Science.gov

Sample records for river system inca-sed

  1. The Columbia River System : the Inside Story.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    The Columbia Ricer is one of the greatest natural resources in the western United States. The river and its tributaries touch the lives of nearly every resident of the Northwest-from providing the world-famous Pacific salmon to supplying the clean natural fuel for over 75 percent of the region's electrical generation. Since early in the century, public and private agencies have labored to capture the benefits of this dynamic river. Today, dozens of major water resource projects throughout the region are fed by the waters of the Columbia Basin river system. And through cooperative efforts, the floods that periodically threaten developments near the river can be controlled. This publication presents a detailed explanation of the planning and operation of the multiple-use dams and reservoirs of the Columbia River system. It describes the river system, those who operate and use it, the agreements and policies that guide system operation, and annual planning for multiple-use operation.

  2. Flood trends and river engineering on the Mississippi River system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pinter, N.; Jemberie, A.A.; Remo, J.W.F.; Heine, R.A.; Ickes, B.S.

    2008-01-01

    Along >4000 km of the Mississippi River system, we document that climate, land-use change, and river engineering have contributed to statistically significant increases in flooding over the past 100-150 years. Trends were tested using a database of >8 million hydrological measurements. A geospatial database of historical engineering construction was used to quantify the response of flood levels to each unit of engineering infrastructure. Significant climate- and/or land use-driven increases in flow were detected, but the largest and most pervasive contributors to increased flooding on the Mississippi River system were wing dikes and related navigational structures, followed by progressive levee construction. In the area of the 2008 Upper Mississippi flood, for example, about 2 m of the flood crest is linked to navigational and flood-control engineering. Systemwide, large increases in flood levels were documented at locations and at times of wing-dike and levee construction. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    SciTech Connect

    CERTA PJ

    2008-07-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, the ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of the approximately 57 million gallons of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in September 2003. ORP has approved a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. The ORP has established contracts to implement this strategy to establish a basic capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategy for completion of the mission uses a number of interrelated activities. The ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) for treatment and disposal; (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) and about half of the low-activity waste (LAW) contained in the tank farms, and maximizing its capability and capacity; (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability or a second WTP LAW Facility that can safely treat about half of the LAW contained in the tank farms; (4) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for transuranic (TRU) tank waste for shipment to and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); (5) Deploying interim storage capacity for the immobilized HLW and shipping that waste to Yucca Mountain for disposal; (6) Operating the Integrated Disposal Facility for the disposal of immobilized LAW, along with the associated secondary waste, (7) Closing the SST and DST tank farms, ancillary facilities, and al1 waste

  4. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    SciTech Connect

    CERTA PJ; KIRKBRIDE RA; HOHL TM; EMPEY PA; WELLS MN

    2009-09-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of approximately 57 million gallons 1 of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure2 of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in May 2008. ORP has made a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. ORP has contracts in place to implement the strategy for completion of the mission and establish the capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategl involves a number of interrelated activities. ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by the following: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) and delivering the waste to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) fraction contained in the tank farms. About one-third of the low-activity waste (LAW) fraction separated from the HLW fraction in the WTP will be immobilized in the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility. (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability assumed to be a second LAW vitrification facility that can safely treat about two-thirds of the LAW contained in the tank farms. (4) Developing and deploying supplemental pretreatment capability currently assumed to be an Aluminum Removal Facility (ARF) using a lithium hydrotalcite process to mitigate sodium management issues. (5) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) tank waste for possible shipment to and disposal

  5. The Columbia River System Inside Story

    SciTech Connect

    2001-04-01

    The Columbia River is one of the greatest natural resources in the western United States. The river and its tributaries touch the lives of nearly every resident of the Pacific Northwest—from fostering world-famous Pacific salmon to supplying clean natural fuel for 50 to 65 percent of the region’s electrical generation. Since early in the 20th century, public and private agencies have labored to capture the benefits of this dynamic river. Today, dozens of major water resource projects throughout the region are fed by the waters of the Columbia Basin river system.

  6. River system environmental modeling and simulation methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, N.B.

    1981-01-01

    Several computer models have been built to examine pollution in rivers. However, the current state of the art in this field emphasizes problem solving using specific programs. A general methodology for building and simulating models of river systems is lacking. Thus, the purpose of this research was to develop a methodology which can be used to conceptualize, visualize, construct and analyze using simulation, models of pollution in river systems. The conceptualization and visualization of these models was facilitated through a network representation. The implementation of the models was accomplished using the capabilities of an existing simulation language, GASP V. The methodology also provides data management facilities for model outputs through the use of the Simulation Data Language (SDL), and high quality plotting facilities through the use of the graphics package DISSPLA (Display Integrated Software System and Plotting Language). Using this methodology, a river system is modeled as consisting of certain elements, namely reaches, junctions, dams, reservoirs, withdrawals and pollutant sources. All these elements of the river system are described in a standard form which has been implemented on a computer. This model, when executed, produces spatial and temporal distributions of the pollutants in the river system. Furthermore, these outputs can be stored in a database and used to produce high quality plots. The result of this research is a methodology for building, implementing and examining the results of models of pollution in river systems.

  7. Flood Forecasting in River System Using ANFIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Nazrin; Choudhury, P.

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate applicability of artificial intelligence techniques such as ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System) in forecasting flood flow in a river system. The proposed technique combines the learning ability of neural network with the transparent linguistic representation of fuzzy system. The technique is applied to forecast discharge at a downstream station using flow information at various upstream stations. A total of three years data has been selected for the implementation of this model. ANFIS models with various input structures and membership functions are constructed, trained and tested to evaluate efficiency of the models. Statistical indices such as Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Correlation Coefficient (CORR) and Coefficient of Efficiency (CE) are used to evaluate performance of the ANFIS models in forecasting river flood. The values of the indices show that ANFIS model can accurately and reliably be used to forecast flood in a river system.

  8. Flood Forecasting in River System Using ANFIS

    SciTech Connect

    Ullah, Nazrin; Choudhury, P.

    2010-10-26

    The aim of the present study is to investigate applicability of artificial intelligence techniques such as ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System) in forecasting flood flow in a river system. The proposed technique combines the learning ability of neural network with the transparent linguistic representation of fuzzy system. The technique is applied to forecast discharge at a downstream station using flow information at various upstream stations. A total of three years data has been selected for the implementation of this model. ANFIS models with various input structures and membership functions are constructed, trained and tested to evaluate efficiency of the models. Statistical indices such as Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Correlation Coefficient (CORR) and Coefficient of Efficiency (CE) are used to evaluate performance of the ANFIS models in forecasting river flood. The values of the indices show that ANFIS model can accurately and reliably be used to forecast flood in a river system.

  9. Taking the Pulse of a River System: Research on the Upper Mississippi River System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, Jennifer; Johnson, Barry

    2009-01-01

    Mark Twain raved about the Mississippi River basin as, 'the body of the Nation'. The 'upper body', upstream of the confluence with the Ohio River, includes commercially navigable reaches and branching tributaries that are recreationally and environmentally important. Together they feed and shelter an array of fish and wildlife in their flowing channels, floodplain lakes, backwaters, wetlands, and floodplain forests. Effective river management requires knowledge about factors controlling the dynamics and interactions of important ecosystem components. The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) is the prized diagnostic tool in the Environmental Management Program for the Upper Mississippi River System that provides critical information about the status and trends of key environmental resources.

  10. Carbon pathways in the Seine river system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marescaux, Audrey; Garnier, Josette; Thieu, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Many papers have recently suggested that the anthropogenic perturbations of the carbon cycle have led to a significant increase in carbon export from terrestrial ecosystems to inland waters. The quantification of the carbon cascade (including fate of CO2 emissions) in highly anthropized river systems is thus essential to understand the response of aquatic systems. The Seine Basin where Paris and its environs represent 2/3 of its population, and agriculture is particularly intensive, is a eutrophic system. The main aim of this research is to understand and quantify how an excess of anthropogenic nutrients entering the Seine River system may locally enhance primary production, C sequestration, C respiration and CO2 emissions. The development of a new CO2 module in the pre-existing biogeochemical Riverstrahler model (Billen et al., 2007) should enable a refined calculation of the carbon budget. Besides calculation of the Respiration and Production activities along the entire river continuum, it will directly associate CO2 emissions. The CO2 modelling results will be confronted to (i) direct (in-situ) measurements with a non-dispersive infrared gas analyzer and (ii) indirect measurements based on total alkalinity, carbonate and pH along the Seine river system during the last decades, and (iii) calculations of a C metabolism budget. Billen, G., Garnier, J., Némery, J., Sebilo, M., Sferratore, A., Barles, S., Benoit P., Benoît, M. (2007). A long-term view of nutrient transfers through the Seine river continuum. Science of the Total Environment, 375(1-3), 80-97. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.12.005

  11. Health evaluation indicator system for urban landscape rivers, case study of the Bailianjing River in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juan; Wang, Yue; Yang, Haizhen; Lu, Zhibo; Xu, Xiaotian

    2010-11-01

    The River Bailianjing is an iconic landscape feature known to all residents in Pudong area and running through the Shanghai Expo 2010 Park. The river and its basin was a complex living ecosystem which supports a unique variety of flora and fauna several decades ago. However, as a result of unsuccessful pollution source control, sewage and first flow of the storm water is directly coming into the river in some catchment. The water quality of the river is seriously organically polluted now. The typical organic pollutants are COD, NH3-N, TN and TP, which cause the extinction of the water plants and aquatic. Furthermore, the artificial hard river banks isolate the river course and the land, which damaged the whole ecological system totally. The nature of the River Bailianjing and its history has resulted in many government departments and authorities and non government organizations having jurisdiction and/or an interest in the river's management. As a new tool to improve river management, the river health assessment has become the major focus of ecological and environmental science. Consequently, research on river health evaluation and its development on river management are of great theoretical and practical significance. In order to evaluate the healthy status of the River Bailianjing and prepare comprehensive scientific background data for the integrated river ecological rehabilitation planning, the health evaluation indicator system for River Bailianjing is brought forward. The indicator system has three levels: the first is target layer; the second is criteria layer, including five fields: water quality characteristics, hydrology characteristics, river morphology, biological characteristics and river scenic beauty; the third is an index layer, a total of 15 specific indicators included. Fuzzy AHP method is used to evaluate the target river's health status, and five grades are set up to describe it: healthy, sub health, marginal, unhealthy and pathological. The

  12. Initial river test of a monostatic RiverSonde streamflow measurement system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teague, C.C.; Barrick, D.E.; Lilleboe, P.M.; Cheng, R.T.

    2003-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted on May 7-8, 2002 using a CODAR RiverSonde UHF radar system at Vernalis, California on the San Joaquin River. The monostatic radar configuration on one bank of the river, with the antennas looking both upriver and downriver, provided very high-quality data. Estimates of both along-river and cross-river surface current were generated using several models, including one based on normal-mode analysis. Along-river surface velocities ranged from about 0.6 m/s at the river banks to about 1.0 m/s near the middle of the river. Average cross-river surface velocities were 0.02 m/s or less.

  13. The watershed and river systems management program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markstrom, S.L.; Frevert, D.; Leavesley, G.H.

    2005-01-01

    The Watershed and River System Management Program (WaRSMP), a joint effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), is focused on research and development of decision support systems and their application to achieve an equitable balance among diverse water resource management demands. Considerations include: (1) legal and political constraints; (2) stake holder and consensus-building; (3) sound technical knowledge; (4) flood control, consumptive use, and hydropower; (5) water transfers; (6) irrigation return flows and water quality; (7) recreation; (8) habitat for endangered species; (9) water supply and proration; (10) near-surface groundwater; and (11) water ownership, accounting, and rights. To address the interdisciplinary and multi-stake holder needs of real-time watershed management, WaRSMP has developed a decision support system toolbox. The USGS Object User Interface facilitates the coupling of Reclamation's RiverWare reservoir operations model with the USGS Modular Modeling and Precipitation Runoff Modeling Systems through a central database. This integration is accomplished through the use of Model and Data Management Interfaces. WaRSMP applications include Colorado River Main stem and Gunnison Basin, the Yakima Basin, the Middle Rio Grande Basin, the Truckee-Carson Basin, and the Umatilla Basin.

  14. River Protection Project information systems assessment

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, A.L.

    1999-07-28

    The Information Systems Assessment Report documents the results from assessing the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Hanford Data Integrator 2000 (HANDI 2000) system, Business Management System (BMS) and Work Management System phases (WMS), with respect to the System Engineering Capability Assessment Model (CAM). The assessment was performed in accordance with the expectations stated in the fiscal year (FY) 1999 Performance Agreement 7.1.1, item (2) which reads, ''Provide an assessment report on the selected Integrated Information System by July 31, 1999.'' This report assesses the BMS and WMS as implemented and planned for the River Protection Project (RPP). The systems implementation is being performed under the PHMC HANDI 2000 information system project. The project began in FY 1998 with the BMS, proceeded in FY 1999 with the Master Equipment List portion of the WMS, and will continue the WMS implementation as funding provides. This report constitutes an interim quality assessment providing information necessary for planning RPP's information systems activities. To avoid confusion, HANDI 2000 will be used when referring to the entire system, encompassing both the BMS and WMS. A graphical depiction of the system is shown in Figure 2-1 of this report.

  15. Taking the pulse of a river system: first 20 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leake, Linda; Johnson, Barry

    2006-01-01

    Your doctor would not base decisions for your health care today on one physical examination when you were age three! You would reasonably expect decisions to be based on records from over your lifetime. Likewise, those responsible for monitoring the health of the Upper Mississippi River System want a more comprehensive way to diagnose problems and find treatment options. To begin developing a comprehensive view of the river, the five neighboring states of the Upper Mississippi River System and several Federal agencies formed a partnership in 1986 to monitor river conditions and long-term trends in the Upper Mississippi and Illinois Rivers.

  16. Mitigation and enhancement techniques for the Upper Mississippi River system and other large river systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schnick, Rosalie A.; Morton, John M.; Mochalski, Jeffrey C.; Beall, Jonathan T.

    1982-01-01

    Extensive information is provided on techniques that can reduce or eliminate the negative impact of man's activities (particularly those related to navigation) on large river systems, with special reference to the Upper Mississippi River. These techniques should help resource managers who are concerned with such river systems to establish sound environmental programs. Discussion of each technique or group of techniques include (1) situation to be mitigated or enhanced; (2) description of technique; (3) impacts on the environment; (4) costs; and (5) evaluation for use on the Upper Mississippi River Systems. The techniques are divided into four primary categories: Bank Stabilization Techniques, Dredging and Disposal of Dredged Material, Fishery Management Techniques, and Wildlife Management Techniques. Because techniques have been grouped by function, rather than by structure, some structures are discussed in several contexts. For example, gabions are discussed for use in revetments, river training structures, and breakwaters. The measures covered under Bank Stabilization Techniques include the use of riprap revetments, other revetments, bulkheads, river training structures, breakwater structures, chemical soil stabilizers, erosion-control mattings, and filter fabrics; the planting of vegetation; the creation of islands; the creation of berms or enrichment of beaches; and the control of water level and boat traffic. The discussions of Dredging and the Disposal of Dredged Material consider dredges, dredging methods, and disposal of dredged material. The following subjects are considered under Fishery Management Techniques: fish attractors; spawning structures; nursery ponds, coves, and marshes; fish screens and barriers; fish passage; water control structures; management of water levels and flows; wing dam modification; side channel modification; aeration techniques; control of nuisance aquatic plants; and manipulated of fish populations. Wildlife Management

  17. National wild and scenic rivers system, January 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey; U.S. Forest Service; U.S. Bureau of Land Management; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; U.S. Park Service

    2000-01-01

    The National Wild and Scenic Rivers System was created by Congress in 1968 (Public Law 90-542; 16 U.S.C 1271 et seq.) to preserve certain rivers with outstanding natural cultural, or recreational features in a free flowing condition for enjoyment of present and future generations. As of January 2000, the National System has grown from its initial eight components to a 156-river system with representation in 37 states.

  18. Radium and barium in the Amazon River system

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, W.S.; Edmond, J.M.

    1984-03-20

    Data for /sup 226/Ra and /sup 228/Ra in the Amazon River system show that the activity of each radium isotope is strongly correlated with barium concentrations. Two trends are apparent, one for rivers which drain shield areas and another for all other rivers. These data suggest that there has been extensive fractionation of U, Th, and Ba during weathering in the Amazon basin. The /sup 226/Ra data fit a flux model for the major ions indicating that /sup 226/Ra behaves conservatively along the main channel of the Amazon River.

  19. Diazotrophy in Alluvial Meadows of Subarctic River Systems

    PubMed Central

    DeLuca, Thomas H.; Zackrisson, Olle; Bergman, Ingela; Díez, Beatriz; Bergman, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    There is currently limited understanding of the contribution of biological N2 fixation (diazotrophy) to the N budget of large river systems. This natural source of N in boreal river systems may partially explain the sustained productivity of river floodplains in Northern Europe where winter fodder was harvested for centuries without fertilizer amendments. In much of the world, anthropogenic pollution and river regulation have nearly eliminated opportunities to study natural processes that shaped early nutrient dynamics of large river systems; however, pristine conditions in northern Fennoscandia allow for the retrospective evaluation of key biochemical processes of historical significance. We investigated biological N2 fixation (diazotrophy) as a potential source of nitrogen fertility at 71 independent floodplain sites along 10 rivers and conducted seasonal and intensive analyses at a subset of these sites. Biological N2 fixation occurred in all floodplains, averaged 24.5 kg N ha−1 yr−1 and was down regulated from over 60 kg N ha−1 yr−1 to 0 kg N ha−1 yr−1 by river N pollution. A diversity of N2-fixing cyanobacteria was found to colonize surface detritus in the floodplains. The data provide evidence for N2 fixation to be a fundamental source of new N that may have sustained fertility at alluvial sites along subarctic rivers. Such data may have implications for the interpretation of ancient agricultural development and the design of contemporary low-input agroecosystems. PMID:24223119

  20. Investigation of Pearl River data collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The reliability of employing NASA developed remote sensing for in situ near real time monitoring of water quality in the Pearl River is evaluated. The placement, operation and maintenance of a number of NASA developed data collection platforms (DCP's) on the Pearl River are described. The reception, processing, and retransmission of water quality data from an ERTS satellite to the Mississippi Air and Water Pollution Control Commission (MAWPCC) via computer linkup are assessed.

  1. RSMM: a network language for modeling pollutants in river systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, N.B.; Standridge, C.R.; Schnoor, J.L.

    1983-06-01

    Predicting the steady state distribution of pollutants in rivers is important for water quality managers. A new simulation language, the River System Modeling Methodology (RSMM), helps users construct simulation models for analyzing river pollution. In RSMM, a network of nodes and branches represents a river system. Nodes represent elements such as junctions, dams, withdrawals, and pollutant sources; branches represent homogeneous river segments, or reaches. The RSMM processor is a GASP V program. Models can employ either the embedded Streeter-Phelps equations or user supplied equations. The user describes the network diagram with GASP-like input cards. RSMM outputs may be printed or stored in an SDL database. An interface between SDL and DISSPLA provides high quality graphical output.

  2. Benchmarking wide swath altimetry-based river discharge estimation algorithms for the Ganges river system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnema, Matthew G.; Sikder, Safat; Hossain, Faisal; Durand, Michael; Gleason, Colin J.; Bjerklie, David M.

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness of three algorithms that estimate discharge from remotely sensed observables (river width, water surface height, and water surface slope) in anticipation of the forthcoming NASA/CNES Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission. SWOT promises to provide these measurements simultaneously, and the river discharge algorithms included here are designed to work with these data. Two algorithms were built around Manning's equation, the Metropolis Manning (MetroMan) method, and the Mean Flow and Geomorphology (MFG) method, and one approach uses hydraulic geometry to estimate discharge, the at-many-stations hydraulic geometry (AMHG) method. A well-calibrated and ground-truthed hydrodynamic model of the Ganges river system (HEC-RAS) was used as reference for three rivers from the Ganges River Delta: the main stem of Ganges, the Arial-Khan, and the Mohananda Rivers. The high seasonal variability of these rivers due to the Monsoon presented a unique opportunity to thoroughly assess the discharge algorithms in light of typical monsoon regime rivers. It was found that the MFG method provides the most accurate discharge estimations in most cases, with an average relative root-mean-squared error (RRMSE) across all three reaches of 35.5%. It is followed closely by the Metropolis Manning algorithm, with an average RRMSE of 51.5%. However, the MFG method's reliance on knowledge of prior river discharge limits its application on ungauged rivers. In terms of input data requirement at ungauged regions with no prior records, the Metropolis Manning algorithm provides a more practical alternative over a region that is lacking in historical observations as the algorithm requires less ancillary data. The AMHG algorithm, while requiring the least prior river data, provided the least accurate discharge measurements with an average wet and dry season RRMSE of 79.8% and 119.1%, respectively, across all rivers studied. This poor

  3. Fragmentation and Flow Regulation of the World's Large River Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidy, C.; Nilsson, C.; Dynesius, M.; Revenga, C.

    2005-12-01

    Humans have extensively altered river systems through impoundments and diversions to meet their water, energy and transportation needs. Here we present a global overview of flow regulation and channel fragmentation by dams in the world's large river systems (LRSs), which comprise a total virgin mean annual discharge (the discharge before any significant human manipulations) of some 790,000 m3s-1, or 60% of the world's river runoff. Over half of the systems (172 out of 292) are impacted by dams, including the eight most biogeographically diverse. In terms of summed LRS discharge and catchment area, the proportions of impacted rivers are 84% and 88%, respectively. The greatest flow regulation (428%) is reported for the Volta river system in Africa, and regulation is beyond 250% in both the Manicougan and Colorado systems in North and Central America. Dam-impacted catchments experience higher irrigation pressure and about 25 times as much economic activity per unit of water as do unaffected catchments. In view of projected changes in climate, land use and water stress, these findings can be used to identify ecohydrological risks associated with further impacts on large river systems.

  4. Decomposing the Unsteady Flow Routing in River Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez Cunya, L. A.; Leon, A.; Gibson, N. L.; Vasylkivska, V.

    2014-12-01

    This work presents an optimization-based domain decomposition strategy for unsteady flow routing in complex river systems. This strategy couples the domain decomposition technique with a Precomputed Channel Hydraulics Ensemble approach, known also as HydraulicPerformance Graph (HPG), which utilizes precomputed solutions along reaches on a river system. These solutions are stored in a database. While efficient and robust, HPGs requires extensive memory allocation, especially for high resolution simulations. Decomposing the river system into subdomains reduces computer memory constraints as each sub-domain is solved independently. Further, an optimization method is used to couple the sub-domains using the stored precomputed solution. In turn, the computational efficiency of the HPG approach allows the optimization-based scheme to be competitive with a whole domain methodology. The combined strategy is expected to reduce the overall computational time for large-scale problems. This work discusses the results of the application to the Columbia River (Northwest USA).

  5. Genetic variability analysis of Giant river catfish (Sperata seenghala) populations from Indus river system by RAPD-PCR.

    PubMed

    Saini, A; Dua, A; Mohindra, V

    2010-08-01

    The Giant river catfish, Sperata seenghala (Sykes) is commercially very important fish species of South Asia. Genetic variability between its populations collected from two rivers i.e. river Sutlej and river Beas of Indus river system in India were examined using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Total 38 fish samples were collected from river Sutlej whereas 46 fish samples were collected from river Beas. Total 40 primers were screened, out of these 7 were selected for studying polymorphism which produced a total of 64 RAPD loci in two populations. Percentage polymorphic loci calculated following 95% criterion was 89.06% for Beas population as compared to 95.31% for Sutlej population. Moderate level of genetic divergence (genetic distance of 0.0486) between both the populations suggests distinct population substructure of giant river catfish in both the rivers. PMID:20873207

  6. [Analysis of pollution levels of 16 antibiotics in the river water of Daliao River water system].

    PubMed

    Yang, Changqing; Wang, Longxing; Hou, Xiaohong; Chen, Jiping

    2012-08-01

    The detection of the pollution level of antibiotics in Daliao River system is a meaningful work. Sixteen antibiotics (6 sulfonamides, 5 fluoroquinolones, 3 tetracyclines and 2 chloramphenicols) were simultaneously quantified with solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In the SPE procedure, methanol and 2% (v/v) ammonia/methanol were used as the elution solvents in sequence to reduce the elution volume and improve the recovery. The results showed that this method have good sensitivity and enrichment effect for the target antibiotics in aqueous water, the recoveries ranged from 69.5% to 122.6%, the detection limits ranged from 0.05 ng/L to 0.32 ng/L. Thirteen antibiotics were found in the river water of Daliao River water system. Sulfa antibiotics were widely distributed, in which sulfamethoxazole was detected in all the sampling sites. The concentration of fluoroquinolones was relatively high in some sampling sites. The highest detection concentration of enoxacin was 41.3 ng/L. The frequencies and concentrations of tetracyclines and chloramphenicols were lower. In the upper reaches of the river, the concentrations of the 4 types of antibiotics appeared lower, but around the large cities such as Shenyang City, Benxi City, Liaoyang City, the concentrations showed higher levels. The study indicated that the Daliao River water system suffered from the pollution of antibiotics to a certain extent. PMID:23256376

  7. Bringing science into river systems cumulative effects assessment practice

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Nicole E.; Westbrook, Cherie J.; Noble, Bram F.

    2011-04-15

    Fast-paced watershed change, driven by anthropogenic development, is threatening the sustainability of freshwater resources across the globe. Developments within watersheds interact in a manner that is additive and synergistic over space and time. Such cumulative environmental effects are defined as the results of actions that are individually minor but collectively significant when added to other past, present, and reasonably foreseeable future actions. Cumulative effects assessment (CEA) then is broadly defined as the process of evaluating the potential impacts of such collective actions on the environment and is a requirement in many countries, including in Canada at the federal level under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. However, current approaches to CEA for river systems are proving to be ineffective, which is largely attributed to the disconnect between CEA science and practice. We highlight this gap herein by discussing contradictions in the CEA literature, challenges in quantifying cumulative interactions, including overcoming spatiotemporal scale issues, multiple hydrologic and ecological pathways, and lack of predictive analysis. Our analysis shows there is a need for improved CEA for river systems, and in responding to this need we propose a conceptual framework for better integrating science and practice for improved CEA for river systems using one of the most adversely affected rivers basins in Canada, the Athabasca River, as our model. We conclude by addressing the challenges inherent to CEA with the intent of providing scientists with ways to help improve CEA of river systems.

  8. General classification handbook for floodplain vegetation in large river systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieck, Jennifer J.; Ruhser, Janis; Hoy, Erin E.; Robinson, Larry R.

    2015-01-01

    This handbook describes the General Wetland Vegetation Classification System developed as part of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ Upper Mississippi River Restoration (UMRR) Program, Long Term Resource Monitoring (LTRM) element. The UMRR is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the states of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, and Wisconsin. The classification system consists of 31 general map classes and has been used to create systemic vegetation data layers throughout the diverse Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS), which includes the commercially navigable reaches of the Mississippi River from Minneapolis, Minnesota, in the north to Cairo, Illinois, in the south, the Illinois River, and navigable portions of the Kaskaskia, Black, St. Croix, and Minnesota Rivers. In addition, this handbook describes the evolution of the General Wetland Vegetation Classification System, discusses the process of creating a vegetation data layer, and describes each of the 31 map classes in detail. The handbook also acts as a pictorial guide to each of the map classes as they may appear in the field, as well as on color-infrared imagery. This version is an update to the original handbook published in 2004.

  9. Decision Support Systems and Management of The River Elbe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wind, H. G.

    The European Community demands the development of a river basin management plan for all European rivers. The European Commission has also defined a number of objectives that must be met, for instance water quality etc. For a specific river additional objectives can be formulated for other functions which are satisfied by the river like shipping, nature, water quantity etc. The objectives can be regarded as a solution space. The objectives should be satisfied under criteria such as a safe transport of water, ice and sediment. The collection of measures can be seen as a measures space. In the plan of action of the river basin management plan is outlined by which set of measures (or by which part of the measures space) the present state should be transferred into the desired state. The selection of that set of measures which is acceptable for all relevant actors, is complicated by the various demands of the actors, knowledge about impacts of measures, availability of data and the impact of processes which are outside the borders of the system. In order to support this selection process, use can be made of a decision support system. For various rivers such as the Elbe and the Danube such a system is presently under construction. During the presentation some research questions related to the development of decision support systems will be outlined, such as: Integration of social systems, ecological systems and physical systems. Internal consistency of models, data and information demand. Time horizon related to the stiffness of the model system and the external developments. Information supply and information demand: a fallacy?

  10. Deltaic responses to dam regulation on river system: Example of the Yellow River, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Bi, N.; Saito, Y.; Wu, X.; Wang, A.

    2014-12-01

    Construction and operation of large dams in river basins have trapped large volumes of freshwater and sediment, which not only alters the natural seasonal rhythm of river hydrological cycles, but also creates a disconnection between rivers and their deltas. As a result, the water and sediment discharged to the coastal ocean have been greatly reduced, which triggers profound responses in coastal region including delta destruction, accelerated rise of relative sea level and changes in coastal primary production. The Yellow River has been a well documented system with significant impacts of dam regulation. Recent sediment load and freshwater (2002-2012) delivered to the sea have been reduced to 0.16 billion tones per year and 17.9 km3/yr, approximately 13% and 34% of those in 1950s-1960s, a period without significant dam impacts. Dam interception and dam-facilitated water regulation play a dominated role in reducing the flux of water and sediment to the sea, as well as in changing the grain-size composition of sediment. Consequently, the process of estuarine sediment dynamics has changed and the delta has recently been converted into a destructive phase with strong coastal erosion due to insufficient rive sediment supply although the accretion of the active delta lobe was evident because of rapid local deposition of coarsening river sediment around the river mouth. The delta coast erosion has thus become a major source for sediment transport in the Bohai Sea and even to those in the Yellow Sea given the critical role of monsoonal climate on coastal resuspension and coastal currents. Delta erosion and subsidence have therefore accelerated the rate of relative sea-level rise, considerably higher than the global mean, which has put the mega-delta to be at risk. In addition, recent works have identified two peaks of chlorophyll-a within annual cycle in the delta coastal region, one of which is closely associated with the river delivery of nutrients transferred with

  11. Documenting spatial diversity and complexity in a large tropical river system: implications for river health and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, R.; Mohanta, H.; Tandon, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    The Ganga River system in India is a large, complex system consisting of several long tributaries, some >1000 km, from two distinct hinterlands - the Himalayas to the north and the cratons to the south. Traversing through a diverse climatic regime across the Plain and through precipitation zones ranging from 600 mm/year near Delhi to 1200 mm/year in the eastern plains, the Ganga River system has formed very diverse landform assemblages in its major domains that include a) hinterlands, b) northern Plain, c) southern Plain, d) main valley system, e) interfluve systems, and f) major tributaries. Using satellite images, mapping of the Ganga River channel belt and its active floodplain from Gangotri (source) to Farakka (upstream of its confluence with the Brahmaputra) has brought out extreme diversity in channel form, active floodplain and valley margin characteristics, and reach-scale fluvial processes. Following a modified River Style Framework, we have recognized a total of 10 different river styles for the trunk river from Gangotri to Farakka based on a) landscape setting, b) channel and active floodplain properties, and c) channel planform parameters. The mountainous stretch is characterized by steep valleys and bedrock channels, and is dominated by large-scale sediment production and transport through hill slope processes. The alluvial part of the river is characterized by 8 different styles of varying reach lengths (60-300 km) many of which show sharp transitions in landscape setting e.g. from piedmont to valley-interfluve and from alluvial to craton margin. Each river style in the alluvial reaches has a distinctive set of morphological parameters primarily driven by the dominant fluvial process operating in that stretch such as channel instability and river dynamics, channel incision or aggradation and frequent flooding. Our study has provided a physical template for characterizing the complexity of a large river system and for reach-scale geomorphic assessment

  12. A fast shutdown system for SRS (Savannah River Site) reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, N.P.

    1990-01-01

    Power has been sharply reduced at Savannah River Site (SRS) reactors in large part to ensure that no bulk boiling occurs during hypothesized loss of coolant accidents. A fast shutdown system is essential to regain much of this lost power. Computations and experiments indicate that a He-3 injection system will serve this function. Instrumented tests of a full system are planned for early 1991 for one of the SRS reactors. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Understanding Socio-Hydrology System in the Kissimmee River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Wang, D.; Tian, F.; Sivapalan, M.

    2014-12-01

    This study is to develop a conceptual socio-hydrology model for the Kissimmee River Basin. The Kissimmee River located in Florida was channelized in mid-20 century for flood protection. However, the environmental issues caused by channelization led Floridians to conduct a restoration project recently, focusing on wetland recovery. As a complex coupled human-water system, Kissimmee River Basin shows the typical socio-hydrology interactions. Hypothetically, the major reason to drive the system from channelization to restoration is that the community sensitivity towards the environment has changed from controlling to restoring. The model developed in this study includes 5 components: water balance, flood risk, wetland area, crop land area, and community sensitivity. Furthermore, urban population and rural population in the basin have different community sensitivities towards the hydrologic system. The urban population, who live further away from the river are more sensitive to wetland restoration; while the rural population, who live closer to the river are more sensitive to flood protection. The power dynamics between the two groups and its impact on management decision making is described in the model. The model is calibrated based on the observed watershed outflow, wetland area and crop land area. The results show that the overall focus of community sensitivity has changed from flood protection to wetland restoration in the past 60 years in Kissimmee River Basin, which confirms the study hypothesis. There are two main reasons for the community sensitivity change. Firstly, people's flood memory is fading because of the effective flood protection, while the continuously shrinking wetland and the decreasing bird and fish population draw more and more attention. Secondly, in the last 60 years, the urban population in Florida drastically increased compared with a much slower increase of rural population. As a result, the community sensitivity of urban population towards

  14. Large-scale flow experiments for managing river systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, C.P.; Olden, J.D.; Lytle, D.A.; Melis, T.S.; Schmidt, J.C.; Bray, E.N.; Freeman, Mary C.; Gido, K.B.; Hemphill, N.P.; Kennard, M.J.; McMullen, L.E.; Mims, M.C.; Pyron, M.; Robinson, C.T.; Williams, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental manipulations of streamflow have been used globally in recent decades to mitigate the impacts of dam operations on river systems. Rivers are challenging subjects for experimentation, because they are open systems that cannot be isolated from their social context. We identify principles to address the challenges of conducting effective large-scale flow experiments. Flow experiments have both scientific and social value when they help to resolve specific questions about the ecological action of flow with a clear nexus to water policies and decisions. Water managers must integrate new information into operating policies for large-scale experiments to be effective. Modeling and monitoring can be integrated with experiments to analyze long-term ecological responses. Experimental design should include spatially extensive observations and well-defined, repeated treatments. Large-scale flow manipulations are only a part of dam operations that affect river systems. Scientists can ensure that experimental manipulations continue to be a valuable approach for the scientifically based management of river systems. ?? 2011 by American Institute of Biological Sciences. All rights reserved.

  15. Large-scale flow experiments for managing river systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, Christopher P.; Olden, Julian D.; Lytle, David A.; Melis, Theodore S.; Schmidt, John C.; Bray, Erin N.; Freeman, Mary C.; Gido, Keith B.; Hemphill, Nina P.; Kennard, Mark J.; McMullen, Laura E.; Mims, Meryl C.; Pyron, Mark; Robinson, Christopher T.; Williams, John G.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental manipulations of streamflow have been used globally in recent decades to mitigate the impacts of dam operations on river systems. Rivers are challenging subjects for experimentation, because they are open systems that cannot be isolated from their social context. We identify principles to address the challenges of conducting effective large-scale flow experiments. Flow experiments have both scientific and social value when they help to resolve specific questions about the ecological action of flow with a clear nexus to water policies and decisions. Water managers must integrate new information into operating policies for large-scale experiments to be effective. Modeling and monitoring can be integrated with experiments to analyze long-term ecological responses. Experimental design should include spatially extensive observations and well-defined, repeated treatments. Large-scale flow manipulations are only a part of dam operations that affect river systems. Scientists can ensure that experimental manipulations continue to be a valuable approach for the scientifically based management of river systems.

  16. The Delaware River Basin Landsat-Data Collection System Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This experiment successfully demonstrated that standard U.S. Geological Survey field instrumentation could be easily interfaced with the LANDSAT-DCS and the data made to flow smoothly to water resources management agencies. The experiment was conducted in the Delaware River basin. A truly operational system could not be deployed.

  17. Biodiversity under threat in glacier-fed river systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Dean; Milner, Alexander M.; Brown, Lee E.; Dangles, Olivier

    2012-05-01

    Freshwater biodiversity is under threat across the globe, with climate change being a significant contributor. One impact of climate change is the rapid shrinking of glaciers, resulting in a reduction in glacial meltwater contribution to river flow in many glacierized catchments. These changes potentially affect the biodiversity of specialized glacier-fed river communities. Perhaps surprisingly then, although freshwater biodiversity is a major conservation priority, the effects of shrinkage and disappearance of glaciers on river biodiversity have hitherto been poorly quantified. Here we focus on macroinvertebrates (mainly insect larvae) and demonstrate that local (α) and regional (γ) diversity, as well as turnover among reaches (β-diversity), will be consistently reduced by the shrinkage of glaciers. We show that 11-38% of the regional species pools, including endemics, can be expected to be lost following complete disappearance of glaciers in a catchment, and steady shrinkage is likely to reduce taxon turnover in proglacial river systems and local richness at downstream reaches where glacial cover in the catchment is less than 5-30%. Our analysis demonstrates not only the vulnerability of local biodiversity hotspots but also that extinction will probably greatly exceed the few known endemic species in glacier-fed rivers.

  18. High resolution river routing in the Community Climate System Model

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson III, David J; Drake, John B

    2009-12-01

    The current version of the Community Climate System Model CCSM uses half degree resolution river routing within the land component of CCSM. We present a scaling approach and status on a project to produce a much higher resolution data set for river routing to go along with higher resolution land cover data sets for the Community Land Model CLM in order to take advantage of the increasing computational power now available. The new higher resolution data set is based on the Hydrosheds and Hydro1K datasets from USGS. The flow directions are used to generate basins so that the computational load can be distributed among processors by basins to minimize the parallel communication necessary. The code modifications will make the river component more scalable and efficient. The higher resolution models enable detailed study of climatic effects from human induced land cover/land use changes such as the deployment of biofuel crops for energy production.

  19. Application of the Australian river bioassessment system (AUSRIVAS) in the Brantas River, East Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hart, B T; Davies, P E; Humphrey, C L; Norris, R N; Sudaryanti, S; Trihadiningrum, Y

    2001-05-01

    Assessment of river 'health' using biological methods, particularly those based on macro-invertebrates, is now commonplace in most developed countries. However, this is not the case in most developing countries, where physical and chemical methods are used to assess water quality, with very little use of biological assessment methods. This paper reports on a project that aimed to assess the possible introduction of biological assessment of river condition using the Australian River Assessment System (AUSRIVAS) into Indonesia. The paper addresses three components of the project: (1) science--does the bioassessment method work in this tropical region? (2) resources--are they adequate and if not what additional resources are needed? (3) politics--what needs to be done to convince the agencies (both central and provincial) to take up such a new philosophy and approach? A pilot study was run in the upper Brantas River, East Java. A total of 66 reference sites and 15 test sites were sampled and the macro-invertebrates collected were identified to family level. A rigorous quality-control protocol was introduced to ensure the data were reliable and reproducible. The macro-invertebrate data were used to develop a predictive model of the AUSRIVAS type for the upper Brantas River, and the model was then used to assess the 'health' of sites that were presumed to be damaged in this section of the river. A number of difficulties were experienced during the study, including: locating reference sites sufficiently unmodified by humans; lack of skills to identify animals collected; and a paucity of facilities required for aquatic macro-invertebrate identification (e.g. identification keys and good quality binocular microscopes). For resources, the major constraint to the introduction of a bioassessment capability in Indonesia is the lack of personnel trained in the bioassessment techniques. An 'on-the-job' training approach was adopted, largely because of the specialist nature of

  20. River discharge influences on particulate organic carbon age structure in the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenheim, Brad E.; Roe, Kimberly M.; Roberts, Brian J.; Kolker, Alexander S.; Allison, Mead A.; Johannesson, Karen H.

    2013-01-01

    Applying ramped pyrolysis radiocarbon analysis to suspended river sediments, we generate radiocarbon (14C) age spectra for particulate organic carbon (POC) from the lower Mississippi-Atchafalaya River system (MARS) to better understand a major river system's role in carbon transport. Ramped pyrolysis 14C analysis generates age distributions of bulk carbon based on thermochemical stability of different organic components. Our results indicate higher proportions of older material in the POC during higher discharge. Ages increase throughout the high-discharge age spectra, indicating that no single component of the POC is responsible for the overall age increases observed. Instead, older material is contributed across the POC age spectrum and unrelated to increased bedload suspension. In this comparison of 2 spring discharges, less than half of the POC transported during higher discharge is less than 1000 14C years in age, constraining of the role of the MARS as a flux of atmospheric CO2 toward longer-term sedimentary sinks in the Mississippi delta and the Gulf of Mexico. The results suggest that delta-building processes benefit disproportionately from high discharge events carrying larger amounts of sediment because these events involve both a higher proportion of millennially-aged carbon from floodplain exchange of POC and a potentially higher proportion of petrogenic carbon (30-530% increase). Overall, an internally consistent picture of PO14C age distributions from a major river system emerges, as differences in space and time are small compared to the range of ages of POC sources in such a large basin.

  1. Nonnative Fishes in the Upper Mississippi River System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irons, Kevin S.; DeLain, Steven A.; Gittinger, Eric; Ickes, Brian S.; Kolar, Cindy S.; Ostendort, David; Ratcliff, Eric N.; Benson, Amy J.

    2009-01-01

    The introduction, spread, and establishment of nonnative species is widely regarded as a leading threat to aquatic biodiversity and consequently is ranked among the most serious environmental problems facing the United States today. This report presents information on nonnative fish species observed by the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program on the Upper Mississippi River System a nexus of North American freshwater fish diversity for the Nation. The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program, as part of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Environmental Management Plan, is the Nation's largest river monitoring program and stands as the primary source of standardized ecological information on the Upper Mississippi River System. The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program has been monitoring fish communities in six study areas on the Upper Mississippi River System since 1989. During this period, more than 3.5 million individual fish, consisting of 139 species, have been collected. Although fish monitoring activities of the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program focus principally on entire fish communities, data collected by the Program are useful for detecting and monitoring the establishment and spread of nonnative fish species within the Upper Mississippi River System Basin. Sixteen taxa of nonnative fishes, or hybrids thereof, have been observed by the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program since 1989, and several species are presently expanding their distribution and increasing in abundance. For example, in one of the six study areas monitored by the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program, the number of established nonnative species has increased from two to eight species in less than 10 years. Furthermore, contributions of those eight species can account for up to 60 percent of the total annual catch and greater than 80 percent of the observed biomass. These observations are critical because the Upper Mississippi River System stands as a nationally significant pathway for

  2. Impacts of urbanization on river system structure: a case study on Qinhuai River Basin, Yangtze River Delta.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaomin; Xu, Youpeng; Han, Longfei; Yang, Liu

    2014-01-01

    Stream structure is usually dominated by various human activities over a short term. An analysis of variation in stream structure from 1979 to 2009 in the Qinhuai River Basin, China, was performed based on remote sensing images and topographic maps by using ArcGIS. A series of river parameters derived from river geomorphology are listed to describe the status of river structure in the past and present. Results showed that urbanization caused a huge increase in the impervious area. The number of rivers in the study area has decreased and length of rivers has shortened. Over the 30 years, there was a 41.03% decrease in river length. Complexity and stability of streams have also changed and consequently the storage capacities of river channels in intensively urbanized areas are much lower than in moderately urbanized areas, indicating a greater risk of floods. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the urban disturbance to rivers. PMID:25116497

  3. Spiritual Care Education and Rural Systems in Swan River.

    PubMed

    Curry, Janel; McCallum, Margaret; Rodriguez V, Jorge Juan

    2016-03-01

    The provision of spiritual care, and the training of spiritual care providers, must be embedded within the larger systems (economic, social, generational, and environmental) and communities within which clients reside. This study analyzes the results of a systems approach to CPE training that focused on the rural context of Swan River, Manitoba. It addresses the need for new approaches to contextualizing CPE training and for understanding the uniqueness of rural contexts in particular. PMID:26956751

  4. Interactive Forecasting with the National Weather Service River Forecast System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, George F.; Page, Donna

    1993-01-01

    The National Weather Service River Forecast System (NWSRFS) consists of several major hydrometeorologic subcomponents to model the physics of the flow of water through the hydrologic cycle. The entire NWSRFS currently runs in both mainframe and minicomputer environments, using command oriented text input to control the system computations. As computationally powerful and graphically sophisticated scientific workstations became available, the National Weather Service (NWS) recognized that a graphically based, interactive environment would enhance the accuracy and timeliness of NWS river and flood forecasts. Consequently, the operational forecasting portion of the NWSRFS has been ported to run under a UNIX operating system, with X windows as the display environment on a system of networked scientific workstations. In addition, the NWSRFS Interactive Forecast Program was developed to provide a graphical user interface to allow the forecaster to control NWSRFS program flow and to make adjustments to forecasts as necessary. The potential market for water resources forecasting is immense and largely untapped. Any private company able to market the river forecasting technologies currently developed by the NWS Office of Hydrology could provide benefits to many information users and profit from providing these services.

  5. An intelligent agent for optimal river-reservoir system management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieker, Jeffrey D.; Labadie, John W.

    2012-09-01

    A generalized software package is presented for developing an intelligent agent for stochastic optimization of complex river-reservoir system management and operations. Reinforcement learning is an approach to artificial intelligence for developing a decision-making agent that learns the best operational policies without the need for explicit probabilistic models of hydrologic system behavior. The agent learns these strategies experientially in a Markov decision process through observational interaction with the environment and simulation of the river-reservoir system using well-calibrated models. The graphical user interface for the reinforcement learning process controller includes numerous learning method options and dynamic displays for visualizing the adaptive behavior of the agent. As a case study, the generalized reinforcement learning software is applied to developing an intelligent agent for optimal management of water stored in the Truckee river-reservoir system of California and Nevada for the purpose of streamflow augmentation for water quality enhancement. The intelligent agent successfully learns long-term reservoir operational policies that specifically focus on mitigating water temperature extremes during persistent drought periods that jeopardize the survival of threatened and endangered fish species.

  6. [Spatiotemporal variation of epilithic algae in Xiangxi River system].

    PubMed

    Jia, Xing-huan; Wu, Nai-cheng; Tang, Tao; Cai, Qing-hua

    2008-04-01

    Xiangxi River system is the greatest branch in the Hubei reservoir area of the Three Gorges reservoir. In this paper, the epilithic algae in the River and its three major tributaries were investigated from July 2005 to June 2006. A total of 218 taxa were identified, including 183 species of Bacillariophyta, 24 species of Chlorophyta, 10 species of Cyanophyta, and one species of Xanthophyta. The diatom Achnanthes linearis was the most predominant species. The richness and Shannon-Wiener diversity indices varied significantly (or almost significantly) over time and space, and the total average values were 32 and 1.54, respectively. The total averages of annual epilithic algal density and chlorophyll a concentration were 8.75 x 10(9) cells x m(-2) and 14.62 mg x m(-2), respectively. There were significant differences in the algal density and chlorophyll a concentration among different sampling sites, and the maximum values were observed in Gufu River tributary, which were one order of magnitude higher than the minimum ones in Jiuchong River tributary. The algal density and chlorophyll a concentration tended to be higher in winter and spring than in summer and autumn, but no significant differences were observed in various seasons. Epilithic algal density and chlorophyll a concentration were significantly negatively correlated with elevation and water current, but positively correlated with the total nitrogen concentration in water. PMID:18593053

  7. Micro-meteorology monitoring system over Nakdong river in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    changbum, Cho; jae-young, Byon; rang, Kim kyu; byoung-cheol, Choi

    2014-05-01

    National Institute of Meteorological Research established micro-meteorology monitoring system at the Nakdong River of South Korea since 2010 in order to study the micro-meteorological impact due to nationwide major river development project. A total of 37 automatic weather stations are in operation at areas near the dams which were constructed as part of this project. The weather stations mainly measure air temperature, humidity, and wind, with some of the stations measuring radiation and heat fluxes. More than half of the stations are installed on agricultural areas and the rest are installed in an industrial area. The data collected from the stations are used to observe the micrometeorological system and used as an input to numerical models, which compose a meteorological environment impact assessment tool.

  8. Laboratory robotics systems at the Savannah River Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dyches, G M; Burkett, S D

    1983-01-01

    Many analytical chemistry methods normally used at the Savannah River site require repetitive procedures and handling of radioactive and other hazardous solutions. Robotics is being investigated as a method of reducing personnel fatigue and radiation exposure and also increasing product quality. Several applications of various commercially available robot systems are discussed involving cold (nonradioactive) and hot (radioactive) sample preparations and glovebox waste removal. Problems encountered in robot programming, parts fixturing, design of special robot hands and other support equipment, glovebox operation, and operator-system interaction are discussed. A typical robot system cost analysis for one application is given.

  9. Global analysis of river systems: from Earth system controls to Anthropocene syndromes.

    PubMed Central

    Meybeck, Michel

    2003-01-01

    Continental aquatic systems from rivers to the coastal zone are considered within two perspectives: (i) as a major link between the atmosphere, pedosphere, biosphere and oceans within the Earth system with its Holocene dynamics, and (ii) as water and aquatic biota resources progressively used and transformed by humans. Human pressures have now reached a state where the continental aquatic systems can no longer be considered as being controlled by only Earth system processes, thus defining a new era, the Anthropocene. Riverine changes, now observed at the global scale, are described through a first set of syndromes (flood regulation, fragmentation, sediment imbalance, neo-arheism, salinization, chemical contamination, acidification, eutrophication and microbial contamination) with their related causes and symptoms. These syndromes have direct influences on water uses, either positive or negative. They also modify some Earth system key functions such as sediment, water, nutrient and carbon balances, greenhouse gas emissions and aquatic biodiversity. Evolution of river syndromes over the past 2000 years is complex: it depends upon the stages of regional human development and on natural conditions, as illustrated here for the chemical contamination syndrome. River damming, eutrophication and generalized decrease of river flow due to irrigation are some of the other global features of river changes. Future management of river systems should also consider these long-term impacts on the Earth system. PMID:14728790

  10. An extensive reef system at the Amazon River mouth.

    PubMed

    Moura, Rodrigo L; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M; Moraes, Fernando C; Brasileiro, Poliana S; Salomon, Paulo S; Mahiques, Michel M; Bastos, Alex C; Almeida, Marcelo G; Silva, Jomar M; Araujo, Beatriz F; Brito, Frederico P; Rangel, Thiago P; Oliveira, Braulio C V; Bahia, Ricardo G; Paranhos, Rodolfo P; Dias, Rodolfo J S; Siegle, Eduardo; Figueiredo, Alberto G; Pereira, Renato C; Leal, Camille V; Hajdu, Eduardo; Asp, Nils E; Gregoracci, Gustavo B; Neumann-Leitão, Sigrid; Yager, Patricia L; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B; Fróes, Adriana; Campeão, Mariana; Silva, Bruno S; Moreira, Ana P B; Oliveira, Louisi; Soares, Ana C; Araujo, Lais; Oliveira, Nara L; Teixeira, João B; Valle, Rogerio A B; Thompson, Cristiane C; Rezende, Carlos E; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2016-04-01

    Large rivers create major gaps in reef distribution along tropical shelves. The Amazon River represents 20% of the global riverine discharge to the ocean, generating up to a 1.3 × 10(6)-km(2) plume, and extensive muddy bottoms in the equatorial margin of South America. As a result, a wide area of the tropical North Atlantic is heavily affected in terms of salinity, pH, light penetration, and sedimentation. Such unfavorable conditions were thought to imprint a major gap in Western Atlantic reefs. We present an extensive carbonate system off the Amazon mouth, underneath the river plume. Significant carbonate sedimentation occurred during lowstand sea level, and still occurs in the outer shelf, resulting in complex hard-bottom topography. A permanent near-bottom wedge of ocean water, together with the seasonal nature of the plume's eastward retroflection, conditions the existence of this extensive (~9500 km(2)) hard-bottom mosaic. The Amazon reefs transition from accretive to erosional structures and encompass extensive rhodolith beds. Carbonate structures function as a connectivity corridor for wide depth-ranging reef-associated species, being heavily colonized by large sponges and other structure-forming filter feeders that dwell under low light and high levels of particulates. The oxycline between the plume and subplume is associated with chemoautotrophic and anaerobic microbial metabolisms. The system described here provides several insights about the responses of tropical reefs to suboptimal and marginal reef-building conditions, which are accelerating worldwide due to global changes. PMID:27152336

  11. ALARA Overview System at Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Station.

    PubMed

    Kline, K B; Cope, W B

    1995-08-01

    During the Spring of 1994 the Health Physics Department at Florida Power Company used video and audio equipment to support remote health physics coverage for their Crystal River Unit 3 refueling outage (Refuel 9). The system consisted of eight cameras with audio interface linked to a control center located in a low-dose area. The system allowed health physics personnel to monitor steam generator and refueling activities with minimum exposure in high-dose areas, cutting by half the dose from the previous outage. B&W Nuclear Technologies provided complete setup, maintenance and tear-down, as well as assuming responsibilities for contaminated video and audio equipment. PMID:7622378

  12. The Mattole River Estuary: Restoration Efforts in a Dynamic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, D.; Liquori, M.

    2010-12-01

    Despite extensive scientific advancement integrating our understanding of hydrology, geomorphology, and ecology in recent decades, the application of restoration in the field has been slow to evolve. This presentation will highlight 20 years of restoration practices in the Mattole River Estuary and how these practices have informed our understanding of this complex system. The Mattole River Watershed is a 304 square-mile basin located near the Mendocino Triple Junction in a remote region of California known as the “The Lost Coast” for its rugged mountains and undeveloped coastline. In addition to numerous species of fish, mammals, and over 250 bird species, the Mattole Watershed is home to three Federally-listed Threatened salmonids: California Coastal Chinook salmon, Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts coho salmon, and Northern California steelhead trout. The 64 mile-long river meets the Pacific Ocean at the northern end of the 64,000 acre King Range National Conservation Area (KRNCA), managed by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The watershed is dynamic, with some of the nation’s highest annual rainfall (mean = 158 cm/yr), naturally occurring steep slopes, erosive sedimentary geology, and frequent earthquakes. All of these factors have amplified the negative effects of extensive logging and associated road building between 1945 and 1970, which left a legacy of increased sediment loads and high water temperatures that have yet to recover to pre-disturbance levels, severely impairing riparian and aquatic habitats. Prior to major land disturbances, the Mattole estuary/lagoon was notable for its deep, thermally-stratified pools and numerous functioning north and south bank slough channels that flushed sediments from the river and received marine water. As flows decline in late spring, a sandbar closes off surface flow from the river to the Pacific Ocean, forming a lagoon, which persists until flows increase in the fall. Today, the estuary is poor

  13. Genetic fragmentation in India's third longest river system, the Narmada.

    PubMed

    Khedkar, Gulab D; Jamdade, Rahul; Kalyankar, Amol; Tiknaik, Anita; Ron, Tetsuzan Benny; Haymer, David

    2014-01-01

    India's third longest river, the Narmada, is studied here for the potential effects on native fish populations of river fragmentation due to various barriers including dams and a waterfall. The species we studied include a cyprinid fish, Catla catla, and a mastacembelid, Mastacembelus armatus, both of which are found in the Narmada. Our goal was to use DNA sequence information from the D-loop region of the mitochondrial DNA to explore how this fragmentation could impact the genetic structure of these fish populations. Our results clearly show that these barriers can contribute to the fragmentation of the genetic structure of these fish communities, Furthermore, these barriers enhance the effects of natural isolation by distance and the asymmetry of dispersal flows. This may be a slow process, but it can create significant isolation and result in genetic disparity. In particular, populations furthest upstream having low migration rates could be even more subject to genetic impoverishment. This study serves as a first report of its kind for a river system on the Indian subcontinent. The results of this study also emphasize the need for appropriate attention towards the creation of fish passages across the dams and weirs that could help in maintaining biodiversity. PMID:25126486

  14. A SEDIMENT TOXICITY EVALUATION OF THREE LARGE RIVER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment toxicity samples were collected from selected sites on the Ohio River, Missouri River and upper Mississippi River as part of the 2004 and 2005 Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program-Great Rivers Ecosystems Study (EMAP-GRE). Samples were collected by compositing...

  15. Low altitude aerial photogrammetry application to braided river systems. Example of the Buech River, Alps, France.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jules Fleury, Thomas; Pothin, Virginie; Vella, Claude; Dussouillez, Philippe; Izem, Abdelkoddouss

    2015-04-01

    Low-altitude aerial photogrammetry offers new opportunities for geomorphology and other fields requiring very high-resolution topographic data. It combines the advantages of the reproducibility of GPS topographic surveys with the high accuracy of LIDAR, but at relatively low-cost, easy-to-deploy and with the synaptic advantage of remote sensing. In order to evaluate the potential of photogrammetry on river systems and to assess river-bed changes and erosion-accretion processes, we conducted several surveys over the period of one year on the Buech river, a gravel-bed braided river located in the French Southern Alps. The study area is located directly upstream of a gravel pit and there is an interest in evaluating its effects on the riverbed. Our field protocol was comprised of vertical aerial photographs taken from a microlight aircraft flying approximately 300 ft above the ground. The equipment used was a full-frame DSLR with a wide angle lense, synchronised with a DGPS onboard. Fourty 40cm wide targets were placed on the ground and georeferenced by RTK DGPS with an accuracy of 2cm. In addition, close to one thousand Ground Control Points (GCPs) were measured within the different types of ground surfaces (vegetated, water, gravels) in order to assess the Digital Terrain Model (DTM) accuracy. We operated the production of the 3D model and its derived products: Digital Surface Model (DSM) and orthophotography, with user-friendly Agisoft (c) Photoscan Professional software. The processing of several hundred pictures with 2.5 cm ground resolution resulted in a DSM with a resolution of 10 cm and a vertical accuracy within 5 cm. As is expected, accuracy was best on bare bars and decreased with increasing vegetation density. To complement the DSM in the wetted channels, we used the orthophotos to establish a relationship between water color and flow depth using statistical multivariate regressions. Merging the bathymetric model and the DSM produced a DTM with a vertical

  16. Fragmentation and Flow Regulation of River Systems in the Northern Third the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dynesius, Mats; Nilsso, Christer

    1994-11-01

    Seventy-seven percent of the total water discharge of the 139 largest river systems in North America north of Mexico, in Europe, and in the republics of the former Soviet Union is strongly or moderately affected by fragmentation of the river channels by dams and by water regulation resulting from reservoir operation, interbasin diversion, and irrigation. The remaining free-flowing large river systems are relatively small and nearly all situated in the far north, as are the 59 medium-sized river systems of Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Denmark. These conditions indicate that many types of river ecosystems have been lost and that the populations of many riverine species have become highly fragmented. To improve the conservation of biodiversity and the sustainable use of biological resources, immediate action is called for to create an international preservation network of free-flowing river systems and to rehabilitate exploited rivers in areas that lack unaffected watercourses.

  17. An extensive reef system at the Amazon River mouth

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Rodrigo L.; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M.; Moraes, Fernando C.; Brasileiro, Poliana S.; Salomon, Paulo S.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Bastos, Alex C.; Almeida, Marcelo G.; Silva, Jomar M.; Araujo, Beatriz F.; Brito, Frederico P.; Rangel, Thiago P.; Oliveira, Braulio C. V.; Bahia, Ricardo G.; Paranhos, Rodolfo P.; Dias, Rodolfo J. S.; Siegle, Eduardo; Figueiredo, Alberto G.; Pereira, Renato C.; Leal, Camille V.; Hajdu, Eduardo; Asp, Nils E.; Gregoracci, Gustavo B.; Neumann-Leitão, Sigrid; Yager, Patricia L.; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; Fróes, Adriana; Campeão, Mariana; Silva, Bruno S.; Moreira, Ana P. B.; Oliveira, Louisi; Soares, Ana C.; Araujo, Lais; Oliveira, Nara L.; Teixeira, João B.; Valle, Rogerio A. B.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Rezende, Carlos E.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2016-01-01

    Large rivers create major gaps in reef distribution along tropical shelves. The Amazon River represents 20% of the global riverine discharge to the ocean, generating up to a 1.3 × 106–km2 plume, and extensive muddy bottoms in the equatorial margin of South America. As a result, a wide area of the tropical North Atlantic is heavily affected in terms of salinity, pH, light penetration, and sedimentation. Such unfavorable conditions were thought to imprint a major gap in Western Atlantic reefs. We present an extensive carbonate system off the Amazon mouth, underneath the river plume. Significant carbonate sedimentation occurred during lowstand sea level, and still occurs in the outer shelf, resulting in complex hard-bottom topography. A permanent near-bottom wedge of ocean water, together with the seasonal nature of the plume’s eastward retroflection, conditions the existence of this extensive (~9500 km2) hard-bottom mosaic. The Amazon reefs transition from accretive to erosional structures and encompass extensive rhodolith beds. Carbonate structures function as a connectivity corridor for wide depth–ranging reef-associated species, being heavily colonized by large sponges and other structure-forming filter feeders that dwell under low light and high levels of particulates. The oxycline between the plume and subplume is associated with chemoautotrophic and anaerobic microbial metabolisms. The system described here provides several insights about the responses of tropical reefs to suboptimal and marginal reef-building conditions, which are accelerating worldwide due to global changes. PMID:27152336

  18. Environmental state of aquatic systems in the Selenga River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinkareva, Galina; Lychagin, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    The transboundary river system of Selenga is the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal (about 50 % of the total inflow) which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the environmental state of the river aquatic system. The main source of industrial waste in the Republic of Buryatia (Russia) is mining and in Mongolia it is mainly gold mining. Our study aimed to determine the present pollutant levels and main features of their spatial distribution in water, suspended matter, bottom sediments and water plants in the Selenga basin. The results are based on materials of the 2011 (July-August) field campaign carried out both in Russian and Mongolian part of the basin. The study revealed rather high levels of dissolved Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo in the Selenga River water which often are higher than maximum permissible concentrations for water fishery in Russia. In Russian part of the basin most contrast distribution is found for W and Mo, which is caused by mineral deposits in this area. The study showed that Mo and Zn migrate mainly in dissolved form, since more than 70% of Fe, Al, and Mn are bound to the suspended solids. Suspended sediments in general are enriched by As, Cd and Pb in relation to the lithosphere averages. Compared to the background values rather high contents of Mo, Cd, and Mn were found in suspended matter of Selenga lower Ulan-Ude town. Transboundary transport of heavy metals from Mongolia is going both in dissolved and suspended forms. From Mongolia in diluted form Selenga brings a significant amount of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo. Suspended solids are slightly enriched with Pb, Cu, and Mn, in higher concentration - Mo. The study of the Selenga River delta allowed determining biogeochemical specialization of the region: aquatic plants accumulate Mn, Fe, Cu, Cd, and to

  19. UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS FOR THE TECHA RIVER DOSIMETRY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.; Degteva, M. O.; Shagina, N. B.; Anspaugh, L. R.

    2013-04-01

    Uncertainties in the doses estimated for the members of the Techa River Cohort (TRC) are being estimated with a two-dimensional Monte Carlo approach. In order to provide more accurate and precise estimates of individual dose (and thus more precise estimates of radiation risk) for the members of the TRC, a new dosimetric calculation system, the Techa River Dosimetry System-2009 (TRDS-2009) has been prepared. The deterministic version of the improved dosimetry system TRDS-2009D was basically completed in April 2009. Recent developments in evaluation of dose-response models in light of uncertain dose have highlighted the importance of different types of uncertainties in the development of individual dose estimates. These include uncertain parameters that may be either shared (common to some or all individuals) or unshared (a unique value for each person whose dose is to be estimated) within the dosimetric cohort. The nature of the type of uncertainty may be aleatory (random variability of true values due to stochastic processes) or epistemic (due to lack of complete knowledge about a unique quantity). Finally, there is a need to identify whether the structure of the errors is either related to measurement (the estimate differs from the true value by an error that is stochastically independent of the true value; frequently called classical uncertainty) or related to grouping (the true value varies from the estimate by an error that is random and is independent of the estimate; frequently called Berkson uncertainty). An approach has been developed that identifies the nature of the various input parameters and calculational methods incorporated in the Techa River Dosimetry System (based on the TRDS-2009D implementation), and a stochastic calculation model has been prepared to estimate the uncertainties in the dose estimates. This article reviews the concepts of uncertainty analysis, the equations, and input parameters, and then identifies the authors’ interpretations

  20. River Systems Classification- Towards Inland Water Height Retrieval from Sentinel3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, P. A. M.; Smith, R. G.; Salloway, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    The advent of SAR altimeters presents both opportunities and challenges for retrieval of river surface heights. While lake levels have been well monitored by prior altimeter missions, these missions had varying success at capturing the more challenging river targets. This paper examines the global capability of prior altimeters over rivers and presents statistics showing that Envisat was the most successful altimeter to date for river monitoring. The requirement for one ‘clean’ echo is found to be the fundamental constraint on river height retrieval. A detailed Cryosat2 data analysis is performed over three river systems to provide a forward look towards Sentinel3 performance over inland water. Both SAR and LRM echoes are analysed. More than 70% of echoes are found to be complex multi-target responses, a far higher proportion than in previous missions; however, ‘clean’ water echoes are found throughout all three river systems and in both SAR and LRM modes.

  1. Invasion of the Upper Mississippi River System by Saltwater Amphipods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zoobenthos surveys of the Great Rivers of the Upper Mississippi River basin (Missouri, Mississippi, and Ohio Rivers) provided an opportunity for documenting a series of invasions by euryhaline amphipods. The corophiid amphipod Apocorophium lacustre was first found in the Ohio Ri...

  2. Invasive Macroinvertebrates in the Upper Mississippi River system: Recent Findings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zoobenthos surveys of the great rivers of the Upper Mississippi River basin (Missouri, Upper Mississippi, and Ohio Rivers) in 2004-2006 revealed new invasions by marine and estuarine amphipods. The gammarid amphipods Echinogammarus ischnus and Gammarus tigrinus were discovered i...

  3. Fair Water Allocation in Complex International River Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, L.; Bernauer, T.

    2011-12-01

    Conflicts over water allocation in international freshwater systems are recurring phenomena, and climatic changes are likely to make existing problems worse in many parts of the world. Science-based proposals for water allocation frequently focus on allocating water to the economically most efficient purposes. In reality, allocation outcomes are often shaped by political and economic power, rather than considerations of economic efficiency. This paper develops a new approach to fair international water allocation in complex international freshwater systems. This approach covers both needs-based criteria - if acute water scarcity is present - and criteria for fair water allocation pertaining to relative gains in water-abundant situations. The usefulness of the approach is illustrated with a case study on the Zambezi River Basin (ZRB). Based on a hydrological model, and scenarios for water availability and demand in the ZRB until 2050, the paper shows how the waters of the ZRB could be allocated in a way that fairly distributes costs and benefits.

  4. Montana Rivers Information System : Edit/Entry Program User's Manual.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks

    1992-07-01

    The Montana Rivers Information System (MRIS) was initiated to assess the state`s fish, wildlife, and recreation value; and natural cultural, and geologic features. The MRIS is now a set of data bases containing part of the information in the Natural Heritage Program natural features and threatened and endangered species data bases and comprises of the Montana Interagency Stream Fisheries Database; the MDFWP Recreation Database; and the MDFWP Wildlife Geographic Information System. The purpose of this User`s Manual is to describe to the user how to maintain the MRIS database of their choice by updating, changing, deleting, and adding records using the edit/entry programs; and to provide to the user all information and instructions necessary to complete data entry into the MRIS databases.

  5. A brief history and summary of the effects of river engineering and dams on the Mississippi River system and delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, Jason S.; Wilson, Richard C.; Green, W. Reed

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Forecast Mekong project is providing technical assistance and information to aid management decisions and build science capacity of institutions in the Mekong River Basin. A component of this effort is to produce a synthesis of the effects of dams and other engineering structures on large-river hydrology, sediment transport, geomorphology, ecology, water quality, and deltaic systems. The Mississippi River Basin (MRB) of the United States was used as the backdrop and context for this synthesis because it is a continental scale river system with a total annual water discharge proportional to the Mekong River, has been highly engineered over the past two centuries, and the effects of engineering have been widely studied and documented by scientists and engineers. The MRB is controlled and regulated by dams and river-engineering structures. These modifications have resulted in multiple benefits including navigation, flood control, hydropower, bank stabilization, and recreation. Dams and other river-engineering structures in the MRB have afforded the United States substantial socioeconomic benefits; however, these benefits also have transformed the hydrologic, sediment transport, geomorphic, water-quality, and ecologic characteristics of the river and its delta. Large dams on the middle Missouri River have substantially reduced the magnitude of peak floods, increased base discharges, and reduced the overall variability of intraannual discharges. The extensive system of levees and wing dikes throughout the MRB, although providing protection from intermediate magnitude floods, have reduced overall channel capacity and increased flood stage by up to 4 meters for higher magnitude floods. Prior to major river engineering, the estimated average annual sediment yield of the Mississippi River Basin was approximately 400 million metric tons. The construction of large main-channel reservoirs on the Missouri and Arkansas Rivers, sedimentation in dike

  6. A Hierarchical Modeling Approach to Simulating the Geomorphic Response of River Systems to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praskievicz, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is expected to change the discharge and sediment-transport regime of river systems. Because rivers adjust their channels to accommodate their typical inputs of water and sediment, changes in these variables can potentially alter river morphology. Here, I developed and applied a hierarchical modeling approach to examine potential changes in reach-averaged bedload transport and spatial patterns of erosion and deposition for three snowmelt-dominated gravel-bed rivers in the interior Pacific Northwest (the Tucannon River in southeastern Washington and the South Fork Coeur d'Alene and Red rivers in Idaho). The modeling hierarchy was based on discharge and suspended-sediment load from a basin-scale hydrologic model driven by a range of downscaled climate-change scenarios. In the field, I collected channel morpholohy and sediment grain-size data for all three rivers. To estimate changes in reach-averaged bedload transport, I used the Bedload Assessment of Gravel-bedded Streams (BAGS) software. I then used the Cellular Automaton Evolutionary Slope and River (CAESAR) model to simulate the spatial pattern of erosion and deposition within each reach to infer potential changes in channel geometry and planform. Results from the BAGS sediment-transport formulas indicate that changes in the duration of the critical discharge needed to mobilize bed sediments are the primary drivers of changes in reach-averaged sediment transport. CAESAR modeling results include changes in river morphology for the two higher-energy river reaches, but no significant morphological changes for a lower-energy reach with steep, cohesive banks, suggesting that the geomorphic response of river systems to climate change may depend on how reach characteristics affect a river's relative stability or mobility. Changes in sediment transport and river morphology resulting from climate change could affect the management of river systems for human and ecological uses.

  7. Advancement of Global-scale River Hydrodynamics Modelling and Its Potential Applications to Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, D.

    2015-12-01

    Global river routine models have been developed for representing freshwater discharge from land to ocean in Earth System Models. At the beginning, global river models had simulated river discharge along a prescribed river network map by using a linear-reservoir assumption. Recently, in parallel with advancement of remote sensing and computational powers, many advanced global river models have started to represent floodplain inundation assuming sub-grid floodplain topography. Some of them further pursue physically-appropriate representation of river and floodplain dynamics, and succeeded to utilize "hydrodynamic flow equations" to realistically simulate channel/floodplain and upstream/downstream interactions. State-of-the-art global river hydrodynamic models can well reproduce flood stage (e.g. inundated areas and water levels) in addition to river discharge. Flood stage simulation by global river models can be potentially coupled with land surface processes in Earth System Models. For example, evaporation from inundated water area is not negligible for land-atmosphere interactions in arid areas (such as the Niger River). Surface water level and ground water level are correlated each other in flat topography, and this interaction could dominate wetting and drying of many small lakes in flatland and could also affect biogeochemical processes in these lakes. These land/surface water interactions had not been implemented in Earth System Models but they have potential impact on the global climate and carbon cycle. In the AGU presentation, recent advancements of global river hydrodynamic modelling, including super-high resolution river topography datasets, will be introduces. The potential applications of river and surface water modules within Earth System Models will be also discussed.

  8. Columbia River Hatchery Reform System-Wide Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Dan

    2009-04-16

    Puget Sound/Coastal Washington hatchery programs, followed by the development in 2005 of a suite of analytical tools to support application of the principles (all reports and tools are available at www.hatcheryreform.us). In 2005, Congress directed the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries) to replicate the Puget Sound and Coastal Washington Hatchery Reform Project in the Columbia River Basin. The HSRG was expanded to 14 members to include individuals with specific knowledge about the Columbia River salmon and steelhead populations. This second phase was initially envisioned as a one-year review, with emphasis on the Lower Columbia River hatchery programs. It became clear however, that the Columbia River Basin needed to be viewed as an inter-connected ecosystem in order for the review to be useful. The project scope was subsequently expanded to include the entire Basin, with funding for a second year provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the auspices of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's (NPCC) Fish and Wildlife Program. The objective of the HSRG's Columbia River Basin review was to change the focus of the Columbia River hatchery system. In the past, these hatchery programs have been aimed at supplying adequate numbers of fish for harvest as mitigation primarily for hydropower development in the Basin. A new, ecosystem-based approach is founded on the idea that harvest goals are sustainable only if they are compatible with conservation goals. The challenge before the HSRG was to determine whether or not conservation and harvest goals could be met by fishery managers and, if so, how. The HSRG determined that in order to address these twin goals, both hatchery and harvest reforms are necessary. The HSRG approach represents an important change of direction in managing hatcheries in the region. It provides a clear demonstration that current hatchery programs can indeed be redirected to better meet both

  9. Reliability evaluation of the Savannah River reactor leak detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.L.; Sindelar, R.L. ); Wallace, I.T. )

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Reactors have been in operation since the mid-1950's. The primary degradation mode for the primary coolant loop piping is intergranular stress corrosion cracking. The leak-before-break (LBB) capability of the primary system piping has been demonstrated as part of an overall structural integrity evaluation. One element of the LBB analyses is a reliability evaluation of the leak detection system. The most sensitive element of the leak detection system is the airborne tritium monitors. The presence of small amounts of tritium in the heavy water coolant provide the basis for a very sensitive system of leak detection. The reliability of the tritium monitors to properly identify a crack leaking at a rate of either 50 or 300 lb/day (0.004 or 0.023 gpm, respectively) has been characterized. These leak rates correspond to action points for which specific operator actions are required. High reliability has been demonstrated using standard fault tree techniques. The probability of not detecting a leak within an assumed mission time of 24 hours is estimated to be approximately 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} per demand. This result is obtained for both leak rates considered. The methodology and assumptions used to obtain this result are described in this paper. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. Climate Change Impacts on Stream Temperatures in the Columbia River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yearsley, J. R.; Crozier, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Columbia River system, a drainage basin of 668,000 sq. km that includes the Columbia and Snake River rivers, supports a large population of anadromous, cold-water fishes. 13 species of these fishes are listed under the Endangered Species Act and are vulnerable to impacts of climate change. Bioenergetics models for these species have been developed by the federal agencies that operate the Federal Columbia River Power System. These models simulate the impacts on anadromous fishes as they move through the power system both upstream as adults and downstream as juveniles. Water temperature simulations required for input to the bioenergetics models were made for two different segments of the Columbia River system; one being the portions from the Canadian border to Bonneville Dam and the Snake River from Brownlee Dam in Idaho to its confluence and the other, the Salmon River basin in Idaho. Simulations were performed for the period 1928-1998 with the semi-Lagrangian stream temperature model, RBM, for existing conditions and for a two 2040 climate scenarios, a cool, dry condition (ECHO_g model) and a warm, wet condition (MIROC_3.2 model). Natural flows were simulated with the variable infiltration capacity model, VIC, and modified for Columbia River project operations using HYDSIM, a hydro system regulation model that simulates month-to-month operation of the Pacific Northwest hydropower system.

  11. Contaminant impacts to the endocrine system in largemouth bass in northeast U.S. rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.B.; Sorenson, S.K.

    1995-12-31

    The National Biological Service (NBS) in cooperation with the USGS-National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program conducted a reconnaissance investigation of potential disruption of the endocrine system in carp and largemouth bass (LMB) from streams and rivers across the US. Chemical analysis of sediment and fish tissue, from agricultural and industrial sites in NAWQA study units, indicated the potential for impacts to the endocrine system of fish. Collections of 39 male and 28 female LMB were made in fall 1994 from contaminated and reference sites in three major river systems in the Northeast US (Potomac, Hudson, and Connecticut rivers). Additional fish collections will be made at these same sites in Spring 1995. Blood and gonadal tissue samples will give a triad of bioindicators (17B-estradiol/11-ketotestosterone ratios, vitellogenin, and gonad histopathology) of potential endocrine disruption. Chemical residue for tissue will also be made from selected LMB to compare with the bioindicators. Comparisons of contaminated sites and reference site indicated a significantly lower E/T ratio in female LMB from two contaminated sites (Housatonic River in the Connecticut River system and the Anacostia River in the Potomac River system). Additionally, significantly higher E/T ratios in male LMB were found from each of the three river systems. These E/T ratios indicate that endocrine disruption is both estrogenic to male LMB (feminization) and potentially androgenic to the female LMB (masculinization).

  12. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix N: Wildlife.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River System Operation Review

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River System is a vast and complex combination of Federal and non-Federal facilities used for many purposes including power production, irrigation, navigation, flood control, recreation, fish and wildlife habitat and municipal and industrial water supply. Each river use competes for the limited water resources in the Columbia River Basin. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The environmental impact statement (EIS) itself and some of the other appendices present analyses of the alternative approaches to the other three decisions considered as part of the SOR. This document is the product of the Wildlife Work Group, focusing on wildlife impacts but not including fishes. Topics covered include the following: scope and process; existing and affected environment, including specific discussion of 18 projects in the Columbia river basin. Analysis, evaluation, and alternatives are presented for all projects. System wide impacts to wildlife are also included.

  13. Detection of Water Quality Changes along a River System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esterby, S. R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Physical and chemical indicators of water quality monitored by Environmental Canada between 1977 and 1987 in the Niagara River at Niagara-on-the-Lake and in the Saint Lawrence River at Wolfe Island are analyzed for seasonal and annual variations. Results indicate that specific conductivity, sodium, and chloride have decreased significantly over…

  14. Hydrochemical processes controlling arsenic and selenium in the Changjiang River (Yangtze River) system.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qing-Zheng; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Ying; Xiong, Hui

    2007-05-01

    The hydrochemistry of arsenic and selenium in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) was studied, based on continuously monitored data at Nantong station (i.e. 180 km inland from river mouth), the main Changjiang channel and 10 major tributaries. The dissolved inorganic arsenic (DIAs) and selenium (DISe) concentrations of the Changjiang are related to water discharge, rock type of drain basin, anthropogenic influences etc. The DIAs and DISe levels vary over an order of magnitude throughout the basin (i.e. 6.95-68.9 nmol/L for DIAs, 1.16-9.92 nmol/L for DISe). Source rock composition is the primary control on the concentrations of DIAs and DISe in the Changjiang. Several tributaries (e.g. Xiangjiang River, Minjiang River and Tuojiang River) are contaminated by human activities. Flux calculations from hydrographic data at Datong (the most downstream main channel station without tidal influence) indicate that the Changjiang transports 234.8 x 10(5) mol/yr of DIAs and 49.6 x 10(5) mol/yr of DISe to the East China Sea. PMID:17346780

  15. The Paradox of Restoring Native River Landscapes and Restoring Native Ecosystems in the Colorado River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Throughout the Colorado River basin (CRb), scientists and river managers collaborate to improve native ecosystems. Native ecosystems have deteriorated due to construction of dams and diversions that alter natural flow, sediment supply, and temperature regimes, trans-basin diversions that extract large amounts of water from some segments of the channel network, and invasion of non-native animals and plants. These scientist/manager collaborations occur in large, multi-stakeholder, adaptive management programs that include the Lower Colorado River Multi-Species Conservation Program, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program, and the Upper Colorado River Endangered Species Recovery Program. Although a fundamental premise of native species recovery is that restoration of predam flow regimes inevitably leads to native species recovery, such is not the case in many parts of the CRb. For example, populations of the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) are largest in the sediment deficit, thermally altered conditions of the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, but these species occur in much smaller numbers in the upper CRb even though the flow regime, sediment supply, and sediment mass balance are less perturbed. Similar contrasts in the physical and biological response of restoration of predam flow regimes occurs in floodplains dominated by nonnative tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) where reestablishment of floods has the potential to exacerbate vertical accretion processes that disconnect the floodplain from the modern flow regime. A significant challenge in restoring segments of the CRb is to describe this paradox of physical and biological response to reestablishment of pre-dam flow regimes, and to clearly identify objectives of environmentally oriented river management. In many cases, understanding the nature of the perturbation to sediment mass balance caused by dams and diversions and understanding the constraints imposed by societal commitments to provide

  16. Performance of a coupled lagged ensemble weather and river runoff prediction model system for the Alpine Ammer River catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiatek, G.; Kunstmann, H.; Werhahn, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Ammer River catchment located in the Bavarian Ammergau Alps and alpine forelands, Germany, represents with elevations reaching 2185 m and annual mean precipitation between1100 and 2000 mm a very demanding test ground for a river runoff prediction system. Large flooding events in 1999 and 2005 motivated the development of a physically based prediction tool in this area. Such a tool is the coupled high resolution numerical weather and river runoff forecasting system AM-POE that is being studied in several configurations in various experiments starting from the year 2005. Corner stones of the coupled system are the hydrological water balance model WaSiM-ETH run at 100 m grid resolution, the numerical weather prediction model (NWP) MM5 driven at 3.5 km grid cell resolution and the Perl Object Environment (POE) framework. POE implements the input data download from various sources, the input data provision via SOAP based WEB services as well as the runs of the hydrology model both with observed and with NWP predicted meteorology input. The one way coupled system utilizes a lagged ensemble prediction system (EPS) taking into account combination of recent and previous NWP forecasts. Results obtained in the years 2005-2011 reveal that river runoff simulations depict high correlation with observed runoff when driven with monitored observations in hindcast experiments. The ability to runoff forecasts is depending on lead times in the lagged ensemble prediction and shows still limitations resulting from errors in timing and total amount of the predicted precipitation in the complex mountainous area. The presentation describes the system implementation, and demonstrates the application of the POE framework in networking, distributed computing and in the setup of various experiments as well as long term results of the system application in the years 2005 - 2011.

  17. System-Wide Calibration of River System Models: Opportunities and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. S. H.; Hughes, J. D.; Dutta, D.; Vaze, J.

    2014-12-01

    Semi-distributed river system models are traditionally calibrated using a reach-by-reach calibration approach from that starts from headwater gauges and moves downstream toward the end of the system. Such a calibration method poses a unique problem since errors related to over-fitting, poor gauging data and uncertain physical connection are passed downstream. Reach-by-reach calibration, while efficient, cannot compensate for limited/poor calibration data of some gauges. To overcome the limitations of reach-by-reach calibration, a system calibration approach is proposed in which all the river reaches within a river basin are calibrated together using a global objective function for all stream flow gauges. In this approach, relative weights can be assigned in the global objective function for different gauges based on the magnitude and quality of available data. The system calibration approach was implemented in a river network covering 11 stream flow gauges within Murrumbidgee catchment (Australia). This study optimises flow at the selected gauges within the river network simultaneously (36 calibrated parameters) utilising a process-based semi-distributed river system model. The model includes processes such as routing, localised runoff, irrigation diversion, overbank flow and losses to groundwater. Goodness of fit is evaluated at the 11 gauges and a flow based weighting scheme is employed to find posterior distributions of parameters using an Approximate Bayesian Computation. The method is evaluated against a reach-by-reach calibration scheme. The comparison shows that the system calibration approach provides an overall improved goodness-of-fit by systematically de-valuing poor quality gauges providing an overall improved basin-wide performance. Clusters of viable parameter sets are determined from the posterior distributions and each examined to assess the effects of parameter uncertainty on internal model states. Such a method of calibration provides a lot more

  18. Analysis of the ancient river system in Loulan period in Lop Nur region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianfeng; Jia, Peng; Nie, Yueping

    2010-09-01

    The Lop Nur region is located in the east of the Tarim Basin. It has served as the strategic passage and communication hub of the Silk Road since Han Dynasty. During Wei-Jin period, the river system there was well developed and the ancient city of Loulan was bred there. In this study, GIS is used to accomplish automatic extraction of the river course in the Lop Nur region at first using ArcGIS. Then the RCI index is constituted to extract ancient river course from Landsat ETM image with band 3 and band 4. It is concluded that the north river course of Peacock River conformed before the end of the 4th century AD according to the distribution of the entire river course of the Lop Nur region. Later, the Peacock River changed its way to south to Tarim River, and flowed into Lop Nur along the direction paralleling Altun Mountain from west to east. It was the change of the river system that mainly caused the decrease in water supply around ancient city of Loulan before the end of 4th century. The ancient city of Loulan has been gradually ruined in the sand because of the absence of water supply since then.

  19. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix O: Economic and Social Impact.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River System Operation Review

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included.

  20. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix J: Recreation.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River System Operation Review

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix J of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on the recreational activities in the region. Major sections include the following: scope and processes; recreation in the Columbia River Basin today - by type, location, participation, user characteristics, factors which affect usage, and managing agencies; recreation analysis procedures and methodology; and alternatives and their impacts.

  1. 78 FR 38311 - Broad River Electric Cooperative and Cherokee Falls Associates; Aquenergy Systems, Inc.; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Broad River Electric Cooperative and Cherokee Falls Associates; Aquenergy... Intervene On June 18, 2013, Broad River Electric Cooperative and Cherokee Falls Associates (transferors) and Aquenergy Systems, Inc. (transferee) filed an application for transfer of license for the Cherokee...

  2. Building an Intelligent Water Information System - American River Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, S. D.; Bales, R. C.; Conklin, M. H.

    2013-12-01

    recorded by sensors into information in the form that is useful for decision-making. In a sense it 'monetizes' the data. It is the cyber infrastructure that links measurements, data processing, models and users. System software must provide flexibility for multiple types of access from user queries to automated and direct links with analysis tools and decision-support systems. We are currently installing a basin-scale ground-based sensor network focusing on measurements of snowpack, solar radiation, temperature, rH and soil moisture across the American River basin. Although this is a research network, it also provides core elements of a full ground-based operational system.

  3. Scale effect in nutrient transport along a rural river system: the River Eden, Cumbria, northwest, England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oladapo Tijani, Fatai; Bathurst, James; Quinn, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Only a limited amount of information derived from studies conducted at small catchment scales can be transferred to large scales because of the non-linear scale effects, thus necessitating studies (including nutrient concentrations and yields) across a range of scales. Here we present results from an investigation of spatial scale pattern and temporal variability of nutrient concentration in the River Eden in northwest England, a nested catchment stretching from Gais Gill (1.1 km2) to Great Corby (1373 km2). The monitoring involved seasonal campaigns and spot sampling of river water quality, using two United Kingdom national catchment study platforms. These are the Catchment Hydrology And Sustainable Management (CHASM) project, that provides a large spatial scale study platform along the Eden, and the Demonstration Test Catchment (DTC) project that provides high resolution data for contrasting land uses that could help to explain, in detail, the mechanisms for transport of nutrients to the river. Nitrate concentration shows a clear increasing trend with the catchment area and there is highly significant difference (P<0.001) among the catchments. Compared with the headwater areas, phosphorus (P) and suspended sediment (SS) concentrations are significantly higher (P<0.05) downstream but do not show a very clear spatial pattern. An alternative explanation was therefore sought for their distribution along the river. Generally, intensity of agricultural activities appears to influence the concentrations of these water quality parameters. The field data show that the amount of nutrients and suspended sediment is higher in catchments with higher farming activities. This underscores the importance of the distribution of agricultural land use as a driving force in nutrient transport in River Eden. Agricultural production generally increases downstream and may therefore appear to support a spatial scale dependency in nutrient yield. Higher nitrate concentration is associated

  4. Hydrologic and geomorphic considerations in restoration of river-floodplain connectivity in a highly altered river system, Lower Missouri River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Janke, Tyler P.; Skold, Jason J.

    2011-01-01

    Planning for restoration of river-floodplain systems requires understanding how often and how much of a floodplain may be inundated, and how likely the floodplain is to retain the water once flooded. These factors depend fundamentally on hydrology and geomorphology of the channel and floodplain. We discuss application of an index of river-floodplain connectivity, the Land Capability Potential Index (LCPI), to regional-scale restoration planning along 600 km of the Lower Missouri River. The LCPI integrates modeled water-surface elevations, floodplain topography, and soils to index relative wetness of floodplain patches. Geomorphic adjustment of the Lower Missouri River to impoundment and channel engineering has altered the natural relations among hydrology, geomorphology, and floodplain soils, and has resulted in a regional upstream to downstream gradient in connectivity potential. As a result, flow-regime management is limited in its capacity to restore floodplain ecosystems. The LCPI provides a tool for identifying and mapping floodplain restoration potential, accounting for the geomorphic adjustment. Using simple criteria, we illustrate the utility of LCPI-like approaches in regional planning for restoration of plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides) communities, hydrologically connected floodplain wetlands, and seasonal floodplain wetlands.

  5. Using place-based curricula to teach about restoring river systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalles, D. R.; Collins, B. D.; Updegrave, C.; Montgomery, D. R.; Colonnese, T. G.; Sheikh, A. J.; Haynie, K.; Johnson, V.; Data Sets; Inquiry in Environmental Restoration Studies (Nsf Geo Project 0808076)

    2010-12-01

    Zalles, Daniel R. (Center for Technology in Learning, SRI International) Collins, Brian D., Updegrave, Cynthia, Montgomery, David R., Colonnese, Thomas G., Sheikh, Amir J., (University of Washington) Haynie, Kathleen., Johnson, Vonda. (Haynie Research and Evaluation) A collaborative team from the University of Washington and SRI International is developing place based curricula about complex river systems. This NSF-funded project, known as Data Sets and Inquiry in Environmental Restoration Studies (DIGERS), is producing and piloting curricula on river systems of the Puget Sound over a two-year period at the University of Washington and at a public high school on an Indian reservation. At the high school, DIGERS is developing for a population of Native American students a geoscience curriculum that is embedded in their culture and bio-physical environment. At the UW, the goal is to teach about rivers as integrated physical, biological, and human systems that are products of their unique geological and human histories. The curriculum addresses the challenge of teaching general principles about rivers in a way that develops students’ capability to develop a more sophisticated understanding of the interplay of attributes that characterize a particular river at a point in time. Undergraduate students also learn about the challenges of trying to "restore" local river environments to some past condition, including the pitfall of over-generalizing the efficacy of human interventions from one river system to another. For the high school curriculum, a web site is being produced that integrates modules of general information about the focal scientific phenomena (e.g., rivers and floodplains; how human activities influence rivers; salmon habitat) and data and inquiry-related skills (e.g., how to reconstruct historical change) with place based historical and contemporary information about a specific river environment: the Snohomish River watershed. This information consists

  6. Impacts of land use on phosphorus transport in a river system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Pant, H. K.

    2010-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a primary limiting nutrient in freshwater systems, however, excessive P load in the systems cause eutriphication, resulting in algal blooms and oxygen depletion. This study estimated potential exchange of P between water column and sediments by P sorption, and identified P compounds in sediments by 31Phosphorus Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in the samples collected from the Bronx River, New York City, NY. Similarly, mineralization, as well as enzymatic hydrolysis using native phosphoatases (NPase) and phosphodiesterase (PDEase) showed that land use changes and other anthropogenic factors had effects on the P availability in the river. Distinguished characteristics of P bioavailability appeared at major tributaries of Sprain Brook and Troublesome Brook, boundary between fresh and saline water at East Tremont Ave, and estuary close to Hunts Point Wastewater Treatment Plant. Incidental sewer overflows at Yonkers, oil spill at East Tremont Avenue Bridge, fertilizer application at Westchester’s lawns, and gardens, animal manure from the zoo, combined sewer overflows (CSOs), storm water runoff from Bronx River Parkway, and inputs from East River influenced spatial and temporal variations on P transport in the river. This study provides an overview of impacts of land use on nutrient transport in a river system, which may help to make effective policies to regulate P application in the river watersheds, in turn, improve water quality and ecological restoration of a river.

  7. Hydromorphological control of nutrient cycling in complex river floodplain systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, T.; Bondar-Kunze, E.; Felkl, M.; Habersack, H.; Mair, M.; Pinay, G.; Tritthart, M.; Welti, N.

    2009-04-01

    Riparian zones and floodplains are key components within river ecosystems controlling nutrient cycling by promoting transformation processes and thus, act as biogeochemical hot spots. The intensity of these processes depends on the exchange conditions (the connectivity) with the main channel and the morphological setting of the water bodies. At the landscape scale, three interrelated principles of hydromorphological dynamics can be formulated regarding the cycling and transfer of carbon and nutrients in large rivers ecosystems: a) The mode of carbon and nutrient delivery affects ecosystem functioning; b) Increasing residence time and contact area impact nutrient transformation; c) Floods and droughts are natural events that strongly influence pathways of carbon and nutrient cycling. These three principles of hydromorphological dynamics control the nutrient uptake and retention and are linked over different temporal and spatial scales. All three factors can be strongly affected by natural disturbances or anthropogenic impacts, through a change in either the water regime or the geomorphologic setting of the river valley. Any change in natural water regimes will affect the biogeochemistry of riparian zones and floodplains as well as their ability to cycle and mitigate nutrient fluxes originating from upstream and/or upslope. Especially these areas have been altered by river regulation and land use changes over the last 200 years leading to the deterioration of the functioning of these compartments within the riverine landscape. The resulting deficits have prompted rehabilitation and restoration measures aiming to increase the spatial heterogeneity, the complexity, of these ecosystems. Yet, a more integrated approach is needed considering the present status of nutrient dynamics and the effects of restoration measures at different scales. The present paper analyses the effects of river side-arm restoration on ecosystem functions within the side-arm and highlights

  8. Carbon dioxide and methane emissions from the Yukon River system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Striegl, Rob; Dornblaser, Mark M.; McDonald, Cory P.; Rover, Jennifer R.; Stets, Edward G.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions are important, but poorly quantified, components of riverine carbon (C) budgets. This is largely because the data needed for gas flux calculations are sparse and are spatially and temporally variable. Additionally, the importance of C gas emissions relative to lateral C exports is not well known because gaseous and aqueous fluxes are not commonly measured on the same rivers. We couple measurements of aqueous CO2 and CH4 partial pressures (pCO2, pCH4) and flux across the water-air interface with gas transfer models to calculate subbasin distributions of gas flux density. We then combine those flux densities with remote and direct observations of stream and river water surface area and ice duration, to calculate C gas emissions from flowing waters throughout the Yukon River basin. CO2emissions were 7.68 Tg C yr−1 (95% CI: 5.84 −10.46), averaging 750 g C m−2 yr−1 normalized to water surface area, and 9.0 g C m−2 yr−1 normalized to river basin area. River CH4 emissions totaled 55 Gg C yr−1 or 0.7% of the total mass of C emitted as CO2 plus CH4 and ∼6.4% of their combined radiative forcing. When combined with lateral inorganic plus organic C exports to below head of tide, C gas emissions comprised 50% of total C exported by the Yukon River and its tributaries. River CO2 and CH4 derive from multiple sources, including groundwater, surface water runoff, carbonate equilibrium reactions, and benthic and water column microbial processing of organic C. The exact role of each of these processes is not yet quantified in the overall river C budget.

  9. Scale Effect in Nutrient Transport along a Rural River System: THE River Eden, Cumbria, Northwest, England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tijani, F. O.; Bathurst, J. C.; Quinn, P. F.

    2014-12-01

    Only a limited amount of information derived from studies conducted at small catchment scales can be transferred to large scales because of the non-linear scale effects, thus necessitating studies (including nutrient concentrations and yields) across a range of scales. Here we present results from an investigation of spatial scale pattern and temporal variability of nutrient concentration in the River Eden in northwest England, a nested catchment stretching from Gais Gill (1.1 km2) to Great Corby (1373 km2). The monitoring involved seasonal campaigns and spot sampling of river water quality, using two United Kingdom national catchment study platforms. Nitrate concentration shows a clear increasing trend with the catchment area and there is highly significant difference (P<0.001) among the catchments. Compared with the headwater areas, phosphorus (P) and suspended sediment (SS) concentrations are significantly higher (P<0.05) downstream but do not show a very clear spatial pattern. An alternative explanation was therefore sought for their distribution along the river. Generally, intensity of agricultural activities appears to influence the concentrations of these water quality parameters. The field data show that the amount of nutrients and suspended sediment is higher in catchments with higher farming activities and this increase downstream. This underscores the importance of the distribution of agricultural land use as a driving force in nutrient transport in River Eden. Higher nitrate concentration is associated with the period of low flow (strongest negative relationship, R2 = 0.97, was recorded in autumn sampling campaign at a gauging station). In contrast, phosphorus and suspended sediment are positively associated with discharge (strongest relationship (R2= 0.97) for total P were recorded in spring campaign at a gauging station). Similarly the dryness or wetness of a season affects the nutrient concentrations. Thus, it appears that hydrology and land use

  10. Modeling flow and sediment transport in a river system using an artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Yitian, Li; Gu, Roy R

    2003-01-01

    A river system is a network of intertwining channels and tributaries, where interacting flow and sediment transport processes are complex and floods may frequently occur. In water resources management of a complex system of rivers, it is important that instream discharges and sediments being carried by streamflow are correctly predicted. In this study, a model for predicting flow and sediment transport in a river system is developed by incorporating flow and sediment mass conservation equations into an artificial neural network (ANN), using actual river network to design the ANN architecture, and expanding hydrological applications of the ANN modeling technique to sediment yield predictions. The ANN river system model is applied to modeling daily discharges and annual sediment discharges in the Jingjiang reach of the Yangtze River and Dongting Lake, China. By the comparison of calculated and observed data, it is demonstrated that the ANN technique is a powerful tool for real-time prediction of flow and sediment transport in a complex network of rivers. A significant advantage of applying the ANN technique to model flow and sediment phenomena is the minimum data requirements for topographical and morphometric information without significant loss of model accuracy. The methodology and results presented show that it is possible to integrate fundamental physical principles into a data-driven modeling technique and to use a natural system for ANN construction. This approach may increase model performance and interpretability while at the same time making the model more understandable to the engineering community. PMID:12447580

  11. Upper and Middle Tiete River Basin dam-hydraulic system, travel time and temperature modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devkota, Bishnu; Imberger, Jörg

    2012-12-01

    SummaryTiete River System in the State of Sao Paolo, Brazil is characterized by complex hydraulics and operational problems due to series of dams and point and diffuse inflows along the river. A one dimension Lagrangian river model was developed and applied to the 313 km reach of the Upper and Middle Tiete River Basin from the Penha Dam to the head water of Bara Bonita Reservoir, a stretch of river that includes six small to medium size dams (3.4-22 m high) including the Pirapora Reservoir and 26 inflows into the river (11 tributaries, 9 diffuse source areas, and discharges of 4 cities stormwater and 2 wastewater treatment plants. The conservative tracer transport and temperature model that accounts for the short and long wave radiation and heat transfers at the free surface was included and solved using the Crank-Nicholson scheme. The time variable catchment input to the model was the simulated output of the external hydrological model called Runoff Load Model which results were provided by CETESB. The numerical treatment of series of dams and spillway (that included uncontrolled overflow spillway, gate-controlled ogee spillway; and underflow gates and tunnels) and parameterisation of hydraulic jumps are described. Special attention was focused on the high spatial and temporal variation of flows in Tiete River Basin, a result of the large variation in catchment inflows and channel geometry due to dams and reservoirs along the river. Predicted and measured spatial and seasonal variation of flow and temperature profiles along the river show good agreement. The simulated travel time of conservative tracer is compared against the CETESB's 1982 and 1984 field study data in a 254 km reach of the Middle Tiete River that again shows good agreement. Being Lagrangian in construction, this new model is computationally efficient making it an ideal tool for long term simulation for water resource planning, management and operation decision making in a large and complex river

  12. Multi-element study of sediments from the river Khai River - Nha Trang Bay estuarine system, South China Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukina, Sofia; Lobus, Nikolai; Peresypkin, Valery; Baturin, Gleb; Smurov, Andrey

    2013-04-01

    Major (Al, Fe, Ti, Mg, Ca, Na, K), minor (Mn) and trace (Cr, Ni, Cd, V, Zn, Cu, Pb, Sb, Bi, Sn, Ag, Li, Co, As, Zr, Mo, Hg) elements along with nutrients (TOC, TS, TP) and TIC were first determined in ten surface sediment samples from the Khai River - Nha Trang Bay estuarine system, South China Sea. According to the sediment quality guidelines and reference background values, most of the element contents that were studied were below the threshold levels, while the content of Ag exceeded significantly the hazardous levels in the most of the samples along the river - sea transect. The local anthropogenic and/or environmental sources of Ag within the region need special study. Aluminum and lithium normalization indicated some specific features in the abundance and distribution of the elements along the salinity gradient. The mean grain size of the sediments decreased from the river part to the bay part of the transect. Sedimentary TOC was relatively low (1-2 %) and showed independent distribution along the river - sea transect in relation to the other elements that were studied. Ca, Ba and Sr distribution showed some sporadic enrichment and were largely controlled by the TIC content in sediments. Sedimentary TP, Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Na, K, Li, Co, Cs, Zn and V varied within the narrow range and tended to increase seaward. These elements are most likely controlled by the accumulation of their fine grained aluminosilicate host minerals and materials at sites determined by hydrodynamic conditions, i. e., in the sea floor depression. TS, As, Sn, Bi, U, Cd and Mo were relatively low in the sediments studied and tended to decrease seaward with the slight elevation in the intermediate part of the transect. These elements can be scavenged by and/or co-precipitated with the dissolved and particulate materials of the river discharge and further deposited on the river - sea geochemical barrier in the course of estuarine sedimentation. The distribution of Ni, Cr, Zr Cu, Pb, Sb, Hg and

  13. Probing organic matter transfer dynamics in river systems using lignin phenol 14C ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, X.; Vonk, J. E.; Gustafsson, O.; Galy, V.; Holmes, R. M.; Mann, P. J.; Montlucon, D.; Eglinton, T. I.

    2011-12-01

    As an important and ubiquitous component of terrestrial organic matter, lignin is widely dispersed by rivers during the land-ocean transfer. While the distribution and composition of lignin-derived phenols have been extensively investigated, little is known on their radiocarbon age, which carries information on the residence time and/or source of organic matter during fluvial transport. Recently, we have developed a high pressure liquid chromatography-based method of isolating individual lignin phenols for radiocarbon analysis. We employed compound-specific radiocarbon analysis to investigate the provenance and transport of lignin in sedimentary particles from several major river systems that span a range of latitudes spanning Arctic (Mackenzie, Kolyma, Indigirka, Lena, Yenisey, Ob, and Kalix), temperate (Columbia), to tropical regions (Congo and Ganges-Brahmaputra). The radiocarbon age of lignin phenols ranged from modern in the tropical (Congo and Ganges-Brahmaputra) rivers to approximately 4000 years in the Arctic (Kolyma and Indigirka). The latter, while clearly reflecting protracted storage of lignin within Arctic river drainage basins, is much younger than plant wax lipids isolated from the same sediments. This observation indicates that lignin is a relatively rapidly cycling component of the terrestrial organic matter transported by rivers. The general correlation between the radiocarbon age of lignin phenols and the latitude of rivers suggests climatic control over the preservation and storage of lignin within the river drainage basins. Individual lignin phenols were also isolated from the dissolved organic matter from several of these major rivers (including Congo, Fraser, Ganges-Brahmaputra, Mackenzie, and Yangtze, etc.) and compared their composition and radiocarbon age with those in the suspended particles collected from the same river system. Such comparison allows the assessment of lignin fractionation and degradation in the dissolved and particulate

  14. Examining the evolution of an ancient irrigation system: the Middle Gila River Canals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Tianduowa; Ertsen, Maurits

    2014-05-01

    Studying ancient irrigation systems reinforces to understand the co-evolution process between the society and water systems. In the prehistoric Southwest of America, the irrigation has been a crucial feature of human adaptation to the dry environment. The influences of social arrangements on irrigation managements, and implications of the irrigation organization in social developments are main issues that researchers have been exploring for a long time. The analysis of ceramics pattern and distribution has assisted to the reconstruction of prehistoric social networks. The existing study shows that, a few pottery fragments specially produced by the materials of the middle Gila River valley, were found in the Salt River valley; however, very few specialized ceramics of the Salt River valley occurred in the middle Gila River valley. It might indicate that there were trades or exchanges of potteries or raw materials from the middle Gila River valley to the Salt River valley. The most popular hypothesis of trading for the potteries is crop production. Based on this hypothesis, the ceramics trade was highly tied to the irrigation system change. Therefore, examining the changing relationship among the ceramics distribution along the middle Gila River, canals flow capacity, and available streamflows, can provide an insight into the evolutionary path among the social economy, irrigation and water environment. In this study, we reconstruct the flow capacity of canals along the middle Gila River valley. In combination with available streamflow from the middle Gila River, we can simulate how much water could be delivered to the main canals and lateral canals. Based on the variation and chronology of potteries distribution, we may identify that, the drama of the middle Gila River receiving insufficient flows for crop irrigation caused the development of ceramics exchange; or the rising of potteries exchange triggers the decline of irrigation in the study area.

  15. A new species of redfin (Teleostei, Cyprinidae, Pseudobarbus) from the Verlorenvlei River system, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Chakona, Albert; Swartz, Ernst R.; Skelton, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Pseudobarbus verloreni, a new species, is described from material collected in the Verlorenvlei River system on the west coast of South Africa. It differs from its congeners (except Pseudobarbus skeltoni, Pseudobarbus burchelli, and Pseudobarbus burgi) by the presence of two pairs of oral barbels. Pseudobarbus verloreni sp. n. can be distinguished from the three currently described double barbeled Pseudobarbus species by the following combination of characters: pigment pattern, generally deeper body relative to standard length, a longer intestine associated with the deeper body form, shorter snout relative to head length, and much shorter anterior barbels relative to head length. The new species is distinguished from Pseudobarbus burgi in the neighbouring Berg River system by its longer head and longer pre-dorsal length. It seems as if Pseudobarbus verloreni sp. n. has been extirpated from the Langvlei River system and face several threats to its survival in the Verlorenvlei River system. PMID:25493062

  16. Atrazine, alachlor, and cyanazine in a large agricultural river system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schottler, S.P.; Eisenreich, Steven J.; Capel, P.D.

    1994-01-01

    Atrazine, alachlor, and cyanazine exhibited maximum concentrations of about 1000-6000 ng/L in the Minnesota River in 1990 and 1991, resulting from precipitation and runoff following the application period. Transport of these herbicides to the river occurs via overland flow or by infiltration to tile drainage networks. Suspended sediment, SO42-, and Cl- concentrations were used as indicators of transport mechanisms. The atrazine metabolite, DEA, was present in the river throughout the year. The ratio of DEA to atrazine concentration was used to calculate an apparent first-order soil conversion rate of atrazine to DEA. Half lives of 21-58 d were calculated for 1990 and 1991, respectively. The longer conversion rate in 1991 results from rapid flushing from the soil and minimum exposure to soil microorganisms. Total flux of herbicide to the river was 1-6.5 t, with over 60% of this loading occurring during the month of June. Loading to the river accounts for less than 1.5% of applied herbicide. ?? 1994 American Chemical Society.

  17. Game theory and risk-based leveed river system planning with noncooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Rui; Lund, Jay R.; Madani, Kaveh

    2016-01-01

    Optimal risk-based levee designs are usually developed for economic efficiency. However, in river systems with multiple levees, the planning and maintenance of different levees are controlled by different agencies or groups. For example, along many rivers, levees on opposite riverbanks constitute a simple leveed river system with each levee designed and controlled separately. Collaborative planning of the two levees can be economically optimal for the whole system. Independent and self-interested landholders on opposite riversides often are willing to separately determine their individual optimal levee plans, resulting in a less efficient leveed river system from an overall society-wide perspective (the tragedy of commons). We apply game theory to simple leveed river system planning where landholders on each riverside independently determine their optimal risk-based levee plans. Outcomes from noncooperative games are analyzed and compared with the overall economically optimal outcome, which minimizes net flood cost system-wide. The system-wide economically optimal solution generally transfers residual flood risk to the lower-valued side of the river, but is often impractical without compensating for flood risk transfer to improve outcomes for all individuals involved. Such compensation can be determined and implemented with landholders' agreements on collaboration to develop an economically optimal plan. By examining iterative multiple-shot noncooperative games with reversible and irreversible decisions, the costs of myopia for the future in making levee planning decisions show the significance of considering the externalities and evolution path of dynamic water resource problems to improve decision-making.

  18. Age and growth of flathead catfish, Pylodictus olivaris rafinesque, in the Altamaha River system, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grabowski, T.B.; Isely, J.J.; Weller, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    Flathead catfish were introduced to the Altamaha River system, Georgia in the 1970's. We determined the length-weight relationship, Von Bertalanffy growth parameters, and back calculated lengths by examining the sagittal otoliths of 331 individuals captured from this population. We found that there were no sex related differences in length weight relationship or Von Bertalanffy growth parameters. Flathead catfish in the Altamaha River system grow at about the same rate as individuals in other introduced populations.

  19. Ecosystem Health Assessment of Urban Water Systems in Haihe River Basin, People's Republic of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Zhang, F.; Li, Y.

    2007-05-01

    The Haihe River Basin contains large urban centers and a significant portion of the population of China. The assessment of ecosystem health of urban water systems is the scientific basis for the basin water resources management and ecological restoration. An indicator system was developed for the ecosystem and landscape, which contains three levels. It uses the weighted average fuzzy synthetic evaluation method to assess the health status of urban water systems in order to diagnose the restriction factors of ecosystem health. As a case study in Beijing, the results indicated that the Nanchang River was in a healthy state, the degree of membership belonging to the healthy state was 0.417. In contrast, the Yongding River, the Beihucheng River and the Liangma River were in an unhealthy state; their degrees of membership were 0.585, 0.854 and 0.901 respectively. Much attention should be paid to the urban water systems in the Haihe River Basin, especially for the evaluated systems with an unhealthy state index of over 0.8. These urban water system are very important for the overall integrity of the basin ecosystem.

  20. Surface-geophysical characterization of ground-water systems of the Caloosahatchee River basin, southern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, Kevin J.; Locker, Stanley D.; Hine, Albert C.; Bukry, David; Barron, John A.; Guertin, Laura A.

    2001-01-01

    The Caloosahatchee River Basin, located in southwestern Florida, includes about 1,200 square miles of land. The Caloosahatchee River receives water from Lake Okeechobee, runoff from the watershed, and seepage from the underlying ground-water systems; the river loses water through drainage to the Gulf of Mexico and withdrawals for public-water supply and agricultural and natural needs. Water-use demands in the Caloosahatchee River Basin have increased dramatically, and the Caloosahatchee could be further stressed if river water is used to accommodate restoration of the Everglades. Water managers and planners need to know how much water will be used within the river basin and how much water is contributed by Lake Okeechobee, runoff, and ground water. In this study, marine seismic-reflection and ground-penetrating radar techniques were used as a means to evaluate the potential for flow between the river and ground-water systems. Seven test coreholes were drilled to calibrate lithostratigraphic units, their stratal geometries, and estimated hydraulic conductivities to surface-geophysical profiles. A continuous marine seismic-reflection survey was conducted over the entire length of the Caloosahatchee River and extending into San Carlos Bay. Lithostratigraphic units that intersect the river bottom and their characteristic stratal geometries were identified. Results show that subhorizontal reflections assigned to the Tamiami Formation intersect the river bottom between Moore Haven and about 9 miles westward. Oblique and sigmoidal progradational reflections assigned to the upper Peace River Formation probably crop out at the floor of the river in the Ortona area between the western side of Lake Hicpochee and La Belle. These reflections image a regional-scale progradational deltaic depositional system containing quartz sands with low to moderate estimated hydraulic conductivities. In an approximate 6-mile length of the river between La Belle and Franklin Lock, deeper

  1. Sediment Transport Dynamic in a Meandering Fluvial System: Case Study of Chini River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazir, M. H. M.; Awang, S.; Shaaban, A. J.; Yahaya, N. K. E. M.; Jusoh, A. M.; Arumugam, M. A. R. M. A.; Ghani, A. A.

    2016-07-01

    Sedimentation in river reduces the flood carrying capacity which lead to the increasing of inundation area in the river basin. Basic sediment transport can predict the fluvial processes in natural rivers and stream through modeling approaches. However, the sediment transport dynamic in a small meandering and low-lying fluvial system is considered scarce in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to analyze the current riverbed erosion and sedimentation scenarios along the Chini River, Pekan, Pahang. The present study revealed that silt and clay has potentially been eroded several parts of the river. Sinuosity index (1.98) indicates that Chini River is very unstable and continuous erosion process in waterways has increase the riverbank instability due to the meandering factors. The riverbed erosional and depositional process in the Chini River is a sluggish process since the lake reduces the flow velocity and causes the deposited particles into the silt and clay soil at the bed of the lake. Besides, the bed layer of the lake comprised of cohesive silt and clayey composition that tend to attach the larger grain size of sediment. The present study estimated the total sediment accumulated along the Chini River is 1.72 ton. The HEC-RAS was employed in the simulations and in general the model performed well, once all parameters were set within their effective ranges.

  2. Denitrification, leaching, and river nitrogen export in the Community Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevison, Cynthia; Hess, Peter; Riddick, Stuart; Ward, Dan

    2016-03-01

    River nitrogen export is simulated within the Community Earth System Model (CESM) by coupling nitrogen leaching and runoff fluxes from the Community Land Model (CLM) to the River Transport Model (RTM). The coupled CLM-RTM prognostically simulates the downstream impact of human N cycle perturbation on coastal areas. It also provides a framework for estimating denitrification fluxes of N2 and associated trace gases like N2O in soils and river sediments. An important limitation of the current model is that it only simulates dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) river export, due to the lack of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and particulate nitrogen (PN) leaching fluxes in CLM. In addition, the partitioning of soil N loss in CLM between the primary loss pathways of denitrification and N leaching/runoff appears heavily skewed toward denitrification compared to other literature estimates, especially in nonagricultural regions, and also varies considerably among the four model configurations presented here. River N export is generally well predicted in the model configurations that include midlatitude crops, but tends to be underpredicted in rivers that are less perturbed by human agriculture. This is especially true in the tropics, where CLM likely underestimates leaching and runoff of all forms of nitrogen. River export of DIN is overpredicted in some relatively unperturbed Arctic rivers, which may result from excessive N inputs to those regions in CLM. Better representation of N loss in CLM can improve confidence in model results with respect to the core model objective of simulating nitrogen limitation of the carbon cycle.

  3. Flow and Transport in the Hanford 300 Area Vadose Zone-Aquifer-River System

    SciTech Connect

    Waichler, Scott R.; Yabusaki, Steven B.

    2005-07-13

    Contaminant migration in the 300 Area unconfined aquifer is strongly coupled to fluctuations in the Columbia River stage. To better understand the interaction between the river, aquifer, and vadose zone, a 2-D saturated-unsaturated flow and transport model was developed for a vertical cross-section aligned west-east across the Hanford Site 300 Area, nearly perpendicular to the river. The model was used to investigate water flow and tracer transport in the vadose zone-aquifer-river flow system, in support of the ongoing study of the 300 Area uranium plume. The STOMP simulator was used to model 1-year from 3/1/92 to 2/28/93, a period when hourly data were available for both groundwater and river levels. Net water flow to the river (per 1-meter width of shoreline) was 182 m3/y in the base case, but the cumulative exchange or total flow back and forth across the riverbed was 30 times greater. The low river case had approximately double the net water and Groundwater tracer flux into the river as compared to the base case.

  4. Hydrogeologic Framework of the Yakima River Basin Aquifer System, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaccaro, J.J.; Jones, M.A.; Ely, D.M.; Keys, M.E.; Olsen, T.D.; Welch, W.B.; Cox, S.E.

    2009-01-01

    The Yakima River basin aquifer system underlies about 6,200 square miles in south-central Washington. The aquifer system consists of basin-fill deposits occurring in six structural-sedimentary basins, the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG), and generally older bedrock. The basin-fill deposits were divided into 19 hydrogeologic units, the CRBG was divided into three units separated by two interbed units, and the bedrock was divided into four units (the Paleozoic, the Mesozoic, the Tertiary, and the Quaternary bedrock units). The thickness of the basin-fill units and the depth to the top of each unit and interbed of the CRBG were mapped. Only the surficial extent of the bedrock units was mapped due to insufficient data. Average mapped thickness of the different units ranged from 10 to 600 feet. Lateral hydraulic conductivity (Kh) of the units varies widely indicating the heterogeneity of the aquifer system. Average or effective Kh values of the water-producing zones of the basin-fill units are on the order of 1 to 800 ft/d and are about 1 to 10 ft/d for the CRBG units as a whole. Effective or average Kh values for the different rock types of the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Tertiary units appear to be about 0.0001 to 3 ft/d. The more permeable Quaternary bedrock unit may have Kh values that range from 1 to 7,000 ft/d. Vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) of the units is largely unknown. Kv values have been estimated to range from about 0.009 to 2 ft/d for the basin-fill units and Kv values for the clay-to-shale parts of the units may be as small as 10-10 to 10-7 ft/d. Reported Kv values for the CRBG units ranged from 4x10-7 to 4 ft/d. Variations in the concentrations of geochemical solutes and the concentrations and ratios of the isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon in groundwater provided information on the hydrogeologic framework and groundwater movement. Stable isotope ratios of water (deuterium and oxygen-18) indicated dispersed sources of groundwater recharge to

  5. Monitoring the resilience of rivers as social-ecological systems: a paradigm shift for river assessment in the 21st Century

    EPA Science Inventory

    First, we briefly describe the development of the major, biophysically-focused river assessment and monitoring approaches over the last 50 years. We then assess the utility of biophysical parameters for assessing rivers as social-ecological systems. We then develop a framework de...

  6. An Integrated Decision Support System for Water Quality Management of Songhua River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haiping; Yin, Qiuxiao; Chen, Ling

    2010-11-01

    In the Songhua River Basin of China, many water resource and water environment conflicts interact. A Decision Support System (DSS) for the water quality management has been established for the Basin. The System is featured by the incorporation of a numerical water quality model system into a conventional water quality management system which usually consists of geographic information system (GIS), WebGIS technology, database system and network technology. The model system is built based on DHI MIKE software comprising of a basin rainfall-runoff module, a basin pollution load evaluation module, a river hydrodynamic module and a river water quality module. The DSS provides a friendly graphical user interface that enables the rapid and transparent calculation of various water quality management scenarios, and also enables the convenient access and interpretation of the modeling results to assist the decision-making.

  7. Genotoxic assessment on river water using different biological systems.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Emilene Arusievicz; de Lemos, Clarice Torres; Gavronski, Léia; Moreira, Tiago Nunes; Oliveira, Nânci C D; da Silva, Juliana

    2011-06-01

    This paper reports genotoxicity and toxicity data in water samples collected in Sinos River, an important water course in the hydrographic region of Guaíba Lake, Rio Grande do Sul State, south of Brazil. This river is exposed to intense anthropic influence by numerous shoes, leather, petrochemical, and metallurgy industries. Water samples were collected at two moments (winter 2006 and spring 2006) at five sites of Sinos River and evaluated using in vitro V79 Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (cytotoxicity, comet assay and micronucleus test) and Allium cepa test (toxicity and micronucleus test). Comet and micronucleus tests revealed that water samples collected exerted cytotoxic, toxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects. The results showed the toxic action of organic and inorganic agents found in the water samples in all sites of Sinos River, for both data collections. The main causes behind pollution were the domestic and industrial toxic discharges. The V79 and A. cepa tests were proved efficient to detect toxicity and genotoxicity caused by complex mixtures. This study also showed the need for constant monitoring in sites with strong environmental degradation caused by industrial discharges and urban sewages. PMID:21435689

  8. Organic carbon-14 in the Amazon River system

    SciTech Connect

    Hedges, J.I.; Ertel, J.R.; Quay, P.D.; Grootes, P.M.; Richey, J.E.; Devol, A.H.; Farwell, G.W.; Schmidt, F.W.; Salati, E.

    1986-03-07

    Coarse and fine suspended particulate organic materials and dissolved humic and fulvic acids transported by the Amazon River all contain bomb-produced carbon-14, indicating relatively rapid turnover of the parent carbon pools. However, the carbon-14 contents of these coexisting carbon forms are measurably different and may reflect varying degrees of retention by soils in the drainage basin. 20 references, 1 table.

  9. Landscape ecology of the Upper Mississippi River System: Lessons learned, challenges and opportunities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeJager, Nathan R.

    2016-01-01

    The Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) is a mosaic of river channels, backwater lakes, floodplain forests, and emergent marshes. This complex mosaic supports diverse aquatic and terrestrial plant communities, over 150 fish species; 40 freshwater mussel species; 50 amphibian and reptile species; and over 360 bird species, many of which use the UMRS as a critical migratory route. The river and floodplain are also hotspots for biogeochemical activity as the river-floodplain collects and processes nutrients derived from the UMR basin. These features qualify the UMRS as a Ramsar wetland of international significance.Two centuries of land-use change, including construction for navigation and conversion of large areas to agriculture, has altered the broad-scale structure of the river and changed local environmental conditions in many areas. Such changes have affected rates of nutrient processing and transport, as well as the abundance of various fish, mussel, plant, and bird species. However, the magnitude and spatial scale of these effects are not well quantified, especially in regards to the best methods and locations for restoring various aspects of the river ecosystem.The U.S. Congress declared the navigable portions of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) a “nationally significant ecosystem and nationally significant commercial navigation system” in the Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) and launched the Upper Mississippi River Restoration (UMRR) Program, the first comprehensive program for ecosystem restoration, monitoring, and research on a large river system. This fact sheet focuses on landscape ecological studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey to support decision making by the UMRR with respect to ecosystem restoration.

  10. Reach-scale characterization of large woody debris in a low-gradient, Midwestern U.S.A. river system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Derek J.; Pavlowsky, Robert T.; Harden, Carol P.

    2016-06-01

    Addition of large woody debris (LWD) to rivers has increasingly become a popular stream restoration strategy, particularly in river systems of the Midwestern United States. However, our knowledge of LWD dynamics is mostly limited to high gradient montane river systems, or coastal river systems. The LWD-related management of low-gradient, Midwestern river systems is thus largely based on higher gradient analogs of LWD dynamics. This research characterizes fluvial wood loads and investigates the relationships between fluvial wood, channel morphology, and sediment deposition in a relatively low-gradient, semiconfined, alluvial river. The LWD and channel morphology were surveyed at nine reaches along the Big River in southeastern Missouri to investigate those relationships in comparison to other regions. Wood loads in the Big River are low (3-114 m3/100 m) relative to those of higher gradient river systems of the Pacific Northwest, but high relative to lower-gradient river systems of the Eastern United States. Wood characteristics such as size and orientation suggest that the dominant LWD recruitment mechanism in the Big River is bank erosion. Also, ratios of wood geometry to channel geometry show that the Big River maintains a relatively high wood transport capacity for most of its length. Although LWD creates sites for sediment storage, the overall impact on reach-scale sediment storage in the Big River is low (< 4.2% of total in-channel storage). However, wood loads, and thus opportunities for sediment storage, have the potential to grow in the future as Midwestern riparian forests mature. This study represents the first of its kind within this particular type of river system and within this region and thus serves as a basis for understanding fluvial wood dynamics in low-gradient river systems of the Midwestern United States.

  11. Defining biophysical reference conditions for dynamics river systems: an Alaskan example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pess, G. R.

    2008-12-01

    Defining reference conditions for dynamic river ecosystems is difficult for two reasons. First long-term, persistent anthropogenic influences such as land development, harvest of biological resources, and invasive species have resulted in degraded, reduced, and simplified ecological communities and associated habitats. Second, river systems that have not been altered through human disturbance rarely have a long-term dataset on ecological conditions. However there are exceptions which can help us define the dynamic nature of river ecosystems. One large-scale exception is the Wood River system in Bristol Bay, Alaska, where habitat and salmon populations have not been altered by anthropogenic influences such as land development, hatchery production, and invasive species. In addition, the one major anthropogenic disturbance, salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) harvest, has been quantified and regulated since its inception. First, we examined the variation in watershed and stream habitat characteristics across the Wood River system. We then compared these stream habitat characteristics with data that was collected in the 1950s. Lastly, we examined the correlation between pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), chum (O. keta), and Chinook (O. tshawytscha), and sockeye salmon (O. nerka), and habitat characteristics in the Wood River system using four decades of data on salmon. We found that specific habitat attributes such as stream channel wetted width, depth, cover type, and the proportion of spawnable area were similar to data collected in the 1950s. Greater stream habitat variation occurred among streams than over time. Salmon occurrence and abundance, however was more temporal and spatially variable. The occurrence of pink and chum salmon increased from the 1970's to the present in the Wood River system, while sockeye abundance has fluctuated with changes in ocean conditions. Pink, Chinook and chum salmon ranged from non-existent to episodic to abundantly perennial, while sockeye

  12. A hybrid conceptual-fuzzy inference streamflow modelling for the Letaba River system in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katambara, Zacharia; Ndiritu, John G.

    There has been considerable water resources developments in South Africa and other regions in the world in order to meet the ever-increasing water demands. These developments have not been matched with a similar development of hydrological monitoring systems and hence there is inadequate data for managing the developed water resources systems. The Letaba River system ( Fig. 1) is a typical case of such a system in South Africa. The available water on this river is over-allocated and reliable daily streamflow modelling of the Letaba River that adequately incorporates the main components and processes would be an invaluable aid to optimal operation of the system. This study describes the development of a calibrated hybrid conceptual-fuzzy-logic model and explores its capability in reproducing the natural processes and human effects on the daily stream flow in the Letaba River. The model performance is considered satisfactory in view of the complexity of the system and inadequacy of relevant data. Performance in modelling streamflow improves towards the downstream and matches that of a stand-alone fuzzy-logic model. The hybrid model obtains realistic estimates of the major system components and processes including the capacities of the farm dams and storage weirs and their trajectories. This suggests that for complex data-scarce River systems, hybrid conceptual-fuzzy-logic modelling may be used for more detailed and dependable operational and planning analysis than stand-alone fuzzy modelling. Further work will include developing and testing other hybrid model configurations.

  13. Hydrochemical processes controlling arsenic and heavy metal contamination in the Elqui river system (Chile).

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Thorsten

    2004-06-01

    Severe arsenic poisoning from drinking water has been documented in Northern Chile. However, the Elqui River, which provides water for approximately 200,000 people in this region, is poorly studied and no data on contaminants have been published to date. In this study, trace elements and the main aqueous constituents were monitored for approximately 2 years in the entire river system. Aqueous species of trace elements were determined via thermodynamic equilibrium calculations, and two operationally-defined suspended fractions were analyzed. Chalco- and arsenopyrite deposits in the upper Andes, in conjunction with mining and geothermal activity, were identified as exclusive point sources of heavy metals and arsenic. The annual input to the river system was approximately (t year(-1)): Fe 600, Mn 110, Cu 130, Zn 35 and As 2.0. The confluence with pH-buffered waters in the upper river system caused collapse of iron hydroxide colloids and coprecipitation of all heavy metals, e.g. dissolved copper concentrations decreased from approximately 100 to approximately 0.2 micromol l(-1), which is still of ecotoxic concern. The heavy metal enriched suspended solids settled only in the lower Elqui River. Arsenate did not adsorb to suspended solids and behaved strictly conservatively, exceeding the WHO guideline value for drinking water (0.13 micromol l(-1)) in the entire river system. Decontamination may be accomplished with reasonable efforts upstream in direct vicinity to the sources via coprecipitation, settling and appropriate pH adjustment for arsenate adsorption. PMID:15144789

  14. Organic and inorganic carbon fluxes in a tropical river system (Tana River, Kenya) during contrasting wet seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geeraert, Naomi; Omengo, Fred O.; Bouillon, Steven; Borges, Alberto V.; Govers, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    Tropical river systems are often subjected to strong seasonality; in the Tana River (Kenya), for example, ~60% of the annual discharge takes place during a 4-month period. As different carbon pools are transported by the river, seasonal differences in carbon fluxes will also occur. This can furthermore be enhanced or attenuated due to changes in the intensity of carbon transformation processes, such as microbial respiration and primary production, during the wet season. Besides that, seasonal flooding of flood plains or flooded forest is known to be a major driver of the biogeochemical and ecological functioning of tropical rivers ("flood pulse concept") and has been shown to be one of the major drivers of the CO2 emissions from the Amazon River. We monitored the fluxes of different carbon pools at two sites spaced 385 km apart along the lower Tana River (Kenya), which is characterized by a highly seasonal flow regime. Water samples were taken at daily resolution during three wet seasons. During one of those seasons (May-June 2013), considerable flooding took place between both stations, while the other two wet seasons (Oct-Nov 2012 and April-May 2014) were characterised by several distinct discharge peaks, without leading to substantial overbank flooding. The flux of particulate organic carbon (POC) was observed to decrease in the downstream direction by 8 to 33% during all measurement periods. Fluxes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) also decreased in the downstream direction during the wet seasons without flooding (by 10-38%) but increased drastically (increase of 231%) during the wet season with flooding. The dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) flux increased downstream (by 6% to 62%) during all measurement periods. The total carbon flux (POC+DOC+DIC) increased by 33% in the wet season with flooding (2013), but decreased by 23% and 3%, respectively, during the 2012 and 2014 wet seasons. Flooding thus affected the relative contribution of different C pools to the

  15. Development of a water quality modeling system for river pollution index and suspended solid loading evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Y. C.; Tu, Y. T.; Yang, C. P.; Surampalli, R. Y.; Kao, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    SummaryThe Kaoping River Basin is the largest and most extensively used watershed in Taiwan. In the upper catchment, the non-point source (NPS) pollutants including suspended solid (SS) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) are two major water pollutants causing the deterioration of Kaoping River water quality. Because SS is one of the four parameters involving in the River Pollution Index (RPI) calculation, it needs to be carefully evaluated to obtain the representative water quality index. The main objective of this study was to develop a water quality modeling system to obtain representative SS and RPI values for water quality evaluation. In this study, a direct linkage between the RPI calculation and a water quality model [Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP)] has been developed. Correlation equations between Kaoping River flow rates and SS concentrations were developed using the field data collected during the high and low flows of the Kaoping River. Investigation results show that the SS concentrations were highly correlated with the flow rates. The obtained SS equation and RPI calculation package were embedded into the WASP model to improve interactive transfers of required data for water quality modeling and RPI calculation. Results indicate that SS played an important role in RPI calculation and SS was a critical factor during the RPI calculation especially for the upper catchment in the wet seasons. This was due to the fact that the soil erosion caused the increase in the SS concentrations after storms. In the wet seasons, higher river flow rates caused the discharges of NPS pollutants (NH3-N and SS) into the upper sections of the river. Results demonstrate that the integral approach could develop a direct linkage among river flow rate, water quality, and pollution index. The introduction of the integrated system showed a significant advance in water quality evaluation and river management strategy development.

  16. Carbon fate in a large temperate human-impacted river system: focus on benthic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilmin, Lauriane; Flipo, Nicolas; Escoffier, Nicolas; Rocher, Vincent; Groleau, Alexis

    2016-04-01

    During the last decade, several studies highlighted the important role of fluvial networks in regional and global carbon (C) budgets. Therefore, for sustainable C management, in-river C processing needs to be well understood. The Seine River from the Paris urban area to the entrance of its estuary (220 km) is studied here as a pertinent example of a large human impacted river system subject to temperate climatic conditions. We assess organic C (OC) budgets up- and downstream one of the world's largest waste water treatment plants and for different hydrological conditions through hydro-biogeochemical distributed modelling. The fine representation of sediment accumulation on the river bed allows the quantification of the effect of pelagic and benthic processes on OC export towards the estuary and on river metabolism (i.e. net CO2 emission). OC export is significantly affected by benthic dynamics during the driest periods, when 25 % of the inputs to the system is transformed or stored in the sediment layer. River metabolism is also significantly affected by benthic processes, whatever the hydrological conditions. On average, benthic respiration accounts for one third of the total ecosystem respiration along the studied stretch (0.23 out of 0.86 gC.m-2.d-1). These results stress the major influence of benthic dynamics, and thus of physical processes such as sedimentation and re-suspension on C cycling, in large human-impacted temperate river systems and on C export to the estuaries. Even though the importance of benthos processes was already acknowledged by the scientific community for headwater streams, this work highlights its importance for downstream river systems and opens the door to new developments in the quantification of C emissions by global models, in which biogeochemical processing and benthic dynamics must be taken into account.

  17. Heavy Metals and Biogenic Elements in Aquatic Systems of the Don River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, Anna; Tkachenko, Oleg

    2014-05-01

    River deltas are located in the lower parts of the cascade landscape-geochemical systems of the river basins, so their geochemical conditions often characterize the anthropogenic impact on whole river system. The Don River runs through the one of the most agriculturally developed and densely populated area of Russia, and flows into the Azov Sea - the smallest and shallowest sea in the world. These factors determine the geochemical features of aquatic systems of the Don River mouth area and the specificity of the "river-sea" geochemical barrier zone. The paper presents results of the field studies of the geochemical structure of the Don River mouth area, which were conducted in frames of the RFBR project in 2012-2013. Major types of the deltaic water streams and bodies were studied in different hydrological seasons: spring floods, summer, autumn and winter low water periods. About 50 samples of water, suspended matter and 60 samples of bottom sediments have been collected and analyzed for heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Cr, Cd etc.) and biogenic elements (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphates, silica, total nitrogen and phosphorus, dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll) content. To assess the toxicity degree and nutrient potential of water, bioassay test conducted by growing daphnia in water samples were held. The study shows that the Don River delta water is characterized by the relatively low values of dissolved heavy metal content. Significantly higher values of heavy metals were determined in the vicinity of settlements only. Metal accumulation in bottom sediments can be associated mainly with the rate of water flow. Higher values were found in sediments of small channels with weak flow velocity and prevailing processes of the suspended matter deposition. The data on the seasonal dynamics of nutrients and spatial variability of their forms have been obtained. The maximum concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, silicon, and other biogenic elements are

  18. Remote video radioactive systems evaluation, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Robinson, C.W.

    1991-01-01

    Specialized miniature low cost video equipment has been effectively used in a number of remote, radioactive, and contaminated environments at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The equipment and related techniques have reduced the potential for personnel exposure to both radiation and physical hazards. The valuable process information thus provided would not have otherwise been available for use in improving the quality of operation at SRS.

  19. Remote video radioactive systems evaluation, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Robinson, C.W.

    1991-12-31

    Specialized miniature low cost video equipment has been effectively used in a number of remote, radioactive, and contaminated environments at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The equipment and related techniques have reduced the potential for personnel exposure to both radiation and physical hazards. The valuable process information thus provided would not have otherwise been available for use in improving the quality of operation at SRS.

  20. [Tritium in the Water System of the Techa River].

    PubMed

    Chebotina, M Ja; Nikolin, O A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to study modern tritium levels in various sources of the drinking water supply in the settlements situated in the riverside zone of the Techa. Almost everywhere the water entering water-conduit wells from deep slits (100-180 m) contains averagely 2-3 times higher tritium concentrations than the water from less deep personal wells, slits and springs. Tritium levels in the drinking water supply decrease with the distance from the dam; while in wells, springs and personal wells they are constant all along the river. The observed phenomenon can be explained by the fact that the river bed of the Techa is situated at a break zone of the earth crust, where the contaminated deep water penetrates from the reservoirs of the "Mayak" enterprise situated in the upper part of the regulated river bed. Less deep water sources (personal wells, slits and springs) receive predominantly flood, atmospheric and subsoil waters and are not connected with the reservoirs. PMID:27245010

  1. The Seine system: introduction to a multidisciplinary approach of the functioning of a regional river system.

    PubMed

    Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette; Mouchel, Jean-Marie; Silvestre, Marie

    2007-04-01

    The Seine basin (France) is dominated by the megalopolis of Paris (10 millions inhabitants), surrounded by intensive agricultural areas: it represents an important example of regional territory strongly affected by anthropogenic activity. In the scope of the PIREN-Seine program, an interdisciplinary study of this basin was conducted. This paper introduces a special issue of the Science of the Total Environment devoted to the results of this program. It summarizes the main features of the Seine river system, the physical characteristics of its drainage network and its watershed, and the nature and spatial distribution of human activities. The scientific approaches used for the study of the system are described, emphasizing the role of material budgeting, mathematical modeling and historical reconstruction. Some functional characteristics of the Seine watershed and drainage network are summarized, showing that the system is now essentially controlled by anthropogenic constraints. PMID:17250875

  2. Human-driven coastline changes in the Adra River deltaic system, southeast Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabaloy-Sánchez, Antonio; Lobo, Francisco José; Azor, Antonio; Bárcenas, Patricia; Fernández-Salas, Luis Miguel; del Río, Víctor Díaz; Pérez-Peña, José Vicente

    2010-07-01

    The recent evolution of the Adra River delta in southeastern Spain has been reconstructed from historical maps, aerial photographs, and submarine multibeam bathymetric data. We have distinguished three main evolutionary stages whose development took place as a direct response to the main anthropic and natural influences on the river system. The first stage (4000 BC to 1872 AD) represents the natural behavior of the deltaic system with negligible anthropic influence. This long stage is characterized by coastline advance with the formation of a small asymmetric triangular delta in the natural river mouth and a typical prodeltaic deposit. In contrast, the second and third stages are characterized by anthropic interventions in the catchment and the river mouth, which heavily modified the natural dynamics of the deltaic system. The second stage (1872 AD to 1972 AD) coincided with damming of the natural river channel very close to its mouth and the construction of two successive artificial channels to deviate the river flow. The coastal dynamics changed during this second stage with erosion of the original delta and the formation of a new, asymmetrical delta at the mouth of the artificial channels. This younger eastern delta comprises two infralittoral wedges in the submarine realm, which recorded changes of lateral redistribution processes and enhanced influence of energetic events and can only be explained if the sediment supply from the river source was reduced during this period. The third stage (1972 AD to present-day) started with the damming of the trunk river in the central sector of the catchment, thus drastically reducing sediment flow to the coastal realm and triggering general erosion and coastline retreat.

  3. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix D: Exhibits.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River System Operation Review

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River and its tributaries are the primary water system in the Pacific Northwest, draining some 219,000 square miles in seven states and another 39,500 square miles in British Columbia. Beginning in the 1930`s, the Columbia River has been significantly modified by construction of 30 major dams on the river and its tributaries, along with dozens of non-Federal projects. Construction and subsequent operation of these water development projects have contributed to eight primary uses of the river system, including navigation, flood control, irrigation, electric power generation, fish migration, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, and water supply and quality considerations. Increasing stress on the water development of the Columbia River and its tributaries has led primary Federal agencies to undertake intensive analysis and evaluation of the operation of these projects. These agencies are the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, who operate the large Federal dams on the river, and the Bonneville Power Administration who sells the power generated at the dams. This review, termed the System Operation Review (SOR), has as its ultimate goal to define a strategy for future operation of the major Columbia River projects which effectively considers the needs of all river uses. This volume, Appendix D: Cultural resources appendix, Technical imput includes the following: Development of geomorphology based framework for cultural resources management, Dworshak Reservoir, Idaho; Impact profiles for SOR reservoirs; comments from the following Native American tribes: Burns Paiute Tribe; Coville Confederated Tribes; Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation; Confederated Tribes and bands of the Yakama Indian Nation (comments); Nez Perce Tribe; Coeur D`Alene Tribe; Spokane Tribe of Indians; The confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation.

  4. A decision support system for water quality issues in the Manzanares River (Madrid, Spain).

    PubMed

    Paredes, Javier; Andreu, Joaquín; Solera, Abel

    2010-05-15

    The Manzanares River, located in Madrid (Spain), is the main water supplier of a highly populated region, and it also receives wastewater from the same area. The effluents of eight Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) downstream of the river, which represent 90% of the flow in the middle and lower parts of the river, are the primary sources of water pollution. Although the situation has improved slightly in the last two years, the water in the river is highly polluted, making it uninhabitable for aquatic life. Water quality modelling is typically used to assess the effect of treatment improvements in water bodies. In this work, the GESCAL module of the Aquatool Decision Support System Shell was used to simulate water quality in the Manzanares River. GESCAL is appropriate for modelling in an integrated way water quality for whole water resources systems, including reservoirs and rivers. A model was built that simulates conductivity, phosphorous, carbonaceous organic matter, dissolved oxygen, organic nitrogen, ammonia, and nitrates. The period from October 2006 to September 2008 was selected for calibration due to the many treatment modifications that occurred during this time. An earlier and longer period, from October 2000 to September 2006, was used for validation. In addition, a daily model was used to analyse the robustness of the GESCAL model. Once the GESCAL model was validated, different scenarios were considered and simulated. First, different combinations of nutrient elimination among the different WWTPs were simulated, leading to the conclusion that investments have to focus on three of the proposed WWTPs. Moreover, these treatments will not be sufficient to maintain fish habitat conditions at all times. Additional measures, such as the increment of the flow in the river or oxygen injection, were simulated. Incrementing the flow of the Manzanares River has been shown to be an efficient means of increasing water quality, but this implies an increment in the

  5. Monitoring of streamflow in the Verde River by ERTS-1 Data Collection System (DCS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, H. H.

    1973-01-01

    The Verde River watershed in central Arizona furnishes municipal, industrial, and agricultural water to the Salt River Valley --an area that contains more than half of Arizona's population and about one-fourth of the State's irrigated land. Water-management decisions related to the operation of large multiple-use reservoirs require accurate and continuous monitoring of moisture conditions over large remote areas. The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Salt River Valley Water Users' Association installed a specially designed gaging station on the Verde River near the town of Camp Verde to evaluate near-real time streamflow data furnished by the ERTS-1 Data Collection System (DCS). On Nov. 3, 1972, the installation was equipped with a Stevens digital water-level recorder, modified for telemetry, and an ERTS-1 data collection platform operating in the digital-parallel mode.

  6. Options for managing hypoxic blackwater events in river systems: a review.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Janice L; Baldwin, Darren S; Whitworth, Kerry L

    2013-01-15

    Blackwater events are characterised by a high concentration of dissolved organic carbon in the water column. They occur naturally in lowland rivers with forested floodplains and bring a variety of benefits to both aquatic and floodplain biota. However, particularly when accompanied by high temperatures, respiration of the organic carbon may cause blackwater to become hypoxic. This may lead to a range of lethal and sub-lethal effects on the aquatic biota. We review the current scientific knowledge concerning the management of blackwater and hypoxia, and examine how this knowledge may be applied to the management of hypoxic blackwater events in lowland river systems. A range of management options, which aim to either prevent the development of hypoxic blackwater or to reintroduce oxygen into deoxygenated waters, are reported. Mitigation options that may be applicable to lowland river systems include manipulating the season and magnitude of floods in regulated rivers, increasing roughness in flow paths, establishing oxygenated refugia for aquatic biota and introducing hydraulic structures that promote turbulence and re-aeration. With climatic changes trending towards a scenario where extreme events leading to the development of hypoxic blackwater are more probable, it is now vital to validate and optimise management options on local and regional scales and work towards closing knowledge gaps. With judicious management of regulated rivers, it is possible to minimise the impacts of hypoxic flows while preserving the benefits brought to floodplain and river ecosystems by seasonal flooding and carbon exchange. PMID:23137913

  7. Distribution and abundance of caddisflies (Trichoptera) in the St. Clair-Detroit River system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Bruce M.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Armitage, Brian J.

    1991-01-01

    Abundance and distribution patterns of the caddisflies of the St. Clair-Detroit River system were investigated in 1983–84. Collections of both adults and larvae yielded 70 species representing 34 genera and 12 families. Leptoceridae and Hydroptilidae were the most common families and Ceraclea the most common genus in number of species. This study adds 21 species to the Michigan record. The hydropsychidsCheumatopsyche (81, 63, 105 m−2; log-transformed values for mean and lower and upper 95% C.L.) and Hydropsyche (70, 57, 87 m−2) were the most abundant genera collected as larvae in the St. Clair and Detroit rivers, while Oecetis (41, 35, 47 m−2) was the most abundant in Lake St. Clair. Larval densities of caddisflies in the Detroit River were about twice those in the St. Clair River, but the number of genera collected in each river was about equal (22 vs. 23). Larval abundances were higher in October than May because most genera had substantial overwinter population declines. Low densities and species richness in some areas of the St. Clair-Detroit River system may reflect in part continued water quality problems, but community structure has markedly improved and representation of pollution-sensitive organisms has increased over a 12–15 year period.

  8. Geospatial Modelling Approach for Interlinking of Rivers: A Case Study of Vamsadhara and Nagavali River Systems in Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swathi Lakshmi, A.; Saran, S.; Srivastav, S. K.; Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.

    2014-11-01

    India is prone to several natural disasters such as floods, droughts, cyclones, landslides and earthquakes on account of its geoclimatic conditions. But the most frequent and prominent disasters are floods and droughts. So to reduce the impact of floods and droughts in India, interlinking of rivers is one of the best solutions to transfer the surplus flood waters to deficit/drought prone areas. Geospatial modelling provides a holistic approach to generate probable interlinking routes of rivers based on existing geoinformatics tools and technologies. In the present study, SRTM DEM and AWiFS datasets coupled with land-use/land -cover, geomorphology, soil and interpolated rainfall surface maps have been used to identify the potential routes in geospatial domain for interlinking of Vamsadhara and Nagavali River Systems in Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh. The first order derivatives are derived from DEM and road, railway and drainage networks have been delineated using the satellite data. The inundation map has been prepared using AWiFS derived Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). The Drought prone areas were delineated on the satellite image as per the records declared by Revenue Department, Srikakulam. Majority Rule Based (MRB) aggregation technique is performed to optimize the resolution of obtained data in order to retain the spatial variability of the classes. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) based Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) is implemented to obtain the prioritization of parameters like geomorphology, soil, DEM, slope, and land use/land-cover. A likelihood grid has been generated and all the thematic layers are overlaid to identify the potential grids for routing optimization. To give a better routing map, impedance map has been generated and several other constraints are considered. The implementation of canal construction needs extra cost in some areas. The developed routing map is published into OGC WMS services using open source Geo

  9. Fluvial responses to late Quaternary climate change in the Shiyang River drainage system, western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hongshan; Li, Zongmeng; Pan, Baotian; Liu, Fenliang; Liu, Xiaopeng

    2016-04-01

    As a drainage system located in arid western China, the Shiyang River, combined with considerable fluvial strata and landform information, provides an environmental context within which to investigate fluvial responses to late Quaternary climate change. Sedimentological analysis and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating enabled us to reconstruct the processes and fluvial styles of three sedimentary sequences of the Shagou and Hongshui rivers in the Shiyang drainage system. Our results present a variety of river behaviors during the late Quaternary in these areas. In the upstream Shiyang River, Zhangjiadazhuang (ZJDZ) profile of the Shagou was dominated by aggradation and a meandering channel pattern at 10.6-4.2 ka, while a noticeable channel incision occurred at ~ 4.2 ka followed by lateral channel migration. In the downstream Shiyang River, Datugou (DTG) profile of the Hongshui was an aggrading meandering river from 39.7 to 7.2 ka while channel incision occurred at 7.2 ka. Another downstream profile, Wudunwan (WDW) of the Hongshui was also characterized by aggradation from 22.4 to 4.8 ka; however, its channel pattern shifted from braided to meandering at ~ 13 ka. A discernable downcutting event occurred at ~ 4.8 ka, followed by three channel aggradation and incision episodes prior to 1.8 ka. The last 1.8 ka has been characterized by modern channel and floodplain development. The fluvial processes and styles investigated have a close correlation with late Quaternary climate change in the Shiyang River drainage. During cold phases, the WDW reach was dominated by aggradation with a braided channel pattern. During warm phases, the rivers that we investigated were also characterized by aggradation but with meandering channel patterns. Channel incision events and changes of fluvial style occurred mainly during climate transitions.

  10. Tracking suspended particle transport via radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) through the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River system.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Richard N; Burnett, William C; Opsahl, Stephen P; Santos, Isaac R; Misra, Sambuddha; Froelich, Philip N

    2013-02-01

    Suspended particles in rivers can carry metals, nutrients, and pollutants downstream which can become bioactive in estuaries and coastal marine waters. In river systems with multiple sources of both suspended particles and contamination sources, it is important to assess the hydrologic conditions under which contaminated particles can be delivered to downstream ecosystems. The Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River system in the southeastern United States represents an ideal system to study these hydrologic impacts on particle transport through a heavily-impacted river (the Chattahoochee River) and one much less impacted by anthropogenic activities (the Flint River). We demonstrate here the utility of natural radioisotopes as tracers of suspended particles through the ACF system, where particles contaminated with arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) have been shown to be contributed from coal-fired power plants along the Chattahoochee River, and have elevated concentrations in the surficial sediments of the Apalachicola Bay Delta. Radium isotopes ((228)Ra and (226)Ra) on suspended particles should vary throughout the different geologic provinces of this river system, allowing differentiation of the relative contributions of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers to the suspended load delivered to Lake Seminole, the Apalachicola River, and ultimately to Apalachicola Bay. We also use various geochemical proxies ((40)K, organic carbon, and calcium) to assess the relative composition of suspended particles (lithogenic, organic, and carbonate fractions, respectively) under a range of hydrologic conditions. During low (base) flow conditions, the Flint River contributed 70% of the suspended particle load to both the Apalachicola River and the bay, whereas the Chattahoochee River became the dominant source during higher discharge, contributing 80% of the suspended load to the Apalachicola River and 62% of the particles entering the estuary. Neither of these hydrologic

  11. SURVEY OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS: GREEN RIVER STATION, KENTUCKY UTILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a survey of the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system retrofitted to Boilers 1, 2, and 3 at the Green River Station of Kentucky Utilities. The FGD system consists of one wet lime scrubber module designed to handle a maximum of 170 cu m/sec (360,000 afc...

  12. Research on monitoring system of water resources in Shiyang River Basin based on Multi-agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, T. H.; Yin, Z.; Song, Y. Z.

    2012-11-01

    The Shiyang River Basin is the most populous, economy relatively develop, the highest degree of development and utilization of water resources, water conflicts the most prominent, ecological environment problems of the worst hit areas in Hexi inland river basin in Gansu province. the contradiction between people and water is aggravated constantly in the basin. This text combines multi-Agent technology with monitoring system of water resource, the establishment of a management center, telemetry Agent Federation, as well as the communication network between the composition of the Shiyang River Basin water resources monitoring system. By taking advantage of multi-agent system intelligence and communications coordination to improve the timeliness of the basin water resources monitoring.

  13. A Novel Hydro-information System for Improving National Weather Service River Forecast System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Z.; Wang, S.; Liang, X.; Adams, T. E.; Teng, W. L.; Liang, Y.

    2009-12-01

    A novel hydro-information system has been developed to improve the forecast accuracy of the NOAA National Weather Service River Forecast System (NWSRFS). An MKF-based (Multiscale Kalman Filter) spatial data assimilation framework, together with the NOAH land surface model, is employed in our system to assimilate satellite surface soil moisture data to yield improved evapotranspiration. The latter are then integrated into the distributed version of the NWSRFS to improve its forecasting skills, especially for droughts, but also for disaster management in general. Our system supports an automated flow into the NWSRFS of daily satellite surface soil moisture data, derived from the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), and the forcing information of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). All data are custom processed, archived, and supported by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information and Services Center (GES DISC). An optional data fusing component is available in our system, which fuses NEXRAD Stage III precipitation data with the NLDAS precipitation data, using the MKF-based framework, to provide improved precipitation inputs. Our system employs a plug-in, structured framework and has a user-friendly, graphical interface, which can display, in real-time, the spatial distributions of assimilated state variables and other model-simulated information, as well as their behaviors in time series. The interface can also display watershed maps, as a result of the integration of the QGIS library into our system. Extendibility and flexibility of our system are achieved through the plug-in design and by an extensive use of XML-based configuration files. Furthermore, our system can be extended to support multiple land surface models and multiple data assimilation schemes, which would further increase its capabilities. Testing of the integration of the current system into the NWSRFS is

  14. System dynamics modeling of transboundary systems: the bear river basin model.

    PubMed

    Sehlke, Gerald; Jacobson, Jake

    2005-01-01

    System dynamics is a computer-aided approach to evaluating the interrelationships of different components and activities within complex systems. Recently, system dynamics models have been developed in areas such as policy design, biological and medical modeling, energy and the environmental analysis, and in various other areas in the natural and social sciences. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, a multipurpose national laboratory managed by the Department of Energy, has developed a system dynamics model in order to evaluate its utility for modeling large complex hydrological systems. We modeled the Bear River basin, a transboundary basin that includes portions of Idaho, Utah, and Wyoming. We found that system dynamics modeling is very useful for integrating surface water and ground water data and for simulating the interactions between these sources within a given basin. In addition, we also found that system dynamics modeling is useful for integrating complex hydrologic data with other information (e.g., policy, regulatory, and management criteria) to produce a decision support system. Such decision support systems can allow managers and stakeholders to better visualize the key hydrologic elements and management constraints in the basin, which enables them to better understand the system via the simulation of multiple "what-if" scenarios. Although system dynamics models can be developed to conduct traditional hydraulic/hydrologic surface water or ground water modeling, we believe that their strength lies in their ability to quickly evaluate trends and cause-effect relationships in large-scale hydrological systems, for integrating disparate data, for incorporating output from traditional hydraulic/hydrologic models, and for integration of interdisciplinary data, information, and criteria to support better management decisions. PMID:16149968

  15. Predicting groundwater flow system discharge in the river network at the watershed scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, Alice; Ridolfi, Luca; Boano, Fulvio

    2016-04-01

    The interaction between rivers and aquifers affects the quality and the quantity of surface and subsurface water since it plays a crucial role for solute transport, nutrient cycling and microbial transformations. The groundwater-surface water interface, better known as hyporheic zone, has a functional significance for the biogeochemical and ecological conditions of the fluvial ecosystem since it controls the flux of groundwater solutes discharging into rivers, and vice versa. The hyporheic processes are affected by the complex surrounding aquifer because the groundwater flow system obstructs the penetration of stream water into the sediments. The impact of large-scale stream-aquifer interactions on small scale exchange has generally been analyzed at local scales of a river reach, or even smaller. However, a complete comprehension of how hyporheic fluxes are affected by the groundwater system at watershed scale is still missing. Evaluating this influence is fundamental to predict the consequences of hyporheic exchange on water quality and stream ecology. In order to better understand the actual structure of hyporheic exchange along the river network, we firstly examine the role of basin topography complexity in controlling river-aquifer interactions. To reach this target, we focus on the analysis of surface-subsurface water exchange at the watershed scale, taking into account the river-aquifer interactions induced by landscape topography. By way of a mathematical model, we aim to improve the estimation of the role of large scale hydraulic gradients on hyporheic exchange. The potential of the method is demonstrated by the analysis of a benchmark case's study, which shows how the topographic conformation influences the stream-aquifer interaction and induces a substantial spatial variability of the groundwater discharge even among adjacent reaches along the stream. The vertical exchange velocity along the river evidences a lack of autocorrelation. Both the groundwater

  16. The Techa River dosimetry system: methods for the reconstruction of internal dose.

    PubMed

    Degteva, M O; Kozheurov, V P; Tolstykh, E I; Vorobiova, M I; Anspaugh, L R; Napier, B A; Kovtun, A N

    2000-07-01

    The Mayak Production Association (MPA) was the first facility in the former Soviet Union for the production of plutonium. Significant worker and population exposures occurred as a result of failures in the technological processes in the late 1940's and early 1950's. Residents of many villages downstream on the Techa River were exposed via a variety of pathways; the more significant included drinking of water from the river and external gamma exposure due to proximity to contaminated bottom sediment and shoreline. After the extent of the major contamination of the Techa River became known, several villages on the upper part of the Techa River were evacuated. Organ doses are being reconstructed on the basis of derivation of an historical source term and a simple river model used to simulate the transport of radionuclides downstream and their retention on sediments; measurements of 90Sr content in teeth and the whole body of half of the members of the cohort; and development of the "Techa River Dosimetry System" for computation of the doses. PMID:10855775

  17. Episodic Channels: Effects of Regulation on Non-Equilibrium River Systems in California (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondolf, G. M.; Minear, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Mediterranean-climate rivers are characterized by episodic channels, whose geomorphic work is concentrated in short, infrequent events (large floods), separated by long periods of quiescence in which the channel narrows and riparian vegetation can establish and mature, only to be disrupted by the next large disturbance. While not ‘pretty’ in conventional terms, such rivers support diverse assemblages of native species, adapted to the episodic regime. Because of the importance of irrigated agriculture in Mediterranean-climate regions, large reservoir storage projects are common, resulting in dam-induced reductions flood peaks, which have reduced dynamism in downstream channels. The result has been loss of habitat diversity and native species. A systems-level analysis of the Sacramento-San Joaquin and other rivers reveals that Q2 has commonly been reduced by 80%, sediment loads reduced, and vegetation encroached in formerly active channels. More profound have been hardening of banks and isolation of floodplains by levees. Restoration of ecological values in such rivers will require room for the river to move and flood, as well as floods sufficient to drive these processes. We identify a set of rivers with highest potential for re-activation or preservation of dynamic process in California.

  18. The Techa River dosimetry system: Methods for the reconstruction of internal dose

    SciTech Connect

    Degteva, M.O.; Kozheurov, V.P.; Tolstykh, E.I.; Vorobiova, M.I.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Napier, B.A.; Kovtun, A.N.

    2000-07-01

    The Mayak Production Association (MPA) was the first facility in the former Soviet Union for the production of plutonium. Significant worker and population exposures occurred as a result of failures in the technological processes in the late 1940's and early 1950's. Residents of many villages downstream on the Techa River were exposed via a variety of pathways; the more significant included drinking of water from the river and external gamma exposure due to proximity to contaminated bottom sediment and shoreline. After the extent of the major contamination of the Techa River became known, several villages on the upper part of the Techa River were evacuated. Organ doses are being reconstructed on the basis of derivation of an historical source term and a simple river model used to simulate the transport of radionuclides downstream and their retention on sediments; measurements of {sup 90}Sr content in teeth and the whole body of half of the members of the cohort; and development of the Techa River Dosimetry System for computation of the doses.

  19. Biogeochemistry of mercury in a river-reservoir system: impact of an inactive chloralkali plant on the Holston River-Cherokee Reservoir, Virginia and Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, S. G.; Lindberg, S. E.; Turner, R. R.; Huckabee, J. W.; Strand, R. H.; Lund, J. R.; Andren, A. W.

    1980-08-01

    Elevated mercury concentrations in fish species from the North Fork of the Holston River were observed in the early 1970's. The source of the mercury was a chloralkali plant which had ceased operation in 1972. Mercury continues to be released to the river from two large (approx. 40-ha) waste disposal ponds at the plant site. This report presents results of a study of the emission of mercury to the environment from the abandoned waste ponds and of the distribution of mercury in water, sediment, and biota of the Holston River-Cherokee Reservoir System in Virginia and eastern Tennessee.

  20. Projecting cumulative benefits of multiple river restoration projects: an example from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River system in California.

    PubMed

    Kondolf, G Mathias; Angermeier, Paul L; Cummins, Kenneth; Dunne, Thomas; Healey, Michael; Kimmerer, Wim; Moyle, Peter B; Murphy, Dennis; Patten, Duncan; Railsback, Steve; Reed, Denise J; Spies, Robert; Twiss, Robert

    2008-12-01

    Despite increasingly large investments, the potential ecological effects of river restoration programs are still small compared to the degree of human alterations to physical and ecological function. Thus, it is rarely possible to "restore" pre-disturbance conditions; rather restoration programs (even large, well-funded ones) will nearly always involve multiple small projects, each of which can make some modest change to selected ecosystem processes and habitats. At present, such projects are typically selected based on their attributes as individual projects (e.g., consistency with programmatic goals of the funders, scientific soundness, and acceptance by local communities), and ease of implementation. Projects are rarely prioritized (at least explicitly) based on how they will cumulatively affect ecosystem function over coming decades. Such projections require an understanding of the form of the restoration response curve, or at least that we assume some plausible relations and estimate cumulative effects based thereon. Drawing on our experience with the CALFED Bay-Delta Ecosystem Restoration Program in California, we consider potential cumulative system-wide benefits of a restoration activity extensively implemented in the region: isolating/filling abandoned floodplain gravel pits captured by rivers to reduce predation of outmigrating juvenile salmon by exotic warmwater species inhabiting the pits. We present a simple spreadsheet model to show how different assumptions about gravel pit bathymetry and predator behavior would affect the cumulative benefits of multiple pit-filling and isolation projects, and how these insights could help managers prioritize which pits to fill. PMID:18810527

  1. Projecting Cumulative Benefits of Multiple River Restoration Projects: An Example from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River System in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondolf, G. Mathias; Angermeier, Paul L.; Cummins, Kenneth; Dunne, Thomas; Healey, Michael; Kimmerer, Wim; Moyle, Peter B.; Murphy, Dennis; Patten, Duncan; Railsback, Steve; Reed, Denise J.; Spies, Robert; Twiss, Robert

    2008-12-01

    Despite increasingly large investments, the potential ecological effects of river restoration programs are still small compared to the degree of human alterations to physical and ecological function. Thus, it is rarely possible to “restore” pre-disturbance conditions; rather restoration programs (even large, well-funded ones) will nearly always involve multiple small projects, each of which can make some modest change to selected ecosystem processes and habitats. At present, such projects are typically selected based on their attributes as individual projects (e.g., consistency with programmatic goals of the funders, scientific soundness, and acceptance by local communities), and ease of implementation. Projects are rarely prioritized (at least explicitly) based on how they will cumulatively affect ecosystem function over coming decades. Such projections require an understanding of the form of the restoration response curve, or at least that we assume some plausible relations and estimate cumulative effects based thereon. Drawing on our experience with the CALFED Bay-Delta Ecosystem Restoration Program in California, we consider potential cumulative system-wide benefits of a restoration activity extensively implemented in the region: isolating/filling abandoned floodplain gravel pits captured by rivers to reduce predation of outmigrating juvenile salmon by exotic warmwater species inhabiting the pits. We present a simple spreadsheet model to show how different assumptions about gravel pit bathymetry and predator behavior would affect the cumulative benefits of multiple pit-filling and isolation projects, and how these insights could help managers prioritize which pits to fill.

  2. Projecting cumulative benefits of multiple river restoration projects: an example from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River system in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kondolf, G. Mathias; Angermeier, Paul L.; Cummins, Kenneth; Dunne, Thomas; Healey, Michael; Kimmerer, Wim; Moyle, Peter B.; Murphy, Dennis; Patten, Duncan; Railsback, Steve F.; Reed, Denise J.; Spies, Robert; Twiss, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Despite increasingly large investments, the potential ecological effects of river restoration programs are still small compared to the degree of human alterations to physical and ecological function. Thus, it is rarely possible to “restore” pre-disturbance conditions; rather restoration programs (even large, well-funded ones) will nearly always involve multiple small projects, each of which can make some modest change to selected ecosystem processes and habitats. At present, such projects are typically selected based on their attributes as individual projects (e.g., consistency with programmatic goals of the funders, scientific soundness, and acceptance by local communities), and ease of implementation. Projects are rarely prioritized (at least explicitly) based on how they will cumulatively affect ecosystem function over coming decades. Such projections require an understanding of the form of the restoration response curve, or at least that we assume some plausible relations and estimate cumulative effects based thereon. Drawing on our experience with the CALFED Bay-Delta Ecosystem Restoration Program in California, we consider potential cumulative system-wide benefits of a restoration activity extensively implemented in the region: isolating/filling abandoned floodplain gravel pits captured by rivers to reduce predation of outmigrating juvenile salmon by exotic warmwater species inhabiting the pits. We present a simple spreadsheet model to show how different assumptions about gravel pit bathymetry and predator behavior would affect the cumulative benefits of multiple pit-filling and isolation projects, and how these insights could help managers prioritize which pits to fill.

  3. Organic fuels for respiration in tropical river systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, N.; Keil, R. G.; Richey, J. E.; Krusche, A. V.; Medeiros, P. M.

    2011-12-01

    Watershed-derived organic matter is thought to provide anywhere from 30-90% of the organic matter in rivers (e.g. Hernes et al 2008; Spencer et al 2010). The most abundant biochemicals on land are cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. Combined, they represent as much as 80% of the biomass in a typical forest and as much as 60% of the biomass in a typical field (natural or crop)(Bose et al 2009; Bridgeman et al., 2007; Hu and Zu 2006; Martens et al 2004). They are often assumed to be refractory and hard to degrade, but this assumption is at odds with virtually all observations: soils and marine sediments are not accumulating vast amounts of these compounds (Hedges and Oades, 1997), and degradation experiments suggest that cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin are reactive and likely to be important fuels for respiration (Benner, 1991; Haddad et al, 1992; Dittmar et al, 2001; Otto and Simpson, 2006). During several trips to the lower Amazon River, incubation experiments were performed in which the biological degradation of lignin phenols was observed in order to assess the contribution of microbial respiration of terrestrially-derived macromolecules to gross respiration and CO2 gas evasion rates. Both particulate and dissolved lignin concentrations decreased by ~40% after being incubated in the dark for 5-7 days, indicating a turnover time of the entire lignin pool of 12-18 days. These results shift the paradigm that lignocellulose derived OM is highly recalcitrant, and indicate that microbial respiration of lignocellulose may play a larger role in total respiration rates/CO2 outgassing than previously thought. A simple mass balance calculation was done to test whether microbial degradation alone could explain the lignin data observed in the field. First, a theoretical particulate lignin concentration for Macapa was calculated based on the observed data at Obidos. The measured rate of particulate lignin degradation was multiplied by the transit time of water from

  4. Surface Hydrology in Global River Basins in the Off-Line Land-Surface GEOS Assimilation (OLGA) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Yang, Runhua; Houser, Paul R.

    1998-01-01

    Land surface hydrology for the Off-line Land-surface GEOS Analysis (OLGA) system and Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-1) Data Assimilation System (DAS) has been examined using a river routing model. The GEOS-1 DAS land-surface parameterization is very simple, using an energy balance prediction of surface temperature and prescribed soil water. OLGA uses near-surface atmospheric data from the GEOS-1 DAS to drive a more comprehensive parameterization of the land-surface physics. The two global systems are evaluated using a global river routing model. The river routing model uses climatologic surface runoff from each system to simulate the river discharge from global river basins, which can be compared to climatologic river discharge. Due to the soil hydrology, the OLGA system shows a general improvement in the simulation of river discharge compared to the GEOS-1 DAS. Snowmelt processes included in OLGA also have a positive effect on the annual cycle of river discharge and source runoff. Preliminary tests of a coupled land-atmosphere model indicate improvements to the hydrologic cycle compared to the uncoupled system. The river routing model has provided a useful tool in the evaluation of the GCM hydrologic cycle, and has helped quantify the influence of the more advanced land surface model.

  5. Proximal storage and controls on sediment flux in large Himalayan river systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Densmore, Alexander; Sinha, Rajiv; Barnes, Jason; Jain, Vikrant; Tandon, S. K.

    2010-05-01

    The central and eastern Himalaya are drained by the Ganga River and its tributaries, which flow southeastward across the Gangetic Plain in the northern Indian . Rivers in the eastern Gangetic Plain are generally characterized by high sediment fluxes and frequent avulsions in the foreland, leading to the deposition of very large, low-gradient alluvial fans. Rivers in the western Plain, in contrast, are typically confined to narrow meander belts and show a complex Quaternary history of incision and deposition. To first order, this contrast has been explained by spatial gradients in rock uplift and precipitation, leading to large-scale variations in sediment supply across the Ganga basin. Here, we explore an additional mechanism that may control river development - sediment storage and release in intermontane basins, known locally as ‘duns', that occur along the Himalayan mountain front. Duns are present along several, but not all, segments of the mountain front and are formed by active anticlinal folds associated with the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) system. Where duns coincide with the outlets of major transverse river systems, they can act as proximal sediment traps, although their capacity is typically limited by the dimensions of the dun and the ability of the rivers to incise through the folds. Estimates of fold erosion and deeply incised Quaternary sediments in several duns indicate that the duns also serve as intermittent sediment sources. Thus, the duns act as a ‘filter' that is superposed between the sediment source in the Greater and Lesser Himalaya and the routing systems of the Gangetic Plain, and that amplifies climate-related fluctuations in sediment supply. We contrast the behaviour of the Yamuna and Ganga rivers in the western Gangetic Plain with the Kosi River in the east. Sediment in the Yamuna and Ganga must pass through the Dehra Dun, which records a complex history of aggradation and erosion during the Quaternary. Hinterland sediment

  6. Hydrogeochemical Indicators of Groundwater Flow Systems in the Yangwu River Alluvial Fan, Xinzhou Basin, Shanxi, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dongmei; Liang, Xing; Jin, Menggui; Currell, Matthew J.; Han, Ying; Song, Xianfang

    2009-08-01

    Based on analysis of groundwater hydrochemical and isotopic indicators, this article aims to identify the groundwater flow systems in the Yangwu River alluvial fan, in the Xinzhou Basin, China. Groundwater δ2H and δ18O values indicate that the origin of groundwater is mainly from precipitation, with local evaporative influence. d-excess values lower than 10% in most groundwaters suggest a cold climate during recharge in the area. Major ion chemistry, including rCa/rMg and rNa/rCl ratios, show that groundwater salinization is probably dominated by water-rock interaction (e.g., silicate mineral weathering, dissolution of calcite and dolomite and cation exchange) in the Yangwu River alluvial fan, and locally by intensive evapotranspiration in the Hutuo River valley. Cl and Sr concentrations follow an increasing trend in shallow groundwater affected by evaporation, and a decreasing trend in deep groundwater. 87Sr/86Sr ratios reflect the variety of lithologies encountered during throughflow. The groundwater flow systems (GFS) of the Yangwu River alluvial fan include local and intermediate flow systems. Hydrogeochemical modeling results, simulated using PHREEQC, reveal water-rock interaction processes along different flow paths. This modeling method is more effective for characterizing flow paths in the intermediate system than in the local system. Artificial exploitation on groundwater in the alluvial fan enhances mixing between different groundwater flow systems.

  7. Hydrogeochemical indicators of groundwater flow systems in the Yangwu River alluvial fan, Xinzhou Basin, Shanxi, China.

    PubMed

    Han, Dongmei; Liang, Xing; Jin, Menggui; Currell, Matthew J; Han, Ying; Song, Xianfang

    2009-08-01

    Based on analysis of groundwater hydrochemical and isotopic indicators, this article aims to identify the groundwater flow systems in the Yangwu River alluvial fan, in the Xinzhou Basin, China. Groundwater delta(2)H and delta(18)O values indicate that the origin of groundwater is mainly from precipitation, with local evaporative influence. d-excess values lower than 10% in most groundwaters suggest a cold climate during recharge in the area. Major ion chemistry, including rCa/rMg and rNa/rCl ratios, show that groundwater salinization is probably dominated by water-rock interaction (e.g., silicate mineral weathering, dissolution of calcite and dolomite and cation exchange) in the Yangwu River alluvial fan, and locally by intensive evapotranspiration in the Hutuo River valley. Cl and Sr concentrations follow an increasing trend in shallow groundwater affected by evaporation, and a decreasing trend in deep groundwater. (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios reflect the variety of lithologies encountered during throughflow. The groundwater flow systems (GFS) of the Yangwu River alluvial fan include local and intermediate flow systems. Hydrogeochemical modeling results, simulated using PHREEQC, reveal water-rock interaction processes along different flow paths. This modeling method is more effective for characterizing flow paths in the intermediate system than in the local system. Artificial exploitation on groundwater in the alluvial fan enhances mixing between different groundwater flow systems. PMID:19548025

  8. Remote sensing of rivers: an emerging tool to facilitate management and restoration of fluvial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legleiter, C. J.; Overstreet, B. T.

    2013-12-01

    All phases of river restoration, from design to implementation to assessment, require spatially distributed, high-resolution data on channels and floodplains. Conventional field methods are cost prohibitive for large areas, but remote sensing presents an increasingly viable alternative for characterizing fluvial systems. For example, bathymetric maps useful for habitat assessment can be derived from readily available, free or low cost image data, provided depth measurements are available for calibration. In combination with LiDAR, spectrally-based bathymetry can be used to determine bed elevations for estimating scour and fill and/or to obtain topographic input data for morphodynamic modeling. New, water-penetrating green LiDAR systems that measure sub-aerial and submerged elevations could provide a single-sensor solution for mapping riparian environments. Our current research on the Snake River focuses on comparing optical- and LiDAR-based methods for retrieving depths and bed elevations. Multi-sensor surveys from 2012 and 2013 will allow us to evaluate each instrument's capabilities for measuring volumes of erosion and deposition in a dynamic gravel-bed river. Ongoing studies also suggest that additional river attributes, such as substrate composition and flow velocity, could be inferred from hyperspectral image data. In general, remote sensing has considerable potential to facilitate various aspects of river restoration, from site evaluation to post-project assessment. Moreover, by providing more extensive coverage, this approach favors an integrated, watershed perspective for planning, execution, and monitoring of sustainable restoration programs. To stimulate progress toward these objectives, our research group is now working to advance the remote sensing of rivers through tool development and sensor deployment. Bathymetric map of the Snake River, WY, derived from hyperspectral image data via optimal band ratio analysis. Flow direction is from right to left.

  9. 3. Mercury pollution in the Lot River system (France): fluxes and sedimentary record.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, J.; Blanc, G.; Audry, S.; Bossy, C.; Vu Duc, L.; Lissalde, J.-P.

    2003-04-01

    We present first data on Hg concentrations and fluxes in the Lot River system (southwest France), known for its historic Zn and Cd pollution affecting seafood production in the Gironde Estuary. Present day Hg fluxes (1999-2000) were estimated from daily measured discharge and SPM concentrations and concentrations of particulate and dissolved Hg in monthly collected samples. The data show that Hg is essentially (up to 98 %) transported in the particulate phase. Particulate Hg concentrations in SPM show a distinct decrease between 1992 and 1999 but, since then, tend to increase in magnitude and variability. The evolution of Hg fluxes in the Lot River in 1992, 1994, 1995 and 1998-2001 reflect hydrological variations and the decrease of direct Hg inputs from the point source at the Riou-Mort River, draining a small watershed polluted by former mining and ore treatment. However, the data also indicate important Hg remobilization from the sediment by dredging due to lock construction along the Lot River. Mercury concentrations in sediment cores from a dam lake downstream of the Riou-Mort watershed are up to 30 mg.kg-1, i.e. more than 300-fold higher than geochemical background measured in the same riverbed upstream the confluence with the Riou-Mort River. In the sediment cores Hg from the Lot River dam lakes Hg concentration profiles are comparable to those of Cd and Zn. This indicates common sources and transport. Element ratios (e.g. Cd/Zn) in the sediment reflect SPM values and suggest an important Hg stock (7 t) in these sediments. Historic (˜40 years) Hg records in the sediment cores dated by using 137Cs activities and Cd-concentrations (e.g. Chernobyl accident and accidental Cd pollution in 1986) confirm the decreasing Hg level in SPM since the early nineties. Nevertheless Hg concentrations in the upper sediment and SPM remain high compared to background values from reference sites in the upper Lot River system.

  10. A digital underwater video camera system for aquatic research in regulated rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Benjamin M.; Irwin, Elise R.

    2010-01-01

    We designed a digital underwater video camera system to monitor nesting centrarchid behavior in the Tallapoosa River, Alabama, 20 km below a peaking hydropower dam with a highly variable flow regime. Major components of the system included a digital video recorder, multiple underwater cameras, and specially fabricated substrate stakes. The innovative design of the substrate stakes allowed us to effectively observe nesting redbreast sunfish Lepomis auritus in a highly regulated river. Substrate stakes, which were constructed for the specific substratum complex (i.e., sand, gravel, and cobble) identified at our study site, were able to withstand a discharge level of approximately 300 m3/s and allowed us to simultaneously record 10 active nests before and during water releases from the dam. We believe our technique will be valuable for other researchers that work in regulated rivers to quantify behavior of aquatic fauna in response to a discharge disturbance.

  11. Modeling fecal coliform contamination in a tidal Danshuei River estuarine system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Cheng; Chan, Wen-Ting; Young, Chih-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional fecal coliform transport model was developed and incorporated into a hydrodynamic model to obtain a better understanding of local microbiological water quality in the tidal Danshuei River estuarine system of northern Taiwan. The model was firstly validated with the salinity and fecal coliform data measured in 2010. The concentration comparison showed quantitatively good agreement between the simulation and measurement results. Further, the model was applied to investigate the effects of upstream freshwater discharge variation and fecal coliform loading reduction on the contamination distributions in the tidal estuarine system. The qualitative and quantitative analyses clearly revealed that low freshwater discharge resulted in higher fecal coliform concentration. The fecal coliform loading reduction considerably decreased the contamination along the Danshuei River-Tahan Stream, the Hsintien Stream, and the Keelung River. PMID:25302451

  12. Effects of Extreme Monsoon Precipitation on River Systems Form And Function, an Early Eocene Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plink-Bjorklund, P.; Birgenheier, L.

    2013-12-01

    Here we document effects of extreme monsoon precipitation on river systems with mountainous drainage basin. We discuss the effects of individual extreme monsoon seasons, as well as long-term changes in Earth surface system's form and function. The dataset spans across 1000 m of stratigraphy across ca 200 km of Paleocene and Early Eocene river deposits. The excessive 3-dimensional outcrops, combined with our new Carbon isotope, ichnological and paleosols record allow reconstruction of long-term river system's evolution during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) ca 56 million years ago, the transient global warming events during Early Eocene Climate Optimum (EECO) ca 53 to 51.5 million years ago, as well as the effects of highly peaked precipitation events during single monsoon seasons. On the single season scale, the increase in precipitation peakedness causes high discharge flooding events that remove large quantities of sediment from the drainage basin, due to stream erosion and landslide initiation. The initiation of landslides is especially significant, as the drainage basin is of high gradient, the monsoon intensification is accompanied by significant vegetation decline, as the monsoon cycle changes to multi-year droughts interrupted by extreme monsoon precipitation. These large discharge floods laden with sediment cause rapid deposition from high-velocity currents that resemble megaflood deposits in that they are dominated by high-velocity and high deposition rate sedimentary structures and thick simple depositional packages (unit bars). Such high deposition rates cause locally rapid channel bed aggradation and thus increase frequency of channel avulsions and cause catastrophic high-discharge terrestrial flooding events across the river basin. On long time scales, fluvial megafan systems, similar to those, e.g. in the Himalayan foreland, developed across the ca 200 km wide river basin, causing significant sediment aggradation and a landscape with high

  13. A Comparison of Dissolved and Particulate Organic Material in Two Southwestern Desert River Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, P. A.; Brooks, P.

    2001-12-01

    Desert river systems of the southwestern U.S. acquire a substantial fraction of their dissolved organic matter (DOM) from the terrestrial environment during episodic rain events. This DOM provides carbon for stream metabolism and nitrogen, which is limiting in lower order streams in this environment. The San Pedro and Rio Grande Rivers represent two endpoints of catchment scale, discharge, and land use in the southwest. The San Pedro is a protected riparian corridor (San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area), while the middle Rio Grande is a large river with extensive agriculture, irrigation, and reservoirs. Relative abundance and spectral properties of fulvic acids isolated from filtered samples were used to determine the source of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Total DOC and particulate organic carbon (POC) changes with respect to episodic flooding events were compared for the two river systems. The San Pedro River DOC concentrations remain low approximately 2.2 to 3.3 ppm unless a relatively large storm event occurs when concentrations may go above 5.5 ppm (1000cfs flow). In contrast typical concentrations for the Rio Grande were approximately 5 ppm during the monsoon season. Particulate organic matter (POM) appears to be a more significant source of organic matter to the San Pedro than DOM. The relative importance of terrestrial vs. aquatic and dissolved vs. particulate organic matter with respect to aquatic ecosystems will be discussed.

  14. CRevolution 2—Origin and evolution of the Colorado River system, workshop abstracts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    : Beard, L. Sue, (Edited By); Karlstrom, Karl E.; Young, Richard A.; Billingsley, George H.

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 Colorado River symposium, held in Flagstaff, Arizona, involved 70 participants who engaged in intense debate about the origin and evolution of the Colorado River system. This symposium, built upon two previous decadal scientific meetings, focused on forging scientific consensus, where possible, while articulating continued controversies regarding the Cenozoic evolution of the Colorado River System and the landscapes of the Colorado Plateau-Rocky Mountain region that it drains. New developments involved hypotheses that Neogene mantle flow is driving plateau tilting and differential uplift and new and controversial hypotheses for the pre-6 Ma presence and evolution of ancestral rivers that may be important in the history and birth of the present Colorado River. There is a consensus that plateau tilt and uplift models must be tested with multidisciplinary studies involving differential incision studies and additional geochronology and thermochronology to determine the relative importance of tectonic and geomorphic forces that shape the spectacular landscapes of the Colorado Plateau, Arizona and region. In addition to the scientific goals, the meeting participants emphasized the iconic status of Grand Canyon for geosciences and the importance of good communication between the research community, the geoscience education/interpretation community, the public, and the media. Building on a century-long tradition, this region still provides a globally important natural laboratory for studies of the interactions of erosion and tectonism in shaping the landscape of elevated plateaus.

  15. Framework design for remote sensing monitoring and data service system of regional river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jun'e.; Lu, Jingxuan; Pang, Zhiguo

    2015-08-01

    Regional river basins, transboundary rivers in particular, are shared water resources among multiple users. The tempo-spatial distribution and utilization potentials of water resources in these river basins have a great influence on the economic layout and the social development of all the interested parties in these basins. However, due to the characteristics of cross borders and multi-users in these regions, especially across border regions, basic data is relatively scarce and inconsistent, which bring difficulties in basin water resources management. Facing the basic data requirements in regional river management, the overall technical framework for remote sensing monitoring and data service system in China's regional river basins was designed in the paper, with a remote sensing driven distributed basin hydrologic model developed and integrated within the frame. This prototype system is able to extract most of the model required land surface data by multi-sources and multi-temporal remote sensing images, to run a distributed basin hydrological simulation model, to carry out various scenario analysis, and to provide data services to decision makers.

  16. Developing an Approach to Prioritize River Restoration using Data Extracted from Flood Risk Information System Databases.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vimal, S.; Tarboton, D. G.; Band, L. E.; Duncan, J. M.; Lovette, J. P.; Corzo, G.; Miles, B.

    2015-12-01

    Prioritizing river restoration requires information on river geometry. In many states in the US detailed river geometry has been collected for floodplain mapping and is available in Flood Risk Information Systems (FRIS). In particular, North Carolina has, for its 100 Counties, developed a database of numerous HEC-RAS models which are available through its Flood Risk Information System (FRIS). These models that include over 260 variables were developed and updated by numerous contractors. They contain detailed surveyed or LiDAR derived cross-sections and modeled flood extents for different extreme event return periods. In this work, over 4700 HEC-RAS models' data was integrated and upscaled to utilize detailed cross-section information and 100-year modelled flood extent information to enable river restoration prioritization for the entire state of North Carolina. We developed procedures to extract geomorphic properties such as entrenchment ratio, incision ratio, etc. from these models. Entrenchment ratio quantifies the vertical containment of rivers and thereby their vulnerability to flooding and incision ratio quantifies the depth per unit width. A map of entrenchment ratio for the whole state was derived by linking these model results to a geodatabase. A ranking of highly entrenched counties enabling prioritization for flood allowance and mitigation was obtained. The results were shared through HydroShare and web maps developed for their visualization using Google Maps Engine API.

  17. Application of Science-Based Restoration Planning to a Desert River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laub, Brian G.; Jimenez, Justin; Budy, Phaedra

    2015-06-01

    Persistence of many desert river species is threatened by a suite of impacts linked to water infrastructure projects that provide human water security where water is scarce. Many desert rivers have undergone regime shifts from spatially and temporally dynamic ecosystems to more stable systems dominated by homogenous physical habitat. Restoration of desert river systems could aid in biodiversity conservation, but poses formidable challenges due to multiple threats and the infeasibility of recovery to pre-development conditions. The challenges faced in restoring desert rivers can be addressed by incorporating scientific recommendations into restoration planning efforts at multiple stages, as demonstrated here through an example restoration project. In particular, use of a watershed-scale planning process can identify data gaps and irreversible constraints, which aid in developing achievable restoration goals and objectives. Site-prioritization focuses limited the resources for restoration on areas with the greatest potential to improve populations of target organisms. Investment in research to understand causes of degradation, coupled with adoption of a guiding vision is critical for identifying feasible restoration actions that can enhance river processes. Setting monitoring as a project goal, developing hypotheses for expected outcomes, and implementing restoration as an experimental design will facilitate adaptive management and learning from project implementation. Involvement of scientists and managers during all planning stages is critical for developing process-based restoration actions and an implementation plan to maximize learning. The planning process developed here provides a roadmap for use of scientific recommendations in future efforts to recover dynamic processes in imperiled riverine ecosystems.

  18. Quantification of heavy metal emissions into the river systems of Baden-Wuerttemberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oltmann, A.; Scherer, U.; Fuchs, S. T.

    2003-04-01

    The study´s background is the estimation of the status quo of heavy metal emissions into the river systems of Baden-Wuerttemberg, which is essential for the implemetation of the European Water Framework Directive. Therefore the input of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) into the river systems of Baden-Wuerttemberg via various point and diffuse pathways is estimated. The use of this data will enable us to identify significant sources and pathways which will help to decrease heavy metal emissions. For the quantification of emissions from point sources, data is taken from surveys on municipal wastewater treatment plants, industrial direct discharges, and historic mines. The input from diffuse sources is calculated using an adapted version of the model MONERIS (Behrendt et al. 2000). This model accounts for the significant transport processes and includes a Geographical Information System (GIS) that provides digital maps as well as extensive statistical information. For the comparison of the calculated heavy metal emission, and the heavy metal load measured at monitoring stations, the loss of heavy metals due to retention processes within the river system are calculated according to the retention functions given by Vink &Behrendt (2002). Today's emissions of heavy metals into the river systems of Baden-Wuerttemberg are dominated by the input from diffuse sources, e.g. paved urban areas and erosion. For different types of heavy metals different sources and pathways play an important role.

  19. Distribution of Eurasian watermilfoil, Myriophyllum spicatum, in the St. Clair-Detroit River system in 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Donald W.; Manny, Bruce A.

    1984-01-01

    Submersed macrophytes were surveyed at 595 stations located throughout the St. Clair-Detroit River system between Lakes Huron and Erie, 23 August to 13 October 1978. Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum), first recorded in the system in 1974, became the fourth most common submersed macrophyte in the system by 1978. However, it has not been reported as a widespread nuisance in this system as it has in many other large water bodies in the United States. Observations made during the present study, and interpretation of an aerial photograph, suggest that M. spicatum was a minor nuisance to small boat navigation in portions of the system. Information presented in this study provides a baseline against which future changes in the occurrence of M. spicatum in the St. Clair-Detroit River system can be measured.

  20. Navigability Potential of Washington Rivers and Streams Determined with Hydraulic Geometry and a Geographic Information System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magirl, Christopher S.; Olsen, Theresa D.

    2009-01-01

    Using discharge and channel geometry measurements from U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations and data from a geographic information system, regression relations were derived to predict river depth, top width, and bottom width as a function of mean annual discharge for rivers in the State of Washington. A new technique also was proposed to determine bottom width in channels, a parameter that has received relatively little attention in the geomorphology literature. These regression equations, when combined with estimates of mean annual discharge available in the National Hydrography Dataset, enabled the prediction of hydraulic geometry for any stream or river in the State of Washington. Predictions of hydraulic geometry can then be compared to thresholds established by the Washington State Department of Natural Resources to determine navigability potential of rivers. Rivers with a mean annual discharge of 1,660 cubic feet per second or greater are 'probably navigable' and rivers with a mean annual discharge of 360 cubic feet per second or less are 'probably not navigable'. Variance in the dataset, however, leads to a relatively wide range of prediction intervals. For example, although the predicted hydraulic depth at a mean annual discharge of 1,660 cubic feet per second is 3.5 feet, 90-percent prediction intervals indicate that the actual hydraulic depth may range from 1.8 to 7.0 feet. This methodology does not determine navigability - a legal concept determined by federal common law - instead, this methodology is a tool for predicting channel depth, top width, and bottom width for rivers and streams in Washington.

  1. Salt Fluxes in a Complex River Mouth System of Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Nuno; Lencart e Silva, João D.; Dias, João Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of velocity and salinity near the mouth and head of the Espinheiro channel (Ria de Aveiro lagoon, Portugal) are used to study the local variation of physical water properties and to assess the balance, under steady conditions, between the seaward salt transport induced by river discharge and the landward dispersion induced by various mixing mechanisms. This assessment is made using data sampled during complete tidal cycles. Under the assumption that the estuarine tidal channel is laterally homogeneous and during moderate tidal periods (except for one survey), currents and salinity data were decomposed into various spatial and temporal means and their deviations. Near the channel's mouth, the main contributions to the salt transport are the terms due to freshwater discharge and the tidal correlation. Near the channel's head, this last term is less important than the density driven circulation, which is enhanced by the increase in freshwater discharge. The remaining terms, which are dependent on the deviations from the mean depth have a smaller role in the results of salt transport. The computed salt transport per unit width of a section perpendicular to the mean flow is in close agreement to the sum of the advective and dispersive terms (within or very close to 12%). An imbalance of the salt budget across the sections is observed for all the surveys. Considerations are made on how this approach can inform the management of hazardous contamination and how to use these results to best time the release of environmental flows during dry months. PMID:23071793

  2. Public health systems analysis - where the River Kabul meets the River Indus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we review two recent paradigmatic shifts and consider how a two-way flow in innovation has been critical to the emergence of new thinking and new practices. The first area relates to our understanding of the nature of public health systems and the shift from a medical paradigm to a more holistic paradigm which emphasises the social, economic and environmental origins of ill-health and looks to these as key arenas in which to tackle persistent inequalities in populations’ health experiences. In respect of this paradigmatic shift, it is argued, developing countries were in advance of their more developed counterparts. Specifically, the Alma Ata Declaration and the Primary Health Care Approach which was central to its implementation pre-figured elements of what was to be called in developed countries The New Public Health such as the need for greater community involvement and recognition of the importance of other sectors in determining health outcomes. But this paradigmatic shift added a new complexity to our understanding which made the identification of appropriate policy responses increasingly difficult. However, a parallel shift was taking place in the cognate field of operational research/systems analysis (OR/SA) which was adding greatly to our ability to analyse and to identify key points of intervention in complex systems. This led to the emergence of new techniques for problem structuring which overcame many of the limitations of formal mathematical models which characterised the old paradigm. In this paradigmatic shift developed countries have led the way, specifically in the new fields of Community Operational Research and Operational Research for Development, but only by drawing strongly on the experience and philosophies to be found in developing countries. PMID:24119439

  3. Evaluation of VICAR software capability for land information support system needs. [Elk River quadrangle, Idaho

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, S. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the processing capability of the VICAR software for land information support system needs is presented. The geometric and radiometric properties of four sets of LANDSAT data taken over the Elk River, Idaho quadrangle were compared. Storage of data sets, the means of location, pixel resolution, and radiometric and geometric characteristics are described. Recommended modifications of VICAR programs are presented.

  4. Prioritizing removal of dams for passage of diadromous fishes on a major river system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocovsky, P.M.; Ross, R.M.; Dropkin, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    Native diadromous fishes have been extirpated from much of the Susquehanna River system for nearly a century. Recent restoration efforts have focused on removal of dams, but there are hundreds of dams and presently there is no biologically based system to assist in prioritizing their removal. We present a new method that uses existing habitat suitability index models (HSI) for American shad Alosa sapidissima, alewife A. pseudoharengus, blueback herring A. aestivalis, and American eel Anguilla rostrata to prioritize the removal of non-hydropower dams within the Susquehanna River system. We ranked HSI scores for each of the four species, association between a landscape-scale factor and HSIs, length of river opened by removing a dam, and distance from the mouth at Chesapeake Bay for each dam and then calculated a mean rank prioritization for dam removal by averaging the ranks for the seven criteria. This prioritization method is resistant to outliers, is not strongly affected by somewhat arbitrary decisions on metrics included in the analysis, and provides a biologically based prioritization for dam removal that can be easily amended to include other metrics or adapted to other river systems and that complements other social and economic considerations that must be included in decisions to remove dams.

  5. Distributions of phosphorus fractions in the sediments of a river-lake system: a case study in Huai River catchment area, China.

    PubMed

    Jingqiu, Piao; Changyuan, Tang; Xianfang, Song

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) forms, with respect to sediment characteristics, and an in-stream sluice were studied in the river-lake system, Huai River catchment area, China. The mean of total P in sediments in the mainstream of the Huai River was higher than that in the Hongze Lake. It was found that P fractions varied in the sediments throughout the river and lake. Detrital-P was the dominant P fraction in the mainstream and organic P and detrital-P were the dominant P fractions in the lake, which could indicate: biologically available and non-biologically available forms. Useful information for the interpretation of P fractions could also be obtained from major sediment characteristics. Whether the relations between P fractions and grain size characteristics were significant or weak, 0.125 mm was a threshold grain size for P fraction distribution in sediment. In addition, the Bengbu Sluice, one of the most important in-stream facilities in the Huai River catchment area, regulated not only the transport of P in sediments upstream and downstream of the sluice, but also the distribution of P fractions in the river-lake system. Therefore, it was confirmed that nutrient loadings could be prevented from reaching the watershed, as well as improved ecological diversity by integrating sluice operation. PMID:26287843

  6. Understanding Arctic River Systems: An Effort to Train Undergraduate and Graduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gens, R.; Toniolo, H.; McCarthy, P.; Prakash, A.

    2004-12-01

    Undergraduate and graduate student training is integral to the research and education efforts at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. A multidisciplinary group of four scientists got together to study the Colville River flowing across the Alaska North Slope. The idea was to understand the river as a system, rather than tackling it from the single perspective of knowing more about sedimentology, geology, geomorphology, hydrology, etc. The importance of using remote sensing data, together with field observations in an integrated Geographic Information System (GIS) environment was realized and taken as the central theme to proceed. In the last two years three undergraduate students have been trained in this multidisciplinary project and one graduate student has recently started her studies. Results from the study have also been incorporated in undergraduate courses in sedimentology and remote sensing, and are being used widely in public relations materials developed by the organization to reach out to a wider audience. From the research perspective, the use of satellite imagery to monitor temporal and spatial evolution in fluvial geomorphologic studies in temperate and tropical streams is well established in the literature. However, little work has been published on river studies conducted in cold settings, where the influences of river ice and permafrost on sediment transport processes are not clearly understood. The Colville River is the largest river draining the Brooks Range in Arctic Alaska. The stream pattern changes from braided to meandering as the river crosses the Arctic coastal plain. The reaches are highly unstable, with lateral changes in the order of a few to tens of meters per year in some river bends. The research was conducted using multisensor remote sensing images. Optical and microwave remote sensing data from 1995 to 2001 were used by students to carry out their projects, and these results are presented here. Future work will include the coupling

  7. SANITARY SEWER SYSTEMS - LAND APPLICATION AREAS, NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North Carolina Rural Economic Development Center (NCREDC) in conjunction with Hobbs, Upchurch & Associates developed the digital Sewer system land applications as mapped by individual system owners as required by contract. The data collected will facilitate planning, siting a...

  8. SANITARY SEWER SYSTEMS - DISCHARGES, NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North Carolina Rural Economic Development Center (NCREDC) in conjunction with Hobbs, Upchurch & Associates developed the digital Sewer system discharges as mapped by individual system owners as required by contract. The data collected will facilitate planning, siting and impa...

  9. The natural and human structuring of rivers and other geomorphological systems: A tribute to William L. Graf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoads, Bruce L.

    2016-01-01

    This special issue honors the contributions of William L. Graf to geomorphology and river science. A hallmark of Will's work over the course of his career has been a focus on the natural and human structuring of river systems. More broadly, Will has been an innovator and leader who has shaped the way in which geomorphologists conduct research. Through his work, he has made fundamental contributions to basic fluvial theory, to the understanding of human impacts on river systems, and to policy-relevant science. He has demonstrated by example how to pursue policy-relevant science and to participate in science-based policy formulation. His contributions to river science can be classified into several themes: (1) the hydrology and geomorphology of suburban drainage systems, (2) riparian vegetation and river systems, (3) the spatial structure and dynamics of incised channels, (4) the dynamics of dryland river systems, (5) heavy metals in river systems, (6) dams and dam removal, and (7) water and public policy. The papers in this special issue reflect many aspects of these themes and address topics related to (1) the understanding of rivers and other geomorphic systems in the midst of dynamic physical change, (2) human influences on geomorphic processes, (3) the intersection of geomorphology and public policy, and (4) the fusion of geomorphic analysis and GIScience.

  10. Integrated Database Construction for Efficient Support of Yeongsan River Estuary Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, G. H.; Kim, K. H.; Lee, S. J.

    2014-02-01

    Yeongsan River is one of the four major rivers in South Korea, and it flows toward the Yellow Sea by passing through Damyang and Gwangju. In particular, the skewness of the main stream in Yeongsan River is relatively higher compared to other rivers. Accordingly, flood damage occurred frequently due to the flooding of sea water during tidal periods. Additionally, the environment of the estuary in Yeongsan River has been severely damaged due to indiscreet development and the inflow of various waste waters. Therefore, water quality improvement and management are crucial. For better water quality management, the government ministry is collecting various data from different fields to identify the water quality conditions. The necessity of collected data is being heightened in order to apply them into the estuary management system. However, in terms of the observed data, the observed field or items frequently modified according to social interests. Additionally, index is needed in order to search for massive amount of observation data. Due to this, the process of construction into database is relatively difficult. Therefore, in this study, these characteristics were considered for construction into the integrated DB.

  11. Salinized rivers: degraded systems or new habitats for salt-tolerant faunas?

    PubMed

    Kefford, Ben J; Buchwalter, David; Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel; Davis, Jenny; Duncan, Richard P; Hoffmann, Ary; Thompson, Ross

    2016-03-01

    Anthropogenic salinization of rivers is an emerging issue of global concern, with significant adverse effects on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Impacts of freshwater salinization on biota are strongly mediated by evolutionary history, as this is a major factor determining species physiological salinity tolerance. Freshwater insects dominate most flowing waters, and the common lotic insect orders Ephemeroptera (mayflies), Plecoptera (stoneflies) and Trichoptera (caddisflies) are particularly salt-sensitive. Tolerances of existing taxa, rapid adaption, colonization by novel taxa (from naturally saline environments) and interactions between species will be key drivers of assemblages in saline lotic systems. Here we outline a conceptual framework predicting how communities may change in salinizing rivers. We envision that a relatively small number of taxa will be saline-tolerant and able to colonize salinized rivers (e.g. most naturally saline habitats are lentic; thus potential colonizers would need to adapt to lotic environments), leading to depauperate communities in these environments. PMID:26932680

  12. Daily/Hourly Hydrosystem Operation : How the Columbia River System Responds to Short-Term Needs.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River System Operation Review

    1994-02-01

    The System Operation Review, being conducted by the Bonneville Power Administration, the US Army Corps of Engineers, and the US Bureau of Reclamation, is analyzing current and potential future operations of the Columbia River System. One goal of the System Operations Review is to develop a new System Operation Strategy. The strategy will be designed to balance the many regionally and nationally important uses of the Columbia River system. Short-term operations address the dynamics that affect the Northwest hydro system and its multiple uses. Demands for electrical power and natural streamflows change constantly and thus are not precisely predictable. Other uses of the hydro system have constantly changing needs, too, many of which can interfere with other uses. Project operators must address various river needs, physical limitations, weather, and streamflow conditions while maintaining the stability of the electric system and keeping your lights on. It takes staffing around the clock to manage the hour-to-hour changes that occur and the challenges that face project operators all the time.

  13. Investigating the Performance of One- and Two-dimensional Flood Models in a Channelized River Network: A Case Study of the Obion River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyanapu, A. J.; Dullo, T. T.; Thornton, J. C.; Auld, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Obion River, is located in the northwestern Tennessee region, and discharges into the Mississippi River. In the past, the river system was largely channelized for agricultural purposes that resulted in increased erosion, loss of wildlife habitat and downstream flood risks. These impacts are now being slowly reversed mainly due to wetland restoration. The river system is characterized by a large network of "loops" around the main channels that hold water either from excess flows or due to flow diversions. Without data on each individual channel, levee, canal, or pond it is not known where the water flows from or to. In some segments along the river, the natural channel has been altered and rerouted by the farmers for their irrigation purposes. Satellite imagery can aid in identifying these features, but its spatial coverage is temporally sparse. All the alterations that have been done to the watershed make it difficult to develop hydraulic models, which could predict flooding and droughts. This is especially true when building one-dimensional (1D) hydraulic models compared to two-dimensional (2D) models, as the former cannot adequately simulate lateral flows in the floodplain and in complex terrains. The objective of this study therefore is to study the performance of 1D and 2D flood models in this complex river system, evaluate the limitations of 1D models and highlight the advantages of 2D models. The study presents the application of HEC-RAS and HEC-2D models developed by the Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC), a division of the US Army Corps of Engineers. The broader impacts of this study is the development of best practices for developing flood models in channelized river systems and in agricultural watersheds.

  14. Connectivity of the Tisza River System: trace element and isotopic constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, W.; Forray, F. L.; Lefticariu, L.

    2013-12-01

    At the watershed scale, a number of complex biogeochemical processes govern riverine geochemistry, and the use of multiple isotopic and trace element analyses has the potential to elucidate these dynamic processes. Such a study was undertaken within the Tisza River Basin (TRB) which is the largest river basin within the Carpathian Basin of Central Europe. The TRB stretches 157,186 km2 and encompasses Romania, Hungary, Serbia, Slovakia, and Ukraine. Geologically, the TRB covers the Pannonian Basin, the Eastern, Western and Southern Carpathians and the Apuseni Mountains. These units have a very complex geology and lithology. The formations range from igneous and metamorphic rocks to sediments, covering a time span from Paleozoic to Quaternary. Our study aimed to determine the influence of various bedrock lithologies on the water chemistry of tributaries and the impact of the biogeochemical and anthropogenic factors on the downstream chemical evolution of the rivers. Twenty-three sampling locations were chosen within the TRB based on the dominant bedrock lithology of the drainage area. In June of 2013, water and rock samples were collected from the Apuseni Mountains and the Southern Carpathians, sampling two main tributary systems - the Cris (Körös) and Mure (Maros) Rivers - and the Lower Tisa (Tisza) River. At each sampling location, field parameters (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and specific conductivity) were measured and water samples were retrieved. Water samples were analyzed for alkalinity, major and minor cations (Fe, Al, Si, Mn, Cu, Sr, Cd, Ni, Zn, Ca, Mg, Na, Se, Pb, As, K) and anions (SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, F-, PO43-), as well as 87Sr/86Sr ratios, and δ2D and δ18O values. Tributaries drained primarily by carbonates tended to exhibit more of an effect on the downstream water chemistry compared to areas drained by silicate rocks, which had little effect on mainstem rivers. Additionally, δ2D and δ18O values (ranging from -80.53 to -41.97‰ for δ2D and

  15. Flow dynamics in lowland rivers and influence on fluvial-deltaic stratigraphy: Comparing the modern Mississippi River system to the Campanian Castlegate Sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nittrouer, J. A.; Petter, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    Where rivers enter the coastal zone, gradually varied non-uniform flow conditions develop in the river channel. The section of the river affected by non-uniform flow is commonly referred to as the backwater segment, and for large lowland rivers, backwater flow can extend many tens to hundreds of kilometers upstream of the river outlet. Here we show the results of field-observation and modeling studies from the modern Mississippi River that document the persistence of backwater hydrodynamics, which influence sediment mobility through the lower five-hundred kilometers of the river. Reach-average shear stress varies temporally in the backwater segment, in accordance with the annual hydrograph, thereby affecting the timing, magnitude, and grain size of sediment in transport. Importantly, a net reduction in shear stress restricts the movement of the coarse-grain sediment in the Mississippi River, to the extent that this portion of the river's sediment load does not reach the ocean receiving basin. Instead, coarse sediment is caught at the backwater hydrodynamic transition and is sequestered in the river channel, thereby producing channel bed aggradation. We use this information in conjunction with stratigraphic data collected from the Campanian Castlegate Sandstone (Utah) to present a theoretical framework for the movement of coarse sediment from a river to the receiving basin: over time, channel bed aggradation will push the backwater transition toward the ocean outlet, thereby facilitating the downstream movement of coarse sediment into the receiving basin. However, an aggrading channel bed will also promote super elevation of the channel bed and therefore facilitate avulsions, whereby the active channel is abandoned in favor of an alternative path to the ocean basin. Given an avulsion event, the abandoned, inactive channel and its coarse-grain sediment fill are incorporated into the long-term stratigraphy of the river's distributary system. Therefore, the tendency

  16. Arsenic and fluoride in the upper madison river system: Firehole and gibbon rivers and their tributaries, yellowstone national park, wyoming, and southeast montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical analyses of 21 water samples from the Firehole and Gibbon Rivers, which combine to form the Madison River, gave arsenic and fluoride values above the Environmental Protection Agency Interim Primary Drinking Water maximum contaminant levels (0.05 mg/l arsenic and 2.0 mg/l fluoride). On 18 October, 1975, during a period of moderate flow (16,600 l/s), the Madison River at West Yellowstone contained 0.23 mg/l arsenic and 6.2 mg/l fluoride. Below Hebgen Lake the Madison River during periods of high flow (56,000 liter/s at West Yellowstone and 708,000 liter/s below Hebgen Lake) would contain 0.05 mg/l arsenic at both stations and 1.5 and 4.0 mg/l fluoride at West Yellowstone and below Hebgen Lake, respectively. The strong correlations of arsenic and fluoride with other chemical constituents of the river water at the sampling sites demonstrate the conservative nature of each element after it reaches the Madison River system. Calculations indicate that water from three sampling sites is above saturation with respect to fluorite. ?? 1979 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  17. Imaging beneath the skin of large tropical rivers: System morphodynamics of the Fly and Beni Rivers revealed by novel sub-surface sonar, deep coring, and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalto, R. E.; Grenfell, M.; Lauer, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Tropical rivers dominate Earth's fluvial fluxes for water, carbon, and mineral sediment. They are characterized by large channels and floodplains, old system histories, prolonged periods of flooding, and a clay-dominated sediment flux. However, the underlying bed & floodplain strata are poorly understood. Available data commonly stem from skin-deep approaches such as GIS analysis of imagery, shallow sampling & topographic profiling during lower river stages. Given the large temporal & spatial scales, new approaches are needed to see below lag deposits on mobile sandy beds & deep into expansive floodbasins. Furthermore, such data are needed to test whether we can interpret large tropical river morphology using analogies to small temperate systems. Systems in a dynamic state of response to sea level rise or an increase/contrast in sediment load would provide especially valuable insight. Last August we conducted a field campaign along the Fly and Strickland Rivers in Papua New Guinea (discharge ~5,350 CMS) and this September we investigated the Beni River in Northern Bolivia (discharge ~3,500 CMS). Results were obtained using a novel measurement method: a high-power (>4kW) dual-frequency SyQwest sub-bottom profiler customized to best image 10-20m below the river/lake bed in shallow water. We were able to distinguish sandy deposits from harder clay and silt lenses and also collected bed grab samples to verify our sonar results. Deep borehole samples (5-15m), bank samples, and push cores confirmed observations from the sonar profiling. We simultaneously collected side-scan sonar imagery plus DGPS records of water/bed elevations that could be used to parameterize numerical models. We have now analyzed these results in some detail. Findings for the Fly River include: 1) The prevalence of hard clay beneath the bed of the Lower Fly River and many locations along the Strickland River, retarding migration; 2) Unusual bed morphology along the lower Middle Fly River, where the

  18. Quantitative mineralogy of the Yukon River system: Changes with reach and season, and determining sediment provenance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberl, D.D.

    2004-01-01

    mineral dissolution during transport between Eagle and Pilot Station, a distance of over 2000 km. We estimate that approximately 3 wt% of the quartz, 15 wt% of the feldspar (1 wt% of the alkali and 25 wt% of the plagioclase), and 26 wt% of the carbonates (31 wt% of the calcite and 15 wt% of the dolomite) carried by the river dissolve in this reach. The mineralogies of the suspended sediments change with the season. For example, during the summer of 2002 the quartz content varied by 20 wt%, with a minimum in mid-summer. The calcite content varied by a similar amount, and had a maximum corresponding to the quartz minimum. These modes are related to the relative amount of sediment flowing from the White River system, which is relatively poor in quartz, but rich in carbonate minerals. Suspended total clay minerals varied by as much as 25 wt%, with maxima in mid July, and suspended feldspar varied up to 10 wt%. Suspended sediment data from the summers of 2001 and 2003 support the 2002 trends. A calculation technique was developed to determine theproportion of various sediment sources in a mixed sediment by unmixing its quantitative mineralogy. Results from this method indicate that at least three sediment sources can be identified quantitatively with good accuracy. With this technique, sediment mineralogies can be used to calculate the relative flux of sediment from different tributaries, thereby identifying sediment provenance.

  19. Application of a Sediment Information System to the Three Gorges Project on Yangtze River, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shuyou; Liu, Xingnian; Yang, Kejun; Li, Changzhi

    Based on survey and analysis of a huge number of observed entrance sediment transport data and the research results of physical and numerical modeling of Three Gorges Reservoir on the Yangtze River, a sediment information system was designed. The basis of this system includes spatial data and properties of geographic elements, and various documents involved to the Three Gorges Project (TGP). Database and knowledge base are constructed as the information bank. The running environment is constructed by the general control program to realize requirements about various sediment information. The system chooses the window software as the system software. The techniques of graphical user interfaces and groupware geographic information system are applied in this system. In this phase, the emphases of the system are development of document system, map system, and presentation system. Cross-section system of the TGP was also attached. For further improvement of the system, a prepared interface of decision supporting subsystem is finished.

  20. An accounting system for water and consumptive use along the Colorado River, Hoover Dam to Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.; Raymond, Lee H.

    1996-01-01

    An accounting system for estimating and distributing consumptive use of water by vegetation to water users was developed for the Colorado River to meet the requirements of a U.S. Supreme Court decree and used with data from calendar year 1984. The system is based on a water-budget method to estimate total consumptive use by vegetation which is apportioned to agricultural users by using percentages of total evapotranspiration by vegetation estimated from digital-image analysis of satellite data.

  1. Role of hydrological events in sediment and sediment-associated heavy metals transport within a continental transboundary river system - Tuul River case study (Mongolia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietroń, Jan; Jarsjö, Jerker

    2013-04-01

    The concentration of heavy metals in rivers is often greater in the sediment load than in the water solution. Overall, heavy metal conveyance with sediment transport is a significant contributor to the global transport of heavy metals. Heavy metals once released to a river system may remain in the deposits of the river from short to very long times, for instance depending on to which extent erosion and deposition can influence the sediment mass stored in the river bed. In general, the mobility of contaminated sediments to downstream water recipients may to large extent be governed by natural sediment transport dynamics during hydrological events, such as flow peaks following heavy rainfalls. The Tuul River (Northern Mongolia) belongs to a Tuul River-Orkhon River-Selenga River- transboundary river system that discharges into Lake Baikal. The river system is largely characterized by its natural hydrological regime with numerous rapid peak flow events of the spring-summer periods. However, recent studies indicate contamination of fine sediment with heavy metals coming from placer gold mining area (Zaamar Goldfield) located along the downstream Tuul River. In this work, the general idea is to create a one-dimensional sediment transport model of the downstream Tuul River, and use field-data supported modeling to investigate natural erosion-deposition rates and the role of peak flows in natural sediment transport at 14 km reach just downstream the gold mining area. The model results show that the sediment load of the finest investigated grain size has a great potential to be eroded from the bed of the studied reach, especially during the main peak flow events. However, the same events are associated with a significant deposition of the finest material. The model results also show different hysteresis behavior of the sediment load rating curves (clockwise and counter-clockwise) during the main peak flow events. These are interpreted as effects of changing in

  2. A stochastic conflict resolution model for water quality management in reservoir river systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerachian, Reza; Karamouz, Mohammad

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, optimal operating rules for water quality management in reservoir-river systems are developed using a methodology combining a water quality simulation model and a stochastic GA-based conflict resolution technique. As different decision-makers and stakeholders are involved in the water quality management in reservoir-river systems, a new stochastic form of the Nash bargaining theory is used to resolve the existing conflict of interests related to water supply to different demands, allocated water quality and waste load allocation in downstream river. The expected value of the Nash product is considered as the objective function of the model which can incorporate the inherent uncertainty of reservoir inflow. A water quality simulation model is also developed to simulate the thermal stratification cycle in the reservoir, the quality of releases from different outlets as well as the temporal and spatial variation of the pollutants in the downstream river. In this study, a Varying Chromosome Length Genetic Algorithm (VLGA), which has computational advantages comparing to other alternative models, is used. VLGA provides a good initial solution for Simple Genetic Algorithms and comparing to Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) reduces the number of state transitions checked in each stage. The proposed model, which is called Stochastic Varying Chromosome Length Genetic Algorithm with water Quality constraints (SVLGAQ), is applied to the Ghomrud Reservoir-River system in the central part of Iran. The results show, the proposed model for reservoir operation and waste load allocation can reduce the salinity of the allocated water demands as well as the salinity build-up in the reservoir.

  3. An acoustic velocity measurement system for aiding barge traffic in the Colorado River locks near Matagorda, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    East, J.W.; Scheffler, C.

    2004-01-01

    In July 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey installed an acoustic Doppler velocity meter in the Colorado River, near the city of Matagorda in southeast Texas. The meter is part of an integrated system used by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to control barge traffic that passes through a lock system located at the confluence of the Colorado River and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. The meter was installed on the river bottom as part of a system developed and used by the National Weather Service. The upward-looking meter measures the average velocity in the top 3 meters (10 feet) of the water column. These river-velocity data are used in conjunction with additional velocity and water-stage data, from proximal sites, by the barge operators to assess conditions at the Colorado River crossing and for lock operations. Copyright ASCE 2004.

  4. How is water transmitted in large, low gradient, dryland river systems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarihani, Ben Abdollah; Callow, Nik; Larsen, Joshua

    2015-04-01

    Drylands represent approximately one third of the earth's surface, with a large number of ephemeral river systems, are characterised by an extremely variable flow regime and high transmission losses. Yet the scarcity of gauging infrastructure and challenges of gauging flows in large anastomosing rivers means that critical aspects of the hydrology and ecology of these rivers remains unknown. The paper trials a novel approach to use a hydrodynamic model and remotely sensed data to understand critical questions relating to the water balance and movement of major flood pulses in large dryland river basins. Along 180km poorly-gauged study reach in upper part of the Diamantina River, Lake Eyre Basin, four water level loggers were installed and water elevations were recorded during the 2011 major flood event. These water elevations were used to build and calibrate a 2D hydrodynamic model at the locations of the loggers (virtual gauging stations). Temporally sporadic (though more accurate) Landsat coverage and daily (lower accuracy) MODIS coverage was also used to calibrate the model. Using the calibrated model, total water loss/gain was calculated in each reach between virtual gauging stations. These water volume changes mostly represent transmission losses and are caused by some combination of: evaporation, infiltration, and terminal water, with lateral (tributary) inflows the only potential water volume gain. These four parameters then were added to the model and sensitivity analyses were performed. Infiltration transmission losses are highly sensitive to initial soil moisture conditions. Within large dryland catchments, the potential for large rainfall events to occur in downstream parts of the catchment introduces a higher sensitivity to lateral tributary inflows relative to the overall water balance of the trunk stream. In addition, the low gradient, wide, and shallow flow structure introduces a higher sensitivity to terminal water storage (real or DEM derived

  5. Preliminary Characterization of Organic Geochemistry in the Fly-Strickland River System, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alin, S. R.; Aalto, R.; Remington, S. M.; Richey, J. E.

    2003-12-01

    The Fly-Strickland fluvial dispersal system comprises one of the largest river basins in tropical Oceania, ranking among the top 20 rivers in the world for water and sediment discharge. From the New Guinea highlands, these rivers flow >1000 km across lowland tropical floodplains to the Gulf of Papua, with an average annual depth of runoff 100 times that of the Amazon. Within the system, the Strickland has greater sediment discharge and a steeper gradient than the Fly, providing an opportunity to investigate biogeochemical differences associated with particulate flux. For eight lowland sites across the Fly-Strickland river system, we analyzed water and suspended sediment (SS) samples for an initial survey of various carbon cycle parameters. Both the Fly and Strickland Rivers were strongly supersaturated with carbon dioxide (2008-10,479 uatm CO2) and undersaturated with oxygen (1.10-5.48 mg/l O2), with the Fly having higher CO2 and lower O2 concentrations than the Strickland River. These pCO2 and O2 concentrations are comparable to and lower than (respectively) typical values in the Amazon. Measured Fly-Strickland alkalinity values fell in the range of 0.893-1.888 meq, and pH measurements were neutral to slightly alkaline (6.916-7.852). In a sample from a sediment-impoverished tributary from Lake Murray to the Strickland (Herbert R.), pH was neutral (7.060), and alkalinity and pCO2 had their lowest observed values at 0.234 meq and 1407 uatm, respectively. Nutrient concentrations were generally higher in the Strickland ([NO3]=3.36+/-0.69 uM, [PO4]=0.09+/-0.10 uM, and [Si(OH)4]=176.6+/-41.7 uM) than in the Fly River ([NO3]=1.09+/-0.04 uM, [PO4]=0.01+/-0.01 uM, and [Si(OH)4]=110.6+/-4.8 uM). NO3 and PO4 concentrations in the Fly-Strickland river system were lower than in the Amazon, and silicate was comparable. SS concentrations were higher in the Strickland than in the Fly (49.4-231.1 mg/l vs. 19.5-59.6 mg/l). Coarse particulates were organic-poor in the Fly and

  6. A comparative study of fuzzy logic systems approach for river discharge prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayawardena, A. W.; Perera, E. D. P.; Zhu, Bing; Amarasekara, J. D.; Vereivalu, V.

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, flood disasters resulting from extreme rainfall have been on the increase in many regions of the world. In developed countries, the usual practice of mitigating flood disasters is by structural means which can reduce infrastructural damages as well as casualties but are unaffordable in most developing countries. The alternative then is to look for non-structural means that involve, among other things, early warning systems which can reduce casualties. The basic technical components of an early warning system involves a measurable input data set that trigger floods, a measurable output data set that quantify the extent of flood and an appropriate mathematical model that transforms the input data set into a corresponding output data set. There are many types of mathematical models that can be used to transform the input data into corresponding output data. The crux of this paper is on one type of data driven mathematical models, namely the use of fuzzy logic approach. The reliability and robustness of the approach are demonstrated with daily and 6-hourly discharge predictions in 4 rivers in 3 countries having contrasting climatological, geographical and land use characteristics. The first application is for two tropical rivers in Sri Lanka using daily upstream rainfall and discharge data to predict downstream discharge with the minimum implication function type Mamdani fuzzy inference system. The second application is for another tropical river in Fiji using similar type of data with daily and 6-h time scales. Both Mamdani type fuzzy inference system with minimum and product implication functions as well as Larsen type inference systems were used. In the third application, daily upstream and tributary discharges were used to predict downstream discharges in a temperate-climate river in China using the TSK type fuzzy inference system with clustering. The methods are robust and the results obtained are within reasonable agreement with observations.

  7. Application of science-based restoration planning to a desert river system.

    PubMed

    Laub, Brian G; Jimenez, Justin; Budy, Phaedra

    2015-06-01

    Persistence of many desert river species is threatened by a suite of impacts linked to water infrastructure projects that provide human water security where water is scarce. Many desert rivers have undergone regime shifts from spatially and temporally dynamic ecosystems to more stable systems dominated by homogenous physical habitat. Restoration of desert river systems could aid in biodiversity conservation, but poses formidable challenges due to multiple threats and the infeasibility of recovery to pre-development conditions. The challenges faced in restoring desert rivers can be addressed by incorporating scientific recommendations into restoration planning efforts at multiple stages, as demonstrated here through an example restoration project. In particular, use of a watershed-scale planning process can identify data gaps and irreversible constraints, which aid in developing achievable restoration goals and objectives. Site-prioritization focuses limited the resources for restoration on areas with the greatest potential to improve populations of target organisms. Investment in research to understand causes of degradation, coupled with adoption of a guiding vision is critical for identifying feasible restoration actions that can enhance river processes. Setting monitoring as a project goal, developing hypotheses for expected outcomes, and implementing restoration as an experimental design will facilitate adaptive management and learning from project implementation. Involvement of scientists and managers during all planning stages is critical for developing process-based restoration actions and an implementation plan to maximize learning. The planning process developed here provides a roadmap for use of scientific recommendations in future efforts to recover dynamic processes in imperiled riverine ecosystems. PMID:25850614

  8. [Characteristics of sediment phosphorus in the Jiulong River-Reservoir system and its ecological significance].

    PubMed

    Lu, Ting; Chen, Neng-wang; Chen, Zhu-hong; Wang, Long-jian; Wu, Jie-zhong

    2013-09-01

    Sediment phosphorus (P) content and component ratio from 16 sites along the North Jiulong River-reservoir system were analyzed using the Standard Measurement and Test (SMT) procedure. The spatial pattern and characteristics of sediment P and its ecological significance in the Jiulong River-reservoir system were examined in combination with water measurement and watershed information. Total P content in sediments ranged from 387 to 2092 mg x kg(-1) with an average of 1032 mg x kg(-1). Inorganic phosphorus (IP) dominated P in sediment, accounting for 48%-98% of TP, and Fe/Al-bound phosphorus (Fe/Al-P) took 43%-99% of IP. The spatial pattern of sediment showed that TP and Fe/Al-P were higher in upstream and lower in downstream, corresponding to the spatial variation of surface water P and land-based loads from animal waste, human waste and fertilizer loss. Spatial variation of TP in sediment was controlled by Fe/AI-P along the North Jiulong River. The P-rich sediment with a great release potential due to the high ratio of Fe/ Al-P, the typical spatial pattern, and the lower N/P ratio observed in upstream water (where phytoplankton growth tends to be weakly limited by phosphorus), are likely to explain the fact that algal blooms first appear in the upstream and then spread to downstream reservoirs along the North Jiulong River. Present findings concerning sediment P characteristics indicate an important regulating effect and the ecological significance on the process of algal blooms in the Jiulong River. PMID:24288986

  9. The Impacts of Agricultural Land Use on Dissolved Organic Matter in a Dryland River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, J. L.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Van Horn, D. J.; Diefendorf, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    Globally, expanding agriculture is significantly impacting aquatic nutrient cycles. In mesic systems, agriculture is a source of nitrogen and phosphorus and increases concentrations of structurally simple dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In contrast, recent studies suggest in dryland systems, where wastewater effluent is a primary nutrient source, agriculture is a nutrient sink—retaining nitrogen and phosphorous. Importantly, very little, is known about the influence of agriculture on DOC dynamics in dryland systems. To address this gap we used synoptic sampling, UV-absorbance, and fluorescence spectroscopy to elucidate source, character, and concentration of riverine and runoff DOC in a dryland agricultural system. Samples were collected along a 25 km stretch of the Rio Grande River in New Mexico (USA). The Rio Grande is an impoundment/irrigation-withdrawal controlled river that receives water from snowmelt, monsoonal storms, and wastewater effluent. During irrigation approximately 80% of the river's water is diverted into a manmade network where it waters crops and percolates through the soil before it enters a series of drains that return water to the river. Our preliminary characterization of the DOC reentering the river (DOCmean=3.23 mg/L, sd=0.81; SUVAmean=4.05, sd=1.37) indicates the agricultural pool is similar in concentration and aromaticity to riverine DOC (DOCmean= 3.10 mg/L, sd=1.17; SUVAmean= 4.64, sd=1.12). However, riverine organic matter is more terrestrially derived (FImean=1.68, sd=0.17) than organic matter in the drains (FImean=1.9, sd=0.24). Additionally, drains directly adjacent to actively irrigated fields show high concentrations (DOCmean=58.35; sd=0.91) of low aromaticity organic matter (SUVAmean=0.33; sd=0.11). We are continuing analysis throughout the irrigation season to further explore organic matter quality (traits such as bioavailability and freshness) and identify locations and processes of DOC transformation within the system

  10. Development and Application of a Process-based River System Model at a Continental Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. S. H.; Dutta, D.; Vaze, J.; Hughes, J. D.; Yang, A.; Teng, J.

    2014-12-01

    Existing global and continental scale river models, mainly designed for integrating with global climate model, are of very course spatial resolutions and they lack many important hydrological processes, such as overbank flow, irrigation diversion, groundwater seepage/recharge, which operate at a much finer resolution. Thus, these models are not suitable for producing streamflow forecast at fine spatial resolution and water accounts at sub-catchment levels, which are important for water resources planning and management at regional and national scale. A large-scale river system model has been developed and implemented for water accounting in Australia as part of the Water Information Research and Development Alliance between Australia's Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) and CSIRO. The model, developed using node-link architecture, includes all major hydrological processes, anthropogenic water utilisation and storage routing that influence the streamflow in both regulated and unregulated river systems. It includes an irrigation model to compute water diversion for irrigation use and associated fluxes and stores and a storage-based floodplain inundation model to compute overbank flow from river to floodplain and associated floodplain fluxes and stores. An auto-calibration tool has been built within the modelling system to automatically calibrate the model in large river systems using Shuffled Complex Evolution optimiser and user-defined objective functions. The auto-calibration tool makes the model computationally efficient and practical for large basin applications. The model has been implemented in several large basins in Australia including the Murray-Darling Basin, covering more than 2 million km2. The results of calibration and validation of the model shows highly satisfactory performance. The model has been operalisationalised in BoM for producing various fluxes and stores for national water accounting. This paper introduces this newly developed river system model

  11. Early 21st century snow cover state over the western river basins of the Indus River system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasson, S.; Lucarini, V.; Khan, M. R.; Petitta, M.; Bolch, T.; Gioli, G.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we assess the snow cover and its dynamics for the western river basins of the Indus River system (IRS) and their sub-basins located in Afghanistan, China, India and Pakistan for the period 2001-2012. First, we validate the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily snow products from Terra (MOD10A1) and Aqua (MYD10A1) against the Landsat Thematic Mapper/Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (TM/ETM+) data set, and then improve them for clouds by applying a validated non-spectral cloud removal technique. The improved snow product has been analysed on a seasonal and annual basis against different topographic parameters (aspect, elevation and slope). Our results show a decreasing tendency for the annual average snow cover for the westerlies-influenced basins (upper Indus basin (UIB), Astore, Hunza, Shigar and Shyok) and an increasing tendency for the monsoon-influenced basins (Jhelum, Kabul, Swat and Gilgit). Seasonal average snow cover decreases during winter and autumn, and increases during spring and summer, which is consistent with the observed cooling and warming trends during the respective seasons. Sub-basins at relatively higher latitudes/altitudes show higher variability than basins at lower latitudes/middle altitudes. Northeastern and northwestern aspects feature greater snow cover. The mean end-of-summer regional snow line altitude (SLA) zones range from 3000 to 5000 m a.s.l. for all basins. Our analysis provides an indication of a descending end-of-summer regional SLA zone for most of the studied basins, which is significant for the Shyok and Kabul basins, thus indicating a change in their water resources. Such results are consistent with the observed hydro-climatic data, recently collected local perceptions and glacier mass balances for the investigated period within the UIB. Moreover, our analysis shows a significant correlation between winter season snow cover and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index of the previous autumn

  12. Early 21st century climatology of snow cover for the western river basins of the Indus River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasson, S.; Lucarini, V.; Khan, M. R.; Petitta, M.; Bolch, T.; Gioli, G.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we assess the snow cover and its dynamics for the western river basins of the Indus River System (IRS) and their sub-basins located in Afghanistan, China, India and Pakistan for the period 2001-2012. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) daily snow products from Terra (MOD) and Aqua (MYD) have been first improved and then analysed on seasonal and annual basis against different topographic parameters (aspect, elevation and slope). Our applied cloud filtering technique has reduced the cloud cover from 37% (MOD) and 43% (MYD) to 7%, thus improving snow cover estimates from 7% (MOD) and 5% (MYD) to 14% for the area of interest (AOI) during the validation period (2004). Our results show a decreasing tendency for the annual average snow cover for the westerlies-influenced basins (Upper Indus Basin, Astore, Hunza, Shigar, Shyok) and an increasing tendency for the monsoon-influenced basins (Jhelum, Kabul, Swat and Gilgit). Regarding the seasonal snow cover, decrease during winter and autumn and increase during spring and summer has been found, which is consistent with the observed cooling and warming trends during the respective seasons. Sub-basins at relatively higher latitude/altitude show higher variability than basins at lower latitude/mid-altitude. Northeastern and northwestern aspects feature larger snow cover. The mean regional snow line altitude (SLA) zones range between 3000 and 5000 m a.s.l. for all basins. Our analysis provides an indication of a decrease in the regional SLA zone, thus indicating a change in the water resources of the studied basins, particularly for the Upper Indus Basin (UIB). Such results are consistent with the observed hydro-climate data, recently collected local perceptions and glacier mass balances for the investigated period. Moreover, our analysis suggests some potential for the seasonal stream flow forecast as a significant negative correlation has been detected for the inter-annual variability of winter

  13. Evolution of the great river systems of southern Asia during the Cenozoic India-Asia collision: Rivers draining north from the Pamir syntaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookfield, M. E.

    2008-08-01

    During uplift of the Tibetan plateau and surrounding ranges, tectonic processes have interacted with climatic change and with local random effects (such as landslides) to determine the development of the major river systems of Asia. Rivers draining northward from the Pamir syntaxis have three distinctive patterns that are controlled by different tectonic and climatic regimes. West of the Pamir, the rivers have moderate but irregular gradients and drain northwards to disappear into arid depressions. Relatively steady uplift of the Hindu Kush in northern Afghanistan allowed rivers to cut across the rising ranges, modified by the shear along the Harirud fault zone, local faulting, and by increasing rain-shadow effects from the rising Makran. In the transition to the Pamir the rivers have steeper but more even gradients suggesting more even flow and downcutting during uplift, possibly related to larger glacial sources. In the central Pamir, only one antecedent river, the Pyandzh appears to have kept its northward course with compression and uplift of the indenter, and its course strangely corresponds with a major geophysical boundary (a distorted subducted slab) but not a geological boundary: the other rivers are subsequent rivers developed along deformation fronts during development and northward displacements of the Pamir structural units. The above areas have sources north of the Cretaceous Karakorum-South Pamir Andean margin. On the eastern flank of the Pamir, in the Kunlun and northern Tibetan plateau, the rivers rise similarly north of the Cretaceous Andean margin of southern Tibet, but then flow with low gradients across the plateau, before cutting and plunging steeply down across the Kunlun to disappear into the arid Tarim. These steep profiles are the result of late Neogene uplift of the northern Tibetan plateau and Kunlun possibly modified by glacial diversion and river capture. The drainage history of the Pamir indenter can be reconstructed by restoring the

  14. Streamflow predictions in regulated river systems: hydrological non-stationarity versus anthropogenic water use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, D.; Kim, S.; Vaze, J.; Hughes, J.

    2015-06-01

    Streamflow in a regulated river system is highly influenced by storage regulations and anthropogenic water use in addition to climate variability. Thus, changes in climate-streamflow relationships and dominant hydrological processes over time are difficult to quantify in a regulated system without partitioning influence of storage regulation and anthropogenic water uses. This requires a robust regulated river system model, which takes into consideration of both hydrological and man-made flow regulation processes, as well as anthropogenic water uses. In this study, a newly developed large-scale river system model (called "AWRA-R") was used to assess the influence of both anthropogenic and climate variability/change on streamflow non-stationarity in the Murray Darling Basin (MDB). MDB is one of the highly regulated basins in Australia with multiple large and small storages developed primarily for supplying water to irrigated agriculture. The modelling was undertaken for the period of 1950-2010, which includes rapid water resources development and both wet and dry climate. The AWRA-R model was calibrated for a reasonably long period and then, validated on an independent period. The calibrated parameters were used to simulate streamflow under current and pre-development conditions to analyse the streamflow variability and influence of climate variability and anthropogenic development on streamflow trend. This paper briefly introduces the model and the method used for assessing streamflow variability under natural and developed conditions and presents the results and findings.

  15. Heavy metal anomalies in the Tinto and Odiel River and estuary system, Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, C.H.; Lamothe, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Tinto and Odiel rivers drain 100 km from the Rio Tinto sulphide mining district, and join at a 20-km long estuary entering the Atlantic Ocean. A reconnaissance study of heavy metal anomalies in channel sand and overbank mud of the river and estuary by semi-quantitative emission dc-arc spectrographic analysis shows the following upstream to downstream ranges in ppm (??g g-1): As 3,000 to <200, Cd 30 to <0.1, Cu 1,500 to 10, Pb 2,000 to <10, Sb 3000 to <150, and Zn 3,000 to <200. Organic-rich (1.3-2.6% total organic carbon, TOC), sandysilty overbank clay has been analyzed to represent suspended load materials. The high content of heavy metals in the overbank clay throughout the river and estuary systems indicates the importance of suspended sediment transport for dispersing heavy metals from natural erosion and anthropogenic mining activities of the sulfide deposit. The organic-poor (0.21-0.37% TOC) river bed sand has been analyzed to represent bedload transport of naturally-occurring sulfide minerals. The sand has high concentrations of metals upstream but these decrease an order of magnitude in the lower estuary. Although heavy metal contamination of estuary mouth beach sand has been diluted to background levels estuary mud exhibits increased contamination apparently related to finer grain size, higher organic carbon content, precipitation of river-borne dissolved solids, and input of anthropogenic heavy metals from industrial sources. The contaminated estuary mud disperses to the inner shelf mud belt and offshore suspended sediment, which exhibit metal anomalies from natural erosion and mining of upstream Rio Tinto sulphide lode sources (Pb, Cu, Zn) and industrial activities within the estuary (Fe, Cr, Ti). Because heavy metal contamination of Tinto-Odiel river sediment reaches or exceeds the highest levels encountered in other river sediments of Spain and Europe, a detailed analysis of metals in water and suspended sediment throughout the system, and

  16. Spatial-temporal fluvial morphology analysis in the Quelite river: It's impact on communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Judith; Gracia, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    SummaryDuring 2008 and 2009 heavy rainfall took place around the Mazatlan County in the Sinaloa state, Mexico, with a return period (Tr) between 50 and 100 years. As a result, the region and its infrastructure, such as the railways and highways (designed for a Tr = 20 years) were severely exposed to floods and, as a consequence damage caused by debris and sediments dragged into the channel. One of the highest levels of damage to the infrastructure was observed in the columns of Quelite River railway's bridge. This is catastrophic as the railway is very important for trade within the state and also among other states in Mexico and in the USA. In order to understand the impact of the flooding and to avoid the rail system being damaged it is necessary to analyse how significant the changes in the river channel have been. This analysis looks at the definition of the main channel and its floodplain as a result of the sediment variability, not only at the bridge area, but also upstream and downstream. The Quelite River study considers the integration of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing data to map, recognise and assess the spatio-temporal change channel morphology. This increases the effectiveness of using different types of geospatial data with in situ measurements such as hydrological data. Thus, this paper is an assessment of a 20 years study period carried out using historical Landsat images and aerial photographs as well as recent Spot images. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of local topography and flow volumes were also used. The results show the Quelite River is an active river with a high suspended sediment load and migration of meanders associated to heavy rainfall. The river also has several deep alluvial floodplain channels which modified the geometry and other morphological characteristics of the channel in the downstream direction. After the identification of the channel changes, their causes and solutions to control, the channel

  17. Unravelling river system impairments in stream networks with an integrated risk approach.

    PubMed

    Van Looy, Kris; Piffady, Jérémy; Tormos, Thierry; Villeneuve, Bertrand; Valette, Laurent; Chandesris, André; Souchon, Yves

    2015-06-01

    Rivers are complex systems for which it is hard to make reliable assessments of causes and responses to impairments. We present a holistic risk-based framework for river ecosystem assessment integrating all potential intervening processes and functions. Risk approaches allow us to deal with uncertainty both in the construction of indicators for magnitude of stressors and in the inference of environmental processes and their impairment. Yet, here we go further than simply replacing uncertainty by a risk factor. We introduce a more accurate and rigorous notion of risk with a transcription of uncertainty in causal relationships in probability distributions for the magnitude of impairment and the weight of different descriptors, with an associated confidence in the diagnostic. We discuss how Bayesian belief networks and Bayesian hierarchical inference allow us to deal with this risk concept to predict impairments and potential recovery of river ecosystems. We developed a comprehensive approach for river ecosystem assessment, which offers an appealing tool to facilitate diagnosis of the likely causes of impairment and predict future conditions. The ability of the risk approaches to integrate multi-scale quantitative and qualitative descriptors in the identification of multiple stressor sources and pathways in the stream network, and their impairment of specific processes and structures is illustrated for the national-level risk analysis for hydromorphology and pesticide pollution. Not only does the risk-based framework provide a more complete picture of environmental impairments, but it also offers a comprehensive, user-friendly tool to instruct the decision process. PMID:25832345

  18. Determining the dispersion characteristics of rivers from the frequency response of the system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambertz, Peter; Palancar, MaríA. C.; Aragón, José M.; Gil, Roberto

    2006-09-01

    A new method of determining the parameters of an aggregated dead zone model (ADZ) to predict longitudinal dispersion in rivers is presented. The method is based on the frequency response analysis (FRA) of observed field tests, which consist of tracer injections (input) and measurement of tracer in downstream sampling points (output) located downstream from the injection point. The ADZ is a combination of plug and completely mixed flow compartments. The ADZ parameters (number of compartments, mean residence time, and delay time) are evaluated by means of Bode plots that give the system order (number of compartments), gain, time constant (mean residence time of each compartment) and delay time. The FRA-ADZ method was checked with tracer data runs in two Spanish rivers, the Tagus and the Ebro rivers. The experimental tracer concentration versus time distributions were compared with the ADZ predicted curves, which were calculated using parameters obtained from the FRA method, and with curves predicted by several classical models. The residence time of several reaches within the two studied rivers was predicted by the FRA-ADZ method with a relative error lower than 10%. The method is generally applicable to ideal and nonideal inputs and is particularly well suited to arbitrary-shaped initial source concentration distributions.

  19. Unravelling River System Impairments in Stream Networks with an Integrated Risk Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Looy, Kris; Piffady, Jérémy; Tormos, Thierry; Villeneuve, Bertrand; Valette, Laurent; Chandesris, André; Souchon, Yves

    2015-06-01

    Rivers are complex systems for which it is hard to make reliable assessments of causes and responses to impairments. We present a holistic risk-based framework for river ecosystem assessment integrating all potential intervening processes and functions. Risk approaches allow us to deal with uncertainty both in the construction of indicators for magnitude of stressors and in the inference of environmental processes and their impairment. Yet, here we go further than simply replacing uncertainty by a risk factor. We introduce a more accurate and rigorous notion of risk with a transcription of uncertainty in causal relationships in probability distributions for the magnitude of impairment and the weight of different descriptors, with an associated confidence in the diagnostic. We discuss how Bayesian belief networks and Bayesian hierarchical inference allow us to deal with this risk concept to predict impairments and potential recovery of river ecosystems. We developed a comprehensive approach for river ecosystem assessment, which offers an appealing tool to facilitate diagnosis of the likely causes of impairment and predict future conditions. The ability of the risk approaches to integrate multi-scale quantitative and qualitative descriptors in the identification of multiple stressor sources and pathways in the stream network, and their impairment of specific processes and structures is illustrated for the national-level risk analysis for hydromorphology and pesticide pollution. Not only does the risk-based framework provide a more complete picture of environmental impairments, but it also offers a comprehensive, user-friendly tool to instruct the decision process.

  20. Preliminary subsurface hydrologic considerations: Columbia River Plateau Physiographic Province. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Veatch, M.D.

    1980-04-01

    This report contains a discussion of the hydrologic conditions of the Columbia River Plateau physiographic province. The Columbia River Plateau is underlain by a thick basalt sequence. The Columbia River basalt sequence contains both basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds. These sedimentary interbeds, which are layers of sedimentary rock between lava flows, are the main aquifer zones in the basalt sequence. Permeable interflow zones, involving the permeable top and/or rubble bottom of a flow, are also water-transmitting zones. A number of stratigraphic units are present in the Pasco Basin, which is in the central part of the Columbia River Plateau. At a conceptual level, the stratigraphic sequence from the surface downward can be separated into four hydrostratigraphic systems. These are: (1) the unsaturated zone, (2) the unconfined aquifer, (3) the uppermost confined aquifers, and (4) the lower Yakima basalt hydrologic sequence. A conceptual layered earth model (LEM) has been developed. The LEM represents the major types of porous media (LEM units) that may be encountered at a number of places on the Columbia Plateau, and specifically in the Pasco Basin. The conceptual LEM is not representative of the actual three-dimensional hydrostratigraphic sequence and hydrologic conditions existing at any specific site within the Columbia Plateau physiographic province. However, the LEM may be useful for gaining a better understanding of how the hydrologic regime may change as a result of disruptive events that may interact with a waste repository in geologic media.

  1. Application of Integrated Flood Analysis System (IFAS) for Dungun River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafiz, I.; Nor, N. D. M.; Sidek, L. M.; Basri, H.; K, F.; Hanapi, M. N.; L, Livia

    2013-06-01

    The Northeast monsoon happening during the months of October until January is the major rainy season found in the eastern part of Peninsular Malaysia. The Dungun river basin (1,858 km2) is exposed to this season thus experiencing characteristically regular flooding due to the prolong rainfall events. The annual rainfall over the river basins are 2,880 mm with great proportion falling in the months of December (19.4%). This study is to apply the Integrated Flood Analysis System (IFAS) model which Dungun river basin has been chosen for this study as the catchments have range of flood and relevant data that can be used to develop the model. The satellite data used in this study is provided by JAXA Global Rainfall Watch. The main feature of this real-time flood analysis model is the satellite-based rainfall data input employed during the model creation phase. The performance of the model for the river basins from satellite and ground-based rainfall data are compared using three error analysis methods.

  2. Alternative and Legacy Perfluoroalkyl Substances: Differences between European and Chinese River/Estuary Systems.

    PubMed

    Heydebreck, Franziska; Tang, Jianhui; Xie, Zhiyong; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2015-07-21

    The production and use of long-chain perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) must comply with national and international regulations. Driven by increasingly stringent regulations, their production has been outsourced to less regulated countries in Asia. In addition, the fluoropolymer industry started to use fluorinated alternatives, such as 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-2-(1,1,2,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropoxy)propanoic acid (HFPO-DA). Between August 2013 and September 2014, we investigated the occurrence and distribution of HFPO-DA and legacy PFASs in surface waters of the following river/estuary systems: the Elbe and Rhine Rivers in Germany, the Rhine-Meuse delta in The Netherlands, and the Xiaoqing River in China. Distinct differences were revealed among the study areas; notably, the Chinese samples were highly polluted by an industrial point source discharging mainly perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). This particular point source resulted in concentrations more than 6000 times higher than an industrial point source observed in the Scheur River, where HFPO-DA was the dominant compound with a concentration of 73.1 ng/L. Moreover, HFPO-DA was detected in all samples along the coastline of the North Sea, indicating that the compound may be transported from the Rhine-Meuse delta into the German Bight via the water current. To the best of our knowledge, the fluorinated alternative, HFPO-DA, was detected for the first time in surface waters of Germany and China. PMID:26106903

  3. Bypass system modification at Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River improved the survival of juvenile salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferguson, J.W.; Sandford, B.P.; Reagan, R.E.; Gilbreath, L.G.; Meyer, E.B.; Ledgerwood, R.D.; Adams, N.S.

    2007-01-01

    From 1987 to 1992, we evaluated a fish bypass system at Bonneville Dam Powerhouse 2 on the Columbia River. The survival of subyearling Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha released into the system ranged from 0.774 to 0.911 and was significantly lower than the survival of test fish released into turbines and the area immediately below the powerhouse where bypass system flow reentered the river. Yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and yearling coho salmon O. kisutch released into the bypass system were injured or descaled. Also, levels of blood plasma cortisol and lactate were significantly higher in yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon that passed through the bypass system than in fish released directly into a net located over the bypass exit. This original system was then extensively modified using updated design criteria, and the site where juvenile fish reentered the river was relocated 2.8 km further downstream to reduce predation on bypassed fish by northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis. Based on studies conducted from 1999 to 2001, the new bypass system resulted in high fish survival, virtually no injuries to fish, fish passage times that were generally similar to water travel times, and mild stress responses from which fish recovered quickly. The mean estimated survival of subyearling Chinook salmon passing through the new bypass system was 0.946 in 2001, which was an usually low-flow year. Survival, physical condition, passage timing, and blood physiological indicators of stress were all useful metrics for assessing the performance of both bypass systems and are discussed. The engineering and hydraulic criteria used to design the new bypass system that resulted in improved fish passage conditions are described.

  4. Geospatial Information Systems Analysis of Regional Environmental Change along the Savannah River Basin of Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Twumasi, Yaw A.; Merem, Edmund C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS); and descriptive statistics in the assessment of environmental change along the Savannah River Basin of Georgia. Results of the study show that Savannah River basin side of Georgia has been experiencing environmental change due to several decades of relentless pressure induced by anthropocentric activities and host of other socio-economic factors. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) analysis of the area also shows a decline in vegetation cover. The pace of ecological change showed some variations across time and space. Generally, the results point to a decline in water bodies, vegetation, and increase in population, loss of harvested cropland, farms and increasing threats to the environmental systems of the region. PMID:18441406

  5. Distribution of submersed macrophytes in the St. Clair-Detroit River System, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Donald W.; Manny, Bruce A.

    1986-01-01

    An extensive survey was conducted in fall 1978 to determine the distribution and abundance of submersed macrophytes through the St. Clair-Detroit River system from Lake Huron to Lake Erie. Submersed macrophytes, representing 19 taxa, were widely distributed in the system, being found on 358 km2 (30%) of the total 1185 km2 of substrate surveyed. Of the 19 taxa identified, 8 common taxa were found on 20 to 121 km2 of substrate. These commonly found taxa, in decreasing order of substrate coverage were Characeae, Vallisneria americana, Najas flexilis, Myriophyllum spicatum, Elodea canadensis, Potamogeton richardsonii, Potamogeton spp. (narrow-leaf forms), andHeteranthera dubia. In general, macrophyte beds of low, medium, and high biomass covered much less area but a higher proportion of the available substrate in the St. Clair and Detroit rivers than in Lake St. Clair.

  6. Seattle distribution system corrosion control study. Volume 2. Tolt River water pilot plant study

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, C.E.; Hoyt, B.P.

    1984-03-01

    For 6 months, the Seattle Water Department conducted a corrosion treatment pilot plant study, obtaining data on the treatment of Tolt River water with lime/sodium carbonate, lime/sodium bicarbonate, and lime/bicarbonate/silicate. Continuous-flow pipe coupon tests were conducted to determine corrosion rates, penetration rates, and corrosion types for copper, galvanized steel and black steel pipes. Metal leaching tests were conducted using small diameter pipes. Research showed that using lime plus sodium carbonate, lime plus sodium bicarbonate, and lime plus bicarbonate plus silicate will significantly reduce corrosion in home plumbing systems. Based on this pilot study, lime plus sodium carbonate treatment is recommended for the Cedar River water supply at an average dosage of 1.7 mg/L CaO. This dose should achieve an average distribution system pH of 7.9 and an alkalinity of 18 mg/l CaCO3.

  7. Decision support system for integrated river basin management conflict assessment and resolution approaches for the Weiße Elster river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennrich, K. P.; Rode, M.; Hansjürgens, B.; Klauer, B.; Petry, D.

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of the EU water framework directive is to establish a good ecological status for inland surface waters, transition waters, groundwater and coastal waters until 2009. To achieve this goal a program of measures has to be defined in a management plan for each river basin. To date, methodological gaps exist regarding the scientific, economic and legal instruments available to implement the directive in Germany. The main aim of the project is to develop a decision support system for integrated river basin management based on a computer modelling system. Study area is the meso-scale river basin of the Weiße Elster river, flowing through three states, Thuringia, Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt. Currently, river basins in Germany are managed on a state level. Research is carried out in close cooperation with local authorities. In the context of the EU water framework directive scientific, economic, and legal methods and approaches will be coupled and developed further. The core of the decision support system is an object-oriented modelling system coupled with a multi-criteria analysis. The modelling system integrates water and substance transport as well as socio-economic forecasting models and methods. The system will be able to simulate and assess the scientific, economic and social effects of management measures. The results as well as interests of concerned stakeholders will be joined and evaluated in a subsequent multi-criteria analysis. Based on these results for decision support, programs of measures recognising interests of water management, industry, agriculture, politics and the public can be established in the management plans of the respective authorities.

  8. Soft systems methodology and the ecosystem approach: a system study of the Cooum River and environs in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Bunch, Martin J

    2003-02-01

    This paper discusses the integration of soft systems methodology (SSM) within an ecosystem approach in research to support rehabilitation and management of the Cooum River and environs in Chennai, India. The Cooum is an extremely polluted urban stream. Its management is complicated by high rates of population growth, poverty, uncontrolled urban development, jurisdictional conflicts, institutional culture, flat topography, tidal action, blockage of the river mouth, and monsoon flooding. The situation is characterized by basic uncertainty about main processes and activities, and the nature of relationships among actors and elements in the system.SSM is an approach for dealing with messy or ill-structured problematic situations involving human activity. In this work SSM contributed techniques (such as "rich picture" and "CATWOE" tools) to description of the Cooum situation as a socioecological system and informed the approach itself at a theoretical level. Application of three general phases in SSM is discussed in the context of the Cooum River research: (1) problem definition and exploration of the problem situation, (2) development of conceptual models of relevant systems, and (3) the use of these to generate insight and stimulate debate about desirable and feasible change. Its use here gives weight to the statement by others that SSM would be a particularly appropriate methodology to operate the ecosystem approach. As well as informing efforts at management of the Cooum system, this work led the way to explore an adaptive ecosystem approach more broadly to management of the urban environment for human health in Chennai. PMID:12520375

  9. The estimating of Curve Number from River Level for real-time flood forecasting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, M.; Yoon, Kanghoon

    2009-04-01

    In the South Korea, the NRCS runoff curve number method is used to estimate the effective rainfall and the CN has much effect on the peak discharge and time for the real-time forecasting system. According to the experience and existing research about flooding forecasting system, the new method to estimate CN would be necessary, since it is very difficult to operate the flood forecasting system using the method which uses the AMC from 5-day antecedent rainfall developed by NRCS. It could be assumed that the maximum potential retention(S) will be related to the groundwater or groundwater levels; therefore, the relationship between water stage in river and maximum potential retention(S) would be investigated. In order to derive the relationship, the flooding data of 1980 through 2007 in Sulmachun and Pyungchang River is used, since this data is delicately constructed. Here, the CN is calculated using the total rainfall discharge and the total depth of runoff discharge at the flooding period and then water stage in river and maximum potential retention(S) would be determined. The relationship between water level in river and maximum potential retention(S) or CN has a higher correlation under the specific water stage of about 0.1m^3/sec/km^2; however, it shows relatively lower correlation above the specific water level. This result shows that NRCS method represents the relationship very well in the lower water stage as infiltration is actively occurred with relatively higher maximum potential retention(S). Keyword : CN, rela-time forecasting system, water stage

  10. Surveys of tidal river systems in the northern territory of Australia and their crocodile populations

    SciTech Connect

    Vorlicek, G.C.; Messel, H.; Green, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides an update on the population dynamics of Crocodylus porous in the tidal waterways of Van Diemen Gulf and the Southern Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia, during 1984 and 1985. Contents: Prologue; Dedication; Introduction; Status of Crocodylus porous. July 1984, in the tidal waterways of the Alligator Region and in the Adelaide River System of Northern Australia: recovery underway; Resurvey of Crocodylus porous populations in the tidal waterways of the southern Gulf of Carpentaria, September - October 1985; Local knowledge - Northern Australia style.

  11. Contributions to a thermodynamic model of Earth systems on rivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iberall, A. S.

    1981-01-01

    A model for the chemical (ground water) erosion and physical (bed load, including sedimentation) erosion of the land was developed. The rudiments of the relation between a regulated sea level (for the past 2500 million years) and the episodic rise and erosion of continents was examined to obtain some notion of the process scalings. Major process scales of about 200 years, 100,000 years, 3 My, 40 My, 300 My were estimated. It was suggested that a program targeted at ecological management would have to become familiar with processes at the first four scales (i.e., from glaciation to the horizontal movement of continents). The study returns to the initial premise. In order to understand and manage Earth biology (life, and modern man), it is necessary minimally to pursue systems' biogeology at a considerable number of process space and time scales via their irreversible thermodynamic couplings.

  12. Ichthyofauna of the Kubo, Tochikura, and Ichinono river systems (Kitakami River drainage, northern Japan), with a comparison of predicted and surveyed species richness.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yusuke; Nakae, Masanori; Senou, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The potential fish species pool of the Kubo, Tochikura, and Ichinono river systems (tributaries of the Iwai River, Kitakami River drainage), Iwate Prefecture, northern Japan, was compared with the observed ichthyofauna by using historical records and new field surveys. Based on the literature survey, the potential species pool comprised 24 species/subspecies but only 20, including 7 non-native taxa, were recorded during the fieldwork. The absence during the survey of 11 species/subspecies from the potential species pool suggested either that sampling effort was insufficient, or that accurate determination of the potential species pool was hindered by lack of biogeographic data and ecological data related to the habitat use of the species. With respect to freshwater fish conservation in the area, Lethenteronreissneri, Carassiusauratusbuergeri, Pseudorasborapumila, Tachysurustokiensis, Oryziaslatipes, and Cottusnozawae are regarded as priority species, and Cyprinusrubrofuscus, Pseudorasboraparva, and Micropterussalmoides as targets for removal. PMID:25425932

  13. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Main Report Exhibits.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River System Operation Review

    1995-11-01

    This Volume is a part of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Columbia River System. This volume contains technical exhibits of cultural resources and commentary on the (System Operation Review) SOR process. The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation comment is the majority of the material in the volume, in the Consultation Plan, Identification of trust resources; Criteria for the selection of a System Operating Strategy; comment on rights protection and implementation of Federal Trust responsibility; analysis of the draft EIS. Comment by other Native American Tribes and groups is also included: Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation; Kootenai Tribe of Idaho; Spokane Tribe of Indians; Coeur d` Alene tribe.

  14. New Systems for Waste Processing of Tritium-Containing Gases at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Poore, A.S.; Jacobs, W.D.

    2005-07-15

    A project to relocate and consolidate tritium processing activities from old, second generation buildings to newer buildings was initiated in the late 1990's at the Savannah River Site. The new waste gas processing systems located in the newer facility utilize recent technology, including metal getters, an innovative permeator design, and TCAP (Thermal Cycling Absorption Process) technology for removal of residual tritium prior to releasing the effluent to the environment. Startup testing results (using protium and deuterium) and corresponding lessons learned for these systems are presented. These systems have since successfully completed tritium startup testing and are operational.

  15. Levels of methylmercury and controlling factors in surface sediments of the Carson River system, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.; Bonzongo, J.C.; Miller, G.C.

    1995-12-31

    Spatial and temporal distribution of MeHg, as well as, its relationships with both the biotic and abiotic activities, were determined in surficial sediments collected from a river-reservoir system, severely impacted by Hg-contaminated mine wastes. Despite the fact that total mercury concentrations in surface sediments of the Carson River system were in the {mu}g.g{sup -1} range, levels of MeHg varied from {approximately}1 to 28 ng Hg.g{sup -1} dry weight, representing less than 3% of Total-Hg. Positive relationships were obtained between MeHg concentrations and both the chemical activity and general rate of biotic activity, suggesting the contribution of both the abiotic and biotic processes in the production of MeHg in natural environments, the latter being more important and more significant. Laboratory investigations showed that rates of MeHg production in sediments of the Carson River were affected by factors related to peculiarities of this aquatic system.

  16. Urban Flood Management with Integrated Inland-River System in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Y. I.; Kim, J. S.; Yuk, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Global warming and climate change have caused significant damage and loss of life worldwide. The pattern of natural disasters has gradually diversified and their frequency is increasing. The impact of climate change on flood risk in urban rivers is of particular interest because these areas are typically densely populated. The occurrence of urban river flooding due to climate change not only causes significant loss of life and property but also causes health and social problems. It is therefore necessary to develop a scientific urban flood management system to cope with and reduce the impacts of climate change, including flood damage. In this study, we are going to introduce Integrated Inland-River Flood Analysis System in Seoul to conduct predictions on flash rain or short-term rainfall by using radar and satellite information and perform prompt and accurate prediction on the inland flooded areas. In addition, this urban flood management system can be used as a tool for decision making of systematic disaster prevention through real-time monitoring.

  17. Computer model of Raritan River Basin water-supply system in central New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunne, Paul; Tasker, Gary D.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes a computer model of the Raritan River Basin water-supply system in central New Jersey. The computer model provides a technical basis for evaluating the effects of alternative patterns of operation of the Raritan River Basin water-supply system during extended periods of below-average precipitation. The computer model is a continuity-accounting model consisting of a series of interconnected nodes. At each node, the inflow volume, outflow volume, and change in storage are determined and recorded for each month. The model runs with a given set of operating rules and water-use requirements including releases, pumpages, and diversions. The model can be used to assess the hypothetical performance of the Raritan River Basin water- supply system in past years under alternative sets of operating rules. It also can be used to forecast the likelihood of specified outcomes, such as the depletion of reservoir contents below a specified threshold or of streamflows below statutory minimum passing flows, for a period of up to 12 months. The model was constructed on the basis of current reservoir capacities and the natural, unregulated monthly runoff values recorded at U.S. Geological Survey streamflow- gaging stations in the basin.

  18. Dose reconstruction system for the exposed population living along the Techa River

    SciTech Connect

    Degteva, M O.; Vorobiova, M I.; Kozheurov, V P.; Tolstykh, E I.; Anspaugh, L R.; Napier, Bruce A. )

    1999-12-01

    The Mayak Production Association (MPA) was the first facility in the former Soviet Union for the production of plutonium, beginning operation in 1948. Significant worker and population exposure occurred as a result of failures in the technological processes in the late 1940?s and early 1950?s. Members of the public were exposed via discharge of about 10{sup 17} Bq of liquid wastes into the Techa River (1949-1956), an explosion in the radioactive waste-storage facility in 1957, and gaseous aerosol releases within the first decades of the facility's operation. Residents of many villages downstream on the Techa River were exposed via a variety of pathways; the more significant included drinking of water from the river and external gamma exposure due to proximity to sediments and shoreline. The specific aim of this project is to enhance the reconstruction of external and internal radiation doses for individuals in the Extended Techa River Cohort. The purpose of this paper is to present the details of the methods that are being used in this enhanced dose-reconstruction effort and to provide example and representative results of the calculations. The methods of dose assessment currently being used for the exposed population (termed the Techa River Dosimetry System -2000[TRDS-2000]), which are a significant improvement on past methods (TRDS-1996), are presented. The new TRDS-2000 doses from the ingestion of radionuclides are substantially higher for the gastrointestinal tract, due to consideration of short-lived radionuclides. The TRDS-2000 doses from external exposure are substantially lower, due to improvements in several factors. Assessment of uncertainty and validation of the?new? doses are significant issues currently under investigation.

  19. Dose reconstruction system for the exposed population living along the Techa River.

    PubMed

    Degteva, M O; Vorobiova, M I; Kozheurov, V P; Tolstykh, E I; Anspaugh, L R; Napier, B A

    2000-05-01

    The Mayak Production Association, which began operation in 1948, was the first facility in the former Soviet Union for the production of plutonium. Significant worker and population exposure occurred as a result of failures in the technological processes in the late 1940's and early 1950's. Members of the public were exposed via discharge of about 1017 Bq of liquid wastes into the Techa River during 1949-1956, an explosion in the radioactive waste-storage facility in 1957, and gaseous aerosol releases within the first decades of the facility's operation. Residents of many villages downstream on the Techa River were exposed via a variety of pathways; the more significant included drinking of water from the river and external gamma exposure due to proximity to sediments and shoreline. The specific aim of this project is to enhance the reconstruction of external and internal radiation doses for individuals in the Extended Techa River Cohort. The purpose of this paper is to present the details of the methods that are being used in this enhanced dose-reconstruction effort and to provide example and representative results of the calculations. The methods of dose assessment currently being developed for the exposed population [termed the Techa River Dosimetry System-2000 (TRDS-2000)], which are a significant improvement on past methods (TRDS-1996), are presented. The new TRDS-2000 doses from the ingestion of radionuclides are substantially higher for the gastrointestinal tract, due to consideration of short-lived radionuclides. The TRDS-2000 doses from external exposure are substantially lower due to improvements in several factors. Assessment of uncertainty and validation of the "new" doses are significant issues currently under investigation. PMID:10772028

  20. Dose reconstruction system for the exposed population living along the Techa River

    SciTech Connect

    Degteva, M.O.; Vorobiova, M.I.; Kozheurov, V.P.; Tolstykh, E.I.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Napier, B.A.

    2000-05-01

    The Mayak Production Association, which began operation in 1948, was the first facility in the former Soviet Union for the production of plutonium. Significant worker and population exposure occurred as a result of failures in the technological processes in the late 1940's and early 1950's. Members of the public were exposed via discharge of about 10{sup 17}Bq of liquid wastes into the Techa River during 1949--1956, an explosion in the radioactive waste-storage facility in 1957, and gaseous aerosol releases within the first decades of the facility's operation. Residents of many villages downstream on the Techa River were exposed via a variety of pathways; the more significant included drinking of water from the river and external gamma exposure due to proximity to sediments and shoreline. The specific aim of this project is to enhance the reconstruction of external and internal radiation doses for individuals in the Extended Techa River Cohort. The purpose of this paper is to present the details of the methods that are being used in this enhanced dose-reconstruction effort and to provide example and representative results of the calculations. The methods of dose assessment currently being developed for the exposed population [termed the Techa River Dosimetry System-2000 (TRDS-2000)], which are a significant improvement on past methods (TRDS-1996), are presented. The new TRDS-2000 doses from the ingestion of radionuclides are substantially higher for the gastrointestinal tract, due to consideration of short-lived radionuclides. The TRDS-2000 doses from external exposure are substantially lower due to improvements in several factors. Assessment of uncertainty and validation of the new doses are significant issues currently under investigation.

  1. Hydrogeologic framework of the Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartolino, James R.; Adkins, Candice B.

    2012-01-01

    The Wood River Valley contains most of the population of Blaine County and the cities of Sun Valley, Ketchum, Hailey, and Bellevue. This mountain valley is underlain by the alluvial Wood River Valley aquifer system, which consists primarily of a single unconfined aquifer that underlies the entire valley, an underlying confined aquifer that is present only in the southernmost valley, and the confining unit that separates them. The entire population of the area depends on groundwater for domestic supply, either from domestic or municipal-supply wells, and rapid population growth since the 1970s has caused concern about the long-term sustainability of the groundwater resource. As part of an ongoing U.S. Geological Survey effort to characterize the groundwater resources of the Wood River Valley, this report describes the hydrogeologic framework of the Wood River Valley aquifer system. Although most of the Wood River Valley aquifer system is composed of Quaternary-age sediments and basalts of the Wood River Valley and its tributaries, older igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic rocks that underlie these Quaternary deposits also are used for water supply. It is unclear to what extent these rocks are hydraulically connected to the main part of Wood River Valley aquifer system and thus whether they constitute separate aquifers. Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in and near the study area that produce water to wells and springs are the Phi Kappa and Trail Creek Formations (Ordovician and Silurian), the Milligen Formation (Devonian), and the Sun Valley Group including the Wood River Formation (Pennsylvanian-Permian) and the Dollarhide Formation (Permian). These sedimentary rocks are intruded by granitic rocks of the Late Cretaceous Idaho batholith. Eocene Challis Volcanic Group rocks overlie all of the older rocks (except where removed by erosion). Miocene Idavada Volcanics are found in the southern part of the study area. Most of these rocks have been folded, faulted, and

  2. Seasonal streamflow prediction by a combined climate-hydrologic system for river basins of Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Chun-Chao; Gan, Thian Yew; Yu, Pao-Shan

    2010-06-01

    SummaryA combined, climate-hydrologic system with three components to predict the streamflow of two river basins of Taiwan at one season (3-month) lead time for the NDJ and JFM seasons was developed. The first component consists of the wavelet-based, ANN-GA model (Artificial Neural Network calibrated by Genetic Algorithm) which predicts the seasonal rainfall by using selected sea surface temperature (SST) as predictors, given that SST are generally predictable by climate models up to 6-month lead time. For the second component, three disaggregation models, Valencia and Schaake (VS), Lane, and Canonical Random Cascade Model (CRCM), were tested to compare the accuracy of seasonal rainfall disaggregated by these three models to 3-day time scale rainfall data. The third component consists of the continuous rainfall-runoff model modified from HBV (called the MHBV) and calibrated by a global optimization algorithm against the observed rainfall and streamflow data of the Shihmen and Tsengwen river basins of Taiwan. The proposed system was tested, first by disaggregating the predicted seasonal rainfall of ANN-GA to rainfall of 3-day time step using the Lane model; then the disaggregated rainfall data was used to drive the calibrated MHBV to predict the streamflow for both river basins at 3-day time step up to a season's lead time. Overall, the streamflow predicted by this combined system for the NDJ season, which is better than that of the JFM season, will be useful for the seasonal planning and management of water resources of these two river basins of Taiwan.

  3. ESTIMATION OF INHERENT OPTICAL PROPERTIES AND THE WATER QUALITY COMPONENTS IN THE NEUSE RIVER-PAMLICO SOUND ESTUARINE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field observations carried out in the Neuse River-Pamlico Sound Estuarine System (NRE-PS), North Carolina, USA were used to develop optical algorithms for assessing inherent optical properties, IOPs (absorption and backscattering) associated with water quality components (WQC).

  4. Source-To-Sink Perspectives On The Mississippi River System, Miocene To Present, Mountain To Abyss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, S. J.; Blum, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    . The objective of this study is to present a synthesis of the Mississippi River source-to-sink system, from montane source to abyssal sink, to elucidate specific geomorphic components and boundaries in the system, controls on mass transfer, and resultant geomorphic and statigraphic development. The Mississippi River source-to-sink system constitutes one of the largest sources, conduits, and depocenters of sediment on Earth, extending from elevations of 3.7 km in the Rocky Mountains to the Gulf of Mexico abyssal plain. Despite being one of the most intensely studied fluvial-marine systems in the world, comprehensive understanding and management of the system's resources remain a challenge. The system is valuable in many ways: it provides navigation and water to the heart of North America, and sustains extensive marine fisheries. The river has built a delta that is home to millions of people and yet is subsiding rapidly. Ancestral Mississippi fluvial-marine deposits continue to yield high-value petroleum resources to exploration. To address the range of temporal and spatial scales over which the system has developed and continues to evolve, we will focus on three geological time spans that display contrasting geologic forcing and response: Miocene, Pleistocene, and late Holocene. The present configuration of source, conduit, and sink were established during the Miocene epoch, when tectonics (via the uplifting southern Rockies, and later the rejuvenated Appalachians) and climate (wet in the east and dry in the west) provided abundant water and sediment to prograde the shelf margin and initiate deep-sea fan growth. Pleistocene continental glaciation, eustasy, and catastrophic drainage events further sculpted the alluvial valley, and extended the shelf margin, and fan. Studies of Modern processes and Holocene delta development have provided keys to both the delta's past and future evolution, in terms of cyclic autogenic lobe-switching, mass-transport events, storm

  5. Individual Dose Calculations with Use of the Revised Techa River Dosimetry System TRDS-2009D

    SciTech Connect

    Degteva, M. O.; Shagina, N. B.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Vorobiova, M. I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2009-10-23

    An updated deterministic version of the Techa River Dosimetry System (TRDS-2009D) has been developed to estimate individual doses from external exposure and intake of radionuclides for residents living on the Techa River contaminated as a result of radioactive releases from the Mayak plutonium facility in 1949–1956. The TRDS-2009D is designed as a flexible system that uses, depending on the input data for an individual, various elements of system databases to provide the dosimetric variables requested by the user. Several phases are included in the computation schedule. The first phase includes calculations with use of a common protocol for all cohort members based on village-average-intake functions and external dose rates; individual data on age, gender and history of residence are included in the first phase. This phase results in dose estimates similar to those obtained with system TRDS-2000 used previously to derive risks of health effects in the Techa River Cohort. The second phase includes refinement of individual internal doses for those persons who have had body-burden measurements or exposure parameters specific to the household where he/she lived on the Techa River. The third phase includes summation of individual doses from environmental exposure and from radiological examinations. The results of TRDS-2009D dose calculations have demonstrated for the ETRC members on average a moderate increase in RBM dose estimates (34%) and a minor increase (5%) in estimates of stomach dose. The calculations for the members of the ETROC indicated similar small changes for stomach, but significant increase in RBM doses (400%). Individual-dose assessments performed with use of TRDS-2009D have been provided to epidemiologists for exploratory risk analysis in the ETRC and ETROC. These data provide an opportunity to evaluate the possible impact on radiogenic risk of such factors as confounding exposure (environmental and medical), changes in the Techa River source

  6. An automated system to simulate the River discharge in Kyushu Island using the H08 model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maji, A.; Jeon, J.; Seto, S.

    2015-12-01

    Kyushu Island is located in southwestern part of Japan, and it is often affected by typhoons and a Baiu front. There have been severe water-related disasters recorded in Kyushu Island. On the other hand, because of high population density and for crop growth, water resource is an important issue of Kyushu Island.The simulation of river discharge is important for water resource management and early warning of water-related disasters. This study attempts to apply H08 model to simulate river discharge in Kyushu Island. Geospatial meteorological and topographical data were obtained from Japanese Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT) and Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System (AMeDAS) of Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). The number of the observation stations of AMeDAS is limited and is not quite satisfactory for the application of water resources models in Kyushu. It is necessary to spatially interpolate the point data to produce grid dataset. Meteorological grid dataset is produced by considering elevation dependence. Solar radiation is estimated from hourly sunshine duration by a conventional formula. We successfully improved the accuracy of interpolated data just by considering elevation dependence and found out that the bias is related to geographical location. The rain/snow classification is done by H08 model and is validated by comparing estimated and observed snow rate. The estimates tend to be larger than the corresponding observed values. A system to automatically produce daily meteorological grid dataset is being constructed.The geospatial river network data were produced by ArcGIS and they were utilized in the H08 model to simulate the river discharge. Firstly, this research is to compare simulated and measured specific discharge, which is the ratio of discharge to watershed area. Significant error between simulated and measured data were seen in some rivers. Secondly, the outputs by the coupled model including crop growth

  7. Dynamic remediation test of polluted river water by Eco-tank system.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jibo; Wang, Huiming; Chu, Shuyi; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic remediation of river water polluted by domestic sewage using an aquatic plants bed-based Eco-tank system was investigated. Over a period of 18 days, the test demonstrated that average effluent concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) and total phosphorus (TP) were as low as 17.28, 0.23 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively, under the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8.7 d. The average removal efficiencies in terms of COD, NH4(+)-N and TP could reach 71.95, 97.96 and 97.84%, respectively. The loss of both NH4(+)-N and TP was mainly ascribed to the uptake by plants. Hydrocotyle leucocephala was effective in promoting the dissolved oxygen (DO) level, while Pistia stratiotes with numerous fibrous roots was significantly effective for the removal of organic compounds. The net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and biomass accumulation rate of Myriophyllum aquaticum were the highest among all tested plants. Thus, the Eco-tank system could be considered as an alternative approach for the in situ remediation of polluted river water, especially nutrient-laden river water. PMID:23530371

  8. Introduction: CRevolution 2: origin and evolution of the Colorado River System II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karlstrom, Karl E.; Beard, L. Sue; House, Kyle; Young, Richard A.; Aslan, Andres; Billingsley, George; Pederson, Joel

    2012-01-01

    A 2010 Colorado River symposium held in Flagstaff, Arizona, in May 2010, had 70 participants who engaged in intense debate about the origin and evolution of the Colorado River system. This symposium, built on two previous decadal scientific meetings, focused on forging scientific consensus where possible, while also articulating continued controversies regarding the Cenozoic evolution of the Colorado River System and the landscapes of the Colorado Plateau–Rocky Mountain region that it drains. New developments involved hypotheses that Neogene mantle flow is driving plateau tilting and differential uplift, with consensus that multidisciplinary studies involving differential incision studies and additional geochronology and thermochronology are needed to test the relative importance of tectonic and geomorphic forcings in shaping the spectacular landscapes of the Colorado Plateau region. In addition to the scientific goals, the meeting participants emphasized the iconic status of Grand Canyon for geosciences, and the importance of good communication between the research community, the geoscience education/interpretation community, the public, and the media. Building on a century-long tradition, this region still provides a globally important natural laboratory for studies of the interactions of erosion and tectonism in the shaping landscape of elevated plateaus.

  9. Transport of particle-associated elements in two agriculture-dominated boreal river systems.

    PubMed

    Marttila, Hannu; Saarinen, Tuomas; Celebi, Ahmet; Kløve, Bjørn

    2013-09-01

    Transport of particulate pollutants in fluvial systems can contribute greatly to total loads. Understanding transport mechanics under different hydrological conditions is key in successful load estimation. This study analysed trace elements and physico-chemical parameters in time-integrated suspended sediment samples, together with dissolved and total concentrations of pollutants, along two agriculture- and peatland-dominated boreal river systems. The samples were taken in a spatially and temporally comprehensive sampling programme during the ice-free seasons of 2010 and 2011. The hydrochemistry and transport of particle-bound elements in the rivers were strongly linked to intense land use and acid sulphate soils in the catchment area, with arable, pasture and peat areas in particular being main diffuse sources. There were significant seasonal and temporal variations in dissolved and particulate fluxes, but spatial variations were small. Continuous measurements of EC, turbidity and discharge proved to be an accurate indicator of dissolved and particulate fluxes. Overall, the results show that transport of particle-bound elements makes a major contribution to total transport fluxes in agriculture-dominated boreal rivers. PMID:23770550

  10. The impact of new developments on river water quality from an integrated system modelling perspective.

    PubMed

    Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David; Khu, Soon-Thiam

    2009-02-01

    New housing areas are a ubiquitous feature of modern life in the developing and developed world alike built in response to rising social, demographic and economic pressures. Inevitably, these new developments will have an impact on the environment around them. Empirical evidence confirms the close relationship between urbanisation and ambient water quality. However, what is lacking so far is a detailed and more generalised analysis of environmental impact at a relatively small scale. The aim of this paper is to quantify the impact of new developments on river water quality within an integrated system modelling perspective. To conduct the impact analyses, an existing integrated urban wastewater model was used to predict water flow and quality in the sewer system, treatment plant and receiving water body. The impact on combined sewer overflow (CSO) discharges, treatment plant effluent, and within the river at various reaches is analysed by 'locating' a new development on a semi-hypothetical urban catchment. River water quality is used as feedback to constrain the scale of the new development within different thresholds in compliance with water quality standards. Further, the regional sensitivity analysis (RSA) method is applied to reveal the parameters with the greatest impact on water quality. These analyses will help to inform town planners and water specialists who advise them, how to minimise the impact of such developments given the specific context. PMID:19036407

  11. Seasonal fluctuations in the mass of the Amazon River system and Earth's elastic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevis, Michael; Alsdorf, Douglas; Kendrick, Eric; Fortes, Luiz Paulo; Forsberg, Bruce; Smalley, Robert; Becker, Janet

    2005-08-01

    A GPS station in Manaus, near the center of the Amazon basin, manifests an annual cycle of vertical displacement with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 50-75 mm. This is by far the largest crustal oscillation observed to date, and nearly 2-3 times larger than the amplitude predicted for this region. Vertical ground displacement is strongly anti-correlated with the local stage height of the Amazon river, with no detectable time lag between the two time series. This suggests that we are observing, for the first time, a purely elastic response to changes in the weight of a flowing river system. We use a simple hydrological model to relate stage height to the regional pattern of flooding, and argue that the elastic oscillations observed in Manaus are dominated by changes in water loading developed within ~200 km of the GPS station.

  12. The design of a web-based decision support system for the sustainable management of an urban river system.

    PubMed

    Chang, Y C; Chang, N B

    2002-01-01

    The effects of urbanization on the aquatic environment, and solutions to the deterioration of water quality and stream ecology in the Love River have long been the main focus of environmental management in southern Taiwan. Apart from choosing the regular strategies of installing an intercept and sewer system, coastal wastewater treatment plant, and ocean outfall pipe, a new opportunity for improving the overall managerial efficiency is to design and implement a web-based Decision Support System (DSS). This DSS must be capable of managing storm water impacts when overflow is inevitable, river water quality variations loading to influences on the ecosystem, and changing land use programs along river corridors and adjacent urban areas simultaneously. This paper presents a new design framework for building such a DSS. By using the advanced information technology in the "Internet" environment, the proposed DSS may perform normal queries and statistical analyses in a web-enabled database, spatial analysis via the use of a Geographic Information System (GIS) in the Internet environment, and essential data warehousing/data mining. Possible linkage with various analytical models is anticipated. Such a DSS must be helpful for achieving the rehabilitation of the estuarine ecosystem and satisfying the goals for sustainable management in a regional sense. PMID:12380984

  13. Impacts of Climate and Human-induced Changes on Stream Temperature in Large River Systems: An Earth System Modeling Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H. Y.; Leung, L. R.; Tesfa, T. K.; Voisin, N.; Yang, X.; Rice, J.

    2014-12-01

    Stream temperature plays an important role in closing the energy balance at local, regional and global scales, and exerts significant impacts on aquatic biodiversity, power plant operation and energy production. It is therefore a critical component for representing the energy-water nexus in earth system models. The stream temperature particularly in large river systems is very often regulated by human activities such as reservoir and power plant operations. This study is a first attempt to develop a physically based stream temperature model within the Community Earth System Model (CESM) framework. The Model for Scale Adaptive River Transport (MOSART) has been developed to represent riverine water dynamics and incorporated into CESM by coupling with the Community Land Model (CLM). Here we build upon CLM-MOSART to represent the riverine transport of heat along with water flux and the energy exchanges between river water and the atmosphere. More importantly, the impacts of reservoir and power plant operations are also explicitly parameterized within this new stream temperature model. This new stream temperature model will first be driven by historical forcing and validated against the observed stream temperature at a number of USGS gauges across the US. Then, driven by dynamically downscaled climate change scenarios, the relative contributions of climate change and reservoir and power-plant operation on the projected spatiotemporal changes in stream temperature will be systematically analyzed. Lastly the current limitations and future directions will be discussed.

  14. Geological record of an acidic environment driven by iron hydrochemistry: The Tinto River system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Remolar, David C.; Rodriguez, Nuria; Gómez, Felipe; Amils, Ricardo

    2003-07-01

    The existence of possible hematitic strata on the surface of Mars demands a search for terrestrial analogues formed in unusual environments. This will help us to recognize and interpret environmental and, perhaps, biological signatures preserved in Mars' hematites. Such an analogue would allow us to establish valid reference systems based on geomicrobial and biogeochemical signatures. Two different aspects place the Tinto River inside the boundaries of a natural extreme system: its high level of biological diversity and the presence of fluvial rocks formed in the same acidic conditions as in the modern system, which could predate the Tertiary. Study of both the modern system and the ancient system is necessary to understand the formation of biosignatures. A chemolithotrophic community that biooxidizes the Iberian Pyritic Belt, acidifying water (pH between 0.9 and 3.0) and favoring high concentrations of ferric iron in solution (up to 20 g.L-1), maintains this iron-driven system. In spite of these extreme conditions, high microbial diversity was found. Its acidic bacteria, archaea, and eukarya constitute a complex community supported by algal biomass in highly stable hydrochemical conditions, which are achieved through iron buffering. The pH is maintained at constant low levels even at very high water dilution. In these conditions, iron minerals as oxyhydroxides, hydroxides, and sulfates are formed. The modern and recent parageneses contrast with the ancient Tinto River terrace mineral associations, which show dehydrated and desulfated iron oxides. If this dehydration process is considered, these Tinto River ironstones may be a key for knowing some aquatic habitats, which may have hosted a part of the early Mars biosphere.

  15. A model to locate potential areas for lake sturgeon spawning habitat construction in the St. Clair–Detroit River System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennion, David; Manny, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    In response to a need for objective scientific information that could be used to help remediate loss of fish spawning habitat in the St. Clair River and Detroit River International Areas of Concern, this paper summarizes a large-scale geographic mapping investigation. Our study integrates data on two variables that many riverine fishes respond to in selecting where to spawn in these waters (water flow velocity and water depth) with available maps of the St. Clair–Detroit River System (SC–DRS). Our objectives were to locate and map these two physical components of fish habitat in the St. Clair and Detroit rivers and Lake St. Clair using a geographic information system (GIS) and to identify where, theoretically, fish spawning habitat could be remediated in these rivers. The target fish species to which this model applies is lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), but spawning reefs constructed for lake sturgeon in this system have been used for spawning by 17 species of fish. Our analysis revealed areas in each river that possessed suitable water velocity and depth for fish spawning and therefore could theoretically be remediated by the addition of rock-rubble substrate like that used at two previously remediated sites in the Detroit River at Belle Isle and Fighting Island. Results of our analysis revealed that only 3% of the total area of the SC–DRS possesses the necessary combination of water depth and high flow velocity to be indicated by the model as potential spawning habitat for lake sturgeon.

  16. Geomorphic and hydraulic controls on large-scale riverbank failure on a mixed bedrock-alluvial river system, the River Murray, South Australia: a bathymetric analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Carli, E.; Hubble, T.

    2014-12-01

    During the peak of the Millennium Drought (1997-2010) pool-levels in the lower River Murray in South Australia dropped 1.5 metres below sea level, resulting in large-scale mass failure of the alluvial banks. The largest of these failures occurred without signs of prior instability at Long Island Marina whereby a 270 metre length of populated and vegetated riverbank collapsed in a series of rotational failures. Analysis of long-reach bathymetric surveys of the river channel revealed a strong relationship between geomorphic and hydraulic controls on channel width and downstream alluvial failure. As the entrenched channel planform meanders within and encroaches upon its bedrock valley confines the channel width is 'pinched' and decreases by up to half, resulting in a deepening thalweg and channel bed incision. The authors posit that flow and shear velocities increase at these geomorphically controlled 'pinch-points' resulting in complex and variable hydraulic patterns such as erosional scour eddies, which act to scour the toe of the slope over-steepening and destabilising the alluvial margins. Analysis of bathymetric datasets between 2009 and 2014 revealed signs of active incision and erosional scour of the channel bed. This is counter to conceptual models which deem the backwater zone of a river to be one of decelerating flow and thus sediment deposition. Complex and variable flow patterns have been observed in other mixed alluvial-bedrock river systems, and signs of active incision observed in the backwater zone of the Mississippi River, United States. The incision and widening of the lower Murray River suggests the channel is in an erosional phase of channel readjustment which has implications for riverbank collapse on the alluvial margins. The prevention of seawater ingress due to barrage construction at the Murray mouth and Southern Ocean confluence, allowed pool-levels to drop significantly during the Millennium Drought reducing lateral confining support to the

  17. Geohydrology and model analysis of stream-aquifer system along the Arkansas River in Kearny and Finney Counties, southwestern Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunlap, L.E.; Lindgren, Richard J.; Sauer, C.G.

    1985-01-01

    A study was made, in cooperation with the Division of Water Resources, Kansas State Board of Agriculture, to determine geohydrologic conditions in an area comprising nearly 850,000 acres along the Arkansas River valley in Kearny and Finney Counties, southwestern Kansas. The Arkansas River meanders atop and interacts hydraulically with the area's multilayered, unconsolidated aquifer system. Declines in static water levels in wells in the heavily pumped lower aquifer ranged from 20 to 80 feet during 1974-80. The river is dry in much of the area. A digital computer model was calibrated to simulate the trends of historic water levels. Simulated 1974-80 conditions depicted an average annual recharge to the unconsolidated aquifer system of 66,900 acre-feet from precipitation and 36,200 acre-feet from river and canal seepage and boundary inflow. Simulated average annual discharge consisted of 634,800 acre-feet from pumpage and boundary outflow. Simulated average annual recharge to the unconsolidated aquifer system was 531,700 acre-feet less than average annual discharge, indicating the ground-water resource is currently (1982) being mined in the study area. Simulation also indicated that there would be sufficient saturated thickness in 2005 for irrigation if 1980 hydrologic conditions continued. Seepage losses from the Arkansas River and irrigation canals are a major source of recharge to the unconsolidated aquifer system. Therefore, the amount of flow in the Arkansas River would be important in determining the rate of future water-level declines in the study area. Streamflow seepage losses could be decreased by (1) decreasing the number of wells pumping in the study area in order to reduce downward leakage from the valley aquifer, or (2) increasing streamflow discharge in order to recharge the valley aquifer. The rate and direction of flow between the river and the valley aquifer depend on the hydraulic conductivity of the streambed and the hydraulic gradient between the

  18. INTELLIGENT COMPUTING SYSTEM FOR RESERVOIR ANALYSIS AND RISK ASSESSMENT OF THE RED RIVER FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Mark A. Sippel; William C. Carrigan; Kenneth D. Luff; Lyn Canter

    2003-11-12

    Integrated software has been written that comprises the tool kit for the Intelligent Computing System (ICS). The software tools in ICS have been developed for characterization of reservoir properties and evaluation of hydrocarbon potential using a combination of inter-disciplinary data sources such as geophysical, geologic and engineering variables. The ICS tools provide a means for logical and consistent reservoir characterization and oil reserve estimates. The tools can be broadly characterized as (1) clustering tools, (2) neural solvers, (3) multiple-linear regression, (4) entrapment-potential calculator and (5) file utility tools. ICS tools are extremely flexible in their approach and use, and applicable to most geologic settings. The tools are primarily designed to correlate relationships between seismic information and engineering and geologic data obtained from wells, and to convert or translate seismic information into engineering and geologic terms or units. It is also possible to apply ICS in a simple framework that may include reservoir characterization using only engineering, seismic, or geologic data in the analysis. ICS tools were developed and tested using geophysical, geologic and engineering data obtained from an exploitation and development project involving the Red River Formation in Bowman County, North Dakota and Harding County, South Dakota. Data obtained from 3D seismic surveys, and 2D seismic lines encompassing nine prospective field areas were used in the analysis. The geologic setting of the Red River Formation in Bowman and Harding counties is that of a shallow-shelf, carbonate system. Present-day depth of the Red River formation is approximately 8000 to 10,000 ft below ground surface. This report summarizes production results from well demonstration activity, results of reservoir characterization of the Red River Formation at demonstration sites, descriptions of ICS tools and strategies for their application.

  19. Development and Implementation of the Waste Management Information System to Support Hanford's River Corridor Cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, L. M.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the development of a Waste Information Management System (WMIS) to support the waste designation, transportation, and disposal processes used by Washington Closure Hanford, LLC to support cleanup of the Columbia River Corridor. This waste, primarily consisting of remediated burial sites and building demolition debris, is disposed at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF), which is located in the center of the Hanford Site (an approximately 1460 square kilometers site). WMIS uses a combination of bar-code scanning, hand-held computers, and strategic employment of a radio frequency identification (RFID) tag system to track each waste shipment from waste generation to disposal. (authors)

  20. The Spatial Variability of Weathering Processes in a Peruvian River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, M. A.; Ballew, N.; Clark, K.; West, A.

    2011-12-01

    The role of floodplains in the weathering of sediment exported from mountainous regions is poorly understood and has the potential to play a significant role in the overall weathering budget of large river systems. While high rates of floodplain weathering have been measured in the Himalayan system [1], there are conflicting results concerning the importance of floodplain weathering in the Amazon system [2-3]. To address this issue, the dissolved major element chemistry of the Kosñipata-Madre de Dios river system in Peru was measured monthly in nested catchments spanning the headwater-floodplain transition in order to determine spatially-resolved weathering rates and to examine any associated changes in weathering processes. Analysis of the dissolved major element data reveals a change in the dominant weathering process controlling the Ca2+ and Mg2+ fluxes associated with the headwater-floodplain transition. Based on (Ca2+ + Mg2+) / HCO3- ratios near 0.5, Ca2+ and Mg2+ fluxes in the floodplain are controlled by carbonate dissolution by carbonic acid. In the Andean catchments, variable (Ca2+ + Mg2+) / HCO3- ratios, (Ca2+ + Mg2+) / SO42- ratios near 1, and high SO42- concentrations suggest that either carbonate dissolution by sulfuric acid or sulfate mineral dissolution is the main control on Ca2+ and Mg2+ fluxes. This observed change is significant as it has important implications for the net consumption of CO2 by silicate weathering in this river system. [1] West, AJ et al, 2002, Geology 30: 355-358, [2] Gaillardet, J et al, 2006, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 70: 189, [3] Moquet, J et al, 2011, Chem. Geol 287: 1-26

  1. Geochemical Constraint on Sediment Sorting, Transport and Deposition Throughout the Himalayan River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France-Lanord, C.; Lave, J.; Lupker, M.; Morin, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Himalayan river system transfers annually ca. a billion ton of sediment from the Himalayan slopes to the Bay of Bengal. The transport conditions are highly contrasted with a very steep mountainous part and a long and very flat floodplain and deltaic part. The modest slope and the subsidence in the floodplain tend to favor deposition of pebbles in the vicinity of the Himalayan outlet and of sandy sediments downstream. Because deposition preferentially involves coarse and quartz rich sediments it tends to geochemically fractionate the overall sediment load transported by the rivers [1]. This can be tracked using the evolution of major element concentrations in the sediment tacking into account the potential bias due to chemical erosion. Al/Si ratio best describes the partition between coarse quartz rich sand and phyllosilicate rich silty-clays. We use a set of chemical compositions and granulometric distribution for modern sediment samples of Himalayan rivers and selected locations in the floodplain and the Bangladesh delta. Sampling includes river depth sampling during the flood season to document river variability due to settling processes in the water column, daily sampling on the Narayani-Gandak river to document seasonal variability. We also use data from sediments deposited in the floodplain to document the geochemical effect of floodplain sequestration. Data show that grain size/mineralogical segregation becomes more pronounced downstream and is dependent on the hydrodynamic conditions [1]. At the Himalayan front, data show that Al/Si ratios vary from 0.29 to 0.20 with limited variation in the water column. Their integrated ratio is between to 0.23 and 0.24. Average pebble composition near the outlet of the Narayani is highly enriched in silica with a ratio of 0.11. Sediments sequestered in the floodplain have an average composition between 0.15 and 0.20. Downstream, Ganga in Bangladesh typically varies from 0.32 at the surface to 0.13 in the bedload with

  2. Relations Among Geology, Physiography, Land Use, and Stream Habitat Conditions in the Buffalo and Current River Systems, Missouri and Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panfil, Maria S.; Jacobson, Robert B.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated links between drainage-basin characteristics and stream habitat conditions in the Buffalo National River, Arkansas and the Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri. It was designed as an associative study - the two parks were divided into their principle tributary drainage basins and then basin-scale and stream-habitat data sets were gathered and compared between them. Analyses explored the relative influence of different drainage-basin characteristics on stream habitat conditions. They also investigated whether a relation between land use and stream characteristics could be detected after accounting for geologic and physiographic differences among drainage basins. Data were collected for three spatial scales: tributary drainage basins, tributary stream reaches, and main-stem river segments of the Current and Buffalo Rivers. Tributary drainage-basin characteristics were inventoried using a Geographic Information System (GIS) and included aspects of drainage-basin physiography, geology, and land use. Reach-scale habitat surveys measured channel longitudinal and cross-sectional geometry, substrate particle size and embeddedness, and indicators of channel stability. Segment-scale aerial-photo based inventories measured gravel-bar area, an indicator of coarse sediment load, along main-stem rivers. Relations within and among data sets from each spatial scale were investigated using correlation analysis and multiple linear regression. Study basins encompassed physiographically distinct regions of the Ozarks. The Buffalo River system drains parts of the sandstone-dominated Boston Mountains and of the carbonate-dominated Springfield and Salem Plateaus. The Current River system is within the Salem Plateau. Analyses of drainage-basin variables highlighted the importance of these physiographic differences and demonstrated links among geology, physiography, and land-use patterns. Buffalo River tributaries have greater relief, steeper slopes, and more

  3. Fine-resolution Modeling of Urban-Energy Systems' Water Footprint in River Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McManamay, R.; Surendran Nair, S.; Morton, A.; DeRolph, C.; Stewart, R.

    2015-12-01

    Characterizing the interplay between urbanization, energy production, and water resources is essential for ensuring sustainable population growth. In order to balance limited water supplies, competing users must account for their realized and virtual water footprint, i.e. the total direct and indirect amount of water used, respectively. Unfortunately, publicly reported US water use estimates are spatially coarse, temporally static, and completely ignore returns of water to rivers after use. These estimates are insufficient to account for the high spatial and temporal heterogeneity of water budgets in urbanizing systems. Likewise, urbanizing areas are supported by competing sources of energy production, which also have heterogeneous water footprints. Hence, a fundamental challenge of planning for sustainable urban growth and decision-making across disparate policy sectors lies in characterizing inter-dependencies among urban systems, energy producers, and water resources. A modeling framework is presented that provides a novel approach to integrate urban-energy infrastructure into a spatial accounting network that accurately measures water footprints as changes in the quantity and quality of river flows. River networks (RNs), i.e. networks of branching tributaries nested within larger rivers, provide a spatial structure to measure water budgets by modeling hydrology and accounting for use and returns from urbanizing areas and energy producers. We quantify urban-energy water footprints for Atlanta, GA and Knoxville, TN (USA) based on changes in hydrology in RNs. Although water intakes providing supply to metropolitan areas were proximate to metropolitan areas, power plants contributing to energy demand in Knoxville and Atlanta, occurred 30 and 90km outside the metropolitan boundary, respectively. Direct water footprints from urban landcover primarily comprised smaller streams whereas indirect footprints from water supply reservoirs and energy producers included

  4. Mapping of a river using close range photogrammetry technique and unmanned aerial vehicle system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Room, M. H. M.; Ahmad, A.

    2014-02-01

    Photogrammetry is a technique that can be used to record the information of any feature without direct contact. Nowadays, a combination of photogrammetry and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) systems is widely used for various applications, especially for large scale mapping. UAV systems offer several advantages in terms of cost and image resolution compared to terrestrial photogrammetry and remote sensing system. Therefore, a combination of photogrammetry and UAV created a new term which is UAV photogrammetry. The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of a UAV system to map a river at very close distance. A digital camera is attached to the Hexacopter UAV and it is flown at 2 m above the ground surface to produce aerial photos. Then, the aerial photos are processed to create two photogrammetric products as output. These are mosaicked orthophoto and digital image. Both products are assessed (RSME). The RSME of X and Y coordinates are ±0.009 m and ±0.033 m respectively. As a conclusion, photogrammetry and the UAV system offer a reliable accuracy for mapping a river model and advantages in term of cost-efficient, high ground resolution and rapid data acquisition.

  5. Laboratory QA/QC improvements for small drinking water systems at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.D.

    1995-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), a 310 square mile facility located near Aiken, S.C., is operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company for the US Department of Energy. SRS has 28 separate drinking water systems with average daily demands ranging from 0.0002 to 0.5 MGD. All systems utilize treated groundwater. Until recently, the water laboratories for each system operated independently. As a result, equipment, reagents, chemicals, procedures, personnel, and quality control practices differed from location to location. Due to this inconsistency, and a lack of extensive laboratory OA/QC practices at some locations, SRS auditors were not confident in the accuracy of daily water quality analyses results. The Site`s Water Services Department addressed these concerns by developing and implementing a practical laboratory QA/QC program. Basic changes were made which can be readily adopted by most small drinking water systems. Key features of the program include: Standardized and upgraded laboratory instrumentation and equipment; standardized analytical procedures based on vendor manuals and site requirements; periodic accuracy checks for all instrumentation; creation of a centralized laboratory to perform metals digestions and chlorine colorimeter accuracy checks; off-site and on-site operator training; proper storage, inventory and shelf life monitoring for reagents and chemicals. This program has enhanced the credibility and accuracy of SRS drinking water system analyses results.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF UNCERTAINTY IN THE RADIATION DOSES FOR THE TECHA RIVER DOSIMETRY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Shagina, N. B.

    2009-10-23

    In order to provide more accurate and precise estimates of individual dose (and thus more precise estimates of radiation risk) for the members of the ETRC, a new dosimetric calculation system, the Techa River Dosimetry System-2009 (TRDS-2009) has been prepared. The deterministic version of the improved dosimetry system TRDS-2009D was basically completed in April 2009. Recent developments in evaluation of dose-response models in light of uncertain dose have highlighted the importance of different types of uncertainties in the development of individual dose estimates. These include uncertain parameters that may be either shared or unshared within the dosimetric cohort, and also the nature of the type of uncertainty as aleatory or epistemic and either classical or Berkson. This report identifies the nature of the various input parameters and calculational methods incorporated in the Techa River Dosimetry System (based on the TRDS-2009D implementation), with the intention of preparing a stochastic version to estimate the uncertainties in the dose estimates. This report reviews the equations, databases, and input parameters, and then identifies the author’s interpretations of their general nature. It presents the approach selected so that the stochastic, Monte-Carlo, implementation of the dosimetry System - TRDS-2009MC - will provide useful information regarding the uncertainties of the doses.

  7. A topological system for delineation and codification of the Earth's river basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verdin, K.L.; Verdin, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive reference system for the Earth's river basins is proposed as a support to fiver basin management, global change research, and the pursuit of sustainable development. A natural system for delineation and codification of basins is presented which is based upon topographic control and the topology of the fiver network. These characteristics make the system well suited for implementation and use with digital elevation models (DEMs) and geographic information systems. A demonstration of these traits is made with the 30-arcsecond GTOPO30 DEM for North America. The system has additional appeal owing to its economy of digits and the topological information that they carry. This is illustrated through presentation of comparisons with USGS hydrologic unit codes and demonstration of the use of code numbers to reveal dependence or independence of water use activities within a basin.

  8. Sr isotope tracing of multiple water sources in a complex river system, Noteć River, central Poland.

    PubMed

    Zieliński, Mateusz; Dopieralska, Jolanta; Belka, Zdzislaw; Walczak, Aleksandra; Siepak, Marcin; Jakubowicz, Michal

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic impact on surface waters and other elements in the environment was investigated in the Noteć River basin in central Poland. The approach was to trace changes in the Sr isotope composition ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) and concentration in space and time. Systematic sampling of the river water shows a very wide range of (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios, from 0.7089 to 0.7127. This strong variation, however, is restricted to the upper course of the river, whereas the water in the lower course typically shows (87)Sr/(86)Sr values around 0.7104-0.7105. Variations in (87)Sr/(86)Sr are associated with a wide range of Sr concentrations, from 0.14 to 1.32mg/L. We find that strong variations in (87)Sr/(86)Sr and Sr concentrations can be accounted for by mixing of two end-members: 1) atmospheric waters charged with Sr from the near-surface weathering and wash-out of Quaternary glaciogenic deposits, and 2) waters introduced into the river from an open pit lignite mine. The first reservoir is characterized by a low Sr content and high (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios, whereas mine waters display opposite characteristics. Anthropogenic pollution is also induced by extensive use of fertilizers which constitute the third source of Sr in the environment. The study has an important implication for future archeological studies in the region. It shows that the present-day Sr isotope signatures of river water, flora and fauna cannot be used unambiguously to determine the "baseline" for bioavailable (87)Sr/(86)Sr in the past. PMID:26802358

  9. Carbon isotope composition of dissolved humic and fulvic acids in the Tokachi River system.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Seiya; Kodama, Hiroki; Aramaki, Takafumi; Fujitake, Nobuhide; Uchida, Masao; Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2011-07-01

    This study reports carbon isotopic ratios (Δ(14)C and δ(13)C) of dissolved humic and fulvic acids in the Tokachi River system, northern Japan. These acids have a refractory feature and they represent the largest fraction of dissolved organic matter in aquatic environments. The acids were isolated using the XAD extraction method from river water samples collected at three sites (on the upper and lower Tokachi River, and from one of its tributaries) in June 2004 and 2005. δ(13)C values were -27.8 to -26.9 ‰ for humic and fulvic acids. On the other hand, the Δ(14)C values ranged from -247 to +26 ‰ and the average values were -170 ± 79 ‰ for humic acid and -44 ± 73 ‰ for fulvic acid. The difference was attributed to the residence time of fulvic acid in the watershed being shorter than that of humic acid. The large variation suggested that humic substances have a different pathway in each watershed environment. PMID:21515623

  10. A two-dimensional discrete particle model of gravel bed river systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacVicar, B. J.; Parrott, L.; Roy, A. G.

    2006-09-01

    The formation of bed forms in gravel bed rivers acts as a control on stream ecology and the response of rivers to floods. Available models do not reproduce the range of observed bed forms and do not consider interactions between the bed and flow hydraulics. The model presented here considers a gravel bed river as a complex system in which sediment clasts are represented as discrete elements. Simple and local rules describe the sediment and flow dynamics. Using a trimodal sediment distribution, irregular forms that scale with particle diameter develop without explicit feedback mechanisms because of the tendency of large particles to roll along the bed surface and collect into chains. Feedback mechanisms such as imbrication increase the effective entrainment threshold of groups of large particles and increase the stability of these imbricate forms. A second type of bed form is associated with saltating grains and emerges where particles are transported at a preferred distance. The development and maintenance of larger-scale bed forms require feedback between the bed and flow properties. By allowing mean velocity to adjust to bed morphology and considering the effect of acceleration on turbulence generation and mean velocity profiles we demonstrate the emergence of forms similar in morphology to gravel sheets, dunes, and riffle pools. The model is best used to complement field-based studies and is suitable for testing hypotheses of streambed behavior.