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Sample records for risk portray candidates

  1. How Health Risks Are Pinpointed (or Not) on Social Media: The Portrayal of Waterpipe Smoking on Pinterest.

    PubMed

    Guidry, Jeanine; Jin, Yan; Haddad, Linda; Zhang, Yuan; Smith, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Waterpipe tobacco is among the most rapidly growing trends in tobacco smoking, the growing use and acceptance of which are taking place at a time when cigarette smoking is regarded in an increasingly negative manner (Martinasek, McDermott, & Martini, 2011). Given the health risks and the misperceptions associated with waterpipe smoking, this study focuses on how waterpipe smoking is portrayed and represented on the social media platform Pinterest. In total, 800 Pinterest pins were content analyzed. The vast majority of the sampled pins were primarily image based. More than half of the pins linked to a website external to Pinterest that often redirected the pinner to a commercial website. Waterpipe-focused pins portrayed waterpipe smoking more in a positive light than in a negative light, and conveyed a sense of pleasure, aesthetic, and relaxation, which tended to trigger more repins, likes, and higher levels of engagement. Overall, the risks of waterpipe smoking were not represented on Pinterest, indicating that the social media portrayal of waterpipe smoking needs improvement and could benefit from a public health perspective. PMID:26512916

  2. Portrayal of Alcohol Consumption in Movies and Drinking Initiation in Low-Risk Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, James D.; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Engels, Rutger C.M.E.; Scholte, Ron H.J.; Mathis, Federica; Florek, Ewa; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol consumption in movies affects the likelihood that low-risk adolescents will start to drink alcohol. METHODS: Longitudinal study of 2346 adolescent never drinkers who also reported at baseline intent to not to do so in the next 12 months (mean age 12.9 years, SD = 1.08). Recruitment was carried out in 2009 and 2010 in 112 state-funded schools in Germany, Iceland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, and Scotland. Exposure to movie alcohol consumption was estimated from 250 top-grossing movies in each country in the years 2004 to 2009. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions assessed the relationship between baseline exposure to movie alcohol consumption and initiation of trying alcohol, and binge drinking (≥ 5 consecutive drinks) at follow-up. RESULTS: Overall, 40% of the sample initiated alcohol use and 6% initiated binge drinking by follow-up. Estimated mean exposure to movie alcohol consumption was 3653 (SD = 2448) occurrences. After age, gender, family affluence, school performance, TV screen time, personality characteristics, and drinking behavior of peers, parents, and siblings were controlled for, exposure to each additional 1000 movie alcohol occurrences was significantly associated with increased relative risk for trying alcohol, incidence rate ratio = 1.05 (95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.08; P = .003), and for binge drinking, incidence rate ratio = 1.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.06–1.20; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Seeing alcohol depictions in movies is an independent predictor of drinking initiation, particularly for more risky patterns of drinking. This result was shown in a heterogeneous sample of European youths who had a low affinity for drinking alcohol at the time of exposure. PMID:24799536

  3. 28 CFR 105.14 - Risk assessment for candidates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Risk assessment for candidates. 105.14 Section 105.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIMINAL HISTORY BACKGROUND CHECKS Aviation Training for Aliens and Other Designated Individuals § 105.14 Risk assessment...

  4. 28 CFR 105.14 - Risk assessment for candidates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Risk assessment for candidates. 105.14 Section 105.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIMINAL HISTORY BACKGROUND CHECKS Aviation Training for Aliens and Other Designated Individuals § 105.14 Risk assessment...

  5. 28 CFR 105.14 - Risk assessment for candidates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Risk assessment for candidates. 105.14 Section 105.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIMINAL HISTORY BACKGROUND CHECKS Aviation Training for Aliens and Other Designated Individuals § 105.14 Risk assessment...

  6. 28 CFR 105.14 - Risk assessment for candidates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Risk assessment for candidates. 105.14 Section 105.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIMINAL HISTORY BACKGROUND CHECKS Aviation Training for Aliens and Other Designated Individuals § 105.14 Risk assessment...

  7. 28 CFR 105.14 - Risk assessment for candidates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Risk assessment for candidates. 105.14 Section 105.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIMINAL HISTORY BACKGROUND CHECKS Aviation Training for Aliens and Other Designated Individuals § 105.14 Risk assessment...

  8. Cardiovascular Risk Assessment and Management in Prerenal Transplantation Candidates.

    PubMed

    Lindley, Eric M; Hall, Amanda K; Hess, Jordan; Abraham, Jo; Smith, Brigham; Hopkins, Paul N; Shihab, Fuad; Welt, Frederick; Owan, Theophilus; Fang, James C

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) assessment in prerenal transplant patients varies by center. Current guidelines recommend stress testing for candidates if ≥ 3 CV risk factors exist. We evaluated the CV assessment and management in 685 patients referred for kidney transplant over a 7-year period. All patients had CV risk factors, and the most common cause of end-stage renal disease was diabetes. Thirty-three percent (n = 229) underwent coronary angiography. The sensitivity of stress testing to detect obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) was poor (0.26). Patients who had no CAD, nonobstructive CAD, or CAD with intervention had significantly higher event-free survival compared with patients with obstructive CAD without intervention. There were no adverse clinical events (death, myocardial infarction, stroke, revascularization, and graft failure) within 30 days post-transplant in patients who had preoperative angiography (n = 77). Of the transplanted patients who did not have an angiogram (n = 289), there were 8 clinical events (6 myocardial infarctions) in the first 30 days. In conclusion, our results indicate that stress testing and usual risk factors were poor predictors of obstructive CAD and that revascularization may prove beneficial in these patients. PMID:26552506

  9. Voltaire's Portrayal of Old Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Lorna; Nelson, Judy

    1987-01-01

    Surveyed Voltaire's 50 plays to examine traits and roles assigned to elderly, influence of genre and author's age on portrayals, and factors to which elder's traits were attributed. Found elderly portrayed more favorably in tragedy than in comedy; no effect of period of life on portrayals. Wisdom was only trait consistently and specifically…

  10. Investigating Teacher Candidates' Mentoring of Students at Risk of Academic Failure: A Canadian Experiential Field Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Susan M.; Salinitri, Geri

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors explore a Canadian field experience model in a bachelor of education program that focuses on mentor-based relationships between teacher candidates and students at risk of dropping out of high school. They examine teacher candidates' and at-risk students' attitudinal approaches. The model emphasizes praxis and social…

  11. Candidate Risks Indicators for Bipolar Disorder: Early Intervention Opportunities in High-Risk Youth

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Steven; Goodday, Sarah; Bentall, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background: Psychiatric illnesses like bipolar disorder are increasingly understood to be neurodevelopmental disorders with clinical, psychological, and biological indicators recognizable long before the emergence of the full-blown syndromes. Methods: This paper is a selective review of findings from studies of high-risk children of affected parents that inform the knowledge of illness risk and development markers of bipolar disorder. We specifically focus on candidate clinical, biological, and psychological risk indicators that could serve as targets for future early intervention and prevention studies. Results: There is convergent evidence from prospective studies that bipolar disorder typically debuts as depressive episodes after puberty. In some high-risk children, sleep and anxiety disorders precede mood disorders by several years and reflect an increased vulnerability. An association between early exposure to adversity (eg, exposure to parental illness, neglect from mother) and increased risk of psychopathology may be mediated through increased stress reactivity evident at both behavioral and biological levels. Inter-related psychological processes including reward sensitivity, unstable self-esteem, rumination, and positive self-appraisal are risk factors for mood disorders. Disturbances in circadian rhythm and immune dysfunction are associated with mood disorders and may be vulnerability markers influenced by these other risk factors. Conclusions: There is accruing evidence of a number of measurable and potentially modifiable markers of vulnerability and developing illness in youth at familial risk for bipolar disorder. Longitudinal studies of multiple biological and psychological risk processes in high-risk offspring, both individually and together, will improve our understanding of illness onset and lead to the development of specific early interventions. PMID:26116493

  12. Television Portrayal and Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comstock, George

    This is a review of research relating to the attributes of portrayals which play a role in affecting aggressive behavior. The effects of portrayal can occur at any of three successive stages: acquisition, disinhibition/stimulation/arousal, performance. The older the individual, the more likely the influence is to be in all three stages of…

  13. Genotype relative risks: methods for design and analysis of candidate-gene association studies.

    PubMed Central

    Schaid, D J; Sommer, S S

    1993-01-01

    Design and analysis methods are presented for studying the association of a candidate gene with a disease by using parental data in place of nonrelated controls. This alternative design eliminates spurious differences in allele frequencies between cases and nonrelated controls resulting from different ethnic origins and population stratification for these two groups. We present analysis methods which are based on two genetic relative risks: (1) the relative risk of disease for homozygotes with two copies of the candidate gene versus homozygotes without the candidate gene and (2) the relative risk for heterozygotes with one copy of the candidate gene versus homozygotes without the candidate gene. In addition to estimating the magnitude of these relative risks, likelihood methods allow specific hypotheses to be tested, namely, a test for overall association of the candidate gene with disease, as well as specific genetic hypotheses, such as dominant or recessive inheritance. Two likelihood methods are presented: (1) a likelihood method appropriate when Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium holds and (2) a likelihood method in which we condition on parental genotype data when Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium does not hold. The results for the relative efficiency of these two methods suggest that the conditional approach may at times be preferable, even when equilibrium holds. Sample-size and power calculations are presented for a multitiered design. The purpose of tier 1 is to detect the presence of an abnormal sequence for a postulated candidate gene among a small group of cases. The purpose of tier 2 is to test for association of the abnormal variant with disease, such as by the likelihood methods presented. The purpose of tier 3 is to confirm positive results from tier 2. Results indicate that required sample sizes are smaller when expression of disease is recessive, rather than dominant, and that, for recessive disease and large relative risks, necessary sample sizes may be

  14. Genotype relative risks: Methods for design and analysis of candidate-gene association studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shaid, D.J.; Sommer, S.S. )

    1993-11-01

    Design and analysis methods are presented for studying the association of a candidate gene with a disease by using parental data in place of nonrelated controls. This alternating design eliminates spurious differences in allele frequencies between cases and nonrelated controls resulting from different ethnic origins and population stratification for these two groups. The authors present analysis methods which are based on two genetic relative risks: (1) the relative risk of disease for homozygotes with two copies of the candidate gene versus homozygotes without the candidate gene and (2) the relative risk for heterozygotes with one copy of the candidate gene versus homozygotes without the candidate gene. In addition to estimating the magnitude of these relative risks, likelihood methods allow specific hypotheses to be tested, namely, a test for overall association of the candidate gene with disease, as well as specific genetic hypotheses, such as dominant or recessive inheritance. Two likelihood methods are presented: (1) a likelihood method appropriate when Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium holds and (2) a likelihood method in which the authors condition on parental genotype data when Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium does not hold. The results for the relative efficiency of these two methods suggest that the conditional approach may at times be preferable, even when equilibrium holds. Sample-size and power calculations are presented for a multitiered design. Tier 1 detects the presence of an abnormal sequence for a postulated candidate gene among a small group of cases. Tier 2 tests for association of the abnormal variant with disease, such as by the likelihood methods presented. Tier 3 confirms positive results from tier 2. Results indicate that required sample sizes are smaller when expression of disease is recessive, rather than dominant, and that, for recessive disease and large relative risks, necessary sample sizes may be feasible. 19 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Candidate gene polymorphisms and risk of psoriasis: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    VILLARREAL-MARTÍNEZ, ALEJANDRA; GALLARDO-BLANCO, HUGO; CERDA-FLORES, RICARDO; TORRES-MUÑOZ, IRIS; GÓMEZ-FLORES, MINERVA; SALAS-ALANÍS, JULIO; OCAMPO-CANDIANI, JORGE; MARTÍNEZ-GARZA, LAURA

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a complex genetic disease, which has previously been associated with numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are implicated in various processes, including skin barrier functions and in the regulation of inflammatory and immune responses. The present study aimed to investigate the genotypic and allelic frequencies of 32 SNPs at 24 genetic loci, and their association with psoriasis in a Mexican population. These SNPs, which were associated with psoriasis in previous studies, included the following genes: Major histocompatibility complex class I-C (HLA-C), interleukin (IL)-12B, IL-23R, IL-23A, IL-28RA, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, ring finger protein-114 (RNF114), cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulatory subunit-associated protein 1-like 1, late cornified envelope 3B/3C, signal transducer and activator of transcription 4, LINC01185, interferon induced with helicase C domain 1, IL-13, TNF-α-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3), TNFAIP3 interacting protein 1, endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1, TNF receptor-associated factor interacting protein 2, Leptin, nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor-alpha, F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 19, nitric oxide synthase 2, cluster of differentiation 40, nuclear receptor coactivator 5, and ADAM metallopeptidase domain 33. A total of 32 male and 14 female subjects with a clinical diagnosis of chronic plaque psoriasis, as well as 103 control subjects, were analyzed. Molecular analyses were performed using TaqMan® assays in a TaqMan® OpenArray® Genotyping system. Results were analyzed using the Golden Helix SNP and Variation Suite 7 program. Of the 32 SNPs, six were associated with an increased risk of developing psoriasis, including: HLA-C rs10484554 [allele T: odds ratio (OR) 3.51], IL-12B rs3212227 (allele T: OR 1.88), IL-12B rs3213094 (allele C: OR 1.94), HLA complex group 27 rs1265181 (allele C: OR 2.83), annexin A6 rs17728338 (allele A: OR 2.41), and RNF114 rs

  16. Association between Variants in Atopy-Related Immunologic Candidate Genes and Pancreatic Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Cotterchio, Michelle; Lowcock, Elizabeth; Bider-Canfield, Zoe; Lemire, Mathieu; Greenwood, Celia; Gallinger, Steven; Hudson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Many epidemiology studies report that atopic conditions such as allergies are associated with reduced pancreas cancer risk. The reason for this relationship is not yet understood. This is the first study to comprehensively evaluate the association between variants in atopy-related candidate genes and pancreatic cancer risk. Methods A population-based case-control study of pancreas cancer cases diagnosed during 2011-2012 (via Ontario Cancer Registry), and controls recruited using random digit dialing utilized DNA from 179 cases and 566 controls. Following an exhaustive literature review, SNPs in 180 candidate genes were pre-screened using dbGaP pancreas cancer GWAS data; 147 SNPs in 56 allergy-related immunologic genes were retained and genotyped. Logistic regression was used to estimate age-adjusted odd ratio (AOR) for each variant and false discovery rate was used to adjust Wald p-values for multiple testing. Subsequently, a risk allele score was derived based on statistically significant variants. Results 18 SNPs in 14 candidate genes (CSF2, DENND1B, DPP10, FLG, IL13, IL13RA2, LRP1B, NOD1, NPSR1, ORMDL3, RORA, STAT4, TLR6, TRA) were significantly associated with pancreas cancer risk. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, two LRP1B SNPs remained statistically significant; for example, LRP1B rs1449477 (AA vs. CC: AOR=0.37, 95% CI: 0.22-0.62; p (adjusted)=0.04). Furthermore, the risk allele score was associated with a significant reduction in pancreas cancer risk (p=0.0007). Conclusions Preliminary findings suggest certain atopy-related variants may be associated with pancreas cancer risk. Further studies are needed to replicate this, and to elucidate the biology behind the growing body of epidemiologic evidence suggesting allergies may reduce pancreatic cancer risk. PMID:25945796

  17. Validation of candidate genes associated with cardiovascular risk factors in psychiatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Windemuth, Andreas; de Leon, Jose; Goethe, John W.; Schwartz, Harold I.; Woolley, Stephen; Susce, Margaret; Kocherla, Mohan; Bogaard, Kali; Holford, Theodore R.; Seip, Richard L.; Ruaño, Gualberto

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify genetic variants predictive of cardiovascular risk factors in a psychiatric population treated with second generation antipsychotics (SGA). 924 patients undergoing treatment for severe mental illness at four US hospitals were genotyped at 1.2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms. Patients were assessed for fasting serum lipid (low density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDLc], high density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDLc], and triglycerides) and obesity phenotypes (body mass index, BMI). Thirteen candidate genes from previous studies of the same phenotypes in non-psychiatric populations were tested for association. We confirmed 8 of the 13 candidate genes at the 95% confidence level. An increased genetic effect size was observed for triglycerides in the psychiatric population compared to that in the cardiovascular population. PMID:21851846

  18. Minimizing DILI risk in drug discovery - A screening tool for drug candidates.

    PubMed

    Schadt, S; Simon, S; Kustermann, S; Boess, F; McGinnis, C; Brink, A; Lieven, R; Fowler, S; Youdim, K; Ullah, M; Marschmann, M; Zihlmann, C; Siegrist, Y M; Cascais, A C; Di Lenarda, E; Durr, E; Schaub, N; Ang, X; Starke, V; Singer, T; Alvarez-Sanchez, R; Roth, A B; Schuler, F; Funk, C

    2015-12-25

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a leading cause of acute hepatic failure and a major reason for market withdrawal of drugs. Idiosyncratic DILI is multifactorial, with unclear dose-dependency and poor predictability since the underlying patient-related susceptibilities are not sufficiently understood. Because of these limitations, a pharmaceutical research option would be to reduce the compound-related risk factors in the drug-discovery process. Here we describe the development and validation of a methodology for the assessment of DILI risk of drug candidates. As a training set, 81 marketed or withdrawn compounds with differing DILI rates - according to the FDA categorization - were tested in a combination of assays covering different mechanisms and endpoints contributing to human DILI. These include the generation of reactive metabolites (CYP3A4 time-dependent inhibition and glutathione adduct formation), inhibition of the human bile salt export pump (BSEP), mitochondrial toxicity and cytotoxicity (fibroblasts and human hepatocytes). Different approaches for dose- and exposure-based calibrations were assessed and the same parameters applied to a test set of 39 different compounds. We achieved a similar performance to the training set with an overall accuracy of 79% correctly predicted, a sensitivity of 76% and a specificity of 82%. This test system may be applied in a prospective manner to reduce the risk of idiosyncratic DILI of drug candidates. PMID:26407524

  19. Risk factors assessment and risk prediction models in lung cancer screening candidates.

    PubMed

    Adamek, Mariusz; Wachuła, Ewa; Szabłowska-Siwik, Sylwia; Boratyn-Nowicka, Agnieszka; Czyżewski, Damian

    2016-04-01

    From February 2015, low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening entered the armamentarium of diagnostic tools broadly available to individuals at high-risk of developing lung cancer. While a huge number of pulmonary nodules are identified, only a small fraction turns out to be early lung cancers. The majority of them constitute a variety of benign lesions. Although it entails a burden of the diagnostic work-up, the undisputable benefit emerges from: (I) lung cancer diagnosis at earlier stages (stage shift); (II) additional findings enabling the implementation of a preventive action beyond the realm of thoracic oncology. This review presents how to utilize the risk factors from distinct categories such as epidemiology, radiology and biomarkers to target the fraction of population, which may benefit most from the introduced screening modality. PMID:27195269

  20. Risk factors assessment and risk prediction models in lung cancer screening candidates

    PubMed Central

    Wachuła, Ewa; Szabłowska-Siwik, Sylwia; Boratyn-Nowicka, Agnieszka; Czyżewski, Damian

    2016-01-01

    From February 2015, low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening entered the armamentarium of diagnostic tools broadly available to individuals at high-risk of developing lung cancer. While a huge number of pulmonary nodules are identified, only a small fraction turns out to be early lung cancers. The majority of them constitute a variety of benign lesions. Although it entails a burden of the diagnostic work-up, the undisputable benefit emerges from: (I) lung cancer diagnosis at earlier stages (stage shift); (II) additional findings enabling the implementation of a preventive action beyond the realm of thoracic oncology. This review presents how to utilize the risk factors from distinct categories such as epidemiology, radiology and biomarkers to target the fraction of population, which may benefit most from the introduced screening modality. PMID:27195269

  1. Candidate Gene and MicroRNA Expression in Fetal Membranes and Preterm Delivery Risk.

    PubMed

    Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Hensley, Mark; Qiu, Chunfang; Abetew, Dejene F; Hevner, Karin; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Williams, Michelle A

    2016-06-01

    We investigated candidate gene and microRNA (miRNA) expression in amnion and chorion in relation to risk of preterm delivery (PTD). Amnion and chorion were separated from placenta and collected at delivery from participants who delivered at term (N = 10) and from participants who delivered preterm following spontaneous labor (sPTL-PTD; N = 10), premature rupture of membranes (PPROM-PTD; N = 10), and preeclampsia (PE-PTD; N = 10). Expression of genes (metalloproteinase [MMP] 2, MMP-9, and tissue inhibitors of MMP-1) and miRNAs (miR-199a*, -202*, -210, -214, -223, and -338) was profiled using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction approaches. Adjusted multinomial logistic regression models were used to calculate relative risk ratios (RRR), 95% confidence intervals, and P values. Among controls, the expression of miR-199a*, -202*, and -214 was lower in the amnion compared with their expression in the chorion, whereas the expression of miR-210 was higher in the amnion compared with its expression in the chorion (all P values < .05). In the amnion, MMP-9 expression was associated with PTD risk (overall P value = .0092), and MMP-9 expression was positively associated with the risk of PPROM-PTD (RRR: 31.10) and inversely associated with the risk of PE-PTD (RRR:6.55e-6), although individual associations were not statistically significant. In addition, in the amnion, the expression of miR-210 (RRR: 0.45; overall P value = .0039) was inversely associated with the risk of PE-PTD, and miR-223 was inversely associated with all subtypes of PTD (overall P value = .0400). The amnion and chorion differ in their miRNA expression. The expression of MMP-9, miR-210, and -223 in the amnion is associated with PTD risk. PMID:26507872

  2. Candidate genes and their interactions with other genetic / environmental risk factors in the etiology of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, KM; Talkowski, MT; Chowdari, KV; McClain, L; Yolken, RH

    2016-01-01

    Identification of causative factors for common, chronic disorders is a major focus of current human health science research. These disorders are likely to be caused by multiple etiological agents. Available evidence also suggests that interactions between the risk factors may explain some of their pathogenic effects. While progress in genomics and allied biological research has brought forth powerful analytic techniques, the predicted complexity poses daunting analytic challenges. The search for pathogenesis of schizophrenia shares most of these challenges. We have reviewed the analytic and logistic problems associated with the search for pathogenesis. Evidence for pathogenic interactions is presented for selected diseases and for schizophrenia. We end by suggesting ‘recursive analyses’ as a potential design to address these challenges. This scheme involves initial focused searches for interactions motivated by available evidence, typically involving identified individual risk factors, such as candidate gene variants. Putative interactions are tested rigorously for replication and for biological plausibility. Support for the interactions from statistical and functional analyses motivates a progressively larger array of interactants that are evaluated recursively. The risk explained by the interactions is assessed concurrently and further elaborate searches may be guided by the results of such analyses. By way of example, we summarize our ongoing analyses of dopaminergic polymorphisms, as well as infectious etiological factors in schizophrenia genesis to exemplify this approach. PMID:19729054

  3. Candidate DNA repair susceptibility genes identified by exome sequencing in high-risk pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alyssa L; Alirezaie, Najmeh; Connor, Ashton; Chan-Seng-Yue, Michelle; Grant, Robert; Selander, Iris; Bascuñana, Claire; Borgida, Ayelet; Hall, Anita; Whelan, Thomas; Holter, Spring; McPherson, Treasa; Cleary, Sean; Petersen, Gloria M; Omeroglu, Atilla; Saloustros, Emmanouil; McPherson, John; Stein, Lincoln D; Foulkes, William D; Majewski, Jacek; Gallinger, Steven; Zogopoulos, George

    2016-01-28

    The genetic basis underlying the majority of hereditary pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PC) is unknown. Since DNA repair genes are widely implicated in gastrointestinal malignancies, including PC, we hypothesized that there are novel DNA repair PC susceptibility genes. As germline DNA repair gene mutations may lead to PC subtypes with selective therapeutic responses, we also hypothesized that there is an overall survival (OS) difference in mutation carriers versus non-carriers. We therefore interrogated the germline exomes of 109 high-risk PC cases for rare protein-truncating variants (PTVs) in 513 putative DNA repair genes. We identified PTVs in 41 novel genes among 36 kindred. Additional genetic evidence for causality was obtained for 17 genes, with FAN1, NEK1 and RHNO1 emerging as the strongest candidates. An OS difference was observed for carriers versus non-carriers of PTVs with early stage (≤IIB) disease. This adverse survival trend in carriers with early stage disease was also observed in an independent series of 130 PC cases. We identified candidate DNA repair PC susceptibility genes and suggest that carriers of a germline PTV in a DNA repair gene with early stage disease have worse survival. PMID:26546047

  4. Chromatin interactions and candidate genes at ten prostate cancer risk loci.

    PubMed

    Du, Meijun; Tillmans, Lori; Gao, Jianzhong; Gao, Ping; Yuan, Tiezheng; Dittmar, Rachel L; Song, Wei; Yang, Yuehong; Sahr, Natasha; Wang, Tao; Wei, Gong-Hong; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Wang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 100 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with prostate cancer risk. However, the vast majority of these SNPs lie in noncoding regions of the genome. To test whether these risk SNPs regulate their target genes through long-range chromatin interactions, we applied capture-based 3C sequencing technology to investigate possible cis-interactions at ten prostate cancer risk loci in six cell lines. We identified significant physical interactions between risk regions and their potential target genes including CAPG at 2p11.2, C2orf43 at 2p24.1, RFX6 at 6q22.1, NFASC at 1q32.1, MYC at 8q24.1 and AGAP7P at 10q11.23. Most of the interaction peaks were co-localized to regions of active histone modification and transcription factor binding sites. Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis showed suggestive eQTL signals at rs1446669, rs699664 and rs1078004 for CAPG (p < 0.004), rs13394027 for C2orf43 (p = 2.25E-27), rs10993994 and rs4631830 for AGAP7P (p < 8.02E-5). Further analysis revealed an enhancer activity at genomic region surrounding rs4631830 which was expected to disrupt HOXB-like DNA binding affinity. This study identifies a set of candidate genes and their potential regulatory variants, and provides additional evidence showing the role of long-range chromatin interactions in prostate cancer etiology. PMID:26979803

  5. Chromatin interactions and candidate genes at ten prostate cancer risk loci

    PubMed Central

    Du, Meijun; Tillmans, Lori; Gao, Jianzhong; Gao, Ping; Yuan, Tiezheng; Dittmar, Rachel L; Song, Wei; Yang, Yuehong; Sahr, Natasha; Wang, Tao; Wei, Gong-Hong; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Wang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 100 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with prostate cancer risk. However, the vast majority of these SNPs lie in noncoding regions of the genome. To test whether these risk SNPs regulate their target genes through long-range chromatin interactions, we applied capture-based 3C sequencing technology to investigate possible cis-interactions at ten prostate cancer risk loci in six cell lines. We identified significant physical interactions between risk regions and their potential target genes including CAPG at 2p11.2, C2orf43 at 2p24.1, RFX6 at 6q22.1, NFASC at 1q32.1, MYC at 8q24.1 and AGAP7P at 10q11.23. Most of the interaction peaks were co-localized to regions of active histone modification and transcription factor binding sites. Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis showed suggestive eQTL signals at rs1446669, rs699664 and rs1078004 for CAPG (p < 0.004), rs13394027 for C2orf43 (p = 2.25E-27), rs10993994 and rs4631830 for AGAP7P (p < 8.02E-5). Further analysis revealed an enhancer activity at genomic region surrounding rs4631830 which was expected to disrupt HOXB-like DNA binding affinity. This study identifies a set of candidate genes and their potential regulatory variants, and provides additional evidence showing the role of long-range chromatin interactions in prostate cancer etiology. PMID:26979803

  6. Working Women Portrayed on Evening Television Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaniuga, Nancy; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Even television programs are thought to distort the real-life occupational distribution of women workers by favoring sex stereotypes and representing a narrow range of portrayed occupations for women. (Author)

  7. Candidate biomarker discovery and selection for ‘Granny Smith' superficial scald risk management and diagnosis, poster board

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Discovery of candidate biomarkers for superficial scald, a peel disorder that develops during storage of susceptible apple cultivars, is part of a larger project aimed at developing biomarker-based risk-management and diagnostic tools for multiple apple postharvest disorders (http://www.tfrec.wsu.ed...

  8. Candidate genetic modifiers for breast and ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Peterlongo, Paolo; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Rudolph, Anja; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Simard, Jacques; Soucy, Penny; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Easton, Douglas F.; Hamann, Ute; Wilkening, Stefan; Chen, Bowang; Rookus, Matti A.; Schmidt, Marjanka K; van der Baan, Frederieke H.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Walker, Logan C.; Lose, Felicity; Maia, Ana-Teresa; Montagna, Marco; Matricardi, Laura; Lubinski, Jan; Jakubowska, Anna; Gómez Garcia, Encarna B.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Nussbaum, Robert L.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Arun, Banu K.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Orsulic, Sandra; Lester, Jenny; Chung, Wendy K.; Miron, Alex; Southey, Melissa C.; Goldgar, David E.; Buys, Saundra S.; Janavicius, Ramunas; Dorfling, Cecilia M.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jønson, Lars; Osorio, Ana; Martínez-Bouzas, Cristina; Benitez, Javier; Conway, Edye E.; Blazer, Kathleen R.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Scuvera, Giulietta; Barile, Monica; Ficarazzi, Filomena; Mariette, Frederique; Fortuzzi, Stefano; Viel, Alessandra; Giannini, Giuseppe; Papi, Laura; Martayan, Aline; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Radice, Paolo; Vratimos, Athanassios; Fostira, Florentia; Garber, Judy E.; Donaldson, Alan; Brewer, Carole; Foo, Claire; Evans, D. Gareth R.; Frost, Debra; Eccles, Diana; Brady, Angela; Cook, Jackie; Tischkowitz, Marc; Adlard, Julian; Barwell, Julian; Walker, Lisa; Izatt, Louise; Side, Lucy E.; Kennedy, M. John; Rogers, Mark T.; Porteous, Mary E.; Morrison, Patrick J.; Platte, Radka; Davidson, Rosemarie; Hodgson, Shirley V.; Ellis, Steve; Cole, Trevor; Godwin, Andrew K.; Claes, Kathleen; Van Maerken, Tom; Meindl, Alfons; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Engel, Christoph; Niederacher, Dieter; Steinemann, Doris; Plendl, Hansjoerg; Kast, Karin; Rhiem, Kerstin; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Buecher, Bruno; Delnatte, Capucine; Houdayer, Claude; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Damiola, Francesca; Coupier, Isabelle; Barjhoux, Laure; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Golmard, Lisa; Boutry-Kryza, Nadia; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Caron, Olivier; Pujol, Pascal; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Belotti, Muriel; Piedmonte, Marion; Friedlander, Michael L.; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Copeland, Larry J; de la Hoya, Miguel; Segura, Pedro Perez; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; van Os, Theo A.M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E.J.; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; Vreeswijk, Maaike P.G.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Ausems, Margreet G.E.M.; van Doorn, Helena C.; Collée, J. Margriet; Olah, Edith; Diez, Orland; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Brunet, Joan; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Cybulski, Cezary; Gronwald, Jacek; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Arason, Adalgeir; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Olswold, Curtis; Couch, Fergus J.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Wang, Xianshu; Szabo, Csilla I.; Offit, Kenneth; Corines, Marina; Jacobs, Lauren; Robson, Mark E.; Zhang, Liying; Joseph, Vijai; Berger, Andreas; Singer, Christian F.; Rappaport, Christine; Kaulich, Daphne Geschwantler; Pfeiler, Georg; Tea, Muy-Kheng M.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Rennert, Gad; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Andrulis, Irene L.; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Bojesen, Anders; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Thomassen, Mads; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Laitman, Yael; Rantala, Johanna; von Wachenfeldt, Anna; Ehrencrona, Hans; Askmalm, Marie Stenmark; Borg, Åke; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; McGuffog, Lesley; Barrowdale, Daniel; Healey, Sue; Lee, Andrew; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Friedman, Eitan

    2014-01-01

    Background BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are at substantially increased risk for developing breast and ovarian cancer. The incomplete penetrance coupled with the variable age at diagnosis in carriers of the same mutation suggests the existence of genetic and non-genetic modifying factors. In this study we evaluated the putative role of variants in many candidate modifier genes. Methods Genotyping data from 15,252 BRCA1 and 8,211 BRCA2 mutation carriers, for known variants (n=3,248) located within or around 445 candidate genes, were available through the iCOGS custom-designed array. Breast and ovarian cancer association analysis was performed within a retrospective cohort approach. Results The observed p-values of association ranged between 0.005-1.000. None of the variants was significantly associated with breast or ovarian cancer risk in either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, after multiple testing adjustments. Conclusion There is little evidence that any of the evaluated candidate variants act as modifiers of breast and/or ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Impact Genome-wide association studies have been more successful at identifying genetic modifiers of BRCA1/2 penetrance than candidate gene studies. PMID:25336561

  9. Semantic interrogation of a multi knowledge domain ontological model of tendinopathy identifies four strong candidate risk genes.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Colleen J; Jalali Sefid Dashti, Mahjoubeh; Gamieldien, Junaid

    2016-01-01

    Tendinopathy is a multifactorial syndrome characterised by tendon pain and thickening, and impaired performance during activity. Candidate gene association studies have identified genetic factors that contribute to intrinsic risk of developing tendinopathy upon exposure to extrinsic factors. Bioinformatics approaches that data-mine existing knowledge for biological relationships may assist with the identification of candidate genes. The aim of this study was to data-mine functional annotation of human genes and identify candidate genes by ontology-seeded queries capturing the features of tendinopathy. Our BioOntological Relationship Graph database (BORG) integrates multiple sources of genomic and biomedical knowledge into an on-disk semantic network where human genes and their orthologs in mouse and rat are central concepts mapped to ontology terms. The BORG was used to screen all human genes for potential links to tendinopathy. Following further prioritisation, four strong candidate genes (COL11A2, ELN, ITGB3, LOX) were identified. These genes are differentially expressed in tendinopathy, functionally linked to features of tendinopathy and previously implicated in other connective tissue diseases. In conclusion, cross-domain semantic integration of multiple sources of biomedical knowledge, and interrogation of phenotypes and gene functions associated with disease, may significantly increase the probability of identifying strong and unobvious candidate genes in genetic association studies. PMID:26804977

  10. Semantic interrogation of a multi knowledge domain ontological model of tendinopathy identifies four strong candidate risk genes

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Colleen J.; Jalali Sefid Dashti, Mahjoubeh; Gamieldien, Junaid

    2016-01-01

    Tendinopathy is a multifactorial syndrome characterised by tendon pain and thickening, and impaired performance during activity. Candidate gene association studies have identified genetic factors that contribute to intrinsic risk of developing tendinopathy upon exposure to extrinsic factors. Bioinformatics approaches that data-mine existing knowledge for biological relationships may assist with the identification of candidate genes. The aim of this study was to data-mine functional annotation of human genes and identify candidate genes by ontology-seeded queries capturing the features of tendinopathy. Our BioOntological Relationship Graph database (BORG) integrates multiple sources of genomic and biomedical knowledge into an on-disk semantic network where human genes and their orthologs in mouse and rat are central concepts mapped to ontology terms. The BORG was used to screen all human genes for potential links to tendinopathy. Following further prioritisation, four strong candidate genes (COL11A2, ELN, ITGB3, LOX) were identified. These genes are differentially expressed in tendinopathy, functionally linked to features of tendinopathy and previously implicated in other connective tissue diseases. In conclusion, cross-domain semantic integration of multiple sources of biomedical knowledge, and interrogation of phenotypes and gene functions associated with disease, may significantly increase the probability of identifying strong and unobvious candidate genes in genetic association studies. PMID:26804977

  11. Problems Portraying Migrants in Applied Linguistics Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a very personal attempt to explore the problematics of portraying migrants in Applied Linguistics research. I begin with a discussion of identity, in particular what we might mean when we use the term, and from there I go on to explore its fundamental imprecision through an analysis of a census question about ethnicity. I then…

  12. Portrayal of gay characters in Bollywood cinema.

    PubMed

    Bhugra, Dinesh; Kalra, Gurvinder; Ventriglio, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Hindi cinema production from India is the largest in the world. Cinema reflects the society which it portrays, and in turn influences social attitudes. Hindi cinema, often known as Bollywood, demonstrates deep roots in society. In the last decade homosexual behaviour was legalized by the Delhi High Court but subsequently deemed illegal by the Supreme Court. These changes reflect changes in social attitudes. In this paper we highlight social attitudes to homosexuality - both male and female - in the context of portrayal in Hindi cinema. Historically, cultural and social values and the attitudes towards sexuality in India have been sex positive, but over the past 200 years under the British colonial rule they became very negative and indeed punitive towards homosexuality and homosexual men and women in line with prevalent Victorian attitudes to sex and sexual activity. Various descriptions and sexual identities have been identified and described in the literature. In this paper we describe a small selection of films from Hindi cinema which depict homosexuality. These portrayals have been largely negative. We describe the possible reasons for this and the potential impact these portrayals may have on audiences. PMID:26535451

  13. Weight Control as Portrayed in Popular Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parham, Ellen S.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Presents findings on the overall profile of weight control information portrayed in popular magazines and compares the assessment by professional judges with that of lay judges. Results indicate that, although articles differed in quality, weight control content was basically factual and reliable. (Author/JN)

  14. The Portrayal of Overweight in Adolescent Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glessner, Marci M.; Hoover, John H.; Hazlett, Lisa A.

    2006-01-01

    Twelve adolescent novels with the theme of obesity were selected for critical analysis. The novels were assessed for readability and to determine the approach to overweight portrayed by writers. The books were also examined in light of the concept of lookism prejudice. Recommendations were offered to teachers and counselors for use of these books…

  15. Portrayal of Older Characters in Children's Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almerico, Gina M.; Fillmer, Thompson

    1988-01-01

    Examined portrayal of older characters in 1985 issues (N=101) of 11 children's magazines. Results indicated older characters were not victims of blatant discrimination, but subtle hints of prejudice were present in the stories. Concluded that the messages to young readers regarding the elderly were mixed and inaccurate. (Author/ABL)

  16. Identification of candidate genes for prostate cancer-risk SNPs utilizing a normal prostate tissue eQTL data set

    PubMed Central

    Thibodeau, S. N.; French, A. J.; McDonnell, S. K.; Cheville, J.; Middha, S.; Tillmans, L.; Riska, S.; Baheti, S.; Larson, M. C.; Fogarty, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Larson, N.; Nair, A.; O'Brien, D.; Wang, L.; Schaid, D J.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple studies have identified loci associated with the risk of developing prostate cancer but the associated genes are not well studied. Here we create a normal prostate tissue-specific eQTL data set and apply this data set to previously identified prostate cancer (PrCa)-risk SNPs in an effort to identify candidate target genes. The eQTL data set is constructed by the genotyping and RNA sequencing of 471 samples. We focus on 146 PrCa-risk SNPs, including all SNPs in linkage disequilibrium with each risk SNP, resulting in 100 unique risk intervals. We analyse cis-acting associations where the transcript is located within 2 Mb (±1 Mb) of the risk SNP interval. Of all SNP–gene combinations tested, 41.7% of SNPs demonstrate a significant eQTL signal after adjustment for sample histology and 14 expression principal component covariates. Of the 100 PrCa-risk intervals, 51 have a significant eQTL signal and these are associated with 88 genes. This study provides a rich resource to study biological mechanisms underlying genetic risk to PrCa. PMID:26611117

  17. The Portrayal of Women in Newspapers: A Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwald, Marilyn S.

    To investigate the role and portrayal of women in newspapers and to determine trends emerging from this portrayal, a study examined 15 published quantitative research studies (content analyses) on the portrayal of women in newspapers, dating from 1973 until 1988. Studies were gathered primarily from "Communication Abstracts," the Educational…

  18. Portraying epistemology: School science in historical context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, John L.

    2003-01-01

    Current debates over the nature of science in the school curriculum have centered on where the boundary between traditional science and other forms of knowledge should be drawn. What has been missing from these discussions, however, is a careful examination of how what lies within the boundary of traditional school science itself has been determined. Given the diversity of scientific practices and the inherent limitations of space in the curriculum, the portrayal of traditional science (its epistemology in particular) should be understood to be only a selective representation of the real-world practices of science. Such representations are inevitably shaped by not just what scientists do, but also by the social and political context in which they are developed. Taking a historical perspective, the curricular ideas of John Dewey and Joseph Schwab are used to illustrate the subtle ways in which epistemological portrayals have been influenced by this sociohistorical context and the consequences those portrayals have had with respect to the public's relationship with institutional science in the United States at two key points during the twentieth century.

  19. An Assessment of Technical and Production Risks of Candidate Low-Cost Attitude/Heading Reference Systems(AHRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuchnovicz, Daniel; Burgess, Malcolm; Hammers, William

    1999-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of technical and production risks of candidate low-cost attitude/heading reference systems (AHRS) for use in the Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments (AGATE) airplanes. A low-cost AHRS is a key component of modem "glass cockpit" flight displays for General Aviation (GA) aircraft. The technical capabilities of several candidate low-cost AHRS were examined and described along with the technical issues involved with using all solid-state components for attitude measurement. An economic model was developed which describes the expected profit, rate of return, and volume requirements for the manufacture of low-cost AHRS for GA aircraft in the 2000 to 2020 time frame. The model is the result of interviews with GA airframe manufacturers, avionics manufacturers and historical analysis of avionics of similar complexity. The model shows that a manufacturer will break even after three years of AHRS production, realizing an 18 percent rate of return (23 percent profit) on an investment of $3.5M over the 20 year period. A start-up production estimate showed costs of $6-12M for a new company to build and certify an AHRS from scratch, considered to be a high-risk proposition, versus $0.25-0.75M for an experienced avionics manufacturer to manufacture a design under license, a low-risk proposition.

  20. Elevated risks for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and blood disorders in Ashkenazi schizophrenic pedigrees suggest new candidate genes in schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, A.B.

    1994-09-15

    Among relatives of Ashkenazi schizophrenic probands the rate of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis was 3/1,000, compared to expected population rates of approximately 2/100,000. Relative risk of bleeding disorders, including hematologic cancers, was increased more than three-fold compared to controls. Co-occurrence of motor neuron disease and blood dyscrasias, accompanied by psychosis, has long been recognized. A virally-mediated autoimmune pathogenesis has been proposed. However, the familial co-occurrence of these three disease entities raises the possibility that the disease constellation be considered as a manifestation of a common underlying genetic defect. Such expansion of the spectrum of affectation might enhance the power of both candidate gene and linkage studies. Based on these findings, the loci suggested as candidate regions in schizophrenia include a potential hot spot on chromosome 21q21-q22, involving the superoxide dismutase and amyloid precursor protein genes. Alternatively, genes on other chromosomes involved in the expression, transcription, or regulation of these genes, or associated with the illnesses of high frequency in these pedigrees are suggested. Candidates include the choroid plexus transport protein, transthyretin at 18q11.2-q12.1; the t(14;18)(q22;21) characterizing B-cell lymphoma-2, the most common form of hematologic cancer; and the 14q24 locus of early onset Alzheimer`s disease, c-Fos, transforming growth factor beta 3, and heat shock protein A2. Expression of hematologic cancers and the suggested candidate genes are known to involve retinoid pathways, and retinoid disregulation has been proposed as a cause of schizophrenia. 67 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Portrayed emotions in the movie "Forrest Gump"

    PubMed Central

    Boennen, Manuel; Mareike, Gehrke; Golz, Madleen; Hartigs, Benita; Hoffmann, Nico; Keil, Sebastian; Perlow, Malú; Peukmann, Anne Katrin; Rabe, Lea Noell; von Sobbe, Franca-Rosa; Hanke, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a dataset with a description of portrayed emotions in the movie ”Forrest Gump”. A total of 12 observers independently annotated emotional episodes regarding their temporal location and duration. The nature of an emotion was characterized with basic attributes, such as arousal and valence, as well as explicit emotion category labels. In addition, annotations include a record of the perceptual evidence for the presence of an emotion. Two variants of the movie were annotated separately: 1) an audio-movie version of Forrest Gump that has been used as a stimulus for the acquisition of a large public functional brain imaging dataset, and 2) the original audio-visual movie. We present reliability and consistency estimates that suggest that both stimuli can be used to study visual and auditory emotion cue processing in real-life like situations. Raw annotations from all observers are publicly released in full in order to maximize their utility for a wide range of applications and possible future extensions. In addition, aggregate time series of inter-observer agreement with respect to particular attributes of portrayed emotions are provided to facilitate adoption of these data. PMID:25977755

  2. Portrayed emotions in the movie "Forrest Gump".

    PubMed

    Labs, Annika; Reich, Theresa; Schulenburg, Helene; Boennen, Manuel; Mareike, Gehrke; Golz, Madleen; Hartigs, Benita; Hoffmann, Nico; Keil, Sebastian; Perlow, Malú; Peukmann, Anne Katrin; Rabe, Lea Noell; von Sobbe, Franca-Rosa; Hanke, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a dataset with a description of portrayed emotions in the movie "Forrest Gump". A total of 12 observers independently annotated emotional episodes regarding their temporal location and duration. The nature of an emotion was characterized with basic attributes, such as arousal and valence, as well as explicit emotion category labels. In addition, annotations include a record of the perceptual evidence for the presence of an emotion. Two variants of the movie were annotated separately: 1) an audio-movie version of Forrest Gump that has been used as a stimulus for the acquisition of a large public functional brain imaging dataset, and 2) the original audio-visual movie. We present reliability and consistency estimates that suggest that both stimuli can be used to study visual and auditory emotion cue processing in real-life like situations. Raw annotations from all observers are publicly released in full in order to maximize their utility for a wide range of applications and possible future extensions. In addition, aggregate time series of inter-observer agreement with respect to particular attributes of portrayed emotions are provided to facilitate adoption of these data. PMID:25977755

  3. Simultaneous Consideration of Multiple Candidate Protein Biomarkers for Long-Term Risk for Cardiovascular Events

    PubMed Central

    Halim, Sharif A.; Neely, Megan L.; Pieper, Karen S.; Shah, Svati H.; Kraus, William E.; Hauser, Elizabeth R.; Califf, Robert M.; Granger, Christopher B.; Newby, L. Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Background Although individual protein biomarkers are associated with cardiovascular risk, rarely have multiple proteins been considered simultaneously to identify which set of proteins best predicts risk. Methods and Results In a nested case-control study of 273 death/myocardial infarction (MI) cases and 273 age- (within 10 years), sex-, and race-matched and event-free controls from among 2023 consecutive patients (median follow-up 2.5 years) with suspected coronary disease, plasma levels of 53 previously reported biomarkers of cardiovascular risk were determined in a core laboratory. Three penalized logistic regression models were fit using the elastic net to identify panels of proteins independently associated with death/MI: proteins alone (Model 1); proteins in a model constrained to retain clinical variables (Model 2); and proteins and clinical variables available for selection (Model 3). Model 1 identified 6 biomarkers strongly associated with death/MI: ICAM-1, MMP-3, NT-proBNP, IL-6, sCD40L, and IGFBP2. In Model 2, only sCD40L remained strongly associated with death/MI when all clinical risk predictors were retained. Model 3 identified a set of 6 biomarkers (ICAM-1, MMP-3, NT-proBNP, IL-6, sCD40L, and IGFBP2) and 5 clinical variables (age, red-cell distribution width, diabetes, hemoglobin, and New York Heart Association class) strongly associated with death/MI. Conclusions Simultaneously assessing the association between multiple putative protein biomarkers of cardiovascular risk and clinical outcomes is useful in identifying relevant biomarker panels for further assessment. PMID:25422398

  4. Using genetic information from candidate gene and genome-wide association studies in risk prediction for alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jia; Aliev, Fazil; Webb, Bradley T; Kendler, Kenneth S; Williamson, Vernell S; Edenberg, Howard J; Agrawal, Arpana; Kos, Mark Z; Almasy, Laura; Nurnberger, John I; Schuckit, Marc A; Kramer, John R; Rice, John P; Kuperman, Samuel; Goate, Alison M; Tischfield, Jay A; Porjesz, Bernice; Dick, Danielle M

    2013-01-01

    Family-based and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of alcohol dependence (AD) have reported numerous associated variants. The clinical validity of these variants for predicting AD compared to family history information has not been reported. Using the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) and the Study of Addiction: Genes and Environment (SAGE) GWAS samples, we examined the aggregate impact of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on risk prediction. We created genetic sum scores by adding risk alleles associated in discovery samples, and then tested the scores for their ability to discriminate between cases and controls in validation samples. Genetic sum scores were assessed separately for SNPs associated with AD in candidate gene studies and SNPs from GWAS analyses that met varying p-value thresholds. Candidate gene sum scores did not exhibit significant predictive accuracy. Family history was a better classifier of case-control status, with a significant area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.686 in COGA and 0.614 in SAGE. SNPs that met less stringent p-value thresholds of 0.01 to 0.50 in GWAS analyses yielded significant AUC estimates, ranging from mean estimates of 0.549 for SNPs with p < 0.01 to 0.565 for SNPs with p < 0.50. This study suggests that SNPs currently have limited clinical utility, but there is potential for enhanced predictive ability with better understanding of the large number of variants that might contribute to risk. PMID:23362995

  5. Survival Analysis in the Presence of Competing Risks: The Example of Waitlisted Kidney Transplant Candidates.

    PubMed

    Sapir-Pichhadze, R; Pintilie, M; Tinckam, K J; Laupacis, A; Logan, A G; Beyene, J; Kim, S J

    2016-07-01

    Competing events (or risks) preclude the observation of an event of interest or alter the probability of the event's occurrence and are commonly encountered in transplant outcomes research. Transplantation, for example, is a competing event for death on the waiting list because receiving a transplant may significantly decrease the risk of long-term mortality. In a typical analysis of time-to-event data, competing events may be censored or incorporated into composite end points; however, the presence of competing events violates the assumption of "independent censoring," which is the basis of standard survival analysis techniques. The use of composite end points disregards the possibility that competing events may be related to the exposure in a way that is different from the other components of the composite. Using data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, this paper reviews the principles of competing risks analysis; outlines approaches for analyzing data with competing events (cause-specific and subdistribution hazards models); compares the estimates obtained from standard survival analysis, which handle competing events as censoring events; discusses the appropriate settings in which each of the two approaches could be used; and contrasts their interpretation. PMID:26751409

  6. Parents’ Online Portrayals of Pediatric Treatment and Research Options

    PubMed Central

    Schaffer, Rebecca; Henderson, Gail E.; Churchill, Larry R.; King, Nancy M. P.; Rothschild, Barbra B.; Lohser, Sara; Davis, Arlene M.

    2012-01-01

    Parents of seriously ill children face difficult decisions when standard therapies are limited or ineffective. In their search for information, they may turn to websites created by other parents facing similar experiences. We conducted a qualitative content analysis of 21 websites created by families with children affected by cancer or genetic disease, two serious conditions with a range of treatment and clinical trial options. Our research questions address how parent authors portray serious pediatric illness, available options, parties to decision making, and sources of influence. In addition, we examine what these sites reveal about family vulnerability to various risks, particularly the risk of misunderstanding the distinction between standard treatment and research and the risk of overestimating the likely benefits of research participation, as well as whether vulnerability varies by type of condition. Our results demonstrate typically favorable views on research, but with inadequate distinctions between research and treatment and a complex set of trade-offs in consideration of research risks and potential benefits. While portraits of vulnerability emerge for both parents and children, so do portraits of strength and resilience. As a result, parents describe frustration with both under- and over-protection from research participation. Our discussion of these findings clarifies the potential for parent-authored websites to inform and influence families considering research and treatment options for their seriously ill children. PMID:19754237

  7. Risk-stratified cardiovascular screening including angiographic and procedural outcomes of percutaneous coronary interventions in renal transplant candidates.

    PubMed

    König, Julian; Möckel, Martin; Mueller, Eda; Bocksch, Wolfgang; Baid-Agrawal, Seema; Babel, Nina; Schindler, Ralf; Reinke, Petra; Nickel, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background. Benefits of cardiac screening in kidney transplant candidates (KTC) will be dependent on the availability of effective interventions. We retrospectively evaluated characteristics and outcome of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in KTC selected for revascularization by a cardiac screening approach. Methods. In 267 patients evaluated 2003 to 2006, screening tests performed were reviewed and PCI characteristics correlated with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) during a follow-up of 55 months. Results. Stress tests in 154 patients showed ischemia in 28 patients (89% high risk). Of 58 patients with coronary angiography, 38 had significant stenoses and 18 cardiac interventions (6.7% of all). 29 coronary lesions in 17/18 patients were treated by PCI. Angiographic success rate was 93.1%, but procedural success rate was only 86.2%. Long lesions (P = 0.029) and diffuse disease (P = 0.043) were associated with MACE. In high risk patients, cardiac screening did not improve outcome as 21.7% of patients with versus 15.5% of patients without properly performed cardiac screening had MACE (P = 0.319). Conclusion. The moderate procedural success of PCI and poor outcome in long and diffuse coronary lesions underscore the need to define appropriate revascularization strategies in KTC, which will be a prerequisite for cardiac screening to improve outcome in these high-risk patients. PMID:25045528

  8. Validation of visualized transgenic zebrafish as a high throughput model to assay bradycardia related cardio toxicity risk candidates.

    PubMed

    Wen, Dingsheng; Liu, Aiming; Chen, Feng; Yang, Julin; Dai, Renke

    2012-10-01

    Drug-induced QT prolongation usually leads to torsade de pointes (TdP), thus for drugs in the early phase of development this risk should be evaluated. In the present study, we demonstrated a visualized transgenic zebrafish as an in vivo high-throughput model to assay the risk of drug-induced QT prolongation. Zebrafish larvae 48 h post-fertilization expressing green fluorescent protein in myocardium were incubated with compounds reported to induce QT prolongation or block the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) K⁺ current. The compounds sotalol, indapaminde, erythromycin, ofoxacin, levofloxacin, sparfloxacin and roxithromycin were additionally administrated by microinjection into the larvae yolk sac. The ventricle heart rate was recorded using the automatic monitoring system after incubation or microinjection. As a result, 14 out of 16 compounds inducing dog QT prolongation caused bradycardia in zebrafish. A similar result was observed with 21 out of 26 compounds which block hERG current. Among the 30 compounds which induced human QT prolongation, 25 caused bradycardia in this model. Thus, the risk of compounds causing bradycardia in this transgenic zebrafish correlated with that causing QT prolongation and hERG K⁺ current blockage in established models. The tendency that high logP values lead to high risk of QT prolongation in this model was indicated, and non-sensitivity of this model to antibacterial agents was revealed. These data suggest application of this transgenic zebrafish as a high-throughput model to screen QT prolongation-related cardio toxicity of the drug candidates. PMID:22744888

  9. Role of Coronary Angiography in the Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk in Kidney Transplant Candidates.

    PubMed

    Mann, David M; Fernandez, Sonalis; Mondal, Zahidul; Laskow, David; Osband, Adena; Debroy, Meelie; Lebowitz, Jonathan; Coromilas, James; Vagaonescu, Tudor; Moreyra, Abel; Melita, Elizabeth A; Mann, Richard A

    2016-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among those with renal insufficiency, those requiring dialysis, and in recipients of kidney transplants reflecting the greatly increased cardiovascular burden that these patients carry. The best method by which to assess cardiovascular risk in such patients is not well established. In the present study, 1,225 patients seeking a kidney transplant, over a 30-month period, underwent cardiovascular evaluation. Two hundred twenty-five patients, who met selected criteria, underwent coronary angiography that revealed significant coronary artery disease (CAD) in 47%. Those found to have significant disease underwent revascularization. Among the patients found to have significant CAD, 74% had undergone a nuclear stress test before angiography and 65% of these stress tests were negative for ischemia. The positive predictive value of a nuclear stress test in this patient population was 0.43 and the negative predictive value was 0.47. During a 30-month period, 28 patients who underwent coronary angiography received an allograft. None of these patients died, experienced a myocardial infarction, or lost their allograft. The annual mortality rate of those who remained on the waiting list was well below the national average. In conclusion, our results indicate that, in renal failure patients, noninvasive testing fails to detect the majority of significant CAD, that selected criteria may identify patients with a high likelihood of CAD, and that revascularization reduces mortality both for those on the waiting list and for those who receive an allograft. PMID:27392506

  10. Blacks in Research: How Shall We Be Portrayed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenwick, Leslie T.

    2016-01-01

    A version of this article, "Blacks in Research? How Shall We Be Portrayed?", was delivered by the author as the 2013 W. E. B. Du Bois Distinguished Lecture to the annual conference of the American Educational Research Association (AERA) Blacks in Education Special Interest Group (Black SIG). This article examines the portrayal of Blacks…

  11. How are Senior Citizens Portrayed in Basal Readers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Doris F.

    Five commonly used basal readers from grades one through three were studied to determine how they portrayed and represented older adults. It was hypothesized that older adults would be portrayed as active, contributing, and productive members of society and that they would be represented in the basals in proportion to their numbers in the…

  12. Disability Portrayal in Film: Reflecting the Past, Directing the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Stephen P.

    1998-01-01

    This analysis of trends in Academy Award winning films that portray people with disabilities found that, although there has been an increase in the number of awards to "disability" films, only 2 of 35 films identified portrayed children or youth with disabilities, and none featured learning disabilities. (DB)

  13. Women as Home Caregivers: Gender Portrayal in OTC Drug Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, R. Stephen

    1992-01-01

    Investigated sample of prime time network television advertisements to determine how gender portrayals differ in drug and nondrug commercials. Found that women were significantly more likely than men to appear as characters in drug advertisements than in advertisements for other products and that they were frequently portrayed in these commercials…

  14. Aging and masculinity: portrayals in men's magazines.

    PubMed

    Hurd Clarke, Laura; Bennett, Erica V; Liu, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Textual and visual representations of age are instructive as they suggest ideals towards which individuals should strive and influence how we perceive age. The purpose of our study was to investigate textual and visual representations of later life in the advertisements and interest stories of six widely read North American male-oriented magazines (namely, Esquire, GQ, Maxim, Men's Health, Men's Journal, and Zoomer). Through a content analysis and a visual textual analysis, we examined how older men were depicted in the magazine images and accompanying texts. Our findings revealed that older men were largely absent, and when portrayed, were positively depicted as experienced and powerful celebrities or as healthy and happy unknown individuals. The magazine advertisements and interest stories collectively required individuals to engage in consumer culture in order to achieve age and masculinity ideals and stave off the transition from the Third Age to the Fourth Age. We consider our findings in relation to theorizing about ageism, age relations, the Third and Fourth Ages, and idealized aging masculinity. PMID:25456619

  15. HLA-DQA1 and PLCG2 Are Candidate Risk Loci for Childhood-Onset Steroid-Sensitive Nephrotic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gbadegesin, Rasheed A; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Webb, Nicholas J A; Greenbaum, Larry A; Abeyagunawardena, Asiri; Thalgahagoda, Shenal; Kale, Arundhati; Gipson, Debbie; Srivastava, Tarak; Lin, Jen-Jar; Chand, Deepa; Hunley, Tracy E; Brophy, Patrick D; Bagga, Arvind; Sinha, Aditi; Rheault, Michelle N; Ghali, Joanna; Nicholls, Kathy; Abraham, Elizabeth; Janjua, Halima S; Omoloja, Abiodun; Barletta, Gina-Marie; Cai, Yi; Milford, David D; O'Brien, Catherine; Awan, Atif; Belostotsky, Vladimir; Smoyer, William E; Homstad, Alison; Hall, Gentzon; Wu, Guanghong; Nagaraj, Shashi; Wigfall, Delbert; Foreman, John; Winn, Michelle P

    2015-07-01

    Steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) accounts for >80% of cases of nephrotic syndrome in childhood. However, the etiology and pathogenesis of SSNS remain obscure. Hypothesizing that coding variation may underlie SSNS risk, we conducted an exome array association study of SSNS. We enrolled a discovery set of 363 persons (214 South Asian children with SSNS and 149 controls) and genotyped them using the Illumina HumanExome Beadchip. Four common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 (rs1129740, rs9273349, rs1071630, and rs1140343) were significantly associated with SSNS at or near the Bonferroni-adjusted P value for the number of single variants that were tested (odds ratio, 2.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.56 to 2.86; P=1.68×10(-6) (Fisher exact test). Two of these SNPs-the missense variants C34Y (rs1129740) and F41S (rs1071630) in HLA-DQA1-were replicated in an independent cohort of children of white European ancestry with SSNS (100 cases and ≤589 controls; P=1.42×10(-17)). In the rare variant gene set-based analysis, the best signal was found in PLCG2 (P=7.825×10(-5)). In conclusion, this exome array study identified HLA-DQA1 and PLCG2 missense coding variants as candidate loci for SSNS. The finding of a MHC class II locus underlying SSNS risk suggests a major role for immune response in the pathogenesis of SSNS. PMID:25349203

  16. HLA-DQA1 and PLCG2 Are Candidate Risk Loci for Childhood-Onset Steroid-Sensitive Nephrotic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gbadegesin, Rasheed A.; Webb, Nicholas J.A.; Greenbaum, Larry A.; Abeyagunawardena, Asiri; Thalgahagoda, Shenal; Kale, Arundhati; Gipson, Debbie; Srivastava, Tarak; Lin, Jen-Jar; Chand, Deepa; Hunley, Tracy E.; Brophy, Patrick D.; Bagga, Arvind; Sinha, Aditi; Rheault, Michelle N.; Ghali, Joanna; Nicholls, Kathy; Abraham, Elizabeth; Janjua, Halima S.; Omoloja, Abiodun; Barletta, Gina-Marie; Cai, Yi; Milford, David D.; O'Brien, Catherine; Awan, Atif; Belostotsky, Vladimir; Smoyer, William E.; Homstad, Alison; Hall, Gentzon; Wu, Guanghong; Nagaraj, Shashi; Wigfall, Delbert; Foreman, John; Winn, Michelle P.

    2015-01-01

    Steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) accounts for >80% of cases of nephrotic syndrome in childhood. However, the etiology and pathogenesis of SSNS remain obscure. Hypothesizing that coding variation may underlie SSNS risk, we conducted an exome array association study of SSNS. We enrolled a discovery set of 363 persons (214 South Asian children with SSNS and 149 controls) and genotyped them using the Illumina HumanExome Beadchip. Four common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 (rs1129740, rs9273349, rs1071630, and rs1140343) were significantly associated with SSNS at or near the Bonferroni-adjusted P value for the number of single variants that were tested (odds ratio, 2.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.56 to 2.86; P=1.68×10−6 (Fisher exact test). Two of these SNPs—the missense variants C34Y (rs1129740) and F41S (rs1071630) in HLA-DQA1—were replicated in an independent cohort of children of white European ancestry with SSNS (100 cases and ≤589 controls; P=1.42×10−17). In the rare variant gene set–based analysis, the best signal was found in PLCG2 (P=7.825×10−5). In conclusion, this exome array study identified HLA-DQA1 and PLCG2 missense coding variants as candidate loci for SSNS. The finding of a MHC class II locus underlying SSNS risk suggests a major role for immune response in the pathogenesis of SSNS. PMID:25349203

  17. A candidate gene study of the type I interferon pathway implicates IKBKE and IL8 as risk loci for SLE

    PubMed Central

    Sandling, Johanna K; Garnier, Sophie; Sigurdsson, Snaevar; Wang, Chuan; Nordmark, Gunnel; Gunnarsson, Iva; Svenungsson, Elisabet; Padyukov, Leonid; Sturfelt, Gunnar; Jönsen, Andreas; Bengtsson, Anders A; Truedsson, Lennart; Eriksson, Catharina; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Mälarstig, Anders; Strawbridge, Rona J; Hamsten, Anders; Criswell, Lindsey A; Graham, Robert R; Behrens, Timothy W; Eloranta, Maija-Leena; Alm, Gunnar; Rönnblom, Lars; Syvänen, Ann-Christine

    2011-01-01

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease in which the type I interferon pathway has a crucial role. We have previously shown that three genes in this pathway, IRF5, TYK2 and STAT4, are strongly associated with risk for SLE. Here, we investigated 78 genes involved in the type I interferon pathway to identify additional SLE susceptibility loci. First, we genotyped 896 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in these 78 genes and 14 other candidate genes in 482 Swedish SLE patients and 536 controls. Genes with P<0.01 in the initial screen were then followed up in 344 additional Swedish patients and 1299 controls. SNPs in the IKBKE, TANK, STAT1, IL8 and TRAF6 genes gave nominal signals of association with SLE in this extended Swedish cohort. To replicate these findings we extracted data from a genomewide association study on SLE performed in a US cohort. Combined analysis of the Swedish and US data, comprising a total of 2136 cases and 9694 controls, implicates IKBKE and IL8 as SLE susceptibility loci (Pmeta=0.00010 and Pmeta=0.00040, respectively). STAT1 was also associated with SLE in this cohort (Pmeta=3.3 × 10−5), but this association signal appears to be dependent of that previously reported for the neighbouring STAT4 gene. Our study suggests additional genes from the type I interferon system in SLE, and highlights genes in this pathway for further functional analysis. PMID:21179067

  18. Systems Toxicology Assessment of the Biological Impact of a Candidate Modified Risk Tobacco Product on Human Organotypic Oral Epithelial Cultures.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Filippo; Sewer, Alain; Mathis, Carole; Iskandar, Anita R; Kostadinova, Radina; Schlage, Walter K; Leroy, Patrice; Majeed, Shoaib; Guedj, Emmanuel; Trivedi, Keyur; Martin, Florian; Elamin, Ashraf; Merg, Céline; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Frentzel, Stefan; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2016-08-15

    Cigarette smoke (CS) has been reported to increase predisposition to oral cancer and is also recognized as a risk factor for many conditions including periodontal diseases, gingivitis, and other benign mucosal disorders. Smoking cessation remains the most effective approach for minimizing the risk of smoking-related diseases. However, reduction of harmful constituents by heating rather than combusting tobacco, without modifying the amount of nicotine, is a promising new paradigm in harm reduction. In this study, we compared effects of exposure to aerosol derived from a candidate modified risk tobacco product, the tobacco heating system (THS) 2.2, with those of CS generated from the 3R4F reference cigarette. Human organotypic oral epithelial tissue cultures (EpiOral, MatTek Corporation) were exposed for 28 min to 3R4F CS or THS2.2 aerosol, both diluted with air to comparable nicotine concentrations (0.32 or 0.51 mg nicotine/L aerosol/CS for 3R4F and 0.31 or 0.46 mg/L for THS2.2). We also tested one higher concentration (1.09 mg/L) of THS2.2. A systems toxicology approach was employed combining cellular assays (i.e., cytotoxicity and cytochrome P450 activity assays), comprehensive molecular investigations of the buccal epithelial transcriptome (mRNA and miRNA) by means of computational network biology, measurements of secreted proinflammatory markers, and histopathological analysis. We observed that the impact of 3R4F CS was greater than THS2.2 aerosol in terms of cytotoxicity, morphological tissue alterations, and secretion of inflammatory mediators. Analysis of the transcriptomic changes in the exposed oral cultures revealed significant perturbations in various network models such as apoptosis, necroptosis, senescence, xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress, and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NFE2L2) signaling. The stress responses following THS2.2 aerosol exposure were markedly decreased, and the exposed cultures recovered more completely compared

  19. Block 1. Photograph portrays general view of designated seating area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Block 1. Photograph portrays general view of designated seating area at mid point of Block 1 and illustrates poor maintenance of vegetation within the park - Skyline Park, 1500-1800 Arapaho Street, Denver, Denver County, CO

  20. Gender Portrayal in Veterinary Medical Advertising: Implications For Occupational Segregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Mary M.; Drew, Debra L.

    1995-01-01

    Evaluates the portrayal of males and females in advertisements in veterinary medical journals. Uses multivariate Chi-square tests to explore gender, occupation or role, practice type, text, and product. Contains 33 references. (DDR)

  1. The portrayal of healthy women requesting oocyte cryopreservation

    PubMed Central

    Mertes, H.

    2013-01-01

    The possibility to cryopreserve oocytes to be used in IVF treatment later in life has not only enlarged the reproductive options of cancer patients who are faced with gonadotoxic treatments, but also holds the promise of enlarging the reproductive options of healthy women whose personal circumstances (most often the absence of a partner) do not allow them to reproduce in their most fertile years. Opinions for and against this application of the cryopreservation technology are often based on different portrayals of the women who might use it. Three different portrayals can be discerned in the debate about the ethics of so-called ‘social egg freezing’ or ‘non medical egg freezing’. First, these women have been portrayed as selfish career-pursuing women. Second, healthy women who might benefit from oocyte cryopreservation have been portrayed as victims of a male-oriented society that makes it difficult for women to combine motherhood with a good education or professional responsibilities. Third, healthy women opting to cryopreserve oocytes have been portrayed as wise, proactive women who will not have to depend on oocyte donors should they suffer from age-related infertility by the time they are ready to reproduce. Each of these three portrayals has its own shortcomings that one should be wary of, as they lead to an oversimplification of the ethical debate. PMID:24753939

  2. Risk assessment vs. right to privacy: the access to health information on the insurance candidate through questionnaires and the right to privacy.

    PubMed

    Martins, Maria Inês de Oliveira

    2013-03-01

    The need of private insurers for information on the candidate's health risks is recognized by the law, which places pre-contractual duties of disclosure upon the candidates. When the risks are influenced by health factors, e.g. in the case of life- and health insurances, it implies the provision of health information by the candidates, who thus voluntarily limit their right to privacy. This consent, however, often happens in a context of factual coercion to contract. Next to this, from a legal standpoint, the collection of personal information must respond to the principle of proportionality. Against this background, this article assesses the compatibility of questionnaire techniques that rely on open-ended health related questions with the right to privacy, as protected by Portuguese and international law. It then analyses the extent of pre-contractual duties of disclosure as defined by the Portuguese Insurance Act, which requires the candidate to volunteer all the relevant information independently of being asked for it. In doing so, the article also refers to some other European countries. It concludes that the relevant Portuguese legislation is incompatible both with Portuguese constitutional law and with international law. PMID:23544317

  3. Fine-Scale Mapping at 9p22.2 Identifies Candidate Causal Variants That Modify Ovarian Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers.

    PubMed

    Vigorito, Elena; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Beesley, Jonathan; Adlard, Julian; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Andrulis, Irene L; Arun, Banu K; Barjhoux, Laure; Belotti, Muriel; Benitez, Javier; Berger, Andreas; Bojesen, Anders; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brewer, Carole; Caldes, Trinidad; Caligo, Maria A; Campbell, Ian; Chan, Salina B; Claes, Kathleen B M; Cohn, David E; Cook, Jackie; Daly, Mary B; Damiola, Francesca; Davidson, Rosemarie; Pauw, Antoine de; Delnatte, Capucine; Diez, Orland; Domchek, Susan M; Dumont, Martine; Durda, Katarzyna; Dworniczak, Bernd; Easton, Douglas F; Eccles, Diana; Edwinsdotter Ardnor, Christina; Eeles, Ros; Ejlertsen, Bent; Ellis, Steve; Evans, D Gareth; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Fostira, Florentia; Foulkes, William D; Friedman, Eitan; Frost, Debra; Gaddam, Pragna; Ganz, Patricia A; Garber, Judy; Garcia-Barberan, Vanesa; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Gehrig, Andrea; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Giraud, Sophie; Godwin, Andrew K; Goldgar, David E; Hake, Christopher R; Hansen, Thomas V O; Healey, Sue; Hodgson, Shirley; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Houdayer, Claude; Hulick, Peter J; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Isaacs, Claudine; Izatt, Louise; Izquierdo, Angel; Jacobs, Lauren; Jakubowska, Anna; Janavicius, Ramunas; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Jensen, Uffe Birk; John, Esther M; Vijai, Joseph; Karlan, Beth Y; Kast, Karin; Investigators, KConFab; Khan, Sofia; Kwong, Ava; Laitman, Yael; Lester, Jenny; Lesueur, Fabienne; Liljegren, Annelie; Lubinski, Jan; Mai, Phuong L; Manoukian, Siranoush; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Meindl, Alfons; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; Montagna, Marco; Nathanson, Katherine L; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Niederacher, Dieter; Olah, Edith; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Ong, Kai-Ren; Osorio, Ana; Park, Sue Kyung; Paulsson-Karlsson, Ylva; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Peissel, Bernard; Peterlongo, Paolo; Pfeiler, Georg; Phelan, Catherine M; Piedmonte, Marion; Poppe, Bruce; Pujana, Miquel Angel; Radice, Paolo; Rennert, Gad; Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Rookus, Matti A; Ross, Eric A; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Simard, Jacques; Singer, Christian F; Slavin, Thomas P; Soucy, Penny; Southey, Melissa; Steinemann, Doris; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Sutter, Christian; Szabo, Csilla I; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Teixeira, Manuel R; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Mary Beth; Thomassen, Mads; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Tihomirova, Laima; Tognazzo, Silvia; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Varesco, Liliana; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Vratimos, Athanassios; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; McGuffog, Lesley; Kirk, Judy; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Hamann, Ute; Lindor, Noralane; Ramus, Susan J; Greene, Mark H; Couch, Fergus J; Offit, Kenneth; Pharoah, Paul D P; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C

    2016-01-01

    Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Genotype data were available for 15,252 (2,462 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA1 and 8,211 (631 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following genotype imputation, ovarian cancer associations were assessed for 4,873 and 5,020 SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA 2 mutation carriers respectively, within a retrospective cohort analytical framework. In BRCA1 mutation carriers one set of eight correlated candidate causal variants for ovarian cancer risk modification was identified (top SNP rs10124837, HR: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.68 to 0.79, p-value 2× 10-16). These variants were located up to 20 kb upstream of BNC2. In BRCA2 mutation carriers one region, up to 45 kb upstream of BNC2, and containing 100 correlated SNPs was identified as candidate causal (top SNP rs62543585, HR: 0.69, 95%CI: 0.59 to 0.80, p-value 1.0 × 10-6). The candidate causal in BRCA1 mutation carriers did not include the strongest associated variant at this locus in the general population. In sum, we identified a set of candidate causal variants in a region that encompasses the BNC2 transcription start site. The ovarian cancer association at 9p22.2 may be mediated by different variants in BRCA1 mutation carriers and in the general population. Thus, potentially different mechanisms may underlie ovarian cancer risk for mutation carriers and the general population. PMID:27463617

  4. Fine-Scale Mapping at 9p22.2 Identifies Candidate Causal Variants That Modify Ovarian Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Vigorito, Elena; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Beesley, Jonathan; Adlard, Julian; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Arun, Banu K.; Barjhoux, Laure; Belotti, Muriel; Benitez, Javier; Berger, Andreas; Bojesen, Anders; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brewer, Carole; Caldes, Trinidad; Caligo, Maria A.; Campbell, Ian; Chan, Salina B.; Claes, Kathleen B. M.; Cohn, David E.; Cook, Jackie; Daly, Mary B.; Damiola, Francesca; Davidson, Rosemarie; de Pauw, Antoine; Delnatte, Capucine; Diez, Orland; Domchek, Susan M.; Dumont, Martine; Durda, Katarzyna; Dworniczak, Bernd; Easton, Douglas F.; Eccles, Diana; Edwinsdotter Ardnor, Christina; Eeles, Ros; Ejlertsen, Bent; Ellis, Steve; Evans, D. Gareth; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Fostira, Florentia; Foulkes, William D.; Friedman, Eitan; Frost, Debra; Gaddam, Pragna; Ganz, Patricia A.; Garber, Judy; Garcia-Barberan, Vanesa; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Gehrig, Andrea; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Giraud, Sophie; Godwin, Andrew K.; Goldgar, David E.; Hake, Christopher R.; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Healey, Sue; Hodgson, Shirley; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Houdayer, Claude; Hulick, Peter J.; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Isaacs, Claudine; Izatt, Louise; Izquierdo, Angel; Jacobs, Lauren; Jakubowska, Anna; Janavicius, Ramunas; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Jensen, Uffe Birk; John, Esther M.; Vijai, Joseph; Karlan, Beth Y.; Kast, Karin; Investigators, KConFab; Khan, Sofia; Kwong, Ava; Laitman, Yael; Lester, Jenny; Lesueur, Fabienne; Liljegren, Annelie; Lubinski, Jan; Mai, Phuong L.; Manoukian, Siranoush; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Meindl, Alfons; Mensenkamp, Arjen R.; Montagna, Marco; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Niederacher, Dieter; Olah, Edith; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Ong, Kai-ren; Osorio, Ana; Park, Sue Kyung; Paulsson-Karlsson, Ylva; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Peissel, Bernard; Peterlongo, Paolo; Pfeiler, Georg; Phelan, Catherine M.; Piedmonte, Marion; Poppe, Bruce; Pujana, Miquel Angel; Radice, Paolo; Rennert, Gad; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Rookus, Matti A.; Ross, Eric A.; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Simard, Jacques; Singer, Christian F.; Slavin, Thomas P.; Soucy, Penny; Southey, Melissa; Steinemann, Doris; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Sutter, Christian; Szabo, Csilla I.; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Mary Beth; Thomassen, Mads; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Tihomirova, Laima; Tognazzo, Silvia; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Varesco, Liliana; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Vratimos, Athanassios; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; McGuffog, Lesley; Kirk, Judy; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Hamann, Ute; Lindor, Noralane; Ramus, Susan J.; Greene, Mark H.; Couch, Fergus J.; Offit, Kenneth; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.

    2016-01-01

    Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Genotype data were available for 15,252 (2,462 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA1 and 8,211 (631 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following genotype imputation, ovarian cancer associations were assessed for 4,873 and 5,020 SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA 2 mutation carriers respectively, within a retrospective cohort analytical framework. In BRCA1 mutation carriers one set of eight correlated candidate causal variants for ovarian cancer risk modification was identified (top SNP rs10124837, HR: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.68 to 0.79, p-value 2× 10−16). These variants were located up to 20 kb upstream of BNC2. In BRCA2 mutation carriers one region, up to 45 kb upstream of BNC2, and containing 100 correlated SNPs was identified as candidate causal (top SNP rs62543585, HR: 0.69, 95%CI: 0.59 to 0.80, p-value 1.0 × 10−6). The candidate causal in BRCA1 mutation carriers did not include the strongest associated variant at this locus in the general population. In sum, we identified a set of candidate causal variants in a region that encompasses the BNC2 transcription start site. The ovarian cancer association at 9p22.2 may be mediated by different variants in BRCA1 mutation carriers and in the general population. Thus, potentially different mechanisms may underlie ovarian cancer risk for mutation carriers and the general population. PMID:27463617

  5. The portrayal of the menstruating woman in menstrual product advertisements.

    PubMed

    Coutts, L B; Berg, D H

    1993-01-01

    Because menstrual product advertisements act as mediators of a subset of meanings of femininity linked to menstruation, we performed a comparative conceptual analysis of these advertisements to explicate media-constructed realities of contemporary women. We sought to understand the portrayed women's definition of menstruation and their status as menstruating women. Textual and conceptual analyses led us to conclude that the portrayed women, in an attempt to avoid others' discovery of their menstruation, employed a complex menstrual management system, which often includes feminized menstrual products, to act as an antidote to a tainted state of femininity. PMID:8509321

  6. Portrayal of Youth Suicide in Canadian News

    PubMed Central

    Easson, Amanda; Agarwal, Arnav; Duda, Stephanie; Bennett, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Responsible media reporting of youth suicide may reduce the risk of contagion and increase help-seeking behaviour. Accordingly, we conducted a content analysis of Canadian youth suicide newspaper articles to assess quality and summarize content (themes, age groups, populations and use of scientific evidence). Method: The Canadian Periodical Index Quarterly (CPI.Q) was searched (2008–2012) for full-text Canadian newspaper articles using the keywords “youth” and “suicide.” The top five most relevant articles as judged by CPI.Q were selected sequentially for each year (n=25). Quality was assessed using World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for responsible media reporting. Content analysis was completed in duplicate by two reviewers. Results: All articles addressed youth suicide generally rather than reporting exclusively on a specific death by suicide. Alignment of articles with individual WHO guideline items ranged from 16 to 60%. The most common content theme was prevention (80%). No article was judged to glamorize suicide. Help seeking was addressed in 52% of articles, but only 20% provided information on where to obtain help. Statistics were referenced more frequently than scientific research (76% vs. 28%). Conclusions: Our review suggests that Canadian media presents youth suicide as an issue for which hope and help exist. While the majority of reports aim to educate the public about suicide, increased use of scientific evidence about risk factors and prevention is recommended to facilitate the translation of rigorous scientific knowledge into improved mental health and reduced suicide risk among Canadian youth. PMID:25320610

  7. Juvenile Literature and the Portrayal of Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyches, Tina Taylor; Prater, Mary Anne; Leininger, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    Because characters with developmental disabilities (DD) in children's books are often the first images many children encounter, their accurate and multidimensional portrayal is critical. Therefore, the depictions of characters with DD in 41 children's books were analyzed. These books were eligible for the biennial Dolly Gray Children's Literature…

  8. Portrayals of Reproductive and Sexual Health on Primetime Television

    PubMed Central

    Pariera, Katrina L.; Hether, Heather J.; Murphy, Sheila T.; de Castro Buffington, Sandra; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Primetime broadcast television provides health information and establishes norms for millions of people in the United States (Beck, 2004; Brodie, et al., 2001; Murphy & Cody, 2003; Rideout, 2008). To understand what people may be learning about reproductive and sexual health, a content analysis was conducted of storylines from the 10 most popular primetime television programs in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Variables that were measured included the frequency of reproductive and sexual health issues, the level of health information, the type of information portrayed, the gain and loss frames, the presence of stigma, the tone, and the type of role model portrayed. Eighty-seven of the 589 health storylines dealt with reproductive and sexual health, and the most common issues were pre- and post-term pregnancy complications. The majority of these storylines had a moderate or weak level of information and included specifics about treatment and symptoms but not prevention. Just over half of the issues were framed in terms of losses, meaning non-adoption of a behavior change will result in negative outcomes. Twenty-four percent of reproductive and sexual health storylines involved stigma -- usually those related to sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Most storylines were portrayed as serious and the majority of issues happened to positive role models. The implications of these portrayals for the viewing public are discussed. PMID:24156468

  9. Character Portrayals and Social Values in TV Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheibe, Cynthia L.; Condry, John C.

    In order to investigate the nature of character portrayals in U.S. television commercials, a content analysis was done on a random sample of 2,604 U.S. television commercials which were videotaped in March 1981. This analysis included both demographic characteristics and more subtle aspects of gender differences, such as concerns, relationships…

  10. "Hipster Freshman": Popular Culture's Portrayal of Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawk, Jena L.; Hill, Lilian H.

    2016-01-01

    Due to its seemingly unclear and ambiguous mission, the community college has somewhat of a stigma attached to it, as the four-year institution defines the American college experience (LaPaglia, 1994). Although only a few studies concerning media portrayals of community college students have been published within the last 20 years, the existing…

  11. Adoptees' Portrayal of the Development of Family Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobol, Michael P.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Young adult adoptees (n=48) and nonadoptees (n=72) provided retrospective accounts of family relationships that portrayed adoptive families as more cohesive and adaptable, with greater closeness before adolescence. Results are considered in terms of discontinuities of observations of adoptive families and adoptees' personal reflections. (SLD)

  12. Use of an HIV-risk screening tool to identify optimal candidates for PrEP scale-up among men who have sex with men in Toronto, Canada: disconnect between objective and subjective HIV risk

    PubMed Central

    Wilton, James; Kain, Taylor; Fowler, Shawn; Hart, Trevor A; Grennan, Troy; Maxwell, John; Tan, Darrell HS

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Identifying appropriate pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) candidates is a challenge in planning for the safe and effective roll-out of this strategy. We explored the use of a validated HIV risk screening tool, HIV Incidence Risk Index for Men who have Sex with Men (HIRI-MSM), to identify “optimal” candidates among MSM testing at a busy sexual health clinic's community testing sites in Toronto, Canada. Methods Between November 2014 and April 2015, we surveyed MSM undergoing anonymous HIV testing at community testing sites in Toronto, Canada, to quantify “optimal” candidates for scaling up PrEP roll-out, defined as being at high objective HIV risk (scoring ≥10 on the HIRI-MSM), perceiving oneself at moderate-to-high HIV risk and being willing to use PrEP. Cascades were constructed to identify barriers to broader PrEP uptake. The association between HIRI-MSM score and both willingness to use PrEP and perceived HIV risk were explored in separate multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results Of 420 respondents, 64.4% were objectively at high risk, 52.5% were willing to use PrEP and 27.2% perceived themselves at moderate-to-high HIV risk. Only 16.4% were “optimal” candidates. Higher HIRI-MSM scores were positively associated with both willingness to use PrEP (aOR=1.7 per 10 score increase, 95%CI=1.3–2.2) and moderate-to-high perceived HIV risk (aOR=1.7 per 10 score increase, 95%CI=1.2–2.3). The proportion of men who were “optimal” candidates increased to 42.9% when the objective HIV risk cut-off was changed to top quartile of HIRI-MSM scores (≥26). In our full cascade, a very low proportion (5.3%) of MSM surveyed could potentially benefit from PrEP under current conditions. The greatest barrier in the cascade was low perception of HIV risk among high-risk men, but considerable numbers were also lost in downstream cascade steps. Of men at high objective HIV risk, 68.3% did not perceive themselves to be at moderate-to-high HIV risk

  13. Piloted Simulation of Various Synthetic Vision Systems Terrain Portrayal and Guidance Symbology Concepts for Low Altitude En-Route Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takallu, M. A.; Glaab, L. J.; Hughes, M. F.; Wong, D. T.; Bartolone, A. P.

    2008-01-01

    In support of the NASA Aviation Safety Program's Synthetic Vision Systems Project, a series of piloted simulations were conducted to explore and quantify the relationship between candidate Terrain Portrayal Concepts and Guidance Symbology Concepts, specific to General Aviation. The experiment scenario was based on a low altitude en route flight in Instrument Metrological Conditions in the central mountains of Alaska. A total of 18 general aviation pilots, with three levels of pilot experience, evaluated a test matrix of four terrain portrayal concepts and six guidance symbology concepts. Quantitative measures included various pilot/aircraft performance data, flight technical errors and flight control inputs. The qualitative measures included pilot comments and pilot responses to the structured questionnaires such as perceived workload, subjective situation awareness, pilot preferences, and the rare event recognition. There were statistically significant effects found from guidance symbology concepts and terrain portrayal concepts but no significant interactions between them. Lower flight technical errors and increased situation awareness were achieved using Synthetic Vision Systems displays, as compared to the baseline Pitch/Roll Flight Director and Blue Sky Brown Ground combination. Overall, those guidance symbology concepts that have both path based guidance cue and tunnel display performed better than the other guidance concepts.

  14. Portrayals of Stepfamilies in Film: Using Media Images in Remarriage Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Kim; Angst, Erin

    2005-01-01

    Media portrayals of stepfamilies influence societal views of stepfamilies and individuals' expectations for remarriage and stepfamily life. This study examines portrayals of stepfamilies in films released in 1990 through 2003. Using content analysis to understand how stepfamilies are portrayed and to identify film clips appropriate for use in…

  15. Poor People, Black Faces: The Portrayal of Poverty in Economics Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clawson, Rosalee A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the portrayal of poverty in economics textbooks, investigating whether poverty would be predicted as a black problem. Results found evidence that black faces were overwhelmingly portrayed among the contemporary poor, yet Blacks were not portrayed among the Great Depression era poor and nor were they used to illustrate the popular Social…

  16. THE AVAILABILITY AND PORTRAYAL OF STIMULANTS OVER THE INTERNET

    PubMed Central

    Schepis, Ty S.; Marlowe, Douglas B.; Forman, Robert F.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To quantify the online availability and portrayal of amphetamine-class prescription stimulants with a focus on those medications commonly prescribed to and abused by adolescents. Methods The Google™ search engine was used in searches to assess the frequency of websites offering to sell controlled stimulants (retail sites) or websites that directly linked to retail sites (portal sites). Also, separate searches evaluated the portrayal of controlled prescription stimulants by the initial 20 websites returned by Google™. Retail and portal website frequency was collected for each search. For searches measuring the portrayal of stimulants, webpages were categorized as pro-abuse, anti-abuse, neutral or other, based on set criteria. Results Sites offering to sell stimulants without a prescription were found for nearly all search terms. Across all searches, the Schedule III stimulants indicated for the treatment of obesity returned more sites offering to sell stimulants without a prescription than Schedule II stimulants indicated for the treatment of ADHD. Internet site portrayal of each stimulant varied. However, sites that contained “methamphetamine” often included anti-abuse information. Discussion The apparent availability of stimulants over the Internet without a prescription indicates the potential for a significant public health problem. The extent to which teens are obtaining these drugs via the Internet remains unclear, but clinicians must be aware of the potential for abuse, concomitant prescription use issues, illicit sources, and diversion of these highly addictive medications. Education of consumers and physicians as well as further governmental interventions is needed to limit the potential scope of this problem. PMID:18407040

  17. Media portrayal of older people as illustrated in Finnish newspapers.

    PubMed

    Koskinen, Sanna; Salminen, Leena; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Media portrayals of older people, such as those in newspapers, both inform and reflect public attitudes. By becoming aware of culturally influenced attitudes about older people, and how these attitudes are reflected in the ways older people are viewed, treated, and cared for in society, the healthcare profession can better understand how to provide high-quality care. By applying an ethnographic approach in textual reality, this paper explores how newspaper articles focusing on health portray older people in society, using Finland as an example. The data consist of articles selected from three of the main Finnish daily newspapers during a 3-month period in the spring of 2012. The findings show that, overall, the society regards older people and their care as important. However, there were suggestions of paternalistic attitudes towards older people. Furthermore, the perceptions regarding different groups of older people could lead to the possibility of inequality. The media portrayals of older people worldwide seem to share similarities, although the findings of this study are particularly in accordance with the cultural attributes of the Nordic countries and societies. PMID:25261872

  18. Media portrayal of older people as illustrated in Finnish newspapers

    PubMed Central

    Koskinen, Sanna; Salminen, Leena; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Media portrayals of older people, such as those in newspapers, both inform and reflect public attitudes. By becoming aware of culturally influenced attitudes about older people, and how these attitudes are reflected in the ways older people are viewed, treated, and cared for in society, the healthcare profession can better understand how to provide high-quality care. By applying an ethnographic approach in textual reality, this paper explores how newspaper articles focusing on health portray older people in society, using Finland as an example. The data consist of articles selected from three of the main Finnish daily newspapers during a 3-month period in the spring of 2012. The findings show that, overall, the society regards older people and their care as important. However, there were suggestions of paternalistic attitudes towards older people. Furthermore, the perceptions regarding different groups of older people could lead to the possibility of inequality. The media portrayals of older people worldwide seem to share similarities, although the findings of this study are particularly in accordance with the cultural attributes of the Nordic countries and societies. PMID:25261872

  19. Media Portrayals of Female Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Carlyle, Kellie E; Scarduzio, Jennifer A; Slater, Michael D

    2014-02-01

    Preventing intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health priority. An important component of designing prevention programs is developing an understanding of how media portrayals of health issues influence public opinion and policy. To better understand the ways in which media images may be informing our understanding of IPV, this study content analyzed portrayals of IPV in news media articles. Stratified media outlets were used to obtain a representative sample of daily newspapers based on their designated market areas. Researchers created constructed months using weeks from each season across a 2-year period. The first part of the study investigated quantitative differences in the coverage of female and male perpetrators (n = 395) and identified several areas where coverage differed. The second part of the study qualitatively examined coverage of female perpetrators (n = 61) to provide a richer description of such coverage. This study contributes to our understanding of female perpetrators and how these portrayals may contribute to the larger gender symmetry debate surrounding female aggressors. Implications for public health policy and research are discussed. PMID:24505087

  20. Fine-mapping of the HNF1B multicancer locus identifies candidate variants that mediate endometrial cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Painter, Jodie N.; O'Mara, Tracy A.; Batra, Jyotsna; Cheng, Timothy; Lose, Felicity A.; Dennis, Joe; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Ahmed, Shahana; Ferguson, Kaltin; Healey, Catherine S.; Kaufmann, Susanne; Hillman, Kristine M.; Walpole, Carina; Moya, Leire; Pollock, Pamela; Jones, Angela; Howarth, Kimberley; Martin, Lynn; Gorman, Maggie; Hodgson, Shirley; De Polanco, Ma. Magdalena Echeverry; Sans, Monica; Carracedo, Angel; Castellvi-Bel, Sergi; Rojas-Martinez, Augusto; Santos, Erika; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Long, Jirong; Zheng, Wei; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Montgomery, Grant W.; Webb, Penelope M.; Scott, Rodney J.; McEvoy, Mark; Attia, John; Holliday, Elizabeth; Martin, Nicholas G.; Nyholt, Dale R.; Henders, Anjali K.; Fasching, Peter A.; Hein, Alexander; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Renner, Stefan P.; Dörk, Thilo; Hillemanns, Peter; Dürst, Matthias; Runnebaum, Ingo; Lambrechts, Diether; Coenegrachts, Lieve; Schrauwen, Stefanie; Amant, Frederic; Winterhoff, Boris; Dowdy, Sean C.; Goode, Ellen L.; Teoman, Attila; Salvesen, Helga B.; Trovik, Jone; Njolstad, Tormund S.; Werner, Henrica M.J.; Ashton, Katie; Proietto, Tony; Otton, Geoffrey; Tzortzatos, Gerasimos; Mints, Miriam; Tham, Emma; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Jingmei; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Ekici, Arif B.; Ruebner, Matthias; Johnson, Nicola; Peto, Julian; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida K.; Meindl, Alfons; Brauch, Hiltrud; Lindblom, Annika; Depreeuw, Jeroen; Moisse, Matthieu; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Giles, Graham G.; Bruinsma, Fiona; Cunningham, Julie M.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Kristensen, Vessela N.; Cox, Angela; Swerdlow, Anthony J.; Orr, Nicholas; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Chen, Zhihua; Shah, Mitul; French, Juliet D.; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Dunning, Alison M.; Tomlinson, Ian; Easton, Douglas F.; Edwards, Stacey L.; Thompson, Deborah J.; Spurdle, Amanda B.

    2015-01-01

    Common variants in the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 homeobox B (HNF1B) gene are associated with the risk of Type II diabetes and multiple cancers. Evidence to date indicates that cancer risk may be mediated via genetic or epigenetic effects on HNF1B gene expression. We previously found single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the HNF1B locus to be associated with endometrial cancer, and now report extensive fine-mapping and in silico and laboratory analyses of this locus. Analysis of 1184 genotyped and imputed SNPs in 6608 Caucasian cases and 37 925 controls, and 895 Asian cases and 1968 controls, revealed the best signal of association for SNP rs11263763 (P = 8.4 × 10−14, odds ratio = 0.86, 95% confidence interval = 0.82–0.89), located within HNF1B intron 1. Haplotype analysis and conditional analyses provide no evidence of further independent endometrial cancer risk variants at this locus. SNP rs11263763 genotype was associated with HNF1B mRNA expression but not with HNF1B methylation in endometrial tumor samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Genetic analyses prioritized rs11263763 and four other SNPs in high-to-moderate linkage disequilibrium as the most likely causal SNPs. Three of these SNPs map to the extended HNF1B promoter based on chromatin marks extending from the minimal promoter region. Reporter assays demonstrated that this extended region reduces activity in combination with the minimal HNF1B promoter, and that the minor alleles of rs11263763 or rs8064454 are associated with decreased HNF1B promoter activity. Our findings provide evidence for a single signal associated with endometrial cancer risk at the HNF1B locus, and that risk is likely mediated via altered HNF1B gene expression. PMID:25378557

  1. Fine-mapping of the HNF1B multicancer locus identifies candidate variants that mediate endometrial cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Painter, Jodie N; O'Mara, Tracy A; Batra, Jyotsna; Cheng, Timothy; Lose, Felicity A; Dennis, Joe; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Ahmed, Shahana; Ferguson, Kaltin; Healey, Catherine S; Kaufmann, Susanne; Hillman, Kristine M; Walpole, Carina; Moya, Leire; Pollock, Pamela; Jones, Angela; Howarth, Kimberley; Martin, Lynn; Gorman, Maggie; Hodgson, Shirley; De Polanco, Ma Magdalena Echeverry; Sans, Monica; Carracedo, Angel; Castellvi-Bel, Sergi; Rojas-Martinez, Augusto; Santos, Erika; Teixeira, Manuel R; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Long, Jirong; Zheng, Wei; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Montgomery, Grant W; Webb, Penelope M; Scott, Rodney J; McEvoy, Mark; Attia, John; Holliday, Elizabeth; Martin, Nicholas G; Nyholt, Dale R; Henders, Anjali K; Fasching, Peter A; Hein, Alexander; Beckmann, Matthias W; Renner, Stefan P; Dörk, Thilo; Hillemanns, Peter; Dürst, Matthias; Runnebaum, Ingo; Lambrechts, Diether; Coenegrachts, Lieve; Schrauwen, Stefanie; Amant, Frederic; Winterhoff, Boris; Dowdy, Sean C; Goode, Ellen L; Teoman, Attila; Salvesen, Helga B; Trovik, Jone; Njolstad, Tormund S; Werner, Henrica M J; Ashton, Katie; Proietto, Tony; Otton, Geoffrey; Tzortzatos, Gerasimos; Mints, Miriam; Tham, Emma; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Jingmei; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Ekici, Arif B; Ruebner, Matthias; Johnson, Nicola; Peto, Julian; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida K; Meindl, Alfons; Brauch, Hiltrud; Lindblom, Annika; Depreeuw, Jeroen; Moisse, Matthieu; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Couch, Fergus J; Olson, Janet E; Giles, Graham G; Bruinsma, Fiona; Cunningham, Julie M; Fridley, Brooke L; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Kristensen, Vessela N; Cox, Angela; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Orr, Nicholas; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Chen, Zhihua; Shah, Mitul; French, Juliet D; Pharoah, Paul D P; Dunning, Alison M; Tomlinson, Ian; Easton, Douglas F; Edwards, Stacey L; Thompson, Deborah J; Spurdle, Amanda B

    2015-03-01

    Common variants in the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 homeobox B (HNF1B) gene are associated with the risk of Type II diabetes and multiple cancers. Evidence to date indicates that cancer risk may be mediated via genetic or epigenetic effects on HNF1B gene expression. We previously found single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the HNF1B locus to be associated with endometrial cancer, and now report extensive fine-mapping and in silico and laboratory analyses of this locus. Analysis of 1184 genotyped and imputed SNPs in 6608 Caucasian cases and 37 925 controls, and 895 Asian cases and 1968 controls, revealed the best signal of association for SNP rs11263763 (P = 8.4 × 10(-14), odds ratio = 0.86, 95% confidence interval = 0.82-0.89), located within HNF1B intron 1. Haplotype analysis and conditional analyses provide no evidence of further independent endometrial cancer risk variants at this locus. SNP rs11263763 genotype was associated with HNF1B mRNA expression but not with HNF1B methylation in endometrial tumor samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Genetic analyses prioritized rs11263763 and four other SNPs in high-to-moderate linkage disequilibrium as the most likely causal SNPs. Three of these SNPs map to the extended HNF1B promoter based on chromatin marks extending from the minimal promoter region. Reporter assays demonstrated that this extended region reduces activity in combination with the minimal HNF1B promoter, and that the minor alleles of rs11263763 or rs8064454 are associated with decreased HNF1B promoter activity. Our findings provide evidence for a single signal associated with endometrial cancer risk at the HNF1B locus, and that risk is likely mediated via altered HNF1B gene expression. PMID:25378557

  2. Integration of Sequence Data from a Consanguineous Family with Genetic Data from an Outbred Population Identifies PLB1 as a Candidate Rheumatoid Arthritis Risk Gene

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Yukinori; Diogo, Dorothee; Greenberg, Jeffrey D.; Mouassess, Faten; Achkar, Walid A. L.; Fulton, Robert S.; Denny, Joshua C.; Gupta, Namrata; Mirel, Daniel; Gabriel, Stacy; Li, Gang; Kremer, Joel M.; Pappas, Dimitrios A.; Carroll, Robert J.; Eyler, Anne E.; Trynka, Gosia; Stahl, Eli A.; Cui, Jing; Saxena, Richa; Coenen, Marieke J. H.; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; Huizinga, Tom W. J.; Dieudé, Philippe; Mariette, Xavier; Barton, Anne; Canhão, Helena; Fonseca, João E.; de Vries, Niek; Tak, Paul P.; Moreland, Larry W.; Bridges, S. Louis; Miceli-Richard, Corinne; Choi, Hyon K.; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Galan, Pilar; Lathrop, Mark; Raj, Towfique; De Jager, Philip L.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Worthington, Jane; Padyukov, Leonid; Klareskog, Lars; Siminovitch, Katherine A.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Arayssi, Thurayya; Kazkaz, Layla A.; Plenge, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Integrating genetic data from families with highly penetrant forms of disease together with genetic data from outbred populations represents a promising strategy to uncover the complete frequency spectrum of risk alleles for complex traits such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here, we demonstrate that rare, low-frequency and common alleles at one gene locus, phospholipase B1 (PLB1), might contribute to risk of RA in a 4-generation consanguineous pedigree (Middle Eastern ancestry) and also in unrelated individuals from the general population (European ancestry). Through identity-by-descent (IBD) mapping and whole-exome sequencing, we identified a non-synonymous c.2263G>C (p.G755R) mutation at the PLB1 gene on 2q23, which significantly co-segregated with RA in family members with a dominant mode of inheritance (P = 0.009). We further evaluated PLB1 variants and risk of RA using a GWAS meta-analysis of 8,875 RA cases and 29,367 controls of European ancestry. We identified significant contributions of two independent non-coding variants near PLB1 with risk of RA (rs116018341 [MAF = 0.042] and rs116541814 [MAF = 0.021], combined P = 3.2×10−6). Finally, we performed deep exon sequencing of PLB1 in 1,088 RA cases and 1,088 controls (European ancestry), and identified suggestive dispersion of rare protein-coding variant frequencies between cases and controls (P = 0.049 for C-alpha test and P = 0.055 for SKAT). Together, these data suggest that PLB1 is a candidate risk gene for RA. Future studies to characterize the full spectrum of genetic risk in the PLB1 genetic locus are warranted. PMID:24520335

  3. Capture Hi-C reveals novel candidate genes and complex long-range interactions with related autoimmune risk loci

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Paul; McGovern, Amanda; Orozco, Gisela; Duffus, Kate; Yarwood, Annie; Schoenfelder, Stefan; Cooper, Nicholas J.; Barton, Anne; Wallace, Chris; Fraser, Peter; Worthington, Jane; Eyre, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have been tremendously successful in identifying genetic variants associated with complex diseases. The majority of association signals are intergenic and evidence is accumulating that a high proportion of signals lie in enhancer regions. We use Capture Hi-C to investigate, for the first time, the interactions between associated variants for four autoimmune diseases and their functional targets in B- and T-cell lines. Here we report numerous looping interactions and provide evidence that only a minority of interactions are common to both B- and T-cell lines, suggesting interactions may be highly cell-type specific; some disease-associated SNPs do not interact with the nearest gene but with more compelling candidate genes (for example, FOXO1, AZI2) often situated several megabases away; and finally, regions associated with different autoimmune diseases interact with each other and the same promoter suggesting common autoimmune gene targets (for example, PTPRC, DEXI and ZFP36L1). PMID:26616563

  4. Evaluation of 64 Candidate Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms as Risk Factors for Neural Tube Defects in a Large Irish Study Population

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Tonia C.; Pangilinan, Faith; Troendle, James F.; Molloy, Anne M.; VanderMeer, Julia; Mitchell, Adam; Kirke, Peadar N.; Conley, Mary R.; Shane, Barry; Scott, John M.; Brody, Lawrence C.; Mills, James L.

    2012-01-01

    Individual studies of the genetics of neural tube defects (NTDs) contain results on a small number of genes in each report. To identify genetic risk factors for NTDs, we evaluated potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are biologically plausible risk factors for NTDs but that have never been investigated for an association with NTDs, examined SNPs that previously showed no association with NTDs in published studies, and tried to confirm previously reported associations in folate-related and non-folate-related genes. We investigated 64 SNPs in 34 genes for association with spina bifida in up to 558 case-families (520 cases, 507 mothers, 457 fathers) and 994 controls in Ireland. Case-control and mother-control comparisons of genotype frequencies, tests of transmission disequilibrium, and log-linear regression models were used to calculate effect estimates. Spina bifida was associated with over-transmission of the LEPR (leptin receptor) rs1805134 minor C allele (genotype relative risk (GRR): 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0, 2.1; P = 0.0264) and the COMT (catechol-O-methyltransferase) rs737865 major T allele (GRR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.0; P = 0.0206). After correcting for multiple comparisons, these individual test P-values exceeded 0.05. Consistent with previous reports, spina bifida was associated with MTHFR 677C>T, T (Brachyury) rs3127334, LEPR K109R, and PDGFRA promoter haplotype combinations. The associations between LEPR SNPs and spina bifida suggest a possible mechanism for the finding that obesity is a NTD risk factor. The association between a variant in COMT and spina bifida implicates methylation and epigenetics in NTDs. PMID:21204206

  5. Conflict or Caveats? Effects of Media Portrayals of Scientific Uncertainty on Audience Perceptions of New Technologies.

    PubMed

    Binder, Andrew R; Hillback, Elliott D; Brossard, Dominique

    2016-04-01

    Research indicates that uncertainty in science news stories affects public assessment of risk and uncertainty. However, the form in which uncertainty is presented may also affect people's risk and uncertainty assessments. For example, a news story that features an expert discussing both what is known and what is unknown about a topic may convey a different form of scientific uncertainty than a story that features two experts who hold conflicting opinions about the status of scientific knowledge of the topic, even when both stories contain the same information about knowledge and its boundaries. This study focuses on audience uncertainty and risk perceptions regarding the emerging science of nanotechnology by manipulating whether uncertainty in a news story about potential risks is attributed to expert sources in the form of caveats (individual uncertainty) or conflicting viewpoints (collective uncertainty). Results suggest that the type of uncertainty portrayed does not impact audience feelings of uncertainty or risk perceptions directly. Rather, the presentation of the story influences risk perceptions only among those who are highly deferent to scientific authority. Implications for risk communication theory and practice are discussed. PMID:26268067

  6. Noninvasive cardiac risk stratification of diabetic and nondiabetic uremic renal allograft candidates using dipyridamole-thallium-201 imaging and radionuclide ventriculography

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.A.; Rimmer, J.; Haisch, C. )

    1989-11-01

    The ability of noninvasive risk stratification using dipyridamole-thallium-201 (Tl-201) imaging and radionuclide ventriculography to predict perioperative and long-term cardiac events (myocardial infarction or cardiac death) was evaluated in 36 uremic diabetic and 29 nondiabetic candidates for renal allograft surgery. Of the 35 patients who underwent renal allograft surgery 8 +/- 7 months after the study, none had transient Tl-201 defects (although 13 had depressed left ventricular ejection fraction) and none developed perioperative cardiac events. During a mean follow-up of 23 +/- 11 months, 6 (9%) patients developed cardiac events. Logistic regression analysis was used to compare the predictive value of clinical data (including age, sex, diabetes, chest pain history, allograft recipient) and radionuclide data. Presence of transient Tl-201 defect and left ventricular ejection fraction were the only significant predictors of future cardiac events (p less than 0.01). No other patient variables, including diabetes or receiving a renal allograft, had either univariate or multivariate predictive value. All 3 patients with transient Tl-201 defects had cardiac events compared with only 3 of 62 (5%) patients without transient Tl-201 defect (p less than 0.0001). Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was lower in patients with cardiac events (44 +/- 13%) compared with patients without cardiac events (57 +/- 9%, p less than 0.005). Overall, 5 of 6 patients with cardiac events had either transient Tl-201 defects or depressed left ventricular ejection fraction. Dipyridamole-Tl-201 imaging and radionuclide ventriculography may be helpful in identifying uremic candidates for renal allograft surgery who are at low risk for perioperative and long-term cardiac events.

  7. Systems toxicology-based assessment of the candidate modified risk tobacco product THS2.2 for the adhesion of monocytic cells to human coronary arterial endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Poussin, Carine; Laurent, Alexandra; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia; De Leon, Hector

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of endothelial adhesive properties by cigarette smoke (CS) can progressively favor the development of atherosclerosis which may cause cardiovascular disorders. Modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs) are tobacco products developed to reduce smoking-related risks. A systems biology/toxicology approach combined with a functional in vitro adhesion assay was used to assess the impact of a candidate heat-not-burn technology-based MRTP, Tobacco Heating System (THS) 2.2, on the adhesion of monocytic cells to human coronary arterial endothelial cells (HCAECs) compared with a reference cigarette (3R4F). HCAECs were treated for 4h with conditioned media of human monocytic Mono Mac 6 (MM6) cells preincubated with low or high concentrations of aqueous extracts from THS2.2 aerosol or 3R4F smoke for 2h (indirect treatment), unconditioned media (direct treatment), or fresh aqueous aerosol/smoke extracts (fresh direct treatment). Functional and molecular investigations revealed that aqueous 3R4F smoke extract promoted the adhesion of MM6 cells to HCAECs via distinct direct and indirect concentration-dependent mechanisms. Using the same approach, we identified significantly reduced effects of aqueous THS2.2 aerosol extract on MM6 cell-HCAEC adhesion, and reduced molecular changes in endothelial and monocytic cells. Ten- and 20-fold increased concentrations of aqueous THS2.2 aerosol extract were necessary to elicit similar effects to those measured with 3R4F in both fresh direct and indirect exposure modalities, respectively. Our systems toxicology study demonstrated reduced effects of an aqueous aerosol extract from the candidate MRTP, THS2.2, using the adhesion of monocytic cells to human coronary endothelial cells as a surrogate pathophysiologically relevant event in atherogenesis. PMID:26655683

  8. Portrayal of Smokeless Tobacco in YouTube Videos

    PubMed Central

    Augustson, Erik M.; Backinger, Cathy L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Videos of smokeless tobacco (ST) on YouTube are abundant and easily accessible, yet no studies have examined the content of ST videos. This study assesses the overall portrayal, genre, and messages of ST YouTube videos. Methods: In August 2010, researchers identified the top 20 search results on YouTube by “relevance” and “view count” for the following search terms: “ST,” “chewing tobacco,” “snus,” and “Skoal.” After eliminating videos that were not about ST (n = 26), non-English (n = 14), or duplicate (n = 42), a final sample of 78 unique videos was coded for overall portrayal, genre, and various content measures. Results: Among the 78 unique videos, 15.4% were anti-ST, while 74.4% were pro-ST. Researchers were unable to determine the portrayal of ST in the remaining 10.3% of videos because they involved excessive or “sensationalized” use of the ST, which could be interpreted either positively or negatively, depending on the viewer. The most common ST genre was positive video diaries (or “vlogs”), which made up almost one third of the videos (29.5%), followed by promotional advertisements (20.5%) and anti-ST public service announcements (12.8%). While YouTube is intended for user-generated content, 23.1% of the videos were created by professional organizations. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that ST videos on YouTube are overwhelmingly pro-ST. More research is needed to determine who is viewing these ST YouTube videos and how they may affect people’s knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding ST use. PMID:22080585

  9. Prodigal daughters: portraying lesbians in Hispanic Caribbean cinema.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Reyes, Consuelo

    2012-01-01

    During the last twenty years, Hispanic Caribbean cinema has slowly developed roles to represent lesbians. In order to draw a conceptual map and to examine the un/successfulness of this new lesbian "public image," I analyze both independent films that challenge the status quo by portraying openly lesbian characters and mainstream films that insist on denying autonomy to same-sex love. Whereas commercial markets may deem an openly lesbian role transgressive, queer female roles can be considered "appropriate." Gender-queering functions as a symbolically transitional stage toward lesbian visibility and inclusion. PMID:22702379

  10. Aerosol from a candidate modified risk tobacco product has reduced effects on chemotaxis and transendothelial migration compared to combustion of conventional cigarettes.

    PubMed

    van der Toorn, Marco; Frentzel, Stefan; De Leon, Hector; Goedertier, Didier; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2015-12-01

    Reduction of harmful constituents by heating rather than combusting tobacco is a promising new approach to reduce harmful effects associated with cigarette smoking. We investigated the effect from a new candidate modified risk tobacco product, the tobacco heating system (THS) 2.2, on the migratory behavior of monocytes in comparison with combustible 3R4F reference cigarettes. The monocytic cell line (THP-1) and human coronary arterial endothelial cells (HCAECs) were used to analyze chemotaxis and transendothelial migration (TEM). To assess the influence of aerosol extract from THS2.2 and smoke extract from 3R4F on toxicity and inflammation, flow cytometry and ELISA assays were performed. The results show that treatment of THP-1 cells with extract from 3R4F or THS2.2 induced concentration-dependent increases in cytotoxicity and inflammation. The inhibitory effects of THS2.2 extract for chemotaxis and TEM were ∼18 times less effective compared to 3R4F extract. Furthermore, extract from 3R4F or THS2.2 induced concentration-dependent decreases in the integrity of HCAEC monolayer. For all examined endpoints, the extract from 3R4F showed more than one order of magnitude stronger effects than that from THS2.2 extract. These data indicate the potential of a heat not burn tobacco product to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease compared to combustible cigarettes. PMID:26432920

  11. Scintigraphic portrayal of. beta. receptors in the heart

    SciTech Connect

    Sisson, J.C.; Wieland, D.M.; Koeppe, R.A.; Normolle, D.; Frey, K.A.; Bolgos, G.; Johnson, J.; Van Dort, M.E.; Gildersleeve, D.L. )

    1991-07-01

    Myocardial {beta} adrenergic receptors play important roles in physiology and disease, but the receptors have not before been portrayed. The {beta} antagonist, iodocyanopindolol (ICYP), was used to develop a scintigraphic method for depicting the receptors in the living heart. Labeled with 125I, ICYP bound firmly to {beta} receptors in the rat heart; the data conformed to a mathematical model. In vivo saturation kinetics indicated binding sites with two affinities. Inhibition of ICYP binding by beta antagonists of different potency and different selectivity for {beta}-1 and {beta}-2 receptors produced the expected pharmacologic effects. Inhibition by lipophilic and hydrophilic antagonists gave no evidence that ICYP was appreciably bound to internalized receptors. Fractional binding by tracer quantities of (-) ICYP and {plus minus} ICYP demonstrated stereospecificity. Labeled with 123I, ICYP bound to the hearts of intact dogs so that scintigraphic tomographs depicted ventricular myocardium. Small doses of beta antagonists selectively reduced the binding of ICYP to lung enabling better visualization of the heart. Thus, 123I-ICYP appears to portray the beta receptors in the living heart, and the characteristics of binding permit the development of mathematical models and lay the basis for quantifying this receptor binding.

  12. In Vitro Systems Toxicology Assessment of a Candidate Modified Risk Tobacco Product Shows Reduced Toxicity Compared to That of a Conventional Cigarette.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Suarez, Ignacio; Martin, Florian; Marescotti, Diego; Guedj, Emmanuel; Acali, Stefano; Johne, Stephanie; Dulize, Remi; Baumer, Karine; Peric, Dariusz; Goedertier, Didier; Frentzel, Stefan; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Mathis, Carole; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C

    2016-01-19

    Cigarette smoke increases the risk for respiratory and other diseases. Although smoking prevalence has declined over the years, millions of adults choose to continue to smoke. Modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs) are potentially valuable tools for adult smokers that are unwilling to quit their habit. Here, we investigated the biological impact of a candidate MRTP, the tobacco-heating system (THS) 2.2, compared to that of the 3R4F reference cigarette in normal primary human bronchial epithelial cells. Chemical characterization of the THS 2.2 aerosol showed reduced levels of harmful constituents compared to those of a combustible cigarette. Multiparametric indicators of cellular toxicity were measured via real-time cellular analysis and high-content screening. The study was complemented by a whole transcriptome analysis, followed by computational approaches to identify and quantify perturbed molecular pathways. Exposure of cells to 3R4F cigarette smoke resulted in a dose-dependent response in most toxicity end points. Moreover, we found a significant level of perturbation in multiple biological pathways, particularly in those related to cellular stress. By contrast, exposure to THS 2.2 resulted in an overall lower biological impact. At 3R4F doses, no toxic effects were observed. A toxic response was observed for THS 2.2 in some functional end points, but the responses occurred at doses between 3 and 15 times higher than those of 3R4F. The level of biological network perturbation was also significantly reduced following THS 2.2 aerosol exposure compared to that of 3R4F cigarette smoke. Taken together, the data suggest that THS 2.2 aerosol is less toxic than combustible cigarette smoke and thus may have the potential to reduce the risk for smoke-related diseases. PMID:26651182

  13. Terrain Portrayal for Head-Down Displays Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Monica F.; Glaab, Louis J.

    2003-01-01

    The Synthetic Vision Systems General Aviation (SVS-GA) element of NASA's Aviation Safety Program is developing technology to eliminate low visibility induced General Aviation (GA) accidents through the application of synthetic vision techniques. SVS displays present computer generated 3-dimensional imagery of the surrounding terrain to greatly enhance pilot's situation awareness (SA), reducing or eliminating Controlled Flight into Terrain (CFIT), as well as Low-Visibility Loss of Control (LVLOC) accidents. In addition to substantial safety benefits, SVS displays have many potential operational benefits that can lead to flight in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) resembling those conducted in visual meteorological conditions (VMC). Potential benefits could include lower landing minimums, more approach options, reduced training time, etc. SVS conducted research will develop display concepts providing the pilot with an unobstructed view of the outside terrain, regardless of weather conditions and time of day. A critical component of SVS displays is the appropriate presentation of terrain to the pilot. The relationship between the realism of the terrain presentation and resulting enhancements of pilot SA and pilot performance has been largely undefined. Comprised of coordinated simulation and flight test efforts, the terrain portrayal for head-down displays (TP-HDD) test series examined the effects of two primary elements of terrain portrayal: variations of digital elevation model (DEM) resolution and terrain texturing. Variations in DEM resolution ranged from sparsely spaced (30 arc-sec/2,953ft) to very closely spaced data (1 arc-sec/98 ft). Variations in texture involved three primary methods: constant color, elevation-based generic, and photo-realistic, along with a secondary depth cue enhancer in the form of a fishnet grid overlay. The TP-HDD test series was designed to provide comprehensive data to enable design trades to optimize all SVS applications, as

  14. Terrain Portrayal for Head-Down Displays Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Monica F.; Takallu, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    The General Aviation Element of the Aviation Safety Program's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) Project is developing technology to eliminate low visibility induced General Aviation (GA) accidents. SVS displays present computer generated 3-dimensional imagery of the surrounding terrain on the Primary Flight Display (PFD) to greatly enhance pilot's situation awareness (SA), reducing or eliminating Controlled Flight into Terrain, as well as Low-Visibility Loss of Control accidents. SVS-conducted research is facilitating development of display concepts that provide the pilot with an unobstructed view of the outside terrain, regardless of weather conditions and time of day. A critical component of SVS displays is the appropriate presentation of terrain to the pilot. An experimental study has been conducted at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to explore and quantify the relationship between the realism of the terrain presentation and resulting enhancements of pilot SA and pilot performance. Composed of complementary simulation and flight test efforts, Terrain Portrayal for Head-Down Displays (TP-HDD) experiments will help researchers evaluate critical terrain portrayal concepts. The experimental effort is to provide data to enable design trades that optimize SVS applications, as well as develop requirements and recommendations to facilitate the certification process. This paper focuses on the experimental set-up and preliminary qualitative results of the TP-HDD simulation experiment. In this experiment a fixed based flight simulator was equipped with various types of Head Down flight displays, ranging from conventional round dials (typical of most GA aircraft) to glass cockpit style PFD's. The variations of the PFD included an assortment of texturing and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) resolution combinations. A test matrix of 10 terrain display configurations (in addition to the baseline displays) were evaluated by 27 pilots of various backgrounds and experience levels

  15. A Content Analysis of Electronic Cigarette Portrayal in Newspapers

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Katherine; Friedman, Katherine; Slater, Michael D.; Berman, Micah; Paskett, Electra D.; Ferketich, Amy K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine how electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are portrayed in newspaper informative articles and opinion pieces. Methods A content analysis was conducted on 450 articles published in the United States from 1997 to mid-2014 and obtained by a Newsbank search. The articles were reliably coded for overall frame, type of article, first topic and main topics addressed. Results The article topics have changed over time and suggest significant differences between news articles and opinion pieces. Informative articles focused on e-cigarette regulation, while opinion pieces highlighted their increasing popularity and perceived health benefits. Conclusions This content analysis uncovered significant interest in e-cigarettes, particularly in their regulation. The FDA should consider public perceptions of e-cigarettes when developing regulations. PMID:26229974

  16. Do Satellite Magnetic Anomaly Data Accurately Portray the Crustal Component?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Scalar aeromagnetic data obtained during the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office (NOO)-Vector Magnetic Survey of the conterminous United States were upward continued by equivalent point source inversion and compared with POGO satellite magnetic anomaly and preliminary scalar MAGSAT data. Initial comparisons indicate that the upward continued NOO data is dominated by long wavelength (approximately equal to 1000 to 3000 km) anomalies which are not present in the satellite anomaly data. Thus, the comparison of the data sets is poor. Several possible sources for these differences are present in the data analysis chain. However, upon removal of these long wavelengths from the upward continued NOO data, a close comparison observed between the anomalies verifies that satellite magnetic anomaly data do portray the crustal component within a range of wavelengths from roughly 1000 km down to the resolution limit of the observations.

  17. Portrayal of women as intimate partner domestic violence perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Hester, Marianne

    2012-09-01

    The article explores some of the ways heterosexual women are portrayed as perpetrators of intimate partner domestic violence (IPV) in police domestic violence records in England and is the first study in the United Kingdom to examine the issue of gender and domestic violence perpetrators in any detail and over time. The article is based on a study of 128 IPV cases tracked longitudinally over 6 years, including 32 cases where women were the sole perpetrators and a further 32 cases where women were "dual" perpetrators alongside men. Women were 3 times more likely than men to be arrested when they were construed as the perpetrator. However, Pence and Dasgupta's category of "pathological violence" appeared more useful as an analytical category in the construction of women as "perpetrators" and men as "victims" than the notion of "battering." PMID:22996629

  18. Stem cell hype: media portrayal of therapy translation.

    PubMed

    Kamenova, Kalina; Caulfield, Timothy

    2015-03-11

    In this Perspective, we examine the portrayal of translational stem cell research in major daily newspapers in Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom between 2010 and 2013, focusing on how timelines for stem cell therapies were represented before and after Geron terminated its pioneering stem cell program. Our content analysis reveals that press coverage has shifted from ethical, legal, and social issues to clinical translation issues, and highly optimistic timelines were provided with no substantial change in representation over time. Scientists were the dominant voice with respect to translation timelines. The findings raise questions about the degree to which the media's overly optimistic slant fosters unrealistic expectations regarding the speed of clinical translation and highlight the ethical responsibility of stem cell researchers as public communicators. PMID:25761887

  19. How is cancer recently portrayed in Canadian newspapers compared to 20 years ago?

    PubMed

    Henry, Melissa; Trickey, Brendan; Huang, Lina Nuoxin; Cohen, S Robin

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated cancer portrayals in newspapers now and 20 years ago. Six major daily newspapers from regions across Canada were studied. All articles from a 3-month period in 2008 (n = 576) and 1988 or 1989 (n = 412) focusing on cancer were analyzed. Cancer is a more prevalent topic and is depicted in a more positive light in newspapers now when compared to 20 years ago. In 2008, the most common cancer-related themes were cancer research (27%), risk factors (26%), treatment (24%), education/prevention (20%), and fundraising events (19%). Compared to 1988/1989, in 2008, there was a significant decrease in articles covering the end of life and surgery, while there was a significant increase in articles portraying the senior population, male issues, individual stories depicting people suffering from cancer, the health care system, fundraising events, and ethics and law. The percentage of articles on psychosocial aspects of the cancer experience remained the same in 1988/1989 compared with 2008, with 16% of articles covering psychological aspects (vs. 17% in 2008), 5.6% social aspects (vs. 3.9% in 2008), and 0.2% spiritual aspects (vs. 0.5% in 2008). In 2008, few cancer articles spoke in-depth about palliative care (2.8%), issues concerning death and dying (5%), or bereavement (1%). Cancer newspaper reporting mostly focuses on the physical aspects of cancer rather than presenting a more holistic approach including psychosocial issues. Implications of the shifts in tone and content of newspaper reporting are discussed. We highlight the importance of promoting coverage of distress as the sixth vital sign in newspaper press so as to inform readers about the experience of cancer and the existence of psychosocial services designed to optimize quality of life. PMID:21132331

  20. The Portrayal of Older People in Award-Winning Literature for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dellmann-Jenkins, Mary; Yang, Lisa

    1997-01-01

    Examined illustrations for portrayal of older adult characters in Caldecott Medal-winning picture books, comparing 1972-83 and 1984-95 winners. Found that recent books portray elderly in a more positive manner than earlier winners. In addition, only two significant gender differences in a field of 36 possibilities were found over the entire…

  1. Portrayal of Depression and Other Mental Illnesses in Australian Nonfiction Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Catherine; Pirkis, Jane; Blood, R. Warwick; Dunt, David; Burgess, Philip; Morley, Belinda; Stewart, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This study describes Australian media portrayal of mental illnesses, focusing on depression. A random sample of 1,123 items was selected for analysis from a pool of 13,389 nonfictional media items about mental illness collected between March 2000 and February 2001. Depression was portrayed more frequently than other mental illnesses. Items about…

  2. Prime-Time Television Portrayals of Older Adults in the Context of Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dail, Paula W.

    1988-01-01

    Content analyzed portrayal of older adults in 12 family-oriented, prime-time television programs to determine cognitive, physical, and health status; social interaction; and emotional behavior. Among 193 characters portraying elderly adults, 3,468 verbalizations and behaviors were examined. Results suggest that persons over age 55 are more…

  3. A Theoretical Framework for Studying Media Portrayal of Persons with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clogston, John S.

    Arguing that little research has been done on media portrayals of persons with disabilities, this paper reviews mass communication content studies of media portrayal of women and blacks in terms of deviance and minority group theories, and also reviews studies of media treatment of persons with disabilities from the rehabilitation and education…

  4. Manufacturing Menopause: An Analysis of the Portrayal of Menopause and Information Content on Pharmaceutical Web Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charbonneau, Deborah Hile

    2010-01-01

    Consumer-targeted prescription drug advertising serves as an interesting lens through which we can examine the portrayal of menopause in online drug advertisements. The aim of this study was to explore the portrayal of menopause on web sites sponsored by pharmaceutical companies for hormone therapies (HT). To unravel this question, a qualitative…

  5. Fall Colors II: Exploring the Quality of Diverse Portrayals on Prime Time Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heintz-Knowles, Katharine E.; Chen, Perry; Miller, Patti; Haufler, Adrienne

    Children understand that media grant recognition and respect to racial groups that are positively portrayed. Approximately half of the programs in the 1999-2000 broadcast prime time entertainment programming exhibited some diversity in their opening credits casts. This study examined the nature of the portrayals of diversity. The study examined 10…

  6. Clio's Consciousness Raised? Portrayal of Women in Rock Videos, Re-examined.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Richard C.

    1989-01-01

    Compares the portrayal of women in music videos during the summer of 1985 with portrayals during the winter of 1986-1987. Finds that while sexism exists during both periods, the degree of sexism in the 1986-1987 videos varies by the sex of the musician, indicating that the presence of women musicians in videos decreases the degree of sexism. (MM)

  7. Twenty Years Later: The Portrayal of Blacks on Prime-Time Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroman, Carolyn A.; And Others

    In light of the Kerner Commission's (1968) recommendations that Blacks be included more frequently on television and in a diversity of roles, a study examined how the portrayal of Blacks on television has changed since 1968 and how Blacks are currently portrayed in commercial television series. Samples of all national network commercial television…

  8. Today's Lesson by... Roosevelt? The Use of Character Portrayal in Classroom Guidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, David S.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes how counselors may use the portrayal of a historical character in the classroom to teach lessons on self-esteem, motivation, and goal setting. Keeping with a creative spirit, a classroom guidance lesson that involves the use of character portrayal can be engaging for students. This involves the counselor assuming the…

  9. The Portrayal of the Environment and Development in Two Commercial Movies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Tony P.

    1993-01-01

    Examined the portrayals of environment and development in two commercial movies: "Ferngully, The Last Rain Forest" and "Medicine Man." The two movies differed in their portrayal of the issues, presumably because of their targeted audiences. Suggests that further research is necessary. (Contains 26 references.) (Author/MDH)

  10. The effect of alcohol advertising, marketing and portrayal on drinking behaviour in young people: systematic review of prospective cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lesley A; Foxcroft, David R

    2009-01-01

    Background The effect of alcohol portrayals and advertising on the drinking behaviour of young people is a matter of much debate. We evaluated the relationship between exposure to alcohol advertising, marketing and portrayal on subsequent drinking behaviour in young people by systematic review of cohort (longitudinal) studies. Methods studies were identified in October 2006 by searches of electronic databases, with no date restriction, supplemented with hand searches of reference lists of retrieved articles. Cohort studies that evaluated exposure to advertising or marketing or alcohol portrayals and drinking at baseline and assessed drinking behaviour at follow-up in young people were selected and reviewed. Results seven cohort studies that followed up more than 13,000 young people aged 10 to 26 years old were reviewed. The studies evaluated a range of different alcohol advertisement and marketing exposures including print and broadcast media. Two studies measured the hours of TV and music video viewing. All measured drinking behaviour using a variety of outcome measures. Two studies evaluated drinkers and non-drinkers separately. Baseline non-drinkers were significantly more likely to have become a drinker at follow-up with greater exposure to alcohol advertisements. There was little difference in drinking frequency at follow-up in baseline drinkers. In studies that included drinkers and non-drinkers, increased exposure at baseline led to significant increased risk of drinking at follow-up. The strength of the relationship varied between studies but effect sizes were generally modest. All studies controlled for age and gender, however potential confounding factors adjusted for in analyses varied from study to study. Important risk factors such as peer drinking and parental attitudes and behaviour were not adequately accounted for in some studies. Conclusion data from prospective cohort studies suggest there is an association between exposure to alcohol advertising

  11. Gene expression profile induced by ovariectomy in bone marrow of mice: a functional approach to identify new candidate genes associated to osteoporosis risk in women.

    PubMed

    Pineda, Begoña; Serna, Eva; Laguna-Fernández, Andrés; Noguera, Inmaculada; Panach, Layla; Hermenegildo, Carlos; Tarín, Juan J; Cano, Antonio; García-Pérez, Miguel Ángel

    2014-08-01

    Osteoporosis is a multifactorial skeletal pathology with a main genetic component. To date, however, the majority of genes associated with this pathology remain unknown since genes cataloged to date only explain a part of the heritability of bone phenotypes. In the present study, we have used a genome-wide gene expression approach by means of microarrays to identify new candidate genes involved in the physiopathology of osteoporosis, using as a model the ovariectomized (OVX) mice by comparing global bone marrow gene expression of the OVX mice with those of SHAM operated mice. One hundred and eighty transcripts were found to be differentially expressed between groups. The analysis showed 23 significant regulatory networks, of which the top five canonical pathways included B-cell development, primary immunodeficiency signaling, PI3K signaling in B-cells, phospholipase C signaling, and FcgRIIB signaling in B-cells. Twelve differentially expressed genes were validated by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry with good reproducibility. Finally, the association to bone phenotypes of SNPs in genes whose expression was increased (IL7R and CD79A) or decreased (GPX3 and IRAK3) by OVX in mice was analyzed in a cohort of 706 postmenopausal women. We detected an association of a SNP in a gene involved in the detoxification of free radicals like glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3) with femoral neck BMD (rs8177447, P=0.043) and two SNPs in the Ig-alpha protein of the B-cell antigen component gene (CD79A) with lumbar spine BMD (rs3810153 and rs1428922, P=0.016 and P=0.001, respectively). These results reinforce the role of antioxidant pathways and of B-cells in bone metabolism. Furthermore, it shows that a genome-wide gene expression approach in animal models is a useful method for detecting genes associated to BMD and osteoporosis risk in humans. PMID:24815918

  12. Effects of cigarette smoke, cessation and switching to a candidate modified risk tobacco product on the liver in Apoe(-/-) mice - a systems toxicology analysis.

    PubMed

    Lo Sasso, Giuseppe; Titz, Bjoern; Nury, Catherine; Boué, Stéphanie; Phillips, Blaine; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Schneider, Thomas; Dijon, Sophie; Baumer, Karine; Peric, Daruisz; Dulize, Remi; Elamin, Ashraf; Guedj, Emmanuel; Buettner, Ansgar; Leroy, Patrice; Kleinhans, Samuel; Vuillaume, Gregory; Veljkovic, Emilija; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Martin, Florian; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2016-04-01

    The liver is one of the most important organs involved in elimination of xenobiotic and potentially toxic substances. Cigarette smoke (CS) contains more than 7000 chemicals, including those that exert biological effects and cause smoking-related diseases. Though CS is not directly hepatotoxic, a growing body of evidence suggests that it may exacerbate pre-existing chronic liver disease. In this study, we integrated toxicological endpoints with molecular measurements and computational analyses to investigate effects of exposures on the livers of Apoe(-/- )mice. Mice were exposed to 3R4F reference CS, to an aerosol from the Tobacco Heating System (THS) 2.2, a candidate modified risk tobacco product (MRTP) or to filtered air (Sham) for up to 8 months. THS2.2 takes advantage of a "heat-not-burn" technology that, by heating tobacco, avoids pyrogenesis and pyrosynthesis. After CS exposure for 2 months, some groups were either switched to the MRTP or filtered air. While no group showed clear signs of hepatotoxicity, integrative analysis of proteomics and transcriptomics data showed a CS-dependent impairment of specific biological networks. These networks included lipid and xenobiotic metabolism and iron homeostasis that likely contributed synergistically to exacerbating oxidative stress. In contrast, most proteomic and transcriptomic changes were lower in mice exposed to THS2.2 and in the cessation and switching groups compared to the CS group. Our findings elucidate the complex biological responses of the liver to CS exposure. Furthermore, they provide evidence that THS2.2 aerosol has reduced biological effects, as compared with CS, on the livers of Apoe(-/- )mice. PMID:27027324

  13. Portrayals of lobotomy in American and Swedish media.

    PubMed

    Ogren, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Psychosurgery has a long history dating back to the 1880s when Gottlieb Burckhardt performed focal cerebral cortical excisions on the brains of six patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. His operations were vividly contested by the medical community of the time. In 1936, when Walter J. Freeman and James W. Watts performed their initial prefrontal lobotomies in the United States, they were met with some professional opposition from superintendents, who would not provide them with patients for the operation. However, Freeman and Watts managed to cope well with the opponents. In newspapers and magazines, the curiosity for lobotomy was obvious. Freeman was instrumental in the way he promoted lobotomy, and he evoked the interest of the press and the journalists for this new surgical treatment on mental illness, something that he regarded as a medico-historical breakthrough. In this chapter, the portrayal of lobotomy in American and Swedish newspapers and magazines is explored and analyzed. How did journalists write about lobotomy for the public in the years spanning 1936 to 1959, a period in which the American and Swedish presses appeared inclined to describe the positive effects of lobotomy, while neglecting the negative and fatal consequences of the operation. There are not only similarities but also interesting differences between the Swedish and the American articles depicting lobotomy. The media can be a powerful factor in the construction of "facts," which can significantly affect decisions made by people about their health issues. PMID:24290483

  14. The portrayal of bone tumours in the press.

    PubMed

    Al-Nammari, Shafic Said; Danesh, Arash; Mussa, Mohamed; Al-Hadithy, Nawfal

    2013-04-01

    The media are pivotal in educating and informing the general public. The stories they cover and how they cover them has a powerful influence on public perceptions. There have been no previous reports of the portrayal of bone tumours in the press. LexisNexis™ Professional search engine used to retrieve articles from all United Kingdom National Newspapers over one year containing terms "bone tumour/bone tumour" and 46 other named bone and joint tumours from May 2009 to May 2010. A total of 253 relevant articles were found. Seven per cent solely bone tumour related, 41% main theme and 52% mentioned in passing. 52% mentioned tumour type. These were 51% multiple myeloma, 15% Ewing's sarcoma, 9% sarcoma unspecified, 6% clear cell sarcoma, 4.5% epithelial sarcoma, 4% synovial sarcoma, 3% osteosarcoma, 3% bony metastasis and 1.5% chondrosarcoma. Benign bone tumours not mentioned. Article focus: chemotherapy 17%, surgeon/doctor 7% and new surgical technique 2%. The overall attitudinal tone of the articles were 52% negative, 32% neutral and 16% positive. Only 13% quoted an oncologist, and 1% an orthopaedic surgeon. Quality of medical information provided was limited with 90% providing no meaningful medical information and this medical information being correct only 68% of the time. Articles with quotes from a doctor were significantly more likely to contain meaningful medical information than those without-33 versus 4%, respectively (p < 0.001 Chi-squared test)-and there was a trend for them to be more factually correct overall-68 versus 50% (p = 0.192 Fisher's exact Test). PMID:23463358

  15. Genetic Risk Score Modelling for Disease Progression in New-Onset Type 1 Diabetes Patients: Increased Genetic Load of Islet-Expressed and Cytokine-Regulated Candidate Genes Predicts Poorer Glycemic Control.

    PubMed

    Brorsson, Caroline A; Nielsen, Lotte B; Andersen, Marie Louise; Kaur, Simranjeet; Bergholdt, Regine; Hansen, Lars; Mortensen, Henrik B; Pociot, Flemming; Størling, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over 40 type 1 diabetes risk loci. The clinical impact of these loci on β-cell function during disease progression is unknown. We aimed at testing whether a genetic risk score could predict glycemic control and residual β-cell function in type 1 diabetes (T1D). As gene expression may represent an intermediate phenotype between genetic variation and disease, we hypothesized that genes within T1D loci which are expressed in islets and transcriptionally regulated by proinflammatory cytokines would be the best predictors of disease progression. Two-thirds of 46 GWAS candidate genes examined were expressed in human islets, and 11 of these significantly changed expression levels following exposure to proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β + IFNγ + TNFα) for 48 h. Using the GWAS single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from each locus, we constructed a genetic risk score based on the cumulative number of risk alleles carried in children with newly diagnosed T1D. With each additional risk allele carried, HbA1c levels increased significantly within first year after diagnosis. Network and gene ontology (GO) analyses revealed that several of the 11 candidate genes have overlapping biological functions and interact in a common network. Our results may help predict disease progression in newly diagnosed children with T1D which can be exploited for optimizing treatment. PMID:26904692

  16. Portrayals of character smoking and drinking in Argentine-, Mexican- and US-produced films.

    PubMed

    Kollath-Cattano, Christy; Abad-Vivero, Erika N; Mejia, Raul; Perez-Hernandez, Rosaura; Sargent, James D; Thrasher, James F

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess film character portrayals of tobacco and alcohol use in US and nationally-produced films that were popular in Argentina and Mexico from 2004-2012. We performed a content analysis of these films (n=82 Argentine, 91 Mexican, and 908 US films, respectively). Chi-squares and t-tests were used to compare characteristics of characters who smoked or drank by country of movie production. Then data from all countries were pooled, and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to determine independent correlates of character smoking or drinking. There were 480 major characters for Argentine-, 364 for Mexican-, and 4962 for US-produced films. Smoking prevalence among movie characters was similar to population smoking prevalence in Mexico (21%) and Argentina (26%), but about half in the US (11%), where movie product placements are restricted. Movie smoking declined over the period in all three countries. Movie alcohol prevalence was 40-50% across all countries and did not change with time. Demographic predictors of character smoking included: being male, 18 and older, having negative character valence. Movie smoking was not associated with lower SES. Predictors of character drinking included: being age 18 and older and positive character valence. Smoking and drinking predicted each other, illicit drug use, and higher scores for other risk behaviors. This suggests that policy development in Mexico and Argentina may be necessary to reduce the amount of character tobacco and alcohol use in films. PMID:27404576

  17. Provider portrayals and patient-provider communication in drama and reality medical entertainment television shows.

    PubMed

    Jain, Parul; Slater, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    Portrayals of physicians on medical dramas have been the subject of research attention. However, such research has not examined portrayals of interactions between physicians and patients, has not compared physician portrayals on medical dramas versus on medical reality programs, and has not fully examined portrayals of physicians who are members of minority groups or who received their education internationally. This study content-analyzes 101 episodes (85 hours) of such programs broadcast during the 2006-2007 viewing season. Findings indicate that women are underrepresented as physicians on reality shows, though they are no longer underrepresented as physicians on dramas. However, they are not as actively portrayed in patient-care interactions as are male physicians on medical dramas. Asians and international medical graduates are underrepresented relative to their proportion in the U.S. physician population, the latter by almost a factor of 5. Many (but certainly not all) aspects of patient-centered communication are modeled, more so on reality programs than on medical dramas. Differences in patient-provider communication portrayals by minority status and gender are reported. Implications for public perception of physicians and expectations regarding provider-patient interaction are discussed. PMID:23581602

  18. Visual portrayals of obesity in health media: promoting exercise without perpetuating weight bias.

    PubMed

    Pearl, R L; Dovidio, J F; Puhl, R M

    2015-08-01

    Health education campaigns for preventing and reducing obesity often contain weight-stigmatizing visual content, which may have unintended negative health consequences. The goal of the present research was to identify non-stigmatizing visual content for health education materials that can promote exercise among people of diverse weight statuses. An online sample of 483 US women viewed: (i) a woman with obesity portrayed stereotypically; (ii) a woman with obesity exercising; (iii) a woman with obesity portrayed neutrally; or (iv) a lean woman exercising. Race of the models pictured was randomized (White or Black). Participants completed measures of weight bias and exercise behavior and attitudes, and provided information about their weight status. Analysis of covariance revealed that responses to stereotypical and exercise images varied by participant weight status. Across participants, neutral obesity portrayals elicited lower expressions of weight-biased attitudes and higher reports of exercise liking/comfort. Among non-overweight participants, images portraying women with obesity stereotypically or counter-stereotypically produced greater endorsement of negative stereotypes than control, lean images. No effects of model race were found. These findings suggest that the public responds differently to visual portrayals of obesity depending on weight status, and neutral portrayals may be an effective route toward promoting exercise without perpetuating stigma. PMID:26116585

  19. Fictions of Work-Related Learning: How a Hit Television Show Portrays Internship, and How Medical Students Relate to Those Portrayals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jubas, Kaela; Knutson, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    This article proceeds from three main premises. First, we assert that popular culture functions pedagogically and helps cultural consumers learn about work, even before they enter educational programs or workplaces. Second, we argue that exploring portrayals of internship is useful in understanding the "attributes of formality and informality"…

  20. Mad scientists, compassionate healers, and greedy egotists: the portrayal of physicians in the movies.

    PubMed

    Flores, Glenn

    2002-07-01

    Cinematic depictions of physicians potentially can affect public expectations and the patient-physician relationship, but little attention has been devoted to portrayals of physicians in movies. The objective of the study was the analysis of cinematic depictions of physicians to determine common demographic attributes of movie physicians, major themes, and whether portrayals have changed over time. All movies released on videotape with physicians as main characters and readily available to the public were viewed in their entirety. Data were collected on physician characteristics, diagnoses, and medical accuracy, and dialogue concerning physicians was transcribed. The results showed that in the 131 films, movie physicians were significantly more likely to be male (p < 0.00001), White (p < 0.00001), and < 40 years of age (p < 0.009). The proportion of women and minority film physicians has declined steadily in recent decades. Movie physicians are most commonly surgeons (33%), psychiatrists (26%), and family practitioners (18%). Physicians were portrayed negatively in 44% of movies, and since the 1960s positive portrayals declined while negative portrayals increased. Physicians frequently are depicted as greedy, egotistical, uncaring, and unethical, especially in recent films. Medical inaccuracies occurred in 27% of films. Compassion and idealism were common in early physician movies but are increasingly scarce in recent decades. A recurrent theme is the "mad scientist," the physician-researcher that values research more than patients' welfare. Portrayals of physicians as egotistical and materialistic have increased, whereas sexism and racism have waned. Movies from the past two decades have explored critical issues surrounding medical ethics and managed care. We conclude that negative cinematic portrayals of physicians are on the rise, which may adversely affect patient expectations and the patient-physician relationship. Nevertheless, films about physicians can

  1. Mad scientists, compassionate healers, and greedy egotists: the portrayal of physicians in the movies.

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Glenn

    2002-01-01

    Cinematic depictions of physicians potentially can affect public expectations and the patient-physician relationship, but little attention has been devoted to portrayals of physicians in movies. The objective of the study was the analysis of cinematic depictions of physicians to determine common demographic attributes of movie physicians, major themes, and whether portrayals have changed over time. All movies released on videotape with physicians as main characters and readily available to the public were viewed in their entirety. Data were collected on physician characteristics, diagnoses, and medical accuracy, and dialogue concerning physicians was transcribed. The results showed that in the 131 films, movie physicians were significantly more likely to be male (p < 0.00001), White (p < 0.00001), and < 40 years of age (p < 0.009). The proportion of women and minority film physicians has declined steadily in recent decades. Movie physicians are most commonly surgeons (33%), psychiatrists (26%), and family practitioners (18%). Physicians were portrayed negatively in 44% of movies, and since the 1960s positive portrayals declined while negative portrayals increased. Physicians frequently are depicted as greedy, egotistical, uncaring, and unethical, especially in recent films. Medical inaccuracies occurred in 27% of films. Compassion and idealism were common in early physician movies but are increasingly scarce in recent decades. A recurrent theme is the "mad scientist," the physician-researcher that values research more than patients' welfare. Portrayals of physicians as egotistical and materialistic have increased, whereas sexism and racism have waned. Movies from the past two decades have explored critical issues surrounding medical ethics and managed care. We conclude that negative cinematic portrayals of physicians are on the rise, which may adversely affect patient expectations and the patient-physician relationship. Nevertheless, films about physicians can

  2. Chromosome 1q gain and tenascin-C expression are candidate markers to define different risk groups in pediatric posterior fossa ependymoma.

    PubMed

    Araki, Asuka; Chocholous, Monika; Gojo, Johannes; Dorfer, Christian; Czech, Thomas; Heinzl, Harald; Dieckmann, Karin; Ambros, Inge M; Ambros, Peter F; Slavc, Irene; Haberler, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial classic (WHO grade II) and anaplastic (WHO grade III) ependymomas are among the most common tumors in pediatric patients and have due to frequent recurrences and late relapses a relatively poor outcome. The impact of histopathological grading on patient outcome is controversial and therefore, molecular prognostic and predictive markers are needed to improve patient outcome. To date, the most promising candidate marker is chromosome 1q gain, which has been associated in independent studies with adverse outcome. Furthermore, gene expression and methylation profiles revealed distinct molecular subgroups in the supratentorial and posterior fossa (PF) compartment and Laminin alpha-2 (LAMA2) and Neural Epidermal Growth Factor Like-2 (NELL2) were suggested as surrogate markers for the two PF subgroups PF-EPN-A and PF-EPN-B. PF-EPN-A tumors were also characterized by tenascin-C (TNC) expression and tenascin-C has been suggested as candidate gene on 9q, involved in tumor progression. Therefore, we have analyzed the status of chromosome 1q, TNC, LAMA2, and NELL2 expression in a series of pediatric PF ependymomas in terms of their frequency, associations among themselves, and clinical parameters, as well as their prognostic impact. We confirm the negative prognostic impact of 1q gain and TNC expression and could classify PF ependymomas by these two markers into three molecular subgroups. Tumors with combined 1q gain and TNC expression had the poorest, tumors without 1q gain and TNC expression had a favorable and TNC positive 1q non-gained cases had an intermediate outcome. We found also differences in age and tumor grade in the three subgroups and thus, provide evidence that PF pediatric ependymomas can be divided by chromosome 1q status and TNC expression in three molecular subgroups with distinct clinico-pathological features. These analyses require only few amounts of tumor tissue, are broadly available in the routine clinical neuropathological setting and

  3. American School Textbooks: How They Portrayed the Middle East from 1898 to 1994

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Hani

    2008-01-01

    The portrayal of the Middle East in school textbooks has been reported to be inaccurate and negative as late as the mid 1990's. Numerous major studies conducted by various researchers and organizations indicate that school textbooks written between the 1970's and 1990's contributed to existing stereotypes of the Middle East held by many Americans.…

  4. "The University for the Poor": Portrayals of Class in Translated Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest, Danielle E.; Garrison, Kasey L.; Kimmel, Sue C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Scholars of children's literature have been investigating portrayals of females and racial groups for several decades, yet few have examined depictions of social class. Research on social class depictions in children's literature is needed in order to identify books that affirm children's class identities and offer…

  5. Arab Portrayals in U.S. and British News Magazines: A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Sandra

    A study examined the influence of national political and economic interests, culture, and history on the portrayal of Arabs in two weekly news magazines. Sample articles from the American weekly "Time" magazine and the British weekly "The Economist" were examined for coverage of the October 1973 Arab-Israeli war and the June 1982 Israeli invasion…

  6. Media-Constructed Anti-Intellectualism: The Portrayal of Experts in Popular US Television Talk Shows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holderman, Lisa B.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the popular portrayal of intellectual expertise through a content analysis of 200 of the 10 top-rated popular US television talk shows. Shows that experts in this sample were typically brought on late in the program, allotted little speaking time, placed among non-experts, frequently interrupted, and sometimes challenged. Indicates that…

  7. Alcoholism in the Western Genre: The Portrayal of Alcohol and Alcoholism in the Western Genre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedding, Danny

    2000-01-01

    Examines the way alcohol use has been portrayed in films with particular emphasis on the western genre. Saloons, bar fights, and town drunks are all staple features of the genre, a genre that has contributed significantly to the prevailing image of masculinity. This paper argues that these images influence and shape contemporary attitudes about…

  8. Star Power and the Schools: Studying Popular Films' Portrayal of Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scull, W. Reed; Peltier, Gary L.

    2007-01-01

    Popular film impacts the work of educators and education in a variety of ways. In this article, the authors examine popular films' portrayals of education and K-12 schooling and higher education instructors from a variety of perspectives. The authors also investigate how education provides a platform for the examination of contemporary cultural…

  9. How Real Is the Portrayal of Aggression in Television Entertainment Programming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, W. James; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Assesses aggressive behavior on television in terms of its realism. Replicated and contextualized reality were assessed for 100.5 hours of programming. Replicated reality compared television portrayals to real world characteristics, and was similar in seriousness to aggression and gender patterns of perpetrators and victims. Contextual reality…

  10. Ethnicity and Involvement in Violence on Television: Nature and Context of On-Screen Portrayals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Barrie

    1998-01-01

    Examines the portrayal of majority and minority ethnic groups as aggressors or victims on British television, focusing on violence in drama and serials. Analysis of programs from 10 channels on 28 days reveals whites to be more heavily involved in television violence as perpetrators or victims in Britain than ethnic-minority characters. (SLD)

  11. The Portrayal of Women in Israeli Arabic Textbooks on Druse Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falah, Janan Faraj

    2013-01-01

    Teaching heritage to a nation is important. The Israeli Arab curriculum on Druse heritage helps students connect religion with modern society. The textbooks that are still used were written in the end of the 1970s and do not reflect the changing reality of Druse women. This research shows that women must be portrayed in more diverse roles in…

  12. Effect of Dialogue on Demonstrations: Direct Quotations, Facial Portrayals, Hand Gestures, and Figurative References

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavelas, Janet; Gerwing, Jennifer; Healing, Sara

    2014-01-01

    "Demonstrations" (e.g., direct quotations, conversational facial portrayals, conversational hand gestures, and figurative references) lack conventional meanings, relying instead on a resemblance to their referent. Two experiments tested our theory that demonstrations are a class of communicative acts that speakers are more likely to use…

  13. Developing children and multicultural attitudes: the systemic psychosocial influences of television portrayals in a multimedia society.

    PubMed

    Berry, Gordon L

    2003-11-01

    Television can be an important medium for the teaching and learning of the developing child. This article explores how social learning theory and the cross-cultural images and portrayals on television might influence the multicultural attitudes, values, and beliefs of children. PMID:14609367

  14. The Myth of My Widow: A Dramatistic Analysis of News Portrayals of a Terrorist Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lule, Jack

    Dramatistic analysis suggests that the "New York Times" portrayals of the 1985 terrorist killing of Leon Klinghoffer, the 69 year old American tourist on the Achille Laurs, may contain a mythic dimension. Through the myth of the hero, the news stories invoked the symbol of the self, inviting intense identification of the individual reader with the…

  15. Killing Us Softly? Investigating Portrayals of Women and Men in Contemporary Magazine Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Terri D.; Ramsey, Laura R.

    2011-01-01

    Our research aimed to systematically investigate how women and men are portrayed in magazine advertisements, deriving hypotheses from Jean Kilbourne's observed media analysis presented in her "Killing Us Softly" film series. A total of 790 advertisements in 19 magazines were coded. Results revealed support for many of Kilbourne's hypotheses. For…

  16. The Family as Portrayed on Prime-Time Television, 1947-1990: Structure and Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Marvin L.

    1992-01-01

    Examines 115 successful television series portraying white and African-American families across 4 decades of U.S. prime-time television for the structure and characteristics of the families. The data show a trend toward more equal presentation of conventional and nonconventional families, few divorced or female single parents, and few minority…

  17. The Impact of Presence Versus Absence of Negative Consequences in Dramatic Portrayals of Alcohol Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahk, C. Mo.

    1997-01-01

    Using dramatic media presentations, explores issues surrounding the absence of negative consequences in alcohol consumption. Results based on 211 participants indicate that exposure to portrayals of alcohol drinking with negative consequences elicits the least favorable attitudes toward drinking. Exposure to the same presentation, without the…

  18. Korean Culture as Portrayed in Young Children's Picture Books: The Pursuit of Cultural Authenticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Su-Jeong; Park, Soyeon; Choi, Joung Sun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate how contemporary Korea and its culture are portrayed in children's picture books published in the United States. Our analysis of the representation of Korean culture in text and illustrations was based on a sample of 33 picture books written in English and published in the US between 1990 and…

  19. Magazine Portrayal of Women, 1911-1930. Journalism Monographs Number 72.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynes, Terry

    A total of 486 nonfiction reports and a proportional, stratified random sample of 300 short stories appearing in selected magazines from 1911 to 1930 were examined for the extent to which they portrayed or encouraged the emancipated woman. The study tested two assumptions: one, frequently made by writers commenting on the 1920s, that magazines of…

  20. Reading Men Differently: Alternative Portrayals of Masculinity in Contemporary Young Adult Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Thomas W.; Harper, Helen

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the nature and performance of masculinity as portrayed in three popular young adult novels: two novels featuring male protagonists and one featuring a female protagonist. Drawing on emerging theory and scholarship, researchers view masculinity, like femininity, as a gendered performance, socially scripted but amenable to…

  1. The Effects of Androgynous Televised Portrayals on Children's Sex Role Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Kathryn P.; Brown, Jane Delano

    A study examined whether television's stereotypical portrayals of men and women affected children's sex role preferences. The subjects, 105 fifth and 70 eighth grade students from a predominately black urban school in the southern United States, were assigned to see one of three versions of a videotape of a family drama in which male and female…

  2. Cross Sectional and Longitudinal Portrayals of the Special Education Mathematics Achievement Gap. Research Brief 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulte, Ann C.; Stevens, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    We contrasted portrayals of the achievement gap on the North Carolina state mathematics assessment for students with disabilities (SWD) using two different ways of identifying this group of students. The first method used students' disability status in third grade as the basis for identifying SWD, and then tracked the achievement gap between SWD…

  3. Positive Portrayals of Feminist Men Increase Men's Solidarity with Feminists and Collective Action Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Shaun; Srinivasan, Ruhi; Finke, Elizabeth; Firnhaber, Joseph; Shilinsky, Alyssa

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether positive portrayals of feminist men could increase men's sense of solidarity with feminists and, through it, their intentions to engage in collective action in support of women. A sample of 102 mostly White men between the ages of 18 and 63 was recruited from Mechanical Turk, an online crowdsourcing marketplace.…

  4. Developing Children and Multicultural Attitudes: The Systemic Psychosocial Influences of Television Portrayals in a Multimedia Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Gordon L.

    2003-01-01

    Television can be an important medium for the teaching and learning of the developing child. This article explores how social learning theory and the cross-cultural images and portrayals on television might influence the multicultural attitudes, values, and beliefs of children. (Contains 22 references.) (Author)

  5. The First Century of Disability Portrayal in Film: An Analysis of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Stephen P.

    1998-01-01

    Provides an interdisciplinary review of portrayal of disability in film by integrating resources from film history, the social sciences, rehabilitation, mass communication, psychology, psychiatry, and education. Analysis addresses the quality of cinematic representations of disability and the politics of film. Psychiatric disorders were most…

  6. Evaluating Aggression: School Students' Responses to Television Portrayals of Institutionalized Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulloch, Marian I.

    1995-01-01

    Responses of 1,135 Australian children and adolescents to 6 televised excerpts portraying violence were studied. Although no single pattern of age, social class, or gender differences was found, younger subjects were more likely to endorse authority positions whether these were accepting or rejecting of violence. (SLD)

  7. The Use of Photographs to Portray Urban Ecosystems in Six Introductory Environmental Science Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, John P.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how photographs in six introductory environmental science texts portrayed the urban environments in which most U.S. students lived. All photographs from all texts were coded to determine whether they depicted urban areas. The urban photographs were then coded to determine what they communicated about the urban environment. The…

  8. Students and Stakeholders: How College Presidents Publically Portray the Urban College Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the descriptions college presidents use and the stories they tell about the students in their institutions when communicating with certain influential stakeholders, such as trustees, alumni, and funders. The researcher examined themes and patterns in the portrayal of students through these stories to see if…

  9. Developing Media Literacy Skills To Challenge Television's Portrayal of Older Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Harriet L.

    2002-01-01

    Focus groups of 19 graduate social work students viewed two episodes of "The Golden Girls." Students had differing opinions on whether the program reinforced or challenged social stereotypes about older women. The need for positive media portrayals and for media literacy was identified. (Contains 46 references.) (SK)

  10. Portrayals of Bullying: A Content Analysis of Picture Books for Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppliger, Patrice A.; Davis, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Bullying affects a significant number of school children in the United States. Great concern for teaching children about bullying is apparent in the number of picture books published with bullying themes. The following study is a content analysis of how bullies and victims are portrayed in picture books suitable for preschoolers. Many of the…

  11. Correcting Media Mis-Education: The Portrayal of Smokers and Smoking in Top Grossing Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Alyssa; Brackin, Taryn; Chubb, Jamie; Covata, Sandy; Ferguson, Liz; Hinckley, Adele; Hodges, Jilda; Liberati, Cheryl; Tornetta, Jonette; Chambliss, Catherine

    Given that young people are extremely concerned with how they appear socially, beguiling and glamorous portrayals of smokers in recent films may be contributing to the continual rise in college student smoking. The pervasive positive depiction of smokers as attractive and appealing easily preys on young people who lack confidence and self esteem.…

  12. Living Color: Minority Portrayals and Cross-Racial Interactions on Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Marsha E.; Condry, John C.

    This study reports a content analysis designed to investigate the nature of minority portrayals and cross-racial relationships on television programs and commercials during 1987. The sample of television analyzed included 72 hours of programing and advertisements obtained from Cornell's HDTV Archive. Program characters with speaking lines, and…

  13. Trading Arms for Hostages? How the Government and Print Media "Spin" Portrayals of the United States' Policy toward Iran.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William J.; Vincent, Richard C.

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes government and print media portrayals of the Reagan administration's policy during Irangate. Finds that the print media continued to fulfill its "watchdog" function by providing critical portrayals of United States policy despite the Reagan administration's attempt to "spin" its own version of Irangate. Examines the Tower Commission…

  14. A Review and Critique of the Portrayal of Older Adult Learners in Adult Education Journals, 1980-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Li-Kuang; Kim, Young Sek; Moon, Paul; Merriam, Sharan B.

    2008-01-01

    The aging population is a worldwide challenge. Understanding how older adults have been portrayed would provide a foundation on which future scholarship can build. This study assesses and critiques the assumptions underlying the portrayal of older adults and their learning in adult education journals from 1980 to 2006. On reviewing 93 articles in…

  15. A Look at How Books, Reading, or Writing Are Portrayed in Children's Literature Published from 1990 through 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushner, Diane E.

    This study examined 122 juvenile books to determine how current authors and illustrators portray books, reading, and writing and how this portrayal reflects current literacy theories and recommended instructional practices. The theoretical framework of this study is grounded theory (GLaser and Strauss, 1967). Categories which emerged from the…

  16. Desperate Housewives: An Analysis of the Characterisations of Female Gamblers Portrayed in Gambling Movies in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohtsuka, Keis; Chan, Chi Chuen

    2009-01-01

    This article examines portrayals of female gamblers in recent Hong Kong movies. The authors report that the depiction of female gamblers is very different from that of male gamblers in the movies made in the same period. Whereas the male gamblers are pitching a lonely and desperate battle against an evil opponent, the female gamblers portrayed in…

  17. An Examination of Violence and Gender Role Portrayals in Video Games: Implications for Gender Socialization and Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, Tracy L.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the portrayal of women and the use of violent themes in 33 popular video games. The analysis reveals that traditional gender roles and violence are central to many games. There were no female characters in 41% of games with characters, and women were portrayed as sex objects in 28% of these games. (SLD)

  18. Portrayals of branded soft drinks in popular American movies: a content analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cassady, Diana; Townsend, Marilyn; Bell, Robert A; Watnik, Mitchell

    2006-01-01

    Background This study examines the portrayals of soft drinks in popular American movies as a potential vehicle for global marketing and an indicator of covert product placement. Methods We conducted a content analysis of America's top-ten grossing films from 1991 through 2000 that included portrayals of beverages (95 movies total). Coding reliabilities were assessed with Cohen's kappa, and exceeded 0.80. If there was at least one instance of branding for a beverage, the film was considered having branded beverages. Fisher's exact test was used to determine if soft drink portrayals were related to audience rating or genre. Data on the amount of time soft drinks appeared onscreen was log transformed to satisfy the assumption of normality, and analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA model. McNemar's test of agreement was used to test whether branded soft drinks are as likely to appear or to be actor-endorsed compared to other branded beverages. Results Rating was not associated with portrayals of branded soft drinks, but comedies were most likely to include a branded soft drink (p = 0.0136). Branded soft drinks appeared more commonly than other branded non-alcoholic beverages (p = 0.0001), branded beer (p = 0.0004), and other branded alcoholic beverages (p = 0.0006). Actors consumed branded soft drinks in five times the number of movies compared to their consumption of other branded non-alcoholic beverages (p = 0.0126). About half the revenue from the films with portrayals of branded soft drinks come from film sales outside the U.S. Conclusion The frequent appearance of branded soft drinks provides indirect evidence that product placement is a common practice for American-produced films shown in the U.S. and other countries. PMID:16526959

  19. Whole genome association analysis shows that ACE is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and fails to replicate most candidates from Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Webster, Jennifer; Reiman, Eric M; Zismann, Victoria L; Joshipura, Keta D; Pearson, John V; Hu-Lince, Diane; Huentelman, Matthew J; Craig, David W; Coon, Keith D; Beach, Thomas; Rohrer, Kristen C; Zhao, Alice S; Leung, Doris; Bryden, Leslie; Marlowe, Lauren; Kaleem, Mona; Mastroeni, Diego; Grover, Andrew; Rogers, Joseph; Heun, Reinhard; Jessen, Frank; Kölsch, Heike; Heward, Christopher B; Ravid, Rivka; Hutton, Michael L; Melquist, Stacey; Petersen, Ron C; Caselli, Richard J; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Stephan, Dietrich A; Hardy, John; Myers, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    For late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), the only confirmed, genetic association is with the apolipoprotein E (APOE) locus on chromosome 19. Meta-analysis is often employed to sort the true associations from the false positives. LOAD research has the advantage of a continuously updated meta-analysis of candidate gene association studies in the web-based AlzGene database. The top 30 AlzGene loci on May 1(st), 2007 were investigated in our whole genome association data set consisting of 1411 LOAD cases and neuropathoiogicaiiy verified controls genotyped at 312,316 SNPs using the Affymetrix 500K Mapping Platform. Of the 30 "top AlzGenes", 32 SNPs in 24 genes had odds ratios (OR) whose 95% confidence intervals that did not include 1. Of these 32 SNPs, six were part of the Affymetrix 500K Mapping panel and another ten had proxies on the Affymetrix array that had >80% power to detect an association with α=0.001. Two of these 16 SNPs showed significant association with LOAD in our sample series. One was rs4420638 at the APOE locus (uncorrected p-value=4.58E-37) and the other was rs4293, located in the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) locus (uncorrected p-value=0.014). Since this result was nominally significant, but did not survive multiple testing correction for 16 independent tests, this association at rs4293 was verified in a geographically distinct German cohort (p-value=0.03). We present the results of our ACE replication aiongwith a discussion of the statistical limitations of multiple test corrections in whole genome studies. PMID:21537449

  20. Candidate Soluble Immune Mediators in Young Women with High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infection: High Expression of Chemokines Promoting Angiogenesis and Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Zanotta, Nunzia; Tornesello, Maria Lina; Annunziata, Clorinda; Stellato, Giovanni; Buonaguro, Franco Maria; Comar, Manola

    2016-01-01

    Background The causal interpretation of cervical immune response to Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is complex and poorly characterized mainly due to the delicate balance that exists between viral infection, increase of inflammatory cytokines and host risk factors. This study aims to explore the significance of cervical immune mediators associated to cell survival, angiogenesis and interaction with immune response, in predicting the risk to develop HPV-related intraepithelial lesions. Methods A panel of 48 cytokines and growth factors were explored in a selected cohort of 168 immunocompetent women including 88 diagnosed with low (LSIL) or high (HSIL) squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix and 80 with normal cervical cytology (NIL). HPV genotyping was performed by Linear Array HPV test and the soluble concentration of 48 immune molecules was analyzed using the Bio-Plex platform. Results The prevalence of single HR-HPV infection was 30% in NIL and 100% in LSIL and HSIL women. The expression of 13 cytokines, including interleukins IL-6, IL-3, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-16, IL-18, LIF, of chemokines CCL7 (MCP-3), CXCL9 (MIG), CXCL12 (SDF-1α) and of the tropic factors VEGF, G-CSF, M-CSF were significantly associated with the presence of infection, with levels being higher in women with precancerous lesions compared to NIL HPV negative women. Only the growth factor GM-CSF was positively associated with the cytological abnormalities. Conclusions The ability of HR-HPV to escape from innate immune recognition and to orchestrate the production of specific inflammatory and growth factors, involved in early inflammatory response and in the cell-proliferating phase of intraepithelial damage, was documented in women before the development of cervical lesions. PMID:26990868

  1. Candidate variants at 6p21.33 and 6p22.1 and risk of non-small cell lung cancer in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingfeng; Hu, Lingmin; Shen, Hao; Dong, Jing; Shu, Yongqian; Xu, Lin; Jin, Guangfu; Tian, Tian; Hu, Zhibin; Shen, Hongbing

    2010-01-01

    Chromosome 6p21.33, containing BAT3 and MSH5 genes, together with chromosome 6p22.1 were recently identified as susceptible regions for lung cancer in Caucasian populations. These findings interest us in assessing whether genetic variants in these regions also contribute to lung cancer risk in Chinese populations. We genotyped the most significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs9295740) reported in Caucasian populations at Chromosome 6p22.1 and one common potentially functional variant (rs2075789) located at exon 2 of MSH5 in a case-control study including 1009 histologically confirmed non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases and 1127 cancer-free controls in a Chinese population. We found that the distributions of genotypes of both SNPs between cases and controls were not significantly different (P = 0.624 for rs9295740 and P = 0.937 for rs2075789). Logistic regression analyses revealed neither of the two SNPs was significantly associated with altered risk of NSCLC in dominant or recessive genetic models. When we compared the combined variant genotypes (GA+AA) with the common homozygote GG, assuming a dominant genetic model, the adjusted ORs were 1.03 (95% CI = 0.86-1.25) for rs9295740 and 1.03 (95% CI = 0.85-1.25) for rs2075789. In addition, no significant associations were observed in subgroups stratified by age, gender, smoking status or histologic types. Our results indicate that the most significant SNP rs9295740 identified in Caucasians in 6p22.1 and the potentially functional SNP rs2075789 in 6p21.33, seem not applicable to Chinese populations as susceptible markers for lung cancer. Re-sequencing and fine-mapping this region, along with extensive functional evaluations, is required. PMID:21537448

  2. Evaluation of Candidate Stromal Epithelial Cross-Talk Genes Identifies Association between Risk of Serous Ovarian Cancer and TERT, a Cancer Susceptibility “Hot-Spot”

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoqing; Macgregor, Stuart; Duffy, David L.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; deFazio, Anna; Gava, Natalie; Webb, Penelope M.; Rossing, Mary Anne; Doherty, Jennifer Anne; Goodman, Marc T.; Lurie, Galina; Thompson, Pamela J.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Ness, Roberta B.; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Cramer, Daniel W.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Yang, Hannah; Lissowska, Jolanta; Chanock, Stephen J.; Pharoah, Paul D.; Song, Honglin; Whitemore, Alice S.; Pearce, Celeste L.; Stram, Daniel O.; Wu, Anna H.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Gayther, Simon A.; Ramus, Susan J.; Menon, Usha; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Hogdall, Estrid; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Hogdall, Claus; Berchuck, Andrew; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Iversen, Edwin S.; Moorman, Patricia G.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Rider, David N.; Goode, Ellen L.; Haviv, Izhak; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesized that variants in genes expressed as a consequence of interactions between ovarian cancer cells and the host micro-environment could contribute to cancer susceptibility. We therefore used a two-stage approach to evaluate common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 173 genes involved in stromal epithelial interactions in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). In the discovery stage, cases with epithelial ovarian cancer (n = 675) and controls (n = 1,162) were genotyped at 1,536 SNPs using an Illumina GoldenGate assay. Based on Positive Predictive Value estimates, three SNPs—PODXL rs1013368, ITGA6 rs13027811, and MMP3 rs522616—were selected for replication using TaqMan genotyping in up to 3,059 serous invasive cases and 8,905 controls from 16 OCAC case-control studies. An additional 18 SNPs with Pper-allele<0.05 in the discovery stage were selected for replication in a subset of five OCAC studies (n = 1,233 serous invasive cases; n = 3,364 controls). The discovery stage associations in PODXL, ITGA6, and MMP3 were attenuated in the larger replication set (adj. Pper-allele≥0.5). However genotypes at TERT rs7726159 were associated with ovarian cancer risk in the smaller, five-study replication study (Pper-allele = 0.03). Combined analysis of the discovery and replication sets for this TERT SNP showed an increased risk of serous ovarian cancer among non-Hispanic whites [adj. ORper-allele 1.14 (1.04–1.24) p = 0.003]. Our study adds to the growing evidence that, like the 8q24 locus, the telomerase reverse transcriptase locus at 5p15.33, is a general cancer susceptibility locus. PMID:20628624

  3. Portraying mental illness and drug addiction as treatable health conditions: effects of a randomized experiment on stigma and discrimination.

    PubMed

    McGinty, Emma E; Goldman, Howard H; Pescosolido, Bernice; Barry, Colleen L

    2015-02-01

    Despite significant advances in treatment, stigma and discrimination toward persons with mental illness and drug addiction have remained constant in past decades. Prior work suggests that portraying other stigmatized health conditions (i.e., HIV/AIDS) as treatable can improve public attitudes toward those affected. Our study compared the effects of vignettes portraying persons with untreated and symptomatic versus successfully treated and asymptomatic mental illness and drug addiction on several dimensions of public attitudes about these conditions. We conducted a survey-embedded randomized experiment using a national sample (N = 3940) from an online panel. Respondents were randomly assigned to read one of ten vignettes. Vignette one was a control vignette, vignettes 2-5 portrayed individuals with untreated schizophrenia, depression, prescription pain medication addiction and heroin addiction, and vignettes 6-10 portrayed successfully treated individuals with the same conditions. After reading the randomly assigned vignette, respondents answered questions about their attitudes related to mental illness or drug addiction. Portrayals of untreated and symptomatic schizophrenia, depression, and heroin addiction heightened negative public attitudes toward persons with mental illness and drug addiction. In contrast, portrayals of successfully treated schizophrenia, prescription painkiller addiction, and heroin addiction led to less desire for social distance, greater belief in the effectiveness of treatment, and less willingness to discriminate against persons with these conditions. Portrayal of persons with successfully treated mental illness and drug addiction is a promising strategy for reducing stigma and discrimination toward persons with these conditions and improving public perceptions of treatment effectiveness. PMID:25528557

  4. Portraying Mental Illness and Drug Addiction as Treatable Health Conditions: Effects of a Randomized Experiment on Stigma and Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Howard H.; Pescosolido, Bernice; Barry, Colleen L.

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant advances in treatment, stigma and discrimination toward persons with mental illness and drug addiction have remained constant in past decades. Prior work suggests that portraying other stigmatized health conditions (i.e., HIV/AIDS) as treatable can improve public attitudes toward those affected. Our study compared the effects of vignettes portraying persons with untreated and symptomatic versus successfully treated and asymptomatic mental illness and drug addiction on several dimensions of public attitudes about these conditions. We conducted a survey-embedded randomized experiment using a national sample (N=3940) from an online panel. Respondents were randomly assigned to read one of ten vignettes. Vignette one was a control vignette, vignettes 2–5 portrayed individuals with untreated schizophrenia, depression, prescription pain medication addiction and heroin addiction, and vignettes 6–10 portrayed successfully treated individuals with the same conditions. After reading the randomly assigned vignette, respondents answered questions about their attitudes related to mental illness or drug addiction. Portrayals of untreated and symptomatic schizophrenia, depression, and heroin addiction heightened negative public attitudes toward persons with mental illness and drug addiction. In contrast, portrayals of successfully treated schizophrenia, prescription painkiller addiction, and heroin addiction led to less desire for social distance, greater belief in the effectiveness of treatment, and less willingness to discriminate against persons with these conditions. Portrayal of persons with successfully treated mental illness and drug addiction is a promising strategy for reducing stigma and discrimination toward persons with these conditions and improving public perceptions of treatment effectiveness. PMID:25528557

  5. News Portrayal of Cancer: Content Analysis of Threat and Efficacy by Cancer Type and Comparison with Incidence and Mortality in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    How the news media cover cancer may have profound significance for cancer prevention and control; however, little is known about the actual content of cancer news coverage in Korea. This research thus aimed to examine news portrayal of specific cancer types with respect to threat and efficacy, and to investigate whether news portrayal corresponds to actual cancer statistics. A content analysis of 1,138 cancer news stories was conducted, using a representative sample from 23 news outlets (television, newspapers, and other news media) in Korea over a 5-year period from 2008 to 2012. Cancer incidence and mortality rates were obtained from the Korean Statistical Information Service. Results suggest that threat was most prominent in news stories on pancreatic cancer (with 87% of the articles containing threat information with specific details), followed by liver (80%) and lung cancers (70%), and least in stomach cancer (41%). Efficacy information with details was conveyed most often in articles on colorectal (54%), skin (54%), and liver (50%) cancers, and least in thyroid cancer (17%). In terms of discrepancies between news portrayal and actual statistics, the threat of pancreatic and liver cancers was overreported, whereas the threat of stomach and prostate cancers was underreported. Efficacy information regarding cervical and colorectal cancers was overrepresented in the news relative to cancer statistics; efficacy of lung and thyroid cancers was underreported. Findings provide important implications for medical professionals to understand news information about particular cancers as a basis for public (mis)perception, and to communicate effectively about cancer risk with the public and patients. PMID:27478333

  6. News Portrayal of Cancer: Content Analysis of Threat and Efficacy by Cancer Type and Comparison with Incidence and Mortality in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shim, Minsun; Kim, Yong-Chan; Kye, Su Yeon; Park, Keeho

    2016-08-01

    How the news media cover cancer may have profound significance for cancer prevention and control; however, little is known about the actual content of cancer news coverage in Korea. This research thus aimed to examine news portrayal of specific cancer types with respect to threat and efficacy, and to investigate whether news portrayal corresponds to actual cancer statistics. A content analysis of 1,138 cancer news stories was conducted, using a representative sample from 23 news outlets (television, newspapers, and other news media) in Korea over a 5-year period from 2008 to 2012. Cancer incidence and mortality rates were obtained from the Korean Statistical Information Service. Results suggest that threat was most prominent in news stories on pancreatic cancer (with 87% of the articles containing threat information with specific details), followed by liver (80%) and lung cancers (70%), and least in stomach cancer (41%). Efficacy information with details was conveyed most often in articles on colorectal (54%), skin (54%), and liver (50%) cancers, and least in thyroid cancer (17%). In terms of discrepancies between news portrayal and actual statistics, the threat of pancreatic and liver cancers was overreported, whereas the threat of stomach and prostate cancers was underreported. Efficacy information regarding cervical and colorectal cancers was overrepresented in the news relative to cancer statistics; efficacy of lung and thyroid cancers was underreported. Findings provide important implications for medical professionals to understand news information about particular cancers as a basis for public (mis)perception, and to communicate effectively about cancer risk with the public and patients. PMID:27478333

  7. Terrain Portrayal for Synthetic Vision Systems Head-Down Displays Evaluation Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Monica F.; Glaab, Louis J.

    2007-01-01

    A critical component of SVS displays is the appropriate presentation of terrain to the pilot. At the time of this study, the relationship between the complexity of the terrain presentation and resulting enhancements of pilot SA and pilot performance had been largely undefined. The terrain portrayal for SVS head-down displays (TP-HDD) simulation examined the effects of two primary elements of terrain portrayal on the primary flight display (PFD): variations of digital elevation model (DEM) resolution and terrain texturing. Variations in DEM resolution ranged from sparsely spaced (30 arc-sec) to very closely spaced data (1 arc-sec). Variations in texture involved three primary methods: constant color, elevation-based generic, and photo-realistic, along with a secondary depth cue enhancer in the form of a fishnet grid overlay.

  8. Spanish Darwinian iconography: Darwin and evolutionism portrayed in Spanish press cartoons.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Martí; Mateu, Anna

    2013-11-01

    The theory of evolution has played a major role in the press since it was put forward by Charles Darwin in 1859. Its key role in biology and human philosophy is reflected by its presence in press cartoons, sections where the image of social reality is depicted in a more direct and satirical light. Through cartoons, artists have used their ingenuity or wit to portray one of the most controversial scientific figures of the past two centuries. This study examines the views portrayed by Spanish cartoonists about Charles Darwin and evolutionary theory in 2009, the bicentenary of the naturalist's birth and the celebration of 150 years since the publication of On the Origin of Species. These cartoons show how the controversy between Darwinism and religion remain latent in the heart of Spanish society, and how the figure of Darwin has become one of the main icons of science. PMID:23825239

  9. Portrayals of Eating and Drinking in Popular American TV Programs: A Comparison of Scripted and Unscripted Shows.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moon J; Gispanski, Lauren

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated portrayals of eating and drinking behaviors in popular American TV programs and compared scripted and unscripted (i.e., reality) shows. Through a content analysis of 95 episodes, the prevalence and nature of food/alcohol consumption that accompanied depictions of eating and drinking behaviors in 461 scenes were measured. Various foods were portrayed, but only 9% of foods portrayed were healthy (e.g., low in calories/fat content, such as fruits, vegetables, etc.). Approximately half of eating or drinking scenes either were accompanied by alcohol or contained solely alcoholic beverages. Significant differences between the scripted and unscripted shows were also found. PMID:27129060

  10. Tobacco use in silent film: precedents of modern-day substance use portrayals.

    PubMed

    St Romain, Theresa; Hawley, Suzanne R; Ablah, Elizabeth; Kabler, Bethany S; Molgaard, Craig A

    2007-12-01

    Much research has been done into tobacco use portrayals in film since the mid-twentieth century, but the earlier years of Hollywood history have been overlooked. Yet the first decades of the twentieth century saw annual per capita cigarette consumption increase from under 100 in 1900 upto 1,500 in 1930. The current study looks at frequency and context (gender, age range, socioeconomic status, type of portrayal) of tobacco use in 20 top-grossing silent films spanning the silent feature era (1915-1928). The sample averaged 23.31 tobacco uses per hour. Tobacco use was most often associated with positive characterizations, working/middle class status, masculinity, and youth. Previous research has verified the influence of the film industry on tobacco consumption in modern years, and this potential connection should not be ignored for the silent film era. Top-grossing silent films set a precedent for positive media portrayals of substance use that have persisted to the present day. PMID:17940872

  11. Portrayal of tanning, clothing fashion and shade use in Australian women's magazines, 1987-2005.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Helen; Dobbinson, Suzanne; Wakefield, Melanie; Jamsen, Kris; McLeod, Kim

    2008-10-01

    To examine modelling of outcomes relevant to sun protection in Australian women's magazines, content analysis was performed on 538 spring and summer issues of popular women's magazines from 1987 to 2005. A total of 4949 full-colour images of Caucasian females were coded for depth of tan, extent of clothing cover, use of shade and setting. Logistic regression using robust standard errors to adjust for clustering on magazine was used to assess the relationship between these outcomes and year, setting and model's physical characteristics. Most models portrayed outdoors did not wear hats (89%) and were not in shade (87%). Between 1987 and 2005, the proportion of models depicted wearing hats decreased and the proportion of models portrayed with moderate to dark tans declined and then later increased. Younger women were more likely to be portrayed with a darker tan and more of their body exposed. Models with more susceptible phenotypes (paler hair and eye colour) were less likely to be depicted with a darker tan. Darker tans and poor sun-protective behaviour were most common among models depicted at beaches/pools. Implicit messages about sun protection in popular Australian women's magazines contradict public health messages concerning skin cancer prevention. PMID:18000026

  12. Terrain Portrayal for Synthetic Vision Systems Head-Down Displays Evaluation Results: Compilation of Pilot Transcripts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Monica F.; Glaab, Louis J.

    2007-01-01

    The Terrain Portrayal for Head-Down Displays (TP-HDD) simulation experiment addressed multiple objectives involving twelve display concepts (two baseline concepts without terrain and ten synthetic vision system (SVS) variations), four evaluation maneuvers (two en route and one approach maneuver, plus a rare-event scenario), and three pilot group classifications. The TP-HDD SVS simulation was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center's (LaRC's) General Aviation WorkStation (GAWS) facility. The results from this simulation establish the relationship between terrain portrayal fidelity and pilot situation awareness, workload, stress, and performance and are published in the NASA TP entitled Terrain Portrayal for Synthetic Vision Systems Head-Down Displays Evaluation Results. This is a collection of pilot comments during each run of the TP-HDD simulation experiment. These comments are not the full transcripts, but a condensed version where only the salient remarks that applied to the scenario, the maneuver, or the actual research itself were compiled.

  13. Constructions of sexuality in later life: analyses of Canadian magazine and newspaper portrayals of online dating.

    PubMed

    Wada, Mineko; Hurd Clarke, Laura; Rozanova, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Advertisements as well as contemporary literature and films often depict older adults as sexually undesirable and unattractive, which reinforces the stereotype that they are nonsexual. However, the evolving discourses of successful aging emphasize that active engagement in life is a key element of healthy aging and as such, have been influencing the ways that older adults' sexuality is represented. This paper explores how popular newspapers and magazines in Canada construct and portray later life sexuality within the context of online dating. We retrieved 144 newspaper and magazine articles about later life online dating that were published between 2009 and 2011. Our thematic and discursive analyses of the articles generated six themes. Of 144 articles, 13% idealized sexuality (sexual attractiveness and optimal sexual engagement) for older adults. The articles portrayed sexual interests and functioning as declining in later life (19%) more often than sustaining (15%). Approximately 15% of the articles suggested that older adults should explore new techniques to boost sexual pleasure, thereby medicalizing and ameliorating sexual decline. In addition, the articles challenged the stereotype of older adults as non-sexual and claimed that sexual engagement in later life was valuable as it contributed to successful aging. We address the paradox in the articles' positive portrayals of older adults' sexuality and the tensions that arise between the two distinct ideals of sexuality that they advance. PMID:25661855

  14. Religious Orientation, Endorser Credibility, and the Portrayal of Female Nurses by the Media.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chyong-Ling; Yeh, Jin-Tsann; Wu, Mong-Chun; Lee, Wei-Chung

    2015-10-01

    Medical consumption and media culture in Taiwan contain clear religious elements. It is common for people to believe that medicine is a supernatural treatment and to rely on thoughts of unseen power instead of rational consciousness. Religious-influenced patriarchy, seen in cultural gender roles, significantly influences religious adherents and degrades women as being part of a secondary class in society. As a contradictory tradition, women, in comparison to men, are considered best at undertaking certain jobs that require careful, detailed thought (such as nurses). Nursing and other occupations requiring a high degree of professionalism by women contradict the past religious-based concept of "ignorance is a woman's virtue." This study aims to probe female imagery in eastern and western Taiwan and explores whether religious culture and practice influences people's cognition of female nurses in advertising. The constructs are analyzed through structural equation modeling. Results reveal that religious followers do not necessarily trust female nurses more just because they are portrayed as professional medical specialists. Most consumers reflect this negative cognition through purchase intentions of products. For example, in comparing portrayals of attractiveness with portrayals of professionalism, attractiveness results in a better advertising effect. People with intrinsic or extrinsic religious orientation have gradually lowered their negative impressions of women; however, religious followers still more strongly insist on women's secondary position. Attractive female nurses are more likely judged as reliable, and this may be transferred to trust in their professional medical skills. PMID:25062929

  15. Teaching "Candide": A Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Theodore E. D.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Two different approaches to teaching Voltaire's "Candide", one deriving meaning from the textual fabric or "inside" of the story and the other focusing on the author's "external" intent in writing the story, are presented and compared. (MSE)

  16. Candidate CDTI procedures study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ace, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    A concept with potential for increasing airspace capacity by involving the pilot in the separation control loop is discussed. Some candidate options are presented. Both enroute and terminal area procedures are considered and, in many cases, a technologically advanced Air Traffic Control structure is assumed. Minimum display characteristics recommended for each of the described procedures are presented. Recommended sequencing of the operational testing of each of the candidate procedures is presented.

  17. An 8-Month Systems Toxicology Inhalation/Cessation Study in Apoe-/- Mice to Investigate Cardiovascular and Respiratory Exposure Effects of a Candidate Modified Risk Tobacco Product, THS 2.2, Compared With Conventional Cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Blaine; Veljkovic, Emilija; Boué, Stéphanie; Schlage, Walter K; Vuillaume, Gregory; Martin, Florian; Titz, Bjoern; Leroy, Patrice; Buettner, Ansgar; Elamin, Ashraf; Oviedo, Alberto; Cabanski, Maciej; De León, Héctor; Guedj, Emmanuel; Schneider, Thomas; Talikka, Marja; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2016-02-01

    Smoking cigarettes is a major risk factor in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs) are being developed to reduce smoking-related health risks. The goal of this study was to investigate hallmarks of COPD and CVD over an 8-month period in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice exposed to conventional cigarette smoke (CS) or to the aerosol of a candidate MRTP, tobacco heating system (THS) 2.2. In addition to chronic exposure, cessation or switching to THS2.2 after 2 months of CS exposure was assessed. Engaging a systems toxicology approach, exposure effects were investigated using physiology and histology combined with transcriptomics, lipidomics, and proteomics. CS induced nasal epithelial hyperplasia and metaplasia, lung inflammation, and emphysematous changes (impaired pulmonary function and alveolar damage). Atherogenic effects of CS exposure included altered lipid profiles and aortic plaque formation. Exposure to THS2.2 aerosol (nicotine concentration matched to CS, 29.9 mg/m(3)) neither induced lung inflammation or emphysema nor did it consistently change the lipid profile or enhance the plaque area. Cessation or switching to THS2.2 reversed the inflammatory responses and halted progression of initial emphysematous changes and the aortic plaque area. Biological processes, including senescence, inflammation, and proliferation, were significantly impacted by CS but not by THS2.2 aerosol. Both, cessation and switching to THS2.2 reduced these perturbations to almost sham exposure levels. In conclusion, in this mouse model cessation or switching to THS2.2 retarded the progression of CS-induced atherosclerotic and emphysematous changes, while THS2.2 aerosol alone had minimal adverse effects. PMID:26609137

  18. An 8-Month Systems Toxicology Inhalation/Cessation Study in Apoe−/− Mice to Investigate Cardiovascular and Respiratory Exposure Effects of a Candidate Modified Risk Tobacco Product, THS 2.2, Compared With Conventional Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Blaine; Veljkovic, Emilija; Boué, Stéphanie; Schlage, Walter K.; Vuillaume, Gregory; Martin, Florian; Titz, Bjoern; Leroy, Patrice; Buettner, Ansgar; Elamin, Ashraf; Oviedo, Alberto; Cabanski, Maciej; De León, Héctor; Guedj, Emmanuel; Schneider, Thomas; Talikka, Marja; Ivanov, Nikolai V.; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick; Peitsch, Manuel C.; Hoeng, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Smoking cigarettes is a major risk factor in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs) are being developed to reduce smoking-related health risks. The goal of this study was to investigate hallmarks of COPD and CVD over an 8-month period in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice exposed to conventional cigarette smoke (CS) or to the aerosol of a candidate MRTP, tobacco heating system (THS) 2.2. In addition to chronic exposure, cessation or switching to THS2.2 after 2 months of CS exposure was assessed. Engaging a systems toxicology approach, exposure effects were investigated using physiology and histology combined with transcriptomics, lipidomics, and proteomics. CS induced nasal epithelial hyperplasia and metaplasia, lung inflammation, and emphysematous changes (impaired pulmonary function and alveolar damage). Atherogenic effects of CS exposure included altered lipid profiles and aortic plaque formation. Exposure to THS2.2 aerosol (nicotine concentration matched to CS, 29.9 mg/m3) neither induced lung inflammation or emphysema nor did it consistently change the lipid profile or enhance the plaque area. Cessation or switching to THS2.2 reversed the inflammatory responses and halted progression of initial emphysematous changes and the aortic plaque area. Biological processes, including senescence, inflammation, and proliferation, were significantly impacted by CS but not by THS2.2 aerosol. Both, cessation and switching to THS2.2 reduced these perturbations to almost sham exposure levels. In conclusion, in this mouse model cessation or switching to THS2.2 retarded the progression of CS-induced atherosclerotic and emphysematous changes, while THS2.2 aerosol alone had minimal adverse effects. PMID:26609137

  19. Genetic variation in candidate obesity genes ADRB2, ADRB3, GHRL, HSD11B1, IRS1, IRS2, and SHC1 and risk for breast cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II

    PubMed Central

    Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Teras, Lauren R; Diver, W Ryan; Tang, Weining; Patel, Alpa V; Stevens, Victoria L; Calle, Eugenia E; Thun, Michael J; Bouzyk, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Obesity has consistently been associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Proteins that are secreted by adipose tissue or are involved in regulating body mass may play a role in breast tumor development. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study among postmenopausal women from the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort to determine whether genes associated with obesity increase risk for breast cancer. Tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected to capture common variation across seven candidate genes that encode adipose-related proteins: ADRB2, ADRB3, GHRL, HSD11B1, IRS1, IRS2, and SHC1. Thirty-nine SNPs were genotyped in 648 cases and 659 controls. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between each tagging SNP and risk for breast cancer while adjusting for matching factors and potential confounders. We also examined whether these SNPs were associated with measures of adult adiposity. Results Two out of five tagging SNPs in HSD11B1 were associated with breast cancer (rs11807619, P = 0.006; rs932335, P = 0.0001). rs11807619 and rs932335 were highly correlated (r2 = 0.74) and, when modeled as a haplotype, only haplotypes containing the rs932335 C allele were associated with breast cancer. The rs932335 C allele was associated with a nearly twofold increased risk for breast cancer (odds ratio = 1.83, 95% confidence interval = 1.01–3.33 for C/C versus G/G). Three of the 11 SNPs for IRS2 were associated with breast cancer (rs4773082, P = 0.007; rs2289046, P = 0.016; rs754204, P = 0.03). When these three SNPs were examined as a haplotype, only the haplotype that included the G allele of rs2289046 was associated with breast cancer (odds ratio = 0.76, 95% confidence interval = 0.63–0.92 for TGC versus CAT). IRS2 rs2289046, rs754204, and rs12584136 were also associated with adult weight gain but only among cases. None of the other SNPs in any gene investigated were

  20. Towards Treating Chemistry Teacher Candidates as Human

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewthwaite, Brian Ellis

    2008-05-01

    This research inquiry investigates the factors influencing chemistry teacher candidates’ development during their extended practica in the second and final year of an After-Degree Bachelor of Education at a university in central Canada. A variety of data sources are used to identify the risk and protective factors impeding and contributing to the achievement of their chemistry pedagogical aspirations. Two theoretical frameworks, both having their origins in the pioneering work of Kurt Lewin, are used to conceptualize how a complex amalgam of personal attribute and environmental factors and the interplay among these factors influence teacher candidate developmental trajectories. The tenets of both Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological model and Learning Environment research provide insights into how the factors influencing teacher candidate development can be understood and systematically documented to provide a template for reflective consideration of the practicum experience for both teacher candidates and those involved in fostering the development of chemistry teacher candidates.

  1. Towards Treating Chemistry Teacher Candidates as Human

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewthwaite, Brian Ellis

    2008-01-01

    This research inquiry investigates the factors influencing chemistry teacher candidates' development during their extended practica in the second and final year of an After-Degree Bachelor of Education at a university in central Canada. A variety of data sources are used to identify the risk and protective factors impeding and contributing to the…

  2. ALA Candidates: Presidential Timbre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an interview with two effective spokespeople, notable school librarian Sara Kelly Johns and retired public library administrator Molly Raphael, who compete to be American Library Association (ALA) president. One of them will be elected president of ALA for a year's term beginning in July 2011. Each candidate comes from a…

  3. Judicial Perceptions of Media Portrayals of Offenders with High Functioning Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Berryessa, Colleen M.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, sensational media reporting focusing on crimes committed by those diagnosed with or thought to have High Functioning Autistic Spectrum Disorders (hfASDs) has caused societal speculation that there is a link between the disorder and violent criminality. No research exists on how and if the judiciary understands and is affected by this coverage. Therefore this study aims to examine how judges perceive and are influenced by media attention surrounding hfASDs and criminality. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 California Superior Court Judges, including questions on media portrayal. Judges perceived general media portrayals of hfASDs in both positive and negative ways. However, almost all judges who had experienced media coverage surrounding hfASDs and criminality identified it as misleading and harmful to public perceptions of the disorder. These findings suggest judges are not exempt from media attention surrounding violence and hfASDs, and they recognize the potential adverse effects of this negative coverage. Although judges’ report their opinions are not affected, the results demonstrate that judges are worried that the public and potentially other criminal justice actors are adversely affected and will continue to be moving forward. PMID:25722757

  4. Media-portrayed idealized images, self-objectification, and eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Monro, Fiona J; Huon, Gail F

    2006-11-01

    This study examined the effects of media-portrayed idealized images on young women's eating behavior. The study compared the effects for high and low self-objectifiers. 72 female university students participated in this experiment. Six magazine advertisements featuring idealized female models were used as the experimental stimuli, and the same six advertisements with the idealized body digitally removed became the control stimuli. Eating behavior was examined using a classic taste test that involved both sweet and savory food. Participants' restraint status was assessed. We found that total food intake after exposure was the same in the body present and absent conditions. There were also no differences between high and low self-objectifiers' total food intake. However, for the total amount of food consumed and for sweet food there were significant group by condition interaction effects. High self-objectifiers ate more food in the body present than the body absent condition. In contrast, low self-objectifiers ate more food in the body absent than in the body present condition. Restraint status was not found to moderate the relationship between exposure to idealized images the amount of food consumed. Our results indicate that exposure to media-portrayed idealized images can lead to changes in eating behavior and highlight the complexity of the association between idealized image exposure and eating behavior. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for the prevention of dieting-related disorders. PMID:17056415

  5. Stereotypical portrayals of obesity and the expression of implicit weight bias.

    PubMed

    Hinman, Nova G; Burmeister, Jacob M; Kiefner, Allison E; Borushok, Jessica; Carels, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    The strength of implicit anti-fat attitudes may be related to visual portrayals of obesity and individuals' pre-existing explicit attitudes toward appearance and weight. Participants (N=117) completed measures of explicit weight bias, beliefs about weight controllability, orientation toward personal appearance, overweight preoccupation, and two Implicit Association Tests (IAT). One IAT measured implicit anti-fat attitudes when individuals with obesity were shown engaging in behaviors congruent with common stereotypes (e.g., eating snacks, watching television), while a second IAT measured attitudes in response to stereotypically incongruent images (e.g., preparing vegetables, exercising). Whereas implicit weight bias was evident for both IATs, the stereotype congruent IAT was significantly related to higher implicit weight bias, appearance orientation, and overweight preoccupation, and was marginally related to explicit anti-fat attitudes. The stereotypical portrayal of individuals with obesity was related to implicit anti-fat attitudes, which may have implications for the development, maintenance, and expression of stigmatizing anti-fat attitudes. PMID:25462879

  6. Risk.

    PubMed

    Cole, Stephen R; Hudgens, Michael G; Brookhart, M Alan; Westreich, Daniel

    2015-02-15

    The epidemiologist primarily studies transitions between states of health and disease. The purpose of the present article is to define a foundational parameter for such studies, namely risk. We begin simply and build to the setting in which there is more than 1 event type (i.e., competing risks or competing events), as well as more than 1 treatment or exposure level of interest. In the presence of competing events, the risks are a set of counterfactual cumulative incidence functions for each treatment. These risks can be depicted visually and summarized numerically. We use an example from the study of human immunodeficiency virus to illustrate concepts. PMID:25660080

  7. Dark matter candidates

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    One of the simplest, yet most profound, questions we can ask about the Universe is, how much stuff is in it, and further what is that stuff composed of. Needless to say, the answer to this question has very important implications for the evolution of the Universe, determining both the ultimate fate and the course of structure formation. Remarkably, at this late date in the history of the Universe we still do not have a definitive answer to this simplest of questions---although we have some very intriguing clues. It is known with certainty that most of the material in the Universe is dark, and we have the strong suspicion that the dominant component of material in the Cosmos is not baryons, but rather is exotic relic elementary particles left over from the earliest, very hot epoch of the Universe. If true, the Dark Matter question is a most fundamental one facing both particle physics and cosmology. The leading particle dark matter candidates are: the axion, the neutralino, and a light neutrino species. All three candidates are accessible to experimental tests, and experiments are now in progress. In addition, there are several dark horse, long shot, candidates, including the superheavy magnetic monopole and soliton stars. 13 refs.

  8. Sticks and stones can break my bones, but ethnophaulisms can alter the portrayal of immigrants to children.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Brian

    2004-02-01

    An archival study examined the portrayal of ethnic immigrants to children as a function of the prevailing cognitive representation of those ethnic immigrant groups in ethnophaulisms. The complexity in ethnophaulisms (and, to a lesser degree, the valence in ethnophaulisms) predicted the portrayal of ethnic immigrant groups. Overall, ethnic immigrant groups characterized in terms of ethnophaulisms of low complexity were less frequently present in children's literature, children from these ethnic groups were described more in terms of physical appearance than in terms of personal traits, fictional child characters from those ethnic groups were portrayed with smaller heads and with lower verbal complexity, and the folksongs attributed to these groups had a more negative affective tone. The implications of these results for approaches to intergroup relations are considered. PMID:15030637

  9. Gender Asymmetries Encountered in the Search and Exploration of Mining Engineering Program Web Sites: a Portrayal of Posture and Roles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banning, James H.; Sexton, Julie; Most, David E.; Maier, Shelby

    Photographs found in the search for and exploration of 13 university mining engineering department Web sites were studied for their asymmetries of power by analyzing the role (student, instructor, secretarial staff, miner, and honoree) and posture (sitting, standing) of men and women in the photographs. The Web site photographs showed a higher rate of women occupying student roles than men did. Women had a lower rate of occupying instructor and miner roles. No women were portrayed as being honored. Men exhibited a higher rate of occupying the standing posture than did women. Women were more often shown sitting than men were. Implications of portraying a nonequitable power structure between men and women in the search for and exploration of mining engineering Web sites are discussed, including a recommendation that all academic departments should examine the portrayal of gender on their Web sites.

  10. The Portrayal of the Medicean Moons in Early Astronomical Charts and Books

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendillo, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Galileo’s talents in perspective and chiaroscuro drawing led to his images of the Moon being accepted as the portrayal of a truly natural physical place. The Moon was seen as a world—real but separate from Earth. In contrast to his resolved views of the Moon, Galileo saw the moons of Jupiter as only points of light, and thus in Sidereus Nuncius they appear as star-symbols. Within 50 years, in Cellarius’ Atlas Coelestis seu Harmonia Macrocosmica (1660), the Medicean moons continue to appear in multiple charts as star-shaped symbols—in most cases equidistant from Jupiter. They appear in the Cellarius charts as updates to the cosmological systems of Copernicus and Tycho Brahe, but not in the charts devoted to the Ptolemaic system. A quarter century later, Mallet did not include the moons of Jupiter in his Copernican chart in Description de l’Universe (1683). Around 1690, in Jaillot’s Four Systems of Cosmology, the Medicean moons appear as circular symbols in four distinct concentric orbits around Jupiter. Additional examples appear in a later edition of Mallet ((1690s), and in De Fer (1705), Dopplemayer (1720), and still later in Buy de Mornas (1761). As objects discussed in scientific book, symbolic representations of the Medicean moons appear in Marius (1614), Descartes (1644), Fontana (1646) and Hevelius (1647). A pictorial survey of antiquarian charts and books depicting the Medicean moons will be the focus of this presentation. As telescope sizes increased, the Galilean moons could be seen as extended objects, and thus the transition occurred from portraying the moons as points of light to disks with physically-meaningful details. Initially, these were done via drawings of glimpses of the disks of the four moons during moments of extremely good seeing (termed “lucky images” in the pre-adaptive optics period). This era of portraying surface characteristics of Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto by hand-drawn images from naked-eye observations ended

  11. Portrayal of pheochromocytoma and normal human adrenal medulla by m-(123I)iodobenzylguanidine: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, M.D.; Shapiro, B.; Sisson, J.C.; Swanson, D.P.; Mangner, T.J.; Wieland, D.M.; Meyers, L.J.; Glowniak, J.V.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1984-04-01

    The radiopharmaceutical m-(131I)iodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG), which is readily taken up by adrenergic vesicles, produces scintigraphic images of pheochromocytomas in man but rarely visualizes normal adrenal glands. Iodine-123 has many potential advantages over I-131 as a radiolabel for MIBG, including shorter half-life, freedom from beta emissions, and increased gamma-camera efficiency. In this study, diagnostic doses of MIBG labeled with I-131 and I-123, with nearly equivalent radiation dosimetry, were compared as imaging agents in eight patients with known or suspected pheochromocytoma. Images of superior quality were obtained with I-123 MIBG, and lesions not visualized using I-131 MIBG were portrayed. In addition, the normal adrenal medullae were visualized on the I-123 MIBG scintigrams in six out of eight patients.

  12. What does it mean to be human?: Reflections on the portrayal of pain in interstellar messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    2011-02-01

    If there is any way that humankind is unique in the galaxy, perhaps it is insofar as on Earth, our joys and our pains are so exquisitely balanced. If pain is an obstacle that has been overcome by more advanced extraterrestrial civilizations long ago, then our descriptions of our suffering may significantly contribute to other civilizations' understanding of our species and our culture. By drawing on some of the same methods Freudenthal uses in Lincos to describe the physical universe, we can also provide detailed descriptions of our bodies. Portraying ourselves as embodied and vulnerable, we might provide outward signs of our inward distress. In addition, the link between the physical and the subjective experiences of pain provides a vehicle to address one of the greatest challenges of interstellar communication: explaining human subjectivity.

  13. The function of suffering as portrayed in the Scarlet Letter and reflected in clinical work.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Diane E

    2012-12-01

    Suffering is commonly seen as an unconscious effort to alleviate painful feelings of guilt. However, suffering also aims at averting loss of ego functions and hence loss of mental stability. This second function of suffering is discussed in the light of Freud's observations of characters wrecked by success and Weiss's ideas about mutual love as a threat to mental stability. Hawthorne's portrayal of Arthur Dimmesdale in The Scarlet Letter (1850), biographical material about the author, material from his diaries, and material from a psychotherapy case and an analysis illustrate the function of suffering to preserve mental stability in the face of heightened success and happiness. Hawthorne, it is argued, intuitively grasped this function of suffering in his novel. PMID:23042944

  14. The Internal-Candidate Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Dennis M.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author explains the complications involved when an internal candidate is included in an open search for a leadership position in an academic institution. Internal-candidate syndrome is a dilemma faced by institutions when they have to choose between an internal candidate and an external one. There are two reasons why…

  15. The Portrayal of "Foreigners" in Japanese Social Studies Textbooks: Self-Images of Mono-Ethnic Pluralism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsuneyoshi, Ryoko

    2007-01-01

    History and social studies textbooks have often been the object of heated political debate in various countries, since they relate directly to issues of national identity and citizenship. This article analyzes how "foreigners" are portrayed in two versions (the 2000 and 2006 versions, date of issue) of the best-selling elementary social studies…

  16. Viewing Peer-Reviewed Literature about the Community College: Portrayal of a Sector in Higher Education Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Barbara K.; Bragg, Debra; Kinnick, Mary

    To determine how community colleges are portrayed in academic journals, three core higher education journals and three community college journals were examined during the publication years 1990-2000. Information was sought about authorship, institutional affiliation, topics, research methods, and scope of empirical articles. Results indicated that…

  17. Media Portrayals of Love, Marriage & Sexuality for Child Audiences: A Select Content Analysis of Walt Disney Animated Family Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junn, Ellen N.

    This study examined the portrayal of love, marriage, and sexuality in 11 romantic and nonromantic Disney animated films. Results showed that four out of five of the nonromantic films had male leads, with males occupying significantly more screen time than females. Half of the romantic films had female leads, who occupied significantly more screen…

  18. First-Year Engineering Students' Portrayal of Engineering in a Proposed Museum Exhibit for Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mena, Irene B.; Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.

    2012-01-01

    Students' perceptions of engineering have been documented through studies involving interviews, surveys, and word associations that take a direct approach to asking students about various aspects of their understanding of engineering. Research on perceptions of engineering rarely focuses on how students would portray engineering to others.…

  19. The Effects of Positive Portrayals of Black Television Characters on Black Children's Racial Attitudes, Self-Perception, and Racial Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonvillain, Jocelyn F.; Huston, Aletha C.

    Children's perceptions and attitudes about racial groups are often affected by the information they receive from the view of their parents, their peers, their schools, and the mass media. A study was designed to examine the effects of positive portrayals of black television characters on black children's racial attitudes, self-perception, and…

  20. Sex-Role Stereotyping of Nurses and Physicians on Prime-Time Television: A Dichotomy of Occupational Portrayals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalisch, Philip A; Kalisch, Beatrice J.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of prime-time television portrayals of nurses and physicians (1950-80) shows extreme levels of both sexual and occupational stereotyping. TV nurses are 99 percent female; TV physicians are 95 percent male. The TV image of female professional nurses is of total dependence on and subservience to male physicians. (Author/CMG)

  1. Seniors and Portrayals of Intra-Generational and Inter-Generational Inequality in the "Globe and Mail"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozanova, Julia; Northcott, Herbert C.; McDaniel, Susan A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we examine how seniors are portrayed in the "Globe and Mail." Thirty articles published in 2004 were selected and thematically analysed. Seniors were discussed in six different contexts, including family, work/retirement, community networks, scientific studies of population, social and health care policy, and social attitudes to…

  2. Folk Dress, Fiestas, and Festivals: How Is Mexico Portrayed in U.S. Primary Grade Social Studies Textbooks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Sherry L.; Bauml, Michelle; Wilhelm, Ron W.; Jenkins, Joelle

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative content analysis was conducted to determine how Mexico and Mexican people are portrayed in contemporary U.S. elementary social studies textbooks. Three textbooks from each of three major publishers were analyzed. Findings are presented in five sections: images and photographs, holidays, Mexican people and heroes, contested…

  3. The Portrayal of African Americans and Hispanics at National Council for the Social Studies Annual Meetings, 1997-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Jesus; Madden, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the portrayal of African Americans and Latinos over a twelve-year time period (1997-2008) at National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) annual meetings. NCSS was selected because it is the largest organization responsible for social studies education in America's schools. Like U.S. history textbooks, the authors assumed…

  4. Deconstructing the Portrayals of Haitian Women in the Media: A Thematic Analysis of Images in the Associated Press Photo Archive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendon, Maria Jose; Nicolas, Guerda

    2012-01-01

    Haitian women constitute a group that is lauded within Haiti as the "pillar of society" and yet is also often silenced both within Haiti and abroad. Given the role of the media in shaping attitudes and behaviors toward Women of Color, evaluation of media portrayals is critical to challenge oppressive discourses about these groups. Therefore, in…

  5. Seeing the Same: A Follow-Up Study on the Portrayals of Disability in Graphic Novels Read by Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Marilyn; Moeller, Robin

    2012-01-01

    A 2010 study of the portrayal of disabilities in graphic novels selected by librarians as the "Best" revealed that disabilities were present in less than half of the sample, and the majority of those depictions were of negative stereotypes (Irwin and Moeller 2010). This follow-up study looked at a best seller list of graphic novels to answer the…

  6. Farmhands and Factory Workers, Honesty and Humility: The Portrayal of Social Class and Morals in English Language Learner Children's Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sano, Joelle

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: Although much research has evaluated children's books for depictions of gender, little has centered on the portrayal of immigrants and social class. This investigation utilizes Bourdieu's theory of capital reproduction in education, Durkheim's conception of collective conscience and morals, and Bowles and Gintis's critique of…

  7. Promotion of Waterpipe Tobacco Use, Its Variants and Accessories in Young Adult Newspapers: A Content Analysis of Message Portrayal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Kymberle L.; Fryer, Craig S.; Majeed, Ban; Duong, Melissa M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to identify waterpipe tobacco smoking advertisements and those that promoted a range of products and accessories used to smoke waterpipe tobacco. The content of these advertisements was analyzed to understand the messages portrayed about waterpipe tobacco smoking in young adult (aged 18-30) newspapers. The study…

  8. Candidate Assembly Statistical Evaluation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-07-15

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) receives aluminum clad spent Material Test Reactor (MTR) fuel from all over the world for storage and eventual reprocessing. There are hundreds of different kinds of MTR fuels and these fuels will continue to be received at SRS for approximately ten more years. SRS''s current criticality evaluation methodology requires the modeling of all MTR fuels utilizing Monte Carlo codes, which is extremely time consuming and resource intensive. Now that amore » significant number of MTR calculations have been conducted it is feasible to consider building statistical models that will provide reasonable estimations of MTR behavior. These statistical models can be incorporated into a standardized model homogenization spreadsheet package to provide analysts with a means of performing routine MTR fuel analyses with a minimal commitment of time and resources. This became the purpose for development of the Candidate Assembly Statistical Evaluation (CASE) program at SRS.« less

  9. Associating with Occupational Depictions: How African American College Women Are Influenced by the Portrayals of Women in Professional Careers on Television

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderlinden, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined ways portrayals of professional Black women on television influence the higher education and occupational choices of African American college women. The central research question of this study was: How do college age African American women make meaning of the portrayals of the people they see on television? Two analytic…

  10. Self-Control and the Effects of Movie Alcohol Portrayals on Immediate Alcohol Consumption in Male College Students

    PubMed Central

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In movies, alcohol-related cues are frequently depicted and there is evidence for a link between movie alcohol cues and immediate alcohol consumption. Less is known about factors influencing immediate effects movie alcohol exposure on drinking. The exertion of self-control is thought to be important in avoiding or resisting certain temptations. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of movie alcohol portrayals on drinking of male social drinkers and to assess the moderating role of self-control in this relation. It was hypothesized that participants would drink more when exposed to movie alcohol portrayals and that especially participants with low self-control would be affected by these portrayals. Methods: A between-subjects design comparing two movie conditions (alcohol or no portrayal of alcohol) was used, in which 154 pairs of male friends (ages 18–30) watched a 1-h movie in a semi-naturalistic living room setting. Their alcohol consumption while watching was examined. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing self-control as well as their self-reported weekly alcohol use. A multivariate regression analysis was conducted to test the effects of movie condition on alcohol comsumption. Results: Self-control moderated the relation between movie condition and alcohol consumption. Assignment to the alcohol movie condition increased alcohol consumption during the movie for males with high self-control but not for males with low self-control. Conclusion: Viewing a movie with alcohol portrayals can lead to higher alcohol consumption in a specific sample of young men while watching a movie. PMID:25691873

  11. Implications of the choice and configuration of hydrologic models on the portrayal of climate change impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, P. A.; Clark, M. P.; Rajagopalan, B.; Mizukami, N.; Gutmann, E. D.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change studies involve several methodological choices that impact the hydrological sensitivities obtained. Among these, hydrologic model structure selection and parameter identification are particularly relevant and usually have a strong subjective component. This subjectivity is not only limited to engineering applications, but also extends to many of our research studies, resulting in problems such as missing processes in our models, inappropriate parameterizations and compensatory effects of model parameters. The goal of this research is to identify the role of model structures and parameter values on the assessment of hydrologic sensitivity to climate change. We conduct our study in three basins located in the Colorado Headwaters Region, using four different hydrologic models (PRMS, VIC, Noah and Noah-MP). We first compare both model performance and climate sensitivities using default parameterizations and parameter values calibrated with the Shuffled Complex Evolution algorithm. Our results demonstrate that calibration doesn't necessarily improve the representation of hydrological processes or decrease inter-model differences in the change of signature measures of hydrologic behavior with respect to a future climate scenario. We found that inter-model differences in hydrologic sensitivities to climate change may be larger than the climate change signal even after models have been calibrated. Results demonstrate that both model choice (after calibration) and parameter selection have important effects in the portrayal of climate change impacts, and work is ongoing to identify more robust modeling strategies that explicitly account for the subjectivity in these choices. Location of the basins of interest Hydrological models used in this study

  12. Portraying the Contribution of Individual Behaviors to Team Cohesion and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parke, Bonny; Orasanu, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Behaviors of individuals in teams both contribute to and are molded by team dynamics. How they do so has been the subject of much research. A method of portraying individuals' behaviors in teams, the Team Diagramming Method (TDM) is presented. Behaviors are rated by other team members on three important dimensions: positivity/negativity, dominant/submissive, and task-orientedness/expressiveness. A study of 5-person teams engaging in a 3-day moon simulation task demonstrated that measures of these perceived behaviors as well as the variances of these behaviors correlated with cohesion measures and performance. The method shows strengths and weaknesses of particular teams and, by comparison with high-performing teams, suggests interventions based on individual as well as team behaviors. The primary goal of this study was to determine the extent to which these team level variables, derived from all team members' rated behaviors, were associated with previous methods of measuring cohesion and with performance. A secondary goal was to determine the stability of TDM measures over time by comparing team level variables based on ratings early and later in the team s work together.

  13. Rural print media portrayal of secondhand smoke and smoke-free policy.

    PubMed

    Helme, Donald W; Rayens, Mary Kay; Kercsmar, Sarah E; Adkins, Sarah M; Amundsen, Shelby J; Lee, Erin; Riker, Carol A; Hahn, Ellen J

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how the print media portrays secondhand smoke and smoke-free policy in rural communities. Baseline print media clips from an ongoing 5-year study of smoke-free policy development in 40 rural communities were analyzed. The authors hypothesized that community population size would be positively associated with media favorability toward smoke-free policy. Conversely, pounds of tobacco produced and adult smoking prevalence would be negatively associated with media favorability. There was a positive correlation between population size and percentage of articles favorable toward smoke-free policy. The authors did not find a correlation between adult smoking or tobacco produced and media favorability toward smoke-free policy, but we did find a positive relationship between tobacco produced and percentage of pro-tobacco articles and a negative relationship between adult smoking prevalence and percentage of articles about health/comfort. Implications for targeting pro-health media in rural communities as well as policy-based initiatives for tobacco control are discussed. PMID:21460255

  14. Impulsivity moderates the effects of movie alcohol portrayals on adolescents' willingness to drink.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Frederick X; Kingsbury, John H; Wills, Thomas A; Finneran, Stephanie D; Dal Cin, Sonya; Gerrard, Meg

    2016-05-01

    This study examined impulsivity as a moderator of adolescents' reactions to positive versus negative portrayals of drinking in American movie clips. Impulsivity, along with willingness and intentions to drink in the future, were assessed in a pretest session. In the experimental sessions, adolescents viewed a series of clips that showed drinking associated with either positive outcomes (e.g., social facilitation) or negative outcomes (fights, arguments). A third group viewed clips with similar positive or negative outcomes, but no alcohol consumption. All participants then responded to an implicit measure of attentional bias regarding alcohol (a dot probe), followed by explicit alcohol measures (self-reports of willingness and intentions to drink). Hypotheses, based on dual-processing theories, were: (a) high-impulsive adolescents would respond more favorably than low-impulsive adolescents to the positive clips, but not the negative clips; and (b) this difference in reactions to the positive clips would be larger on the willingness than the intention measures. Results supported the hypotheses: Adolescents high in impulsivity reported the highest willingness to drink in the positive-clip condition, but were slightly less willing than others in the negative-clip condition. In addition, results on the dot probe task indicated that RTs to alcohol words were negatively correlated with changes in alcohol willingness, but not intention; that is, the faster their response to the alcohol words, the more their willingness increased. The results highlight the utility of a dual-processing perspective on media influence. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27099959

  15. Rural Print Media Portrayal of Secondhand Smoke and Smoke-Free Policy

    PubMed Central

    Helme, Donald W.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Kercsmar, Sarah E.; Adkins, Sarah M.; Amundsen, Shelby J.; Lee, Erin; Riker, Carol A.; Hahn, Ellen J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe how the print media portrays secondhand smoke and smoke-free policy in rural communities. Baseline print media clips from an ongoing 5-year study of smoke-free policy development in 40 rural communities were analyzed. We hypothesized that community population size would be positively associated with media favorability toward smoke-free policy. Conversely, pounds of tobacco produced and adult smoking prevalence would be negatively associated with media favorability icy. There was a positive correlation between population size and percent of articles favorable toward smoke-free policy. We did not find a correlation between adult smoking or tobacco produced and media favorability toward smoke-free policy, but we did find a positive relationship between tobacco produced and percent pro-tobacco articles and a negative relationship between adult smoking prevalence and percent of articles about health/comfort. Implications for targeting pro-health media in rural communities as well as policy-based initiatives for tobacco control are discussed. PMID:21460255

  16. 2009 Elections: The Candidates Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the candidates for the 2009 Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) election and their statements. The candidates are: (1) Andy Gibbons (President-Elect); (2) Barbara B. Lockee (President-Elect); (3) Mary Jean Bishop (At-Large Representative); and (4) Deepak Subramony (At-Large Representative). In…

  17. Out of the dissecting room: news media portrayal of human anatomy teaching and research.

    PubMed

    Regan de Bere, Sam; Petersen, Alan

    2006-07-01

    Radical changes in medical research and education have recently led to a number of innovative developments in terms of how human anatomy is represented and understood. New ways of introducing medical students to anatomy (including living anatomies and virtual simulations) have provoked widespread debate, with discussion of their relative merits compared to more traditional approaches that use cadaveric dissection. Outside the field of medicine, in the wider public sphere, the practice of anatomical study may often seem mysterious. The dissemination of news on anatomy, we contend, is central to the question of how medical researchers and educators engage with the public. Our analysis of news media coverage in the UK demonstrates that news-making, by giving prominence to certain facts, themes and images, serves to mask issues about anatomy and its practices that need debate. We examine the ways in which news media, through processes of selection and the 'framing' of issues, may perform an agenda-setting role. We draw attention to the use of positive 'awe and amazement' frames including 'miracles of modern science', 'medical heroes', and 'gifts of life', alongside more negative 'guts and gore' coverage including 'Frankenstein', 'Brave New World' and 'Rape of the Body' frames that concentrate on high profile scandals associated with the use and misuse of human bodies, tissues and parts. We also highlight the selective use of commentaries from members of the medical profession, which are more prevalent in positive 'awe and amazement' stories than in stories with negative coverage. We conclude by arguing for greater collaboration between journalists on the one hand, and medical educators and researchers on the other, in the making of news in order to provide portrayals of anatomy which bear a closer relationship to the everyday reality of professional work. PMID:16476515

  18. Giving Boys a Shot: The HPV Vaccine's Portrayal in Canadian Newspapers.

    PubMed

    Perez, Samara; Fedoruk, Claire; Shapiro, Gilla K; Rosberger, Zeev

    2016-12-01

    In January 2012, the National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) of Canada recommended that males aged 9-26 years receive the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to protect against genital warts and HPV-associated cancers. Estimated HPV vaccine uptake rates for Canadian males are extremely low. Using a content analysis of Canadian newspaper articles, this study investigated what information about the HPV vaccine was relayed to the public, and how this content was portrayed following the 2012 male HPV vaccine recommendation. A search was conducted using Proquest Canadian Newsstand Complete for newspaper articles published between January 1, 2012, and September 1, 2014. Researchers coded 232 articles on several relevant dimensions: article information; epidemiological information; public policy information; article topic; article and title tone; and informant testimony. The majority of articles (93%) mentioned that girls are eligible for the HPV vaccine, whereas only half (49%) mentioned male eligibility. While most articles associated HPV with cervical cancer (85%), fewer indicated its relation to other HPV-associated cancers (59%) or genital warts (52%). Most articles (60%) were positive or neutral (22%) in tone toward the HPV vaccine, while few had mixed messages (11%) or were negative (6%). Less than 5% of articles reported on issues of morality, suggesting that fears that the HPV vaccine causes promiscuity have largely subsided. Notably, article tone toward male vaccination became progressively more positive over time. However, half of the articles did not mention the vaccine's approval for males, and articles tended to report HPV's relation to cervical cancer over other HPV-associated cancers. The Canadian public may thus be unaware of male eligibility and the importance of HPV vaccine for males. The collaboration of researchers, health care providers, and policymakers with journalists is critical in order to disseminate complete and accurate HPV and HPV

  19. [Michał Kazimierz Radziwiłł (1702-1762) - a psychological portrayal].

    PubMed

    Zuba, Krzysztof

    2002-01-01

    This treatise, a psycho-physical portrayal of M. K. Radziwiłł "Rybeńko", is divided into three subject areas. The first describes his health, the second examines the dominant factors affecting his physical condition, and the third discusses his dominant personality and character traits. All the afflictions and illnesses which M. K. Radzwiłł suffered in his lifetime have been divided into incidental illnesses (e.g. infections of and conditions affecting the upper airways), and chronic diseases. Between 1720 and 1762, "Rybeńko" contracted 65 illnesses which may be diagnosed as infections of the airways. e.g. influenza and angina. He died as a result of complications from a cold contracted earlier. Radziwiłł was also tormented with chronic diseases, whose symptoms he described in a diary which survives to this day, and in correspondence which is kept at the Main Archives for Old Files. Radziwiłł was a man of average intellect, an egocentric and a snob, at the same time as which he was single-minded and magnanimous. Nevertheless, in fundamental issues he was capable of being resolute. He was fervently religious, generally cheerful, fond of entertainment and keen on hunting. As a hetman, "Rybeńko" was a parody of a military leader, with no talent whatsover. At the same time he was an honest and principle-minded figure to such a degree that he was an exception to the generally corrupt and morally abject elites of Poland in the 18th century. PMID:12938690

  20. Neighborhood and Family Environment of Expectans Mothers May Influence Prenatal Programming of Adult Cancer Risk: Discussion and an Illustrative DNA Methylation Example

    EPA Science Inventory

    Childhood stressors including physical abuse predict adult cancer risk. Prior research portrays this finding as an indirect mechanism that operates through coping behaviors, including adult smoking, or through increased toxic exposures during childhood. Little is known about pote...

  1. Genetic markers: Potential candidates for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Rather, Riyaz Ahmad; Dhawan, Veena

    2016-10-01

    The effective prevention of cardiovascular disease depends upon the ability to recognize the high-risk individuals at an early stage of the disease or long before the development of adverse events. Evolving technologies in the fields of proteomics, metabolomics, and genomics have played a significant role in the discovery of cardiovascular biomarkers, but so far these methods have achieved the modest success. Hence, there is a crucial need for more reliable, suitable, and lasting diagnostic and therapeutic markers to screen the disease well in time to start the clinical aid to the patients. Gene polymorphisms associated with the cardiovascular disease play a decisive role in the disease onset. Therefore, the genetic marker evaluation to classify high-risk patients from low-risk patients trends an effective approach to patient management and care. Currently, there are no genetic markers available for extensive adoption as risk factors for coronary vascular disease, yet, there are numerous promising, biologically acceptable candidates. Many of these gene biomarkers, alone or in combination, can play an essential role in the prediction of cardiovascular risk. The present review highlights some putative emerging genetic biomarkers that could facilitate more authentic and fast diagnosis of CVD. This review also briefly describes few technological approaches employed in the biomarker search. PMID:27416153

  2. IBD Candidate Genes and Intestinal Barrier Regulation

    PubMed Central

    McCole, Declan F.

    2015-01-01

    Technological advances in the large scale analysis of human genetics have generated profound insights into possible genetic contributions to chronic diseases including the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. To date, 163 distinct genetic risk loci have been associated with either Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis, with a substantial degree of genetic overlap between these 2 conditions. Although many risk variants show a reproducible correlation with disease, individual gene associations only affect a subset of patients, and the functional contribution(s) of these risk variants to the onset of IBD is largely undetermined. Although studies in twins have demonstrated that the development of IBD is not mediated solely by genetic risk, it is nevertheless important to elucidate the functional consequences of risk variants for gene function in relevant cell types known to regulate key physiological processes that are compromised in IBD. This article will discuss IBD candidate genes that are known to be, or are suspected of being, involved in regulating the intestinal epithelial barrier and several of the physiological processes presided over by this dynamic and versatile layer of cells. This will include assembly and regulation of tight junctions, cell adhesion and polarity, mucus and glycoprotein regulation, bacterial sensing, membrane transport, epithelial differentiation, and restitution. PMID:25215613

  3. National Newspaper Portrayal of U.S. Nursing Homes: Periodic Treatment of Topic and Tone

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Edward Alan; Tyler, Denise A; Rozanova, Julia; Mor, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Context Although observers have long highlighted the relationship of public distrust, government regulation, and media depictions of nursing-home scandals, no study has systematically analyzed the way in which nursing homes have been portrayed in the national media. This study examines how nursing homes were depicted in four leading national newspapers—the New York Times, Washington Post, Chicago Tribune, and Los Angeles Times—from 1999 to 2008. Methods We used keyword searches of the LexisNexis database to identify 1,704 articles pertaining to nursing homes. We then analyzed the content of each article and assessed its tone, themes, prominence, and central actor. We used basic frequencies and descriptive statistics to examine the articles’ content, both cross-sectionally and over time. Findings Approximately one-third of the articles were published in 1999/2000, and a comparatively high percentage (12.4%) appeared in 2005. Most were news stories (89.8%), and about one-quarter were on the front page of the newspaper or section. Most focused on government (42.3%) or industry (39.2%) interests, with very few on residents/family (13.3%) and community (5.3%) concerns. Most were negative (45.1%) or neutral (37.0%) in tone, and very few were positive (9.6%) or mixed (8.3%). Common themes were quality (57.0%), financing (33.4%), and negligence/fraud (28.1%). Both tone and themes varied across newspapers and years. Conclusions Overall, our findings highlight the longitudinal variation in the four widely read newspapers’ framing of nursing-home coverage, regarding not only tone but also shifts in media attention from one aspect of this complex policy area to another. The predominantly negative media reports contribute to the poor public opinion of nursing homes and, in turn, of the people who live and work in them. These reports also place nursing homes at a competitive disadvantage and may pose challenges to health delivery reform, including care integration across

  4. Evaluation of a candidate breast cancer associated SNP in ERCC4 as a risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/BRCA2 (CIMBA)

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, A; Milne, R L; Pita, G; Peterlongo, P; Heikkinen, T; Simard, J; Chenevix-Trench, G; Spurdle, A B; Beesley, J; Chen, X; Healey, S; Neuhausen, S L; Ding, Y C; Couch, F J; Wang, X; Lindor, N; Manoukian, S; Barile, M; Viel, A; Tizzoni, L; Szabo, C I; Foretova, L; Zikan, M; Claes, K; Greene, M H; Mai, P; Rennert, G; Lejbkowicz, F; Barnett-Griness, O; Andrulis, I L; Ozcelik, H; Weerasooriya, N; Gerdes, A-M; Thomassen, M; Cruger, D G; Caligo, M A; Friedman, E; Kaufman, B; Laitman, Y; Cohen, S; Kontorovich, T; Gershoni-Baruch, R; Dagan, E; Jernström, H; Askmalm, M S; Arver, B; Malmer, B; Domchek, S M; Nathanson, K L; Brunet, J; Ramón y Cajal, T; Yannoukakos, D; Hamann, U; Hogervorst, F B L; Verhoef, S; García, EB Gómez; Wijnen, J T; van den Ouweland, A; Easton, D F; Peock, S; Cook, M; Oliver, C T; Frost, D; Luccarini, C; Evans, D G; Lalloo, F; Eeles, R; Pichert, G; Cook, J; Hodgson, S; Morrison, P J; Douglas, F; Godwin, A K; Sinilnikova, O M; Barjhoux, L; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D; Moncoutier, V; Giraud, S; Cassini, C; Olivier-Faivre, L; Révillion, F; Peyrat, J-P; Muller, D; Fricker, J-P; Lynch, H T; John, E M; Buys, S; Daly, M; Hopper, J L; Terry, M B; Miron, A; Yassin, Y; Goldgar, D; Singer, C F; Gschwantler-Kaulich, D; Pfeiler, G; Spiess, A-C; Hansen, Thomas v O; Johannsson, O T; Kirchhoff, T; Offit, K; Kosarin, K; Piedmonte, M; Rodriguez, G C; Wakeley, K; Boggess, J F; Basil, J; Schwartz, P E; Blank, S V; Toland, A E; Montagna, M; Casella, C; Imyanitov, E N; Allavena, A; Schmutzler, R K; Versmold, B; Engel, C; Meindl, A; Ditsch, N; Arnold, N; Niederacher, D; Deißler, H; Fiebig, B; Varon-Mateeva, R; Schaefer, D; Froster, U G; Caldes, T; de la Hoya, M; McGuffog, L; Antoniou, A C; Nevanlinna, H; Radice, P; Benítez, J

    2009-01-01

    Background: In this study we aimed to evaluate the role of a SNP in intron 1 of the ERCC4 gene (rs744154), previously reported to be associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in the general population, as a breast cancer risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Methods: We have genotyped rs744154 in 9408 BRCA1 and 5632 BRCA2 mutation carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) and assessed its association with breast cancer risk using a retrospective weighted cohort approach. Results: We found no evidence of association with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 (per-allele HR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.93–1.04, P=0.5) or BRCA2 (per-allele HR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.89–1.06, P=0.5) mutation carriers. Conclusion: This SNP is not a significant modifier of breast cancer risk for mutation carriers, though weak associations cannot be ruled out. PMID:19920816

  5. Women and mass media: a critical and analytical study of the portrayal of Sudanese women in printed media.

    PubMed

    Badri, A E; Osama, S

    1995-06-01

    This study examines how Sudanese women are portrayed in the mass media. Data are obtained from a content analysis of historical records of Sudanese daily newspapers and women's magazines and from surveys among female editors in print media. The following types of newspapers are reviewed: independent newspapers; papers for the Al-Umma Party, a communist party, a Bathist party, a Muslim Nationalist Islamic Front Party, and a National Union Democratic Party; and a current military government paper. Women's magazines are published by women. Articles focus on women as the main newsmakers, women's life issues, female authors, a female focus but a male author, and famous Sudanese women. 16 content themes are identified. Women were not extensively featured or photographed in either newspapers or magazines. The Al-Umma Party paper and Al-Sudan Al-Hadith paper (an independent paper) were the only two newspapers with at least 10 photos of women. Women were pictured as professionals, educated persons, and leaders. There were 17 female editors. These editors preferred an image of women as leaders, followed by productive workers. Only 11.76% believed that women's dual roles as producers and reproducers should be portrayed. Female editors did not want a special women's page. 52.94% (the largest percentage) preferred targeting women with substantial leadership abilities. 17.65% desired the portrayal of women as workers and housewives. 58.82% did not think that the mass media image changed behavior or attitudes, because most Sudanese women are illiterate. Women's issues in both newspapers and women's magazines were devoted to women's work, achievements, and needs. The authors recommend removal of obstacles to women's equal participation in the mass media and press and research on the effect of media images on women's self-perception and behavior. PMID:12348032

  6. 76 FR 4896 - Call for Candidates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION: Notice... Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board (FASAB) is currently seeking candidates (candidates must...

  7. Quasar candidates near 1057 + 01

    SciTech Connect

    Crampton, D.; Cartledge, S.; Cowley, A.P.; Hartwick, F.D.A. Arizona State Univ., Tempe Victoria Univ. )

    1991-04-01

    Positions and magnitudes are given for 143 quasar candidates and three white dwarf candidates discovered with the CFHT blue grens in a 2.7 square degree area in the direction 1057 + 01. The goal of this survey is to provide complete samples of quasars to study the large scale distribution of matter at moderate to high (z less than 3.4) redshifts. Part of the region surveyed in this paper was previously studied by Crampton and Parmar (1983), allowing a comparison of the search and measurements accuracies. Redshifts, derived from MMT spectroscopy, for 27 of the candidates are also presented. One quasar, 1058.1 + 0052, displays strong broad absorption lines characteristic of BAL quasars. 5 refs.

  8. Preoperative cardiovascular investigations in liver transplant candidate: An update

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Lalit; Srivastava, Piyush; Pandey, Chandra Kant; Jha, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) undergoing liver transplantation. Identifying candidates at the highest risk of postoperative cardiovascular complications is the cornerstone for optimizing the outcome. Ischaemic heart disease contributes to major portion of cardiovascular complications and therefore warrants evaluation in the preoperative period. Patients of ESLD usually demonstrate increased cardiac output, compromised ventricular response to stress, low systemic vascular resistance and occasionally bradycardia. Despite various recommendations for preoperative evaluation of cardiovascular disease in liver transplant candidates, a considerable controversy on screening methodology persists. This review critically focuses on the rapidly expanding body of evidence for diagnosis and risk stratification of cardiovascular disorder in liver transplant candidates. PMID:26962249

  9. Who speaks for the climate now? Exploring portrayals of climate change through new/social media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boykoff, M. T.

    2011-12-01

    Mass media stitch together formal science and policy with everyday activities in the public sphere. Many dynamic, contested and complex factors, along with non-nation state actors (or 'debate shapers'), contribute to how media outlets portray various facets of climate change. Against this backdrop, new and social media have become increasingly influential. The Pew Center Project for Excellence in Journalism has found that topics involving global warming have earned a much greater share of the news hole in new and social media (Internet weblogs, Twitter) than in traditional outlets (television, newspapers, radio), relative to other stories in those same media. This may be due in part to the flexibility and potentially infinite nature of the 'news hole' in new and social media, but may also mark the trends of diminishing traditional news room capabilities. Overall, new and social media have increasingly been harnessed in a variety of ways for communications about climate change around the world. However, with these shifts and developments come numerous questions. Among them: does increased visibility of climate change in new/social media translate to improved communication, or just more noise? Do these spaces provide opportunities for new forms of deliberative community regarding questions of climate mitigation and adaptation? Or has the content of this increased coverage shifted to polemics and arguments over measured traditional media analysis? In this more open space of content production, do new/social media provide more space for contrarian views to circulate? And through its interactivity, does increased consumption of news through new/social media further fragment a public discourse on climate mitigation and adaptation, through information silos where members of the public can stick to sources that help support their already held views? As new and social media representations of climate change demonstrate, the boundaries between who constitute 'authorized

  10. First-Year Engineering Students' Portrayal of Engineering in a Proposed Museum Exhibit for Middle School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mena, Irene B.; Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.

    2011-06-01

    Students' perceptions of engineering have been documented through studies involving interviews, surveys, and word associations that take a direct approach to asking students about various aspects of their understanding of engineering. Research on perceptions of engineering rarely focuses on how students would portray engineering to others. First-year engineering student teams proposed a museum exhibit, targeted to middle school students, to explore the question "What is engineering?" The proposals took the form of a poster. The overarching research question focuses on how these students would portray engineering to middle school students as seen through their museum exhibit proposals. A preliminary analysis was done on 357 posters to determine the overall engineering themes for the proposed museum exhibits. Forty of these posters were selected and, using open coding, more thoroughly analyzed to learn what artifacts/objects, concepts, and skills student teams associate with engineering. These posters were also analyzed to determine if there were any differences by gender composition of the student teams. Building, designing, and teamwork are skills the first-year engineering students link to engineering. Regarding artifacts, students mentioned those related to transportation and structures most often. All-male teams were more likely to focus on the idea of space and to mention teamwork and designing as engineering skills; equal-gender teams were more likely to focus on the multidisciplinary aspect of engineering. This analysis of student teams' proposals provides baseline data, positioning instructors to develop and assess instructional interventions that stretch students' self-exploration of engineering.

  11. Does the way concussion is portrayed affect public awareness of appropriate concussion management: the case of rugby league.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Tracey L; McKinlay, Audrey

    2011-09-01

    It is important to identify factors that might adversely affect appropriate medical consultation and management of concussion. One factor that might present a barrier to timely intervention is media portrayal of concussion in sporting events, such as professional rugby league. Accordingly, the current study employed a surveillance method of publicly available broadcast information to establish the incidence rate of probable concussion in the National Rugby League's Telstra Premiership 2010 season and examined how these injury events were shown to be managed with respect to return-to-play procedures. The incident rate for probable concussion was higher than previously reported: 11.10\\1000 player hours (95% CI 5.78 to 16.40) and was likely underestimated. Importantly, most injured players were shown to continue playing or return to play despite being visibly concussed and described as such by the commentary team. Although 'return-to-play decisions' for professional players are guided by medical assessment, the authors discuss whether the way concussion is portrayed might affect public awareness of appropriate concussion management. PMID:21540191

  12. The stigmatizing effect of visual media portrayals of obese persons on public attitudes: does race or gender matter?

    PubMed

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Luedicke, Joerg; Heuer, Chelsea A

    2013-01-01

    Overweight and obese persons are frequently stigmatized in news media. The present study is the first to systematically compare public reactions to positive and negative images of obese persons accompanying news reports on obesity (while manipulating gender and race of the target)and their effects on generalized attitudes and social distance toward obese persons. The authors conducted 3 randomized experimental studies using online surveys to assess public perceptions of positive versus stereotypical images of obese adults (who varied by gender and race) accompanying a neutral news report about obesity. The sample included 1,251 adults, who were recruited through a national survey panel during May of 2010. Participants who viewed negative, stereotypical images of obese targets increased social distance, antifat attitudes, and ratings of laziness and dislike toward obese persons, whereas positive, nonstereotypical images induced more positive attitudes. These findings remained consistent when accounting for sociodemographic variables. African American female obese targets portrayed in images evoked higher ratings of dislike and social distance compared with Caucasian targets, but ratings were similar for male and female targets. This study provides evidence that images of obese person accompanying written media influence public attitudes toward obese people, and may reinforce weight stigmatization if images contain stereotypical portrayals of obese persons. Implications for efforts to report about obesity in the news media are discussed. PMID:23577702

  13. Candidate cave entrances on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cushing, Glen E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents newly discovered candidate cave entrances into Martian near-surface lava tubes, volcano-tectonic fracture systems, and pit craters and describes their characteristics and exploration possibilities. These candidates are all collapse features that occur either intermittently along laterally continuous trench-like depressions or in the floors of sheer-walled atypical pit craters. As viewed from orbit, locations of most candidates are visibly consistent with known terrestrial features such as tube-fed lava flows, volcano-tectonic fractures, and pit craters, each of which forms by mechanisms that can produce caves. Although we cannot determine subsurface extents of the Martian features discussed here, some may continue unimpeded for many kilometers if terrestrial examples are indeed analogous. The features presented here were identified in images acquired by the Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System visible-wavelength camera, and by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Context Camera. Select candidates have since been targeted by the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment. Martian caves are promising potential sites for future human habitation and astrobiology investigations; understanding their characteristics is critical for long-term mission planning and for developing the necessary exploration technologies.

  14. Interviewing Teacher-Librarian Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yucht, Alice

    2004-01-01

    When recently asked by an administrator for some realistic questions and "recommended" responses to expect while interviewing candidates for school library positions, the author grouped the questions into three categories: library management, information skills and teaching skills. In this article are the questions she suggested, along with topics…

  15. Candidate gene prioritization with Endeavour.

    PubMed

    Tranchevent, Léon-Charles; Ardeshirdavani, Amin; ElShal, Sarah; Alcaide, Daniel; Aerts, Jan; Auboeuf, Didier; Moreau, Yves

    2016-07-01

    Genomic studies and high-throughput experiments often produce large lists of candidate genes among which only a small fraction are truly relevant to the disease, phenotype or biological process of interest. Gene prioritization tackles this problem by ranking candidate genes by profiling candidates across multiple genomic data sources and integrating this heterogeneous information into a global ranking. We describe an extended version of our gene prioritization method, Endeavour, now available for six species and integrating 75 data sources. The performance (Area Under the Curve) of Endeavour on cross-validation benchmarks using 'gold standard' gene sets varies from 88% (for human phenotypes) to 95% (for worm gene function). In addition, we have also validated our approach using a time-stamped benchmark derived from the Human Phenotype Ontology, which provides a setting close to prospective validation. With this benchmark, using 3854 novel gene-phenotype associations, we observe a performance of 82%. Altogether, our results indicate that this extended version of Endeavour efficiently prioritizes candidate genes. The Endeavour web server is freely available at https://endeavour.esat.kuleuven.be/. PMID:27131783

  16. Candidate Exercise Technologies and Prescriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loerch, Linda H.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews potential exercise technologies to counter the effects of space flight. It includes a overview of the exercise countermeasures project, a review of some of the candidate exercise technologies being considered and a few of the analog exercise hardware devices, and a review of new studies that are designed to optimize the current and future exercise protocols.

  17. Empathy Development in Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    Using a grounded theory research design, the author examined 180 reflective essays of teacher candidates who participated in a "Learning Process Project," in which they were asked to synthesize and document their discoveries about the learning process over the course of a completely new learning experience as naive learners. This study explored…

  18. SAO RAS SN candidates classifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatkhullin, T. A.; Moskvitin, A. S.

    2016-08-01

    We observed SN candidates (AT 2016eow, AT 2016enu and AT 2016enf) with the BTA/Scorpio-I on August, 4. Direct images in the R band and long-slit spectra in the range of 3600-7600AA (resolution FWHM = 10A) were obtained.

  19. Effects of Interpretations of Televised Alcohol Portrayals on Children's Alcohol Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Erica Weintraub; Meili, Heidi Kay

    1994-01-01

    Discusses a model of television interpretation processes regarding the influences of alcohol advertising and describes a study that tested the model with preadolescent at-risk students. Highlights include perceptions of alcohol use at home and on television; social norms; perceived realism of commercials; and intent to drink. (41 references) (LRW)

  20. CHIMERIC ALPHAVIRUS VACCINE CANDIDATES FOR CHIKUNGUNYA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Eryu; Volkova, Eugenia; Adams, A. Paige; Forrester, Naomi; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Frolov, Ilya; Weaver, Scott C.

    2008-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging alphavirus that has caused major epidemics in India and islands off the east coast of Africa since 2005. Importations into Europe and the Americas, including one that led to epidemic transmission in Italy during 2007, underscore the risk of endemic establishment elsewhere. Because there is no licensed human vaccine, and an attenuated Investigational New Drug product developed by the U.S. Army causes mild arthritis in some vaccinees, we developed chimeric alphavirus vaccine candidates using either Venezuelan equine encephalitis attenuated vaccine strain TC-83, a naturally attenuated strain of eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), or Sindbis virus as a backbone and the structural protein genes of CHIKV. All vaccine candidates replicated efficiently in cell cultures, and were highly attenuated in mice. All of the chimeras also produced robust neutralizing antibody responses, although the TC-83 and EEEV backbones appeared to offer greater immunogenicity. Vaccinated mice were fully protected against disease and viremia after CHIKV challenge. PMID:18692107

  1. Nonclinical Development of BCG Replacement Vaccine Candidates.

    PubMed

    Velmurugan, Kamalakannan; Grode, Leander; Chang, Rosemary; Fitzpatrick, Megan; Laddy, Dominick; Hokey, David; Derrick, Steven; Morris, Sheldon; McCown, David; Kidd, Reginald; Gengenbacher, Martin; Eisele, Bernd; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Fulkerson, John; Brennan, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    The failure of current Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines, given to neonates to protect against adult tuberculosis and the risk of using these live vaccines in HIV-infected infants, has emphasized the need for generating new, more efficacious and safer replacement vaccines. With the availability of genetic techniques for constructing recombinant BCG (rBCG) strains containing well-defined gene deletions or insertions, new vaccine candidates are under evaluation at both the preclinical and clinical stages of development. Since most BCG vaccines in use today were evaluated in clinical trials decades ago and are produced by outdated processes, the development of new BCG vaccines offers a number of advantages that include a modern well-defined manufacturing process along with state-of-the-art evaluation of safety and efficacy in target populations. We provide a description of the preclinical development of two novel rBCGs, VPM1002 that was constructed by adding a modified hly gene coding for the protein listeriolysin O (LLO) from Listeria monocytogenes and AERAS-422, which carries a modified pfoA gene coding for the protein perfringolysin O (PFO) from Clostridium perfringens, and three genes from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Novel approaches like these should be helpful in generating stable and effective rBCG vaccine candidates that can be better characterized than traditional BCG vaccines. PMID:26343962

  2. Surgical evaluation of candidates for cochlear implants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, F. O.; Lilly, D. J.; Fowler, L. P.; Stypulkowski, P. H.

    1987-01-01

    The customary presentation of surgical procedures to patients in the United States consists of discussions on alternative treatment methods, risks of the procedure(s) under consideration, and potential benefits for the patient. Because the contents of the normal speech signal have not been defined in a way that permits a surgeon systematically to provide alternative auditory signals to a deaf patient, the burden is placed on the surgeon to make an arbitrary selection of candidates and available devices for cochlear prosthetic implantation. In an attempt to obtain some information regarding the ability of a deaf patient to use electrical signals to detect and understand speech, the Good Samaritan Hospital and Neurological Sciences Institute cochlear implant team has routinely performed tympanotomies using local anesthesia and has positioned temporary electrodes onto the round windows of implant candidates. The purpose of this paper is to review our experience with this procedure and to provide some observations that may be useful in a comprehensive preoperative evaluation for totally deaf patients who are being considered for cochlear implantation.

  3. Nonclinical Development of BCG Replacement Vaccine Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Velmurugan, Kamalakannan; Grode, Leander; Chang, Rosemary; Fitzpatrick, Megan; Laddy, Dominick; Hokey, David; Derrick, Steven; Morris, Sheldon; McCown, David; Kidd, Reginald; Gengenbacher, Martin; Eisele, Bernd; Kaufmann, Stefan H.E.; Fulkerson, John; Brennan, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The failure of current Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccines, given to neonates to protect against adult tuberculosis and the risk of using these live vaccines in HIV-infected infants, has emphasized the need for generating new, more efficacious and safer replacement vaccines. With the availability of genetic techniques for constructing recombinant BCG (rBCG) strains containing well-defined gene deletions or insertions, new vaccine candidates are under evaluation at both the preclinical and clinical stages of development. Since most BCG vaccines in use today were evaluated in clinical trials decades ago and are produced by outdated processes, the development of new BCG vaccines offers a number of advantages that include a modern well-defined manufacturing process along with state-of-the-art evaluation of safety and efficacy in target populations. We provide a description of the preclinical development of two novel rBCGs, VPM1002 that was constructed by adding a modified hly gene coding for the protein listeriolysin O (LLO) from Listeria monocytogenes and AERAS-422, which carries a modified pfoA gene coding for the protein perfringolysin O (PFO) from Clostridium perfringens, and three genes from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Novel approaches like these should be helpful in generating stable and effective rBCG vaccine candidates that can be better characterized than traditional BCG vaccines. PMID:26343962

  4. Advanced vaccine candidates for Lassa fever.

    PubMed

    Lukashevich, Igor S

    2012-11-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is the most prominent human pathogen of the Arenaviridae. The virus is transmitted to humans by a rodent reservoir, Mastomys natalensis, and is capable of causing lethal Lassa Fever (LF). LASV has the highest human impact of any of the viral hemorrhagic fevers (with the exception of Dengue Fever) with an estimated several hundred thousand infections annually, resulting in thousands of deaths in Western Africa. The sizeable disease burden, numerous imported cases of LF in non-endemic countries, and the possibility that LASV can be used as an agent of biological warfare make a strong case for vaccine development. Presently there is no licensed vaccine against LF or approved treatment. Recently, several promising vaccine candidates have been developed which can potentially target different groups at risk. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the LASV pathogenesis and immune mechanisms involved in protection. The current status of pre-clinical development of the advanced vaccine candidates that have been tested in non-human primates will be discussed. Major scientific, manufacturing, and regulatory challenges will also be considered. PMID:23202493

  5. Advanced Vaccine Candidates for Lassa Fever

    PubMed Central

    Lukashevich, Igor S.

    2012-01-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is the most prominent human pathogen of the Arenaviridae. The virus is transmitted to humans by a rodent reservoir, Mastomys natalensis, and is capable of causing lethal Lassa Fever (LF). LASV has the highest human impact of any of the viral hemorrhagic fevers (with the exception of Dengue Fever) with an estimated several hundred thousand infections annually, resulting in thousands of deaths in Western Africa. The sizeable disease burden, numerous imported cases of LF in non-endemic countries, and the possibility that LASV can be used as an agent of biological warfare make a strong case for vaccine development. Presently there is no licensed vaccine against LF or approved treatment. Recently, several promising vaccine candidates have been developed which can potentially target different groups at risk. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the LASV pathogenesis and immune mechanisms involved in protection. The current status of pre-clinical development of the advanced vaccine candidates that have been tested in non-human primates will be discussed. Major scientific, manufacturing, and regulatory challenges will also be considered. PMID:23202493

  6. Assessment of Live Plague Vaccine Candidates.

    PubMed

    Feodorova, Valentina A; Sayapina, Lidiya V; Motin, Vladimir L

    2016-01-01

    Since its creation in the early twentieth century, live plague vaccine EV has been successfully applied to millions of people without severe complications. This vaccine has been proven to elicit protection against both bubonic and pneumonic plague, and it is still in use in populations at risk mainly in the countries of the former Soviet Union. Despite extensive efforts in developing subunit vaccines, there is a reviving interest in creation of a precisely attenuated strain of Yersinia pestis superior to the EV that can serve as a live plague vaccine with improved characteristics. Here we summarize decades of experience of the Russian anti-plague research in developing a standard protocol for early-stage evaluation of safety and immunogenicity of live plague vaccines. This protocol allows step-by-step comparison of the novel test candidates with the EV vaccine by using subcutaneous immunization and bubonic plague infection models in two animal species, e.g., guinea pigs and mice. PMID:27076149

  7. Bisphosphonate drug holiday: choosing appropriate candidates.

    PubMed

    Ro, Cynthia; Cooper, Odelia

    2013-03-01

    Osteoporosis related fractures contribute to morbidity and mortality in U.S. patients, placing a heavy financial burden on society. Randomized clinical trials involving over 30,000 subjects have established bisphosphonates' efficacy in reducing the incidence of fragility fractures. However, as bisphosphonates are retained for years in the skeleton, reports of adverse events from prolonged use are surfacing in the literature, namely, esophageal cancer, atrial fibrillation, osteonecrosis of the jaw, and atypical fracture development. The concept of a drug holiday has been proposed to potentially reduce incidence of these adverse events. This review will highlight the benefits and risks of bisphosphonate therapy and discuss the extension data available from the bisphosphonate trials. As randomized clinical trial evidence is not yet available on who may qualify for drug holiday, this review will provide suggestions for clinicians on identification of possible candidates and monitoring during a bisphosphonate drug holiday. PMID:23296595

  8. Identification of an Interaction between VWF rs7965413 and Platelet Count as a Novel Risk Marker for Metabolic Syndrome: An Extensive Search of Candidate Polymorphisms in a Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Nakatochi, Masahiro; Ushida, Yasunori; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Yoshida, Yasuko; Kawai, Shun; Kato, Ryuji; Nakashima, Toru; Iwata, Masamitsu; Kuwatsuka, Yachiyo; Ando, Masahiko; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Kondo, Takaaki; Oda, Hiroaki; Hayashi, Mutsuharu; Kato, Sawako; Yamaguchi, Makoto; Maruyama, Shoichi; Matsuo, Seiichi; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Although many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified to be associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS), there was only a slight improvement in the ability to predict future MetS by the simply addition of SNPs to clinical risk markers. To improve the ability to predict future MetS, combinational effects, such as SNP—SNP interaction, SNP—environment interaction, and SNP—clinical parameter (SNP × CP) interaction should be also considered. We performed a case-control study to explore novel SNP × CP interactions as risk markers for MetS based on health check-up data of Japanese male employees. We selected 99 SNPs that were previously reported to be associated with MetS and components of MetS; subsequently, we genotyped these SNPs from 360 cases and 1983 control subjects. First, we performed logistic regression analyses to assess the association of each SNP with MetS. Of these SNPs, five SNPs were significantly associated with MetS (P < 0.05): LRP2 rs2544390, rs1800592 between UCP1 and TBC1D9, APOA5 rs662799, VWF rs7965413, and rs1411766 between MYO16 and IRS2. Furthermore, we performed multiple logistic regression analyses, including an SNP term, a CP term, and an SNP × CP interaction term for each CP and SNP that was significantly associated with MetS. We identified a novel SNP × CP interaction between rs7965413 and platelet count that was significantly associated with MetS [SNP term: odds ratio (OR) = 0.78, P = 0.004; SNP × CP interaction term: OR = 1.33, P = 0.001]. This association of the SNP × CP interaction with MetS remained nominally significant in multiple logistic regression analysis after adjustment for either the number of MetS components or MetS components excluding obesity. Our results reveal new insight into platelet count as a risk marker for MetS. PMID:25646961

  9. Resequencing and association analysis of coding regions at twenty candidate genes suggest a role for rare risk variation at AKAP9 and protective variation at NRXN1 in schizophrenia susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Rama, José Javier; Arrojo, Manuel; Sobrino, Beatriz; Amigo, Jorge; Brenlla, Julio; Agra, Santiago; Paz, Eduardo; Brión, María; Carracedo, Ángel; Páramo, Mario; Costas, Javier

    2015-01-01

    A fraction of genetic risk to develop schizophrenia may be due to low-frequency variants. This multistep study attempted to find low-frequency variants of high effect at coding regions of eleven schizophrenia susceptibility genes supported by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and nine genes for the DISC1 interactome, a susceptibility gene-set. During the discovery step, a total of 125 kb per sample were resequenced in 153 schizophrenia patients and 153 controls from Galicia (NW Spain), and the cumulative role of low-frequency variants at a gene or at the DISC1 gene-set were analyzed by burden and variance-based tests. Relevant results were meta-analyzed when appropriate data were available. In addition, case-only putative damaging variants were genotyped in a further 419 cases and 398 controls. The discovery step revealed a protective effect of rare missense variants at NRXN1, a result supported by meta-analysis (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.47-0.94, P = 0.021, based on 3848 patients and 3896 controls from six studies). The follow-up step based on case-only putative damaging variants revealed a promising risk variant at AKAP9. This variant, K873R, reached nominal significance after inclusion of 240 additional Spanish controls from databases. The variant, located in an ADCY2 binding region, is absent from large public databases. Interestingly, GWAS revealed an association between common ADCY2 variants and bipolar disorder, a disorder with considerable genetic overlap with schizophrenia. These data suggest a role of rare missense variants at NRXN1 and AKAP9 in schizophrenia susceptibility, probably related to alteration of the excitatory/inhibitory synaptic balance, deserving further investigation. PMID:25943950

  10. OPTOPUS observations of quasar candidates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristiani, S.

    1987-06-01

    OPTOPUS is a fiber-optic instrument for multiple-object spectroscopy with the Boiler & Chivens spectrograph and a CCD detector at the 3.6-m telescope. The system has been described in detail by the Optical Instrumentation Group (1985, The Messenger 41,25). Its application for observing Halley's comet has been reported by Lund and Surdej (1986, The Messenger 43, 1). Here another "classical" use of multiple-object spectroscopy is presented: followup observations of quasar candidates.