressure, body mass index and fat mass. PMID:24040224

Horta, Bernardo L.; Gigante, Denise P.; Lima, Rosangela C.; Barros, Fernando C.; Victora, Cesar G.

2013-01-01

351

Maternal periconceptional use of multivitamins and reduced risk for conotruncal heart defects and limb deficiencies among offspring.  

PubMed

We investigated whether a woman's periconceptional use of a multivitamin containing folic acid was associated with a reduced risk for delivering offspring with a conotruncal heart defect or a limb deficiency. Data were derived from a population-based case-control study of fetuses and liveborn infants with conotruncal or limb defects among a 1987-88 cohort of births in California. Telephone interviews were conducted with mothers of 207 (87.0% of eligible) conotruncal cases, 178 (82.0%) limb defect cases, and of 481 (76.2%) randomly selected liveborn nonmalformed control infants. Reduced risks were observed for maternal use of multivitamins containing folic acid from one month before until two months after conception. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for any compared to no multivitamin use were 0.70 (0.46-1.1) for conotruncal defects and 0.64 (0.41-1.0) for limb defects. Controlling for maternal race/ethnicity, age, education, gravidity, alcohol use, and cigarette use resulted in a further reduction to the odds ratio for conotruncal defects, 0.53 (0.34-0.85), but not for limb defects. Among non-vitamin using women, consumption of cereal containing folic acid was also associated with reduced risk for both defects. Women who take multivitamins have 30-35% lower risk of delivering offspring with either conotruncal or limb defects. This association may not be attributable to folic acid specifically, but may be a consequence of other multivitamin components, or some unknown behaviors that highly correlate with regular use of a multivitamin. However, should the association prove causal, it offers an important opportunity for preventing thousands of serious birth defects. PMID:8585581

Shaw, G M; O'Malley, C D; Wasserman, C R; Tolarova, M M; Lammer, E J

1995-12-01

352

Occupational risk factors and voice disorders.  

PubMed

From the point of view of occupational health, the field of voice disorders is very poorly developed as compared, for instance, to the prevention and diagnostics of occupational hearing disorders. In fact, voice disorders have not even been recognized in the field of occupational medicine. Hence, it is obviously very rare in most countries that the voice disorder of a professional voice user, e.g. a teacher, a singer or an actor, is accepted as an occupational disease by insurance companies. However, occupational voice problems do not lack significance from the point of view of the patient. We also know from questionnaires and clinical studies that voice complaints are very common. Another example of job-related health problems, which has proved more successful in terms of its occupational health status, is the repetition strain injury of the elbow, i.e. the "tennis elbow". Its textbook definition could be used as such to describe an occupational voice disorder ("dysphonia professional is"). In the present paper the effects of such risk factors as vocal loading itself, background noise and room acoustics and low relative humidity of the air are discussed. Due to individual factors underlying the development of professional voice disorders, recommendations rather than regulations are called for. There are many simple and even relatively low-cost methods available for the prevention of vocal problems as well as for supporting rehabilitation. PMID:21275584

Vilkman, E

1996-01-01

353

Cholangiocarcinoma: descriptive epidemiology and risk factors.  

PubMed

In theory, the term of cholangiocarcinoma is reserved for the tumours originating from the intrahepatic bile ducts. The problems of classification of the most frequent hilar tumours and the absence of histopathological confirmation in a large percentage of cases in cancer registries from many countries show the difficulty of establishing the specific epidemiologic behaviour of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). There are clearly two types of ICC: the first one is the consequence of the recurrent infection of the biliary ducts by the parasites Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis, and is only seen in the areas of Southeast Asia where liver flukes are endemic. In these areas, incidence and mortality rates of ICC are extremely high. Both parasites have been classified class I carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The other type of ICC is a cancer much rarer but present in the whole world. Some risk factors have been well-established (chronic inflammation of biliary ducts, hepatitis, thorotrast, etc) but many patients do not have any of these factors. An increase in incidence and mortality of this second type of ICC has been seen in recent years, mostly in developed countries. There is an ongoing discussion in the literature about its authenticity and potential causes. PMID:20202771

de Martel, C; Plummer, M; Franceschi, S

2010-03-01

354

Periodontitis as a Risk Factor of Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Over the last two decades, the amount of evidence corroborating an association between dental plaque bacteria and coronary diseases that develop as a result of atherosclerosis has increased. These findings have brought a new aspect to the etiology of the disease. There are several mechanisms by which dental plaque bacteria may initiate or worsen atherosclerotic processes: activation of innate immunity, bacteremia related to dental treatment, and direct involvement of mediators activated by dental plaque and involvement of cytokines and heat shock proteins from dental plaque bacteria. There are common predisposing factors which influence both periodontitis and atherosclerosis. Both diseases can be initiated in early childhood, although the first symptoms may not appear until adulthood. The formation of lipid stripes has been reported in 10-year-old children and the increased prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents is a risk factor contributing to lipid stripes development. Endothelium damage caused by the formation of lipid stripes in early childhood may lead to bacteria penetrating into blood circulation after oral cavity procedures for children as well as for patients with aggressive and chronic periodontitis. PMID:24741613

Bartova, Jirina; Sommerova, Pavla; Lyuya-Mi, Yelena; Mysak, Jaroslav; Janatova, Tatjana; Podzimek, Stepan

2014-01-01

355

Early Health Risk Factors for Violence: Conceptualization, Review of the Evidence, and Implications  

PubMed Central

Violence and aggression are public health problems that can benefit from ongoing research into risk reduction and prevention. Current developmental theories of violence and aggression emphasize biological and psychosocial factors, particularly during adolescence. However, there has been less focus on understanding the interactive, multiplicative effects of these processes. Furthermore, little attention has been given to the pre-, peri-, and postnatal periods, where prevention and intervention may yield effective results. Early health risk factors that influence negative behavioral outcomes include prenatal and postnatal nutrition, tobacco use during pregnancy, maternal depression, birth complications, traumatic brain injury, lead exposure, and child abuse. There is an ample literature to suggest that these early health risk factors may increase the likelihood of childhood externalizing behaviors, aggression, juvenile delinquency, adult criminal behavior, and/or violence. This paper proposes an early health risk factors framework for violence prediction, built on existing developmental theories of criminal behavior and supported by empirical findings. This framework addresses gaps in the adolescent psychopathology literature and presents a novel conceptualization of behavioral disturbance that emphasizes the pre-, peri-, and post-natal periods, when a child’s development is critical and the opportunity for behavioral and environmental modification is high. Implications for such a framework on violence prevention programs are discussed. PMID:21399727

Liu, Jianghong

2010-01-01

356

Colorectal (Colon) Cancer: What Are the Risk Factors?  

MedlinePLUS

... Risk Factors and Symptoms brochure insert [PDF-176KB] Genetic Testing for Hereditary Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool ... Senior Health Video Why Get Tested? [2:43] Contact Us: ...

357

Maternal exposure to neighborhood carbon monoxide and risk of low infant birth weight  

SciTech Connect

This case-control study investigated the potential association between ambient levels of carbon monoxide in a pregnant woman's neighborhood of residence and her chance of delivering a low birth weight infant. Low birth weight infants and normal birth weight infants were contrasted with respect to ambient levels of CO during the 3 months prior to delivery in the neighborhoods where their mothers lived at birth. After adjustment for the confounding effects of maternal race and education, there was no association between higher CO exposure and higher odds of low birth weight. These data do not support a strong association between maternal exposure to neighborhood CO during pregnancy and odds of delivering a low birth weight infant. Further investigation of the effects of CO exposure on birth weight, with direct measurement of total CO exposure, is needed.

Alderman, B.W.; Baron, A.E.; Savitz, D.A.

1987-07-01

358

Depression and risk factors for depression among mothers of sick infants in Kumasi, Ghana  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the prevalence of and risk factors for depression in a high-risk population of mothers of ill newborns in Ghana. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with women who had a hospitalized newborn at a tertiary teaching hospital in Kumasi, Ghana. Surveys included information on maternal demographics, pregnancy and delivery, interpersonal violence, and social support. Postpartum depression was measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9. Bivariable analysis was conducted using analysis of variance, ?2, and Fisher exact tests; multivariable analysis was performed using multinomial logistic regression. Results In total, 153 women completed the survey. Fifty (32.7%) had PHQ-9 scores of 5–9, indicating mild depression; 42 (27.4%) had PHQ-9 scores of 10–14, indicating moderate depression; and 15 (9.8%) had scores of 15 or higher, indicative of moderate/severe depression. History of interpersonal violence with current partner predicted depression. Conclusion Mothers of sick infants in Ghana are at high risk for symptoms of clinical depression. This is of critical importance because maternal depression affects infant health outcomes and may be particularly important for mothers of sick infants. PMID:23228821

Gold, Katherine J.; Spangenberg, Kathryn; Wobil, Priscilla; Schwenk, Thomas L.

2013-01-01

359

Risk factors for infertility in nursing cows linked to calving  

E-print Network

Risk factors for infertility in nursing cows linked to calving C Ducrot I Cimarosti F Bugnard with 3 590 cows in order to study the risk factors for infertility linked to calving. Based upon an analy infertility, breed factors, parity, fattening, comfort, calf characteristics (number, sex, weight

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

360

Clinician Perceptions of Childhood Risk Factors for Future Antisocial Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We asked 176 mental health clinicians to list factors that place a child at risk for engaging in future antisocial behavior. Participants were randomly assigned to do this in relationship to boys and girls. Listed factors were then coded into broad item categories using the Early Assessment Risk Lists (EARL). Of the 1,695 factors listed, 1,476…

Koegl, Christopher J.; Farrington, David P.; Augimeri, Leena K.

2009-01-01

361

Maternal Over-Control Moderates the Association between Early Childhood Behavioral Inhibition and Adolescent Social Anxiety Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavioral inhibition (BI) and maternal over-control are early risk factors for later childhood internalizing problems, particularly social anxiety disorder (SAD). Consistently high BI across childhood appears to confer risk for the onset of SAD by adolescence. However, no prior studies have prospectively examined observed maternal over-control as…

Lewis-Morrarty, Erin; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Pine, Daniel S.; Henderon, Heather A.; Fox, Nathan A.

2012-01-01

362

Homelessness During Pregnancy: A Unique, Time-Dependent Risk Factor of Birth Outcomes.  

PubMed

Evaluate homelessness during pregnancy as a unique, time-dependent risk factor for adverse birth outcomes. 9,995 mothers of children <48 months old surveyed at emergency departments and primary care clinics in five US cities. Mothers were classified as either homeless during pregnancy with the index child, homeless only after the index child's birth, or consistently housed. Outcomes included birth weight as a continuous variable, as well as categorical outcomes of low birth weight (LBW; <2,500 g) and preterm delivery (<37 weeks). Multiple logistic regression and adjusted linear regression analyses were performed, comparing prenatal and postnatal homelessness with the referent group of consistently housed mothers, controlling for maternal demographic characteristics, smoking, and child age at interview. Prenatal homelessness was associated with higher adjusted odds of LBW (AOR 1.43, 95 % CI 1.14, 1.80, p < 0.01) and preterm delivery (AOR 1.24, 95 % CI 0.98, 1.56, p = 0.08), and a 53 g lower adjusted mean birth weight (p = 0.08). Postnatal homelessness was not associated with these outcomes. Prenatal homelessness is an independent risk factor for LBW, rather than merely a marker of adverse maternal and social characteristics associated with homelessness. Targeted interventions to provide housing and health care to homeless women during pregnancy may result in improved birth outcomes. PMID:25404405

Cutts, Diana B; Coleman, Sharon; Black, Maureen M; Chilton, Mariana M; Cook, John T; de Cuba, Stephanie Ettinger; Heeren, Timothy C; Meyers, Alan; Sandel, Megan; Casey, Patrick H; Frank, Deborah A

2014-11-18

363

Smoking and Pregnancy — A Review on the First Major Environmental Risk Factor of the Unborn  

PubMed Central

Smoking cigarettes throughout pregnancy is one of the single most important avoidable causes of adverse pregnancy outcomes and it represents the first major environmental risk of the unborn. If compared with other risk factors in the perinatal period, exposure to tobacco smoke is considered to be amongst the most harmful and it is associated with high rates of long and short term morbidity and mortality for mother and child. A variety of adverse pregnancy outcomes are linked with cigarette consumption before and during pregnancy. Maternal prenatal cigarette smoke disturbs the equilibrium among the oxidant and antioxidant system, has negative impact on the genetic and cellular level of both mother and fetus and causes a large quantity of diseases in the unborn child. These smoking-induced damages for the unborn offspring manifest themselves at various times in life and for most only a very limited range of causal treatment exists. Education, support and assistance are of high importance to decrease maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, as there are few other avoidable factors which influence a child’s health that profoundly throughout its life. It is imperative that smoking control should be seen as a public health priority. PMID:24351784

Mund, Mathias; Louwen, Frank; Klingelhoefer, Doris; Gerber, Alexander

2013-01-01

364

Maternal diabetes, programming of beta-cell disorders and intergenerational risk of type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

A substantial body of evidence suggests that an abnormal intra-uterine milieu elicited by maternal metabolic disturbances as diverse as malnutrition, placental insufficiency, diabetes and obesity may be able to programme susceptibility of the foetus to later develop chronic degenerative diseases such as obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes (T2D). As insulin-producing cells have been placed centre stage in the development of T2D, this review examines developmental programming of the beta-cell mass (BCM) in various rodent models of maternal protein restriction, calorie restriction, overnutrition and diabetes. The main message is that whatever the initial maternal insult (F0 generation) and whether alone or in combination, it gives rise to the same programmed BCM outcome in the daughter generation (F1). The altered BCM phenotype in F1 females prohibits normal BCM adaptation during pregnancy and, thus, diabetes (gestational diabetes) ensues. This gestational diabetes is then passed from one generation (F1) to the next (F2, F3 and so on). This review highlights a number of studies that have identified epigenetic mechanisms that may contribute to altered BCM development and beta-cell failure, as observed in diabetes. In addition to their role in instilling the programmed defect, these non-genomic mechanisms may also be involved in its intergenerational transmission. PMID:24948417

Chavey, A; Ah Kioon, M-D; Bailbé, D; Movassat, J; Portha, B

2014-11-01

365

Early Life Course Risk Factors for Childhood Obesity: The IDEFICS Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background The early life course is assumed to be a critical phase for childhood obesity; however the significance of single factors and their interplay is not well studied in childhood populations. Objectives The investigation of pre-, peri- and postpartum risk factors on the risk of obesity at age 2 to 9. Methods A case-control study with 1,024 1?1-matched case-control pairs was nested in the baseline survey (09/2007–05/2008) of the IDEFICS study, a population-based intervention study on childhood obesity carried out in 8 European countries in pre- and primary school settings. Conditional logistic regression was used for identification of risk factors. Results For many of the investigated risk factors, we found a raw effect in our study. In multivariate models, we could establish an effect for gestational weight gain (adjusted OR?=?1.02; 95%CI 1.00–1.04), smoking during pregnancy (adjusted OR?=?1.48; 95%CI 1.08–2.01), Caesarian section (adjusted OR?=?1.38; 95%CI 1.10–1.74), and breastfeeding 4 to 11 months (adjusted OR?=?0.77; 95%CI 0.62–0.96). Birth weight was related to lean mass rather than to fat mass, the effect of smoking was found only in boys, but not in girls. After additional adjustment for parental BMI and parental educational status, only gestational weight gain remained statistically significant. Both, maternal as well as paternal BMI were the strongest risk factors in our study, and they confounded several of the investigated associations. Conclusions Key risk factors of childhood obesity in our study are parental BMI and gestational weight gain; consequently prevention approaches should target not only children but also adults. The monitoring of gestational weight seems to be of particular importance for early prevention of childhood obesity. PMID:24551043

Bammann, Karin; Peplies, Jenny; De Henauw, Stefaan; Hunsberger, Monica; Molnar, Denes; Moreno, Luis A.; Tornaritis, Michael; Veidebaum, Toomas; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Siani, Alfonso

2014-01-01

366

Practical management of patients with hypertension and metabolic risk factors: Using lifestyle to reduce risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clusters of risk factors that develop with aging signify increased cardiovascular risk. The importance of this risk factor\\u000a burden in those with hypertension is underscored by the fact that only one in seven hypertensive men and one in 20 hypertensive\\u000a women develop coronary heart disease if no concomitant risk factors are present. This review focuses on the practical management\\u000a of

Neil J. Stone

2008-01-01

367

Coronary heart disease risk factors in college students.  

PubMed

More than one-half of young adults aged 18-24 y have at least 1 coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factor and nearly one-quarter have advanced atherosclerotic lesions. The extent of atherosclerosis is directly correlated with the number of risk factors. Unhealthy dietary choices made by this age group contribute to weight gain and dyslipidemia. Risk factor profiles in young adulthood strongly predict long-term CHD risk. Early detection is critical to identify individuals at risk and to promote lifestyle changes before disease progression occurs. Despite the presence of risk factors and pathological changes, risk assessment and disease prevention efforts are lacking in this age group. Most young adults are not screened and are unaware of their risk. This review provides pathological evidence along with current risk factor prevalence data to demonstrate the need for early detection. Eighty percent of heart disease is preventable through diet and lifestyle, and young adults are ideal targets for prevention efforts because they are in the process of establishing lifestyle habits, which track forward into adulthood. This review aims to establish the need for increased screening, risk assessment, education, and management in young adults. These essential screening efforts should include the assessment of all CHD risk factors and lifestyle habits (diet, exercise, and smoking), blood pressure, glucose, and body mass index in addition to the traditional lipid panel for effective long-term risk reduction. PMID:24618758

Arts, Jennifer; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Lofgren, Ingrid E

2014-03-01

368

Endocannabinoid receptor deficiency affects maternal care and alters the dam's hippocampal oxytocin receptor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression.  

PubMed

Maternal care is the newborn's first experience of social interaction, and this influences infant survival, development and social competences throughout life. We recently found that postpartum blocking of the endocannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1R) altered maternal behaviour. In the present study, maternal care was assessed by the time taken to retrieve pups, pups' ultrasonic vocalisations (USVs) and pup body weight, comparing CB1R deleted (CB1R KO) versus wild-type (WT) mice. After culling on postpartum day 8, hippocampal expression of oxytocin receptor (OXTR), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and stress-mediating factors were evaluated in CB1R KO and WT dams. Comparisons were also performed with nulliparous (NP) CB1R KO and WT mice. Compared to WT, CB1R KO dams were slower to retrieve their pups. Although the body weight of the KO pups did not differ from the weight of WT pups, they emitted fewer USVs. This impairment of the dam-pup relationship correlated with a significant reduction of OXTR mRNA and protein levels among CB1R KO dams compared to WT dams. Furthermore, WT dams exhibited elevated OXTR mRNA expression, as well as increased levels of mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors, compared to WT NP mice. By contrast, CB1R KO dams showed no such elevation of OXTR expression, alongside lower BDNF and mineralocorticoid receptors, as well as elevated corticotrophin-releasing hormone mRNA levels, when compared to CB1R KO NP. Thus, it appears that the disruption of endocannabinoid signalling by CB1R deletion alters expression of the OXTR, apparently leading to deleterious effects upon maternal behaviour. PMID:23895426

Schechter, M; Weller, A; Pittel, Z; Gross, M; Zimmer, A; Pinhasov, A

2013-10-01

369

Risk Factors for Alcoholism Among Women Religious: Affect Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk factors for addiction have received extensive empirical attention. Specific risk factors for women Religious (nuns),\\u000a however, are not well known. This report examines risk factors for alcoholism in a retrospective study of 148 chemically dependent\\u000a women Religious in treatment. Negative emotionality, a personality measure, was the only significant predictor of alcoholism\\u000a severity in a joint multiple regression with childhood

Elizabeth M. Hill

370

Key Systemic and Environmental Risk Factors for Implant Failure.  

PubMed

Dental implants are an important treatment option for patients interested in replacing lost or missing teeth. Although a robust body of literature has reviewed risk factors for tooth loss, the evidence for risk factors associated with dental implants is less well defined. This article focuses on key systemic risk factors relating to dental implant failure, as well as on perimucositis and peri-implantitis. PMID:25434557

Dawson, Dolphus R; Jasper, Samuel

2015-01-01

371

Prevalence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in German adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The distribution and clustering of cardiovascular risk factors among German adolescents is only poorly understood.Objectives To describe the prevalence of major modifiable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and the clustering of risk factors in German adolescents aged 11–17 years.Design Cross-sectional study.Methods The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents was conducted between 2003 and 2006. The

Falk Müller-Riemenschneider; Marc Nocon; Stefan N. Willich

2010-01-01

372

Obesity in Turkish adults: Prevalence, validity as coronary risk factor, and interrelation with other risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interrelation between obesity and six other risk factors was investigated based on the data obtained in a cross-sectional population study of a representative sample of 3689 Turkish subjects 20 years of age or older. Obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) of ? 30 kg\\/m2 in both genders. One hundred seventy-three participants (93 men and 80 women) were

Altan Onat; Mustafa ?enocak

1995-01-01

373

Expression of angiogenic basic fibroblast growth factor, platelet derived growth factor, thrombospondin-1 and their receptors at the porcine maternal-fetal interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Commercial swine breeds in North America undergo two waves of spontaneous fetal loss; one during peri-attachment and another during mid-gestation. Although an exact mechanism for this loss is not known, deficits in vasculature at the attachment sites appear to be a major cause. We hypothesized that a balance between pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors is needed at the maternal-fetal interface

Andrew K Edwards; Marianne J van den Heuvel; Jocelyn M Wessels; Jonathan LaMarre; B Anne Croy; Chandrakant Tayade

2011-01-01

374

Evaluation of common genetic variants in 82 candidate genes as risk factors for neural tube defects  

PubMed Central

Background Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common birth defects (~1 in 1000 pregnancies in the US and Europe) that have complex origins, including environmental and genetic factors. A low level of maternal folate is one well-established risk factor, with maternal periconceptional folic acid supplementation reducing the occurrence of NTD pregnancies by 50-70%. Gene variants in the folate metabolic pathway (e.g., MTHFR rs1801133 (677?C?>?T) and MTHFD1 rs2236225 (R653Q)) have been found to increase NTD risk. We hypothesized that variants in additional folate/B12 pathway genes contribute to NTD risk. Methods A tagSNP approach was used to screen common variation in 82 candidate genes selected from the folate/B12 pathway and NTD mouse models. We initially genotyped polymorphisms in 320 Irish triads (NTD cases and their parents), including 301 cases and 341 Irish controls to perform case–control and family based association tests. Significantly associated polymorphisms were genotyped in a secondary set of 250 families that included 229 cases and 658 controls. The combined results for 1441 SNPs were used in a joint analysis to test for case and maternal effects. Results Nearly 70 SNPs in 30 genes were found to be associated with NTDs at the p?risk factor MTHFD1 R653Q (rs2236225). The single strongest signal was observed in a new candidate, MFTC rs17803441 (OR?=?1.61 [1.23-2.08], p?=?0.0003 for the minor allele). Though nominally significant, these associations did not remain significant after correction for multiple hypothesis testing. Conclusions To our knowledge, with respect to sample size and scope of evaluation of candidate polymorphisms, this is the largest NTD genetic association study reported to date. The scale of the study and the stringency of correction are likely to have contributed to real associations failing to survive correction. We have produced a ranked list of variants with the strongest association signals. Variants in the highest rank of associations are likely to include true associations and should be high priority candidates for further study of NTD risk. PMID:22856873

2012-01-01

375

Cardiovascular disease risk factor knowledge in young adults and 10-year change in risk factors: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study's objective was assessment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor knowledge in young adults, its association with 10-year changes in risk factor levels, and variables related to risk factor knowledge. A total of 4,193 healthy persons (55% female, 48% Black; mean age=30 years) from four urban US communities were queried about risk factor knowledge in 1990-1991 and were reexamined

Elizabeth B. Lynch; Kiang Liu; Catarina I. Kiefe; Philip Greenland

2006-01-01

376

Physical Activity - Risk Factor Monitoring & Methods  

Cancer.gov

Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

377

Epidemiology and risk factors of periodontal diseases.  

PubMed

Periodontal diseases are chronic inflammatory disorders encompassing destructive and nondestructive diseases of the periodontal supporting tissues of teeth. Gingivitis is a nondestructive disease ubiquitous in populations of children and adults globally. Aggressive periodontitis is characterized by severe and rapid loss of periodontal attachment often commencing at or after the circumpubertal age and is more prevalent among Latin Americans and subjects of African descent, and least common among Caucasians. Chronic periodontitis is a common disease and may occur in most age groups, but is most prevalent among adults and seniors world-wide. Approximately 48% of United States adults have chronic periodontitis, and similar or higher rates have been reported in other populations. Moderate and advanced periodontitis is more prevalent among the older age groups, and rates of 70% or more have been reported in certain populations. Chronic and aggressive periodontitis are multifactorial diseases caused primarily by dental plaque microorganisms, and with important modifying effects from other local and systemic factors. The study of the significance of demographic, environmental, and biologic variables is important for risk assessment and the control of periodontal diseases. PMID:15978239

Albandar, Jasim M

2005-07-01

378

Endothelial function as a functional expression of cardiovascular risk factors.  

PubMed

Traditional cardiovascular risk (CV) factors based on the Framingham study have been used to estimate the risk of CV events and determine target cholesterol levels for primary prevention. Recently published systematic reviews have, however, demonstrated that the Framingham risk score is limited in certain cohorts and requires adjustment. Indeed, traditional CV risk factors fail to predict the development of coronary heart disease in 25-50% of cases. This underscores the complex interplay between traditional CV risk factors, genetic predisposition and other atheroprotective factors present in individuals of different populations in predicting CV events. Endothelial dysfunction, a functional expression of the inherent atherosclerotic risk representing an integrated index of both the overall CV risk-factor burden and the sum of all vasculoprotective factors in an individual, may serve as the missing link between CV risk factors and atherosclerotic disease. Endothelial function measurements may aid in future prediction of CV events and help identify high-risk patients for targeted therapy as well as provide a primary therapeutic end point for clinical follow-up of these patients. Recently introduced reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry is emerging as a promising tool in endothelial function measurement and CV risk stratification. PMID:20550469

Reriani, Martin K; Lerman, Lilach O; Lerman, Amir

2010-06-01

379

Increased Risk for Congenital Heart Defects in Children Carrying the ABCB1 Gene C3435T Polymorphism and Maternal Periconceptional Toxicants Exposure  

PubMed Central

Backgrounds The etiology of congenital heart defect (CHD) is commonly believed to involve the interaction of multiple environmental and genetic factors. This study aimed to explore the joint effects of the ABCB1 gene C3435T polymorphism and maternal periconceptional toxicants exposure on the CHD risk in a Han Chinese population. Methods An age and gender matched case-control study with standardized data collection involving 201 pairs was conducted. Periconceptional toxicants exposure was obtained through a structured questionnaire. A job exposure matrix (JEM) was used for toxicants exposure assessment. Genotyping of the ABCB1 C3435T polymorphism was performed by sequencing. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the joint effects of the ABCB1 gene C3435T polymorphism and toxicants exposure on the risk of CHD. Placenta tissues and umbilical cords were collected to investigate the impact of C3435T polymorphism on the transcription and translation activities of ABCB1 gene. Results Maternal periconceptional exposures to phthalates (adjusted OR: 1.6; 95%CI: 1.0–2.6) and alkylphenolic compounds (adjusted OR:1.8; 95%CI:1.1–3.0) were associated with a higher incidence of CHDs in general. More cases were carriers of the ABCB1 CC/CT genotypes (OR: 2.0, 95%CI: 1.1–3.5, P-value: 0.021). Children carrying the CC/CT genotype and periconceptionally exposed to phthalates and alkylphenolic compounds suffered almost 3.5-fold increased risk of having CHD than non-exposed children with TT genotype (adjusted OR: 3.5, 95%CI: 1.5–7.9, P-value: 0.003), and the OR changed to 4.4 for septal defects (adjusted OR: 4.4,95%CI:1.8–10.9,P-value:0.001). The ABCB1 mRNA expression of the TT genotype was significantly higher than that of the CC genotype (P?=?0.03). Compared with TT genotype, lower P-glycoprotein expression was observed for the CC/CT genotypes. Conclusion The C3435T polymorphism in the ABCB1 gene of fetus increases the risks of CHD in a Han Chinese population when the mothers are exposed to phthalates and alkylphenolic compounds during the periconceptional period, particularly for septal defects. PMID:23874772

Zhou, Kaiyu; Zhan, Yalan; Li, Yifei; Li, Huaying; Qiao, Lina; Wang, Fang; Hua, Yimin

2013-01-01

380

Cancer Risk Reduction in Mexican American Women: The Role of Acculturation, Education, and Health Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a two-factor schema for the development of culturally appropriate cancer risk reduction interventions for Mexican American women. Regarding this approach, risk factors for two major cancer areas are reviewed: cigarette smoking and obesity\\/diet. We first describe a schema that facilitates the planning of strategies associated with preferred health interventions and preventive approaches for cancer risk reduction with

Hector Balcazar; Felipe G. Castro; Jennifer L. Krull

1995-01-01

381

Vertebral fracture status and the World Health Organization risk factors for predicting osteoporotic fracture risk.  

PubMed

Vertebral fractures are the most common osteoporotic fracture, and patients with prevalent vertebral fractures have a greater risk of future fractures. However, radiographically determined vertebral fractures are not identified as a distinct risk factor in the World Health Organization (WHO) fracture risk assessment tool. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare potential risk factors including morphometric spine fracture status and the WHO risk factors for predicting 5-yr fracture risk. We hypothesized that spine fracture status provides prognostic information in addition to consideration of the WHO risk factors alone. A randomly selected, population-based community cohort of 2761 noninstitutionalized men and women > or =50 yr of age living within 50 km of one of nine regional centers was enrolled in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMOS), a prospective and longitudinal cohort study following subjects for 5 yr. Prevalent and incident spine fractures were identified from lateral spine radiographs. Incident nonvertebral fragility fractures were determined by an annual, mailed fracture questionnaire with validation, and nonvertebral fragility fracture was defined by investigators as a fracture with minimal trauma. A model considering the WHO risk factors plus spine fracture status provided greater prognostic information regarding future fracture risk than a model considering the WHO risk factors alone. In univariate analyses, age, BMD, and spine fracture status had the highest gradient of risk. A model considering these three risk factors captured almost all of the predictive information provided by a model considering spine fracture status plus the WHO risk factors and provided greater predictive information than a model considering the WHO risk factors alone. The use of spine fracture status along with age and BMD predicted future fracture risk with greater simplicity and higher prognostic accuracy than consideration of the risk factors included in the WHO tool. PMID:19016585

Chen, Peiqi; Krege, John H; Adachi, Jonathan D; Prior, Jerilynn C; Tenenhouse, Alan; Brown, Jacques P; Papadimitropoulos, Emmanuel; Kreiger, Nancy; Olszynski, Wojciech P; Josse, Robert G; Goltzman, David

2009-03-01

382

Luman/CREB3 Recruitment Factor Regulates Glucocorticoid Receptor Activity and Is Essential for Prolactin-Mediated Maternal Instinct  

PubMed Central

The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a major part of the neuroendocrine system in animal responses to stress. It is known that the HPA axis is attenuated at parturition to prevent detrimental effects of glucocorticoid secretion including inhibition of lactation and maternal responsiveness. Luman/CREB3 recruitment factor (LRF) was identified as a negative regulator of CREB3 which is involved in the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. Here, we report a LRF gene knockout mouse line that has a severe maternal behavioral defect. LRF?/? females lacked the instinct to tend pups; 80% of their litters died within 24 h, while most pups survived if cross-fostered. Prolactin levels were significantly repressed in lactating LRF?/? dams, with glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling markedly augmented. In cell culture, LRF repressed transcriptional activity of GR and promoted its protein degradation. LRF was found to colocalize with the known GR repressor, RIP140/NRIP1, which inhibits the activity by GR within specific nuclear punctates that are similar to LRF nuclear bodies. Furthermore, administration of prolactin or the GR antagonist RU486 restored maternal responses in mutant females. We thus postulate that LRF plays a critical role in the attenuation of the HPA axis through repression of glucocorticoid stress signaling during parturition and the postpartum period. PMID:23071095

Martyn, Amanda C.; Choleris, Elena; Gillis, Daniel J.; Armstrong, John N.; Amor, Talya R.; McCluggage, Adam R. R.; Turner, Patricia V.; Liang, Genqing; Cai, Kimberly

2012-01-01

383

Maternal Psychological Control and Child Internalizing Symptoms: Vulnerability and Protective Factors across Bioregulatory and Ecological Domains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: We examined ecological (family socioeconomic status (SES)) and bioregulatory (sleep duration, sleep efficiency) moderators of the link between maternal psychological control and children's vulnerability to internalizing symptoms. Method: A large socioeconomically diverse sample of third graders (N = 141) and their mothers participated.…

El-Sheikh, Mona; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Kelly, Ryan J.; Erath, Stephen

2010-01-01

384

Associations of Psychosocial Factors with Maternal Confidence among Japanese and Vietnamese Mothers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We conducted this cross-sectional study among 392 Japanese and 294 Vietnamese mothers who attended routine child health visits in a Japanese city and at a tertiary hospital in Vietnam, in order to investigate the prevalence and associated sociodemographic, parenting, and psychological characteristics of low maternal confidence in child rearing…

Goto, Aya; Nguyen, Quang Vinh; Nguyen, Thi Tu Van; Pham, Nghiem Minh; Chung, Thi Mong Thuy; Trinh, Huu Phuc; Yabe, Junko; Sasaki, Hitomi; Yasumura, Seiji

2010-01-01

385

Evidence for maternally inherited factors favouring male homosexuality and promoting female fecundity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Darwinian paradox of male homosexuality in humans is examined, i.e. if male homosexuality has a gen- etic component and homosexuals reproduce less than heterosexuals, then why is this trait maintained in the population? In a sample of 98 homosexual and 100 heterosexual men and their relatives (a total of over 4600 individuals), we found that female maternal relatives of

Andrea Camperio-Ciani; Francesca Corna; Claudio Capiluppi

2004-01-01

386

Maternal Immune Activation Impairs Reversal Learning and Increases Serum Tumor Necrosis Factor-? in Offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal immune activation (MIA) produces a variety of behavioral and brain abnormalities in rodent models of several neuropsychiatric disorders. However, it remains controversial whether MIA impairs reversal learning, a basic function of flexibility relevant to those diseases, in offspring. In the present study, we used the Morris water maze to investigate the effects of middle to late gestation stage poly(I:C)

Xiao Han; Nanxin Li; Qingxuan Meng; Feng Shao; Weiwen Wang

2011-01-01

387

Risk Factors of Periodontal Disease: Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Objectives. This paper aims to review the evidence on the potential roles of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors associated with periodontal disease. Data. Original articles that reported on the risk factors for periodontal disease were included. Sources. MEDLINE (1980 to Jan 2014), PubMed (using medical subject headings), and Google Scholar were searched using the following terms in different combinations: “periodontal disease,” “periodontitis,” “risk factors,” and “causal.” This was supplemented by hand-searching in peer-reviewed journals and cross-referenced with the articles accessed. Conclusions. It is important to understand the etiological factors and the pathogenesis of periodontal disease to recognize and appreciate the associated risk factors. As periodontal disease is multifactorial, effective disease management requires a clear understanding of all the associated risk factors. PMID:24963294

AlJehani, Yousef A.

2014-01-01

388

Maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy impairs an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-like pathway in sheep fetal coronary arteries.  

PubMed

The mechanisms underlying developmental programming are poorly understood but may be associated with adaptations by the fetus in response to changes in the maternal environment during pregnancy. We hypothesized that maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy alters vasodilator responses in fetal coronary arteries. Pregnant ewes were fed a control [100% U.S. National Research Council (NRC)] or nutrient-restricted (60% NRC) diet from days 50 to 130 of gestation (term = 145 days); fetal tissues were collected at day 130. In coronary arteries isolated from control fetal lambs, relaxation to bradykinin was unaffected by nitro-l-arginine (NLA). Iberiotoxin or contraction with KCl abolished the NLA-resistant response to bradykinin. In fetal coronary arteries from nutrient-restricted ewes, relaxation to bradykinin was fully suppressed by NLA. Large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channel (BKCa) currents did not differ in coronary smooth muscle cells from control and nutrient-restricted animals. The BKCa openers, BMS 191011 and NS1619, and 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid [a putative endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)] each caused fetal coronary artery relaxation and BKCa current activation that was unaffected by maternal nutrient restriction. Expression of BKCa-channel subunits did not differ in fetal coronary arteries from control or undernourished ewes. The results indicate that maternal undernutrition during pregnancy results in loss of the EDHF-like pathway in fetal coronary arteries in response to bradykinin, an effect that cannot be explained by a decreased number or activity of BKCa channels or by decreased sensitivity to mediators that activate BKCa channels in vascular smooth muscle cells. Under these conditions, bradykinin-induced relaxation is completely dependent on nitric oxide, which may represent an adaptive response to compensate for the absence of the EDHF-like pathway. PMID:24816259

Shukla, Praveen; Ghatta, Srinivas; Dubey, Nidhi; Lemley, Caleb O; Johnson, Mary Lynn; Modgil, Amit; Vonnahme, Kimberly; Caton, Joel S; Reynolds, Lawrence P; Sun, Chengwen; O'Rourke, Stephen T

2014-07-15

389

Children's Cognitive Ability from 4 to 9 Years Old as a Function of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure, Environmental Risk, and Maternal Verbal Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure, environmental risk, and maternal verbal intelligence on children's cognitive ability. Gender and age were examined as moderators of potential cocaine exposure effects. The Stanford-Binet IV intelligence test was administered to 231 children (91 cocaine exposed, 140 unexposed) at ages 4,…

Bennett, David S.; Bendersky, Margaret; Lewis, Michael

2008-01-01

390

Examining Maternal Depression and Attachment Insecurity as Moderators of the Impacts of Home Visiting for At-Risk Mothers and Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Home visiting programs for at-risk mothers and their infants have proliferated nationally in recent years, yet experimental studies of home visiting have yielded mixed findings. One promising strategy for explicating the effects of early home visiting is to examine moderators of program impacts. This study assessed the roles of maternal depression…

Duggan, Anne K.; Berlin, Lisa J.; Cassidy, Jude; Burrell, Lori; Tandon, S. Darius

2009-01-01

391

Maternal effects and range expansion: a key factor in a dynamic process?  

PubMed

Species that depend on ephemeral habitat often evolve distinct dispersal strategies in which the propensity to disperse is closely integrated with a suite of morphological, behavioural and physiological traits that influence colonizing ability. These strategies are maintained by natural selection resulting from spatial and temporal variation in resource abundance and are particularly evident during range expansion. Yet the mechanisms that maintain close alignment of such strategies with resource availability, integrate suites of dispersal traits and generate variability in dispersal propensity are rarely known. Breeding females can influence offspring phenotype in response to changes in current environmental conditions, making maternal effects uniquely suited to bridge fluctuations in resource abundance in the maternal generation and variation in offspring dispersal ability. Western bluebirds' (Sialia mexicana) dependence on nest cavities--an ephemeral resource--has led to the evolution of two distinct dispersal phenotypes: aggressive males that disperse and non-aggressive males that remain philopatric and cooperate with their relatives. Over the last 40 years, western bluebirds rapidly expanded their geographical range, providing us with an opportunity to test, in newly established populations, the importance of maternal effects for generating variability in dispersal propensity. Here, I show that, under variable resource conditions, breeding females group offspring of different competitive ability in different positions in the egg-laying order and, consequently, produce aggressive males that are more likely to disperse when resources are low and non-aggressive philopatric males when resources are abundant. I then show experimentally that the association between resource availability and sex-specific birth order is robust across populations. Thus, this maternal effect enables close tracking of resource availability and may explain how variation in dispersal is generated in newly colonized populations. More generally, these results suggest that, as a key source of variation in colonizing phenotypes, maternal effects are of crucial importance for understanding the dynamics of range expansion. PMID:19324612

Duckworth, Renée A

2009-04-27

392

Risk Factors Associated with Germinal Matrix-Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Preterm Neonates  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study is to identify the risk factors associated with the development of germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GM-IVH) and the relationship of the severity of disease and prematurity. Methods A total of 168 premature neonates whose birth weight ?1500 g or gestational age ?34 weeks were examined by cranial ultrasound (CUS) for detection of GM-IVH among the babies admitted between January 2011 and December 2012 in our medical center neonatal intensive care unit. The babies were divided into two groups : GM-IVH and non-IVH. Clinical presentations, precipitating factors of the patients and maternal factors were analyzed. Results In univariate analysis, gestational age, birth weight, delivery method, presence of premature rupture of membrane (PROM) and level of sodium and glucose were statistically meaningful factors (p<0.05). But only two factors, gestational age and presence of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) were statistically meaningful in multivariate logistic regression (p<0.05). Delivery method [normal vaginal delivery (NVD) to Caeserean section] was borderline significant (p<0.10). Conclusion Presence of PDA and gestational age were the important risk factors associated with development of GM-IVH. PMID:25371784

Kim, Kwang-Ryeol; Jung, Sang-Won

2014-01-01

393

Polymorphisms in Maternal and Fetal Genes Encoding for Proteins Involved in Extracellular Matrix Metabolism Alter the Risk for Small-for-Gestational-Age  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To examine the association between maternal and fetal genetic variants and small-for-gestational-age (SGA). METHODS A case-control study was conducted in patients with SGA neonates (530 maternal and 436 fetal) and controls (599 maternal and 628 fetal); 190 candidate genes and 775 SNPs were studied. Single locus, multilocus and haplotype association analyses were performed on maternal and fetal data with logistic regression, multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) analysis, and haplotype-based association with 2 and 3 marker sliding windows, respectively. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software was used to assess pathways that associate with SGA. RESULTS The most significant single locus association in maternal data was with a SNP in tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP2) (rs2277698 OR = 1.71 95% CI [1.26-2.32], p = 0.0006) while in the fetus it was with a SNP in fibronectin 1 isoform 3 preproprotein (FN1) (rs3796123, OR = 1.46 95% CI [1.20-1.78], p = 0.0001). Both SNPs were adjusted for potential confounders (maternal body mass index and fetal sex). Haplotype analyses resulted in associations in alpha 1 type I collagen preproprotein (COL1A1, rs1007086-rs2141279-rs17639446, global p = 0.006) in mothers and FN1 (rs2304573-rs1250204-rs1250215, global p = 0.045) in fetuses. Multilocus analyses with MDR identified a two SNP model with maternal variants collagen type V alpha 2 (COL5A2) and plasminogen activator urokinase (PLAU) predicting SGA outcome correctly 59% of the time (p = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS Genetic variants in extracellular matrix related genes showed significant single locus association with SGA. These data are consistent with other studies that have observed elevated circulating fibronectin concentrations in association with increased risk of SGA. The present study supports the hypothesis that DNA variants can partially explain risk of SGA in a cohort of Hispanic women. PMID:20617897

Edwards, Digna R. Velez; Romero, Roberto; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Hassan, Sonia S.; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Vaisbuch, Edi; Kim, Chong Jai; Erez, Offer; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Pearce, Brad D.; Bartlett, Jacquelaine; Friel, Lara A.; Salisbury, Benjamin A.; Anant, Madan Kumar; Vovis, Gerald F.; Lee, Min Seob; Gomez, Ricardo; Behnke, Ernesto; Oyarzun, Enrique; Tromp, Gerard; Menon, Ramkumar; Williams, Scott M.

2011-01-01

394

Risk Factors and Case Management of Acute Diarrhoea in North Gondar Zone, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

In Ethiopia, evidence is lacking about maternal care-taking and environmental risk factors that contribute to acute diarrhoea and the case management of diarrhoea. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors and to understand the management of acute diarrhoea. A pretested structured questionnaire was used for interviewing mothers of 440 children in a prospective, matched, case-control study at the University of Gondar Referral and Teaching Hospital in Gondar, Ethiopia. Results of multivariate analysis demonstrated that children who were breastfed and not completely weaned and mothers who were farmers were protective factors; risk factors for diarrhoea included sharing drinking-water and introducing supplemental foods. Children presented with acute diarrhoea for 3.9 days with 4.3 stools per day. Mothers usually did not increase breastmilk and other fluids during diarrhoea episodes and generally did not take children with diarrhoea to traditional healers. Incorporating messages about the prevention and treatment of acute diarrhoea into child-health interventions will help reduce morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. PMID:20635636

Mediratta, Rishi P.; Feleke, Amsalu; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Yifru, Sisay

2010-01-01

395

Maternal Disrupted Communication During Face-to-Face Interaction at 4 months: Relation to Maternal and Infant Cortisol Among at-Risk Families  

PubMed Central

The study evaluated the association between maternal disrupted communication and the reactivity and regulation of the psychobiology of the stress response in infancy. Mothers and infants were recruited via the National Health Service from the 20% most economically impoverished data zones in a suburban region of Scotland. Mothers (N = 63; M age = 25.9) and their 4-month-old infants (35 boys, 28 girls) were videotaped interacting for 8 min, including a still-face procedure as a stress inducer and a 5-min coded recovery period. Saliva samples were collected from the dyads prior to, during, and after the still-face procedure and later assayed for cortisol. Level of disruption in maternal communication with the infant was coded from the 5-min videotaped interaction during the recovery period which followed the still-face procedure. Severely disrupted maternal communication was associated with lower levels of maternal cortisol and a greater divergence between mothers’ and infants’ cortisol levels. Results point to low maternal cortisol as a possible mechanism contributing to the mother’s difficulty in sensitively attuning to her infant’s cues, which in turn has implications for the infant’s reactivity to and recovery from a mild stressor in early infancy. PMID:25506272

Crockett, Erin E.; Holmes, Bjarne M.; Granger, Douglas A.; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

2014-01-01