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Sample records for risk factors questionnaire

  1. Questionnaire Based Assessment of Risk Factors for Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Lammert, Craig; Nguyen, Douglas L.; Juran, Brian D.; Schlicht, Erik; Larson, Joseph J.; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Primary Biliary Cirrhosis is a cholestatic liver disease characterized by immune-mediated destruction of bile ducts. Its pathogenesis is largely unknown, although complex interactions between environment and genetic predisposition are proposed. Aims Identify disease risk factors using a detailed patient questionnaire and compare study findings to 3 published reports. Methods Questionnaire data were prospectively collected from 522 cases and 616 controls of the Mayo Clinic Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Genetic Epidemiology Registry. Case and control responses were compared using logistic regression, adjusting for recruitment age, sex, and education level. Results Cases reported ever regularly smoking cigarettes more frequently than controls (P < 0.001). History of urinary tract infection (UTI) was similar between groups; however, cases reported multiple UTIs more commonly than controls (P < 0.001). Frequency of other autoimmune disease was higher in cases than controls (P < 0.001). As well, prevalence of primary biliary cirrhosis among first-degree relatives was higher in case families than control families (P < 0.001). Conclusions Our study confirms prior reported risk factors associated with disease risk. Given the potential importance of gene and environment interactions, further examination of environmental risk factors considering genetic background may provide new insight into primary biliary cirrhosis pathogenesis. PMID:23490343

  2. Risk factor for phlebitis: a questionnaire study of nurses' perception

    PubMed Central

    Milutinović, Dragana; Simin, Dragana; Zec, Davor

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: to assess nurses' perceptions of risk factors for the development of phlebitis, with a special focus on the perception of phlebitic potentials of some infusion medications and solutions. Method: a cross-sectional questionnaire study, which included a sample of 102 nurses. Results: Nurses recognized some factors that may reduce the incidence of phlebitis; however, more than half of the nurses were unaware that the material and diameter of the cannula can affect the incidence rate of phlebitis. Furthermore,underlying disease and high pH of medications or solutions were identified as potential risk factors, whereas low pH and low osmolality were not. Nurses identified Vancomycin and Benzylpenicillin antibiotics with the strongest phlebitic potential. Among other medications and intravenous fluids, Aminophylline, Amiodaronehydrochloride and Potassium chloride 7.4% were identified as potentially causing phlebitis. Conclusion: predisposing factors for phlebitis relating to patients and administered therapy were identified by nurses, while some cannula related risk factors, in particular its physicochemical properties and the time for cannula replacement, were not fully perceived. PMID:26444170

  3. Development and psychometric testing of the Chinese Postnatal Risk Factors Questionnaire (CPRFQ) for postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaoyu; Lu, Jun; Shi, Shenxun; Wang, Ximei; Zhao, Rui; Yan, Yuan; Chen, Gang

    2015-04-01

    This article describes the development and psychometric assessment of the Chinese Postnatal Risk Factors Questionnaire (CPRFQ). There were four phases in this process: (1) the items were generated using a literature review and a focus group, (2) content validity was evaluated by an expert panel, (3) a pilot study was conducted with 45 postpartum women to refine the scale, and (4) a convenience sample of 256 postpartum women in China was recruited to complete the questionnaire. Construct validity was established by exploratory factor analysis; a four-factor structure of the scale was accepted (social and family, personality and relationship, mother and infant, maternal feelings and 'doing the month'). These factors explained 47.46 % of the variance. Pearson's correlation coefficient was conducted to test convergent validity with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) (r = 0.54; p < 0.001). The Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the four subscales ranged from 0.58 to 0.71. The final 18-item version of the questionnaire is potentially a valuable tool for assessing postnatal risk factors in Chinese postpartum mothers. PMID:25142052

  4. Anamnestic risk factor questionnaire as reliable diagnostic instrument for osteoporosis (reduced bone morphogenic density)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a major health problem worldwide, and is included in the WHO list of the top 10 major diseases. However, it is often undiagnosed until the first fracture occurs, due to inadequate patient education and lack of insurance coverage for screening tests. Anamnestic risk factors like positive family anamnesis or early menopause are assumed to correlate with reduced BMD. Methods In our study of 78 patients with metaphyseal long bone fractures, we searched for a correlation between anamnestic risk factors, bone specific laboratory values, and the bone morphogenic density (BMD). Each indicator was examined as a possible diagnostic instrument for osteoporosis. The secondary aim of this study was to demonstrate the high prevalence of osteoporosis in patients with metaphyseal fractures. Results 76.9% of our fracture patients had decreased bone density and 43.6% showed manifest osteoporosis in DXA (densitometry) measurements. Our questionnaire, identifying anamnestic risk factors, correlated highly significantly (p = 0.01) with reduced BMD, whereas seven bone-specific laboratory values (p = 0.046) correlated significantly. Conclusions Anamnestic risk factors correlate with pathological BMD. The medical questionnaire used in this study would therefore function as a cost-effective primary diagnostic instrument for identification of osteoporosis patients. PMID:21849030

  5. [Problematic internet use (PIN)--a review of assessment questionnaires and risk factors].

    PubMed

    Bauernhofer, Kathrin; Papousek, Ilona; Fink, Andreas; Unterrainer, Human Friedrich; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2016-03-01

    Internet is nowadays an integral part of our lives. However, excessive internet use, which is in many ways comparable to substance addictions and behavioral addictions, has become of growing interest in popular media, health policy and scientific research. Nevertheless, there is still considerable controversy with respect to diagnostic criteria and assessment questionnaires, and the diagnosis does not yet appear in any official diagnostic system such as the DSM-5 or ICD-10. Due to the lack of consistent diagnostic criteria for problematic internet use and both the use of different assessment questionnaires and classification systems, the reported prevalence rates vary significantly across studies. Thus, the comparison of study results is limited.In this review article a brief overview of the various diagnostic criteria and assessment questionnaires as well as the prevalence of problematic internet use (PIN) will be given. Furthermore, several usage-related and person-related risk factors of PIN will be discussed. With regards to the latter, the focus will be on both sociodemographic and psychiatric risk factors and on personality traits. PMID:26754664

  6. Development, factor structure and application of the Dog Obesity Risk and Appetite (DORA) questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Raffan, Eleanor; Smith, Stephen P; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Wardle, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Background. Dogs are compelling models in which to study obesity since the condition shares many characteristics between humans and dogs. Differences in eating behaviour are recognised to contribute to obesity susceptibility in other species but this has not been systematically studied in dogs. Aim. To develop and validate an owner-reported measure of canine eating behaviour and owner or dog related factors which can alter the development of obesity. Further, to then test variation in food-motivation in dogs and its association with obesity and owner management. Methods. Owner interviews, a literature review and existing human appetite scales were used to identify relevant topics and generate items for the questionnaire. Following a pilot phase, a 75 item online questionnaire was distributed via social media. Responses from 302 dog/owner dyads were analysed and factor structure and descriptive statistics calculated. Results were compared with descriptions of dog behaviour and management from a subset of respondents during semi-structured interviews. The optimum questions were disseminated as a 34 item final questionnaire completed by 213 owners, with a subset of respondents repeating the questionnaire 3 weeks later to assess test-retest reliability. Results. Analysis of responses to the final questionnaire relating to 213 dog/owner dyads showed a coherent factor structure and good test-retest reliability. There were three dog factors (food responsiveness and satiety, lack of selectivity, Interest in food), four owner factors (owner motivation to control dog weight, owner intervention to control dog weight, restriction of human food, exercise taken) and two dog health factors (signs of gastrointestinal disease, current poor health). Eating behaviour differed between individuals and between breed groups. High scores on dog factors (high food-motivation) and low scores on owner factors (less rigorous control of diet/exercise) were associated with obesity. Owners of

  7. Development, factor structure and application of the Dog Obesity Risk and Appetite (DORA) questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stephen P.; O’Rahilly, Stephen; Wardle, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Background. Dogs are compelling models in which to study obesity since the condition shares many characteristics between humans and dogs. Differences in eating behaviour are recognised to contribute to obesity susceptibility in other species but this has not been systematically studied in dogs. Aim. To develop and validate an owner-reported measure of canine eating behaviour and owner or dog related factors which can alter the development of obesity. Further, to then test variation in food-motivation in dogs and its association with obesity and owner management. Methods. Owner interviews, a literature review and existing human appetite scales were used to identify relevant topics and generate items for the questionnaire. Following a pilot phase, a 75 item online questionnaire was distributed via social media. Responses from 302 dog/owner dyads were analysed and factor structure and descriptive statistics calculated. Results were compared with descriptions of dog behaviour and management from a subset of respondents during semi-structured interviews. The optimum questions were disseminated as a 34 item final questionnaire completed by 213 owners, with a subset of respondents repeating the questionnaire 3 weeks later to assess test–retest reliability. Results. Analysis of responses to the final questionnaire relating to 213 dog/owner dyads showed a coherent factor structure and good test–retest reliability. There were three dog factors (food responsiveness and satiety, lack of selectivity, Interest in food), four owner factors (owner motivation to control dog weight, owner intervention to control dog weight, restriction of human food, exercise taken) and two dog health factors (signs of gastrointestinal disease, current poor health). Eating behaviour differed between individuals and between breed groups. High scores on dog factors (high food-motivation) and low scores on owner factors (less rigorous control of diet/exercise) were associated with obesity. Owners

  8. Uterine Cancer Risk Questionnaire

    MedlinePlus

    ... University School of Medicine Uterine cancer (also called endometrial cancer) is one of the most common cancers in ... help protect themselves. To estimate your risk of uterine cancer and learn about ways to lower that risk, ...

  9. Stomach Cancer Risk Questionnaire

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine Stomach cancer is fairly rare in the US, but ... the early stages. To estimate your risk of stomach cancer and learn about ways to lower that ...

  10. Risk Factors of Internet Addiction among Internet Users: An Online Questionnaire Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chia-Yi; Lee, Ming-Been; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Chang, Li-Ren

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds Internet addiction (IA) has become a major public health issue worldwide and is closely linked to psychiatric disorders and suicide. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of IA and its associated psychosocial and psychopathological determinants among internet users across different age groups. Methods The study was a cross-sectional survey initiated by the Taiwan Suicide Prevention Center. The participants were recruited from the general public who responded to the online questionnaire. They completed a series of self-reported measures, including Chen Internet Addiction Scale-revised (CIAS-R), Five-item Brief Symptom Rating Scale (BSRS-5), Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI), and questions about suicide and internet use habits. Results We enrolled 1100 respondents with a preponderance of female subjects (85.8%). Based on an optimal cutoff for CIAS-R (67/68), the prevalence rate of IA was 10.6%. People with higher scores of CIAS-R were characterized as: male, single, students, high neuroticism, life impairment due to internet use, time for internet use, online gaming, presence of psychiatric morbidity, recent suicide ideation and past suicide attempts. Multiple regression on IA showed that age, gender, neuroticism, life impairment, internet use time, and BSRS-5 score accounted for 31% of variance for CIAS-R score. Further, logistic regression showed that neuroticism, life impairment and internet use time were three main predictors for IA. Compared to those without IA, the internet addicts had higher rates of psychiatric morbidity (65.0%), suicide ideation in a week (47.0%), lifetime suicide attempts (23.1%), and suicide attempt in a year (5.1%). Conclusion Neurotic personality traits, psychopathology, time for internet use and its subsequent life impairment were important predictors for IA. Individuals with IA may have higher rates of psychiatric morbidity and suicide risks. The findings provide important information for further

  11. Designing an Internationally Accessible Web-Based Questionnaire to Discover Risk Factors for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Parkin Kullmann, Jane Alana; Hayes, Susan; Wang, Min-Xia

    2015-01-01

    Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with a typical survival of three to five years. Epidemiological studies using paper-based questionnaires in individual countries or continents have failed to find widely accepted risk factors for the disease. The advantages of online versus paper-based questionnaires have been extensively reviewed, but few online epidemiological studies into human neurodegenerative diseases have so far been undertaken. Objective To design a Web-based questionnaire to identify environmental risk factors for ALS and enable international comparisons of these risk factors. Methods A Web-based epidemiological questionnaire for ALS has been developed based on experience gained from administering a previous continent-wide paper-based questionnaire for this disease. New and modified questions have been added from our previous paper-based questionnaire, from literature searches, and from validated ALS questionnaires supplied by other investigators. New criteria to allow the separation of familial and sporadic ALS cases have been included. The questionnaire addresses many risk factors that have already been proposed for ALS, as well as a number that have not yet been rigorously examined. To encourage participation, responses are collected anonymously and no personally identifiable information is requested. The survey is being translated into a number of languages which will allow many people around the world to read and answer it in their own language. Results After the questionnaire had been online for 4 months, it had 379 respondents compared to only 46 respondents for the same initial period using a paper-based questionnaire. The average age of the first 379 web questionnaire respondents was 54 years compared to the average age of 60 years for the first 379 paper questionnaire respondents. The questionnaire is soon to be promoted in a number of countries through ALS associations and disease

  12. Questionnaire survey on the occurrence of risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection amongst farmers in Thika District, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ogendi, Edwin; Maina, Naomi; Kagira, John; Ngotho, Maina; Mbugua, Gabriel; Karanja, Simon

    2013-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the occurrence of risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection amongst farmers in Thika District, Kenya. Interviews were conducted in a total of 385 households using a structured questionnaire. The water consumed at household level originated from taps (74.3%), rivers or streams (15.1%), wells (5.4%) and boreholes (5.2%). A number of households (46.8%) consumed water without boiling or applying any form of treatment. All respondents washed vegetables before cooking, whilst 99.0% washed fruits before eating. Boiled milk was preferred by 99.5% of the farmers. The majority (85.2%) consumed beef more often, whilst 1.6% consumed pork. The majority (98.7%) consumed thoroughly cooked meat. Meat was preserved by 17% of farmers. Only four farmers (1.2%) who practised mixed farming used gloves when handling livestock manure. Five farmers (1.6%) reported the occurrence of abortion in ruminants and pigs on their farms within the last two years before the study. Almost half (44.9%) of the households owned cats, which were kept mainly as pets (79.8%) and for deterring rodents (20.2%). The majority of households (91.3%) fed the cats on leftovers, whilst 8.1% fed cats with raw offal. Sixteen households (9.2%) provided housing for cats. Only five households (2.8%) had litter boxes, but none of the households with litter boxes used gloves when cleaning them out. Disposal of cat faeces was done mainly by women (55.5%). Only one farmer (0.3%) had some knowledge about toxoplasmosis, but was not aware of the transmission mechanism. The study highlights the need for public health education to raise awareness of risk factors for toxoplasmosis. PMID:23718636

  13. Factor analysis of a Johne's disease risk assessment questionnaire with evaluation of factor scores and a subset of original questions as predictors of observed clinical paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Berghaus, Roy D; Lombard, Jason E; Gardner, Ian A; Farver, Thomas B

    2005-12-12

    Factor analysis was used to examine the interrelationships among 38 variables collected as part of a Johne's disease risk assessment questionnaire completed in 2002 on 815 U.S. dairy operations. Eleven factors were extracted, accounting for two-thirds of the variance encountered in the original variables. Responses to many of the risk assessment questions were closely related. Standardized scores on the 11 factors were calculated for operations providing complete information, and were evaluated as predictors in a model-based logistic regression analysis with the outcome being whether operations had observed one or more cows with clinical signs suggestive of paratuberculosis during the previous year. A logistic regression model was also used to evaluate the predictive ability of a reduced subset of approximately one-third of the original variables that was selected to represent the derived factors. The performance of both sets of predictors was comparable with respect to goodness-of-fit and predictive ability. In conclusion, the length of the current risk assessment instrument could be reduced considerably without a substantial loss of information by removing or combining questions that are strongly correlated. PMID:16139906

  14. Development and validation testing of a short nutrition questionnaire to identify dietary risk factors in preschoolers aged 12–36 months

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Niamh; Gibbons, Helena; McNulty, Breige A.; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Michael J.; Nugent, Anne P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although imbalances in dietary intakes can have short and longer term influences on the health of preschool children, few tools exist to quickly and easily identify nutritional risk in otherwise healthy young children. Objectives To develop and test the validity of a parent-administered questionnaire (NutricheQ) as a means of evaluating dietary risk in young children (12–36 months). Design Following a comprehensive development process and internal reliability assessment, the NutricheQ questionnaire was validated in a cohort of 371 Irish preschool children as part of the National Preschool Nutrition Survey. Dietary risk was rated on a scale ranging from 0 to 22 from 11 questions, with a higher score indicating higher risk. Results Children with higher NutricheQ scores had significantly (p<0.05) lower mean daily intakes of key nutrients such as iron, zinc, vitamin D, riboflavin, niacin, folate, phosphorous, potassium, carotene, retinol, and dietary fibre. They also had lower (p<0.05) intakes of vegetables, fish and fish dishes, meat and infant/toddler milks and higher intakes of processed foods and non-milk beverages, confectionery, sugars and savoury snack foods indicative of poorer dietary quality. Areas under the curve values of 84.7 and 75.6% were achieved for ‘medium’ and ‘high’ dietary risk when compared with expert risk ratings indicating good consistency between the two methods. Conclusion NutricheQ is a valid method of quickly assessing dietary quality in preschoolers and in identifying those at increased nutritional risk. In Context Analysis of data from national food and nutrition surveys typically identifies shortfalls in dietary intakes or quality of young children. This can relate to intakes of micronutrients such as iron or vitamin D as well as to the balance of macronutrients they consume (e.g. fat or sugar). Alongside this lie concerns regarding overweight and obesity and physical inactivity. This combination of risk factors has

  15. Analysis of meat juice ELISA results and questionnaire data to investigate farm-level risk factors for Salmonella infection in UK pigs.

    PubMed

    Smith, R P; Clough, H E; Cook, A J C

    2010-11-01

    The study set out to explore risk factors for Salmonella infection in pigs, based on seroprevalence amongst slaughtered pigs, using a large study population of holdings and a comprehensive list of farm characteristics. Farm data were collected from pig quality assurance schemes and supplemented by a postal questionnaire. These data were used with meat juice serology results from ongoing abattoir Salmonella surveillance, for a multivariable risk factor analysis, modelling the ELISA sample to positive ratio directly (ELISA ratio). The study population contained 566 farms, covering a geographically representative spread of farms within the United Kingdom, with a mean average of 224 sample results per holding over a 4-year period. The model highlighted that temporal factors (quarterly and yearly cycles) and monthly meteorological summaries for rainfall, sunshine and temperature were associated with Salmonella presence (P < 0.01). The ELISA ratio was found to be highest in autumn and lowest in spring and summer, whereas yearly averages showed a greater degree of variation than seasonal. Two feed variables (homemix and barley) were found to be protective factors, as was a conventional, rather than organic or freedom foods, farm enterprise type. The number of annual pig deliveries and dead stock collections, and the main cause of pig mortality on the farm were found to be associated with Salmonella infection. Scottish farms had a lower ELISA ratio than other regions, and an increased number of pig farms within a 10-km radius was associated with a higher ELISA ratio. The study demonstrated that the analysis of routinely collected data from surveillance and quality assurance schemes was cost-effective, with sufficient power to detect modest associations between Salmonella and exposure variables. The model results can be used to inform on-farm Salmonella control policies and could target-specific geographical regions and seasons to assist the efficiency of surveillance. PMID

  16. Design of psychosocial factors questionnaires: a systematic measurement approach

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Angélica; Felknor, Sarah A

    2012-01-01

    Background Evaluation of psychosocial factors requires instruments that measure dynamic complexities. This study explains the design of a set of questionnaires to evaluate work and non-work psychosocial risk factors for stress-related illnesses. Methods The measurement model was based on a review of literature. Content validity was performed by experts and cognitive interviews. Pilot testing was carried out with a convenience sample of 132 workers. Cronbach’s alpha evaluated internal consistency and concurrent validity was estimated by Spearman correlation coefficients. Results Three questionnaires were constructed to evaluate exposure to work and non-work risk factors. Content validity improved the questionnaires coherence with the measurement model. Internal consistency was adequate (α=0.85–0.95). Concurrent validity resulted in moderate correlations of psychosocial factors with stress symptoms. Conclusions Questionnaires´ content reflected a wide spectrum of psychosocial factors sources. Cognitive interviews improved understanding of questions and dimensions. The structure of the measurement model was confirmed. PMID:22628068

  17. Factors Influencing Pursuit of Higher Education: Validating a Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Sandra M.

    This paper explains the process used to validate the construct validity of the Factors Influencing Pursuit of Higher Education Questionnaire. This questionnaire is a literature-based, researcher-developed instrument which gathers information on the factors thought to affect a person's decision to pursue higher education. The questionnaire includes…

  18. Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... has been linked to some cancers: Links between air pollution and cancer risk have been found. These include ... between lung cancer and secondhand tobacco smoke , outdoor air pollution, and asbestos . Drinking water that contains a large ...

  19. Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart disease and stroke. However, certain groups—including African Americans and older individuals—are at higher risk ... life expectancy found among minorities. As of 2007, African American men were 30% more likely to die ...

  20. Use of food frequency questionnaire to assess relationships between dietary habits and cardiovascular risk factors in NESCAV study: validation with biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Validation of Food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is particularly important element, as incorrect information may lead to false associations between dietary factors and diseases. The aim of the study was to evaluate the validity of the FFQ used in NESCAV (Nutrition, Environment and Cardiovascular Health) study, by comparing the estimated intakes of fruits and vegetables and of several micro-nutrients with corresponding nutritional biomarkers. Methods Relative validity was assessed in a sample of 922 subjects (452 men and 470 women). Comparisons between FFQ-estimates and their corresponding biomarkers were performed through correlation and cross classification into quintiles by using both crude and energy-adjusted FFQ-estimates. Correlations adjusted for confounders were also computed. All analyses were performed separately for men and women. Results Concerning micro-nutrients, significant correlations were found for vitamin B9, D, E, B12 β-carotene and iodine in both men and women. Energy-adjustment led to an increase of all correlations cited previously. However, after excluding supplement users, correlations for vitamin D were not significant anymore. Concerning fruits and vegetables, all correlations were significant. Vegetables alone and fruits and vegetables correlated better in men (r around 0.2) than in women (r around 0.1). In men, correlation was also better for vegetables alone and fruits and vegetables than fruits alone. Conclusion These data demonstrate that this FFQ is a reasonable tool to assess intakes of fruits and vegetables and of several micro-nutrients. We conclude that our FFQ is suitable to be used in NESCAV study, although protein and vitamin D estimates should be interpreted with caution. PMID:24195492

  1. [Questionnaire for the mobbing risk: CDL2.0].

    PubMed

    Gilioli, R; Cassitto, M G; Campanini, P; Punzi, S; Consonni, D; Rengo, C; Fattorini, E; Foá, V

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study is to develop and validate a questionnaire able to evaluate the risk of mobbing at the workplace. A multiple-choice questionnaire has been developed which contains, among the different items, only one revealing a mobbing situation. The questionnaire has been administered to two groups (group A--243 subjects in a mobbing situation and group B--63 subjects without exposure to mobbing) and the differences in the scores obtained have been analysed. The questionnaire has proved to be valid and reliable. The results show that the presence of five mobbing actions is sufficient to define the workplace situation as potentially at risk for mobbing. The study reveals some limits in the selection of the two samples thus needing some adjustment. However, the questionnaire, also in the present form, can be considered a tool able to detect the mobbing situations. PMID:16240603

  2. Effectiveness of a questionnaire based intervention programme on the prevalence of arm, shoulder and neck symptoms, risk factors and sick leave in computer workers: A cluster randomised controlled trial in an occupational setting

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Arm, shoulder and neck symptoms are very prevalent among computer workers. In an attempt to reduce these symptoms, a large occupational health service in the Netherlands developed a preventive programme on exposure to risk factors, prevalence of arm, shoulder and neck symptoms, and sick leave in computer workers. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of this intervention programme. Methods The study was a randomised controlled trial. The participants were assigned to either the intervention group or the usual care group by means of cluster randomisation. At baseline and after 12 months of follow-up, the participants completed the RSI QuickScan questionnaire on exposure to the risk factors and on the prevalence of arm, shoulder and neck symptoms. A tailor-made intervention programme was proposed to participants with a high risk profile at baseline. Examples of implemented interventions are an individual workstation check, a visit to the occupational health physician and an education programme on the prevention of arm, shoulder and neck symptoms. The primary outcome measure was the prevalence of arm, shoulder and neck symptoms. Secondary outcome measures were the scores on risk factors for arm, shoulder and neck symptoms and the number of days of sick leave. Sick leave data was obtained from the companies. Multilevel analyses were used to test the effectiveness. Results Of the 1,673 persons invited to participate in the study, 1,183 persons (71%) completed the baseline questionnaire and 741 persons participated at baseline as well as at 12-month follow-up. At 12-month follow-up, the intervention group showed a significant positive change (OR = 0.48) in receiving information on healthy computer use, as well as a significant positive change regarding risk indicators for work posture and movement, compared to the usual care group. There were no significant differences in changes in the prevalence of arm, shoulder and neck symptoms or sick

  3. Validating the High Risk Situations Questionnaire for Young Offenders in a Forensic Hospital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Andrew J.; Reddon, John R.; Enns, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    Adolescent offenders (N=106) completed the High Risk Situations Questionnaire for Youth Offenders, an instrument designed to assess the self-reported importance of various antecedents to a past, highly salient offense. Results show that delinquency factor scores were significantly higher for property offenders, whereas aggression factor scores…

  4. Caregiver’s feeding styles questionnaire - new factors and correlates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Study objectives were to conduct exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of Caregiver’s Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) and evaluate correlations between factors and maternal feeding practices, attitudes, and perceptions. Mothers (N = 144) were 43% minority race/ethnicity, 24% full-time employed, 54% ...

  5. Heart disease - risk factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000106.htm Heart disease - risk factors To use the sharing features on this ... may help you live a longer, healthier life. Risk Factors You Cannot Change Some of your heart ...

  6. Sexual harassment: identifying risk factors.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, E A; O'Donohue, W

    1998-12-01

    A new model of the etiology of sexual harassment, the four-factor model, is presented and compared with several models of sexual harassment including the biological model, the organizational model, the sociocultural model, and the sex role spillover model. A number of risk factors associated with sexually harassing behavior are examined within the framework of the four-factor model of sexual harassment. These include characteristics of the work environment (e.g., sexist attitudes among co-workers, unprofessional work environment, skewed sex ratios in the workplace, knowledge of grievance procedures for sexual harassment incidents) as well as personal characteristics of the subject (e.g., physical attractiveness, job status, sex-role). Subjects were 266 university female faculty, staff, and students who completed the Sexual Experience Questionnaire to assess the experience of sexual harassment and a questionnaire designed to assess the risk factors stated above. Results indicated that the four-factor model is a better predictor of sexual harassment than the alternative models. The risk factors most strongly associated with sexual harassment were an unprofessional environment in the workplace, sexist atmosphere, and lack of knowledge about the organization's formal grievance procedures. PMID:9883305

  7. How do chiropractors manage clinical risk? A questionnaire study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The literature on chiropractic safety tends to focus on adverse events and little is known about how chiropractors ensure safety and manage risk in the course of their daily practice. The purpose of this study was to investigate how chiropractors manage potentially risky clinical scenarios. We also sought to establish how chiropractors perceive the safety climate in their workplace and thus whether there is an observable culture of safety within the profession. Methods An online questionnaire was designed to determine which of nine management options would be chosen by the respondent in response to four defined clinical case scenarios. Safety climate within the respondent’s practice setting was measured by seeking the level of agreement with 23 statements relating to six different safety dimensions. 260 licensed chiropractors in Switzerland and 1258 UK members of The Royal College of Chiropractors were invited to complete the questionnaire. Questionnaire responses were analysed quantitatively in respect of the four clinical scenarios and the nine management options to determine the likelihood of each option being undertaken, with results recorded in terms of % likelihood. Gender differences in response to the management options for each scenario were evaluated using the Mann–Whitney U (MWU) test. Positive agreement with elements comprising each of the six safety dimensions contributed to a composite ‘% positive agreement’ score calculated for each dimension. Results Questionnaire responses were received from 76% (200/260) of Swiss participants and 31% (393/1258) of UK members of The Royal College of Chiropractors. There was a general trend for Swiss and UK chiropractors to manage clinical scenarios where treatment appears not to be successful, not indicated, possibly harmful or where a patient is apparently getting worse, by re-evaluating their care. Stopping treatment and/or incident reporting to a safety incident reporting and learning system

  8. Osteoporosis Risk Factors in Eighth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysen, Victoria C.; Walker, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Presents findings from food frequency questionnaires and surveys of 138 Midwestern eighth-grade student-parent pairs. The study examined the incidence of modifiable and nonmodifiable osteoporosis risk factors and compared gender differences. Data analysis indicated that many adolescents possessed several modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors…

  9. Factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Therapist Response Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Tanzilli, Annalisa; Colli, Antonello; Del Corno, Franco; Lingiardi, Vittorio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the stability of the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Therapist Response Questionnaire (Betan, Heim, Zittel Conklin, & Westen, 2005; Zittel Conklin & Westen, 2003), a clinician report instrument able to measure the clinician's emotional reactions to the patient in psychotherapy. A national sample of psychiatrists and clinical psychologists (N = 332) of psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral orientation completed the Therapist Response Questionnaire, as well as the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200 (Westen & Shedler, 1999a, 1999b), to assess personality disorders and level of psychological functioning, regarding a patient currently in their care. They also administered the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (Derogatis, 1994) to the patients. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed 9 distinct countertransference factors that were similar to 8 dimensions identified in the original version of the measure: (a) helpless/inadequate, (b) overwhelmed/disorganized, (c) positive/satisfying, (d) hostile/angry, (e) criticized/devalued, (f) parental/protective, (g) special/overinvolved, (h) sexualized, and (i) disengaged. These scales showed excellent internal consistencies and good validity. They were especially able to capture the quality and intensity of emotional states that therapists experience while treating personality-disordered patients, as well as to better differentiate them; additionally, they tapped into the complexity of clinicians' reactions toward patients experiencing severe psychiatric symptomatology. Results seem to confirm that Therapist Response Questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument that allows to evaluate patterns of countertransference responses in clinically sensitive and psychometrically robust ways, regardless of therapists' orientations. The clinical and research implications of these findings are addressed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26389623

  10. Factor Analysis of the Modified Sexual Adjustment Questionnaire-Male

    PubMed Central

    Wilmoth, Margaret C.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Ng, Lit Soo; Bruner, Debra W.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The Sexual Adjustment Questionnaire (SAQ) is used in National Cancer Institute–sponsored clinical trials as an outcome measure for sexual functioning. The tool was revised to meet the needs for a clinically useful, theory-based outcome measure for use in both research and clinical settings. This report describes the modifications and validity testing of the modified Sexual Adjustment Questionnaire-Male (mSAQ-Male). Methods This secondary analysis of data from a large Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trial employed principal axis factor analytic techniques in estimating validity of the revised tool. The sample size was 686; most subjects were White, older than the age 60 years, and with a high school education and a Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) score of greater than 90. Results A 16-item, 3-factor solution resulted from the factor analysis. The mSAQ-Male was also found to be sensitive to changes in physical sexual functioning as measured by the KPS. Conclusion The mSAQ-Male is a valid self-report measure of sexuality that can be used clinically to detect changes in male sexual functioning. PMID:25255676

  11. Thai version of Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Chearskul, Supornpim; Pummoung, Sudaporn; Vongsaiyat, Siriporn; Janyachailert, Patriya; Phattharayuttawat, Sucheera

    2010-04-01

    The English version of Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) was translated into the Thai language. The TFEQ Thai version shows good internal consistency and test-retest reliabilities. Restraint and disinhibition scores, which were higher in females than males were correlated with body fat but did not relate to BMI. Disinhibition varied positively with restraint and hunger while restraint was negatively associated with hunger. Lowest restraint was shown in the group that reported liking carbohydrate, which is a major daily macronutrient among Thai populations. TFEQ Thai version is valid for future study of eating behaviors associated with health problems and diseases. PMID:20080140

  12. Seismic Risk Perception compared with seismic Risk Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Pessina, Vera; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The communication of natural hazards and their consequences is one of the more relevant ethical issues faced by scientists. In the last years, social studies have provided evidence that risk communication is strongly influenced by the risk perception of people. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. A theory that offers an integrative approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing. To explain risk perception, it is necessary to consider several perspectives: social, psychological and cultural perspectives and their interactions. This paper presents the results of the CATI survey on seismic risk perception in Italy, conducted by INGV researchers on funding by the DPC. We built a questionnaire to assess seismic risk perception, with a particular attention to compare hazard, vulnerability and exposure perception with the real data of the same factors. The Seismic Risk Perception Questionnaire (SRP-Q) is designed by semantic differential method, using opposite terms on a Likert scale to seven points. The questionnaire allows to obtain the scores of five risk indicators: Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability, People and Community, Earthquake Phenomenon. The questionnaire was administered by telephone interview (C.A.T.I.) on a statistical sample at national level of over 4,000 people, in the period January -February 2015. Results show that risk perception seems be underestimated for all indicators considered. In particular scores of seismic Vulnerability factor are extremely low compared with house information data of the respondents. Other data collected by the questionnaire regard Earthquake information level, Sources of information, Earthquake occurrence with respect to other natural hazards, participation at risk reduction activities and level of involvement. Research on risk perception aims to aid risk analysis and policy-making by

  13. Factors in risk perception

    PubMed

    Sjoberg

    2000-02-01

    Risk perception is a phenomenon in search of an explanation. Several approaches are discussed in this paper. Technical risk estimates are sometimes a potent factor in accounting for perceived risk, but in many important applications it is not. Heuristics and biases, mainly availability, account for only a minor portion of risk perception, and media contents have not been clearly implicated in risk perception. The psychometric model is probably the leading contender in the field, but its explanatory value is only around 20% of the variance of raw data. Adding a factor of "unnatural risk" considerably improves the psychometric model. Cultural Theory, on the other hand, has not been able to explain more than 5-10% of the variance of perceived risk, and other value scales have similarly failed. A model is proposed in which attitude, risk sensitivity, and specific fear are used as explanatory variables; this model seems to explain well over 30-40% of the variance and is thus more promising than previous approaches. The model offers a different type of psychological explanation of risk perception, and it has many implications, e.g., a different approach to the relationship between attitude and perceived risk, as compared with the usual cognitive analysis of attitude. PMID:10795334

  14. Development, feasibility and performance of a health risk appraisal questionnaire for older persons

    PubMed Central

    Stuck, Andreas E; Kharicha, Kalpa; Dapp, Ulrike; Anders, Jennifer; von Renteln-Kruse, Wolfgang; Meier-Baumgartner, Hans Peter; Harari, Danielle; Swift, Cameron G; Ivanova, Katja; Egger, Matthias; Gillmann, Gerhard; Higa, Jerilyn; Beck, John C; Iliffe, Steve

    2007-01-01

    Background Health risk appraisal is a promising method for health promotion and prevention in older persons. The Health Risk Appraisal for the Elderly (HRA-E) developed in the U.S. has unique features but has not been tested outside the United States. Methods Based on the original HRA-E, we developed a scientifically updated and regionally adapted multilingual Health Risk Appraisal for Older Persons (HRA-O) instrument consisting of a self-administered questionnaire and software-generated feed-back reports. We evaluated the practicability and performance of the questionnaire in non-disabled community-dwelling older persons in London (U.K.) (N = 1090), Hamburg (Germany) (N = 804), and Solothurn (Switzerland) (N = 748) in a sub-sample of an international randomised controlled study. Results Over eighty percent of invited older persons returned the self-administered HRA-O questionnaire. Fair or poor self-perceived health status and older age were correlated with higher rates of non-return of the questionnaire. Older participants and those with lower educational levels reported more difficulty in completing the HRA-O questionnaire as compared to younger and higher educated persons. However, even among older participants and those with low educational level, more than 80% rated the questionnaire as easy to complete. Prevalence rates of risks for functional decline or problems were between 2% and 91% for the 19 HRA-O domains. Participants' intention to change health behaviour suggested that for some risk factors participants were in a pre-contemplation phase, having no short- or medium-term plans for change. Many participants perceived their health behaviour or preventative care uptake as optimal, despite indications of deficits according to the HRA-O based evaluation. Conclusion The HRA-O questionnaire was highly accepted by a broad range of community-dwelling non-disabled persons. It identified a high number of risks and problems, and provided information on

  15. Risk Factors for Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Padmanesan; Wood, James; MacIntyre, Chandini Raina; Mathai, Dilip

    2013-01-01

    The risk of progression from exposure to the tuberculosis bacilli to the development of active disease is a two-stage process governed by both exogenous and endogenous risk factors. Exogenous factors play a key role in accentuating the progression from exposure to infection among which the bacillary load in the sputum and the proximity of an individual to an infectious TB case are key factors. Similarly endogenous factors lead in progression from infection to active TB disease. Along with well-established risk factors (such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malnutrition, and young age), emerging variables such as diabetes, indoor air pollution, alcohol, use of immunosuppressive drugs, and tobacco smoke play a significant role at both the individual and population level. Socioeconomic and behavioral factors are also shown to increase the susceptibility to infection. Specific groups such as health care workers and indigenous population are also at an increased risk of TB infection and disease. This paper summarizes these factors along with health system issues such as the effects of delay in diagnosis of TB in the transmission of the bacilli. PMID:23476764

  16. Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... and radiation fallout from power plant accidents or nuclear weapons. Having had head or neck radiation treatments in childhood is a risk factor for ... should be done using the lowest dose of radiation that still provides a clear ... from nuclear weapons or power plant accidents. For instance, thyroid ...

  17. Perioperative allergy: risk factors.

    PubMed

    Caffarelli, C; Stringari, G; Pajno, G B; Peroni, D G; Franceschini, F; Dello Iacono, I; Bernardini, R

    2011-01-01

    Perioperative anaphylactic as well as anaphylactoid reactions can be elicited by drugs, diagnostic agents, antiseptics, disinfectants and latex. In some individuals, allergic reactions occur in the absence of any evident risk factor. Previous history of specific safe exposure to a product does not permit to exclude the risk of having a reaction. We have systematically reviewed characteristics in the patient's history or clinical parameters that affect the risk of developing reactions during anesthesia. Evidence shows that patients with previous unexplained reaction during anesthesia are at risk for perioperative allergic reactions. An allergic reaction to an agent is associated with previous reaction to a product that is related with the culprit agent. Multiple surgery procedures, professional exposure to latex and allergy to fruit are associated with an increased frequency of latex allergy. It has been shown that in some instances, allergic perioperative reactions may be more common in atopic patients and in females. PMID:22014923

  18. Risk Factors in Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Mustacchi, Piero

    1985-01-01

    In the United States, stroke accounts for 160,000 annual deaths; only 16% of the 1.8 million stroke survivors are fully independent. The incidence of stroke increases with age. Hemorrhagic strokes outnumber ischemic strokes before age 15. Japanese men in this country have a lower stroke mortality than their age peers in Japan. Excessive stroke mortality for US nonwhites may not be entirely due to the greater prevalence of hypertension among blacks. Hypertension emerges as the single most powerful and reversible risk factor in stroke and for survival after stroke. Impaired cardiac function is the second most important precursor of stroke. The recurrence of stroke in survivors is high. The frequency of completed stroke is high in persons with transient ischemic attacks, but not in those with asymptomatic carotid bruits. Other reversible risk factors are smoking, the use of oral contraceptives, alcoholic excess, a low level of physical activity, blood hyperviscosity and drug abuse. PMID:3898597

  19. Breast cancer risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Ciszewski, Tomasz; Łopacka-Szatan, Karolina; Miotła, Paweł; Starosławska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual's life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence. PMID:26528110

  20. Development and Evaluation of an Online Fall-Risk Questionnaire for Nonfrail Community-Dwelling Elderly Persons: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Obrist, Seraina; Rogan, Slavko; Hilfiker, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Falls are frequent in older adults and may have serious consequences but awareness of fall-risk is often low. A questionnaire might raise awareness of fall-risk; therefore we set out to construct and test such a questionnaire. Methods. Fall-risk factors and their odds ratios were extracted from meta-analyses and a questionnaire was devised to cover these risk factors. A formula to estimate the probability of future falls was set up using the extracted odds ratios. The understandability of the questionnaire and discrimination and calibration of the prediction formula were tested in a cohort study with a six-month follow-up. Community-dwelling persons over 60 years were recruited by an e-mail snowball-sampling method. Results and Discussion. We included 134 persons. Response rates for the monthly fall-related follow-up varied between the months and ranged from low 38% to high 90%. The proportion of present risk factors was low. Twenty-five participants reported falls. Discrimination was moderate (AUC: 0.67, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.81). The understandability, with the exception of five questions, was good. The wording of the questions needs to be improved and measures to increase the monthly response rates are needed before test-retest reliability and final predictive value can be assessed. PMID:27247571

  1. Development and Evaluation of an Online Fall-Risk Questionnaire for Nonfrail Community-Dwelling Elderly Persons: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Obrist, Seraina; Rogan, Slavko; Hilfiker, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Falls are frequent in older adults and may have serious consequences but awareness of fall-risk is often low. A questionnaire might raise awareness of fall-risk; therefore we set out to construct and test such a questionnaire. Methods. Fall-risk factors and their odds ratios were extracted from meta-analyses and a questionnaire was devised to cover these risk factors. A formula to estimate the probability of future falls was set up using the extracted odds ratios. The understandability of the questionnaire and discrimination and calibration of the prediction formula were tested in a cohort study with a six-month follow-up. Community-dwelling persons over 60 years were recruited by an e-mail snowball-sampling method. Results and Discussion. We included 134 persons. Response rates for the monthly fall-related follow-up varied between the months and ranged from low 38% to high 90%. The proportion of present risk factors was low. Twenty-five participants reported falls. Discrimination was moderate (AUC: 0.67, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.81). The understandability, with the exception of five questions, was good. The wording of the questions needs to be improved and measures to increase the monthly response rates are needed before test-retest reliability and final predictive value can be assessed. PMID:27247571

  2. General Factor of Personality Questionnaire (GFPQ): only one factor to understand personality?

    PubMed

    Amigó, Salvador; Caselles, Antonio; Micó, Joan C

    2010-05-01

    This study proposes a psychometric approach to assess the General Factor of Personality (GFP) to explain the whole personality. This approach defends the existence of one basic factor that represents the overall personality. The General Factor of Personality Questionnaire (GFPQ) is presented to measure the basic, combined trait of the complete personality. The questionnaire includes 20 items and is constituted by two scales with 10 items each one: the Extraversion Scale (ES) and the Introversion Scale (IS). The GFPQ shows adequate internal consistency and construct validity, while the relationships with the personality factors of other models and with psychopathology are as expected. It correlates positively and significantly with Extraversion (E) and Psychoticism (P), and negatively with Neuroticism (N) of Eysenck's EPQ (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire); it correlates positively and significantly with the Sensation Seeking Scaled (SSS) of Zuckerman, and is inside the expected direction with Sensitivity to Reward (SR) and Sensitivity to Punishment (SP) of the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ), which represent the approach and avoidance trends of behavior, respectively. It not only relates negatively with the personality disorders of the anxiety spectrum, but also with the emotional disorders in relation to anxiety and depression, and it relates positively with the antisocial personality disorder. PMID:20480675

  3. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…

  4. Cardiovascular risk factors among Chamorros

    PubMed Central

    Chiem, Binh; Nguyen, Victoria; Wu, Phillis L; Ko, Celine M; Cruz, Lee Ann; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2006-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the cardiovascular disease risk factors among Chamorros residing in the United States. Methods The Chamorro Directory International and the CDC's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Questionnaire (BRFSS) were used to assess the health related practices and needs of a random sample of 228 Chamorros. Results Inactivity, hypertension, elevated cholesterol and diabetes mellitus were more prevalent in this Chamorro sample compared to the US average. Participants who were 50-and-older or unemployed were more likely to report hypertension, diabetes and inactivity, but they were also more likely to consume more fruits and vegetables than their younger and employed counterparts. Women were more likely to report hypertension and diabetes, whereas men were more likely to have elevated BMI and to have never had their blood cholesterol checked. Conclusion The study provides data that will help healthcare providers, public health workers and community leaders identify where to focus their health improvement efforts for Chamorros and create culturally competent programs to promote health in this community. PMID:17156462

  5. [Midwives' perception of reproductive risk factors].

    PubMed

    García-Barrios, C; Castañeda-Camey, X; Romero-Guerrero, X; González-Hernández, D; Langer-Glas, A

    1993-01-01

    Midwives in rural areas of the State of Morelos are one of the most important resources used by rural women for health care of pregnancy, delivery and the puerperium. This work was aimed at identifying midwives perceptions of pregnant women's risk factors, in order to include this knowledge in reproductive health programs which articulate institutional and traditional health systems. We applied a questionnaire to all midwives in the Municipalities of Ocuituco, yecapixtla and Zacualpan, Morelos (n = 35). Four key informants were selected and interviewed. These instruments enabled us to measure variability in perception of risk factors. Knowledge of risk factors is defective among midwives. Previous training made a big difference. Sixty three per cent of midwives who attended training courses are better qualified from an academic medicine point of view. Only 28.7 per cent of non-trained midwives (43% for both groups), indicating that sociocultural aspects prevail over technical training in midwives perceptions of reproductive risk factors. PMID:8470023

  6. Cross-cultural validity of a dietary questionnaire for studies of dental caries risk in Japanese

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diet is a major modifiable contributing factor in the etiology of dental caries. The purpose of this paper is to examine the reliability and cross-cultural validity of the Japanese version of the Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess dietary intake in relation to dental caries risk in Japanese. Methods The 38-item Food Frequency Questionnaire, in which Japanese food items were added to increase content validity, was translated into Japanese, and administered to two samples. The first sample comprised 355 pregnant women with mean age of 29.2 ± 4.2 years for the internal consistency and criterion validity analyses. Factor analysis (principal components with Varimax rotation) was used to determine dimensionality. The dietary cariogenicity score was calculated from the Food Frequency Questionnaire and used for the analyses. Salivary mutans streptococci level was used as a semi-quantitative assessment of dental caries risk and measured by Dentocult SM. Dentocult SM scores were compared with the dietary cariogenicity score computed from the Food Frequency Questionnaire to examine criterion validity, and assessed by Spearman’s correlation coefficient (rs) and Kruskal-Wallis test. Test-retest reliability of the Food Frequency Questionnaire was assessed with a second sample of 25 adults with mean age of 34.0 ± 3.0 years by using the intraclass correlation coefficient analysis. Results The Japanese language version of the Food Frequency Questionnaire showed high test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.70) and good criterion validity assessed by relationship with salivary mutans streptococci levels (rs = 0.22; p < 0.001). Factor analysis revealed four subscales that construct the questionnaire (solid sugars, solid and starchy sugars, liquid and semisolid sugars, sticky and slowly dissolving sugars). Internal consistency were low to acceptable (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.67 for the total scale, 0.46-0.61 for each subscale). Mean dietary

  7. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  8. Knowledge and Behaviour of Young People Concerning Fertility Risks – Results of a Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Fügener, J.; Matthes, A.; Strauß, B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was, in the light of the increasing number of involuntarily childless couples, to investigate the state of knowledge of young people of fertile age about the risks for fertility disorders and their own risk behaviour. In addition, we wanted to check for a relationship between these aspects and the motives for wanting children, individual personality traits and psychological status. Materials and Methods: 498 women and men between the ages of 18 and 30 years participated in an anonymous survey. The sample consisted of 153 medical students, 190 students from other faculties and 155 vocational trainees. Their knowledge was tested by way of open questions on reproduction. The sum total from relevant life-style factors was used to estimate their risk-taking behaviour. Their psychic states were examined using the Health Questionnaire for Patients “Gesundheitsfragebogen für Patienten” PHQ-D, in addition the Leipzig Questionnaire on Motives for Wanting Children “Der Leipziger Fragebogen zu Kinderwunschmotiven” and the short version of the “Big Five Inventory” BFI-K were used. Results: The participants were aware of the risks for fertility disorders but did not always correctly assess their influence on fertility. Their knowledge about reproduction was rather low (on average 6.3 from 16 points). Medical students had a significantly higher state of knowledge and exhibited less risky behaviour as compared to the other two groups. Depressiveness and risky behaviour correlated positively and emotional aspects played the major role in attitudes towards having children. Risk behaviour was best predicted by the variables depressiveness, low level of knowledge and the feeling of being restricted in personal life by children. Discussion: Lack of knowledge on the topics fertility and reproduction could be a reason for risky behaviour and thus have a negative impact on lifestyle factors relating to fertility. Young people are aware of the

  9. Knowledge and Behaviour of Young People Concerning Fertility Risks - Results of a Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Fügener, J; Matthes, A; Strauß, B

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was, in the light of the increasing number of involuntarily childless couples, to investigate the state of knowledge of young people of fertile age about the risks for fertility disorders and their own risk behaviour. In addition, we wanted to check for a relationship between these aspects and the motives for wanting children, individual personality traits and psychological status. Materials and Methods: 498 women and men between the ages of 18 and 30 years participated in an anonymous survey. The sample consisted of 153 medical students, 190 students from other faculties and 155 vocational trainees. Their knowledge was tested by way of open questions on reproduction. The sum total from relevant life-style factors was used to estimate their risk-taking behaviour. Their psychic states were examined using the Health Questionnaire for Patients "Gesundheitsfragebogen für Patienten" PHQ-D, in addition the Leipzig Questionnaire on Motives for Wanting Children "Der Leipziger Fragebogen zu Kinderwunschmotiven" and the short version of the "Big Five Inventory" BFI-K were used. Results: The participants were aware of the risks for fertility disorders but did not always correctly assess their influence on fertility. Their knowledge about reproduction was rather low (on average 6.3 from 16 points). Medical students had a significantly higher state of knowledge and exhibited less risky behaviour as compared to the other two groups. Depressiveness and risky behaviour correlated positively and emotional aspects played the major role in attitudes towards having children. Risk behaviour was best predicted by the variables depressiveness, low level of knowledge and the feeling of being restricted in personal life by children. Discussion: Lack of knowledge on the topics fertility and reproduction could be a reason for risky behaviour and thus have a negative impact on lifestyle factors relating to fertility. Young people are aware of the risk factors

  10. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Young Schema Questionnaire (Short Form) in Chinese Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Lixia; Lin, Wenwen; Oei, Tian P. S.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated cross-cultural differences in the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Young Schema Questionnaire (short form; YSQ-SF). The participants were 712 Chinese undergraduate students. The total sample was randomly divided into two sub-samples. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was conducted on questionnaire results…

  11. Adolescents at Risk for Violence: An Initial Validation of the Life Challenges Questionnaire and Risk Assessment Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinberg, Ilyse; Dawkins, Marva; Dawkins, Marvin P.; Fullilove, Constance

    2005-01-01

    Initial validation was sought for the Life-Challenges Questionnaire-Teen Form, a 120-item youth-risk assessment tool. The questionnaire was administered to 99 students enrolled in an adolescent detention facility and a comparison group of 305 students attending high school. The survey items included correlates of youth violence and categorized…

  12. NutricheQ Questionnaire assesses the risk of dietary imbalances in toddlers from 1 through 3 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Morino, Giuseppe S.; Cinelli, Giulia; Pietro, Ilaria Di; Papa, Vittoria; Spreghini, Nicola; Manco, Melania

    2015-01-01

    Background Although a nutrient-poor diet may affect children's growth, especially early in life, few tools to assess dietary imbalances in 1- to 3-year-old children have been developed. Objectives To investigate the accuracy and test–retest reliability of the NutricheQ Questionnaire in the identification of toddlers with the risk of inadequate intake of micro- and macronutrients in a sample of Italian toddlers. Design A 3-day weighed food record was performed, and results were compared with outcomes of the NutricheQ Questionnaire in 201 toddlers (training set: 1–3 years old). The accuracy of NutricheQ in the identification of categories of nutritional risk was evaluated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Test–retest of the tool was estimated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the Cronbach's alpha statistic, in a validation set of 50 toddlers. Results The NutricheQ Questionnaire is a valid tool for the identification of toddlers at risk for dietary imbalances. Significant differences in nutrient intake (p<0.005) were found among the three groups of risk identified by the questionnaire: toddlers included in the high-risk group had a lower intake of key nutrients such as iron, vitamin D and other vitamins, and fibre compared to those included in the low-risk group. NutricheQ is also reliable between administrations, as demonstrated by its test–retest reliability. ICC and Cronbach's alpha were 0.73 and 0.83, respectively, for Section 1 of NutricheQ, and 0.55 and 0.70 for Section 2. Conclusions The NutricheQ Questionnaire is a reliable and consistent tool for the assessment of possible dietary risk factors in Italian toddlers. It consistently identifies toddlers with a high probability of having poor iron and vitamin D intake, and other dietary imbalances. PMID:26689315

  13. Risk Factors for Attempting Suicide in Heroin Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Alec

    2010-01-01

    In order to examine risk factors for attempting suicide in heroin dependent patients, a group of 527 abstinent opiate dependent patients had a psychiatric interview and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Patients who had or had never attempted suicide were compared on putative suicide risk factors. It was found that 207 of the 527…

  14. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Factors Request Permissions Print to PDF Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 08/ ... anything that increases a person’s chance of developing cancer. Although risk factors often influence the development of cancer, most do ...

  15. Risk Management in Companies -A Questionnaire as an Instrument for Analysing the Present Situation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiller, Diana; Joehnk, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The topic risk management receives new impulses in the context of the financial and economic crisis in the years 2007 until 2011 as well as the question whether companies took consequences. The article briefly describes the importance of risk management and then explained the theoretical principles of empirical methods. Excerpts from developed questionnaire will be presented.

  16. Stroke prevention: modifying risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Romero, José Rafael; Morris, Jane; Pikula, Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Risk factor modification remains as the principal aspect of care for stroke prevention. Understanding of risk factors has advanced and several options are now available to treat modifiable risk factors. However, effective treatment remains a challenging task in clinical practice. Prevention begins with awareness of risk factors by patients and clinicians. Risk factor assessment along with overall stroke risk estimation should be part of evaluation of patients with stroke, and used with careful clinical judgment. In this review we discuss the impact of modifiable traditional vascular risk factors on ischemic stroke, interventions for stroke prevention, and evidence for early treatment of risk factors where available as well as areas of research progress. Emphasis should be paid in education of patients, the community and medical personnel. Future research in the field of genetic determinants of vascular risk factors and stroke will increase our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of cerebrovascular disease and likely result in development of new therapies and individualized programs for stroke prevention. PMID:19124428

  17. Factor Structure of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire in Children with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyfer, Ovsanna; John, Angela E.; Woodruff-Borden, Janet; Mervis, Carolyn B.

    2012-01-01

    To examine the factor structure of temperament in 5-10-year-olds with Williams syndrome, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the responses of parents of 192 children on the children's behavior questionnaire. Four factors were identified. Two corresponded to factors reported for typically developing children: effortful control and…

  18. Risk Factors for Teenage Fatherhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberry, Terence P.; Smith, Carolyn A.; Howard, Gregory J.

    1997-01-01

    Uses data from the Rochester Youth Development Study of urban youth (N=615) to identify early risk factors for the likelihood of becoming a teen father. Results show that teen fatherhood is related to a variety of risk factors, such as social class, educational performance, precocious sexual activity, and drug use. (RJM)

  19. Risk Factors for Scleroderma

    MedlinePlus

    ... part of a study, please call the Scleroderma Research Foundation at 1-800-441-CURE. Environmental Risk Some ... is both time consuming and expensive. The Scleroderma Research Foundation continues to fund and facilitate the most promising ...

  20. Factor Structure and Convergent Validity of the Aggression Questionnaire in an Offender Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Tamra Y.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Whether the four-factor structure of the Aggression Questionnaire (A. Buss and M. Perry, 1992) from previous studies would be replicated in an offender population was studied with 200 adult offenders. Results of a confirmatory factor analysis indicate that a two-factor structure is a better fit with offenders. (SLD)

  1. Factor Validity of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) in Asynchronous Online Learning Environments (AOLE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Moon-Heum; Summers, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factor validity of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) in asynchronous online learning environments. In order to check the factor validity, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted with 193 cases. Using CFA, it was found that the original measurement model fit for…

  2. Psychological Factors Linked to Risk Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.

    2012-04-01

    Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.

  3. Stroke Risk Factors and Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... effective if given quickly. Every minute counts! "Stroke Risk Factors and Symptoms", NINDS. June 1, 2008. Prepared by: Office of Communications and Public Liaison National Institute of Neurological Disorders ...

  4. Hidden Risk Factors for Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... high cholesterol. “Those are the most common risk factors,” according to Steven J. Kittner, M.D., director of the Maryland Stroke Center at the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore. “But ...

  5. Cardiac risk factors: environmental, sociodemographic, and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Anthony, David; George, Paul; Eaton, Charles B

    2014-06-01

    Several environmental exposures are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Exposure to secondhand smoke may increase the risk by as much as 25% to 30%. Exposure to third hand smoke, residual components of tobacco smoke that remain in the environment after a cigarette is extinguished, also appears to increase risk. These residual components can remain in rooms and automobiles for up to 30 years and enter the body through the skin or via inhalation or ingestion. Exposure to particulate matter air pollution from automobile emissions, power plants, and other sources is yet another environmental risk factor for CHD, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths annually in the United States. Exposure to other environmental toxins, particularly bisphenol A and phthalates, also has been linked to CHD. There are sociodemographic risks for CHD, with numerous studies showing that lower socioeconomic status is associated with higher risk. Behavioral risk factors include poor diet, such as frequent consumption of fast food and processed meals; sleep disturbance; and psychological stress, particularly related to marital or work issues. Finally, although high alcohol consumption is associated with increased CHD risk, moderate alcohol consumption (ie, less than 1 to 2 drinks/day), particularly of wine and possibly beer, appears to reduce the risk. PMID:24936715

  6. Impulsivity is associated with the disinhibition but not restraint factor from the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Yeomans, Martin R; Leitch, Margaret; Mobini, Sirous

    2008-01-01

    Recent data implicate impulsivity as a personality trait associated with obesity, binge eating and restrained eating. However, impulsivity is recognised as having multiple dimensions, and it remains unclear which aspects of impulsive behaviour best predict disordered eating. To try and elucidate further the relationship between impulsivity and eating behaviour, 147 women completed a behavioural measure and two self-report measures of impulsivity along with the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). Overall scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-II), along with scores on the Non-planning and Motor Subscales of the BIS-II, were higher in women scoring high on the TFEQ disinhibition (TFEQ-D) scale. Likewise, women scoring high on the TFEQ-D showed more impulsive choice when discounting hypothetical monetary awards. However, responses to measures of functional relative to dysfunctional impulsivity did not differ depending on TFEQ-D score. No measure of impulsivity was related to scores on the TFEQ restraint scale. These data suggest that a tendency to act impulsively is associated with a tendency to overeat, and may be a factor which predicts the likelihood of the development of binge eating and the breakdown of dieting. PMID:18069081

  7. Measurement properties of a screening questionnaire of obstructive sleep apnea risk: Little information, great prediction?☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Sargento, Paulo; Perea, Victoria; Ladera, Valentina; Lopes, Paulo; Oliveira, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Previous research had shown the suitability of several questionnaires predicting the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Measurement properties of an online screening questionnaire were studied. Methods The sample consisted of 184 Portuguese adults (89 men and 95 women); 46 of them were polysomnographically diagnosed with the untreated obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The participants were assessed with an online questionnaire of sleep apnea risk, from University of Maryland. Results A principal component factor analysis was performed, revealing a single factor (49.24% of the total variance). Internal consistency was minimally adequate (α=0.74). The mean of inter-item correlation was of 0.35 (0.120.61), whereas the item-total correlations were considered good (0.520.81). The total score for patients was significantly higher than for healthy participants (p<0.000), but no significant statistical differences between severity groups of patients were found (p>0.05). Furthermore, the ability of the measure in discriminating between healthy subjects and OSA subjects was good. Overall data from the Rasch analysis was consistent with the guidelines of Linacre, scores show good model fit and psychometric adequacy. Conclusions The measure showed an adequate structural, internal and criterion validity, suggesting this as a useful and effective screening for sleep apnea risk in Portuguese adults. PMID:26483909

  8. Cardiovascular Risk Factors of Taxi Drivers.

    PubMed

    Elshatarat, Rami Azmi; Burgel, Barbara J

    2016-06-01

    In the United States (U.S.), cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major leading cause of death. Despite the high mortality rate related to CVD, little is known about CVD risk factors among urban taxi drivers in the U.S. A cross-sectional design was used to identify the predictors of high cardiovascular risk factors among taxi drivers. Convenience sampling method was used to recruit 130 taxi drivers. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain the data. The sample was male (94 %), age mean (45 ± 10.75) years, married (54 %), born outside of the USA (55 %), had some college or below (61.5 %), night drivers (50.8 %), and driving on average 9.7 years and 41 h/week. About 79 % of them were eligible for CVD prevention, and 35.4 % had high CVD risk factors (4-9 risk factors). A CVD high-risk profile had a significant relationship with the subjects who were ≥55 years old; had hypertension, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia; were drinking alcohol ≥2 times/week; and had insufficient physical activity. Subjects who worked as a taxi driver for more than 10 years (OR 4.37; 95 % CI 1.82, 10.50) and had mental exertion from cab driving >5 out of 10 (OR 2.63; 95 % CI 1.05, 6.57) were more likely to have a CVD high-risk profile. As a conclusion, system-level or worksite interventions include offering healthy food at taxi dispatching locations, creating a work culture of frequent walking breaks, and interventions focusing on smoking, physical activity, and weight management. Improving health insurance coverage for this group of workers is recommended. PMID:27151321

  9. Chronic disease risk factors among hotel workers

    PubMed Central

    Gawde, Nilesh Chandrakant; Kurlikar, Prashika R.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Non-communicable diseases have emerged as a global health issue. Role of occupation in pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases has not been explored much especially in the hospitality industry. Aims: Objectives of this study include finding risk factor prevalence among hotel workers and studying relationship between occupational group and chronic disease risk factors chiefly high body mass index. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among non-managerial employees from classified hotels in India. Materials and Methods: The study participants self-administered pre-designed pilot-tested questionnaires. Statistical analysis used: The risk factor prevalence rates were expressed as percentages. Chi-square test was used for bi-variate analysis. Overweight was chosen as ‘outcome’ variable of interest and binary multi-logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants. Results: The prevalence rates of tobacco use, alcohol use, inadequate physical activity and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables were 32%, 49%, 24% and 92% respectively among hotel employees. Tobacco use was significantly common among those in food preparation and service, alcohol use among those in food service and security and leisure time physical activity among front office workers. More than two-fifths (42.7%) were overweight. Among the hotel workers, those employed in food preparation and security had higher odds of 1.650 (CI: 1.025 – 2.655) and 3.245 (CI: 1.296 – 8.129) respectively of being overweight. Conclusions: Prevalence of chronic disease risk factors is high among hotel workers. Risk of overweight is significantly high in food preparation and security departments and workplace interventions are necessary to address these risks PMID:27390474

  10. Psychometric properties and factor structure of an L2 reading motivation questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-jung; Choi, Sunhee

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the psychometric properties and factor structure of a popular second language reading motivation questionnaire developed by Mori (2002). 550 first year high school students in Korea answered the 30-item questionnaire which consists of statements indicating different degrees of English reading motivation. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted with principal axis factoring and promax rotation, which yielded a four-factor solution. The factors included 'Intercultural and Intellectual Orientation', 'Reading Efficacy', 'Intrinsic Motivation', and 'Negative Attitudes'. The results supported the multidimensionality of the construct of L2 reading motivation, but could not replicate the nine factor structure which was originally proposed by Mori. The implications for further research on L2 reading motivation and development of a more valid L2 reading scale are discussed. PMID:24704649

  11. About Alzheimer's Disease: Risk Factors and Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... About ADEAR About Alzheimer's Disease: Risk Factors and Prevention We can’t control some risk factors for ... as well. NIA Information on Risk Factors and Prevention 2014-2015 Alzheimer's Disease Progress Report: Advancing Research ...

  12. 76 FR 81955 - Assessment Questionnaire-IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... submissions of responses. Analysis Agency: Department of Homeland Security, National Protection and Programs... SECURITY Assessment Questionnaire--IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT) AGENCY...: Assessment Questionnaire--IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT). OMB Number:...

  13. 77 FR 33227 - Assessment Questionnaire-IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ...). Analysis Agency: Department of Homeland Security, National Protection and Programs Directorate, Office of... SECURITY Assessment Questionnaire--IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT) AGENCY...--Assessment Questionnaire--IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT). DHS...

  14. Environmental risk factors for osteoporosis

    SciTech Connect

    Goyer, R.A.; Korach, K.S. ); Epstein, S. ); Bhattacharyya, M. ); Pounds, J. )

    1994-04-01

    Environmental risk factors for osteoporosis were reviewed at a conference held at the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences 8-9 November 1993. The conference was co-sponsored by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disease and the NIH Office of Research in Women's Health. The objective of the conference was to review what is known about risk factors for osteoporosis and to identify gaps in the present state of knowledge that might be addressed by future research. The conference was divided into two broad themes. The first session focused on current knowledge regarding etiology, risk factors, and approaches to clinical and laboratory diagnosis. This was followed by three sessions in which various environmental pollutants were discussed. Topics selected for review included environmental agents that interfere with bone and calcium metabolism, such as the toxic metals lead, cadmium, aluminum, and fluoride, natural and antiestrogens, calcium, and vitamin D.

  15. Risk Factors For Chronic Rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jin-Young; Tan, Bruce K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To review the recent literature on risk factors for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with an emphasis on genetic, comorbid diseases and environmental factors associated with CRS. Through identifying potential risk factors for CRS, we glean insights into the underlying pathogenic mechanisms and essential for developing effective therapeutic strategies. Recent findings Recent findings demonstrate that genetics, comorbid medical conditions including airway diseases, gastroesophageal reflux disease, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases and various demographic and environmental factors are associated with having a CRS diagnosis. Limitations of current studies include, variable application of disease definitions, lack of prospective longitudinal studies and a disproportionate focus on tertiary care populations. Summary CRS has a broad spectrum of associations ranging from genetics to comorbid diseases and environmental factors. These predisposing factors provide valuable information for possible designing therapeutic and preventive interventions. However, to better understand whether these associations cause CRS, further studies are needed to independently replicate findings, establish temporal relationships between exposure and disease onset, evaluate the influence of exposure dose on disease severity, and to understand the biological effects of these risk factors in the context of CRS. PMID:25479315

  16. Risk factors for hypospadias in China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ling-Fan; Liang, Chao-Zhao; Lipianskaya, Julia; Chen, Xian-Guo; Fan, Song; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Jun; Tai, Sheng; Jiang, Chang-Qin

    2014-01-01

    This case-controlled study was designed to evaluate the association between various baseline parental factors and the risk of hypospadias in China. Patients were selected from tertiary referral hospitals in Anhui, a province in mid-eastern China. A questionnaire was given to the parents of each patient. The final database included 193 cases and 835 controls. The incidence of additional coexistent anomalies was 13.0%, primarily cryptorchidism (9.8%). Ten patients (5.1%) were from families with genital anomaly, including five families (2.6%) with hypospadias. The risks of hypospadias was higher for children of mothers > 35 (odds ratio [OR] =1.47) and < 18 (OR = 2.95) years of age, and in mothers who had consumed alcohol (OR = 2.67), used drugs (OR = 1.53) and had an infection (OR = 1.87) during pregnancy. The risk of hypospadias was also higher when mothers (OR = 1.68) and fathers (OR = 1.74) were engaged in agriculture. Other factors assessed were not associated with the risk of hypospadias. PMID:24875823

  17. Factors Influencing Schoolchildren's Responses to a Questionnaire in Wildlife Conservation Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballouard, Jean-Marie; Mullin, Stephen J.; Ajtic, Rastko; Brito, José Carlos; ElMouden, El Hassan; Erdogan, Mehmet; Feriche, Monica; Pleguezuelos, Juan M.; Prokop, Pavol; Sánchez, Aida; Santos, Xavier; Slimani, Tahar; Sterijovski, Bogoljub; Tomovic, Ljiljana; Usak, Muhammet; Zuffi, Marco; Bonnet, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Questionnaires are important tools for assessing attitudes regarding conservation issues. However, they are not easily comparable and their reliability has been insufficiently assessed. We examined factors influencing responses to open- and closed-ended questions about animal conservation to more than 600 schoolchildren (9 years old on average).…

  18. Comparative Factor Analyses of the Personal Attributes Questionnaire and the Bem Sex-Role Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antill, John K.; Cunningham, John D.

    1982-01-01

    Compared the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) and the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) as measures of androgyny. Results showed that femininty (Concern for Others) and masculinity (Dominance) accounted for most of the variance, but for PAQ, clusters of male- and female-valued items (i.e., Extroversion and Insecurity) formed subsidiary factors.…

  19. Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance of the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire across the Adult Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rast, Philippe; Zimprich, Daniel; Van Boxtel, Martin; Jolles, Jellemer

    2009-01-01

    The Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ) is designed to assess a person's proneness to committing cognitive slips and errors in the completion of everyday tasks. Although the CFQ is a widely used instrument, its factor structure remains an issue of scientific debate. The present study used data of a representative sample (N = 1,303, 24-83 years…

  20. Time Diary and Questionnaire Assessment of Factors Associated with Academic and Personal Success among University Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Darren; Dixon, Sinikka; Stansal, Emory; Gelb, Shannon Lund; Pheri, Tabitha

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: A sample of 231 students attending a private liberal arts university in central Alberta, Canada, completed a 5-day time diary and a 71-item questionnaire assessing the influence of personal, cognitive, and attitudinal factors on success. Methods: The authors used 3 success measures: cumulative grade point average (GPA),…

  1. Psychometric Evaluation of the Student Authorship Questionnaire: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballantine, Joan; Guo, Xin; Larres, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This research provides new insights into the measurement of students' authorial identity and its potential for minimising the incidence of unintentional plagiarism by providing evidence about the psychometric properties of the Student Authorship Questionnaire (SAQ). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA) are employed to…

  2. The Factor Structure and Dimensional Scoring of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire for "DSM-IV"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Holaway, Robert M.; Heimberg, Richard G.

    2008-01-01

    Despite favorable psychometric properties, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire for the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) (GAD-Q-IV) does not have a known factor structure, which calls into question use of its original weighted scoring system (usually referred to as the dimensional score). Analyses…

  3. Factor Structure of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in a Canadian Elementary School Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aitken, Madison; Martinussen, Rhonda; Wolfe, Richard G.; Tannock, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a 25-item screening measure for emotional and behavioral problems in children and adolescents aged 4 to 16. Structural equation modeling was used to test the five-factor structure of teacher and parent ratings on the British version of the SDQ in a community sample of 501 Canadian children aged…

  4. [Psoriasis and cardiovascular risk factors].

    PubMed

    Tal, Roy; Pavlovsky, Lev; David, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease which may dramatically affect patients' lives. This chronic disease is characterized by a protracted course of alternating remissions and relapses. In recent years, the attention of researchers has focused on the association between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease risk factors. This review summarizes the literature on this topic with an emphasis on research conducted in Israel. PMID:23316664

  5. An examination of the factor structure of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren

    2009-03-01

    The present study examined the factor structure of a Malay translation of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 among a community sample of 554 Malaysian women. Results of an exploratory factor analysis revealed the existence of four factors, two of which (Information and Internalization-Athlete) mirrored those found among Western samples. An additional factor was an amalgamation of two factors reported in the West, namely Pressure and Internalization-General. A fourth factor consisted of six items, four of which cross-loaded onto previous factors, and was consequently dropped from analyses. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the three retained factors were all above .82, and the three factors were significantly correlated with each other and with participants' body mass index. The results of this study stress the need for locally developed scales in the study of body image and a shift away from reliance on scales developed in the West. PMID:19249260

  6. Adolescents Who Drive Under the Influence: Correlates and Risk Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayton, Daniel M., II; And Others

    This study was designed to determine the correlates or potential risk factors which predict whether an adolescent who drinks or uses drugs will refrain from driving under the influence, or will drive in this condition. A group of 426 rural high school seniors completed a questionnaire which assessed drug use patterns and previously identified risk…

  7. Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hun Soo; Kim, Hyun Sil

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the rate of suicide attempts and relevant variables and identified risk factors for suicide attempts among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-report questionnaire. A total of 2,100 Korean adolescents, including 1,321 student adolescents and 779 delinquent adolescents, were…

  8. Factor structure of the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire short form for restaurant employees.

    PubMed

    Hancer, Mura; George, R Thomas

    2004-02-01

    The factor structure of the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire short form for nonsupervisory restaurant employees was explored in questions among 2000 employees of three full-service restaurant chains operating in midwestern United States. A total of 2000 surveys were distributed to hourly employees of the three chains. From the mailing, 924 surveys were returned and found useable, a 46.2% response rate. Principal factors analysis identified a four-factor structure for the employees, in contrast to the original two-factor structure, but as in other studies the structure was multifactorial. PMID:15077790

  9. Risk factors for postoperative ileus

    PubMed Central

    Kutun, Suat; Ulucanlar, Haluk; Tarcan, Oguz; Demir, Abdullah; Cetin, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to examine extended postoperative ileus and its risk factors in patients who have undergone abdominal surgery, and discuss the techniques of prevention and management thereof the light of related risk factors connected with our study. Methods This prospective study involved 103 patients who had undergone abdominal surgery. The effects of age, gender, diagnosis, surgical operation conducted, excessive small intestine manipulation, opioid analgesic usage time, and systemic inflammation on the time required for the restoration of intestinal motility were investigated. The parameters were investigated prospectively. Results Regarding the factors that affected the restoration of gastrointestinal motility, resection operation type, longer operation period, longer opioid analgesics use period, longer nasogastric catheter use period, and the presence of systemic inflammation were shown to retard bowel motility for 3 days or more. Conclusion Our study confirmed that unnecessary analgesics use in patients with pain tolerance with non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, excessive small bowel manipulation, prolonged nasogastric catheter use have a direct negative effect on gastrointestinal motility. Considering that an exact treatment for postoperative ileus has not yet been established, and in light of the risk factors mentioned above, we regard that prevention of postoperative ileus is the most effective way of coping with intestinal dysmotility. PMID:22111079

  10. Internet Abuse Risk Factors among Spanish Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Carballo, José L; Marín-Vila, María; Espada, José P; Orgilés, Mireia; Piqueras, José A

    2015-01-01

    Empirical evidence has revealed various factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of Internet abuse. The aim of this paper was to analyze, on a sample of Spanish adolescents, the relationship between Internet abuse and: (1) Personal and interpersonal risk factors, including social skills in both virtual and real-life contexts; (2) Drug use. A total of 814 high school students aged between 13 and 17 participated in this study, and were divided into two groups: Internet Abusers (IA = 173) and Non-Internet Abusers (NIA = 641). Questionnaires were used to analyze Internet and drug use/abuse, as well as social skills, in virtual and real contexts. Various interpersonal risk factors (family and group of friends) were also assessed. IA showed a more severe pattern of Internet and drug use, as well as poorer social skills in both contexts. Moreover, their groups of friends appeared more likely to become involved in risky situations related to Internet and drug abuse. Both IA and NIA showed more adaptive social skills in the virtual context than in the real one. There is a need for further research to build on these findings, with a view to designing specific preventive programs that promote responsible Internet use. PMID:26611139

  11. Human factors and risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Minhali, A.

    1996-11-01

    A case study was presented in the 1994 Abu Dhabi International Exhibition and Conference (ADIPEC, 94) which discussed the importance of investigating human factors in the design of a high integrity protection system (HIPS) to be installed on an offshore high pressure gas platform, (SPE reference ADSPE 80). This paper will follow up on the design changes, installation and operation of the HIPS with emphasis on practical implications as a result of improper integration of human factors in the system reliability and risk assessment studies.

  12. [Environmental Risk Factors for Dementia].

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Yoshitaka; Kinoshita, Ayae

    2016-07-01

    Owing to recent advancements in imaging techniques and biomarker research, the natural history of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become clear from the very first preclinical stage. According to the study, more than 20 years before the onset of AD, Aβ starts to accumulate in the brain. This induces neurofibrillary tangle formation in the cerebral isocortex, leading to cognitive decline. If this process is suppressed, disease activity can be controlled. However, at this point, the best and most realistic way to deal with AD is to target the environmental factors that have been identified as risk factors by epidemiological studies. PMID:27395468

  13. [Suicide - background, epidemiology, risk factors].

    PubMed

    Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta

    2015-10-01

    Suicide research, in particular epidemiology, comprises a huge amount of data. However, the theoretical understanding clearly lags behind the empirical knowledge. Suicide, suicide attempts and other suicidal behaviors are more heterogeneous than most explanatory approaches would assume. The most important recent contributions to a better understanding have come from selected epidemiological findings and, interestingly, prevention. This article provides an overview of epidemiological findings, the most relevant risk factors and conclusions related to successful preventive efforts. PMID:26423878

  14. Studying Risk Factors Associated with Human Leptospirosis

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Ramachandra; Swain, Subhashisa; Pattanshetty, Sanjay; Nair, N Sreekumaran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Leptospirosis is one of the most under diagnosed and underreported disease in both developed and developing countries including India. It is established that environmental conditions and occupational habit of the individuals put them at risk of acquiring disease, which varies from community to community. Various seroprevalence studies across the world have documented emerging situation of this neglected tropical disease, but limited have probed to identify the risk factors, especially in India. Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify the environmental and occupational risk factors associated with the disease in Udupi District. Materials and Methods: This population-based case-control study was carried out in Udupi, a District in Southern India from April 2012 until August 2012. Udupi is considered to be endemic for Leptospirosis and reported 116 confirmed cases in the year 2011. Seventy of 116 laboratory confirmed cases and 140 sex matched neighborhood healthy controls participated in the study. A predesigned, semi-structured and validated questionnaire was used for data collection through house to house visit and observations were noted about environmental conditions. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate analysis (back ward conditional logistic regression) was performed by using STATA version 9.2 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA) to identify potential risk factors. Results: Occupational factors such as outdoor activities (matched odds ratio [OR] of 3.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-13.0), presence of cut or wound at body parts during work (matched OR: 4.88, CI: 1.83-13.02) and environmental factors such as contact with rodents through using the food materials ate by rat (matched OR: 4.29, CI: 1.45-12.73) and contact with soil or water contaminated with urine of rat (matched OR: 4.58, CI: 1.43-14.67) were the risk factors identified to be associated with disease. Conclusion: Leptospirosis is still considered as

  15. The Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire: Factor Structure and Correlates in a Lifespan Sample

    PubMed Central

    Calamia, Matthew; Reese-Melancon, Celinda; Cherry, Katie E.; Hawley, Karri S.; Jazwinski, S. Michal

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the factor structure of the Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire (KMAQ) [1] using confirmatory factor analysis in a lifespan sample of 933 individuals who ranged in age from 18 to 101. Participants were college students at Louisiana State University and adults from the community enrolled in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). A two-factor solution was expected, consistent with the normal and pathological memory aging dimensions that comprise the KMAQ. A bi-factor solution with items loading on a general response bias factor and either a normal or pathological knowledge-specific factor showed good model fit. Knowledge scores were correlated with demographic and cognitive performance variables. Implications of these data for clinical settings and research are considered. PMID:27505021

  16. The Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire: Factor Structure and Correlates in a Lifespan Sample.

    PubMed

    Calamia, Matthew; Reese-Melancon, Celinda; Cherry, Katie E; Hawley, Karri S; Jazwinski, S Michal

    2016-03-01

    The authors examined the factor structure of the Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire (KMAQ) [1] using confirmatory factor analysis in a lifespan sample of 933 individuals who ranged in age from 18 to 101. Participants were college students at Louisiana State University and adults from the community enrolled in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). A two-factor solution was expected, consistent with the normal and pathological memory aging dimensions that comprise the KMAQ. A bi-factor solution with items loading on a general response bias factor and either a normal or pathological knowledge-specific factor showed good model fit. Knowledge scores were correlated with demographic and cognitive performance variables. Implications of these data for clinical settings and research are considered. PMID:27505021

  17. Factors Influencing Schoolchildren's Responses to a Questionnaire in Wildlife Conservation Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballouard, Jean-Marie; Mullin, Stephen J.; Ajtic, Rastko; Brito, José Carlos; Hassan ElMouden, El; Erdogan, Mehmet; Feriche, Monica; Pleguezuelos, Juan M.; Prokop, Pavol; Sánchez, Aida; Santos, Xavier; Slimani, Tahar; Sterijovski, Bogoljub; Tomovic, Ljiljana; Uşak, Muhammet; Zuffi, Marco; Bonnet, Xavier

    2015-02-01

    Questionnaires are important tools for assessing attitudes regarding conservation issues. However, they are not easily comparable and their reliability has been insufficiently assessed. We examined factors influencing responses to open- and closed-ended questions about animal conservation to more than 600 schoolchildren (9 years old on average). We analysed the level of understanding, controllable (e.g. sample size) and less controllable factors (e.g. affectivity). Most children responded appropriately to the questions, but subtle changes in the phrasing influenced the answers. Affectivity towards endearing species and spontaneity also influenced the responses whereas small sample sizes (∼50 children) provided relatively stable patterns. Overall, we suggest that standardization of questionnaires administered over large spatial and time scales is needed to accurately assess children's attitudes towards conservation issues.

  18. Development of a questionnaire for assessing factors predicting blood donation among university students: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jalalian, Mehrdad; Latiff, Latiffah; Hassan, Syed Tajuddin Syed; Hanachi, Parichehr; Othman, Mohamed

    2010-05-01

    University students are a target group for blood donor programs. To develop a blood donation culture among university students, it is important to identify factors used to predict their intent to donate blood. This study attempted to develop a valid and reliable measurement tool to be employed in assessing variables in a blood donation behavior model based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), a commonly used theoretical foundation for social psychology studies. We employed an elicitation study, in which we determined the commonly held behavioral and normative beliefs about blood donation. We used the results of the elicitation study and a standard format for creating questionnaire items for all constructs of the TPB model to prepare the first draft of the measurement tool. After piloting the questionnaire, we prepared the final draft of the questionnaire to be used in our main study. Examination of internal consistency using Chronbach's alpha coefficient and item-total statistics indicated the constructs "Intention" and "Self efficacy" had the highest reliability. Removing one item from each of the constructs, "Attitude," "Subjective norm," "Self efficacy," or "Behavioral beliefs", can considerably increase the reliability of the measurement tool, however, such action is controversial, especially for the variables "attitude" and "subjective norm." We consider all the items of our first draft questionnaire in our main study to make it a reliable measurement tool. PMID:20578556

  19. Factor analysis of treatment outcomes from a UK specialist addiction service: Relationship between the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire, Social Satisfaction Questionnaire and 10-item Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Fairhurst, Caroline; Böhnke, Jan R; Gabe, Rhian; Croudace, Tim J; Tober, Gillian; Raistrick, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and Aims To examine the relationship between three outcome measures used by a specialist addiction service (UK): the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire (LDQ), the Social Satisfaction Questionnaire (SSQ) and the 10-item Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation (CORE-10). Design and Method A clinical sample of 715 service user records was extracted from a specialist addiction service (2011) database. The LDQ (dependence), SSQ (social satisfaction) and CORE-10 (psychological distress) were routinely administered at the start of treatment and again between 3 and 12 months post-treatment. A mixed pre/post-treatment dataset of 526 service users was subjected to exploratory factor analysis. Parallel Analysis and the Hull method were used to suggest the most parsimonious factor solution. Results Exploratory factor analysis with three factors accounted for 66.2% of the total variance but Parallel Analysis supported two factors as sufficient to account for observed correlations among items. In the two-factor solution, LDQ items and nine of the 10 CORE-10 items loaded on the first factor >0.41, and the SSQ items on factor 2 with loadings >0.63. A two dimensional summary appears sufficient and clinically meaningful. Discussion and Conclusions Among specialist addiction service users, social satisfaction appears to be a unique construct of addiction and is not the same as variation due to psychological distress or dependence. Our interpretation of the findings is that dependence is best thought of as a specific psychological condition subsumed under the construct psychological distress. [Fairhurst C, Böhnke JR, Gabe R, Croudace TJ, Tober G, Raistrick D. Factor analysis of treatment outcomes from a UK specialist addiction service: Relationship between the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire, Social Satisfaction Questionnaire and 10-item Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation. Drug Alcohol Rev 2014;33:643–650] PMID:24802233

  20. The Risk of Repetition of Attempted Suicide Among Iranian Women with Psychiatric Disorders as Quantified by the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Shakeri, Jalal; Farnia, Vahid; Abdoli, Nasrin; Akrami, Mohammad R.; Arman, Farid; Shakeri, Hania

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The factors associated with repetition of attempted suicide are poorly categorized in the Iranian population. In this study, the prevalence of different psychiatric disorders among women who attempted suicide and the risk of repetition were assessed.  Methods: Participants were women admitted to the Poisoning Emergency Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences following failed suicide attempts. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) symptom checklist. Risk of repetition was evaluated using the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R).  Results: About 72% of individuals had a SBQ-R score >8 and were considered to be at high risk for repeated attempted suicide. Adjustment disorders were the most common psychiatric disorders (40.8%). However, the type of psychiatric disorder was not associated with the risk of repetition (p=0.320). Marital status, educational level, employment, substance use, history of suicide among family members, and motivation were not determinant factors for repetition of suicide attempt (p=0.220, 0.880, 0.220, 0.290, 0.350 and 0.270, respectively). Younger women were associated with violent methods of attempted suicide, such as self-cutting, whereas older individuals preferred consumption of poison (p<0.001). Drug overdose was more common among single and married women whereas widows or divorcees preferred self-burning (p=0.004).  Conclusion: About 72% of patients with failed suicide attempts were at high risk for repeated attempts. Age, marital status, and type of psychiatric disorder were the only determinants of suicide method. Adjustment disorders were the most common psychiatric disorders among Iranian women. However, this did not predict the risk of further attempts. PMID:26171123

  1. Modifications of Coronary Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Albu, Jeanine; Gottlieb, Sheldon H.; August, Phyllis; Nesto, Richard W.; Orchard, Trevor J.

    2009-01-01

    In addition to the revascularization and glycemic management interventions assigned at random, the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) design includes the uniform control of major coronary artery disease risk factors, including dyslipidemia, hypertension, smoking, central obesity, and sedentary lifestyle. Target levels for risk factors were adjusted throughout the trial to comply with changes in recommended clinical practice guidelines. At present, the goals are low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <2.59 mmol/L (<100 mg/dL) with an optional goal of <1.81 mmol/L (<70 mg/dL); plasma triglyceride level <1.70 mmol/L (<150 mg/dL); blood pressure level <130 mm Hg systolic and <80 mm Hg diastolic; and smoking cessation treatment for all active smokers. Algorithms were developed for the pharmacologic management of dyslipidemia and hypertension. Dietary prescriptions for the management of glycemia, plasma lipid profiles, and blood pressure levels were adapted from existing clinical practice guidelines. Patients with a body mass index >25 were prescribed moderate caloric restriction; after the trial was under way, a lifestyle weight-management program was instituted. All patients were formally prescribed both endurance and resistance/flexibility exercises, individually adapted to their level of disability and fitness. Pedometers were distributed as a biofeedback strategy. Strategies to achieve the goals for risk factors were designed by BARI 2D working groups (lipid, cardiovascular and hypertension, and nonpharmacologic intervention) and the ongoing implementation of the strategies is monitored by lipid, hypertension, and lifestyle intervention management centers. PMID:16813737

  2. Social representations, correspondence factor analysis and characterization questionnaire: a methodological contribution.

    PubMed

    Lo Monaco, Grégory; Piermattéo, Anthony; Guimelli, Christian; Abric, Jean-Claude

    2012-11-01

    The characterization questionnaire is inspired by Q-sort methodologies (i.e. qualitative sorting). It consists in asking participants to give their opinion on a list of items by sorting them into categories depending on their level of characterization of the object. This technique allows us to obtain distributions for each item and each response modality (i.e. characteristic vs. not chosen vs. not characteristic). This contribution intends to analyze these frequencies by means of correspondence factor analysis. The originality of this contribution lies in the fact that this kind of analysis has never been used to process data collected by means of this questionnaire. The procedure will be detailed and exemplified by means of two empirical studies on social representations of the good wine and the good supermarket. The interests of such a contribution will be discussed from both methodological points of view and an applications perspective. PMID:23156928

  3. Risk factors identified for certain lymphoma subtypes

    Cancer.gov

    In a large international collaborative analysis of risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), scientists were able to quantify risk associated with medical history, lifestyle factors, family history of blood or lymph-borne cancers, and occupation for 11

  4. Factor structure and psychometric properties of the revised Home Situations Questionnaire for autism spectrum disorder: The Home Situations Questionnaire-Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Monali; Aman, Michael G; Lecavalier, Luc; Smith, Tristram; Johnson, Cynthia; Swiezy, Naomi; McCracken, James T; King, Bryan; McDougle, Christopher J; Bearss, Karen; Deng, Yanhong; Scahill, Lawrence

    2016-07-01

    Previously, we adapted the Home Situations Questionnaire to measure behavioral non-compliance in everyday settings in children with pervasive developmental disorders. In this study, we further revised this instrument for use in autism spectrum disorder and examined its psychometric properties (referred to as the Home Situations Questionnaire-Autism Spectrum Disorder). To cover a broader range of situations and improve reliability, we prepared seven new items describing situations in which children with autism spectrum disorder might display non-compliance. Parents completed ratings of 242 children with autism spectrum disorder with accompanying disruptive behaviors (ages 4-14 years) participating in one of two randomized clinical trials. Results from an exploratory factor analysis indicated that the Home Situations Questionnaire-Autism Spectrum Disorder consists of two 12-item factors: Socially Inflexible (α = 0.84) and Demand Specific (α = 0.89). One-to-two-week test-retest reliability was statistically significant for all scored items and also for subscale totals. The pattern of correspondence between the Home Situations Questionnaire-Autism Spectrum Disorder and parent-rated problem behavior, clinician-rated repetitive behavior, adaptive behavior, and IQ provided evidence for concurrent and divergent validity of the Home Situations Questionnaire-Autism Spectrum Disorder. Overall, the results suggest that the Home Situations Questionnaire-Autism Spectrum Disorder is an adequate measure for assessing non-compliance in a variety of situations in this population, and use of its two subscales will likely provide a more refined interpretation of ratings. PMID:26187059

  5. Childhood Trauma Questionnaire: factor structure, measurement invariance, and validity across emotional disorders.

    PubMed

    Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W; Hickendorff, Marian; van Hemert, Albert M; Bernstein, David P; Elzinga, Bernet M

    2014-09-01

    To study the psychometric properties of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF), we determined its dimensional structure, measurement invariance across presence of emotional disorders, the association of the CTQ-SF with an analogous interview-based measure (CTI) across presence of emotional disorders, and the incremental value of combining both instruments in determining associations with severity of psychopathology. The sample included 2,308 adults, ages 18-65, consisting of unaffected controls and chronically affected and intermittently affected persons with an emotional disorder at Time 0 (T0) or 4 years later at T4. Childhood maltreatment was measured at T0 with an interview and at T4 with the CTQ-SF. At each wave, patients were assessed for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., or DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994)-based emotional disorders (Composite Interview Diagnostic Instrument) and symptom severity (Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Fear Questionnaire). Besides the correlated original 5-factor solution, an indirect higher order and direct bifactorial model also showed a good fit to the data. The 5-factor solution proved to be invariant across disordered-control comparison groups. The CTQ-SF was moderately associated with the CTI, and this association was not attenuated by disorder status. The CTQ-SF was more sensitive in detecting emotional abuse and emotional neglect than the CTI. Combined CTQ-SF/CTI factor scores showed a higher association with severity of psychopathology. We conclude that although the original 5-factor model fits the data well, results of the hierarchical analyses suggest that the total CTQ scale adequately captures a broad dimension of childhood maltreatment. A 2-step measurement approach in the assessment of childhood trauma is recommended in which screening by a self-report questionnaire is followed by a (semi-)structured diagnostic interview. PMID

  6. Factor structure of the Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ) at Spanish universities.

    PubMed

    Pichardo, Carmen; Justicia, Fernando; de la Fuente, Jesús; Martínez-Vicente, José Manuel; Berbén, Ana B G

    2014-01-01

    The Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ) has been used in psychology research during the last decade. The instrument has been used in a variety of life domains: psychological well-being, dispositional happiness, depressive symptoms and career adaptability. This investigation studies the factor structure and internal consistency of the SRQ, extracting a short version in the Spanish context and examining its relation to academic variables (self-regulated learning and grades). The analysis started from a version with 63 items, representing seven conceptual dimensions. This version was administered to a sample of 834 students from Education and Psychology. The data from the above-mentioned sample were randomly divided into two sets, each containing 50% of the students (n = 417): exploratory and confirmatory. In the exploratory sample, exploratory factor analysis findings suggested a more parsimonious measurement model, with 17 items and 4 first-order factors. The confirmatory sample was used in the confirmatory factor analysis. The results show evidence for the internal consistency of the Short Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SSRQ) in the Spanish context, with indices greater than .90 and errors around .05. Regarding academic variables, both versions are related to self-regulated learning (r = .40, p < .01) and students' grades (r = .15, p < .01). Differences from other studies done in North America are discussed, as well as similarities to a study from North-West University (in South Africa). PMID:26054362

  7. Coronary risk factors in schoolchildren.

    PubMed Central

    Boreham, C; Savage, J M; Primrose, D; Cran, G; Strain, J

    1993-01-01

    Death rates from coronary heart disease (CHD) in Northern Ireland are among the highest in the world. However, no data have been available to test the hypothesis that the high prevalence of CHD is reflected by the risk status of the childhood population. A randomly selected 2% population sample of 1015 children aged 12 and 15 years was studied to obtain baseline information on blood pressure, lipid profile, cigarette smoking, family history, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and dietary fat intake. Using available criteria thresholds, 15-23% displayed increased blood pressure, 12-25% had unfavourable lipid profiles, and 18-34% were overfat. In 15 year old children, 16-21% admitted being regular smokers, 26-34% displayed poor cardiorespiratory fitness, and 24-29% reported little physical activity in the previous week. Dietary analysis revealed relatively low polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratios and high mean fat intakes, accounting for approximately 40% total daily energy. Despite the exclusion of family history from the analysis, 16% of the older children exhibited three or more risk factors. These results justify major concern about the level of potential coronary risk in Northern Ireland schoolchildren. Broadly based primary prevention strategies aimed at children are essential if future adult CHD mortality is to be reduced. PMID:8481039

  8. Examination of the Factor Structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire among British and Trinidadian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Barron, David; Swami, Viren; Hutchinson, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Much debate in schizotypal research has centred on the factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), with research variously showing higher-order dimensionality consisting of two to seven dimensions. In addition, cross-cultural support for the stability of those factors remains limited. Here, we examined the factor structure of the SPQ among British and Trinidadian adults. Participants from a White British subsample (n = 351) resident in the UK and from an African Caribbean subsample (n = 284) resident in Trinidad completed the SPQ. The higher-order factor structure of the SPQ was analysed through confirmatory factor analysis, followed by multiple-group analysis for the model of best fit. Between-group differences for sex and ethnicity were investigated using multivariate analysis of variance in relation to the higher-order domains. The model of best-fit was the four-factor structure, which demonstrated measurement invariance across groups. Additionally, these data had an adequate fit for two alternative models: (a) 3-factor and (b) modified 4-factor model. The British subsample had significantly higher scores across all domains than the Trinidadian group, and men scored significantly higher on the disorganised domain than women. The four-factor structure received confirmatory support and, importantly, support for use with populations varying in ethnicity and culture. PMID:25699263

  9. Sociodemographic Variation of Caries Risk Factors in Toddlers and Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Eckert, G. J.; Jackson, R.; Fontana, M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. Dental caries is the most common chronic childhood disease, with numerous identified risk factors. Risk factor differences could indicate the need to target caregiver/patient education/preventive care intervention strategies based on population and/or individual characteristics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate caries risk factors differences by race/ethnicity, income, and education. Methods. We enrolled 396 caregiver-toddler pairs and administered a 105-item questionnaire addressing demographics, access to care, oral bacteria transmission, caregiver's/toddler's dental and medical health practices, caregiver's dental beliefs, and caregiver's/toddler's snacking/drinking habits. Logistic regressions and ANOVAs were used to evaluate the associations of questionnaire responses with caregiver's race/ethnicity, income, and education. Results. Caregivers self-identified as Non-Hispanic African-American (44%), Non-Hispanic White (36%), Hispanic (19%), and “other” (1%). Differences related to race/ethnicity, income, and education were found in all risk factor categories. Conclusions. Planning of caregiver/patient education/preventive care intervention strategies should be undertaken with these caries risk factor differences kept in mind. PMID:20953367

  10. Configurations of Common Childhood Psychosocial Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…

  11. Concurrent Risk Factors for Adolescent Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saner, Hilary; Ellickson, Phyllis

    1996-01-01

    Examines the risk and protective factors for different types of violent behavior in high school adolescents. Major risk factors include gender and deviant behaviors, committing nonviolent felonies, academic failure, and lack of parental affection and support. As risk factors increase, the likelihood of violent behavior increases. Impaired parental…

  12. Development of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman-Aluja Personality Questionnaire (ZKA-PQ): a factor/facet version of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ).

    PubMed

    Aluja, Anton; Kuhlman, Michael; Zuckerman, Marvin

    2010-09-01

    The development of a new 200-item questionnaire based on the theoretical constructs of the alternative Five-factor model of personality is described. We developed the Zuckerman-Kuhlman-Aluja Personality Questionnaire (ZKA-PQ) from an initial pool of 537 items. Its final version includes 5 factors with 4 facets per factor and 10 items per facet. Internal consistencies were adequate particularly for the factors. The 1 factor confirmatory factor analyses showed satisfactory goodness-of-fit indexes, but not for the 5 factor simple structure. When incorporating the secondary loadings and the correlated error terms, the model fit improved. A multigroup analysis showed gender differences for the factors Sensation Seeking, Neuroticism, Aggressiveness, and Activity for the Spanish-speaking sample but only for Aggressiveness in the English-speaking sample. We assessed the convergent and discriminant validity of the ZKA-PQ by inspecting correlations with shortened versions of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992) and Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (Cloninger, 1999) in 2 independent and additional samples. This new instrument may be useful for basic and applied research, including normal personality, psychobiology of personality, personality and clinical disorders, and industrial-organizational psychology. PMID:20706928

  13. Exploring the factor structure of the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait in Cuban adults

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Martín, Boris C.; Molerio-Pérez, Osana

    2014-01-01

    Food cravings refer to an intense desire to eat specific foods. The Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait (FCQ-T) is the most commonly used instrument to assess food cravings as a multidimensional construct. Its 39 items have an underlying nine-factor structure for both the original English and Spanish version; but subsequent studies yielded fewer factors. As a result, a 15-item version of the FCQ-T with one-factor structure has been proposed (FCQ-T-reduced; see this Research Topic). The current study aimed to explore the factor structure of the Spanish version for both the FCQ-T and FCQ-T-reduced in a sample of 1241 Cuban adults. Results showed a four-factor structure for the FCQ-T, which explained 55% of the variance. Factors were highly correlated. Using the items of the FCQ-T-reduced only showed a one-factor structure, which explained 52% of the variance. Both versions of the FCQ-T were positively correlated with body mass index (BMI), scores on the Food Thoughts Suppression Inventory and weight cycling. In addition, women had higher scores than men and restrained eaters had higher scores than unrestrained eaters. To summarize, results showed that (1) the FCQ-T factor structure was significantly reduced in Cuban adults and (2) the FCQ-T-reduced may represent a good alternative to efficiently assess food craving on a trait level. PMID:24672503

  14. Predicting Dyslexia at Age 11 from a Risk Index Questionnaire at Age 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helland, Turid; Plante, Elena; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on predicting dyslexia in children ahead of formal literacy training. Because dyslexia is a constitutional impairment, risk factors should be seen in preschool. It was hypothesized that data gathered at age 5 using questions targeting the dyslexia endophenotype should be reliable and valid predictors of dyslexia at age 11. A…

  15. [Protective and family risk factors related to adolescent drug use].

    PubMed

    Cid-Monckton, Patricia; Pedrão, Luiz Jorge

    2011-06-01

    This cross-sectional and quantitative study aimed to verify the family's protective and risk factors related to drugs use in adolescents, considering the interaction patterns developed in the family, their degree of adaptability and vulnerability. Participants in this study were 80 female adolescents, from the 1st to 4th grade of high school, who answered a questionnaire. The most relevant risk and protective factors that would influence the situation were established, such as patterns of interaction, degree of adaptability, way of coping with problems, family resources and values. The major risk factors that emerged were the way people confront problems and, within these, lack of religious support and professional support, besides communication difficulties within families. The lowest risks were values, such as personal effort. The results highlight that nurses should assume psychosocial interventions as part of their role, especially among school-age children as, thus, they would be acting as agents in the prevention of drugs use. PMID:21739055

  16. Critical factors and paths influencing construction workers' safety risk tolerances.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiayuan; Zou, Patrick X W; Li, Penny P

    2016-08-01

    While workers' safety risk tolerances have been regarded as a main reason for their unsafe behaviors, little is known about why different people have different risk tolerances even when confronting the same situation. The aim of this research is to identify the critical factors and paths that influence workers' safety risk tolerance and to explore how they contribute to accident causal model from a system thinking perceptive. A number of methods were carried out to analyze the data collected through interviews and questionnaire surveys. In the first and second steps of the research, factor identification, factor ranking and factor analysis were carried out, and the results show that workers' safety risk tolerance can be influenced by four groups of factors, namely: (1) personal subjective perception; (2) work knowledge and experiences; (3) work characteristics; and (4) safety management. In the third step of the research, hypothetical influencing path model was developed and tested by using structural equation modeling (SEM). It is found that the effects of external factors (safety management and work characteristics) on risk tolerance are larger than that of internal factors (personal subjective perception and work knowledge & experiences). Specifically, safety management contributes the most to workers' safety risk tolerance through its direct effect and indirect effect; while personal subjective perception comes the second and can act as an intermedia for work characteristics. This research provides an in-depth insight of workers' unsafe behaviors by depicting the contributing factors as shown in the accident causal model developed in this research. PMID:26775077

  17. Factor Analysis of the Mystical Experience Questionnaire: A Study of Experiences Occasioned by the Hallucinogen Psilocybin

    PubMed Central

    Maclean, Katherine A.; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S.; Johnson, Matthew W.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2012-01-01

    A large body of historical evidence describes the use of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psilocybin mushrooms, for religious purposes. But few scientific studies have attempted to measure or characterize hallucinogen-occasioned spiritual experiences. The present study examined the factor structure of the Mystical Experience Questionnaire (MEQ), a self-report measure that has been used to assess the effects of hallucinogens in laboratory studies. Participants (N=1602) completed the 43-item MEQ in reference to a mystical or profound experience they had had after ingesting psilocybin. Exploratory factor analysis of the MEQ retained 30 items and revealed a 4-factor structure covering the dimensions of classic mystical experience: unity, noetic quality, sacredness (F1); positive mood (F2); transcendence of time/space (F3); and ineffability (F4). MEQ factor scores showed good internal reliability and correlated with the Hood Mysticism Scale, indicating convergent validity. Participants who endorsed having had a mystical experience on psilocybin, compared to those who did not, had significantly higher factor scores, indicating construct validity. The 4-factor structure was confirmed in a second sample (N=440) and demonstrated superior fit compared to alternative models. The results provide initial evidence of the validity, reliability, and factor structure of a 30-item scale for measuring single, hallucinogen-occasioned mystical experiences, which may be a useful tool in the scientific study of mysticism. PMID:23316089

  18. Factor Analysis of the Mystical Experience Questionnaire: A Study of Experiences Occasioned by the Hallucinogen Psilocybin.

    PubMed

    Maclean, Katherine A; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Johnson, Matthew W; Griffiths, Roland R

    2012-12-01

    A large body of historical evidence describes the use of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psilocybin mushrooms, for religious purposes. But few scientific studies have attempted to measure or characterize hallucinogen-occasioned spiritual experiences. The present study examined the factor structure of the Mystical Experience Questionnaire (MEQ), a self-report measure that has been used to assess the effects of hallucinogens in laboratory studies. Participants (N=1602) completed the 43-item MEQ in reference to a mystical or profound experience they had had after ingesting psilocybin. Exploratory factor analysis of the MEQ retained 30 items and revealed a 4-factor structure covering the dimensions of classic mystical experience: unity, noetic quality, sacredness (F1); positive mood (F2); transcendence of time/space (F3); and ineffability (F4). MEQ factor scores showed good internal reliability and correlated with the Hood Mysticism Scale, indicating convergent validity. Participants who endorsed having had a mystical experience on psilocybin, compared to those who did not, had significantly higher factor scores, indicating construct validity. The 4-factor structure was confirmed in a second sample (N=440) and demonstrated superior fit compared to alternative models. The results provide initial evidence of the validity, reliability, and factor structure of a 30-item scale for measuring single, hallucinogen-occasioned mystical experiences, which may be a useful tool in the scientific study of mysticism. PMID:23316089

  19. [Psychosocial risk factors at work as predictors of mobbing].

    PubMed

    Meseguer de Pedro, Mariano; Soler Sánchez, María I; García-Izquierdo, Mariano; Sáez Navarro, M C; Sánchez Meca, Julio

    2007-05-01

    This work analyses the way in which various psychosocial risk indicators may predict mobbing. A sample of 638 workers, 168 men and 470 women, from the fruit-and-vegetable sector was evaluated. An anonymous questionnaire was administered to all employees who were present on the evaluation days in the companies comprising the study. After analysing the data obtained with the mobbing questionnaire NAQ-RE (Sáez, García-Izquierdo, and Llor, 2003) and with the psychosocial risk factors evaluation method of the INSHT (Martín and Pérez, 1997), using canonical regression, we found that several psychosocial factors such as role definition, mental workload, interest in the workers, and supervision / participation predict two types of mobbing: personal mobbing and work-performance-related mobbing. PMID:17425890

  20. Occupational risk factors and voice disorders.

    PubMed

    Vilkman, E

    1996-01-01

    From the point of view of occupational health, the field of voice disorders is very poorly developed as compared, for instance, to the prevention and diagnostics of occupational hearing disorders. In fact, voice disorders have not even been recognized in the field of occupational medicine. Hence, it is obviously very rare in most countries that the voice disorder of a professional voice user, e.g. a teacher, a singer or an actor, is accepted as an occupational disease by insurance companies. However, occupational voice problems do not lack significance from the point of view of the patient. We also know from questionnaires and clinical studies that voice complaints are very common. Another example of job-related health problems, which has proved more successful in terms of its occupational health status, is the repetition strain injury of the elbow, i.e. the "tennis elbow". Its textbook definition could be used as such to describe an occupational voice disorder ("dysphonia professional is"). In the present paper the effects of such risk factors as vocal loading itself, background noise and room acoustics and low relative humidity of the air are discussed. Due to individual factors underlying the development of professional voice disorders, recommendations rather than regulations are called for. There are many simple and even relatively low-cost methods available for the prevention of vocal problems as well as for supporting rehabilitation. PMID:21275584

  1. Factors influencing quality of life in Moroccan postmenopausal women with osteoporotic vertebral fracture assessed by ECOS 16 questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Abourazzak, Fatima E; Allali, Fadoua; Rostom, Samira; Hmamouchi, Ihsane; Ichchou, Linda; El Mansouri, Laila; Bennani, Loubna; Khazzani, Hamza; Abouqal, Redouane; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia

    2009-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate factors influencing quality of life (QOL) in Moroccan postmenopausal women with osteoporotic vertebral fracture assessed by the Arabic version of ECOS 16 questionnaire. Methods 357 postmenopausal women were included in this study. The participants underwent bone mineral density (BMD) measurements by DXA of the lumbar spine and the total hip as well as X-ray examination of the thoraco-lumbar spine to identify subclinical vertebral fractures. Patients were asked to complete a questionnaire on clinical and sociodemographic parameters, and osteoporosis risk factors. The Arabic version of the ECOS16 (Assessment of health related quality of life in osteoporosis questionnaire) was used to assess quality of life. Results The mean age was 58 ± 7.8 years, and the mean BMI was 28.3 ± 4.8 kg/m2. One hundred and eight women (30.1%) were osteoporotic and 46.7% had vertebral fractures. Most were categorized as Grade1 (75%). Three independent factors were associated with a poor quality of life: low educational level (p = 0,01), vertebral fracture (p = 0,03), and history of peripheral fracture (p = 0,006). Worse QOL was observed in the group with vertebral fracture in all domains except "pain": Physical functioning (p = 0,002); Fear of illness (p = 0,001); and Psychosocial functioning (p = 0,007). The number of fractures was a determinant of a low QOL, as indicated by an increased score in physical functioning (p = 0,01), fear of illness (p = 0,007), and total score (p = 0,01) after adjusting on age and educational level. Patients with higher Genant score had low QOL in these two domains too (p = 0,002; p = 0,001 respectively), and in the total score (p = 0,01) after adjusting on age and educational level. Conclusion Our current data showed that the quality of life assessed by the Arabic version of the ECOS 16 questionnaire is decreased in post menopausal women with prevalent vertebral fractures, with the increasing number and the

  2. Measuring Integrated Socioemotional Guidance at School: Factor Structure and Reliability of the Socioemotional Guidance Questionnaire (SEG-Q)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Karen; Struyf, Elke

    2013-01-01

    Socioemotional guidance of students has recently become an integral part of education, however no instrument exists to measure integrated socioemotional guidance. This study therefore examines the factor structure and reliability of the Socioemotional Guidance Questionnaire. Psychometric properties of the Socioemotional Guidance Questionnaire and…

  3. Risk Factors for Prolonged Treatment of Whiplash-Associated Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Hiroyuki; Matsudaira, Ko; Fujii, Tomoko; Okazaki, Hiroshi; Shinkai, Yukari; Tsuji, Yutaka; Tanaka, Sakae; Kato, Ryuichi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) are the most common injuries that are associated with car collisions in Japan and many Western countries. However, there is no clear evidence regarding the potential risk factors for poor recovery from WAD. Therefore, we used an online survey of the Japanese population to examine the association between potential risk factors and the persistence of symptoms in individuals with WAD. Materials and Methods An online survey was completed by 127,956 participants, including 4,164 participants who had been involved in a traffic collision. A random sample of the collision participants (n = 1,698) were provided with a secondary questionnaire. From among the 974 (57.4%) respondents to the secondary questionnaire, we selected 183 cases (intractable neck pain that was treated over a period of 6 months) and 333 controls (minor neck pain that was treated within 3 months). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the potential risk factors for prolonged treatment of WAD. Results Female sex, the severity of the collision, poor expectations of recovery, victim mentality, dizziness, numbness or pain in the arms, and lower back pain were associated with a poor recovery from WAD. Conclusions In the present study, the baseline symptoms (dizziness, numbness or pain in the arms, and lower back pain) had the strongest associations with prolonged treatment for WAD, although the psychological and behavioral factors were also important. These risk factors should be considered when evaluating patients who may have the potential for poor outcomes. PMID:26147998

  4. Measuring Latinos’ Perceptions of Depression: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Illness Perception Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Lagomasino, Isabel T.; Dwight-Johnson, Megan; Hansen, Marissa C.; Xie, Bin

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire adapted for a clinical sample of low-income Latinos suffering from depression. Participants (N = 339) were recruited from public primary care centers. Their average age was 49.73 years and the majority was foreign born females of either Mexican or Central American descent. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the factor structure of this measure. Construct and discriminant validity and internal consistency were evaluated. After the elimination of three items because of low factor loadings (< .40) and the specification of seven error covariances, a revised model composed of 24 items had adequate goodness-of-fit indices and factor loadings, supporting construct validity. Each of the subscales reported satisfactory internal consistency. Intercorrelations between the 5 illness perception factors provided initial support for the discriminant validity of these factors in the context of depression. The establishment of the psychometric properties of this adapted measure will pave the way for future studies examining the role illness perceptions play in the help seeking and management of depression among Latinos. PMID:18954174

  5. Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire Factor Structure and Construct Validity In Bariatric Surgery Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Henderson, Kathryn E.; Bell, Robert L.; Crosby, Ross D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) is increasingly used in studies with bariatric surgery patients although little is known about psychometric properties of this self-report measure in this clinical group. The current study evaluated the factor structure and construct validity of the EDE-Q in bariatric surgery candidates. Methods Participants were a consecutive series of 174 obese bariatric surgery candidates who completed the EDE-Q and a battery of behavioral and psychological measures. Results Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed an inadequate fit for the original EDE-Q structure but revealed a good fit for an alternative structure suggested by recent research with obese samples. CFA supported a 7-item, 3-factor structure; the three factors were interpreted as dietary restraint, shape/weight overvaluation, and body dissatisfaction. The three factors converged with other relevant collateral measures. Conclusions These factor analytic findings, which replicate recent findings from studies with diverse obese samples, demonstrated convergent validity. Implications of these findings for clinical assessment and research with bariatric surgery patients are discussed. PMID:23229951

  6. Internal consistency and factor structure of 12-item general health questionnaire in visually impaired students

    PubMed Central

    Bakhla, Ajay Kumar; Verma, Vijay; Hembram, Mahesh; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Sinha, Vinod Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: As there are no instruments to measure psychological wellness or distress in visually impaired students, we studied internal consistency and factor structure of GHQ-12 in visually impaired children. Materials and Methods: Internal consistency analysis (Cronbach's alpha and item total correlation) and exploratory factor analysis (principal component analysis) were carried out to identify factor structure of 12-item general health questionnaire (GHQ-12). Results: All items of GHQ-12 were significantly associated with each other and the Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the scale was 0.7. On analysis of principal component, three-factor solution was found that accounted for 47.92% of the total variance. The factors included, ‘general well-being’, ‘depression’ and ‘cognitive’, with Cronbach's alpha coefficients being 0.70, 0.59, and 0.34, respectively. Conclusion: Our study findings suggest GHQ-12 is a reliable with adequate internal consistency scale and multidimensional factor structure in visually impaired students. PMID:25013310

  7. Reliability, Validity and Factor Structure of the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire among General Population

    PubMed Central

    Petkovska, Miodraga Stefanovska; Bojadziev, Marjan I.; Stefanovska, Vesna Velikj

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the study is to analyze the internal consistency; validity and factor structure of the twelve item General Health Questionnaire for the Macedonian general population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data came from nationally representative sample of 1603 randomly selected Macedonians all aged 18 years or older. RESULTS: The mean GHQ score in the general sample was found to be 7.9 (SD = 4.3). The results revealed a higher GHQ score among women (M = 8.91, SD = 4.5) compared to men (M = 6.89; SD = 4.2). The participants from the rural areas obtained a lower GHQ score (M = 7.55, SD = 3.8) compared to participants coming from the urban areas (M = 9.37, SD = 4.1). The principal component analysis with oblique rotation (direct oblimin) with maximum likelihood procedure solution was performed and the results yielded a three factor solution which jointly accounted for 57.17% of the total variance: Factor I named social management (items 1, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8); Factor II stress (items 2, 5 and 9) and Factor III named self-confidence (items 10, 11 and 12). Its factor structure is in line with representative research from other population groups. CONCLUSION: The GHQ-12 can be used effectively for assessment of the overall psychological well-being and detection of non-psychotic psychiatric problems among the Macedonian population.

  8. Examining the factor structures of the five facet mindfulness questionnaire and the self-compassion scale.

    PubMed

    Williams, Matthew J; Dalgleish, Tim; Karl, Anke; Kuyken, Willem

    2014-06-01

    The five facet mindfulness questionnaire (FFMQ; Baer, Smith, Hopkins, Krietemeyer, & Toney, 2006) and the self-compassion scale (SCS; Neff, 2003) are widely used measures of mindfulness and self-compassion in mindfulness-based intervention research. The psychometric properties of the FFMQ and the SCS need to be independently replicated in community samples and relevant clinical samples to support their use. Our primary aim was to establish the factor structures of the FFMQ and SCS in individuals with recurrent depression in remission, since mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) was developed as a treatment for preventing depressive relapse. In order to determine the consistency across populations, we examined the factor structures of the FFMQ and SCS in 3 samples: (1) a convenience sample of adults, (2) a sample of adults who practice meditation, and (3) a sample of adults who suffer from recurrent depression and were recruited to take part in a trial of MBCT. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) showed that a 4-factor hierarchical model of the FFMQ best fits the community sample and the clinical sample but that a 5-factor hierarchical model of the FFMQ best fits the meditator sample. CFA did not endorse the SCS 6-factor hierarchical structure in any of the 3 samples. Clinicians and researchers should be aware of the psychometric properties of the FFMQ to measure mindfulness when comparing meditators and nonmeditators. Further research is needed to develop a more psychometrically robust measure of self-compassion. PMID:24490681

  9. Using exploratory factor analysis of food frequency questionnaires to identify dietary patterns among Yup’ik People

    PubMed Central

    Ryman, Tove K.; Austin, Melissa A.; Hopkins, Scarlett; Philip, Jacques; O’Brien, Diane; Thummel, Kenneth; Boyer, Bert B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) developed by the Center for Alaska Native Health Research for studies in Yup’ik people includes market foods and subsistence foods such as moose, seal, waterfowl and salmon that may be related to disease risk. Because the FFQ contains >100 food items, we sought to characterize dietary patterns more simply for use in ongoing pharmacogenomics studies. Design Exploratory factor analysis was used to derive a small number of “factors” that explain a substantial amount of the variation in the Yup’ik diet. We estimated factor scores and measured associations with demographic characteristics and biomarkers. Setting Southwest Alaska, US Subjects 358 Yup’ik people, ≥ 18 years Results We identified 3 factors that each accounted for ≥10% of the common variance: the first characterized by “processed foods” (e.g., salty snacks, sweetened cereals); the second by “fruits and vegetables” (e.g., fresh citrus, potato salad); and the third by “subsistence foods” (seal or walrus soup, non-oily fish). Participants from coastal communities had higher values for the “subsistence” factor, whereas participants from inland communities had higher values for the “fruits and vegetables” factor. A biomarker of marine intake, δ 15N, was correlated with the “subsistence” factor, whereas a biomarker of corn and sugar-cane based market food intake, δ 13C, was correlated with “processed foods”. Conclusions This exploratory factor analysis identified 3 factors that appear to reflect dietary patterns among Yup’ik based on associations with participant characteristics and biomarkers. These factors will be useful for chronic disease studies in this population. PMID:23290469

  10. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Children's Negative Cognitive Error Questionnaire with a Clinically Depressed Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingery, Julie Newman; Kepley, Hayden O.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Walkup, John T.; Silva, Susan G.; Hoyle, Rick H.; Reinecke, Mark A.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    The factor structure and psychometric properties of the Children's Negative Cognitive Error Questionnaire (CNCEQ) were examined with 427 adolescents ages 12 to 18 (193 boys) with current major depressive disorder. Results of confirmatory factor analysis supported a four-factor model comprised of three content area factors (i.e., social, academic,…

  11. Unintentional Injury Risk in School-Age Children: Examining Interrelations between Parent and Child Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Melissa; Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Kane, Alexa

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research on children's risk of injury reveals that parent and child factors are often interrelated. This study examined relations between children's risk taking, parent appraisal of this risk taking, and children's rate of injury in youth 8 and 9 years old. Methods: Responses to questionnaires and laboratory tasks were used to examine…

  12. Evaluation of Berlin Questionnaire Validity for Sleep Apnea Risk in Sleep Clinic Populations

    PubMed Central

    Khaledi-Paveh, Behnam; Khazaie, Habibolah; Nasouri, Marzie; Ghadami, Mohammad Rasoul; Tahmasian, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The Berlin questionnaire (BQ) is a common tool to screen for Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) in the general population, but its application in the clinical sleep setting is still challenging. The aim of this study was to determine the specificity and sensitivity of the BQ compared to the apnea-hypopnea index obtained from polysomnography recordings obtained from a sleep clinic in Iran. Methods: We recruited 100 patients who were referred to the Sleep Disorders Research Center of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences for the evaluation of suspected sleep-disorder breathing difficulties. Patients completed a Persian version of BQ and underwent one night of PSG. For each patient, Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) was calculated to assess the diagnosis and severity of OSA. Severity of OSA was categorized as mild when AHI was between 5 and 15, moderate when it was between 15 and 30, and severe when it was more than 30. Results: BQ results categorized 65% of our patients as high risk and 35% as low risk for OSA. The sensitivity and the specificity of BQ for OSA diagnosis with AHI>5 were 77.3% and 23.1%, respectively. Positive predictive value was 68.0% and negative predictive value was 22.0%. Moreover, the area under curve was 0.53 (95% CI: 0.49 – 0.67, P=0.38). Discussion: Our findings suggested that BQ, despite its advantages in the general population, is not a precise tool to determine the risk of sleep apnea in the clinical setting, particularly in the sleep clinic population. PMID:27303598

  13. [Suicide risk factors among the elderly].

    PubMed

    Pérez Barrero, Sergio Andrés

    2012-08-01

    The author offers a brief overview of suicide risk factors among the elderly such as depression, all manner of abuse of the elderly, as well as medical, psychological and social risk factors, etc. By way of conclusion, a practical guide to evaluate suicide risk among the elderly is provided. PMID:22899142

  14. Family Factors Predicting Categories of Suicide Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell, Brooke P.; Wang, Wen-Ling; Herting, Jerald R.; Eggert, Leona L.

    2006-01-01

    We compared family risk and protective factors among potential high school dropouts with and without suicide-risk behaviors (SRB) and examined the extent to which these factors predict categories of SRB. Subjects were randomly selected from among potential dropouts in 14 high schools. Based upon suicide-risk status, 1,083 potential high school…

  15. Risk and Protective Factors for Drug Use among Latino and White Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felix-Ortiz, Maria; Newcomb, Michael D.

    1992-01-01

    Administered a questionnaire to 677 Latino and white late adolescents (grades 11, 12 and post-high school) examining both risk factors and protective factors related to frequency and/or quantity of cigarette, alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, and hard drug use. Risk and protection accounted for different amounts of variance across the various types of…

  16. Confirmatory and Exploratory Factor Analysis for Validating the Phlegm Pattern Questionnaire for Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunho; Ku, Boncho; Kim, Jong Yeol; Park, Young-Jae

    2016-01-01

    Background. Phlegm pattern questionnaire (PPQ) was developed to evaluate and diagnose phlegm pattern in Korean Medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine, but it was based on a dataset from patients who visited the hospital to consult with a clinician regarding their health without any strict exclusion or inclusion. In this study, we reinvestigated the construct validity of PPQ with a new dataset and confirmed the feasibility of applying it to a healthy population. Methods. 286 healthy subjects were finally included and their responses to PPQ were acquired. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted and the model fit was discussed. We extracted a new factor structure by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and compared the two factor structures. Results. In CFA results, the model fit indices are acceptable (RMSEA = 0.074) or slightly less than the good fit values (CFI = 0.839, TLI = 0.860). Many average variances extracted were smaller than the correlation coefficients of the factors, which shows the somewhat insufficient discriminant validity. Conclusions. Through the results from CFA and EFA, this study shows clinically acceptable model fits and suggests the feasibility of applying PPQ to a healthy population with relatively good construct validity and internal consistency. PMID:27051447

  17. RISK FACTORS OF THYROID PATHOLOGY FORMATION IN OUTPATIENT PREGNANT POPULATION.

    PubMed

    Morchiladze, N; Tkeshelashvili, B; Gagua, D; Gagua, T

    2016-06-01

    Several medical - biological and social - hygienic factors have been found to account for the definite increase in the incidence of thyroid gland disorders in reproductive age and pregnant women. Aim of our study was to identify the risk factors for development of thyroid gland pathology in outpatient pregnant women. Observational study - "case - control" study has been conducted at the base of David Gagua Hospital Ltd. Main (study) group involved 292 pregnant patients with established thyroid pathology. Control group included 58 conditionally healthy pregnant participants without any demonstrated thyroid pathology. Study of risk factors was performed by initial interviewing and specialized questionnaire recording process (so-called two-stage model of interviewing). Characteristics of diet, sleep, physical activity, including harmful habits, socio-economic and hereditary factors were studied; quantitative indices of risk for each component were calculated: odds ratio (OR) and attributable risk (AR), taking into account 95% confidence interval (CI). The Pearson's criterion χ2 with respective P value and the calculator developed by International Society of Evidence-based Medicine were used to obtain the final results. Statistically significant risk factors for development of thyroid pathology were identified, which included: Thyroid gland diseases and hereditary history of diabetes mellitus; low economic income, unfavorable living conditions, unhealthy dietary habits. Despite of the difficulty of assessment of causative relationship between above mentioned components, their strong correlation should be taken into account when defining the strategy of preventive measures, moreover the most part of identified risk factors are manageable. PMID:27441534

  18. Ten-year Diabetes Risk Forecast in the Capital of Jordan: Arab Diabetes Risk Assessment Questionnaire Perspective-A Strobe-Complaint Article.

    PubMed

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Alghwiri, Alia A; Awad, Hamzeh; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of diabetes in Jordan has been increasing. The early diagnosis of diabetes is vital to slow its progression. The Arab Risk (ARABRISK) screening tool is a self-administered questionnaire used to determine people who are at high risk for developing diabetes. This study aimed to identify people at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes by using the ARABRISK in the capital of Jordan.A cross-sectional study was conducted with a convenience sample of people in the capital of Jordan. The ARABRISK screening tool was administered to identify the participants' risk for developing diabetes. In addition to descriptive statistics, percentages of the ARABRISK categories were represented, and an independent samples t test was used to explore the differences between men and women. A total of 513 participants with a mean age of 51.94 (SD = 10.33) were recruited; 64.9% of the participants were men (n = 333).The total ARABRISK score ranged from 0 to 25 with a mean score of 12.30 (SD = 4.76). Using the independent samples t test, women (mean = 13.25, SE = 0.10) had significantly higher ARABRISK total scores than men did (mean = 12.95, SE = 0.09), t(141) = -2.23, P = 0.03 in the "moderate risk" category. All of the items in the ARABRISK questionnaire were found to be good predictors of the ARABRISK total scores. Among them, age, body mass index (BMI), and high blood glucose (HBG) were the best predictors as indicated by the standardized regression coefficient (β). Older age, obesity, elevated weight circumference, absence of daily physical activity, daily consumption of fruits/vegetables, presence of high blood pressure (HBP), and HBG were significantly associated with increased odds of high ARABRISK total scores. Neither a history of gestational diabetes nor a positive family history was associated with an increased odds of high ARABRISK total scores.By identifying risk factors in these participants, interventions and lifestyle

  19. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure Anyone can develop high blood pressure; however, age, ... can increase your risk for developing high blood pressure. Age Blood pressure tends to rise with age. About 65 ...

  20. [General practitioner burnout: risk factors].

    PubMed

    Dagrada, H; Verbanck, P; Kornreich, C

    2011-09-01

    This paper aims to review current knowledge on risk factors leading to burn-out of general practitioners, who are particularly concerned by burn-out, as 50% of them are being more or less affected. This article is based on bibliographic research covering literature between 1975 and 2010, using PUB MED software, medical books and articles. 44 articles were selected as dealing well with the aspects of the burn-out reviewed here. It seems established that stress precedes burnout symptoms. Theories investigating relationships between stress and work are presented. Exogenic stress (load and organization of work, emotional interaction with the patient, constraints, lack of recognition, conflicts between private and professional life) interacts with endogenous stress (idealism, (too much) acute feeling of responsibility, mood disorder, difficulty in collaborating, character, personality). Burn-out symptoms would appear preferentially when these two stresses coexist. Despite the wealth of publications, there is still a lack of knowledge of the causes of burn-out, requiring therefore increased research efforts, in order to improve the implementation of preventive measures, beneficial to the doctors as well as to their patients. PMID:22034773

  1. Occupational health risks of pathologists - results from a nationwide online questionnaire in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pathologists are highly trained medical professionals who play an essential part in the diagnosis and therapy planning of malignancies and inflammatory diseases. Their work is associated with potential health hazards including injuries involving infectious human tissue, chemicals which are assumed to be carcinogenic or long periods of microscope and computer work. This study aimed to provide the first comprehensive assessment of the health situation of pathologists in Switzerland. Methods Pathologists in Switzerland were contacted via the Swiss Society of Pathologists and asked to answer an ethically approved, online anonymous questionnaire comprising 48 questions on occupational health problems, workplace characteristics and health behaviour. Results 163 pathologists participated in the study. Forty percent of pathologists reported musculoskeletal problems in the previous month. The overall prevalence was 76%. Almost 90% of pathologists had visual refraction errors, mainly myopia. 83% of pathologists had experienced occupational injuries, mostly cutting injuries, in their professional career; more than one fifth of participants reported cutting injuries in the last year. However, long lasting injuries and infectious diseases were rare. Depression and burnout affected every eighth pathologist. The prevalence of smoking was substantially below that of the general Swiss population. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that more care should be taken in technical and personal protective measures, ergonomic workplace optimisation and reduction of work overload and work inefficiencies. Despite the described health risks, Swiss pathologists were optimistic about their future and their working situation. The high rate of ametropia and psychological problems warrants further study. PMID:23216705

  2. Testing Parameter Invariance for Questionnaire Indices Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Wolfram

    2006-01-01

    International studies like PISA use context student or school questionnaires to collect data on student family background, attitudes and learning context. Questionnaire constructs are typically measured using dichotomous or Likert-type items. Scaling of questionnaire items in order to obtain measures of family background, student attitudes or…

  3. Screening the risk of bipolar spectrum disorders: Validity evidence of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; Paino, Mercedes; Muñiz, José

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gather sources of validity evidence of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) in young adults for its use as a screening tool for bipolar spectrum disorders. The sample was composed of 1,002 participants, 268 men (26.7%). The mean age of participants was 21.1 years (SD=3.9). The results showed that between 3 and 59% of the sample reported some hypomanic experience. Gender differences were found in the total score of the MDQ. The analysis of the internal structure by exploratory factor analysis yielded 2 factors, called Energy-Activity and Disinhibition-Attention. This dimensional structure was replicated in the exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM), and also had factorial equivalence by gender. Participants who met the cut-off points of the MDQ reported a worse perceived mental health status and more consummatory and anticipatory pleasure, compared to the low scores group. These findings indicate that the MDQ has adequate psychometric properties in non-clinical samples, and could be useful as a screening tool in psychopathology, with the possibility of optimizing strategies for early identification and prevention in individuals at high risk for bipolar disorders. Future studies should further explore the role of subclinical bipolar phenotype and conduct longitudinal studies in samples of the general population. PMID:26055933

  4. Evaluation of the Alcohol Craving Questionnaire-Now factor structures: application of a cue reactivity paradigm.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Kevin M; Coffey, Scott F; Baschnagel, Joseph S; Drobes, David J; Saladin, Michael E

    2009-07-01

    The current study compared the psychometric properties and clinical/research utility of four distinct factor/subscale models of alcohol craving (three factor-derived models, and one rationally derived model) as measured by the Alcohol Craving Questionnaire-Now in social (n=52) and alcohol dependent (n=71) drinkers. All participants completed a self-report measure of alcohol abuse in addition to engaging in a structured interview and cue reactivity protocol. Participants provided self-reported craving, as well as desire to approach or avoid drinking, during a cue exposure task using separate analog scales. Factor/subscale models were compared in terms of internal consistency, convergent and divergent validity, and ability to predict cue-elicited approach and craving in addition to diagnostic status. All models demonstrated high levels of internal consistency, convergent and divergent validity, and the ability to predict both cue-elicited craving and alcohol dependence status. Specific strengths and weaknesses of each model are examined and the theoretical, clinical, and research utility of the current findings are discussed. PMID:19423243

  5. Cardiovascular risk factors in Italy.

    PubMed

    Menotti, A

    1999-12-01

    In the 1950s the Italian population was known for its low mean levels of major cardiovascular risk factors and serum cholesterol in particular. A definite increase of those mean levels was associated, in the next 2 decades, with increasing death rates from cardiovascular diseases and coronary heart disease. Between the late 1970s and early 1990s cardiovascular death rates declined by over 40%. Large population surveys showed, between 1978 and 1987, small decreases in the mean levels of blood pressure (in both sexes), of smoking habits (in men), and of body weight (in women), while serum cholesterol remained stable. These changes mathematically explained about two-thirds of the observed decline in cardiovascular mortality among middle-aged people. In the late 1980s and early 1990s scattered population studies suggested a decline in mean population levels of serum cholesterol, at least in some areas of the country. More coordinated or systematic preventive campaigns were organized by the public health authorities. On the other hand activities of many small private organizations dealing with heart health likely explain the spread of knowledge, attitude, and practice in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Food industry started to produce low-fat products and to label foods with nutrition facts. Changes in food consumption in the beneficial direction started to be recorded in the late 1980s. The spread of antihypertensive treatment was partly favored by the National Health Service offering anti-hypertensive drugs at relatively low cost. Government regulations have more and more restricted the public areas where smoking is allowed. An increasing interest for prevention on the part of physicians is a recent issue, mainly bound to the success of some major controlled trials of hypocholesterolemic drugs. PMID:10641828

  6. Factor Structure of the World Health Organization's Quality of Life Questionnaire-BREF in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Mahdi; Sheikhvatan, Mehrdad; Montazeri, Ali; Sheikhfatollahi, Mahmood

    2013-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHOQOL)-BREF is one of the most known general questionnaires for assessment of quality of life (QOL) in both healthy populations and in various diseases subgroups. The aim of the present study was to examine the construct validity of this questionnaire in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) using factor analysis. Methods: Two hundred and seventy-five patients aged 35-80 years old with the diagnosis of CAD admitted to the Tehran Heart Center operating room for coronary artery bypass were consecutively entered into the study. QOL was assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF. To estimate the reliability of the QOL questionnaire, Cronbach's a coefficient was measured. To assess the structure of the questionnaire, we firstly performed confirmatory factor analysis to test the hypothesized factor models. Exploratory factor analysis was then performed using the principal component method with varimax rotation. Results: Reliability of the questionnaire was low (Cronbach's a for different domains ranged from 0.24 to 0.74). In confirmatory factor analysis, only the 1-factor model indicated a good fit to the data. The exploratory factor analysis indicated a five-factor solution that jointly accounted for 55.7% of the variance observed. Also, the pattern of item loading was very different from the original structure of the questionnaire. Conclusions: The findings suggest that the WHOQOL-BREF might only be a measure of the overall QOL in patients with CAD, and is not a suitable instrument for measuring the different QOL dimensions as expected in this population. PMID:24130947

  7. Factor structure of the Parent Emotional Reaction Questionnaire: analysis and validation

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Tonje; Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Background Although many children experience violence and abuse each year, there is a lack of instruments measuring parents’ emotional reactions to these events. One instrument, the Parent Emotional Reaction Questionnaire (PERQ), allows researchers and clinicians to survey a broad spectrum of parents’ feelings directly related to their children's traumatic experiences. The objectives of this study were: (1) to examine the factor structure and the internal consistency of the PERQ; (2) to evaluate the discriminant validity of the instrument; and (3) to measure whether potential subscales are sensitive to change. Method A Norwegian sample of 120 primary caregivers of a clinical sample of 120 traumatized children and youths (M age=14.7, SD=2.2; 79.8% girls) were asked to report their emotional reactions to their child's self-reported worst trauma. Exploratory factor analysis was used to explore the underlying factor structure of the data. Results The analysis of the PERQ showed a three-factor structure, conceptualized as PERQdistress, PERQshame, and PERQguilt. The internal consistencies of all three subscales were satisfactory. The correlations between the PERQ subscales and two other parental measurements revealed small to moderate effect sizes, supporting the discriminant validity of the PERQ subscales. The differences in sum scores of the PERQ subscales before and after a therapeutic intervention suggest that all of the subscales were sensitive to change. Conclusions Study findings support the validity of conceptualizing the PERQ as three separate subscales that capture clinically meaningful features of parents’ feelings after their children have experienced trauma. However, the subscales need to be further evaluated using a larger sample size and a confirmatory factor analytic approach. PMID:26333541

  8. Multiple Interacting Risk Factors: On Methods for Allocating Risk Factor Interactions.

    PubMed

    Price, Bertram; MacNicoll, Michael

    2015-05-01

    A persistent problem in health risk analysis where it is known that a disease may occur as a consequence of multiple risk factors with interactions is allocating the total risk of the disease among the individual risk factors. This problem, referred to here as risk apportionment, arises in various venues, including: (i) public health management, (ii) government programs for compensating injured individuals, and (iii) litigation. Two methods have been described in the risk analysis and epidemiology literature for allocating total risk among individual risk factors. One method uses weights to allocate interactions among the individual risk factors. The other method is based on risk accounting axioms and finding an optimal and unique allocation that satisfies the axioms using a procedure borrowed from game theory. Where relative risk or attributable risk is the risk measure, we find that the game-theory-determined allocation is the same as the allocation where risk factor interactions are apportioned to individual risk factors using equal weights. Therefore, the apportionment problem becomes one of selecting a meaningful set of weights for allocating interactions among the individual risk factors. Equal weights and weights proportional to the risks of the individual risk factors are discussed. PMID:25644783

  9. Development and Validation of an HIV Risk Exposure and Indicator Conditions Questionnaire to Support Targeted HIV Screening.

    PubMed

    Elías, María Jesús Pérez; Gómez-Ayerbe, Cristina; Elías, Pilar Pérez; Muriel, Alfonso; de Santiago, Alberto Diaz; Martinez-Colubi, María; Moreno, Ana; Santos, Cristina; Polo, Lidia; Barea, Rafa; Robledillo, Gema; Uranga, Almudena; Espín, Agustina Cano; Quereda, Carmen; Dronda, Fernando; Casado, Jose Luis; Moreno, Santiago

    2016-02-01

    The aim of our study was to develop a Spanish-structured HIV risk of exposure and indicator conditions (RE&IC) questionnaire. People attending to an emergency room or to a primary clinical care center were offered to participate in a prospective, 1 arm, open label study, in which all enrolled patients filled out our developed questionnaire and were HIV tested. Questionnaire accuracy, feasibility, and reliability were evaluated.Valid paired 5329 HIV RE&IC questionnaire and rapid HIV tests were performed, 69.3% in the primary clinical care center, 49.6% women, median age 37 years old, 74.9% Spaniards, 20.1% Latin-Americans. Confirmed hidden HIV infection was detected in 4.1%, while HIV RE&IC questionnaire was positive in 51.2%. HIV RE&IC questionnaire sensitivity was 100% to predict HIV infection, with a 100% negative predictive value. When considered separately, RE or IC items sensitivity decreases to 86.4% or 91%, and similarly their negative predictive value to 99.9% for both of them. The majority of people studied, 90.8% self-completed HIV RE&IC questionnaire. Median time to complete was 3 minutes. Overall HIV RE&IC questionnaire test-retest Kappa agreement was 0.82 (almost perfect), likewise for IC items 0.89, while for RE items was lower 0.78 (substantial).A feasible and reliable Spanish HIV RE&IC self questionnaire accurately discriminated all non-HIV-infected people without missing any HIV diagnoses, in a low prevalence HIV infection area. The best accuracy and reliability were obtained when combining HIV RE&IC items. PMID:26844471

  10. Development and Validation of an HIV Risk Exposure and Indicator Conditions Questionnaire to Support Targeted HIV Screening

    PubMed Central

    Elías, María Jesús Pérez; Gómez-Ayerbe, Cristina; Elías, Pilar Pérez; Muriel, Alfonso; de Santiago, Alberto Diaz; Martinez-Colubi, María; Moreno, Ana; Santos, Cristina; Polo, Lidia; Barea, Rafa; Robledillo, Gema; Uranga, Almudena; Espín, Agustina Cano; Quereda, Carmen; Dronda, Fernando; Casado, Jose Luis; Moreno, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of our study was to develop a Spanish-structured HIV risk of exposure and indicator conditions (RE&IC) questionnaire. People attending to an emergency room or to a primary clinical care center were offered to participate in a prospective, 1 arm, open label study, in which all enrolled patients filled out our developed questionnaire and were HIV tested. Questionnaire accuracy, feasibility, and reliability were evaluated. Valid paired 5329 HIV RE&IC questionnaire and rapid HIV tests were performed, 69.3% in the primary clinical care center, 49.6% women, median age 37 years old, 74.9% Spaniards, 20.1% Latin-Americans. Confirmed hidden HIV infection was detected in 4.1%, while HIV RE&IC questionnaire was positive in 51.2%. HIV RE&IC questionnaire sensitivity was 100% to predict HIV infection, with a 100% negative predictive value. When considered separately, RE or IC items sensitivity decreases to 86.4% or 91%, and similarly their negative predictive value to 99.9% for both of them. The majority of people studied, 90.8% self-completed HIV RE&IC questionnaire. Median time to complete was 3 minutes. Overall HIV RE&IC questionnaire test-retest Kappa agreement was 0.82 (almost perfect), likewise for IC items 0.89, while for RE items was lower 0.78 (substantial). A feasible and reliable Spanish HIV RE&IC self questionnaire accurately discriminated all non–HIV-infected people without missing any HIV diagnoses, in a low prevalence HIV infection area. The best accuracy and reliability were obtained when combining HIV RE&IC items. PMID:26844471

  11. What Are the Risk Factors for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... what causes gastrointestinal stromal tumors? What are the risk factors for gastrointestinal stromal tumors? A risk factor is ... disease like cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. Some risk factors, like smoking, can be changed. Others, like ...

  12. ASSESSMENT OF RISK FACTORS FOR DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 2

    PubMed Central

    Begic, Edin; Arnautovic, Amira; Masic, Izet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia, and represents a disease of the modern age, disease of the 21st century. Prevention of this disease is listed as imperative. Aim of this article was to evaluate questionnaires on the assessment of risk factors for Diabetes Mellitus type 2. Material and Methods: A total of 540 questionnaires handed out randomly to citizens of Canton Sarajevo of all ages, sexes and educational levels (in January 2016) were analyzed. Results: Analyzed questionnaires showed relatively low risk of getting diabetes in the next ten years in the majority of the population. These results are rather encouraging but may in some way be in confrontation with the statistics which show a rapid outburst of diabetes. Conclusion: The life-style is the main reason for such a thing to happen, and looking at these questionnaires, we might get the feeling that we really do live in a, conditionally speaking, physically active society. That, from our everyday experience is not entirely true. It would be wise to continue doing research on this topic on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina. PMID:27482159

  13. Six-item self-administered questionnaires in the waiting room: an aid to explain uncontrolled hypertension in high-risk patients seen in general practice.

    PubMed

    Mulazzi, Isabelle; Cambou, Jean Pierre; Girerd, Xavier; Nicodeme, Robert; Chamontin, Bernard; Amar, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    We designed a cross-sectional study to determine whether 6-item self-administered questionnaires addressing difficulties in taking treatment provide independent and relevant information on uncontrolled hypertension in high-risk cardiovascular patients seen in general practice. Patients with both treated hypertension and a history of vascular diseases-myocardial infarction, stroke, or peripheral artery disease-were included. Risk factors, treatment, history of vascular diseases, blood pressure, and difficulties in taking treatment were assessed by 6-item self-administered questionnaires and recorded. Each positive response to the questions was weighted by 1 and each negative response by 0. Individual item scores were added together to produce 1 composite score for all 6 questions. A total of 11,096 patients were analyzed. Among them, 5,288 (51.4%) were controlled at 140/90 mm Hg threshold. In multivariate analysis, in addition to age, male gender, treated diabetes, peripheral artery disease, treatment, and alcohol consumption, the adherence score was negatively and independently associated with hypertension control (odds ratio score >/= 3, 0.73; [95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.81; P < .0001]. This study overwhelmingly confirms on a very large scale the effectiveness of this self-administered questionnaire in identifying difficulties in taking treatment in general practice. This questionnaire constitutes an inexpensive and timesaving tool capable of helping general practitioners to understand why hypertension is not controlled in patients at high cardiovascular risk. Whether the use of this questionnaire will improve hypertension control remains to be established. PMID:20409962

  14. Frequency and Influencing Factors of Rubber Dam Usage in Tianjin: A Questionnaire Survey.

    PubMed

    Zou, Huiru; Li, Yanni; Lian, Xiaoli; Yan, Yan; Dai, Xiaohua; Wang, Guanhua

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the frequency and influencing factors of rubber dam usage for endodontic procedures among general dentistry practitioners and specialized practitioners (endodontist) in Tianjin. Methods. Three hundred questionnaires were distributed among practitioners from 3 different types of medical institutions in Tianjin. Data were collected and analysed using Chi-square tests. Results. There were 63.3% of respondents who have used rubber dam (response rate 82.7%, valid response rate 76.3%). However, only 0.4% and 3.1% of them recognized using rubber dam "every time" during caries direct restoration and root canal therapy, respectively. There was no significant difference in rubber dam usage between male and female practitioners. Among the respondents, practitioners with working experience between 5 and 10 years showed the highest usage rate (76.3%), while practitioners working more than 20 years showed the lowest (53.2%). The endodontists gained the highest and the most frequent usage rate and the best rubber dam technique mastering skills. Practitioners working in those stomatological departments of general hospitals showed the lowest rubber dam usage rate. Conclusions. The prevalence of rubber dam usage in Tianjin city is still low. The practitioner's gender, years of professional experience, general or specialized field, and the type of dental setting they work for are the factors that need to be considered during making policy and executing training. PMID:27555870

  15. Frequency and Influencing Factors of Rubber Dam Usage in Tianjin: A Questionnaire Survey

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanni; Lian, Xiaoli; Yan, Yan; Dai, Xiaohua; Wang, Guanhua

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the frequency and influencing factors of rubber dam usage for endodontic procedures among general dentistry practitioners and specialized practitioners (endodontist) in Tianjin. Methods. Three hundred questionnaires were distributed among practitioners from 3 different types of medical institutions in Tianjin. Data were collected and analysed using Chi-square tests. Results. There were 63.3% of respondents who have used rubber dam (response rate 82.7%, valid response rate 76.3%). However, only 0.4% and 3.1% of them recognized using rubber dam “every time” during caries direct restoration and root canal therapy, respectively. There was no significant difference in rubber dam usage between male and female practitioners. Among the respondents, practitioners with working experience between 5 and 10 years showed the highest usage rate (76.3%), while practitioners working more than 20 years showed the lowest (53.2%). The endodontists gained the highest and the most frequent usage rate and the best rubber dam technique mastering skills. Practitioners working in those stomatological departments of general hospitals showed the lowest rubber dam usage rate. Conclusions. The prevalence of rubber dam usage in Tianjin city is still low. The practitioner's gender, years of professional experience, general or specialized field, and the type of dental setting they work for are the factors that need to be considered during making policy and executing training. PMID:27555870

  16. German version of the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire - Appearance Scales (MBSRQ-AS): confirmatory factor analysis and validation.

    PubMed

    Vossbeck-Elsebusch, Anna N; Waldorf, Manuel; Legenbauer, Tanja; Bauer, Anika; Cordes, Martin; Vocks, Silja

    2014-06-01

    The Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ) is a widely used questionnaire that measures body image as a multidimensional construct. The Appearance Scales (AS) of the MBSRQ (Appearance Evaluation, Appearance Orientation, Body Areas Satisfaction, Overweight Preoccupation and Self-Classified Weight) are subscales which facilitate a parsimonious assessment of appearance-related aspects of body image. The current study tested the psychometric properties and factor structure of a German translation of the MBSRQ-AS. Participants were n=230 female patients with the SCID diagnosis of an eating disorder and n=293 female healthy controls. In a confirmatory factor analysis, convincing goodness-of-fit indices emerged. The subscales of the questionnaire yielded good reliability and convergent and discriminant validity coefficients, with most items showing excellent characteristics. Like the English version, the German adaptation of the questionnaire can be recommended for a multidimensional assessment of appearance-related aspects of body image in both research and clinical practice. PMID:24958652

  17. [Lifestyle-related risk factors for dementia].

    PubMed

    Phung, Thien Kieu Thi; Andersen, Kjeld; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2006-10-01

    Emerging knowledge about modifiable risk factors for dementia has given rise to interventions that can potentially prevent or delay the onset of dementia and the possible target periods for intervention extend from prenatal period to old age. Factors during early life such as nutrition, education, and parental socioeconomic status can influence the development of dementia later in life. From mid to late life, a physically, socially, and intellectually active lifestyle is associated with reduced risk for dementia. Moreover, modification of cardiovascular risk factors during this period can potentially reduce risk for dementia. PMID:17032603

  18. Phytate (myo-inositol hexaphosphate) and risk factors for osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    López-González, A A; Grases, F; Roca, P; Mari, B; Vicente-Herrero, M T; Costa-Bauzá, A

    2008-12-01

    Several risk factors seem to play a role in the development of osteoporosis. Phytate is a naturally occurring compound that is ingested in significant amounts by those with diets rich in whole grains. The aim of this study was to evaluate phytate consumption as a risk factor in osteoporosis. In a first group of 1,473 volunteer subjects, bone mineral density was determined by means of dual radiological absorptiometry in the calcaneus. In a second group of 433 subjects (used for validation of results obtained for the first group), bone mineral density was determined in the lumbar column and the neck of the femur. Subjects were individually interviewed about selected osteoporosis risk factors. Dietary information related to phytate consumption was acquired by questionnaires conducted on two different occasions, the second between 2 and 3 months after performing the first one. One-way analysis of variance or Student's t test was used to determine statistical differences between groups. Bone mineral density increased with increasing phytate consumption. Multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that body weight and low phytate consumption were the risk factors with greatest influence on bone mineral density. Phytate consumption had a protective effect against osteoporosis, suggesting that low phytate consumption should be considered an osteoporosis risk factor. PMID:19053869

  19. Prevalence and risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus in Yemen

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Abdullatif D; Mehrass, Amat Al-Khaleq O; Al-Adhroey, Abdulelah H; Al-Shammakh, Abdulqawi A; Amran, Adel A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) continues to be a significant health disorder triggering harmful complications in pregnant women and fetuses. Our knowledge of GDM epidemiology in Yemen is largely based on very limited data. The aim of this study was, therefore, to determine the prevalence and risk factors of GDM among pregnant women in Dhamar governorate, Yemen. Patients and methods A total of 311 subjects were randomly selected for this cross sectional survey. Health history data and blood samples were collected using a pretested questionnaire. To determine the prevalence of GDM, the fasting and random blood glucose techniques were applied according to the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association, using alternative methods that are more convenient to the targeted population. Poisson’s regression model incorporating robust sandwich variance was utilized to assess the association of potential risk factors in developing GDM. Results The prevalence of GDM was found to be 5.1% among the study population. Multivariate analysis confirmed age ≥30 years, previous GDM, family history of diabetes, and history of polycystic ovary syndrome as independent risk factors for GDM prevalence. However, body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 and previous macrosomic baby were found to be dependent risk factors. Conclusion This study reports new epidemiological information about the prevalence and risk factors of GDM in Yemen. Introduction of proper maternal and neonatal medical care and health education are important in order to save the mother and the baby. PMID:26869814

  20. Developmental Risk Factors for Sexual Offending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…

  1. Risk factors across the eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Anja; Pike, Kathleen M; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Wilfley, Denise E; Fairburn, Christopher G; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Walsh, B Timothy; Striegel Weissman, Ruth

    2014-12-15

    This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. Risk factors for BN were shared with AN and BED. Dieting was the most common onset symptom in AN, whereas binge eating was most common in BN and BED. Migration between AN and BED was rare, but more frequent between AN and BN and between BN and BED. AN and BED have distinct risk factors and onset patterns, while BN shares similar risk factors and onset patterns with both AN and BED. Results should inform future classification schemes and prevention programs. PMID:25103674

  2. Spanish Version of the Avoidance-Endurance Questionnaire: Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Párraga, Gema T; López-Martínez, Alicia E; Rusu, Adina C; Hasenbring, Monika I

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the factorial structure and psychometric properties of the Spanish adaptation of the AEQ, and to validate it by reporting relevant pain-related variables, which were not investigated in the original study. One hundred and fifty Spanish patients diagnosed with chronic back and neck pain were referred by physicians from different pain clinics in Spain; all the patients filled out the questionnaires at their clinic. A series of principal components analyses (PCA) was performed to develop the Spanish version of the AEQ. Reliability and validity were also calculated. The PCAs revealed five fear-avoidance scales (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measures were between .60 and .88, and Bartlett's tests were significant, p .73) and suitable validity (p < .05). New results associated with pain-related cognitive/affective and behavioural responses are discussed. This instrument will probably help clinicians to identify Spanish patients at a high risk of chronicity and to develop treatments tailored to the different profiles in order to improve secondary and tertiary prevention in back and neck pain. PMID:26585121

  3. The Factor Replicability of the Litwin and Stringer Organizational Climate Questionnaire: An Inter- and Intra-Organizational Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Evan D.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Four recent factor analytic studies of the Litwin and Stringer Organizational Climate Questionnaire (LSOCQ) are compared. Although there is somewhat more intra- than inter-organizational replicability of factors, both comparisons raise considerable doubt about the validity of the Litwin and Stringer instrument. (Author)

  4. Examining the Factor Structure and Discriminant Validity of the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) Among Spanish Postpartum Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguado, Jaume; Campbell, Alistair; Ascaso, Carlos; Navarro, Purificacion; Garcia-Esteve, Lluisa; Luciano, Juan V.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors tested alternative factor models of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) in a sample of Spanish postpartum women, using confirmatory factor analysis. The authors report the results of modeling three different methods for scoring the GHQ-12 using estimation methods recommended for categorical and binary data.…

  5. A Confirmatory Approach to Examining the Factor Structure of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ): A Large Scale Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niclasen, Janni; Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Somhovd, Mikael Julius; Obel, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the factor structure of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) using a Structural Confirmatory Factor Analytic approach. The Danish translation of the SDQ was distributed to 71,840 parents and teachers of 5-7 and 10-12-year-old boys and girls from four large scale cohorts. Three theoretical models…

  6. National Survey of Sensory Features in Children with ASD: Factor Structure of the Sensory Experience Questionnaire (3.0)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ausderau, Karla; Sideris, John; Furlong, Melissa; Little, Lauren M.; Bulluck, John; Baranek, Grace T.

    2014-01-01

    This national online survey study characterized sensory features in 1,307 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ages 2-12 years using the Sensory Experiences Questionnaire Version 3.0 (SEQ-3.0). Using the SEQ-3.0, a confirmatory factor analytic model with four substantive factors of hypothesized sensory response patterns (i.e.,…

  7. Risk factors on hypertensive disorders among Jordanian pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, Amal K

    2014-03-01

    Eight percent of pregnancies involve hypertensive disorders, which can have serious complications for mothers and children. There has only been minimal research into hypertension in pregnancy in developing countries, including Jordan. Therefore, this study aimed to identify how frequent certain risk factors that apply to hyper-tensive disorders during pregnancy were among women in the Jordanian capital of Amman. A prospective case-control study was conducted on 184 Jordanian pregnant patients with hypertensive disorders and 172 age-matched control subjects recruited from the maternity ward of a tertiary public hospital in Amman city; they were followed-up until 85 days after the birth (late puerperium). A standardized questionnaire pilot-tested was completed by participants that included demographic data and known risk factors for hypertension in pregnancy. Statistical analysis SPSS was conducted to compare the frequency of risk factors using Fisher's exact test, chi-square, Student's t-tests, as well as multivariate logistic regression was conducted to identify independent risk factors. The results showed that chronic hypertension, prenatal hypertension, family history of preeclampsia, diabetes, high BMI, nulliparity, previous preeclampsia history and low education level were identified as risk factors for hypertensive disorders in pregnancy in this population; Moreover, diabetes, chronic hypertension and family history of preeclampsia were found to be independent risk factors. The results of the study contribute to the currently limited knowledge about the modifiable risk factors for hypertensive disorders during pregnancy among the Jordanian population, and could therefore be extremely useful for clinicians providing prenatal care. PMID:24576373

  8. Factors Associated with Depression Assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 in Long-Term Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Goo, Ae-Jin; Shin, Jinyoung; Ko, Hyeonyoung

    2016-01-01

    Background This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of depressive disorders and factors associated in long-term cancer survivors. Methods A total of 702 long-term cancer survivors over 5-years in remission were recruited in a university-affiliated tertiary hospital in Korea. Self-report using the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 and the Fatigue Severity Scale assessed depression and fatigue, respectively. Demographic characteristics, cancer-related clinical characteristics, comorbidity, health behaviors, and physical symptoms were assessed through the review of medical records or a structured self-administered questionnaire. Results We identified 26.1% of patients who had a depressed mood or displayed a loss of interest. The most prevalent primary site of cancer was the stomach (65.2%), followed by lung, breast, colorectal, and thyroid cancer. We also found that 5.7% of subjects experienced double or triple primary cancers. Larger proportion among depressive group (89.1%) complained at least one physical problem than among non-depressive group (53.2%). Physical symptoms including sleep problems, dry mouth, indigestion, pain, decreased appetite, and febrile sense were more frequent in the depressive group than in the non-depressive group. The Fatigue Severity Scale scores were higher in the depressive group than in the non-depressive group (P<0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the highest tertile level of fatigue (odds ratio, 7.31; 95% confidence interval, 3.81–14.02) was associated with the increased risk of depression. Conclusion These findings suggest that careful concern about depression is necessary in long-term cancer survivors. Fatigue may be a surrogate sign for depression, and warrants further evaluation. PMID:27468341

  9. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the Adolescent Motivation to Cook Questionnaire: A Self-Determination Theory instrument.

    PubMed

    Miketinas, Derek; Cater, Melissa; Bailey, Ariana; Craft, Brittany; Tuuri, Georgianna

    2016-10-01

    Increasing adolescents' motivation and competence to cook may improve diet quality and reduce the risk for obesity and chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to develop an instrument to measure adolescents' intrinsic motivation to prepare healthy foods and the four psychological needs that facilitate motivation identified by the Self Determination Theory (SDT). Five hundred ninety-three high school students (62.7% female) were recruited to complete the survey. Participants indicated to what extent they agreed or disagreed with 25 statements pertaining to intrinsic motivation and perceived competence to cook, and their perceived autonomy support, autonomy, and relatedness to teachers and classmates. Data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and internal consistency reliability. EFA returned a five-factor structure explaining 65.3% of the variance; and CFA revealed that the best model fit was a five-factor structure (χ2 = 524.97 (265); Comparative Fit Index = 0.93; RMSEA = 0.056; and SRMR = 0.04). The sub-scales showed good internal consistency (Intrinsic Motivation: α = 0.94; Perceived Competence: α = 0.92; Autonomy Support: α = 0.94; Relatedness: α = 0.90; and Autonomy: α = 0.85). These results support the application of the Adolescent Motivation to Cook Questionnaire to measure adolescents' motivation and perceived competence to cook, autonomy support by their instructor, autonomy in the classroom, and relatedness to peers. Further studies are needed to investigate whether this instrument can measure change in cooking intervention programs. PMID:27346088

  10. Vehicle emission unit risk factors for transportation risk assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Biwer, B.M.; Butler, J.P.

    1999-12-01

    When the transportation risk posed by shipments of hazardous chemical and radioactive materials is being assessed, it is necessary to evaluate the risks associated with both vehicle emissions and cargo-related risks. Diesel exhaust and fugitive dust emissions from vehicles transporting hazardous shipments lead to increased air pollution, which increases the risk of latent fatalities in the affected population along the transport route. The estimated risk from these vehicle-related sources can often by as large or larger than the estimated risk associated with the material being transported. In this paper, data from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Motor Vehicle-Related Air Toxics Study are first used to develop latent cancer fatality estimates per kilometer of travel in rural and urban areas for all diesel truck classes. These unit risk factors are based on studies investigating the carcinogenic nature of diesel exhaust. With the same methodology, the current per=kilometer latent fatality risk factor used in transportation risk assessment for heavy diesel trucks in urban areas is revised and the analysis expanded to provide risk factors for rural areas and all diesel truck classes. These latter fatality estimates may include, but are not limited to, cancer fatalities and are based primarily on the most recent epidemiological data available on mortality rates associated with ambient air PM-10 concentrations.

  11. Vehicle emission unit risk factors for transportation risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Biwer, B M; Butler, J P

    1999-12-01

    When the transportation risk posed by shipments of hazardous chemical and radioactive materials is being assessed, it is necessary to evaluate the risks associated with both vehicle emissions and cargo-related risks. Diesel exhaust and fugitive dust emissions from vehicles transporting hazardous shipments lead to increased air pollution, which increases the risk of latent fatalities in the affected population along the transport route. The estimated risk from these vehicle-related sources can often be as large or larger than the estimated risk associated with the material being transported. In this paper, data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Motor Vehicle-Related Air Toxics Study are first used to develop latent cancer fatality estimates per kilometer of travel in rural and urban areas for all diesel truck classes. These unit risk factors are based on studies investigating the carcinogenic nature of diesel exhaust. With the same methodology, the current per-kilometer latent fatality risk factor used in transportation risk assessments for heavy diesel trucks in urban areas is revised and the analysis expanded to provide risk factors for rural areas and all diesel truck classes. These latter fatality estimates may include, but are not limited to, cancer fatalities and are based primarily on the most recent epidemiological data available on mortality rates associated with ambient air PM-10 concentrations. PMID:10765454

  12. Risk factors associated with chronic low back pain in Syria

    PubMed Central

    Alhalabi, Mohammad Salem; Alhaleeb, Hassan; Madani, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Background: We aimed to identify risk factors associated with chronic low back pain (C-LBP) in Syria. Materials and Methods: We conducted the study in a busy outpatient neurology clinic in Damascus city from October 2011 to August 2012. We enrolled all eligible adults presenting with C-LBP along with those who denied any back pain as a controls. We considered C-LBP any LBP lasting over 3 months. We developed our own questionnaire. A clinical nurse interviewed each person and filled in the results. Results: We had a total of 911 subjects; 513 patients and 398 controls. We found that C-LBP increased with age. Having a sibling with C-LBP was a strong predictor of C-LBP. In women obesity, but not overweight, was a risk factor. Number of children was a risk factor for mothers. Higher level of education decreased the chance of C-LBP in women. Sedentary job increased the risk of C-LBP. Conclusion: This study sheds some light on risk factors for C-LBP in our population and might help find possible preventive measures. PMID:26629465

  13. Risk and Protective Factors for Psychological Adjustment among Low-Income, African American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabalda, Megan K.; Thompson, Martie P.; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation identifies unique risk and protective factors for internalizing and externalizing problems among 8- to 12-year-old, low-income, African American children and tests cumulative risk and protective models. A total of 152 mother-child dyads complete questionnaires. Receipt of food stamps, mother's distress, and child maltreatment…

  14. Risk-Taking among Adolescents: Associations with Social and Affective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Keren; Ben-Zur, Hasida

    2007-01-01

    The research investigated the associations of social and affective factors with risk-taking in male and female adolescents. A sample of 269 Israeli adolescents completed questionnaires measuring frequency of involvement in risk-taking behaviours, relationships with parents, orientation towards peer group, depressive mood, and aggressive behaviour.…

  15. Genetic Insights into Cardiometabolic Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, John B

    2014-01-01

    Many biochemical traits are recognised as risk factors, which contribute to or predict the development of disease. Only a few are in widespread use, usually to assist with treatment decisions and motivate behavioural change. The greatest effort has gone into evaluation of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and/or diabetes, with substantial overlap as ‘cardiometabolic’ risk. Over the past few years many genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have sought to account for variation in risk factors, with the expectation that identifying relevant polymorphisms would improve our understanding or prediction of disease; others have taken the direct approach of genomic case-control studies for the corresponding diseases. Large GWAS have been published for coronary heart disease and Type 2 diabetes, and also for associated biomarkers or risk factors including body mass index, lipids, C-reactive protein, urate, liver function tests, glucose and insulin. Results are not encouraging for personal risk prediction based on genotyping, mainly because known risk loci only account for a small proportion of risk. Overlap of allelic associations between disease and marker, as found for low density lipoprotein cholesterol and heart disease, supports a causal association, but in other cases genetic studies have cast doubt on accepted risk factors. Some loci show unexpected effects on multiple markers or diseases. An intriguing feature of risk factors is the blurring of categories shown by the correlation between them and the genetic overlap between diseases previously thought of as distinct. GWAS can provide insight into relationships between risk factors, biomarkers and diseases, with potential for new approaches to disease classification. PMID:24659834

  16. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders among Male Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    PUSTIVŠEK, Suzana; HADŽIĆ, Vedran; DERVIŠEVIĆ, Edvin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Eating disorders (ED) are an important and increasing problem in adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the risk factors and the prevalence of risk for ED among male adolescent elite athletes and nonathletic controls. Differences between male athletes competing in aerobic, anaerobic and aerobic-anaerobic sports were examined as well. Methods This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey and anthropometric measurements were conducted on 351 adolescents (athletes n = 228; controls n = 123). All participants were aged 15–17 at the time of measuring. Risk for ED was determined using a SCOFF questionnaire. Results The overall prevalence of the risk for ED in male adolescents was 24.8%, with no significant differences among athletes and controls or different subgroups of athletes (p>0.05), although the highest prevalence (37.2%) was registered in aerobic subgroup of athletes. Higher number of attempts to lose weight was associated with increased risk of ED in each group (athletes and controls). Other predictors referred to lack of breakfast and body composition in aerobic subgroup of athletes and number of meals and training frequency in anaerobic subgroup. The most common reasons for dieting were improvement of sport results (19.6–44.2%) and better self-esteem (41.5%) in athletes and controls respectively. Conclusions Participation in the competitive sport itself is not associated with the increased risk for ED. It seems that risk factors for ED for adolescent athletes competing in aerobic and anaerobic sports represent a subject that deserves consideration and further investigation in the future.

  17. Sudden cardiac death: epidemiology and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Adabag, A. Selcuk; Luepker, Russell V.; Roger, Véronique L.; Gersh, Bernard J.

    2016-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is an important public-health problem with multiple etiologies, risk factors, and changing temporal trends. Substantial progress has been made over the past few decades in identifying markers that confer increased SCD risk at the population level. However, the quest for predicting the high-risk individual who could be a candidate for an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, or other therapy, continues. In this article, we review the incidence, temporal trends, and triggers of SCD, and its demographic, clinical, and genetic risk factors. We also discuss the available evidence supporting the use of public-access defibrillators. PMID:20142817

  18. Risk Factors and Levels of Risk for High School Dropouts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Suhyun; Suh, Jingyo

    2007-01-01

    The study in this article identifies three major risk categories of high school dropouts and evaluates the impact of possible prevention strategies. As students accumulate these risks, they became more likely to drop out and prevention programs become less effective. Additionally, it was found that factors influencing the decision to drop out vary…

  19. Risk Factors for Complications of Traumatic Injuries.

    PubMed

    de Aguiar Júnior, Wagner; Saleh, Carmen Mohamad Rida; Whitaker, Iveth Yamaguchi

    2016-01-01

    Complications in hospitalized trauma patients are major causes of morbidity and mortality. The aims of this study were to identify the in-hospital trauma patients' complications and identify the risk factors for complications in this population. A retrospective analysis was conducted in a sample from a Brazilian hospital. The sample consisted of 407 patients, 194 (47.66%) of whom had records of complications. The most common complications were infections (41.80%). The risk factors related to the complications were age, length of hospital stay, external causes, and injury severity. The complications were frequent in this sample, and the risk for complications was characterized by multiple factors. PMID:27618375

  20. Risk Factors in Adolescent Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ewald, D Rose; Haldeman PhD, Lauren A

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a complex and multifaceted disease, with many contributing factors. While diet and nutrition are important influences, the confounding effects of overweight and obesity, metabolic and genetic factors, racial and ethnic predispositions, socioeconomic status, cultural influences, growth rate, and pubertal stage have even more influence and make diagnosis quite challenging. The prevalence of hypertension in adolescents far exceeds the numbers who have been diagnosed; studies have found that 75% or more go undiagnosed. This literature review summarizes the challenges of blood pressure classification in adolescents, discusses the impact of these confounding influences, and identifies actions that will improve diagnosis and treatment outcomes. PMID:27335997

  1. Risk Factors in Adolescent Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ewald, D. Rose; Haldeman, Lauren A.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a complex and multifaceted disease, with many contributing factors. While diet and nutrition are important influences, the confounding effects of overweight and obesity, metabolic and genetic factors, racial and ethnic predispositions, socioeconomic status, cultural influences, growth rate, and pubertal stage have even more influence and make diagnosis quite challenging. The prevalence of hypertension in adolescents far exceeds the numbers who have been diagnosed; studies have found that 75% or more go undiagnosed. This literature review summarizes the challenges of blood pressure classification in adolescents, discusses the impact of these confounding influences, and identifies actions that will improve diagnosis and treatment outcomes. PMID:27335997

  2. Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Anabel N; Abreu, Glaucia R; Resende, Rogério S; Goncalves, Washington LS; Gouvea, Sonia Alves

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness) in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Sources A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012. Summary of findings Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents. Conclusions Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century. PMID:23515212

  3. Invalidity of "Disconfirmation of the Predictive Validity of the Self-Appraisal Questionnaire in a Sample of High-Risk Drug Offenders" (2006): A Reply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhaliwal, Gurmeet K.; Loza, Wagdy; Reddon, John R.

    2007-01-01

    In their article, "Disconfirmation of the Predictive Validity of the Self-Appraisal Questionnaire in a Sample of High-Risk Drug Offenders," criminologists Mitchell and MacKenzie (2006) purported to evaluate psychometric properties of the Self-Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ), the first self-report risk/need measure estimating violent and nonviolent…

  4. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  5. Suicidal ideation and risk factors in Korean migraine patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Young; Park, Sung-Pa

    2014-10-01

    Population-based studies have reported an increased risk of suicidal ideation in patients with migraine. However, there is some controversy as to whether migraine itself is a risk factor for suicidal ideation after adjusting for psychiatric comorbidities. We calculated the frequency of suicidal ideation among patients with migraine visiting a tertiary care hospital and determined its risk factors. Patients with migraine and healthy controls completed self-report questionnaires to assess depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation, and the frequency of suicidal ideation. Risk factors for suicidal ideation were investigated in terms of demographic, clinical, and psychiatric variables. One hundred eighty-five patients with migraine (156 females and 29 males; mean age 39.1 years) and 53 age and education-matched healthy controls participated in the study. The frequency of suicidal ideation was significantly greater in patients with migraine than healthy controls (odds ratio [OR]=5.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-22.10, p=0.003), but this significance was not sustained after adjusting for comorbid depression and anxiety. The risk of suicidal ideation in patients with migraine was associated with lower education levels, higher frequency of migraine attacks, stronger intensity of headaches, and presence of phonophobia, chronic migraine, depression, and anxiety. The strongest predictor was depression (OR=15.36, 95% CI 5.39-43.78, p<0.001), followed by the intensity of headache while completing the questionnaire (OR=1.293, 95% CI 1.077-1.553; p=0.006). The contribution of migraine-specific variables to suicidal ideation is trivial compared to that of depression and headache intensity. PMID:24998861

  6. Pneumococcal Disease: Risk Factors and Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Foundation for Infectious Diseases Sepsis Risk Factors and Transmission Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... the brain and spinal cord) Who smoke cigarettes Transmission Pneumococcal bacteria spread from person-to-person by ...

  7. Heart Risk Factors Rise Before Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... an associate professor of pediatric endocrinology at the University of Virginia. In the past, he said, experts believed that a rapid increase in heart disease and stroke risk factors took place in women after menopause. They thought ...

  8. Psychosocial Factors in Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Ruth A; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease that is increasing in prevalence globally. Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in diabetes, and lifestyle and clinical risk factors do not fully account for the link between the conditions. This article provides an overview of the evidence concerning the role of psychosocial stress factors in diabetes risk, as well as in cardiovascular complications in people with existing diabetes. Several types of psychosocial factors are discussed including depression, other types of emotional distress, exposure to stressful conditions, and personality traits. The potential behavioral and biological pathways linking psychosocial factors to diabetes are presented and implications for patient care are highlighted. PMID:27566328

  9. Factors Affecting Mobile Diabetes Monitoring Adoption Among Physicians: Questionnaire Study and Path Model

    PubMed Central

    Castañeda, José Alberto; Sanz, Silvia; Henseler, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes often find it difficult to control their blood glucose level on a daily basis because of distance or physical incapacity. With the increase in Internet-enabled smartphone use, this problem can be resolved by adopting a mobile diabetes monitoring system. Most existing studies have focused on patients’ usability perceptions, whereas little attention has been paid to physicians’ intentions to adopt this technology. Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the perceptions and user acceptance of mobile diabetes monitoring among Japanese physicians. Methods A questionnaire survey of physicians was conducted in Japan. The structured questionnaire was prepared in a context of a mobile diabetes monitoring system that controls blood glucose, weight, physical activity, diet, insulin and medication, and blood pressure. Following a thorough description of mobile diabetes monitoring with a graphical image, questions were asked relating to system quality, information quality, service quality, health improvement, ubiquitous control, privacy and security concerns, perceived value, subjective norms, and intention to use mobile diabetes monitoring. The data were analyzed by partial least squares (PLS) path modeling. Results In total, 471 physicians participated from 47 prefectures across Japan, of whom 134 were specialized in internal and gastrointestinal medicine. Nine hypotheses were tested with both the total sample and the specialist subsample; results were similar for both samples in terms of statistical significance and the strength of path coefficients. We found that system quality, information quality, and service quality significantly affect overall quality. Overall quality determines the extent to which physicians perceive the value of mobile health monitoring. However, in contrast to our initial predictions, overall quality does not have a significant direct effect on the intention to use mobile diabetes

  10. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... of people who have diabetes die of some type of cardiovascular disease. Diabetic women are at especially high risk for dying ... aware of my risk factors, such as being diabetic and having a family history of heart ... levels—you are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes. But you can take steps to ...

  11. Childhood myopia: epidemiology, risk factors, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Recko, Matthew; Stahl, Erin Durrie

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of the dynamic interaction between the eye's growth and its ability to adapt to maintain vision has shown that childhood myopia is a significant prediction of progressive myopia and the potentially severe ocular comorbidities associated with it. It is important for us to better understand this process and its risk factors in order to better develop a prevention and treatment strategy. This article will discuss the epidemiology, risk factors and current therapeutic regimens for reducing myopic progression. PMID:25958656

  12. Cancer associated thrombosis: risk factors and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Eichinger, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    Deep vein thrombosis of the leg and pulmonary embolism are frequent diseases and cancer is one of their most important risk factors. Patients with cancer also have a higher prevalence of venous thrombosis located in other parts than in the legs and/or in unusual sites including upper extremity, splanchnic or cerebral veins. Cancer also affects the risk of arterial thrombotic events particularly in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms and in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor recipients. Several risk factors need to interact to trigger thrombosis. In addition to common risk factors such as surgery, hospitalisation, infection and genetic coagulation disorders, the thrombotic risk is also driven and modified by cancer-specific factors including type, histology, and stage of the malignancy, cancer treatment and certain biomarkers. A venous thrombotic event in a cancer patient has serious consequences as the risk of recurrent thrombosis, the risk of bleeding during anticoagulation and hospitalisation rates are all increased. Survival of cancer patients with thrombosis is worse compared to that of cancer patients without thrombosis, and thrombosis is a leading direct cause of death in cancer patients. PMID:27067965

  13. How Useful Is the Social Communication Questionnaire in Toddlers at Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterling, Iris; Rommelse, Nanda; De Jonge, Maretha; Van Der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Swinkels, Sophie; Roos, Sascha; Visser, Janne; Buitelaar, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) is a screening instrument with established validity against the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) in children aged 4 years and older. Indices of diagnostic accuracy have been shown to be strong in school-aged samples; however, relatively little is known about the performance of the…

  14. Risk factors predisposing to congenital heart defects

    PubMed Central

    Ul Haq, Faheem; Jalil, Fatima; Hashmi, Saman; Jumani, Maliha Iqbal; Imdad, Aamer; Jabeen, Mehnaz; Hashmi, Javad Tauseef; Irfan, Furqan Bin; Imran, Muhammad; Atiq, Mehnaz

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with multiple risk factors, consanguinity may be one such significant factor. The role of consanguinity in the etiology of CHD is supported by inbreeding studies, which demonstrate an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance of some congenital heart defects. This study was done to find out the risk factors for CHD. Methods: A case-control study was done on pediatric patients at a tertiary care hospital, Aga Khan University Hospital, located in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 500 patients, 250 cases and 250 controls were included in the study. Results: Amongst the 250 cases (i.e. those diagnosed with CHD), 122 patients (48.8%) were born of consanguineous marriages while in the controls (i.e. non-CHD) only 72 patients (28.9%) showed a consanguinity amongst parents. On multivariate analysis, consanguinity emerged as an independent risk factor for CHD; adjusted odds ratio 2.59 (95% C. I. 1.73 - 3.87). Other risk factors included low birth weight, maternal co-morbidities, family history of CHD and first born child. On the other hand, medications used by the mother during the index pregnancy, maternal age and gender of the child did not significantly increase the risk of developing CHD. Conclusions: Analyses of our results show that parental consanguinity, family history of CHD, maternal co-morbidities, first born child and low birth weight are independent risk factors for CHD. PMID:21976868

  15. Risk Factors for Homelessness Among US Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. PMID:25595171

  16. Adolescent Risk Factors for Child Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Mauri; Greenman, Sarah J.; Augustyn, Megan Bears; Henry, Kimberly L.; Smith, Carolyn A.; Ireland, Timothy O.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate adolescent risk factors, measured at both early and late adolescence, for involvement in child maltreatment during adulthood. Comprehensive assessments of risk factors for maltreatment that use representative samples with longitudinal data are scarce and can inform multilevel prevention. We use data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study begun in 1988 with a sample of 1,000 seventh and eighth graders. Participants have been interviewed 14 times and, at the last assessment (age 31), 80% were retained. Risk factors represent 10 developmental domains: area characteristics, family background/structure, parent stressors, exposure to family violence, parent-child relationships, education, peer relationships, adolescent stressors, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions to adulthood. Maltreatment is measured by substantiated reports from Child Protective Services records. Many individual risk factors (20 at early adolescence and 14 at later adolescence) are significantly, albeit moderately, predictive of maltreatment. Several developmental domains stand out, including family background/structure, education, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions. In addition, there is a pronounced impact of cumulative risk on the likelihood of maltreatment. For example, only 3% of the youth with no risk domains in their background at early adolescence were involved in later maltreatment, but for those with risk in 9 developmental domains the rate was 45%. Prevention programs targeting youth at high risk for engaging in maltreatment should begin during early adolescence when risk factors are already at play. These programs need to be comprehensive, capable of addressing the multiple and interwoven nature of risk that is associated with maltreatment. PMID:24075569

  17. Assessment of Symptoms in Adult Survivors of Incest: A Factor Analytic Study of the Responses to Childhood Incest Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Patrick W.; Donaldson, Mary Ann

    1989-01-01

    A study of the construction and factor validity of the Response to Child Incest Questionnaire, a self-report instrument for assessing commonly reported symptoms of adult survivors of incest, is reported. The instrument's usefulness as a pre- and post-treatment measure and further research needs are discussed. (MSE)

  18. IRT-Related Factor Analytic Procedures for Testing the Equivalence of Paper-and-Pencil and Internet-Administered Questionnaires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a general item response theory-based factor analytic procedure that allows assessment of the equivalence between 2 administrative modes of a questionnaire: paper and pencil, and Internet based. The theoretical relations between the present procedure and other methods used in previous empirical research are shown, and the…

  19. A Validation Study of the Dutch Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form: Factor Structure, Reliability, and Known-Groups Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thombs, Brett D.; Bernstein, David P.; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The 28-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) has been translated into at least 10 different languages. The validity of translated versions of the CTQ-SF, however, has generally not been examined. The objective of this study was to investigate the factor structure, internal consistency reliability, and known-groups…

  20. Factor Structure and Reliability of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and Prevalence Estimates of Trauma for Male and Female Street Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, David R.; Baron, Stephen W.; Scher, Christine D.; Stein, Murray B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire short form (CTQ-SF) with street youth who have run away or been expelled from their homes (N = 397). Internal reliability coefficients for the five clinical scales ranged from 0.65 to 0.95. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to test the five-factor…

  1. Validating the Children's Behavior Questionnaire in Dutch Children: Psychometric Properties and a Cross-Cultural Comparison of Factor Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleddens, Ester F. C.; Kremers, Stef P. J.; Candel, Math J. J. M.; De Vries, Nanne N. K.; Thijs, Carel

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examined the factorial validity of the Dutch translation of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ) and the Very Short Form scores. In addition, we conducted cross-cultural comparisons of temperament structure. In total, 353 parents of 6- to 8-year-olds completed the instrument. The original higher order factor structure of…

  2. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ): The Factor Structure and Scale Validation in U.S. Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Jian-Ping; Burstein, Marcy; Schmitz, Anja; Merikangas, Kathleen R.

    2013-01-01

    The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is one of the most commonly used instruments for screening psychopathology in children and adolescents. This study evaluated the hypothesized five-factor structure of the SDQ and examined its convergent validity against comprehensive clinical diagnostic assessments. Data were derived from the…

  3. Ectasia risk factors in refractive surgery

    PubMed Central

    Santhiago, Marcony R; Giacomin, Natalia T; Smadja, David; Bechara, Samir J

    2016-01-01

    This review outlines risk factors of post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) ectasia that can be detected preoperatively and presents a new metric to be considered in the detection of ectasia risk. Relevant factors in refractive surgery screening include the analysis of intrinsic biomechanical properties (information obtained from corneal topography/tomography and patient’s age), as well as the analysis of alterable biomechanical properties (information obtained from the amount of tissue altered by surgery and the remaining load-bearing tissue). Corneal topography patterns of placido disk seem to play a pivotal role as a surrogate of corneal strength, and abnormal corneal topography remains to be the most important identifiable risk factor for ectasia. Information derived from tomography, such as pachymetric and epithelial maps as well as computational strategies, to help in the detection of keratoconus is additional and relevant. High percentage of tissue altered (PTA) is the most robust risk factor for ectasia after LASIK in patients with normal preoperative corneal topography. Compared to specific residual stromal bed (RSB) or central corneal thickness values, percentage of tissue altered likely provides a more individualized measure of biomechanical alteration because it considers the relationship between thickness, tissue altered through ablation and flap creation, and ultimate RSB thickness. Other recognized risk factors include low RSB, thin cornea, and high myopia. Age is also a very important risk factor and still remains as one of the most overlooked ones. A comprehensive screening approach with the Ectasia Risk Score System, which evaluates multiple risk factors simultaneously, is also a helpful tool in the screening strategy. PMID:27143849

  4. Ectasia risk factors in refractive surgery.

    PubMed

    Santhiago, Marcony R; Giacomin, Natalia T; Smadja, David; Bechara, Samir J

    2016-01-01

    This review outlines risk factors of post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) ectasia that can be detected preoperatively and presents a new metric to be considered in the detection of ectasia risk. Relevant factors in refractive surgery screening include the analysis of intrinsic biomechanical properties (information obtained from corneal topography/tomography and patient's age), as well as the analysis of alterable biomechanical properties (information obtained from the amount of tissue altered by surgery and the remaining load-bearing tissue). Corneal topography patterns of placido disk seem to play a pivotal role as a surrogate of corneal strength, and abnormal corneal topography remains to be the most important identifiable risk factor for ectasia. Information derived from tomography, such as pachymetric and epithelial maps as well as computational strategies, to help in the detection of keratoconus is additional and relevant. High percentage of tissue altered (PTA) is the most robust risk factor for ectasia after LASIK in patients with normal preoperative corneal topography. Compared to specific residual stromal bed (RSB) or central corneal thickness values, percentage of tissue altered likely provides a more individualized measure of biomechanical alteration because it considers the relationship between thickness, tissue altered through ablation and flap creation, and ultimate RSB thickness. Other recognized risk factors include low RSB, thin cornea, and high myopia. Age is also a very important risk factor and still remains as one of the most overlooked ones. A comprehensive screening approach with the Ectasia Risk Score System, which evaluates multiple risk factors simultaneously, is also a helpful tool in the screening strategy. PMID:27143849

  5. [Epidemiology and risk factors in legionellosis].

    PubMed

    Povová, J; Zlámalová, R; Hozák, A; Martinková, I; Matějková, M; Janout, V

    2014-11-01

    Legionella was discovered in the first half of the 20th century. The main representative of the genus is the bacterial species Legionella pneumophila. Legionella can cause a mild disease with fever but also severe to fatal pneumonia. At highest risk are individuals with an underlying disease, immunosuppressed patients or individuals exposed to other risk factors (e.g. users of addictive substances). Information on the etiology and epidemiology of legionellosis is presented. Selected risk factors are described as well as preventive measures to be taken in water supply and cooling systems. In conclusion, emphasis is placed on the prevention. PMID:25523221

  6. Nutritional Risk Factors for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ersoy, Lebriz; Lechanteur, Yara T.; Hoyng, Carel B.; Kirchhof, Bernd; den Hollander, Anneke I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the role of nutritional factors, serum lipids, and lipoproteins in late age-related macular degeneration (late AMD). Methods. Intake of red meat, fruit, fish, vegetables, and alcohol, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI) were ascertained questionnaire-based in 1147 late AMD cases and 1773 controls from the European Genetic Database. Serum levels of lipids and lipoproteins were determined. The relationship between nutritional factors and late AMD was assessed using logistic regression. Based on multivariate analysis, area-under-the-curve (AUC) was calculated by receiver-operating-characteristics (ROC). Results. In a multivariate analysis, besides age and smoking, obesity (odds ratio (OR): 1.44, P = 0.014) and red meat intake (daily: OR: 2.34, P = 8.22 × 10−6; 2–6x/week: OR: 1.67, P = 7.98 × 10−5) were identified as risk factors for developing late AMD. Fruit intake showed a protective effect (daily: OR: 0.52, P = 0.005; 2–6x/week: OR: 0.58, P = 0.035). Serum lipid and lipoprotein levels showed no significant association with late AMD. ROC for nutritional factors, smoking, age, and BMI revealed an AUC of 0.781. Conclusion. Red meat intake and obesity were independently associated with increased risk for late AMD, whereas fruit intake was protective. A better understanding of nutritional risk factors is necessary for the prevention of AMD. PMID:25101280

  7. Risk factors for canine tail chasing behaviour in Japan.

    PubMed

    Goto, Akiko; Arata, Sayaka; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for tail chasing behaviour that occurs when a dog spins in tight circles to chase its tail, sometimes biting it. The behaviour is a sign of canine compulsive disorder (CD). A questionnaire about tail chasing behaviour and general information about the animals was used to collect data on seven breeds of pet dogs. The data were gathered at a dog event and at veterinary practices. To determine which variables were associated with tail chasing behaviour, stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed. Regardless of cohort, 'breed' and 'source of acquisition' were significantly associated with tail chasing behaviour. Using a chi-square test, the association between 'source of acquisition' and the behaviour was examined separately in two breeds (Shiba inu and Dachshund) that had the largest number of individuals chasing their tails accompanied by biting and/or growling at them. This factor showed a significant and consistent association across the two breeds. With respect to the risk factors of 'breed' and 'source of acquisition', high percentages of Shiba inu and dogs originating from pet stores were included in the group chasing their tails with biting and/or growling. The results suggest that distinct risk factors exist for tail chasing behaviour and such factors appear to be regulated by both genetics and the environment. PMID:21993593

  8. Risk Factors and Protective Factors in Relation to Subjective Health among Adult Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationships between risk and protective factors and health outcome in a sample of adult females who had been victims of child sexual abuse. Method: Both person- and variable-oriented analyses were applied to questionnaire data from a non-clinical group of women (n=152) reporting sexual abuse during childhood.…

  9. Risk factors for skin cancer among Finnish airline cabin crew.

    PubMed

    Kojo, Katja; Helminen, Mika; Pukkala, Eero; Auvinen, Anssi

    2013-07-01

    Increased incidence of skin cancers among airline cabin crew has been reported in several studies. We evaluated whether the difference in risk factor prevalence between Finnish airline cabin crew and the general population could explain the increased incidence of skin cancers among cabin crew, and the possible contribution of estimated occupational cosmic radiation exposure. A self-administered questionnaire survey on occupational, host, and ultraviolet radiation exposure factors was conducted among female cabin crew members and females presenting the general population. The impact of occupational cosmic radiation dose was estimated in a separate nested case-control analysis among the participating cabin crew (with 9 melanoma and 35 basal cell carcinoma cases). No considerable difference in the prevalence of risk factors of skin cancer was found between the cabin crew (N = 702) and the general population subjects (N = 1007) participating the study. The mean risk score based on all the conventional skin cancer risk factors was 1.43 for cabin crew and 1.44 for general population (P = 0.24). Among the cabin crew, the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose was not related to the increased skin cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.00]. The highest plausible risk of skin cancer for estimated cosmic radiation dose was estimated as 9% per 10 mSv. The skin cancer cases had higher host characteristics scores than the non-cases among cabin crew (adjusted OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.04). Our results indicate no difference between the female cabin crew and the general female population in the prevalence of factors generally associated with incidence of skin cancer. Exposure to cosmic radiation did not explain the excess of skin cancer among the studied cabin crew in this study. PMID:23316078

  10. Mediterranean Diet and Cardiovascular Risk: Beyond Traditional Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Perez-Caballero, Ana I; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, Jose

    2016-04-01

    A strict adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) has repeatedly been linked to a low risk of cardiovascular disease in several situations. Initially, the mechanisms considered as possible causes of this were based on the effects of this dietary pattern on the so-called traditional risk factors (especially lipids and blood pressure). However, the high relative reduction in the prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality were not proportional to the limited findings about regulation of those traditional risk factors. In addition to several studies confirming the above effects, current research on the MedDiet is being focused on defining its effects on non-traditional risk factors, such as endothelial function, inflammation, oxidative stress, or on controlling the conditions which predispose people to cardiovascular events, such as obesity, metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the current article, after briefly reviewing the known effects of the MedDiet on the traditional risk factors, we will mainly focus on reviewing the current evidence about the effects that this dietary pattern exerts on alternative factors, including postprandial lipemia or coagulation, among others, as well as providing a short review on future directions. PMID:25118147

  11. Risk factors and effective management of preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    English, Fred A; Kenny, Louise C; McCarthy, Fergus P

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy is estimated to complicate 2%–8% of pregnancies and remains a principal cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Preeclampsia may present at any gestation but is more commonly encountered in the third trimester. Multiple risk factors have been documented, including: family history, nulliparity, egg donation, diabetes, and obesity. Significant progress has been made in developing tests to predict risk of preeclampsia in pregnancy, but these remain confined to clinical trial settings and center around measuring angiogenic profiles, including placental growth factor or newer tests involving metabolomics. Less progress has been made in developing new treatments and therapeutic targets, and aspirin remains one of the few agents shown to consistently reduce the risk of developing preeclampsia. This review serves to discuss recent advances in risk factor identification, prediction techniques, and management of preeclampsia in antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal patients. PMID:25767405

  12. A quantitative method to analyse an open-ended questionnaire: A case study about the Boltzmann Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosario Battaglia, Onofrio; Di Paola, Benedetto

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes a quantitative method to analyse an open-ended questionnaire. Student responses to a specially designed written questionnaire are quantitatively analysed by not hierarchical clustering called k -means method. Through this we can characterise behaviour students with respect their expertise to formulate explanations for phenomena or processes and/or use a given model in the different context. The physics topic is about the Boltzmann Factor, which allows the students to have a unifying view of different phenomena in different contexts.

  13. [Screening for cardiovascular risk factors in a large workplace].

    PubMed

    Agner, E; Jacobsen, K; Mahnfeldt, M S; Jensen, S E; Baastrup, A; Stene, G M; Bech, J; Kjaer, A

    1990-11-01

    A screening investigation was carried out in a large industry in the Copenhagen region and 1,472 of the employees were offered examination of blood cholesterol and measurement of blood pressure. At this examination the employees completed a one-page questionnaire about other cardiovascular risk factors. 45% of those invited participated in the investigation, the poorest participation was among women and the greatest among the male officials. On account of the limited number of female employees, the majority of results were only calculated for men. Over 1/3 of these had hypercholesteremia (greater than or equal to 7.0 mmol/l) and nearly 1/3 had, simultaneously, at least two cardiovascular risk factors in addition to age and male sex. Extensive occupational investigations under the auspices of WHO have demonstrated that energetic intervention at the place of work aimed at the cardiovascular risk factors can reduce the risk of development of coronary heart disease and death within a six-year follow-up period. It is therefore emphasized that similar interventions are very necessary also in Denmark. PMID:2238226

  14. A Test and Cross-Validation of the Revised Two-Factor Study Process Questionnaire Factor Structure among Western University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immekus, Jason C.; Imbrie, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    The Revised Two-Factor Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) is a measure of university students' approach to learning. Original evaluation of the scale's psychometric properties was based on a sample of Hong Kong university students' scores. The purpose of this study was to test and cross-validate the R-SPQ-2F factor structure, based on separate…

  15. Risk factors and burden of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Palazzo, Clémence; Nguyen, Christelle; Lefevre-Colau, Marie-Martine; Rannou, François; Poiraudeau, Serge

    2016-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common joint disorders worldwide. Its prevalence is increasing because of the growing aging of the population in developed and developing countries as well as an increase in risk factors leading to OA, particularly obesity and a sedentary lifestyle. Risk factors of OA can be divided into person-level factors (age, gender, obesity, genetics and diet) and joint-level factors (injury, malalignment and abnormal loading of the joints) that interact in a complex manner. OA is the 11th cause of disability in the world. It is responsible for activity limitations, particularly walking, and affects participation and quality of life. Patients with OA are at greater risk of all-cause mortality, particularly for cardiovascular diseases, than the general population. This excess mortality is closely associated with disability level. Consequently, strategies to reduce burden through primary and secondary prevention programs are increasingly important. PMID:26904959

  16. Cervical artery dissection: emerging risk factors.

    PubMed

    Micheli, S; Paciaroni, M; Corea, F; Agnelli, G; Zampolini, M; Caso, V

    2010-01-01

    Cervical artery dissection (CAD) represents an increasingly recognized cause of stroke and the most common cause of ischemic stroke in young adults. Many factors have been identified in association with CAD such as primary disease of arterial wall (fibrodysplasia) and other non-specific diseases related to CAD like Ehlers Danlos-syndrome IV, Marfan's syndrome, vessel tortuosity. Moreover, an underlying arteriopathy which could be in part genetically determined, has been suspected. The rule of emerging risk factors for CAD such as recent respiratory tract infection, migraine and hyperhomocysteinemia are still a matter of research. Other known risks factors for CAD are major head/neck trauma like chiropractic maneuver, coughing or hyperextension injury associated to car. We examined emerging risks factors for CAD detected in the last years, as CAD pathogenesis is still not completely understood and needs further investigations. PMID:21270941

  17. Tuberculosis: distribution, risk factors, mortality.

    PubMed

    Kochi, A

    1994-10-01

    About a century after Koch's discovery of the TB bacilli the tuberculosis epidemic which had appeared to be under control was again recognized as a major global health threat. The decline in the epidemic in this century had been largely through the improved living standards and, eventually, the availability and use of effective antibiotics. While tuberculosis gradually disappeared from the health agenda in the western world it remained a big killer throughout the century and in 1992 an estimated 2.7 million TB deaths occurred; 30 million will die from TB during the 1990s if current trends are not reversed. The annual number of new cases will increase from 7.5 million estimated in 1990 to more than 10 million in the year 2000. The main factors for this increase are demographic forces, population movements, the HIV epidemic and increasing drug resistance. The impact of the HIV epidemic is already felt in many sub-Saharan African countries and now threatens Asia where almost two-thirds of the world's TB infected population live and where HIV is spreading. Tuberculosis has also reemerged as a major public health problem in industrialized countries due to international migration, the breakdown of health services, including TB services etc. The control of the epidemic can only be through a concerted action to reinstate TB as priority among health concerns, reflected in national and international resources. A coalition of public and private supporters must be mobilized to support the effort to fight the disease. Governments, non-governmental organizations, the business community, refugee organizations, medical institutions, and other UN agencies are invited to join with WHO in this effort. PMID:7713546

  18. Postoperative respiratory morbidity: identification and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, C; Garrahy, P; Peake, P

    1982-04-01

    Two hundred consecutive patients admitted for general surgery were studied prospectively to evaluate the contribution of risk factors to postoperative respiratory morbidity (PORM). PORM was expressed both in terms of individual clinical features present on the second postoperative day (when the incidence was greatest), and as an aggregate score incorporating many clinical features. The importance of recognised risk factors, such as previous respiratory disease, cigarette smoking, upper abdominal procedures and the duration of surgery was confirmed, in that these factors were associated with some of the individual clinical features of PORM. The relative importance and independent contribution of these risk factors were assessed by their association with the aggregate score. A naso-gastric tube (NGT) present for 24 hours postoperatively was the factor more associated with PORM. The NGT identified patients at risk more clearly than, and independently of, the next most important factor, upper abdominal surgery. The duration of surgery did not contribute to PORM after the influence of NGT and site of surgery had been considered. Previous respiratory disease predisposed to PORM, and was best identified by, in order of importance, an observed productive cough, a reduced one second forced expiratory volume, and purulent sputum. After the incidence of these factors had been considered, cigarette smoking and a history of a chronic productive cough did not contribute further to PORM. PMID:6952867

  19. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: Epidemiology, microbiology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Bruna; Ferreira, Carina; Alves, Carlos Tiago; Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Silva, Sónia

    2016-11-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection caused by Candida species that affects millions of women every year. Although Candida albicans is the main cause of VVC, the identification of non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species, especially Candida glabrata, as the cause of this infection, appears to be increasing. The development of VVC is usually attributed to the disturbance of the balance between Candida vaginal colonization and host environment by physiological or nonphysiological changes. Several host-related and behavioral risk factors have been proposed as predisposing factors for VVC. Host-related factors include pregnancy, hormone replacement, uncontrolled diabetes, immunosuppression, antibiotics, glucocorticoids use and genetic predispositions. Behavioral risk factors include use of oral contraceptives, intrauterine device, spermicides and condoms and some habits of hygiene, clothing and sexual practices. Despite a growing list of recognized risk factors, much remains to be elucidated as the role of host versus microorganisms, in inducing VVC and its recurrence. Thus, this review provides information about the current state of knowledge on the risk factors that predispose to VVC, also including a revision of the epidemiology and microbiology of VVC, as well as of Candida virulence factors associated with vaginal pathogenicity. PMID:26690853

  20. Industrial risk factors for colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lashner, B.A.; Epstein, S.S. )

    1990-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common malignancy in the United States, and its incidence rates have sharply increased recently, especially in males. Industrial exposures, both occupational and environmental, are important colorectal cancer risk factors that are generally unrecognized by clinicians. Migration studies have documented that colorectal cancer is strongly associated with environmental risk factors. The causal role of occupational exposures is evidenced by a substantial literature associating specific work practices with increased colorectal cancer risks. Industrially related environmental exposures, including polluted drinking water and ionizing radiation, have also been associated with excess risks. Currently, there is a tendency to attribute colorectal cancer, largely or exclusively, to dietary and other lifestyle factors, thus neglecting these industrially related effects. Concerted efforts are needed to recognize the causal role of industrial risk factors and to encourage government and industry to reduce carcinogenic exposures. Furthermore, cost-effective screening programs for high-risk population groups are critically needed to further reduce deaths from colorectal cancer. 143 references.

  1. The Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure (PHEEM) Questionnaire Identifies Quality of Instruction as a Key Factor Predicting Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Joaquim Edson

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study analyzes the reliability of the PHEEM questionnaire translated into Portuguese. We present the results of PHEEM following distribution to doctors in three different medical residency programs at a university hospital in Brazil. INTRODUCTION Efforts to understand environmental factors that foster effective learning resulted in the development of a questionnaire to measure medical residents’ perceptions of the level of autonomy, teaching quality and social support in their programs. METHODS The questionnaire was translated using the modified Brislin back-translation technique. Cronbach’s alpha test was used to ensure good reliability and ANOVA was used to compare PHEEM results among residents from the Surgery, Anesthesiology and Internal Medicine departments. The Kappa coefficient was used as a measure of agreement, and factor analysis was employed to evaluate the construct strength of the three domains suggested by the original PHEEM questionnaire. RESULTS The PHEEM survey was completed by 306 medical residents and the resulting Cronbach’s alpha was 0.899. The weighted Kappa was showed excellent reliability. Autonomy was rated most highly by Internal Medicine residents (63.7% ± 13.6%). Teaching was rated highest in Anesthesiology (66.7% ± 15.4%). Residents across the three areas had similar perceptions of social support (59.0% ± 13.3% for Surgery; 60.5% ± 13.6% for Internal Medicine; 61.4% ± 14.4% for Anesthesiology). Factor analysis suggested that nine factors explained 58.9% of the variance. CONCLUSIONS This study indicates that PHEEM is a reliable instrument for measuring the quality of medical residency programs at a Brazilian teaching hospital. The results suggest that quality of teaching was the best indicator of overall response to the questionnaire. PMID:19060994

  2. Risk factors associated with musculoskeletal symptoms in Korean dental practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Cho, KiHun; Cho, Hwi-young; Han, Gyeong-Soon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between psychosocial stress, occupational stress, and musculoskeletal symptoms in Korean dental practitioners. [Subjects and Methods] Self-reported questionnaires were distributed to 401 dental practitioners in Korea. To assess the risk factors related to musculoskeletal disorders, the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, the Korean Occupational Stress Scale, and Psychosocial Well-Being Index Short Form were used. General and work-related characteristics of the subjects consisted of seven items, including age, career, height, weight, working days/week, working hours/day, and physical strain levels. [Results] In this study, 86.8% of the practitioners experienced musculoskeletal symptoms (shoulders, 72.8%; neck, 69.3%; waist, 68.3%; wrist, 58.4%; back, 44.1%; ankle, 38.7%; knee, 36.9%; hip, 20.4%; and elbows, 9.2%). Moreover, psychosocial and occupational stress can affect the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders. In particular, we found that psychosocial stress has significant influence on the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders. [Conclusion] To increase the quality of life and provide high-quality medical service for dental practitioners, risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders must be managed. Accordingly, dental practitioners must maintain good posture, get an appropriate amount of rest, and perform regular stretching exercise to reduce psychological stress and improve the work environment. PMID:26957728

  3. Risk factors associated with musculoskeletal symptoms in Korean dental practitioners.

    PubMed

    Cho, KiHun; Cho, Hwi-Young; Han, Gyeong-Soon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between psychosocial stress, occupational stress, and musculoskeletal symptoms in Korean dental practitioners. [Subjects and Methods] Self-reported questionnaires were distributed to 401 dental practitioners in Korea. To assess the risk factors related to musculoskeletal disorders, the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, the Korean Occupational Stress Scale, and Psychosocial Well-Being Index Short Form were used. General and work-related characteristics of the subjects consisted of seven items, including age, career, height, weight, working days/week, working hours/day, and physical strain levels. [Results] In this study, 86.8% of the practitioners experienced musculoskeletal symptoms (shoulders, 72.8%; neck, 69.3%; waist, 68.3%; wrist, 58.4%; back, 44.1%; ankle, 38.7%; knee, 36.9%; hip, 20.4%; and elbows, 9.2%). Moreover, psychosocial and occupational stress can affect the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders. In particular, we found that psychosocial stress has significant influence on the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders. [Conclusion] To increase the quality of life and provide high-quality medical service for dental practitioners, risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders must be managed. Accordingly, dental practitioners must maintain good posture, get an appropriate amount of rest, and perform regular stretching exercise to reduce psychological stress and improve the work environment. PMID:26957728

  4. Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling for the "Revised Two-Factor Learning Process Questionnaire"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Socha, Alan; Sigler, Ellen A.

    2011-01-01

    The "Revised Learning Process Questionnaire" has been part of the development of a conceptual understanding of how students learn and what motivates them to engage in particular tasks. We obtained responses from 329 student volunteers at a mid-sized public university in the southeast United States. While looking at the psychometric properties of…

  5. A Factor Analysis of the Bem Sex Role Inventory and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Namok; Jenkins, Stephen J.

    This study investigated the dimensions of sex role orientation measured by the revised Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI; S. Bem, 1974) and the revised Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ; J. Spence, R. Helmreich, and J. Strapp, 1975). Participants were 651 undergraduates in introductory psychology courses. The sample was approximately 50% male and…

  6. The Home Situations Questionnaire-PDD Version: Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, M.; Aman, M. G.; Scahill, L.; Swiezy, N.; Arnold, L. E.; Lecavalier, L.; Johnson, C.; Handen, B.; Stigler, K.; Bearss, K.; Sukhodolsky, D.; McDougle, C. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Home Situations Questionnaire (HSQ) is a caregiver-rated scale designed to assess behavioural non-compliance in everyday settings that has been used in several studies in typically developing children. Currently there is no accepted measure of behavioural non-compliance in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs).…

  7. The Adult Reading History Questionnaire (ARHQ) in Icelandic: Psychometric Properties and Factor Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Halldorsson, Jonas G.; Steinberg, Stacy; Hansdottir, Ingunn; Kristjansson, Kristleifur; Stefansson, Hreinn; Stefansson, Kari

    2014-01-01

    This article describes psychometric testing of an Icelandic adaptation of the "Adult Reading History Questionnaire" (ARHQ), designed to detect a history of reading difficulties indicative of dyslexia. Tested in a large and diverse sample of 2,187 adults, the Icelandic adaptation demonstrated internal consistency reliability…

  8. Revisiting the Factor Structure of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: United States, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickey, Wayne C.; Blumberg, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire is a 25-item instrument developed to assess emotional and behavioral problems. The current study attempted to replicate previous European structural analyses and to describe the latent dimensions that underlie responses to the parent-reported version of the Strengths and Difficulties…

  9. Leaders of School Technology Innovation: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Change Facilitator Style Questionnaire (CFSQ)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Feng; Ritzhaupt, Albert; Cavanaugh, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe a construct validation study of the Change Facilitator Style Questionnaire (CFSQ), an instrument designed to measure the leadership style of school principals as change facilitators. Design/methodology/approach: Participants included 614 K-12 teachers across the state of Florida involved in the Enhancing…

  10. Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Anxiety Control Questionnaire among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerolimatos, Lindsay A.; Gould, Christine E.; Edelstein, Barry A.

    2012-01-01

    Among young adults and clinical populations, perceived inability to control internal and external events is associated with anxiety. At present, it is unclear what role perceived anxiety control plays in anxiety among older adults. The Anxiety Control Questionnaire (ACQ) was developed to assess one's perceived ability to cope with anxiety-related…

  11. Factor Structure and Reliability of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire in a Canadian Undergraduate Student Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paivio, Sandra, C.; Cramer, Kenneth, M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this study were to examine (1) the psychometric properties of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire [CTQ; Bernstein, D., Fink, L., Handelsman, L., Foote, J., Lovejoy, M., Wenzel, K., Sapareto, E., & Ruggiero, J. (1994). Initial reliability and validity of a new retrospective measure of child abuse and neglect. American Journal…

  12. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Teaching and Learning Conceptions Questionnaire (TLCQ)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Sami; Yilmaz, Harun

    2011-01-01

    This study examines pre-service teachers' conception about teaching and learning using the perspectives of Traditional Teaching (TT) and Constructivist Teaching (CT). Using the Teaching and Learning Conceptions Questionnaire (TLCQ) by Chan and Elliot (2004), data were collected from 460 pre-service teachers in Turkey through an online…

  13. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Motivated Self-Regulated Learning Questionnaire in an EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayatollahi, Mohammad Ali; Rasekh, Abbas Eslami; Tavakoli, Mansoor

    2011-01-01

    The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) is an instrument for measuring motivation and learning strategies in general education. This instrument is modular, consisting of motivation and learning strategies modules. This study sought to see whether the learning strategies module of this instrument can be applied to the context of…

  14. What Are the Risk Factors for Kidney Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... kidney cancer? What are the risk factors for kidney cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects ... not cancer). Other risk factors Family history of kidney cancer People with a strong family history of ...

  15. Endocrine Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia, is a major health problem in older adults worldwide. Although numerous investigators have attempted to develop effective treatment modalities or drugs, there is no reasonably efficacious strategy for preventing or recovering from cognitive impairment. Therefore, modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment have received attention, and the growing literature of metabolic risk factors for cognitive impairment has expanded from epidemiology to molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic management. This review focuses on the epidemiological evidence for the association between cognitive impairment and several endocrine risk factors, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction, vitamin D deficiency, and subclinical atherosclerosis. Researches suggesting possible mechanisms for this association are reviewed. The research investigating modifiable endocrine risk factors for cognitive impairment provides clues for understanding the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment and developing novel treatment modalities. However, so far, interventional studies investigating the beneficial effect of the "modification" of these "modifiable risk factors" on cognitive impairment have reported variable results. Therefore, well-designed, randomized prospective interventional studies are needed. PMID:27118278

  16. Endocrine Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jae Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia, is a major health problem in older adults worldwide. Although numerous investigators have attempted to develop effective treatment modalities or drugs, there is no reasonably efficacious strategy for preventing or recovering from cognitive impairment. Therefore, modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment have received attention, and the growing literature of metabolic risk factors for cognitive impairment has expanded from epidemiology to molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic management. This review focuses on the epidemiological evidence for the association between cognitive impairment and several endocrine risk factors, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction, vitamin D deficiency, and subclinical atherosclerosis. Researches suggesting possible mechanisms for this association are reviewed. The research investigating modifiable endocrine risk factors for cognitive impairment provides clues for understanding the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment and developing novel treatment modalities. However, so far, interventional studies investigating the beneficial effect of the "modification" of these "modifiable risk factors" on cognitive impairment have reported variable results. Therefore, well-designed, randomized prospective interventional studies are needed. PMID:27118278

  17. Risk Factors for Recurrent Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Weimin; Han, Zhiwei; Liu, Jiang; Yu, Lili; Yu, Xiuchun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recurrent lumbar disc herniation (rLDH) is a common complication following primary discectomy. This systematic review aimed to investigate the current evidence on risk factors for rLDH. Cohort or case-control studies addressing risk factors for rLDH were identified by search in Pubmed (Medline), Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane library from inception to June 2015. Relevant results were pooled to give overall estimates if possible. Heterogeneity among studies was examined and publication bias was also assessed. A total of 17 studies were included in this systematic review. Risk factors that had significant relation with rLDH were smoking (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.53–2.58), disc protrusion (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.15–2.79), and diabetes (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.06–1.32). Gender, BMI, occupational work, level, and side of herniation did not correlate with rLDH significantly. Based on current evidence, smoking, disc protrusion, and diabetes were predictors for rLDH. Patients with these risk factors should be paid more attention for prevention of recurrence after primary surgery. More evidence provided by high-quality observational studies is still needed to further investigate risk factors for rLDH. PMID:26765413

  18. Patterns of multisite pain and associations with risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Palmer, Keith T.; Felli, Vanda E.; Harari, Raul; Barrero, Lope H.; Felknor, Sarah A.; Gimeno, David; Cattrell, Anna; Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Bonzini, Matteo; Solidaki, Eleni; Merisalu, Eda; Habib, Rima R.; Sadeghian, Farideh; Masood Kadir, M.; Warnakulasuriya, Sudath S.P.; Matsudaira, Ko; Nyantumbu, Busisiwe; Sim, Malcolm R.; Harcombe, Helen; Cox, Ken; Marziale, Maria H.; Sarquis, Leila M.; Harari, Florencia; Freire, Rocio; Harari, Natalia; Monroy, Magda V.; Quintana, Leonardo A.; Rojas, Marianela; Salazar Vega, Eduardo J.; Harris, E. Clare; Serra, Consol; Martinez, J. Miguel; Delclos, George; Benavides, Fernando G.; Carugno, Michele; Ferrario, Marco M.; Pesatori, Angela C.; Chatzi, Leda; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Oha, Kristel; Sirk, Tuuli; Sadeghian, Ali; Peiris-John, Roshini J.; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Wickremasinghe, A. Rajitha; Yoshimura, Noriko; Kelsall, Helen L.; Hoe, Victor C.W; Urquhart, Donna M.; Derrett, Sarah; McBride, David; Herbison, Peter; Gray, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    To explore definitions for multisite pain, and compare associations with risk factors for different patterns of musculoskeletal pain, we analysed cross-sectional data from the Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability (CUPID) study. The study sample comprised 12,410 adults aged 20–59 years from 47 occupational groups in 18 countries. A standardised questionnaire was used to collect information about pain in the past month at each of 10 anatomical sites, and about potential risk factors. Associations with pain outcomes were assessed by Poisson regression, and characterised by prevalence rate ratios (PRRs). Extensive pain, affecting 6–10 anatomical sites, was reported much more frequently than would be expected if the occurrence of pain at each site were independent (674 participants vs 41.9 expected). In comparison with pain involving only 1–3 sites, it showed much stronger associations (relative to no pain) with risk factors such as female sex (PRR 1.6 vs 1.1), older age (PRR 2.6 vs 1.1), somatising tendency (PRR 4.6 vs 1.3), and exposure to multiple physically stressing occupational activities (PRR 5.0 vs 1.4). After adjustment for number of sites with pain, these risk factors showed no additional association with a distribution of pain that was widespread according to the frequently used American College of Rheumatology criteria. Our analysis supports the classification of pain at multiple anatomical sites simply by the number of sites affected, and suggests that extensive pain differs importantly in its associations with risk factors from pain that is limited to only a small number of anatomical sites. PMID:23727463

  19. Environmental risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Molodecky, Natalie A; Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2010-05-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and is associated with significant morbidity. The etiology of IBD has been extensively studied during the last several decades; however, causative factors in disease pathology are not yet fully understood. IBD is thought to result from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors that influence the normal intestinal commensal flora to trigger an inappropriate mucosal immune response. Although many IBD susceptibility genes have been discovered, similar advances in defining environmental risk factors have lagged. A number of environmental risk factors have been explored, including smoking, appendectomy, oral contraceptives, diet, breastfeeding, infections/ vaccinations, antibiotics, and childhood hygiene. However, most of these factors have demonstrated inconsistent findings, thus making additional studies necessary to better understand the etiology of IBD. PMID:20567592

  20. Risk factors of cardiac allograft vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Szczurek, Wioletta; Gąsior, Mariusz; Zembala, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in prevention and treatment of heart transplant rejection, development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) remains the leading factor limiting long-term survival of the graft. Cardiac allograft vasculopathy etiopathogenesis is not fully understood, but a significant role is attributed to endothelial cell damage, caused by immunological and non-immunological mechanisms. Immunological factors include the differences between the recipient's and the donor's HLA systems, the presence of alloreactive antibodies and episodes of acute rejection. Among the non-immunological factors the most important are the age of the donor, ischemia-reperfusion injury and cytomegalovirus infection. The classical cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, obesity and hyperlipidemia) are also important. This study presents an up-to-date overview of current knowledge on the vasculopathy etiopathogenesis and the role played by endothelium and inflammatory processes in CAV, and it also investigates the factors which may serve as risk markers of cardiac allograft vasculopathy. PMID:26855649

  1. High risk factors of pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Camara, Soriba Naby; Yin, Tao; Yang, Ming; Li, Xiang; Gong, Qiong; Zhou, Jing; Zhao, Gang; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Aroun, Tajoo; Kuete, Martin; Ramdany, Sonam; Camara, Alpha Kabinet; Diallo, Aissatou Taran; Feng, Zhen; Ning, Xin; Xiong, Jiong-Xin; Tao, Jing; Qin, Qi; Zhou, Wei; Cui, Jing; Huang, Min; Guo, Yao; Gou, Shan-Miao; Wang, Bo; Liu, Tao; Olivier, Ohoya Etsaka Terence; Conde, Tenin; Cisse, Mohamed; Magassouba, Aboubacar Sidiki; Ballah, Sneha; Keita, Naby Laye Moussa; Souare, Ibrahima Sory; Toure, Aboubacar; Traore, Sadamoudou; Balde, Abdoulaye Korse; Keita, Namory; Camara, Naby Daouda; Emmanuel, Dusabe; Wu, He-Shui; Wang, Chun-You

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decades, cancer has become one of the toughest challenges for health professionals. The epidemiologists are increasingly directing their research efforts on various malignant tumor worldwide. Of note, incidence of cancers is on the rise more quickly in developed countries. Indeed, great endeavors have to be made in the control of the life-threatening disease. As we know it, pancreatic cancer (PC) is a malignant disease with the worst prognosis. While little is known about the etiology of the PC and measures to prevent the condition, so far, a number of risk factors have been identified. Genetic factors, pre-malignant lesions, predisposing diseases and exogenous factors have been found to be linked to PC. Genetic susceptibility was observed in 10% of PC cases, including inherited PC syndromes and familial PC. However, in the remaining 90%, their PC might be caused by genetic factors in combination with environmental factors. Nonetheless, the exact mechanism of the two kinds of factors, endogenous and exogenous, working together to cause PC remains poorly understood. The fact that most pancreatic neoplasms are diagnosed at an incurable stage of the disease highlights the need to identify risk factors and to understand their contribution to carcinogenesis. This article reviews the high risk factors contributing to the development of PC, to provide information for clinicians and epidemiologists. PMID:27376795

  2. Environmental risk factors for mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed

    Wohl, Yonit; Tur, Ethel

    2007-01-01

    The rising incidence rates of mycosis fungoides (MF) call for an explanation. Thus, environmental and lifestyle factors were speculated to play a role in the development of lymphoproliferative diseases. It is thought that continuous activation of skin T helper lymphocytes leads to malignant transformation of a specific clone. Possible risk factors that have been implicated are occupational chemical exposure, radiation, drugs and infections. The carcinogenic process is probably multifactorial and multistep, combining the genetic predisposition of the individual and his immune status with various exogenous factors. Using advanced and accurate exposure assessment tools, recent epidemiological data indicate that occupational exposure to chemicals, primarily to aromatic halogenated hydrocarbons, is a major risk factor to develop MF in men (odds ratio 4.6), while exposure to pesticides, a subgroup of the aromatic halogenated hydrocarbons, is a risk factor in both genders (odds ratio 6.8 for men and 2.4 for women). Apparently, concomitant infection with Staphylococcus aureus or with Borrelia species and chronic exposure to UVR are minor risk factors for the development of MF. Further assessment of occupational and environmental exposures is essential for the evaluation of their contribution to the etiology of MF. This will allow the application of preventive and surveillance measures along with adjustment of existing health policies. PMID:17641490

  3. Factor structure of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) among adolescent boys in China.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2010-09-01

    There is considerable evidence that mass media portrayals of body image contribute to body dissatisfaction, yet the assessment of perceived media influences has been examined fleetingly in highly populated, non-Western cultures, particularly among young males. This research examined the factor structure of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) among adolescent boys in China. In an initial exploratory factor analysis (N=719), a four factor solution emerged with components reflecting General Pressure-Internalization, Sources of Appearance Information, Pressure-Internalization of an Athletic Ideal, and Pressure to be Thin. Subsequently, confirmatory factor analyses in a new sample (n=749) assessed fits of the derived four factor model, a three factor variant, and alternatives reflecting "Western" and "Malay" SATAQ-3 solutions. The derived four factor solution had the most acceptable structure across several fit indices. Patterns of correlation with other self-report measures also provided preliminary support for the validity of the derived solution. PMID:20800561

  4. Risk Factors for Smoking in Rural Women

    PubMed Central

    Salsberry, Pamela J.; Ferketich, Amy K.; Ahijevych, Karen L.; Hood, Nancy E.; Paskett, Electra D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background This study examined the association between social, demographic, and psychologic factors and smoking status among Appalachian Ohio women. A secondary aim examined whether specific factors could be identified and segmented for future tailored treatment of tobacco dependence. Methods A cross-sectional survey (n=570) obtained information about social, demographic, and psychologic factors and smoking. Logistic regression described associations between these characteristics and smoking status. Chi-square automatic interaction detection (CHAID) analyses identified subgroups at risk for smoking. Results Fifty-two percent never smoked, with 20.5% and 27.5% categorized as former and current smokers, respectively. Women with low adult socioeconomic position (SEP) were more likely to smoke (odds ratio [OR] 3.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.74-5.34) compared to high SEP women. Other factors associated with current smoking included age 31–50 (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.22-4.33), age 18–30 (OR 3.29, 95% CI 1.72-5.34), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) score≥16 (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.31-3.05), and first pregnancy at age<20 (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.14-2.66). The prevalence of smoking was 50% among those with four or more risk factors compared to 10% for those reporting no risk factors. CHAID analyses identified low adult SEP and depressive symptoms as the combination of risk factors most strongly associated with smoking; 49.3% of women in this subgroup currently smoked. Conclusions Low SEP in adulthood, maternal circumstances, and depressive symptoms are associated with current smoking. Tailored cessation interventions that address these risk factors should be developed and further evaluated in an attempt to reduce disparities in smoking prevalence among this vulnerable group of women. PMID:22360694

  5. Brief Report: Direct and Indirect Relations of Risk Factors with Eating Behavior Problems in Late Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Birgit; Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Zimmermann-van Beuningen, Ritine

    2009-01-01

    This study explored correlations between risk factors and eating behavior problems in late adolescent, non-clinical females (N = 301). Participants completed questionnaires for assessing eating problems, the closely associated factors of Body Mass Index (BMI) and body dissatisfaction, and a number of other risk variables that are thought to be…

  6. Risk factors for developing atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Carson, Charlotte Giwercman

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate possible risk factors affecting the development of AD. AD is a frequent disease among children and has a substantial impact on the lives of both the child and its family. A better understanding of the disease would enable better treatment, prevention and information to the families involved. Previous risk factor studies have been hampered by an unsuitable study design and/or difficulties in standardization when diagnosing AD, which limit their conclusions. In paper I, we conducted a traditional cross-sectional analysis testing 40 possible risk factors for developing AD at 3 years of age. Our data suggested a strong heredity of AD and confirmed the risk associated with the non-functional FLG allele mutations after adjustments for confounders. Besides this mother's dermatitis and father's allergic rhinitis were found to increase the risk of AD. Perinatal exposure to dog was the only environmental exposure that significantly reduced the disease manifestation, suggesting other, yet unknown environmental factors affecting the increasing prevalence of AD in children. Length at birth was shown to be inversely associated with the risk of later developing AD. This traditional risk factor analysis led to two borderline significant results: duration of exclusive breastfeeding and mother's alcohol intake during the 3rd trimester. Since these possible two risk factors could neither be rejected nor accepted, we decided to do two in-depth studies, further investigating these, using longitudinal data information and data analysis instead of the traditional cross-sectional approach (paper II & III). In paper II, we investigated the risk of developing AD and wheezy symptoms until age 2 years depending on duration of breastfeeding. We found an increased risk of AD, but a protective effect on wheezy disorders in infancy from exclusive breastfeeding. The effect of exclusive breastfeeding on the risk of development of AD was significant after

  7. Risk Factors for Glaucoma Needing More Attention

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Anne L; Kodjebacheva, Gergana

    2009-01-01

    Glaucoma is defined as a chronic progressive optic neuropathy, for which elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only modifiable risk factor. Emerging research indicates that modifiable factors besides IOP may be associated with the presence of glaucoma. In this review, we discuss the role of modifiable determinants, specifically socioeconomic status, nutritional intake, body mass index and obesity, exercise, smoking, and sleep apnea, in the presence of glaucoma. Preliminary studies suggest that associations may exist between these non-inherent factors and glaucoma although research had significant limitations. The mechanisms of influence are unknown or understudied. Research needs to incorporate the broader behavioral and social factors that may affect glaucoma status. PMID:19816585

  8. Surgical site infection risk factors and risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Florschutz, Anthony V; Fagan, Ryan P; Matar, Wadih Y; Sawyer, Robert G; Berrios-Torres, Sandra I

    2015-04-01

    Preoperative identification of the risk factors for surgical site infection and patient risk stratification are essential for deciding whether surgery is appropriate, educating patients on their individual risk of complications, and managing postoperative expectations. Early identification of these factors is also necessary to help guide both patient medical optimization and perioperative care planning. Several resources are currently available to track and analyze healthcare-associated infections, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network. In addition, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons are exploring collaborative opportunities for the codevelopment of a hip and/or knee arthroplasty national quality measure for periprosthetic joint infection. PMID:25808971

  9. Chronic kidney disease - pediatric risk factors.

    PubMed

    Tasic, Velibor; Janchevska, Aleksandra; Emini, Nora; Sahpazova, Emilija; Gucev, Zoran; Polenakovic, Momir

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge about the progression of chronic kidney disease is an important issue for every pediatric nephrologist and pediatrician in order to implement appropriate measures to prevent wasting of renal function and the final consequence - end stage renal disease with the need for the dialysis and transplantation. Therefore it is important to know, treat or ameliorate the standard risk factors such as hypertension, proteinuria, anemia, hyperparathyroidism etc. In this review devoted to the World Kidney Day 2016 we will pay attention to the low birth parameters, obesity, hyperuricemia and smoking which emerged as particularly important risk factors for children and adolescent with chronic kidney disease. PMID:27442412

  10. Occupational Asthma: Etiologies and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to critically review the available evidence pertaining to occupational, environmental, and individual factors that can affect the development of occupational asthma (OA). Increasing evidence suggests that exploration of the intrinsic characteristics of OA-causing agents and associated structure-activity relationships offers promising avenues for quantifying the sensitizing potential of agents that are introduced in the workplace. The intensity of exposure to sensitizing agents has been identified as the most important environmental risk factor for OA and should remain the cornerstone for primary prevention strategies. The role of other environmental co-factors (e.g., non-respiratory routes of exposure and concomitant exposure to cigarette smoke and other pollutants) remains to be further delineated. There is convincing evidence that atopy is an important individual risk factor for OA induced by high-molecular-weight agents. There is some evidence that genetic factors, such as leukocyte antigen class II alleles, are associated with an increased risk of OA; however, the role of genetic susceptibility factors is likely to be obscured by complex gene-environment interactions. OA, as well as asthma in general, is a complex disease that results from multiple interactions between environmental factors and host susceptibilities. Determining these interactions is a crucial step towards implementing optimal prevention policies. PMID:21738881