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Sample records for risk taking

  1. Risk taking among diabetic clients.

    PubMed

    Joseph, D H; Schwartz-Barcott, D; Patterson, B

    1992-01-01

    Diabetic clients must make daily decisions about their health care needs. Observational and anecdotal evidence suggests that vast differences exist between the kinds of choices diabetic clients make and the kinds of chances they are willing to take. The purpose of this investigation was to develop a diabetic risk-assessment tool. This instrument, which is based on subjective expected utility theory, measures risk-prone and risk-averse behavior. Initial findings from a pilot study of 18 women clients who are on insulin indicate that patterns of risk behavior exist in the areas of exercise, skin care, and diet. PMID:1729123

  2. Intuitive Risk Taking during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, James D.; Klaczynski, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents frequently engage in risky behaviors that endanger both themselves and others. Critical to the development of effective interventions is an understanding of the processes adolescents go through when deciding to take risks. This article explores two information processing systems; a slow, deliberative, analytic system and a quick,…

  3. Taking the Risk Out of Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The ability to understand risks and have the right strategies in place when risky events occur is essential in the workplace. More and more organizations are being confronted with concerns over how to measure their risks or what kind of risks they can take when certain events transpire that could have a negative impact. NASA is one organization that faces these challenges on a daily basis, as effective risk management is critical to the success of its missions especially the Space Shuttle missions. On July 29, 1996, former NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin charged NASA s Office of Safety and Mission Assurance with developing a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) tool to support decisions on the funding of Space Shuttle upgrades. When issuing the directive, Goldin said, "Since I came to NASA [in 1992], we've spent billions of dollars on Shuttle upgrades without knowing how much they improve safety. I want a tool to help base upgrade decisions on risk." Work on the PRA tool began immediately. The resulting prototype, the Quantitative Risk Assessment System (QRAS) Version 1.0, was jointly developed by NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center, its Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, and researchers at the University of Maryland. QRAS software automatically expands the reliability logic models of systems to evaluate the probability of highly detrimental outcomes occurring in complex systems that are subject to potential accident scenarios. Even in its earliest forms, QRAS was used to begin PRA modeling of the Space Shuttle. In parallel, the development of QRAS continued, with the goal of making it a world-class tool, one that was especially suited to NASA s unique needs. From the beginning, an important conceptual goal in the development of QRAS was for it to help bridge the gap between the professional risk analyst and the design engineer. In the past, only the professional risk analyst could perform, modify, use, and perhaps even adequately understand PRA. NASA wanted

  4. Teenagers and Risk-Taking at Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Ann

    2002-01-01

    Teen risk-taking is normal, healthy developmental behavior. Teens act out their fantasies--good and bad--at camp because it is a safe place away from parents. Signs of unhealthy risk-taking, camp staff responses, and how the September 11 tragedy might affect risk-taking are discussed. Sidebars describe tips for understanding adolescent behavior…

  5. Giving Ourselves Permission to Take Risks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    What's a risk? It's when one doesn't know what will happen when she/he takes action. Risks can be little or big, calculated or stupid. Every new idea carries risks--and the challenge to face them and see what will happen. Nobody becomes smart, creative, self-confident, and respectful of others without taking risks--remaining open to possibilities…

  6. Cost Discrepancy, Signaling, and Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemon, Jim

    2005-01-01

    If risk taking is in some measure a signal to others by the person taking risks, the model of "costly signaling" predicts that the more the apparent cost of the risk to others exceeds the perceived cost of the risk to the risk taker, the more attractive that risk will be as a signal. One hundred and twelve visitors to youth "drop-in" centers…

  7. Adaptive Learning and Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denrell, Jerker

    2007-01-01

    Humans and animals learn from experience by reducing the probability of sampling alternatives with poor past outcomes. Using simulations, J. G. March (1996) illustrated how such adaptive sampling could lead to risk-averse as well as risk-seeking behavior. In this article, the author develops a formal theory of how adaptive sampling influences risk…

  8. Oxytocin and vasopressin modulate risk-taking.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nilam; Grillon, Christian; Pavletic, Nevia; Rosen, Dana; Pine, Daniel S; Ernst, Monique

    2015-02-01

    The modulation of risk-taking is critical for adaptive and optimal behavior. This study examined how oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) influence risk-taking in function of three parameters: sex, risk-valence, and social context. Twenty-nine healthy adults (14 males) completed a risk-taking task, the Stunt task, both in a social-stress (evaluation by unfamiliar peers) and non-social context, in three separate drug treatment sessions. During each session, one of three drugs, OT, AVP, or placebo (PLC), was administered intra-nasally. OT and AVP relative to PLC reduced betting-rate (risk-averse effect). This risk-averse effect was further qualified: AVP reduced risk-taking in the positive risk-valence (high win-probability), and regardless of social context or sex. In contrast, OT reduced risk-taking in the negative risk-valence (low win-probability), and only in the social-stress context and men. The reduction in risk-taking might serve a role in defensive behavior. These findings extend the role of these neuromodulators to behaviors beyond the social realm. How the behavioral modulation of risk-taking maps onto the function of the neural targets of OT and AVP may be the next step in this line of research. PMID:25446228

  9. Disentangling Adolescent Pathways of Sexual Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookmeyer, Kathryn A.; Henrich, Christopher C.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the authors aimed to describe the pathways of risk within sexual risk taking, alcohol use, and delinquency, and then identify how the trajectory of sexual risk is linked to alcohol use and delinquency. Risk trajectories were measured with adolescents aged 15-24 years (N = 1,778). Using…

  10. Academic Risk Taking, Development, and External Constraint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Margaret M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Academic risk taking--the selection of schoollike tasks ranging in difficulty and probability of success--was examined for 602 students in grades 4, 6, and 8 in Taiwan. Results of a self-report measure of tolerance for failure and a risk-taking task are discussed concerning self-enhancement versus self-assessment goals, metacognitive skills, and…

  11. Does Anticipation Training Affect Drivers' Risk Taking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Frank P.; Horswill, Mark S.; Alexander, Jane L.

    2006-01-01

    Skill and risk taking are argued to be independent and to require different remedial programs. However, it is possible to contend that skill-based training could be associated with an increase, a decrease, or no change in risk-taking behavior. In 3 experiments, the authors examined the influence of a skill-based training program (hazard…

  12. Risk Taking Transfer in Development Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Kathy; Priest, Simon

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-seven corporate managers completed the Priest Attarian Risk Taking Inventory before and after a day of rappelling. Subjects also completed a business version of the inventory a few weeks before and a few weeks after the experience. Subjects appeared to transfer some of their new risk-taking behaviors to their jobs. (KS)

  13. Taking risks with translational research.

    PubMed

    Mills, Ian G; Sykes, Richard B

    2010-03-24

    The recent bankruptcy filing by deCODE, a company with an exceptional pedigree in associating genetic variance with disease onset, highlights the commercial risks of translational research. Indeed, deCODE's approach was similar to that adapted by academic researchers who seek to connect genetics and disease. We argue here that neither a purely corporate nor purely academic model is entirely appropriate for such research. Instead, we suggest that the private sector undertake the high-throughput elements of translational research, while the public sector and governments assume the role of providing long-term funding to develop gifted scientists with the confidence to attempt to use genetic data as a stepping stone to a truly mechanistic understanding of complex disease. PMID:20375005

  14. Teen Risk-Taking: A Statistical Portrait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, Laura Duberstein; Boggess, Scott; Porter, Laura; Williams, Sean

    This report provides a statistical portrait of teen participation in 10 of the most prevalent risk behaviors. It focuses on the overall participation in each behavior and in multiple risk taking. The booklet presents the overall incidence and patterns of teen involvement in the following risk behaviors: (1) regular alcohol use; (2) regular tobacco…

  15. Fear, excitement, and financial risk-taking.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chan Jean; Andrade, Eduardo B

    2015-01-01

    Can fear trigger risk-taking? In this paper, we assess whether fear can be reinterpreted as a state of excitement as a result of contextual cues and promote, rather than discourage, risk-taking. In a laboratory experiment, the participants' emotional states were induced (fear vs. control), followed by a purportedly unrelated financial task. The task was framed as either a stock market investment or an exciting casino game. Our results showed that incidental fear (vs. control) induced risk-averse behaviour when the task was framed as a stock investment decision. However, fear encouraged risk-taking when the very same task was framed as an exciting casino game. The impact of fear on risk-taking was partially mediated by the excitement felt during the financial task. PMID:24661027

  16. [Risk-taking behaviors among young people].

    PubMed

    Le Breton, David

    2004-01-01

    Risk-taking behaviors are often an ambivalent way of calling for help from close friends or family - those who count. It is an ultimate means of finding meaning and a system of values; it is a sign of an adolescent's active resistance and attempts to re-establish his or her place in the world. It contrasts with the far more incisive risk of depression and the radical collapse of meaning. In spite of the suffering it engenders, risk-taking nevertheless has a positive side, fostering independence in adolescents and a search for reference points. It leads to a better self-image and is a means of developing one's identity. It is nonetheless painful in terms of its repercussions in terms of injuries, death or addiction. The turbulence caused by risk-taking behaviors illustrates a determination to be rid of one's suffering and to fight on so that life can, at last, be lived. PMID:15918660

  17. Risk-taking and the media.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter; Vingilis, Evelyn; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Vogrincic, Claudia

    2011-05-01

    In recent years, media formats with risk-glorifying content, such as video games that simulate illegal street racing ("bang and crash" games), films about extreme sports, and risky stunts have emerged as top sellers of the media industry. A variety of recent studies conducted by several researchers revealed that exposure to risk-glorifying media content (e.g., video games that simulate reckless driving, smoking and drinking in movies, or depictions that glorify extreme sports) increases the likelihood that recipients will show increased levels of risk-taking inclinations and behaviors. The present article (1) reviews the latest research on the detrimental impact of risk-glorifying media on risk-taking inclinations (cognitions, emotions, behaviors), (2) puts these findings in the theoretical context of recent sociocognitive models on media effects, and (3) makes suggestions to science and policymakers on how to deal with these effects in the future. PMID:21155859

  18. Sexual risk taking among Taiwanese youth.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chao-Hsing

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to understand sexual risk-taking behavior among Taiwanese youth. Thirty-six participants were purposively selected for two to three semistructured, in-depth individual interviews. The constant comparative method and coding process were used for data analysis. The core category of preserving the fantasy of romantic innocence emerged from the initial data analysis to explain how and why young people engage in sexual risk taking. Accordingly, the subcategories of suppressing carnal knowledge and being swept away by love were developed. Suppressing carnal knowledge consisted of keeping silent, having an inadequate sexual education, and having stereotypical thinking and was identified as an explanation as to why young people cannot relate knowledge to actual practice. Being swept away by love included a false knowledge of one's sexual partner, shifting levels of intimacy, and nonacceptance of one's own sexuality. This conceptualization emphasizes the reasons why young people engage in sexual risk taking; that is, cultural reluctance to discuss sexuality openly. The implication of this theorizing is that interventions to reduce sexual risk taking should be done on an individual basis and should consider one's developmental context in order to increase one's skills in effectively discussing sex and sexuality. PMID:11841684

  19. Sleepy Teens Are Risk-Taking Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158191.html Sleepy Teens Are Risk-Taking Teens Sleep deprivation leads to unsafe behaviors, CDC researchers ... than 50,000 students, researchers found that those teens who got seven hours of sleep or less ...

  20. Adolescents' Perceptions of Their Risk-Taking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Jeanette; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Assessed 440 high and low sports and danger risk-taking adolescents. Sports risk takers reported more danger-related risk taking, more drug use, and higher self-esteem than non-risk takers. Danger risk takers reported greater sports-related risk taking, more drug use, less intimacy with their mothers, less family responsibility taking, and less…

  1. Fast thought speed induces risk taking.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Jesse J; Pronin, Emily

    2012-04-01

    In two experiments, we tested for a causal link between thought speed and risk taking. In Experiment 1, we manipulated thought speed by presenting neutral-content text at either a fast or a slow pace and having participants read the text aloud. In Experiment 2, we manipulated thought speed by presenting fast-, medium-, or slow-paced movie clips that contained similar content. Participants who were induced to think more quickly took more risks with actual money in Experiment 1 and reported greater intentions to engage in real-world risky behaviors, such as unprotected sex and illegal drug use, in Experiment 2. These experiments provide evidence that faster thinking induces greater risk taking. PMID:22395129

  2. A Social Neuroscience Perspective on Adolescent Risk-Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    This article proposes a framework for theory and research on risk-taking that is informed by developmental neuroscience. Two fundamental questions motivate this review. First, why does risk-taking increase between childhood and adolescence? Second, why does risk-taking decline between adolescence and adulthood? Risk-taking increases between…

  3. Teaching Efficacy, Innovation, School Culture and Teacher Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Margaret Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is an exploratory study of teacher risk taking. The risk-taking literature in education and other types of organizations is lacking in studies exploring the concept of healthy risk taking and how that risk taking is related to other concepts such as organizational culture, innovation, and efficacy. The purpose of this study was…

  4. Morningness-eveningness and risk taking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Chartrand, Tanya L

    2015-01-01

    Depending on individual differences in biological rhythms and diurnal preferences, people have long been described as either "larks" or "owls." Larks and owls differ greatly in personality aspects, but from the behavioral perspective it is unclear whether they have significant differences in terms of risky behaviors. Whether morning types or evening types are consistently more risk-taking or risk-averse in different domains remains unknown. This study adopted a general American adult sample to systematically investigate the relationship between chronotype and individuals' risky behaviors in different domains. By using different methods to measure risky behaviors in different domains, the current research obtained convergent results that morningness was negatively related only to financially risky behaviors for American adults. More specifically, by using the composite scale of morningness and the domain-specific risk attitude scale, Study 1 showed that for American adults, morning types were less likely than evening types to engage in financially risky behaviors (N = 212). In Study 2, after scenario-based methods were used to measure risky behavior, results showed that that participants engaged less in risky behaviors in the domains of gambling and investment (N = 187). A mediator test showed that the negative relationship between morningness and financially risky behaviors was partly mediated by individuals' self-control ability (self-control scale, Study 1). PMID:25901637

  5. Enhancers and Inhibitors of Teacher Risk Taking: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponticell, Judith A.

    2003-01-01

    Examined teacher risk taking during the development of a school-within-a-school program in a Professional Development School, targeting sophomores at high risk for dropping out. Findings indicated that a psychology of risk-taking behavior provided a useful lens for understanding teacher risk-taking in this context and that the three essential…

  6. Adolescents' perceptions of their risk-taking behavior.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, J; Field, T; Yando, R; Gonzalez, K; Lasko, D; Bendell, D

    1994-01-01

    A questionnaire comprised of several self-report scales was administered to 440 adolescents to assess differences between high and low sports and danger risk takers on relationship and personality variables. Sports risk takers reported more danger-related risk taking and more drug use but higher self-esteem than did nonrisk takers. Danger risk takers reported greater sports-related risk taking and more drug use as well as less intimacy with their mothers, less family responsibility taking, and less depression than did their nonrisk-taking counterparts. PMID:7832034

  7. Adolescents' AIDS Risk Taking: A Rational Choice Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, William; Herman, Janna

    1990-01-01

    Discounts the belief in adolescents' irrational behavior, and proposes a rational choice decision-making theory of adolescent risk-taking behavior. Suggests that social ecology affects risk-taking choices. Proposals for AIDS education concern delayed initiation of sexual activity, promotion of condom use, and counseling of high-risk adolescents.…

  8. Decision Making and Learning while Taking Sequential Risks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleskac, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    A sequential risk-taking paradigm used to identify real-world risk takers invokes both learning and decision processes. This article expands the paradigm to a larger class of tasks with different stochastic environments and different learning requirements. Generalizing a Bayesian sequential risk-taking model to the larger set of tasks clarifies…

  9. Correlates of Intellectual Risk Taking in Elementary School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beghetto, Ronald A.

    2009-01-01

    This study had the goal of exploring factors associated with elementary students' (N = 585) reports of intellectual risk taking in science. Intellectual risk taking (IRT) was defined as engaging in adaptive learning behaviors (sharing tentative ideas, asking questions, attempting to do and learn new things) that placed the learner at risk of…

  10. Sex differences in risk taking behavior among Dutch cyclists.

    PubMed

    Cobey, Kelly D; Stulp, Gert; Laan, Freek; Buunk, Abraham P; Pollet, Thomas V

    2013-01-01

    The majority of research examining sex differences in risk-taking behavior focuses on overt physical risk measures in which failed risk attempts may result in serious injury or death. The present research describes sex differences in patterns of risk taking in day-to-day behavior among Dutch cyclists. Through three observational studies we test sex differences in risk taking in situations of financial risk (fines for failing to use bike lights, Study 1), theft risk (bike locking behavior, Study 2) as well as physical risk (risky maneuvers, Study 3). Results corroborate previous findings by showing that across these domains men are more inclined to take risks than women. We discuss how these findings might be used in an applied context. PMID:23674522

  11. Sexual Risk Taking: For Better or Worse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tammy

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessment can be an effective pedagogical strategy for sexuality education. Objectives: After learning about the modes of transmission and prevention strategies of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), students engaged in this teaching technique will define sexual intercourse and sexual activity, assess the level of STI risk associated…

  12. The neural basis of financial risk taking.

    PubMed

    Kuhnen, Camelia M; Knutson, Brian

    2005-09-01

    Investors systematically deviate from rationality when making financial decisions, yet the mechanisms responsible for these deviations have not been identified. Using event-related fMRI, we examined whether anticipatory neural activity would predict optimal and suboptimal choices in a financial decision-making task. We characterized two types of deviations from the optimal investment strategy of a rational risk-neutral agent as risk-seeking mistakes and risk-aversion mistakes. Nucleus accumbens activation preceded risky choices as well as risk-seeking mistakes, while anterior insula activation preceded riskless choices as well as risk-aversion mistakes. These findings suggest that distinct neural circuits linked to anticipatory affect promote different types of financial choices and indicate that excessive activation of these circuits may lead to investing mistakes. Thus, consideration of anticipatory neural mechanisms may add predictive power to the rational actor model of economic decision making. PMID:16129404

  13. Motivational Affordance and Risk-Taking Across Decision Domains.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xi; Scholer, Abigail A

    2016-03-01

    We propose a motivational affordance account to explain both stability and variability in risk-taking propensity in major decision domains. We draw on regulatory focus theory to differentiate two types of motivation (prevention, promotion) that play a key role in predicting risk-taking. Study 1 demonstrated that prevention motivation is negatively associated with risk-taking across six key decision domains, including health/safety, ethics, recreation, gambling, investment, and social. In contrast, promotion motivation is positively associated with risk-taking in the social and investment domains. Study 2 replicated the same pattern and provided direct evidence that promotion motivation is a strong predictor of risk-taking only in domains where there is true potential for gains. Study 3 manipulated promotion (vs. prevention) motivation experimentally to demonstrate that motivational affordance is a critical mechanism for understanding risk-taking behaviors. PMID:26802189

  14. Evaluating Risk Taking Propensity as a Predictor of the Outcome Dimensions of Medication History Taking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lively, Buford T.

    1983-01-01

    Senior pharmacy students' level of risk-taking as a personality trait was compared with their performance in medication history interviews in an ambulatory medicine clinic. Effective and efficient interviewers were significantly higher in risk-taking propensity than others. (MSE)

  15. Risk-Taking: Individual and Family Interests.

    PubMed

    Iltis, Ana S

    2015-08-01

    Decisions regarding clinical procedures or research participation typically require the informed consent of individuals. When individuals are unable to give consent, the informed permission of a legally authorized representative or surrogate is required. Although many proposed procedures are aimed primarily at benefiting the individual, some are not. I argue that, particularly when individuals are asked to assume risks primarily or exclusively for the benefit of others, family members ought to be engaged in the informed consent process. Examples of procedures in which individuals are asked to assume risks primarily or exclusively for the benefit of others include living organ donation and research participation. PMID:26070660

  16. Impulsivity and Risk Taking in Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, L Felice; Lee, Junghee; Davis, Michael C; Altshuler, Lori; Glahn, David C; Miklowitz, David J; Green, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Impulsive risk taking contributes to deleterious outcomes among clinical populations. Indeed, pathological impulsivity and risk taking are common in patients with serious mental illness, and have severe clinical repercussions including novelty seeking, response disinhibition, aggression, and substance abuse. Thus, the current study seeks to examine self-reported impulsivity (Barratt Impulsivity Scale) and performance-based behavioral risk taking (Balloon Analogue Risk Task) in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Participants included 68 individuals with bipolar disorder, 38 with schizophrenia, and 36 healthy controls. Self-reported impulsivity was elevated in the bipolar group compared with schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, who did not differ from each other. On the risk-taking task, schizophrenia patients were significantly more risk averse than the bipolar patients and controls. Aside from the diagnostic group differences, there was a significant effect of antipsychotic (AP) medication within the bipolar group: bipolar patients taking AP medications were more risk averse than those not taking AP medications. This difference in risk taking because of AP medications was not explained by history of psychosis. Similarly, the differences in risk taking between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were not fully explained by AP effects. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. PMID:23963117

  17. Dying for romance: risk taking as purposive behavior.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Jason T

    2011-12-01

    Many approaches have been utilized to understand adolescent risk taking. The current research frames risk taking as a purposive behavior enacted with a specific goal in mind. Rather than assuming adolescent risk taking to be the result of arrogance or perceived invulnerability, adolescent risk taking is interpreted as a means to an end. Stemming from a Tolmanian framework, an alternative explanation for adolescent risk taking is tested: adolescents are willing to take risks to the extent that the risk is associated with a needed outcome - the greater the need for the outcome, the greater the willingness to take risks. To test the proposed hypothesis, 192 participants completed a survey about their need for a romantic relationship and their willingness to endure harm to obtain a romantic relationship. Data were collected at two time points. A hierarchical regression revealed that need for romance is a significant predictor of willingness to endure harm for romance, even after gender and sensation seeking are statistically controlled. Moreover, need for romance at T1 was shown to be predictive of harm for romance at T2. Results are supportive of taking a purposive - that is, Tolmanian - approach, as a means for interpreting adolescent behavior. PMID:21745031

  18. Death Anxiety in a Risk-Taking Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaspar, Fran E.; Vesper, Joseph J.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine if a difference in death anxiety exists between people who engage in a risk-taking activity and people who do not. Motorcycle riding was chosen as a risk-taking activity. A significantly lower Death Anxiety Scale score was obtained from the motorcycle group. (Author)

  19. Trust Building via Risk Taking: A Cross-Societal Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Karen S.; Yamagishi, Toshio; Cheshire, Coye; Cooper, Robin; Matsuda, Masafumi; Mashima, Rie

    2005-01-01

    The role of risk taking in building trust relations has largely been overlooked in the burgeoning literature on trust in the social sciences; yet it is central to understanding how trust develops. We argue that a series of risk-taking behaviors is indispensable to building a trust relation. We conducted experiments in Japan and the United States…

  20. Pathways to Sexual Risk Taking among Female Adolescent Detainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Vera; Kopak, Albert; Robillard, Alyssa; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Holliday, Rhonda C.; Braithwaite, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual risk taking among female delinquents represents a significant public health problem. Research is needed to understand the pathways leading to sexual risk taking among this population. This study sought to address this issue by identifying and testing two pathways from child maltreatment to non-condom use among 329 White and 484 African…

  1. Adolescent Risk-Taking and Social Meaning: A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunstein, Cass R.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent risk-taking can be illuminated through an understanding of the development of the brain, of dual-processing theories, and of social norms and meanings. When adolescents take unjustified risks, it is often because of the weakness of their analytic systems, which provide an inadequate check on impulsive or ill-considered decisions. Social…

  2. Adolescent tanning, disordered eating, and risk taking.

    PubMed

    Schwebel, David C

    2014-04-01

    Indoor tanning and eating disorder behaviors are both significant adolescent public health risks. Recent results by Amrock and Weitzman provocatively suggest a link between the two, perhaps because of a shared cause of dysfunctional cognition about body image. This commentary discusses a possible model to explain the association between indoor tanning and eating disorder behaviors among teenagers. It also presents various strategies to prevent the negative outcomes, with a focus on preventing adolescent tanning behavior. Prevention strategies worth consideration include counseling by pediatricians or other health professionals, improved parental supervision and monitoring, and policy change to prohibit adolescent use of tanning facilities. PMID:24695120

  3. Factors Associated with Sexual Risk-Taking Behaviors among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom; Small, Stephen A.

    1994-01-01

    Describes investigation examining factors that distinguish between sexually active adolescents who are at risk for pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases and those who are at lower risk for these outcomes. Suggests factors associated with sexual risk taking include low GPA, frequent alcohol consumption, and low levels of parental…

  4. Risk-taking in social settings: Group and peer effects☆

    PubMed Central

    Bougheas, Spiros; Nieboer, Jeroen; Sefton, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We investigate experimentally the effect of consultation (unincentivized advice) on choices under risk in an incentivized investment task. We compare consultation to two benchmark treatments: one with isolated individual choices, and a second with group choice after communication. Our benchmark treatments replicate findings that groups take more risk than individuals in the investment task; content analysis of group discussions reveals that higher risk-taking in groups is positively correlated with mentions of expected value. In our consultation treatments, we find evidence of peer effects: decisions within the peer group are significantly correlated. However, average risk-taking after consultation is not significantly different from isolated individual choices. We also find that risk-taking after consultation is not affected by adding a feedback stage in which subjects see the choices of their consultation peers. PMID:24926111

  5. Measurement of sexual risk taking among college students.

    PubMed

    Turchik, Jessica A; Garske, John P

    2009-12-01

    Current measures of sexual risk taking are either too narrowly focused to be used with college students or do not have adequate psychometric properties. The goal of the current study was to develop a broad and psychometrically sound measure of sexual risk taking. A total of 613 undergraduate students (302 men, 311 women) at a mid-sized Midwestern university in the U.S. were surveyed to develop and gather reliability and validity information on a new measure of sexual risk, the Sexual Risk Survey (SRS). The measure was found to be multifactorial with five factors. The measure was found to have good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The SRS also demonstrated evidence of convergent and concurrent validity by its relationships with reported number of sexual partners and history of infidelity as well as measures of sensation seeking, sexual desire, substance use, sexual excitation and inhibition, and sexual health consequences. Social desirability was not found to be related to sexual risk taking scores and threat of sexual disclosure was only weakly related. An investigation of sex differences revealed that men reported greater intentions to engage in sexual risk behaviors and greater overall sexual risk taking behavior compared to women. The SRS provides researchers with a valid and comprehensive measure of sexual risk taking that can be used to clarify inconsistent findings in the literature and to assess outcome in programs designed to prevent and reduce sexual risk behaviors among college students. PMID:18563548

  6. Not all risk taking behavior is bad: Associative sensitivity predicts learning during risk taking among high sensation seekers

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Lee, Steve S.; Tottenham, Nim

    2013-01-01

    Risk taking behavior can be both adaptive and maladaptive depending on context. The majority of studies of risk taking, however, focus on clinical populations and dangerous or harmful risk taking. Individual differences in learning during risk taking are rarely examined in relation to task performance. The present study examined risk taking and associated outcomes in an exploration-based instrumental learning task (Balloon Emotional Learning Task; BELT), which presented a series of balloons in which participants pump up for points. Consistent with prior work, sensation seeking predicted increased risk taking behavior. Importantly, however, a significant interaction between sensation seeking and associative sensitivity, an attentional construct defined as the frequency and remoteness of automatic cognitive activity, was found. Specifically, among individuals high in sensation seeking, associative sensitivity predicted fewer balloon explosions and an increase in points earned on the balloon condition with the most potential feedback driven learning. Thus, these findings suggest that sensation seekers are a heterogeneous group, and secondary traits such as associative sensitivity moderate behavior such as risk taking and learning according to context. PMID:23935235

  7. Addiction Risk Low for Seniors Taking Post-Op Opioids

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160358.html Addiction Risk Low for Seniors Taking Post-Op Opioids: ... many worry that post-surgical use might trigger addiction. But a new study suggests that painkiller abuse ...

  8. Perceived safety and teen risk taking in online chat sites.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Cheryl; Prawitz, Aimee D; Derscheid, Linda E; Montgomery, Bette

    2011-03-01

    Framed by theories of adolescent development, this study explored relationships among adolescents' perceptions of chat-site safety, time spent chatting, and risky online behaviors. Tenth graders (N = 139) in rural Midwestern U.S. schools completed surveys. Factor analysis produced three factors each for perception of safety and risk-taking behaviors. Regression analyses revealed that perception of safety factors were useful in predicting online risk-taking behaviors. Teens with more social discomfort and those who thought it was safe to reveal personal information and trust chat-site "friends" were more likely to take risks. As time spent in chat sites increased, so did risk-taking behaviors. Implications for educators and parents are discussed, such as initiation of conversations about safe Internet use, parental participation in chat sites as teens' invited "friends," and school programs to teach safe online practices. PMID:20677982

  9. DYT1 dystonia increases risk taking in humans.

    PubMed

    Arkadir, David; Radulescu, Angela; Raymond, Deborah; Lubarr, Naomi; Bressman, Susan B; Mazzoni, Pietro; Niv, Yael

    2016-01-01

    It has been difficult to link synaptic modification to overt behavioral changes. Rodent models of DYT1 dystonia, a motor disorder caused by a single gene mutation, demonstrate increased long-term potentiation and decreased long-term depression in corticostriatal synapses. Computationally, such asymmetric learning predicts risk taking in probabilistic tasks. Here we demonstrate abnormal risk taking in DYT1 dystonia patients, which is correlated with disease severity, thereby supporting striatal plasticity in shaping choice behavior in humans. PMID:27249418

  10. Risk Taking, Boundary Performance and Intentional School Internet "Misuse"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Whilst the association of risk with schools is predominately a negative one, fostering images of potential dangers, this paper draws upon a socio-cultural counter-discourse to explore the perceived benefits of certain risk taking activities within educational establishments. Using research data on school Internet "misuse" it is argued that some…

  11. Individual Differences of Action Orientation for Risk Taking in Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raab, Markus; Johnson, Joseph G.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this article is to explain empirical risk-taking behavior in sports from an individual cognitive modeling perspective. A basketball task was used in which participants viewed four video options that varied in the degree of associated risk. The participants were independently classified by scores on the Questionnaire for Assessing…

  12. Risk ON/Risk OFF: Risk-Taking Varies with Subjectively Preferred and Disliked Music.

    PubMed

    Halko, Marja-Liisa; Kaustia, Markku

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we conduct a within-subjects experiment in which teenagers go over 256 gambles with real money gains and losses. For each risky gamble they choose whether to participate in it, or pass. Prior to this main experiment subjects identify specific songs belonging to their favorite musical genre, as well as songs representing a style they dislike. In the main experiment we vary the music playing in the background, so that each subject hears some of their favorite music, and some disliked music, alternating in blocks of 16 gambles. We find that favorite music increases risk-taking ('risk on'), and disliked music suppresses risk-taking ('risk off'), compared to a baseline of no music. Literature in psychology proposes several mechanisms by which mood affects risk-taking, but none of them fully explain the results in our setting. The results are, however, consistent with the economics notion of preference complementarity, extended to the domain of risk preference. The preference structure implied by our results is more complex than previously thought, yet realistic, and consistent with recent theoretical models. More generally, this mechanism offers a potential explanation to why risk-taking is known to change over time and across contexts. PMID:26301776

  13. Risk ON / Risk OFF: Risk-Taking Varies with Subjectively Preferred and Disliked Music

    PubMed Central

    Halko, Marja-Liisa; Kaustia, Markku

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we conduct a within-subjects experiment in which teenagers go over 256 gambles with real money gains and losses. For each risky gamble they choose whether to participate in it, or pass. Prior to this main experiment subjects identify specific songs belonging to their favorite musical genre, as well as songs representing a style they dislike. In the main experiment we vary the music playing in the background, so that each subject hears some of their favorite music, and some disliked music, alternating in blocks of 16 gambles. We find that favorite music increases risk-taking (‘risk on’), and disliked music suppresses risk-taking (‘risk off’), compared to a baseline of no music. Literature in psychology proposes several mechanisms by which mood affects risk-taking, but none of them fully explain the results in our setting. The results are, however, consistent with the economics notion of preference complementarity, extended to the domain of risk preference. The preference structure implied by our results is more complex than previously thought, yet realistic, and consistent with recent theoretical models. More generally, this mechanism offers a potential explanation to why risk-taking is known to change over time and across contexts. PMID:26301776

  14. Increased Risk Taking in Relation to Chronic Stress in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ceccato, Smarandita; Kudielka, Brigitte M.; Schwieren, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress is a public health problem that affects a significant part of the population. While the physiological damage it causes is under ongoing scrutiny, its behavioral effects have been overlooked. This is one of the first studies to examine the relation between chronic stress and decision-making, using a standard lottery paradigm. We measured risk taking in the gain domain through binary choices between financially incentivized lotteries. We then measured self-reported chronic stress with the Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress (TICS). We additionally collected hair samples in a subsample of volunteers, in order to quantify accumulation of the stress hormone cortisol. We discovered a significant positive, though modest, correlation between self-reported chronic stress and risk taking that is stronger for women than for men. This confirms part of the findings in acute stress research that show a connection between higher stress and increased risk taking. However, unlike the biologically-based results from acute stress research, we did not identify a significant relation between hair cortisol and behavior. In line with previous literature, we found a clear gender difference in risk taking and self-reports: women generally take less risk and report slightly higher stress levels than men. We conclude that perceived chronic stress can impact behavior in risky situations. PMID:26858663

  15. A Social Neuroscience Perspective on Adolescent Risk-Taking

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Laurence

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes a framework for theory and research on risk-taking that is informed by developmental neuroscience. Two fundamental questions motivate this review. First, why does risk-taking increase between childhood and adolescence? Second, why does risk-taking decline between adolescence and adulthood? Risk-taking increases between childhood and adolescence as a result of changes around the time of puberty in the brain’s socio-emotional system leading to increased reward-seeking, especially in the presence of peers, fueled mainly by a dramatic remodeling of the brain’s dopaminergic system. Risk-taking declines between adolescence and adulthood because of changes in the brain’s cognitive control system – changes which improve individuals’ capacity for self-regulation. These changes occur across adolescence and young adulthood and are seen in structural and functional changes within the prefrontal cortex and its connections to other brain regions. The differing timetables of these changes make mid-adolescence a time of heightened vulnerability to risky and reckless behavior. PMID:18509515

  16. Acute Exercise Increases Sex Differences in Amateur Athletes' Risk Taking.

    PubMed

    Pighin, S; Savadori, L; Bonini, N; Andreozzi, L; Savoldelli, A; Schena, F

    2015-10-01

    The research presented here investigates the interaction between acute exercise, biological sex and risk-taking behavior. The study involved 20 amateur athletes (19-33 years old), 10 males and 10 females, who were asked to undergo subsequent experimental sessions designed to compare their risky behaviors on the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) 34 at rest and while exercising at moderate intensity (60% of their maximal aerobic power). Results showed that physical exercise affected male and female participants differently: Whereas males became more risk seeking, females became more risk averse during exercise. PMID:26090877

  17. DYT1 dystonia increases risk taking in humans

    PubMed Central

    Arkadir, David; Radulescu, Angela; Raymond, Deborah; Lubarr, Naomi; Bressman, Susan B; Mazzoni, Pietro; Niv, Yael

    2016-01-01

    It has been difficult to link synaptic modification to overt behavioral changes. Rodent models of DYT1 dystonia, a motor disorder caused by a single gene mutation, demonstrate increased long-term potentiation and decreased long-term depression in corticostriatal synapses. Computationally, such asymmetric learning predicts risk taking in probabilistic tasks. Here we demonstrate abnormal risk taking in DYT1 dystonia patients, which is correlated with disease severity, thereby supporting striatal plasticity in shaping choice behavior in humans. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14155.001 PMID:27249418

  18. Wired: Energy Drinks, Jock Identity, Masculine Norms, and Risk Taking

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kathleen E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The author examined gendered links among sport-related identity, endorsement of conventional masculine norms, risk taking, and energy-drink consumption. Participants The author surveyed 795 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory-level courses at a public university. Methods The author conducted linear regression analyses of energy-drink consumption frequencies on sociodemographic characteristics, jock identity, masculine norms, and risk-taking behavior. Results Of participants, 39% consumed an energy drink in the past month, with more frequent use by men (2.49 d/month) than by women (1.22 d/month). Strength of jock identity was positively associated with frequency of energy-drink consumption; this relationship was mediated by both masculine norms and risk-taking behavior. Conclusions Sport-related identity, masculinity, and risk taking are components of the emerging portrait of a toxic jock identity, which may signal an elevated risk for health-compromising behaviors. College undergraduates’ frequent consumption of Red Bull and comparable energy drinks should be recognized as a potential predictor of toxic jock identity. PMID:18400659

  19. Youth Risk Taking Behavior: The Role of Schools. A Center Policy & Practice Analysis Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Risk taking is natural. As the bumper stickers says: "Risk taking happens!" Risk taking behavior may be beneficial or harmful. Some risk taking is unintentional. But a considerable amount stems from proactive or reactive motivation. For schools, some forms of student risk taking behavior are a necessity, and some forms are a problem. With respect…

  20. School Sexuality Education and Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Cecilia Dine; Wolf, Eve M.

    1995-01-01

    Examines and critiques research that measures the effects of school sexuality education programs on adolescent sexual risk-taking behavior. Discusses common methodological problems and examines studies measuring program effectiveness. Research suggests participation in school sexuality education does not promote increased or earlier sexual…

  1. A Developmental Perspective on Adolescent Risk Taking in Contemporary America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumrind, Diana

    1987-01-01

    Adolescent risk-taking behavior needs to be understood in the context of contemporary youth culture and normal development. To facilitate passage through adolescence, parents should sustain a climate of control and commitment balanced by respect for the adolescent's increased capacity for self-regulation. (Author)

  2. The Role of Risk-Taking in Songwriting Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marade, Angelo A.; Gibbons, Jeffrey A.; Brinthaupt, Thomas M.

    2007-01-01

    Creativity involves generating novel concepts and products that are valued by the creator as well as by the public. In this paper, we argue that risk-taking in songwriting increases the likelihood of any individual's product being valued as creative. By reviewing the case histories of several successful songwriters, we show that heightened…

  3. The Drinkers Degree: Risk Taking Behaviours amongst Undergraduate Student Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Gillian; Martin, Neil; Birch, Jennifer; Oldam, Alison; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine risk taking behaviours associated with alcohol consumption amongst UK undergraduate students. Design and Methods. A cross-sectional web survey was used to assess attitudes and health behaviours. The survey included the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Students were also asked about why they drank alcohol; about their preferred alcoholic beverage; and if they had experienced any consequences associated with drinking alcohol as well as questions relating to sexual risk taking, drug use, and smoking. Results. 2779 (65% female; 84% White British) students completed some part of the survey. Of these, 98% (n = 2711) completed the AUDIT. Of the 92% that drank 66% (n = 1,643) were categorised as being AUDIT positive. 8% (n = 224) were categorised as probably alcohol dependent. Higher AUDIT scores were significantly associated with negative consequences such as unplanned sexual activity, physical injuries, and arguments. Other risk taking behaviours such as drug use and smoking were also found to be positively correlated with higher AUDIT scores; drug use; and smoking. Conclusions. The results from this study provide insight into students' alcohol consumption and associated risk taking. University policies need to protect students' overall health and wellbeing to ensure academic potential is maximised. PMID:26713168

  4. Academic Risk-Taking in an Online Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Linda Eleanor

    2012-01-01

    Within Higher Education, the social nature of learning may no longer equate to in-person interactions. Technology provides various interaction options and changes the learning environment. The challenge for instructors of courses in the area of teacher education is to understand the nature of academic risk-taking associated with blended learning…

  5. The Personal Fable and Risk-Taking in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberts, Amy; Elkind, David; Ginsberg, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Elkind's (1967) theory of adolescent egocentrism proposes two distinct, but related, constructs--the "imaginary audience" and the "personal fable." A corollary to the imaginary audience, the personal fable (PF) yields a sense of invulnerability and speciality commonly associated with behavioral risk-taking. When regarded as a developmental…

  6. Wired: Energy Drinks, Jock Identity, Masculine Norms, and Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kathleen E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The author examined gendered links among sport-related identity, endorsement of conventional masculine norms, risk taking, and energy-drink consumption. Participants: The author surveyed 795 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory-level courses at a public university. Methods: The author conducted linear regression analyses of…

  7. Mothers' and Fathers' Socialization of Preschoolers' Physical Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagan, Lisa Kindleberger; Kuebli, Janet

    2007-01-01

    This study examined how parents influence sex differences in young children's physical risk taking behaviors. Eighty three- and four-year old, mostly middle class and Caucasian children climbed across a five-foot high catwalk and walked across a three-foot high beam under their mother or father's supervision. Based on average preschooler gross…

  8. Neuromaturation and Adolescent Risk Taking: Why Development Is Not Determinism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sara B.; Sudhinaraset, May; Blum, Robert Wm.

    2010-01-01

    In the January 2009 issue of this journal, Males argues that adolescent brain science perpetuates the "myth of adolescent risk taking." He contends that those who study adolescent neuromaturation are biological determinists who ignore the profound social and environmental forces that influence adolescent behavior to further their own agendas.…

  9. Risk Taking for Potential Reward Decreases across the Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Rutledge, Robb B; Smittenaar, Peter; Zeidman, Peter; Brown, Harriet R; Adams, Rick A; Lindenberger, Ulman; Dayan, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J

    2016-06-20

    The extent to which aging affects decision-making is controversial. Given the critical financial decisions that older adults face (e.g., managing retirement funds), changes in risk preferences are of particular importance [1]. Although some studies have found that older individuals are more risk averse than younger ones [2-4], there are also conflicting results, and a recent meta-analysis found no evidence for a consistent change in risk taking across the lifespan [5]. There has as yet been little examination of one potential substrate for age-related changes in decision-making, namely age-related decline in dopamine, a neuromodulator associated with risk-taking behavior. Here, we characterized choice preferences in a smartphone-based experiment (n = 25,189) in which participants chose between safe and risky options. The number of risky options chosen in trials with potential gains but not potential losses decreased gradually over the lifespan, a finding with potentially important economic consequences for an aging population. Using a novel approach-avoidance computational model, we found that a Pavlovian attraction to potential reward declined with age. This Pavlovian bias has been linked to dopamine, suggesting that age-related decline in this neuromodulator could lead to the observed decrease in risk taking. PMID:27265392

  10. Risk taking in adversarial situations: Civilization differences in chess experts.

    PubMed

    Chassy, Philippe; Gobet, Fernand

    2015-08-01

    The projections of experts in politics predict that a new world order will emerge within two decades. Being multipolar, this world will inevitably lead to frictions where civilizations and states will have to decide whether to risk conflict. Very often these decisions are informed if not taken by experts. To estimate risk-taking across civilizations, we examined strategies used in 667,599 chess games played over eleven years by chess experts from 11 different civilizations. We show that some civilizations are more inclined to settle for peace. Similarly, we show that once engaged in the battle, the level of risk taking varies significantly across civilizations, the boldest civilization using the riskiest strategy about 35% more than the most conservative civilization. We discuss which psychological factors might underpin these civilizational differences. PMID:25912894

  11. Impact of grade separator on pedestrian risk taking behavior.

    PubMed

    Khatoon, Mariya; Tiwari, Geetam; Chatterjee, Niladri

    2013-01-01

    Pedestrians on Delhi roads are often exposed to high risks. This is because the basic needs of pedestrians are not recognized as a part of the urban transport infrastructure improvement projects in Delhi. Rather, an ever increasing number of cars and motorized two-wheelers encourage the construction of large numbers of flyovers/grade separators to facilitate signal free movement for motorized vehicles, exposing pedestrians to greater risk. This paper describes the statistical analysis of pedestrian risk taking behavior while crossing the road, before and after the construction of a grade separator at an intersection of Delhi. A significant number of pedestrians are willing to take risks in both before and after situations. The results indicate that absence of signals make pedestrians behave independently, leading to increased variability in their risk taking behavior. Variability in the speeds of all categories of vehicles has increased after the construction of grade separators. After the construction of the grade separator, the waiting time of pedestrians at the starting point of crossing has increased and the correlation between waiting times and gaps accepted by pedestrians show that after certain time of waiting, pedestrians become impatient and accepts smaller gap size to cross the road. A Logistic regression model is fitted by assuming that the probability of road crossing by pedestrians depends on the gap size (in s) between pedestrian and conflicting vehicles, sex, age, type of pedestrians (single or in a group) and type of conflicting vehicles. The results of Logistic regression explained that before the construction of the grade separator the probability of road crossing by the pedestrian depends on only the gap size parameter; however after the construction of the grade separator, other parameters become significant in determining pedestrian risk taking behavior. PMID:22857788

  12. Adolescent and adult risk-taking in virtual social contexts

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Anneke D. M.; Norman, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of experimental data addressing how peers influence adolescent risk-taking. Here, we examined peer effects on risky decision-making in adults and adolescents using a virtual social context that enabled experimental control over the peer “interactions.” 40 adolescents (age 11–18) and 28 adults (age 20–38) completed a risk-taking (Wheel of Fortune) task under four conditions: in private; while being observed by (fictitious) peers; and after receiving ‘risky’ or ‘safe’ advice from the peers. For high-risk gambles (but not medium-risk or even gambles), adolescents made more risky decisions under peer observation than adults. Adolescents, but not adults, tended to resist ‘safe’ advice for high-risk gambles. Although both groups tended to follow ‘risky’ advice for high-risk gambles, adults did so more than adolescents. These findings highlight the importance of distinguishing between the effects of peer observation and peer advice on risky decision-making. PMID:25566150

  13. Risk Taking in Late Adolescence: Relations between Sociomoral Reasoning, Risk Stance, and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Leigh A.; Amsel, Eric; Schillo, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    This study explored relations among late adolescents' sociomoral reasoning about risk taking, risk stance, and behavior. One-hundred and thirty-two participants (18-20-year-olds) were surveyed about their own risk stance (Avoidant, Opportunistic, Curious, Risk Seeking) and behavior in three realms (Alcohol Use, Drug Use, Reckless Driving), and…

  14. Risk Perception and Risk-Taking Behaviour during Adolescence: The Influence of Personality and Gender.

    PubMed

    Reniers, Renate L E P; Murphy, Laura; Lin, Ashleigh; Bartolomé, Sandra Para; Wood, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of personality characteristics and gender on adolescents' perception of risk and their risk-taking behaviour. Male and female participants (157 females: 116 males, aged 13-20) completed self-report measures on risk perception, risk-taking and personality. Male participants perceived behaviours as less risky, reportedly took more risks, were less sensitive to negative outcomes and less socially anxious than female participants. Path analysis identified a model in which age, behavioural inhibition and impulsiveness directly influenced risk perception, while age, social anxiety, impulsiveness, sensitivity to reward, behavioural inhibition and risk perception itself were directly or indirectly associated with risk-taking behaviour. Age and behavioural inhibition had direct relationships with social anxiety, and reward sensitivity was associated with impulsiveness. The model was representative for the whole sample and male and female groups separately. The observed relationship between age and social anxiety and the influence this may have on risk-taking behaviour could be key for reducing adolescent risk-taking behaviour. Even though adolescents may understand the riskiness of their behaviour and estimate their vulnerability to risk at a similar level to adults, factors such as anxiety regarding social situations, sensitivity to reward and impulsiveness may exert their influence and make these individuals prone to taking risks. If these associations are proven causal, these factors are, and will continue to be, important targets in prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:27100081

  15. Risk Perception and Risk-Taking Behaviour during Adolescence: The Influence of Personality and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Reniers, Renate L. E. P.; Murphy, Laura; Lin, Ashleigh; Bartolomé, Sandra Para; Wood, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of personality characteristics and gender on adolescents’ perception of risk and their risk-taking behaviour. Male and female participants (157 females: 116 males, aged 13–20) completed self-report measures on risk perception, risk-taking and personality. Male participants perceived behaviours as less risky, reportedly took more risks, were less sensitive to negative outcomes and less socially anxious than female participants. Path analysis identified a model in which age, behavioural inhibition and impulsiveness directly influenced risk perception, while age, social anxiety, impulsiveness, sensitivity to reward, behavioural inhibition and risk perception itself were directly or indirectly associated with risk-taking behaviour. Age and behavioural inhibition had direct relationships with social anxiety, and reward sensitivity was associated with impulsiveness. The model was representative for the whole sample and male and female groups separately. The observed relationship between age and social anxiety and the influence this may have on risk-taking behaviour could be key for reducing adolescent risk-taking behaviour. Even though adolescents may understand the riskiness of their behaviour and estimate their vulnerability to risk at a similar level to adults, factors such as anxiety regarding social situations, sensitivity to reward and impulsiveness may exert their influence and make these individuals prone to taking risks. If these associations are proven causal, these factors are, and will continue to be, important targets in prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:27100081

  16. Affect-Laden Imagery and Risk Taking: The Mediating Role of Stress and Risk Perception

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how affect-laden imagery that evokes emotional stress influences risk perception and risk taking in real-life scenarios. In a series of three studies, we instructed participants to imagine the consequences of risky scenarios and then rate the intensity of the experienced stress, perceived risk and their willingness to engage in risky behavior. Study 1 showed that people spontaneously imagine negative rather than positive risk consequences, which are directly related to their lower willingness to take risk. Moreover, this relationship was mediated by feelings of stress and risk perception. Study 2 replicated and extended these findings by showing that imagining negative risk consequences evokes psychophysiological stress responses observed in elevated blood pressure. Finally, in Study 3, we once again demonstrated that a higher intensity of mental images of negative risk consequences, as measured by enhanced brain activity in the parieto-occipital lobes, leads to a lower propensity to take risk. Furthermore, individual differences in creating vivid and intense negative images of risk consequences moderated the strength of the relationship between risk perception and risk taking. Participants who created more vivid and intense images of negative risk consequences paid less attention to the assessments of riskiness in rating their likelihood to take risk. To summarize, we showed that feelings of emotional stress and perceived riskiness mediate the relationship between mental imagery and risk taking, whereas individual differences in abilities to create vivid mental images may influence the degree to which more cognitive risk assessments are used in the risk-taking process. PMID:25816238

  17. Affect-laden imagery and risk taking: the mediating role of stress and risk perception.

    PubMed

    Traczyk, Jakub; Sobkow, Agata; Zaleskiewicz, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how affect-laden imagery that evokes emotional stress influences risk perception and risk taking in real-life scenarios. In a series of three studies, we instructed participants to imagine the consequences of risky scenarios and then rate the intensity of the experienced stress, perceived risk and their willingness to engage in risky behavior. Study 1 showed that people spontaneously imagine negative rather than positive risk consequences, which are directly related to their lower willingness to take risk. Moreover, this relationship was mediated by feelings of stress and risk perception. Study 2 replicated and extended these findings by showing that imagining negative risk consequences evokes psychophysiological stress responses observed in elevated blood pressure. Finally, in Study 3, we once again demonstrated that a higher intensity of mental images of negative risk consequences, as measured by enhanced brain activity in the parieto-occipital lobes, leads to a lower propensity to take risk. Furthermore, individual differences in creating vivid and intense negative images of risk consequences moderated the strength of the relationship between risk perception and risk taking. Participants who created more vivid and intense images of negative risk consequences paid less attention to the assessments of riskiness in rating their likelihood to take risk. To summarize, we showed that feelings of emotional stress and perceived riskiness mediate the relationship between mental imagery and risk taking, whereas individual differences in abilities to create vivid mental images may influence the degree to which more cognitive risk assessments are used in the risk-taking process. PMID:25816238

  18. Sleep and risk-taking behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Erin M; Mindell, Jodi A

    2005-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between adolescents' sleep-wake patterns and risk-taking behavior. A second goal was to replicate the results obtained by Wolfson and Carskadon (1998) regarding adolescents' sleep habits. Three hundred eighty-eight adolescents (217 males, 171 females) completed the Sleep Habits Survey and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The results indicated that adolescents who reported longer weekend delay and higher levels of sleep problems also reported significantly higher levels of risk-taking behaviors, and students' weekend delay was also related to their academic performance in this sample. As in the sample studied by Wolfson and Carskadon (1998), the adolescents in this study exhibited changes in both weekday and weekend sleep habits across grade/age. However in the present study, only school-night total sleep time and weekend delay were related to adolescents' daytime functioning, with no significant relationships being found between weekend oversleep and daytime functioning. This provides partial support for the findings of Wolfson and Carskadon (1998). Overall, sleep-wake patterns were found to relate to risk-taking behavior during adolescence in this study. PMID:15984914

  19. Risk-Taking and the Adolescent Brain: Who Is at Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvan, Adriana; Hare, Todd; Voss, Henning; Glover, Gary; Casey, B. J.

    2007-01-01

    Relative to other ages, adolescence is described as a period of increased impulsive and risk-taking behavior that can lead to fatal outcomes (suicide, substance abuse, HIV, accidents, etc.). This study was designed to examine neural correlates of risk-taking behavior in adolescents, relative to children and adults, in order to predict who may be…

  20. Red Color and Risk-Taking Behavior in Online Environments

    PubMed Central

    Gnambs, Timo; Appel, Markus; Oeberst, Aileen

    2015-01-01

    In many situations red is associated with hazard and danger. As a consequence, it was expected that task-irrelevant color cues in online environments would affect risk-taking behaviors. This assumption was tested in two web-based experiments. The first study (N = 383) demonstrated that in risky choice dilemmas respondents preferred the less risky option when the displayed university logo was in red (versus gray); but only when both choice alternatives were at least moderately risky. The second study (N = 144) replicated these results with a behavioral outcome: Respondents showed more cautious behavior in a web-based game when the focal stimuli were colored red (versus blue). Together, these findings demonstrate that variations in the color design of a computerized environment affect risk taking: Red color leads to more conservative choices and behaviors. PMID:26207983

  1. Superstition, risk-taking and risk perception of accidents among South African taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Renner, Walter

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate taxi drivers' superstition and risk perception of accidents as well as risk-taking in an urban area in South Africa. One hundred and thirty drivers of minibuses, so-called "taxis" were interviewed on the basis of: (1) a superstition scale; (2) a risk-taking scale; (3) a list of perceived causes of road traffic accidents. Drivers showed largely superstitious attitudes and expressed a high degree of risk-taking behavior. Superstition was positively correlated with the number of self-reported accidents the drivers had been involved in and the number of accidents they had witnessed. Path analysis revealed a direct path from superstition to accident involvement while the influence of formal education was negligible. Risk-taking was inversely correlated with driving experience and the number of accidents witnessed but not so with the number of accidents involved in. There was no clear pattern of associations between superstition and risk-taking and perceived causes of accidents. Superstition and risk-taking were slightly and inversely correlated with each other. It is concluded that superstition represents an attitude that is associated with a driver's accident risk, and further research on superstitious attitudes among South African drivers is advocated. PMID:12729825

  2. Acute stress affects risk taking but not ambiguity aversion

    PubMed Central

    Buckert, Magdalena; Schwieren, Christiane; Kudielka, Brigitte M.; Fiebach, Christian J.

    2014-01-01

    Economic decisions are often made in stressful situations (e.g., at the trading floor), but the effects of stress on economic decision making have not been systematically investigated so far. The present study examines how acute stress influences economic decision making under uncertainty (risk and ambiguity) using financially incentivized lotteries. We varied the domain of decision making as well as the expected value of the risky prospect. Importantly, no feedback was provided to investigate risk taking and ambiguity aversion independent from learning processes. In a sample of 75 healthy young participants, 55 of whom underwent a stress induction protocol (Trier Social Stress Test for Groups), we observed more risk seeking for gains. This effect was restricted to a subgroup of participants that showed a robust cortisol response to acute stress (n = 26). Gambling under ambiguity, in contrast to gambling under risk, was not influenced by the cortisol response to stress. These results show that acute psychosocial stress affects economic decision making under risk, independent of learning processes. Our results further point to the importance of cortisol as a mediator of this effect. PMID:24834024

  3. Predicting women's alcohol risk-taking while abroad.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gabie; Klein, Sarah

    2010-05-01

    Numerous studies have examined risk factors that are associated with heavy alcohol use; however, much of this research has not addressed factors that specifically relate to women's alcohol use. The current study has extended the previous literature on women's alcohol-use behavior by examining factors associated with risky drinking in young women traveling abroad (n = 55). Using a pretest-posttest design, we examined the influence of disinhibition sensation-seeking and endorsement of social enhancement alcohol expectancies in relation to participation in risky alcohol use while abroad for three weeks. Analyses confirmed that disinhibition sensation-seeking and social enhancement alcohol expectancies were associated with participation in risky alcohol-use behaviors while abroad (controlling for alcohol-use at the pretest). Analysis of qualitative data reinforced the importance of social facilitation in women's alcohol risk-taking. Participants' qualitative data also emphasized characteristics of situational disinhibition relating to travel as well as culturally-specific motivations for alcohol-use behaviors. Further research examining women's personal need for disinhibition and the role of situational disinhibition in motivating alcohol risk-taking is warranted. In addition, the current findings suggest that interventions focusing on the connections between alcohol use and enhancement of social relationships and the potential isolating effects of non-use are necessary. PMID:20512745

  4. Risk perception and risk-taking behavior of construction site dumper drivers.

    PubMed

    Bohm, Jonathan; Harris, Don

    2010-01-01

    In the UK construction site dumpers cause more serious accidents than any other type of construction plant. Previous research has indicated that driver behavior plays a pivotal role in the vast majority of these accidents. This study used a paired comparison technique to explore dumper drivers' and subject matter experts' (SMEs') risk perception and its relationship to risk-taking behavior. It was found that driver risk perception significantly differed from measures of "objective risk", derived from accident data and also from SMEs' risk perception. Furthermore, drivers still engaged in undertaking perceived high risk behaviors. The results suggest that driver risk perception was linked to the "perceived dread" of an accident, rather than its likelihood and that risk-taking behavior was often driven by situational factors, such as site safety rules or the behavior of other personnel on the site, together with an overarching culture that prioritizes production over safety. PMID:20331919

  5. Risk Taking: A Required Competency for Merger, Acquisitions, and Partnerships.

    PubMed

    Trepanier, Sylvain; Crenshaw, Jeannette T; Yoder-Wise, Patricia S

    2016-01-01

    Today's nurse executive is likely to find himself or herself in the middle of a merger, acquisition, and/or partnership (MAP). This is the result of health care agencies vying for market share in the midst of stiff competition, as well as decreased reimbursement in a rapidly changing payment system. The phenomenon of MAPs is fueled by the focus on care coordination and population health management. To be prepared for the ongoing and increasing MAP activity, nurse executives need to develop the skill of risk taking as an essential competency for leading change. This article emphasizes the need to maintain and improve health care quality and patient safety. PMID:27584889

  6. Acute Stress Modulates Risk Taking in Financial Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Porcelli, Anthony J.; Delgado, Mauricio R.

    2016-01-01

    People’s decisions are often susceptible to various demands exerted by the environment, leading to stressful conditions. Although a goal for researchers is to elucidate stress-coping mechanisms to facilitate decision-making processes, it is important to first understand the interaction between the state created by a stressful environment and how decisions are performed in such environments. The objective of this experiment was to probe the impact of exposure to acute stress on financial decision-making and examine the particular influence of stress on decisions with a positive or negative valence. Participants’ choices exhibited a stronger reflection effect when participants were under stress than when they were in the no-stress control phase. This suggests that stress modulates risk taking, potentially exacerbating behavioral bias in subsequent decision making. Consistent with dual-process approaches, decision makers fall back on automatized reactions to risk under the influence of disruptive stress. PMID:19207694

  7. Rare disaster information can increase risk-taking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, Ben R.; Rakow, Tim; Yechiam, Eldad; Sambur, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The recent increase in the frequency and impact of natural disasters highlights the need to provide the public with accurate information concerning disaster prevalence. Most approaches to this problem assume that providing summaries of the nature and scale of disasters will lead people to reduce their exposure to risk. Here we present experimental evidence that such ex post `news reports’ of disaster occurrences can increase the tolerance for risk-taking (which implies that rare events are underweighted). This result is robust across several hundred rounds of choices in a simulated microworld, persists even when the long-run expected value of risky choices is substantially lower than safe choices, and is contingent on providing risk information about disasters that have been (personally) experienced and those that have been avoided (`forgone’ outcomes). The results suggest that augmenting personal experience with information summaries of the number of adverse events (for example, storms, floods) in different regions may, paradoxically, increase the appeal of a disaster-prone region. This finding implies a need to communicate long-term trends in severe climatic events, thereby reinforcing the accumulation of events, and the increase in their associated risks, across time.

  8. Pathways to Sexual Risk Taking Among Female Adolescent Detainees

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Vera; Kopak, Albert; Robillard, Alyssa; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Holliday, Rhonda C.; Braithwaite, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual risk taking among female delinquents represents a significant public health problem. Research is needed to understand the pathways leading to sexual risk taking among this population. This study sought to address this issue by identifying and testing two pathways from child maltreatment to non-condom use among 329 White and 484 African American female adolescent detainees: a relational pathway and a substance use coping pathway. The relational pathway indicated that child maltreatment would be related to non-condom use via depressive self-concept and condom use self-efficacy. The substance use coping pathway suggested that depressive self-concept and alcohol-based expectancies for sexual enhancement would mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and non-condom use. As hypothesized, the relational pathway variables were associated with one another in the expected directions; however, evidence of mediation was not found. Support for mediation was found for the substance use coping pathway. Exploratory across group comparison analysis indicated that the relational pathway was significant for White girls whereas the substance use coping pathway was significant for African American girls. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed. PMID:21188488

  9. Insurance World in Transition: Changes in Global Risk Taking and Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Gero; Tiampo, Kristy

    2015-04-01

    Catastrophe insurance risk assessment, risk taking, and regulation has evolved over the last 20 years and is gearing up for significant further change in the years ahead. Changes in regulation and influx of capital have put profit margins for catastrophe risk products under pressure despite the fact that changes in climate as well as increasing insurance penetration is expected to heighten demand. As a result, reinsurance strategies are moving away from catastrophe risk. In addition, lower margins require cheaper and more efficient risk assessment methods and processes which are contrary to evolving analytical tools and methods that had increased expenses in line with growing margins over the last decade. New capital providers are less familiar with and less willing to accept complex supply chains for risk management, relationship-driven business and tedious data exchange and management processes. Risk takers claim new measures and ask for more flexibility in the use of tools. The current concepts of catastrophe insurance risk assessment are hence under thorough scrutiny. This presentation deals with the changing landscape in catastrophe insurance risk assessment and risk hedging and discusses changes in catastrophe risk assessment products and demand. How likely is it that private, small and nimble hazard and risk consulting groups - increasingly emanating from larger science organizations - will replace large established firms in their role to assess risk? What role do public-private academic partnerships play in assuming risk for catastrophe insurance and what role could they play in the future? What are the opportunities and downsides of the current changes in risk taking and hedging? What is needed from the scientific community in order to fill the gaps in risk management and who is likely to take advantage of the current changes?

  10. Who Takes Risks in High-Risk Sports? A Typological Personality Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castanier, Carole; Le Scanff, Christine; Woodman, Tim

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the risk-taking behaviors of 302 men involved in high-risk sports (downhill skiing, mountaineering, rock climbing, paragliding, or skydiving). The sportsmen were classified using a typological approach to personality based on eight personality types, which were constructed from combinations of neuroticism, extraversion, and…

  11. The Benefits of Risk: Teaching Entrepreneurs-to-Be about Risk-Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz-Walters, Rowena

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on an innovative way to actively teach risk-taking to students majoring in entrepreneurship. Specifically, students completed a "Fundraising" assignment that involved different degrees of risk. Below, the qualitative experiences of students in one undergraduate class are shared. Additional, results of a short questionnaire…

  12. Who takes risks in high-risk sports? A typological personality approach.

    PubMed

    Castanier, Carole; Le Scanff, Christine; Woodman, Tim

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the risk-taking behaviors of 302 men involved in high-risk sports (downhill skiing mountaineering rock climbing, paragliding, or skydiving). The sportsmen were classified using a typological approach to personality based on eight personality types, which were constructed from combinations of neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness. Results showed that personality types with a configuration of low conscientiousness combined with high extraversion and/or high neuroticism (impulsive, hedonistic, insecure) were greater risk-takers. Conversely, personality types with a configuration of high conscientiousness combined with low extraversion and/or high extraversion (skeptic, brooder, entrepreneur) were lower risk-takers. Results are discussed in the context of typology and other approaches to understanding who takes risks in high-risk domains. PMID:21268472

  13. Romance, risk, and replication: Can consumer choices and risk-taking be primed by mating motives?

    PubMed

    Shanks, David R; Vadillo, Miguel A; Riedel, Benjamin; Clymo, Ashley; Govind, Sinita; Hickin, Nisha; Tamman, Amanda J F; Puhlmann, Lara M C

    2015-12-01

    Interventions aimed at influencing spending behavior and risk-taking have considerable practical importance. A number of studies motivated by the costly signaling theory within evolutionary psychology have reported that priming inductions (such as looking at pictures of attractive opposite sex members) designed to trigger mating motives increase males' stated willingness to purchase conspicuous consumption items and to engage in risk-taking behaviors, and reduce loss aversion. However, a meta-analysis of this literature reveals strong evidence of either publication bias or p-hacking (or both). We then report 8 studies with a total sample of over 1,600 participants which sought to reproduce these effects. None of the studies, including one that was fully preregistered, was successful. The results question the claim that romantic primes can influence risk-taking and other potentially harmful behaviors. PMID:26501730

  14. A Longitudinal Study of Risk-Taking Behavior in Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, John K.; Willoughby, Teena

    2010-01-01

    Risk taking may be regarded as a normative behavior in adolescence. Risk-taking behaviors may include alcohol, smoking, drug use, delinquency, and acts of aggression. Many studies have explored the relationship between adolescents and risk-taking behavior; however, only a few studies have examined this link in adolescents with learning…

  15. Adolescent Risk-Taking: Integrating Personal, Cognitive, and Social Aspects of Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Ty W.; Byrnes, James P.

    2009-01-01

    Developmental research has examined individual differences, cognitive developmental bases, and psychosocial factors of adolescent risk-taking. The current paper presents a general adolescent risk-taking model that adopts aspects of each of these primarily independent areas. This model is based on the premise that adolescents take risks when (a)…

  16. Gender Differences in Adolescent Risk Taking: Are They Diminishing?--An Australian Intergenerational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott-Chapman, Joan; Denholm, Carey; Wyld, Colin

    2008-01-01

    Research investigating patterns of intergenerational risk taking has produced evidence of increased risk taking of female adolescents compared with their mother's generation and a reduction in the traditional gap between levels of teenage male and female risk taking. The research is part of a larger, multistage project on factors affecting…

  17. Brief Report: Risk-Taking Behaviors in a Non-Western Urban Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayar, Nalan; Sayil, Melike

    2005-01-01

    This study analyzes the age and gender related risk-taking behaviors of Turkish adolescents in an urban sample. A self-report risk taking scale was administered to 280 adolescents between the ages of 12-21. Results revealed that both the type and the frequency of risk-taking behaviors were changed according to age and gender. All risky behaviors…

  18. Why Risk Irrelevance? A Translational Research Model for Adolescent Risk-Taking Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Erica; Allen, Reg; Hogan, David; Martinez, Carissa

    2008-01-01

    Framed by the literature on research-policy transfer, this paper explores a "real world" task of translating adolescent risk-taking data into "whole-of-system" services development. It aims to explore challenges and opportunities in using large-N quantitative data analyses of such complex constructs to inform holistic policy-making. It offers a…

  19. Eveningness is associated with higher risk-taking, independent of sex and personality.

    PubMed

    Ponzi, Davide; Wilson, M Claire; Maestripieri, Dario

    2014-12-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that eveningness is associated with higher risk-taking propensities across different domains of risk and that this association is not the result of sex differences or confounding covariation with particular personality traits. Study participants were 172 men and women between 20 and 40 years of age. Surveys assessed chronotype, domain-specific risk-taking and risk-perception, and Big Five personality dimensions. Eveningness was associated with greater general risk-taking in the specific domains of financial, ethical, and recreational decision making. Although risk-taking was associated with both risk perception and some personality dimensions, eveningness predicted risk-taking independent of these factors. Higher risk-taking propensities among evening types may be causally or functionally linked to their propensities for sensation- and novelty-seeking, impulsivity, and sexual promiscuity. PMID:25457099

  20. Risky Business: Exploring Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tammy Jordan; Peterson, Fred L.

    2005-01-01

    Ongoing behavioral research has documented the growing prevalence of adolescent health risk behaviors, such as tobacco use, sexual activity, alcohol and other substance use, nutritional behavior, physical inactivity, and intentional injury. Newer youth risk behaviors, such as pathological gambling, are emerging as threats to public health. Risk,…

  1. Energy production risks: what perspective should we take

    SciTech Connect

    Whipple, C.

    1981-03-01

    The controversy over energy-production risks is in part due to uncertainties and disagree- ments over the specification of these systems and their characteristics and in part due to the lack of a solid conceptual framework for comparisons between qualitatively different types of risks. The difficulties in specifying energy risks arise primarily from the necessity of using oversimplified descriptions of energy systems and their effects. The major simplifications include the use of marginal analysis (even when inappropriate), the omission of indirect risks, and the incorrect specification of the systems to be analyzed. Comparisons between qualita- tively different risks are hampered by the lack of a solid basis for treating occupational risks relative to public risks, catastrophic risks versus chronic risks, and risks distributed differently in time. The difficult problems encountered when social values relating to risk change rapidly lead to delay and indecision. The choice of analytical simplifications and the specification of values systems for energy analysis are best made by considering the context and application of the analysis.

  2. Evaluation of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) as a Predictor of Adolescent Real-World Risk-Taking Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejuez, C. W.; Aklin, Will M.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Pedulla, Christina M.

    2003-01-01

    A sample of 26 adolescents tested the utility of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) as a behavioral measure of risk-taking propensity. Data indicate that riskyness on the BART was related to self-reported engagement in real-world risk-taking behaviors. These data suggest that the BART may be a useful addition to self-report batteries for the…

  3. In Their Own Words: Adolescents Strategies to Prevent Friend's Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Lisa; Chapman, Rebekah L.; Sheehan, Mary C.; Reveruzzi, Bianca N.

    2014-01-01

    Injury is a significant public health problem among youth. A primary cause of adolescent injury is risk-taking behavior, including alcohol use, interpersonal violence and road-related risks. A novel approach to prevention is building on friendships by encouraging adolescents to intervene into their friends' risk taking. Fifty-one early…

  4. Social Support as a Factor Inhibiting Teenage Risk-Taking: Views of Students, Parents and Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott-Chapman, Joan; Denholm, Carey; Wyld, Colin

    2008-01-01

    A large-scale study conducted in Tasmania, Australia, of teenage risk-taking across 26 potentially harmful risk activities has examined a range of factors that encourage or inhibit risk-taking. Among these factors, the degree of social and professional support the teenage students say they would access for personal, study or health problems has…

  5. Risk-Taking and Reasons for Living in Non-Clinical Italian University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pompili, Maurizio; Lester, David; Innamorati, Marco; Narciso, Valentina; Vento, Alessandro; De Pisa, Eleonora; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    The associations between risk-taking, hopelessness, and reasons for living were explored in a sample of 312 Italian students. Respondents completed the Physical Risk Assessment Inventory, the Physical Risk-Taking Behavior Inventory, the Beck Hopelessness Scale, and the Reasons for Living Inventory. Students with lower scores on the Reasons for…

  6. The Development of Risk-Taking: A Multi-Perspective Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Ty W.

    2006-01-01

    The current paper reviews four research perspectives that have been used to investigate the development of risk-taking. Cognitive developmental research has investigated the development of decision-making capacities that potentially underlie risk-taking development, including sensitivity to risk, probability estimation, and perceptions of…

  7. Adolescent Risk Taking, Cocaine Self-Administration, and Striatal Dopamine Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Marci R; Weiss, Virginia G; Beas, B Sofia; Morgan, Drake; Bizon, Jennifer L; Setlow, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Poor decision making and elevated risk taking, particularly during adolescence, have been strongly linked to drug use; however the causal relationships among these factors are not well understood. To address these relationships, a rat model (the Risky Decision-making Task; RDT) was used to determine whether individual differences in risk taking during adolescence predict later propensity for cocaine self-administration and/or whether cocaine self-administration causes alterations in risk taking. In addition, the RDT was used to determine how risk taking is modulated by dopamine signaling, particularly in the striatum. Results from these experiments indicated that greater risk taking during adolescence predicted greater intake of cocaine during acquisition of self-administration in adulthood, and that adult cocaine self-administration in turn caused elevated risk taking that was present following 6 weeks of abstinence. Greater adolescent risk taking was associated with lower striatal D2 receptor mRNA expression, and pharmacological activation of D2/3 receptors in the ventral, but not dorsal, striatum induced a decrease in risk taking. These findings indicate that the relationship between elevated risk taking and cocaine self-administration is bi-directional, and that low striatal D2 receptor expression may represent a predisposing factor for both maladaptive decision making and cocaine use. Furthermore, these findings suggest that striatal D2 receptors represent a therapeutic target for attenuating maladaptive decision making when choices include risk of adverse consequences. PMID:24145852

  8. Adolescent risk taking, cocaine self-administration, and striatal dopamine signaling.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Marci R; Weiss, Virginia G; Beas, B Sofia; Morgan, Drake; Bizon, Jennifer L; Setlow, Barry

    2014-03-01

    Poor decision making and elevated risk taking, particularly during adolescence, have been strongly linked to drug use; however the causal relationships among these factors are not well understood. To address these relationships, a rat model (the Risky Decision-making Task; RDT) was used to determine whether individual differences in risk taking during adolescence predict later propensity for cocaine self-administration and/or whether cocaine self-administration causes alterations in risk taking. In addition, the RDT was used to determine how risk taking is modulated by dopamine signaling, particularly in the striatum. Results from these experiments indicated that greater risk taking during adolescence predicted greater intake of cocaine during acquisition of self-administration in adulthood, and that adult cocaine self-administration in turn caused elevated risk taking that was present following 6 weeks of abstinence. Greater adolescent risk taking was associated with lower striatal D2 receptor mRNA expression, and pharmacological activation of D2/3 receptors in the ventral, but not dorsal, striatum induced a decrease in risk taking. These findings indicate that the relationship between elevated risk taking and cocaine self-administration is bi-directional, and that low striatal D2 receptor expression may represent a predisposing factor for both maladaptive decision making and cocaine use. Furthermore, these findings suggest that striatal D2 receptors represent a therapeutic target for attenuating maladaptive decision making when choices include risk of adverse consequences. PMID:24145852

  9. Risk-taking and decision-making in youth: relationships to addiction vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Balogh, Kornelia N.; Mayes, Linda C.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Decision-making and risk-taking behavior undergo developmental changes during adolescence. Disadvantageous decision-making and increased risk-taking may lead to problematic behaviors such as substance use and abuse, pathological gambling and excessive internet use. Methods Based on MEDLINE searches, this article reviews the literature on decision-making and risk-taking and their relationship to addiction vulnerability in youth. Results Decision-making and risk-taking behaviors involve brain areas that undergoing developmental changes during puberty and young adulthood. Individual differences and peer pressure also relate importantly to decision-making and risk-taking. Conclusions Brain-based changes in emotional, motivational and cognitive processing may underlie risk-taking and decision-making propensities in adolescence, making this period a time of heightened vulnerability for engagement in additive behaviors. PMID:24294500

  10. Radon and lung cancer risk: taking stock at the millenium.

    PubMed Central

    Samet, J M; Eradze, G R

    2000-01-01

    Radon is a well-established human carcinogen for which extensive data are available, extending into the range of exposures experienced by the general population. Mounting epidemiologic evidence on radon and lung cancer risk, now available from more than 20 different studies of underground miners and complementary laboratory findings, indicates that risks are linear in exposure without threshold. Radon is also a ubiquitous indoor air pollutant in homes, and risk projections imply that radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. Recommended control strategies in the United States and other countries, which include testing of most homes and mitigation of those exceeding guideline levels, have been controversial. Further research is needed, drawing on molecular and cellular approaches and continuing the follow-up of the underground miner cohorts, and scientists should work toward constructing mechanistically based models that combine epidemiologic and experimental data to yield risk estimates with enhanced certainty. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10931781

  11. Risk taking and effective R&D management.

    PubMed

    Banholzer, William F; Vosejpka, Laura J

    2011-01-01

    Several key strategies can be used to manage the risk associated with innovation to create maximum value. These include balancing the timing of investments versus cash flows, management of fads, prioritization across the company, savvy portfolio management, and a system of metrics that measure real success. Successful R&D managers will do whatever is necessary to manage the risks associated with an R&D program and stick to their long-term strategy. PMID:22432615

  12. Rutgers Young Horse Teaching and Research Program: sustainability of taking a risk with "at risk" horses.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Sarah L; Molnar, Anne

    2012-12-01

    In 1999, the Young Horse Teaching and Research Program (YHTRP) was initiated at Rutgers University. The unique aspect of the program was using horses generally considered "at risk" and in need of rescue, but of relatively low value. The risks of using horses from pregnant mare urine (PMU) ranches and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) mustangs were high, but, ultimately, unrealized. No students or staff members were seriously injured over the course of the next 12 yr, and the horses were sold annually as highly desirable potential athletes or pleasure horses, usually at a profit. The use of "at risk" horses generated a significant amount of positive media attention and attracted substantial funding in the form of donations and sponsorships, averaging over $60,000 (USD)per year. Despite economic downturns, public and industry support provided sustainability for the program with only basic University infrastructural support. Taking the risk of using "at risk" horses paid off, with positive outcomes for all. PMID:22767092

  13. Longitudinal Changes in Prefrontal Cortex Activation Underlie Declines in Adolescent Risk Taking

    PubMed Central

    Galvan, Adriana; Fuligni, Andrew J.; Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical developmental phase during which risk-taking behaviors increase across a variety of species, raising the importance of understanding how brain changes contribute to such behaviors. While the prefrontal cortex is thought to influence adolescent risk taking, the specific ways in which it functions are unclear. Using longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging in human adolescents, we found that ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) activation decreased during an experimental risk-taking task over time, with greater declines in VLPFC associated with greater declines in self-reported risky behavior. Furthermore, greater decreases in functional coupling between the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and ventral striatum over time were associated with decreases in self-reported risky behavior. Thus, disparate roles of the VLPFC and MPFC modulate longitudinal declines in adolescent risk taking. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Adolescence is a developmental period marked by steep increases in risk-taking behavior coupled with dramatic brain changes. Although theories propose that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) may influence adolescent risk taking, the specific ways in which it functions remain unclear. We report the first longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study to examine how neural activation during risk taking changes over time and contributes to adolescents' real-life risk-taking behavior. We find that longitudinal declines in activation of the ventrolateral PFC are linked to declines in adolescent risk taking, whereas the medial PFC influences adolescent risk taking via its functional neural coupling with reward-related regions. This is the first study to identify the mechanism by which different regions of the PFC disparately contribute to declines in risk taking. PMID:26269638

  14. Regulatory Mode and Risk-Taking: The Mediating Role of Anticipated Regret

    PubMed Central

    Panno, Angelo; Lauriola, Marco; Pierro, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    We propose that decision maker’s regulatory mode affects risk-taking through anticipated regret. In the Study 1 either a locomotion or an assessment orientation were experimentally induced, and in the Studies 2 and 3 these different orientations were assessed as chronic individual differences. To assess risk-taking we used two behavioral measures of risk: BART and hot-CCT. The results show that experimentally induced assessment orientation–compared to locomotion–leads to decreased risk-taking through increased anticipated regret (Study 1). People chronically predisposed to be in the assessment state take less risk through increased anticipated regret (Study 2 and Study 3). Study 2 results also show a marginally non-significant indirect effect of chronic locomotion mode on BART through anticipated regret. Differently, Study 3 shows that people chronically predisposed to be in the locomotion state take greater risk through decreased anticipated regret, when play a dynamic risk task triggering stronger emotional arousal. Through all three studies, the average effect size for the relationship of assessment with anticipated regret was in the moderate-large range, whereas for risk-taking was in the moderate range. The average effect size for the relationship of locomotion with anticipated regret was in the moderate range, whereas for risk-taking was in the small-moderate range. These results increase our understanding of human behavior under conditions of risk obtaining novel insights into regulatory mode theory and decision science. PMID:26580960

  15. Risks worth Taking: Safety Agreements among Discordant Gay Couples

    PubMed Central

    Beougher, Sean C.; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Garcia, Carla C.; Darbes, Lynae A.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Hoff, Colleen C.

    2012-01-01

    As HIV research and prevention efforts increasingly target gay men in relationships, situational factors such as couple serostatus and agreements about sex become central to examinations of risk. Discordant gay couples are of particular interest because the risk of HIV infection is seemingly near-at-hand. Yet little is known about their sexual behaviors, agreements about sex, and safer sex efforts. The present study utilized longitudinal semi-structured, qualitative interviews to explore these issues among 12 discordant couples. Findings show that nearly every couple had agreements about reducing the likelihood of HIV transmission from one partner to the other. Negotiating these agreements involved establishing a level of acceptable risk, determining condom use, and employing other risk-reduction techniques, such as seropositioning and withdrawal. For half of the couples, these agreements did not involve using condoms; only two couples reported consistent condom use. Despite forgoing condoms, however, none reported seroconversion over the course of data collection. Additional issues are raised where long-term HIV prevention is concerned. Future prevention efforts with discordant couples should work with, rather than fight against, the couple’s decision to use condoms and endeavor to complement and accentuate their other safer sex efforts. PMID:22292838

  16. Taking a Risk to Develop Reflective Skills in Business Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackay, Margaret; Tymon, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Critical reflection can support alternative decision-making in business practice. This paper examines the effectiveness of a risk-based pedagogy to engage practitioners in reflective thinking. Educators adopting a radical pedagogy in professionally accredited programmes face multiple challenges: learners often resist the process of self-reflection…

  17. Teen Risk-Taking: Promising Prevention Programs and Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Marvin; Pallitto, Christina; Bradner, Carolyn; Bolshun, Natalya

    This guidebook explores some of the practical issues associated with finding, choosing, and starting potentially effective prevention programs for at-risk preteens and teens. The guidebook is based on a study of 51 intervention programs that identified elements and delivery mechanisms that were associated with their effectiveness. A closer look at…

  18. Student Drug Use, Risk-Taking and Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Beatrice A.; Ewing, John A.

    This study seeks: (1) to detect whether an increase in drug use occurred in the two years since a previous similar study; (2) to determine the kinds and levels of risk which the students associated with the nonprescription use of various drugs; and (3) to examine the extent to which the marihuana groups showed alienation. The study drew a…

  19. Behavioral Approach System Sensitivity and Risk Taking Interact to Predict Left-Frontal EEG Asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Black, Chelsea L.; Goldstein, Kim E.; LaBelle, Denise R.; Brown, Christopher W.; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2014-01-01

    The Behavioral Approach System (BAS) hypersensitivity theory of bipolar disorder (BD; Alloy & Abramson, 2010; Depue & Iacono, 1989) suggests that hyperreactivity in the BAS results in the extreme fluctuations of mood characteristic of BD. In addition to risk conferred by BAS hypersensitivity, cognitive and personality variables may play a role in determining risk. We evaluated relationships among BAS sensitivity, risk taking, and an electrophysiological correlate of approach motivation, relative left-frontal electroencephalography (EEG) asymmetry. BAS sensitivity moderated the relationship between risk taking and EEG asymmetry. More specifically, individuals who were high in BAS sensitivity showed left-frontal EEG asymmetry regardless of their level of risk-taking behavior. However, among individuals who were moderate in BAS sensitivity, risk taking was positively associated with asymmetry. These findings suggest that cognitive and personality correlates of bipolar risk may evidence unique contributions to a neural measure of trait-approach motivation. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25022775

  20. Behavioral approach system sensitivity and risk taking interact to predict left-frontal EEG asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Black, Chelsea L; Goldstein, Kim E; LaBelle, Denise R; Brown, Christopher W; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2014-09-01

    The Behavioral Approach System (BAS) hypersensitivity theory of bipolar disorder (BD; Alloy & Abramson, 2010; Depue & Iacono, 1989) suggests that hyperreactivity in the BAS results in the extreme fluctuations of mood characteristic of BD. In addition to risk conferred by BAS hypersensitivity, cognitive and personality variables may play a role in determining risk. We evaluated relationships among BAS sensitivity, risk taking, and an electrophysiological correlate of approach motivation, relative left-frontal electroencephalography (EEG) asymmetry. BAS sensitivity moderated the relationship between risk taking and EEG asymmetry. More specifically, individuals who were high in BAS sensitivity showed left-frontal EEG asymmetry regardless of their level of risk-taking behavior. However, among individuals who were moderate in BAS sensitivity, risk taking was positively associated with asymmetry. These findings suggest that cognitive and personality correlates of bipolar risk may evidence unique contributions to a neural measure of trait-approach motivation. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25022775

  1. Taking Stock and Taking Steps: The Case for an Adolescent Version of the Short-Assessment of Risk and Treatability

    PubMed Central

    Viljoen, Jodi L.; Cruise, Keith R.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Desmarais, Sarah L.; Webster, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The field of violence risk assessment has matured considerably, possibly advancing beyond its own adolescence. At this point in the field’s evolution, it is more important than ever for the development of any new device to be accompanied by a strong rationale and the capacity to provide a unique contribution. With this issue in mind, we first take stock of the field of adolescent risk assessment in order to describe the rapid progress that this field has made, as well as the gaps that led us to adapt the Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START; Webster, Martin, Brink, Nicholls, & Desmarais, 2009) for use with adolescents. We view the Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability: Adolescent Version (START:AV; Nicholls, Viljoen, Cruise, Desmarais, & Webster, 2010; Viljoen, Cruise, Nicholls, Desmarais, & Webster, in progress) as complementing other risk measures in four primary ways: 1) rather than focusing solely on violence risk, it examines broader adverse outcomes to which some adolescents are vulnerable (including self-harm, suicide, victimization, substance abuse, unauthorized leave, self-neglect, general offending); 2) it places a balanced emphasis on adolescents’ strengths; 3) it focuses on dynamic factors that are relevant to short-term assessment, risk management, and treatment planning; and 4) it is designed for both mental health and justice populations. We describe the developmentally-informed approach we took in the adaptation of the START for adolescents, and outline future steps for the continuing validation and refinement of the START:AV. PMID:23436982

  2. Does the Adolescent Brain Make Risk Taking Inevitable? A Skeptical Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Males, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly influential theories hold that the "teenage brain" suffers cognitive flaws that impel risk taking. Aside from warnings by leading researchers that brain science is insufficiently advanced to yield definitive findings that teenage behaviors are internally driven, the belief that adolescents take excessive risks has been developed using…

  3. Brief Report: Classification of Adolescent Suicide and Risk-Taking Deaths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sankey, Melissa; Lawrence, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the suicide and risk-taking deaths of adolescents aged 12-17 years between January 1996 and December 2000. The methodology consisted of a case file review of government records. One hundred and eighty-seven adolescents (133 males, 54 females) died by suicide and risk-taking and could be classified into three distinct groups:…

  4. Are Tattooing and Body Piercing Indicators of Risk-Taking Behaviours among High School Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschesnes, Marthe; Fines, Phillipe; Demers, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To date, studies pertaining to possible links between body modification and risk-taking behaviours have been conducted mainly among targeted groups. The objective of this study is to examine the influence of a number of risk-taking behaviours on the probability of being pierced or tattooed among a general adolescent population. Methods:…

  5. Risk-Taking among Adolescents: Associations with Social and Affective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Keren; Ben-Zur, Hasida

    2007-01-01

    The research investigated the associations of social and affective factors with risk-taking in male and female adolescents. A sample of 269 Israeli adolescents completed questionnaires measuring frequency of involvement in risk-taking behaviours, relationships with parents, orientation towards peer group, depressive mood, and aggressive behaviour.…

  6. The Association of Childhood Personality on Sexual Risk Taking during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Background: Sexual risk taking during adolescence such as failure to use contraception or condoms is associated with premature parenthood and high rates of sexually transmitted infection. The relation of childhood personality to sexual risk taking during adolescence has been largely unexplored. Methods: Using data collected from participants in…

  7. Social Science Theories on Adolescent Risk-Taking: The Relevance of Behavioral Inhibition and Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeersch, Hans; T'Sjoen, Guy; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    The major social science theories on adolescent risk-taking--strain, social control, and differential association theories--have received substantial empirical support. The relationships between variables central to these theories and individual differences in temperament related to risk-taking, however, have not been adequately studied. In a…

  8. Peers Increase Adolescent Risk Taking Even When the Probabilities of Negative Outcomes Are Known

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ashley R.; Chein, Jason; Steinberg, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    The majority of adolescent risk taking occurs in the presence of peers, and recent research suggests that the presence of peers may alter how the potential rewards and costs of a decision are valuated or perceived. The current study further explores this notion by investigating how peer observation affects adolescent risk taking when the…

  9. Peers Increase Adolescent Risk Taking by Enhancing Activity in the Brain's Reward Circuitry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chein, Jason; Albert, Dustin; O'Brien, Lia; Uckert, Kaitlyn; Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    The presence of peers increases risk taking among adolescents but not adults. We posited that the presence of peers may promote adolescent risk taking by sensitizing brain regions associated with the anticipation of potential rewards. Using fMRI, we measured brain activity in adolescents, young adults, and adults as they made decisions in a…

  10. Does Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predict Risk-Taking and Medical Illnesses in Adulthood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos Olazagasti, Maria A.; Klein, Rachel G.; Mannuzza, Salvatore; Belsky, Erica Roizen; Hutchison, Jesse A.; Lashua-Shriftman, Erin C.; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To test whether children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), free of conduct disorder (CD) in childhood (mean = 8 years), have elevated risk-taking, accidents, and medical illnesses in adulthood (mean = 41 years); whether development of CD influences risk-taking during adulthood; and whether exposure to…

  11. Political Risk-Taking: Leading Literacy Education in an Era of High-Stakes Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ylimaki, Rose M.

    2005-01-01

    In the current accountability environment, many school districts have mandated test preparation courses, canned programs, and otherwise limited teacher risk-taking in all but very high-performing schools. This article further suggests that extant literature on risk-taking as part of educational change is no longer sufficient for understanding…

  12. Supporting the Development of Risk-Taking Behaviours in the Early Years: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Jane; Begley, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    Children's opportunities for independent play in natural outdoor spaces, and the associated opportunities to take and negotiate risk, are being eroded despite potential links between such play and the development of positive learning dispositions. This paper reports the findings of an exploratory study that documented the risk-taking behaviours…

  13. Applying Decision-Making Approaches to Health Risk-Taking Behaviors: Progress and Remaining Challenges.

    PubMed

    Cho; Keller; Cooper

    1999-06-01

    This paper critically examines how risk-taking behaviors can be modeled from a decision-making perspective. We first review several applications of a decision perspective to the study of risk-taking behaviors, including studies that investigate consequence generation and the components of the overall utility (i.e., consequence, desirability, and likelihood) of risk-taking and studies that investigate the validity of two decision-oriented models (subjective expected utility and the theory of reasoned action) in predicting risk-taking behaviors. We then discuss challenges in modeling risk-taking behaviors from a decision-making perspective. These challenges include (i) finding the factors that are necessary to improve the predictability of models, (ii) difficulties in eliciting the individual components of overall utility, and (iii) incorporating overall utility changes over time. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10366518

  14. Phobic disorder, psychotherapy, and risk-taking: an economic perspective.

    PubMed

    Yaniv, G

    1998-04-01

    Phobic disorders are receiving much attention in psychiatric practice today. Agoraphobia, the most common of the phobic disorders, involves the risk of experiencing a panic attack in public places, thus discouraging the worker from fully participating in the labor market. This paper applies the economic tools of rational choice under uncertainty to the analysis of agoraphobia, with the purpose of gaining more insight as regards the extent of deviation from normal work behavior (which presumably responds to incentives) and the effectiveness of psychotherapy in treating work-avoidance, challenging the popular claim that the cost of psychotherapy helps ensure its success. PMID:10180917

  15. Chinese drivers' risky driving and risk taking in other life situations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2011-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to investigate Chinese drivers' preferences to risk-taking behaviors encountered in daily life, including safety and health, finance, recreation, social areas, and ethics. The second aim was to evaluate the association between Chinese risky driving and other risk-taking behaviors. A questionnaire survey was conducted with the 324 Chinese drivers who responded. Through a principal component analysis an 8-factor structure was created to interpret different domains of risk-taking behaviors. They were risks in driving, ethics, recreation, gambling, abused health (voluntarily engaging in smoking and binge drinking), investment, ignored health (ignoring personal health, such as eating expired food), and monetary social areas. The result of multiple regression analysis showed that drivers who were likely to engage in driving risks were also likely to take risks in domains of ethics, abused health, gambling, investment, recreation, and ignored health. PMID:21679667

  16. Personality, sexuality, and substance use as predictors of sexual risk taking in college students.

    PubMed

    Turchik, Jessica A; Garske, John P; Probst, Danielle R; Irvin, Clinton R

    2010-09-01

    Sexual risk taking among college students is common and can lead to serious consequences, such as unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections. This study utilized responses from 310 undergraduate psychology students aged 18 to 23 to examine personality, sexuality, and substance use predictors of sexual risk behaviors over a six-month period. Data were collected from 2005 to 2006 at a medium-sized Midwestern U.S. university. Results indicated that greater alcohol and recreational drug use, higher extraversion, and lower agreeableness were related to sexual risk taking in men. For women, greater alcohol and drug use, higher sexual excitation, and lower sexual inhibition were predictive of sexual risk taking. Among women, but not men, sensation seeking was found to mediate the relationship between the four significant substance use, personality, and sexuality variables and sexual risk taking. Implications for sexual risk behavior prevention and intervention programming are discussed. PMID:19711220

  17. Temperamental exuberance and executive function predict propensity for risk-taking in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Lahat, Ayelet; Degnan, Kathryn A.; White, Lauren K.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Henderson, Heather A.; Lejuez, C. W.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    The present study takes a multilevel approach to examine developmental trajectories in risk-taking propensity. We examined the moderating role of specific executive function components, attention shifting and inhibitory control, on the link between exuberant temperament in infancy and propensity for risk-taking in childhood. Risk-taking was assessed using a task previously associated with sensation seeking and antisocial behaviors. Two hundred and ninety one infants were brought into the lab and behaviors reflecting exuberance were observed at 4, 9, 24, and 36 months of age. Executive function was assessed at 48 months of age. Risk-taking propensity was measured when children were 60 months of age. The results indicate that exuberance and attention shifting, but not inhibitory control, significantly interact to predict propensity for risk-taking. Exuberance was positively associated with risk-taking propensity among children relatively low in attention shifting but unrelated for children high in attention shifting. These findings illustrate the multifinality of developmental outcomes for temperamentally exuberant young children and point to the distinct regulatory influences of different executive functions for children of differing temperaments. Attention shifting likely affords a child the ability to consider both positive and negative consequences, and moderates the relation between early exuberance and risk-taking propensity. PMID:22781858

  18. Real and hypothetical monetary rewards modulate risk taking in the brain.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sihua; Pan, Yu; Wang, You; Spaeth, Andrea M; Qu, Zhe; Rao, Hengyi

    2016-01-01

    Both real and hypothetical monetary rewards are widely used as reinforcers in risk taking and decision making studies. However, whether real and hypothetical monetary rewards modulate risk taking and decision making in the same manner remains controversial. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERP) with a balloon analogue risk task (BART) paradigm to examine the effects of real and hypothetical monetary rewards on risk taking in the brain. Behavioral data showed reduced risk taking after negative feedback (money loss) during the BART with real rewards compared to those with hypothetical rewards, suggesting increased loss aversion with real monetary rewards. The ERP data demonstrated a larger feedback-related negativity (FRN) in response to money loss during risk taking with real rewards compared to those with hypothetical rewards, which may reflect greater prediction error or regret emotion after real monetary losses. These findings demonstrate differential effects of real versus hypothetical monetary rewards on risk taking behavior and brain activity, suggesting a caution when drawing conclusions about real choices from hypothetical studies of intended behavior, especially when large rewards are used. The results have implications for future utility of real and hypothetical monetary rewards in studies of risk taking and decision making. PMID:27383241

  19. Real and hypothetical monetary rewards modulate risk taking in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Sihua; Pan, Yu; Wang, You; Spaeth, Andrea M.; Qu, Zhe; Rao, Hengyi

    2016-01-01

    Both real and hypothetical monetary rewards are widely used as reinforcers in risk taking and decision making studies. However, whether real and hypothetical monetary rewards modulate risk taking and decision making in the same manner remains controversial. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERP) with a balloon analogue risk task (BART) paradigm to examine the effects of real and hypothetical monetary rewards on risk taking in the brain. Behavioral data showed reduced risk taking after negative feedback (money loss) during the BART with real rewards compared to those with hypothetical rewards, suggesting increased loss aversion with real monetary rewards. The ERP data demonstrated a larger feedback-related negativity (FRN) in response to money loss during risk taking with real rewards compared to those with hypothetical rewards, which may reflect greater prediction error or regret emotion after real monetary losses. These findings demonstrate differential effects of real versus hypothetical monetary rewards on risk taking behavior and brain activity, suggesting a caution when drawing conclusions about real choices from hypothetical studies of intended behavior, especially when large rewards are used. The results have implications for future utility of real and hypothetical monetary rewards in studies of risk taking and decision making. PMID:27383241

  20. Stability and change in risk-taking propensity across the adult life span.

    PubMed

    Josef, Anika K; Richter, David; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Wagner, Gert G; Hertwig, Ralph; Mata, Rui

    2016-09-01

    Can risk-taking propensity be thought of as a trait that captures individual differences across domains, measures, and time? Studying stability in risk-taking propensities across the life span can help to answer such questions by uncovering parallel, or divergent, trajectories across domains and measures. We contribute to this effort by using data from respondents aged 18 to 85 in the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP) and by examining (a) differential stability, (b) mean-level differences, and (c) individual-level changes in self-reported general (N = 44,076) and domain-specific (N = 11,903) risk-taking propensities across adulthood. In addition, we investigate (d) the correspondence between cross-sectional trajectories of self-report and behavioral measures of social (trust game; N = 646) and nonsocial (monetary gamble; N = 433) risk taking. The results suggest that risk-taking propensity can be understood as a trait with moderate stability. Results show reliable mean-level differences across the life span, with risk-taking propensities typically decreasing with age, although significant variation emerges across domains and individuals. Interestingly, the mean-level trajectory for behavioral measures of social and nonsocial risk taking was similar to those obtained from self-reported risk, despite small correlations between task behavior and self-reports. Individual-level analyses suggest a link between changes in risk-taking propensities both across domains and in relation to changes in some of the Big Five personality traits. Overall, these results raise important questions concerning the role of common processes or events that shape the life span development of risk-taking across domains as well as other major personality facets. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26820061

  1. Risk-Taking Tendencies and Radon Messages: A Field Experiment Testing an Information Processing Model for Risk Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, M. A.; Valenti, JoAnn Myer

    Using radon (a naturally-occurring radioactive gas linked to lung cancer) as the health risk factor, a study examined which risk-taking tendencies interact with different health-risk message strategies. A phone survey pretested 837 randomly selected homeowners from three Florida counties with the highest levels of radon in the state (706 agreed to…

  2. Transcranial alternating current stimulation increases risk-taking behavior in the balloon analog risk task.

    PubMed

    Sela, Tal; Kilim, Adi; Lavidor, Michal

    2012-01-01

    The process of evaluating risks and benefits involves a complex neural network that includes the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). It has been proposed that in conflict and reward situations, theta-band (4-8 Hz) oscillatory activity in the frontal cortex may reflect an electrophysiological mechanism for coordinating neural networks monitoring behavior, as well as facilitating task-specific adaptive changes. The goal of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that theta-band oscillatory balance between right and left frontal and prefrontal regions, with a predominance role to the right hemisphere (RH), is crucial for regulatory control during decision-making under risk. In order to explore this hypothesis, we used transcranial alternating current stimulation, a novel technique that provides the opportunity to explore the functional role of neuronal oscillatory activities and to establish a causal link between specific oscillations and functional lateralization in risky decision-making situations. For this aim, healthy participants were randomly allocated to one of three stimulation groups (LH stimulation/RH stimulation/Sham stimulation), with active AC stimulation delivered in a frequency-dependent manner (at 6.5 Hz; 1 mA peak-to-peak). During the AC stimulation, participants performed the Balloon Analog Risk Task. This experiment revealed that participants receiving LH stimulation displayed riskier decision-making style compared to sham and RH stimulation groups. However, there was no difference in decision-making behaviors between sham and RH stimulation groups. The current study extends the notion that DLPFC activity is critical for adaptive decision-making in the context of risk-taking and emphasis the role of theta-band oscillatory activity during risky decision-making situations. PMID:22347844

  3. Adolescent Risk-Taking and the Five-Factor Model of Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullone, Eleonora; Moore, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the links between adolescent risk-taking and personality, as conceptualized using the Five-factor Model of personality (N=459). Results reveal that risk judgments, personality factors, age and sex were significant predictors of risk behaviors; however, the personality factor of significance was found to differ depending upon the risk…

  4. On the evolution of hoarding, risk-taking, and wealth distribution in nonhuman and human populations

    PubMed Central

    Bergstrom, Theodore C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper applies the theory of the evolution of risk-taking in the presence of idiosyncratic and environmental risks to the example of food hoarding by animals and explores implications of the resulting theory for human attitudes toward risk. PMID:25024179

  5. Motives for Risk-Taking in Adolescence: A Cross-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloep, M.; Guney, N.; Cok, F.; Simsek, O. F.

    2009-01-01

    Most research on adolescent risk-taking has been conducted in Western societies, but it is as yet unknown whether motives to engage in risk behaviours show cultural variety. This study sets out to investigate differences in perceived motives to engage in perceived risks in Turkish and Welsh samples of young people (N = 922) between 14 and 20 years…

  6. Testing Risk-Taking Behavior in Chinese Undergraduate Students

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xiufang; Li, Jia; Du, Xiulian

    2014-01-01

    The DOSPERT, developed by Weber, Blais and Betz, can be used to measure risk behaviors in a variety of domains. We investigated the use of this scale in China. The participants were 1144 undergraduate students. After we removed some items that were not homogeneous, a principal component analysis extracted six components that accounted for 44.48% of the variance, a value similar to that obtained in the analysis conducted by Weber et al. Chinese undergraduates scored higher on the investment subscale compared with the results of Weber’s study. The analysis of individual differences indicated that there was a significant gender difference in the ethical, investment and health/safety subscales, where males scored significantly higher than females. The type of home location was also significant on the ethical and health/safety subscales, where undergraduates from the countryside scored lower than undergraduates from cities and towns on the ethical subscale, and undergraduates from towns scored higher than those from other two areas on the health/safety subscale. Male undergraduates from towns scored higher than male undergraduates from other areas on the gambling subscale. PMID:24836525

  7. Does Adolescent Risk Taking Imply Weak Executive Function? A Prospective Study of Relations between Working Memory Performance, Impulsivity, and Risk Taking in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romer, Daniel; Betancourt, Laura M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Giannetta, Joan M.; Yang, Wei; Hurt, Hallam

    2011-01-01

    Studies of brain development suggest that the increase in risk taking observed during adolescence may be due to insufficient prefrontal executive function compared to a more rapidly developing subcortical motivation system. We examined executive function as assessed by working memory ability in a community sample of youth (n = 387, ages 10 to 12…

  8. Analogue Study of Peer Influence on Risk-Taking Behavior in Older Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; MacPherson, Laura; Schwartz, Sarah; Fox, Nathan A.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2013-01-01

    This experimental study aimed to examine whether adolescents act in a riskier manner in the presence of peers and whether peer presence alone influences risk behavior or if a direct influence process is necessary. Utilizing a behavioral task assessing risk-taking, 183 older adolescents (18–20 year olds) came to the laboratory alone once and then were randomized to one of three conditions: alone, peers present, peers encouraging. An interaction was found such that at baseline there were no significant differences between the three conditions but at the experimental session there was a significant increase in risk task scores particularly for the encouraging condition. These findings challenge proposed models of the interaction between peer influence and risk taking by providing evidence that adolescents take more risks when being encouraged by peers but that the presence of peers on its own does not lead to more risks than when completing the task alone. PMID:24122411

  9. From science to decision-making: taking the risk to communicate on risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroi, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Geoscientists and decision-makers have the same responsibility toward the society: reducing the damaging consequences induced by natural phenomena. They have to work together, geoscientists to improve the knowledge and decision-makers to take the "best" decision, both to design and implement balanced solutions, both to communicate. Feedback shows that if the collaboration between them has already improved, a lot has still to be done, especially in terms of communication; endless litany, geoscientists don't communicate in the right way! In a hyperspecialized technological and segmented society with sophisticated methods of communication, geoscientists don't use appropriate tools and terminology. It's true, and a lot of examples can be shown that highlight this! Risks is based on complex concepts, on notions that are poorly understood, even by scientists themselves, especially the concepts of probability and occurrence of phenomena. But the problem rest as well on the role and on the responsibility of the geoscientists. Risk management experts address geosciences and technology to identify problems and define protection, including prohibitive measures (such as not allowing building in hazardous areas). Policy makers and local planners want to know where to develop territories. On one hand the identification of problems, on the other hand the needs of solutions. Dialectic is not the same. When responsibility, money and image are the three main pillars of decision-making, long-term modeling and uncertainty, are the basic ones for geosciences. In our participative democracies people want to be actor of the development of their own territories; they want more freedom, more protection and less tax. Face to unrealistic political answers geoscientists have to explain and convince. It's not possible to gain on everything and some are going to loose. Shall geoscientists let decision-makers communicate on topics they hardly understand? No. Shall geoscientists communicate on

  10. Maternal risk taking on the balloon analogue risk task as a prospective predictor of youth alcohol use escalation.

    PubMed

    Banducci, Anne N; Felton, Julia W; Dahne, Jennifer; Ninnemann, Andrew; Lejuez, C W

    2015-10-01

    The transition from late childhood through middle adolescence represents a critical developmental period during which there is a rapid increase in the initiation and escalation of alcohol use. Alcohol use is part of a constellation of risk taking behaviors that increase during this developmental transition, which can be explained by environmental and genetic factors. Social learning theory (SLT) implicates observations of parental drinking in the development of alcohol use in youth. Parental risk taking more broadly has not previously been examined as a factor predictive of alcohol use escalation in youth across adolescence. The current study examined the relative contributions of maternal risk taking on the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) and maternal alcohol use in the prediction of alcohol escalation among youth over three years. Participants were a sample of 245 youth (55.0% male, 49.6% Caucasian) who participated annually between grades 8 and 10, drawn from a larger study of adolescent risk taking. Within our sample, maternal risk taking, as measured by the BART, predicted increases in alcohol use. Interestingly, maternal alcohol use and other youth factors were not predictive of escalations in youth alcohol use. Our findings suggest the importance of considering maternal riskiness more broadly, rather than solely focusing on maternal alcohol use when attempting to understand youth alcohol use across adolescence. These findings emphasize the relevance of maternal risk taking as measured by a behavioral task and suggest a general level of riskiness displayed by mothers might encourage youth to behave in a riskier manner themselves. PMID:26046400

  11. Risk taking in hospitalized patients with acute and severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Fecteau, Shirley; Levasseur-Moreau, Jean; García-Molina, Alberto; Kumru, Hatiche; Vergara, Raúl Pelayo; Bernabeu, Monste; Roig, Teresa; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Tormos, José Maria

    2013-01-01

    Rehabilitation can improve cognitive deficits observed in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, despite rehabilitation, the ability of making a choice often remains impaired. Risk taking is a daily activity involving numerous cognitive processes subserved by a complex neural network. In this work we investigated risk taking using the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) in patients with acute TBI and healthy controls. We hypothesized that individuals with TBI will take less risk at the BART as compared to healthy individuals. We also predicted that within the TBI group factors such as the number of days since the injury, severity of the injury, and sites of the lesion will play a role in risk taking as assessed with the BART. Main findings revealed that participants with TBI displayed abnormally cautious risk taking at the BART as compared to healthy subjects. Moreover, healthy individuals showed increased risk taking throughout the task which is in line with previous work. However, individuals with TBI did not show this increased risk taking during the task. We also investigated the influence of three patients' characteristics on their performance at the BART: Number of days post injury, Severity of the head injury, and Status of the frontal lobe. Results indicate that performance at the BART was influenced by the number of days post injury and the status of the frontal lobe, but not by the severity of the head injury. Reported findings are encouraging for risk taking seems to naturally improve with time postinjury. They support the need of conducting longitudinal prospective studies to ultimately identify impaired and intact cognitive skills that should be trained postinjury. PMID:24386232

  12. Investigating the predictive of risk-taking attitudes and behaviors among Iranian drivers

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Ehsanollah; Haghi, Azam; Maracy, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: World Health Organization findings shows that up to year 2020 the number of fatality due to driving accidents will increases up to 65%, which is 80% is in developing countries. Iran has one of the highest rates of road traffic accident mortality rate in the world. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out in the center and west of Iran upon 540 ordinary and taxi drivers who were driving regularly from bus terminals and the travel agencies to other cities. Data collection tool is a questionnaire that measuring driving risk taking by two items of risky driving behaviors and risk taking attitudes. Findings: The results of this study showed that the averages of risk driving behaviors scores were higher than the average of risk taking attitudes scores. The results of logistic regression test showed that the risky driving behaviors can be a predictor of driving accidents due to individuals’ risk taking (P = 0.014). Among all these variables, attitude toward rule violations and speeding, aggressive driving and violation of the road laws respectively are important predictive of drivers’ risk taking (P < 0.0010). Discussion and Conclusion: Although attitude toward risk taking has been located at a low level by different ways, a desired result was not obtained from the reduction of those high risky behaviors; in fact, high-rate of accidents and traffic incidence in Iran indicates this matter well. PMID:24741659

  13. Risk-Taking Behavior among Adolescents with Prenatal Drug Exposure and Extrauterine Environmental Adversity

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Brittany L.; Bann, Carla M.; Bauer, Charles R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Lester, Barry M.; Whitaker, Toni M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Hammond, Jane; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective High-risk environments characterized by familial substance use, poverty, inadequate parental monitoring, and violence exposure are associated with an increased propensity for adolescents to engage in risk-taking behaviors (e.g., substance use, sexual behavior, and delinquency). However, additional factors such as drug exposure in utero and deficits in inhibitory control among drug-exposed youth may further influence the likelihood that adolescents in high-risk environments will engage in risk-taking behavior. This study examined the influence of prenatal substance exposure, inhibitory control, and sociodemographic/environmental risk factors on risk-taking behaviors in a large cohort of adolescents with and without prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE). Method Risk-taking behavior (delinquency, substance use, and sexual activity) was assessed in 963 adolescents (433 cocaine-exposed, 530 nonexposed) at 15 years of age. Results PCE predicted later arrests and early onset of sexual behavior in controlled analyses. Associations were partially mediated, however, by adolescent inhibitory control problems. PCE was not associated with substance use at this age. In addition, male gender, low parental involvement, and violence exposure were associated with greater odds of engaging in risk-taking behavior across the observed domains. Conclusions Study findings substantiate concern regarding the association between prenatal substance exposure and related risk factors and the long-term outcomes of exposed youth. Access to the appropriate social, educational, and medical services are essential in preventing and intervening with risk-taking behaviors and the potential consequences (e.g., adverse health outcomes, incarceration), especially among high-risk adolescent youth and their families. PMID:24220515

  14. Risk-Taking and Sensation Seeking Propensity in Post-Institutionalized Early Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Loman, Michelle M.; Johnson, Anna E.; Quevedo, Karina; Lafavor, Theresa L.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Youth with histories of institutional/orphanage care are at increased risk for externalizing and internalizing problems during childhood and adolescence. Although these problems have been well described, the related adolescent behaviors of risk-taking and sensation seeking have not yet been explored in this population. This study examined risk-taking and sensation seeking propensity, and associations with conduct problems and depressive symptoms, in early adolescents who were adopted as young children from institutional care. Methods Risk-taking and sensation seeking propensities of 12- and 13-year-old post-institutionalized (PI; n=54) adolescents were compared to two groups: youth internationally adopted early from foster care (PFC; n=44) and non-adopted youth (NA; n=58). Participants were recruited to equally represent pre/early- and mid/late-pubertal stages within each group. Participants completed the youth version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (Lejuez et al., 2007) and the Sensation Seeking Scale for Children (Russo et al., 1991). Parents completed clinical ratings of participants’ conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Results PI adolescents demonstrated lower risk-taking than PFC and NA peers. Pre/early-pubertal PI youth showed lower sensation seeking, while mid/late pubertal PI youth did not differ in from other groups. PI adolescents had higher levels of conduct problems but did not differ from the other youth in depressive symptoms. In PI youth only, conduct problems were negatively correlated with risk-taking and positively correlated with sensation seeking, while depressive symptoms were negatively correlated with both risk-taking and sensation seeking. Conclusions Early institutional care is associated with less risk-taking and sensation seeking during adolescence. The deprived environment of an institution likely contributes to PI youth having a preference for safe choices, which may only be partially reversed with puberty. Whether

  15. Low mate encounter rate increases male risk taking in a sexually cannibalistic praying mantis.

    PubMed

    Brown, William D; Muntz, Gregory A; Ladowski, Alexander J

    2012-01-01

    Male praying mantises are forced into the ultimate trade-off of mating versus complete loss of future reproduction if they fall prey to a female. The balance of this trade-off will depend both on (1) the level of predatory risk imposed by females and (2) the frequency of mating opportunities for males. We report the results of a set of experiments that examine the effects of these two variables on male risk-taking behavior and the frequency of sexual cannibalism in the praying mantis Tenodera sinensis. We experimentally altered the rate at which males encountered females and measured male approach and courtship behavior under conditions of high and low risk of being attacked by females. We show that male risk taking depends on prior access to females. Males with restricted access to females showed greater risk-taking behavior. When males were given daily female encounters, they responded to greater female-imposed risk by slowing their rate of approach and remained a greater distance from a potential mate. In contrast, males without recent access to mates were greater risk-takers; they approached females more rapidly and to closer proximity, regardless of risk. In a second experiment, we altered male encounter rate with females and measured rates of sexual cannibalism when paired with hungry or well-fed females. Greater risk-taking behavior by males with low mate encounter rates resulted in high rates of sexual cannibalism when these males were paired with hungry females. PMID:22558146

  16. Influence of social stress on risk-taking behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Schreiber, Whitney M; Geisel, Kathy; MacPherson, Laura; Ernst, Monique; Lejuez, C W

    2013-04-01

    Risk-taking behavior involves making choices with uncertain positive or negative outcomes. Evidence suggests that risk-taking behavior is influenced by emotional state. One such emotional experience is social anxiety, which has been related to both risk-avoidant and risk-seeking decision making. The present study examined a community sample of 34 adolescents grouped into low (Low SA Group) and high (High SA Group) social anxiety (SA). Both groups were compared on changes in performance on a risk taking task (Balloon Analogue Risk Task) between a social threat condition (modified Trier Social Stress Test, High Stress) and a control condition (Low Stress). These conditions were administered on different days, and the order was counterbalanced across subjects. A group×condition interaction revealed that the High SA Group showed greater risk-taking behavior when exposed to the High Stress Condition compared to the Low Stress Condition, while the Low SA Group evidenced no difference between the two conditions. Interpretations for the increased risk behavior under the condition of social stress for those high in social anxiety are discussed as well as implications for understanding the complex relationship between social anxiety and risk behavior. PMID:23602940

  17. The quality of adolescents' peer relationships modulates neural sensitivity to risk taking.

    PubMed

    Telzer, Eva H; Fuligni, Andrew J; Lieberman, Matthew D; Miernicki, Michelle E; Galván, Adriana

    2015-03-01

    Adolescents' peer culture plays a key role in the development and maintenance of risk-taking behavior. Despite recent advances in developmental neuroscience suggesting that peers may increase neural sensitivity to rewards, we know relatively little about how the quality of peer relations impact adolescent risk taking. In the current 2-year three-wave longitudinal study, we examined how chronic levels of peer conflict relate to risk taking behaviorally and neurally, and whether this is modified by high-quality peer relationships. Forty-six adolescents completed daily diaries assessing peer conflict across 2 years as well as a measure of peer support. During a functional brain scan, adolescents completed a risk-taking task. Behaviorally, peer conflict was associated with greater risk-taking behavior, especially for adolescents reporting low peer support. High levels of peer support buffered this association. At the neural level, peer conflict was associated with greater activation in the striatum and insula, especially among adolescents reporting low peer support, whereas this association was buffered for adolescents reporting high peer support. Results are consistent with the stress-buffering model of social relationships and underscore the importance of the quality of adolescents' peer relationships for their risk taking. PMID:24795443

  18. Relapse and Risk-taking among Iranian Methamphetamine Abusers Undergoing Matrix Treatment Model

    PubMed Central

    Taymoori, Parvaneh; Pashaei, Tahereh

    2016-01-01

    Background This study investigated the correlation between risk-taking and relapse among methamphetamine (MA) abusers undergoing the Matrix Model of treatment. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on male patients who were stimulant drug abusers undergoing the matrix treatment in the National Center for Addiction Research. A sampling was done using the availability method including 92 male patients. Demographic questionnaires and drug abuse related questionnaire were completed for each patient. Then, Bart’s balloon risk-taking test was administered to the patients. Findings Participants had a mean age ± standard deviation (SD) of 27.59 ± 6.60 years with an age range of 17-29 years. Unemployment, unmarried status, criminal offense, and also addiction family history increased the probability of relapse. In addition, a greater adjusted score of the risk-taking test increased the odds of relapse by more than 97%. The simultaneous abuse of opium and stimulants compared to the abuse of stimulants only, revealed no statistically significant differences for relapse. Patients with higher risk-taking behavior had a more probability of relapse. Conclusion This finding indirectly implies the usefulness of Bart’s risk-taking test in assessing risk-taking behavior in stimulant drug abusers. PMID:27274793

  19. Contagious risk taking: social information and context influence wild jackdaws’ responses to novelty and risk

    PubMed Central

    Greggor, Alison L.; McIvor, Guillam E.; Clayton, Nicola S.; Thornton, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Although wild animals increasingly encounter human-produced food and objects, it is unknown how they learn to discriminate beneficial from dangerous novelty. Since social learning allows animals to capitalize on the risk-taking of others, and avoid endangering themselves, social learning should be used around novel and unpredictable stimuli. However, it is unclear whether animals use social cues equally around all types of novelty and at all times of year. We assessed whether wild, individually marked jackdaws—a highly neophobic, yet adaptable species—are equally influenced by social cues to consume novel, palatable foods and to approach a startling object. We conducted these tests across two seasons, and found that in both seasons observers were more likely to consume novel foods after seeing a demonstrator do so. In contrast, observers only followed the demonstrator in foraging next to the object during breeding season. Throughout the year more birds were wary of consuming novel foods than wary of approaching the object, potentially leading to jackdaws’ greater reliance on social information about food. Jackdaws’ dynamic social cue usage demonstrates the importance of context in predicting how social information is used around novelty, and potentially indicates the conditions that facilitate animals’ adjustment to anthropogenic disturbance. PMID:27282438

  20. Contagious risk taking: social information and context influence wild jackdaws' responses to novelty and risk.

    PubMed

    Greggor, Alison L; McIvor, Guillam E; Clayton, Nicola S; Thornton, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Although wild animals increasingly encounter human-produced food and objects, it is unknown how they learn to discriminate beneficial from dangerous novelty. Since social learning allows animals to capitalize on the risk-taking of others, and avoid endangering themselves, social learning should be used around novel and unpredictable stimuli. However, it is unclear whether animals use social cues equally around all types of novelty and at all times of year. We assessed whether wild, individually marked jackdaws-a highly neophobic, yet adaptable species-are equally influenced by social cues to consume novel, palatable foods and to approach a startling object. We conducted these tests across two seasons, and found that in both seasons observers were more likely to consume novel foods after seeing a demonstrator do so. In contrast, observers only followed the demonstrator in foraging next to the object during breeding season. Throughout the year more birds were wary of consuming novel foods than wary of approaching the object, potentially leading to jackdaws' greater reliance on social information about food. Jackdaws' dynamic social cue usage demonstrates the importance of context in predicting how social information is used around novelty, and potentially indicates the conditions that facilitate animals' adjustment to anthropogenic disturbance. PMID:27282438

  1. Young Adult Cannabis Users Report Greater Propensity for Risk-Taking Only in Non-Monetary Domains

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Jodi M.; Calderon, Vanessa; Curran, Max T.; Evins, A. Eden

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Though substance use is often associated with elevated risk-taking in real-world scenarios, many risk-taking tasks in experimental psychology using financial gambles fail to find significant differences between individuals with substance use disorders and healthy controls. We assessed whether participants using marijuana would show a greater propensity for risk-taking in distinct domains including, but not limited to, financial risk-taking. METHODS In the current study, we assessed risk-taking in young adult (age 18–25) regular marijuana users and in non-using control participants using a domain-specific risk-taking self-report scale (DOSPERT) encompassing five domains of risk-taking (social, financial, recreational, health/safety, and ethical). We also measured behavioral risk-taking using a laboratory monetary risk-taking task. RESULTS Marijuana users and controls reported significant differences on the social, health/safety, and ethical risk-taking scales, but no differences in the propensity to take recreational or financial risks. Complementing the self-report finding, there were no differences between marijuana users and controls in their performance on the laboratory risk-taking task. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that financial risk-taking may be less sensitive than other domains of risk-taking in assessing differences in risky behavior between those who use marijuana and those who do not. In order to more consistently determine whether increased risk-taking is a factor in substance use, it may be necessary to use both monetary risk-taking tasks and complementary assessments of non-monetary-based risk-taking measures. PMID:25577478

  2. Peer Influence on Risk Taking, Risk Preference, and Risky Decision Making in Adolescence and Adulthood: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Margo; Steinberg, Laurence

    2005-01-01

    In this study, 306 individuals in 3 age groups--adolescents (13-16), youths (18-22), and adults (24 and older)--completed 2 questionnaire measures assessing risk preference and risky decision making, and 1 behavioral task measuring risk taking. Participants in each age group were randomly assigned to complete the measures either alone or with 2…

  3. Sex differences in risk-taking and associative learning in rats.

    PubMed

    Jolles, Jolle Wolter; Boogert, Neeltje J; van den Bos, Ruud

    2015-11-01

    In many species, males tend to have lower parental investment than females and greater variance in their reproductive success. Males might therefore be expected to adopt more high-risk, high-return behaviours than females. Next to risk-taking behaviour itself, sexes might also differ in how they respond to information and learn new associations owing to the fundamental link of these cognitive processes with the risk-reward axis. Here we investigated sex differences in both risk-taking and learned responses to risk by measuring male and female rats' (Rattus norvegicus) behaviour across three contexts in an open field test containing cover. We found that when the environment was novel, males spent more time out of cover than females. Males also hid less when exposed to the test arena containing predator odour. By contrast, females explored more than males when the predator odour was removed (associatively learned risk). These results suggest that males are more risk-prone but behave more in line with previous experiences, while females are more risk-averse and more responsive to changes in their current environment. Our results suggest that male and female rats differ in how they cope with risk and highlight that a general link may exist between risk-taking behaviour and learning style. PMID:26716004

  4. Changes in Risk Taking Propensity Resulting from a Ropes Course Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacRae, Sherry; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Male firefighters participated in a standard or modified ropes course to determine if risk-taking propensity might change as a result of adventure training. The expectation that a modified course simulating real firefighting would better transfer such training to the workplace was not substantiated. Both samples increased their risk-taking…

  5. Wearing a Bicycle Helmet Can Increase Risk Taking and Sensation Seeking in Adults.

    PubMed

    Gamble, Tim; Walker, Ian

    2016-02-01

    Humans adapt their risk-taking behavior on the basis of perceptions of safety; this risk-compensation phenomenon is typified by people taking increased risks when using protective equipment. Existing studies have looked at people who know they are using safety equipment and have specifically focused on changes in behaviors for which that equipment might reduce risk. Here, we demonstrated that risk taking increases in people who are not explicitly aware they are wearing protective equipment; furthermore, this happens for behaviors that could not be made safer by that equipment. In a controlled study in which a helmet, compared with a baseball cap, was used as the head mount for an eye tracker, participants scored significantly higher on laboratory measures of both risk taking and sensation seeking. This happened despite there being no risk for the helmet to ameliorate and despite it being introduced purely as an eye tracker. The results suggest that unconscious activation of safety-related concepts primes globally increased risk propensity. PMID:26740528

  6. Wearing a Bicycle Helmet Can Increase Risk Taking and Sensation Seeking in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, Tim; Walker, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Humans adapt their risk-taking behavior on the basis of perceptions of safety; this risk-compensation phenomenon is typified by people taking increased risks when using protective equipment. Existing studies have looked at people who know they are using safety equipment and have specifically focused on changes in behaviors for which that equipment might reduce risk. Here, we demonstrated that risk taking increases in people who are not explicitly aware they are wearing protective equipment; furthermore, this happens for behaviors that could not be made safer by that equipment. In a controlled study in which a helmet, compared with a baseball cap, was used as the head mount for an eye tracker, participants scored significantly higher on laboratory measures of both risk taking and sensation seeking. This happened despite there being no risk for the helmet to ameliorate and despite it being introduced purely as an eye tracker. The results suggest that unconscious activation of safety-related concepts primes globally increased risk propensity. PMID:26740528

  7. Neural Correlates of Traditional Chinese Medicine Induced Advantageous Risk-Taking Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tiffany M. Y.; Guo, Li-guo; Shi, Hong-zhi; Li, Yong-zhi; Luo, Yue-jia; Sung, Connie Y. Y.; Chan, Chetwyn C. H.; Lee, Tatia M. C.

    2009-01-01

    This fMRI study examined the neural correlates of the observed improvement in advantageous risk-taking behavior, as measured by the number of adjusted pumps in the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), following a 60-day course of a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) recipe, specifically designed to regulate impulsiveness in order to modulate…

  8. Environmental Influences on Risk Taking among Hong Kong Young Dance Partygoers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngai, Steven Sek-Yum; Ngai, Ngan-pun; Cheung, Chau-kiu

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates risk-taking behavior and its associated factors among young Hong Kong partygoers at rave parties or discos. Based on a survey of 300 14 to 28-year-old dance partygoers recruited by outreaching social workers, the study provides data on risks in terms of the likelihood of drug abuse, coitus, unprotected coitus, fighting, and…

  9. Risk-Taking, Safety and Older People. Selected Bibliographies on Ageing 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Wendy, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography, which was developed as part of a series of selected bibliographies on aging for Great Britain's Centre for Policy on Ageing, contains a total of 368 entries organized under the following subject headings: risk (identification, nature, responsibilities, risk taking, security); environmental safety (hazards, design,…

  10. To Take Risk is to Face Loss: A Tonic Pupillometry Study

    PubMed Central

    Yechiam, Eldad; Telpaz, Ariel

    2011-01-01

    The construct of risk taking is studied through the prism of the relation between tonic arousal and risk taking behavior. Several theories have proposed that high aroused individuals tend to exhibit risk aversion. We posit that this arousal–behavior association is activated much more strongly in risks with losses, as losses increase arousal and trigger relevant traits associated with the sensitivity to risk. In three studies we examined risk taking in experience-based decision tasks, with either token losses or relative-losses (in the gain domain). In Study 1 we found a negative correlation between pre-task pupil diameter and risk taking in the loss domain but not in the gain domain. In Study 2 we re-analyzed a previous pupillometry dataset involving symmetric mixed gains and losses. We found that the negative correlation in this mixed condition emerged even while the participants did not show loss aversion. This finding was replicated in Study 3. Thus, the effect of losses on arousal provides sufficient conditions for the moderation of the tonic arousal–behavior association. The findings suggest an important role for losses in the psychological and physiological experience of risk. PMID:22125546

  11. AFFECT AND THE FRAMING EFFECT WITHIN INDIVIDUALS OVER TIME: RISK TAKING IN A DYNAMIC INVESTMENT SIMULATION

    PubMed Central

    SEO, MYEONG-GU; GOLDFARB, BRENT; BARRETT, LISA FELDMAN

    2011-01-01

    We examined the role of affect (pleasant or unpleasant feelings) and decision frames (gains or losses) in risk taking in a 20-day stock investment simulation in which 101 participants rated their current feelings while making investment decisions. As predicted, affect attenuated the relationships between decision frames and risk taking. After experiencing losses, individuals made more risky choices, in keeping with the framing effect. However, this tendency decreased and/or disappeared when loss was simultaneously experienced with either pleasant or unpleasant feelings. Similarly, individuals’ tendency to avoid risk after experiencing gains disappeared or even reversed when they simultaneously experienced pleasant feelings. PMID:26412860

  12. Childhood Maltreatment and Sexual Risk Taking: The Mediating Role of Alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Austin M; Simons, Raluca M; Simons, Jeffrey S

    2016-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment is a significant predictor of sexual risk taking. The nature of this relationship is not fully understood; however, emotion dysregulation may play an important role. We tested the role of difficulty identifying and describing feelings (i.e., alexithymia) on the relationship between childhood maltreatment and sexual risk taking. Specifically, we hypothesized two mechanisms, one in which alexithymia is related to sexual risk taking via negative urgency and alcohol use and a second one in which alexithymia is related to sexual risk taking via neediness. The participants for this study were 425 sexually active college undergraduates (303 females, 122 males) between the ages of 18 and 25 years. The results of a structural equation model indicated that alexithymia accounted for a significant part of the relationship between child maltreatment and sexual risk behavior. Moreover, the relationship between alexithymia and sexual risk taking was fully accounted for by two separate paths. First, negative urgency and subsequent alcohol use partially mediated the relationship, and the second effect was accounted for by needy interpersonal style. Adverse experiences during childhood can impair emotional functioning and contribute to behavioral and interpersonal dysregulation. PMID:26318149

  13. Substance use and sexual risk taking among black adolescents and white adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cooper, M L; Peirce, R S; Huselid, R F

    1994-05-01

    Analyses of data from a random sample of 1,259 sexually active adolescents revealed that substance use was associated with increased sexual risk taking on 2 occasions of intercourse (1st intercourse ever and 1st intercourse with most recent partner), even after controlling for demographic experiential, and dispositional confounders. Within-persons analyses yielded similar results, indicating that adolescents who used substances, on 1 of the 2 occasions, reported higher levels of risk taking on the occasion when substances were used than on the no-substance use occasion. However, substance use was both more common and more strongly linked to risk taking among White than Black adolescents, suggesting that White adolescents are a greater risk of negative consequences related to substance use proximal to intercourse. PMID:8055860

  14. Male risk taking, female odors, and the role of estrogen receptors

    PubMed Central

    Kavaliers, Martin; Clipperton-Allen, Amy; Cragg, Cheryl L.; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Korach, Kenneth S.; Muglia, Louis; Choleris, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Male risk-taking and decision making are affected by sex-related cues, with men making riskier choices and decisions after exposure to either women or stimuli associated with women. In non-human species females and, or their cues can also increase male risk taking. Under the ecologically relevant condition of predation threat, brief exposure of male mice to the odors of a sexually receptive novel female reduces the avoidance of, and aversive responses to, a predator. We briefly review evidence showing that estrogen receptors (ERs), ERα and ERβ, are associated with the mediation of these risk taking responses. We show that ERs influence the production of the female odors that affect male risk taking, with the odors of wild type (ERαWT, ERβWT), oxytocin (OT) wildtype (OTWT), gene-deleted ‘knock-out’ ERβ (ERβKO), but not ERαKO or oxytocin (OT) OTKO or ovariectomized (OVX) female mice reducing the avoidance responses of male mice to cat odor. We further show that administration of specific ERα and ERβ agonists to OVX females results in their odors increasing male risk taking and boldness towards a predator. We also review evidence that ERs are involved in the mediation of the responses of males to female cues, with ERα being associated with the sexual and both ERβ and ERα with the sexual and social mechanisms underlying the effects of female cues on male risk taking. The implications and relations of these findings with rodents to ERs and the regulation of human risk taking are briefly considered. PMID:22472459

  15. Sex differences in risk-taking and associative learning in rats

    PubMed Central

    Boogert, Neeltje J.; van den Bos, Ruud

    2015-01-01

    In many species, males tend to have lower parental investment than females and greater variance in their reproductive success. Males might therefore be expected to adopt more high-risk, high-return behaviours than females. Next to risk-taking behaviour itself, sexes might also differ in how they respond to information and learn new associations owing to the fundamental link of these cognitive processes with the risk–reward axis. Here we investigated sex differences in both risk-taking and learned responses to risk by measuring male and female rats’ (Rattus norvegicus) behaviour across three contexts in an open field test containing cover. We found that when the environment was novel, males spent more time out of cover than females. Males also hid less when exposed to the test arena containing predator odour. By contrast, females explored more than males when the predator odour was removed (associatively learned risk). These results suggest that males are more risk-prone but behave more in line with previous experiences, while females are more risk-averse and more responsive to changes in their current environment. Our results suggest that male and female rats differ in how they cope with risk and highlight that a general link may exist between risk-taking behaviour and learning style. PMID:26716004

  16. Differential associations between impulsivity and risk-taking and brain activations underlying working memory in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Panwar, Karni; Rutherford, Helena J V; Mencl, W Einar; Lacadie, Cheryl M; Potenza, Marc N; Mayes, Linda C

    2014-11-01

    Increased impulsivity and risk-taking are common during adolescence and relate importantly to addictive behaviors. However, the extent to which impulsivity and risk-taking relate to brain activations that mediate cognitive processing is not well understood. Here we examined the relationships between impulsivity and risk-taking and the neural correlates of working memory. Neural activity was measured in 18 adolescents (13-18 years) while they engaged in a working memory task that included verbal and visuospatial components that each involved encoding, rehearsal and recognition stages. Risk-taking and impulsivity were assessed using the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) and the adolescent version of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11A), respectively. We found overlapping as well as distinct regions subserving the different stages of verbal and visuospatial working memory. In terms of risk-taking, we found a positive correlation between BART scores and activity in subcortical regions (e.g., thalamus, dorsal striatum) recruited during verbal rehearsal, and an inverse correlation between BART scores and cortical regions (e.g., parietal and temporal regions) recruited during visuospatial rehearsal. The BIS-11A evidenced that motor impulsivity was associated with activity in regions recruited during all stages of working memory, while attention and non-planning impulsivity was only associated with activity in regions recruited during recognition. In considering working memory, impulsivity and risk-taking together, both impulsivity and risk-taking were associated with activity in regions recruited during rehearsal; however, during verbal rehearsal, differential correlations were found. Specifically, positive correlations were found between: (1) risk-taking and activity in subcortical regions, including the thalamus and dorsal striatum; and, (2) motor impulsivity and activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus, insula, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Therefore

  17. Organizing Effects of Testosterone and Economic Behavior: Not Just Risk Taking

    PubMed Central

    Brañas-Garza, Pablo; Rustichini, Aldo

    2011-01-01

    Recent literature emphasizes the role that testosterone, as well as markers indicating early exposure to T and its organizing effect on the brain (such as the ratio of second to fourth finger, ), have on performance in financial markets. These results may suggest that the main effect of T, either circulating or in fetal exposure, on economic behavior occurs through the increased willingness to take risks. However, these findings indicate that traders with a low digit ratio are not only more profitable, but more able to survive in the long run, thus the effect might consist of more than just lower risk aversion. In addition, recent literature suggests a positive correlation between abstract reasoning ability and higher willingness to take risks. To test the two hypotheses of testosterone on performance in financial activities (effect on risk attitude versus a complex effect involving risk attitude and reasoning ability), we gather data on the three variables in a sample of 188 ethnically homogeneous college students (Caucasians). We measure a digit ratio, abstract reasoning ability with the Raven Progressive Matrices task, and risk attitude with choice among lotteries. Low digit ratio in men is associated with higher risk taking and higher scores in abstract reasoning ability when a combined measure of risk aversion over different tasks is used. This explains both the higher performance and higher survival rate observed in traders, as well as the observed correlation between abstract reasoning ability and risk taking. We also analyze how much of the total effect of digit ratio on risk attitude is direct, and how much is mediated. Mediation analysis shows that a substantial part of the effect of T on attitude to risk is mediated by abstract reasoning ability. PMID:22242144

  18. Modernization, Sexual Risk-Taking, and Gynecological Morbidity among Bolivian Forager-Horticulturalists

    PubMed Central

    Stieglitz, Jonathan; Blackwell, Aaron D.; Quispe Gutierrez, Raúl; Cortez Linares, Edhitt; Gurven, Michael; Kaplan, Hillard

    2012-01-01

    Sexual risk-taking and reproductive morbidity are common among rapidly modernizing populations with little material wealth, limited schooling, minimal access to modern contraception and healthcare, and gendered inequalities in resource access that limit female autonomy in cohabiting relationships. Few studies have examined how modernization influences sexual risk-taking and reproductive health early in demographic transition. Tsimane are a natural fertility population of Bolivian forager-farmers; they are not urbanized, reside in small-scale villages, and lack public health infrastructure. We test whether modernization is associated with greater sexual risk-taking, report prevalence of gynecological morbidity (GM), and test whether modernization, sexual risk-taking and parity are associated with greater risk of GM. Data were collected from 2002–2010 using interviews, clinical exams, and laboratory analysis of cervical cells. We find opposing effects of modernization on both sexual risk-taking and risk of GM. Residential proximity to town and Spanish fluency are associated with greater likelihood of men’s infidelity, and with number of lifetime sexual partners for men and women. However, for women, literacy is associated with delayed sexual debut after controlling for town proximity. Fifty-five percent of women present at least one clinical indicator of GM (n = 377); 48% present inflammation of cervical cells, and in 11% the inflammation results from sexually transmitted infection (trichomoniasis). Despite having easier access to modern healthcare, women residing near town experience greater likelihood of cervical inflammation and trichomoniasis relative to women in remote villages; women who are fluent in Spanish are also more likely to present trichomoniasis relative to women with moderate or no fluency. However, literate women experience lower likelihood of trichomoniasis. Parity has no effect on risk of GM. Our results suggest a net increase in risk of

  19. Affective and Deliberative Processes in Risky Choice: Age Differences in Risk Taking in the Columbia Card Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figner, Bernd; Mackinlay, Rachael J.; Wilkening, Friedrich; Weber, Elke U.

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated risk taking and underlying information use in 13- to 16- and 17- to 19-year-old adolescents and in adults in 4 experiments, using a novel dynamic risk-taking task, the Columbia Card Task (CCT). The authors investigated risk taking under differential involvement of affective versus deliberative processes with 2 versions of…

  20. Brain Structural Correlates of Risk-Taking Behavior and Effects of Peer Influence in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Myoung Soo; Vorobyev, Victor; Moe, Dagfinn; Parkkola, Riitta; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents are characterized by impulsive risky behavior, particularly in the presence of peers. We discriminated high and low risk-taking male adolescents aged 18–19 years by assessing their propensity for risky behavior and vulnerability to peer influence with personality tests, and compared structural differences in gray and white matter of the brain with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), respectively. We also compared the brain structures according to the participants' actual risk-taking behavior in a simulated driving task with two different social conditions making up a peer competition situation. There was a discrepancy between the self-reported personality test results and risky driving behavior (running through an intersection with traffic lights turning yellow, chancing a collision with another vehicle). Comparison between high and low risk-taking adolescents according to personality test results revealed no significant difference in gray matter volume and white matter integrity. However, comparison according to actual risk-taking behavior during task performance revealed significantly higher white matter integrity in the high risk-taking group, suggesting that increased risky behavior during adolescence is not necessarily attributed to the immature brain as conventional wisdom says. PMID:25389976

  1. Bidirectional Associations Between Alcohol Use and Sexual Risk-taking Behavior from Adolescence into Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    O’Hara, Ross E.; Cooper, M. Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Overwhelming evidence indicates that sexual risk-taking behavior and alcohol use are linked, but the nature, strength, and timing of these relations may differ between gender and racial subgroups. These issues were addressed by examining the course and interrelations of both behaviors from adolescence into young adulthood, as well as how these patterns differed between both men and women and between Blacks and Whites. Data came from a representative, community-based sample of 1867 urban participants surveyed up to 5 times over a 15-year period. Although both prospective and trajectory analyses showed that adolescent involvement in one behavior predicted later involvement in the other, most patterns were moderated by gender, race, or both. In general, positive, bidirectional associations were discovered among men and Whites. Among women, adolescent sexual risk-taking behavior positively predicted later drinking, but not vice versa. For Blacks, adolescent alcohol use was inconsistently related to later sexual risk-taking behavior, and adolescent sexual risk-taking negatively predicted later alcohol use. Results suggest that associations between sexual risk-taking behavior and alcohol use are more complex than previously thought and that an adequate understanding of these links must account for both gender and racial differences. PMID:25808720

  2. Adolescent Risk Perception: A View of Risk Taking Behavior By Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severson, Herb; And Others

    This study employed a psychometric paradigm to explore how young people think about risk. Forty-one high school students were asked to rate 30 activities on 14 characteristics such as personal risk, perceived control over the risk, peer influence, etc. The study also included a questionnaire on actual participation in each of the 30 activities.…

  3. Exploring sexual risk taking among American Indian adolescents through protection motivation theory.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Rachel; Tingey, Lauren; Mullany, Britta; Parker, Sean; Lee, Angelita; Barlow, Allison

    2016-09-01

    This paper examines decision-making around sexual behavior among reservation-based American Indian youth. Focus group discussions were conducted with youth ages 13-19 years old. Through these discussions, we explored youth's knowledge, attitudes and behaviors related to sexual risk taking through the lens of the protection motivation theory to inform the adaptation of an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention. Findings suggest that condom use self-efficacy and HIV prevention knowledge is low, vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections is lacking and alcohol plays a significant role in sexual risk taking in this population. In addition, parental monitoring and peer influence may contribute to or protect against sexual risk taking. Results suggest that future HIV prevention interventions should be delivered to gender-specific peer groups, include a parental component, teach sexual health education and communication skills, integrate substance-use prevention, and work to remove stigma around obtaining and using condoms. PMID:27064364

  4. The importance of risk-aversion as a measurable psychological parameter governing risk-taking behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, P. J.

    2013-09-01

    A utility function with risk-aversion as its sole parameter is developed and used to examine the well-known psychological phenomenon, whereby risk averse people adopt behavioural strategies that are extreme and apparently highly risky. The pioneering work of the psychologist, John W. Atkinson, is revisited, and utility theory is used to extend his mathematical model. His explanation of the psychology involved is improved by regarding risk-aversion not as a discrete variable with three possible states: risk averse, risk neutral and risk confident, but as continuous and covering a large range. A probability distribution is derived, the "motivational density", to describe the process of selecting tasks of different degrees of difficulty. An assessment is then made of practicable methods for measuring risk-aversion.

  5. Determinants of sexual risk-taking among young HIV-negative gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Strathdee, S A; Hogg, R S; Martindale, S L; Cornelisse, P G; Craib, K J; Montaner, J S; O'Shaughnessy, M V; Schechter, M T

    1998-09-01

    Data from a cohort of young HIV-negative gay and bisexual men were analyzed to identify determinants of sexual risk-taking at baseline. Gay/bisexual men aged between 18 and 30 completed a self-administered questionnaire including demographics, depression, social support, substance use, and consensual versus nonconsensual sex. Risk-takers were defined as those who had unprotected anal sex with casual male sex partners in the previous year; non-risk-takers were defined as those who reported consistent condom use during anal sex with all male partners in the previous year. Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of sexual risk-taking. Of 439 men studied, risk-takers had less education, a higher depression score, less social support, and were more likely to report nonconsensual sex and recreational drug use relative to non-risk-takers. Independent predictors of sexual risk-taking were low education, nitrite use, low social support (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.65; 95% CI, 1.04-2.59), and nonconsensual sex experienced as a youth or adult (AOR=1.85; 95% CI, 1.15-2.96). Young gay/bisexual men reporting nonconsensual sex, low social support, or nitrite use were significantly more likely to have recently had unprotected anal sex with casual partners. HIV prevention programs aimed at young gay/bisexual men should include sexual abuse counselling and foster community norms supporting safer sex practices. PMID:9732071

  6. A Neuropsychological Approach to Understanding Risk-Taking for Potential Gains and Losses

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Irwin P.; Xue, Gui; Weller, Joshua A.; Reimann, Martin; Lauriola, Marco; Bechara, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    Affective neuroscience has helped guide research and theory development in judgment and decision-making by revealing the role of emotional processes in choice behavior, especially when risk is involved. Evidence is emerging that qualitatively and quantitatively different processes may be involved in risky decision-making for gains and losses. We start by reviewing behavioral work by Kahneman and Tversky (1979) and others, which shows that risk-taking differs for potential gains and potential losses. We then turn to the literature in decision neuroscience to support the gain versus loss distinction. Relying in part on data from a new task that separates risky decision-making for gains and losses, we test a neural model that assigns unique mechanisms for risky decision-making involving potential losses. Included are studies using patients with lesions to brain areas specified as important in the model and studies with healthy individuals whose brains are scanned to reveal activation in these and other areas during risky decision-making. In some cases, there is evidence that gains and losses are processed in different regions of the brain, while in other cases the same region appears to process risk in a different manner for gains and losses. At a more general level, we provide strong support for the notion that decisions involving risk-taking for gains and decisions involving risk-taking for losses represent different psychological processes. At a deeper level, we present mounting evidence that different neural structures play different roles in guiding risky choices in these different domains. Some structures are differentially activated by risky gains and risky losses while others respond uniquely in one domain or the other. Taken together, these studies support a clear functional dissociation between risk-taking for gains and risk-taking for losses, and further dissociation at the neural level. PMID:22347161

  7. Social network composition and sexual risk-taking among gay and bisexual men in Atlanta, GA.

    PubMed

    Finneran, Catherine; Stephenson, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Social network composition is known to effect patterns of reported sexual risk-taking among men who have sex with men (MSM); however, consensus as to the directionality and size of these effects is lacking. We examined the relationships between novel aspects of social network composition and sexual risk-taking using a cross-sectional survey of 870 MSM. Social network composition was found to have mixed effects on reported sexual risk-taking: reporting proportionally more lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB)-identified friends and reporting friends who were on average significantly older than the respondent were both associated with reporting increased sexual risk, while reporting proportionally more LGB-identified friends in relationships and reporting a social network proportionally more aware of the respondent's homosexuality/bisexuality were both associated with reporting decreased sexual risk. The support structures created by differing social network compositions-and particularly the presence of LGB couples-may be a potential area for targeting sexual risk-reduction interventions for MSM. PMID:23904146

  8. Social Network Composition and Sexual Risk-Taking among Gay and Bisexual Men in Atlanta, GA

    PubMed Central

    Finneran, Catherine; Stephenson, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Social network composition is known to effect patterns of reported sexual risk-taking among men who have sex with men (MSM); however, consensus as to the directionality and size of these effects is lacking. We examined the relationships between novel aspects of social network composition and sexual risk-taking using a cross-sectional survey of 870 MSM. Social network composition was found to have mixed effects on reported sexual risk-taking: reporting proportionally more LGB-identified friends and reporting friends who were on average significantly older than the respondent were both associated with reporting increased sexual risk, while reporting proportionally more LGB-identified friends in relationships and reporting a social network proportionally more aware of the respondent’s homosexuality/bisexuality were both associated with reporting decreased sexual risk. The support structures created by differing social network compositions – and particularly the presence of LGB couples -- may be a potential area for targeting sexual risk-reduction interventions for MSM. PMID:23904146

  9. Rebels in the Classroom: Creativity and Risk-Taking in Honors Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wintrol, Kate; Jerinic, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The authors of this article write that, as college teachers, they continue to confront their own timidity, and fear of risk. They have had to ask themselves when, in lip service to academic rigor, they are just taking the safe way out. They say that they worry at times while admonishing students to think for themselves, come up with new ideas, and…

  10. "It Tickles in My Tummy": Understanding Children's Risk-Taking in Play through Reversal Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen

    2010-01-01

    "It tickles in my tummy" is one of the most frequent answers when children are asked to describe what they experience when engaging in risky play. Why do children take risks in spite of the fact that this can be a harmful and even fatal activity? This article aims to explore this issue. Semi-structured interviews of 23 pre-school children aged…

  11. Status Risk-Taking: A Central Issue in the Initiation and Implementation of Public School Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giacquinta, Joseph B.

    1975-01-01

    In this paper, prior conceptualizing and empirical work bearing on public schools as complex organizations and risk taking were examined. Discussion of some of the practical implications of this perspective (difficulty in developing innovation) for the management of change efforts in public schools was also presented. (Author/RK)

  12. Risk Taking and Performance in Relation to Achievement-Related Motives, Defensiveness and Social Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damm, John T.; Bloxom, Anne

    The effects of two social contexts on the risk -taking behavior of elementary boys on a shuffleboard task were investigated. It was predicted that Atkinson's motive-probability-incentive (M-P-I) model would be supported in the peer-competitive context, in that the success-oriented subjects would choose more goals with median Ps values than the…

  13. An Investigation into the Relationship between Academic Risk Taking and Chemistry Laboratory Anxiety in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Öner Sünkür, Meral

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the relationship between academic risk taking and chemistry laboratory anxiety using a relational scanning model. The research sample consisted of 127 undergraduate students (sophomores, juniors and seniors) in the Chemistry Teaching Department at Dicle University. This research was done in the spring semester of the 2012 to…

  14. The role of testosterone in aggressive and non-aggressive risk-taking in adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Vermeersch, Hans; T'Sjoen, Guy; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Vincke, John

    2008-03-01

    While there exists increasing evidence of a relationship between testosterone (T) and risk-taking (RT), many issues remain unsolved. This paper tries to address two main-questions: (i) does T influence aggressive risk-taking (ART) and/or non-aggressive risk-taking (NART) behavior and (ii) is this relationship stable throughout age and pubertal development and how is the relationship affected by affiliations with peers that are highly involved in RT, referred to as differential association (DA)? For a sample of 301 third-grade adolescent boys (mean age 14.4 years), we assessed the relationship between serum levels of T and estradiol (E2), DA and ART/NART. Significant effects of SHBG (Beta=-0.15; p<0.029) and free testosterone (FT) (Beta=0.23; p<0.003) on NART were shown. No significant effects were found with respect to ART. Further analyses showed that the FT-NART and the FT-ART relations differed as to age but not as to pubertal development (PD) and that the relationship between FT and RT is mediated by DA as such that individuals with higher levels of FT have friends that are more involved in RT and their influence contributes to increased levels of RT. Our results indicate that hormone-related interests and predispositions may influence the development of affiliations with risk-taking peers, a factor which is crucial in understanding adolescent RT. PMID:18234200

  15. Religiosity and Sexual Risk-Taking Behavior during the Transition to College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaleski, Ellen H.; Schiaffino, Kathleen M.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the degree to which religious identity acts as a protective buffer against sexual risk-taking in late adolescence in 230 first-year college students. Results indicate that greater intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity were associated with less sexual activity and condom use. (Contains 21 references and 1 table.) (Author/GCP)

  16. Relationship Status, Psychological Orientation, and Sexual Risk Taking in a Heterosexual African American College Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winfield, Evelyn B.; Whaley, Arthur L.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined relationship status, psychological orientation toward sexual risk taking, and other characteristics as potential correlates of risky sexual behavior in a sample of 223 heterosexual African American college students. Risky sexual behavior was investigated as a multinomial variable (i.e., abstinence, consistent condom use,…

  17. Curriculum Making as Novice Professional Development: Practical Risk Taking as Learning in High-Stakes Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Christine D.

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative case study presents three novices in urban schools who enacted curricular projects as participants in a university-based professional development program. This experience created an opportunity for practical risk taking, enabling them to consider the consequences of curricular choices in personal terms. Such professional…

  18. Depressive Symptoms and Health-Related Risk-Taking in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, C. Rylann; Steinberg, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between symptoms and a variety of health-related risk-taking behaviors during adolescence. A survey of 20,745 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health provided data for analysis. Adolescents who reported more depressive symptoms were found to wear seatbelts less often, wear…

  19. Affordances for Risk-Taking and Physical Activity in Australian Early Childhood Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Helen; Sweller, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Motor competence and physical activity (PA) patterns are established during the early childhood years. Early childhood education (ECE) settings are an important context for children's engagement in physically active play. This paper reports the findings from an online survey examining resources, spaces and affordances for PA and risk-taking in…

  20. The Experience of Daily Hassles, Cardiovascular Reactivity and Adolescent Risk Taking and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeersch, Hans; T'Sjoen, Guy; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Vincke, John; Bracke, Piet

    2010-01-01

    Based on Boyce and Ellis's model on "context" and "biological sensitivity to the context", this article analyzes the interaction between the experience of daily hassles and experimentally induced cardiovascular reactivity as an indicator of stress reactivity, in explaining risk taking and self-esteem. This study found, in a sample of 599…

  1. Teasing Experiences and Risk-Taking: Gender and Self-Esteem as Moderator and Mediator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, David H.; Somers, Cheryl L.; Pernice-Duca, Francesca; Van Dale, Kimberly G.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the roles of gender and self-esteem in the relations between various teasing experiences and externalizing behavior. Externalizing behavior was measured as reported risk-taking and alcohol consumption. Within a sample of 651 high school students located in the Midwest, males reported significantly more externalizing behavior…

  2. Cooperative Group, Risk-Taking and Inclusion of Pupils with Learning Disabilities in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andre, Amael; Louvet, Benoit; Deneuve, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the impact of cooperative learning on changes in cooperative behaviours and acceptance amongst pupils with learning disabilities related to risk-taking. One hundred and sixty-eight French first year middle school pupils participated in this study. Thirty-six pupils with learning disabilities were mainstreamed…

  3. Impact of Religious Education and Religiosity on Adolescent Alcohol Use and Risk-Taking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use and risk-taking behavior among 345 male adolescents from three Israeli secular (n = 168) and three religious (n = 177) high schools were studied from 2009 to 2013. Findings show the positive impact religious education and religiosity have on minimizing alcohol use, binge drinking, school underachievement, violence, weapons possession,…

  4. Teachers' Perceptions of School Connectedness and Risk-Taking in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Rebekah L.; Buckley, Lisa; Sheehan, Mary; Shochet, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    School connectedness has been shown to be an important protective factor in adolescent development, which is associated with reduced risk-taking behavior. Interventions to increase students' connectedness to school commonly incorporate aspects of teacher training. To date, however, research on connectedness has largely been based on student…

  5. Risk Taking under the Influence: A Fuzzy-Trace Theory of Emotion in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Susan E.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Mills, Britain

    2008-01-01

    Fuzzy-trace theory explains risky decision making in children, adolescents, and adults, incorporating social and cultural factors as well as differences in impulsivity. Here, we provide an overview of the theory, including support for counterintuitive predictions (e.g., when adolescents "rationally" weigh costs and benefits, risk taking increases,…

  6. Raising Children Who Soar: A Guide to Healthy Risk-Taking in an Uncertain World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Susan; Eppler-Wolff, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    How can we keep children safe in an uncertain world, but also raise them to be confident in taking the healthy, emotional risks necessary to succeed in life? The authors of this unique book--two clinical psychologists, who are also mothers--provide essential guidance for parents and teachers. They explain, step-by-step, how to help children become…

  7. The Stoplight Task: A Procedure for Assessing Risk Taking in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Mark P.; Greenwald, Mark K.; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn

    2006-01-01

    The Stoplight Task, a procedure involving a computer analog of a stoplight, was evaluated for assessing risk taking in humans. Seventeen participants earned points later exchangeable for money by completing a response requirement before the red light appeared on a simulated traffic light. The green light signaled to start responding; it changed to…

  8. Effect of Psychostimulants on Impulsivity and Risk Taking in Narcolepsy with Cataplexy

    PubMed Central

    Bayard, Sophie; Langenier, Muriel Croisier; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of psychostimulants on impulsivity, depressive symptoms, addiction, pathological gambling, and risk-taking using objective sensitivity tests in narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC). Drug-free patients with NC present alterations in reward processing, but changes with psychostimulants remain unknown. Design: Prospective case-control study. Setting: Academic sleep disorders center. Participants: There were 120 participants: 41 drug-free patients with NC, 37 patients with NC taking psychostimulants, and 42 matched healthy controls. Interventions: All participants underwent a semistructured clinical interview for impulse control and addictive behaviors and completed questionnaires for depression and impulsivity. Risk taking was analyzed through performance on a decision-making task under ambiguity (Iowa Gambling Task [IGT]) and under risk (Game of Dice Task [GDT]). All patients with NC underwent 1 night of polysomnography followed by a multiple sleep latency test for drug-free patients and a maintenance wakefulness test for treated patients. Results: Depressive symptoms were higher in drug-free patients than in treated patients and controls, with no difference between controls and treated patients. No between-group differences were found for impulsivity, substance addiction, or pathological gambling. Drug-free and treated patients showed selective reduced performance on the IGT and normal performance on the GDT compared with controls, with no differences between patients taking medication and those who did not. No clinical or polysomnographic characteristics or medication type was associated with IGT scores. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that, whether taking psychostimulants or not, patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy preferred risky choices on a decision-making task under ambiguity. However, the lack of association with impulsivity, pathological gambling, or substance addiction remains of major clinical interest in narcolepsy

  9. Gender specific effect of psychological stress and cortisol reactivity on adolescent risk taking.

    PubMed

    Daughters, Stacey B; Gorka, Stephanie M; Matusiewicz, Alexis; Anderson, Katelyn

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate how psychological stress, gender and cortisol response to stress relate to risk behavior among 132 14-18 year old adolescents. Participants completed a laboratory based risk task prior to and immediately after a computerized psychological stress task, and salivary cortisol was collected from pre-stress to 60 min following initial stress exposure. Results indicate that adolescent boys (n = 59) and girls (n = 73) demonstrate different patterns of risk taking (RT) in response to stress, such that boys evidenced an increase in RT following stress exposure, whereas girls evidenced a decrease in RT. In addition, a gender by cortisol interaction demonstrated that for boys, both a smaller total cortisol output (AUCg) and peak cortisol response to stress (PC) was associated with greater stress-induced RT. Both cortisol measures were unrelated to stress-induced RT among girls. Taken together, data suggest that among boys, a blunted cortisol response to stress underlies an increase in risk taking in the context of psychological stress. Further research with an additional behavioral stress task is needed prior to drawing conclusions regarding the relation between female gender, cortisol response to stress, and risk taking in the context of psychological stress. PMID:23338478

  10. Effects of Alcohol and Blood Alcohol Concentration Limb on Sexual Risk-Taking Intentions*

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Norris, Jeanette; Schacht, Rebecca L.; Stoner, Susan A.; Hendershot, Christian S.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Although there have been numerous investigations of alcohol's relationship to sexual risk taking, the vast majority of these studies have not examined whether the biphasic nature of alcohol intoxication differentially influences risky sexual decisions. Thus, a laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of alcohol consumption and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limb on sexual risk-taking intentions. Method: Participants (N = 150; 51.3% male) were randomly assigned to consume alcoholic drinks (target peak BAC = .08%) or nonalcoholic drinks and then completed a hypothetical sexual risk assessment involving an opposite-gender new partner while on either the ascending BAC limb or descending BAC limb. Results: Alcohol intoxication resulted in increased sexual risk-taking intentions indirectly through its influence on perceived intoxication and, subsequently, sexual arousal. An interaction of beverage condition and BAC limb condition indicated that alcohol's effects on perceived intoxication varied significantly by limb, with those on the ascending limb reporting greater perceived intoxication than those on the descending limb. Conclusions: Findings suggest that future research and prevention efforts would be better informed through a more comprehensive consideration of BAC limb effects on sexual risk behaviors. Moreover, results indicate that prevention programs should address in-the-moment states, such as perceived intoxication and sexual arousal, in interventions targeting risky sexual decision-making processes. PMID:19515289

  11. Exploring the role of parents and peers in young adolescents' risk taking on social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Shin, Wonsun; Ismail, Nurzali

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the role of parental and peer mediation in young adolescents' engagement in risk-taking in social networking sites (SNSs). A survey conducted in Malaysia with 469 SNS users aged 13-14 revealed that control-based parental mediation can cause boomerang effects, making young adolescents more inclined to taking risks in SNSs. While discussion-based parental mediation was found to be negatively related to young adolescents' befriending strangers in SNSs, it did not reduce privacy risks. Findings also suggested that peer influence could result in undesirable outcomes. In particular, the more young adolescents talked about Internet-related issues with peers, the more likely they were to disclose personally identifiable information on SNSs. PMID:25126969

  12. Does life history predict risk-taking behavior of wintering dabbling ducks?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, J.T.; Eadie, J.M.; Moore, T.G.

    2006-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that longer-lived, less fecund species should take fewer risks when exposed to predation than shorter-lived, more fecund species. We tested this prediction for seven species of dabbling ducks (Anas) by measuring the approach behavior (behavior of ducks when approaching potential landing sites) of 1099 duck flocks during 37 hunting trials and 491 flocks during 13 trials conducted immediately after the 1999-2000 waterfowl hunting season in California, USA. We also experimentally manipulated the attractiveness of the study site by using two decoy treatments: (1) traditional, stationary decoys only, and (2) traditional decoys in conjunction with a mechanical spinning-wing decoy. Approach behavior of ducks was strongly correlated with their life history. Minimum approach distance was negatively correlated with reproductive output during each decoy treatment and trial type. Similarly, the proportion of flocks taking risk (approaching landing sites to within 45 m) was positively correlated with reproductive output. We found similar patterns of approach behavior in relation to other life-history parameters (i.e., adult female body mass and annual adult female survival rate). Thus, species characterized by a slower life-history strategy (e.g., Northern Pintail [A. acuta]) were more risk-averse than species with a faster life-history strategy (e.g., Cinnamon Teal [A. cyanoptera]). Furthermore, although we were able to reduce risk-averseness using the spinning-wing decoy, we were unable to override the influence of life history on risk-taking behavior. Alternative explanations did not account for the observed correlation between approach behavior and life-history parameters. These results suggest that life history influences the risk-taking behavior of dabbling ducks and provide an explanation for the differential vulnerability of waterfowl to harvest. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

  13. Executive functioning and risk-taking behavior in Parkinson's disease patients with impulse control disorders.

    PubMed

    Pineau, Fanny; Roze, Emmanuel; Lacomblez, Lucette; Bonnet, Anne-Marie; Vidailhet, Marie; Czernecki, Virginie; Corvol, Jean-Christophe

    2016-06-01

    Impulse control disorders (ICD) are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and are associated with dopaminergic medication. The purpose of this study was to investigate executive function and risk-taking behavior in PD patients with ICD. 17 PD patients with ICD (ICD-PD) were compared to 20 PD patients without ICD (CTRL-PD) using neuropsychological and experimental tasks. Executive functions were assessed using standard executive testing (Conner's Performance Test, Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Trail Making Test and phonological verbal fluency). Subjects were also submitted to an experimental gambling task consisted of three decks of money cards: neutral deck (equal opportunity for gains as losses), winning deck (small amount of money with a positive balance) and loser deck (high amount of money with a negative balance), evaluating risk-taking behavior (number of cards picked in each deck) and valuation of the reward (subjective appreciation of the value of each deck). There was no significant difference in executive functioning between groups. Both groups selected more cards in the losing deck (high amount of money) as compared to the neutral deck (Mann-Whitney test, ICD-PD, p = 0.02; CTRL-PD, p = 0.003) and to the winning deck (Mann-Whitney test, ICD-PD p = 0.0001; CTRL-PD p = 0.003), suggesting an increased risk-taking behavior. Interestingly, we found that ICD-PD patients estimated the value of decks differently from CTRL-PD patients, taking into account mainly the positive reinforced value of the decks (Mann-Whitney test, p = 0.04). This study showed that executive pattern and risk-taking behavior are similar between ICD-PD and CTRL-PD patients. However, ICD-PD patients showed a specific deficit of the subjective estimation of the reward. Links between this deficit and metacognitive skills are discussed. PMID:27085342

  14. A UK survey of driving behaviour, fatigue, risk taking and road traffic accidents

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present research was to examine associations between poor driving behaviour (DB), driving when fatigued (DF), risk taking (RT) and road traffic accidents (RTAs). Design The study involved a cross-sectional online survey of clients of an insurance company. The survey measured DB (speeding, distraction, lapses of attention and aggression), RT and frequency of driving when fatigued (DF, driving late at night, prolonged driving, driving after a demanding working day and driving with a cold). Demographic, lifestyle, job characteristics and psychosocial factors were also measured and used as covariates. Setting Cardiff, UK. Sample 3000 clients of an insurance company agreed to participate in the study, and 2856 completed the survey (68% woman, 32% man; mean age: 34 years, range 18–74 years). Main outcome measures The outcomes were RTAs (requiring medical attention; not requiring medical attention), where the person was the driver. Results Factor analyses showed that DB, RT and fatigue loaded on independent factors. Logistic regressions showed that poor DB, frequently DF and taking risks predicted medical and non-medical RTAs. These effects were additive and those who reported poor DB, driving when fatigue and taking risks were twice as likely to have an RTA. These effects remained significant when demographic, lifestyle, medical, driving, work and psychosocial factors were covaried. Conclusions Poor DB, DF and RT predict RTAs. There are now short measuring instruments that can assess these, and driver education programmes must increase awareness of these risk factors. PMID:27540100

  15. Altered Cingulate and Insular Cortex Activation During Risk-Taking in Methamphetamine Dependence: Losses Lose Impact

    PubMed Central

    Gowin, Joshua L.; Stewart, Jennifer L.; May, April C.; Ball, Tali M.; Wittmann, Marc; Tapert, Susan F.; Paulus, Martin P.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To determine if methamphetamine-dependent (MD) individuals exhibit behavioral or neural processing differences in risk-taking relative to healthy comparison participants (CTL). Design This was a cross-sectional study comparing two groups’ behavior on a risk-taking task and neural processing as assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Settings The study was conducted in an inpatient treatment center and a research fMRI facility in the United States. Participants Sixty-eight recently abstinent MD individuals recruited from a treatment program and forty CTL recruited from the community completed the study. Measurements The study assessed risk-taking behavior (overall and post-loss) using the Risky Gains Task (RGT), sensation-seeking, impulsivity and blood-oxygenation level dependent activation in the brain during the decision phase of the RGT. Findings Relative to CTL, MD displayed decreased activation in the bilateral rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and greater activation in the left insula across risky and safe decisions (p<.05). Right mid insula activation among CTL did not vary between risky and safe decisions, but among MD it was higher during risky relative to safe decisions (p<.05). Among MD, lower activation in the right rostral ACC (r=−.39, p<.01) and higher activation in the right mid insula (r=.35, p<.01) during risky decisions were linked to a higher likelihood of choosing a risky option following a loss. Conclusions Methamphetamine-dependent individuals show disrupted risk-related processing in both anterior cingulate and insula, brain areas that have been implicated in cognitive control and interoceptive processing. Attenuated neural processing of risky options may lead to risk-taking despite experiencing negative consequences. PMID:24033715

  16. [Cooking as a therapy for dangerous mental health patients: controlled risk-taking].

    PubMed

    Geay, Janique; Schmitt, Stéphane; Bouchard, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Among the range of therapeutic mediators used with dangerous mental health patients in the unit for dangerous patients in Cadillac, cooking holds an important place. Led by caregivers, this activity has undeniable positive effects for the psychotic and non-psychotic patients taking part. These effects concern notably their capacities for conception, creation, organisation, execution, sensation, collaboration and socialisation. For some patients, it is also the opportunity to take the drama out of handling utensils which they previously used as weapons. As the risk factors are controlled before and during the activity, no dangerous acting out has ever occurred. PMID:26143218

  17. Investigating the effects of behavior constructs on academic persistence in engineering, creativity and risk-taking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deanes, Viveca K.

    Increasingly over the last decade, engineering colleges across this nation have conducted research to identify factors that will help them better predict students' academic persistence in engineering. While initial efforts were aimed at predicting those who would graduate, recent efforts have been directed toward predicting who will persist to the second year, as it has been found that a substantial percentage of those who leave engineering do so during their first year. Prior research investigated the predictability of academic persistence using academic credentials such as grade point averages and SAT scores. However, recent research on academic persistence in engineering has suggested differences in students' behavior and students' levels of dissonance-induced stress, rather than differences in academic credentials, may distinguish persisters from non-persisters. One aspect of an individual's behavior, compliance, and behavior-related stress, referred to as dissonance-induced stress, are proposed to have an effect on academic persistence. Research shows compliance (or conformity) is diametrically opposed to creativity, which is essential to leadership and innovation in engineering. A similar relationship is likely to exist between compliance and risk-taking. This research investigated whether behavior and dissonance-induced stress are good predictors of academic persistence in engineering. This research also investigated relationships between behavior, creativity, and risk-taking. Students who were enrolled in a first-year Fundamentals in Engineering course (ENGR 112) were the subjects in this research. The Style Analysis Instrument was used to collect data regarding students' behavioral orientations. The Style Analysis Instrument provides both natural and adapted measures in four dimensions of human behavior: dominance, influence, steadiness, and compliance. The Creativity and Risk-Taking Instrument was used to collect data regarding students' creativity and

  18. Complicity or conflict over sexual cannibalism? Male risk taking in the praying mantis Tenodera aridifolia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Lelito, Jonathan P; Brown, William D

    2006-08-01

    Male complicity versus conflict over sexual cannibalism in mantids remains extremely controversial, yet few studies have attempted to establish a causal relationship between risk of cannibalism and male reproductive behavior. We studied male risk-taking behavior in the praying mantid Tenodera aridifolia sinensis by altering the risk imposed by females and measuring changes in male behavior. We show that males were less likely to approach hungrier, more rapacious females, and when they did approach, they moved more slowly, courted with greater intensity, and mounted from a greater distance. Similarly, when forced to approach females head-on, within better view and better reach of females, males also approached more slowly and courted with greater intensity. Thus, males behaved in a manner clearly indicative of risk avoidance, and we support the hypothesis of sexual conflict over sexual cannibalism. PMID:16874635

  19. Territory management an appropriate approach for taking into account dynamic risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, M.; Ruegg, J.

    2012-04-01

    unequivocal. On the contrary, in the case of the Los Chorros, the "primary" risk (the landslide), as evaluated by the authorities, was not perceived as such by the local community, which prioritized economic risks by creating their own road through the landslide area in defiance of authorities. In other words, certain attributes and characteristics of risk will be emphasized by some actors over others, (i.e. economic considerations over the perceived probability of another landslide). Their priorities will depend on their needs and mandates and as priorities change, so individual definitions of risk may change over time. This paper demonstrates that the risk is not uniform, that multiple risks persist especially in a developing country context becomes diffuse, changes or endures because it depends on the implications on the territory and on the risk definition made by the actors. The risk is variable, the result of a choice because its existence is attributed by the characteristics or criteria of vulnerability fostered by actors in their territories. Finally, the case study demonstrates that in developing countries, actors are forced to address and prioritize multiple risks due to limited resources. In this context, the challenge for managers of natural hazards is to move from risk management in the strict sense (i.e., pure hazard approach) to a broader risk management, taking into consideration what is important for the society and for the functioning of systems. Territory management in this sense is an appropriate approach for taking into account multiple stakeholder priorities, their relationships, available resources and limitations.

  20. Age and Social Context Modulate the Effect of Anxiety on Risk-taking in Pediatric Samples.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Dana; Patel, Nilam; Pavletic, Nevia; Grillon, Christian; Pine, Daniel S; Ernst, Monique

    2016-08-01

    Although risk-taking has been studied from a developmental perspective, no study has examined how anxiety, age, risk-valence and social context interact to modulate decision-making in youths. This study probes this question using a risk-taking task, the Stunt Task, in clinically anxious children (n = 17, 10 F, age = 8.3-12.1 years), healthy children (n = 13, 4 F, age = 9.3-12.2 years), clinically anxious adolescents (n = 18, 6 F, age = 12.3-17.7 years), and healthy adolescents (n =14, 10 F, age = 12.5-17.3 years). Social context was manipulated: in one condition, participants were led to believe that a group of peers were observing and judging their performance (peer-judge), while, in the other condition, they were led to believe that peers were not observing them (control). Only anxious children showed an influence of social context on their risk-taking behavior. Specifically, anxious children bet significantly less and had slower reaction times (RT) during the peer-judge than control condition. However, across social conditions, risk-valence modulated RT differently in function of age and diagnosis. Anxious children were slower on the positive-valence risky trial, whereas anxious adolescents were slower on the negative-valence risky trials relative to their respective healthy peers. In conclusion, clinically anxious children were the only group that was sensitive (risk-averse) to the effect of a negative peer-judge context. The negative peer-judge context did not affect risky decision-making in adolescents, whether they were anxious or healthy. Future work using a stronger aversive social context might be more effective at influencing risky behavior in this age group. PMID:26659306

  1. Age and Social Context Modulate the Effect of Anxiety on Risk-taking in Pediatric Samples

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Dana; Patel, Nilam; Pavletic, Nevia; Grillon, Christian; Pine, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    Although risk-taking has been studied from a developmental perspective, no study has examined how anxiety, age, risk-valence and social context interact to modulate decision-making in youths. This study probes this question using a risk-taking task, the Stunt Task, in clinically anxious children (n=17, 10 F, age=8.3–12.1 years), healthy children (n=13, 4 F, age=9.3–12.2 years), clinically anxious adolescents (n=18, 6 F, age=12.3–17.7 years), and healthy adolescents (n =14, 10 F, age=12.5–17.3 years). Social context was manipulated: in one condition, participants were led to believe that a group of peers were observing and judging their performance (peer-judge), while, in the other condition, they were led to believe that peers were not observing them (control). Only anxious children showed an influence of social context on their risk-taking behavior. Specifically, anxious children bet significantly less and had slower reaction times (RT) during the peer-judge than control condition. However, across social conditions, risk-valence modulated RT differently in function of age and diagnosis. Anxious children were slower on the positive-valence risky trial, whereas anxious adolescents were slower on the negative-valence risky trials relative to their respective healthy peers. In conclusion, clinically anxious children were the only group that was sensitive (risk-averse) to the effect of a negative peer-judge context. The negative peer-judge context did not affect risky decision-making in adolescents, whether they were anxious or healthy. Future work using a stronger aversive social context might be more effective at influencing risky behavior in this age group. PMID:26659306

  2. Blunted Feedback Processing During Risk-Taking in Adolescents with Features of Problematic Internet Use

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Yvonne H. C.; Potenza, Marc N.; Mayes, Linda C.; Crowley, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    While the conceptualization of problematic Internet use (PIU) as a ‘behavioral addiction’ resembling substance-use disorders is debated, the neurobiological underpinnings of PIU remain understudied. This study examined whether adolescents displaying features of PIU (at-risk PIU; ARPIU) are more impulsive and exhibit blunted responding in the neural mechanisms underlying feedback processing and outcome evaluation during risk-taking. Event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by positive (i.e. reward) and negative (i.e. loss) feedback were recording during performance on a modified version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) among ARPIU (n=39) and non-ARPIU subjects (n=27). Compared to non-ARPIU, ARPIU adolescents displayed higher levels of urgency and lack of perseverance on the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale. Although no between-group difference in BART performance was observed, ERPs demonstrated overall decreased sensitivity to feedback in ARPIU compared to non-ARPIU adolescents, as indexed by blunted feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P300 amplitudes to both negative and positive feedback. The present study provides evidence for feedback processing during risk-taking as a neural correlate of ARPIU. Given recent concerns regarding the growing prevalence of PIU as a health concern, future work should examine the extent to which feedback processing may represent a risk factor for PIU, a consequence of PIU, or possibly both. PMID:25679363

  3. Blunted feedback processing during risk-taking in adolescents with features of problematic Internet use.

    PubMed

    Yau, Yvonne H C; Potenza, Marc N; Mayes, Linda C; Crowley, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    While the conceptualization of problematic Internet use (PIU) as a "behavioral addiction" resembling substance-use disorders is debated, the neurobiological underpinnings of PIU remain understudied. This study examined whether adolescents displaying features of PIU (at-risk PIU; ARPIU) are more impulsive and exhibit blunted responding in the neural mechanisms underlying feedback processing and outcome evaluation during risk-taking. Event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by positive (i.e. reward) and negative (i.e. loss) feedback were recorded during performance on a modified version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) among ARPIU (n=39) and non-ARPIU subjects (n=27). Compared to non-ARPIU, ARPIU adolescents displayed higher levels of urgency and lack of perseverance on the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale. Although no between-group difference in BART performance was observed, ERPs demonstrated overall decreased sensitivity to feedback in ARPIU compared to non-ARPIU adolescents, as indexed by blunted feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P300 amplitudes to both negative and positive feedback. The present study provides evidence for feedback processing during risk-taking as a neural correlate of ARPIU. Given recent concerns regarding the growing prevalence of PIU as a health concern, future work should examine the extent to which feedback processing may represent a risk factor for PIU, a consequence of PIU, or possibly both. PMID:25679363

  4. Risk-taking, responsibility for health, and attitude toward avoiding AIDS.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, B J

    1989-06-01

    A telephone survey was completed with 400 adults to explore a possible relation between health risk-taking and perceived personal responsibility for health. The attitude that AIDS could be avoided by being careful was weakly associated with responses to questions about wearing seat belts and smoking. The pattern held only among those who thought their health was good for people their age. After reviewing related literature, it appears that poor health status and dogmatism may contribute to denial of risk and to risky sexual behavior. Themes for public health educational campaigns are suggested. PMID:2762466

  5. Are women as likely to take risks and compete? Behavioural findings from central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Fletschner, Diana; Anderson, C Leigh; Cullen, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Using controlled experiments to compare the risk attitude and willingness to compete of husbands and wives in 500 couples in rural Vietnam, we find that women are more risk averse than men and that, compared to men, women are less likely to choose to compete, irrespective of how likely they are to succeed. Relevant to development programmes concerned with lifting women out of poverty, our findings suggest that women may be more reluctant to adopt new technologies, take out loans, or engage in economic activities that offer higher expected returns, in order to avoid setups that require them to be more competitive or that have less predictable outcomes. PMID:21125722

  6. When performance and risk taking are related: Working for rewards is related to risk taking when the value of rewards is presented briefly.

    PubMed

    Veling, Harm; Bijleveld, Erik

    2015-12-01

    Valuable monetary rewards can boost human performance on various effortful tasks even when the value of the rewards is presented too briefly to allow for strategic decision making. However, the mechanism by which briefly-presented reward information influences performance has remained unclear. One possibility is that performance after briefly-presented reward information is primarily boosted via activation of the dopamine reward system, whereas performance after very visible reward information is driven more by strategic processes. To examine this hypothesis, we first presented participants with a task in which they could earn rewards of relatively low (1 cent) or high (10 cents) value, and the value information was presented either briefly (17 ms) or for an extended duration (300 ms). Furthermore, responsiveness of the dopamine system was indirectly estimated with a measure of risk taking, the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART). Results showed that performance after high- compared to low-value rewards was indeed related to the BART scores only when reward information was presented briefly. These results are suggestive of the possibility that brief presentation of reward information boosts performance directly via activating the dopamine system, whereas extended presentation of reward information leads to more strategic reward-driven behavior. PMID:26575108

  7. Locating and applying sociological theories of risk-taking to develop public health interventions for adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pound, Pandora; Campbell, Rona

    2015-01-01

    Sociological theories seldom inform public health interventions at the community level. The reasons for this are unclear but may include difficulties in finding, understanding or operationalising theories. We conducted a study to explore the feasibility of locating sociological theories within a specific field of public health, adolescent risk-taking, and to consider their potential for practical application. We identified a range of sociological theories. These explained risk-taking: (i) as being due to lack of social integration; (ii) as a consequence of isolation from mainstream society; (iii) as a rite of passage; (iv) as a response to social constraints; (v) as resistance; (vi) as an aspect of adolescent development; (vii) by the theory of the ‘habitus’; (viii) by situated rationality and social action theories; and (ix) as social practice. We consider these theories in terms of their potential to inform public health interventions for young people. PMID:25999784

  8. Depressive symptoms and health-related risk-taking in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Testa, C Rylann; Steinberg, Laurence

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated the relation between symptoms and a variety of health-related risk-taking behaviors during adolescence. A survey of 20,745 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health provided data for analysis. Adolescents who reported more depressive symptoms were found to wear seatbelts less often, wear bike-helmets less often, and drive while drunk more frequently. Depressive symptoms did not correlate with reported condom use. The found relations were all mediated by reported levels of hopelessness. Reported levels of anhedonia and suicidality also mediated some of the found relations. Therefore, adolescents experiencing depressive symptoms, especially those reporting hopelessness, should be considered at jeopardy for a variety of health-related risk-taking behaviors. PMID:20560751

  9. The Risk-Taking and Self-Harm Inventory for Adolescents: Development and Psychometric Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrouva, Ioanna; Fonagy, Peter; Fearon, Pasco R. M.; Roussow, Trudie

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we report on the development and psychometric evaluation of the Risk-Taking (RT) and Self-Harm (SH) Inventory for Adolescents (RTSHIA), a self-report measure designed to assess adolescent RT and SH in community and clinical settings. 651 young people from secondary schools in England ranging in age from 11.6 years to 18.7 years and…

  10. Peers Increase Adolescent Risk Taking Even When the Probabilities of Negative Outcomes Are Known

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ashley R.; Chein, Jason; Steinberg, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    The majority of adolescent risk taking occurs in the presence of peers, and recent research suggests that the presence of peers may alter how the potential rewards and costs of a decision are valuated or perceived. The current study further explores this notion by investigating how peer observation affects adolescent risk taking when the information necessary to make an informed decision is explicitly provided. We used a novel probabilistic gambling task in which participants decided whether to play or pass on a series of offers for which the reward and loss outcome probabilities were made explicit. Adolescent participants completed the task either alone or under the belief that they were being observed by an unknown peer in a neighboring room. Participants who believed a peer was observing them chose to gamble more often than participants who completed the task alone, and this effect was most evident for decisions with a greater probability of loss. These results suggest that the presence of peers can increase risk taking among adolescents even when specific information regarding the likelihood of positive and negative outcomes is provided. The findings expand our understanding of how peers influence adolescent decision making and have important implications regarding the value of educational programs aimed at reducing risky behaviors during adolescence. PMID:24447118

  11. Risk and protective factors for sexual risk taking among adolescents involved in Prime Time.

    PubMed

    Garwick, Ann; Nerdahl, Peggy; Banken, Rachel; Muenzenberger-Bretl, Lynn; Sieving, Renee

    2004-10-01

    This article describes a preliminary qualitative evaluation of risk and protective factors associated with consistent contraceptive use and healthy sexual decision-making among ten of the first participants in the Prime Time intervention study. Prime Time is an 18-month intervention including one-on-one case management and peer educator training targeting sexually active 13-17-year-old girls who are recruited from health care clinics. Using an approach grounded in findings from previous research, social cognitive theory, and the social development model, Prime Time aims to improve participants' contraceptive use consistency, reduce number of sexual partners, and reduce unwanted sexual activity. Findings from this preliminary evaluation alert health care providers to the complex and dynamic nature of adolescent girls' sexual behaviors and to a broad range of risk and protective factors within individuals and their environments that may influence adolescent girls' sexual behaviors and contraceptive use. Findings suggest that an ongoing, supportive relationship with a case manager who is able to pace and tailor an intervention to the individual young person can have positive effects on adolescent girls' sexual behaviors and contraceptive use. PMID:15614258

  12. Influence of risk-taking health behaviours of adolescents on cervical cancer prevention: a Hungarian survey.

    PubMed

    Marek, E; Berenyi, K; Dergez, T; Kiss, I; D'Cruz, G

    2016-01-01

    An anonymous questionnaire survey was conducted among the Hungarian adolescents to establish their use of tobacco, alcohol and drugs in relation to sexual behaviours, knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer, and beliefs and attitudes towards screening and vaccination. Results indicated that adolescent risk-taking health behaviours correlate with risky sexual behaviours. As risk-taking behaviours do not correlate with a better awareness of the risk associated with HPV infection, it is of crucial importance that HPV/cervical cancer preventing educational programmes shall be sensitive to this 'vulnerable' population and draw the attention of these adolescents to their increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases and undesired pregnancies. Well-designed behavioural change interventions may be effective when in addition to providing adolescents (both men and women) with clear information about the implications of an HPV infection, they also aim to improve safer sex behaviours: consistent condom usage, limiting the number of sex partners, as well as encouraging regular participation in gynaecological screenings and uptake of the HPV vaccine. As this study population demonstrated positive attitudes towards the primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer, the free HPV vaccination for the 12-13-year-old girls in Autumn 2014 will hopefully increase the currently low uptake of the vaccine in Hungary. PMID:26059166

  13. Alcohol Mixed with Energy Drink Use and Sexual Risk-Taking: Casual, Intoxicated, and Unprotected Sex

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examined the confluence of several behaviors common to U.S. young adults: caffeinated energy drink use, alcohol use, and sexual risk-taking. The author examined relationships between the use of energy drinks mixed with alcohol (AmEDs) and three sexual risk behaviors: casual sex (i.e., intercourse with a nonexclusive and/or nonromantic partner), intoxicated sex (i.e., intercourse while under the influence of alcohol and/or illicit drugs), and unprotected sex (i.e., intercourse without use of a condom). Method Logistic regression analyses were employed to analyze data from a cross-sectional survey of 648 sexually active undergraduate students at a large public university. Results After controlling for risk-taking norms and frequency of noncaffeinated alcohol use, AmED use was associated with elevated odds of casual sex and intoxicated sex but not unprotected sex. Conclusions Although further studies are needed to test for event-level relationships, AmED use should be considered a possible risk factor for potentially health-compromising sexual behaviors. PMID:24761266

  14. Under the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety - Where is the Roadmap for Risk Assessment Taking Us?

    PubMed

    Gaugitsch, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    The paper summarizes the history of the development of the guidance on risk assessment, including the roadmap under the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety since 2008 until now. The aim and the contents of the roadmap for risk assessment of living modified organisms (LMOs) are described, in particular the five steps in the risk assessment process. After several rounds of discussions at the expert and political level, the guidance including the roadmap is currently revised taking into account the results of an in-depth practical testing process by the Parties, Non-Parties, and relevant organizations. The aim is to provide an improved version of the guidance for endorsement and broad support by the next meeting of the Parties to the Cartagena Protocol in December 2016. PMID:26835448

  15. Under the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety – Where is the Roadmap for Risk Assessment Taking Us?

    PubMed Central

    Gaugitsch, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    The paper summarizes the history of the development of the guidance on risk assessment, including the roadmap under the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety since 2008 until now. The aim and the contents of the roadmap for risk assessment of living modified organisms (LMOs) are described, in particular the five steps in the risk assessment process. After several rounds of discussions at the expert and political level, the guidance including the roadmap is currently revised taking into account the results of an in-depth practical testing process by the Parties, Non-Parties, and relevant organizations. The aim is to provide an improved version of the guidance for endorsement and broad support by the next meeting of the Parties to the Cartagena Protocol in December 2016. PMID:26835448

  16. Endogenous steroids and financial risk taking on a London trading floor

    PubMed Central

    Coates, J. M.; Herbert, J.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the role of the endocrine system in financial risk taking. Here, we report the findings of a study in which we sampled, under real working conditions, endogenous steroids from a group of male traders in the City of London. We found that a trader's morning testosterone level predicts his day's profitability. We also found that a trader's cortisol rises with both the variance of his trading results and the volatility of the market. Our results suggest that higher testosterone may contribute to economic return, whereas cortisol is increased by risk. Our results point to a further possibility: testosterone and cortisol are known to have cognitive and behavioral effects, so if the acutely elevated steroids we observed were to persist or increase as volatility rises, they may shift risk preferences and even affect a trader's ability to engage in rational choice. PMID:18413617

  17. Disease Risk Assessments Involving Companion Animals: an Overview for 15 Selected Pathogens Taking a European Perspective.

    PubMed

    Rijks, J M; Cito, F; Cunningham, A A; Rantsios, A T; Giovannini, A

    2016-07-01

    Prioritization of companion animal transmissible diseases was performed by the Companion Animals multisectoriaL interprofessionaL Interdisciplinary Strategic Think tank On zoonoses (CALLISTO) project. The project considered diseases occurring in domesticated species commonly kept as pets, such as dogs and cats, but also included diseases occurring in captive wild animals and production animal species. The prioritization process led to the selection of 15 diseases of prime public health relevance, agricultural economic importance, or both. An analysis was made of the current knowledge on the risk of occurrence and transmission of these diseases among companion animals, and from companion animals to man (zoonoses) or to livestock. The literature was scanned for risk assessments for these diseases. Studies were classified as import risk assessments (IRAs) or risk factor analyses (RFAs) in endemic areas. For those pathogens that are absent from Europe, only IRAs were considered; for pathogens present throughout Europe, only RFAs were considered. IRAs were identified for seven of the eight diseases totally or partially absent from Europe. IRAs for classical rabies and alveolar echinococcosis found an increased risk for introduction of the pathogen into officially disease-free areas as a consequence of abandoning national rules and adopting the harmonized EU rules for pet travel. IRAs for leishmaniosis focused on risk associated with the presence of persistently infected dogs in new geographical areas, taking into consideration the risk of disease establishment should a competent vector arise. IRAs for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and West Nile fever indicated that the likelihood of introduction via companion animals was low. IRAs for bluetongue paid no attention to the risk of introduction via companion animals, which was also the case for IRAs for foot-and-mouth disease, the only disease considered to be absent from Europe. RFAs dealing with the risk factors for

  18. Risk-taking behaviour is more frequent in teenage girls with multiple sexual partners

    PubMed Central

    Kuortti, Marjo; Kosunen, Elise

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between sexual behaviour and risk-taking health behaviour among adolescent females in our changing sexual culture. Design A questionnaire study. Girls who had had multiple sexual partners (at least five in their lifetime or four during the last six months) were compared with those with fewer partners. Logistic regression was applied. Setting The Adolescent Clinic, a primary healthcare unit in the city of Tampere, Finland. Subjects A sample of 247 female clients aged 15–18 years who had experienced sexual intercourse. Main outcome measures Contraceptive practices, substance use, and sexual attitudes. Results Girls with multiple sexual partners (n = 69) and the reference group (n = 178) did not differ from each other significantly by age, age at menarche, or educational status. In univariate analysis, age at sexual debut, contraceptive practices, and various substance uses were strongly associated with having multiple sexual partners. Ever-use of emergency contraception was marginally associated, while ever-use of conventional hormonal contraception or condoms was not. In multivariate analysis, low age at sexual debut (OR 8.75 for age 11–13), omitting contraception at the most recent intercourse (OR 3.48), ever-use of withdrawal as a contraceptive method (OR 2.34), and repeated use of drugs (OR 4.10) were associated with having multiple sexual partners. Conclusion Different types of risk-taking behaviour are still interlinked. In discussions with adolescents showing one type of risk behaviour health service providers should make an effort to identify other modes of risk-taking. PMID:19221934

  19. Preservice Teachers Reflections on Risk-Taking: The Dynamics of Practice and Experience While Experimenting with Innovation during Student Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwyn-Paquette, Caroline; Tochon, Francois Victor

    2003-01-01

    A study examined preservice teachers' professional "risk taking" during student teaching with regard to experimenting with cooperative learning. Classroom observations and interviews with 14 preservice teachers who were student teaching in Quebec high schools indicated that risk taking and innovation depended on support received during planning…

  20. The Development of Reproductive Strategy in Females: Early Maternal Harshness [right arrow] Earlier Menarche [right arrow] Increased Sexual Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; Steinberg, Laurence; Houts, Renate M.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2010-01-01

    To test a proposition central to J. Belsky, L. Steinberg, and P. Draper's (1991) evolutionary theory of socialization--that pubertal maturation plays a role in linking early rearing experience with adolescent sexual risk taking (i.e., frequency of sexual behavior) and, perhaps, other risk taking (e.g., alcohol, drugs, delinquency)--the authors…

  1. A Study on Correlation of Risk-Taking and the Oral Production of English Majors in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yang; Lin, Yuewu

    2015-01-01

    Risk-taking refers to the tendency to engage in behaviors that have the potential to be harmful or dangerous, yet at the same time provides the opportunity for some kinds of outcome that can be perceived as positive. Ely (1986) and Bang (1999) have mentioned the relationship between risk-taking and oral production in the process of English…

  2. The Relationships between Emerging Adults' Expressed Desire to Marry and Frequency of Participation in Risk-Taking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Brian J.; Dworkin, Jodi

    2009-01-01

    The impact that desire to marry has on risk-taking behaviors during emerging adulthood is examined in the current investigation using nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Looking both at the simple relationships between desire to marry and risk-taking behaviors, as well as the…

  3. Adult and Middle School Girls' Perceptions of Risk-Taking Behavior: Implications for School Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Brett Johnson; Garibaldi, Mark

    2013-01-01

    There is an overwhelming disconnect between young adolescent girls and adults, in relationship to perceptions of middle schoolgirl risk taking. This mixed-methods study investigates the differences between adult practitioners and middle school girls' perceptions of risk taking, understanding of consequences, and needs among middle school…

  4. Risk Taking in First and Second Generation Afro-Caribbean Adolescents: An Emerging Challenge for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolly, Kim; Archibald, Cynthia; Liehr, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    School nurses are well positioned to address risk-taking behaviors for adolescents in their care. The purpose of this mixed-method exploratory study was to explore risk taking in Afro-Caribbean adolescents in South Florida, comparing first- to second-generation adolescents. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from an immigrant group…

  5. Homelessness Experiences, Sexual Orientation, and Sexual Risk Taking among High School Students in Los Angeles

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Eric; Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Fulginiti, Anthony; Astor, Roee; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Prior studies reported homeless adolescents engage in more sexual risk than their housed peers. However, these comparisons are typically made post hoc by comparing homeless adolescent community-based samples with high school probability samples. This study utilizes a random sample of high school students to examine homelessness experiences and sexual risk behaviors. Methods A supplemental survey to the Youth Risk Behavior Survey containing questions regarding homelessness and sexual health was administered to Los Angeles high school students (N=1,839). Multivariate logistic regressions assessed the associations between demographics, past year homelessness experiences (i.e., place of nighttime residence), and being sexually active and condom use at last intercourse. Results Homelessness experiences consisted of staying in a shelter (10.4%), a public place (10.1%), and with a stranger (5.6%). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, questioning (LGBTQ), younger, and male adolescents were more likely to experience homelessness. LGBTQ adolescents were also more likely to report staying with a stranger and less likely to report staying in a shelter. Compared to adolescents who stayed in shelters, adolescents who stayed with strangers and in public places were more likely to engage in unprotected sex at last intercourse. Conclusions Adolescents who report sexual activity and sexual risk taking are more likely to report homelessness experiences. With regard to sexual health, staying with strangers could be a particularly risky form of homelessness; LGBTQ and Black adolescents are more likely to experience this form of homelessness. Efforts to reduce homelessness and sexual risk-taking need to recognize the specific vulnerabilities faced by these populations. PMID:23360897

  6. Risk-taking behaviors and impulsivity among veterans with and without PTSD and mild TBI.

    PubMed

    James, Lisa M; Strom, Thad Q; Leskela, Jennie

    2014-04-01

    Military personnel commonly experience post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), both of which are associated with premature mortality. The present study examined two factors that may play a role in premature mortality--impulsivity and risk-taking behaviors--in a sample of 234 veterans screening positive for PTSD, mTBI, PTSD + mTBI, and controls. Analyses of variance demonstrated that veterans with PTSD, regardless of mTBI status, reported engaging in more frequent risky behaviors and reported a greater tendency to engage in impulsive behaviors when in a negative affective state. They also reported more premilitary delinquent behaviors and more suicide-related behaviors than controls. The present study highlights associations between impulsivity, risk-taking behaviors, and PTSD, and suggests continuity across the lifespan in terms of a predisposition to engage in impulsive and/or risky behaviors. Thorough evaluation of impulsivity and potentially risky behaviors is important in clinical settings to guide interventions and reduce the mortality and public health impact of high-risk behaviors in veterans. PMID:24690958

  7. Risk Taking Under the Influence: A Fuzzy-Trace Theory of Emotion in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Rivers, Susan E.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Mills, Britain

    2008-01-01

    Fuzzy-trace theory explains risky decision making in children, adolescents, and adults, incorporating social and cultural factors as well as differences in impulsivity. Here, we provide an overview of the theory, including support for counterintuitive predictions (e.g., when adolescents “rationally” weigh costs and benefits, risk taking increases, but it decreases when the core gist of a decision is processed). Then, we delineate how emotion shapes adolescent risk taking—from encoding of representations of options, to retrieval of values/principles, to application of those values/principles to representations of options. Our review indicates that: (i) Gist representations often incorporate emotion including valence, arousal, feeling states, and discrete emotions; and (ii) Emotion determines whether gist or verbatim representations are processed. We recommend interventions to reduce unhealthy risk-taking that inculcate stable gist representations, enabling adolescents to identify quickly and automatically danger even when experiencing emotion, which differs sharply from traditional approaches emphasizing deliberation and precise analysis. PMID:19255597

  8. Cortisol and testosterone increase financial risk taking and may destabilize markets

    PubMed Central

    Cueva, Carlos; Roberts, R. Edward; Spencer, Tom; Rani, Nisha; Tempest, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N.; Herbert, Joe; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    It is widely known that financial markets can become dangerously unstable, yet it is unclear why. Recent research has highlighted the possibility that endogenous hormones, in particular testosterone and cortisol, may critically influence traders’ financial decision making. Here we show that cortisol, a hormone that modulates the response to physical or psychological stress, predicts instability in financial markets. Specifically, we recorded salivary levels of cortisol and testosterone in people participating in an experimental asset market (N = 142) and found that individual and aggregate levels of endogenous cortisol predict subsequent risk-taking and price instability. We then administered either cortisol (single oral dose of 100 mg hydrocortisone, N = 34) or testosterone (three doses of 10 g transdermal 1% testosterone gel over 48 hours, N = 41) to young males before they played an asset trading game. We found that both cortisol and testosterone shifted investment towards riskier assets. Cortisol appears to affect risk preferences directly, whereas testosterone operates by inducing increased optimism about future price changes. Our results suggest that changes in both cortisol and testosterone could play a destabilizing role in financial markets through increased risk taking behaviour, acting via different behavioural pathways. PMID:26135946

  9. Cortisol and testosterone increase financial risk taking and may destabilize markets.

    PubMed

    Cueva, Carlos; Roberts, R Edward; Spencer, Tom; Rani, Nisha; Tempest, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N; Herbert, Joe; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    It is widely known that financial markets can become dangerously unstable, yet it is unclear why. Recent research has highlighted the possibility that endogenous hormones, in particular testosterone and cortisol, may critically influence traders' financial decision making. Here we show that cortisol, a hormone that modulates the response to physical or psychological stress, predicts instability in financial markets. Specifically, we recorded salivary levels of cortisol and testosterone in people participating in an experimental asset market (N = 142) and found that individual and aggregate levels of endogenous cortisol predict subsequent risk-taking and price instability. We then administered either cortisol (single oral dose of 100 mg hydrocortisone, N = 34) or testosterone (three doses of 10 g transdermal 1% testosterone gel over 48 hours, N = 41) to young males before they played an asset trading game. We found that both cortisol and testosterone shifted investment towards riskier assets. Cortisol appears to affect risk preferences directly, whereas testosterone operates by inducing increased optimism about future price changes. Our results suggest that changes in both cortisol and testosterone could play a destabilizing role in financial markets through increased risk taking behaviour, acting via different behavioural pathways. PMID:26135946

  10. Seismic risk assessment at local level taking into account possible technological accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolova, N.; Larionov, V.; Bonnin, J.

    2012-04-01

    Seismic safety of population and urban territories is one of the most complicated problems of seismology and earthquake engineering worldwide. It is especially vital for the earthquake prone regions with high level of seismicity and high density of population. The paper contains the results of the recent study that was done by Seismological Center of IGE, Russian Academy of Sciences, Extreme Situations Research Center and "Rosstrojizyskaniya" Ltd aimed at verification of engineering geological conditions, updating of previous map of seismic microzonation and seismic risk assessment for the Sochi City territory. The City is located in the Krasnodar area, which is characterized by a high density population and a rather high level of seismic hazard. According to maps of review seismic zoning of the Russian Federation territory, earthquakes with intensities I = 6-10 according to the MMSK-86 scale may occur here. The City territory is located along the Black Sea shore and characterized by different level potential of landslides, mudflow, erosion and other geological hazardous processes. The Imeretinskaya valley, where future Olympic Games' facilities are under construction, are located within the marine terrace composed predominantly by gravel-pebble deposits with sand and clay with thickness more than 30 m; the bedrock at the depth of about 70 -90 m, the groundwater level encountered at depths of 0.2-4 m from the surface. According to recent seismic risk assessment at regional level for more that 60% of the Krasnodar area territory, the values of seismic risk computed taking into account the secondary technological accidents exceed the value of 1.0×10-5 1/year. Regional estimation of risk obtained for the Sochi City is equal to 35.0×10-5; contribution of technological risk to seismic one is about 5.0×10-5. The work is under way within the Russian Federal Program "Development of the Sochi City as a mountain resort in 2006 - 2014". The paper will present the results

  11. The relationship between life satisfaction, risk-taking behaviors, and youth violence.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, John M; Piquero, Alex R; Valois, Robert F; Zullig, Keith J

    2005-11-01

    This study builds on existing criminological theories and examines the role of life satisfaction and self-control in explaining youth violence. Using data from a stratified cluster sample of 5,414 public high school students who responded to the South Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey, the study examines the relationship between adolescents'perceptions of life satisfaction, behavioral risky acts, and self-reported acts of violence. Analyses indicate that higher levels of life satisfaction are associated with lower violence. Participation in work and involvement in health-related risk-taking behaviors pertaining to sex, drugs, and alcohol are also associated with increased violence. The implications of these findings for criminological theory and for school-based violence prevention programs are discussed. PMID:16210738

  12. Neural network development in late adolescents during observation of risk-taking action.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Miyuki; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Higuchi, Shigekazu; Hida, Akiko; Enomoto, Minori; Umezawa, Jun; Mishima, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Emotional maturity and social awareness are important for adolescents, particularly college students beginning to face the challenges and risks of the adult world. However, there has been relatively little research into personality maturation and psychological development during late adolescence and the neural changes underlying this development. We investigated the correlation between psychological properties (neuroticism, extraversion, anxiety, and depression) and age among late adolescents (n = 25, from 18 years and 1 month to 22 years and 8 months). The results revealed that late adolescents became less neurotic, less anxious, less depressive and more extraverted as they aged. Participants then observed video clips depicting hand movements with and without a risk of harm (risk-taking or safe actions) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The results revealed that risk-taking actions elicited significantly stronger activation in the bilateral inferior parietal lobule, temporal visual regions (superior/middle temporal areas), and parieto-occipital visual areas (cuneus, middle occipital gyri, precuneus). We found positive correlations of age and extraversion with neural activation in the insula, middle temporal gyrus, lingual gyrus, and precuneus. We also found a negative correlation of age and anxiety with activation in the angular gyrus, precentral gyrus, and red nucleus/substantia nigra. Moreover, we found that insula activation mediated the relationship between age and extraversion. Overall, our results indicate that late adolescents become less anxious and more extraverted with age, a process involving functional neural changes in brain networks related to social cognition and emotional processing. The possible neural mechanisms of psychological and social maturation during late adolescence are discussed. PMID:22768085

  13. Neural Network Development in Late Adolescents during Observation of Risk-Taking Action

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Shigekazu; Hida, Akiko; Enomoto, Minori; Umezawa, Jun; Mishima, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Emotional maturity and social awareness are important for adolescents, particularly college students beginning to face the challenges and risks of the adult world. However, there has been relatively little research into personality maturation and psychological development during late adolescence and the neural changes underlying this development. We investigated the correlation between psychological properties (neuroticism, extraversion, anxiety, and depression) and age among late adolescents (n = 25, from 18 years and 1 month to 22 years and 8 months). The results revealed that late adolescents became less neurotic, less anxious, less depressive and more extraverted as they aged. Participants then observed video clips depicting hand movements with and without a risk of harm (risk-taking or safe actions) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The results revealed that risk-taking actions elicited significantly stronger activation in the bilateral inferior parietal lobule, temporal visual regions (superior/middle temporal areas), and parieto-occipital visual areas (cuneus, middle occipital gyri, precuneus). We found positive correlations of age and extraversion with neural activation in the insula, middle temporal gyrus, lingual gyrus, and precuneus. We also found a negative correlation of age and anxiety with activation in the angular gyrus, precentral gyrus, and red nucleus/substantia nigra. Moreover, we found that insula activation mediated the relationship between age and extraversion. Overall, our results indicate that late adolescents become less anxious and more extraverted with age, a process involving functional neural changes in brain networks related to social cognition and emotional processing. The possible neural mechanisms of psychological and social maturation during late adolescence are discussed. PMID:22768085

  14. News, music videos and action movie exposure and adolescents' intentions to take risks in traffic.

    PubMed

    Beullens, Kathleen; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between adolescents' viewing of specific television genres (action movies, news and music videos) and the intention to take risks in traffic. Participants were 2194 adolescent boys and girls who completed a questionnaire on television viewing, risk perception and the intention to speed and drive after consuming alcohol. As hypothesized, more news viewing was associated with a higher perceived risk of drunk driving and speeding. More music video viewing, on the other hand, was negatively associated with the assessment of the dangers of speeding and driving under the influence of alcohol. Girls regarded speeding and drunk driving as more dangerous than boys did. Contrary to our hypotheses, action movie viewing did not make a significant contribution to our models. Both news and music video viewing were indirectly, via risk perception, related to the intention to drive risky. The more dangerous a particular behavior was perceived to be, the less likely respondents intended to exhibit this behavior in the future. PMID:18215568

  15. Risk factors for early readmission to acute care for persons with schizophrenia taking antipsychotic medications.

    PubMed

    Boaz, Timothy L; Becker, Marion Ann; Andel, Ross; Van Dorn, Richard A; Choi, Jiyoon; Sikirica, Mirko

    2013-12-01

    OBJECTIVE The study examined risk factors for readmission to acute care among Florida Medicaid enrollees with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotics. METHODS Medicaid and service use data for 2004 to 2008 were used to identify adults with schizophrenia discharged from hospitals and crisis units who were taking antipsychotics. Data were extracted on demographic characteristics, service use before admission, psychopharmacologic treatment after discharge, and readmission to acute behavioral health care. Cox proportional hazards regression estimated readmission risk in the 30 days after discharge and in the period after 30 days for participants not readmitted in the first 30 days. RESULTS The mean±SD age of the 3,563 participants was 43.4±11.1; 61% were male, and 38% were white. Participants had 6,633 inpatient episodes; duration of hospitalization was 10.6±7.0 days. Readmission occurred for 84% of episodes, 23% within 30 days. Variables associated with an increased readmission risk in the first 30 days were shorter hospitalization (hazard ratio [HR]=1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.10-1.27, p<.001), shorter time on medication before discharge (HR=1.19, CI=1.06-1.35, p=.003), greater prehospitalization use of acute care (HR=2.64, CI=2.29-3.05, p<.001), serious general medical comorbidity (HR=1.21, CI=1.06-1.38, p=.005), and prior substance abuse treatment (HR=1.58, CI=1.37-1.83, p<.001). After 30 days, hospitalization duration and time on medication were not significant risk factors. CONCLUSIONS Short hospital stays for persons with schizophrenia may be associated with risk of early readmission, possibly because the person is insufficiently stabilized. More chronic risk factors include prior acute care, general medical comorbidity, and substance abuse. PMID:23945797

  16. Take a stand on your decisions, or take a sit: posture does not affect risk preferences in an economic task

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Megan K.

    2014-01-01

    Physiological and emotional states can affect our decision-making processes, even when these states are seemingly insignificant to the decision at hand. We examined whether posture and postural threat affect decisions in a non-related economic domain. Healthy young adults made a series of choices between economic lotteries in various conditions, including changes in body posture (sitting vs. standing) and changes in elevation (ground level vs. atop a 0.8-meter-high platform). We compared three metrics between conditions to assess changes in risk-sensitivity: frequency of risky choices, and parameter fits of both utility and probability weighting parameters using cumulative prospect theory. We also measured skin conductance level to evaluate physiological response to the postural threat. Our results demonstrate that body posture does not significantly affect decision making. Secondly, despite increased skin conductance level, economic risk-sensitivity was unaffected by increased threat. Our findings indicate that economic choices are fairly robust to the physiological and emotional changes that result from posture or postural threat. PMID:25083345

  17. Dopamine modulates risk-taking as a function of baseline sensation-seeking trait.

    PubMed

    Norbury, Agnes; Manohar, Sanjay; Rogers, Robert D; Husain, Masud

    2013-08-01

    Trait sensation-seeking, defined as a need for varied, complex, and intense sensations, represents a relatively underexplored hedonic drive in human behavioral neuroscience research. It is related to increased risk for a range of behaviors including substance use, gambling, and risky sexual practice. Individual differences in self-reported sensation-seeking have been linked to brain dopamine function, particularly at D2-like receptors, but so far no causal evidence exists for a role of dopamine in sensation-seeking behavior in humans. Here, we investigated the effects of the selective D2/D3 agonist cabergoline on performance of a probabilistic risky choice task in healthy humans using a sensitive within-subject, placebo-controlled design. Cabergoline significantly influenced the way participants combined different explicit signals regarding probability and loss when choosing between response options associated with uncertain outcomes. Importantly, these effects were strongly dependent on baseline sensation-seeking score. Overall, cabergoline increased sensitivity of choice to information about probability of winning; while decreasing discrimination according to magnitude of potential losses associated with different options. The largest effects of the drug were observed in participants with lower sensation-seeking scores. These findings provide evidence that risk-taking behavior in humans can be directly manipulated by a dopaminergic drug, but that the effectiveness of such a manipulation depends on baseline differences in sensation-seeking trait. This emphasizes the importance of considering individual differences when investigating manipulation of risky decision-making, and may have relevance for the development of pharmacotherapies for disorders involving excessive risk-taking in humans, such as pathological gambling. PMID:23926253

  18. Decreasing Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Activity During Sequential Risk-Taking: An fMRI Investigation of the Balloon Analog Risk Task

    PubMed Central

    Schonberg, Tom; Fox, Craig R.; Mumford, Jeanette A.; Congdon, Eliza; Trepel, Christopher; Poldrack, Russell A.

    2012-01-01

    Functional imaging studies examining the neural correlates of risk have mainly relied on paradigms involving exposure to simple chance gambles and an economic definition of risk as variance in the probability distribution over possible outcomes. However, there is little evidence that choices made during gambling tasks predict naturalistic risk-taking behaviors such as drug use, extreme sports, or even equity investing. To better understand the neural basis of naturalistic risk-taking, we scanned participants using fMRI while they completed the Balloon Analog Risk Task, an experimental measure that includes an active decision/choice component and that has been found to correlate with a number of naturalistic risk-taking behaviors. In the task, as in many naturalistic settings, escalating risk-taking occurs under uncertainty and might be experienced either as the accumulation of greater potential rewards, or as exposure to increasing possible losses (and decreasing expected value). We found that areas previously linked to risk and risk-taking (bilateral anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) were activated as participants continued to inflate balloons. Interestingly, we found that ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) activity decreased as participants further expanded balloons. In light of previous findings implicating the vmPFC in value calculation, this result suggests that escalating risk-taking in the task might be perceived as exposure to increasing possible losses (and decreasing expected value) rather than the increasing potential total reward relative to the starting point of the trial. A better understanding of how neural activity changes with risk-taking behavior in the task offers insight into the potential neural mechanisms driving naturalistic risk-taking. PMID:22675289

  19. Who are those “risk-taking adolescents”? Individual differences in developmental neuroimaging research

    PubMed Central

    Bjork, James M.; Pardini, Dustin A.

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has illuminated the development of human brain function. Some of this work in typically-developing youth has ostensibly captured neural underpinnings of adolescent behavior--which is characterized by risk-seeking propensity, according to psychometric questionnaires and a wealth of anecdote. Notably, cross-sectional comparisons have revealed age-dependent differences between adolescents and other age groups in regional brain responsiveness to prospective or experienced rewards (usually greater in adolescents) or penalties (usually diminished in adolescents). These differences have been interpreted as reflecting an imbalance between motivational drive and behavioral control mechanisms, especially in mid-adolescence, thus promoting greater risk-taking. While intriguing, we caution here that researchers should be more circumspect in attributing clinically significant adolescent risky behavior to age-group differences in task-elicited fMRI responses from neurotypical subjects. This is because actual mortality and morbidity from behavioral causes (e.g. substance abuse, violence) by mid-adolescence is heavily concentrated in individuals who are not neurotypical, who rather have shown a lifelong history of behavioral disinhibition that frequently meets criteria for a disruptive behavior disorder, such as conduct disorder, oppositional-defiant disorder, or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. These young people are at extreme risk of poor psychosocial outcomes, and should be a focus of future neurodevelopmental research. PMID:25176616

  20. Who are those "risk-taking adolescents"? Individual differences in developmental neuroimaging research.

    PubMed

    Bjork, James M; Pardini, Dustin A

    2015-02-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has illuminated the development of human brain function. Some of this work in typically-developing youth has ostensibly captured neural underpinnings of adolescent behavior which is characterized by risk-seeking propensity, according to psychometric questionnaires and a wealth of anecdote. Notably, cross-sectional comparisons have revealed age-dependent differences between adolescents and other age groups in regional brain responsiveness to prospective or experienced rewards (usually greater in adolescents) or penalties (usually diminished in adolescents). These differences have been interpreted as reflecting an imbalance between motivational drive and behavioral control mechanisms, especially in mid-adolescence, thus promoting greater risk-taking. While intriguing, we caution here that researchers should be more circumspect in attributing clinically significant adolescent risky behavior to age-group differences in task-elicited fMRI responses from neurotypical subjects. This is because actual mortality and morbidity from behavioral causes (e.g. substance abuse, violence) by mid-adolescence is heavily concentrated in individuals who are not neurotypical, who rather have shown a lifelong history of behavioral disinhibition that frequently meets criteria for a disruptive behavior disorder, such as conduct disorder, oppositional-defiant disorder, or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. These young people are at extreme risk of poor psychosocial outcomes, and should be a focus of future neurodevelopmental research. PMID:25176616

  1. Flocking and feeding in the fiddler crab ( UCA tangeri): Prey availability as risk-taking behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ens, B. J.; Klaassen, M.; Zwarts, L.

    For a full understanding of prey availability, it is necessary to study risk-taking behaviour of the prey. Fiddler crabs are ideally suited for such a study, as they have to leave their safe burrow to feed on the surface of the intertidal flats during low tide, thereby exposing themselves to avian predators. A study in an intertidal area along the coast of Mauritania showed that small crabs always stayed in the vicinity of their burrow, but large crabs wandered in large flocks (also referred to as droves) to feed on sea-grass beds downshore. Transplanting downshore feeding substrate to the burrowing zone of the small crabs proved that they too preferred to feed on it. Since small crabs can be preyed upon by more species of birds, this suggests that the decision not to leave the burrowing zone might be related to the risk of being fed upon by birds. We calculated predation risk from measurements on the density and feeding activity of the crabs, as well as the feeding density, the intake rate and the size selection of the avian predators. Per hour on the surface, crabs in a flock were more at risk than crabs feeding near their burrow. Thus, though flocking crabs may have benefited from 'swamping the predator' by emerging in maximum numbers during some tides only, this did not reduce their risk of predation below that of non-flocking crabs. Furthermore we found that irrespective of activity, large crabs suffered a higher mortality per tide from avian predators than small crabs. This suggests that large crabs could not sufficiently reduce their foraging time to compensate for the increased risk while foraging in a flock, even though they probably experienced better feeding conditions than small crabs staying near their burrow. The greater energy demands of large crabs were reflected in a greater surface area grazed. Thus, with increasing size a fiddler crab has to feed further away from its burrow and so may derive less protection from staying near to it. It seems that

  2. Sensation Seeking and Risk-Taking Propensity as Mediators in the Relationship between Childhood Abuse and HIV-Related Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornovalova, Marina A.; Gwadz, Marya A.; Kahler, Christopher; Aklin, W. M.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Although a wealth of literature suggests that childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse are related to later-life HIV-related risk behaviors, few studies have explored disinhibition (e.g., impulsivity, risk-taking propensity, and sensation-seeking) as a risk factor in this relationship. Method: This cross-sectional study examined…

  3. Effect of acculturation on the acceptability of potential microbicides and sexual risk-taking

    PubMed Central

    THURMAN, Andrea Ries; HOLDEN, Alan E C; SHAIN, Rochelle N; PERDUE, Sondra; PIPER, Jeanna M

    2009-01-01

    Background The objective was to determine the acceptability and use patterns of potential microbicides among African American (AA), Acculturated Hispanic (AH) and Less-Acculturated Hispanic (LAH) women. We measured baseline sexual risk-taking and the likelihood of behavioral change, given effective microbicides. Methods Interview of 506 Mexican American (MA) and AA women, all of whom have a sexually transmitted infection (STI) enrolled in Project Sexual Awareness for Everyone.. Results The 3 groups reported similarly high acceptance of potential microbicides (76 – 83% p = 0.24). LAHs were most likely to report they would use microbicides covertly (p = 0.03). Given the possibility of effective microbicides, AHs were consistently more likely to report risk disinhibition. AHs, as compared to LAHs and AAs respectively, were most likely to report that they would not use condoms, (53% vs. 33% vs. 30% p < 0.001), would have a one-night stand (18% vs. 8% vs. 6% p = 0.02), or would have sex with a man before they got to know him (18% vs. 8% vs. 6% p = 0.01). AHs were also most likely to say they would or probably would change from baseline safe sexual practices to unsafe sexual behaviors if potential microbicides were available. Age was controlled for in the analysis as AHs were younger than AAs and LAHs. Conclusions Future microbicides were acceptable among this at risk cohort. Acculturation was a predictor of risk disinhibition and should be considered when tailoring STI prevention messages, given the advent of effective microbicides. PMID:19556933

  4. Risk-taking plants: anisohydric behavior as a stress-resistance trait.

    PubMed

    Sade, Nir; Gebremedhin, Alem; Moshelion, Menachem

    2012-07-01

    Water scarcity is a critical limitation for agricultural systems. Two different water management strategies have evolved in plants: an isohydric strategy and an anisohydric strategy. Isohydric plants maintain a constant midday leaf water potential (Ψleaf) when water is abundant, as well as under drought conditions, by reducing stomatal conductance as necessary to limit transpiration. Anisohydric plants have more variable Ψleaf and keep their stomata open and photosynthetic rates high for longer periods, even in the presence of decreasing leaf water potential. This risk-taking behavior of anisohydric plants might be beneficial when water is abundant, as well as under moderately stressful conditions. However, under conditions of intense drought, this behavior might endanger the plant. We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these two water-usage strategies and their effects on the plant's ability to tolerate abiotic and biotic stress. The involvement of plant tonoplast AQPs in this process will also be discussed. PMID:22751307

  5. Life Satisfaction and Risk-taking Behavior in Secondary Schools Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Music, Miralem; Abidovic, Amela; Babic, Nermina; Mujaric, Ekrema; Dervisevic, Senad; Slatina, Enes; Salibasic, Mirhan; Tuna, Enes

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Life satisfaction involves cognitive component that allows evaluation of the life and accomplishments of life, and emotional component that includes an evaluation of emotions and mood that followed these accomplishments. Goal: To examine the life satisfaction of young people who attend secondary school, examine the level of satisfaction with life according to sex, to academic achievement, the presence of siblings and to examine the relationship between levels of life satisfaction and risk-taking behaviors. Results and Discussion: The results showed that there was no relationship between life satisfaction and preferences of delinquency, as well as life satisfaction and achieved academic success. The results confirmed the relationship between life satisfaction and sex as well as the relationship between life satisfaction and the presence of siblings in the family. PMID:24167431

  6. A systematic review of alcohol use and sexual risk-taking in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Vagenas, Panagiotis; Lama, Javier R.; Ludford, Kaysia T.; Gonzales, Pedro; Sanchez, Jorge; Altice, Frederick L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide an account of published literature on the association between alcohol use and sexual risk-taking, focusing on Latin America. Methods A search of MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, LILACS, and Cochrane databases identified 561 unique articles. After excluding those that were not directly relevant, 30 studies were retained for review. Results Twenty-seven studies showed direct or indirect associations between alcohol abuse and unprotected/risky sex. Three studies, however, showed no association between these variables, suggesting that the public health message of safer sex may have been effective. Conclusions Further research is needed to identify factors and behaviors that could be modified to reduce the association between alcohol use disorders and risky sexual behavior. PMID:24301738

  7. Contraceptive risk taking and abortion: results and implications of a San Francisco Bay Area study.

    PubMed

    Luker, K

    1977-08-01

    A study of 500 abortion-seeking women in the San Francisco Bay area, in California, revealed that, although a majority of them had used contraceptives previously, only a minority had consistently used effective contraceptives. This paper presents a theory of contraceptive risk taking and analyzes the decision making process described by 50 of the women during in-depth interviews. The decision not to contracept is shown to be the result of a rational process of "cost accounting." To decrease the need for abortion, it is argued, programs that change attitudes toward sexual behavior and that give women increasing economic opportunities are needed in addition to programs that make contraceptives more available. PMID:888160

  8. Buspirone reduces sexual risk-taking intent but not cocaine self-administration.

    PubMed

    Bolin, B Levi; Lile, Joshua A; Marks, Katherine R; Beckmann, Joshua S; Rush, Craig R; Stoops, William W

    2016-06-01

    Impulsive sexual decision-making may underlie sexual risk-taking behavior that contributes to the disproportionately high prevalence of HIV infection among cocaine users. Delay-discounting procedures measure impulsive decision-making and may provide insight into the underlying mechanisms of sexual risk-taking behavior. The anxiolytic drug buspirone reduces delay discounting in rats and blunts the reinforcing effects of cocaine in some preclinical studies suggesting that it might have utility in the treatment of cocaine-use disorders. This study determined whether buspirone mitigates impulsive risky sexual decision-making in cocaine users on a sexual delay-discounting procedure. The effects of buspirone maintenance on the abuse-related and physiological effects of cocaine were also tested. Nine (N = 9) current cocaine users completed a repeated-measures, inpatient protocol in which sexual delay discounting was assessed after 3 days of maintenance on placebo and buspirone (30 mg/day) in counterbalanced order. The reinforcing, subject-rated, and physiological effects of placebo and intranasal cocaine (15 and 45 mg) were also assessed during buspirone and placebo maintenance. Buspirone increased the likelihood of condom use for hypothetical sexual partners that were categorized as most likely to have a sexually transmitted infection and least sexually desirable. Cocaine functioned as a reinforcer and increased positive subjective effects ratings, but buspirone maintenance did not impact these effects of cocaine. Buspirone was also safe and tolerable when combined with cocaine and may have blunted some its cardiovascular effects. The results from the sexual delay-discounting procedure indicate that buspirone may reduce preference for riskier sex in cocaine users. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27254258

  9. Environmental influences on risk taking among Hong Kong young dance partygoers.

    PubMed

    Ngai, Steven Sek-Yum; Ngai, Ngan-pun; Cheung, Chau-kiu

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates risk-taking behavior and its associated factors among young Hong Kong partygoers at rave parties or discos. Based on a survey of 300 14 to 28-year-old dance partygoers recruited by outreaching social workers, the study provides data on risks in terms of the likelihood of drug abuse, coitus, unprotected coitus, fighting, and high-speed driving among the young people. Furthermore, it examines factors related to the dance party, together with a set of background factors on the partygoer's report of the chance of engaging in risky behavior as expected in the coming six months. Factors related to the dance party include the location (Hong Kong and Mainland China), fees, number of partners, dancers, police inspection, drug supply, drug sales, injuries, coitus, fighting, drug abuse, and environmental factors. The environmental factors are the availability of first aid, fire extinguishing, and drinking water facilities, light and audio effects, ventilation, drug circulation, underage admission, sex partners, fighting, and low-price beer. Implications of present findings for social policy and future research are discussed. PMID:17240778

  10. Risk-taking behaviour of Cape Peninsula high-school students. Part V. Drug use.

    PubMed

    Flisher, A J; Ziervogel, C F; Chalton, D O; Leger, P H; Robertson, B A

    1993-07-01

    The prevalence of a wide range of risk-taking behaviour among high-school students in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, was investigated. In this article, the results for drug use are presented. Cluster sampling techniques produced a sample of 7,340 students from 16 schools in the three major education departments. A self-administered questionnaire was completed in a normal school period. Estimates for each education department were weighted to produce an overall estimate. Cannabis was the illicit drug most widely used; 7.5% had smoked cannabis, and 2.4% had done so in the previous 7 days. A small subgroup (1.6%) of students had smoked cannabis and methaqualone (Mandrax) together. Reported lifetime use of injectable drugs was 0.5%, and 10.9% had sniffed solvents, 2.6% having done so in the previous 7 days. There were different trends according to gender, standard, and language(s) spoken at home. Of particular note was the small proportion of Xhosa-speaking females who were involved with drug use. The results suggest that the majority of drug use among school students is experimental. A small number of adolescents abuse drugs and are at risk for its associated problems; intervention is indicated for this group. PMID:8211485

  11. Effects of context on risk taking and decision times in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Sip, Kamila E; Muratore, Alexandra F; Stern, Emily R

    2016-04-01

    Despite the fact that OCD patients show altered decision making in everyday life, few studies have investigated how patients make risky decisions and what contextual factors impact choices. We investigated cognitive context with the use of the "framing effect" task, which investigates decision making based on whether monetarily equivalent choice options are framed in terms of a potential to either lose (lose $20 out of $50) or gain (gain $30 out of $50) money. In addition, we manipulated social context by providing positive or neutral feedback on subjects' choices. Overall, participants were risk taking for options framed in terms of potential loss and risk averse for options framed in terms of potential gain (the classic framing effect). Although OCD patients were generally more risk averse, the effect of the frame on choices did not differ significantly from healthy participants and choices were not impacted by social context. Within OCD patients, greater self-reported indecisiveness was associated with a larger effect of the frame on choices. OCD patients were also significantly slower to make choices in the loss compared to gain frame, an effect that was not observed among healthy participants. Overall, our results suggest that the framing of choice options has a differential effect on decision times but not the actual choices made by OCD patients, and that patients are not sensitive to social feedback when making choices. The correlation between indecisiveness and the framing effect in OCD suggests that further work interrogating the relationship between specific symptoms and decision making among patients may yield new insights into the disorder. PMID:26828371

  12. The Impact of Living in Co-Ed Resident Halls on Risk-Taking among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Brian J.; Carroll, Jason S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Although previous research has suggested that college housing impacts student behavior and outcomes, recent research linking college housing to risk-taking has been limited. In this study, we investigate if patterns of risk behavior differ based on the type of college housing environment students reside in. Participants: This study…

  13. Effects of Familial Attachment, Social Support, Involvement, and Self-Esteem on Youth Substance Use and Sexual Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christina Hamme; Buser, Trevor J.; Westburg, Nancy G.

    2010-01-01

    A study of protective factors against substance use and sexual risk taking was conducted among 610 high-poverty urban youth. Higher levels of family attachment, social support, involvement, and self-esteem were associated with lower levels of risk behaviors. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  14. Is Jumping off the Roof "Always" a Bad Idea? A Rejoinder on Risk Taking and the Adolescent Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Males, Mike A.

    2010-01-01

    Three respondents provide cogent commentary on the author's first article, "Does the Adolescent Brain Make Risk Taking Inevitable? A Skeptical Appraisal." Two respondent papers argue that the author mischaracterized valid and useful developmental and biological arguments affirming adolescents' singular risk propensities; the third response raises…

  15. Confounding dynamic risk taking propensity with a momentum prognostic strategy: the case of the Columbia Card Task (CCT)

    PubMed Central

    Markiewicz, Łukasz; Kubińska, Elżbieta; Tyszka, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Figner et al. (2009) developed the Columbia Card Task (CCT) to measure risk-taking attitudes. This tool consists of two versions: in the COLD version the decision maker needs to state in advance how many cards (out of 32) they want to turn over (so called static risk taking), in the HOT version they have the possibility of turning over all 32 cards one-by-one until they decide to finish (dynamic risk taking). We argue that the HOT version confounds an individual’s willingness to accept risk with their beliefs in trend continuation vs. trend reversal in a prognostic task. In two experimental studies we show that people believing in trend continuation (momentum subjects) turn over more cards than those believing in trend reversal (contrarians) in the HOT version of the task. However, this is not the case in the COLD version. Thus, we provide evidence that, when considered as a dynamic risk propensity measure, the number of turned over cards in the HOT version of the CCT is a contaminated measure and reflects two phenomena: (1) risk preference and (2) the decision-maker’s belief in trend continuation. We speculate that other dynamic risk taking measures can also be biased by a momentum strategy. PMID:26300799

  16. Insights from socio-hydrology modelling on dealing with flood risk - Roles of collective memory, risk-taking attitude and trust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viglione, Alberto; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Brandimarte, Luigia; Kuil, Linda; Carr, Gemma; Salinas, José Luis; Scolobig, Anna; Blöschl, Günter

    2014-10-01

    The risk coping culture of a community plays a major role in the development of urban floodplains. In this paper we analyse, in a conceptual way, the interplay of community risk coping culture, flooding damage and economic growth. We particularly focus on three aspects: (i) collective memory, i.e., the capacity of the community to keep risk awareness high; (ii) risk-taking attitude, i.e., the amount of risk the community is collectively willing to be exposed to; and (iii) trust of the community in risk reduction measures. To this end, we use a dynamic model that represents the feedback between the hydrological and social system components. Model results indicate that, on the one hand, by under perceiving the risk of flooding (because of short collective memory and too much trust in flood protection structures) in combination with a high risk-taking attitude, community development is severely limited because of high damages caused by flooding. On the other hand, overestimation of risk (long memory and lack of trust in flood protection structures) leads to lost economic opportunities and recession. There are many scenarios of favourable development resulting from a trade-off between collective memory and trust in risk reduction measures combined with a low to moderate risk-taking attitude. Interestingly, the model gives rise to situations in which the development of the community in the floodplain is path dependent, i.e., the history of flooding may lead to community growth or recession.

  17. Risk-Taking, Harm and Help-Seeking: Reported by Young People in Treatment at a Youth Alcohol and Drug Counselling Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Cassandra; Kelly, John

    2012-01-01

    Regarded as a normative component of development, risk-taking by young people is a well-researched subject, and some risk-taking behaviours, such as substance use, are particularly well covered because of their potential to adversely affect health and wellbeing. What has remained unclear is the extent of young people's risk-taking while engaged in…

  18. Risk of Suicidal Ideation in Adolescents with Both Self-Asphyxial Risk-Taking Behavior and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brausch, Amy M.; Decker, Kristina M.; Hadley, Andrea G.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined adolescent participation in self-asphyxial risk-taking behaviors (SAB), sometimes known as the "choking game," and its relationship with other adolescent risk behaviors, including non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Researchers proposed that participation in SAB and NSSI would be associated with suicidal behavior, disordered…

  19. The effect of rights-based fisheries management on risk taking and fishing safety

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Lisa; Gratz, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Commercial fishing is a dangerous occupation despite decades of regulatory initiatives aimed at making it safer. We posit that rights-based fisheries management (the individual allocation of fishing quota to vessels or fishing entities, also called catch shares) can improve safety by solving many of the problems associated with the competitive race to fish experienced in fisheries around the world. The competitive nature of such fisheries results in risky behavior such as fishing in poor weather, overloading vessels with fishing gear, and neglecting maintenance. Although not necessarily intended to address safety issues, catch shares eliminate many of the economic incentives to fish as rapidly as possible. We develop a dataset and methods to empirically evaluate the effects of the adoption of catch shares management on a particularly risky type of behavior: the propensity to fish in stormy weather. After catch shares was implemented in an economically important US West Coast fishery, a fisherman’s probability of taking a fishing trip in high wind conditions decreased by 82% compared with only 31% in the former race to fish fishery. Overall, catch shares caused the average annual rate of fishing on high wind days to decrease by 79%. These results are evidence that institutional changes can significantly reduce individual, voluntary risk exposure and result in safer fisheries. PMID:26884188

  20. The neural basis of regret and relief during a sequential risk-taking task.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiyuan; Li, Lin; Zheng, Li; Hu, Zengxi; Roberts, Ian D; Guo, Xiuyan; Yang, Guang

    2016-07-01

    Regret and relief are associated with counterfactual thinking and are sensitive to various social contexts. In the present fMRI study, we investigated the neural basis for regret and relief and how social context (following vs. not following advice) modulates them by employing a sequential risk-taking task. Participants were asked to open a series of boxes consecutively until they decided to stop. Each box contained a reward (gold), except for one that contained an adverse stimulus (devil), which caused the participant to lose all the gold collected in that trial. Before each trial, participants received advice about when to stop, which they then chose to follow or not. Behaviorally, subjective regret and relief were primarily dependent on the number of missed chances and the trade-off between obtained gains and missed chances, respectively. Participants felt less regret when they chose not to follow the advice than when they did. At the neural level, striatum, vmPFC/mOFC, and vACC activations were associated with greater relief. Meanwhile, dmPFC and left superior temporal gyrus were associated with greater regret. Additionally, dACC showed stronger activation in the Not-Follow context than the Follow context. PMID:27102420

  1. The effect of rights-based fisheries management on risk taking and fishing safety.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Lisa; Gratz, Trevor

    2016-03-01

    Commercial fishing is a dangerous occupation despite decades of regulatory initiatives aimed at making it safer. We posit that rights-based fisheries management (the individual allocation of fishing quota to vessels or fishing entities, also called catch shares) can improve safety by solving many of the problems associated with the competitive race to fish experienced in fisheries around the world. The competitive nature of such fisheries results in risky behavior such as fishing in poor weather, overloading vessels with fishing gear, and neglecting maintenance. Although not necessarily intended to address safety issues, catch shares eliminate many of the economic incentives to fish as rapidly as possible. We develop a dataset and methods to empirically evaluate the effects of the adoption of catch shares management on a particularly risky type of behavior: the propensity to fish in stormy weather. After catch shares was implemented in an economically important US West Coast fishery, a fisherman's probability of taking a fishing trip in high wind conditions decreased by 82% compared with only 31% in the former race to fish fishery. Overall, catch shares caused the average annual rate of fishing on high wind days to decrease by 79%. These results are evidence that institutional changes can significantly reduce individual, voluntary risk exposure and result in safer fisheries. PMID:26884188

  2. Sexual Risk-taking Mediates the Association between Impulsivity and Acquisition of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Hazardously Drinking Incarcerated Women

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Bradley J.; Stein, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Background A growing literature has identified associations between impulsivity and negative behaviors such as sexual risk-taking among high-risk and/or vulnerable populations, but few studies have linked impulsivity to biological outcomes of sexual risk-taking. The main purpose of this study was to document associations among impulsivity, sexual risk-taking, and biological measures of sexually transmitted infection (STI+) in a sample of hazardously drinking incarcerated women. Methods Two hundred forty-five hazardously drinking incarcerated women self-reported alcohol consumption and consequences, impulsivity, and sexual behavior. Results Biological testing revealed a 22.9% prevalence rate for STI+. In this sample, sexual risk-taking fully mediated the association between impulsivity and likelihood of STI+. In addition, individuals reporting sexual activity with multiple partners were significantly more likely to test STI+ than those reporting sexual activity with a primary partner. Conclusion These results support previous research on impulsivity by demonstrating that impulsivity leads to STI+ through risky behavioral choices. These findings also extend prior work by documenting this association using biologically confirmed measures in a vulnerable female population that carries multiple risk factors and thus warrants increased research attention. PMID:23786513

  3. Predicting Risk-Taking With and Without Substance Use: The Effects of Parental Monitoring, School Bonding, and Sports Participation

    PubMed Central

    Dever, Bridget V.; Schulenberg, John E.; Dworkin, Jodi B.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Kloska, Deborah D.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    2013-01-01

    Risk-taking is statistically normative during adolescence, yet is associated with adverse outcomes including substance use. The present study draws the distinction between protective factors (effective for those identified as high risk takers) and promotive factors (effective for all) against substance use, focusing on parental monitoring, school bonding, and sports participation. A total of 36,514 8th and 10th grade participants in the national Monitoring the Future study were included. Although parental monitoring was associated with lower alcohol and marijuana use among all adolescents (i.e., promotive effect), these effects were strongest among the highest risk takers (i.e., protective effect) and females. School bonding was associated with lower levels of both alcohol and marijuana use among all groups of adolescents, but these promotive effects were weak. Sports participation was associated with higher levels of alcohol use among all males and among 8th grade females who did not identify as high risk takers. Despite being a risk factor for alcohol use, sports participation did demonstrate a promotive effect against marijuana use among 10th grade females only, and especially so for high risk-taking females (i.e., protective effect). Overall, these findings suggest that of the three mechanisms studied, parental monitoring emerged as the most promising entry point for substance use prevention and intervention across groups, particularly for females and high risk-taking adolescents. PMID:22960940

  4. Problematic Internet Users Show Impaired Inhibitory Control and Risk Taking with Losses: Evidence from Stop Signal and Mixed Gambles Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qi; Nan, Weizhi; Taxer, Jamie; Dai, Weine; Zheng, Ya; Liu, Xun

    2016-01-01

    According to the balance model of self-regulation, dysfunction of the inhibitory control and reward processing might be a behavioral marker for addiction and problematic behaviors. Although several studies have separately examined the inhibitory control or reward processing of individuals exhibiting problematic Internet use (PIU), no study has explored these two functions simultaneously to examine the potential imbalance of these functions. This study aimed to investigate whether the self-regulatory failure of PIU individuals results from deficits in both inhibitory control [indexed with the stop signal reaction time (SSRT) in a stop signal task] and risk taking with losses (measured as the acceptance rates of risky gables or the ratio of win/loss in a mixed gambles task). The results revealed that PIU individuals, compared with controls, showed decreased SSRT and increased error rates as well as reduced risk taking with losses. Correlational analyses revealed a significant positive relationship between the SSRT and risk taking with losses. These findings suggest that both the inhibitory control and reward functions are impaired in PIU individuals and reveal an association between these two systems. These results strengthen the balance model of self-regulation theory’s argument that deficits in inhibitory control and risk taking with losses may assist in identifying risk markers for early diagnosis, progression, and prediction of PIU. PMID:27014170

  5. Problematic Internet Users Show Impaired Inhibitory Control and Risk Taking with Losses: Evidence from Stop Signal and Mixed Gambles Tasks.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Nan, Weizhi; Taxer, Jamie; Dai, Weine; Zheng, Ya; Liu, Xun

    2016-01-01

    According to the balance model of self-regulation, dysfunction of the inhibitory control and reward processing might be a behavioral marker for addiction and problematic behaviors. Although several studies have separately examined the inhibitory control or reward processing of individuals exhibiting problematic Internet use (PIU), no study has explored these two functions simultaneously to examine the potential imbalance of these functions. This study aimed to investigate whether the self-regulatory failure of PIU individuals results from deficits in both inhibitory control [indexed with the stop signal reaction time (SSRT) in a stop signal task] and risk taking with losses (measured as the acceptance rates of risky gables or the ratio of win/loss in a mixed gambles task). The results revealed that PIU individuals, compared with controls, showed decreased SSRT and increased error rates as well as reduced risk taking with losses. Correlational analyses revealed a significant positive relationship between the SSRT and risk taking with losses. These findings suggest that both the inhibitory control and reward functions are impaired in PIU individuals and reveal an association between these two systems. These results strengthen the balance model of self-regulation theory's argument that deficits in inhibitory control and risk taking with losses may assist in identifying risk markers for early diagnosis, progression, and prediction of PIU. PMID:27014170

  6. Verification the data on critical facilities inventory and vulnerability for seismic risk assessment taking into account possible accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolova, Nina; Larionov, Valery; Bonnin, Jean; Ugarov, Aleksander

    2015-04-01

    The paper contains the results of the recent study that has been done by Seismological Center of IGE, Russian Academy of Sciences and Extreme Situations Research Center within the Russian Academy of Sciences Project "Theoretical and Methodological basis for seismic risk assessment taking into account technological accidents at local level; constructing the seismic risk maps for the Big Sochi City territory including the venue of Olympic Games facilities." The procedure of critical facilities inventory and vulnerability verification which makes use of space images and web technologies in social networks is presented. The numerical values of the criteria of accidents at fire and chemical hazardous facilities triggered by strong earthquakes are obtained. The seismic risk maps for Big Sochi City territory including the Olympic Games venue constructed taking into account new data on critical facilities obtained with application panorama photos of these facilities, space images of high resolution and web technologies. The obtained values of individual seismic risk taking into account secondary technological accidents exceed the values seismic risk without taking secondary hazard, return period T= 500 years, at 0.5-1.0 10-51/year.

  7. Risk-taking in disorders of natural and drug rewards: neural correlates and effects of probability, valence, and magnitude.

    PubMed

    Voon, Valerie; Morris, Laurel S; Irvine, Michael A; Ruck, Christian; Worbe, Yulia; Derbyshire, Katherine; Rankov, Vladan; Schreiber, Liana Rn; Odlaug, Brian L; Harrison, Neil A; Wood, Jonathan; Robbins, Trevor W; Bullmore, Edward T; Grant, Jon E

    2015-03-01

    Pathological behaviors toward drugs and food rewards have underlying commonalities. Risk-taking has a fourfold pattern varying as a function of probability and valence leading to the nonlinearity of probability weighting with overweighting of small probabilities and underweighting of large probabilities. Here we assess these influences on risk-taking in patients with pathological behaviors toward drug and food rewards and examine structural neural correlates of nonlinearity of probability weighting in healthy volunteers. In the anticipation of rewards, subjects with binge eating disorder show greater risk-taking, similar to substance-use disorders. Methamphetamine-dependent subjects had greater nonlinearity of probability weighting along with impaired subjective discrimination of probability and reward magnitude. Ex-smokers also had lower risk-taking to rewards compared with non-smokers. In the anticipation of losses, obesity without binge eating had a similar pattern to other substance-use disorders. Obese subjects with binge eating also have impaired discrimination of subjective value similar to that of the methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Nonlinearity of probability weighting was associated with lower gray matter volume in dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex in healthy volunteers. Our findings support a distinct subtype of binge eating disorder in obesity with similarities in risk-taking in the reward domain to substance use disorders. The results dovetail with the current approach of defining mechanistically based dimensional approaches rather than categorical approaches to psychiatric disorders. The relationship to risk probability and valence may underlie the propensity toward pathological behaviors toward different types of rewards. PMID:25270821

  8. Risk-Taking in Disorders of Natural and Drug Rewards: Neural Correlates and Effects of Probability, Valence, and Magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Voon, Valerie; Morris, Laurel S; Irvine, Michael A; Ruck, Christian; Worbe, Yulia; Derbyshire, Katherine; Rankov, Vladan; Schreiber, Liana RN; Odlaug, Brian L; Harrison, Neil A; Wood, Jonathan; Robbins, Trevor W; Bullmore, Edward T; Grant, Jon E

    2015-01-01

    Pathological behaviors toward drugs and food rewards have underlying commonalities. Risk-taking has a fourfold pattern varying as a function of probability and valence leading to the nonlinearity of probability weighting with overweighting of small probabilities and underweighting of large probabilities. Here we assess these influences on risk-taking in patients with pathological behaviors toward drug and food rewards and examine structural neural correlates of nonlinearity of probability weighting in healthy volunteers. In the anticipation of rewards, subjects with binge eating disorder show greater risk-taking, similar to substance-use disorders. Methamphetamine-dependent subjects had greater nonlinearity of probability weighting along with impaired subjective discrimination of probability and reward magnitude. Ex-smokers also had lower risk-taking to rewards compared with non-smokers. In the anticipation of losses, obesity without binge eating had a similar pattern to other substance-use disorders. Obese subjects with binge eating also have impaired discrimination of subjective value similar to that of the methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Nonlinearity of probability weighting was associated with lower gray matter volume in dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex in healthy volunteers. Our findings support a distinct subtype of binge eating disorder in obesity with similarities in risk-taking in the reward domain to substance use disorders. The results dovetail with the current approach of defining mechanistically based dimensional approaches rather than categorical approaches to psychiatric disorders. The relationship to risk probability and valence may underlie the propensity toward pathological behaviors toward different types of rewards. PMID:25270821

  9. Am I at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes? Taking Steps to Lower Your Risk of Getting Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... you make a plan. Be Physically Active Every Day Regular physical activity tackles several risk factors at ... who were physically active for 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week, reduced their risk of ...

  10. Changes in Risk-Taking among High School Students, 1991-1997: Evidence from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boggess, Scott; Lindberg, Laura Duberstein; Porter, Laura

    Using nationally representative data from students in grades 9 to 12 from the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS) of 1991, 1993, 1995, and 1997, this study examined changes in high school students' participation in health risk behaviors. Ten specific health risk behaviors were identified, each of which poses potential immediate and…

  11. First Impressions of HIV Risk: It Takes Only Milliseconds to Scan a Stranger

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Britta; Schmälzle, Ralf; Schupp, Harald T.

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that many people do not use condoms consistently but instead rely on intuition to identify sexual partners high at risk for HIV infection. The present studies examined neural correlates for first impressions of HIV risk and determined the association of perceived HIV risk with other trait characteristics. Participants were presented with 120 self-portraits retrieved from a popular online photo-sharing community (www.flickr.com). Factor analysis of various explicit ratings of trait characteristics yielded two orthogonal factors: (1) a ‘valence-approach’ factor encompassing perceived attractiveness, healthiness, valence, and approach tendencies, and (2) a ‘safeness’ factor, entailing judgments of HIV risk, trustworthiness, and responsibility. These findings suggest that HIV risk ratings systematically relate to cardinal features of a high-risk HIV stereotype. Furthermore, event-related brain potential recordings revealed neural correlates of first impressions about HIV risk. Target persons perceived as risky elicited a differential brain response in a time window from 220–340 ms and an increased late positive potential in a time window from 350–700 ms compared to those perceived as safe. These data suggest that impressions about HIV risk can be formed in a split second and despite a lack of information about the actual risk profile. Findings of neural correlates of risk impressions and their relationship to key features of the HIV risk stereotype are discussed in the context of the ‘risk as feelings’ theory. PMID:22291959

  12. High-School Dropouts in a Working-Class South African Community: Selected Characteristics and Risk-Taking Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flisher, Alan J.; Chalton, Derek O.

    1995-01-01

    Project documented characteristics of teenage school dropouts and then compared the prevalence of risk-taking behavior of dropouts with those attending school. Of the sample (n=548), 15% had dropped out. Those still attending school engaged in suicide behavior more frequently than dropouts whereas the latter abused substances more. (RJM)

  13. Self-Efficacy, Risk-Taking Behavior and Mental Health as Predictors of Personal Growth Initiative among University Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunyemi, Ajibola O.; Mabekoje, Sesan Ola

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: This study sought to determine the combined and relative efficacy of self-efficacy, risk-taking behaviour and mental health on personal growth initiative of university undergraduates. Method: The expo-facto research design was used to conduct the study. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 425 participants from 6…

  14. The Effectiveness of Personalizing Acquaintance Rape Prevention: Programs on Perception of Vulnerability and on Reducing Risk-Taking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Michael D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Tested hypothesis that a personalized acquaintance rape prevention program reduces risk-taking behavior and increases perception of vulnerability. Seventy female college students were exposed to Acquaintance Rape Prevention Program with experimentals and controls receiving personalized or nonpersonalized instruction, respectively. Findings showed…

  15. A Risk-Taking "Set" in a Novel Task among Adolescents with Serious Conduct and Substance Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Thomas J.; Raymond, Kristen M.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Thompson, Laetitia L.; Lejuez, Carl W.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Adolescent patients' conduct disorder and substance use disorder symptoms are "risky behaviors" with unpredictable rewards and punishments. The authors asked whether such youths also take excessive risks in new situations without prior learning, peer pressure, or intoxication. Method: Subjects were 20 adolescent patients in a program…

  16. Motivational Systems in Adolescence: Possible Implications for Age Differences in Substance Abuse and Other Risk-Taking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L.; Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Spear, Linda P.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence is an evolutionarily conserved developmental phase characterized by hormonal, physiological, neural and behavioral alterations evident widely across mammalian species. For instance, adolescent rats, like their human counterparts, exhibit elevations in peer-directed social interactions, risk-taking/novelty seeking and drug and alcohol…

  17. The Contribution of Personality Traits, Motivation, Academic Risk-Taking and Metacognition to the Creative Ability in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erbas, Ayhan Kursat; Bas, Selda

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which personality traits, motivation, academic risk-taking, and metacognition explain the mathematical creative ability of high school students. The participants were 217 9th-grade students that were exceptionally high achievers. The participants responded to a set of measures about…

  18. When Is It Ethical to Inform Administrators about Student Risk-Taking Behaviors? Perceptions of School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Michael S.; Sullivan, Jeremy R.; Growcock, David

    2012-01-01

    School counselors from across the United States responded to a survey asking when they should break confidentiality and report student risk-taking behaviors to school administrators. Generally, counselors believed it to be more ethical to break confidentiality when the behaviors were directly observed (as opposed to reported by students) and when…

  19. The Impact of School Connectedness on Violent Behavior, Transport Risk-Taking Behavior, and Associated Injuries in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Rebekah L.; Buckley, Lisa; Sheehan, Mary C.; Shochet, Ian M.; Romaniuk, Madeline

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents engage in many risk-taking behaviors that have the potential to lead to injury. The school environment has a significant role in shaping adolescent behavior, and this study aimed to provide additional information about the benefits associated with connectedness to school. Early adolescents aged 13 to 15 years (N=509, 49% boys) were…

  20. Ageism and Risk-Taking in Young Adults: Evidence for a Link between Death Anxiety and Ageism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popham, Lauren E.; Kennison, Shelia M.; Bradley, Kristopher I.

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between ageism and risk-taking in young adults. They hypothesized that young adults may attempt to distance themselves from their future older selves and from an awareness of their mortality by seeking out experiences that make them feel strong, energetic, and invulnerable (i.e., experiences involving…

  1. Chronic treatment with mood stabilizer lithium inhibits amphetamine-induced risk-taking manic-like behaviors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhu; Wang, Ying; Tan, Hua; Bharti, Veni; Che, Yi; Wang, Jun-Feng

    2015-08-31

    A lack of behavioral tests and animal models for manic-depressive bipolar disorder is recognized as an important factor limiting development of novel pharmaceutical treatments for the disorder. Repeated amphetamine-induced hyperactivity is a commonly used animal model for mania. However, hyperactivity represents only one facet of mania and is also seen in other disorders. Increased engagement in risk taking behavior is frequently observed in the manic phase of bipolar disorder. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of the most commonly used mood stabilizer lithium on repeated amphetamine treatment-induced risk-taking behaviors in rats using elevated plus maze and wire-beam bridge tests. We found that repeated amphetamine treatment not only increased locomotor activity, but also increased risk taking behaviors in rats, and further that chronic lithium treatment inhibited the amphetamine-increased risk taking behavior. Our studies suggest that these tests may be useful tools to analyze the pharmacological validity of new and improved anti-manic drugs in animals. PMID:26219985

  2. Differential Risk Factors for HIV Drug and Sex Risk-Taking Among Non-treatment-seeking Hospitalized Injection Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Crooks, Denise; Tsui, Judith; Anderson, Bradley; Dossabhoy, Shernaz; Herman, Debra; Liebschutz, Jane M.; Stein, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Injection drug users (IDUs) are at increased risk of contracting HIV. From a clinical trial assessing an intervention to enhance the linkage of hospitalized patients to opioid treatment after discharge, we conducted multivariate analysis of baseline data from hospitalized IDUs with a history of opioid dependence (n = 104) to identify differences in factors predicting HIV drug and sex risk behaviors. Factors significantly associated with HIV drug risk were being non-Hispanic Caucasian and recent cocaine use. Being female, binge drinking, and poorer mental health were significantly associated with higher sex risk. Because factors predicting HIV sex risk behaviors differ from those predicting HIV drug risk, interventions aimed at specific HIV risks should have different behavioral and substance use targets. PMID:25063229

  3. Treating psychological trauma among Rwandan orphans is associated with a reduction in HIV risk-taking behaviors: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Annie; Uwihoreye, Chaste; Kamen, Charles; Grant, Philip; McGlynn, Lawrence; Mugabe, Isaac; Nshimyumukiza, Martin; Dongier, Pierre; Slamowitz, Debbie; Padilla, Cindy; Uvamahoro, Jaqueline; Musayidire, Irene; Mukarubuga, Ancilla; Zolopa, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    The nongovernmental organization, Uyisenga N'Manzi (UNM), provides Rwandan orphans of genocide and HIV/AIDS with education, social, and mental health services. Many orphans in UNM report symptoms of psychological trauma. The primary study objective was to evaluate a multidisciplinary program integrating HIV prevention with an existing package of mental health services. We randomly selected 120 orphans between ages 15-25 years served by UNM and evaluated sexually-transmitted infections, HIV risk-taking behaviors and knowledge, and mental health at baseline, 5, 9, and 12 months. Increased trauma symptoms at baseline were associated with poorer coping skills and social functioning, and increased psychological distress and HIV risk-taking behavior. Following the 12-month intervention, trauma symptoms declined significantly, with those accessing counseling services showing greatest improvement. Orphans with the highest trauma scores benefited most from the intervention. In this at-risk population, addressing mental health issues in the context of HIV prevention is critical. PMID:24245594

  4. Taking antacids

    MedlinePlus

    ... magnesium may cause diarrhea. Brands with calcium or aluminum may cause constipation. Rarely, brands with calcium may ... you take large amounts of antacids that contain aluminum, you may be at risk for calcium loss, ...

  5. The Influence of Child Attributes and Social-Situational Context on School-Age Children's Risk Taking Behaviors that Can Lead to Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrongiello, B.A.; Sedore, L.

    2005-01-01

    Many injuries occur to school-age children when they are allowed independence in decisions about risk taking during play. The present study examined the influence of child attributes (sensation seeking, typical emotional responses in risk situations) and social-situational context (peer presence) on risk taking. Children in the Experimental Group…

  6. Taking the heterogeneity of citizens into account: flood risk communication in coastal cities - a case study of Bremen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, T.; Garrelts, H.; Grunenberg, H.; Lange, H.

    2009-11-01

    The likely manifestations of climate change like flood hazards are prominent topics in public communication. This can be shown by media analysis and questionnaire data. However, in the case of flood risks an information gap remains resulting in misinformed citizens who probably will not perform the necessary protective actions when an emergency occurs. This paper examines more closely a newly developed approach to flood risk communication that takes the heterogeneity of citizens into account and aims to close this gap. The heterogeneity is analysed on the meso level regarding differences in residential situation as well as on the micro level with respect to risk perception and protective actions. Using the city of Bremen as a case study, empirical data from n=831 respondents were used to identify Action Types representing different states of readiness for protective actions in view of flood risks. These subpopulations can be provided with specific information to meet their heterogeneous needs for risk communication. A prototype of a computer-based information system is described that can produce and pass on such tailored information. However, such an approach to risk communication has to be complemented by meso level analysis which takes the social diversity of subpopulations into account. Social vulnerability is the crucial concept for understanding the distribution of resources and capacities among different social groups. We therefore recommend putting forums and organisations into place that can mediate between the state and its citizens.

  7. Social Reconnection Revisited: The Effects of Social Exclusion Risk on Reciprocity, Trust, and General Risk-Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derfler-Rozin, Rellie; Pillutla, Madan; Thau, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesize that people at risk of exclusion from groups will engage in actions that can socially reconnect them with others and test the hypothesis in four studies. We show that participants at risk of exclusion reciprocated the behavior of an unknown person (Study 1a) and a potential excluder (Study 1b) more compared to two control groups…

  8. Risk Factors for Diverticulosis, Diverticulitis, Diverticular Perforation, and Bleeding: A Plea for More Subtle History Taking

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Stephan K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Diverticulosis is a very common condition. Around 20% of diverticula carriers are believed to suffer from diverticular disease during their lifetime. This makes diverticular disease one of the clinically and economically most significant conditions in gastroenterology. The etiopathogenesis of diverticulosis and diverticular disease is not well understood. Epidemiological studies allowed to define risk factors for the development of diverticulosis and the different disease entities associated with it, in particular diverticulitis, perforation, and diverticular bleeding. Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed, and the current knowledge about risk factors for diverticulosis and associated conditions reviewed. Results Non-controllable risk factors like age, sex, and genetics, and controllable risk factors like foods, drinks, and physical activity were identified, as well as comorbidities and drugs which increase or decrease the risk of developing diverticula or of suffering from complications. In naming risk factors, it is of utmost importance to differentiate between diverticulosis and the different disease entities. Conclusion Risk factors for diverticulosis and diverticular disease may give a clue towards the possible etiopathogenesis of the conditions. More importantly, knowledge of comorbidities and particularly drugs conferring a risk for development of complicated disease is crucial for patient management. PMID:26989377

  9. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Relationship Satisfaction, and Sexual Risk Taking in a Community Sample of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Maria; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol; Livingston, Jennifer A.

    2005-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been proposed to influence both women's adult sexual risk behaviors and the quality of their intimate relationships. Among a household sample of women (n = 732), good fit was obtained for a model in which CSA predicted Wave 1 male partner sexual risk and aggression characteristics, resulting in lower relationship…

  10. A Model Linking Diverse Women's Child Sexual Abuse History with Sexual Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Laurel B.; Matheny, Kenneth B.; Gagne, Phill; Brack, Greg; Ancis, Julie R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the role that child sexual abuse may play in body surveillance and sexual risk behaviors among undergraduate women. First, a measured variable path analysis was conducted, which assessed the relations among a history of child sexual abuse, body surveillance, and sexual risk behaviors. Furthermore, body…

  11. Adapting a Comprehensive Approach to African American Women's Sexual Risk Taking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Gail E.; Tucker, M. Belinda; Romero, Gloria J.; Carmona, Jennifer Vargas; Newcomb, Michael D.; Wayment, Heidi A.; Loeb, Tamra Burns; Solis, Beatriz M.; Mitchell-Kernan, Claudia

    1997-01-01

    Examined factors predicting the context of HIV-related sexual behaviors in African American women. Surveys investigated demographics; sexual history, behavior, attitudes, risk, and communication; drug use; contraception; and risk reduction efforts since Magic Johnson's HIV disclosure. Demographics, sexual communication, and past sexual experiences…

  12. The effects of subjective loss of control on risk-taking behavior: the mediating role of anger

    PubMed Central

    Beisswingert, Birgit M.; Zhang, Keshun; Goetz, Thomas; Fang, Ping; Fischbacher, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Based on the Appraisal Tendency Framework on the antecedents and consequences of emotions two experimental studies examined the relationship between externally caused loss of control experiences and risk-taking behavior, as well as the assumed mediation of this relationship by the emotion anger. An experimental paradigm for inducing externally caused and consequently externally attributed loss of control which should lead to experiences of anger was developed and pretested in a Pilot Study. The relationship between loss of control experiences, anger, and risk-taking behavior was investigated using two separate student samples from Germany (N = 84, 54% female) and China (N = 125; 64% female). In line with our hypotheses, results showed that anger mediated the link between subjective loss of control experiences and increasing risk-taking behavior. Multiple group comparisons revealing similar patterns in both samples affirmed the results’ cross-cultural generalizability. These results implicate that anger makes people less risk averse in the process of economic decision making. PMID:26217244

  13. Adolescent contraceptive risk-taking behavior: a social psychological model of females' use of and compliance with birth control.

    PubMed

    Durant, R H; Sanders Jm; Jay, S; Levinson, R

    1990-01-01

    Assuming that contraceptives are readily available and affordable to most adolescents, but that insufficient contraceptive use and high pregnancy rates stem from adolescent female risk-taking, a multivariate model of adolescent female contraceptive risk-taking behavior is described. Derived from behavioral science theory and empirical research, the model postulates direct and indirect associations between relevant variables. It also assumes behavior is comprised of deciding to initiate birth control, choosing a contraceptive method, complying with the method, and deciding to change methods or discontinue birth control. Premarital sexual standards and experiences, length of sexual relationship, religiosity and traditional values, and physical and sexual development are discussed as variables that directly affect the frequency of sexual intercourse. The frequency of sexual intercourse and perceived risk of pregnancy, and the perceived probability of pregnancy and outcome experiences of sexual activity are also examined. Variables that mediate the impact of coital frequency on contraceptive risk-taking include the cognitive assessment of pregnancy and contraception, support by significant others, personality development, and experience with contraceptives. Empirical tests of the model are discussed. PMID:12317634

  14. Risk-assessment and risk-taking behavior predict potassium- and amphetamine-induced dopamine response in the dorsal striatum of rats

    PubMed Central

    Palm, Sara; Momeni, Shima; Lundberg, Stina; Nylander, Ingrid; Roman, Erika

    2014-01-01

    Certain personality types and behavioral traits display high correlations to drug use and an increased level of dopamine in the reward system is a common denominator of all drugs of abuse. Dopamine response to drugs has been suggested to correlate with some of these personality types and to be a key factor influencing the predisposition to addiction. This study investigated if behavioral traits can be related to potassium- and amphetamine-induced dopamine response in the dorsal striatum, an area hypothesized to be involved in the shift from drug use to addiction. The open field and multivariate concentric square field™ tests were used to assess individual behavior in male Wistar rats. Chronoamperometric recordings were then made to study the potassium- and amphetamine-induced dopamine response in vivo. A classification based on risk-taking behavior in the open field was used for further comparisons. Risk-taking behavior was correlated between the behavioral tests and high risk takers displayed a more pronounced response to the dopamine uptake blocking effects of amphetamine. Behavioral parameters from both tests could also predict potassium- and amphetamine-induced dopamine responses showing a correlation between neurochemistry and behavior in risk-assessment and risk-taking parameters. In conclusion, the high risk-taking rats showed a more pronounced reduction of dopamine uptake in the dorsal striatum after amphetamine indicating that this area may contribute to the sensitivity of these animals to psychostimulants and proneness to addiction. Further, inherent dopamine activity was related to risk-assessment behavior, which may be of importance for decision-making and inhibitory control, key components in addiction. PMID:25076877

  15. Insights from socio-hydrology modelling on dealing with flood risk: roles of collective memory, risk-taking attitude and trust (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viglione, A.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Brandimarte, L.; Kuil, L.; Carr, G.; Salinas, J.; Scolobig, A.

    2013-12-01

    The risk coping culture of a community plays a major role in decision making in urban flood plains. While flood awareness is not necessarily linked to being prepared to face flooding at an individual level, the connection at the community level seems to be stronger through creating policy and initiating protection works. In this work we analyse, in a conceptual way, the interplay of community risk coping culture, flooding damage and economic growth. We particularly focus on three aspects: (i) collective memory, i.e., the capacity of the community to keep the awareness of flooding high; (ii) risk-taking attitude, i.e., the amount of risk a community is collectively willing to expose themselves to; and (iii) trust of people in risk protection measures. We use a dynamic model that represents the feedbacks between the hydrological and social system components. The model results indicate that, on one hand, by under perceiving the risk of flooding (because of short collective memory and too much trust in flood protection structures) in combination with a high risk-attitude, community survival is severely limited because of destruction caused by flooding. On the other hand, high perceived risk (long memory and lack of trust in flood protection structures) relative to the actual risk leads to lost economic opportunities and recession. There are many optimal scenarios for survival and economic growth, but greater certainty of survival plus economic growth can be achieved by ensuring community has accurate risk perception (memory neither too long nor too short and trust in flood protection neither too great nor too low) combined with a low to moderate risk-taking attitude. Interestingly, the model gives rise to situations in which the development of the community in the floodplain is path dependent, i.e., the history of flooding may lead to its growth or recession. Schematic of human adjustments to flooding: (a) settling away from the river; (b) raising levees/dikes.

  16. Global-local visual processing impacts risk taking behaviors, but only at first

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Stephen Wee Hun; Yuen, Alexander Y. L.; Tong, Eddie M. W.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the impact of early visual processing on decision-making during unpredictable, risky situations. Participants undertook Navon’s (1977) task and attended to either global letters or local letters only, following which they completed the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART). It was observed that global-focused individuals made more balloon pumps during the BART (i.e., took more risk), whereas local-focused individuals took less risk, albeit only initially. The theory of predictive and reactive control systems (PARCS) provides an excellent account of the data. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:26379586

  17. Risk-taking propensity and sensitivity to punishment in adolescents with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder symptoms and/or reading disability.

    PubMed

    Poon, Kean; Ho, Connie Suk-Han

    2016-01-01

    Many studies reported that adolescents with ADHD/RD more frequently engage in risk-taking behaviors. Very few have examined their risk taking patterns and the impact of their comorbidity. The present study compared the risk-taking propensity, sensitivity to punishment and delinquency outcome in Chinese adolescents with ADHD symptoms (AS) and/or RD using a simulated risk task, the Balloon Analogous Risk Task (BART). Adolescents with AS (n=37), RD (n=35), AS+RD (n=35), and control (n=36) were recruited from local secondary schools. Results showed that adolescents with ADHD, despite their great risk-taking propensity, were sensitive to immediate punishment whereas adolescents with RD were found to display normal risk-taking propensity, yet showed a tendency of being less sensitive to punishment. The comorbidity ADHD+RD group had the highest delinquency score, and exhibited greatest risk taking and least sensitivity to punishment, which provided further support that comorbid condition might have stronger impact on risk taking or even delinquency than the pure groups. The present findings provides a useful picture of the risk taking pattern associated with different groups, allowing for effective matching for future prevention and intervention program. PMID:26969810

  18. Willingness to Take PrEP and Potential for Risk Compensation Among Highly Sexually Active Gay and Bisexual Men.

    PubMed

    Grov, Christian; Whitfield, Thomas H F; Rendina, H Jonathon; Ventuneac, Ana; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-12-01

    Once-daily Truvada (Emtricitabine/Tenofovir) as a method of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is one of the most promising biomedical interventions to eliminate new HIV infections; however, uptake among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men has been slow amidst growing concern in popular/social media that PrEP use will result in reduced condom use (i.e., risk compensation). We investigated demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial differences in willingness to use PrEP as well as the perceived impact of PrEP on participants' condom use in a sample of 206 highly sexually active HIV-negative gay and bisexual men. Nearly half (46.1 %) said they would be willing to take PrEP if it were provided at no cost. Although men willing to take PrEP (vs. others) reported similar numbers of recent casual male partners (<6 weeks), they had higher odds of recent receptive condomless anal sex (CAS)-i.e., those already at high risk of contracting HIV were more willing to take PrEP. Neither age, race/ethnicity, nor income were associated with willingness to take PrEP, suggesting equal acceptability among subpopulations that are experiencing disparities in HIV incidence. There was limited evidence to suggest men would risk compensate. Only 10 % of men who had not engaged in recent CAS felt that PrEP would result in them starting to have CAS. Men who had not tested for HIV recently were also significantly more likely than others to indicate willingness to take PrEP. Offering PrEP to men who test infrequently may serve to engage them more in routine HIV/STI testing and create a continued dialogue around sexual health between patient and provider in order to prevent HIV infection. PMID:25735243

  19. Do SSRI Antidepressants Increase The Risk of Extrapyramidal Side Effects In Patients Taking Antipsychotics?

    PubMed Central

    Allsbrook, Matthew; Fries, Brant E.; Szafara, Kristina L.; Regal, Randolph E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Among antidepressants, selective serotonin reup-take inhibitors (SSRIs) have enjoyed great popularity among clinicians as well as generally wide acceptance and tolerance among patients. A potentially overlooked side effect of SSRIs is the occasional occurrence of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), which could be a concern when SSRIs are used with antipsychotics. This study was designed to explore the possible association between SSRI antidepressant use and the incidence of EPS side effects in patients who take concomitant antipsychotic medications. Methods: The University of Michigan conducted a study at the four Michigan state mental health hospitals between May 2010 and October 2010. The Michigan Public Health Institute collected data using the InterRAI Mental Health Assessment (InterRAI MH). The present study is a retrospective cohort analysis of the cross-sectional data that were collected. Within these institutions, 693 residents were using antipsychotics. We measured the observed frequency of seven EPS recorded in the InterRAI MH within three groups of patients: 1) those on antipsychotic drugs who were taking an SSRI antidepressant; 2) those on antipsychotic drugs who were not taking an antidepressant; and 3) those on antipsychotic drugs who were taking a non-SSRI antidepressant. Differences in the prevalence of EPS were tested using one-way analysis of variance. Results: There were no significant differences in the observed EPS frequencies among the three groups (F2,18 = 0.01; P < 0.9901). Conclusion: In this study, SSRIs did not appear to potentiate the occurrence of EPS in patients using antipsychotics. PMID:26909002

  20. Do Thai parents really know about the sexual risk taking of their children? A qualitative study in Bangkok

    PubMed Central

    Fongkaew, Warunee; Cupp, Pamela K.; Miller, Brenda A.; Atwood, Katharine A.; Chamratrithirong, Apichat; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Rosati, Michael J.; Chookhare, Warunee; Byrnes, Hilary F.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the perceptions of parents and adolescents toward sexual risk-taking behaviors. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 parents and 30 adolescents (aged 13–14 years) in Bangkok, and were analyzed by using coding and thematic analysis. The results showed that although parents generally believed that Thai teens begin to have sex at an early age and engage in sexual risk-taking behaviors, they trusted that their teens would follow parental guidance and rules and not engage in sexual activity at this age. Most of the Thai teens in the present study reported that their parents were not really aware of their sexual behaviors because of their tendency to keep their sexual stories secret for fear of being scolded, blamed, and punished. The teens also reported that they wanted their parents to listen, give them warmth and more freedom, and be more in touch with their activities. Parents expressed their need for knowledge and skills so that they could help guide their adolescent children to avoid sexual risk-taking behaviors. A family intervention specifically aimed at empowering Thai urban parents is needed. PMID:22950618

  1. Neural correlates of adolescents' viewing of parents' and peers' emotions: Associations with risk-taking behavior and risky peer affiliations.

    PubMed

    Saxbe, Darby; Del Piero, Larissa; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Kaplan, Jonas; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-01-01

    Social reorientation from parents to same-age peers is normative in adolescence, but the neural correlates of youths' socioemotional processing of parents and peers have not been explored. In the current study, 22 adolescents (average age 16.98) underwent neuroimaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging) while viewing and rating emotions shown in brief video clips featuring themselves, their parents, or an unfamiliar peer. Viewing self vs. other and parents vs. the peer activated regions in the medial prefrontal cortex, replicating prior findings that this area responds to self-relevant stimuli, including familiar and not just similar others. Viewing the peer compared with parents elicited activation in posterior 'mentalizing' structures, the precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus and right temporoparietal junction, as well as the ventral striatum and bilateral amygdala and hippocampus. Relative activations in the PCC and precuneus to the peer vs. the parent were related both to reported risk-taking behavior and to affiliations with more risk-taking peers. The results suggest neural correlates of the adolescent social reorientation toward peers and away from parents that may be associated with adolescents' real-life risk-taking behaviors and social relationships. PMID:25874749

  2. Neural correlates of adolescents’ viewing of parents’ and peers’ emotions: Associations with risk-taking behavior and risky peer affiliations

    PubMed Central

    Saxbe, Darby; Del Piero, Larissa; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Kaplan, Jonas; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-01-01

    Social reorientation from parents to same-age peers is normative in adolescence, but the neural correlates of youths’ socioemotional processing of parents and peers have not been explored. In the current study, twenty-two adolescents (average age 16.98) underwent neuroimaging (fMRI) while viewing and rating emotions shown in brief video clips featuring themselves, their parents, or an unfamiliar peer. Viewing self vs. other and parents vs. the peer activated regions in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), replicating prior findings that this area responds to self-relevant stimuli, including familiar and not just similar others (Kreinen, Tu, & Buckner, 2010). Viewing the peer compared with parents elicited activation in posterior ‘mentalizing’ structures, the precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), bilateral pSTS and right TPJ, as well as the ventral striatum and bilateral amygdala and hippocampus. Relative activations in the PCC and precuneus to the peer vs. the parent were related both to reported risk-taking behavior and to affiliations with more risk-taking peers. The results suggest neural correlates of the adolescent social reorientation towards peers and away from parents that may be associated with adolescents’ real-life risk-taking behaviors and social relationships. PMID:25874749

  3. "It takes a village" to support the vocabulary development of children with multiple risk factors.

    PubMed

    Baydar, Nazli; Küntay, Aylin C; Yagmurlu, Bilge; Aydemir, Nuran; Cankaya, Dilek; Göksen, Fatos; Cemalcilar, Zeynep

    2014-04-01

    Data from a nationally representative sample from Turkey (N = 1,017) were used to investigate the environmental factors that support the receptive vocabulary of 3-year-old children who differ in their developmental risk due to family low economic status and elevated maternal depressive symptoms. Children's vocabulary knowledge was strongly associated with language stimulation and learning materials in all families regardless of risk status. Maternal warmth and responsiveness supported vocabulary competence in families of low economic status only when maternal depressive symptoms were low. In families with the highest levels of risk, that is, with depression and economic distress jointly present, support by the extended family and neighbors for caring for the child protected children's vocabulary development against these adverse conditions. The empirical evidence on the positive contribution of extrafamilial support to young children's receptive vocabulary under adverse conditions allows an expansion of our current theorizing about influences on language development. PMID:24188041

  4. Birth order and risk taking in athletics: a meta-analysis and study of major league baseball.

    PubMed

    Sulloway, Frank J; Zweigenhaft, Richard L

    2010-11-01

    According to expectations derived from evolutionary theory, younger siblings are more likely than older siblings to participate in high-risk activities. The authors test this hypothesis by conducting a meta-analysis of 24 previous studies involving birth order and participation in dangerous sports. The odds of laterborns engaging in such activities were 1.48 times greater than for firstborns (N = 8,340). The authors also analyze performance data on 700 brothers who played major league baseball. Consistent with their greater expected propensity for risk taking, younger brothers were 10.6 times more likely to attempt the high-risk activity of base stealing and 3.2 times more likely to steal bases successfully (odds ratios). In addition, younger brothers were significantly superior to older brothers in overall batting success, including two measures associated with risk taking. As expected, significant heterogeneity among various performance measures for major league baseball players indicated that older and younger brothers excelled in different aspects of the game. PMID:20435800

  5. Am I at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes? Taking Steps to Lower Your Risk of Getting Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... a condition called acanthosis nigricans, characterized by a dark, velvety rash around my neck or armpits. I have a history of cardiovascular disease. The more items you checked, the higher your risk. [ Top ] Does sleep matter? Yes. Studies show that untreated sleep problems, especially ...

  6. Sexual Attitudes and Risk-Taking Behaviors of High School Students in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aras, Sahbal; Semin, Semih; Gunay, Turkan; Orcin, Esmahan; Ozan, Sema

    2007-01-01

    Background: The risk of sexually transmitted diseases is high but opportunities of sexual education for adolescents are limited in Turkey. The aim of this study was to evaluate sexual attitudes and behaviors and to determine the predictors of sexual initiation among adolescents. Methods: A questionnaire designed by the researchers was administered…

  7. School-Level Application of a Social Bonding Model to Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Colleen M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a study that tested a model that included individual and environmental indicators of bonding to predict smoking, substance use, and sexual activity among secondary students. Individuals reporting high levels of bonding were less likely to exhibit high-risk behavior, regardless of gender. School environment directly influenced ninth…

  8. "It Takes a Village" to Support the Vocabulary Development of Children with Multiple Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baydar, Nazli; Küntay, Aylin C.; Yagmurlu, Bilge; Aydemir, Nuran; Cankaya, Dilek; Göksen, Fatos; Cemalcilar, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    Data from a nationally representative sample from Turkey (N = 1,017) were used to investigate the environmental factors that support the receptive vocabulary of 3-year-old children who differ in their developmental risk due to family low economic status and elevated maternal depressive symptoms. Children's vocabulary knowledge was strongly…

  9. Sexual Risk Taking among HIV-Positive Injection Drug Users: Contexts, Characteristics, and Implications for Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Kelly R.; Purcell, David; Dawson-Rose, Carol; Halkitis, Perry N.; Gomez, Cynthia A.

    2005-01-01

    HIV-positive injection drug users (IDUs) (N = 161) were recruited to complete a qualitative interview and a quantitative survey about sexual behavior and transmission risk. We identified two contexts in which exposure encounters occurred most commonly for HIV-positive IDUs: in intimate serodiscordant relationships and in the drug/sex economy.…

  10. Self-Objectification, Risk Taking, and Self-Harm in College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.; Swanson, Jenny D.; Brausch, Amy M.

    2005-01-01

    Objectification theory proposes that the objectification of women's bodies causes women to self-objectify, adopting an outsider's view of themselves. Engaging in a high amount of self-objectification is thought to place women at increased risk for mental health problems such as body dissatisfaction and depression. It was hypothesized that…

  11. Improving Test-Taking Performance of Secondary At-Risk Youth and Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Tachelle; Eaton, India

    2014-01-01

    Preparing at-risk youth and students with mild disabilities for state and district tests is important for improving their test performance, and basic instruction in test preparation can significantly improve student test performance. The article defines noncognitive variables that adversely affect test-taker performance. The article also describes…

  12. The Relationship between Life Satisfaction, Risk-Taking Behaviors, and Youth Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, John M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Valois, Robert F.; Zullig, Keith J.

    2005-01-01

    This study builds on existing criminological theories and examines the role of life satisfaction and self-control in explaining youth violence. Using data from a stratified cluster sample of 5,414 public high school students who responded to the South Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey, the study examines the relationship between adolescents'…

  13. Preparing patients to travel abroad safely. Part 1: Taking a travel history and identifying special risks.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, R. E.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present for family physicians without access to a travel clinic and the Internet the questions to ask about the medical history and itinerary of their patients traveling abroad. To suggest ways to identify and advise high-risk patients. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE searches from 1990 to November 1998 located 51 articles on travel and diabetes, 37 on travel and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 63 on travel and heart disease, 192 on travel and pregnancy, and 298 on travel with infants or children. Additional searches were undertaken in September 1999. The quality of evidence in most articles is level III (expert opinion). There are no randomized controlled trials of the best advice for family physicians to give travelers. MAIN MESSAGE: A history should include countries to be visited, planned activities, previous tropical travel, medical history, vaccination status, whether children are traveling, pregnancy status, and patients' opinions of the risks and precautions needed. Detailed advice should be given to reduce risks. The main causes of mortality abroad are existing cardiovascular conditions and accidents. High-risk conditions to be identified in travelers are cardiovascular illness, COPD, diabetes, immunodeficiency, pregnancy, and traveling with children. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with cardiovascular illness or COPD should be advised to avoid too much exertion while traveling. Detailed instruction should be given to diabetic patients on how to maintain stable glucose levels, to pregnant women on avoiding malarial infection, and to parents on protecting their children from infections and accidents. PMID:10660795

  14. Relationship between Parents' Beliefs and Their Responses to Children's Risk-Taking Behaviour during Outdoor Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Learning how to respond appropriately in risk situations comes not only from the child's direct experiences but also through the guidance of those around them. The role of parent practices in guiding children's decision-making in risky situations has mainly been investigated in experimental contexts. The present study examined children's…

  15. Patients Taking Imatinib for CML Have Similar Risk of Death as General Population

    Cancer.gov

    In an international study, the risk of death for chronic myelogenous leukemia patients treated with imatinib (Gleevec) who had been in remission for at least 2 years was not different from that of the general population, according to an article in the March 21, 2011 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

  16. Health-endangering behaviours among Japanese college students: a test of psychosocial model of risk-taking behaviours.

    PubMed

    Omori, Mika; Ingersoll, Gary M

    2005-02-01

    Adolescents' health-endangering behaviours receive attention because they are presumed to threaten the health of individuals in either the short or long term. The present study examined the role of psychosocial determinants on adolescents' health-endangering behaviours using elements of a biopsychosocial model proposed by Irwin and Millstein (1986). It was hypothesized that egocentrism, self-esteem, and perceived social environment affect the onset of risk-taking behaviours, mediating risk perception. Eight hundred and eight Japanese college students completed questionnaires. Results from a structural equation analysis partly supported the hypothesized model. Egocentrism contributes directly to health-endangering behaviours while influences of self-esteem and perceived social norms are mediated by risk perception. PMID:15683632

  17. Black men who have sex with men, sexual risk-taking, and willingness to use rapid home HIV tests.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Lisa A; Driffin, Daniel D; Smith, Harlan; Conway-Washington, Christopher; White, Denise; Cherry, Chauncey

    2015-02-01

    The availability of rapid home-based HIV testing (RHT) in the USA has provided us with a valuable, new option in our efforts to identify more people living with HIV and to do so sooner. Furthermore, it is possible that RHT will be or is currently being used as a means of learning one's own and one's partner's HIV status prior to engaging in condomless intercourse. Data regarding knowledge and willingness to use RHT, however, is very limited. In particular, no studies have investigated RHT use among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM). Understanding RHT use among BMSM is critical as we have observed alarming rates of HIV prevalence among this group, and RHT may provide an opportunity to slow HIV transmission among BMSM. In order to better understand RHT, we assessed knowledge, willingness to use and actual use of RHT, HIV testing history, substance use, and sexual risk-taking among 387 HIV-negative BMSM and 157 HIV-positive BMSM attending a community event in the southeastern USA. We used generalized linear modeling to assess factors associated with their willingness to use RHT. Although familiarity with the availability of RHT was somewhat limited among these men, a substantial portion of BMSM did report an interest in using RHT, including with their sex partners. Among HIV-negative BMSM, however, we found a negative relationship between willingness to use RHT and sexual risk-taking, i.e., higher numbers of condomless anal sex acts were associated with a reduction in willingness to use RHT. It appears that men who report the greatest risk-taking for HIV are least interested in RHT. Future research should focus on better understanding concerns regarding RHT among at-risk HIV-negative men and should investigate the usefulness of using RHT as a HIV prevention method. PMID:24906999

  18. Measurement and Modelling: Sequential Use of Analytical Techniques in a Study of Risk-Taking in Decision-Making by School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimmer, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates reasoned risk-taking in decision-making by school principals using a methodology that combines sequential use of psychometric and traditional measurement techniques. Risk-taking is defined as when decisions are made that are not compliant with the regulatory framework, the primary governance mechanism for public schools in…

  19. A Latent Class Analysis of Maternal Responsiveness and Autonomy-Granting in Early Adolescence: Prediction to Later Adolescent Sexual Risk-Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanza, H. Isabella; Huang, David Y. C.; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to extend empirical inquiry related to the role of parenting on adolescent sexual risk-taking by using latent class analysis (LCA) to identify patterns of adolescent-reported mother responsiveness and autonomy-granting in early adolescence and examine associations with sexual risk-taking in mid- and late-adolescence.…

  20. From molecule to market: steroid hormones and financial risk-taking

    PubMed Central

    Coates, John M.; Gurnell, Mark; Sarnyai, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the role of the endocrine system in financial decision-making. Here, we survey research on steroid hormones and their cognitive effects, and examine potential links to trader performance in the financial markets. Preliminary findings suggest that cortisol codes for risk and testosterone for reward. A key finding of this endocrine research is the different cognitive effects of acute versus chronic exposure to hormones: acutely elevated steroids may optimize performance on a range of tasks; but chronically elevated steroids may promote irrational risk-reward choices. We present a hypothesis suggesting that the irrational exuberance and pessimism observed during market bubbles and crashes may be mediated by steroid hormones. If hormones can exaggerate market moves, then perhaps the age and sex composition among traders and asset managers may affect the level of instability witnessed in the financial markets. PMID:20026470

  1. Neuroimaging supports behavioral personality assessment: Overlapping activations during reflective and impulsive risk taking.

    PubMed

    Pletzer, Belinda; M Ortner, Tuulia

    2016-09-01

    Personality assessment has been challenged by the fact that different assessment methods (implicit measures, behavioral measures and explicit rating scales) show little or no convergence in behavioral studies. In this neuroimaging study we address for the first time, whether different assessment methods rely on separate or overlapping neuronal systems. Fifty nine healthy adult participants completed two objective personality tests of risk propensity: the more implicit Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) and the more explicit Game of Dice Task (GDT). Significant differences in activation, as well as connectivity patterns between both tasks were observed. In both tasks, risky decisions yielded significantly stronger activations than safe decisions in the bilateral caudate, as well as the bilateral Insula. The finding of overlapping brain areas validates different assessment methods, despite their behavioral non-convergence. This suggests that neuroimaging can be an important tool of validation in the field of personality assessment. PMID:27373370

  2. Social Capital and Sexual Risk-Taking Behaviors Among Older Adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Amin, Iftekhar

    2016-09-01

    Using the General Social Survey (GSS) 2012, a national household-based probability sample of non-institutionalized U.S. adults, this study examined the association of social capital and sexual risk behaviors among older adults aged 55 years and older. Of the 547 respondents, 87% reported not using condoms during their last intercourse, and nearly 15% reported engaging in sexual risk behaviors, such as casual sex, paid sex, male to male sex, and drug use. Binary logistic regression results showed that age, gender, marital status, education, race, sexual orientation, and sexual frequencies were significant predictors of older adults' unprotected sex. Social capital was not a predictor of unprotected sex but was positively associated with other human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted disease (HIV/STD) risk behaviors such as sex with strangers, having multiple sex partners, injecting drugs, and having male to male sex. Findings of this study highlight the importance of HIV/STD prevention programs for older adults. PMID:25245384

  3. Taking Science to Special Needs and At-Risk Youth in the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherrer, D. K.; Yager, D.; Blair, J.; McCully, D.; Alameda, E.; Crawford, K.

    2009-12-01

    Youth in Juvenile Detention Facilities do attend (in-house) school, but rarely receive any instruction in science. We report on a new program to bring science to students at the Santa Clara County Juvenile Detention Facilitirs. Working in partnership with the Knock Out Dog Fighting campaign put together by Kris Crawford of For Pits Sake, Inc., our program provides alternatives to inappropriate behavior so often seen in inner city environments by introducing students to hands-on, inquiry based science activities. Likewise, we report on using similar materials to provide hands-on science activities to special needs students in Santa Clara and Santa Cruz Counties through “Take Flight for Kids” events organized by Dean McCully of Cisco Systems. Through “Take Flight for Kids”, amateur pilots offer special needs students rides in light aircraft and invite them to explore science and other activities through a community fair hosted by hundreds of local organizations. The fair highlights science opportunities and is supported and attended by a wide variety of NASA, NSF, and other science-related organizations. Our poster will focus on techniques and materials we use to excite special young people about science and opportunities for them in STEM fields.

  4. Prevalence of Child and Adult Sexual Abuse and Risk Taking Practices Among HIV Serodiscordant African-American Couples

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the prevalence of child (CSA) and adult (ASA) sexual abuse among 535 African American HIV serodiscordant couples from four major United State cities, and its relationship to personal and couple related vulnerabilities and HIV risk factors. As part of a randomized, clinical trial, CSA and ASA histories were obtained through face-to-face interviews. Results indicate that HIV positive women were significantly more likely to report one kind of abuse (32.32%), either before or since age 18 or both (32.6%). HIV-positive men (34.9%) were significantly more likely to report CSA than HIV-negative men (22.0%). Overall, 72% of couples reported that one or both had CSA histories. These findings underscore the heightened emotional vulnerability, and STI and HIV transmission risk taking practices, associated with sexual abuse. Sexual abuse histories among couples should be assessed to better understand how these histories may contribute to couples dynamics and risk-taking practices. PMID:20499150

  5. The Combined Effects of Alcohol, Caffeine and Expectancies on Subjective Experience, Impulsivity and Risk-Taking

    PubMed Central

    Heinz, Adrienne J.; de Wit, Harriet; Lilje, Todd C.; Kassel, Jon D.

    2013-01-01

    Caffeinated alcoholic beverage (CAB) consumption is a rapidly growing phenomenon among young adults and is associated with a variety of health-risk behaviors. The current study examined whether either caffeinated alcohol or the expectation of receiving caffeinated alcohol altered affective, cognitive and behavioral outcomes hypothesized to contribute to risk behavior. Young adult social drinkers (N=146) participated in a single session where they received alcohol (peak Breath Alcohol Content = .088 g/dL, SD = .019; equivalent to about 4 standard drinks) and were randomly assigned to one of four further conditions 1) no caffeine, no caffeine expectancy, 2) caffeine and caffeine expectancy, 3) no caffeine but caffeine expectancy, 4) caffeine but no caffeine expectancy. Participants’ habitual CAB consumption was positively correlated with measures of impulsivity and risky behavior, independently of study drugs. Administration of caffeine (mean dose = 220 mg, SD = 38; equivalent to about 2.75 Red Bulls) in the study reduced subjective ratings of intoxication and reversed the decrease in desire to continue drinking, regardless of expectancy. Caffeine also reduced the effect of alcohol on inhibitory reaction time (faster incorrect responses). Participants not expecting caffeine were less attentive after alcohol, whereas participants expecting caffeine were not, regardless of caffeine administration. Alcohol decreased response accuracy in all participants except those who both expected and received caffeine. Findings suggest that CABs may elevate risk for continued drinking by reducing perceived intoxication, and by maintaining the desire to continue drinking. Simply expecting to consume caffeine may reduce the effects of alcohol on inattention, and either expecting or consuming caffeine may protect against other alcohol-related performance decrements. Caffeine, when combined with alcohol, has both beneficial and detrimental effects on mechanisms known to contribute to

  6. Homeless drug users' awareness and risk perception of peer "Take Home Naloxone" use – a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Nat; Oldham, Nicola; Francis, Katharine; Jones, Lesley

    2006-01-01

    Background Peer use of take home naloxone has the potential to reduce drug related deaths. There appears to be a paucity of research amongst homeless drug users on the topic. This study explores the acceptability and potential risk of peer use of naloxone amongst homeless drug users. From the findings the most feasible model for future treatment provision is suggested. Methods In depth face-to-face interviews conducted in one primary care centre and two voluntary organisation centres providing services to homeless drug users in a large UK cosmopolitan city. Interviews recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically by framework techniques. Results Homeless people recognise signs of a heroin overdose and many are prepared to take responsibility to give naloxone, providing prior training and support is provided. Previous reports of the theoretical potential for abuse and malicious use may have been overplayed. Conclusion There is insufficient evidence to recommend providing "over the counter" take home naloxone" to UK homeless injecting drug users. However a programme of peer use of take home naloxone amongst homeless drug users could be feasible providing prior training is provided. Peer education within a health promotion framework will optimise success as current professionally led health promotion initiatives are failing to have a positive impact amongst homeless drug users. PMID:17014725

  7. Risk-Taking Behavior in a Computerized Driving Task: Brain Activation Correlates of Decision-Making, Outcome, and Peer Influence in Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Vorobyev, Victor; Kwon, Myoung Soo; Moe, Dagfinn; Parkkola, Riitta; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Increased propensity for risky behavior in adolescents, particularly in peer groups, is thought to reflect maturational imbalance between reward processing and cognitive control systems that affect decision-making. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain functional correlates of risk-taking behavior and effects of peer influence in 18–19-year-old male adolescents. The subjects were divided into low and high risk-taking groups using either personality tests or risk-taking rates in a simulated driving task. The fMRI data were analyzed for decision-making (whether to take a risk at intersections) and outcome (pass or crash) phases, and for the influence of peer competition. Personality test-based groups showed no difference in the amount of risk-taking (similarly increased during peer competition) and brain activation. When groups were defined by actual task performance, risk-taking activated two areas in the left medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) significantly more in low than in high risk-takers. In the entire sample, risky decision-specific activation was found in the anterior and dorsal cingulate, superior parietal cortex, basal ganglia (including the nucleus accumbens), midbrain, thalamus, and hypothalamus. Peer competition increased outcome-related activation in the right caudate head and cerebellar vermis in the entire sample. Our results suggest that the activation of the medial (rather than lateral) PFC and striatum is most specific to risk-taking behavior of male adolescents in a simulated driving situation, and reflect a stronger conflict and thus increased cognitive effort to take risks in low risk-takers, and reward anticipation for risky decisions, respectively. The activation of the caudate nucleus, particularly for the positive outcome (pass) during peer competition, further suggests enhanced reward processing of risk-taking under peer influence. PMID:26052943

  8. Risk-Taking Behavior in a Computerized Driving Task: Brain Activation Correlates of Decision-Making, Outcome, and Peer Influence in Male Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vorobyev, Victor; Kwon, Myoung Soo; Moe, Dagfinn; Parkkola, Riitta; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Increased propensity for risky behavior in adolescents, particularly in peer groups, is thought to reflect maturational imbalance between reward processing and cognitive control systems that affect decision-making. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain functional correlates of risk-taking behavior and effects of peer influence in 18-19-year-old male adolescents. The subjects were divided into low and high risk-taking groups using either personality tests or risk-taking rates in a simulated driving task. The fMRI data were analyzed for decision-making (whether to take a risk at intersections) and outcome (pass or crash) phases, and for the influence of peer competition. Personality test-based groups showed no difference in the amount of risk-taking (similarly increased during peer competition) and brain activation. When groups were defined by actual task performance, risk-taking activated two areas in the left medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) significantly more in low than in high risk-takers. In the entire sample, risky decision-specific activation was found in the anterior and dorsal cingulate, superior parietal cortex, basal ganglia (including the nucleus accumbens), midbrain, thalamus, and hypothalamus. Peer competition increased outcome-related activation in the right caudate head and cerebellar vermis in the entire sample. Our results suggest that the activation of the medial (rather than lateral) PFC and striatum is most specific to risk-taking behavior of male adolescents in a simulated driving situation, and reflect a stronger conflict and thus increased cognitive effort to take risks in low risk-takers, and reward anticipation for risky decisions, respectively. The activation of the caudate nucleus, particularly for the positive outcome (pass) during peer competition, further suggests enhanced reward processing of risk-taking under peer influence. PMID:26052943

  9. Pharmacologically distinct pramipexole-mediated akinesia vs. risk-taking in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Holtz, Nathan A; Tedford, Stephanie E; Persons, Amanda L; Grasso, Salvatore A; Napier, T Celeste

    2016-10-01

    Pramipexole and ropinirole are dopamine agonists that are efficacious in treating motor disturbances of neuropathologies, e.g., Parkinson's disease and restless legs syndrome. A significant portion of treated patients develop impulsive/compulsive behaviors. Current treatment is dose reduction or switching to an alternative dopamine replacement, both of which can undermine the motor benefits. Needed is a preclinical model that can assist in identifying adjunct treatments to dopamine agonist therapy that reduce impulsive/compulsive behaviors without interfering with motor benefits of the dopamine agonist. Toward that objective, the current study implemented a rat model of Parkinson's disease to behaviorally profile chronically administered pramipexole. This was accomplished with male Sprague-Dawley rats wherein (i) 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesions of the dorsolateral striatum produced Parkinson's disease-like akinesia, measured in the forelimbs, (ii) intracranial self-stimulation-mediated probability discounting indicated impulsivity/risk-taking, and (iii) two doses of pramipexole were continuously administered for 14-28days via osmotic minipumps to mirror the chronic, stable exposure achieved with extended release formulations. The atypical antidepressant, mirtazapine, is known to reduce behaviors associated with drug addiction in rats; thus, we demonstrated model utility here by determining the effects of mirtazapine on pramipexole-induced motor improvements versus probability discounting. We observed that forelimb akinesia subsequent to striatal lesions was attenuated by both pramipexole doses tested (0.3 and 1.2mg/kg/day) within 4h of pump implant dispensing 0.3mg/kg/day and 1h by 1.2mg/kg/day. By contrast, 12-14days of infusion with 0.3mg/kg/day did not alter discounting, but increases were obtained with 1.2mg/kg/day pramipexole, with 67% of 1.2mg/kg/day-treated rats meeting categorical criteria for 'high risk-taking'. Insertion of a second minipump delivering

  10. Electronic health records: Is it a risk worth taking in healthcare delivery?

    PubMed Central

    Raposo, Vera Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    The electronic health record represents a major change in healthcare delivery, either for health professionals and health institutions, either for patients. In this essay we will mainly focus on its consequences regarding patient safety and medical liability. In this particular domain the electronic health record has dual effects: on one side prevents medical errors and, in this sense, promotes patient safety and protects the doctor from lawsuits; but, on the other side, when not used properly, it may also generate other kind of errors, potentially threatening patient safety and, therefore, increasing the risk of juridical liability for the physician. This paper intends to underline the main human errors, technologic mistakes and medical faults that may occur while using the electronic health record and the ways to overcome them, also explaining how the electronic health record may be used in court during a judicial proceeding. PMID:26693253

  11. Examining attachment to God and health risk-taking behaviors in college students.

    PubMed

    Horton, Karissa D; Ellison, Christopher G; Loukas, Alexandra; Downey, Darcy L; Barrett, Jennifer B

    2012-06-01

    Drawing on insights from attachment theory, this study examined whether three types of attachment to God--secure, avoidant, and anxious--were associated with health-risk behaviors, over and above the effects of religious attendance, peer support, and demographic covariates, in a sample of 328 undergraduate college students. Contrary to prior theory, secure attachment to God is not inversely associated with recent alcohol or marijuana use, or substance use prior to last sexual intercourse. Instead, avoidant and anxious attachment to God are associated with higher levels of drinking; anxious attachment to God is associated with marijuana use; and avoidant attachment to God is associated with substance use prior to last sexual intercourse. These patterns are gender-specific; problematic attachment to God is linked with negative outcomes solely among men. PMID:20632208

  12. No Evidence of Association between Toxoplasma gondii Infection and Financial Risk Taking in Females

    PubMed Central

    Šebánková, Blanka; Flegr, Jaroslav; Nave, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Background Past research linked Toxoplasma gondii (TG) infection in humans with neurological and mental disorders (e.g., schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease and attention disorders), irregularities of the dopaminergic and testosterone system, and increased likelihood of being involved in traffic accidents. Methodology/Principal Findings We test for an association between TG infection and financial decision-making (DM) using a case-control design in a sample of female Czech students (n = 79). We estimate each subject's risk attitude and loss aversion using an experimental economic task involving real monetary incentives. We find no significant evidence that either measure of decision-making is associated with TG infection. Conclusion We were unable to find evidence of an association between TG infection and financial decision-making in females. PMID:26401912

  13. Social Environment and Sexual Risk-Taking among Gay and Transgender African American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Robin; Bernadini, Stephen; Jemmott, John B.

    2014-01-01

    More prevention effort is required as the HIV epidemic increases among gay and transgender African American youth. Using ecological systems theory and an integrative model of behaviour change, this study examines the sexual behaviour of gay and transgender African American young people as embedded within the unique social and structural environments affecting this population. Also examined is the important role played by mobile technology in the social and sexual lives of individuals. Seven focus groups were conducted with 54 African American young adults in a northeastern U.S. city. The findings provide a rich examination of the social and sexual lives of gay and transgender African American youth, focusing on the social environment and the impact of the environment on sexual risk behaviour. PMID:23889233

  14. The Effect of Positive and Negative Feedback on Risk-Taking across Different Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Losecaat Vermeer, Annabel B.; Sanfey, Alan G.

    2015-01-01

    Preferences for risky choices have often been shown to be unstable and context-dependent. Though people generally avoid gambles with mixed outcomes, a phenomenon often attributed to loss aversion, contextual factors can impact this dramatically. For example, people typically prefer risky options after a financial loss, while generally choosing safer options after a monetary gain. However, it is unclear what exactly contributes to these preference shifts as a function of prior outcomes, as these gain/loss outcomes are usually confounded with participant performance, and therefore it is unclear whether these effects are driven purely by the monetary gains or losses, or rather by success or failure at the actual task. Here, we experimentally separated the effects of monetary gains/losses from performance success/failure prior to a standard risky choice. Participants performed a task in which they experienced contextual effects: 1) monetary gain or loss based directly on performance, 2) monetary gain or loss that was randomly awarded and was, crucially, independent from performance, and 3) success or failure feedback based on performance, but without any monetary incentive. Immediately following these positive/negative contexts, participants were presented with a gain-loss gamble that they had to decide to either play or pass. We found that risk preferences for identical sets of gambles were biased by positive and negative contexts containing monetary gains and losses, but not by contexts containing performance feedback. This data suggests that the observed framing effects are driven by aversion for monetary losses and not simply by the positive or negative valence of the context, or by potential moods resulting from positive or negative contexts. These results highlight the specific context dependence of risk preferences. PMID:26407298

  15. Economic Behavior under the Influence of Alcohol: An Experiment on Time Preferences, Risk-Taking, and Altruism

    PubMed Central

    Corazzini, Luca; Filippin, Antonio; Vanin, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    We report results from an incentivized laboratory experiment undertaken with the purpose of providing controlled evidence on the causal effects of alcohol consumption on risk-taking, time preferences and altruism. Our design disentangles the pharmacological effects of alcohol intoxication from those mediated by expectations, as we compare the behavior of three groups of subjects: those who participated in an experiment with no reference to alcohol, those who were exposed to the possibility of consuming alcohol but were given a placebo and those who effectively consumed alcohol. All subjects participated in a series of economic tasks administered in the same sequence across treatments. After controlling for both the willingness to pay for an object and the potential misperception of probabilities as elicited in the experiment, we detect no effect of alcohol in depleting subjects’ risk tolerance. However, we find that alcohol intoxication increases impatience and makes subjects less altruistic. PMID:25853520

  16. Greater exposure to sexual content in popular movies predicts earlier sexual debut and increased sexual risk taking.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Ross E; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D

    2012-09-01

    Early sexual debut is associated with risky sexual behavior and an increased risk of unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections later in life. The relations among early movie sexual exposure (MSE), sexual debut, and risky sexual behavior in adulthood (i.e., multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use) were examined in a longitudinal study of U.S. adolescents. MSE was measured using the Beach method, a comprehensive procedure for media content coding. Controlling for characteristics of adolescents and their families, analyses showed that MSE predicted age of sexual debut, both directly and indirectly through changes in sensation seeking. MSE also predicted engagement in risky sexual behaviors both directly and indirectly via early sexual debut. These results suggest that MSE may promote sexual risk taking both by modifying sexual behavior and by accelerating the normal rise in sensation seeking during adolescence. PMID:22810165

  17. Taking charge of high-risk and high-cost patients in the public healthcare system.

    PubMed

    Denis, Jean-Louis; Cambourieu, Caroline; Roy, Denis A

    2014-01-01

    Many healthcare systems are struggling with the issue of providing high-quality care to high-needs patients at lower costs. Our comments in this paper draw on insights that we have gained from the development and implementation of integrated models of care in Québec. This experience highlights the importance of developing a clear clinical approach to the delivery and coordination of care and to support providers in new roles. Our second insight is that system-level policy guidelines may help to focus the attention of organizations and providers on key priorities, but they need to take into account differing needs in various contexts. Third, a crucial factor for success over the longer term is the ability of local networks to reshape the allocation and use of resources to bring about change in day-to-day operations. We conclude by highlighting key characteristics of high-performing health systems and with the final observation that politicians and policymakers need to allow enough time to harness the full benefit of change initiatives. PMID:25880863

  18. The role of dopamine in risk taking: a specific look at Parkinson's disease and gambling.

    PubMed

    Clark, Crystal A; Dagher, Alain

    2014-01-01

    An influential model suggests that dopamine signals the difference between predicted and experienced reward. In this way, dopamine can act as a learning signal that can shape behaviors to maximize rewards and avoid punishments. Dopamine is also thought to invigorate reward seeking behavior. Loss of dopamine signaling is the major abnormality in Parkinson's disease. Dopamine agonists have been implicated in the occurrence of impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease patients, the most common being pathological gambling, compulsive sexual behavior, and compulsive buying. Recently, a number of functional imaging studies investigating impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease have been published. Here we review this literature, and attempt to place it within a decision-making framework in which potential gains and losses are evaluated to arrive at optimum choices. We also provide a hypothetical but still incomplete model on the effect of dopamine agonist treatment on these value and risk assessments. Two of the main brain structures thought to be involved in computing aspects of reward and loss are the ventral striatum (VStr) and the insula, both dopamine projection sites. Both structures are consistently implicated in functional brain imaging studies of pathological gambling in Parkinson's disease. PMID:24910600

  19. Sexual risk taking in a community sample of international backpackers visiting Brisbane, Australia.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Jane A; Debattista, Joseph; Rostami, Soulmaz; Peet, Anthony R; Dean, Judith A; Allen, Kate E; Stewart, Mary

    2015-03-01

    We sought to examine correlations between international backpackers' alcohol consumption and sexual behaviors and determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoea in this population. A cross-sectional study design consisting of a convenience sample (N = 168) of non-treatment-seeking international backpackers visiting Brisbane, Australia was recruited. Participants were asked to self-complete a questionnaire on sexual behavior and to undertake a urine-based polymerase chain reaction test for C trachomatis and N gonorrhoea. Since arriving in Australia, 73.2% reported having had sex, with a median number of 2 different sex partners (range = 0-21). Most participants had consumed alcohol (53.7%) and used condoms (46.3%) the last time they had sex. In our sample, there was a 4.3% prevalence of C trachomatis and a 0% prevalence of N gonorrhoea. This study identified a variable pattern of risk among backpackers, with those spending longer periods in the country more likely to have sex with Australians. PMID:23572374

  20. The Impact of Sexual Arousal on Sexual Risk-Taking and Decision-Making in Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Skakoon-Sparling, Shayna; Cramer, Kenneth M; Shuper, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Sexual arousal has emerged as an important contextual feature in sexual encounters that can impact safer-sex decision-making. We conducted two experiments that investigated the effects of sexual arousal among male and female participants. Experiment 1 (N = 144) examined the impact of sexual around on sexual health decision-making. Sexually explicit and neutral video clips as well as hypothetical romantic scenarios were used to evaluate the effects of sexual arousal on sexual risk-taking intentions. Men and women who reported higher levels of sexual arousal also displayed greater intentions to participate in risky sexual behavior (e.g., unprotected sex with a new sex partner). Experiment 2 (N = 122) examined the impact of sexual arousal on general risk-taking, using the same videos clips as in Experiment 1 and a modified version of a computerized Blackjack card game. Participants were offered a chance to make either a risky play or a safe play during ambiguous conditions. Increased sexual arousal in Experiment 2 was associated with impulsivity and a greater willingness to make risky plays in the Blackjack game. These findings suggest that, in situations where there are strong sexually visceral cues, both men and women experiencing strong sexual arousal may have lower inhibitions and may experience impaired decision-making. This phenomenon may have an impact during sexual encounters and may contribute to a failure to use appropriate prophylactic protection. PMID:26310879

  1. Exploring the feasibility of theory synthesis: A worked example in the field of health related risk-taking

    PubMed Central

    Pound, Pandora; Campbell, Rona

    2015-01-01

    The idea of synthesising theory is receiving attention within public health as part of a drive to design theoretically informed interventions. Theory synthesis is not a new idea, however, having been debated by sociologists for several decades. We consider the various methodological approaches to theory synthesis and test the feasibility of one such approach by synthesising a small number of sociological theories relevant to health related risk-taking. The synthesis consisted of three stages: (i) synthesis preparation, wherein parts of relevant theories were extracted and summarised; (ii) synthesis which involved comparing theories for points of convergence and divergence and bringing together those points that converge; and (iii) synthesis refinement whereby the synthesis was interrogated for further theoretical insights. Our synthesis suggests that serious and sustained risk-taking is associated with social isolation, liminality and a person's position in relation to the dominant social group. We reflect upon the methodological and philosophical issues raised by the practice of theory synthesis, concluding that it has the potential to reinvigorate theory and make it more robust and accessible for practical application. PMID:25461862

  2. Impulsivity, Sensation Seeking, and Risk-Taking Behaviors among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Heroin Dependent Persons.

    PubMed

    Paydary, Koosha; Mahin Torabi, Somayeh; SeyedAlinaghi, SeyedAhmad; Noori, Mehri; Noroozi, Alireza; Ameri, Sara; Ekhtiari, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to compare impulsivity and risky decision making among HIV-positive and negative heroin dependent persons. Methods. We compared different dimensions of impulsivity and risky decision making in two groups of 60 HIV-positive and 60 HIV-negative male heroin dependent persons. Each group was comprised of equal numbers of current (treatment seeker) and former (abstinent) heroin addicts. Data collection tools included Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), and Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS). Results. In SSS, comprised of four subscales including thrill and adventure seeking (TAS), experience seeking (ES), disinhibition (DIS), and boredom susceptibility (BS), there was a borderline difference in DIS (P = 0.08) as HIV-positive group scored higher than HIV-negative group. Also, ES and total score were significantly higher among HIV-positive patients. In BART, HIV-positive subjects scored higher in risk taking than HIV-negative subjects as reflected in higher Average Number of puffs in Successful Balloons (ANSB). In BIS, HIV-positive group scored significantly higher in cognitive impulsivity (CI) (P = 0.03) and nonplanning impulsivity (NPI) (P = 0.05) in comparison to HIV-negative group. Also, current heroin addicts scored significantly higher in NPI compared to former addict HIV-negative participants (P = 0.015). IGT did not show any significant difference between groups. Conclusion. Higher levels of impulsivity and risk taking behaviors among HIV-positive heroin addicts will increase serious concerns regarding HIV transmission from this group to other opiate dependents and healthy people. PMID:27051528

  3. Impulsivity, Sensation Seeking, and Risk-Taking Behaviors among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Heroin Dependent Persons

    PubMed Central

    Paydary, Koosha; Mahin Torabi, Somayeh; SeyedAlinaghi, SeyedAhmad; Noori, Mehri; Noroozi, Alireza; Ameri, Sara; Ekhtiari, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to compare impulsivity and risky decision making among HIV-positive and negative heroin dependent persons. Methods. We compared different dimensions of impulsivity and risky decision making in two groups of 60 HIV-positive and 60 HIV-negative male heroin dependent persons. Each group was comprised of equal numbers of current (treatment seeker) and former (abstinent) heroin addicts. Data collection tools included Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), and Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS). Results. In SSS, comprised of four subscales including thrill and adventure seeking (TAS), experience seeking (ES), disinhibition (DIS), and boredom susceptibility (BS), there was a borderline difference in DIS (P = 0.08) as HIV-positive group scored higher than HIV-negative group. Also, ES and total score were significantly higher among HIV-positive patients. In BART, HIV-positive subjects scored higher in risk taking than HIV-negative subjects as reflected in higher Average Number of puffs in Successful Balloons (ANSB). In BIS, HIV-positive group scored significantly higher in cognitive impulsivity (CI) (P = 0.03) and nonplanning impulsivity (NPI) (P = 0.05) in comparison to HIV-negative group. Also, current heroin addicts scored significantly higher in NPI compared to former addict HIV-negative participants (P = 0.015). IGT did not show any significant difference between groups. Conclusion. Higher levels of impulsivity and risk taking behaviors among HIV-positive heroin addicts will increase serious concerns regarding HIV transmission from this group to other opiate dependents and healthy people. PMID:27051528

  4. Is risk-taking propensity a familial vulnerability factor for alcohol use? An examination in two independent samples.

    PubMed

    Gorka, Stephanie M; Liu, Huiting; Klein, Daniel; Daughters, Stacey B; Shankman, Stewart A

    2015-09-01

    Research indicates that increased risk-taking propensity (RTP) is associated with higher alcohol use. There is also some evidence to suggest that it is not just a state factor or 'scar,' but instead a vulnerability factor. If this is the case, increased RTP should be evident in healthy individuals that are at risk for alcohol use. To date, few studies have examined whether RTP is a familial vulnerability factor and thus, the aim of the current study was to test whether RTP aggregates within families and if increased RTP is evident in biological family members at risk for alcohol use. Sample 1 included 87 biological, adult sibling pairs and Sample 2 included 111 biological mother and adolescent dyads (total N = 396). All participants completed a behavioral measure of RTP and were assessed for alcohol use. Results in both samples were strikingly consistent. In Sample 1, RTP was correlated among siblings and greater frequency of proband alcohol use predicted greater sibling RTP, over and above sibling alcohol use. In Sample 2, RTP was correlated among mothers and their offspring and greater maternal alcohol use problems predicted greater adolescent RTP over and above adolescent substance use. Together, these findings suggest that RTP may be a familial vulnerability factor for alcohol use as it aggregates within families and is increased in relatives of individuals with higher levels of alcohol use. PMID:26228401

  5. 50 CFR 22.23 - What are the requirements for permits to take depredating eagles and eagles that pose a risk to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... appropriate Regional Directors in 50 CFR 2.2. Your application must contain the information and certification... take depredating eagles and eagles that pose a risk to human or eagle health and safety? 22.23 Section... (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION...

  6. 50 CFR 22.23 - What are the requirements for permits to take depredating eagles and eagles that pose a risk to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... appropriate Regional Directors in 50 CFR 2.2. Your application must contain the information and certification... take depredating eagles and eagles that pose a risk to human or eagle health and safety? 22.23 Section... (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION...

  7. Community-Level Gender Equity and Extramarital Sexual Risk-Taking Among Married Men in Eight African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rob

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT In many parts of Africa, women are most likely to become infected with HIV by having unprotected sex with their husbands, who may have acquired the virus through extramarital sex. However, the ways in which aspects of community environments—particularly those related to gender equity—shape men’s extramarital sexual risk-taking are not well understood. METHODS Demographic and Health Survey data from eight African countries (Chad, Ghana, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe) were used to examine associations between married men’s engaging in risky extramarital sex (i.e., having had both unprotected sex and extramarital sex) and indicators of gender equity and other community characteristics. Separate multilevel logistic regression models that incorporated individual, household and community measures were created for each country. RESULTS In five countries, men who lived in communities with more equal ratios of women to men with at least a primary education were less likely to report risky extramarital sexual activity (odds ratios, 0.4–0.6). A similar relationship was found in four countries for the ratio of women to men who were employed (0.4–0.5). In three countries, men who lived in communities with more conservative attitudes toward wife-beating or male decision making had elevated odds of extramarital sexual risk-taking (1.1–1.5). CONCLUSIONS While HIV prevention programs should focus on reducing gender inequities, they also need to recognize the conservative cultural factors that influence the formation of men’s masculine identities and, in turn, affect their sexual behavior. PMID:21245024

  8. More fatal all-terrain vehicle crashes occur on the roadway than off: increased risk-taking characterises roadway fatalities

    PubMed Central

    Denning, Gerene M; Harland, Karisa K; Ellis, David G; Jennissen, Charles A

    2013-01-01

    Background All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) have steadily increased in popularity, size and speed, characteristics that likely contribute to the alarming rise in ATV-related fatalities. One potentially high-risk activity is riding on the road. Objectives To compare fatal ATV crashes that occur on the roadway and off, to more fully understand factors that contribute to fatalities at each location. Methods Fatality data from the US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) were used for descriptive and comparative analyses. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine relative risk. Results Over 60% of all fatalities (1985–2009) resulted from roadway crashes. After 1998, roadway fatalities increased at over twice the rate of off-road fatalities. Roadway crashes were more likely than off-road crashes to involve multiple fatalities, carrying passengers, alcohol use, collisions and head injuries. Roadway victims were less likely to be helmeted than off-road victims. Passengers and operators with passengers were also less likely to be helmeted than operators riding alone. Helmeted victims were half as likely to suffer a head injury. Conclusions Fatal roadway crashes were more likely than off-road crashes to involve risk-taking behaviours (eg, carrying passengers) that could exacerbate the inherent difficulty of operating ATVs on roadway surfaces. Higher crash forces from greater speed, and lower use of protective equipment, may also have contributed to higher roadway mortality rates. Eliminating non-essential ATV road use may be an effective way to reduce ATV-related fatalities. This will likely require a substantial investment in rider education and better enforcement of ATV road use restriction laws. PMID:23257569

  9. Theoretically Motivated Interventions for Reducing Sexual Risk Taking in Adolescence: A Randomized Controlled Experiment Applying Fuzzy-trace Theory

    PubMed Central

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Mills, Britain A.

    2014-01-01

    Fuzzy-trace theory is a theory of memory, judgment, and decision-making, and their development. We applied advances in this theory to increase the efficacy and durability of a multicomponent intervention to promote risk reduction and avoidance of premature pregnancy and STIs. 734 adolescents from high schools and youth programs in three states (Arizona, Texas, and New York) were randomly assigned to one of three curriculum groups: RTR (Reducing the Risk), RTR+ (a modified version of RTR using fuzzy-trace theory), and a control group. We report effects of curriculum on self-reported behaviors and behavioral intentions plus psychosocial mediators of those effects, namely, attitudes and norms, motives to have sex or get pregnant, self-efficacy and behavioral control, and gist/verbatim constructs. Among 26 outcomes, 19 showed an effect of at least one curriculum relative to the control group: RTR+ produced improvements for 17 outcomes and RTR produced improvements for 12 outcomes. For RTR+, two differences (for perceived parental norms and global benefit perception) were confined to age, gender, or racial/ethnic subgroups. Effects of RTR+ on sexual initiation emerged six months after the intervention, when many adolescents became sexually active. Effects of RTR+ were greater than RTR for nine outcomes, and remained significantly greater than controls at one-year follow-up for 12 outcomes. Consistent with fuzzy-trace theory, results suggest that, by emphasizing gist representations, which are preserved over long time periods and are key memories used in decision-making, the enhanced intervention produced larger and more sustained effects on behavioral outcomes and psychosocial mediators of adolescent risk-taking. PMID:24773191

  10. Theoretically motivated interventions for reducing sexual risk taking in adolescence: a randomized controlled experiment applying fuzzy-trace theory.

    PubMed

    Reyna, Valerie F; Mills, Britain A

    2014-08-01

    Fuzzy-trace theory is a theory of memory, judgment, and decision making, and their development. We applied advances in this theory to increase the efficacy and durability of a multicomponent intervention to promote risk reduction and avoidance of premature pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Seven hundred and thirty-four adolescents from high schools and youth programs in 3 states (Arizona, Texas, and New York) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 curriculum groups: RTR (Reducing the Risk), RTR+ (a modified version of RTR using fuzzy-trace theory), and a control group. We report effects of curriculum on self-reported behaviors and behavioral intentions plus psychosocial mediators of those effects: namely, attitudes and norms, motives to have sex or get pregnant, self-efficacy and behavioral control, and gist/verbatim constructs. Among 26 outcomes, 19 showed an effect of at least 1 curriculum relative to the control group: RTR+ produced improvements for 17 outcomes and RTR produced improvements for 12 outcomes. For RTR+, 2 differences (for perceived parental norms and global benefit perception) were confined to age, gender, or racial/ethnic subgroups. Effects of RTR+ on sexual initiation emerged 6 months after the intervention, when many adolescents became sexually active. Effects of RTR+ were greater than RTR for 9 outcomes, and remained significantly greater than controls at 1-year follow-up for 12 outcomes. Consistent with fuzzy-trace theory, results suggest that by emphasizing gist representations, which are preserved over long periods and are key memories used in decision making, the enhanced intervention produced larger and more sustained effects on behavioral outcomes and psychosocial mediators of adolescent risk taking. PMID:24773191

  11. Evaluation of take-home exposure and risk associated with the handling of clothing contaminated with chrysotile asbestos.

    PubMed

    Sahmel, J; Barlow, C A; Simmons, B; Gaffney, S H; Avens, H J; Madl, A K; Henshaw, J; Lee, R J; Van Orden, D; Sanchez, M; Zock, M; Paustenbach, D J

    2014-08-01

    The potential for para-occupational (or take-home) exposures from contaminated clothing has been recognized for the past 60 years. To better characterize the take-home asbestos exposure pathway, a study was performed to measure the relationship between airborne chrysotile concentrations in the workplace, the contamination of work clothing, and take-home exposures and risks. The study included air sampling during two activities: (1) contamination of work clothing by airborne chrysotile (i.e., loading the clothing), and (2) handling and shaking out of the clothes. The clothes were contaminated at three different target airborne chrysotile concentrations (0-0.1 fibers per cubic centimeter [f/cc], 1-2 f/cc, and 2-4 f/cc; two events each for 31-43 minutes; six events total). Arithmetic mean concentrations for the three target loading levels were 0.01 f/cc, 1.65 f/cc, and 2.84 f/cc (National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety [NIOSH] 7402). Following the loading events, six matched 30-minute clothes-handling and shake-out events were conducted, each including 15 minutes of active handling (15-minute means; 0.014-0.097 f/cc) and 15 additional minutes of no handling (30-minute means; 0.006-0.063 f/cc). Percentages of personal clothes-handling TWAs relative to clothes-loading TWAs were calculated for event pairs to characterize exposure potential during daily versus weekly clothes-handling activity. Airborne concentrations for the clothes handler were 0.2-1.4% (eight-hour TWA or daily ratio) and 0.03-0.27% (40-hour TWA or weekly ratio) of loading TWAs. Cumulative chrysotile doses for clothes handling at airborne concentrations tested were estimated to be consistent with lifetime cumulative chrysotile doses associated with ambient air exposure (range for take-home or ambient doses: 0.00044-0.105 f/cc year). PMID:24517168

  12. "Outness" as a Moderator of the Association Between Syndemic Conditions and HIV Risk-Taking Behavior Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Smith, Laramie R; Goodman-Meza, David; Torres, Karla; Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2016-02-01

    Multiple psychosocial conditions tend to co-occur and contribute to higher risk for HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM), a phenomenon known as syndemics. Less is known about moderating factors that may attenuate the relation between syndemic conditions and sexual risk-taking. We examined disclosure of same-sex sexual behavior or "outness" as a moderating factor of the syndemic effect. We recruited a sample of MSM (n = 191) using respondent-driven sampling in Tijuana, Mexico. Participants completed a survey of syndemic conditions (i.e., substance use, depression, violence, internalized homophobia, and sexual compulsivity), sexual risk-taking (i.e., condom unprotected anal sex with a stranger in the past 2 months), and the degree to which they are "out" about sex with men. Consistent with previous research, we found that men who report more syndemic conditions show a greater prevalence of sexual risk-taking. As predicted, men who were out to more people showed a weaker association between syndemic conditions and sexual risk-taking, whereas men who were out to fewer people showed the strongest association. This study is the first to provide evidence of "outness" as a moderating factor that attenuates syndemic effects on sexual risk-taking. Building upon previous research, the data suggest that "outness" may be a resilience factor for MSM in Tijuana. HIV prevention intervention implications are discussed. PMID:26324079

  13. Stress-related increases in risk taking and attentional failures predict earlier relapse to smoking in young adults: A pilot investigation.

    PubMed

    Schepis, Ty S; Tapscott, Brian E; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2016-04-01

    Substantial evidence links greater impulsivity and stress exposure to poorer smoking cessation outcomes. Results from adolescents also indicate that stress-related change in risk taking can impede cessation attempts. We investigated the effects of stress-related change in impulsivity, risk taking, attention and nicotine withdrawal, and craving in young adult smokers on time to smoking relapse in a relapse analogue paradigm. Twenty-six young adult smokers (50% women; mean age: 20.9 ± 1.8) were exposed to a stress imagery session followed by a contingency management-based relapse analogue paradigm. Participants smoked at least 5 cigarettes daily, with a mean baseline carbon monoxide (CO) level of 13.7 (±5.1) ppm. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired t tests examined stress induction validity and Cox regressions of proportional hazards examined the effects of stress-related changes in nicotine withdrawal, nicotine craving, attention, impulsivity, and risk taking on time to relapse. While stress-related change in impulsivity, nicotine craving and withdrawal did not predict time to relapse (all ps > .10), greater stress-related increases in reaction time (RT) variability (p = .02) were predictive of shorter time to relapse, with trend-level findings for inattention and risk taking. Furthermore, changes in stress-related risk taking affected outcome in women more than in men, with a significant relationship between stress-related change in risk taking only in women (p = .026). Smoking cessation attempts in young adults may be adversely impacted by stress-related increases in risk taking and attentional disruption. Clinicians working with young adults attempting cessation may need to target these stress-related impairments by fostering more adaptive coping and resilience. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26901590

  14. Dual Trajectories of Reactive and Proactive Aggression from Mid-childhood to Early Adolescence: Relations to Sensation Seeking, Risk Taking, and Moral Reasoning.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lixian; Colasante, Tyler; Malti, Tina; Ribeaud, Denis; Eisner, Manuel P

    2016-05-01

    We examined the roles of sensation seeking, risk taking, and moral reasoning in the development of reactive and proactive aggression. Data were drawn from a multiethnic, longitudinal study of children from Switzerland (N = 1571; 52 % male; assessed annually over 6 years; 7-years-old at Time 1). At all 6 time points, teachers reported children's reactive and proactive aggression via questionnaire. Children's sensation seeking (at Time 1) and risk taking (at Time 2) were assessed with two interactive computer tasks and their moral reasoning was assessed at Time 2 in response to four hypothetical vignettes depicting moral transgressions. Parallel process Latent Class Growth Analysis (PP-LCGA) identified six dual trajectories of reactive and proactive aggression. Children with either childhood-limited or adolescent-onset aggression showed high sensation seeking. Children with persistent, high levels of both reactive and proactive aggression across time showed high levels of sensation seeking and risk taking, as well as low levels of moral reasoning. Children with only high risk taking were more likely to display moderate levels of aggression across time. These findings highlight the shared and differential roles of sensation seeking, risk taking, and moral reasoning in the dual development of reactive and proactive aggression from mid-childhood to early adolescence. We discuss implications for common and tailored strategies to combat these aggression subtypes. PMID:26370547

  15. A Latent Class Analysis of Maternal Responsiveness and Autonomy-Granting in Early Adolescence: Prediction to Later Adolescent Sexual Risk-Taking

    PubMed Central

    Lanza, H. Isabella; Huang, David Y. C.; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to extend empirical inquiry related to the role of parenting on adolescent sexual risk-taking by using latent class analysis (LCA) to identify patterns of adolescent-reported mother responsiveness and autonomy-granting in early adolescence and examine associations with sexual risk-taking in mid- and late-adolescence. Utilizing a sample of 12- to 14-year-old adolescents (N = 4,743) from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97), results identified a four-class model of maternal responsiveness and autonomy-granting: low responsiveness/high autonomy-granting, moderate responsiveness/moderate autonomy-granting, high responsiveness/low autonomy-granting, high responsiveness/moderate autonomy-granting. Membership in the low responsiveness/high autonomy-granting class predicted greater sexual risk-taking in mid- and late-adolescence compared to all other classes, and membership in the high responsiveness/ moderate autonomy-granting class predicted lower sexual risk-taking. Gender and ethnic differences in responsiveness and autonomy-granting class membership were also found, potentially informing gender and ethnic disparities of adolescent sexual risk-taking. PMID:23828712

  16. Cyclists' red-light running behaviours: an examination of risk-taking, opportunistic, and law-obeying behaviours.

    PubMed

    Pai, Chih-Wei; Jou, Rong-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Literature has suggested that bicyclists' red-light violations (RLVs) tend not to cause accidents although RLV is a frequent and typical bicyclist's behaviour. High association between bicyclist RLVs and accidents were, however, revealed in Taiwan. The current research explores bicyclists' RLVs by classifying crossing behaviours into three distinct manners: risk-taking, opportunistic, and law-obeying. Other variables, as well as bicyclists' crossing behaviours, were captured through the use of video cameras that were installed at selected intersections in Taoyuan County, Taiwan. Considering the unobserved heterogeneity, this research develops a mixed logit model of bicyclists' three distinct crossing behaviours. Several variables (pupils in uniform, speed limit with 60km/h) appear to have heterogeneous effects, lending support to the use of mixed logit models in bicyclist RLV research. Several factors were found to significantly increase the likelihood of bicyclists' risky behaviours, most notably: intersections with short red-light duration, T/Y intersections, when riders were pupils in uniform, when riders were riding electric bicycles, when riders were unhelmeted. Implications of the research findings, and the concluding remarks, are finally provided. PMID:24172086

  17. Why do some cancer patients receiving chemotherapy choose to take complementary and alternative medicines and what are the risks?

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter J; Clavarino, Alexandra; Long, Jeremy; Steadman, Kathryn J

    2014-03-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) cover a broad and diverse group of treatments and products that do not tend to be widely used by conventional healthcare professions. CAM that is systemically absorbed is the most likely to interfere with concurrent chemotherapy and potentially cause harm to cancer patients. Patients receiving chemotherapy may be consuming CAM to treat cancer, to lessen chemotherapy side effects, for symptom management, or to treat conditions unrelated to their cancer. A small proportion of cancer patients decide to use CAM alone to treat cancer and delay conventional treatment. Cancer patients may be influenced in their CAM decision-making by others: practitioners, family, friends, spouse and even casual acquaintances met in waiting rooms and support groups. This influence may range from encouraging and supporting the patient's decision through to making the decisions for the patient. When tested in rigorous clinical trials, no CAM cancer treatments alone have shown benefit beyond placebo. With the exception of ginger to treat chemotherapy-induced nausea, there is no compelling evidence overriding risk to take complementary medicines for supportive care during chemotherapy treatment. There is, however, established evidence to use mind-body complementary therapies for supportive care during chemotherapy treatment. PMID:23910177

  18. Effect of early surgery in high surgical risk geriatric patients with femoral neck fracture and taking antiplatelet agents

    PubMed Central

    Sa-ngasoongsong, Paphon; Kulachote, Noratep; Sirisreetreerux, Norachart; Chanplakorn, Pongsthorn; Laohajaroensombat, Sukij; Pinsiranon, Nithiwut; Woratanarat, Patarawan; Kawinwonggowit, Viroj; Suphachatwong, Chanyut; Wajanavisit, Wiwat

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of early surgical intervention on the high surgical risk elderly patients who sustained femoral neck fracture (FNF) and taking concomitant antiplatelet agents. METHODS: Between 2010 and 2012, a prospective study was conducted on 49 geriatric patients, who took antiplatelet agents, sustained FNF and underwent surgery within 72 h [early surgery (ES) group], and these were compared with a retrospective consecutive case series of patients with similar characteristics (45 cases) who had delayed surgery (DS group) after 72 h during an earlier 3-year period. Postoperative outcomes were followed for one year and compared. RESULTS: There were non-significant differences in perioperative blood loss, blood transfusion, intensive care unit requirement and postoperative mortality (P > 0.05 all). There were 2 patients (4%) in the DS group who died after surgery (P = 0.23). However, the ES group showed a significantly better postoperative outcome in terms of postoperative complications, length of hospital stay, and functional outcome (P < 0.05 all). CONCLUSION: Early hip surgery in geriatric hip fracture patients with ongoing antiplatelet treatment was not associated with a significant increase of perioperative blood loss and postoperative mortality. Moreover, ES resulted in a better postoperative surgical outcome. In early hip surgery protocol, the antiplatelet agents are discontinued and the patient is operated on within 72 h after admission, which is safe and effective for the medically fit patients. PMID:26716093

  19. Trust, trustworthiness, and trust propensity: a meta-analytic test of their unique relationships with risk taking and job performance.

    PubMed

    Colquitt, Jason A; Scott, Brent A; LePine, Jeffery A

    2007-07-01

    The trust literature distinguishes trustworthiness (the ability, benevolence, and integrity of a trustee) and trust propensity (a dispositional willingness to rely on others) from trust (the intention to accept vulnerability to a trustee based on positive expectations of his or her actions). Although this distinction has clarified some confusion in the literature, it remains unclear (a) which trust antecedents have the strongest relationships with trust and (b) whether trust fully mediates the effects of trustworthiness and trust propensity on behavioral outcomes. Our meta-analysis of 132 independent samples summarized the relationships between the trust variables and both risk taking and job performance (task performance, citizenship behavior, counterproductive behavior). Meta-analytic structural equation modeling supported a partial mediation model wherein trustworthiness and trust propensity explained incremental variance in the behavioral outcomes when trust was controlled. Further analyses revealed that the trustworthiness dimensions also predicted affective commitment, which had unique relationships with the outcomes when controlling for trust. These results generalized across different types of trust measures (i.e., positive expectations measures, willingness-to-be-vulnerable measures, and direct measures) and different trust referents (i.e., leaders, coworkers). PMID:17638454

  20. Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase levels during an assessment procedure correlate differently with risk-taking measures in male and female police recruits

    PubMed Central

    van den Bos, Ruud; Taris, Ruben; Scheppink, Bianca; de Haan, Lydia; Verster, Joris C.

    2013-01-01

    Recent laboratory studies have shown that men display more risk-taking behavior in decision-making tasks following stress, whilst women are more risk-aversive or become more task-focused. In addition, these studies have shown that sex differences are related to levels of the stress hormone cortisol (indicative of activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical-axis): the higher the levels of cortisol the more risk-taking behavior is shown by men, whereas women generally display more risk-aversive or task-focused behavior following higher levels of cortisol. Here, we assessed whether such relationships hold outside the laboratory, correlating levels of cortisol obtained during a job-related assessment procedure with decision-making parameters in the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT) in male and female police recruits. The CGT allows for discriminating different aspects of reward-based decision-making. In addition, we correlated levels of alpha-amylase [indicative of activation of the sympatho-adrenomedullary-axis (SAM)] and decision-making parameters. In line with earlier studies men and women only differed in risk-adjustment in the CGT. Salivary cortisol levels correlated positively and strongly with risk-taking measures in men, which was significantly different from the weak negative correlation in women. In contrast, and less strongly so, salivary alpha-amylase levels correlated positively with risk-taking in women, which was significantly different from the weak negative correlation with risk-taking in men. Collectively, these data support and extend data of earlier studies indicating that risky decision-making in men and women is differently affected by stress hormones. The data are briefly discussed in relation to the effects of stress on gambling. PMID:24474909

  1. Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk-taking among Men Who Have Sex with Men in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rob; de Voux, Alex; Sullivan, Patrick S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A growing body of literature suggests that men who have sex with men (MSM) represent a high risk group for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Africa, but are often overlooked in the development of HIV interventions and programming. Little attention has been paid to the presence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among MSM in African settings. This paper examines reporting of IPV among a sample of predominantly white, gay internet-recruited MSM in South Africa and examines associations between IPV and sexual risk-taking. Methods: Internet-using MSM were recruited through selective placement of banner advertisements on Facebook.com. Eligibility criteria were over 18-years-old, residence in South Africa and self-reporting of recent male-male sexual behavior. There were 777 eligible respondents, of which 521 MSM with complete data are included in the final analysis. Ninety percent of the sample reported a White/ European race, and 96% self-identified as gay. Results: The prevalence of IPV, both experienced and perpetrated, was relatively high, with 8% of men reporting having experienced recent physical IPV and 4.5% of men reporting recent experiences of sexual IPV. Approximately 4.5% of MSM reported recently perpetrating physical IPV, while the reporting of perpetration of recent sexual IPV was much lower at 0.45%. Reporting of experiencing and perpetration of physical IPV was significantly associated with race, level of education and reporting recent unprotected anal sex. Reporting of experiencing recent sexual IPV was significantly associated with reported experiences of homophobia. Conclusion: There is a limited amount of data on IPV within same-sex relationships in South Africa, and the results presented here suggest that the prevalence of IPV within this White/European and gay population is cause for concern. Collection of IPV data through surveys administered via social networking sites is feasible and represents a way of reaching

  2. Project genesis: self-reported religiosity and spirituality and sexual risk-taking in young African-American women attending a historically African-American college.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Tami L; Freeman, Arin

    2011-07-01

    This pilot study explored the relationship between self-reported religiosity, spirituality, and sexual risk-taking. The participants were a convenience sample of (N = 100) female students attending a historically African-American college (HBCU) in the south. On this predominantly female campus, students completed an anonymous health-risk survey, plus additional items, to measure their religiosity and spirituality. Correlation analysis revealed that although these students reported a high degree of religiosity and spirituality, these characteristics did not predict a decrease in sexual risk-taking behavior. Over six million new cases of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including the human papilloma virus (HPV), are projected in young Americans despite primary prevention measures. Although no predictive relationships were noted, self-reported spirituality or religiosity were not protective factors against high-risk sexual behavior. These findings are relevant to developing effective interventions in this population in order to decrease STI/HPV rates. PMID:21888148

  3. The influence of high-normal testosterone levels on risk-taking in healthy males in a 1-week letrozole administration study.

    PubMed

    Goudriaan, Anna E; Lapauw, Bruno; Ruige, Johannes; Feyen, Els; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Brand, Matthias; Vingerhoets, Guy

    2010-10-01

    Human studies on the relation between testosterone levels and risk-taking behaviour are scarce. Related functions, like aggression, have been related to higher testosterone levels more consistently, especially in the animal literature. Estradiol affects several neurotransmitter systems that play a role in behaviour regulation. Existing human studies on neurocognitive functions and testosterone levels have largely ignored the interrelatedness of testosterone levels and estradiol levels. Therefore, in this study, the effects of a 1-week combined testosterone and estradiol intervention on risk-taking behaviours were investigated. Twenty-one healthy men, with a normal body mass index, were treated for 7 days with an aromatase inhibitor (letrozole 2.5 mg), resulting in high-normal levels of testosterone and low-normal levels of estradiol, or with a combination of an aromatase inhibitor and estradiol (75 μg/24 h), resulting in low-normal levels of testosterone and high-normal levels of estradiol. A randomized experimenter and participant-blind controlled design was applied. Neurocognitive measures of risk-taking and reward and punishment sensitivity were assessed before starting with the medication and after 7 days of drug administration: Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), Game of Dice Task (GDT), and Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). A group by time effect was present for the BART, indicating that the high-normal testosterone group showed an increase in risk-taking on the BART, from the first drug-naive BART performance, to the second BART performance (aromatase inhibitor), whereas such an increase was not present in the low-normal testosterone/high estradiol group. No group by time interactions were present in GDT or IGT performance. These results implicate that testosterone levels in healthy men are associated with increased risk-taking under conditions of unknown probabilities, but not in conditions of known probabilities (GDT) or of strategic decision making (IGT). PMID

  4. Taking Risk Assessment and Management to the Next Level: Program-Level Risk Analysis to Enable Solid Decision-Making on Priorities and Funding

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J. G.; Morton, R. L.; Castillo, C.; Dyer, G.; Johnson, N.; McSwain, J. T.

    2011-02-01

    A multi-level (facility and programmatic) risk assessment was conducted for the facilities in the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Readiness in Technical Base and Facilities (RTBF) Program and results were included in a new Risk Management Plan (RMP), which was incorporated into the fiscal year (FY) 2010 Integrated Plans. Risks, risk events, probability, consequence(s), and mitigation strategies were identified and captured, for most scope areas (i.e., risk categories) during the facilitated risk workshops. Risk mitigations (i.e., efforts in addition to existing controls) were identified during the facilitated risk workshops when the risk event was identified. Risk mitigation strategies fell into two broad categories: threats or opportunities. Improvement projects were identified and linked to specific risks they mitigate, making the connection of risk reduction through investments for the annual Site Execution Plan. Due to the amount of that was collected, analysis to be performed, and reports to be generated, a Risk Assessment/ Management Tool (RAMtool) database was developed to analyze the risks in real-time, at multiple levels, which reinforced the site-level risk management process and procedures. The RAMtool database was developed and designed to assist in the capturing and analysis of the key elements of risk: probability, consequence, and impact. The RAMtool calculates the facility-level and programmatic-level risk factors to enable a side-by-side comparison to see where the facility manager and program manager should focus their risk reduction efforts and funding. This enables them to make solid decisions on priorities and funding to maximize the risk reduction. A more active risk management process was developed where risks and opportunities are actively managed, monitored, and controlled by each facility more aggressively and frequently. risk owners have the responsibility and accountability to manage their assigned risk in real-time, using the

  5. The Effect of a Developmental Play Program on the Self Concept, Risk-Taking Behaviors, and Motoric Proficiency of Mildly Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roswal, Glenn; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The results of an investigation to determine the effect of the Children's Developmental Play Program on behavioral and neuromotor functioning of developmentally disabled children indicates that it serves as a valuable resource to the child, community, and inservice teachers. This study observed risk-taking behaviors, self-concept, and motor skills…

  6. An Investigation of the Relationship between the Fear of Receiving Negative Criticism and of Taking Academic Risk through Canonical Correlation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetin, Bayram; Ilhan, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Ferat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the fear of receiving negative criticism and taking academic risk through canonical correlation analysis-in which a relational model was used. The participants of the study consisted of 215 university students enrolled in various programs at Dicle University's Ziya Gökalp Faculty of…

  7. Sex-Specific Pathways to Early Puberty, Sexual Debut, and Sexual Risk Taking: Tests of an Integrated Evolutionary-Developmental Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Jenee; Ellis, Bruce J.; Schlomer, Gabriel L.; Garber, Judy

    2012-01-01

    The current study tested sex-specific pathways to early puberty, sexual debut, and sexual risk taking, as specified by an integrated evolutionary-developmental model of adolescent sexual development and behavior. In a prospective study of 238 adolescents (n = 129 girls and n = 109 boys) followed from approximately 12-18 years of age, we tested for…

  8. Understanding Gender Differences in Children's Risk Taking and Injury: A Comparison of Mothers' and Fathers' Reactions to Sons and Daughters Misbehaving in Ways that Lead to Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Zdzieborski, Daniel; Normand, Jackie

    2010-01-01

    This study compared reactions of mothers and fathers to the risk taking behavior of sons and daughters. Mother-father pairs (N = 52) imagined their 2-year-old boy or girl behaving in risky ways in common home situations that could, and did, result in injury. Emotional and parenting reactions to the behaviors were assessed before and after injury.…

  9. A Report on the Feasibility of Using Risk-Taking Attitudes as a Basis for Programs To Control and Predict Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Richard E.

    Reported is a study regarding the feasibility of using risk-taking attitudes as a basis for programs to control and predict drug abuse. Attitudes toward a number of common behaviors including drug use, sex, theft, etc., were obtained from over 650 subjects from junior high school level through adults. Reported frequencies of actual behaviors were…

  10. A comparison of younger and older gay men's HIV risk-taking behaviors: the Communication Technologies 1989 Cross-Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Stall, R; Barrett, D; Bye, L; Catania, J; Frutchey, C; Henne, J; Lemp, G; Paul, J

    1992-01-01

    Data from the 1989 Communication Technologies cross-sectional survey of gay men in San Francisco indicate that both levels and correlates of sexual risk are different between younger and older gay men. Gay men under the age of 30 report higher risk behavior for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection than do gay men who are 30 years of age or older. Further, the set of correlates of unprotected anal intercourse are different between younger and older gay men. Both young and old gay men report that having a primary partner and a lower perceived impact of the AIDS epidemic on their sexual behavior are associated with risk. However, among young gay men, reporting a lower attributed risk for HIV infection to unprotected anal intercourse, higher concern about AIDS risks, and shorter length of residence in San Francisco are positively correlated with risk-taking behavior. These associations were not statistically significant among gay men 30 years of age or older. It appears that the circumstances and/or reasons for taking sexual risk are different between older and younger gay men. Prevention programs must be designed so that they are sensitive to the needs of each generation of gay men. PMID:1613666

  11. DNA methylation in the developing hippocampus and amygdala of anxiety-prone versus risk-taking rats

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Rebecca K.; Howard, Jasmine L.; Simpson, Danielle N.; Akil, Huda; Clinton, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    All organisms exhibit a wide range of emotional behavior and interact with the environment in different ways. Some individuals may be more quiet and shy whereas others are more outgoing and adventurous. These temperamental and personality differences can predispose individuals to certain psychopathologies which may be influenced by genetic vulnerability and/or early life experiences. Rodent models can be used to recapitulate emotional reactivity differences, and these models can, in turn, be used to examine potential neurobiological underpinnings of these traits. The present study utilizes two strains of rats that were selectively-bred for differences in novelty-seeking. High Novelty-Responding (bHR) rats are very active in response to novelty, exhibit exaggerated risk-taking, aggression, impulsivity, and show increased behavioral response to cocaine. Low Novelty-Responding (bLR) rats show increased anxiety, depressive behavior, and vulnerability to chronic stress. One way in which the bHR versus bLR behavioral phenotypes may differ is through epigenetic modification of DNA. DNA can be modified through processes such as acetylation or methylation to either enhance or subdue gene expression. This study examines putative differences in methylation levels in the hippocampus and amygdala of developing bHR-bLR rats. Previous research observed widespread gene expression differences in the bLR developing hippocampus and the current study aims to begin to examine potential epigenetic factors that may contribute to those gene differences. The amygdala was chosen because it is involved in emotional processes, in part through its connections with the hippocampus. Therefore, the present study used in situ hybridization to assess the expression of DNA methyltransferase-1 (DNMT1) mRNA in the hippocampus, amygdala, and several other brain areas of bHR and bLR pups at three developmental time points: postnatal day (P)7, 14, and 21. We focused on the first three postnatal weeks, in

  12. Taking climate change into estimation of long-term flood risks: A case of Devils Lake of North Dakota, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharel, G.; Kirilenko, A.

    2014-12-01

    Terminal lakes are heavily impacted by regional changes in climate. Devils Lake (DL) is a terminal lake located in the northeastern North Dakota of the US. Since 1990, following a shift in regional precipitation pattern, DL has encountered a 10 m water level rise, with over 400% increase in surface area and 600% increase in water volume, costing over $1.5 billion in mitigation. Currently, the lake is <1.5 m from spillover level to the nearby Sheyenne River with potential negative consequences for downstream water quality and flooding. Recently, the artificial outlets have been constructed and operated to divert DL water to the Sheyenne River amid legal and political pressure. Outlet construction however did not take into consideration possible changes in local climate. We modeled the DL basin ( 9,800 km2) hydrology using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and estimated future water levels of DL for different outlet scenarios under three Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) SRES scenarios (A1B, B1 & A2) for 2020s and 2050s. We evaluated model performance by comparing SWAT simulated daily streamflow outputs against the observed streamflow data recorded at 6 USGS water gauge locations within the basin. Future climate conditions in the region were estimated by combining historical weather data (1981-2010), 15 CMIP3 General Circulation Model projections from the IPCC data center, and stochastic downscaling methodology (LARS-WG). Our results indicate significant likelihood (7.3% ̶ 20.0%) of uncontrolled DL water overspill in the next few decades in the absence of outlets, with some members of GCM integration ensemble carrying over 85.0% and 95.0% overspill probability for 2020s and 2050s respectively. However, full-capacity outlets show radical reduction in overspill probability to partially mitigate the flooding problem by decreasing the average lake level by approximately 1.9 m and 1.5 m in 2020s and 2050s. Moreover, had there been outlet operation

  13. Exploring the relationships among food insecurity, alcohol use, and sexual risk taking among men and women living in South African townships

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Lisa A.; Cain, Demetria N.; Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.; Mehlomakulu, Vuyelwa; Simbayi, Leickness C.; Mwaba, Kelvin; Kalichman, Seth C.

    2014-01-01

    South African townships have among the highest rates of HIV infection in the world. Considerable research on understanding the high rates of HIV transmission in this country has identified alcohol use as a critical factor in driving the HIV epidemic. Although the relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk-taking is well documented, less is known about how other factors, such as food insecurity, might be important in understanding alcohol’s role in sexual risk-taking. Furthermore, prior research has highlighted how patterns of alcohol use and sexual risk-taking tend to vary by gender. We examined how food insecurity is related to both alcohol use and sexual risk-taking. We administered anonymous community surveys to men (n=1137) and women (n=458) residing within four contiguous Black African townships outside of Cape Town, South Africa. In multivariate linear regression, we found that food insecurity was related to having higher numbers of male sex partners and condom-protected sex acts among women only. These relationships, however, were fully mediated by women’s alcohol use. Among men, we found that food insecurity was negatively related to unprotected sex; that is, men with greater food security reported more unprotected sex acts. Unlike the results found among women, this relationship was not mediated by alcohol use. Food insecurity appears to be an important factor in understanding patterns of sexual risk-taking in regards to gender and alcohol use, and may serve as an important point of intervention for reducing HIV transmission rates. PMID:24806889

  14. Risk-Taking Behavior in a Gambling Task Associated with Variations in the Tryptophan Hydroxylase 2 Gene: Relevance to Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Juhasz, Gabriella; Downey, Darragh; Hinvest, Neal; Thomas, Emma; Chase, Diana; Toth, Zoltan G; Lloyd-Williams, Kathryn; Mekli, Krisztina; Platt, Hazel; Payton, Antony; Bagdy, Gyorgy; Elliott, Rebecca; Deakin, J F William; Anderson, Ian M

    2010-01-01

    Decision making, choosing the best option from the possible outcomes, is impaired in many psychiatric conditions including affective disorders. We tested the hypothesis that variations in serotonergic genes (TPH2, TPH1, SLC6A4, HTR1A), which influence serotonin availability, affect choice behavior in a probabilistic gambling task. A population cohort (N=1035) completed a paper-and-pencil gambling task, filled out personality and symptom questionnaires and gave consent for the use of their DNA in a genetic association study. A subgroup of subjects (N=69) also completed a computer version of the task. The gambling task was designed to estimate an individual's tendency to take a risk when choosing between a smaller but more certain ‘win' and a larger, less probable one. We genotyped seven haplotype tagging SNPs in the TPH2 gene, and previously reported functional polymorphisms from the other genes (rs1800532, 5HTTLPR, and rs6295). Carriers of the more prevalent TPH2 haplotype, which was previously associated with less active enzyme variant, showed reduced risk taking on both tasks compared with subjects not carrying the common haplotype. The effect of TPH2 haplotypes on risk-taking was independent of current depression and anxiety symptoms, neuroticism and impulsiveness scores. We did not find an association between functional polymorphisms in the TPH1, SLC6A4, HTR1A genes and risk-taking behavior. In conclusion, our study demonstrates the role of the TPH2 gene and the serotonin system in risk taking and suggests that TPH2 gene may contribute to the expression of psychiatric phenotypes through altered decision making. PMID:20043001

  15. The relationship between attending alcohol serving venues nearby versus distant to one’s residence and sexual risk taking in a South African township

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Lisa A.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Cain, Demetria N.; Watt, Melissa H.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND South Africa remains a country with one of the highest prevalence rates of HIV/AIDS at 18% among 15–49 year olds. Underdeveloped urban areas, or townships, are particularly hard hit by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Alcohol use in these townships has been established as an important risk factor for HIV transmission. Likewise, alcohol serving venues (shebeens) have been identified as sites where substance abuse and sexual risk taking occur. However, little is known about how proximity of alcohol serving establishments (shebeens) to one's residence may be related to sexual risk-taking. METHODS We surveyed 3,261 men and women attending shebeens in a township located in Cape Town, South Africa. We investigated the relationships between attending nearby (< 15 minute walk) versus distant (>15 minute walk) shebeens, and sex and substance abuse related risk-taking. RESULTS Women who attended distant shebeens versus nearby shebeens relative to their residence were approximately twice as likely to report HIV positive status. Bivariate analyses demonstrated that these women were also more likely to report other sexually transmitted infections, greater numbers of sex partners, higher rates of alcohol and drug use, and seeking out new sex partners at shebeen. No differences in sex behavior, substance use or HIV/STI were identified among men. DISCUSSION Proximity of shebeens appears to be an important contextual factor in explaining HIV/STI transmission risk-taking. Future studies should focus on how anonymity may be related to sexual risk and substance use behaviors among women in South African townships. PMID:23404137

  16. Relationships of job hazards, lack of knowledge, alcohol use, health status and risk taking behavior to work injury of coal miners: a case-control study in India.

    PubMed

    Kunar, Bijay Mihir; Bhattacherjee, Ashis; Chau, Nearkasen

    2008-01-01

    Objective is to assess the relationships of job hazards, individual characteristics, and risk taking behavior to occupational injuries of coal miners. This case-control study compared 245 male underground coal miners with injury during the previous two-year period with 330 matched controls without injury during the previous five years. Data were collected via face-to-face interview and analyzed using the conditional logistic model. Handling material, poor environmental/working conditions, and geological/strata control- related hazards were the main risk factors: adjusted ORs 5.15 (95% CI 2.42-10.9), 2.40 (95% CI 1.29-4.47), and 2.25 (95% CI 1.24-4.07) respectively. Their roles were higher among the face-workers than among the non-face-workers. No formal education, alcohol consumption, disease, big-family, and risk-taking behavior were associated with injuries (2.36risk-taking behavior. PMID:18431033

  17. An assessment of HIV/STI vulnerability and related sexual risk-taking in a nationally representative sample of young Croatian adults.

    PubMed

    Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Graham, Cynthia; Bozicević, Ivana; Kufrin, Kresimir; Ajduković, Dean

    2009-04-01

    Despite the recent increase in the number of HIV infections in Central and Eastern Europe, patterns of sexual behavior have not been extensively researched, particularly among young people. The aim of the present study was to provide a comprehensive assessment of HIV/AIDS-related vulnerability and sexual risk-taking among young adults in Croatia. Data were collected in 2005 using a nationally representative, multi-stage stratified probability sample (n = 1,093) of women and men aged 18-24 years. The focus in this article was on predictors of sexual risk-taking measured by a composite risky sexual behaviors scale. Using hierarchical regression models, we analyzed gendered effects of community, family, peer group, and individual level factors. For both men and women, peer pressure, sensation seeking, personal risk-assessment, behavioral intention, condom use at first sexual intercourse, and sexual victimization were significant predictors of sexual risk-taking behaviors. A number of predictors were gender-specific: sexual assertiveness and condom self-efficacy for women and parental monitoring, traditional morality, HIV knowledge, and talking about sex with partner for men. Documenting substantial prevalence of potentially risky sexual behaviors among young people in Croatia, the findings call for prevention and intervention efforts that should focus on individual capacity building for responsible sexual behavior. PMID:17922182

  18. It only takes once: The absent-exempt heuristic and reactions to comparison-based sexual risk information

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Michelle L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Beekman, Janine B.; Gerrard, Meg

    2015-01-01

    Three studies (N = 545) investigated the effects of social comparison on a type of heuristic called “absent-exempt” (AE; feeling exempt from future risk). Study 1 examined how comparison with an infected peer (comparison target) who was similar or non-similar in terms of sexual risk (number of partners, lack of condom use), influenced willingness and intentions to engage in sex without a condom and conditional perceived vulnerability to a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Participants generally reported lower willingness and higher conditional vulnerability if they compared with a similar-risk level target. However, high-risk students who compared with a low-risk comparison target engaged in what appeared to be AE thinking, reporting the highest willingness and lowest conditional vulnerability. Intentions to have sex without a condom were not influenced. Study 2 included a direct measure of AE thinking, and compared the impact of a low-risk comparison target with a Public Service Announcement (PSA) stating that negative outcomes (e.g., STDs) can happen even to low-risk targets. Among high-risk participants, comparing with the low-risk target led to an increase in AE thinking. As expected, the effects in Studies 1 and 2 were strongest among participants high in tendencies to socially compare. Study 3 explored whether AE thinking could be decreased by encouraging more reasoned processing. Results indicated that asking participants to think about the illogicality of AE thinking reduces AE endorsement and increases STD testing intentions. Findings suggest that comparison-based information can have a stronger influence on health cognitions than analytic-based information (e.g., most PSAs). Implications for dual-processing models of decision-making and their applicability to interventions and health messages are discussed. PMID:26098587

  19. The organization of STI/HIV risk-taking among long-line fishermen in Bali, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Setiawan, I Made; Patten, Jane H

    2010-01-01

    We report on selected findings of a qualitative social network study investigating STI/HIV-related risk among migrant fishermen based at one of Indonesia's major fishing ports in Bali. Their activities between fishing trips include drinking parties, watching pornographic videos, and visiting brothels, while condom use is rare. While on board, they plan and anticipate these activities and many insert penile implants. These fishermen run a high personal risk of contracting STI/HIV, and, with their circular migration patterns among Indonesian and foreign ports such as Thailand and South Africa, and with visits back to their rural hometowns and wives or girlfriends in Java, there is a serious risk of disease transmission to the general population. This paper argues that the role that social interactions play in HIV/AIDS-related risks should be considered as important as (if not more important than) individual knowledge, attitudes, and practices in the design of effective STI/HIV prevention programs. PMID:21348013

  20. Risk of Oral Clefts (Cleft Lip and/or Palate) in Infants Born to Mothers Taking Topamax (Topiramate)

    MedlinePlus

    ... topiramate labels are being updated with the new information describing the increased risk of oral clefts. Q8. Does FDA have post marketing adverse event reports of oral clefts with topiramate? ...

  1. Risk-taking behaviour may explain high predation mortality of GH-transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Duan, M; Zhang, T; Hu, W; Xie, S; Sundström, L F; Li, Z; Zhu, Z

    2013-11-01

    The competitive ability and habitat selection of juvenile all-fish GH-transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio and their size-matched non-transgenic conspecifics, in the absence and presence of predation risk, under different food distributions, were compared. Unequal-competitor ideal-free-distribution analysis showed that a larger proportion of transgenic C. carpio fed within the system, although they were not overrepresented at a higher-quantity food source. Moreover, the analysis showed that transgenic C. carpio maintained a faster growth rate, and were more willing to risk exposure to a predator when foraging, thereby supporting the hypothesis that predation selects against maximal growth rates by removing individuals that display increased foraging effort. Without compensatory behaviours that could mitigate the effects of predation risk, the escaped or released transgenic C. carpio with high-gain and high-risk performance would grow well but probably suffer high predation mortality in nature. PMID:24580661

  2. Your Career Planner: Reducing the Risks to Those Worth Taking. The Essential Guide for Successful Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Paul

    This career planning workbook takes Australian job seekers through step-by-step assessments of their current work situation. Topics addressed in the five parts of the workbook are: (1) analyzing the situation; (2) information resources; (3) setting career goals; (4) planning the next career action; and (5) preparing for transition. Part one…

  3. Depression, Compulsive Sexual Behavior, and Sexual Risk-Taking Among Urban Young Gay and Bisexual Men: The P18 Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Storholm, Erik David; Satre, Derek D; Kapadia, Farzana; Halkitis, Perry N

    2016-08-01

    Young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at increased likelihood of experiencing depression and engaging in condomless sexual behaviors. The goal of the current investigation was to examine the relationship between negative mood and compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) and to assess for their individual and combined influence on sexual risk-taking behavior among a diverse sample of YMSM in New York City (the P18 Cohort Study). We first analyzed sociodemographic, depressive symptoms, CSB, and sexual risk-taking from the cross-sectional data of 509, 18- or 19-year-old YMSM recruited using non-probability sampling. We found a significant positive correlation between CSB and depression and between CSB and frequency of condomless anal sex acts reported over the last 30 days. Multivariate results found that the presence of both depression and CSB contributed to elevated sexual risk-taking among these urban YMSM. Clinical implications include the importance of assessing for CSB when depression is present and vice versa in order to improve HIV prevention. Informed by minority stress theory and syndemic theory, our results suggest that interventions focused on the health of YMSM recognize that mental health and social context all interact to increase physical health vulnerability vis-a-vis sexual behaviors, depression, and CSB. Thus, HIV prevention and intervention programs need to incorporate mental health components and services that address these needs. PMID:26310878

  4. Gender and the Effects of an Economic Empowerment Program on Attitudes Toward Sexual Risk-Taking Among AIDS-Orphaned Adolescent Youth in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Ssewamala, Fred; Ismayilova, Leyla; McKay, Mary; Sperber, Elizabeth; Bannon, William; Alicea, Stacey

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This paper examines gender differences in attitudes towards sexual risk-taking behaviors of AIDS-orphaned youth participating in a randomized control trial testing an economic empowerment intervention in rural Uganda. Methods Adolescents (average age 13.7 years) who had lost one or both parents to AIDS from fifteen comparable schools were randomly assigned to either an experimental (n=135) or control condition (n=142). Adolescents in the experimental condition, in addition to usual care, also received support and incentives to save money toward secondary education. Results Findings indicate that although adolescent boys and girls within the experimental condition saved comparable amounts, the intervention appears to have benefited girls, in regards to the attitudes towards sexual risk-taking behavior, in a different way and to a lesser extent than boys. Conclusions Future research should investigate the possibility that adolescent girls might be able to develop equally large improvements in protective attitudes towards sexual risk-taking through additional components that address gendered social norms. PMID:20307827

  5. Individualism-collectivism, self-efficacy, and other factors associated with risk taking among gay Asian and Caucasian men.

    PubMed

    Mao, Limin; Van de Ven, Paul; McCormick, John

    2004-02-01

    A theoretical framework, which included perspectives of individualism-collectivism and self-efficacy, was used to investigate factors associated with sexual risk practice among gay Asian and Caucasian men. "Risk" was defined as unprotected anal intercourse with any casual partner or with a regular partner whose HIV status was not concordant with the participant's. Altogether, 201 Caucasian and 199 Asian gay men, largely recruited from gay social venues in inner Sydney, completed an anonymous questionnaire. Most participants were gay self-identified and gay community attached, and more than half of the Asian men had been living in Sydney for at least 3 years. Overall, the Asian men were more collectivist oriented and the Caucasian men more individualist oriented. Data analyses revealed that higher self-efficacy in avoiding casual risk encounters and smaller proportion of gay friends were associated with less risk. The inclusion of individualism-collectivism and social cognitive variables in the examination of sexual risk practices among gay men from different cultural backgrounds holds promise. PMID:15058711

  6. Sexual Risk-Taking among High-Risk Urban Women with and without Histories of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Mediating Effects of Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosack, Katie E.; Randolph, Mary E.; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Abbott, Maryann; Smith, Ellen; Weeks, Margaret R.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanisms of risk for urban women at high risk for HIV with and without childhood sexual abuse histories. Childhood sexual abuse survivors reported more unprotected intercourse and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The association of STI locus of control with frequency of unprotected sex was fully mediated by…

  7. Risk-taking and risky decision-making in Internet gaming disorder: Implications regarding online gaming in the setting of negative consequences.

    PubMed

    Dong, Guangheng; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) continue gaming despite adverse consequences. However, the precise mechanism underlying this behavior remains unknown. In this study, data from 20 IGD subjects and 16 otherwise comparable healthy control subjects (HCs) were recorded and compared when they were undergoing risk-taking and risky decision-making during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). During risk-taking and as compared to HCs, IGD subjects selected more risk-disadvantageous trials and demonstrated less activation of the anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate and middle temporal gyrus. During risky decision-making and as compared to HCs, IGD subjects showed shorter response times and less activations of the inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri. Taken together, data suggest that IGD subjects show impaired executive control in selecting risk-disadvantageous choices, and they make risky decisions more hastily and with less recruitment of regions implicated in impulse control. These results suggest a possible neurobiological underpinning for why IGD subjects may exhibit poor control over their game-seeking behaviors even when encountering negative consequences and provide possible therapeutic targets for interventions in this population. PMID:26656573

  8. Improving nutrient management practices in agriculture: The role of risk-based beliefs in understanding farmers' attitudes toward taking additional action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Robyn S.; Howard, Gregory; Burnett, Elizabeth A.

    2014-08-01

    A recent increase in the amount of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) entering the western Lake Erie basin is likely due to increased spring storm events in combination with issues related to fertilizer application and timing. These factors in combination with warmer lake temperatures have amplified the spread of toxic algal blooms. We assessed the attitudes of farmers in northwest Ohio toward taking at least one additional action to reduce nutrient loss on their farm. Specifically, we (1) identified to what extent farm and farmer characteristics (e.g., age, gross farm sales) as well as risk-based beliefs (e.g., efficacy, risk perception) influenced attitudes, and (2) assessed how these characteristics and beliefs differ in their predictive ability based on unobservable latent classes of farmers. Risk perception, or a belief that negative impacts to profit and water quality from nutrient loss were likely, was the most consistent predictor of farmer attitudes. Response efficacy, or a belief that taking action on one's farm made a difference, was found to significantly influence attitudes, although this belief was particularly salient for the minority class of farmers who were older and more motivated by profit. Communication efforts should focus on the negative impacts of nutrient loss to both the farm (i.e., profit) and the natural environment (i.e., water quality) to raise individual perceived risk among the majority, while the minority need higher perceived efficacy or more specific information about the economic effectiveness of particular recommended practices.

  9. The Use of Alcohol by Miami's Adolescent Public School Students 1992: Peers, Risk-Taking, and Availability as Central Forces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarnold, Barbara M.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the use of alcohol by adolescents (N=535) in Dade County Public Schools during 1992. Significant factors that increase the probability of alcohol use are friends who drink, awareness of risks associated with alcohol use, and ease in obtaining alcohol. Family-related variables, smoking, religion, gender, race, academic performance, and…

  10. Associations of Body Mass Index with Sexual Risk-Taking and Injection Drug Use among US High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, Richard; Robin, Leah; Kann, Laura; Galuska, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if body mass index (BMI) is associated with behaviors that may increase risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among US high school students. We analyzed nationally representative data from the 2005–2011 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS) to examine associations of BMI categories with sexual risk behaviors and injection drug use among sexually active high school students, using sex-stratified logistic regression models. Controlling for race/ethnicity and grade, among female and male students, both underweight (BMI < 5th percentile) and obesity (BMI ≥ 95th percentile) were associated with decreased odds of being currently sexually active (i.e., having had sexual intercourse during the past 3 months). However, among sexually active female students, obese females were more likely than normal weight females to have had 4 or more sex partners (odds ratio, OR = 1.59), not used a condom at last sexual intercourse (OR = 1.30), and injected illegal drugs (OR = 1.98). Among sexually active male students, overweight (85th percentile ≤ BMI < 95th percentile) was associated with not using a condom at last sexual intercourse (OR = 1.19) and obesity was associated with injection drug use (OR = 1.42). Among sexually active students, overweight and obesity may be indicators of increased risk for HIV and other STDs. PMID:25105024

  11. Identifying beliefs underlying pre-drivers' intentions to take risks: An application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Richard; Andrews, Elizabeth; Harris, Peter R; Armitage, Christopher J; McKenna, Frank P; Norman, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Novice motorists are at high crash risk during the first few months of driving. Risky behaviours such as speeding and driving while distracted are well-documented contributors to crash risk during this period. To reduce this public health burden, effective road safety interventions need to target the pre-driving period. We use the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to identify the pre-driver beliefs underlying intentions to drive over the speed limit (N=77), and while over the legal alcohol limit (N=72), talking on a hand-held mobile phone (N=77) and feeling very tired (N=68). The TPB explained between 41% and 69% of the variance in intentions to perform these behaviours. Attitudes were strong predictors of intentions for all behaviours. Subjective norms and perceived behavioural control were significant, though weaker, independent predictors of speeding and mobile phone use. Behavioural beliefs underlying these attitudes could be separated into those reflecting perceived disadvantages (e.g., speeding increases my risk of crash) and advantages (e.g., speeding gives me a thrill). Interventions that can make these beliefs safer in pre-drivers may reduce crash risk once independent driving has begun. PMID:26803598

  12. Sex Differences in Associations of School Connectedness with Adolescent Sexual Risk-Taking in Nova Scotia, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langille, Donald B.; Asbridge, Mark; Azagba, Sunday; Flowerdew, Gordon; Rasic, Daniel; Cragg, Amber

    2014-01-01

    Background: Associations of lower school connectedness have been seen with adolescent sexual risk behaviors, but little is known about gender differences with respect to these relationships. Understanding any such differences could contribute to better supporting the school environment to promote youth sexual health. Methods: We used provincially…

  13. An evaluation of factors associated with sexual risk taking among Black men who have sex with men: a comparison of younger and older populations.

    PubMed

    Maksut, Jessica L; Eaton, Lisa A; Siembida, Elizabeth J; Driffin, Daniel D; Baldwin, Robert

    2016-08-01

    In the United States, rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are highest among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM). Prior research indicates that younger BMSM in particular (i.e., BMSM 29 years of age and younger) are most at risk for HIV infection, and that HIV incidence in this subpopulation has risen in recent years. It remains unclear, however, why younger BMSM, relative to BMSM 30 years of age and older, are at increased risk for HIV infection. For the current study, we surveyed 450 BMSM located in the Atlanta, GA metropolitan and surrounding areas. We assessed BMSM's depressive symptoms, substance use during sex, psycho-social risk factors (i.e., HIV risk perceptions, condom use self-efficacy, internalized homophobia, and perceived HIV stigmatization), and sexual risk taking (i.e., condomless anal intercourse [CAI]). We found that younger BMSM (YBMSM) and older BMSM (OBMSM) differed with respect to factors associated with CAI. In multivariable models, alcohol use before or during sex, lower educational attainment, and sexual orientation (i.e., bisexual sexual orientation) were significantly associated with increased CAI for YBMSM, while HIV risk perceptions and internalized homophobia were significantly, negatively associated with CAI among OBMSM. Rates of engaging in CAI were similar across the two age cohorts; however, factors related to CAI varied by these two groups. Findings emphasize the need to consider targeted interventions for different generational cohorts of BMSM. PMID:27001255

  14. Motivations for Reducing Other HIV Risk-Reduction Practices if Taking Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis: Findings from a Qualitative Study Among Women in Kenya and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Namey, Emily; Ahmed, Khatija; Agot, Kawango; Skhosana, Joseph; Odhiambo, Jacob; Guest, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Findings from a survey conducted among women at high risk for HIV in Bondo, Kenya, and Pretoria, South Africa, demonstrated that a substantial proportion would be inclined to reduce their use of other HIV risk-reduction practices if they were taking pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). To explore the motivations for their anticipated behavior change, we conducted qualitative interviews with 60 women whose survey responses suggested they would be more likely to reduce condom use or have sex with a new partner if they were taking PrEP compared to if they were not taking PrEP. Three interrelated themes were identified: (1) “PrEP protects”—PrEP was perceived as an effective HIV prevention method that replaced the need for condoms; (2) condoms were a source of conflict in relationships, and PrEP would provide an opportunity to resolve or avoid this conflict; and (3) having sex without a condom or having sex with a new partner was necessary for receiving material goods and financial assistance—PrEP would provide reassurance in these situations. Many believed that PrEP alone would be a sufficient HIV risk-reduction strategy. These findings suggest that participants' HIV risk-reduction intentions, if they were to use PrEP, were based predominately on their understanding of the high efficacy of PrEP and their experiences with the limitations of condoms. Enhanced counseling is needed to promote informed decision making and to ensure overall sexual health for women using PrEP for HIV prevention, particularly with respect to the prevention of pregnancy and other sexually transmitted infections when PrEP is used alone. PMID:26196411

  15. Behavioral drug and HIV risk reduction counseling (BDRC) with abstinence-contingent take-home buprenorphine: a pilot randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Chawarski, M C; Mazlan, M; Schottenfeld, R S

    2008-04-01

    This pilot randomized clinical trial evaluated whether the efficacy of office-based buprenorphine maintenance treatment (BMT), provided with limited counseling or oversight of medication adherence is improved by the addition of individual drug counseling and abstinence-contingent take-home doses of buprenorphine. After a 2-week buprenorphine and stabilization period, heroin dependent individuals (n=24) in Muar, Malaysia were randomly assigned to Standard Services BMT (physician administered advice and support, and weekly, non-contingent medication pick-up) or Enhanced Services (nurse-delivered manual-guided behavioral drug and HIV risk reduction counseling (BDRC) and abstinence-contingent take-home buprenorphine (ACB), 7 day supply maximum). Outcomes included retention, proportion of opioid-negative urine tests, self-reported drug use, and self-reported HIV risk behaviors. 12/12 (100%) of Enhanced Services and 11/12 (92%) of Standard Services participants completed the entire protocol. The proportion of opioid-negative urine tests increased significantly over time for both groups (p<0.001), and the reductions were significantly greater in the Enhanced Services group (p<0.05); Enhanced Services group achieved higher overall proportions of opiate negative urine toxicology tests (87% vs. 69%, p=0.04) and longer periods of consecutive abstinence from opiates (10.3 weeks vs. 7.8 weeks, p=0.154). Both groups significantly reduced HIV risk behaviors during treatment (p<0.05), but the difference between Enhanced and Standard Services (26% vs. 17% reductions from the baseline levels, respectively) was not statistically significant (p=0.9). Manual-guided behavioral drug and HIV risk reduction counseling and abstinence-contingent take-home buprenorphine appear promising for adding to the efficacy of office-based BMT provided with limited drug counseling and medication oversight. PMID:18164145

  16. Risk Factors for Incident Diabetes in a Cohort Taking First-Line Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor-Based Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Karamchand, Sumanth; Leisegang, Rory; Schomaker, Michael; Maartens, Gary; Walters, Lourens; Hislop, Michael; Dave, Joel A; Levitt, Naomi S; Cohen, Karen

    2016-03-01

    Efavirenz is the preferred nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) in first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens in low- and middle-income countries, where the prevalence of diabetes is increasing. Randomized control trials have shown mild increases in plasma glucose in participants in the efavirenz arms, but no association has been reported with overt diabetes. We explored the association between efavirenz exposure and incident diabetes in a large Southern African cohort commencing NNRTI-based first-line ART. Our cohort included HIV-infected adults starting NNRTI-based ART in a private sector HIV disease management program from January 2002 to December 2011. Incident diabetes was identified by the initiation of diabetes treatment. Patients with prevalent diabetes were excluded. We included 56,298 patients with 113,297 patient-years of follow-up (PYFU) on first-line ART. The crude incidence of diabetes was 13.24 per 1000 PYFU. Treatment with efavirenz rather than nevirapine was associated with increased risk of developing diabetes (hazard ratio 1.27 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.46)) in a multivariate analysis adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, baseline CD4 count, viral load, NRTI backbone, and exposure to other diabetogenic medicines. Zidovudine and stavudine exposure were also associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes. We found that treatment with efavirenz, as well as stavudine and zidovudine, increased the risk of incident diabetes. Interventions to detect and prevent diabetes should be implemented in ART programs, and use of antiretrovirals with lower risk of metabolic complications should be encouraged. PMID:26945366

  17. Risk Factors for Incident Diabetes in a Cohort Taking First-Line Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor-Based Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Karamchand, Sumanth; Leisegang, Rory; Schomaker, Michael; Maartens, Gary; Walters, Lourens; Hislop, Michael; Dave, Joel A.; Levitt, Naomi S.; Cohen, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Efavirenz is the preferred nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) in first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens in low- and middle-income countries, where the prevalence of diabetes is increasing. Randomized control trials have shown mild increases in plasma glucose in participants in the efavirenz arms, but no association has been reported with overt diabetes. We explored the association between efavirenz exposure and incident diabetes in a large Southern African cohort commencing NNRTI-based first-line ART. Our cohort included HIV-infected adults starting NNRTI-based ART in a private sector HIV disease management program from January 2002 to December 2011. Incident diabetes was identified by the initiation of diabetes treatment. Patients with prevalent diabetes were excluded. We included 56,298 patients with 113,297 patient-years of follow-up (PYFU) on first-line ART. The crude incidence of diabetes was 13.24 per 1000 PYFU. Treatment with efavirenz rather than nevirapine was associated with increased risk of developing diabetes (hazard ratio 1.27 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10–1.46)) in a multivariate analysis adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, baseline CD4 count, viral load, NRTI backbone, and exposure to other diabetogenic medicines. Zidovudine and stavudine exposure were also associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes. We found that treatment with efavirenz, as well as stavudine and zidovudine, increased the risk of incident diabetes. Interventions to detect and prevent diabetes should be implemented in ART programs, and use of antiretrovirals with lower risk of metabolic complications should be encouraged. PMID:26945366

  18. Reducing sexual risk taking behaviors among adolescents who engage in transactional sex in post-conflict Liberia

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, Katharine A.; Kennedy, Stephen B.; Shamblen, Steve; Taylor, Curtis H.; Quaqua, Monica; Bee, Ernree M.; Gobeh, Mawen E.; Woods, Daisajou V.; Dennis, Barclay

    2013-01-01

    Transactional sex (TS) has been correlated with HIV/STD infection, pregnancy, early marriage, and sexual violence in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Few Western-based HIV prevention programs adapted for SSA have examined intervention impacts for this group. This article examines whether an HIV prevention intervention, delivered to sixth-grade students in Liberia (age range 14–17) and found to increase condom use and other mediators for the larger sample, significantly impacted sexual behaviors and mediators for those who engaged in TS. Using an attention-matched, group-randomized controlled design, four matched pairs of elementary schools in Monrovia, Liberia, were randomly assigned to an adapted eight-module HIV prevention or a general health curriculum. Nine-month impacts of the intervention on sexual risk behaviors and mediators for those who engaged in TS, when compared with other study participants, are presented. Twelve percent of our sample of sixth graders (n = 714) ever engaged in TS. The majority of females reported being promised something in exchange for sex (52%), whereas the majority of males (52%) reported being both the giver and recipient of gifts in exchange for sex. Compared with other students, those who engaged in TS reported greater increases in the number of sex partners, reported greater frequency of sexual intercourse, were more likely to try to get pregnant or someone else pregnant, and reported greater reductions in protective sexual attitudes and HIV risk perception at the nine month follow-up, in both the intervention and the control groups. Our intervention, although successful for the general in-school adolescent sample, did not impact risk behaviors or mediators for adolescents who engaged in TS. Future research should explore the complex sexual economy in which TS is embedded and consider adapting HIV prevention interventions to the needs of this high-risk group. PMID:23626654

  19. Measuring Youth Sexual Risk-Taking in Port-au-Prince, Haiti: Programmatic Recommendations from Different Methodological Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Beauvais, Harry; Gómez, Anu Manchikanti; Outlaw, Theresa Finn; Roussel, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    No studies have examined the applicability of varying methods for identifying youth at high risk of unintended pregnancies and contracting HIV. This study compares sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behaviors of youth (ages 15-24) in Port-au-Prince, Haiti surveyed using three different study methodologies. The three study methodologies are compared in terms of their utility for identifying high risk youth and utility for program planning. The three study methodologies are: a representative sample of youth from the 2005/6 Demographic and Health Survey (HDHS); a 2004 facility-based study; and a 2006/7 venue-based study that used the Priorities for Local AIDS Control Efforts (PLACE) method. The facility-based and PLACE studies included larger proportions of single, sexually experienced youth and youth who knew someone with HIV/AIDS than the HDHS. More youth in the PLACE study had multiple sexual partners in the last year and received money or gifts for sex compared to youth in facilities. At first and last sex, more PLACE youth used contraception including condoms. Pregnancy experience was most common in the facility-based data; however, more ever-pregnant PLACE youth reported ever terminating a pregnancy. Program managers seeking to target prevention activities should consider using facility- or venue-based methods to identify and understand the behaviors of high-risk youth. PMID:23012724

  20. Taking Risk: Early Results From Teaching Hospitals' Participation in the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation Bundled Payments for Care Improvement Initiative.

    PubMed

    Kivlahan, Coleen; Orlowski, Janis M; Pearce, Jonathan; Walradt, Jessica; Baker, Matthew; Kirch, Darrell G

    2016-07-01

    The authors describe observations from the 27 teaching hospitals constituting the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) cohort in the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation (CMMI) Bundled Payments for Care Improvement (BPCI) initiative. CMMI introduced BPCI in August 2011 and selected the first set of participants in January 2013. BPCI participants enter into Medicare payment arrangements for episodes of care for which they take financial risk. The first round of participants entered risk agreements on October 1, 2013 and January 1, 2014. In April 2014, CMMI selected additional participants who started taking financial risk in 2015. Selected episodes include congestive heart failure (CHF), major joint replacement (MJR), and cardiac valve surgery. The AAMC cohort of participating hospitals selected clinical conditions on the basis of patient volume, opportunity to impact savings and quality, organizational and clinical team readiness, and prior process improvement experience. Early financial results suggest that focused attention to postacute care utilization and outcomes, rapid changes in care processes, program pricing rules, and team composition drove savings and losses. The first cohort of participants generated savings in MJR, CHF, and cardiac valve episodes; losses were experienced in stroke, percutaneous coronary intervention, and spine surgery. Although about one-quarter of U.S. teaching hospitals are participating in BPCI, the proliferation of existing and new payment models, as well as the 2015 announcement to increasingly pay providers according to value, mandates close scrutiny of program outcomes. The authors conclude by proposing additional opportunities for research related to alternative payment models. PMID:26886810

  1. True versus False Parasite Interactions: A Robust Method to Take Risk Factors into Account and Its Application to Feline Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Hellard, Eléonore; Pontier, Dominique; Sauvage, Frank; Poulet, Hervé; Fouchet, David

    2012-01-01

    Background Multiple infections are common in natural host populations and interspecific parasite interactions are therefore likely within a host individual. As they may seriously impact the circulation of certain parasites and the emergence and management of infectious diseases, their study is essential. In the field, detecting parasite interactions is rendered difficult by the fact that a large number of co-infected individuals may also be observed when two parasites share common risk factors. To correct for these “false interactions”, methods accounting for parasite risk factors must be used. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present paper we propose such a method for presence-absence data (i.e., serology). Our method enables the calculation of the expected frequencies of single and double infected individuals under the independence hypothesis, before comparing them to the observed ones using the chi-square statistic. The method is termed “the corrected chi-square.” Its robustness was compared to a pre-existing method based on logistic regression and the corrected chi-square proved to be much more robust for small sample sizes. Since the logistic regression approach is easier to implement, we propose as a rule of thumb to use the latter when the ratio between the sample size and the number of parameters is above ten. Applied to serological data for four viruses infecting cats, the approach revealed pairwise interactions between the Feline Herpesvirus, Parvovirus and Calicivirus, whereas the infection by FIV, the feline equivalent of HIV, did not modify the risk of infection by any of these viruses. Conclusions/Significance This work therefore points out possible interactions that can be further investigated in experimental conditions and, by providing a user-friendly R program and a tutorial example, offers new opportunities for animal and human epidemiologists to detect interactions of interest in the field, a crucial step in the challenge of

  2. Sexual risk-taking among high-risk urban women with and without histories of childhood sexual abuse: mediating effects of contextual factors.

    PubMed

    Mosack, Katie E; Randolph, Mary E; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Abbott, Maryann; Smith, Ellen; Weeks, Margaret R

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanisms of risk for urban women at high risk for HIV with and without childhood sexual abuse histories. Childhood sexual abuse survivors reported more unprotected intercourse and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The association of STI locus of control with frequency of unprotected sex was fully mediated by being intoxicated during sex and engaging in sex work, whereas the association between relational control and unprotected sex was not mediated by contextual factors for the childhood sexual abuse group. The mechanisms of risk are different for those with divergent childhood sexual abuse histories and thus interventions should be developed to educate women with a history of childhood sexual abuse about ways to avoid revictimization, particularly within a context of poverty, prostitution, and drug use. PMID:20390778

  3. Being high and taking sexual risks: findings from a multisite survey of urban young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Stueve, Ann; O'Donnell, Lydia; Duran, Richard; San Doval, Alexi; Geier, Jamie

    2002-12-01

    Adolescent and young adult males who have sex with men (MSM) remain at high risk of HIV infection. Many sexual risk factors have been identified, yet the role of substance use remains controversial. We assess the extent to which urban young MSM report being "high" on drugs or alcohol during sex and the association between being "high" and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). During summer 2000, 3,075 MSM aged 15-25 years completed a 20-minute interview for the Community Intervention Trial for Youth Project. Participants were asked about their last sexual contact with main and nonmain partners, including whether they were "high on drugs or alcohol." 18.6% of MSM with a main partner reported being high during their last sexual encounter; 25.0% reported UAI. Among men with a nonmain partner, 29.3% reported being high, and 12.3% reported UAI. Being high was associated with unprotected receptive anal intercourse with nonmain partners (odds ratio = 1.66, p = .02). HIV prevention should include messages about the potential dangers of drinking and drug use in situations where sexual encounters with nonmain partners may occur. PMID:12512849

  4. The use of alcohol by Miami's adolescent public school students 1992: peers, risk-taking, and availability as central forces.

    PubMed

    Yarnold, B M

    1998-01-01

    This analysis examines the use of alcohol by 535 adolescents in Dade County Public Schools during 1992. Statistically significant factors which tend to increase the probability of alcohol use by adolescents include: the fact that their friends drink, their awareness of the risks associated with the use of alcohol, and their ease in obtaining alcohol. Hence, the typical adolescent who uses alcohol seems to be a risk-taker, who may enjoy the dangers involved with alcohol use; friends are also users of alcohol. Not significantly related to alcohol use are a number of other variables, including family-related variables (whether adolescents live with their mothers, fathers, or alone; and whether someone in the family has a problem with drugs or alcohol). Similarly, early cigarette smoking did not serve as a gateway to later alcohol use. Religion, gender, race, academic performance, and extracurricular school activities (athletics, music, school clubs, and other activities) were all unrelated to the use of alcohol by adolescents. Although the typical adolescent who consumed alcohol was older (in grades 9 through 12), this was not a significant variable. PMID:9816807

  5. Third-Person Perception, Optimistic Bias, Safer-Sex Campaigns, and Sexual Risk-Taking among Minority "At-Risk" Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapin, John

    Recent third-person perception articles suggest that optimistic bias is the mechanism underlying the perceptual bias, but fail to empirically test the assumption. Minority "at-risk" youth are neglected in both literatures, despite the fact that they are frequently the target audience for the resulting campaigns. This study sought to bridge a gap…

  6. Social Network and Risk-Taking Behavior Most Associated with Rapid HIV Testing, Circumcision, and Preexposure Prophylaxis Acceptability Among High-Risk Indian Men

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rupali; Dandona, Rakhi; Kumar, Prem; Kumar, Anil; Lakshmi, Vemu; Laumann, Edward; Mayer, Kenneth; Dandona, Lalit

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Indian truck drivers and their younger apprentice drivers are at increased risk of HIV infection. We determine network and risk practices associated with willingness to adopt HIV prevention interventions currently not being used in India: rapid HIV testing, circumcision, and preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in order to inform the National AIDS Control Program (NACP). Truck drivers and truck cleaners were systematically recruited to participate in a social network and risk survey in Hyderabad, Southern India. Three separate composite measures of acceptability of rapid HIV testing, circumcision, and PrEP acceptability were utilized to independently assess the relationship of these prevention interventions with risk-practices and social network characteristics. An 89% participation rate yielded 1602 truck drivers and truck cleaners with 54.2% younger than 30 years of age and 2.8% HIV infected. Twenty-five percent of respondents reported sex with female sex workers (FSW) and 5% with men (MSM). Rapid testing, circumcision, and PrEP acceptability were 97.4%, 9.1%, and 85.9%, respectively. Participants reporting prosocial network characteristics were more accepting of rapid testing (adjusted odds ratio [AORs] 3.07–6.71; p<0.05) and demonstrated variable PrEP acceptability (AORs 0.08–2.22; p<0.001). Sex with FSWs was associated with PrEP acceptability (AOR 4.27; p<0.001); sex with MSM was associated with circumcision acceptability only (AOR 2.66; p<0.01). Social network factors and risk-practices were associated with novel prevention acceptability, but not consistently across intervention type and with variable directionality. The NACP will need to consider that intervention uptake may likely be most successful when efforts are targeted to individuals with specific behavior and social network characteristics. PMID:22973951

  7. Do Psychiatric Disorders Moderate the Relationship Between Psychological Distress and Sexual Risk-Taking Behaviors in Young Men Who Have Sex with Men? A Longitudinal Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Beidas, Rinad S.; Birkett, Michelle; Newcomb, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) account for two-thirds of new HIV infections in young people in the United States. Identifying between-person and within-person correlates of sexual risk-taking provides critical information for developing behavioral prevention efforts for this group. Possible predictors of sexual-risk behavior in YMSM include major depressive disorder (MDD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and variation in psychological distress over time. To date, research has been equivocal with regard to the relationship between psychiatric disorders, psychological distress, and sexual risk behaviors. Participants included 119 16–20-year-old YMSM. Ethnicity/race of the participants included: black/African-American (46.2%), white (19.3%), Latino/Hispanic (12.6%), multiracial (11.8%), Asian/Pacific Islander (2.5%), and other (5.9%). Sexual risk outcomes included total number of male partners and unprotected anal sex acts across four waves of data collection (24 months). The study found that the between-person correlates, including ethnicity and age, predicted total male partners. Between-person correlates, including ethnicity, MDD, and a moderating effect of PTSD on psychological distress emerged as determinants of unprotected anal sex acts. PMID:22680282

  8. Do psychiatric disorders moderate the relationship between psychological distress and sexual risk-taking behaviors in young men who have sex with men? A longitudinal perspective.

    PubMed

    Beidas, Rinad S; Birkett, Michelle; Newcomb, Michael E; Mustanski, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) account for two-thirds of new HIV infections in young people in the United States. Identifying between-person and within-person correlates of sexual risk-taking provides critical information for developing behavioral prevention efforts for this group. Possible predictors of sexual-risk behavior in YMSM include major depressive disorder (MDD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and variation in psychological distress over time. To date, research has been equivocal with regard to the relationship between psychiatric disorders, psychological distress, and sexual risk behaviors. Participants included 119 16-20-year-old YMSM. Ethnicity/race of the participants included: black/African-American (46.2%), white (19.3%), Latino/Hispanic (12.6%), multiracial (11.8%), Asian/Pacific Islander (2.5%), and other (5.9%). Sexual risk outcomes included total number of male partners and unprotected anal sex acts across four waves of data collection (24 months). The study found that the between-person correlates, including ethnicity and age, predicted total male partners. Between-person correlates, including ethnicity, MDD, and a moderating effect of PTSD on psychological distress emerged as determinants of unprotected anal sex acts. PMID:22680282

  9. The role of dopamine in risk taking: a specific look at Parkinson’s disease and gambling

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Crystal A.; Dagher, Alain

    2014-01-01

    An influential model suggests that dopamine signals the difference between predicted and experienced reward. In this way, dopamine can act as a learning signal that can shape behaviors to maximize rewards and avoid punishments. Dopamine is also thought to invigorate reward seeking behavior. Loss of dopamine signaling is the major abnormality in Parkinson’s disease. Dopamine agonists have been implicated in the occurrence of impulse control disorders in Parkinson’s disease patients, the most common being pathological gambling, compulsive sexual behavior, and compulsive buying. Recently, a number of functional imaging studies investigating impulse control disorders in Parkinson’s disease have been published. Here we review this literature, and attempt to place it within a decision-making framework in which potential gains and losses are evaluated to arrive at optimum choices. We also provide a hypothetical but still incomplete model on the effect of dopamine agonist treatment on these value and risk assessments. Two of the main brain structures thought to be involved in computing aspects of reward and loss are the ventral striatum (VStr) and the insula, both dopamine projection sites. Both structures are consistently implicated in functional brain imaging studies of pathological gambling in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:24910600

  10. Subdural hematoma in a patient taking imatinib for GIST: a case report and discussion of risk with other chemotherapeutics.

    PubMed

    Theodotou, Christian B; Shah, Ashish H; Ivan, Michael E; Komotar, Ricardo J

    2016-03-01

    Although anticancer drugs have existed for over 50 years, targeted drugs have only recently been marketed, and their side effects may not be completely understood. The patient is a 56-year-old woman with a gastrointestinal stromal tumor who presented with headache, nausea, and vomiting lasting 2 weeks. An MRI to rule out brain metastasis found a large right-hemispheric subdural hematoma without metastases. She denied trauma, seizures, or alcohol abuse. Laboratory test results were normal. Eight months prior, she had begun a dose escalation of imatinib, which became the suspected cause of her hemorrhage. The literature was reviewed for reports of intracranial hemorrhage with targeted chemotherapeutics excluding metastases, anticoagulation, and trauma. Multiple events have been documented but only one for imatinib with gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Imatinib is believed to cause platelet dysfunction (missed by standard testing), leading to intracranial hemorrhage. Intracranial hemorrhage risk may be under-reported and neurosurgical consultation for immediate treatment and oncology for reinitiation of chemotherapy are recommended. PMID:26628484

  11. Cost effective operations through informed risk taking at the DuPage County wastewater facility Knollwood WWTP phase III

    SciTech Connect

    Rafter, J.C.; Palmer, R.A.; Bowles, B.

    1998-07-01

    Using a proactive approach to responsible wastewater collection and treatment, DuPage County, Illinois in conjunction with CTE identified and presented adverse compliance challenges to the IEPA regarding the capabilities of the Region IX-East collection and treatment facilities. This approach contained an element of risk on the County's part, knowing that the IEPA's non-compliance penalties regarding these issues were severe and that a resolution within a court ordered time schedule. A careful plan was developed to involve all the parties, the County, the regulatory agencies, the engineer and the contractor to solve the potential challenges facing the County based on anticipated increases in wastewater flow due to population growth in the Region. Regional IX-Easts' customers are served by the Knollwood Wastewater Treatment Plant (Knollwood). The Knollwood site is located just north of forest preserve property along the Des Plaines River in Burr Ridge, Illinois. The surrounding area to the west consists of a commercial industrial park. A residential development is located to the north of the plant approximately 1000 feet from the nearest treatment plant processing unit. The Knollwood Plant was rated to treat an average daily flow of 8.3 mgd prior to the construction of the new facilities. The new facilities allow the plant to treat an average daily flow of 10 mgd and peak flows up to 50 mgd.

  12. Does fertility status influence impulsivity and risk taking in human females? Adaptive influences on intertemporal choice and risky decision making

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Informed by the research on adaptive decision making in other animal species, this study investigated human female’s intertemporal and risky choices across the ovulatory cycle. We tested the hypothesis that at peak fertility, women who are exposed to environments that signal availability of higher quality mates, by viewing images of attractive males, become more impulsive and risk seeking in economic decision tasks. To test this, we collected intertemporal and risky choice before and after exposure to images of either attractive males or neutral landscapes both at peak and low fertility conditions. The results showed an interaction between women’s fertility status and image type, such that women at peak fertility viewing images of attractive men chose the smaller, sooner monetary reward option less than women at peak fertility viewing neutral images. Neither fertility status nor image type influenced risky choice. Thus, though exposure to images of men altered intertemporal choices at peak fertility, this occurred in the opposite direction as predicted—women at peak fertility became less impulsive. Nevertheless, the results of the current study provide evidence for shifts in preferences over the ovulatory cycle and opens future research on economic decision making. PMID:23864300

  13. Patient and general practitioner attitudes to taking medication to prevent cardiovascular disease after receiving detailed information on risks and benefits of treatment: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There are now effective drugs to prevent cardiovascular disease and guidelines recommend their use. Patients do not always choose to accept preventive medication at levels of risk reduction recommended in guidelines. The purpose of the study was to identify and explore the attitudes of patients and general practitioners towards preventative medication for cardiovascular disease (CVD) after they have received information about it; to identify implications for practice and prescribing. Methods Qualitative interviews with GPs and patients following presentation of in depth information about CVD risks and the absolute effects of medication. Setting: GP practices in Birmingham, United Kingdom. Results In both populations: wide variation on attitudes to preventative medication; concerns about unnecessary drug taking & side effects; preferring to consider lifestyle changes first. In patient population: whatever their attitudes to medication were, the vast majority explained that they would ultimately do what their GP recommended; there was some misunderstanding of the distinction between curative and preventative medication. A common theme was the degree of trust in their doctors' judgement and recommendations, which contrasted with scepticism of the role of pharmaceutical companies and academics. Scepticism in guidelines was also common among doctors although many nevertheless recommended treatment for their patients Conclusions A guideline approach to prescribing preventative medication could be against the interests and preferences of the patient. GPs must take extra care to explain what preventative medication is and why it is recommended, attempt to discern preferences and make recommendations balancing these potentially conflicting concerns. PMID:21703010

  14. Risk of Hemorrhage during Needle-Based Ophthalmic Regional Anesthesia in Patients Taking Antithrombotics: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Takaschima, Augusto; Marchioro, Patricia; Sakae, Thiago M.; Porporatti, André L.; Mezzomo, Luis André; De Luca Canto, Graziela

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients undergoing ophthalmic surgery are usually elderly and, due to systemic disease, may be on long-term therapy, such as antithrombotic agents. Rates of hemorrhagic complications associated with invasive procedures may be increased by the use of anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents. Objective To compare the incidence of hemorrhagic complications in patients undergoing needle-based ophthalmic regional anesthesia between patients on antithrombotic therapy and those not on such therapy. Methods A systematic review was conducted by two independent reviewers based on searches of Cochrane, LILACS, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and the “gray” literature (Google Scholar). The end search date was May 8, 2015, across all databases. Results Five studies met the eligibility criteria. In three studies, individual risk of bias was low, and in two of them, moderate. In all studies, no differences regarding mild to moderate incidence of hemorrhagic complications were found between patients using antithrombotics (aspirin, clopidogrel, and warfarin) and those not using them. Rates of severe hemorrhagic complication were very low (0.04%) in both groups, supporting the safety of needle blocks, even in patients using antithrombotics. High heterogeneity across studies prevented meta-analysis. Limitations to these results include low statistical power in three experimental studies and a large 95% confidence interval in the two retrospective cohorts. Conclusion In this review, none of the selected studies showed significant bleeding related to needle-based ophthalmic regional anesthesia in association with the use of aspirin, clopidogrel, or vitamin K inhibitors. Since the available data is not powerful enough to provide a reliable evaluation of the true effect of antithrombotics in this setting, new studies to address these limitations are necessary. PMID:26800356

  15. Relationship of Alcohol Use and Sexual Risk Taking Among Hazardously Drinking Incarcerated Women: An Event-Level Analysis*

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Michael D.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Caviness, Celeste M.; Rosengard, Cynthia; Kiene, Susan; Friedmann, Peter; Clarke, Jennifer G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To understand the association of alcohol use with sex and unprotected sex among hazardously drinking incarcerated women, we examined the relationship of these behaviors on any given day. Method: Participants endorsed unprotected sex and hazardous alcohol consumption (four or more drinks at a time on at least 3 separate days in the previous 3 months or a score of 8 or above on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). Participants recalled behaviors in the 90 days before incarceration using the Timeline Followback method. Generalized estimating equation models estimated the effect of daily alcohol use and selected covariates on the odds of sexual-risk behavior. Results: The 245 participants averaged 34 years of age and were 71.4% white; 67.8% used cocaine. On most (84.7%) drinking days, women consumed four or more drinks. One hundred forty-one participants (57.6%) reported sex with only main partners, 10.6% with only casual partners, and 30.6% with both casual and main partners. The likelihood of having any sex (odds ratio = 1.78, p < .01) and unprotected sex (odds ratio = 1.95, p < .01) was higher on days when participants consumed alcohol compared with nondrinking days. However, when the analysis was restricted to days on which participants reported having sex, the odds of having unprotected sex was not significantly associated with drinking. Conclusions: Among incarcerated women who reported hazardous drinking, alcohol use was associated with an increased likelihood of sexual activity and a concomitant increase in unprotected sex. However, use of alcohol was not significantly associated with condom use on days when participants were sexually active. PMID:19515290

  16. Virtual versus physical spaces: which facilitates greater HIV risk taking among men who have sex with men in East and South-East Asia?

    PubMed

    Wei, Chongyi; Lim, Sin How; Guadamuz, Thomas E; Koe, Stuart

    2014-08-01

    Increasing use of the Internet to seek sex partners is accompanied by rising HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) in East and South-East Asia. We examined whether the Internet facilitates greater HIV risk taking among MSM in the region. A cross-sectional sample of 9,367 MSM was recruited via the Internet in 2010. We compared socio-demographic and HIV-related behavioral characteristics among MSM who met sex partners on the Internet only, who met sex partners offline only, and who met sex partners through both. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify independent correlates that were associated with differences in where participants met their male sex partners. Compared to MSM who met partners offline only, those who met partners online only were less likely to have multiple male sex partners, have paid for sex, have consumed recreational drugs, and have used alcohol before sex. MSM who met partners both online and offline appeared to be the riskiest group that they were more likely to have multiple male sex partners, have engaged in UIAI, and have consumed alcohol before sex. These findings suggest that social networking websites alone do not facilitate greater HIV risk taking among MSM. Rather, they provide additional venues for MSM who already engage in HIV-related high risk behaviors to seek sex partners. The Internet offers incredible opportunities to reach large numbers of MSM in East and South-East Asia for HIV prevention and research. Web-based outreach and prevention activities are needed to reach these men. In addition, mobile and application-based interventions should also be developed and disseminated. PMID:24077974

  17. Virtual vs. physical spaces: which facilitates greater HIV risk taking among men who have sex with men in East and South-East Asia?

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chongyi; Lim, Sin How; Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Koe, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Increasing use of the Internet to seek sex partners is accompanied by rising HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) in East and South-East Asia. We examined whether the Internet facilitates greater HIV risk taking among MSM in the region. A cross-sectional sample of 9,367 MSM was recruited via the Internet in 2010. We compared socio-demographic and HIV-related behavioral characteristics among MSM who met sex partners on the Internet only, who met sex partners offline only, and who met sex partners through both. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify independent correlates that were associated with differences in where participants met their male sex partners. Compared to MSM who met partners offline only, those who met partners online only were less likely to have multiple male sex partners, have paid for sex, have consumed recreational drugs, and have used alcohol before sex. MSM who met partners both online and offline appeared to be the riskiest group that they were more likely to have multiple male sex partners, have engaged in UIAI, and have consumed alcohol before sex. These findings suggest that social networking websites alone do not facilitate greater HIV risk taking among MSM. Rather, they provide additional venues for MSM who already engage in HIV-related high risk behaviors to seek sex partners. The Internet offers incredible opportunities to reach large numbers of MSM in East and South-East Asia for HIV prevention and research. Web-based outreach and prevention activities are needed to reach these men. In addition, mobile and application-based interventions should also be developed and disseminated. PMID:24077974

  18. Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... I at Risk? 4 of 9 sections Take Action! Take Action: Talk to Your Doctor Take these steps to ... Previous section Signs 5 of 9 sections Take Action: Cost and Insurance What about cost? Thanks to ...

  19. Taking Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Tonya

    2004-01-01

    The opportunity for students to successfully complete the material increases when teachers take time and care about what they are reading. Students can read the contents of a text successfully if they keep their thoughts moving and ideas developing.

  20. A multi-level analysis of risk perception, poverty and sexual risk-taking among young people in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Tenkorang, Eric Y; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Rajulton, Fernando

    2011-03-01

    Various studies have underscored the relevance of community-level factors to sexual behavior and HIV/AIDS prevention efforts in Africa. However, there is a paucity of research and theorizing in this area compared to the preponderance of prevention models that focus solely on individual-level factors. Using data from the Cape Area Panel Survey and hierarchical linear models, this study examines the effects of a combination of individual-level factors and community-level poverty on sexual behaviors. Male and female respondents who perceived themselves to be at great risk of HIV infection were less likely to indulge in risky sexual behaviors. For females, race and community-level poverty were confounded such that race mediated the effects of community-level poverty. Results from this study indicate that multiple rationalities affect sexual behaviors in Cape Town, South Africa and that there is a need to consider both the social embeddedness of sexual behaviors and the rational components of decision making when designing HIV/AIDS prevention programs. PMID:21195013

  1. A not-so-grim tale: how childhood family structure influences reproductive and risk-taking outcomes in a historical U.S. Population.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Paula; Garcia, Justin R; Sear, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Childhood family structure has been shown to play an important role in shaping a child's life course development, especially in industrialised societies. One hypothesis which could explain such findings is that parental investment is likely to be diluted in families without both natural parents. Most empirical studies have examined the influence of only one type of family disruption or composition (e.g. father absence) making it difficult to simultaneously compare the effects of different kinds of family structure on children's future outcomes. Here we use a large, rich data source (n=16,207) collected by Alfred Kinsey and colleagues in the United States from 1938 to 1963, to examine the effects of particular childhood family compositions and compare between them. The dataset further allows us to look at the effects of family structure on an array of traits relating to sexual maturity, reproduction, and risk-taking. Our results show that, for both sexes, living with a single mother or mother and stepfather during childhood was often associated with faster progression to life history events and greater propensity for risk-taking behaviours. However, living with a single father or father and stepmother was typically not significantly different to having both natural parents for these outcomes. Our results withstand adjustment for socioeconomic status, age, ethnicity, age at puberty (where applicable), and sibling configuration. While these results support the hypothesis that early family environment influences subsequent reproductive strategy, the different responses to the presence or absence of different parental figures in the household rearing environment suggests that particular family constructions exert independent influences on childhood outcomes. Our results suggest that father-absent households (i.e. single mothers or mothers and stepfathers) are most highly associated with subsequent fast life history progressions, compared with mother-absent households

  2. A Not-So-Grim Tale: How Childhood Family Structure Influences Reproductive and Risk-Taking Outcomes in a Historical U.S. Population

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Paula; Garcia, Justin R.; Sear, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Childhood family structure has been shown to play an important role in shaping a child's life course development, especially in industrialised societies. One hypothesis which could explain such findings is that parental investment is likely to be diluted in families without both natural parents. Most empirical studies have examined the influence of only one type of family disruption or composition (e.g. father absence) making it difficult to simultaneously compare the effects of different kinds of family structure on children's future outcomes. Here we use a large, rich data source (n = 16,207) collected by Alfred Kinsey and colleagues in the United States from 1938 to 1963, to examine the effects of particular childhood family compositions and compare between them. The dataset further allows us to look at the effects of family structure on an array of traits relating to sexual maturity, reproduction, and risk-taking. Our results show that, for both sexes, living with a single mother or mother and stepfather during childhood was often associated with faster progression to life history events and greater propensity for risk-taking behaviours. However, living with a single father or father and stepmother was typically not significantly different to having both natural parents for these outcomes. Our results withstand adjustment for socioeconomic status, age, ethnicity, age at puberty (where applicable), and sibling configuration. While these results support the hypothesis that early family environment influences subsequent reproductive strategy, the different responses to the presence or absence of different parental figures in the household rearing environment suggests that particular family constructions exert independent influences on childhood outcomes. Our results suggest that father-absent households (i.e. single mothers or mothers and stepfathers) are most highly associated with subsequent fast life history progressions, compared with mother

  3. Taking risks to transform science.

    PubMed

    Maxmen, Amy

    2009-10-01

    Tackling long-standing problems in science or refuting dogma is not necessarily the best strategy for a young investigator seeking tenure. But just like investing in risky stocks when young, perhaps it should be. Amy Maxmen reports. PMID:19804745

  4. The solution of the problem of oil spill risk control in the Baltic Sea taking into account the processes of oil propagation and degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aseev, Nikita; Agoshkov, Valery

    2015-04-01

    The report is devoted to the one approach to the problem of oil spill risk control of protected areas in the Baltic Sea (Aseev et al., 2014). By the problem of risk control is meant a problem of determination of optimal resources quantity which are necessary for decreasing the risk to some acceptable value. It is supposed that only moment of accident is a random variable. Mass of oil slick is chosen as a function of control. For the realization of the random variable the quadratic 'functional of cost' is introduced. It comprises cleaning costs and deviation of damage of oil pollution from its acceptable value. The problem of minimization of this functional is solved based on the methods of optimal control and the theory of adjoint equations (Agoshkov, 2003, Agoshkov et al., 2012). The solution of this problem is explicitly found. In order to solve the realistic problem of oil spill risk control in the Baltic Sea the 2d model of oil spill propagation on the sea surface based on the Seatrack Web model (Liungman, Mattson, 2011) is developed. The model takes into account such processes as oil transportation by sea currents and wind, turbulent diffusion, spreading, evaporation from sea surface, dispersion and formation of emulsion 'water-in-oil'. The model allows to calculate basic oil slick parameters: localization, mass, volume, thickness, density of oil, water content and viscosity of emulsion. The results of several numerical experiments in the Baltic Sea using the model and the methodology of oil spill risk control are presented. Along with moment of accident other parameters of oil spill and environment could be chosen as a random variables. The methodology of solution of oil spill risk control problem will remain the same but the computational complexity will increase. Conversion of the function of control to quantity of resources with a glance to methods of pollution removal should be processed. As a result, the developed 2d model of oil spill propagation

  5. A social network typology and sexual risk-taking among men who have sex with men in Cape Town and Port Elizabeth, South Africa.

    PubMed

    de Voux, Alex; Baral, Stefan D; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Beyrer, Chris; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Siegler, Aaron J; Sullivan, Patrick S; Winskell, Kate; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-05-01

    Despite the high prevalence of HIV among men who have sex with men in South Africa, very little is known about their lived realities, including their social and sexual networks. Given the influence of social network structure on sexual risk behaviours, a better understanding of the social contexts of men who have sex with men is essential for informing the design of HIV programming and messaging. This study explored social network connectivity, an understudied network attribute, examining self-reported connectivity between friends, family and sex partners. Data were collected in Cape Town and Port Elizabeth, South Africa, from 78 men who have sex with men who participated in in-depth interviews that included a social network mapping component. Five social network types emerged from the content analysis of these social network maps based on the level of connectivity between family, friends and sex partners, and ranged from disconnected to densely connected networks. The ways in which participants reported sexual risk-taking differed across the five network types, revealing diversity in social network profiles. HIV programming and messaging for this population can greatly benefit from recognising the diversity in lived realities and social connections between men who have sex with men. PMID:26569376

  6. Risk-taking on the road and in the mind: behavioural and neural patterns of decision making between risky and safe drivers.

    PubMed

    Ba, Yutao; Zhang, Wei; Peng, QiJia; Salvendy, Gavriel; Crundall, David

    2016-01-01

    Drivers' risk-taking is a key issue of road safety. This study explored individual differences in drivers' decision-making, linking external behaviours to internal neural activity, to reveal the cognitive mechanisms of risky driving. Twenty-four male drivers were split into two groups (risky vs. safe drivers) via the Drivier Behaviour Questionnaire-violation. The risky drivers demonstrated higher preference for the risky choices in the paradigms of Iowa Gambling Task and Balloon Analogue Risk Task. More importantly, the risky drivers showed lower amplitudes of feedback-related negativity (FRN) and loss-minus-gain FRN in both paradigms, which indicated their neural processing of error-detection. A significant difference of P300 amplitudes was also reported between groups, which indicated their neural processing of reward-evaluation and were modified by specific paradigm and feedback. These results suggested that the neural basis of risky driving was the decision patterns less revised by losses and more motivated by rewards. PMID:26230746

  7. Double Take

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Leadership, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper begins by discussing the results of two studies recently conducted in Australia. According to the two studies, taking a gap year between high school and college may help students complete a degree once they return to school. The gap year can involve such activities as travel, service learning, or work. Then, the paper presents links to…

  8. Taking Turns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Two people take turns selecting from an even number of items. Their relative preferences over the items can be described as a permutation, then tools from algebraic combinatorics can be used to answer various questions. We describe each person's optimal selection strategies including how each could make use of knowing the other's preferences. We…

  9. Taking Charge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Peter J.; Kling, Michael W.

    2006-01-01

    Those who work in the multi-billion-dollar construction industry routinely face uncertainty and risks related to cost, schedule and safety. One of the most common problems is failing to complete a project on time and within budget. This seems to be magnified for school and university projects--education institutions often limited budgets, and…

  10. Effective message design targeting college students for the prevention of binge-drinking: basing design on rebellious risk-taking tendency.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moon J; Bichard, Shannon L

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the responses of college students who were exposed to different types of episodic stories related to drinking (gender-consistent vs. gender-inconsistent condition) and their intention to modify risky behavior (binge drinking) based on their rebellious risk-taking tendency. Self-report measures such as intention to modify drinking behavior and reaction to the message were measured. Eighty-two college students between the ages of 19 and 23 years participated in a posttest-only group design experiment. Results suggested that rebellious participants were less afraid of the dangers of binge drinking than those who were low in rebelliousness for the gender-consistent condition. Regardless of the level of rebelliousness, the participants who were in the gender-consistent (increased relevance) condition produced higher recognition scores than those who were in the gender-inconsistent condition. However, the rebellious participants who were in the gender-inconsistent condition exhibited a higher level of intention to change their drinking behavior than did those in the gender-consistent condition. PMID:17137421

  11. Effect of emergency oral contraceptive use on condom utilization and sexual risk taking behaviours among university students, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Young people between the ages of 15 and 24 years are both the most at risk of HIV and the greatest hope for turning the tide against HIV/AIDS. Although various surveys have been done on sexual behaviour of youth in Ethiopia, studies assessing the effect of emergency oral contraceptives on condom utilization of university students are lacking. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in two major universities of Ethiopia from January to May 2011 using structured self administered questionnaire with the aim to assess the effect of introducing oral emergency contraceptive pills on condom utilization and sexual risk taking behaviours among female university students. Study participants were selected by simple random sampling using the list from the associate registrars of each University. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with condom utilization. Results a total of 623 students out of 660 were included giving response rate of 94.4%. A total of 103(16.5%) had history of sexual intercourse and nearly half (45.6%) of them had sex before the age of 20 years. Forty (6.4%) students had history of sexually transmitted infections (STI). Sixty seven percent of students had heard about emergency oral contraceptives. One hundred and ninety one (45.7%) of students believe that EOC is effective in preventing pregnancy. Believing that EOC is effective in preventing pregnancy (adjusted Odds ratio, AOR = 0.22 95% CI 0.06, 0.87), condom prevents STI (AOR = 10.37, 95% CI 1.73, 62.24) and younger age below 20 years (AOR = 11.68 95% CI 1.25, 109.19) were statistically significantly associated with condom use. Conclusion a significant number of students had history of sexual intercourse and used emergency contraception. The belief in the effectiveness of EOC negatively affects condom use. The preference for the pill may make

  12. Take Your Leadership Role Seriously.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Administrator, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The principal authors of a new book, "Profiling Excellence in America's Schools," state that leadership is the single most important element for effective schools. The generic skills of leaders are flexibility, autonomy, risk taking, innovation, and commitment. Exceptional principals and teachers take their leadership and management roles…

  13. Affective differences in Iowa Gambling Task performance associated with sexual risk taking and substance use among HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Sarit A.; Thompson, Louisa I.; Kowalczyk, William J.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between emotional distress and decision-making in sexual risk and substance use behavior among 174 (ages 25 to 50, 53% black) men who have sex with men (MSM), a population at increased risk for HIV. The sample was stratified by HIV status. Measures of affective decision-making (Iowa Gambling Task, IGT, Bechara et al., 1994), depression, anxiety, sex acts, and substance use during the past 60 days were collected at our research center. Negative binomial regression models were used to examine the relationship between age, HIV status, anxiety, depression, and IGT performance in the prediction of number of risky sex acts and substance use days. Among those without anxiety or depression, both number of risky sex acts and drug use days decreased with better performance during risky trials (i.e., last two blocks) of the IGT. For those with higher rates of anxiety, but not depression, IGT risk trial performance and risky sex acts increased concomitantly. Anxiety also interacted with IGT performance across all trials to predict substance use, such that anxiety was associated with greater substance use among those with better IGT performance. The opposite was true for those with depression, but only during risk trials. HIV-positive participants reported fewer substance use days than HIV-negative participants, but there was no difference in association between behavior and IGT performance by HIV status. Our findings suggest that anxiety may exacerbate risk-taking behavior when affective decision-making ability is intact. The relationship between affective decision-making and risk taking may be sensitive to different profiles of emotional distress, as well as behavioral context. Investigations of affective decision-making in sexual risk taking and substance use should examine different distress profiles separately, with implications for HIV prevention efforts. PMID:26745769

  14. Can Personality Account for Differences in Drinking between College Athletes and Non-Athletes? Explaining the Role of Sensation Seeking, Risk-Taking, and Impulsivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Scaglione, Nichole; Mallett, Kimberly A.; Turrisi, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Collegiate athletes are an at-risk population for high risk drinking and related consequences when compared to the general college student population. However, little is known about how aspects of an individual's personality contribute to this relationship, making intervention efforts challenging. The current study examined sensation seeking,…

  15. 50 CFR 22.23 - What are the requirements for permits to take depredating eagles and eagles that pose a risk to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... appropriate Regional Directors in 50 CFR 2.2. Your application must contain the information and certification... preservation of the bald or golden eagle. In making such determination, the Director will consider the... prevent the damage caused by the bald or golden eagle is to take some or all of the offending birds....

  16. 50 CFR 22.23 - What are the requirements for permits to take depredating eagles and eagles that pose a risk to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... appropriate Regional Directors in 50 CFR 2.2. Your application must contain the information and certification... preservation of the bald or golden eagle. In making such determination, the Director will consider the... prevent the damage caused by the bald or golden eagle is to take some or all of the offending birds....

  17. 50 CFR 22.23 - What are the requirements for permits to take depredating eagles and eagles that pose a risk to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... appropriate Regional Directors in 50 CFR 2.2. Your application must contain the information and certification... preservation of the bald or golden eagle. In making such determination, the Director will consider the... prevent the damage caused by the bald or golden eagle is to take some or all of the offending birds....

  18. Talk with Your Doctor about Taking Aspirin Every Day

    MedlinePlus

    ... Previous section Overview 2 of 5 sections Take Action! Take Action: Talk with Your Doctor Take these steps to ... Benefits and Risks 3 of 5 sections Take Action: Aspirin Tips Use aspirin safely. If you and ...

  19. Depression and HIV Risk Taking among Men Who Have Sex with Other Men (MSM) and Who Use the Internet to Find Partners for Unprotected Sex

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Hugh

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE This study examines the prevalence of depression in a sample of MSM who are at high risk for HIV. It examines the relationship between depressive symptomatology and involvement in HIV risk behaviors, and the factors associated with greater depressive symptomatology. METHODS The data come from a national random sample of 332 MSM who used any of 16 websites to identify men with whom they could engage in unprotected sex. Data were collected via telephone interviews. RESULTS Depression was more prevalent in this population (26.7%) than among men in the general population. Depression was not related directly to any of the HIV risk behaviors examined, but it was related to men’s attitudes toward condom use, which was the strongest predictor of their involvement in risky behaviors. Five factors were identified as being associated with greater depression: lower educational attainment, greater discrimination based on sexual orientation, greater eroticizing of ejaculatory fluids, experiencing more substance abuse problems, and greater childhood maltreatment. CONCLUSIONS Depression is a consequential problem in this population. Although depression does not appear to be related directly to HIV risk practices in this population, its influence cannot be discounted because of its effects on other key predictors of risk involvement. PMID:26877831

  20. The Role of Supporters in Facilitating the Use of Technologies by Adolescents and Adults with Learning Disabilities: A Place for Positive Risk-Taking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seale, Jane

    2014-01-01

    The role of supporters in facilitating access to and use of technology by people (adolescents and adults) with learning disabilities has not been the primary focus of much of the research that has been undertaken to date. The review of literature presented in this paper suggests, however, that issues of support, risk and safety are emerging as…

  1. Assessing Risk-Taking in a Driving Simulator Study: Modeling Longitudinal Semi-Continuous Driving Data Using a Two-Part Regression Model with Correlated Random Effects

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Van; Liu, Danping; Pradhan, Anuj K.; Li, Kaigang; Bingham, C. Raymond; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Albert, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    Signalized intersection management is a common measure of risky driving in simulator studies. In a recent randomized trial, investigators were interested in whether teenage males exposed to a risk-accepting passenger took more intersection risks in a driving simulator compared with those exposed to a risk-averse peer passenger. Analyses in this trial are complicated by the longitudinal or repeated measures that are semi-continuous with clumping at zero. Specifically, the dependent variable in a randomized trial looking at the effect of risk-accepting versus risk-averse peer passengers on teenage simulator driving is comprised of two components. The discrete component measures whether the teen driver stops for a yellow light, and the continuous component measures the time the teen driver, who does not stop, spends in the intersection during a red light. To convey both components of this measure, we apply a two-part regression with correlated random effects model (CREM), consisting of a logistic regression to model whether the driver stops for a yellow light and a linear regression to model the time spent in the intersection during a red light. These two components are related through the correlation of their random effects. Using this novel analysis, we found that those exposed to a risk-averse passenger have a higher proportion of stopping at yellow lights and a longer mean time in the intersection during a red light when they did not stop at the light compared to those exposed to a risk-accepting passenger, consistent with the study hypotheses and previous analyses. Examining the statistical properties of the CREM approach through simulations, we found that in most situations, the CREM achieves greater power than competing approaches. We also examined whether the treatment effect changes across the length of the drive and provided a sample size recommendation for detecting such phenomenon in subsequent trials. Our findings suggest that CREM provides an efficient

  2. No evidence of risk-taking or impulsive behaviour in a person with episodic amnesia: Implications for the role of the hippocampus in future-regarding decision-making.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, R S; Kwan, D; Floden, D; Levine, B; Stuss, D T; Craver, C F

    2016-01-01

    Does advantageous decision-making require one to explicitly remember the outcome of a series of past decisions or to imagine future personal consequences of one's choices? Findings that amnesic people with hippocampal damage cannot form a clear preference for advantageous decks over many learning trials on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) have been taken to suggest that complex decision-making on the IGT depends on declarative (episodic) memory and hippocampal integrity. Alternatively, impaired IGT performance in amnesic individuals could be secondary to risk-taking and/or impulsive behaviour resulting from impaired episodic future thinking (i.e. prospection) known to accompany amnesia. We tested this possibility in the amnesic individual K.C. using the IGT and the Toronto Gambling Task (TGT), a novel task that dissociates impulsivity from risk-taking without placing demands on declarative memory. K.C. did not develop a preference for advantageous over disadvantageous decks on the IGT and, instead, showed a slight preference for short-term gains and an inability to acquire a more adaptive appreciation of longer-term losses. He also did not display impulsive or risk-taking behaviour on the TGT, despite a profound inability to imagine personal future experiences. These findings suggest that impaired decision-making on the IGT in amnesia is unlikely to reflect a predilection to act in the moment or failure to take future consequences into account. Instead, some forms of future-regarding decision-making may be dissociable, with performance on tasks relying on declarative learning or on episodic-constructive processes more likely to be impaired. PMID:26440609

  3. The effectiveness of power-generating complexes constructed on the basis of nuclear power plants combined with additional sources of energy determined taking risk factors into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Khrustalev, V. A.; Portyankin, A. V.

    2015-02-01

    The effectiveness of combining nuclear power plants equipped with water-cooled water-moderated power-generating reactors (VVER) with other sources of energy within unified power-generating complexes is analyzed. The use of such power-generating complexes makes it possible to achieve the necessary load pickup capability and flexibility in performing the mandatory selective primary and emergency control of load, as well as participation in passing the night minimums of electric load curves while retaining high values of the capacity utilization factor of the entire power-generating complex at higher levels of the steam-turbine part efficiency. Versions involving combined use of nuclear power plants with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units for generating electricity are considered. In view of the fact that hydrogen is an unsafe energy carrier, the use of which introduces additional elements of risk, a procedure for evaluating these risks under different conditions of implementing the fuel-and-hydrogen cycle at nuclear power plants is proposed. Risk accounting technique with the use of statistical data is considered, including the characteristics of hydrogen and gas pipelines, and the process pipelines equipment tightness loss occurrence rate. The expected intensities of fires and explosions at nuclear power plants fitted with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units are calculated. In estimating the damage inflicted by events (fires and explosions) occurred in nuclear power plant turbine buildings, the US statistical data were used. Conservative scenarios of fires and explosions of hydrogen-air mixtures in nuclear power plant turbine buildings are presented. Results from calculations of the introduced annual risk to the attained net annual profit ratio in commensurable versions are given. This ratio can be used in selecting projects characterized by the most technically attainable and socially acceptable safety.

  4. Erratum to: The prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV, and HIV-related risk-taking behaviors among Palestinian injecting drug users in the East Jerusalem Governorate.

    PubMed

    Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Chetty, Agnes; Rabie, Randa Abu; Jwehan, Isam; Ramlawi, Asad

    2012-08-01

    The objective of the study was to determine HIV, HBV, HCV seroprevalence and to assess HIV risks among Palestinian injecting drug users (IDUs) in the East Jerusalem Governorate. Following formative research, a bio-behavioral survey using respondent-driven sampling was carried out in 2010 among 199 IDUs aged 19-56 years (M = 41.33, SD = 8.09). Venous blood was drawn for biological testing. Data on drug abuse and sexual behaviors were collected by face-to-face interviewing. No HIV + cases were found. Five participants were infected with Hepatitis B and 84 participants (estimated population proportion of 40.3%) tested positive for Hepatitis C. A great majority of the surveyed IDUs (90.4%) reported using sterile injecting equipment the last time they injected. In a multivariate assessment, age (OR = 2.52, p < .05), education (OR = 6.67, p < .01), personal network size (OR = .18, p < .001), and the frequency of drug injecting in the past month (OR = .20, p < .001) were associated with using sterile injecting equipment in the past week. Condom use at most recent sexual intercourse was reported by about a third (34.2%) of IDUs. The study documented substantial exposure to HIV risks among Palestinian IDUs whose vulnerability is inseparable from sociopolitic and socioeconomic characteristics of their social environment. PMID:22782840

  5. The prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV, and HIV-related risk-taking behaviors among Palestinian injecting drug users in the East Jerusalem Governorate.

    PubMed

    Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Chetty, Agnes; Rabie, Randa Abu; Jwehan, Isam; Ramlawi, Asad

    2012-08-01

    The objective of the study was to determine HIV, HBV, HCV seroprevalence and to assess HIV risks among Palestinian injecting drug users (IDUs) in the East Jerusalem Governorate. Following formative research, a bio-behavioral survey using respondent-driven sampling was carried out in 2010 among 199 IDUs aged 19-56 years(M=41.33, SD=8.09). Venous blood was drawn for biological testing. Data on drug abuse and sexual behaviors were collected by face-to-face interviewing. No HIV+cases were found. Five participants were infected with Hepatitis B and 84 participants(estimated population proportion of 40.3 %) tested positive for Hepatitis C. A great majority of the surveyed IDUs (90.4 %) reported using sterile injecting equipment the last time they injected. In a multivariate assessment, age (OR=2.52, pG.05), education(OR=6.67, pG.01), personal network size (OR=.18, pG.001), and the frequency of drug injecting in the past month (OR=.20, pG.001) were associated with using sterile injecting equipment in the past week. Condom use at most recent sexual intercourse was reported by about a third (34.2 %) of IDUs. The study documented substantial exposure to HIV risks among Palestinian IDUs whose vulnerability is inseparable from sociopolitic and socioeconomic characteristics of their social environment [corrected]. PMID:22674463

  6. Reliability and Validity of the Youth Version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART-Y) in the Assessment of Risk-Taking Behavior among Inner-City Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejuez, C. W.; Aklin, Will; Daughters, Stacey; Zvolensky, Michael; Kahler, Christopher; Gwadz, Marya

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of the youth version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART-Y) for assessing adolescent risk behaviors among a sample of 98 inner-city African American adolescents (M age = 14.8, SD = 1.5). In addition to a relation with sensation seeking, BART-Y responding evidenced a significant relation with a…

  7. “What Does it Take to be a Man? What is a Real Man?”: Ideologies of masculinity and HIV sexual risk among Black heterosexual men

    PubMed Central

    Bowleg, Lisa; Teti, Michelle; Massie, Jenné S.; Patel, Aditi; Malebranche, David J.; Tschann, Jeanne M.

    2011-01-01

    Research documents the link between traditional ideologies of masculinity and sexual risk among multi-ethnic male adolescents and White male college students, but similar research with Black heterosexual men is scarce. This exploratory study addressed this gap through six focus groups with 41 Black, low to middle income heterosexual men aged 19 to 51 years in Philadelphia, PA. Analyses highlighted two explicit ideologies of masculinity: that Black men should have sex with multiple women, often concurrently; and that Black men should not be gay or bisexual. Analyses also identified two implicit masculinity ideologies: the perception that Black heterosexual men cannot decline sex, even risky sex; and that women are primarily responsible for condom use. The study’s implications for HIV prevention with Black heterosexual men are discussed. PMID:21390949

  8. A Synthesis of 20 Years of Research on Sexual Risk Taking Among Asian/Pacific Islander Men Who Have Sex With Men in Western Countries.

    PubMed

    Shi Shiu, Chen; Voisin, Dexter R; Chen, Wet-Ti; Lo, Yi-An; Hardestry, Melissa; Nguyen, Huong

    2016-05-01

    Over the past two decades, there has emerged a body of literature documenting a number of risk factors associated with Asian/Pacific Islander men who have sex with men's unsafe sexual behaviors. This study aims to systematically review existing empirical studies and synthesize research results into a social-ecological framework using a mixed research synthesis. Empirical research articles published in peer-reviewed journals between January 1990 and June 2013 were identified in six databases, including PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Social Work Abstract, CINAL, and Web of Knowledge. Both quantitative and qualitative studies were included. Two analysts independently reviewed the articles, and findings were organized on a social-ecological framework. Twenty-two articles were included in the analysis; among these 13 were quantitative, 8 were qualitative, and 1 was mixed-methods research. Results indicated that demographic characteristics, psychological resources, behavioral patterns, relationships with family and friends, dynamics with romantic or sexual partners, community involvement, culture, discrimination, and institutional factors were related to unprotected anal intercourse. This article presents a critique of this literature and discusses implications for future research with this population. It concludes with prevention/intervention initiatives based on review findings. PMID:25563383

  9. ONGOING SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASE ACQUISTION AND RISK TAKING BEHAVIOR AMONG U.S. HIV-INFECTED PATIENTS IN PRIMARY CARE: IMPLICATIONS FOR PREVENTION INTERVENTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Kenneth H; Bush, Timothy; Henry, Keith; Overton, Turner; Hammer, John; Richardson, Jean; Wood, Kathy; Conley, Lois; Papp, John; Caliendo, Angela M.; Patel, Pragna; Brooks, John T

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY A study of HIV-infected persons in primary care in four U.S. found that 13% had a prevalent STD at enrollment and 7% an incident STD six months later. Background To better understand the factors associated with HIV and STD transmitting behavior among HIV-infected persons, we estimated STD prevalence and incidence and associated risk factors among a diverse sample of HIV-infected patients in primary care. Methods We analyzed data from 557 participants in the SUN study, a prospective observational cohort of HIV-infected persons in primary care in four U.S. cities. At enrollment and six months thereafter, participants completed an audio computer-assisted self interview about their sexual behavior, and were screened for genitourinary, rectal and pharyngeal N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis infections by nucleic acid amplification testing, and for serologic evidence of syphilis. Women provided cervicovaginal samples and men provided urine to screen for T. vaginalis by polymerase chain reaction. Results Thirteen percent of participants had a prevalent STD at enrollment and 7% an incident STD six months later. The most commonly diagnosed infections were rectal chlamydia, oropharyngeal gonorrhea, and chlamydial urethritis among the men, and trichomoniasis among the women. Other than trichomoniasis, 94% of incident STDs were identified in MSM. Polysubstance abuse other than marijuana, and having ≥ 4 sex partners in the six months prior to testing were associated with diagnosis of an incident STD. Conclusions STDs were commonly diagnosed among contemporary HIV-infected patients receiving routine outpatient care, particularly among sexually active MSM who used recreational drugs. These findings underscore the need for frequent STD screening, prevention counseling, and substance abuse treatment for HIV-infected persons in care. PMID:22183836

  10. Talk with Your Doctor about Taking Aspirin Every Day

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk with Your Doctor about Taking Aspirin Every Day Browse Sections The Basics Overview Benefits and Risks ... sure why this works. Can taking aspirin every day cause any side effects? Taking aspirin daily isn' ...

  11. Risk.

    PubMed

    Cole, Stephen R; Hudgens, Michael G; Brookhart, M Alan; Westreich, Daniel

    2015-02-15

    The epidemiologist primarily studies transitions between states of health and disease. The purpose of the present article is to define a foundational parameter for such studies, namely risk. We begin simply and build to the setting in which there is more than 1 event type (i.e., competing risks or competing events), as well as more than 1 treatment or exposure level of interest. In the presence of competing events, the risks are a set of counterfactual cumulative incidence functions for each treatment. These risks can be depicted visually and summarized numerically. We use an example from the study of human immunodeficiency virus to illustrate concepts. PMID:25660080

  12. The Take Action Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreau, Sue

    2010-01-01

    The Take Action Project (TAP) was created to help middle school students take informed and effective action on science-related issues. The seven steps of TAP ask students to (1) choose a science-related problem of interest to them, (2) research their problem, (3) select an action to take on the problem, (4) plan that action, (5) take action, (6)…

  13. Taking multiple medicines safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000883.htm Taking multiple medicines safely To use the sharing features on this ... directed. Why you may Need More Than one Medicine You may take more than one medicine to ...

  14. Taking risks to save lives and health.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, K

    1993-01-01

    To reduce the serious health consequences of illegal abortion, the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association is providing menstrual regulation services. At present, the Association has 15 comprehensive family planning clinics located in 13 out of 27 province capitals. Initially, menstrual regulation was available only in cases of contraceptive failure, but indicators for this service were quickly broadened to meet the large demand for termination of unwanted pregnancies. The ambiguity of the 1992 health law's wording on abortion--abortion is not explicitly mentioned, in an apparent effort to alienate neither anti-abortion forces nor promoters of safe abortion--threatens to stalemate further gains for Indonesian women. Although abortionists are rarely prosecuted, family planning organizations must be cautious to avoid liability suits. The situation in Indonesia is an example of women's health being held hostage to political interests. PMID:12345326

  15. Take Steps to Reduce Heart Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... fact that heart disease remains the number one killer of both women and men in the United ... High blood pressure is often called the “silent killer” because, like high cholesterol, it usually has no ...

  16. Critical medical humanities: embracing entanglement, taking risks

    PubMed Central

    Viney, William; Callard, Felicity; Woods, Angela

    2015-01-01

    What can the medical humanities achieve? This paper does not seek to define what is meant by the medical humanities, nor to adjudicate the exact disciplinary or interdisciplinary knowledges it should offer, but rather to consider what it might be capable of doing. Exploring the many valences of the word ‘critical’, we argue here for a critical medical humanities characterised by: (i) a widening of the sites and scales of ‘the medical’ beyond the primal scene of the clinical encounter; (ii) greater attention not simply to the context and experience of health and illness, but to their constitution at multiple levels; (iii) closer engagement with critical theory, queer and disability studies, activist politics and other allied fields; (iv) recognition that the arts, humanities and social sciences are best viewed not as in service or in opposition to the clinical and life sciences, but as productively entangled with a ‘biomedical culture’; and, following on from this, (v) robust commitment to new forms of interdisciplinary and cross-sector collaboration. We go on to introduce the five other articles published in this special issue of the journal, reflecting on the ways in which collaboration and critique are articulated in their analyses of immunology, critical neuroscience, toxicity, global clinical labour, and psychological coercion and workfare. As these articles demonstrate, embracing the complex role of critical collaborator—one based on notions of entanglement, rather than servility or antagonism—will, we suggest, develop the imaginative and creative heterodox qualities and practices which have long been recognised as core strengths of the medical humanities. PMID:26052111

  17. Critical medical humanities: embracing entanglement, taking risks.

    PubMed

    Viney, William; Callard, Felicity; Woods, Angela

    2015-06-01

    What can the medical humanities achieve? This paper does not seek to define what is meant by the medical humanities, nor to adjudicate the exact disciplinary or interdisciplinary knowledges it should offer, but rather to consider what it might be capable of doing. Exploring the many valences of the word 'critical', we argue here for a critical medical humanities characterised by: (i) a widening of the sites and scales of 'the medical' beyond the primal scene of the clinical encounter; (ii) greater attention not simply to the context and experience of health and illness, but to their constitution at multiple levels; (iii) closer engagement with critical theory, queer and disability studies, activist politics and other allied fields; (iv) recognition that the arts, humanities and social sciences are best viewed not as in service or in opposition to the clinical and life sciences, but as productively entangled with a 'biomedical culture'; and, following on from this, (v) robust commitment to new forms of interdisciplinary and cross-sector collaboration. We go on to introduce the five other articles published in this special issue of the journal, reflecting on the ways in which collaboration and critique are articulated in their analyses of immunology, critical neuroscience, toxicity, global clinical labour, and psychological coercion and workfare. As these articles demonstrate, embracing the complex role of critical collaborator--one based on notions of entanglement, rather than servility or antagonism--will, we suggest, develop the imaginative and creative heterodox qualities and practices which have long been recognised as core strengths of the medical humanities. PMID:26052111

  18. Risk Taking and Rites of Passage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Scott; Martin, Lloyd

    2012-01-01

    Throughout history, young people earned adult roles through observing, imitating, and interacting with adults around them. Rituals of initiation such as the Jewish bar mitzvah and bat mitzvah are very important rite of passage ceremonies. Many churches confer baptism, confirmation, or catechism as rites of passage to adulthood. Without such…

  19. Taking Care of Your Teeth and Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... can protect your teeth from decay by using fluoride toothpaste. If you are at a higher risk ... of medicines you take), you might need more fluoride. Your dentist or dental hygienist may give you ...

  20. Taking the Long View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Robert B., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Legal studies faculty need to take the long view in their academic and professional lives. Taking the long view would seem to be a cliched piece of advice, but too frequently legal studies faculty, like their students, get focused on meeting the next short-term hurdle--getting through the next class, grading the next stack of papers, making it…

  1. A relative profile of HIV-negative users of French websites for men seeking men and predictors of their regular risk taking: a comparison with HIV-positive users.

    PubMed

    Leobon, Alain; Velter, Annie; Engler, Kim; Drouin, Marie-Claude; Otis, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    The Net Gay Barometre is a biennial survey among users of France's most popular websites for men who have sex with men (MSM). Given the recent increases in HIV infection and sexual risk practices among French MSM, this study aims to: (1) create a socio-sexual profile of HIV-negative men (HIV-); (2) identify predictors of regular unprotected anal intercourse (RUAI) in this group, and responding to a call for stratifying analyses of online samples of MSM by HIV status; and (3) perform the former two aims by comparing HIV- men with HIV-positive men (HIV+). Statistical analyses were conducted with 11,771 HIV- men and 2130 HIV+ men who completed the online survey between December 2008 and March 2009. Regarding the first aim, fewer HIV- men, relative to HIV+ men, were exposed to factors conducive to sexually transmitted infection; in the previous 12 months, smaller proportions of this group had gone to venues where sexual encounters were possible, engaged in an esoteric sexual activity, had a high number of casual partners, and practiced unprotected anal sex, RUAI or barebacking. However, multivariate regression analyses identifying predictors of RUAI in each group revealed common predictors: sensation-seeking, esoteric activities, oral contact with sperm, and barebacking (in a couple), although odds were generally higher in HIV+ men. Our findings raise the possibility of a sexual culture accentuating pleasure and adventurism that may gain in amplitude once seroconversion takes place. PMID:21218274

  2. Give/Take

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-09-12

    Give and Take are set of companion utilities that allow a secure transfer of files from one user to another without exposing the files to third parties. The named files are copied to a spool area. The reciever can retrieve the files by running the "take" program. Ownership of the files remains with the giver until they are taken. Certain users may be limited to take files only from specific givers. For these users, filesmore » may only be taken from givers who are members of the gt-uid-group where uid is the UNIX id of the limited user.« less

  3. Take Your Medicines Safely

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... better, the antibiotic is working in killing the bacteria, but it might not completely give what they call a "bactericidal effect." That means taking the bacteria completely out of the system. It might be ...

  4. Taking multiple medicines safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... falls . You are at higher risk for drug interactions. An interaction is when one medicine affects how another medicine ... interact with alcohol and even some foods. Some interactions can be serious, even life threatening. You may ...

  5. It Takes a Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Missy

    2010-01-01

    Tuscaloosa, Alabama, created a prekindergarten program for at-risk children by bringing together the entire community. With donations and volunteer help, the city managed to fund 19 classrooms serving 275 children.

  6. Take Pride in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Center for School Improvement and Performance.

    During the 1987-88 school year the Indiana Department of Education assisted the United States Department of the Interior and the Indiana Department of Natural Resources with a program which asked students to become involved in activities to maintain and manage public lands. The 1987 Take Pride in America (TPIA) school program encouraged volunteer…

  7. Teachers Taking Professional Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normore, Anthony H.; Floyd, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Preservice teachers get their first teaching position hoping to take the first step toward becoming professional educators and expecting support from experienced colleagues and administrators, who often serve as their mentors. In this article, the authors present the story of Kristine (a pseudonym), who works at a middle school in a large U.S.…

  8. Take a Bow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer, Greg; Ogurek, Douglas J.

    2009-01-01

    Performing-arts centers can provide benefits at the high school and collegiate levels, and administrators can take steps now to get the show started. When a new performing-arts center comes to town, local businesses profit. Events and performances draw visitors to the community. Ideally, a performing-arts center will play many roles: entertainment…

  9. Take time for laughter.

    PubMed

    Huntley, Mary I

    2009-01-01

    Taking time for positive laughter in the workplace every day is energizing, health-promoting, and rewarding. Humor happenings and mirthful moments are all around us; we need to be receptive to them. Research provides evidence that laughter is a powerful tool when used appropriately in our personal and professional life journey. PMID:19343850

  10. Simulating Price-Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Lucas M.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a price-takers' market simulation geared toward principles-level students. This simulation demonstrates that price-taking behavior is a natural result of the conditions that create perfect competition. In trials, there is a significant degree of price convergence in just three or four rounds. Students find this…

  11. Take action: influence diversity.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Norma J

    2013-01-01

    Increased diversity brings strength to nursing and ANNA. Being a more diverse association will require all of us working together. There is an old proverb that says: "one hand cannot cover the sky; it takes many hands." ANNA needs every one of its members to be a part of the diversity initiative. PMID:24579394

  12. Taking the thrombin "fork".

    PubMed

    Mann, Kenneth G

    2010-07-01

    The proverb that probably best exemplifies my career in research is attributable to Yogi Berra (http://www.yogiberra.com/), ie, "when you come to a fork in the road ... take it." My career is a consequence of chance interactions with great mentors and talented students and the opportunities provided by a succession of ground-breaking improvements in technology. PMID:20554951

  13. Taking Library Leadership Personally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Heather; Macauley, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines the emerging trends for leadership in the knowledge era. It discusses these within the context of leading, creating and sustaining the performance development cultures that libraries require. The first step is to recognise that we all need to take leadership personally no matter whether we see ourselves as leaders or followers.…

  14. Auditory perspective taking.

    PubMed

    Martinson, Eric; Brock, Derek

    2013-06-01

    Effective communication with a mobile robot using speech is a difficult problem even when you can control the auditory scene. Robot self-noise or ego noise, echoes and reverberation, and human interference are all common sources of decreased intelligibility. Moreover, in real-world settings, these problems are routinely aggravated by a variety of sources of background noise. Military scenarios can be punctuated by high decibel noise from materiel and weaponry that would easily overwhelm a robot's normal speaking volume. Moreover, in nonmilitary settings, fans, computers, alarms, and transportation noise can cause enough interference to make a traditional speech interface unusable. This work presents and evaluates a prototype robotic interface that uses perspective taking to estimate the effectiveness of its own speech presentation and takes steps to improve intelligibility for human listeners. PMID:23096077

  15. Take the "C" Train

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    In this essay, the author recalls several of her experiences in which she successfully pulled her boats out of river holes by throwing herself to the water as a sea-anchor. She learned this trick from her senior guides at a spring training. Her guides told her, "When you're stuck in a hole, take the "C" train."" "Meaning?" The author asked her…

  16. Physics Take-Outs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riendeau, Diane; Hawkins, Stephanie; Beutlich, Scott

    2016-03-01

    Most teachers want students to think about their course content not only during class but also throughout their day. So, how do you get your students to see how what they learn in class applies to their lives outside of class? As physics teachers, we are fortunate that our students are continually surrounded by our content. How can we get them to notice the physics around them? How can we get them to make connections between the classroom content and their everyday lives? We would like to offer a few suggestions, Physics Take-Outs, to solve this problem.

  17. Taking a Stand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2006-01-01

    More than 300 men of Japanese descent refused to be drafted into the U.S. military in the 1940s, contending that they should not risk their lives for a country that had forced 120,000 Japanese-Americans, including them and their families, into internment camps. They would be willing to fight in World War II only after Japanese-Americans were…

  18. Taking centre stage...

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-11-01

    HAMLET (Highly Automated Multimedia Light Enhanced Theatre) was the star performance at the recent finals of the `Young Engineer for Britain' competition, held at the Commonwealth Institute in London. This state-of-the-art computer-controlled theatre lighting system won the title `Young Engineers for Britain 1998' for David Kelnar, Jonathan Scott, Ramsay Waller and John Wyllie (all aged 16) from Merchiston Castle School, Edinburgh. HAMLET replaces conventional manually-operated controls with a special computer program, and should find use in the thousands of small theatres, schools and amateur drama productions that operate with limited resources and without specialist expertise. The four students received a £2500 prize between them, along with £2500 for their school, and in addition they were invited to spend a special day with the Royal Engineers. A project designed to improve car locking systems enabled Ian Robinson of Durham University to take the `Working in industry award' worth £1000. He was also given the opportunity of a day at sea with the Royal Navy. Other prizewinners with their projects included: Jun Baba of Bloxham School, Banbury (a cardboard armchair which converts into a desk and chair); Kobika Sritharan and Gemma Hancock, Bancroft's School, Essex (a rain warning system for a washing line); and Alistair Clarke, Sam James and Ruth Jenkins, Bishop of Llandaff High School, Cardiff (a mechanism to open and close the retractable roof of the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff). The two principal national sponsors of the competition, which is organized by the Engineering Council, are Lloyd's Register and GEC. Industrial companies, professional engineering institutions and educational bodies also provided national and regional prizes and support. During this year's finals, various additional activities took place, allowing the students to surf the Internet and navigate individual engineering websites on a network of computers. They also visited the

  19. Taking Care of Your Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? Taking Care of Your Vision KidsHealth > For Teens > Taking Care of Your Vision ... are important parts of keeping your peepers perfect. Vision Basics One of the best things you can ...

  20. Why Take a Prenatal Supplement?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Why take a prenatal supplement? You are here Home / Audience / Adults / Moms/ Moms-to-Be / Dietary Supplements Why take a prenatal supplement? Print Share During pregnancy, your needs increase ...